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Sample records for zno nanorod array

  1. Room temperature synthesis and optical properties of small diameter (5 nm) ZnO nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seungho; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2010-10-01

    We report a simple wet-chemical synthesis of ∼5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays at room temperature (20 °C) and normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm) and their optical properties. They were single crystalline in nature, and grew in the [001] direction. These small diameter ZnO nanorod arrays can also be synthesized at 0 °C. Control experiments were also conducted. On the basis of the results, we propose a mechanism for the spontaneous growth of the small diameter ZnO structures. The optical properties of the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays synthesized using this method were probed by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. A clear blue-shift, relative to the absorption band from 50 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays, was attributed to the quantum confinement effects caused by the small nanocrystal size in the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorods.

  2. Patterned synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays for nanoplasmonic waveguide applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamson, Thomas L.; Khan, Sahar; Wang, Zhifei; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Yu, Yong; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Huizhong

    2018-03-01

    We report the patterned synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays of diameters between 50 nm and 130 nm and various spacings. This was achieved by patterning hole arrays in a polymethyl methacrylate layer with electron beam lithography, followed by chemical synthesis of ZnO nanorods in the patterned holes using the hydrothermal method. The fabrication of ZnO nanorod waveguide arrays is also demonstrated by embedding the nanorods in a silver film using the electroplating process. Optical transmission measurement through the nanorod waveguide arrays is performed and strong resonant transmission of visible light is observed. We have found the resonance shifts to a longer wavelength with increasing nanorod diameter. Furthermore, the resonance wavelength is independent of the nanowaveguide array period, indicating the observed resonant transmission is the effect of a single ZnO nanorod waveguide. These nanorod waveguides may be used in single-molecule imaging and sensing as a result of the nanoscopic profile of the light transmitted through the nanorods and the controlled locations of these nanoscale light sources.

  3. Microwave Synthesized ZnO Nanorod Arrays for UV Sensors: A Seed Layer Annealing Temperature Study.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Ana; Ferreira, Sofia Henriques; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomas; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-04-20

    The present work reports the influence of zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, to be used as UV sensors. The ZnO seed layer was produced using the spin-coating method and several annealing temperatures, ranging from 100 to 500 °C, have been tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometry measurements have been used to investigate the structure, morphology, and optical properties variations of the produced ZnO nanorod arrays regarding the seed layer annealing temperatures employed. After the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays, the whole structure was tested as UV sensors, showing an increase in the sensitivity with the increase of seed layer annealing temperature. The UV sensor response of ZnO nanorod arrays produced with the seed layer annealed temperature of 500 °C was 50 times superior to the ones produced with a seed layer annealed at 100 °C.

  4. Microwave Synthesized ZnO Nanorod Arrays for UV Sensors: A Seed Layer Annealing Temperature Study

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Ana; Ferreira, Sofia Henriques; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomas; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the influence of zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, to be used as UV sensors. The ZnO seed layer was produced using the spin-coating method and several annealing temperatures, ranging from 100 to 500 °C, have been tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometry measurements have been used to investigate the structure, morphology, and optical properties variations of the produced ZnO nanorod arrays regarding the seed layer annealing temperatures employed. After the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays, the whole structure was tested as UV sensors, showing an increase in the sensitivity with the increase of seed layer annealing temperature. The UV sensor response of ZnO nanorod arrays produced with the seed layer annealed temperature of 500 °C was 50 times superior to the ones produced with a seed layer annealed at 100 °C. PMID:28773423

  5. Ag nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod array on a mechanical flexible substrate with enhanced optical and antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Tse, Wai Hei; Chen, Longyan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Heteronanostructured zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) array are vertically grown on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a hydrothermal method followed by an in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) through a photoreduction process. The Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorods on PDMS are measured with an average diameter of 160 nm and an average length of 2 μm. ZnO NRs measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) shows highly crystalline with a lattice fringe of 0.255 nm, which corresponds to the (0002) planes in ZnO crystal lattice. The average diameter of the Ag NPs in situ deposited on the ZnO NRs is estimated at 22 ± 2 nm. As compared to the bare ZnO NRs, the heterostructured Ag-ZnO nanorod array shows enhanced ultraviolet (UV) absorption at 440 nm, and significant emission in the visible region (λem = 542 nm). In addition, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorod array shows obvious improvement as compared to bare ZnO nanorod array. The cytotoxicity of ZnO nanorod array with and without Ag NPs was studied by using 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. No significant toxic effect is imposed on the cells.

  6. Ag nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod array on a mechanical flexible substrate with enhanced optical and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Tse, Wai Hei; Chen, Longyan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Heteronanostructured zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) array are vertically grown on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a hydrothermal method followed by an in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) through a photoreduction process. The Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorods on PDMS are measured with an average diameter of 160 nm and an average length of 2 μm. ZnO NRs measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) shows highly crystalline with a lattice fringe of 0.255 nm, which corresponds to the (0002) planes in ZnO crystal lattice. The average diameter of the Ag NPs in situ deposited on the ZnO NRs is estimated at 22 ± 2 nm. As compared to the bare ZnO NRs, the heterostructured Ag-ZnO nanorod array shows enhanced ultraviolet (UV) absorption at 440 nm, and significant emission in the visible region (λem = 542 nm). In addition, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorod array shows obvious improvement as compared to bare ZnO nanorod array. The cytotoxicity of ZnO nanorod array with and without Ag NPs was studied by using 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. No significant toxic effect is imposed on the cells.

  7. Photoelectrocatalytic activity of a hydrothermally grown branched Zno nanorod-array electrode for paracetamol degradation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin Jung; Liao, Shu-Jun; Kao, Li-Cheng; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2015-06-30

    Hierarchical branched ZnO nanorod (B-ZnR) arrays as an electrode for efficient photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using a solution route. The morphologic and structural studies show the ZnO trunks are single-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite ZnO with a [0001] growth direction and are densely covered by c-axis-oriented ZnO branches. The obvious enhancement in photocurrent response of the B-ZnR electrode was obtained than that in the ZnO nanoparticle (ZnO NP) electrode. For the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol in 20 h, the conversion fraction of the drug increased from 32% over ZnO NP electrode to 62% over B-ZnR arrays with about 3-fold increase in initial reaction rate. The light intensity-dependent photoelectrocatalytic experiment indicated that the superior performance over the B-ZnR electrode was mainly ascribed to the increased specific surface area without significantly sacrificing the charge transport and pollutant diffusion efficiencies. Two aromatic intermediate compounds were observed and eventually converted into harmless carboxylic acids and ammonia. Hierarchical tree-like ZnO arrays can be considered effective alternatives to improve photoelectro degradation rates without the need for expensive additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays: Dependence of morphology and alignment on growth conditions

    SciT

    Azzez, Shrook A., E-mail: shurouq44@yahoo.com; Hassan, Z.; Alimanesh, M.

    Highly oriented zinc oxide nanorod were successfully grown on seeded p-type silicon substrate by hydrothermal methode. The morphology and the crystallinty of ZnO c-axis (002) arrays were systematically studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The effect of seed layer pre-annealing on nanorods properties was explained according to the nucleation site of ZnO nanoparticles on silicon substrate. In addition, the variation of the equal molarity of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamine concentrations in the reaction vessel play a crucial role related to the ZnO nanorods.

  9. Novel Gas Sensor Based on ZnO Nanorod Circular Arrays for C2H5OH Gas Detection.

    PubMed

    Jianjiao, Zhang; Hongyan, Yue; Erjun, Guo; Shaolin, Zhang; Liping, Wang; Chunyu, Zhang; Xin, Gao; Jing, Chang; Hong, Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Novel side-heating gas sensor based on ZnO nanorod circular arrays was firstly fabricated by hydrothermal treatment assisted with a kind of simple dip-coating technique. The structure and morphologies of ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), respectively. XRD result indicates that the obtained ZnO nanorods have good crystalline with the hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM result indicates that ZnO nanorod arrays are vertically growth on the surface of ceramic tube of side-heating sensor with controlled diameter and length, narrow size distribution and high orientation. The gas sensing properties of ZnO nanorod circular arrays are also evaluated. Comparative to the sensor based on scattered ZnO nanorods responding to 25 ppm H2, CO, C6H5CH3 and C2H5OH gas, respectively, the sensing values of high orientation gas sensor are generally increased by 5%. This novel sensor has good application promising for the fabrication of cost effective and high performance gas sensors.

  10. Effect of growth time to the properties of Al-doped ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Saidi, S. A.; Yusoff, M. M.; Mohamed, R.; Sin, N. D. Md; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Aluminum (Al)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod array films were successfully deposited at different growth time on zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer coated glass substrate using sol-gel immersion method. The morphology images of the films showed that the thicknesses of the films were increased parallel with the increment of growth period. The surface topology of the films displayed an increment of roughness as the growth period increased. Optical properties of the samples exposed that the percentage of transmittances reduced at higher growth time. Besides, the Urbach energy of the films slightly increased as the immersion time increased. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement indicated that the resistance increased as the immersion time increased owing to the appearance of intrinsic layer on top of the nanorods.

  11. Electrodeposition of ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO substrate with tunable orientation and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Jehl, Z; Rousset, J; Donsanti, F; Renou, G; Naghavi, N; Lincot, D

    2010-10-01

    The electrodeposition of ZnO nanorods on ZnO:Al films with different orientations is reported. The influence of the total charge exchanged during electrodeposition on the nanorod's geometry (length, diameter, aspect ratio and surface density) and the optical transmission properties of the nanorod arrays is studied on a [0001]-oriented ZnO:Al substrate. The nanorods are highly vertically oriented along the c axis, following the lattice matching with the substrate. The growth on a [1010] and [1120] ZnO:Al-oriented substrate with c axis parallel to the substrate leads to a systematic deviation angle of 55 degrees from the perpendicular direction. This finding has been explained by the occurrence of a minority orientation with the [1011] planes parallel to the surface, with a preferential growth on corresponding [0001] termination. Substrate crystalline orientation is thereby found to be a major parameter in finely tuning the orientation of the nanorod array. This new approach allows us to optimize the light scattering properties of the films.

  12. Preparation and photovoltaic properties of perovskite solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Tian; Li, Zhaosong; Feng, Bingjie; Li, Siqian; Duan, Jinxia; Ye, Cong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    A careful control of ZnO nanorod arrays with various densities and thickness were achieved by hydrothermal method. An obvious increase in the ZnO nanorod density is observed as the concentrations of zinc acetate dropped as expected through the surface SEM images. On the other hand, samples with and without TiO2 compact layer were also studied and results had been analyzed to seek for an optimized substrate structure for light absorbing layer and increase the efficiency. What's more, a deep research for the drying temperature for perovskite layer was also conducted. As a result, SEM images discribe a promising surface appearance of perovskite layer which is finely attached onto the nanorod structure. Final power conversion efficiency (PCE) of FTO/ZnO seed layer/ZnO nanorods/perovskite/spiro-OMe-TAD/Au electrode photovoltaic device reached ∼9.15% together with open-circuit voltage of 957 mV, short-circuit current density of 17.8 mA/cm2 and fill factor of 0.537.

  13. Chemical growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on textured nanoparticle nanoribbons and its second-harmonic generation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Zhou; Wang, Xian; Liu, Jian; Yan, Shanshan; Ding, Yanyan; Wang, Zhengzhou; Hu, Yuan

    2006-07-01

    On the basis of the highly oriented ZnO nanoparticle nanoribbons as the growth seed layer (GSL) and solution growth technique, we have synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod arrays with high density over a large area and multi-teeth brush nanostructure, respectively, according to the density degree of the arrangement of nanoparticle nanoribbons GSL on the glass substrate. This controllable and convenient technique opens the possibility of creating nanostructured film for industrial fabrication and may represent a facile way to get similar structures of other compounds by using highly oriented GSL to promote the vertical arrays growth. The growth mechanism of the formation of the ordered nanorod arrays is also discussed. The second-order nonlinear optical coefficient d31 of the vertical ZnO nanorod arrays measured by the Maker fringes technique is 11.3 times as large as that of d36 KH 2PO 4 (KDP).

  14. Flower-like ZnO nanorod arrays grown on HF-etched Si (111): constraining relation between ZnO seed layer and Si (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahma, Sanjaya; Liu, C.-W.; Huang, R.-J.; Chang, S.-J.; Lo, K.-Y.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the formation of self-assembled homogenous flower-like ZnO nanorods over a ZnO seed layer deposited on a HF-etched Si (111) substrate. The typical flower-like morphology of ZnO nanorod arrays is ascribed to the formation of the island-like seed layer which is deposited by the drop method followed by annealing at 300 °C. The island-like ZnO seed layer consists of larger ZnO grains, and is built by constraining of the Si (111) surface due to pattern matching. Pattern matching of Si with ZnO determines the shape and size of the seed layer and this controls the final morphology of ZnO nanorods to be either flower like or vertically aligned. The high quality of the island-like ZnO seed layer enhances the diameter and length of ZnO nanorods. Besides, while the amorphous layer formed during the annealing process would influence the strained ZnO grain, that subsequent amorphous layer will not block the constraining between the ZnO grain and the substrate.

  15. Electrochemical growth of controlled tip shapes of ZnO nanorod arrays on silicon substrate and enhanced photoluminescence emission from nanopyramid arrays compared with flat-head nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimanesh, Mahmoud; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, Norzaini

    2017-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays (NRAs) with different morphologies such as; perfect hexagon flat-head, pyramidal, compact pencil, nail-shaped, and high-compact ZnO nanorod thin films, were successfully grown on silicon substrates. These NRAs were formed on substrates using a simple low-temperature electrochemical method without adding any catalyst or template via the precursors of zinc nitrate hexahydrate [Zn(NO3)2·6H2O] and hexamethylenetetramine [HMT; C6H12N4] with an equal molar concentration of 0.025 mol/l. The morphologies of the ZnO nanorods (NRs) could be controlled and transformed successfully in to other morphologies by changing the growth conditions, such as; growth temperature and applied current density. Detailed structural investigations reveal that the synthesized various NRs are single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase and preferentially grow along the c-axis direction. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra show that each spectrum consists of an ultraviolet (UV) band and a relative broad visible light emission and infrared emission peak. The enhanced light emission intensity at UV peak (∼375 nm) is observed significantly from ZnO nanopyramid (NP) arrays because of the conical shape of NP. The photoluminescence intensity of the UV peak from the NPs is found to be 1.5-17 times larger than those from the other various NRs.

  16. Growth of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays and Their Application for Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhaolin; Yao, Juncai

    2017-11-01

    We have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs) on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates by a facile chemical bath deposition method. We used field-emission scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy to study the morphology, crystalline structure and optical absorption of the fabricated ZNRAs, respectively. The results showed that ZnO nanorods stood almost perpendicularly on the substrate, were about 30-50 nm in diameter and 800-900 nm in length, and were wurtzite-structured (hexagonal) ZnO. In addition, well-aligned ZNRAs exhibited a weak absorption in the visible region and had an optical band gap value of 3.28 eV. Furthermore, a hybrid ZNRAs/polymer photovoltaic device was made, under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination (light intensity, ˜100 mW/cm2), and the device showed an open circuit voltage ( V oc) of 0.32 V, a short circuit current density ( J sc) of 7.67 mA/cm2, and a fill factor ( FF) of 0.37, yielding an overall power conversion efficiency of 0.91%. Also, the exciton dissociation and transportation processes of charge carriers in the device under illumination were explained according to its current density-voltage ( J- V) curve and the energy level diagram.

  17. Fabrication and Characterization of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays via Inverted Monolayer Colloidal Crystals Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Ding, Taotao; Qi, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Juan; Chen, Jingwen; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2018-04-01

    The periodically ordered ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays have been successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal approach on the silicon substrates by templating of the TiO2 ring deriving from the polystyrene (PS) nanosphere monolayer colloidal crystals (MCC). With the inverted MCC mask, sol-gel-derived ZnO seeds could serve as the periodic nucleation positions for the site-specific growth of ZnO NRs. The large-scale patterned arrays of single ZnO NR with good side-orientation can be readily produced. According to the experimental results, the as-integrated ZnO NR arrays showed an excellent crystal quality and optical property, very suitable for optoelectronic applications such as stimulated emitters and ZnO photonic crystal devices.

  18. High-performance optical projection controllable ZnO nanorod arrays for microweighing sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; Jiang, Shulan; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Bingjun; Chen, Duoli; Yang, Weiqing; Qian, Linmao

    2018-03-08

    Optical microweighing sensors are an essential component of micro-force measurements in physical, chemical, and biological detection fields, although, their limited detection range (less than 15°) severely hinders their wide application. Such a limitation is mainly attributed to the essential restrictions of traditional light reflection and optical waveguide modes. Here, we report a high-performance optical microweighing sensor based on the synergistic effects of both a new optical projection mode and a ZnO nanorod array sensor. Ascribed to the unique configuration design of this sensing method, this optical microweighing sensor has a wide detection range (more than 80°) and a high sensitivity of 90 nA deg -1 , which is much larger than that of conventional microcantilever-based optical microweighing sensors. Furthermore, the location of the UV light source can be adjusted within a few millimeters, meaning that the microweighing sensor does not need repetitive optical calibration. More importantly, for low height and small incident angles of the UV light source, we can obtain highly sensitive microweighing properties on account of the highly sensitive ZnO nanorod array-based UV sensor. Therefore, this kind of large detection range, non-contact, and non-destructive microweighing sensor has potential applications in air quality monitoring and chemical and biological detection.

  19. A patterned ZnO nanorod array/gas sensor fabricated by mechanoelectrospinning-assisted selective growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomei; Sun, Fazhe; Huang, Yongan; Duan, Yongqing; Yin, Zhouping

    2015-02-21

    Micropatterned ZnO nanorod arrays were fabricated by the mechanoelectrospinning-assisted direct-writing process and the hydrothermal growth process, and utilized as gas sensors that exhibited excellent Ohmic behavior and sensitivity response to oxidizing gas NO2 at low concentrations (1-100 ppm).

  20. Multi-angle ZnO microstructures grown on Ag nanorods array for plasmon-enhanced near-UV-blue light emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Bharathi Mohan, D.

    2017-10-01

    Metal enhanced ultraviolet light emission has been explored in ZnO/Ag hybrid structures prepared by hydrothermal growth of multi-angled ZnO nanorods on slanted Ag nanorods array fabricated by the thermal evaporation technique. Slanted Ag nanorods are realized to be the stacking of non-spherical Ag nanoparticles, resulting in asymmetric surface plasmon resonance spectra. The surface roughness of Ag nanorod array films significantly influences the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods, leading to the formation of multi-angled ZnO microflowers. ZnO/Ag hybrid structures facilitate the interfacial charge transfer from Ag to ZnO with the realization of negative shift in binding energy of Ag 3d orbitals by ˜0.8 eV. These high quality ZnO nanorods in ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures exhibit strong ultraviolet emission in the 383-396 nm region without broad deep level emission, which can be explained by a suitable band diagram. The metal enhanced photoluminescence is witnessed mainly due to interfacial charge transfer with its dependence on surface roughness of bottom layer Ag nanorods, number density of ZnO nanorods and diversity in the interfacial area between Ag and ZnO nanorods. The existence of strong ultraviolet light with minor blue light emission and appearance of CIE shade in strong violet-blue region by ZnO/Ag hybrid structures depict exciting possibilities towards near UV-blue light emitting devices.

  1. Multi-angle ZnO microstructures grown on Ag nanorods array for plasmon-enhanced near-UV-blue light emitter.

    PubMed

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Mohan, D Bharathi

    2017-10-13

    Metal enhanced ultraviolet light emission has been explored in ZnO/Ag hybrid structures prepared by hydrothermal growth of multi-angled ZnO nanorods on slanted Ag nanorods array fabricated by the thermal evaporation technique. Slanted Ag nanorods are realized to be the stacking of non-spherical Ag nanoparticles, resulting in asymmetric surface plasmon resonance spectra. The surface roughness of Ag nanorod array films significantly influences the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods, leading to the formation of multi-angled ZnO microflowers. ZnO/Ag hybrid structures facilitate the interfacial charge transfer from Ag to ZnO with the realization of negative shift in binding energy of Ag 3d orbitals by ∼0.8 eV. These high quality ZnO nanorods in ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures exhibit strong ultraviolet emission in the 383-396 nm region without broad deep level emission, which can be explained by a suitable band diagram. The metal enhanced photoluminescence is witnessed mainly due to interfacial charge transfer with its dependence on surface roughness of bottom layer Ag nanorods, number density of ZnO nanorods and diversity in the interfacial area between Ag and ZnO nanorods. The existence of strong ultraviolet light with minor blue light emission and appearance of CIE shade in strong violet-blue region by ZnO/Ag hybrid structures depict exciting possibilities towards near UV-blue light emitting devices.

  2. Plasmon-enhanced Electrically Light-emitting from ZnO Nanorod Arrays/p-GaN Heterostructure Devices.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junfeng; Shi, Zengliang; Wang, Yueyue; Lin, Yi; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Tian, Zhengshan; Dai, Jun; Wang, Shufeng; Xu, Chunxiang

    2016-05-16

    Effective and bright light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) have attracted broad interests in fundamental research and industrial application, especially on short wavelength LEDs. In this paper, a well aligned ZnO nanorod arrays grown on the p-GaN substrate to form a heterostructured light-emitting diode and Al nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated to improve the electroluminescence performance. More than 30-folds enhancement of the electroluminescence intensity was obtained compared with the device without Al NPs decoration. The investigation on the stable and transient photoluminescence spectraof the ZnO nanorod arrays before and after Al NPs decoration demonstrated that the metal surface plasmon resonance coupling with excitons of ZnO leads to the enhancement of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Our results provide aneffective approach to design novel optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and plasmonic nanolasers.

  3. Plasmon-enhanced Electrically Light-emitting from ZnO Nanorod Arrays/p-GaN Heterostructure Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Junfeng; Shi, Zengliang; Wang, Yueyue; Lin, Yi; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Tian, Zhengshan; Dai, Jun; Wang, Shufeng; Xu, Chunxiang

    2016-01-01

    Effective and bright light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) have attracted broad interests in fundamental research and industrial application, especially on short wavelength LEDs. In this paper, a well aligned ZnO nanorod arrays grown on the p-GaN substrate to form a heterostructured light-emitting diode and Al nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated to improve the electroluminescence performance. More than 30-folds enhancement of the electroluminescence intensity was obtained compared with the device without Al NPs decoration. The investigation on the stable and transient photoluminescence spectraof the ZnO nanorod arrays before and after Al NPs decoration demonstrated that the metal surface plasmon resonance coupling with excitons of ZnO leads to the enhancement of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Our results provide aneffective approach to design novel optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and plasmonic nanolasers. PMID:27181337

  4. Cu-doped ZnO nanorod arrays: the effects of copper precursor and concentration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cu-doped ZnO nanorods have been grown at 90°C for 90 min onto a quartz substrate pre-coated with a ZnO seed layer using a hydrothermal method. The influence of copper (Cu) precursor and concentration on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of ZnO nanorods was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the nanorods grown are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure grown along the c-axis. The lattice strain is found to be compressive for all samples, where a minimum compressive strain of −0.114% was obtained when 1 at.% Cu was added from Cu(NO3)2. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate morphologies and the diameters of the grown nanorods. The morphological properties of the Cu-doped ZnO nanorods were influenced significantly by the presence of Cu impurities. Near-band edge (NBE) and a broad blue-green emission bands at around 378 and 545 nm, respectively, were observed in the photoluminescence spectra for all samples. The transmittance characteristics showed a slight increase in the visible range, where the total transmittance increased from approximately 80% for the nanorods doped with Cu(CH3COO)2 to approximately 90% for the nanorods that were doped with Cu(NO3)2. PMID:24855460

  5. PDMS-based triboelectric and transparent nanogenerators with ZnO nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Nagaraju, Goli; Lee, Soo Hyun; Yu, Jae Su

    2014-05-14

    Vertically-grown ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET), as a top electrode of nanogenerators, were investigated for the antireflective property as well as an efficient contact surface in bare polydimethysiloxane (PDMS)-based triboelectric nanogenerators. Compared to conventional ITO-coated PET (i.e., ITO/PET), the ZnO NRAs considerably suppressed the reflectance from 20 to 9.7% at wavelengths of 300-1100 nm, creating a highly transparent top electrode, as demonstrated by theoretical analysis. Also, the interval time between the peaks of generated output voltage under external pushing forces was significantly decreased from 1.84 to 0.19 s because the reduced contact area of the PDMS by discrete surfaces of the ZnO NRAs on ITO/PET causes a rapid sequence for triboelectric charge generation process including rubbing and separating. Therefore, the use of this top electrode enabled to operate the transparent PDMS-based triboelectric nanogenerator at high frequency of external pushing force. Under different external forces of 0.3-10 kgf, the output voltage and current were also characterized.

  6. Growing vertical ZnO nanorod arrays within graphite: efficient isolation of large size and high quality single-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ling; E, Yifeng; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe

    2013-07-18

    We report a unique strategy for efficiently exfoliating large size and high quality single-layer graphene directly from graphite into DMF dispersions by growing ZnO nanorod arrays between the graphene layers in graphite.

  7. Tuning of defects in ZnO nanorod arrays used in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    With particular focus on bulk heterojunction solar cells incorporating ZnO nanorods, we study how different annealing environments (air or Zn environment) and temperatures impact on the photoluminescence response. Our work gives new insight into the complex defect landscape in ZnO, and it also shows how the different defect types can be manipulated. We have determined the emission wavelengths for the two main defects which make up the visible band, the oxygen vacancy emission wavelength at approximately 530 nm and the zinc vacancy emission wavelength at approximately 630 nm. The precise nature of the defect landscape in the bulk of the nanorods is found to be unimportant to photovoltaic cell performance although the surface structure is more critical. Annealing of the nanorods is optimum at 300°C as this is a sufficiently high temperature to decompose Zn(OH)2 formed at the surface of the nanorods during electrodeposition and sufficiently low to prevent ITO degradation. PMID:23186280

  8. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod core-polypyrrole conducting polymer sheath and nanotube arrays for electrochemical supercapacitor energy storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite electrodes having three-dimensional (3-D) nanoscale architecture comprising of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array core-polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer sheath and the vertical PPy nanotube arrays have been investigated for supercapacitor energy storage. The electrodes in the ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath structure are formed by preferential nucleation and deposition of PPy layer over hydrothermally synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod array by controlled pulsed current electropolymerization of pyrrole monomer under surfactant action. The vertical PPy nanotube arrays of different tube diameter are created by selective etching of the ZnO nanorod core in ammonia solution for different periods. Cyclic voltammetry studies show high areal-specific capacitance approximately 240 mF.cm-2 for open pore and approximately 180 mF.cm-2 for narrow 30-to-36-nm diameter PPy nanotube arrays attributed to intensive faradic processes arising from enhanced access of electrolyte ions through nanotube interior and exterior. Impedance spectroscopy studies show that capacitive response extends over larger frequency domain in electrodes with PPy nanotube structure. Simulation of Nyquist plots by electrical equivalent circuit modeling establishes that 3-D nanostructure is better represented by constant phase element which accounts for the inhomogeneous electrochemical redox processes. Charge-discharge studies at different current densities establish that kinetics of the redox process in PPy nanotube electrode is due to the limitation on electron transport rather than the diffusive process of electrolyte ions. The PPy nanotube electrodes show deep discharge capability with high coulomb efficiency and long-term charge-discharge cyclic studies show nondegrading performance of the specific areal capacitance tested for 5,000 cycles. PMID:25246867

  9. ZnO nanorod array polydimethylsiloxane composite solid phase micro-extraction fiber coating: fabrication and extraction capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Qingtang; Zhang, Zhuomin; Chen, Guonan

    2012-01-21

    ZnO nanorod array coating is a novel kind of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating which shows good extraction capability due to the nanostructure. To prepare the composite coating is a good way to improve the extraction capability. In this paper, the ZnO nanorod array polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite SPME fiber coating has been prepared and its extraction capability for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been studied by headspace sampling the typical volatile mixed standard solution of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX). Improved detection limit and good linear ranges have been achieved for this composite SPME fiber coating. Also, it is found that the composite SPME fiber coating shows good extraction selectivity to the VOCs with alkane radicals.

  10. Enhanced Structural and Luminescent Properties of Carbon-Assisted ZnO Nanorod Arrays on (100) Si Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Im Taek; Cho, Hak Dong; Lee, Sejoon; Roshchupkin, Dmitry V.

    2018-02-01

    We have fabricated as-grown ZnO nanorods (NRs) and carbon-assisted NR arrays on semi-insulating (100)-oriented Si substrates. We compared the structural and luminescent properties of them. High-resolution transmission microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray revealed that the as-grown ZnO NRs and carbon-assisted ZnO NRs were single crystals with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, and grew with a c-axis orientation perpendicular to the Si substrate. These measurements show that the carbon-assisted ZnO NRs were better synthesized vertically on an Si substrate compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs. Photoluminescence measurements showed that luminescence intensity of the carbon-assisted ZnO NRs was enhanced compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs. The enhanced luminescence intensity of the carbon-assisted ZnO demonstrates the possible improvement in the performance of photovoltaic nanodevices based on ZnO-like materials. This method can be applied to the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO NRs used widely in optoelectronic devices.

  11. Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators based on a transferred ZnO nanorod/Si micro-pillar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Park, Il-Kyu

    2017-03-01

    Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) based on a composite of ZnO nanorods (NRs) and an array of Si micro-pillars (MPs) are demonstrated by a transfer process. The flexible composite structure was fabricated by hydrothermal growth of ZnO NRs on an electrochemically etched Si MP array with various lengths followed by mechanically delaminating the Si MP arrays from the Si substrate after embedding them in a polydimethylsiloxane matrix. Because the Si MP arrays act as a supporter to connect the ZnO NRs electrically and mechanically, verified by capacitance measurement, the output voltage from the flexible PNGs increased systematically with the increased density ZnO NRs depending on the length of the Si MPs. The flexible PNGs showed 3.2 times higher output voltage with a small change in current with increasing Si MP length from 5 to 20 μm. The enhancement of the output voltage is due to the increased number of series-connected ZnO NRs and the beneficial effect of a ZnO NR/Si MP heterojunction on reducing free charge screening effects. The flexible PNGs can be attached on fingers as a wearable electrical power source or motion sensor.

  12. Significant enhancement of yellow-green light emission of ZnO nanorod arrays using Ag island films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chin-An; Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Chen, Cheng-Ying; He-Hau, Jr.

    2011-03-01

    Surface plasmon (SP) mediated emission from ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs)/Ag/Si structures has been investigated. The ratio of visible emission to UV emission can be increased by over 30 times via coupling with SP without deterioration of the crystal quality. The fact that the effect of SP crucially depends on the size of Ag island films provides the feasibility to significantly enhance the yellow-green emission of the ZnO nanostructures without sacrificing the crystallinity of ZnO.Surface plasmon (SP) mediated emission from ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs)/Ag/Si structures has been investigated. The ratio of visible emission to UV emission can be increased by over 30 times via coupling with SP without deterioration of the crystal quality. The fact that the effect of SP crucially depends on the size of Ag island films provides the feasibility to significantly enhance the yellow-green emission of the ZnO nanostructures without sacrificing the crystallinity of ZnO. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00732c

  13. Enhanced photoelectrochemical property of ZnO nanorods array synthesized on reduced graphene oxide for self-powered biosensing application.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhuo; Gu, Yousong; Yan, Xiaoqin; Bai, Zhiming; Liu, Yichong; Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Xueji; Zhang, Yue

    2015-02-15

    We have realized the direct synthesis of ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) array on reduced graphene layer (rGO), and demonstrated the enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) property of the rGO/ZnO based photoanode under UV irradiation compared with the pristine ZnO NRs array. The introduction of the rGO layer resulted in a favorable energy band structure for electron migration, which finally led to the efficient photoinduced charge separation. Such nanostructure was subsequently employed for self-powered PEC biosensing of glutathione in the condition of 0 V bias, with a linear range from 10 to 200 µM, a detection limit of 2.17 µM, as well as excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability. The results indicated the rGO/ZnO nanostructure is a competitive candidate in the PEC biosensing field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural, optical, and electrical properties of Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared via sonicated sol-gel immersion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Saidi, S. A.; Yusoff, M. M.; Mohamed, R.; Sin, N. D. Md; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Nickel (Ni)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod array films were synthesised using sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The FESEM images showed that the Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays possess hexagonal shape with average diameter about 120 nm and thickness about 1.10 µm. The Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays possess better transmittance properties with 3.27 eV of optical band gap energy and 40 meV of urbach energy. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement indicated that the conductivity of ZnO film slightly improved with Ni-doping. The doped film displayed good humidity sensing performance with sensitivity of 1.21.

  15. Fabrication of needle-like ZnO nanorods arrays by a low-temperature seed-layer growth approach in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haimin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Huimin

    2007-11-01

    Uniform, large-scale, and well-aligned needle-like ZnO nanorods with good photoluminescence and photocatalysis properties on Zn substrates, have been successfully fabricated using a simple low-temperature seed-layer growth approach in solution (50 °C). The formation of ZnO seed-layer by the anodic oxidation technique (AOT) plays an important role in the subsequent growth of highly oriented ZnO nanorods arrays. Temperature also proved to be a significant factor in the growth of ZnO nanorods and had a great effect on their optical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicated that the needle-like ZnO nanorods were single crystal in nature and that they had grown up preferentially along the [0001] direction. The well-aligned ZnO nanorods arrays on Zn substrates exhibited strong UV emission at around 380 nm at room temperature. To investigate their potential as photocatalysts, degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous solution was carried out using photocatalytic processes, with comparison to direct photolysis. After 1 h, the degradation efficiencies of PCP by direct photolysis and photocatalytic processes achieved 57% and 76% under given experimental conditions, respectively. This improved degradation efficiency of PCP illustrates that ZnO nanorods arrays on Zn substrates have good photocatalytic activity. This simple low-temperature seed-layer growth approach in solution resulted in the development of an effective and low-cost fabrication process for high-quality ZnO nanorods arrays with good optical and photocatalytic properties that can be applicable in many fields such as photocatalysis, photovoltaic cells, luminescent sensors, and photoconductive sensors.

  16. A comprehensive biosensor integrated with a ZnO nanorod FET array for selective detection of glucose, cholesterol and urea.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Park, Jin-Ho; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2015-08-04

    We report a novel straightforward approach for simultaneous and highly-selective detection of multi-analytes (i.e. glucose, cholesterol and urea) using an integrated field-effect transistor (i-FET) array biosensor without any interference in each sensor response. Compared to analytically-measured data, performance of the ZnO nanorod based i-FET array biosensor is found to be highly reliable for rapid detection of multi-analytes in mice blood, and serum and blood samples of diabetic dogs.

  17. Controlled growth of c-axis oriented ZnO nanorod array films by electrodeposition method and characterization.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Andaç; Hür, Evrim; Ilican, Saliha; Caglar, Yasemin; Caglar, Mujdat

    2014-07-15

    ZnO nanorod array films were deposited from aqueous solution containing different concentrations (1×10(-2) M and 5×10(-3) M) Zn(NO3)2⋅6H2O and C6H12N4 and at different electrodeposition times (i.e., 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min and 180 min) using chronoamperometry method on p-Si substrate. Surface morphology and crystal structural properties of ZnO films were investigated by XRD and FESEM to select ZnO films which have optimum properties. The highest TC(hkl) value was observed in (002) plane for the film, which is deposited at 1×10(-2) M and 120 min. It is also observed that the highly oriented nanorods in this film are denser. Additionally, the conductivity type was determined by using Mott-Schottky which is electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method (EIS). On the other hand, to investigate the utility of obtained ZnO on p-Si (p-Si/n-ZnO) as supercapacitor electrode active material, the electrochemical storage properties of p-Si/ZnO was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and repeating chronopotentiometry methods. It is suggested from electrochemical tests results that p-Si/ZnO is a promising electrode materials for supercapacitor applications that required low voltage (<10 V). Rectifiying behavior was observed from the I-V characteristic of nanorod array n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diode. The n value, Io and the ϕb were found to be 5.48, 1.93×10(-8) A and 0.75 eV, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electroluminescence of ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene current spreading layer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated by introducing graphene as the current spreading layer, which exhibit improved electroluminescence performance by comparison to the LED using a conventional structure (indium-tin-oxide as the current spreading layer). In addition, by adjusting the diameter of ZnO nanorod array in use, the light emission of the ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs was enhanced further. This work has great potential applications in solid-state lighting, high performance optoelectronic devices, and so on. PACS 78.60.Fi; 85.60.Jb; 78.67.Lt; 81.10.Dn PMID:25489284

  19. Electroluminescence of ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene current spreading layer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing-Jing; Hao, Hui-Ying; Xing, Jie; Fan, Zhen-Jun; Zhang, Zi-Li

    2014-01-01

    Ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated by introducing graphene as the current spreading layer, which exhibit improved electroluminescence performance by comparison to the LED using a conventional structure (indium-tin-oxide as the current spreading layer). In addition, by adjusting the diameter of ZnO nanorod array in use, the light emission of the ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs was enhanced further. This work has great potential applications in solid-state lighting, high performance optoelectronic devices, and so on. 78.60.Fi; 85.60.Jb; 78.67.Lt; 81.10.Dn.

  20. Separating light absorption layer from channel in ZnO vertical nanorod arrays based photodetectors for high-performance image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yang; Wu, Congjun; Xu, Zhihao; Wang, Fei; Wang, Min

    2018-05-01

    Photoconductor arrays with both high responsivity and large ON/OFF ratios are of great importance for the application of image sensors. Herein, a ZnO vertical nanorod array based photoconductor with a light absorption layer separated from the device channel has been designed, in which the photo-generated carriers along the axial ZnO nanorods drive to the external electrodes through nanorod-nanorod junctions in the dense layer at the bottom. This design allows us to enhance the photocurrent with unchanged dark current by increasing the ratio between the ZnO nanorod length and the thickness of the dense layer to achieve both high responsivity and large ON/OFF ratios. As a result, the as-fabricated devices possess a high responsivity of 1.3 × 105 A/W, a high ON/OFF ratio of 790, a high detectivity of 1.3 × 1013 Jones, and a low detectable light intensity of 1 μW/cm2. More importantly, the developed approach enables the integration of ZnO vertical nanorod array based photodetectors as image sensors with uniform device-to-device performance.

  1. Optimization of processing parameters on the controlled growth of ZnO nanorod arrays for the performance improvement of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciT

    Lee, Yi-Mu, E-mail: ymlee@nuu.edu.t; Yang, Hsi-Wen

    2011-03-15

    High-transparency and high quality ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on the ITO substrates by a two-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The effects of processing parameters including reaction temperature (25-95 {sup o}C) and solution concentration (0.01-0.1 M) on the crystal growth, alignment, optical and electrical properties were systematically investigated. It has been found that these process parameters are critical for the growth, orientation and aspect ratio of the nanorod arrays, showing different structural and optical properties. Experimental results reveal that the hexagonal ZnO nanorod arrays prepared under reaction temperature of 95 {sup o}C and solution concentration of 0.03 M possessmore » highest aspect ratio of {approx}21, and show the well-aligned orientation and optimum optical properties. Moreover the ZnO nanorod arrays based heterojunction electrodes and the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SS-DSSCs) were fabricated with an improved optoelectrical performance. -- Graphical abstract: The ZnO nanorod arrays demonstrate well-alignment, high aspect ratio (L/D{approx}21) and excellent optical transmittance by low-temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD). Display Omitted Research highlights: > Investigate the processing parameters of CBD on the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays. > Optimization of CBD process parameters: 0.03 M solution concentration and reaction temperature of 95 {sup o}C. > The prepared ZnO samples possess well-alignment and high aspect ratio (L/D{approx}21). > An n-ZnO/p-NiO heterojunction: great rectifying behavior and low leakage current. > SS-DSSC has J{sub SC} of 0.31 mA/cm{sup 2} and V{sub OC} of 590 mV, and an improved {eta} of 0.059%.« less

  2. Highly Transparent and UV-Resistant Superhydrophobic SiO2-Coated ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Highly transparent and UV-resistant superhydrophobic arrays of SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods are prepared in a sequence of low-temperature (<150 °C) steps on both glass and thin sheets of PET (2 × 2 in.2), and the superhydrophobic nanocomposite is shown to have minimal impact on solar cell device performance under AM1.5G illumination. Flexible plastics can serve as front cell and backing materials in the manufacture of flexible displays and solar cells. PMID:24495100

  3. Nonenzymetic glucose sensing using carbon functionalized carbon doped ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Pinak; Majumder, Tanmoy; Dhar, Saurab; Mondal, Suvra Prakash

    2018-04-01

    Fabrication of highly sensitive, long stability and low cost glucose sensors are attractive for biomedical applications and food industries. Most of the commercial glucose sensors are based on enzymatic detection which suffers from problems underlying in enzyme activities. Development of high sensitive, enzyme free sensors is a great challenge for next generation glucose sensing applications. In our study Zinc oxide nanorod sensing electrodes have been grown using low cost hydrothermal route and their nonenzymatic glucose sensing properties have been demonstrated with carbon functionalized, carbon doped ZnO nanorods (C-ZnO NRs) in neutral medium (0.1M PBS, pH 7.4) using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements. The C-ZnO NRs electrodes demonstrated glucose sensitivity˜ 13.66 µAmM-1cm-2 in the concentration range 0.7 - 14 mM.

  4. Density-controlled, solution-based growth of ZnO nanorod arrays via layer-by-layer polymer thin films for enhanced field emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintraub, Benjamin; Chang, Sehoon; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Han, Won Hee; Choi, Young Jin; Bae, Joonho; Kirkham, Melanie; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Deng, Yulin

    2008-10-01

    A simple, scalable, and cost-effective technique for controlling the growth density of ZnO nanorod arrays based on a layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte polymer film is demonstrated. The ZnO nanorods were synthesized using a low temperature (T = 90 °C), solution-based method. The density-control technique utilizes a polymer thin film pre-coated on the substrate to control the mass transport of the reactant to the substrate. The density-controlled arrays were investigated as potential field emission candidates. The field emission results revealed that an emitter density of 7 nanorods µm-2 and a tapered nanorod morphology generated a high field enhancement factor of 5884. This novel technique shows promise for applications in flat panel display technology.

  5. MOF-5 decorated hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays and its photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinmin; Lan, Ding; Wang, Yuren; Cao, He; Jiang, Heng

    2011-04-01

    The strategy to manipulate nanoscale materials into well-organized hierarchical architectures is very important to both material synthesis and nanodevice applications. Here, nanoscale MOF-5 crystallites were successfully fabricated onto ordered hierarchical ZnO arrays based on aqueous chemical synthesis and molecule self-assembly technology guided room temperature diffusion method, which has the advantages of energy saving and simple operation. The structures and morphologies of the samples were performed by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electronic microscopy. The MOF-5 crystallites have good quality and bind well to the hexagonal-patterned ZnO arrays. The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the emission of hybrid MOF-5-ZnO films displays a blue shift in green emission and intensity reduction in UV emission. This ordered hybrid semiconductor material is expected to exploit the great potentiality in sensors, micro/nanodevices, and screen displays.

  6. Preparation of high-aspect-ratio ZnO nanorod arrays for the detection of several organic solvents at room working temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yi-Mu; Zheng, Min-Ren

    2013-11-01

    Chemical sensors based on ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared using chemical bath deposition (CBD) to investigate the sensing performance for the detection of several organic solvents with low concentrations (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, v/v) at room temperature. High quality and high aspect-ratio (value ˜28) ZnO nanorods have a diameter of about 74 nm and average length of 2.1 μm. Nyquist plots and Bode plots of the ZnO sensors under different organic solvents were obtained by electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensing properties such as charge-transfer resistance, double-layer capacitance and dielectric parameters were determined from the impedance spectra to explore the charge transport in low-concentration aqueous solutions. The decreasing trend of the charge-transfer resistance (Rct) as decreasing solvent concentrations is observed, and a straight line at low frequency regime indicates adsorption of water molecules on the oxide surface. The sensitivity of the ZnO sensors was calculated from the resistance variation in target solvents and in deionized water. We demonstrated the use of ZnO nanorod arrays as a chemical sensor capable of generating a different response upon exposure to methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, acetone and water, wherein the methanol sensing exhibited highest sensitivity. In addition, the ZnO sensor also demonstrates good stability and reproducibility for detection of methanol and ethanol.

  7. Effect of Surface and Defect Chemistry on the Photocatalytic Properties of Intentionally Defect-Rich ZnO Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Jan; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z; Schmidt, Michael; Povey, Ian M; Pemble, Martyn E

    2018-05-30

    Due to the abundance of intrinsic defects in zinc oxide (ZnO), the material properties are often governed by same. Knowledge of the defect chemistry has proven to be highly important, especially in terms of the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants. Given the fact that defect-free materials or structures exhibiting only one type of defect are extremely difficult to produce, it is necessary to evaluate what influence various defects may have when present together in the material. In this study, intentionally defect-rich ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays are grown using a simple low-temperature solution-based growth technique. Upon changing the defect chemistry using rapid thermal annealing (RTA) the material properties are carefully assessed and correlated to the resulting photocatalytic properties. Special focus is put on the investigation of these properties for samples showing strong orange photoluminescence (PL). It is shown that intense orange emitting NR arrays exhibit improved dye-degradation rates under UV-light irradiation. Furthermore, strong dye-adsorption has been observed for some samples. This behavior is found to stem from a graphitic surface structure (e.g., shell) formed during RTA in vacuum. Since orange-luminescent samples also exhibit an enhancement of the dye adsorption a possible interplay and synergy of these two defects is elucidated. Additionally, evidence is presented suggesting that in annealed ZnO NRs structural defects may be responsible for the often observed PL emission at 3.31 eV. However, a clear correlation with the photocatalytic properties could not be established for these defects. Building on the specific findings presented here, this study also presents some more general guidelines which, it is suggested, should be employed when assessing the photocatalytic properties of defect-rich ZnO.

  8. Scalable continuous flow synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays in 3-D ceramic honeycomb substrates for low-temperature desulfurization

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Sibo; Wu, Yunchao; Miao, Ran; ...

    2017-07-26

    Scalable and cost-effective synthesis and assembly of technologically important nanostructures in three-dimensional (3D) substrates hold keys to bridge the demonstrated nanotechnologies in academia with industrially relevant scalable manufacturing. In this paper, using ZnO nanorod arrays as an example, a hydrothermal-based continuous flow synthesis (CFS) method is successfully used to integrate the nano-arrays in multi-channeled monolithic cordierite. Compared to the batch process, CFS enhances the average growth rate of nano-arrays by 125%, with the average length increasing from 2 μm to 4.5 μm within the same growth time of 4 hours. The precursor utilization efficiency of CFS is enhanced by 9more » times compared to that of batch process by preserving the majority of precursors in recyclable solution. Computational fluid dynamic simulation suggests a steady-state solution flow and mass transport inside the channels of honeycomb substrates, giving rise to steady and consecutive growth of ZnO nano-arrays with an average length of 10 μm in 12 h. The monolithic ZnO nano-array-integrated cordierite obtained through CFS shows enhanced low-temperature (200 °C) desulfurization capacity and recyclability in comparison to ZnO powder wash-coated cordierite. This can be attributed to exposed ZnO {101¯0} planes, better dispersion and stronger interactions between sorbent and reactant in the ZnO nanorod arrays, as well as the sintering-resistance of nano-array configurations during sulfidation–regeneration cycles. Finally, with the demonstrated scalable synthesis and desulfurization performance of ZnO nano-arrays, a promising, industrially relevant integration strategy is provided to fabricate metal oxide nano-array-based monolithic devices for various environmental and energy applications.« less

  9. Scalable continuous flow synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays in 3-D ceramic honeycomb substrates for low-temperature desulfurization

    SciT

    Wang, Sibo; Wu, Yunchao; Miao, Ran

    Scalable and cost-effective synthesis and assembly of technologically important nanostructures in three-dimensional (3D) substrates hold keys to bridge the demonstrated nanotechnologies in academia with industrially relevant scalable manufacturing. In this paper, using ZnO nanorod arrays as an example, a hydrothermal-based continuous flow synthesis (CFS) method is successfully used to integrate the nano-arrays in multi-channeled monolithic cordierite. Compared to the batch process, CFS enhances the average growth rate of nano-arrays by 125%, with the average length increasing from 2 μm to 4.5 μm within the same growth time of 4 hours. The precursor utilization efficiency of CFS is enhanced by 9more » times compared to that of batch process by preserving the majority of precursors in recyclable solution. Computational fluid dynamic simulation suggests a steady-state solution flow and mass transport inside the channels of honeycomb substrates, giving rise to steady and consecutive growth of ZnO nano-arrays with an average length of 10 μm in 12 h. The monolithic ZnO nano-array-integrated cordierite obtained through CFS shows enhanced low-temperature (200 °C) desulfurization capacity and recyclability in comparison to ZnO powder wash-coated cordierite. This can be attributed to exposed ZnO {101¯0} planes, better dispersion and stronger interactions between sorbent and reactant in the ZnO nanorod arrays, as well as the sintering-resistance of nano-array configurations during sulfidation–regeneration cycles. Finally, with the demonstrated scalable synthesis and desulfurization performance of ZnO nano-arrays, a promising, industrially relevant integration strategy is provided to fabricate metal oxide nano-array-based monolithic devices for various environmental and energy applications.« less

  10. Annealing effect on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorod array prepared by a PLD-assistant wet chemical method

    SciT

    Wei Sufeng; Lian Jianshe; Wu Hua, E-mail: weisufeng@gmail.com

    2010-11-15

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by a wet chemical method on the glass substrate with ZnO thin film as seed layer prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The effect of annealing temperature on the luminescence characteristics was investigated. As the annealing temperature increased, the photoluminescence properties show a general enhancing tendency. The nanorod array with high ultraviolet emission and negligible visible light emission (designated by the photoluminescence intensity ratio of ultraviolet to visible emission of 66.4) is obtained by annealing the sample at 700 deg. C for 1 h. Based on the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectra,more » the mechanisms of visible emission were discussed. - Research Highlights: {yields} ZnO nanorod array with good crystallography, low defects concentration and good optical property was obtained after annealed at 700 deg. C for 1 h. {yields} The transition from the conduction band to the O{sub i} level may be responsible for the yellow-green emission. {yields} The yellow emission may originate from the presence of Zn(OH){sub 2} on the surface or the band transition from conduction band to V{sub o}Zn{sub i} level. {yields} The transition from the Zn{sub i} level to the level should produce an orange emission or an orange-red emission.« less

  11. Multifunctional transparent ZnO nanorod films.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Geunjae; Jung, Sungmook; Yong, Kijung

    2011-03-18

    Transparent ZnO nanorod (NR) films that exhibit extreme wetting states (either superhydrophilicity or superhydrophobicity through surface chemical modification), high transmittance, UV protection and antireflection have been prepared via the facile ammonia hydrothermal method. The periodic 1D ZnO NR arrays showed extreme wetting states as well as antireflection properties due to their unique surface structure and prevented the UVA region from penetrating the substrate due to the unique material property of ZnO. Because of the simple, time-efficient and low temperature preparation process, ZnO NR films with useful functionalities are promising for fabrication of highly light transmissive, antireflective, UV protective, antifogging and self-cleaning optical materials to be used for optical devices and photovoltaic energy devices.

  12. ZnO nanorod array/CuAlO2 nanofiber heterojunction on Ni substrate: synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Sui, Yongming; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin; Zhao, Bo; Li, Minghui

    2011-07-22

    A novel ZnO nanorod array (NR)/CuAlO(2) nanofiber (NF) heterojunction nanostructure was grown on a substrate of Ni plates using sol-gel synthesis for the NFs and hydrothermal reaction for the NRs. Compared with a traditional ZnO/CuAlO(2) laminar film nanostructure, the photocurrent of this fibrous network heterojunction is significantly increased. A significant blue-shift of the absorption edge and a favorable forward current to reverse current ratio at applied voltages of -2 to +2 V were observed in this heterojunction with the increase of Zn(2+) ion concentration in the hydrothermal reaction. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical properties were investigated and the highest photocurrent of 3.1 mA cm(-2) was obtained under AM 1.5 illumination with 100 mW cm(-2) light intensity at 0.71 V (versus Ag/AgCl). This novel 3D fibrous network nanostructure plays an important role in the optoelectronic field and can be extended to other binary or ternary oxide compositions for various applications.

  13. ZnO nanorod array/CuAlO2 nanofiber heterojunction on Ni substrate: synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Juan; Sui, Yongming; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin; Zhao, Bo; Li, Minghui

    2011-07-01

    A novel ZnO nanorod array (NR)/CuAlO2 nanofiber (NF) heterojunction nanostructure was grown on a substrate of Ni plates using sol-gel synthesis for the NFs and hydrothermal reaction for the NRs. Compared with a traditional ZnO/CuAlO2 laminar film nanostructure, the photocurrent of this fibrous network heterojunction is significantly increased. A significant blue-shift of the absorption edge and a favorable forward current to reverse current ratio at applied voltages of - 2 to + 2 V were observed in this heterojunction with the increase of Zn2 + ion concentration in the hydrothermal reaction. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical properties were investigated and the highest photocurrent of 3.1 mA cm - 2 was obtained under AM 1.5 illumination with 100 mW cm - 2 light intensity at 0.71 V (versus Ag/AgCl). This novel 3D fibrous network nanostructure plays an important role in the optoelectronic field and can be extended to other binary or ternary oxide compositions for various applications.

  14. Polyethylene glycol assisted growth of Sn-doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared via sol-gel immersion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Saidi, S. A.; Yusoff, M. M.; Mohamed, R.; Sin, N. D. Md; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Tin-doped zinc oxide (SZO) nanorod films at different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) were successfully deposited on zinc oxide (ZnO) seeded layer catalyst using sol-gel immersion method. The morphology of the samples were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), optical properties using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and electrical properties using I-V measurement system. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics displayed that 5 wt % sample produced the highest conductivity.

  15. Orientation-Controllable ZnO Nanorod Array Using Imprinting Method for Maximum Light Utilization in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Huisu; Song, Hui; Lee, Ryeri; Pak, Yusin; Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Lee, Heon; Jung, Gun Young

    2015-12-01

    We present a holey titanium dioxide (TiO2) film combined with a periodically aligned ZnO nanorod layer (ZNL) for maximum light utilization in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Both the holey TiO2 film and the ZNL were simultaneously fabricated by imprint technique with a mold having vertically aligned ZnO nanorod (NR) array, which was transferred to the TiO2 film after imprinting. The orientation of the transferred ZNL such as laid, tilted, and standing ZnO NRs was dependent on the pitch and height of the ZnO NRs of the mold. The photoanode composed of the holey TiO2 film with the ZNL synergistically utilized the sunlight due to enhanced light scattering and absorption. The best power conversion efficiency of 8.5 % was achieved from the DSC with the standing ZNL, which represented a 33 % improvement compared to the reference cell with a planar TiO2.

  16. Controllable electrodeposition of ZnO nanorod arrays on flexible stainless steel mesh substrate for photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hui; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

    2014-10-01

    Well-aligned single-crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs) were prepared on flexible stainless steel mesh (SSM) substrate in large-scale by using a direct electrodeposition method. The effects of electrochemical parameters, such as applied potential, applied nucleation potential time, substrate pretreatment, electrodeposition duration and times, on the orientation, morphology and density of ZNRAs were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The results showed that ZNRAs on SSM substrate with [0 0 1] preferred orientation and well crystallization were obtained by controlling the applied potential in the range of -0.9 to -1.1 V. The density of ZNRAs could be increased obviously by applying a nucleation potential (-1.3 V for more than 10 s before deposition) or by means of substrate pretreatment (the SSM immersed in zinc acetate colloid for more than 10 min before deposition), meanwhile, the deposited ZNRAs also had small average diameter (<46 ± 4 nm), narrow size distribution and good orientation. In addition, it was also found that the average diameter of ZNRAs could be increased from 89 to 201 ± 5 nm by extending the electrodeposition duration from 1800 to 7200 s, and the length of rods was from 0.8 to 2.2 ± 0.1 μm when the times of the electrodeposition from one to six times. Furthermore, the band gap energy (Eg) of as-prepared ZNTAs was not closely related to the electrodeposition times (only changed from 3.30 to 3.32 eV). The ZNRAs prepared with more electrodeposition times showed enhanced photocatalytic performance under the UV-lamp for degradation of Rhodamine B. The degradation efficiency of ZNRAs improved from 89.4% to 98.3% with the deposition times from one to six times.

  17. Hierarchical core-shell structure of ZnO nanorod@NiO/MoO₂ composite nanosheet arrays for high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sucheng; Zhang, Guanhua; Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Jian; Gong, Feilong; Li, Feng; Duan, Huigao

    2014-08-27

    A hierarchical core-shell structure of ZnO nanorod@NiO/MoO2 composite nanosheet arrays on nickel foam substrate for high-performance supercapacitors was constructed by a two-step solution-based method involving two hydrothermal processes followed by a calcination treatment. Compared to one composed of pure NiO/MoO2 composite nanosheets, the hierarchical core-shell structure electrode displays better pseudocapacitive behaviors in 2 M KOH, including high areal specific capacitance values of 1.18 F cm(-2) at 5 mA cm(-2) and 0.6 F cm(-2) at 30 mA cm(-2) as well as relatively good rate capability at high current densities. Furthermore, it also shows remarkable cycle stability, remaining at 91.7% of the initial value even after 4000 cycles at a current density of 10 mA cm(-2). The enhanced pseudocapacitive behaviors are mainly due to the unique hierarchical core-shell structure and the synergistic effect of combining ZnO nanorod arrays and NiO/MoO2 composite nanosheets. This novel hierarchical core-shell structure shows promise for use in next-generation supercapacitors.

  18. High optical switching speed and flexible electrochromic display based on WO3 nanoparticles with ZnO nanorod arrays' supported electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingjun; Fang, Guojia; Yuan, Longyan; Huang, Huihui; Sun, Zhenhua; Liu, Nishuang; Xia, Shanhong; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2009-05-01

    The electrochromic (EC) property of WO3 nanoparticles grown on vertically self-aligned ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) is reported. An electrochromic character display based on WO3 nanoparticle-modified ZnO nanorod arrays on a flexible substrate has been fabricated and demonstrated. The ZNRs were first synthesized on ZnO-seed-coated In2O3:Sn (ITO) glass (1 cm2 cell) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (4 cm2 cell) substrates by a low temperature hydrothermal method, and then amorphous WO3 nanoparticles were grown directly on the surface of the ZNRs by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The ZNR-based EC device shows high transparence, good electrochromic stability and fast switching speed (4.2 and 4 s for coloration and bleaching, respectively, for a 1 cm2 cell). The good performance of the ZNR electrode-based EC display can be attributed to the large surface area, high crystallinity and good electron transport properties of the ZNR arrays. Its high contrast, fast switching, good memory and flexible characteristics indicate it is a promising candidate for flexible electrochromic displays or electronic paper.

  19. Large enhancement of X-ray excited luminescence in Ga-doped ZnO nanorod arrays by hydrogen annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianli; Liu, Xiaoliln; Gu, Mu; Li, Fengrui; Zhang, Juannan; Wu, Qiang; Huang, Shiming; Liu, Si

    2018-03-01

    Highly c-axis oriented and densely packed ZnO:Ga nanorod arrays were fabricated on ZnO-seeded substrates by hydrothermal method, and the effect of hydrogen annealing on their morphology, structure and luminescence properties was investigated in detail. Under ultraviolet or X-ray excitation, an intense ultraviolet luminescence appeared in the hydrogen-annealed samples owing to the formation of a shallow hydrogen donor state, which can sharply activate the reconbination radiation. The luminescence intensity increased with the annealing temperature, and then decreased at a higher temperature due to the dissociation of the hydrogen ion. The optimum concentration and time of hydrogen annealing were acquired simultaneously. It is expected that the ZnO:Ga nanorod array is a promising candidate for application in ultrafast and high-spatial-resolution X-ray imaging detector.

  20. Well-aligned Vertically Oriented ZnO Nanorod Arrays and their Application in Inverted Small Molecule Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Wu, Shang-Hsuan; Hsiao, Li-Jen; Budiawan, Widhya; Chen, Shih-Lun; Tu, Wei-Chen; Lee, Chia-Yen; Chang, Yia-Chung; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2018-04-25

    This manuscript describes how to design and fabricate efficient inverted solar cells, which are based on a two-dimensional conjugated small molecule (SMPV1) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM), by utilizing ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown on a high quality Al-doped ZnO (AZO) seed layer. The inverted SMPV1:PC71BM solar cells with ZnO NRs that grew on both a sputtered and sol-gel processed AZO seed layer are fabricated. Compared with the AZO thin film prepared by the sol-gel method, the sputtered AZO thin film exhibits better crystallization and lower surface roughness, according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements. The orientation of the ZnO NRs grown on a sputtered AZO seed layer shows better vertical alignment, which is beneficial for the deposition of the subsequent active layer, forming better surface morphologies. Generally, the surface morphology of the active layer mainly dominates the fill factor (FF) of the devices. Consequently, the well-aligned ZnO NRs can be used to improve the carrier collection of the active layer and to increase the FF of the solar cells. Moreover, as an anti-reflection structure, it can also be utilized to enhance the light harvesting of the absorption layer, with the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cells reaching 6.01%, higher than the sol-gel based solar cells with an efficiency of 4.74%.

  1. Low temperature growth of ZnO nanorods array via solution-immersion on TiO2 seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asib, N. A. M.; Aadila, A.; Afaah, A. N.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, TiO2:ZNR thin films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates at low temperatures of 75 to 90°C. The substrates were coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) using sol-gel spin coating, which act as seed layer to grow zinc oxide nanorods (ZNR) by solution-immersion method. At 90 and 95° C, ZNR with hexagonal tip are well dispersed without any aggregation and exhibit more uniform nanorods array as observed using FESEM. The diffraction peak intensity of the (0 0 2)-plane increased as the temperature increased, indicating improved orientation in the c-axis direction of the ZNR as detected in XRD patterns. From UV-Vis absorbance spectra, it was found that the samples has higher absorption properties at middle range of immersion temperatures; 80, 85 and 90°C.

  2. Fabrication of PbS quantum dots and their applications in solar cells based on ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2018-05-01

    An efficient, inexpensive and large area scalable approach based on sol-gel technique is presented to fabricate quantum dots (QDs) of PbS. Size of the QDs is tuned by the varying the bath concentrations in the range of 50-200 mM. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm the growth of spherically shaped ˜5.6 nm QDs at 50 mM bath concentration. The optical bandgap of the QDs is found to be ˜0.9 eV and corresponds to the size obtained from TEM studies. ZnO/PbS solar cells are fabricated by sensitizing the ZnO nanorods with PbS QDs. The fabricated solar cells demonstrate the highest open circuit voltage ˜200 mV and short circuit current density ˜0.81 µA/cm2.

  3. ZnO nanorod arrays and direct wire bonding on GaN surfaces for rapid fabrication of antireflective, high-temperature ultraviolet sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Hongyun; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2016-11-01

    Rapid, cost-effective, and simple fabrication/packaging of microscale gallium nitride (GaN) ultraviolet (UV) sensors are demonstrated using zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZnO NRAs) as an antireflective layer and direct bonding of aluminum wires to the GaN surface. The presence of the ZnO NRAs on the GaN surface significantly reduced the reflectance to less than 1% in the UV and 4% in the visible light region. As a result, the devices fabricated with ZnO NRAs and mechanically stable aluminum bonding wires (pull strength of 3-5 gf) showed higher sensitivity (136.3% at room temperature and 148.2% increase at 250 °C) when compared with devices with bare (uncoated) GaN surfaces. In addition, the devices demonstrated reliable operation at high temperatures up to 300 °C, supporting the feasibility of simple and cost-effective UV sensors operating with higher sensitivity in high-temperature conditions, such as in combustion, downhole, and space exploration applications.

  4. Bias-polarity-dependent UV/visible transferable electroluminescence from ZnO nanorod array LED with graphene oxide electrode supporting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weizhen; Wang, Wei; Xu, Haiyang; Li, Xinghua; Yang, Liu; Ma, Jiangang; Liu, Yichun

    2015-09-01

    A simple top electrode preparation process, employing continuous graphene oxide films as electrode supporting layers, was adopted to fabricate a ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction LED. The achieved LED demonstrated different electroluminescence behaviors under forward and reverse biases: a yellow-red emission band was observed under forward bias, whereas a blue-UV emission peak was obtained under reverse bias. Electroluminescence spectra under different currents and temperatures, as well as heterojunction energy-band alignments, reveal that the yellow-red emission under forward bias originates from recombinations related to heterointerface defects, whereas the blue-UV electroluminescence under reverse bias is ascribed to transitions from near-band-edge and Mg-acceptor levels in p-GaN.

  5. Highly antireflective AlGaN/GaN ultraviolet photodetectors using ZnO nanorod arrays on inverted pyramidal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Hongyun; Lim, Jongwoo; Suria, Ateeq J.; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2017-07-01

    Highly antireflective heterostructured aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN)/GaN ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors were demonstrated using a combination of inverted pyramidal surfaces and zinc oxide nanorod arrays (i.e., antireflective surface modification) to enhance the optical sensitivity. The microfabricated hierarchical surfaces significantly reduced the average surface reflectance to less than 0.3% in the UV region and less than 1% in the visible light region, allowing near-perfect absorption of incident light regardless of the angle of incidence (5-80°). As a result, the photodetectors fabricated on highly antireflective AlGaN/GaN surfaces showed higher sensitivity and responsivity over a broad range of incidence angles compared to photodetectors on planar AlGaN/GaN surfaces, supporting the use of a hierarchically modified sensing surface for omnidirectional UV monitoring with higher sensitivity.

  6. Polycrystalline ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanorod arrays with variable dopant content via a template based synthesis from Zn(II) and Mn(II) Schiff base type single source molecular precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchanka, Mikhail; Hoffmann, Rudolf C.; Burghaus, Olaf; Corzilius, Björn; Cherkashinin, Gennady; Schneider, Jörg J.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and full characterisation of pure and Mn-doped polycrystalline zinc oxide nanorods with tailored dopant content are obtained via a single source molecular precursor approach using two Schiff base type coordination compounds is reported. The infiltration of precursor solutions into the cylindrical pores of a polycarbonate template and their thermal conversion into a ceramic green body followed by dissolution of the template gives the desired ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanomaterial as compact rods. The ZnO nanorods have a mean diameter between 170 and 180 nm or 60-70 nm, depending on the template pore size employed, comprising a length of 5-6 μm. These nanorods are composed of individual sub-5 nm ZnO nanocrystals. Exact doping of these hierarchically structured ZnO nanorods was achieved by introducing Mn(II) into the ZnO host lattice with the precursor complex Diaquo-bis[2-(meth-oxyimino)-propanoato]manganese, which allows to tailor the exact Mn(II) doping content of the ZnO rods. Investigation of the Mn-doped ZnO samples by XRD, TEM, XPS, PL and EPR, reveals that manganese occurs exclusively in its oxidation state + II and is distributed within the volume as well as on the surface of the ZnO host.

  7. Light propagation in nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahachou, A. I.; Zozoulenko, I. V.

    2007-03-01

    We study the propagation of TM- and TE-polarized light in two-dimensional arrays of silver nanorods of various diameters in a gelatin background. We calculate the transmittance, reflectance and absorption of arranged and disordered nanorod arrays and compare the exact numerical results with the predictions of the Maxwell-Garnett effective-medium theory. We show that interactions between nanorods, multipole contributions and formations of photonic gaps affect strongly the transmittance spectra that cannot be accounted for in terms of the conventional effective-medium theory. We also demonstrate and explain the degradation of the transmittance in arrays with randomly located rods as well as the weak influence of their fluctuating diameter. For TM modes we outline the importance of the skin effect, which causes the full reflection of the incoming light. We then illustrate the possibility of using periodic arrays of nanorods as high-quality polarizers.

  8. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  9. One-step solvothermal deposition of ZnO nanorod arrays on a wood surface for robust superamphiphobic performance and superior ultraviolet resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Chao; Fan, Bitao; Wang, Hanwei; Sun, Qingfeng; Jin, Chunde; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    In the present paper, uniformly large-scale wurtzite-structured ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNAs) were deposited onto a wood surface through a one-step solvothermal method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). ZNAs with a diameter of approximately 85 nm and a length of approximately 1.5 μm were chemically bonded onto the wood surface through hydrogen bonds. The superamphiphobic performance and ultraviolet resistance were measured and evaluated by water or oil contact angles (WCA or OCA) and roll-off angles, sand abrasion tests and an artificially accelerated ageing test. The results show that the ZNA-treated wood demonstrates a robust superamphiphobic performance under mechanical impact, corrosive liquids, intermittent and transpositional temperatures, and water spray. Additionally, the as-prepared wood sample shows superior ultraviolet resistance.

  10. One-step solvothermal deposition of ZnO nanorod arrays on a wood surface for robust superamphiphobic performance and superior ultraviolet resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Chao; Fan, Bitao; Wang, Hanwei; Sun, Qingfeng; Jin, Chunde; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, uniformly large-scale wurtzite-structured ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNAs) were deposited onto a wood surface through a one-step solvothermal method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). ZNAs with a diameter of approximately 85 nm and a length of approximately 1.5 μm were chemically bonded onto the wood surface through hydrogen bonds. The superamphiphobic performance and ultraviolet resistance were measured and evaluated by water or oil contact angles (WCA or OCA) and roll-off angles, sand abrasion tests and an artificially accelerated ageing test. The results show that the ZNA-treated wood demonstrates a robust superamphiphobic performance under mechanical impact, corrosive liquids, intermittent and transpositional temperatures, and water spray. Additionally, the as-prepared wood sample shows superior ultraviolet resistance. PMID:27775091

  11. ZnO nanorods/AZO photoanode for perovskite solar cells fabricated in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Ferrara, Vera; De Maria, Antonella; Rametta, Gabriella; Della Noce, Marco; Vittoria Mercaldo, Lucia; Borriello, Carmela; Bruno, Annalisa; Delli Veneri, Paola

    2017-08-01

    ZnO nanorods are a good candidate for replacing standard photoanodes, such as TiO2, in perovskite solar cells and in principle superseding the high performances already obtained. This is possible because ZnO nanorods have a fast electron transport rate due to their large surface area. An array of ZnO nanorods is grown by chemical bath deposition starting from Al-doped ZnO (AZO) used both as a seed layer and as an efficient transparent anode in the visible spectral range. In particular, in this work we fabricate methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite solar cells using glass/AZO/ZnO nanorods/perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au as the architecture. The growth of ZnO nanorods has been optimized by varying the precursor concentrations, growth time and solution temperature. All the fabrication process and photovoltaic characterizations have been carried out in ambient air and the devices have not been encapsulated. Power conversion efficiency as high as 7.0% has been obtained with a good stability over 20 d. This is the highest reported value to the best of our knowledge and it is a promising result for the development of perovskite solar cells based on ZnO nanorods and AZO.

  12. ZnO nanorods for electronic and photonic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Gyu-Chul; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Park, Won Il; Jung, Sug Woo; An, Sung Jin; Kim, H. J.; Kim, D. W.

    2005-11-01

    We report on catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanorods and their nano-scale electrical and optical device applications. Catalyst-free metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) enables fabrication of size-controlled high purity ZnO single crystal nanorods. Various high quality nanorod heterostructures and quantum structures based on ZnO nanorods were also prepared using the MOVPE method and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. From the photoluminescence spectra of ZnO/Zn 0.8Mg 0.2O nanorod multi-quantum-well structures, in particular, we observed a systematic blue-shift in their PL peak position due to quantum confinement effect of carriers in nanorod quantum structures. For ZnO/ZnMgO coaxial nanorod heterostructures, photoluminescence intensity was significantly increased presumably due to surface passivation and carrier confinement. In addition to the growth and characterizations of ZnO nanorods and their quantum structures, we fabricated nanoscale electronic devices based on ZnO nanorods. We report on fabrication and device characteristics of metal-oxidesemiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), Schottky diodes, and metal-semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) as examples of the nanodevices. In addition, electroluminescent devices were fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanorods grown p-type GaN substrates, exhibiting strong visible electroluminescence.

  13. The role of annealing temperature variation on ZnO nanorods array deposited on TiO2 seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asib, N. A. M.; Aadila, A.; Afaah, A. N.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Seed layer of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) by sol-gel spin coating technique were coated on glass substrate to grow Zinc oxide nanorods (ZNR) by solution-immersion method. The fabricated ZNR were annealed at various temperatures ranged from 400 to 600° C. FESEM images revealed that smaller ZNR were densely grown at optimum temperature of 450 and 500°C. Meanwhile, for all samples a dominant (0 0 2) diffraction peak of ZNR recorded by XRD patterns was at 34.4° which corresponding to hexagonal ZNR with a wurtzite structure. UV-Vis absorbance spectra showed the maximum absorption properties at UV region were detected at 450 and 500°C. The samples also showed high absorbance values at visible region.

  14. Characteristics of zinc oxide nanorod array/titanium oxide film heterojunction prepared by aqueous solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Hong, Min-Hsuan; Li, Bo-Wei

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a ZnO nanorod array/TiO2 film heterojunction were investigated. A TiO2 film was prepared on glass by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid at 40 °C. Then, a ZnO seed layer was prepared on a TiO2 film/glass substrate by RF sputtering. A vertically oriented ZnO nanorod array was grown on a ZnO seed layer/TiO2 film/glass substrate by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) at 70 °C. After thermal annealing in N2O ambient at 300 °C, this heterojunction used as an oxygen gas sensor shows much better rise time, decay time, and on/off current ratio than as-grown and annealed ZnO nanorods.

  15. Hydrodynamic fabrication of structurally gradient ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Min; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2016-02-26

    We studied a new approach where structurally gradient nanostructures were fabricated by means of hydrodynamics. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized in a drag-driven rotational flow in a controlled manner. The structural characteristics of nanorods such as orientation and diameter were determined by momentum and mass transfer at the substrate surface. The nucleation of ZnO was induced by shear stress which plays a key role in determining the orientation of ZnO nanorods. The nucleation and growth of such nanostructures were modeled theoretically and analyzed numerically to understand the underlying physics of the fabrication of nanostructures controlled by hydrodynamics. The findings demonstrated that the precise control of momentum and mass transfer enabled the formation of ZnO nanorods with a structural gradient in diameter and orientation.

  16. Effect of annealing temperature on the photoluminescence and scintillation properties of ZnO nanorods

    SciT

    Kurudirek, Sinem V.; Menkara, H.; Klein, Benjamin D. B.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of the annealing to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) and scintillation properties, as determined by pulse height distribution of alpha particle irradiation, has been investigated for solution grown ZnO nanorods For this investigation the ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on glass for 22 h at 95 ◦ C as a substrate using a solution based hydrothermal technique. The samples were first annealed for different times (30, 60, 90 and 120 min) at 300 ◦ C and then at different temperatures (100 ◦ C–600 ◦ C) in order to determine the optimum annealing time and temperature, respectively. Before annealing, themore » ZnO nanorod arrays showed a broad yellow–orange visible and near-band gap UV emission peaks. After annealing in a forming gas atmosphere, the intensity of the sub-band gap PL was significantly reduced and the near-band gap PL emission intensity correspondingly increased (especially at temperatures higher than 100 ◦ C). Based on the ratio of the peak intensity ratio before and after annealing, it was concluded that samples at 350 ◦ C for 90 min resulted in the best near-band gap PL emission. Similarly, the analysis of the pulse height spectrum resulting from alpha particles revealed that ZnO nanorod arrays similarly annealed at 350 ◦ C for 90 min exhibited the highest scintillation response.« less

  17. Effects of Chromium Dopant on Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of ZnO Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, S.; Safa, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2017-07-01

    Structural and optical properties of bare ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods have been investigated. Encapsulated ZnO nanorods were grown using a simple two-stage method in which ZnO nanorods were first grown on a glass substrate directly from a hydrothermal bath, then encapsulated with a thin layer of Cr-doped ZnO by dip coating. Comparative study of x-ray diffraction patterns showed that Cr was successfully incorporated into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods. Moreover, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed presence of Cr in this sample. It was observed that the thickness of the shell layer around the core of the ZnO nanorods was at least about 20 nm. Transmission electron microscopy of bare ZnO nanorods revealed single-crystalline structure. Based on optical results, both the encapsulation process and addition of Cr dopant decreased the optical bandgap of the samples. Indeed, the optical bandgap values of Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and bare ZnO nanorods were 2.89 eV, 3.15 eV, and 3.34 eV, respectively. The ultraviolet (UV) parameters demonstrated that incorporation of Cr dopant into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods considerably facilitated formation and transportation of photogenerated carriers, optimizing their performance as a practical UV detector. As a result, the photocurrent of the Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods was the highest (0.6 mA), compared with ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods and bare ZnO nanorods (0.21 mA and 0.06 mA, respectively).

  18. Fabrication and photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanorods/perovskite solar cells

    SciT

    Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Tanaike, Kohei; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    ZnO nanorods/perovskite solar cells with different lengths of ZnO nanorods were fabricated. The ZnO nanorods were prepared by chemical bath deposition and directly confirmed to be hexagon-shaped nanorods. The lengths of the ZnO nanorads were controlled by deposition condition of ZnO seed layer. Photovoltaic properties of the ZnO nanorods/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} solar cells were investigated by measuring current density-voltage characteristics and incident photon to current conversion efficiency. The highest conversion efficiency was obtained in ZnO nanorods/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} with the longest ZnO nanorods.

  19. Low temperature synthesis of hexagonal ZnO nanorods and their hydrogen sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq; Faiz, M.; Tabet, N.; Alam, Mir Waqas

    2011-08-01

    The growth of hexagonal ZnO nanorods was demonstrated by low temperature chemical synthesis approach. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a wurtzite hexagonal structure of the ZnO nanorods. The optical properties were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometer at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed high purity of the ZnO nanorods. The hydrogen sensor made of the ZnO nanorods showed reversible response. The hydrogen gas tests were carried out in presence of ambient air and the influence of operation temperature on the hydrogen gas sensing property of ZnO nanorods was also investigated.

  20. Effect of bath temperature on surface morphology and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods

    SciT

    Sriharan, N.; Senthil, T. S., E-mail: tssenthi@gmail.com; Muthukumarasamy, N.

    2016-05-06

    ZnO nanorods were prepared by using simple hydrothermal method using four different bath temperatures. All the prepared ZnO nanorods are annealed at 450°C and are characterized by using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, UV spectra and scanning electron microscopy. Photocatalytic activity of the prepared ZnO nanorods is analyzed. A novel photocatalytic reactor designed with ZnO nanorods prepared at 90°C shows enhanced catalytic efficiency. The role of light irradiation time, bath temperature and surface morphology of the ZnO nanorods on the performance of photocatalytic reaction is analyzed.

  1. Preparation of thin hexagonal highly-ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template onto silicon substrate and growth ZnO nanorod arrays by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahrour, Khaled M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hashim, M. R.; Elfadill, Nezar G.; Qaeed, M. A.; Bououdina, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates of Aluminum thin films onto Ti-coated silicon substrates were prepared for growth of nanostructure materials. Hexagonally highly ordered thin AAO templates were fabricated under controllable conditions by using a two-step anodization. The obtained thin AAO templates were approximately 70 nm in pore diameter and 250 nm in length with 110 nm interpore distances within an area of 3 cm2. The difference between first and second anodization was investigated in details by in situ monitoring of current-time curve. A bottom barrier layer of the AAO templates was removed during dropping the voltage in the last period of the anodization process followed by a wet etching using phosphoric acid (5 wt%) for several minutes at ambient temperature. As an application, Zn nanorod arrays embedded in anodic alumina (AAO) template were fabricated by electrodeposition. Oxygen was used to oxidize the electrodeposited Zn nanorods in the AAO template at 700 °C. The morphology, structure and photoluminescence properties of ZnO/AAO assembly were analyzed using Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL).

  2. Dielectric behavior and transport properties of ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosen Samuel, M.; Koshy, Jiji; Chandran, Anoop; George, K. C.

    2011-08-01

    Highly optical, good crystalline and randomly aligned ZnO nanorods were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The dielectric properties of ZnO nanorods were attributed to the interfacial polarization at low frequencies (below 10 kHz) and orientational polarization at higher frequencies. The observed ω( n-1) dependence of dielectric loss was discussed on the basis of the Universal model of dielectric response. Dielectric loss peak was composed of the Debye like loss peak at higher frequencies and interfacial loss peak at lower frequencies. Charge transport through the grain and grain boundary region was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. At higher temperatures the conductivity of the nanorod was mainly through the grain interior and the overall impedance was contributed by the grain boundary region. The activation energy of nanorod was calculated as 0.078 eV, which is slightly higher than the reported bulk value.

  3. Effect of an Electrochemically Oxidized ZnO Seed Layer on ZnO Nanorods Grown by using Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Woosung; Leem, Jae-Young

    2018-05-01

    ZnO nanorods were prepared on a Si substrate with and without a ZnO seed layer formed by electro-oxidation to investigate the effect of the seed layer on their growth. The ZnO nanorods grown on the ZnO seed layer had top surfaces that were flat whereas those grown without it had rough top surfaces, as observed in field-emission scanning electron microscopy images. In the Xray diffraction analysis, all ZnO nanorods showed preferential orientation with the (002) plane. In the case of ZnO nanorods prepared with a ZnO seed layer, the residual stress decreased, and the full width at half maximum of the ZnO (002) plane peak decreased. The photoluminescence spectra show a strong and narrow near-band-edge emission peak and high near-band-edge emission to deep-level emission peak ratio for the ZnO nanorods prepared with the seed layer. With respect to the photoresponse properties, the ZnO nanorods grown with the ZnO seed layer showed higher responsivity and faster rise/decay curves than those grown without it. Thus, the ZnO seed layer formed by electro-oxidation improves the structural, optical, and photoresponse properties of the ZnO nanorods formed on it. This method could serve as a new route for improving the properties of optoelectronic devices.

  4. Defects in ZnO nanorods prepared by a hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Tam, K H; Cheung, C K; Leung, Y H; Djurisić, A B; Ling, C C; Beling, C D; Fung, S; Kwok, W M; Chan, W K; Phillips, D L; Ding, L; Ge, W K

    2006-10-26

    ZnO nanorod arrays were fabricated using a hydrothermal method. The nanorods were studied by scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and positron annihilation spectroscopy before and after annealing in different environments and at different temperatures. Annealing atmosphere and temperature had significant effects on the PL spectrum, while in all cases the positron diffusion length and PL decay times were increased. We found that, while the defect emission can be significantly reduced by annealing at 200 degrees C, the rods still have large defect concentrations as confirmed by their low positron diffusion length and short PL decay time constants.

  5. A high efficiency microreactor with Pt/ZnO nanorod arrays on the inner wall for photodegradation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang

    2013-06-15

    A high efficiency microreactor with Pt coated ZnO (Pt/ZnO) nanorod arrays on the inner wall was successfully fabricated by pumping a Pt sol into the microchannel containing preformed ZnO nanorod arrays. Phenol was selected as a persistent organic pollutant to evaluate the photocatalytic performance of the microreactors. The microreactor which was coated by Pt sol for 5 min showed the best photocatalytic performance compared with other Pt/ZnO nanorod array-modified microreactors. The presence of Pt nanoparticles on the surfaces of ZnO nanorods promoted the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and thus enhanced the photocatalytic activity. In addition, the recyclable property of the microcreator was investigated. It was found that the microreactor displayed higher durability during the continuous photocatalytic process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diameter Control and Photoluminescence of ZnO Nanorods from Trialkylamines

    DOE PAGES

    Andelman, Tamar; Gong, Yinyan; Neumark, Gertrude; ...

    2007-01-01

    A novel solution method to control the diameter of ZnO nanorods is reported. Small diameter (2-3 nm) nanorods were synthesized from trihexylamine, and large diameter (50–80 nm) nanorods were synthesized by increasing the alkyl chain length to tridodecylamine. The defect (green) emission of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the nanorods varies with diameter, and can thus be controlled by the diameter control. The small ZnO nanorods have strong green emission, while the large diameter nanorods exhibit a remarkably suppressed green band. We show that this observation supports surface oxygen vacancies as the defect that gives rise to the green emission.

  7. Metal oxide nanorod arrays on monolithic substrates

    SciT

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Guo, Yanbing; Ren, Zheng

    A metal oxide nanorod array structure according to embodiments disclosed herein includes a monolithic substrate having a surface and multiple channels, an interface layer bonded to the surface of the substrate, and a metal oxide nanorod array coupled to the substrate surface via the interface layer. The metal oxide can include ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide. The substrate can include a glass substrate, a plastic substrate, a silicon substrate, a ceramic monolith, and a stainless steel monolith. The ceramic can include cordierite, alumina, tin oxide, and titania. The nanorod array structure can includemore » a perovskite shell, such as a lanthanum-based transition metal oxide, or a metal oxide shell, such as ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide, or a coating of metal particles, such as platinum, gold, palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium, over each metal oxide nanorod. Structures can be bonded to the surface of a substrate and resist erosion if exposed to high velocity flow rates.« less

  8. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Eriksson, Martin; AlSalhi, Mohammad; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees; Willander, Magnus

    2013-08-19

    Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c -axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

  9. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Eriksson, Martin; AlSalhi, Mohammad; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees; Willander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c-axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role. PMID:28811454

  10. Comparative study of ZnO nanorods and thin films for chemical and biosensing applications and the development of ZnO nanorods based potentiometric strontium ion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun, K.; Ibupoto, Z. H.; Chey, C. O.; Lu, Jun.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the comparative study of ZnO nanorods and ZnO thin films were performed regarding the chemical and biosensing properties and also ZnO nanorods based strontium ion sensor is proposed. ZnO nanorods were grown on gold coated glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth method and the ZnO thin films were deposited by electro deposition technique. ZnO nanorods and thin films were characterised by field emission electron microscopy [FESEM] and X-ray diffraction [XRD] techniques and this study has shown that the grown nanostructures are highly dense, uniform and exhibited good crystal quality. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy [TEM] was used to investigate the quality of ZnO thin film and we observed that ZnO thin film was comprised of nano clusters. ZnO nanorods and thin films were functionalised with selective strontium ionophore salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone [ST] membrane, galactose oxidase, and lactate oxidase for the detection of strontium ion, galactose and L-lactic acid, respectively. The electrochemical response of both ZnO nanorods and thin films sensor devices was measured by using the potentiometric method. The strontium ion sensor has exhibited good characteristics with a sensitivity of 28.65 ± 0.52 mV/decade, for a wide range of concentrations from 1.00 × 10-6 to 5.00 × 10-2 M, selectivity, reproducibility, stability and fast response time of 10.00 s. The proposed strontium ion sensor was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of strontium ion versus ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid [EDTA]. This comparative study has shown that ZnO nanorods possessed better performance with high sensitivity and low limit of detection due to high surface area to volume ratio as compared to the flat surface of ZnO thin films.

  11. Room temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal reaction

    SciT

    Iwan, S., E-mail: iwan-sugihartono@unj.ac.id; Prodi Ilmu Material, Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok; Fauzia, Vivi

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were fabricated by a hydrothermal reaction on silicon (Si) substrate at 95 °C for 6 hours. The ZnO seed layer was fabricated by depositing ZnO thin films on Si substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolisis (USP). The annealing effects on crystal structure and optical properties of ZnO nanorods were investigated. The post-annealing treatment was performed at 800 °C with different environments. The annealed of ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) in order to analyze crystal structure and optical properties, respectively. The results show the orientations of [002], [101], [102], and [103] diffractionmore » peaks were observed and hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO nanorods were vertically grown on Si substrates. The room temperature PL spectra show ultra-violet (UV) and visible emissions. The annealed of ZnO nanorods in vacuum condition (3.8 × 10{sup −3} Torr) has dominant UV emission. Meanwhile, non-annealed of ZnO nanorods has dominant visible emission. It was expected that the annealed of ZnO in vacuum condition suppresses the existence of native defects in ZnO nanorods.« less

  12. Control of ZnO Nanorod Defects to Enhance Carrier Transportation in p-Cu₂O/i-ZnO Nanorods/n-IGZO Heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Ke, Nguyen Huu; Trinh, Le Thi Tuyet; Mung, Nguyen Thi; Loan, Phan Thi Kieu; Tuan, Dao Anh; Truong, Nguyen Huu; Tran, Cao Vinh; Hung, Le Vu Tuan

    2017-01-01

    The p-Cu₂O/i-ZnO nanorods/n-IGZO heterojunctions were fabricated by electrochemical and sputtering method. ZnO nanorods were grown on conductive indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film and then p-Cu₂O layer was deposited on ZnO nanorods to form the heterojunction. ZnO nanorods play an important role in carrier transport mechanisms and performance of the junction. The changing of defects in ZnO nanorods by annealing samples in air and vacuum have studied. The XRD, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and FTIR were used to study about structure, and defects in ZnO nanorods. The SEM, i–V characteristics methods were also used to define structure, electrical properties of the heterojunctions layers. The results show that the defects in ZnO nanorods affected remarkably on performance of heterojunctions of solar cells.

  13. Effect of growth time on Ti-doped ZnO nanorods prepared by low-temperature chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidier, Shaker A.; Hashim, M. R.; Al-Diabat, Ahmad M.; Bououdina, M.

    2017-04-01

    Ti-doped ZnO nanorod arrays were grown onto Si substrate using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 93 °C. To investigate the effect of time deposition on the morphological, and structural properties, four Ti-doped ZnO samples were prepared at various deposition periods of time (2, 3.5, 5, and 6.5 h). FESEM images displayed high-quality and uniform nanorods with a mean length strongly dependent upon deposition time; i.e. it increases for prolonged growth time. Additionally, EFTEM images reveal a strong erosion on the lateral side for the sample prepared for 6.5 h as compared to 5 h. This might be attributed to the dissolution reaction of ZnO with for prolonged growth time. XRD analysis confirms the formation of a hexagonal wurtzite-type structure for all samples with a preferred growth orientation along the c-axis direction. The (100) peak intensity was enhanced and then quenched, which might be the result of an erosion on the lateral side of nanorods as seen in EFTEM. This study confirms the important role of growth time on the morphological features of Ti-doped ZnO nanorods prepared using CBD. Increase the growth time causes an erosion in lateral side -(100) direction XRD- and enhances the axial direction -(002), XRD.

  14. Aqueous chemical growth of free standing vertical ZnO nanoprisms, nanorods and nanodiskettes with improved texture co-efficient and tunable size uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, S. D. Gopal; Ravi, G.; Athimoolam, A.; Mahalingam, T.; Kulandainathan, M. Anbu

    2011-12-01

    Tuning the morphology, size and aspect ratio of free standing ZnO nanostructured arrays by a simple hydrothermal method is reported. Pre-coated ZnO seed layers of two different thicknesses (≈350 nm or 550 nm) were used as substrates to grow ZnO nanostructures for the study. Various parameters such as chemical ambience, pH of the solution, strength of the Zn2+ atoms and thickness of seed bed are varied to analyze their effects on the resultant ZnO nanostructures. Vertically oriented hexagonal nanorods, multi-angular nanorods, hexagonal diskette and popcorn-like nanostructures are obtained by altering the experimental parameters. All the produced nanostructures were analysed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis and found to be grown in the (002) orientation of wurtzite ZnO. The texture co-efficient of ZnO layer was improved by combining a thick seed layer with higher cationic strength. Surface morphological studies reveal various nanostructures such as nanorods, diskettes and popcorn-like structures based on various preparation conditions. The optical property of the closest packed nanorods array was recorded by UV-VIS spectrometry, and the band gap value simulated from the results reflect the near characteristic band gap of ZnO. The surface roughness profile taken from the Atomic Force Microscopy reveals a roughness of less than 320 nm.

  15. Enhancing absorption in coated semiconductor nanowire/nanorod core-shell arrays using active host matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jule, Leta; Dejene, Francis; Roro, Kittessa

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, we investigated theoretically and experimentally the interaction of radiation field phenomena interacting with arrays of nanowire/nanorod core-shell embedded in active host matrices. The optical properties of composites are explored including the case when the absorption of propagating wave by dissipative component is completely compensated by amplification in active (lasing) medium. On the basis of more elaborated modeling approach and extended effective medium theory, the effective polarizability and the refractive index of electromagnetic mode dispersion of the core-shell nanowire arrays are derived. ZnS(shell)-coated by sulphidation process on ZnO(shell) nanorod arrays grown on (100) silicon substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) has been used for theoretical comparison. Compared with the bare ZnO nanorods, ZnS-coated core/shell nanorods exhibit a strongly reduced ultraviolet (UV) emission and a dramatically enhanced deep level (DL) emission. Obviously, the UV and DL emission peaks are attributed to the emissions of ZnO nanorods within ZnO/ZnS core/shell nanorods. The reduction of UV emission after ZnS coating seems to agree with the charge separation mechanism of type-II band alignment that holes transfer from the core to shell, which would quench the UV emission to a certain extent. Our theoretical calculations and numerical simulation demonstrate that the use of active host (amplifying) medium to compensate absorption at metallic inclusions. Moreover the core-shell nanorod/nanowire arrays create the opportunity for broad band absorption and light harvesting applications.

  16. Ultra-Fast Microwave Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods on Cellulose Substrates for UV Sensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Ana; Samouco, Ana; Araújo, Andreia; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, tracing and Whatman papers were used as substrates to grow zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures. Cellulose-based substrates are cost-efficient, highly sensitive and environmentally friendly. ZnO nanostructures with hexagonal structure were synthesized by hydrothermal under microwave irradiation using an ultrafast approach, that is, a fixed synthesis time of 10 min. The effect of synthesis temperature on ZnO nanostructures was investigated from 70 to 130 °C. An Ultra Violet (UV)/Ozone treatment directly to the ZnO seed layer prior to microwave assisted synthesis revealed expressive differences regarding formation of the ZnO nanostructures. Structural characterization of the microwave synthesized materials was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical characterization has also been performed. The time resolved photocurrent of the devices in response to the UV turn on/off was investigated and it has been observed that the ZnO nanorod arrays grown on Whatman paper substrate present a responsivity 3 times superior than the ones grown on tracing paper. By using ZnO nanorods, the surface area-to-volume ratio will increase and will improve the sensor sensibility, making these types of materials good candidates for low cost and disposable UV sensors. The sensors were exposed to bending tests, proving their high stability, flexibility and adaptability to different surfaces. PMID:29140304

  17. Fast light-induced reversible wettability of a zinc oxide nanorod array coated with a thin gold layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuefan; Du, Hejun; Kong, Junhua; Tran, Van-Thai; Koh, Jia Kai; Zhao, Chenyang; He, Chaobin

    2017-11-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has gained much attention recently due to its excellent physical and chemical properties, and has been extensively studied in energy harvesting applications such as photovoltaic and piezoelectric devices. In recent years, its reversible wettability has also attracted increasing interest. The wettability of ZnO nanostructures with various morphologies has been studied. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is still a lack of investigations on further modifications on ZnO to provide more benefits than pristine ZnO. Comprehensive studies on the reversible wettability are still needed. In this study, a ZnO nanorod array was prepared via a hydrothermal process and subsequently coated with thin gold layers with varied thickness. The morphologies and structures, optical properties and wettability were investigated. It is revealed that the ZnO-Au system possesses recoverable wettability upon switching between visible-ultraviolet light and a dark environment, which is verified by the contact angle change. The introduction of the thin gold layer to the ZnO nanorod array effectively increases the recovery rate of the wettability. The improvements are attributed to the hierarchical structures, which are formed by depositing thin gold layers onto the ZnO nanorod array, the visible light sensitivity due to the plasmonic effect of the deposited gold, as well as the fast charge-induced surface status change upon light illumination or dark storage. The improvement is beneficial to applications in environmental purification, energy harvesting, micro-lenses, and smart devices.

  18. Growth of ZnO nanorods on glass substrate deposited using dip coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Rozina Abdul; Ghafar, Safiah Ab; Zoolfakar, Ahmad Sabirin; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    ZnO unique properties make it attractive for electronics and optoelectronics application. There are varieties synthesis of ZnO nanostructure but one of the best ways is by using dip coating method due to its simplicity, low cost and reliability. This research investigated the effect of precursor concentration on the morphology of ZnO nanorods using dip coating technique. ZnO nanorods is synthesized by using zinc nitrate as precursor and glass slide as substrate. The morphology of ZnO is characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). By using different concentration of precursor, each outcome demonstrated diverse morphologies.

  19. Engineered ZnO nanowire arrays using different nanopatterning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, János; Szabó, Zoltán; Erdélyi, Róbert; Khánh, Nguyen Q.

    2012-02-01

    The impact of various masking patterns and template layers on the wet chemically grown vertical ZnO nanowire arrays was investigated. The nanowires/nanorods were seeded at nucleation windows which were patterned in a mask layer using various techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanosphere photolithography, and atomic force microscope type nanolithography. The compared ZnO templates included single crystals, epitaxial layer, and textured polycrystalline films. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the alignment and crystal orientation of the nanowires were dictated by the underlying seed layer, while their geometry can be tuned by the parameters of the certain nanopatterning technique and of the wet chemical process. The comparison of the alternative nanolithography techniques showed that using direct writing methods the diameter of the ordered ZnO nanowires can be as low as 30-40 nm at a density of 100- 1000 NW/μm2 in a very limited area (10 μm2-1 mm2). Nanosphere photolithography assisted growth, on the other hand, favors thicker nanopillars (~400 nm) and enables large-area, low-cost patterning (1-100 cm2). These alternative lowtemperature fabrication routes can be used for different novel optoelectronic devices, such as nanorod based ultraviolet photodiode, light emitting device, and waveguide laser.

  20. Growth of well-aligned ZnO nanorods using auge catalyst by vapor phase transportation.

    PubMed

    Ha, S Y; Jung, M N; Park, S H; Ko, H J; Ko, H; Oh, D C; Yao, T; Chang, J H

    2006-11-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been achieved using new alloy (AuGe) catalyst. Zn powder was used as a source material and it was transported in a horizontal tube furnace onto an AuGe deposited Si substrates. The structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence. ZnO nanorods grown at 650 degrees C on 53 nm thick AuGe layer show uniform shape with the length of 8 +/- 0.5 microm and the diameter of 150 +/- 5 nm. Also, the tilting angle of ZnO nanorods (+/- 5.5 degrees) is confirmed by HRXRD. High structural quality of the nanorods is conformed by the photoluminescence measurement. All samples show strong UV emission without considerable deep level emission. However, weak deep level emission appears at high (700 degrees C) temperature due to the increase of oxygen desertion.

  1. Synthesis of ZnO nanorods and observation of resistive switching memory in ZnO based polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Manjula G.; Malakar, Meenakshi; Mohapatra, Saumya R.; Chowdhury, Avijit

    2018-05-01

    This research reports the observation of bipolar resistive switching memory in ZnO nanorod based polymer nanocomposites. We synthesized ZnO nanorods by wet-chemical method and characterized them using XRD, UV-VIS spectroscopy and SEM. The synthesized materials have hexagonal ZnO phase with grain size of 24 nm and having strong orientation along (101) direction as observed from XRD. The SEM micrograph confirms the formation of ZnO nanorods with diameter in the range of 10 to 20 nm and length of the order of 1 µm. From optical absorption spectra the band gap is estimated to be 2.42 eV. ZnO nanorods were dispersed in PVDF-HFP polymer matrix to prepare the nanocomposite. This nanocomposite was used as active layer in the devices having sandwich structure of ITO/PVDF-HFP+ZnO nanorods/Al. Bipolar non-volatile memory was observed with ON-OFF resistance ratio of the order of 103 and with a wide voltage window of 2.3V. The switching mechanism could be due to the trapping and de-trapping of electrons by the ZnO nanorods in the nanocomposite during ON and OFF states respectively.

  2. Au sensitized ZnO nanorods for enhanced liquefied petroleum gas sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakate, U. T.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Lokhande, C. D.; Kale, S. N.

    2016-05-01

    The zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have grown on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) method using zinc acetate solution. The phase formation, surface morphology and elemental composition of ZnO films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing response was remarkably improved by sensitization of gold (Au) surface noble metal on ZnO nanorods film. Maximum LPG response of 21% was observed for 1040 ppm of LPG, for pure ZnO nanorods sample. After Au sensitization on ZnO nanorods film sample, the LPG response greatly improved up to 48% at operating temperature 623 K. The improved LPG response is attributed Au sensitization with spill-over mechanism. Proposed model for LPG sensing mechanism discussed.

  3. Improving ultraviolet photodetection of ZnO nanorods by Cr doped ZnO encapsulation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, S.; Mokhtari, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2018-04-01

    Encapsulated ZnO nanorods (NRs) with different Cr concentration (0-4.5 at.%) were prepared in two different steps. First, ZnO NRs were grown by hydrothermal method. Then, they were encapsulated by dip coating method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer analyses. XRD analysis proved that Cr incorporated into the ZnO structure successfully. Based on optical analysis, band gap changes in the range of 2.74-3.84 eV. Finally, UV responses of all samples were deeply investigated. It revealed 0.5 at.% Cr doped sample had the most photocurrent (0.75 mA) and photoresponsivity (0.8 A/W) of all which were about three times greater than photocurrent and photoresponsivity of the undoped sample.

  4. Tuning the emission of ZnO nanorods based light emitting diodes using Ag doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echresh, Ahmad; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Shoushtari, Morteza Zargar; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    We have fabricated, characterized, and compared ZnO nanorods/p-GaN and n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). Current-voltage measurement showed an obvious rectifying behaviour of both LEDs. A reduction of the optical band gap of the Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods compared to pure ZnO nanorods was observed. This reduction leads to decrease the valence band offset at n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN interface compared to n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN heterojunction. Consequently, this reduction leads to increase the hole injection from the GaN to the ZnO. From electroluminescence measurement, white light was observed for the n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs under forward bias, while for the reverse bias, blue light was observed. While for the n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN blue light dominated the emission in both forward and reverse biases. Further, the LEDs exhibited a high sensitivity in responding to UV illumination. The results presented here indicate that doping ZnO nanorods might pave the way to tune the light emission from n-ZnO/p-GaN LEDs.

  5. Gallium ion-assisted room temperature synthesis of small-diameter ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seungho; Kim, Semi; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2011-09-15

    We report a method for synthesizing small-diameter ZnO nanorods at room temperature (20 °C), under normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm), and using a relatively short reaction time (1 h) by adding gallium salts to the reaction solution. The ZnO nanorods were, on average, 92 nm in length and 9 nm in diameter and were single crystalline in nature. Quantitative analyses revealed that gallium atoms were not incorporated into the synthesized nanocrystals. On the basis of the experimental results, we propose a mechanism for the formation of small-diameter ZnO nanorods in the presence of gallium ions. The optical properties were probed by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The absorption band of the small-diameter ZnO nanorods was blue-shifted relative to the absorption band of the ~230 nm diameter ZnO nanorods (control samples). Control experiments demonstrated that the absence of metal ion-containing precipitants (except ZnO) at room temperature is essential, and that the ZnO nanorod diameter distributions were narrow for the stirred reaction solution and broad when prepared without stirring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SILAR controlled CdSe nanoparticles sensitized ZnO nanorods photoanode for solar cell application: Electrolyte effect.

    PubMed

    Nikam, Pratibha R; Baviskar, Prashant K; Majumder, Sutripto; Sali, Jaydeep V; Sankapal, Babasaheb R

    2018-08-15

    Controlled growth of different sizes of cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles over well aligned ZnO nanorods have been performed using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique at room temperature (27 °C) in order to form nano heterostructure solar cells. Deposition of compact layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) by SILAR technique on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate followed by growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods array using chemical bath deposition (CBD) at low temperature (<100 °C). Different characterization techniques viz. X-ray diffractometer, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been used to know the structural, optical, morphological and compositional properties of synthesized nano heterostructure. The photovoltaic performance of the cells with variation in SILAR cycles for CdSe and with use of different electrolytes have been recorded as J-V characteristics and the maximum conversion efficiency of 0.63% have been attained with ferro/ferri cyanide electrolyte for 12 cycles CdSe coating over 1-D ZnO nanorods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Superior environment resistance of quartz crystal microbalance with anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wei; Wei, Li; Shaodan, Wang; Yu, Bai

    2015-08-01

    The precise measurement of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in the detection and weighing of organic gas molecules is achieved due to excellent superhydrophobicity of a deposited film composite. Photocatalysis is utilized as a method for the self-cleaning of organic molecules on the QCM for extended long-term stability in the precision of the instrument. In this paper, ZnO nanorod array is prepared via in situ methods on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process. Subsequently, a TiO2/ZnO composite film is synthesized by surface modification with TiO2 via sol-gel methods. Results show the anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite film with a sharp, pencil-like structure exhibiting excellent superhydrophobicity (water contact angle of 155°), non-sticking water properties, and an autonomous cleaning property under UV irradiation. The anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite film facilitates the precise measurement and extended lifetime of the QCM for the detection of organic gas molecules.

  8. Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods for efficient ultraviolet photodetection.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Shrabani; Basak, Durga

    2011-05-01

    Core-shell TiO(2)@ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been fabricated by a simple two step method: growth of ZnO NRs' array by an aqueous chemical technique and then coating of the NRs with a solution of titanium isopropoxide [Ti(OC(3)H(7))(4)] followed by a heating step to form the shell. The core-shell nanocomposites are composed of single-crystalline ZnO NRs, coated with a thin TiO(2) shell layer obtained by varying the number of coatings (one, three and five times). The ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity of the nanocomposite is largely quenched due to an efficient electron-hole separation reducing the band-to-band recombinations. The UV photoconductivity of the core-shell structure with three times TiO(2) coating has been largely enhanced due to photoelectron transfer between the core and the shell. The UV photosensitivity of the nanocomposite becomes four times larger while the photocurrent decay during steady UV illumination has been decreased almost by 7 times compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs indicating high efficiency of these core-shell structures as UV sensors. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  9. Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods for efficient ultraviolet photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Shrabani; Basak, Durga

    2011-05-01

    Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been fabricated by a simple two step method: growth of ZnO NRs' array by an aqueous chemical technique and then coating of the NRs with a solution of titanium isopropoxide [Ti(OC3H7)4] followed by a heating step to form the shell. The core-shell nanocomposites are composed of single-crystalline ZnO NRs, coated with a thin TiO2 shell layer obtained by varying the number of coatings (one, three and five times). The ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity of the nanocomposite is largely quenched due to an efficient electron-hole separation reducing the band-to-band recombinations. The UV photoconductivity of the core-shell structure with three times TiO2 coating has been largely enhanced due to photoelectron transfer between the core and the shell. The UV photosensitivity of the nanocomposite becomes four times larger while the photocurrent decay during steady UV illumination has been decreased almost by 7 times compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs indicating high efficiency of these core-shell structures as UV sensors.

  10. Significantly enhanced UV luminescence by plasmonic metal on ZnO nanorods patterned by screen-printing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Cui, Shuyuan; Zhang, Xingang; Li, Wenqing

    2018-08-31

    A smart synthetic method is conceived to construct large batches of ZnO nanostructures to meet market demand for light-emitting diodes. Utilizing the localized surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles (NPs) facilitates the recombination of electron-hole pairs and the release of photons. Compared to raw ZnO nanorods (NRs), ZnO NRs@HfO 2 @Al NPs show a ∼120× enhancement in ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence (PL), while ZnO NRs@HfO 2 @Ag NPs show a six-fold enhancement. Because the surface plasmon energy of Al is nearer the ZnO band gap, the PL enhancement of ZnO NRs covered with Al is stronger than that of those covered with Ag. Based on this analysis, three-dimensional graphical ZnO NR arrays were manufactured by screen-printing, a mass production technique. After covering the arrays with layers of HfO 2 and Al NPs, the UV PL intensities of the corresponding substrates were increased by approximately 16×. This indicates the potential to mass-produce highly efficient optoelectronic devices.

  11. Superior photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanorods/poly(3-hexylthiophene) hybrid photoanodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, T.; Hmar, J. J. L.; Dhar, S.; Mondal, S. P.

    2017-06-01

    Photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer hybrid photoanodes have been studied. The hybrid photoanodes demonstrated higher photoconversion efficiency, incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) and lower interfacial resistance compared to pristine ZnO nanorods and P3HT based electrodes. The origin of superior photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO/P3HT photoanodes has been explained using carrier transport mechanism at semiconductor/electrolyte junction. The stability of ZnO NRs/P3HT photoanode has been demonstrated.

  12. A hetero-homogeneous investigation of chemical bath deposited Ga-doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhsha, Amir Hosein; Abdizadeh, Hossein; Pourshaban, Erfan; Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures of zinc oxide (ZnO) have been in the center of attention, mostly for electronic applications due to their distinctive properties such as high electron mobility (100 cm2V-1s-1) and crystallinity. Thanks to its high density of vacancies and interstitial sites, wurtzite lattice of ZnO is a suitable host for gallium (Ga) as a dopant element. Herein, ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) are synthesized by a low-temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD) method with various concentrations of gallium nitrate hydrate as a dopant precursor. Structural and morphological analyses confirm that optimum properties of gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) are obtained at 1% (Ga to Zn molar ratio). Owing to the replacement of smaller Ga3+ ions with Zn2+ ions in the GZO structure, a slight shift of (002) peak to higher angles could be observed in XRD pattern of GZO NRAs. The scanning electron microscope images demonstrate a proliferation in the ZnO NRAs length from 650 nm for undoped ZnO (UZO) to 1200 nm for GZO-1%. However, increasing the dopant concentration above 2.5% results in formation of homogeneous zinc gallium oxide in the bulk solution, which is a sign of inefficient process of doping in GZO NRAs. Furthermore, photoluminescence spectroscopy is used to characterize the band-gap variation of the samples, which demonstrates a small red-shift in the UV emission peak and a decrease in visible emission peak intensity with introducing Ga in ZnO lattice. Lower resistivity for GZO-1% (1.1 MΩ) sample compared to UZO (1.4 MΩ) is recorded, which is compelling evidence for the presence of Ga3+ in ZnO lattice. The results suggest that incorporating Ga into ZnO lattice using CBD method is an easy and effective technique to improve the electrical properties of ZnO NRAs that is an essential factor for a broad range of devices.

  13. Controlled Defects of Fluorine-incorporated ZnO Nanorods for Photovoltaic Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hock Beng; Ginting, Riski Titian; Tan, Sin Tee; Tan, Chun Hui; Alshanableh, Abdelelah; Oleiwi, Hind Fadhil; Yap, Chi Chin; Jumali, Mohd Hafizuddin Hj.; Yahaya, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Anion passivation effect on metal-oxide nano-architecture offers a highly controllable platform for improving charge selectivity and extraction, with direct relevance to their implementation in hybrid solar cells. In current work, we demonstrated the incorporation of fluorine (F) as an anion dopant to address the defect-rich nature of ZnO nanorods (ZNR) and improve the feasibility of its role as electron acceptor. The detailed morphology evolution and defect engineering on ZNR were studied as a function of F-doping concentration (x). Specifically, the rod-shaped arrays of ZnO were transformed into taper-shaped arrays at high x. A hypsochromic shift was observed in optical energy band gap due to the Burstein-Moss effect. A substantial suppression on intrinsic defects in ZnO lattice directly epitomized the novel role of fluorine as an oxygen defect quencher. The results show that 10-FZNR/P3HT device exhibited two-fold higher power conversion efficiency than the pristine ZNR/P3HT device, primarily due to the reduced Schottky defects and charge transfer barrier. Essentially, the reported findings yielded insights on the functions of fluorine on (i) surface –OH passivation, (ii) oxygen vacancies (Vo) occupation and (iii) lattice oxygen substitution, thereby enhancing the photo-physical processes, carrier mobility and concentration of FZNR based device. PMID:27587295

  14. Room temperature growth of ZnO nanorods by hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateyama, Hiroki; Zhang, Qiyan; Ichikawa, Yo

    2018-05-01

    The effect of seed layer morphology on ZnO nanorod growth at room temperature was studied via hydrothermal synthesis on seed layers with different thicknesses and further annealed at different temperatures. The change in the thickness and annealing temperature enabled us to control over a diameter of ZnO nanorods which are attributed to the changing of crystallinity and roughness of the seed layers.

  15. Constructing MnO{sub 2}/single crystalline ZnO nanorod hybrids with enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activity

    SciT

    Yu, Weiwei; Liu, Tiangui, E-mail: tianguiliu@gmail.com; Cao, Shiyi

    In order to improve the photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanorods, ZnO nanorods decorated with MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles (MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids) were prepared by using microwave assisted coprecipitation method under the influence of hydrogen peroxide, and the structure, photocatalytic activity and antibacterial property of the products were studied. Experimental results indicated that MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are decorated on the surface of single crystalline ZnO nanorods. Moreover, the resultant MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids have been proven to possess good photocatalytic and antibacterial activity, which their degradated efficiency for Rhodamin B (RhB) is twice as the pure ZnO nanorods. Enhancementmore » for photocatalytic and antibacterial activity is mainly attributed to the low band gap energy and excellent electrochemical properties of MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: The MnO{sub 2}/single crystalline ZnO nanorods hybrids, which MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are loaded on the surface of ZnO nanorods, were prepared by the step-by-step precipitation method under the assistance of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. Display Omitted - Highlights: • MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids were prepared by the step-by-step assembly method. • Single crystalline ZnO nanorods can be decorated by MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids possess good photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. • MnO{sub 2} can improve the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods under visible light.« less

  16. Low temperature grown ZnO@TiO{sub 2} core shell nanorod arrays for dye sensitized solar cell application

    SciT

    Goh, Gregory Kia Liang; Le, Hong Quang, E-mail: lehq@imre.a-star.edu.sg; Huang, Tang Jiao

    High aspect ratio ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glasses via a low temperature solution method. By adjusting the growth condition and adding polyethylenimine, ZnO nanorod arrays with tunable length were successfully achieved. The ZnO@TiO{sub 2} core shells structures were realized by a fast growth method of immersion into a (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}·TiF{sub 6} solution. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray measurements all confirmed the existence of a titania shell uniformly covering the ZnO nanorod's surface. Results of solar cell testing showed that addition of a TiO{sub 2} shell to the ZnO nanorod significantlymore » increased short circuit current (from 4.2 to 5.2 mA/cm{sup 2}), open circuit voltage (from 0.6 V to 0.8 V) and fill factor (from 42.8% to 73.02%). The overall cell efficiency jumped from 1.1% for bare ZnO nanorod to 3.03% for a ZnO@TiO{sub 2} core shell structured solar cell with a 18–22 nm shell thickness, a nearly threefold increase. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis process of coating TiO{sub 2} shell onto ZnO nanorod core is shown schematically. A thin, uniform, and conformal shell had been grown on the surface of the ZnO core after immersing in the (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}·TiF{sub 6} solution for 5–15 min. - Highlights: • ZnO@TiO{sub 2} core shell nanorod has been grown on FTO substrate using low temperature solution method. • TEM, XRD, EDX results confirmed the existing of titana shell, uniformly covered rod's surface. • TiO{sub 2} shell suppressed recombination, demonstrated significant enhancement in cell's efficiency. • Core shell DSSC's efficiency achieved as high as 3.03%, 3 times higher than that of ZnO nanorods.« less

  17. Study of annealing effect on the growth of ZnO nanorods on ZnO seed layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannakashappanavar, Basavaraj S.; Pattanashetti, Nandini A.; Byrareddy, C. R.; Yadav, Aniruddh Bahadur

    2018-04-01

    A zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer was deposited on the SiO2/Si substrate by RF sputtering. To study the effect of annealing, the seed layers were classified into annealed and unannealed thin films. Annealing of the seed layers was carried at 450°C. Surface morphology of the seed layers were studied by Atomic force microscopy. ZnO nanorods were then grown on both the types of seed layer by hydrothermal method. The morphology and the structural properties of the nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. The effect of seed layer annealing on the growth and orientation of the ZnO nanorods were clearly examined on comparing with the nanorods grown on unannealed seed layer. The nanorods grown on annealed seed layers were found to be well aligned and oriented. Further, the I-V characteristic study was carried out on these aligned nanorods. The results supports positively for the future work to further enhance the properties of developed nanorods for their wide applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  18. ZnO nanorods decorated with ZnS nanoparticles

    SciT

    Joicy, S.; Sivakumar, P.; Thangadurai, P., E-mail: thangaduraip.nst@pondiuni.edu.in

    In this study, ZnO nanorods (NRs) and ZnS nanoparticles decorated ZnO-NRs were prepared by a combination of hydrothermal and hydrolysis method. Structural and optical properties of the samples were studied by XRD, FE-SEM, UV-Vis DRS and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Microscopy analysis revealed that the diameter of ZnO-NRs was ∼500 nm and the length was ranging from a few hundred nm to several micrometers and their surface was decorated with ZnS nanoparticles. UV-Vis DRS showed the absorption of ZnS decorated ZnO-NRs was blue shifted with respect to pure ZnO-NRs which enhanced the separation of electron-hole pairs. PL spectrum of ZnS decorated ZnO-NRs showedmore » a decrease in intensity of UV and green emissions with the appearance of blue emission at 436 nm.« less

  19. Surface modification of ZnO nanorods with Hamilton receptors.

    PubMed

    Zeininger, Lukas; Klaumünzer, Martin; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Andreas

    2015-04-13

    A new prototype of a Hamilton receptor suitable for the functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles was synthesized and characterized. The hydrogen bonding receptor was coupled to a catechol moiety, which served as anchor group for the functionalization of metal oxides, in particular zinc oxide. Synthesized zinc oxide nanorods [ZnO] were used for surface functionalization. The wet-chemical functionalization procedure towards monolayer-grafted particles [ZnO-HR] is described and a detailed characterization study is presented. In addition, the detection of specific cyanurate molecules is demonstrated. The hybrid structures [ZnO-HR-CA] were stable towards agglomeration and exhibited enhanced dispersability in apolar solvents. This observation, in combination with several spectroscopic experiments gave evidence of the highly directional supramolecular recognition at the surface of nanoparticles.

  20. Large-area zinc oxide nanorod arrays templated by nanoimprint lithography: control of morphologies and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chen; Huang, Xiaohu; Liu, Hongfei; Chua, Soo Jin; Ross, Caroline A.

    2016-12-01

    Vertically aligned, highly ordered, large area arrays of nanostructures are important building blocks for multifunctional devices. Here, ZnO nanorod arrays are selectively synthesized on Si substrates by a solution method within patterns created by nanoimprint lithography. The growth modes of two dimensional nucleation-driven wedding cakes and screw dislocation-driven spirals are inferred to determine the top end morphologies of the nanorods. Sub-bandgap photoluminescence of the nanorods is greatly enhanced by the manipulation of the hydrogen donors via a post-growth thermal treatment. Lasing behavior is facilitated in the nanorods with faceted top ends formed from wedding cakes growth mode. This work demonstrates the control of morphologies of oxide nanostructures in a large scale and the optimization of the optical performance.

  1. A study of the effects of aligned vertically growth time on ZnO nanorods deposited for the first time on Teflon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, O. F.; Halim, M. M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Oglat, Ammar A.; Abuelsamen, A. A.; Bououdina, M.; Qaeed, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, ZnO nanorods (NRs) were well deposited on Teflon substrates (PTFE) via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at low temperature. The consequences of growth time (1 h-4 h) on the structural and optical properties of the aligned ZnO (NRs) were investigated through X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and photoluminescence (PL) analyses. The results show that the ZnO (NRs) were preferred to grew aligned along the c-axis as hexagonal wurtzite structure as proved by the sharp and strong ZnO (002) peaks of the ZnO (NRs). Irrespective of the growth continuation, FESEM photos confirmed that the ZnO nanorods arrays were fit to be aligned along the c-axis and perpendicular to (PTFE) substrates. The ZnO nanorods that exhibited the sharper stand most intense PL peaks among the sample were grown for 3hs as demonstrated by PL spectra. The device further showed a sensitivity of 4068 to low-power (1.25 mW/cm2) 375 nm light pulses without an external bias. The measurements of photoresponse demonstrated the highly reproducible characteristics of the fabricated UV detector with rapid response and baseline recovery times of 48.05 ms. Thus, this work introduced a simple, low-cost method of fabricating rapid-response, and highly photosensitive UV detectors with zero power consumption on Teflon substrates.

  2. AuNPs Hybrid Black ZnO Nanorods Made by a Sol-Gel Method for Highly Sensitive Humidity Sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Min; Lin, Cunchong; Zhang, Jun

    2018-01-13

    A highly sensitive self-powered humidity sensor has been realized from AuNPs hybrid black zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods prepared through a sol-gel method. XRD pattern reveals that both ZnO and ZnO/AuNPs exhibit a wurtzite structure. ZnO/AuNPs nanorods grow in a vertical alignment, which possesses high uniformity and forms dense arrays with a smaller diameter than that of ZnO nanoparticles. All ZnO/AuNPs and pure black ZnO show lower band gap energy than the typically reported 3.34 eV of pure ZnO. Furthermore, the band gap of ZnO/AuNPs nanocomposites is effectively influenced by the amount of AuNPs. The humidity sensing tests clearly prove that all the ZnO/AuNPs humidity sensors exhibit much higher response than that of ZnO sensors, and the sensitivity of such ZnO/AuNPs nanorods (6 mL AuNPs) display a change three orders higher than that of pure ZnO with relative humidity (RH) ranging from 11% to 95% at room temperature. The response and recovery time of the ZnO/AuNPs are 5.6 s and 32.4 s, respectively. This study of the construction of semiconductor/noble metal sensors provides a rational way to control the morphology of semiconductor nanomaterials and to design a humidity sensor with high performance.

  3. ZnO/Er2O3 core-shell nanorod arrays: Synthesis, properties and growth mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Yongqian; Jiang, Tingting; Li, Yinchang; Yang, Xiande

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated large-scale ZnO/Er2O3 core-shell nanorod arrays, which were successfully synthesized by a facile and simple electrodeposition method. The effect of varying the amount of Er2O3 in the range from 0.2 g to 1.0 g on morphology of ZnO nanorod arrays has been thoroughly investigated. The results indicate that the growth pattern of all the ZnO/Er2O3 shell-core nanorod arrays were along c-axis and perpendicular to the substrate as before, even more vertical. Photoluminescence measurement was carried out and the PL peaks at 382 nm, 438 nm and 462 nm were observed, which are considered to be due to free excitons and donor-bound excitons, respectively. The ZnO/Er2O3 core-shell nanorods exhibited improved optical property, which can be attributed to the enhanced donor density by the covered Er2O3. Finally, a possible growth mechanism of the ZnO nanostructures is discussed. The electrochemical deposition of ZnO/Er2O3 core-shell nanorod arrays including two stages, namely nucleation and growth process.

  4. ZnO Nanorod-Based Non-Enzymatic Optical Glucose Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Sachindra Nath; Nozaki, Shinji; Sahu, Surendra Nath

    2015-06-01

    The highly sensitive, interference-free and non-enzymatic optical sensing of glucose has been made possible for the first time using the hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanorods. The UV irradiation of glucose-treated ZnO nanorods decomposes glucose into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and gluconic acid by UV oxidation. The ZnO nanorods play the role of a catalyst similar to the oxidase used in the enzymatic glucose sensors. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the near-band edge emission of the ZnO nanorods linearly decreased with the increased concentration of H2O2. Therefore, the glucose concentration is monitored over the wide range of 0.5-30 mM, corresponding to 9-540 mg/dL. The concentration range of the linear region in the calibration curve is suitable for its clinical use as a glucose sensor, because the glucose concentration of human serum is typically in the range of 80-120 mg/dL. In addition, the optical glucose sensor made of the ZnO nanorods is free from interference by bovin serum albumin, ascorbic acid or uric acid, which are also present in human blood. The non-enzymatic ZnO-nanorod sensor has been demonstrated with human serum samples from both normal persons and diabetic patients. There is a good agreement between the glucose concentrations measured by the PL quenching and standard clinical methods.

  5. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized via template free approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajal, Priyanka; D, Pooja; Jaggi, Neena

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report a novel method for synthesis of semiconducting ZnO nanorods using Zinc acetate dehydrate precursor in a methanol—de-ionized (1:5) mixture via template free approach. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of as synthesized nanorods revealed hexagonal symmetry of rods, whereas x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for structure and phase has shown high crystallinity with wurtzite crystal structure. The structural characterization by FT-IR analysis revealed presence of various groups on as synthesized ZnO nanorods, whereas the UV-Vis analysis has shown a blue shift in the absorption spectra as compared to bulk ZnO due to quantum confinement of charge carriers. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study has also been performed revealing a good degree of phosphorescence in the ZnO nanorods. Further, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that as synthesized nanorods by present method are highly stable at high temperature (1000 °C). This study provides an alternative, less expensive and a very simple method for the fabrication of ZnO nanorods in abundance, which can be further used for various sensing applications, in particular, gas sensing.

  6. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer.

    PubMed

    Khun, Kimleang; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees A; Willander, Magnus

    2013-09-30

    In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices.

  7. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Khun, Kimleang; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; AlSalhi, Mohamad S.; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees A.; Willander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices. PMID:28788336

  8. N doped ZnO and ZnO nanorods based p-n homojunction fabricated by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Thangavel, R.; Asokan, K.

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) doped and undoped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod p-n homojunctions were fabricated by ion implantation method. The structural and optical characterizations showed that the N atoms doped into the ZnO crystal lattice. The UV-Vis absorption spectra revealed shift in optical absorption edge towards higher wavelength with ion implantation on ZnO, which attributed N acceptor levels above the valence band. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements exhibit a typical semiconductor rectification characteristic indicating the electrical conductivity of the N-doped ZnO nanorod have p-type conductivity. Moreover, a high photocurrent response has been observed with these p-n homojunctions.

  9. Preparation, characterization and electroluminescence studies of ZnO nanorods for optoelectronic device applications

    SciT

    Singh, Anju, E-mail: singh-nk24@yahoo.com; Vishwakarma, H. L., E-mail: horilal5@yahoo.com

    2015-07-31

    In this work, ZnO nanorods were achieved by a simple chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) at room temperature. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) result indicates that the synthesized undoped ZnO nanorods have wurtzite hexagonal structure without any impurities. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods were (101). XRD analysis revealed that the nanorods having the crystallite size 49 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image confirmed the size and shape of these nanorods. The diameter of nanorods has been found that 1.52 µm to 1.61 µm and the lengthmore » of about 4.89 µm. It has also been found that at room temperature Ultra Violet Visible (UV-VIS) absorption band is around 355 nm (blue shifted as compared to bulk). Electroluminescence (EL) studies show that emission of light is possible at very small threshold voltage and increases rapidly with increasing applied voltage. It is seen that smaller ZnO nanoparticles give higher electroluminescence brightness starting at lower threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.« less

  10. Bioanalytical system for detection of cancer cells with photoluminescent ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viter, R.; Jekabsons, K.; Kalnina, Z.; Poletaev, N.; Hsu, S. H.; Riekstina, U.

    2016-11-01

    Using photoluminescent ZnO nanorods and carbohydrate marker SSEA-4, a novel cancer cell recognition system was developed. Immobilization of SSEA-4 antibodies (αSSEA-4) on ZnO nanorods was performed in buffer solution (pH = 7.1) over 2 h. The cancer cell line probes were fixed on the glass slide. One hundred microliters of ZnO-αSSEA-4 conjugates were deposited on the cell probe and exposed for 30 min. After washing photoluminescence spectra were recorded. Based on the developed methodology, ZnO-αSSEA-4 probes were tested on patient-derived breast and colorectal carcinoma cells. Our data clearly show that the carbohydrate SSEA-4 molecule is expressed on cancer cell lines and patient-derived cancer cells. Moreover, SSEA-4 targeted ZnO nanorods bind to the patient-derived cancer cells with high selectivity and the photoluminescence signal increased tremendously compared to the signal from the control samples. Furthermore, the photoluminescence intensity increase correlated with the extent of malignancy in the target cell population. A novel portable bioanalytical system, based on optical ZnO nanorods and fiber optic detection system was developed. We propose that carbohydrate SSEA-4 specific ZnO nanorods could be used for the development of cancer diagnostic biosensors and for targeted therapy.

  11. ZnO Nano-Rod Devices for Intradermal Delivery and Immunization.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Tapas R; Wang, Hao; Pant, Aakansha; Zheng, Minrui; Junginger, Hans; Goh, Wei Jiang; Lee, Choon Keong; Zou, Shui; Alonso, Sylvie; Czarny, Bertrand; Storm, Gert; Sow, Chorng Haur; Lee, Chengkuo; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2017-06-15

    Intradermal delivery of antigens for vaccination is a very attractive approach since the skin provides a rich network of antigen presenting cells, which aid in stimulating an immune response. Numerous intradermal techniques have been developed to enhance penetration across the skin. However, these methods are invasive and/or affect the skin integrity. Hence, our group has devised zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods for non-destructive drug delivery. Chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate aligned nano-rods on ZnO pre-coated silicon chips. The nano-rods' length and diameter were found to depend on the temperature, time, quality of sputtered silicon chips, etc. Vertically aligned ZnO nano-rods with lengths of 30-35 µm and diameters of 200-300 nm were selected for in vitro human skin permeation studies using Franz cells with Albumin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) absorbed on the nano-rods. Fluorescence and confocal studies on the skin samples showed FITC penetration through the skin along the channels formed by the nano-rods. Bradford protein assay on the collected fluid samples indicated a significant quantity of Albumin-FITC in the first 12 h. Low antibody titres were observed with immunisation on Balb/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA) antigen coated on the nano-rod chips. Nonetheless, due to the reduced dimensions of the nano-rods, our device offers the additional advantage of excluding the simultaneous entrance of microbial pathogens. Taken together, these results showed that ZnO nano-rods hold the potential for a safe, non-invasive, and painless intradermal drug delivery.

  12. Synthesis of highly efficient antibacterial agent Ag doped ZnO nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical properties

    SciT

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed, E-mail: javed.saggu@iiu.edu.pk; Ismail, Muhammad

    Here, synthesis, structural, morphological, Raman, optical properties and antibacterial activity of undoped and Ag doped ZnO nanorods by chemical co-precipitation technique have been reported. Structural analysis has revealed that Ag doping cannot deteriorate the structure of ZnO and wurtzite phase is maintained. Lattice constants are found to be decreased with the Ag doping. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy also confirm the X-ray diffraction results. Scanning electron microscopy results have demonstrated the formation of ZnO nanorods with average diameter and length of 96 nm and 700 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the Ag doping enhances the number of defects inmore » ZnO crystal. It has been found from optical study that Ag doping results in positional shift of band edge absorption peak. This is attributed to the successful incorporation of Ag dopant into ZnO host matrix. The antibacterial activity of prepared nanorods has been determined by two different methods and compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. Ag doped ZnO nanorods exhibit excellent antibacterial activity as compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. This excellent antibacterial activity may be attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies and Zn{sup 2+} interstitial defects. Our preliminary findings suggest that Ag doped ZnO nanorods can be used externally to control the spreading of infections related with tested bacterial strains.« less

  13. Patterned Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Assisted with Polystyrene Monolayer by Oxygen Plasma Treatment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Ji; Lee, Yong-Min; Yu, Jung-Hoon; Hwang, Ki-Hwan; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2016-08-05

    Zinc oxide is known as a promising material for sensing devices due to its piezoelectric properties. In particular, the alignment of ZnO nanostructures into ordered nanoarrays is expected to improve the device sensitivity due to the large surface area which can be utilized to capture significant quantities of gas particles. However, ZnO nanorods are difficult to grow on the quartz substrate with well-ordered shape. So, we investigated nanostructures by adjusting the interval distance of the arranged ZnO nanorods using polystyrene (PS) spheres of various sizes (800 nm, 1300 nm and 1600 nm). In addition, oxygen plasma treatment was used to specify the nucleation site of round, patterned ZnO nanorod growth. Therefore, ZnO nanorods were grown on a quartz substrate with a patterned polystyrene monolayer by the hydrothermal method after oxygen plasma treatment. The obtained ZnO nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM).

  14. Enzymatic glucose detection using ZnO nanorods on the gate region of AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, B. S.; Wang, H. T.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Morey, T. E.; Dennis, D. M.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    ZnO nanorod-gated AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are demonstrated for the detection of glucose. A ZnO nanorod array was selectively grown on the gate area using low temperature hydrothermal decomposition to immobilize glucose oxidase (GOx). The one-dimensional ZnO nanorods provide a large effective surface area with high surface-to-volume ratio and provide a favorable environment for the immobilization of GOx. The AlGaN /GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5s when target glucose in a buffer with a pH value of 7.4 was added to the GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanorod surface. We could detect a wide range of concentrations from 0.5nMto125μM. The sensor exhibited a linear range from 0.5nMto14.5μM and an experiment limit of detection of 0.5nM. This demonstrates the possibility of using AlGaN /GaN HEMTs for noninvasive exhaled breath condensate based glucose detection of diabetic application.

  15. Gravimetric humidity sensor based on ZnO nanorods covered piezoresistive Si microcantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiushuai; Bertke, Maik; Li, Xiaojing; Gad, Alaaeldin; Zhou, Hao; Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Peiner, Erwin

    2017-06-01

    A ZnO nanorods film covered silicon resonant cantilever sensor is developed for atmosphere humidity detection by monitoring the resonant frequency shifts induced by the additional weight of adsorbed water molecules. Two different crystalline seed-layer deposition methods were applied to grow different nanorods films. The morphology of the ZnO films were characterized and the sensor sensitivities were measured under different relative humidity (RH) levels. The experiments results showed that this novel humidity sensor with ZnO nanorods has a sensitivity of 101.5 +/- 12.0 ppm/RH% (amount of adsorbed water of 36.9 +/- 4.4 ng/RH%), indicating its potential for portable sensing applications.

  16. Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Eue-Soon; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Won, Jung-Hee; Chung, Jae-Hun; Jang, Du-Jeon; Kim, Young-Woon; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2010-07-01

    ZnO nanowall array (ZNWA) has been directionally grown on the buffer layer of ZnO nanoparticles dip-coated on Si-wafer under a soft solution process. Nanowalls on substrate are in most suitable shape and orientation not only as an optical trap but also as an optical waveguide due to their unique growth habit, V[011¯0]≫V[0001]≈V[0001¯]. Consequently, the stimulated emission at 384 nm through nanowalls is generated by the threshold power density of only 25 kW/cm2. Such UV lasing properties are superior to those of previously reported ZnO nanorod arrays. Moreover, there is no green (defect) emission due to the mild procedure to synthesize ZNWA.

  17. Enhancement of UV photodetector properties of ZnO nanorods/PEDOT:PSS Schottky junction by NGQD sensitization along with conductivity improvement of PEDOT:PSS by DMSO additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Saurab; Majumder, Tanmoy; Chakraborty, Pinak; Mondal, Suvra Prakash

    2018-04-01

    Schottky junction ultraviolet (UV) photodetector was fabricated by spin coating a hole conducting polymer, poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene: polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on hydrothermally grown zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays. The UV detector performance was significantly improved two step process. Firstly, ZnO nanorods were modified by sensitizing N doped grapheme quantum dots (NGQDs) for better photoresponce behavior. Afterwards, the junction properties as well as photoresponse was enhanced by modifying electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS layer with organic solvent (DMSO). Our NGQD decorated ZnO NRs/DMSO-PEDOT:PSS Schottky junction device demonstrated superior external quantum efficiency (EQE ˜ 90063 %) and responsivity (Rλ˜247 A/W) at 340 nm wavelength and -1V external bias. The response and recovery times of the final photodetector device was very fast compared to GQD as well as NGQD modified and pristine ZnO nanorod based detectors.

  18. ZnO Nano-Rod Devices for Intradermal Delivery and Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Tapas R.; Wang, Hao; Pant, Aakansha; Zheng, Minrui; Junginger, Hans; Goh, Wei Jiang; Lee, Choon Keong; Zou, Shui; Alonso, Sylvie; Czarny, Bertrand; Storm, Gert; Sow, Chorng Haur; Lee, Chengkuo; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2017-01-01

    Intradermal delivery of antigens for vaccination is a very attractive approach since the skin provides a rich network of antigen presenting cells, which aid in stimulating an immune response. Numerous intradermal techniques have been developed to enhance penetration across the skin. However, these methods are invasive and/or affect the skin integrity. Hence, our group has devised zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods for non-destructive drug delivery. Chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate aligned nano-rods on ZnO pre-coated silicon chips. The nano-rods’ length and diameter were found to depend on the temperature, time, quality of sputtered silicon chips, etc. Vertically aligned ZnO nano-rods with lengths of 30–35 µm and diameters of 200–300 nm were selected for in vitro human skin permeation studies using Franz cells with Albumin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) absorbed on the nano-rods. Fluorescence and confocal studies on the skin samples showed FITC penetration through the skin along the channels formed by the nano-rods. Bradford protein assay on the collected fluid samples indicated a significant quantity of Albumin-FITC in the first 12 h. Low antibody titres were observed with immunisation on Balb/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA) antigen coated on the nano-rod chips. Nonetheless, due to the reduced dimensions of the nano-rods, our device offers the additional advantage of excluding the simultaneous entrance of microbial pathogens. Taken together, these results showed that ZnO nano-rods hold the potential for a safe, non-invasive, and painless intradermal drug delivery. PMID:28617335

  19. Enhanced NH3 gas sensing properties of a QCM sensor by increasing the length of vertically orientated ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh, Vu Anh; Tuan, Le Anh; Huy, Tran Quang; Hung, Vu Ngoc; Quy, Nguyen Van

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were directly synthesised on a gold electrode of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) by a simple low-temperature hydrothermal method for a NH3 gas sensing application. The length of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods was increased to purpose enhancement in the gas sensing response of the sensor. The length of ZnO nanorods increased with an increase in growth time. The growth time of ZnO nanorods was systematically varied in the range of 1-4 h to examine the effect of the length of the ZnO nanorods on the gas sensing properties of the fabricated sensors. The gas sensing properties of sensors with different ZnO nanorods lengths was examined at room temperature for various concentrations of NH3 (50-800 ppm) in synthetic air. Enhancement in gas sensing response by increasing the length of ZnO nanorods was observed.

  20. Effect of ZnO seed layer on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layers

    SciT

    Nandi, R., E-mail: rajunandi@iitb.ac.in; Mohan, S., E-mail: rajunandi@iitb.ac.in; Major, S. S.

    2014-04-24

    ZnO nanorods were grown by chemical bath deposition on sputtered, polycrystalline GaN buffer layers with and without ZnO seed layer. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layers are not vertically well aligned. Photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layer, however exhibits a much stronger near-band-edge emission and negligible defect emission, compared to the nanorods grown on ZnO buffer layer. These features are attributed to gallium incorporation at the ZnO-GaN interface. The introduction of a thin (25 nm) ZnO seed layer on GaN buffer layer significantly improves the morphology andmore » vertical alignment of ZnO-NRs without sacrificing the high optical quality of ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layer. The presence of a thick (200 nm) ZnO seed layer completely masks the effect of the underlying GaN buffer layer on the morphology and optical properties of nanorods.« less

  1. New Insights into Mechanism of Surface Reactions of ZnO Nanorods During Electrons Beam Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngseung; Ji, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyoungsub; Yoon, Jinsuop; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2018-09-01

    This study provides new insight into mechanisms of ionic reactions on the surface of ZnO nanorod networks, which could result in enhanced performance in optical or molecular sensors. The current- voltage characteristics of ZnO nanorod network devices exhibit typical nonlinear behavior in air, which implies the formation of a Schottky barrier when metals are used as contacts. The conductance of the device increased significantly in vacuum, which can be explained by the desorption of hydroxyl groups at very low pressure. While physisorbed water or oxygen-related ions can detach from the ZnO surface during evacuation, exposure to high energy in the electron beam is believed to detach the chemisorbed anions of O- and O-2 from the surface of ZnO nanorods, which releases more electrons into the channel. The increase in available electrons enhances the conductance of the ZnO nanorods. Slow initialization of the conductance under ambient conditions indicates that the ionic re-adsorption is inactive under these conditions. Thus, the electron irradiation process can be used to reset the surface ionic molecules on metal oxide nano-structures by tuning the surface potential prior to the passivation process.

  2. Enhancement of multiple-phonon resonant Raman scattering in Co-doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, The-Long; Vincent, Roger; Cherns, David; Dan, Nguyen Huy; Yu, Seong-Cho

    2008-08-01

    We have studied Raman scattering in Co-doped ZnO nanorods prepared by thermal diffusion. Experimental results show that the features of their non-resonant spectra are similar to Raman spectra from Co-doped ZnO materials investigated previously. Under resonant conditions, however, there is a strong enhancement of multiple-phonon Raman scattering processes. Longitudinal optical (LO)-phonon overtones up to eleventh order are observed. The modes become more obvious when the Co concentration diffused into ZnO nanorods goes to an appropriate value. This phenomenon is explained due to the shift of the band-gap energy and also due to the decrease in the intensity of near-band-edge luminescence. Our observation is in agreement with the prediction [J. F. Scott, Phys. Rev. B 2, 1209 (1970)] that the number of LO-phonon lines in ZnO is higher than that observed for CdS.

  3. Reversible superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic transition of ZnO nanorod/epoxy composite films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Lin, Ziyin; Lin, Wei; Moon, Kyoung Sik; Wong, C P

    2012-08-01

    Tuning the surface wettability is of great interest for both scientific research and practical applications. We demonstrated reversible transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity on a ZnO nanorod/epoxy composite film. The epoxy resin serves as an adhesion and stress relief layer. The ZnO nanorods were exposed after oxygen reactive ion etching of the epoxy matrix. A subsequent chemcial treatment with fluoroalkyl and alkyl silanes resulted in a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle up to 158.4° and a hysteresis as low as 1.3°. Under UV irradiation, the water contact angle decreased gradually, and the surface eventually became superhydrophilic because of UV induced decomposition of alkyl silanes and hydroxyl absorption on ZnO surfaces. A reversible transition of surface wettability was realized by alternation of UV illumination and surface treatment. Such ZnO nanocomposite surface also showed improved mechanical robustness.

  4. Growth of ZnO Nanorods on Stainless Steel Wire Using Chemical Vapour Deposition and Their Photocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

    2014-01-01

    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small I uv/I vis ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics. PMID:24587716

  5. Growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire using chemical vapour deposition and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

    2014-01-01

    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small I(uv)/I(vis) ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics.

  6. Influence of ZnO nanorod on the luminescent and electrical properties of fluorescent dye-doped polymer nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Xu, Z.; Qian, L.; Tao, D. L.; Teng, F.; Xu, X. R.

    2006-11-01

    The luminescent properties of fluorescent dye-doped polymer dispersed with ZnO nanorods were investigated. Embedding ZnO nanorods in blend film results in a blue-shifted emission of fluorescent dye. It is accounted for in terms of the difference in permittivity between inorganic oxide nano-material and dye-doped polymer. Moreover, polymer light-emitting diodes with the addition of ZnO nanorods showed the lower threshold voltage and the higher charge current and electroluminescence efficiency.

  7. Hydrothermally Processed Photosensitive Field-Effect Transistor Based on ZnO Nanorod Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Bhargava, Kshitij; Dixit, Tejendra; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2016-11-01

    Formation of a stable, reproducible zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod-network-based photosensitive field-effect transistor using a hydrothermal process at low temperature has been demonstrated. K2Cr2O7 additive was used to improve adhesion and facilitate growth of the ZnO nanorod network over the SiO2/Si substrate. Transistor characteristics obtained in the dark resemble those of the n-channel-mode field-effect transistor (FET). The devices showed I on/ I off ratio above 8 × 102 under dark condition, field-effect mobility of 4.49 cm2 V-1 s-1, and threshold voltage of -12 V. Further, under ultraviolet (UV) illumination, the FET exhibited sensitivity of 2.7 × 102 in off-state (-10 V) versus 1.4 in on-state (+9.7 V) of operation. FETs based on such nanorod networks showed good photoresponse, which is attributed to the large surface area of the nanorod network. The growth temperature for ZnO nanorod networks was kept at 110°C, enabling a low-temperature, cost-effective, simple approach for high-performance ZnO-based FETs for large-scale production. The role of network interfaces in the FET performance is also discussed.

  8. Ultrafast Formation of ZnO Nanorods via Seed-Mediated Microwave Assisted Hydrolysis Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S. T.; Umar, A. A.; Yahaya, M.; Yap, C. C.; Salleh, M. M.

    2013-04-01

    One dimensional (1D) zinc oxide, ZnO nanostructures have shown promising results for usage in photodiode and optoelectronic device due to their high surface area. Faster and conventional method for synthesis ZnO nanorods has become an attention for researcher today. In this paper, ZnO nanorods have been successfully synthesized via two-step process, namely alcothermal seeding and seed-mediated microwave hydrolysis process. In typical process, the ZnO nanoseeds were grown in the growth solution that contained equimolar (0.04 M) of zinc nitrate hexahydrate, Zn (NO3).6H2O and hexamethylenetetramine, HMT. The growth process was carried inside the inverted microwave within 5- 20 s. The effect of growth parameters (i.e. concentration, microwave power, time reaction) upon the modification of ZnO morphology was studied. ZnO nanostructures were characterized by Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The densities of nanorods were evaluated by the Image J analysis. It was found that the morphology (e.g. shape and size) of nanostructures has changed drastically with the increment of growth solution concentration. The density of ZnO nanorods was proven to increase with the increasing of reaction time and microwave power. We hypothesize that the microwave power might enhance the rate of nucleation and promote the faster nanostructure growth as compared with the normal heating condition due to the superheating phenomenon. This method might promote a new and faster alternative way in nanostructure growth which can be applied in currently existing application.

  9. Non-enzymatic Fluorescent Biosensor for Glucose Sensing Based on ZnO Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Hong Hanh; Pham, Van Thanh; Nguyen, Viet Tuyen; Sai, Cong Doanh; Hoang, Chi Hieu; Nguyen, The Binh

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a non-enzymatic fluorescent biosensor for glucose sensing based on ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods of high density, high crystallinity, and good alignment were grown on low-cost industrial copper substrates at low temperature. To grow them directly on the substrates without using a seed layer, we utilized a simple one-step seedless hydrothermal method, which is based on galvanic cell structure. Herein, the glucose-treated ZnO nanorods together with the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the sample during the photoluminescent measurement played the role of a catalyst. They decomposed glucose into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and gluconic acid, which is similar to the glucose oxidase enzyme (GOx) used in enzymatic sensors. Due to the formation of H2O2, the photoluminescence intensity of the UV emission peak of ZnO nanorods decreased as the glucose concentration increased from 1 mM to 100 mM. In comparison with glucose concentration of a normal human serum, which is in the range of 4.4-6.6 mM, the obtained results show potential of non-enzymatic fluorescent biosensors in medical applications.

  10. A potentiometric biosensor for the detection of notch 3 using functionalized ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ibupoto, Z H; Khun, K; Liu, X; Willander, M

    2014-09-01

    The notch signalling plays a vital and radical role for the activity of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, for the first time a particular biosensor is developed for the detection of notch 3. ZnO nanorods were fabricated on the gold coated glass substrate by hydrothermal method and afterwards were decorated with the gold nanoparticles by electrodepositing technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has shown the perpendicular to the substrate growth pattern of ZnO nanorods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed the c-axis oriented growth direction with wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO nanorods. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques have shown the presence of Zn, O and Au atoms in the prepared functional material. Furthermore, the anti-notch 3 was physically adsorbed on the gold nanoparticles functionalized ZnO nanorods. The developed potentiometric immunosensor has shown response to the wide range of notch 3 molecules. The detected range included 1.00 x 10(-5)-1.50 x 10(0 ) μg/mL with a sensitivity of 23.15 ± 0.31 mV/decade. The analytical parameters including reproducibility, stability, and selectivity were also investigated and the observed results indicate the acceptable performance of the notch 3 biosensor. Moreover, the proposed notch 3 biosensor exhibited a fast response time of 10 s.

  11. Fabrication of ZnO nanorod using spray-pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition method

    SciT

    Ramadhani, Muhammad F., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Pasaribu, Maruli A. H., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Yuliarto, Brian, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id

    2014-02-24

    ZnO thin films with nanorod structure were deposited using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method for seed growth, and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) for nanorod growth. High purity Zn-hydrate and Urea are used to control Ph were dissolved in ethanol and aqua bidest in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process. Glass substrate was placed above the heater plate of reaction chamber, and subsequently sprayed with the range duration of 5, 10 and 20 minutes at the temperatures of 3500 C. As for the Chemical Bath Deposition, the glass substrate with ZnO seed on the surface was immerse to Zn-hydrate, HMTA (Hexa Methylene Tetra Amine)more » and deionized water solution for duration of 3, 5 and 7 hour and temperatures of 600 C, washed in distilled water, dried, and annealed at 3500 C for an hour. The characterization of samples was carried out to reveal the surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the data, the combination of 5 minutes of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process and 3 hour of CBD has showed the best structure of nanorod. Meanwhile the longer Spraying process and CBD yield the bigger nanorod structure that have been made, and it makes the films more dense which make the nanorod collide each other and as a result produce unsymetric nanorod structure.« less

  12. Calculation of DSSC parameters based on ZnO nanorod/TiO2 mesoporous photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safriani, L.; Nurrida, A.; Mulyana, C.; Susilawati, T.; Bahtiar, A.; Aprilia, A.

    2017-07-01

    Photoanode of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) plays an important role as electron transport media to accept photogenerated electron from excited state of dye. There are several physical properties that are required from photoanode of DSSC. It should be highly transparent, have large surface area, has a conduction band lower than LUMO of dye molecule, has high charge carrier mobility and finally has a good stability in redox electrolyte process. In this work, DSSC with structure FTO/ZnO nanorod/TiO2 mesoporous/Ru-dye/gel electrolyte/ Pt/FTO has been fabricated. In order to modified the structures of photoanode, ZnO nanorod was grown on aluminium doped ZnO seed layer by variation concentration of Al (0 wt%, 0.5 wt% and 1.0 wt%). Zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine used as raw materials for ZnO nanorod growth solution and deposited by self-assembly methods on FTO/Al doped ZnO seed layer. It is then followed by deposition of titania (TiO2) paste by screen printing methods. DSSC parameters i.e. ideally factor (n), series resistance (RS ), and shunt resistance (RSH ) was derived from current density-voltage (I-V) curve using the simplify equation of ideal diode model. The influences of ZnO photoanode structures to the solar cell performance will be completely discussed.

  13. Mn-doping-induced photocatalytic activity enhancement of ZnO nanorods prepared on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Nur Ajrina; Fauzia, Vivi; Iwan, S.; Roza, Liszulfah; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Budi, Setia

    2018-05-01

    Mn-doped ZnO nanorods were synthesized on glass substrates via a two-steps process of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and hydrothermal methods with four different concentrations Mn-doping (0, 1, 3, and 7 mol%). Introduction of Mn into ZnO is known could enhance the photocatalytic activity owing to the increase in the defect sites that effectively suppress the recombination of free electrons and holes. In this study, results show that Mn-doping has effectively modified the nucleations and crystal growth of ZnO, as evidenced by the increasing in the diameter, height, and the number of nanorods per unit area, besides slightly reduced the band gap and increased the oxygen vacancy concentrations in the ZnO lattice. This condition has successfully multiplied the photocatalytic performance of the ZnO nanorods in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) compared to the undoped-ZnO sample where in the typical process the MB can be degraded approximately 77% within only 35 min under a UV light irradiation.

  14. A selective potentiometric copper (II) ion sensor based on the functionalized ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Khun, K; Ibupoto, Z H; Liu, X; Nur, O; Willander, M; Danielsson, B

    2014-09-01

    In this work, ZnO nanorods were hydrothermally grown on the gold-coated glass substrate and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The ZnO nanorods were functionalized by two different approaches and performance of the sensor electrode was monitored. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out for the confirmation of interaction between the ionophore molecules and ZnO nanorods. In addition to this, the surface of the electrode was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showing the chemical and electronic state of the ionophore and ZnO nanorod components. The ionophore solution was prepared in the stabilizer, poly vinyl chloride (PVC) and additives, and then functionalized on the ZnO nanorods that have shown the Nernstian response with the slope of 31 mV/decade. However, the Cu2+ ion sensor was fabricated only by immobilizing the selective copper ion ionophore membrane without the use of PVC, plasticizers, additives and stabilizers and the sensor electrode showed a linear potentiometric response with a slope of 56.4 mV/decade within a large dynamic concentration range (from 1.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-1) M) of copper (II) nitrate solutions. The sensor showed excellent repeatability and reproducibility with response time of less than 10 s. The negligible response to potentially interfering metal ions such as calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), potassium (K+), iron (Fe3+), zinc (Zn2+), and sodium (Na+) allows this sensor to be used in biological studies. It may also be used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration.

  15. Eradication of Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria by Ni Doped ZnO Nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed; Ismail, Muhammad; Mansoor, Qaisar; Mahmood, Arshad; Ahmad, Amaar

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, ZnO nanorods doped with varying amounts of Ni have been prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique. Structural investigations provide the evidence that Ni is successfully doped into ZnO host matrix without having any secondary phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal the formation of rodlike structure of undoped ZnO with average length and diameter of 1 μm and 80 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results show that the E1LO phonons mode band shifts to the higher values with Ni doping, which is attributed to large amount of crystal defects. Ni doping is also found to greatly influence the optical properties of ZnO nanorods. The influence of Ni doping on antibacterial characteristics of ZnO nanorods have been studied by measuring the growth curves of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria in the presence of prepared nanorods. ZnO nanorods antibacterial potency is found to increase remarkably with Ni doping against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa microbials, which might possibly be due to the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, it is observed that Ni doped ZnO nanorods completely eradicates these multi-drug resistant bacteria.

  16. AuNPs Hybrid Black ZnO Nanorods Made by a Sol-Gel Method for Highly Sensitive Humidity Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Lin, Cunchong; Zhang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    A highly sensitive self-powered humidity sensor has been realized from AuNPs hybrid black zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods prepared through a sol-gel method. XRD pattern reveals that both ZnO and ZnO/AuNPs exhibit a wurtzite structure. ZnO/AuNPs nanorods grow in a vertical alignment, which possesses high uniformity and forms dense arrays with a smaller diameter than that of ZnO nanoparticles. All ZnO/AuNPs and pure black ZnO show lower band gap energy than the typically reported 3.34 eV of pure ZnO. Furthermore, the band gap of ZnO/AuNPs nanocomposites is effectively influenced by the amount of AuNPs. The humidity sensing tests clearly prove that all the ZnO/AuNPs humidity sensors exhibit much higher response than that of ZnO sensors, and the sensitivity of such ZnO/AuNPs nanorods (6 mL AuNPs) display a change three orders higher than that of pure ZnO with relative humidity (RH) ranging from 11% to 95% at room temperature. The response and recovery time of the ZnO/AuNPs are 5.6 s and 32.4 s, respectively. This study of the construction of semiconductor/noble metal sensors provides a rational way to control the morphology of semiconductor nanomaterials and to design a humidity sensor with high performance. PMID:29342860

  17. Tunable Spectrum Selectivity for Multiphoton Absorption with Enhanced Visible Light Trapping in ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Hong; Lim, Fang Sheng; Toh, Alfred Zhen Yang; Zheng, Xia-Xi; Dee, Chang Fu; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop; Chai, Siang-Piao; Chang, Wei Sea

    2018-04-17

    Observation of visible light trapping in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) correlated to the optical and photoelectrochemical properties is reported. In this study, ZnO NR diameter and c-axis length respond primarily at two different regions, UV and visible light, respectively. ZnO NR diameter exhibits UV absorption where large ZnO NR diameter area increases light absorption ability leading to high efficient electron-hole pair separation. On the other hand, ZnO NR c-axis length has a dominant effect in visible light resulting from a multiphoton absorption mechanism due to light reflection and trapping behavior in the free space between adjacent ZnO NRs. Furthermore, oxygen vacancies and defects in ZnO NRs are associated with the broad visible emission band of different energy levels also highlighting the possibility of the multiphoton absorption mechanism. It is demonstrated that the minimum average of ZnO NR c-axis length must satisfy the linear regression model of Z p,min = 6.31d to initiate the multiphoton absorption mechanism under visible light. This work indicates the broadening of absorption spectrum from UV to visible light region by incorporating a controllable diameter and c-axis length on vertically aligned ZnO NRs, which is important in optimizing the design and functionality of electronic devices based on light absorption mechanism. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Enhanced photocatalytic activity and synthesis of ZnO nanorods/MoS2 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Shen, Hao; Duan, Libing; Liu, Ruidi; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Xiaoru

    2018-05-01

    A stable and recyclable organic degradation catalyst based on MoS2 functionalized ZnO nanorods was introduced. ZnO nanorods were synthesized on the glass substrates (2 cm*2 cm) by sol-gel method and hydrothermal method and functionalized with MoS2 via an argon flow annealing method. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. Results showed that a small amount of MoS2 was successfully wrapped on the surfaces of ZnO nanorods. XPS analyses showed the existence of Zn-S between ZnO and MoS2, indicating that the MoS2 was combined with ZnO through chemical bonds and formed the ZnO/MoS2 heterostructure. PL results revealed that ZnO/MoS2 had lower fluorescence spectra indicating an electron transport channel between ZnO and MoS2 which separated electrons and holes. Photocatalytic experiment showed that ZnO/MoS2 composites showed a better photodegradation performance of Rhodamine B (RhB) after functionalized with MoS2 under the UV light irradiation which could be attributed to the separation and transfer of photogenerated electrons and holes between ZnO and MoS2. Meanwhile, the high active adsorption sites on the edges of MoS2 also accelerated the degradation process. Furthermore, the scavengers were used to investigate the major active species and results indicated that h+ was the major reactive species for the degradation.

  19. Investigation of the phototoxic effect of ZnO nanorods on fibroblasts and melanoma human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishwar, S.; Siddique, M.; Israr-Qadir, M.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.; Öllinger, K.

    2014-11-01

    Photocytotoxic effects of as-grown and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods coated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) have been studied on human cells, i.e. melanoma and foreskin fibroblast, under dark and ultraviolet light exposures. Zinc oxide nanorods have been grown on the very sharp tip (diameter = 700 nm) of borosilicate glass pipettes and then were coated by the photosensitizer for targeted investigations inside human cells. The coated glass pipette’s tip with photosensitizer has been inserted inside the cells with the help of a micro-manipulator and irradiated through ultraviolet light (UVA), which reduces the membrane potential of the mitochondria leading to cell death. Cell viability loss has been detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay when exposed to the dissolved ZnO nanorods and the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been detected along with the enhanced cytotoxic effect under UVA irradiation. Additionally, the influence of the lipid soluble antioxidant vitamin E and water-soluble N-acetyl-cysteine toward the enhancement or reduction of the toxicity has been investigated. A comparative analysis of the toxic nature of ZnO nanorods has been drawn between normal human fibroblast and melanoma cells, which can be favorable for understanding the clinical setting for killing tumor cells.

  20. Vertical growth of ZnO nanorods on ZnO seeded FTO substrate for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) were electrochemically grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) and ZnO seeded FTO substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, Raman spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO grown on a seeded FTO substrate has a high crystallinity, crystal quality and less atomic defects. Felid emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images display a high growth density of NRs grown on seeded FTO substrate compared to NRs grown on FTO substrate. The efficiency of the DSSCs based on NRs grown on FTO and seeded FTO substrates is 0.85 and 1.52 %, respectively. UV-Vis absorption spectra and electrochemical impedance spectra depict that the NRs grown on seeded FTO photoanode have higher dye absorption and charge recombination resistance than that of the NRs grown on FTO substrate.

  1. Doping Ag in ZnO Nanorods to Improve the Performance of Related Enzymatic Glucose Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fan; Jing, Weixuan; Liu, Pengcheng; Han, Dejun; Jiang, Zhuangde; Wei, Zhengying

    2017-09-27

    In this paper, the performance of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod-based enzymatic glucose sensor was enhanced with silver (Ag)-doped ZnO (ZnO-Ag) nanorods. The effect of the doped Ag on the surface morphologies, wettability, and electron transfer capability of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, as well as the catalytic character of glucose oxidase (GOx) and the performance of the glucose sensor was investigated. The results indicate that the doped Ag slightly weakens the surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, but remarkably increases their electron transfer ability and enhances the catalytic character of GOx. Consequently, the combined effects of the above influencing factors lead to a notable improvement of the performance of the glucose sensor, that is, the sensitivity increases and the detection limit decreases. The optimal amount of the doped Ag is determined to be 2 mM, and the corresponding glucose sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 3.85 μA/(mM·cm²), detection limit of 1.5 μM, linear range of 1.5 × 10 -3 -6.5 mM, and Michaelis-Menten constant of 3.87 mM. Moreover, the glucose sensor shows excellent selectivity to urea, ascorbic acid, and uric acid, in addition to displaying good storage stability. These results demonstrate that ZnO-Ag nanorods are promising matrix materials for the construction of other enzymatic biosensors.

  2. Doping Ag in ZnO Nanorods to Improve the Performance of Related Enzymatic Glucose Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fan; Jing, Weixuan; Liu, Pengcheng; Han, Dejun; Jiang, Zhuangde; Wei, Zhengying

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod-based enzymatic glucose sensor was enhanced with silver (Ag)-doped ZnO (ZnO-Ag) nanorods. The effect of the doped Ag on the surface morphologies, wettability, and electron transfer capability of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, as well as the catalytic character of glucose oxidase (GOx) and the performance of the glucose sensor was investigated. The results indicate that the doped Ag slightly weakens the surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, but remarkably increases their electron transfer ability and enhances the catalytic character of GOx. Consequently, the combined effects of the above influencing factors lead to a notable improvement of the performance of the glucose sensor, that is, the sensitivity increases and the detection limit decreases. The optimal amount of the doped Ag is determined to be 2 mM, and the corresponding glucose sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 3.85 μA/(mM·cm2), detection limit of 1.5 μM, linear range of 1.5 × 10−3–6.5 mM, and Michaelis-Menten constant of 3.87 mM. Moreover, the glucose sensor shows excellent selectivity to urea, ascorbic acid, and uric acid, in addition to displaying good storage stability. These results demonstrate that ZnO-Ag nanorods are promising matrix materials for the construction of other enzymatic biosensors. PMID:28953217

  3. Pre and post annealed low cost ZnO nanorods on seeded substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, M. N.; Kamil, Wan Maryam Wan Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    We wish to report the photonic band gap (where light is confined) in low cost ZnO nanorods created by two-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method where the glass substrates were pre-treated with two different seeding thicknesses, 100 nm (sample a) and 150 nm (sample b), of ZnO using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Then the samples were annealed at 600°C for 1 hour in air before and after immersed into the chemical solution for CBD process. To observe the presence of photonic band gap on the sample, UV-Visible-NIR spectrophotometer was utilized and showed that sample a and sample b both achieved wide band gap between 240 nm and 380 nm, within the UV range for typical ZnO, however sample b provided a better light confinement that may be attributed by the difference in average nanorods size. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) of the samples revealed better oriented nanorods uniformly scattered across the surface when substrates were coated with 100 nm of seeding layer whilst the 150 nm seeding sample showed a poor distribution of nanorods probably due to defects in the sample. Finally, the crystal structure of the ZnO crystallite is revealed by employing X-ray diffraction and both samples showed polycrystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure that matched with JCPDS No. 36-1451. The 100 nm pre-seeded samples was recognized to have bigger average crystallite size, however sample b was suggested as having a higher crystalline quality. In conclusion, the sample b is recognized as a better candidate for future photonic applications due to its more apparent of photonic band gap and this may be contributed by more random distribution of the nanorods as observed in FESEM images as well as higher crystalline quality as suggested from XRD measurements.

  4. Surface potential driven dissolution phenomena of [0 0 0 1]-oriented ZnO nanorods grown from ZnO and Pt seed layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Youngmi; Kim, Jung Hyeun

    2011-06-01

    Highly oriented ZnO nanorods are synthesized hydrothermally on ZnO and Pt seed layers, and they are dissolved in KOH solution. The rods grown on ZnO seed layer show uniform dissolution, but those grown on Pt seed layer are rod-selectively dissolved. The ZnO nanorods from both seed layers show the same crystalline structure through XRD and Raman spectrometer data. However, the surface potential analysis reveals big difference for ZnO and Pt seed cases. The surface potential distribution is very uniform for the ZnO seed case, but it is much fluctuated on the Pt seed case. It suggests that the rod-selective dissolution phenomena on Pt seed case are likely due to the surface energy difference.

  5. ZnO nanorods as catalyts for biodiesel production from olive oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Carmen Maria Miralda

    The motivation to determine a viable alternative to petroleum based energy has risen in recent years due to increased greenhouse gas emissions, environmental pollution, and the fear of exhausting oil and natural gas reserves. Biodiesel derived from the transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats has emerged as a viable alternative to petroleum diesel. However, for this to become an option available to the average consumer it is vital to find an effective catalyst. Metal oxides have emerged as potential heterogeneous catalysts. ZnO in particular is attractive because it is abundant. The use of nanostructures has been shown to improve the catalytic performance of ZnO. ZnO nanorods were synthesized using a solution approach. The crystalline structure, morphology, and surface area were confirmed using XRD, SEM, and BET surface area respectively. The characterized nanorods were used as catalysts for the production of biodiesel. The nanorods achieved conversions of 94.8% at 150°C for reaction times of eight hours. They also demonstrated better catalytic performance, attributed to their increased degree of crystallinity, than conventional ZnO. A kinetic study at 150°C to determine the reaction rate parameters was also conducted. Due to the presence of three distinct phases in the reaction, initially the reaction rate is dominated by mass transfer limitations. However, these are eventually overcome and the reaction proceeds with a pseudo-first order with respect to the oil and a reaction rate constant of 0.5136 h-1.

  6. Copper nanorod array assisted silicon waveguide polarization beam splitter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2014-01-01

    We present the design of a three-dimensional (3D) polarization beam splitter (PBS) with a copper nanorod array placed between two silicon waveguides. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of a metal nanorod array selectively cross-couples transverse electric (TE) mode to the coupler waveguide, while transverse magnetic (TM) mode passes through the original input waveguide without coupling. An ultra-compact and broadband PBS compared to all-dielectric devices is achieved with the LSPR. The output ports of waveguides are designed to support either TM or TE mode only to enhance the extinction ratios. Compared to silver, copper is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. PMID:24787839

  7. Copper nanorod array assisted silicon waveguide polarization beam splitter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2014-04-21

    We present the design of a three-dimensional (3D) polarization beam splitter (PBS) with a copper nanorod array placed between two silicon waveguides. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of a metal nanorod array selectively cross-couples transverse electric (TE) mode to the coupler waveguide, while transverse magnetic (TM) mode passes through the original input waveguide without coupling. An ultra-compact and broadband PBS compared to all-dielectric devices is achieved with the LSPR. The output ports of waveguides are designed to support either TM or TE mode only to enhance the extinction ratios. Compared to silver, copper is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  8. Engineering safer-by-design, transparent, silica-coated ZnO nanorods with reduced DNA damage potential

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Watson, Christa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Elder, Alison; Brain, Joseph D.; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles absorb UV light efficiently while remaining transparent in the visible light spectrum rendering them attractive in cosmetics and polymer films. Their broad use, however, raises concerns regarding potential environmental health risks and it has been shown that ZnO nanoparticles can induce significant DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Even though research on ZnO nanoparticle synthesis has made great progress, efforts on developing safer ZnO nanoparticles that maintain their inherent optoelectronic properties while exhibiting minimal toxicity are limited. Here, a safer-by-design concept was pursued by hermetically encapsulating ZnO nanorods in a biologically inert, nanothin amorphous SiO2 coating during their gas-phase synthesis. It is demonstrated that the SiO2 nanothin layer hermetically encapsulates the core ZnO nanorods without altering their optoelectronic properties. Furthermore, the effect of SiO2 on the toxicological profile of the core ZnO nanorods was assessed using the Nano-Cometchip assay by monitoring DNA damage at a cellular level using human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6). Results indicate significantly lower DNA damage (>3 times) for the SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods compared to uncoated ones. Such an industry-relevant, scalable, safer-by-design formulation of nanostructured materials can liberate their employment in nano-enabled products and minimize risks to the environment and human health. PMID:24955241

  9. Color tunable light-emitting diodes based on p+-Si/p-CuAlO2/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Bo; Zhao, Jun Liang; Sun, Xiao Wei; Tan, Swee Tiam; Kyaw, Aung Ko Ko; Divayana, Yoga; Dong, Zhi Li

    2010-07-01

    Wide-range color tuning from red to blue was achieved in phosphor-free p+-Si/p-CuAlO2/n-ZnO nanorod light-emitting diodes at room temperature. CuAlO2 films were deposited on p+-Si substrates by sputtering followed by annealing. ZnO nanorods were further grown on the annealed p+-Si/p-CuAlO2 substrates by vapor phase transport. The color of the p-CuAlO2/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction electroluminescence depended on the annealing temperature of the CuAlO2 film. With the increase of the annealing temperature from 900 to 1050 °C, the emission showed a blueshift under the same forward bias. The origin of the blueshift is related to the amount of Cu concentration diffused into ZnO.

  10. Polarization-dependent DANES study on vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods

    SciT

    Sun, Chengjun; Park, Chang-In; Jin, Zhenlan

    2016-05-01

    The local structural and local density of states of vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods were examined by using a polarization-dependent diffraction anomalous near edge structure (DANES) measurements from c-oriented ZnO nanorods at the Zn K edge with the incident x-ray electric field parallel and perpendicular to the x-ray momentum transfer direction. Orientation-dependent local structures determined by DANES were comparable with polarization-dependent EXAFS results. Unlike other techniques, polarization-dependent DANES can uniquely describe the orientation-dependent local structural properties and the local density of states of a selected element in selected-phased crystals of compounds or mixed-phased structures.

  11. Facile construction of vertically aligned EuS-ZnO hybrid core shell nanorod arrays for visible light driven photocatalytic properties

    SciT

    Ranjith, K. S.; Kumar, D. Ranjith; Kumar, R. T. Rajendra, E-mail: rtrkumar@buc.edu.in

    2015-06-24

    We demonstrated the development of coupled semiconductor in the form of hybrid heterostructures for significant advancement in catalytic functional materials. In this article, we report the preparation of vertically aligned core shell ZnO-EuS nanorod photocatalyst arrays by a simple chemical solution process followed by sulfudation process. The XRD pattern confirmed formation of the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and cubic nature of the EuS. Cross sectional FESEM images show vertical rod array structure, and the size of the nanorods ranges from 80 to 120 nm. UV-Vis DRS spectra showed that the optical absorption of ZnO was significantly enhanced to the visiblemore » region by modification with EuS surfaces. TEM study confirmed that the surface of ZnO was drastically improved by the modification with EuS nanoparticle. The catalytic activity of EuS−ZnO core shell nanorod arrays were evaluated by the photodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye under visible irradiation. The results revealed that the photocatalytic activity of EuS−ZnO was much higher than that of ZnO under natural sunlight. EuS−ZnO was found to be stable and reusable without appreciable loss of catalytic activity up to four consecutive cycles.« less

  12. Highly active lanthanum doped ZnO nanorods for photodegradation of metasystox.

    PubMed

    Korake, P V; Dhabbe, R S; Kadam, A N; Gaikwad, Y B; Garadkar, K M

    2014-01-05

    La-doped ZnO nanorods with different La contents were synthesized by microwave assisted method and characterized by various sophisticated techniques such as XRD, UV-Vis., EDS, XPS, SEM and TEM. The XRD patterns of the La-doped ZnO indicate hexagonal crystal structure with an average crystallite size of 30nm. It was found that the crystallite size of La-doped ZnO is much smaller as compared to pure ZnO and decreases with increasing La content. The photocatalytic activity of 0.5mol% La-doped ZnO in the degradation of metasystox was studied. It was observed that degradation efficiency of metasystox over La-doped ZnO increases up to 0.5mol% doping then decreases for higher doping levels. Among the catalyst studied, the 0.5mol% La-doped ZnO was the most active, showing high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of metasystox. The maximum reduction of concentration of metasystox was observed under static condition at pH 8. Reduction in the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of metasystox was observed after 150min. The cytotoxicological studies of meristematic root tip cells of Allium cepa were studied. The results obtained indicate that photocatalytically degraded products of metasystox were less toxic as compared to metasystox. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth of thin film containing high density ZnO nanorods with low temperature calcinated seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Rudrashish; Samal, Rudranarayan; Khatua, Lizina; Das, Susanta Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In this work we demonstrate the growth of thin film containing high density ZnO nanorods by using drop casting of the seed layer calcinated at a low temperature of 132 °C. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) method is used to grow the nanorods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) are performed for the structural and morphological characterizations of the nanorods. The average diameter and length of nanorods are found to be 33 nm and 270 nm respectively. The bandgap of the material is estimated to be 3.2 eV from the UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The reported method is much more cost-effective and can be used for growth of ZnO nanorods for various applications.

  14. Detection of quantum well induced single degenerate-transition-dipoles in ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Siddharth; Ghosh, Moumita; Seibt, Michael; Rao, G Mohan

    2016-02-07

    Quantifying and characterising atomic defects in nanocrystals is difficult and low-throughput using the existing methods such as high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In this article, using a defocused wide-field optical imaging technique, we demonstrate that a single ultrahigh-piezoelectric ZnO nanorod contains a single defect site. We model the observed dipole-emission patterns from optical imaging with a multi-dimensional dipole and find that the experimentally observed dipole pattern and model-calculated patterns are in excellent agreement. This agreement suggests the presence of vertically oriented degenerate-transition-dipoles in vertically aligned ZnO nanorods. The HRTEM of the ZnO nanorod shows the presence of a stacking fault, which generates a localised quantum well induced degenerate-transition-dipole. Finally, we elucidate that defocused wide-field imaging can be widely used to characterise defects in nanomaterials to answer many difficult questions concerning the performance of low-dimensional devices, such as in energy harvesting, advanced metal-oxide-semiconductor storage, and nanoelectromechanical and nanophotonic devices.

  15. Electrochemical l-Lactic Acid Sensor Based on Immobilized ZnO Nanorods with Lactate Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Ali Shah, Syed Muhammad Usman; Khun, Kimleang; Willander, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    In this work, fabrication of gold coated glass substrate, growth of ZnO nanorods and potentiometric response of lactic acid are explained. The biosensor was developed by immobilizing the lactate oxidase on the ZnO nanorods in combination with glutaraldehyde as a cross linker for lactate oxidase enzyme. The potentiometric technique was applied for the measuring the output (EMF) response of l-lactic acid biosensor. We noticed that the present biosensor has wide linear detection range of concentration from 1 × 10−4–1 × 100 mM with acceptable sensitivity about 41.33 ± 1.58 mV/decade. In addition, the proposed biosensor showed fast response time less than 10 s, a good selectivity towards l-lactic acid in presence of common interfering substances such as ascorbic acid, urea, glucose, galactose, magnesium ions and calcium ions. The present biosensor based on immobilized ZnO nanorods with lactate oxidase sustained its stability for more than three weeks. PMID:22736960

  16. Electrochemical L-lactic acid sensor based on immobilized ZnO nanorods with lactate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Shah, Syed Muhammad Usman Ali; Khun, Kimleang; Willander, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    In this work, fabrication of gold coated glass substrate, growth of ZnO nanorods and potentiometric response of lactic acid are explained. The biosensor was developed by immobilizing the lactate oxidase on the ZnO nanorods in combination with glutaraldehyde as a cross linker for lactate oxidase enzyme. The potentiometric technique was applied for the measuring the output (EMF) response of l-lactic acid biosensor. We noticed that the present biosensor has wide linear detection range of concentration from 1 × 10(-4)-1 × 10(0) mM with acceptable sensitivity about 41.33 ± 1.58 mV/decade. In addition, the proposed biosensor showed fast response time less than 10 s, a good selectivity towards l-lactic acid in presence of common interfering substances such as ascorbic acid, urea, glucose, galactose, magnesium ions and calcium ions. The present biosensor based on immobilized ZnO nanorods with lactate oxidase sustained its stability for more than three weeks.

  17. Effect of intrinsic zinc oxide coating on the properties of Al-doped zinc oxide nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, S. A.; Mamat, M. H.; Ismail, A. S.; Malek, M. F.; Yusoff, M. M.; Sin, N. D. Md.; Zoolfakar, A. S.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of intrinsic zinc oxide (ZnO) coating fabricated by a simple immersion method. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the Al-doped ZnO nanorod arrays films had a hexagonal wurtzite structure, similar to that of an intrinsic ZnO coating. Structural properties of the samples were characterised using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM; JEOL JSM-7600F) and optical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results showed that all films were crystallized under hexagonal wurtzite structure and presented a preferential orientation along the c-axis (002) was obtained. The XRD results showed that the intrinsic ZnO coating material had a strong orientation, whereas the ZnO was randomly oriented. Overall these results indicate that intrinsic ZnO coating are pontetial for the creation of functional materials such as barrier protection, optoelectronic devices, humidity sensor and ultraviolet photoconductive sensor.

  18. Vertically aligned diamond-graphite hybrid nanorod arrays with superior field electron emission properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaneti, R.; Sankaran, K. J.; Korneychuk, S.; Yeh, C. J.; Degutis, G.; Leou, K. C.; Verbeeck, J.; Van Bael, M. K.; Lin, I. N.; Haenen, K.

    2017-06-01

    A "patterned-seeding technique" in combination with a "nanodiamond masked reactive ion etching process" is demonstrated for fabricating vertically aligned diamond-graphite hybrid (DGH) nanorod arrays. The DGH nanorod arrays possess superior field electron emission (FEE) behavior with a low turn-on field, long lifetime stability, and large field enhancement factor. Such an enhanced FEE is attributed to the nanocomposite nature of the DGH nanorods, which contain sp2-graphitic phases in the boundaries of nano-sized diamond grains. The simplicity in the nanorod fabrication process renders the DGH nanorods of greater potential for the applications as cathodes in field emission displays and microplasma display devices.

  19. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods: Effects of zinc salt concentration, various solvents and alkaline mineralizers

    SciT

    Edalati, Khatereh, E-mail: kh_ed834@stu.um.ac.ir; Shakiba, Atefeh; Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized ZnO nanorods by a simple hydrothermal process at 60 °C. • Effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent and alkaline mineralizer was studied. • Increasing concentration of zinc salt changed ZnO nucleation system. • NaOH yielded better results in the production of nanorods in both solvents. • Methanol performed better in the formation of nanorods using the two mineralizers. - Abstract: ZnO has been produced using various methods in the solid, gaseous, and liquid states, and the hydrothermal synthesis at low temperatures has been shown to be an environmentally-friendly one. The current work utilizes a low reactionmore » temperature (60 °C) for the simple hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorod morphologies. Furthermore, the effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent type and alkaline mineralizer type on ZnO nanorods synthesis at a low reaction temperature by hydrothermal processing was studied. Obtained samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increasing the concentration of the starting zinc salt from 0.02 to 0.2 M changed ZnO nucleation system from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous state. The XRD results confirmed the production hexagonal ZnO nanostructures of with a crystallite size of 40.4 nm. Varying the experimental parameters (mineralizer and solvent) yielded ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 90–250 nm and lengths of 1–2 μm.« less

  20. Seed layer effect on different properties and UV detection capability of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods over SiO2/p-Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannakashappanavar, Basavaraj S.; Byrareddy, C. R.; Kumar, Pesala Sudheer; Yadav, Aniruddh Bahadur

    2018-05-01

    Hydrothermally grown one dimensional ZnO nanostructures are among the most widely used semiconductor materials to build high-efficiency electronic devices for various applications. Few researchers have addressed the growth mechanism and effect of ZnO seed layer on different properties of ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal method, instead, no one has synthesized ZnO nanorod over SiO2/p-Si substrate. The aim of this study is to study the effect of ZnO seed layer and the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods over SiO2/p-Si substrate. To achieve the goal, we have synthesized ZnO nanorods over different thickness ZnO seed layers by using the hydrothermal method on SiO2/p-Si substrate. The effects of c-plane area ratio were identified for the growth rate of c-plane, reaction rate constant and stagnant layer thickness also calculated by using a modified rate growth equation. We have identified maximum seed layer thickness for the growth of vertical ZnO nanorod. A step dislocation in the ZnO nanorods grown on 150and 200 nm thick seed layers was observed, the magnitude of Burges vector was calculated for this disorder. The seed layer and ZnO nanorods were characterized by AFM, XPS, UV-visible, XRD (X-ray diffraction, and SEM(scanning electron microscope). To justify the application of the grown ZnO nanorods Ti/Au was deposited over ZnO nanorods grown over all seed layers for the fabrication of photoconductor type UV detector.

  1. Fabrication of graphene/titanium carbide nanorod arrays for chemical sensor application.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chong; Li, Mingji; Li, Hongji; Li, Cuiping; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe

    2017-03-01

    Vertically stacked graphene nanosheet/titanium carbide nanorod array/titanium (graphene/TiC nanorod array) wires were fabricated using a direct current arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (DC arc plasma jet CVD) method. The graphene/TiC nanorod arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The TiO 2 nanotube array was reduced to the TiC nanorod array, and using those TiC nanorods as nucleation sites, the vertical graphene layer was formed on the TiC nanorod surface. The multi-target response mechanisms of the graphene/TiC nanorod array were investigated for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The vertically stacked graphene sheets facilitated the electron transfer and reactant transport with a unique porous surface, high surface area, and high electron transport network of CVD graphene sheets. The TiC nanorod array facilitated the electron transfer and firmly held the graphene layer. Thus, the graphene/TiC nanorod arrays could simultaneously respond to trace biomarkers and antihypertensive drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inactivation of bacterial biofilms using visible-light-activated unmodified ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponiene, Kristina; Serevičius, Tomas; Luksiene, Zivile; Juršėnas, Saulius

    2017-09-01

    Various zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are widely used for photocatalytic antibacterial applications. Since ZnO possesses a wide bandgap, it is believed that only UV light may efficiently assist bacterial inactivation, and diverse crystal lattice modifications should be applied in order to narrow the bandgap for efficient visible-light absorption. In this work we show that even unmodified ZnO nanorods grown by an aqueous chemical growth technique are found to possess intrinsic defects that can be activated by visible light (λ = 405 nm) and successfully applied for total inactivation of various highly resistant bacterial biofilms rather than more sensitive planktonic bacteria. Time-resolved fluorescence analysis has revealed that visible-light excitation creates long-lived charge carriers (τ > 1 μs), which might be crucial for destructive biochemical reactions achieving significant bacterial biofilm inactivation. ZnO nanorods covered with bacterial biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis MSCL 302 after illumination by visible light (λ = 405 nm) were inactivated by 2 log, and Listeria monocytogenes ATCL3C 7644 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilms by 4 log. Heterogenic waste-water microbial biofilms, consisting of a mixed population of mesophilic bacteria after illumination with visible light were also completely destroyed.

  3. Aligned Silver Nanorod Array as SERS Substrates for Viral Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yiping; Shanmukh, Saratchandra; Chaney, Stephen B.; Jones, Les; Dluhy, Richard A.; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2006-03-01

    The aligned silver nanorod array substrates prepared by the oblique angle deposition method are capable of providing extremely high enhancement factors (˜10^9) at near-infrared wavelengths (785 nm) for a standard reporter molecule 1,2 trans-(bis)pyridyl-ethene (BPE). The enhancement factor depends strongly on the length of the Ag nanorods, the substrate coating, as well as the polarization of the excitation laser beam. With the current optimum structure, we demonstrate that the detection limit for BPE can be lower than 0.1 fM. The applicability of this substrate to the detection of bioagents has been investigated by looking several viruses, such as Adenovirus, HIV, Rhinovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), at low quantities (˜0.5uL). Different viruses have different fingerprint Raman spectrum. The detection of virus presented in infected cells has also been demonstrated.

  4. NMR Observation of Mobile Protons in Proton-Implanted ZnO Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Kue; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Lee, Cheol Eui

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion properties of H+ in ZnO nanorods are investigated before and after 20 MeV proton beam irradiation by using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Herein, we unambiguously observe that the implanted protons occupy thermally unstable site of ZnO, giving rise to a narrow NMR line at 4.1 ppm. The activation barrier of the implanted protons was found to be 0.46 eV by means of the rotating-frame spin-lattice relaxation measurements, apparently being interstitial hydrogens. High-energy beam irradiation also leads to correlated jump diffusion of the surface hydroxyl group of multiple lines at ~1 ppm, implying the presence of structural disorder at the ZnO surface. PMID:26988733

  5. ZnO/perovskite core–shell nanorod array based monolithic catalysts with enhanced propane oxidation and material utilization efficiency at low temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Sibo; Ren, Zheng; Song, Wenqiao; ...

    2015-04-24

    Here, a hydrothermal strategy combined with colloidal deposition synthesis was successfully used to grow ZnO/perovskite (LaBO 3, B=Mn, Co, Ni) core-shell nanorod arrays within three dimensional (3-D) honeycomb cordierite substrates. A facile sonication assisted colloidal wash coating process is able to coat a uniformly dispersed perovskite nanoparticles onto the large scale ZnO nanorod arrays rooted on the channel surfaces of the 3D cordierite substrate achieved by hydrothermal synthesis. Compared to traditional wash-coated perovskite catalysts, an enhanced catalytic performance was observed for propane oxidation with 25°C lower light-off temperature than wash-coated perovskite catalyst of similar LaMnO 3 loading (4.3mg). Temperature programmedmore » reduction and desorption under H 2 and O 2 atmosphere, respectively, were used to study the reducibility and oxygen activity of these core-shell nanorod arrays based monolithic catalysts, revealing a catalytic activity sequence of LaCoO 3>LaMnO 3>La 2NiO 4 at the initial stage of catalytic reaction. The good dispersion and size control in La-based perovskite nanoparticles and their interfaces to ZnO nanorod arrays support may contribute to the enhancement of catalytic performance. Lastly, this work may provide a new type of Pt-group metals (PGM) free catalysts with improved catalytic performance for hydrocarbon oxidations at low temperatures.« less

  6. Tuning the optical properties of ZnO nanorods by variation of precursor concentration through hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Lakshmi; Kar, Asit Kumar

    2018-05-01

    ZnO nanorods with varying precursor concentration have been successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The effect of the precursor concentration on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the resulting nanorods was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The crystalline structural characterization demonstrated that the synthesized materials crystallize in pure ZnO wurtzite structure without any other secondary phase. SEM micrographs demonstrate nanorod type features in all the samples. In addition, they show that increase of precursor concentration changes the length and diameter of nanorods. The UV-Vis studies show a strong absorption band in UV region at 373 nm attributed to the band-edge absorption of wurtzite hexagonal ZnO, blue shifted relative to its bulk form (380 nm). The PL spectra of obtained nanorods excited at 360 nm present broad visible emission. Moreover, as the visible region (from 510 to 550 nm) is concerned, it is speculated that the increase of the precursor concentration affects strongly the kind of interstitial defects (Oi, Zni and Vo) formed in ZnO nanorods. The luminescence intensity decreases with the increase of precursor concentration.

  7. Investigations on photoelectrochemical performance of boron doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by facile hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Akash; Chakraborty, Mohua; Thangavel, R.

    2018-05-01

    Undoped and 10% Boron (B)-doped Zinc Oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) on Tin doped Indium Oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates were synthesized using facile sol-gel, spin coating and hydrothermal method. The impact of adding Boron on the structural, optical properties, surface morphology and photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of the ZnO NRs have been investigated. The XRD pattern confirmed the formation of pure hexagonal phase with space group P63mc (186). The same can also be clearly observed form the FESEM images. The UV-Vis study shows the narrowing in band gap from 3.22 eV to 3.19 eV with incorporation of Boron in ZnO matrix. The B-doped ZnO NRs sample shows an enhanced photocurrent density of 1.31 mA/cm2 at 0.5 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which is more than 171% enhancement compared to bare ZnO NRs (0.483 mA/cm2) in 0.1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution. The results clearly indicates that the boron doped ZnO NRs can be used as an efficient photoelectrode material for photoelectrochemical cell.

  8. Photoresponsive surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods for uric acid detection in physiological fluids.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qian; Li, Zai-Yong; Wei, Yu-Bo; Yang, Xia; Liu, Lan-Tao; Gong, Cheng-Bin; Ma, Xue-Bing; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Chow, Cheuk-Fai

    2016-09-01

    A photoresponsive surface molecularly imprinted polymer for uric acid in physiological fluids was fabricated through a facile and effective method using bio-safe and biocompatible ZnO nanorods as a support. The strategy was carried out by introducing double bonds on the surface of the ZnO nanorods with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods was then prepared by surface polymerization using uric acid as template, water-soluble 5-[(4-(methacryloyloxy)phenyl)diazenyl]isophthalic acid as functional monomer, and triethanolamine trimethacryl ester as cross-linker. The surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods showed good photoresponsive properties, high recognition ability, and fast binding kinetics toward uric acid, with a dissociation constant of 3.22×10(-5)M in aqueous NaH2PO4 buffer at pH=7.0 and a maximal adsorption capacity of 1.45μmolg(-1). Upon alternate irradiation at 365 and 440nm, the surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods can quantitatively uptake and release uric acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced photobactericidal activity of ZnO nanorods modified by meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin under visible LED lamp irradiation.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Rahmatollah; Shokraiyan, Javad; Rabbani, Mahboubeh; Fayyaz, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have been synthesized using a simple template-free precipitation technique and deposited on glass substrate. The meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS) has been synthesized and then immobilized on the surface of ZnO nanorods to prepare an organic/inorganic composite. The samples were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectra, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the photobactericidal activity of TPPS/ZnO composite, TPPS and ZnO nanorods was tested against the pathogenic bacterium of Escherichia coli under visible LED lamp irradiation. The results indicate that the photobactericidal activity of TPPS-loaded ZnO nanorods was better than TPPS or ZnO nanorods, separately.

  10. Novel design of highly [110]-oriented barium titanate nanorod array and its application in nanocomposite capacitors.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lingmin; Pan, Zhongbin; Zhai, Jiwei; Chen, Haydn H D

    2017-03-23

    Nanocomposites in capacitors combining highly aligned one dimension ferroelectric nanowires with polymer would be more desirable for achieving higher energy density. However, the synthesis of the well-isolated ferroelectric oxide nanorod arrays with a high orientation has been rather scant, especially using glass-made substrates. In this study, a novel design that is capable of fabricating a highly [110]-oriented BaTiO 3 (BT) nanorod array was proposed first, using a three-step hydrothermal reaction on glass-made substrates. The details for controlling the dispersion of the nanorod array, the orientation and the aspect ratio are also discussed. It is found that the alkaline treatment of the TiO 2 (TO) nanorod array, rather than the completing transformation into sodium titanate, favors the transformation of the TO into the BT nanorod array, as well as protecting the glass-made substrate. The dispersity of the nanorod array can be controlled by the introduction of a glycol ether-deionized water mixed solvent and soluble salts. Moreover, the orientation of the nanorod arrays could be tuned by the ionic strength of the solution. This novel BT nanorod array was used as a filler in a nanocomposite capacitor, demonstrating that a large energy density (11.82 J cm -3 ) can be achieved even at a low applied electric field (3200 kV cm -1 ), which opens us a new application in nanocomposite capacitors.

  11. Morphology-controllable of Sn doped ZnO nanorods prepared by spray pyrolysis for transparent electrode application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, M. Shahul; Princice, J. Joseph; Babu, N. Ramesh; Zahirullah, S. Syed; Deshmukh, Sampat G.; Arunachalam, A.

    2018-05-01

    Transparent conductive Sn doped ZnO nanorods have been deposited at various doping level by spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrate. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of these films have been investigated with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer respectively. XRD patterns revealed a successful high quality growth of single crystal ZnO nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite structure having (002) preferred orientation. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the prepared films exposed the uniform distribution of Sn doped ZnO nanorod shaped grains. All these films were highly transparent in the visible region with average transmittance of 90%.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Mg-doped ZnO Nanorods for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemar, H.; Das, N. C.; Wanekaya, A.; Delong, R.; Ghosh, K.

    2013-03-01

    Nanomaterials research has become a major attraction in the field of advanced materials research in the area of Physics, Chemistry, and Materials Science. Bio-compatible and chemically stable metal nanoparticles have biomedical applications that includes drug delivery, cell and DNA separation, gene cloning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This research is aimed at the fabrication and characterization of Mg-doped ZnO nanorods. Hydrothermal synthesis of undoped ZnO and Mg-doped ZnO nanorods is carried out using aqueous solutions of Zn(NO3)2 .6H2O, MgSO4, and using NH4OH as hydrolytic catalyst. Nanomaterials of different sizes and shapes were synthesized by varying the process parameters such as molarity (0.15M, 0.3M, 0.5M) and pH (8-11) of the precursors, growth temperature (130°C), and annealing time during the hydrothermal Process. Structural, morphological, and optical properties are studied using various techniques such as XRD, SEM, UV-vis and PL spectroscopy. Detailed structural, and optical properties will be discussed in this presentation. This work is partially supported by National Cancer Institute (1 R15 CA139390-01).

  13. On the growth and photocatalytic activity of the vertically aligned ZnO nanorods grafted by CdS shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirak, M.; Moradlou, O.; Bayati, M. R.; Nien, Y. T.; Moshfegh, A. Z.

    2013-05-01

    We have studied systematically photocatalytic properties of the vertically aligned ZnO@CdS core-shell nanorods where the features were grown through a multistep procedure including sol-gel for the formation of ZnO seed layer, hydrothermal process to grow ZnO nanorods, and successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process to deposit CdS nanoshells onto the ZnO nanorods. Formation of the ZnO seed layer and vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (d ∼ 40 nm) with a hexagonal cross-section was confirmed by AFM and SEM imaging. Successful capping of ZnO nanorods with homogeneous CdS nanocrystallites (∼5 nm) was ascertained by HRTEM diffraction and imaging. Optical properties of the samples were also studied using UV-vis spectrophotometry. It was found that the absorption edge of the CdS shell has a red shift when its thickness increases. Photocatalytic activity of the samples was examined by photodecomposition of methylene blue under UV and visible lights where the maximum reaction rate constant was found to be 0.012 min-1 under UV illumination and 0.007 min-1 under visible light. The difference in catalytic activities of the ZnO@CdS core-shell nanorods under UV and visible irradiations was explained based upon the electronic structure as well as the arrangement of the energy levels in the ZnO@CdS core-shells. It is shown that the structure and photocatalytic efficiency of the samples can be tuned by manipulating the SILAR variables.

  14. High-yield, ultrafast, surface plasmon-enhanced, Au nanorod optical field electron emitter arrays.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Richard G; Yang, Yujia; Fallahi, Arya; Keathley, Philip D; De Leo, Eva; Kärtner, Franz X; Graves, William S; Berggren, Karl K

    2014-11-25

    Here we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of ultrafast, surface-plasmon enhanced Au nanorod optical field emitter arrays. We present a quantitative study of electron emission from Au nanorod arrays fabricated by high-resolution electron-beam lithography and excited by 35 fs pulses of 800 nm light. We present accurate models for both the optical field enhancement of Au nanorods within high-density arrays, and electron emission from those nanorods. We have also studied the effects of surface plasmon damping induced by metallic interface layers at the substrate/nanorod interface on near-field enhancement and electron emission. We have identified the peak optical field at which the electron emission mechanism transitions from a 3-photon absorption mechanism to strong-field tunneling emission. Moreover, we have investigated the effects of nanorod array density on nanorod charge yield, including measurement of space-charge effects. The Au nanorod photocathodes presented in this work display 100-1000 times higher conversion efficiency relative to previously reported UV triggered emission from planar Au photocathodes. Consequently, the Au nanorod arrays triggered by ultrafast pulses of 800 nm light in this work may outperform equivalent UV-triggered Au photocathodes, while also offering nanostructuring of the electron pulse produced from such a cathode, which is of interest for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) development where nanostructured electron pulses may facilitate more efficient and brighter XFEL radiation.

  15. Size effect of ZnO nanorods on physicochemical properties of plasticized starch composites.

    PubMed

    Guz, L; Famá, L; Candal, R; Goyanes, S

    2017-02-10

    This work demonstrates that the size of ZnO nanorods (ZnONR) with similar aspect ratio determines several physicochemical and microbiological properties of thermoplastic starch composites (TPS/ZnONR) at a given concentration of ZnONRs. A combination of sol-gel and hydrothermal methods was developed to synthesize ZnONR with different sizes but similar aspect ratios. Starch composites containing 1wt.% of ZnONR were prepared by casting. Composites with smaller size nanorods (ZnONR-S) showed more efficiency in shielding UVA radiation and had a higher solubility and water vapor permeability than those with larger nanorods (ZnONR-L). Mechanical properties, biodegradability and antibacterial activity were also influenced by the size of the ZnONR. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that composites with ZnONR-S maintained the typical B-V type starch structure, intensifying the V-type starch structure peaks, while composite with ZnONR-L induced the formation of an amorphous structure, preventing starch retrogradation during storage. Properties affected by nanorods size are fundamental in determining composite applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of aspect ratio and surface defect density on hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods towards amperometric glucose biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Mayoorika; Pramila; Dixit, Tejendra; Prakash, Rajiv; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2017-11-01

    In this work, hydrothermally grown ZnO Nanorods Array (ZNA) has been synthesized over Platinum (Pt) coated glass substrate, for biosensing applications. In-situ addition of strong oxidizing agent viz KMnO4 during hydrothermal growth was found to have profound effect on the physical properties of ZNA. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was later immobilized over ZNA by means of physical adsorption process. Further influence of varying aspect ratio, enzyme loading and surface defects on amperometric glucose biosensor has been analyzed. Significant variation in biosensor performance was observed by varying the amount of KMnO4 addition during the growth. Moreover, investigations revealed that the suppression of surface defects and aspect ratio variation of the ZNA played key role towards the observed improvement in the biosensor performance, thereby significantly affecting the sensitivity and response time of the fabricated biosensor. Among different biosensors fabricated having varied aspect ratio and surface defect density of ZNA, the best electrode resulted into sensitivity and response time to be 18.7 mA cm-2 M-1 and <5 s respectively. The observed results revealed that apart from high aspect ratio nanostructures and the extent of enzyme loading, surface defect density also hold a key towards ZnO nanostructures based bio-sensing applications.

  17. Enhanced non-enzymatic glucose biosensor of Ga-doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wan-Chan; Wang, Zi-Hao; Yang, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Chien-Sheng; Su, Yan-Kuin; Ruan, Jian-Long

    2017-04-01

    In this work gallium (Ga)-Doped ZnO nanorods (GZO NRs) successfully applied for the development of enzyme free glucose. GZO NRs synthesized by using the hydrothermal on ZnO seed layer was subsequently deposited onto the glass substrate. The GZO NRs electrode has peak currents increasing from 620 to 941μA with glucose concentration (6, 8 and 10 mM) in cyclic voltammograms. GZO NRs electrode sensitivity of the sensor to glucose oxidation was 33.4 (μA/mM-cm2). The GZO NRs modified electrode showed a greatly enhanced electrocatalytic property toward glucose oxidation, as well as an excellent anti-interference and a good stability.

  18. Enhanced glucose biosensor properties of gold nanoparticle-decorated ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Hao; Yang, Chih-Chiang; Su, Yan-Kuin; Ruand, Jian-Long

    2017-04-01

    As new materials have been reported and more knowledge on detailed mechanism of glucose oxidation has been unveiled, the non-enzymatic glucose sensor keeps coming closer to practical applications. Nanostructures with higher surface specific area has great potential applications in sensing devices ZnO nanoords were synthesized in a hydrothermal method using simply available laboratory chemicals. Results showed that as-synthesized Gold Nanoparticle-decorated ZnO Nanorods possessing higher specific surface area, significantly increased the non-enzyme efficiency which in turn improved the sensing performances. The electrode also demonstrated excellent performance in sensing glucose concentration with remarkable sensitivity (46.6 μA/mM-cm2) and good repeatability. This work is expected to open a new avenue to fabricate non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors of glucose involving co-mediating.

  19. Efficient Solar-Induced Photoelectrochemical Response Using Coupling Semiconductor TiO2-ZnO Nanorod Film

    PubMed Central

    Abd Samad, Nur Azimah; Lai, Chin Wei; Lau, Kung Shiuh; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2016-01-01

    Efficient solar driven photoelectrochemical (PEC) response by enhancing charge separation has attracted great interest in the hydrogen generation application. The formation of one-dimensional ZnO nanorod structure without bundling is essential for high efficiency in PEC response. In this present research work, ZnO nanorod with an average 500 nm in length and average diameter of about 75 nm was successfully formed via electrodeposition method in 0.05 mM ZnCl2 and 0.1 M KCl electrolyte at 1 V for 60 min under 70 °C condition. Continuous efforts have been exerted to further improve the solar driven PEC response by incorporating an optimum content of TiO2 into ZnO nanorod using dip-coating technique. It was found that 0.25 at % of TiO2 loaded on ZnO nanorod film demonstrated a maximum photocurrent density of 19.78 mA/cm2 (with V vs. Ag/AgCl) under UV illumination and 14.75 mA/cm2 (with V vs. Ag/AgCl) under solar illumination with photoconversion efficiency ~2.9% (UV illumination) and ~4.3% (solar illumination). This performance was approximately 3–4 times higher than ZnO film itself. An enhancement of photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency occurred due to the sufficient Ti element within TiO2-ZnO nanorod film, which acted as an effective mediator to trap the photo-induced electrons and minimize the recombination of charge carriers. Besides, phenomenon of charge-separation effect at type-II band alignment of Zn and Ti could further enhance the charge carrier transportation during illumination. PMID:28774068

  20. Growth of hybrid carbon nanostructures on iron-decorated ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbuyisa, Puleng N.; Rigoni, Federica; Sangaletti, Luigi; Ponzoni, Stefano; Pagliara, Stefania; Goldoni, Andrea; Ndwandwe, Muzi; Cepek, Cinzia

    2016-04-01

    A novel carbon-based nanostructured material, which includes carbon nanotubes (CNTs), porous carbon, nanostructured ZnO and Fe nanoparticles, has been synthetized using catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of acetylene on vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs). The deposition of Fe before the CVD process induces the presence of dense CNTs in addition to the variety of nanostructures already observed on the process done on the bare NRs, which range from amorphous graphitic carbon up to nanostructured dendritic carbon films, where the NRs are partially or completely etched. The combination of scanning electron microscopy and in situ photoemission spectroscopy indicate that Fe enhances the ZnO etching, and that the CNT synthesis is favoured by the reduced Fe mobility due to the strong interaction between Fe and the NRs, and to the presence of many defects, formed during the CVD process. Our results demonstrate that the resulting new hybrid shows a higher sensitivity to ammonia gas at ambient conditions (∼60 ppb) than the carbon nanostructures obtained without the aid of Fe, the bare ZnO NRs, or other one-dimensional carbon nanostructures, making this system of potential interest for environmental ammonia monitoring. Finally, in view of the possible application in nanoscale optoelectronics, the photoexcited carrier behaviour in these hybrid systems has been characterized by time-resolved reflectivity measurements.

  1. Highly photoresponsive, ZnO nanorod-based photodetector for operation in the visible spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Daniel S.; Hansen, Matthew; Van Keuren, Edward; Hahm, Jong-in

    2017-04-01

    While significant advances have been made for gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-coupled zinc oxide (ZnO) as visibly blind, ultraviolet photodetection devices, very few ZnO nanomaterial systems have been developed specifically for use in the visible wavelength regime. Further efforts to develop ZnO-based visible photodetectors (PDs) are still highly warranted in order to better understand the precise effect of AuNP load, operation wavelength, and beam position on the device output. In this study, we demonstrate significantly enhanced, photoresponse behaviors of AuNP-coupled ZnO nanorod (NR) network devices in the visible wavelength range with their photoresponse capacity comparable to, if not far exceeding, most commercial PDs as well as recently reported, visible, AuNP-coupled ZnO detectors. In addition, the nature and degree of the photoresponsivity enhancement are systematically elucidated by investigating their light-triggered electrical signals under varying incident wavelengths, AuNP amounts, and illumination positions. We discuss a possible photoconduction mechanism of our AuNP-coupled ZnO NR PDs and the origins of the high photoresponsivity. Specifically related to the AuNP amount-dependent photoresponse behaviors, the nanoparticle density yielding photoresponse maxima is explained as the interplay between localized surface plasmon resonance, plasmonic heating, and scattering in our photothermoelectric effect-driven device. We show that the AuNP-coupled ZnO NR PDs can be constructed via a straightforward method without the need for ultrahigh vacuum, sputtering procedures, or photo/electron-beam lithographic tools. Hence, the approach demonstrated in this study may serve as a convenient and viable means to advance the current state of ZnO-based PDs for operation in the visible spectral range with greatly increased photoresponsivity.

  2. HKUST-1 Membranes Anchored on Porous Substrate by Hetero MIL-110 Nanorod Array Seeds.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yiyin; Cao, Wei; Li, Junwei; Sun, Luwei; Peng, Xinsheng

    2013-09-02

    Great anchors and seeds: Hetero-seeding growth processes and anchored nanorod arrays were successfully utilized in the synthesis of HKUST-1 membranes. These arrays were firmly anchored on porous substrates by using a MIL-110 nanorod array as both the anchor and seed. The resulting HKUST-1 membranes demonstrated good separation factors for binary gases exceeding the Knudson selectivity. Copyright © 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Low-temperature growth of aligned ZnO nanorods: effect of annealing gases on the structural and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Umar, Ahmad; Hahn, Yoon-Bong; Al-Hajry, A; Abaker, M

    2014-06-01

    Aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on ZnO/Si substrate via simple aqueous solution process at low-temperature of - 65 degrees C by using zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). The detailed morphological and structural properties measured by FESEM, XRD, EDS and TEM confirmed that the as-grown nanorods are vertically aligned, well-crystalline possessing wurtzite hexagonal phase and grown along the [0001] direction. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the grown nanorods exhibited a strong and broad green emission and small ultraviolet emission. The as-prepared ZnO nanorods were post-annealed in nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) environments and further characterized in terms of their morphological, structural and optical properties. After annealing the nanorods exhibit well-crystallinity and wurtzite hexagonal phase. Moreover, by annealing the PL spectra show the enhancement in the UV emission and suppression in the green emission. The presented results demonstrate that simply by post-annealing process, the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures can be controlled.

  4. Preparation of ZnO nanorods on conductive PET-ITO-Ag fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiwen; Ji, Shuai; Chen, Yuanyu; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Yumei; Guo, Jing

    2016-12-01

    We studied the vertical ZnO nanorods grown on conductive conventional polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers which are prepared by electroless silver depositing on tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coated PET fibers through an efficient and low-cost green approach. The PET fibers were firstly functionalized with a layer of ITO gel synthesized through a sol-gel process at rather low temperature, simply by immersing the fibers into ITO sol for several minutes followed by gelation at 120 °C. Once the ITO gel layer surface was activated by SnCl2, a continuous, uniform, and compact layer of silver was carried out on the surface of the PET-ITO fibers through electroless plating operation at room temperature. The as-prepared PET-ITO-Ag fibers had good electrical conductivity, with surface resistivity as low as 0.23 mΩ cm. The overall procedure is simple, efficient, nontoxic, and controllable. The conductive PET-ITO-Ag fiber was used successfully as a flexible basal material to plant vertical ZnO nanorods through controlling the seeding and growth processes. The morphology of the PET-ITO, PET-ITO-Ag, and PET-ITO-Ag-ZnO fibers were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Undergone the whole process, although the tensile strength of the fiber decreased slightly, they may still exert their applications in flexible electronic such as photovoltaic and piezoelectric devices.

  5. ZnO Nanorods Based Enzymatic Biosensor for Selective Determination of Penicillin

    PubMed Central

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Ali, Syed Muhammad Usman; Khun, Kimleang; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of a biosensor based on well aligned single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods which were grown on gold coated glass substrate using a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. The ZnO nanorods were immobilized with penicillinase enzyme using the physical adsorption approach in combination with N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide (ANB-NOS) as cross linking molecules. The potentiometric response of the sensor configuration revealed good linearity over a large logarithmic concentration range from 100 µM to 100 mM. During the investigations, the proposed sensor showed a good stability with high sensitivity of ~121 mV/decade for sensing of penicillin. A quick electrochemical response of less than 5 s with a good selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility and a negligible response to common interferents such as Na1+, K1+, d-glucose, l-glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, urea, sucrose, lactose, glycine, penicilloic acid and cephalosporins, was observed. PMID:25585565

  6. ZnO Nanorods Based Enzymatic Biosensor for Selective Determination of Penicillin.

    PubMed

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Ali, Syed Muhammad Usman; Khun, Kimleang; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2011-10-27

    In this study, we have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of a biosensor based on well aligned single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods which were grown on gold coated glass substrate using a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. The ZnO nanorods were immobilized with penicillinase enzyme using the physical adsorption approach in combination with N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide (ANB-NOS) as cross linking molecules. The potentiometric response of the sensor configuration revealed good linearity over a large logarithmic concentration range from 100 µM to 100 mM. During the investigations, the proposed sensor showed a good stability with high sensitivity of ~121 mV/decade for sensing of penicillin. A quick electrochemical response of less than 5 s with a good selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility and a negligible response to common interferents such as Na1+, K1+, d-glucose, l-glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, urea, sucrose, lactose, glycine, penicilloic acid and cephalosporins, was observed.

  7. Highly sensitive hydrogen detection of catalyst-free ZnO nanorod networks suspended by lithography-assisted growth.

    PubMed

    Huh, Junghwan; Park, Jonghyurk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Park, Jeong Young

    2011-02-25

    We have successfully demonstrated a ZnO nanorod-based 3D nanostructure to show a high sensitivity and very fast response/recovery to hydrogen gas. ZnO nanorods have been synthesized selectively over the pre-defined area at relatively low temperature using a simple self-catalytic solution process assisted by a lithographic method. The conductance of the ZnO nanorod device varies significantly as the concentration of the hydrogen is changed without any additive metal catalyst, revealing a high sensitivity to hydrogen gas. Its superior performance can be explained by the porous structure of its three-dimensional network and the enhanced surface reaction of the hydrogen molecules with the oxygen defects resulting from a high surface-to-volume ratio. It was found that the change of conductance follows a power law depending on the hydrogen concentration. A Langmuir isotherm following an ideal power law and a cross-over behavior of the activation energy with respect to hydrogen concentration were observed. This is a very novel and intriguing phenomenon on nanostructured materials, which suggests competitive surface reactions in ZnO nanorod gas sensors.

  8. Effect of Temperature and Growth Time on Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods by Simplified Hydrothermal Technique for Photoelectrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    Mohd Fudzi, Laimy; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Lim, Hong Ngee; Chang, Sook-Keng; Holi, Araa Mebdir; Sarif Mohd Ali, Mahanim

    2018-04-29

    Despite its large band gap, ZnO has wide applicability in many fields ranging from gas sensors to solar cells. ZnO was chosen over other materials because of its large exciton binding energy (60 meV) and its stability to high-energy radiation. In this study, ZnO nanorods were deposited on ITO glass via a simple dip coating followed by a hydrothermal growth. The morphological, structural and compositional characteristics of the prepared films were analyzed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Photoelectrochemical conversion efficiencies were evaluated via photocurrent measurements under calibrated halogen lamp illumination. Thin film prepared at 120 °C for 4 h of hydrothermal treatment possessed a hexagonal wurtzite structure with the crystallite size of 19.2 nm. The average diameter of the ZnO nanorods was 37.7 nm and the thickness was found to be 2680.2 nm. According to FESEM images, as the hydrothermal growth temperature increases, the nanorod diameter become smaller. Moreover, the thickness of the nanorods increase with the growth time. Therefore, the sample prepared at 120 °C for 4 h displayed an impressive photoresponse by achieving high current density of 0.1944 mA/cm².

  9. Al-doped ZnO seed layer-dependent crystallographic control of ZnO nanorods by using electrochemical deposition

    SciT

    Son, Hyo-Soo; Choi, Nak-Jung; Kim, Kyoung-Bo

    Highlights: • Polar and semipolar ZnO NRs were successfully achieved by hydrothermal synthesis. • Semipolar and polar ZnO NRs were grown on ZnO and AZO/m-sapphire, respectively. • Al % of AZO/m-sapphire enhanced the lateral growth rate of polar ZnO NRs. - Abstract: We investigated the effect of an Al-doped ZnO film on the crystallographic direction of ZnO nanorods (NRs) using electrochemical deposition. From high-solution X-ray diffraction measurements, the crystallographic plane of ZnO NRs grown on (1 0 0) ZnO/m-plane sapphire was (1 0 1). The surface grain size of the (100) Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film decreased with increasing Al contentmore » in the ZnO seed layer, implying that the Al dopant accelerated the three-dimensional (3D) growth of the AZO film. In addition, it was found that with increasing Al doping concentration of the AZO seed layer, the crystal orientation of the ZnO NRs grown on the AZO seed layer changed from [1 0 1] to [0 0 1]. With increasing Al content of the nonpolar (1 0 0) AZO seed layer, the small surface grains with a few crystallographic planes of the AZO film changed from semipolar (1 0 1) ZnO NRs to polar (0 0 1) ZnO NRs due to the increase of the vertical [0 0 1] growth rate of the ZnO NRs owing to excellent electrical properties.« less

  10. Electromechanical and Photoluminescence Properties of Al-doped ZnO Nanorods Applied in Piezoelectric Nanogenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wen-Yang; Fang, Te-Hua; Tsai, Ju-Hsuan

    2015-02-01

    A piezoelectric nanogenerator based on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanorods with a V-zigzag layer is investigated at a low temperature. The growth temperature, growth time, growth concentration, photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, and AZO epitaxial growth on the ITO glass substrate using aqueous solution are reported and the associated electromechanical and PL properties are discussed. In general, the properties of piezoelectric nanogenerators and their functionality at ultralow temperatures (near liquid helium temperature) are important for applications in extreme environments. A V-zigzag layer is used to enhance the bending and compression deformation of the piezoelectric nanogenerator. The electromechanical properties of AZO nanorods are tested using an ultrasonic wave generator. Results show that the percent transmittance decreases with increasing growth time and growth temperature. The intensities of the PL spectrum and the (002) peak orientation increases with increasing growth temperature. AZO at a low growth temperature of 90 C has good piezoelectric harvesting efficiency when the piezoelectric nanogenerator has a zigzag structure. The average current, voltage, and power density of the piezoelectric harvesting are 0.76 A, 1.35 mV, and 1.026 nW/mm, respectively. These results confirm the feasibility of growing AZO at low temperature. AZO nanorods have potential for energy harvester applications.

  11. Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) Fabricated with Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanpowders and Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suman

    2018-03-01

    Due to their high efficiencies, along with lower production costs, many researchers are working on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) over last few decades as a substitute technology for nonconventional energy. Nanostructured ZnO has got many interesting properties such as wide band gap, large exciton binding energy, good exciton stability, and high breakdown strength, which are applicable as DSSC electrodes. This present work compares the device properties of DSSC fabricated using ZnO nanorods on a ZnO film and ZnO nanopowders. Different types of ZnO photoanode and dye combinations are used to study the stability and photovoltaic properties of the DSSC cell. The photovoltaic properties of the ZnO-based DSSC samples were systematically investigated. The photovoltaic properties of fabricated cell obtained are discussed in the light of band structure and density of states of different types of ZnO nanolayers. The ZnO nanorods fabricated through the sol-gel route have more uniform thickness resulting in enhanced photovoltaic properties of the fabricated device.

  12. Electrosynthesis of ZnO nanorods and nanotowers: Morphology and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigircik, Gokmen; Erken, Ozge; Tuken, Tunc; Gumus, Cebrail; Ozkendir, Osman M.; Ufuktepe, Yuksel

    2015-06-01

    Deposition mechanism of nano-structured ZnO films has been investigated in the absence and presence of chloride ions from aqueous solution. The resulting opto-electronic properties were interpreted extensively, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and four probe techniques. The ZnO deposition is mass transport controlled process and the interaction of chloride ions with the surface has great influence on diffusion kinetics, considering the substantial species (Zn2+ and OH-) involved in the construction of ZnO film. This effect does not change major lattice parameters, as shown with detailed analysis of XRD data. However, the texture coefficient (Tc) (0 0 2) value is higher in presence of chloride ions containing synthesis solution which gave vertically aligned, well defined and uniformly dispersed nanorods structure. The calculated Eg values are in the range 3.28-3.41 eV and 3.22-3.31 eV for ZnO nanorods and nanotowers synthesized at different deposition periods, respectively. Furthermore, the charge mobility values regarding the deposition periods were measured to be in the ranges from 130.4 to 449.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 126.2 to 204.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 for nanorods and nanotowers, respectively. From XANES results, it was shown that the Zn K-edge spectrum is dominated by the transition of Zn 1s core electrons into the unoccupied Zn 4p states of the conduction band. Comparing the rod and tower nano-structured ZnO thin films, the excitation behavior of valence band electrons is different. Moreover, the density states of Zn 4p are higher for ZnO nanorods.

  13. Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells Depending on TiO2 Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Dai, Si-Min; Zhu, Pei; Deng, Lin-Long; Xie, Su-Yuan; Cui, Qian; Chen, Hong; Wang, Ning; Lin, Hong

    2016-08-24

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with TiO2 materials have attracted much attention due to their high photovoltaic performance. Aligned TiO2 nanorods have long been used for potential application in highly efficient perovskite solar cells, but the previously reported efficiencies of perovskite solar cells based on TiO2 nanorod arrays were underrated. Here we show a solvothermal method based on a modified ketone-HCl system with the addition of organic acids suitable for modulation of the TiO2 nanorod array films to fabricate highly efficient perovskite solar cells. Photovoltaic measurements indicated that efficient nanorod-structured perovskite solar cells can be achieved with the length of the nanorods as long as approximately 200 nm. A record efficiency of 18.22% under the reverse scan direction has been optimized by avoiding direct contact between the TiO2 nanorods and the hole transport materials, eliminating the organic residues on the nanorod surfaces using UV-ozone treatment and tuning the nanorod array morphologies through addition of different organic acids in the solvothermal process.

  14. In situ reduced graphene oxide interlayer for improving electrode performance in ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, A.; Ramesha, C. K.; Kannan, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) thin film on the transport characteristics of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) grown on ITO substrate was studied. GO was uniformly drop casted on ZnO NRs as a passivation layer and then converted into RGO by heating it at 60 °C prior to metal electrode deposition. This low temperature reduction is facilitated by the thermally excited electrons from ZnI interstitial sites (~30 meV). Successful reduction of GO was ascertained from the increased disorder band (D) intensity in the Raman spectra. Temperature (298 K-10 K) dependent transport measurements of RGO-ZnO NRs indicate that the RGO layer not only acts as a short circuiting inhibitor but also reduces the height of the potential barrier for electron tunneling. This is confirmed from the temperature dependent electrical characteristics which revealed a transition of carrier transport from thermionic emission at high temperature (T  >  100 K) to tunneling at low temperature (T  <  100 K) across the interface. Our technique is the most promising approach for making reliable electrical contacts on vertically aligned ZnO NRs and improving the reproducibility of device characteristics.

  15. Enhancement of external quantum efficiency and quality of heterojunction white LEDs by varying the size of ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Bano, N; Hussain, I; Sawaf, S; Alshammari, Abeer; Saleemi, F

    2017-06-16

    The size of ZnO nanorods (NRs) plays an important role in tuning the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and quality of light generated by white light emitting diodes (LEDs). In this work, we report on the enhancement of EQE and the quality of ZnO NR-based hetrojunction white LEDs fabricated on a p-GaN substrate using a low temperature solution method. Cathodoluminescence spectra demonstrate that ultraviolet (UV) emission decreases and visible deep band emission increases with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs. The UV emission could be internally reabsorbed by the ZnO NR excitation, thus enhancing the emission intensity of the visible deep band. Photocurrent measurements validated the fact that the EQE depends on the size of ZnO NRs, increasing by 87% with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs. Furthermore, the quality of white light was measured and clearly indicated an increase in the color rendering indices of the LEDs with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs, confirming that the quality of light generated by LEDs can be tuned by varying the length of the ZnO NRs. These results suggest that the EQE and visible deep band emission from n-ZnONRs/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs can be effectively controlled by adjusting the length of the ZnO NRs, which can be useful for realizing tunable white LEDs.

  16. Enhancement of external quantum efficiency and quality of heterojunction white LEDs by varying the size of ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bano, N.; Hussain, I.; Sawaf, S.; Alshammari, Abeer; Saleemi, F.

    2017-06-01

    The size of ZnO nanorods (NRs) plays an important role in tuning the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and quality of light generated by white light emitting diodes (LEDs). In this work, we report on the enhancement of EQE and the quality of ZnO NR-based hetrojunction white LEDs fabricated on a p-GaN substrate using a low temperature solution method. Cathodoluminescence spectra demonstrate that ultraviolet (UV) emission decreases and visible deep band emission increases with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs. The UV emission could be internally reabsorbed by the ZnO NR excitation, thus enhancing the emission intensity of the visible deep band. Photocurrent measurements validated the fact that the EQE depends on the size of ZnO NRs, increasing by 87% with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs. Furthermore, the quality of white light was measured and clearly indicated an increase in the color rendering indices of the LEDs with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs, confirming that the quality of light generated by LEDs can be tuned by varying the length of the ZnO NRs. These results suggest that the EQE and visible deep band emission from n-ZnONRs/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs can be effectively controlled by adjusting the length of the ZnO NRs, which can be useful for realizing tunable white LEDs.

  17. Characterization of spatial manipulation on ZnO nanocomposites consisting of Au nanoparticles, a graphene layer, and ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shen-Che; Lu, Chien-Cheng; Su, Wei-Ming; Weng, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Cian; Wang, Shing-Chung; Lu, Tien-Chang; Chen, Ching-Pang; Chen, Hsiang

    2018-01-01

    Three types of ZnO-based nanocomposites were fabricated consisting of 80-nm Au nanoparticles (NPs), a graphene layer, and ZnO nanorods (NRs). To investigate interactions between the ZnO NRs and Au nanoparticle, multiple material analysis techniques including field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), surface contact angle measurements, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopic characterizations were performed. Results indicate that incorporating a graphene layer could block the interaction between the ZnO NRs and the Au NPs. Furthermore, the Raman signal of the Au NPs could be enhanced by inserting a graphene layer on top of the ZnO NRs. Investigation of these graphene-incorporated nanocomposites would be helpful to future studies of the physical properties and Raman analysis of the ZnO-based nanostructure design.

  18. Effect of thermal implying during ageing process of nanorods growth on the properties of zinc oxide nanorod arrays

    SciT

    Ismail, A. S., E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com; Mamat, M. H., E-mail: mhmamat@salam.uitm.edu.my; Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.my

    Undoped and Sn-doped Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been fabricated using a simple sol-gel immersion method at 95°C of growth temperature. Thermal sourced by hot plate stirrer was supplied to the solution during ageing process of nanorods growth. The results showed significant decrement in the quality of layer produced after the immersion process where the conductivity and porosity of the samples reduced significantly due to the thermal appliance. The structural properties of the samples have been characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) electrical properties has been characterized using current voltage (I-V) measurement.

  19. Y-doping TiO2 nanorod arrays for efficient perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xinlian; Wang, Yanqing; Cui, Zhendong; Li, Long; Shi, Chengwu

    2018-05-01

    To improve the electron transportation in TiO2 nanorod arrays and charge separation in the interface of TiO2/perovskite, Y-doping TiO2 nanorod arrays with the length of 200 nm, diameter of 11 nm and areal density of 1050 μm-2 were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method and the influence of Y/Ti molar ratios of 0%, 3%, 5% in the hydrothermal grown solutions on the growth of TiO2 nanorod arrays was investigated. The results revealed that the appropriate Y/Ti molar ratios can increase the areal density of the corresponding TiO2 nanorod arrays and improve the charge separation in the interface of the TiO2/perovskite. The Y-doping TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells with the Y/Ti molar ratio of 3% exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.11% along with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.06 V, short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 22.50 mA cm-2 and fill factor (FF) of 76.16%, while the un-doping TiO2 nanorod array perovskite solar cells gave a PCE of 16.42% along with Voc of 1.04 V, Jsc of 21.66 mA cm-2 and FF of 72.97%.

  20. Optical and photoelectrochemical performance study based on n-ZnO nanorod arrays/p-CuAlO2 laminar films/Ni heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Juan; Yang, Haibin; Deng, Weiwen

    2014-06-01

    A novel ZnO nanorod arrays (NRs)/CuAlO2 laminar films heterojunction nanostructure was grown on the substrate of Ni plates using sol-gel synthesis for laminar films and subsequent hydrothermal reaction for nanorod arrays. The surface morphology, structure, optical and photoelectrochemical behaviors of this heterojunction were considered. Two significant absorption peaks of UV-vis spectra and a favorable forward current to reverse current ratio at applied voltage of -0.7 V to +2 V were observed in this heterojunction. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical property was indicated that the highest photocurrent of 0.67 mA/cm2 was obtained under AM 1.5 illumination (vs Ag/AgCl). This heterojunction will play an important role in the optoelectronic fields and can be extended to other binary or ternary oxide compositions for optoelectronic applications.

  1. Functionalization of carbon fiber tows with ZnO nanorods for stress sensor integration in smart composite materials.

    PubMed

    Calestani, D; Culiolo, M; Villani, M; Delmonte, D; Solzi, M; Kim, Tae-Yun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Marchini, L; Zappettini, A

    2018-08-17

    The physical and operating principle of a stress sensor, based on two crossing carbon fibers functionalized with ZnO nanorod-shaped nanostructures, was recently demonstrated. The functionalization process has been here extended to tows made of one thousand fibers, like those commonly used in industrial processing, to prove the idea that the same working principle can be exploited in the creation of smart sensing carbon fiber composites. A stress-sensing device made of two functionalized tows, fixed with epoxy resin and crossing like in a typical carbon fiber texture, was successfully tested. Piezoelectric properties of single nanorods, as well as those of the test device, were measured and discussed.

  2. IGZO thin film transistor biosensors functionalized with ZnO nanorods and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi-Chun; Yang, Chun-Hsu; Chen, Shu-Wen; Wu, Shou-Hao; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Huang, Jian-Jang

    2014-04-15

    We demonstrate a biosensor structure consisting of an IGZO (Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide) TFT (thin film transistor) and an extended sensing pad. The TFT acts as the sensing and readout device, while the sensing pad ensures the isolation of biological solution from the transistor channel layer, and meanwhile increases the sensing area. The biosensor is functionalized by first applying ZnO nanorods to increase the surface area for attracting electrical charges of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) antibodies. The device is able to selectively detect 36.2 fM of EGFR in the total protein solution of 0.1 ng/ml extracted from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Furthermore, the conjugation duration of the functionalized device with EGFR can be limited to 3 min, implying that the biosensor has the advantage for real-time detection. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Field enhancement of multiphoton induced luminescence processes in ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyyti, Janne; Perestjuk, Marko; Mahler, Felix; Grunwald, Rüdiger; Güell, Frank; Gray, Ciarán; McGlynn, Enda; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2018-03-01

    The near-ultraviolet photoluminescence of ZnO nanorods induced by multiphoton absorption of unamplified Ti:sapphire pulses is investigated. Power dependence measurements have been conducted with an adaptation of the ultrashort pulse characterization method of interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating. These measurements enable the separation of second harmonic and photoluminescence bands due to their distinct coherence properties. A detailed analysis yields fractional power dependence exponents in the range of 3-4, indicating the presence of multiple nonlinear processes. The range in measured exponents is attributed to differences in local field enhancement, which is supported by independent photoluminescence and structural measurements. Simulations based on Keldysh theory suggest contributions by three- and four-photon absorption as well as avalanche ionization in agreement with experimental findings.

  4. Effect of TiO{sub 2} thickness on nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO{sub 2} for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciT

    Saurdi, I., E-mail: saurdy788@gmail.com; Ishak, A.; UiTM Sarawak Kampus Kota Samarahan Jalan Meranek, Sarawak

    2016-07-06

    The TiO{sub 2} films were deposited on glass substrate at different thicknesses with different deposition frequencies (1, 2, 3 and 4 times) using spin coating technique and their structural properties were investigated. Subsequently, the nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorods and TiO{sub 2} were formed by deposited the TiO{sub 2} on top of aligned ZnO Nanorod on ITO-coated glass at different thicknesses using the same method of TiO{sub 2} deposited on glass substrate. The nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO{sub 2} were coated with different thicknesses of 900µm, 1815µm, 2710µm, 3620µm and ZnO without TiO{sub 2}. The dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated from themore » nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO{sub 2} with thickness of 900µm, 1815µm, 2710µm and 3620µm and ZnO without TiO{sub 2} and their photovoltaic properties of the DSSCs were investigated. From the solar simulator measurement the solar energy conversion efficiency (η) of 2.543% under AM 1.5 was obtained for the ZnO nanorod/TiO{sub 2} photoanode-2710µm Dye-Sensitized solar cell.« less

  5. Template-based preparation of free-standing semiconducting polymeric nanorod arrays on conductive substrates.

    PubMed

    Haberkorn, Niko; Weber, Stefan A L; Berger, Rüdiger; Theato, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of a cross-linkable siloxane-derivatized tetraphenylbenzidine (DTMS-TPD), which was used for the fabrication of semiconducting highly ordered nanorod arrays on conductive indium tin oxide or Pt-coated substrates. The stepwise process allow fabricating of macroscopic areas of well-ordered free-standing nanorod arrays, which feature a high resistance against organic solvents, semiconducting properties and a good adhesion to the substrate. Thin films of the TPD derivate with good hole-conducting properties could be prepared by cross-linking and covalently attaching to hydroxylated substrates utilizing an initiator-free thermal curing at 160 degrees C. The nanorod arrays composed of cross-linked DTMS-TPD were fabricated by an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template approach. Furthermore, the nanorod arrays were investigated by a recently introduced method allowing to probe local conductivity on fragile structures. It revealed that more than 98% of the nanorods exhibit electrical conductance and consequently feature a good electrical contact to the substrate. The prepared nanorod arrays have the potential to find application in the fabrication of multilayered device architectures for building well-ordered bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  6. Photoluminescence transient study of surface defects in ZnO nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagiovanni, E. G.; Strano, V.; Franzò, G.; Crupi, I.; Mirabella, S.

    2015-03-01

    Two deep level defects (2.25 and 2.03 eV) associated with oxygen vacancies (Vo) were identified in ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown by low cost chemical bath deposition. A transient behaviour in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the two Vo states was found to be sensitive to the ambient environment and to NR post-growth treatment. The largest transient was found in samples dried on a hot plate with a PL intensity decay time, in air only, of 23 and 80 s for the 2.25 and 2.03 eV peaks, respectively. Resistance measurements under UV exposure exhibited a transient behaviour in full agreement with the PL transient, indicating a clear role of atmospheric O2 on the surface defect states. A model for surface defect transient behaviour due to band bending with respect to the Fermi level is proposed. The results have implications for a variety of sensing and photovoltaic applications of ZnO NRs.

  7. Effect of immobilization technique on performance ZnO nanorods based enzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Mayoorika; Pramila; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, ZnO Nanorods (ZNR) have been synthesized over Platinum (Pt) coated glass substrate with in-situ addition KMnO4 during hydrothermal growth process. Significant variation in ZnO nanostructures was observed by KMnO4 addition during the growth. Glucose oxidase was later immobilized over ZNRs. The as-prepared ZNRs were further utilized for glucose detection by employing amperometric electrochemical transduction method. In order to optimize the performance of the prepared biosensor two different immobilization techniques i.e. physical adsorption and cross linking have been employed and compared. Further investigations suggest that immobilization via cross linking method resulted in the improvement of the biosensor performance, thereby significantly affecting the sensitivity and linear range of the fabricated biosensor. Among the two types of biosensors fabricated using ZNR, the best performance was shown by cross linked electrodes. The sensitivity for the same was found to be 17.7 mA-cm-2-M-1, along with a wide linear range of 0.5-8.5 mM.

  8. Low temperature preparation of Ag-doped ZnO nanowire arrays for sensor and light-emitting diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupan, O.; Viana, B.; Cretu, V.; Postica, V.; Adelung, R.; Pauporté, T.

    2016-02-01

    Transition metal doped-oxide semiconductor nanostructures are important to achieve enhanced and new properties for advanced applications. We describe the low temperature preparation of ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod (NW/NR) arrays by electrodeposition at 90 °C. The NWs have been characterized by SEM, EDX, transmittance and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The integration of Ag in the crystal is shown. Single nanowire/nanorod of ZnO:Ag was integrated in a nanosensor structure leading to new and enhanced properties. The ultraviolet (UV) response of the nanosensor was investigated at room temperature. Experimental results indicate that ZnO:Ag (0.75 μM) nanosensor possesses faster response/recovery time and better response to UV light than those reported in literature. The sensor structure has been also shown to give a fast response for the hydrogen detection with improved performances compared to pristine ZnO NWs. ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod arrays electrochemically grown on p-type GaN single crystal layer is also shown to act as light emitter in LED structures. The emission wavelength is red-shifted compared to pristine ZnO NW array. At low Ag concentration a single UV-blue emission is found whereas at higher concentration of dopant the emission is broadened and extends up to the red wavelength range. Our study indicates that high quality ZnO:Ag NW/NR prepared at low temperature by electrodeposition can serve as building nanomaterials for new sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs) structures with low-power consumption.

  9. Tuning of deep level emission in highly oriented electrodeposited ZnO nanorods by post growth annealing treatments

    SciT

    Simimol, A.; Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut 673601; Manikandanath, N. T.

    Highly dense and c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite facets were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by a simple and cost-effective electrodeposition method at low bath temperature (80 °C). The as-grown samples were then annealed at various temperatures (T{sub A} = 100–500 °C) in different environments (e.g., zinc, oxygen, air, and vacuum) to understand their photoluminescence (PL) behavior in the ultra-violet (UV) and the visible regions. The PL results revealed that the as-deposited ZnO nanorods consisted of oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}), zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}), and oxygen interstitial (O{sub i}) defects and these can be reduced significantlymore » by annealing in different environments at optimal annealing temperatures. However, the intensity of deep level emission increased for T{sub A} greater than the optimized values for the respective environments due to the introduction of various defect centers. For example, for T{sub A} ≥ 450 °C in the oxygen and air environments, the density of O{sub i} defects increased, whereas, the green emission associated with V{sub O} is dominant in the vacuum annealed (T{sub A} = 500 °C) ZnO nanorods. The UV peak red shifted after the post-growth annealing treatments in all the environments and the vacuum annealed sample exhibited highest UV peak intensity. The observations from the PL data are supported by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present study gives new insight into the origin of different defects that exist in the electrodeposited ZnO nanorods and how these defects can be precisely controlled in order to get the desired emissions for the opto-electronic applications.« less

  10. Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors using ZnO Nanorods as the Sensor Substrate for Bioanalytical Applications.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ying; Ahmad, Norlaily; Briscoe, Joe; Zhang, De-Wen; Krause, Steffi

    2018-06-22

    Light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS) are of great interest in bioimaging applications such as the monitoring of concentrations in microfluidic channels or the investigation of metabolic and signaling events in living cells. By measuring the photocurrents at electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) and electrolyte-semiconductor structures, LAPS can produce spatiotemporal images of chemical or biological analytes, electrical potentials and impedance. However, its commercial applications are often restricted by their limited AC photocurrents and resolution of LAPS images. Herein, for the first time, the use of 1D semiconducting oxides in the form of ZnO nanorods for LAPS imaging is explored to solve this issue. A significantly increased AC photocurrent with enhanced image resolution has been achieved based on ZnO nanorods, with a photocurrent of 45.7 ± 0.1 nA at a light intensity of 0.05 mW, a lateral resolution as low as 3.0 μm as demonstrated by images of a PMMA dot on ZnO nanorods and a pH sensitivity of 53 mV/pH. The suitability of the device for bioanalysis and bioimaging was demonstrated by monitoring the degradation of a thin poly(ester amide) film with the enzyme α-chymotrypsin using LAPS. This simple and robust route to fabricate LAPS substrates with excellent performance would provide tremendous opportunities for bioimaging.

  11. The influence of annealing temperature on the interface and photovoltaic properties of CdS/CdSe quantum dots sensitized ZnO nanorods solar cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Ling; Gong, Haibo; Zhu, Min; Han, Jun; Zi, Min; Yang, Xiaopeng; Ji, Changjian; Cao, Bingqiang

    2014-09-15

    Arrays of ZnO/CdS/CdSe core/shell nanocables with different annealing temperatures have been investigated for CdS/CdSe quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). CdS/CdSe quantum dots were synthesized on the surface of ZnO nanorods that serve as the scaffold via a simple ion-exchange approach. The uniform microstructure was verified by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. UV-Visible absorption spectrum and Raman spectroscopy analysis indicated noticeable influence of annealing temperature on the interface structural and optical properties of the CdS/CdSe layers. Particularly, the relationship between annealing temperatures and photovoltaic performance of the corresponding QDSSCs was investigated employing photovoltaic conversion, quantum efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra. It is demonstrated that higher cell efficiency can be obtained by optimizing the annealing temperature through extending the photoresponse range and improving QD layer crystal quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasensitive sliver nanorods array SERS sensor for mercury ions.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunyuan; Yang, Boyue; Zhu, Yu; Yang, Yanjun; Wang, Lianhui

    2017-01-15

    With years of outrageous mercury emissions, there is an urgent need to develop convenient and sensitive methods for detecting mercury ions in response to increasingly serious mercury pollution in water. In the present work, a portable, ultrasensitive SERS sensor is proposed and utilized for detecting trace mercury ions in water. The SERS sensor is prepared on an excellent sliver nanorods array SERS substrate by immobilizing T-component oligonucleotide probes labeled with dye on the 3'-end and -SH on the 5'-end. The SERS sensor responses to the specific chemical bonding between thymine and mercury ions, which causes the previous flexible single strand of oligonucleotide probe changing into rigid and upright double chain structure. Such change in the structure drives the dyes far away from the excellent SERS substrate and results in a SERS signal attenuation of the dye. Therefore, by monitoring the decay of SERS signal of the dye, mercury ions in water can be detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The experimental results indicate that the proposed optimal SERS sensor owns a linear response with wide detecting range from 1pM to 1μM, and a detection limit of 0.16pM is obtained. In addition, the SERS sensor demonstrates good specificity for Hg 2+ , which can accurately identify trace mercury ions from a mixture of ten kinds of other ions. The SERS sensor has been further executed to analyze the trace mercury ions in tap water and lake water respectively, and good recovery rates are obtained for sensing both kinds of water. With its high selectivity and good portability, the ultrasensitive SERS sensor is expected to be a promising candidate for discriminating mercury ions in the fields of environmental monitoring and food safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cu2O-tipped ZnO nanorods with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance for CO2 photoreduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muzaffar; Wang, Yanjie; Hu, Haifeng; He, Meng; Hassan Shah, Aamir; Lin, Lin; Li, Pan; Shao, Kunjuan; Reda Woldu, Abebe; He, Tao

    2018-06-01

    The design of Cu2O-tipped ZnO nanorods is proposed here aiming at enhanced photoelectrochemical properties. The tip-selective deposition of Cu2O is confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The photoinduced charge behavior like charge generation, separation and transport has been thoroughly studied by UV-vis absorption analysis and different photoelectrochemical characterizations, including transient photocurrent, incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS), and Mott-Schottky measurements. The photoelectrochemical characterizations clearly indicate that ZnO/Cu2O structures exhibit much higher performance than pristine ZnO, due to the formation of p-n junction, as well as the tip selective growth of Cu2O on ZnO. Photocatalytic CO2 reduction in aqueous solution under UV-visible light illumination shows that CO is the main product, and with the increase of the Cu2O content in the heterostructure, the CO yield increases. This work shows that Cu2O-tipped ZnO nanorods possess improved behavior of charge generation, separation and transport, which may work as a potential candidate for photocatalytic CO2 reduction.

  14. Influence of the morphology of ZnO nanostructures on luminescent and photovoltaic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, N. Kh.; Ilyassov, B. R.; Afanasyev, D. A.

    2017-03-01

    Arrays of ZnO nanorods and nanoplates are synthesized by the hydrothermal and electrochemical methods, respectively. The photoluminescence spectra indicate that the nanoplates have a more defective structure than the nanorods. The obtained ZnO nanostructures are used as the basis to construct dye-sensitized solar cells. The influence of morphology and defectiveness of ZnO nanostructures on the luminescent and photovoltaic properties of the cells is studied.

  15. The effect of cation doping on the morphology, optical and structural properties of highly oriented wurtzite ZnO-nanorod arrays grown by a hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, A.; Guo, P.; Shen, S.; Bianucci, P.

    2017-10-01

    Undoped and C-doped (C: Mg2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Cr3+) ZnO nanorods were synthesized by a hydrothermal method at temperatures as low as 60 °C. The effect of doping on the morphology of the ZnO nanorods was visualized by taking their cross section and top SEM images. The results show that the size of nanorods was increased in both height and diameter by cation doping. The crystallinity change of the ZnO nanorods due to each doping element was thoroughly investigated by an x-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns show that the wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO nanorods was maintained after cation addition. The optical Raman-active modes of undoped and cation-doped nanorods were measured with a micro-Raman setup at room temperature. The surface chemistry of samples was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Finally, the effect of each cation dopant on band-gap shift of the ZnO nanorods was investigated by a photoluminescence setup at room temperature. Although the amount of dopants (Mg2+, Ni2+, and Co2+) was smaller than the amount of Mn2+, Cu2+, and Cr3+ in the nanorods, their effect on the band structure of the ZnO nanorods was profound. The highest band-gap shift was achieved for a Co-doped sample, and the best crystal orientation was for Mn-doped ZnO nanorods. Our results can be used as a comprehensive reference for engineering of the morphological, structural and optical properties of cation-doped ZnO nanorods by using a low-temperature synthesis as an economical mass-production approach.

  16. Falling Leaves Inspired ZnO Nanorods-Nanoslices Hierarchical Structure for Implant Surface Modification with Two Stage Releasing Features.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hang; Miao, Xinxin; Ye, Jing; Wu, Tianlong; Deng, Zhongbo; Li, Chen; Jia, Jingyu; Cheng, Xigao; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-04-19

    Inspired from falling leaves, ZnO nanorods-nanoslices hierarchical structure (NHS) was constructed to modify the surfaces of two widely used implant materials: titanium (Ti) and tantalum (Ta), respectively. By which means, two-stage release of antibacterial active substances were realized to address the clinical importance of long-term broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. At early stages (within 48 h), the NHS exhibited a rapid releasing to kill the bacteria around the implant immediately. At a second stage (over 2 weeks), the NHS exhibited a slow releasing to realize long-term inhibition. The excellent antibacterial activity of ZnO NHS was confirmed once again by animal test in vivo. According to the subsequent experiments, the ZnO NHS coating exhibited the great advantage of high efficiency, low toxicity, and long-term durability, which could be a feasible manner to prevent the abuse of antibiotics on implant-related surgery.

  17. Comparative assessment of toxicity of ZnO and amine-functionalized ZnO nanorods toward Daphnia magna in acute and chronic multigenerational tests.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Renata Amanda; de Oliveira Franco Rossetto, Ana Letícia; Nogueira, Diego José; Vicentini, Denice Schulz; Matias, William Gerson

    2018-04-01

    Zinc oxide nanomaterials (ZnO NM) have been used in a large number of applications due to their interesting physicochemical properties. However, the increasing use of ZnO NM has led to concerns regarding their environmental impacts. In this study, the acute and chronic toxicity of ZnO nanorods (NR) bare (ZnONR) and amine-functionalized (ZnONR@AF) toward the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia magna was evaluated. The ZnO NR were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameter (HD). The acute EC50 (48h) values for D. magna revealed that the ZnONR@AF were more toxic than the ZnONR. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in both NM. Regarding the chronic toxicity, the ZnONR@AF were again found to be more toxic than the ZnONR toward D. magna. An effect on longevity was observed for ZnONR, while ZnONR@AF affected the reproduction, growth and longevity. In the multigenerational recovery test, we observed that maternal exposure can affect the offspring even when these organisms are not directly exposed to the ZnO NR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel fabrication methodology for sulfur-doped ZnO nanorods as an active photoanode for improved water oxidation in visible-light regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Ahmed, M. I.; Adam, A.; Azad, A.-M.; Qamar, M.

    2017-02-01

    Incorporation of foreign moiety in the lattice of semiconductors significantly alters their optoelectronic behavior and opens a plethora of new applications. In this paper, we report the synthesis of sulfur-doped zinc oxide (S-doped ZnO) nanorods by reacting ZnO nanorods with diammonium sulfide in vapor phase. Microscopic investigation revealed that the morphological features, such as, the length (2-4 μm) and width (100-250 nm) of the original hexagonal ZnO nanorods remained intact post-sulfidation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the sulfide sample confirmed the incorporation of sulfur into ZnO lattice. The optical measurements suggested the extension of absorption threshold into visible region upon sulfidation. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) activities of pure and S-doped ZnO nanorods were compared for water oxidation in visible light (λ > 420 nm), which showed several-fold increment in the performance of S-doped ZnO sample; the observed amelioration in the PEC activity was rationalized in terms of preferred visible light absorption and low resistance of sulfide sample, as evidenced by optical and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  19. Highly-sensitive cholesterol biosensor based on platinum-gold hybrid functionalized ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengyan; Tan, Xingrong; Chen, Shihong; Yuan, Ruo; Hu, Fangxin; Yuan, Dehua; Xiang, Yun

    2012-05-30

    A novel scheme for the fabrication of gold/platinum hybrid functionalized ZnO nanorods (Pt-Au@ZnONRs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified electrode is presented and its application for cholesterol biosensor is investigated. Firstly, Pt-Au@ZnONRs was prepared by the method of chemical synthesis. Then, the Pt-Au@ZnONRs suspension was dropped on the MWCNTs modified glass carbon electrode, and followed with cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) immobilization by the adsorbing interaction between the nano-material and ChOx as well as the electrostatic interaction between ZnONRs and ChOx molecules. The combination of MWCNTs and Pt-Au@ZnONRs provided a favorable environment for ChOx and resulted in the enhanced analytical response of the biosensor. The resulted biosensor exhibited a linear response to cholesterol in the wide range of 0.1-759.3 μM with a low detection limit of 0.03 μM and a high sensitivity of 26.8 μA mM(-1). The calculated apparent Michaelis constant K(M)(app) was 1.84 mM, indicating a high affinity between ChOx and cholesterol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An enhanced low-frequency vibration ZnO nanorod-based tuning fork piezoelectric nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Deng, Weili; Jin, Long; Chen, Yueqi; Chu, Wenjun; Zhang, Binbin; Sun, Huan; Xiong, Da; Lv, Zekai; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing

    2018-01-03

    In this paper, a piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) based on a tuning fork-shaped cantilever was designed and fabricated, aiming at harvesting low frequency vibration energy in the environment. In the PENG, a tuning fork-shaped elastic beam combined with ZnO nanorods (NRs), instead of conventional rectangular cantilever beams, was adopted to extract vibration energy. Benefiting from the high flexibility and the controllable shape of the substrate, this PENG was extremely sensitive to vibration and can harvest weak vibration energy at a low frequency. Moreover, a series of simulation models were established to compare the performance of the PENG with that of different shapes. On this basis, the experimental results further verify that this designed energy harvester could operate at a low frequency which was about 13 Hz. The peak output voltage and current could respectively reach about 160 mV and 11 nA, and a maximum instantaneous peak power of 0.92 μW cm -3 across a matched load of 9 MΩ was obtained. Evidently, this newly designed PENG could harvest vibration energy at a lower frequency, which will contribute to broaden the application range of the PENG in energy harvesting and self-powered systems.

  1. Hydrogen effects on the electroluminescence of n-ZnO nanorod/p-GaN film heterojunction light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Zhao, Dongxu; Li, Binghui; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Shen, Dezhen

    2010-07-07

    Through a facile low-temperature solution process, vertically n-type ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on a GaN film to form a n-ZnO nanorod/p-GaN film heterojunction. A study of the electroluminescence (EL) characteristics of the heterojunction in air and in air with 2000 ppm hydrogen revealed the sensitivity of such a device to the surrounding atmosphere. The additional hydrogen shallow donors increased the effective electron concentration in ZnO nanorods and the EL recombination zone changed from the ZnO nanorods to the GaN film, which can be identified visually from the color change.

  2. A comparative study of pure and copper (Cu)-doped ZnO nanorods for antibacterial and photocatalytic applications with their mechanism of action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Tamanna; Khanuja, Manika; Sharma, R.; Patel, S.; Reddy, M. R.; Anand, S.; Varma, A.

    2015-07-01

    The present study reports the synthesis of pure and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods for antibacterial and photocatalytic applications. The samples were synthesized by simple, low cost mechanical-assisted thermal decomposition process. The synthesized materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence studies. The antibacterial activity of characterized samples was determined against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes and Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli using shake flask method with respect to time. The significant antibacterial activity was perceived from scanning electron micrographs that clearly revealed bacterial cell lysis resulting in the release of cytoplasmic content followed by cell death. The degradation of methylene blue was used as a model organic dye for photocatalytic activity. The present study demonstrates the superior photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of Cu-doped ZnO nanorods with respect to pure ZnO nanorods.

  3. Effect of self-organization, defects, impurities, and autocatalytic processes on the parameters of ZnO films and nanorods

    SciT

    Mezdrogina, M. M., E-mail: Margaret.M@mail.ioffe.ru; Eremenko, M. V.; Levitskii, V. S.

    The effects of the parameters of ZnO-film deposition onto different substrates using the method of ac magnetron sputtering in a gas mixture of argon and oxygen hare studied. The phenomenon of self-organization is observed, which leads to invariability of the surface morphology of the ZnO films upon a variation in the substrate materials and deposition parameters. The parameters of the macro- and micro-photoluminescence spectra of the films differ insignificantly from the parameters of the photoluminescence spectra of bulk ZnO crystals obtained by the method of hydrothermal growth. The presence of intense emission with a narrow full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) inmore » different regions of the spectrum allows ZnO films obtained by magnetron sputtering doped with rare-earth metal impurities (REIs) to be considered as a promising material for the creation of optoelectronic devices working in a broad spectral range. The possibility of the implementation of magnetic ordering upon legierung with REIs significantly broadens the functional possibilities of ZnO films. The parameters of the photoluminescence spectra of ZnO nanorods are determined by their geometrical parameters and by the concentration and type of the impurities introduced.« less

  4. Direct Growth of Crystalline Tungsten Oxide Nanorod Arrays by a Hydrothermal Process and Their Electrochromic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chih-Hao; Hon, Min Hsiung; Leu, Ing-Chi

    2017-04-01

    Transparent crystalline tungsten oxide nanorod arrays for use as an electrochromic layer have been directly prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass via a facile tungsten film-assisted hydrothermal process using aqueous tungsten hexachloride solution. X-ray diffraction analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the phase and morphology of the grown nanostructures. Arrays of tungsten oxide nanorods with diameter of ˜22 nm and length of ˜240 nm were obtained at 200°C after 8 h of hydrothermal reaction. We propose a growth mechanism for the deposition of the monoclinic tungsten oxide phase in the hydrothermal environment. The tungsten film was first oxidized to tungsten oxide to provide seed sites for crystal growth and address the poor connection between the growing tungsten oxide and substrate. Aligned tungsten oxide nanorod arrays can be grown by a W thin film-assisted heterogeneous nucleation process with NaCl as a structure-directing agent. The fabricated electrochromic device demonstrated optical modulation (coloration/bleaching) at 632.8 nm of ˜41.2% after applying a low voltage of 0.1 V for 10 s, indicating the potential of such nanorod array films for use in energy-saving smart windows.

  5. The use of silver nanorod array based surface enhanced Raman scattering sensor for food safety applications

    For the advancement of preventive strategies, it is critical to develop rapid and sensitive detection methods with nanotechnology for food safety applications. This article reports the recent development on the use of aligned silver nanorod (AgNR) arrays prepared by oblique angle deposition, as surf...

  6. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods on Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers grown by hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Su; Kim, Do Yeob; Kim, Sung-O; Leem, Jae-Young

    2013-05-01

    ZnO nanorods were grown on the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers with different thickness by hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) were carried out to investigate the effects of the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layer thickness on the structural and the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods. The residual stress in the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers was depended on the thickness while the texture coefficient of the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers was not affected significantly. The smaller full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the ZnO (002) diffraction and near-band-edge emission (NBE) peak and the larger average grain size were observed from the ZnO nanorods grown on the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers with 5 layers (thickness of 350 nm), which indicate the enhancement the structural and the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods.

  7. Binder-free ZnO@ZnSnO3 quantum dots core-shell nanorod array anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hsiang; Cho, Hsun-Wei; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2018-06-01

    In this work, ZnSnO3 quantum dots (QDs), instead of commonly used conductive carbon, are grown on the ZnO nanorod (NR) array to construct the binder-free ZnO@ZnSnO3 QDs core-shell NR array electrode on carbon cloth for lithium-ion battery. The ZnO@ZnSnO3 QDs core-shell NR array electrode exhibits excellent lithium storage performance with an improved cycling performance and superior rate capability compared to the ZnO NR array electrode. At a current density of 200 mAg-1, 15.8% capacity loss is acquired in the ZnO@ZnSnO3 QDs core-shell NR array electrode after 110 cycles with capacity retention of 1073 mAhg-1. Significant increases in reversible capacities from 340 to 545 mAhg-1 and from 95 to 390 mAhg-1 at current densities of 1000 and 2000 mAg-1, respectively, are achieved as the ZnO NR arrays are coated with the ZnSnO3 QD shells. The remarkably improved electrochemical performances result from that the configuration of binder-free ZnO@ZnSnO3 QDs core-shell NR array electrode not only facilitates the charge transfer through the solid electrolyte interface and the electronic/ionic conduction boundary as well as lithium ion diffusion but also effectively accommodates the volume change during repeated charge/discharge processes.

  8. Controlled growth of standing Ag nanorod arrays on bare Si substrate using glancing angle deposition for self-cleaning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dhruv P.; Singh, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    A facile approach to manipulate the hydrophobicity of surface by controlled growth of standing Ag nanorod arrays is presented. Instead of following the complicated conventional method of the template-assisted growth, the morphology or particularly average diameter and number density (nanorods cm-2) of nanorods were controlled on bare Si substrate by simply varying the deposition rate during glancing angle deposition. The contact angle measurements showed that the evolution of Ag nanorods reduces the surface energy and makes an increment in the apparent water contact angle compared to the plain Ag thin film. The contact angle was found to increase for the Ag nanorod samples grown at lower deposition rates. Interestingly, the morphology of the nanorod arrays grown at very low deposition rate (1.2 Å sec-1) results in a self-cleaning superhydrophobic surface of contact angle about 157° and a small roll-off angle about 5°. The observed improvement in hydrophobicity with change in the morphology of nanorod arrays is explained as the effect of reduction in solid fraction within the framework of Cassie-Baxter model. These self-cleaning Ag nanorod arrays could have a significant impact in wide range of applications such as anti-icing coatings, sensors and solar panels.

  9. Aligned copper nanorod arrays for highly efficient generation of intense ultra-broadband THz pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, S.; Wei, Q.; Ding, W. J.; Hafez, H. A.; Fareed, M. A.; Laramée, A.; Ropagnol, X.; Zhang, G.; Sun, S.; Sheng, Z. M.; Zhang, J.; Ozaki, T.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate an intense broadband terahertz (THz) source based on the interaction of relativistic-intensity femtosecond lasers with aligned copper nanorod array targets. For copper nanorod targets with a length of 5 μm, a maximum 13.8 times enhancement in the THz pulse energy (in ≤20 THz spectral range) is measured as compared to that with a thick plane copper target under the same laser conditions. A further increase in the nanorod length leads to a decrease in the THz pulse energy at medium frequencies (≤20 THz) and increase of the electromagnetic pulse energy in the high-frequency range (from 20-200 THz). For the latter, we measure a maximum energy enhancement of 28 times for the nanorod targets with a length of 60 μm. Particle-in-cell simulations reveal that THz pulses are mostly generated by coherent transition radiation of laser produced hot electrons, which are efficiently enhanced with the use of nanorod targets. Good agreement is found between the simulation and experimental results.

  10. Aligned copper nanorod arrays for highly efficient generation of intense ultra-broadband THz pulses.

    PubMed

    Mondal, S; Wei, Q; Ding, W J; Hafez, H A; Fareed, M A; Laramée, A; Ropagnol, X; Zhang, G; Sun, S; Sheng, Z M; Zhang, J; Ozaki, T

    2017-01-10

    We demonstrate an intense broadband terahertz (THz) source based on the interaction of relativistic-intensity femtosecond lasers with aligned copper nanorod array targets. For copper nanorod targets with a length of 5 μm, a maximum 13.8 times enhancement in the THz pulse energy (in ≤20 THz spectral range) is measured as compared to that with a thick plane copper target under the same laser conditions. A further increase in the nanorod length leads to a decrease in the THz pulse energy at medium frequencies (≤20 THz) and increase of the electromagnetic pulse energy in the high-frequency range (from 20-200 THz). For the latter, we measure a maximum energy enhancement of 28 times for the nanorod targets with a length of 60 μm. Particle-in-cell simulations reveal that THz pulses are mostly generated by coherent transition radiation of laser produced hot electrons, which are efficiently enhanced with the use of nanorod targets. Good agreement is found between the simulation and experimental results.

  11. Aligned copper nanorod arrays for highly efficient generation of intense ultra-broadband THz pulses

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, S.; Wei, Q.; Ding, W. J.; Hafez, H. A.; Fareed, M. A.; Laramée, A.; Ropagnol, X.; Zhang, G.; Sun, S.; Sheng, Z. M.; Zhang, J.; Ozaki, T.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate an intense broadband terahertz (THz) source based on the interaction of relativistic-intensity femtosecond lasers with aligned copper nanorod array targets. For copper nanorod targets with a length of 5 μm, a maximum 13.8 times enhancement in the THz pulse energy (in ≤20 THz spectral range) is measured as compared to that with a thick plane copper target under the same laser conditions. A further increase in the nanorod length leads to a decrease in the THz pulse energy at medium frequencies (≤20 THz) and increase of the electromagnetic pulse energy in the high-frequency range (from 20–200 THz). For the latter, we measure a maximum energy enhancement of 28 times for the nanorod targets with a length of 60 μm. Particle-in-cell simulations reveal that THz pulses are mostly generated by coherent transition radiation of laser produced hot electrons, which are efficiently enhanced with the use of nanorod targets. Good agreement is found between the simulation and experimental results. PMID:28071764

  12. Angle-dependent photodegradation over ZnO nanowire arrays on flexible paper substrates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we grew zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays on paper substrates using a two-step growth strategy. In the first step, we formed single-crystalline ZnO nanoparticles of uniform size distribution (ca. 4 nm) as seeds for the hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanowire arrays. After spin-coating of these seeds onto paper, we grew ZnO nanowire arrays conformally on these substrates. The crystal structure of a ZnO nanowire revealed that the nanowires were single-crystalline and had grown along the c axis. Further visualization through annular bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that the hydrothermally grown ZnO nanowires possessed Zn polarity. From photocatalytic activity measurements of the ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays on paper substrate, we extracted rate constants of 0.415, 0.244, 0.195, and 0.08 s-1 for the degradation of methylene blue at incident angles of 0°, 30°, 60°, and 75°, respectively; that is, the photocatalytic activity of these ZnO nanowire arrays was related to the cosine of the incident angle of the UV light. Accordingly, these materials have promising applications in the design of sterilization systems and light-harvesting devices. PMID:25593556

  13. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonally patterned quasi-1D ZnO nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) ZnO nanowire arrays with hexagonal pattern have been successfully synthesized via the vapor transport process without any metal catalyst. By utilizing polystyrene microsphere self-assembled monolayer, sol–gel-derived ZnO thin films were used as the periodic nucleation sites for the growth of ZnO nanowires. High-quality quasi-1D ZnO nanowires were grown from nucleation sites, and the original hexagonal periodicity is well-preserved. According to the experimental results, the vapor transport solid condensation mechanism was proposed, in which the sol–gel-derived ZnO film acting as a seed layer for nucleation. This simple method provides a favorable way to form quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures applicable to diverse fields such as two-dimensional photonic crystal, nanolaser, sensor arrays, and other optoelectronic devices. PMID:24521308

  14. Effect of γ-irradiation on the growth of ZnO nanorod films for photocatalytic disinfection of contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Julio; Ponce, Silvia; Paraguay-Delgado, Francisco; Rodríguez, Juan

    2011-12-01

    The growth of ZnO nanorods on a flat substrate containing γ-irradiated seeds and their ability to photocatalytically eliminate bacteria in water were studied. The seed layer was obtained, by the spray pyrolysis technique, from zinc acetate solutions γ-irradiated within the range from 0 to 100 kGy. Subsequently, to grow the rods, the seeds were immersed in a basic solution of zinc nitrate maintained at 90 °C. The rate of crystal growth on the seed layer during the thermal bath treatment was kept constant. The resulting materials were characterized morphologically by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies; X-ray diffraction was used to study their morphology and structure and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy to determine their absorbance. The obtained seed films were morphologically dependent on the radiation dose and this was correlated with the ZnO nanorod films which presented a texture in the (002) direction perpendicular to the substrate. The rods have a hexagonal mean cross section between 20 and 140 nm. Using these rods, the photocatalytic degradation of Escherichia coli bacteria in water was studied; a positive influence of the crystalline texture on the degradation rate was observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kun; Xie, Yiyang; Ma, Huali; Du, Yinxiao; Zeng, Fanguang; Ding, Pei; Gao, Zhiyuan; Xu, Chen; Sun, Jie

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, by virtue of one-dimensional ZnO nanorods and two-dimensional graphene film hybrid structures, both the enhanced current spreading and enhanced light extraction were realized at the same time. A 1 nm/1 nm Ni/Au layer was used as an interlayer between graphene and pGaN to form ohmic contact, which makes the device have a good forward conduction properties. Through the comparison of the two groups of making ZnO nanorods or not, it was found that the 30% light extraction efficiency of the device was improved by using the ZnO nanorods. By analysis key parameters of two groups such as the turn-on voltage, work voltage and reverse leakage current, it was proved that the method for preparing surface nano structure by hydrothermal method self-organization growth ZnO nanorods applied in GaN LEDs has no influence to device's electrical properties. The hybrid structure application in GaN LED, make an achievement of a good ohmic contact, no use of ITO and enhancement of light extraction at the same time, meanwhile it does not change the device structure, introduce additional process, worsen the electrical properties.

  16. Functionalized vertically aligned ZnO nanorods for application in electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor based pH sensors and label-free immuno-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Narendra; Senapati, Sujata; Kumar, Satyendra; Kumar, Jitendra; Panda, Siddhartha

    2016-04-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on a SiO2/Si surface by optimization of the temperature and atmosphere for annealing of the seed. The seed layer annealed at 500 °C in vacuum provided well separated and uniform seeds which also provided the best condition to get densely packed, uniformly distributed, and vertically aligned nanorods. These nanorods grown on the substrates were used to fabricate electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) devices for pH sensing. Etching of ZnO at acidic pH prevents the direct use of nanorods for pH sensing. Therefore, the nanorods functionalised with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) were utilized for pH sensing and showed the pH sensitivity of 50.1 mV/pH. APTES is also known to be used as a linker to immobilize biomolecules (such as antibodies). The EIS device with APTES functionalized nanorods was used for the label free detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Finally, voltage shifts of 23 mV and 35 mV were observed with PSA concentrations of 1 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml, respectively.

  17. Enhancement of local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect by biocompatible metal clustering based on ZnO nanorods in Raman measurements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghwa; Lee, Seung Ho; Paulson, Bjorn; Lee, Jae-Chul; Kim, Jun Ki

    2018-06-20

    The development of size-selective and non-destructive detection techniques for nanosized biomarkers has many reasons, including the study of living cells and diagnostic applications. We present an approach for Raman signal enhancement on biocompatible sensing chips based on surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A sensing chip was fabricated by forming a ZnO-based nanorod structure so that the Raman enhancement occurred at a gap of several tens to several hundred nanometers. The effect of coffee-ring formation was eliminated by introducing the porous ZnO nanorods for the bio-liquid sample. A peculiarity of this approach is that the gold sputtered on the ZnO nanorods initially grows at their heads forming clusters, as confirmed by secondary electron microscopy. This clustering was verified by finite element analysis to be the main factor for enhancement of local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). This clustering property and the ability to adjust the size of the nanorods enabled the signal acquisition points to be refined using confocal based Raman spectroscopy, which could be applied directly to the sensor chip based on the optimization process in this experiment. It was demonstrated by using common cancer cell lines that cell growth was high on these gold-clad ZnO nanorod-based surface-enhanced Raman substrates. The porosity of the sensing chip, the improved structure for signal enhancement, and the cell assay make these gold-coated ZnO nanorods substrates promising biosensing chips with excellent potential for detecting nanometric biomarkers secreted by cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. H2O2 sensing using HRP modified catalyst-free ZnO nanorods synthesized by RF sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Amit; Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Priti; Singh, Sunil Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Catalyst-free ( 00 l) oriented ZnO nanorods (NRs) -based biosensor for the H2O2 sensing has been reported. The (002) oriented ZnO NRs as confirmed by X-ray diffraction were successfully grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by radio frequency (RF) sputtering technique without using any catalyst. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme was immobilized on ZnO NRs by physical adsorption technique to prepare the biosensor. In this HRP/ZnO NR/ITO bioelectrode, nafion solution was added to form a tight membrane on surface. The prepared bioelectrode has been used for biosensing measurements by electrochemical analyzer. The electrochemical studies reveal that the prepared HRP/ZnO NR/ITO biosensor is highly sensitive to the detection of H2O2 over a linear range of 0.250-10 μM. The ZnO NR-based biosensor showed lower value of detection limit (0.125 μM) and higher sensitivity (13.40 µA/µM cm2) towards H2O2. The observed value of higher sensitivity attributed to larger surface area of ZnO nanostructure for effective loading of HRP besides its high electron communication capability. In addition, the biosensor also shows lower value of enzyme's kinetic parameter (Michaelis-Menten constant, K m) of 0.262 μM which indicates enhanced enzyme affinity of HRP to H2O2. The reported biosensor may be useful for various applications in biosensing, clinical, food, and beverage industry.

  19. Performance of natural-dye-sensitized solar cells by ZnO nanorod and nanowall enhanced photoelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Saadaoui, Saif; Ben Youssef, Mohamed Aziz; Ben Karoui, Moufida; Smecca, Emanuele; Strano, Vincenzina; Mirabella, Salvo; Alberti, Alessandra; Puglisi, Rosaria A

    2017-01-01

    In this work, two natural dyes extracted from henna and mallow plants with a maximum absorbance at 665 nm were studied and used as sensitizers in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the extract revealed the presence of anchoring groups and coloring constituents. Two different structures were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) using zinc oxide (ZnO) layers to obtain ZnO nanowall (NW) or nanorod (NR) layers employed as a thin film at the photoanode side of the DSSC. The ZnO layers were annealed at different temperatures under various gas sources. Indeed, the forming gas (FG) (N2/H2 95:5) was found to enhance the conductivity by a factor of 103 compared to nitrogen (N2) or oxygen (O2) annealing gas. The NR width varied between 40 and 100 nm and the length from 500 to 1000 nm, depending on the growth time. The obtained NWs had a length of 850 nm. The properties of the developed ZnO NW and NR layers with different thicknesses and their effect on the photovoltaic parameters were studied. An internal coverage of the ZnO NWs was also applied by the deposition of a thin TiO2 layer by reactive sputtering to improve the cell performance. The application of this layer increased the overall short circuit current J sc by seven times from 2.45 × 10−3 mA/cm2 to 1.70 × 10−2 mA /cm2. PMID:28243567

  20. Performance of natural-dye-sensitized solar cells by ZnO nanorod and nanowall enhanced photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Saadaoui, Saif; Ben Youssef, Mohamed Aziz; Ben Karoui, Moufida; Gharbi, Rached; Smecca, Emanuele; Strano, Vincenzina; Mirabella, Salvo; Alberti, Alessandra; Puglisi, Rosaria A

    2017-01-01

    In this work, two natural dyes extracted from henna and mallow plants with a maximum absorbance at 665 nm were studied and used as sensitizers in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the extract revealed the presence of anchoring groups and coloring constituents. Two different structures were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) using zinc oxide (ZnO) layers to obtain ZnO nanowall (NW) or nanorod (NR) layers employed as a thin film at the photoanode side of the DSSC. The ZnO layers were annealed at different temperatures under various gas sources. Indeed, the forming gas (FG) (N 2 /H 2 95:5) was found to enhance the conductivity by a factor of 10 3 compared to nitrogen (N 2 ) or oxygen (O 2 ) annealing gas. The NR width varied between 40 and 100 nm and the length from 500 to 1000 nm, depending on the growth time. The obtained NWs had a length of 850 nm. The properties of the developed ZnO NW and NR layers with different thicknesses and their effect on the photovoltaic parameters were studied. An internal coverage of the ZnO NWs was also applied by the deposition of a thin TiO 2 layer by reactive sputtering to improve the cell performance. The application of this layer increased the overall short circuit current J sc by seven times from 2.45 × 10 -3 mA/cm 2 to 1.70 × 10 -2 mA /cm 2 .

  1. UV-enhanced CO sensing using Ga 2O 3-based nanorod arrays at elevated temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Hui-Jan; Gao, Haiyong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2017-01-23

    Monitoring and control of gaseous combustion process are critically important in advanced energy systems such as power plants, gas turbines, and automotive engines. However, very limited gas sensing solutions are available in the market for such application due to the inherent high temperature of combustion gaseous atmosphere. In this study, we fabricated and demonstrated high-performance metal oxide based nanorod array sensors assisted with ultra-violet (UV) illumination for in situ and real-time high-temperature gas detection. Without UV-illumination, it was found surface decoration of either 5 nm LSFO or 1 nm Pt nanoparticles can enhance the sensitivity over CO at 500 °Cmore » by an order of magnitude. Under the 254 nm UV illumination, CO gas-sensing performance of Ga 2O 3-based nanorod array sensors was further enhanced with the sensitivity boosted by 125 %, and the response time reduced by 30 % for La 0.8Sr 0.2FeO 3(LSFO)-decorated sample. The UV-enhanced detecting of CO might be due to the increased population of photo-induced electron-hole pairs. While for LSFO-decorated nanorod array sensor under UV illumination, the enhancement is through a combination of sensitizing effect and photocurrent effect.« less

  2. UV-enhanced CO sensing using Ga 2O 3-based nanorod arrays at elevated temperature

    SciT

    Lin, Hui-Jan; Gao, Haiyong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    Monitoring and control of gaseous combustion process are critically important in advanced energy systems such as power plants, gas turbines, and automotive engines. However, very limited gas sensing solutions are available in the market for such application due to the inherent high temperature of combustion gaseous atmosphere. In this study, we fabricated and demonstrated high-performance metal oxide based nanorod array sensors assisted with ultra-violet (UV) illumination for in situ and real-time high-temperature gas detection. Without UV-illumination, it was found surface decoration of either 5 nm LSFO or 1 nm Pt nanoparticles can enhance the sensitivity over CO at 500 °Cmore » by an order of magnitude. Under the 254 nm UV illumination, CO gas-sensing performance of Ga 2O 3-based nanorod array sensors was further enhanced with the sensitivity boosted by 125 %, and the response time reduced by 30 % for La 0.8Sr 0.2FeO 3(LSFO)-decorated sample. The UV-enhanced detecting of CO might be due to the increased population of photo-induced electron-hole pairs. While for LSFO-decorated nanorod array sensor under UV illumination, the enhancement is through a combination of sensitizing effect and photocurrent effect.« less

  3. UV-enhanced CO sensing using Ga2O3-based nanorod arrays at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hui-Jan; Gao, Haiyong; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and control of the gaseous combustion process are critically important in advanced energy systems such as power plants, gas turbines, and automotive engines. However, very limited gas sensing solutions are available in the market for such applications due to the inherent high temperature of the combustion gaseous atmosphere. In this study, we fabricated and demonstrated high-performance metal oxide based nanorod array sensors assisted with ultra-violet (UV) illumination for in situ and real-time high-temperature gas detection. Without UV-illumination, it was found that surface decoration of either 5 nm LSFO or 1 nm Pt nanoparticles can enhance the sensitivity over CO at 500 °C by an order of magnitude. Under the 254 nm UV illumination, the CO gas-sensing performance of Ga2O3-based nanorod array sensors was further enhanced with the sensitivity boosted by 125% and the response time reduced by 30% for the La0.8Sr0.2FeO3(LSFO)-decorated sample. The UV-enhanced detection of CO might be due to the increased population of photo-induced electron-hole pairs, whereas for LSFO-decorated nanorod array sensor under UV illumination, the enhancement is through a combination of the sensitizing effect and photocurrent effect.

  4. Efficiency improvement of silicon solar cells enabled by ZnO nanowhisker array coating

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An efficient antireflection coating is critical for the improvement of silicon solar cell performance via increased light coupling. Here, we have grown well-aligned ZnO nanowhisker (NW) arrays on Czochralski silicon solar cells by a seeding-growth two-step process. It is found that the ZnO NWs have a great effect on the macroscopic antireflection effect and, therefore, improves the solar cell performance. The ZnO NW array-coated solar cells display a broadband reflection suppression from 500 to 1,100 nm, and the minimum reflectance smaller than 3% can easily be achieved. By optimizing the time of ZnO NW growth, it has been confirmed that an increase of 3% relatively in the solar cell efficiency can be obtained. These results are quite interesting for the application of ZnO nanostructure in the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells. PMID:22704578

  5. Pt-Ni/WC Alloy Nanorods Arrays as ORR Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciT

    Begum, Mahbuba; Yurukcu, Mesut; Yurtsever, Fatma

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) among the other types of fuel cell technology are attractive power sources, especially for electric vehicle applications. While significant progress and plausible prospects of PEMFCs have been achieved, there are still some challenges related to the performance, durability, and cost that need to be overcome to make them economically viable for widespread commercialization. Our strategy is to develop thin films of high-active and stable catalyst coated on vertically aligned nanorod arrays of conductive and stable support. In this work, we fabricated tungsten carbide (WC) nanorods as support and coated them with a platinum-nickel (Pt-Ni)more » alloy shell denoted as Pt-Ni/WC catalysts. The Pt- Ni/WC nanorods were deposited on glassy carbon disks as well as on silicon substrates for evaluation of their electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and physical properties. Cyclic voltammetry experiments using rotating disk electrode were performed in perchloric acid (0.1 M HClO4) electrolyte at room temperature to characterize the ORR activity and stability of Pt-Ni/WC nanorods catalysts. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were utilized to study the morphology and crystallographic properties, respectively.« less

  6. Novel hybrid light-emitting devices based on MAPbBr3 nanoplatelets:PVK nanocomposites and zinc oxide nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Szu-Ping; Chang, Chun-Kai; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung; Chang, Che-Yu; Chao, Yu-Chiang

    2018-01-01

    In this research, we demonstrate inverted perovskite light-emitting devices (PeLEDs) based on zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZnO NAs) as the electron transport layer and methylammonium lead bromide nanoplatelets (MAPbBr3 NPLs) as the emissive material for the first time. The polyethyleneimine ethoxylated (PEIE) was inserted between the ZnO NAs and the MAPbBr3 NPLs layer to reduce the energy barrier and improve the electron injection efficiency. Besides, different weight ratios of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) were blended with MAPbBr3 NPLs to make evenly dispersed nanocomposite films, thereby enhancing the performance of devices. Meanwhile, the photoluminescence of MAPbBr3 NPLs:PVK nanocomposite film was increased due to reduced self-quenching and prolonged carrier lifetime. Inverted PeLEDs with the configuration of ITO/PEIE-modified ZnO NAs/MAPbBr3 NPLs:PVK/TFB/Au were fabricated and evaluated, using TFB as the hole transport layer. The current density of the devices containing PVK matrix was significantly suppressed compared to those without PVK. Herein, the best device revealed a max brightness of 495 cd m-2 and a low turn-on voltage of 3.1 V that shows potential use in light-emitting applications.

  7. Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays Using Bilayered Metal Catalysts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    12] J. P. Liu, C. X. Guo, C. M. Li et al., “Carbon-decorated ZnO nanowire array: a novel platform for direct electrochemistry of enzymes and...cited. Vertically aligned, high-density ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown for the first time on c-plane sapphire using binary alloys of Ni/Au or Cu/Au as...deleterious to the ZnO NW array growth. Significant improvement of the Au adhesion on the substrate was noted, opening the potential for direct

  8. Hydrophilicity Reinforced Adhesion of Anodic Alumina Oxide Template Films to Conducting Substrates for Facile Fabrication of Highly Ordered Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanju; Wang, Guiqiang; Yang, Rui; Sun, Xiangyu; Ma, Hui; Sun, Shuqing

    2017-01-17

    Arrays of ordered nanorods are of special interest in many fields. However, it remains challenging to obtain such arrays on conducting substrates in a facile manner. In this article, we report the fabrication of highly ordered and vertically standing nanorod arrays of both metals and semiconductors on Au films and indium tin oxide glass substrates without an additional layering. In this approach, following the simple hydrophilic treatment of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane and conducting substrates, the AAO membrane was transferred onto the modified substrates with excellent adhesion. Subsequently, nanorod arrays of various materials were electrodeposited on the conducting substrates directly. This method avoids any expensive and tedious lithographic and ion milling process, which provides a simple yet robust route to the fabrication of arrays of 1D materials with high aspect ratio on conducting substrates, which shall pave the way for many practical applications in a range of fields.

  9. Ultrafine Ti4+ doped α-Fe2O3 nanorod array photoanodes with high charge separation efficiency for solar water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yilin; Liu, Jie; Luo, Wenjun; Wen, Xin; Liu, Xiaokang; Zou, Zhigang; Huang, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is a promising photoanode material for solar water splitting due to its suitable band gap, earth-abundance, excellent stability and non-toxicity. However, a short hole diffusion length limits its performance. A nanorod array structure can shorten hole transfer distance to photoelectrode/electrolyte interface and decrease recombination of photo-generated carriers. However, average diameters of all previously reported nanorods are over 50 nm, thus being too thick for holes to transfer to the interface. It is still a big challenge to prepare a Fe2O3 nanorod array photoelectrode with finer diameter. In this study, we prepare an ultrafine α-Fe2O3 nanorod array film with average diameter about 25 nm by calcining γ-FeOOH for the first time. The ultrafine nanorod array photoanode indicates much higher carrier separation efficiency and performance than a conventional nanorod array film.

  10. Multiplexed enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor based on ZnO nanorods modified reduced graphene oxide-paper electrode and silver deposition-induced signal amplification strategy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoqiang; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Hongmei; Ma, Chao; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua; Song, Xianrang

    2015-09-15

    Herein, an origami multiplexed enzyme-free electrochemical (EC) immunodevice is developed for the first time. Typically, ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-paper electrode is used as a sensor platform, in which rGO improves the electronic transmission rate and ZNRs provide abundant sites for capture probes binding. Furthermore, by combining the large surface area of rGO and high catalytic activity of bovine serum protein (BSA)-stabilized silver nanoparticles (Ag@BSA) toward H2O2 reduction, rGO/Ag@BSA composites can be used as an excellent signal labels. The current signal is generated from the reduction of H2O2 and further amplified by a subsequent signal labels-promoted deposition of silver. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunoassays exhibit excellent precision, high sensitivity and a wide linear range of 0.002-120 mIU mL(-1) for human chorionic gonadotropin, 0.001-110 ng mL(-1) for prostate-specific antigen, and 0.001-100 ng mL(-1) for carcinoembryonic antigen. The results for real sample analysis demonstrate that the newly constructed immunosensor arrays provide a simple and cost-effective method for clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancement of two photon absorption with Ni doping in the dilute magnetic semiconductor ZnO crystalline nanorods

    SciT

    Rana, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra; Arjunan, M.S.

    2015-12-07

    In this letter, we have investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of high-quality Ni doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in wurtzite lattice, prepared by the wet chemical method. In our experiments, we found that the two photon absorption coefficient (β) increases by as much as 14 times, i.e., 7.6 ± 0.4 to 112 ± 6 cm/GW, when the Ni doping is increased from 0% to 10%. The substantial enhancement in β is discussed in terms of the bandgap scaling and Ni doping. Furthermore, we also show that the optical bandgap measured by UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies, continuously redshift with increasing Ni doping concentration.more » We envision that the strong nonlinear optical properties together with their dilute magnetic effects, they form an important class of materials for potential applications in magneto-optical and integrated optical chips.« less

  12. Enhancement of two photon absorption with Ni doping in the dilute magnetic semiconductor ZnO crystalline nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Amit Kumar; J, Aneesh; Kumar, Yogendra; M. S, Arjunan; Adarsh, K. V.; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M.

    2015-12-01

    In this letter, we have investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of high-quality Ni doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in wurtzite lattice, prepared by the wet chemical method. In our experiments, we found that the two photon absorption coefficient (β) increases by as much as 14 times, i.e., 7.6 ± 0.4 to 112 ± 6 cm/GW, when the Ni doping is increased from 0% to 10%. The substantial enhancement in β is discussed in terms of the bandgap scaling and Ni doping. Furthermore, we also show that the optical bandgap measured by UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies, continuously redshift with increasing Ni doping concentration. We envision that the strong nonlinear optical properties together with their dilute magnetic effects, they form an important class of materials for potential applications in magneto-optical and integrated optical chips.

  13. Competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon-induced luminescence in single, double and multiple ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun; Zeng, Jian-Hua; Lan, Sheng; Wan, Xia; Tie, Shao-Long

    2013-04-22

    The nonlinear optical properties of single, double and multiple ZnO nanorods (NRs) were investigated by using a focused femtosecond (fs) laser beam. The excitation wavelength of the fs laser was intentionally chosen to be 754 nm at which the energy of two photons is slightly larger than that of the exciton ground state but smaller than the bandgap energy of ZnO. Second harmonic generation (SHG) or/and two-photon-induced luminescence (TPL) were observed and their dependences on excitation density were examined. For single ZnO NRs, only SHG was observed even at the highest excitation density we used in the experiments. The situation was changed when the joint point of two ZnO NRs perpendicular to each other was excited. In this case, TPL could be detected at low excitation densities and it increased rapidly with increasing excitation density. At the highest excitation density of ~15 MW/cm(2), the intensity of the TPL became comparable to that of the SHG. For an ensemble of ZnO NRs packed closely, a rapid increase of TPL with a slope of more than 7.0 and a gradual saturation of SHG with a slope of ~0.34 were found at high excitation densities. Consequently, the nonlinear response spectrum was eventually dominated by the TPL at high excitation densities and the SHG appeared to be very weak. We interpret this phenomenon by considering both the difference in electric field distribution and the effect of heat accumulation. It is suggested that the electric field enhancement in double and multiple NRs plays a crucial role in determining the nonlinear response of the NRs. In addition, the reduction in the bandgap energy induced by the heat accumulation effect also leads to the significant change in nonlinear response. This explanation is supported by the calculation of the electric field distribution using the discrete dipole approximation method and the simulation of temperature rise in different ZnO NRs based on the finite element method.

  14. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube or Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays for Optical Diffraction Gratings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sun Il; Cho, Seong-Ho; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Young Hee; Hur, Jaehyun

    2015-11-01

    We report on new fabrication methods for a transparent, hierarchical, and patterned electrode comprised of either carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorod arrays were fabricated by either chemical vapor deposition or hydrothermal growth, in combination with photolithography. A transparent conductive graphene layer or zinc oxide seed layer was employed as the transparent electrode. On the patterned surface defined using photoresist, the vertically grown carbon nanotubes or zinc oxides could produce a concentrated electric field under applied DC voltage. This periodic electric field was used to align liquid crystal molecules in localized areas within the optical cell, effectively modulating the refractive index. Depending on the material and morphology of these patterned electrodes, the diffraction efficiency presented different behavior. From this study, we established the relationship between the hierarchical structure of the different electrodes and their efficiency for modulating the refractive index. We believe that this study will pave a new path for future optoelectronic applications.

  15. Tuning the surface morphology of aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films by arrayed nanorods through chemical growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devasia, Sebin; Anila, E. I.

    2018-04-01

    Here we report the growth and characterization of chemically grown aluminium doped zinc oxide nanorods on seed layers. The seed layers were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis which acted as the growth centers. The growth duration of nanorods were varied from 3h to 12h in steps of 3h. Further, investigations on their structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties. The SEM images confirmed the hexagonal shaped nanorod arrays grown on the seed layers. Later, the x-ray diffraction measurements revealed the pure zinc oxide phase of the samples. Photoluminescence and photoconductivity studies were carried out to analyze the potential of its optoelectronic properties.

  16. Co-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers for inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambade, Swapnil B.; Ambade, Rohan B.; Eom, Seung Hun; Baek, Myung-Jin; Bagde, Sushil S.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-02-01

    In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM-ZnO NRs) leads to higher aggregation owing to the weaker solubility of SMs in solutions of ZnO NRs dispersed in chlorobenzene (CB). A prior addition of organic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEA) over ZnO NRs not only inhibits aggregation of SMs over ZnO NRs, but also provides enough sites for the SM to strongly couple with the ZnO NRs to yield transparent SM-MEA-ZnO NRs hybrids that exhibited excellent capability as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells (iOSCs) of P3HT:PC60BM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layers. A strongly coupled SM-MEA-ZnO NR hybrid reduces the series resistance by enhancing the interfacial area and tunes the energy level alignment at the interface between the (indium-doped tin oxide, ITO) cathode and BHJ photoactive layers. A significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for iOSCs comprising ETLs of SM-MEA-ZnO NRs (3.64%) advancing from 0.9% for pristine ZnO NRs, while the iOSCs of aggregated SM-ZnO NRs ETL exhibited a much lower PCE of 2.6%, thus demonstrating the potential of the co-functionalization approach. The superiority of the co-functionalized SM-MEA-ZnO NRs ETL is also evident from the highest PCE of 7.38% obtained for the iOSCs comprising BHJ of PTB7-Th:PC60BM compared with extremely poor 0.05% for non-functionalized ZnO NRs.In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM

  17. Microstructure-Dependent Visible-Light Driven Photoactivity of Sputtering-Assisted Synthesis of Sulfide-Based Visible-Light Sensitizer onto ZnO Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuan-Chang; Chung, Cheng-Chia; Lo, Ya-Ju; Wang, Chein-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The ZnO-CdS core-shell composite nanorods with CdS shell layer thicknesses of 5 and 20 nm were synthesized by combining the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods with the sputtering thin-film deposition of CdS crystallites. The microstructures and optical properties of the ZnO-CdS nanorods were associated with the CdS shell layer thickness. A thicker CdS shell layer resulted in a rougher surface morphology, more crystal defects, and a broader optical absorbance edge in the ZnO-CdS rods. The ZnO-CdS (20 nm) nanorods thus engaged in more photoactivity in this study. When they were further subjected to a postannealing procedure in ambient Ar/H2, this resulted in the layer-like CdS shell layers being converted into the serrated CdS shell layers. By contrast, the ZnO-CdS nanorods conducted with the postannealing procedure exhibited superior photoactivity and photoelectrochemical performance; the substantial changes in the microstructures and optical properties of the composite nanorods following postannealing in this study might account for the observed results. PMID:28774134

  18. Effect of Zn(NO3)2 concentration in hydrothermal-electrochemical deposition on morphology and photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Ceren; Unal, Ugur

    2016-04-01

    Zn(NO3)2 concentration had been reported to be significantly influential on electrodeposition of ZnO structures. In this work, this issue is revisited using hydrothermal-electrochemical deposition (HED). Seedless, cathodic electrochemical deposition of ZnO films is carried out on ITO electrode at 130 °C in a closed glass reactor with varying Zn(NO3)2 concentration. Regardless of the concentration of Zn2+ precursor (0.001-0.1 M) in the deposition solution, vertically aligned 1-D ZnO nanorods are obtained as opposed to electrodepositions at lower temperatures (70-80 °C). We also report the effects of high bath temperature and pressure on the photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO films. Manipulation of precursor concentration in the deposition solution allows adjustment of the aspect ratio of the nanorods and the degree of texturation along the c-axis; hence photoinduced current density. HED is shown to provide a single step synthesis route to prepare ZnO rods with desired aspect ratio specific for the desired application just by controlling the precursor concentration.

  19. Synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties of a novel CuO/ZnO nanorod photocathode for solar hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaislamov, Ulugbek; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2016-10-01

    Here, we present a facile synthesis method and photoelectrochemical characterizations of a p-type CuO-nanorod array photoelectrode with ZnO nanorod branches. Vertically-aligned CuO nanorods were synthesized by using direct oxidation of metallic Cu nanorods grown on a Cu substrate by using a facile template-assisted electrodeposition method. The formed CuONR/ZnONB hierarchically-structured photoelectrode exhibited remarkable photoelectrodechemical performance and outstanding stability compared to the CuO NR photoelectrode without ZnO NR branches. Morphological, optical and electrochemical characterizations were carried out in order to examine the effects of ZnO nanorod branches on the stability and the overall electrochemical performance of the electrode.

  20. Growth of high-aspect ratio horizontally-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Soman, Pranav; Darnell, Max; Feldman, Marc D; Chen, Shaochen

    2011-08-01

    A method of fabricating horizontally-aligned zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) arrays with full control over the width and length is demonstrated. SEM images reveal the hexagonal structure typical of zinc oxide NWs. Arrays of high-aspect ratio horizontal ZnO NWs are fabricated by making use of the lateral overgrowth from dot patterns created by electron beam lithography (EBL). An array of patterned wires are lifted off and transferred to a flexible PDMS substrate with possible applications in several key nanotechnology areas.

  1. ZnO nanotube waveguide arrays on graphene films for local optical excitation on biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hyeonjun; Kwak, Hankyul; Song, Minho S.; Ha, Go Eun; Park, Jongwoo; Tchoe, Youngbin; Hyun, Jerome K.; Park, Hye Yoon; Cheong, Eunji; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2017-04-01

    We report on scalable and position-controlled optical nanoprobe arrays using ZnO nanotube waveguides on graphene films for use in local optical excitation. For the waveguide fabrication, position-controlled and well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays were grown on chemical vapor deposited graphene films with a submicron patterned mask layer and Au prepared between the interspace of nanotubes. Mammalian cells were cultured on the nanotube waveguide arrays and were locally excited by light illuminated through the nanotubes. Fluorescence and optogenetic signals could be excited through the optical nanoprobes. This method offers the ability to investigate cellular behavior with a high spatial resolution that surpasses the current limitation.

  2. Single and multi-layered core-shell structures based on ZnO nanorods obtained by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciT

    Sáenz-Trevizo, A.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.

    2015-07-15

    Core–shell nanorod structures were prepared by a sequential synthesis using an aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. Several samples consisting of ZnO nanorods were initially grown over TiO{sub 2} film-coated borosilicate glass substrates, following the synthesis conditions reported elsewhere. Later on, a uniform layer consisting of individual Al, Ni, Ti or Fe oxides was grown onto ZnO nanorod samples forming the so-called single MO{sub x}/ZnO nanorod core–shell structures, where MO{sub x} was the metal oxide shell. Additionally, a three-layer core–shell sample was developed by growing Fe, Ti and Fe oxides alternately, onto the ZnO nanorods. The microstructure of the core–shellmore » materials was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was employed to corroborate the formation of different metal oxides. X-ray diffraction outcomes for single core–shell structures showed solely the presence of ZnO as wurtzite and TiO{sub 2} as anatase. For the multi-layered shell sample, the existence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as hematite was also detected. Morphological observations suggested the existence of an outer material grown onto the nanorods and further microstructural analysis by HR-STEM confirmed the development of core–shell structures in all cases. These studies also showed that the individual Al, Fe, Ni and Ti oxide layers are amorphous; an observation that matched with X-ray diffraction analysis where no apparent extra oxides were detected. For the multi-layered sample, the development of a shell consisting of three different oxide layers onto the nanorods was found. Overall results showed that no alteration in the primary ZnO core was produced during the growth of the shells, indicating that the deposition technique used herein was and it is suitable for the synthesis of homogeneous and complex nanomaterials high in quality and purity. In

  3. Efficient Donor Impurities in ZnO Nanorods by Polyethylene Glycol for Enhanced Optical and Glutamate Sensing Properties.

    PubMed

    Elhag, Sami; Khun, Kimleang; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Xianjie; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer

    2016-02-06

    In this paper, we show that the possibility of using polyethylene glycol (EG) as a hydrogen source and it is used to assist the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs). EG doping in ZNRs has been found to significantly improve their optical and chemical sensing characteristics toward glutamate. The EG was found to have no role on the structural properties of the ZNRs. However, the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests that the EG could induce donor impurities effect in ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) and UV-Vis. spectra demonstrated this doping effect. Mott-Schottky analysis at the ZNRs/electrolyte interface was used to investigate the charge density for the doped ZNRs and showed comparable dependence on the used amount of EG. Moreover, the doped ZNRs were used in potentiometric measurements for glutamate for a range from 10(-6) M to 10(-3) M and the potential response of the sensor electrode was linear with a slope of 91.15 mV/decade. The wide range and high sensitivity of the modified ZNRs based glutamate biosensor is attributed to the doping effect on the ZNRs that is dictated by the EG along with the high surface area-to-volume ratio. The findings in the present study suggest new avenues to control the growth of n-ZnO nanostructures and enhance the performance of their sensing devices.

  4. Efficient Donor Impurities in ZnO Nanorods by Polyethylene Glycol for Enhanced Optical and Glutamate Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Elhag, Sami; Khun, Kimleang; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Xianjie; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the possibility of using polyethylene glycol (EG) as a hydrogen source and it is used to assist the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs). EG doping in ZNRs has been found to significantly improve their optical and chemical sensing characteristics toward glutamate. The EG was found to have no role on the structural properties of the ZNRs. However, the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests that the EG could induce donor impurities effect in ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) and UV-Vis. spectra demonstrated this doping effect. Mott-Schottky analysis at the ZNRs/electrolyte interface was used to investigate the charge density for the doped ZNRs and showed comparable dependence on the used amount of EG. Moreover, the doped ZNRs were used in potentiometric measurements for glutamate for a range from 10−6 M to 10−3 M and the potential response of the sensor electrode was linear with a slope of 91.15 mV/decade. The wide range and high sensitivity of the modified ZNRs based glutamate biosensor is attributed to the doping effect on the ZNRs that is dictated by the EG along with the high surface area-to-volume ratio. The findings in the present study suggest new avenues to control the growth of n-ZnO nanostructures and enhance the performance of their sensing devices. PMID:26861342

  5. Miniaturized pH Sensors Based on Zinc Oxide Nanotubes/Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Fulati, Alimujiang; Ali, Syed M.Usman; Riaz, Muhammad; Amin, Gul; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    ZnO nanotubes and nanorods grown on gold thin film were used to create pH sensor devices. The developed ZnO nanotube and nanorod pH sensors display good reproducibility, repeatability and long-term stability and exhibit a pH-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl reference electrode over a large dynamic pH range. We found the ZnO nanotubes provide sensitivity as high as twice that of the ZnO nanorods, which can be ascribed to the fact that small dimensional ZnO nanotubes have a higher level of surface and subsurface oxygen vacancies and provide a larger effective surface area with higher surface-to-volume ratio as compared to ZnO nanorods, thus affording the ZnO nanotube pH sensor a higher sensitivity. Experimental results indicate ZnO nanotubes can be used in pH sensor applications with improved performance. Moreover, the ZnO nanotube arrays may find potential application as a novel material for measurements of intracellular biochemical species within single living cells. PMID:22291545

  6. Plasma treatment of p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorod light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Yu Hang; Ng, Alan M. C.; Djurišic, Aleksandra B.; Chan, Wai Kin; Fong, Patrick W. K.; Lui, Hsien Fai; Surya, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a material of great interest for short-wavelength optoelectronic applications due to its wide band gap (3.37 eV) and high exciton binding energy (60 meV). Due to the difficulty in stable p-type doping of ZnO, other p-type materials such as gallium nitride (GaN) have been used to form heterojunctions with ZnO. p-GaN/n-ZnO heterojunction devices, in particular light-emitting diodes (LED) have been extensively studied. There was a huge variety of electronic properties and emission colors on the reported devices. It is due to the different energy alignment at the interface caused by different properties of the GaN layer and ZnO counterpart in the junction. Attempts have been made on modifying the heterojunction by various methods, such as introducing a dielectric interlayer and post-growth surface treatment, and changing the growth methods of ZnO. In this study, heterojunction LED devices with p-GaN and ZnO nanorods array are demonstrated. The ZnO nanorods were grown by a solution method. The ZnO nanorods were exposed to different kinds of plasma treatments (such as nitrogen and oxygen) after the growth. It was found that the treatment could cause significant change on the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods, as well as the electronic properties and light emissions of the resultant LED devices.

  7. Insight into Factors Affecting the Presence, Degree, and Temporal Stability of Fluorescence Intensification on ZnO Nanorod Ends

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manpreet; Jiang, Ruibin; Coia, Heidi; Choi, Daniel S.; Alabanza, Anginelle; Chang, Jae Young; Wang, Jianfang; Hahm, Jong-in

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a combined experimental and simulation study identifying the key physical and optical parameters affecting the presence and degree of fluorescence intensification measured on zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) ends. Previously, we reported on the highly localized, intensified, and prolonged fluorescence signal measured on the NR ends, termed as fluorescence intensification on NR ends (FINE). As a step towards understanding the mechanism of FINE, the present study aims to provide an insight into the unique optical phenomenon of FINE through experimental and simulation approaches and to elucidate the key factors affecting the occurrence, degree, and temporal stability of FINE. Specifically, we examined the effect of the length, width, and growth orientation of single ZnO NRs on the NR-enhanced biomolecular emission profile after decorating the NR surfaces with different amounts and types of fluorophore-coupled protein molecules. We quantitatively and qualitatively profiled the biomolecular fluorescence signal from individual ZnO NRs as a function of both position along the NR long axis and time. Regardless of the physical dimensions and growth orientations of the NRs, we confirmed the presence of FINE from all ZnO NRs tested by using a range of protein concentrations. We also showed that the manifestation of FINE is not dependent on the spectroscopic signatures of the fluorophores employed. We further observed that the degree of FINE is dependent on the length of the NR with longer NRs showing increased levels of FINE. We also demonstrated that vertically oriented NRs exhibit much stronger fluorescence intensity at the NR ends and a higher level of FINE than the laterally oriented NRs. Additionally, we employed finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods to understand the experimental outcomes and to promote our understanding of the mechanism of FINE. Particularly, we utilized the electrodynamic simulations to examine both near-field and far

  8. Arginine-assisted immobilization of silver nanoparticles on ZnO nanorods: an enhanced and reusable antibacterial substrate without human cell cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnihotri, Shekhar; Bajaj, Geetika; Mukherji, Suparna; Mukherji, Soumyo

    2015-04-01

    Silver-based hybrid nanomaterials are gaining interest as potential alternatives for conventional antimicrobial agents. Herein, we present a simple, facile and eco-friendly approach for the deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on ZnO nanorods, which act as a nanoreactor for in situ synthesis and as an immobilizing template in the presence of arginine. The presence of arginine enhanced the stability of ZnO deposition on the glass substrate by hindering the dissolution of zinc under alkaline conditions. Various Ag/ZnO hybrid nanorod (HNR) samples were screened to obtain a high amount of silver immobilization on the ZnO substrate. Ag/ZnO HNRs displayed potent antibacterial ability and could achieve 100% kill for both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis strains under various test conditions. The hybrid material mediated its dual mode of antibacterial action through direct contact-killing and release of silver ions/nanoparticles and showed superior bactericidal performance compared to pure ZnO nanorods and colloidal AgNPs. No significant decline in antibacterial efficacy was observed even after the same substrate was repeatedly reused multiple times. Interestingly, the amount of Ag and Zn release was much below their maximal limit in drinking water, thus preventing potential health hazards. Immobilized AgNPs showed no cytotoxic effects on the human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). Moreover, treating cells with the antibacterial substrate for 24 hours did not lead to significant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The good biocompatibility and bactericidal efficacy would thus make it feasible to utilize this immobilization strategy for preparing new-generation antibacterial coatings.Silver-based hybrid nanomaterials are gaining interest as potential alternatives for conventional antimicrobial agents. Herein, we present a simple, facile and eco-friendly approach for the deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on ZnO nanorods, which act as a

  9. Localized surface plasmon resonance properties of Ag nanorod arrays on graphene-coated Au substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Haiwei; Lv, Jingwei; Liu, Chao; Sun, Tao; Chu, Paul K.; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-11-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) on silver nanorod (SNR) arrays deposited on a graphene-coated Au substrate is investigated by the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method. The resonance peaks in the extinction spectra of the SNR/graphene/Au structure show significantly different profiles as SNR height, and refractive index of the surrounding medium are varied gradually. Numerical simulation reveals that the shifts in the resonance peaks arise from hybridization of multiple plasmon modes as a result of coupling between the SNR arrays and graphene-coated Au substrate. Moreover, the LSPR modes blue-shifts from 800 nm to 700 nm when the thickness of the graphene layer in the metal nanoparticle (NP) - graphene hybrid nanostructure increases from 1 nm to 5 nm, which attribute to charge transfer between the graphene layer and SNR arrays. The results provide insights into metal NP-graphene hybrid nanostructures which have potential applications in plasmonics.

  10. Halide perovskite solar cells using monocrystalline TiO2 nanorod arrays as electron transport layers: impact of nanorod morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Ujwal Kumar; Askar, Abdelrahman M.; Kisslinger, Ryan; Wiltshire, Benjamin D.; Kar, Piyush; Shankar, Karthik

    2017-07-01

    This is the first report of a 17.6% champion efficiency solar cell architecture comprising monocrystalline TiO2 nanorods (TNRs) coupled with perovskite, and formed using facile solution processing without non-routine surface conditioning. Vertically oriented TNR ensembles are desirable as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs) because of potential advantages such as vectorial electron percolation pathways to balance the longer hole diffusion lengths in certain halide perovskite semiconductors, ease of incorporating nanophotonic enhancements, and optimization between a high contact surface area for charge transfer (good) versus high interfacial recombination (bad). These advantages arise from the tunable morphology of hydrothermally grown rutile TNRs, which is a strong function of the growth conditions. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of the HPSCs demonstrated a stronger quenching of the perovskite PL when using TNRs as compared to mesoporous/compact TiO2 thin films. Due to increased interfacial contact area between the ETL and perovskite with easier pore filling, charge separation efficiency is dramatically enhanced. Additionally, solid-state impedance spectroscopy results strongly suggested the suppression of interfacial charge recombination between TNRs and perovskite layer, compared to other ETLs. The optimal ETL morphology in this study was found to consist of an array of TNRs ∼300 nm in length and ∼40 nm in width. This work highlights the potential of TNR ETLs to achieve high performance solution-processed HPSCs.

  11. Controlled Growth of Parallel Oriented ZnO Nanostructural Arrays on Ga2O3 Nanowires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Controlled Growth of Parallel Oriented ZnO Nanostructural Arrays on Ga2O3 Nanowires Lena Mazeina,* Yoosuf N. Picard, and Sharka M. Prokes Electronics...Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 6, 2008 ABSTRACT: Novel hierarchical ZnO- Ga2O3 nanostructures were fabricated via a two stage growth process. Nanowires of Ga2O3 ...nanobrushes (NBs) with Ga2O3 as the core and ZnO as the branches self-assembling symmetrically in six equiangular directions around the core

  12. Anisotropic growth and formation mechanism investigation of 1D ZnO nanorods in spin-coating sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Song, Yijian; Zheng, Maojun; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanorods are fabricated on glass substrate by spin-coating sol-gel process using non-basic aged solution and annealing. Sample solutions reserved in room temperature for different time (one day, one month, two months and four months) are prepared for the experiment. The morphology study indicates that the aging time has direct influence on the final products. This is verified by the Transmission Electron Microscopy and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy study. Small crystalline nanoparticles would gradually nucleate and aggregate in the sol during the aging process. They act as nucleation site for the secondary crystal growth into nanorods during anneal. Both the size of crystalline particles in the sol and the size of nanorods will grow bigger as the aging time increases. The products' structure and optical property are further studied by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. This work also helps to further clarify the formation mechanism of ZnO nanorods by solution-based method.

  13. In-Doped ZnO Hexagonal Stepped Nanorods and Nanodisks as Potential Scaffold for Highly-Sensitive Phenyl Hydrazine Chemical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Umar, Ahmad; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kumar, Rajesh; Al-Assiri, Mohammad S; Al-Salami, A E; Ibrahim, Ahmed A; Baskoutas, Sotirios

    2017-11-21

    Herein, we report the growth of In-doped ZnO (IZO) nanomaterials, i.e., stepped hexagonal nanorods and nanodisks by the thermal evaporation process using metallic zinc and indium powders in the presence of oxygen. The as-grown IZO nanomaterials were investigated by several techniques in order to examine their morphological, structural, compositional and optical properties. The detailed investigations confirmed that the grown nanomaterials, i.e., nanorods and nanodisks possess well-crystallinity with wurtzite hexagonal phase and grown in high density. The room-temperature PL spectra exhibited a suppressed UV emissions with strong green emissions for both In-doped ZnO nanomaterials, i.e., nanorods and nanodisks. From an application point of view, the grown IZO nanomaterials were used as a potential scaffold to fabricate sensitive phenyl hydrazine chemical sensors based on the I-V technique. The observed sensitivities of the fabricated sensors based on IZO nanorods and nanodisks were 70.43 μA·mM -1 cm -2 and 130.18 μA·mM -1 cm -2 , respectively. For both the fabricated sensors, the experimental detection limit was 0.5 μM, while the linear range was 0.5 μM-5.0 mM. The observed results revealed that the simply grown IZO nanomaterials could efficiently be used to fabricate highly sensitive chemical sensors.

  14. Optimized emission in nanorod arrays through quasi-aperiodic inverse design.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P Duke; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-06-01

    We investigate a new class of quasi-aperiodic nanorod structures for the enhancement of incoherent light emission. We identify one optimized structure using an inverse design algorithm and the finite-difference time-domain method. We carry out emission calculations on both the optimized structure as well as a simple periodic array. The optimized structure achieves nearly perfect light extraction while maintaining a high spontaneous emission rate. Overall, the optimized structure can achieve a 20%-42% increase in external quantum efficiency relative to a simple periodic design, depending on material quality.

  15. Transient Negative Optical Nonlinearity of Indium Oxide Nanorod Arrays in the Full-Visible Range

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Peijun; Chang, Robert P. H.; Schaller, Richard D.

    2017-06-09

    Dynamic control of the optical response of materials at visible wavelengths is key to future metamaterials and photonic integrated circuits. Here we demonstrate large amplitude, negative optical nonlinearity (Δ n from -0.05 to -0.09) of indium oxide nanorod arrays in the full-visible range. We experimentally quantify and theoretically calculate the optical nonlinearity, which arises from the modifications of interband optical transitions. Furthermore, the approach towards negative optical nonlinearity can be generalized to other transparent semiconductors and opens door to reconfigurable, sub-wavelength optical components.

  16. Full coverage of perovskite layer onto ZnO nanorods via a modified sequential two-step deposition method for efficiency enhancement in perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruankham, Pipat; Wongratanaphisan, Duangmanee; Gardchareon, Atcharawon; Phadungdhitidhada, Surachet; Choopun, Supab; Sagawa, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Full coverage of perovskite layer onto ZnO nanorod substrates with less pinholes is crucial for achieving high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. In this work, a two-step sequential deposition method is modified to achieve an appropriate property of perovskite (MAPbI3) film. Surface treatment of perovskite layer and its precursor have been systematically performed and their morphologies have been investigated. By pre-wetting of lead iodide (PbI2) and letting it dry before reacting with methylammonium iodide (MAI) provide better coverage of perovskite film onto ZnO nanorod substrate than one without any treatment. An additional MAI deposition followed with toluene drop-casting technique on the perovskite film is also found to increase the coverage and enhance the transformation of PbI2 to MAPbI3. These lead to longer charge carrier lifetime, resulting in an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 1.21% to 3.05%. The modified method could been applied to a complex ZnO nanorods/TiO2 nanoparticles substrate. The enhancement in PCE to 3.41% is observed. These imply that our introduced method provides a simple way to obtain the full coverage and better transformation to MAPbI3 phase for enhancement in performances of perovskite solar cells.

  17. ZnO nanorods/ZnS·(1,6-hexanediamine)(0.5) hybrid nanoplates hierarchical heteroarchitecture with improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengcui; Wu, Yaqin; Pei, Tonghui; Wang, Huan; Geng, Baoyou

    2014-03-07

    Novel hierarchical heteronanostructures of ZnO nanorods/ZnS·(HDA)0.5 (HDA = 1,6-hexanediamine) hybrid nanoplates on a zinc substrate are successfully synthesized on a large scale by combining hydrothermal growth (for ZnO nanorods) and liquid chemical conversion (for ZnS·(HDA)0.5 nanoplates) techniques. The formation of ZnS·(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates branches takes advantage of the preferential binding of 1,6-hexanediamine on specific facets of ZnS, which makes the thickening rate much lower than the lateral growth rate. The ZnS·(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates have a layered structure with 1,6-hexanediamine inserted into interlayers of wurtzite ZnS through the bonding of nitrogen. The number density and thickness of the secondary ZnS·(HDA)0.5 nanoplates can be conveniently engineered by variation of the sulfur source and straightforward adjustment of reactant concentrations such as 1,6-hexanediamine and the sulfur source. The fabricated ZnO/ZnS·(HDA)0.5 heteronanostructures show improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine compared with the primary ZnO nanorods. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, this approach could be similarly used to fabricate varieties of hybrid heterostructures made of materials with an intrinsic large lattice mismatch.

  18. Effect of Cobalt Concentration and Oxygen Vacancy on Magnetism of Co Doped ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Li, Congli; Che, Ping; Sun, Changyan; Li, Wenjun

    2016-03-01

    Zn(1-x)Co(x)O (x = 0-0.07) single-crystalline nanorods were prepared by a modified microemulsion route. The crystalline structure, morphology, optical, and hysteresis loop at low and room temperature of as-prepared materials were characterized by XRD, TEM, PL spectra, and magnetic measurement respectively. The nanorods are 80-250 nm in diameter and about 3 μm in length. X-ray diffraction data, TEM images confirm that the materials synthesized in optimal conditions are ZnO:Co single crystalline solid solution without any impurities related to Co. The PL spectra show that the ferromagnetic samples exhibit strong Zn interstitials and oxygen vacancy emission indicating defects may stabilize ferromagnetic order in the obtained diluted magnetic semiconductors. Magnetic measurements show that the Zn(1-x)Co(x)O nanorods exist obvious ferromagnetic characteristics with T(c) above 300 K. M(s) and coercivities first increase and then decrease with dopant concentration increasing, reaching the highest for 3% doping level. The structural and magnetic properties of these samples support the hypothesis that the FM of DMS nanorods is due to a defect mediated mechanism instead of cobalt nanoclusters and carrier mediated.

  19. Morphology Transition Engineering of ZnO Nanorods to Nanoplatelets Grafted Mo8O23-MoO2 by Polyoxometalates: Mechanism and Possible Applicability to other Oxides.

    PubMed

    Abdelmohsen, Ahmed H; Rouby, Waleed M A El; Ismail, Nahla; Farghali, Ahmed A

    2017-07-19

    A new fundamental mechanism for reliable engineering of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods to nanoplatelets grafted Mo 8 O 23 -MoO 2 mixed oxide with controlled morphology, composition and precise understanding of the nanoscale reaction mechanism was developed. These hybrid nanomaterials are gaining interest due to their potential use for energy, catalysis, biomedical and other applications. As an introductory section, we demonstrate a new expansion for the concept 'materials engineering' by discussing the fabrication of metal oxides nanostructures by bottom-up approach and carbon nanoparticles by top-down approach. Moreover, we propose a detailed mechanism for the novel phenomenon that was experienced by ZnO nanorods when treated with phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) under ultra-sonication stimulus. This approach is expected to be the basis of a competitive fabrication approach to 2D hybrid nanostructures. We will also discuss a proposed mechanism for the catalytic deposition of Mo 8 O 23 -MoO 2 mixed oxide over ZnO nanoplatelets. A series of selection rules (SRs) which applied to ZnO to experience morphology transition and constitute Abdelmohsen theory for morphology transition engineering (ATMTE) will be demonstrated through the article, besides a brief discussion about possibility of other oxides to obey this theory.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of beta-Ga2O3 nanorod array clumps by chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Wei, Xiaofeng

    2012-11-01

    beta-Ga2O3 nanorod array clumps were successfully synthesized on Si (111) substrates by chemical vapor deposition. The composition, microstructure, morphology, and light-emitting property of these clumps were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The results demonstrate that the sample synthesized at 1050 degrees C for 15 min was composed of monoclinic beta-Ga2O3 nanorod array clumps, where each single nanorod was about 300 nm in diameter with some nano-droplets on its tip. These results reveal that the growth mechanism agrees with the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the Ga2O3 nanorods have a blue emission at 438 nm, which may be attributed to defects, such as oxygen vacancies and gallium-oxygen vacancy pairs. Defect-energy aggregation confinement growth theory was proposed to explain the growth mechanism of Ga2O3 nanorod array clumps collaborated with the VLS mechanism.

  1. Plasmonic nanorod arrays of a two-segment dimer and a coaxial cable with 1 nm gap for large field confinement and enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zi-Qiang; Nan, Fan; Yang, Da-Jie; Zhong, Yu-Ting; Ma, Liang; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Li; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Seeking plasmonic nanostructures with large field confinement and enhancement is significant for photonic and electronic nanodevices with high sensitivity, reproducibility, and tunability. Here, we report the synthesis of plasmonic arrays composed of two-segment dimer nanorods and coaxial cable nanorods with ~1 nm gap insulated by a self-assembled Raman molecule monolayer. The gap-induced plasmon coupling generates an intense field in the gap region of the dimer junction and the cable interlayer. As a result, the longitudinal plasmon resonance of nanorod arrays with high tunability is obviously enhanced. Most interestingly, the field enhancement of dimer nanorod arrays can be tuned by the length ratio L1/L2 of the two segments, and the maximal enhancement appears at L1/L2 = 1. In that case, the two-photon luminescence (TPL) of dimer nanorod arrays and the Raman intensity in the dimer junction is enhanced by 27 and 30 times, respectively, under resonant excitation. In the same way, the Raman intensity in the gap region is enhanced 16 times for the coaxial cable nanorod arrays. The plasmonic nanorod arrays synthesized by the facile method, having tunable plasmon properties and large field enhancement, indicate an attractive pathway to the photonic nanodevices.Seeking plasmonic nanostructures with large field confinement and enhancement is significant for photonic and electronic nanodevices with high sensitivity, reproducibility, and tunability. Here, we report the synthesis of plasmonic arrays composed of two-segment dimer nanorods and coaxial cable nanorods with ~1 nm gap insulated by a self-assembled Raman molecule monolayer. The gap-induced plasmon coupling generates an intense field in the gap region of the dimer junction and the cable interlayer. As a result, the longitudinal plasmon resonance of nanorod arrays with high tunability is obviously enhanced. Most interestingly, the field enhancement of dimer nanorod arrays can be tuned by the length ratio L1/L2 of

  2. Electro-pumped whispering gallery mode ZnO microlaser array

    SciT

    Zhu, G. Y.; State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096; Li, J. T.

    2015-01-12

    By employing vapor-phase transport method, ZnO microrods are fabricated and directly assembled on p-GaN substrate to form a heterostructural microlaser array, which avoids of the relatively complicated etching process comparing previous work. Under applied forward bias, whispering gallery mode ZnO ultraviolet lasing is obtained from the as-fabricated heterostructural microlaser array. The device's electroluminescence originates from three distinct electron-hole recombination processes in the heterojunction interface, and whispering gallery mode ultraviolet lasing is obtained when the applied voltage is beyond the lasing threshold. This work may present a significant step towards future fabrication of a facile technique for micro/nanolasers.

  3. A simple route to vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanofilms on FTO surfaces: 1D-crystal growth of nanoseeds under ammonia-assisted hydrolysis process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A simple method for the synthesis of ZnO nanofilms composed of vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures (quasi-NRs) on the surface was demonstrated via a 1D crystal growth of the attached nanoseeds under a rapid hydrolysis process of zinc salts in the presence of ammonia at room temperature. In a typical procedure, by simply controlling the concentration of zinc acetate and ammonia in the reaction, a high density of vertically oriented nanorod-like morphology could be successfully obtained in a relatively short growth period (approximately 4 to 5 min) and at a room-temperature process. The average diameter and the length of the nanostructures are approximately 30 and 110 nm, respectively. The as-prepared quasi-NRs products were pure ZnO phase in nature without the presence of any zinc complexes as confirmed by the XRD characterisation. Room-temperature optical absorption spectroscopy exhibits the presence of two separate excitonic characters inferring that the as-prepared ZnO quasi-NRs are high-crystallinity properties in nature. The mechanism of growth for the ZnO quasi-NRs will be proposed. Due to their simplicity, the method should become a potential alternative for a rapid and cost-effective preparation of high-quality ZnO quasi-NRs nanofilms for use in photovoltaic or photocatalytics applications. PACS: 81.07.Bc; 81.16.-c; 81.07.Gf. PMID:22027275

  4. Electromagnetic enhancement of ordered silver nanorod arrays evaluated by discrete dipole approximation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guoke; Wang, Jinliang; Chen, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The enhancement factor (EF) of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal silver nanorod (AgNR) arrays were investigated in terms of electromagnetic (EM) mechanism by using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method. The dependence of EF on several parameters, i.e., structure, length, excitation wavelength, incident angle and polarization, and gap size has been investigated. "Hotspots" were found distributed in the gaps between adjacent nanorods. Simulations of AgNR arrays of different lengths revealed that increasing the rod length from 374 to 937 nm (aspect ratio from 2.0 to 5.0) generated more "hotspots" but not necessarily increased EF under both 514 and 532 nm excitation. A narrow lateral gap (in the incident plane) was found to result in strong EF, while the dependence of EF on the diagonal gap (out of the incident plane) showed an oscillating behavior. The EF of the array was highly dependent on the angle and polarization of the incident light. The structure of AgNR and the excitation wavelength were also found to affect the EF. The EF of random arrays was stronger than that of an ordered one with the same average gap of 21 nm, which could be explained by the exponential dependence of EF on the lateral gap size. Our results also suggested that absorption rather than extinction or scattering could be a good indicator of EM enhancement. It is expected that the understanding of the dependence of local field enhancement on the structure of the nanoarrays and incident excitations will shine light on the optimal design of efficient SERS substrates and improved performance.

  5. A Photoactivated Gas Detector for Toluene Sensing at Room Temperature Based on New Coral-Like ZnO Nanostructure Arrays.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Li-Ko; Luo, Jie-Chun; Chen, Min-Chun; Wu, Chih-Hung; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Cheng, I-Chun; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Tian, Wei-Cheng

    2016-10-31

    A photoactivated gas detector operated at room temperature was microfabricated using a simple hydrothermal method. We report that the photoactivated gas detector can detect toluene using a UV illumination of 2 μW/cm². By ultraviolet (UV) illumination, gas detectors sense toluene at room temperature without heating. A significant enhancement of detector sensitivity is achieved because of the high surface-area-to-volume ratio of the morphology of the coral-like ZnO nanorods arrays (NRAs) and the increased number of photo-induced oxygen ions under UV illumination. The corresponding sensitivity (ΔR/R₀) of the detector based on coral-like ZnO NRAs is enhanced by approximately 1022% compared to that of thin-film detectors. The proposed detector greatly extends the dynamic range of detection of metal-oxide-based detectors for gas sensing applications. We report the first-ever detection of toluene with a novel coral-like NRAs gas detector at room temperature. A sensing mechanism model is also proposed to explain the sensing responses of gas detectors based on coral-like ZnO NRAs.

  6. A Photoactivated Gas Detector for Toluene Sensing at Room Temperature Based on New Coral-Like ZnO Nanostructure Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Li-Ko; Luo, Jie-Chun; Chen, Min-Chun; Wu, Chih-Hung; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Cheng, I-Chun; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Tian, Wei-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    A photoactivated gas detector operated at room temperature was microfabricated using a simple hydrothermal method. We report that the photoactivated gas detector can detect toluene using a UV illumination of 2 μW/cm2. By ultraviolet (UV) illumination, gas detectors sense toluene at room temperature without heating. A significant enhancement of detector sensitivity is achieved because of the high surface-area-to-volume ratio of the morphology of the coral-like ZnO nanorods arrays (NRAs) and the increased number of photo-induced oxygen ions under UV illumination. The corresponding sensitivity (ΔR/R0) of the detector based on coral-like ZnO NRAs is enhanced by approximately 1022% compared to that of thin-film detectors. The proposed detector greatly extends the dynamic range of detection of metal-oxide-based detectors for gas sensing applications. We report the first-ever detection of toluene with a novel coral-like NRAs gas detector at room temperature. A sensing mechanism model is also proposed to explain the sensing responses of gas detectors based on coral-like ZnO NRAs. PMID:27809222

  7. Systematic study of inorganic functionalization of ZnO nanorods by Sol-Gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamarra, J. K.; Solano, C.; Piñeres, I.; Gómez, H.; Mass, J.; Montenegro, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic study of the inorganic surface functionalization of ZnO nanostructures by sol-gel method is shown. We have emphasized on the evolution of morphology properties of samples as a function of functionalization parameters. In addition, the effects on thermal stability and some optical properties of samples are discussed.

  8. Growth of High-Density Zinc Oxide Nanorods on Porous Silicon by Thermal Evaporation

    PubMed Central

    Rusli, Nurul Izni; Tanikawa, Masahiro; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Yasui, Kanji; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2012-01-01

    The formation of high-density zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods on porous silicon (PS) substrates at growth temperatures of 600–1000 °C by a simple thermal evaporation of zinc (Zn) powder in the presence of oxygen (O2) gas was systematically investigated. The high-density growth of ZnO nanorods with (0002) orientation over a large area was attributed to the rough surface of PS, which provides appropriate planes to promote deposition of Zn or ZnOx seeds as nucleation sites for the subsequent growth of ZnO nanorods. The geometrical morphologies of ZnO nanorods are determined by the ZnOx seed structures, i.e., cluster or layer structures. The flower-like hexagonal-faceted ZnO nanorods grown at 600 °C seem to be generated from the sparsely distributed ZnOx nanoclusters. Vertically aligned hexagonal-faceted ZnO nanorods grown at 800 °C may be inferred from the formation of dense arrays of ZnOx clusters. The formation of disordered ZnO nanorods formed at 1000 °C may due to the formation of a ZnOx seed layer. The growth mechanism involved has been described by a combination of self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) and vapor-solid (VS) mechanism. The results suggest that for a more precise study on the growth of ZnO nanostructures involving the introduction of seeds, the initial seed structures must be taken into account given their significant effects.

  9. Fe 2O 3–TiO 2 core–shell nanorod arrays for visible light photocatalytic applications

    DOE PAGES

    Yao, Kun; Basnet, Pradip; Sessions, Henry; ...

    2015-11-11

    By using the glancing angle deposition technique and post-deposition annealing, Fe 2O 3–TiO 2 core-shell nanorod arrays with specific crystalline states can be designed and fabricated. The Fe 2O 3–TiO 2 core-shell samples annealed at temperatures greater than 450°C formed α-Fe 2O 3 and anatase TiO 2, and showed higher catalytic efficiency for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light illumination when compared with pure anatase TiO 2 or α-Fe 2O 3 nanorod arrays. Solar conversion of carbon dioxide and water vapor in the presence of Fe 2O 3–TiO 2 core-shell nanorod arrays was also investigated. Carbon monoxide,more » hydrogen, methane, and methanol along with other hydrocarbons were produced after only several hours’ exposure under ambient sunlight. It was determined that the core-shell structure showed greater efficiency for solar CO 2 conversion than the pure TiO 2 nanorod arrays.« less

  10. Evolution of Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown on Vacuum Annealed Seed Crystallites

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fasihullah; Ajmal, Hafiz Muhammad Salman; Huda, Noor Ul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sam-Dong

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the ambient condition for the as-coated seed layer (SL) annealing at 350 °C is varied from air or nitrogen to vacuum to examine the evolution of structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods (NRs). The NR crystals of high surface density (~240 rods/μm2) and aspect ratio (~20.3) show greatly enhanced (002) degree of orientation and crystalline quality, when grown on the SLs annealed in vacuum, compared to those annealed in air or nitrogen ambient. This is due to the vacuum-annealed SL crystals of a highly preferred orientation toward (002) and large grain sizes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also reveals that the highest O/Zn atomic ratio of 0.89 is obtained in the case of vacuum-annealed SL crystals, which is due to the effective desorption of hydroxyl groups and other contaminants adsorbed on the surface formed during aqueous solution-based growth process. Near band edge emission (ultra violet range of 360–400 nm) of the vacuum-annealed SLs is also enhanced by 44% and 33% as compared to those annealed in air and nitrogen ambient, respectively, in photoluminescence with significant suppression of visible light emission associated with deep level transition. Due to this improvement of SL optical crystalline quality, the NR crystals grown on the vacuum-annealed SLs produce ~3 times higher ultra violet emission intensity than the other samples. In summary, it is shown that the ZnO NRs preferentially grow along the wurtzite c-axis direction, thereby producing the high crystalline quality of nanostructures when they grow on the vacuum-annealed SLs of high crystalline quality with minimized impurities and excellent preferred orientation. The ZnO nanostructures of high crystalline quality achieved in this study can be utilized for a wide range of potential device applications such as laser diodes, light-emitting diodes, piezoelectric transducers and generators, gas sensors, and ultraviolet detectors. PMID:29373523

  11. Encapsulating Quantum Dots into ZnO Nanorods for Advanced photonics and Laser Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-12

    nanotechnology , Nanofabrication 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17.  LIMITATION OF       ABSTRACT SAR 18.  NUMBER        OF        PAGES    15             19a...nanorods and microrods. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology , 2014. 5: p. 485-493. 2. Liu, J. and N. Motta, The nanonail flower. Materials Today...storage.(Review) Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 7: 149-196. (2016) 4. Mei Lyu, Jinzhang Liu, Jun Zhu⃰, Llew Rintoul, Nunzio Motta

  12. Highly reproducible and sensitive silver nanorod array for the rapid detection of Allura Red in candy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yue; Wang, Wen; Tian, Kangzhen; Ingram, Whitney Marvella; Cheng, Jie; Qu, Lulu; Li, Haitao; Han, Caiqin

    2018-04-01

    Allura Red (AR) is a highly stable synthetic red azo dye, which is widely used in the food industry to dye food and increase its attraction to consumers. However, the excessive consumption of AR can result in adverse health effects to humans. Therefore, a highly reproducible silver nanorod (AgNR) array was developed for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of AR in candy. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of AgNR substrate obtained from the same batch and different batches were 5.7% and 11.0%, respectively, demonstrating the high reproducibility. Using these highly reproducible AgNR arrays as the SERS substrates, AR was detected successfully, and its characteristic peaks were assigned by the density function theory (DFT) calculation. The limit of detection (LOD) of AR was determined to be 0.05 mg/L with a wide linear range of 0.8-100 mg/L. Furthermore, the AgNR SERS arrays can detect AR directly in different candy samples within 3 min without any complicated pretreatment. These results suggest the AgNR array can be used for rapid and qualitative SERS detection of AR, holding a great promise for expanding SERS application in food safety control field.

  13. Interspace modification of titania-nanorod arrays for efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Jin, Zhixin; Wang, Yinglin; Wang, Meiqi; Chen, Shixin; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Xintong; Liu, Yichun

    2017-04-01

    Morphology of electron transport layers (ETLs) has an important influence on the device architecture and electronic processes of mesostructured solar cells. In this work, we thoroughly investigated the effect of the interspace of TiO2 nanorod (NR) arrays on the photovoltaic performance of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Along with the interspace in TiO2-NR arrays increasing, the thickness as well as the crystal size of perovskite capping layer are reduced accordingly, and the filling of perovskite in the channel becomes incomplete. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that this variation of perovskite absorber layer, induced by interspace of TiO2 NR arrays, causes the change of charge recombination process at the TiO2/perovskite interface, suggesting that a balance between capping layer and the perovskite filling is critical to obtain high charge collection efficiency of PSCs. A power conversion efficiency of 10.3% could be achieved through careful optimization of interspace in TiO2-NR arrays. Our research will shed light on the morphology control of ETLs with 1D structure for heterojunction solar cells fabricated by solution-deposited method.

  14. Ti nanorod arrays with a medium density significantly promote osteogenesis and osteointegration

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Chengyun; Wang, Shuangying; Zhu, Ye; Zhong, Meiling; Lin, Xi; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Guoxin; Li, Mei; Yin, Zhaoyi; Yu, Peng; Wang, Xiaolan; Li, Ying; He, Tianrui; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yingjun; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-01-01

    Ti implants are good candidates in bone repair. However, how to promote bone formation on their surface and their consequent perfect integration with the surrounding tissue is still a challenge. To overcome such challenge, we propose to form Ti nanorods on their surface to promote the new bone formation around the implants. Here Ti nanorod arrays (TNrs) with different densities were produced on pure Ti surfaces using an anodizing method. The influence of TNr density on the protein adsorption as well as on the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells were assessed. The TNrs were also implanted into the bone defects in rabbits to test their application in promoting bone formation and osteointegration at the implant-bone interface. TNrs with the medium density were found to show the best capability in promoting the protein adsorption from surrounding medium, which in turn efficiently enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro and osteointegration in vivo. Our work suggests that growing TNrs with a medium density on the surface of traditional Ti implants is an efficient and facile method for promoting bone formation and osteointegration in bone repair. PMID:26743328

  15. Perovskite nanoparticle-sensitized Ga 2O 3 nanorod arrays for CO detection at high temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Hui -Jan; Baltrus, John P.; Gao, Haiyong; ...

    2016-04-04

    Here, noble metal nanoparticles are extensively used for sensitizing metal oxide chemical sensors through the catalytic spillover mechanism. However, due to earth-scarcity and high cost of noble metals, finding replacements presents a great economic benefit. Besides, high temperature and harsh environment sensor applications demand material stability under conditions approaching thermal and chemical stability limits of noble metals. In this study, we employed thermally stable perovskite-type La 0.8Sr 0.2FeO 3 (LSFO) nanoparticle surface decoration on Ga 2O 3 nanorod array gas sensors and discovered an order of magnitude enhanced sensitivity to carbon monoxide at 500 °C. The LSFO nanoparticle catalysts wasmore » of comparable performance to that achieved by Pt nanoparticles, with a much lower weight loading than Pt. Detailed electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies suggested the LSFO nanoparticle sensitization effect is attributed to a spillover-like effect associated with the gas-LSFO-Ga 2O 3 triple-interfaces that spread the negatively charged surface oxygen ions from LSFO nanoparticles surfaces over to β-Ga 2O 3 nanorod surfaces with faster surface CO oxidation reactions.« less

  16. Perovskite Nanoparticle-Sensitized Ga2O3 Nanorod Arrays for CO Detection at High Temperature.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Jan; Baltrus, John P; Gao, Haiyong; Ding, Yong; Nam, Chang-Yong; Ohodnicki, Paul; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2016-04-13

    Noble metal nanoparticles are extensively used for sensitizing metal oxide chemical sensors through the catalytic spillover mechanism. However, due to earth-scarcity and high cost of noble metals, finding replacements presents a great economic benefit. Besides, high temperature and harsh environment sensor applications demand material stability under conditions approaching thermal and chemical stability limits of noble metals. In this study, we employed thermally stable perovskite-type La(0.8)Sr(0.2)FeO3 (LSFO) nanoparticle surface decoration on Ga2O3 nanorod array gas sensors and discovered an order of magnitude enhanced sensitivity to carbon monoxide at 500 °C. The LSFO nanoparticle catalysts was of comparable performance to that achieved by Pt nanoparticles, with a much lower weight loading than Pt. Detailed electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies suggested the LSFO nanoparticle sensitization effect is attributed to a spillover-like effect associated with the gas-LSFO-Ga2O3 triple-interfaces that spread the negatively charged surface oxygen ions from LSFO nanoparticles surfaces over to β-Ga2O3 nanorod surfaces with faster surface CO oxidation reactions.

  17. Ti nanorod arrays with a medium density significantly promote osteogenesis and osteointegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Chengyun; Wang, Shuangying; Zhu, Ye; Zhong, Meiling; Lin, Xi; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Guoxin; Li, Mei; Yin, Zhaoyi; Yu, Peng; Wang, Xiaolan; Li, Ying; He, Tianrui; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yingjun; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-01-01

    Ti implants are good candidates in bone repair. However, how to promote bone formation on their surface and their consequent perfect integration with the surrounding tissue is still a challenge. To overcome such challenge, we propose to form Ti nanorods on their surface to promote the new bone formation around the implants. Here Ti nanorod arrays (TNrs) with different densities were produced on pure Ti surfaces using an anodizing method. The influence of TNr density on the protein adsorption as well as on the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells were assessed. The TNrs were also implanted into the bone defects in rabbits to test their application in promoting bone formation and osteointegration at the implant-bone interface. TNrs with the medium density were found to show the best capability in promoting the protein adsorption from surrounding medium, which in turn efficiently enhanced osteogenic differentiation in vitro and osteointegration in vivo. Our work suggests that growing TNrs with a medium density on the surface of traditional Ti implants is an efficient and facile method for promoting bone formation and osteointegration in bone repair.

  18. Plasmonic nanorod arrays of a two-segment dimer and a coaxial cable with 1 nm gap for large field confinement and enhancement.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zi-Qiang; Nan, Fan; Yang, Da-Jie; Zhong, Yu-Ting; Ma, Liang; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Li; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2015-01-28

    Seeking plasmonic nanostructures with large field confinement and enhancement is significant for photonic and electronic nanodevices with high sensitivity, reproducibility, and tunability. Here, we report the synthesis of plasmonic arrays composed of two-segment dimer nanorods and coaxial cable nanorods with ∼1 nm gap insulated by a self-assembled Raman molecule monolayer. The gap-induced plasmon coupling generates an intense field in the gap region of the dimer junction and the cable interlayer. As a result, the longitudinal plasmon resonance of nanorod arrays with high tunability is obviously enhanced. Most interestingly, the field enhancement of dimer nanorod arrays can be tuned by the length ratio L1/L2 of the two segments, and the maximal enhancement appears at L1/L2 = 1. In that case, the two-photon luminescence (TPL) of dimer nanorod arrays and the Raman intensity in the dimer junction is enhanced by 27 and 30 times, respectively, under resonant excitation. In the same way, the Raman intensity in the gap region is enhanced 16 times for the coaxial cable nanorod arrays. The plasmonic nanorod arrays synthesized by the facile method, having tunable plasmon properties and large field enhancement, indicate an attractive pathway to the photonic nanodevices.

  19. Biological sensing and control of emission dynamics of quantum dot bioconjugates using arrays of long metallic nanorods.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Seyed M; Gutha, Rithvik R; Wing, Waylin J; Sharp, Christina; Capps, Lucas; Mao, Chuanbin

    2017-01-01

    We study biological sensing using plasmonic and photonic-plasmonic resonances of arrays of ultralong metallic nanorods and analyze the impact of these resonances on emission dynamics of quantum dot bioconjugates. We demonstrate that the LSPRs and plasmonic lattice modes of such array can be used to detect a single self-assembled monolayer of alkanethiol at the visible (550 nm) and near infrared (770 nm) range with well resolved shifts. We study adsorption of streptavidin-quantum dot conjugates to this monolayer, demonstrating that formation of nearly two dimensional arrays of quantum dots with limited emission blinking can lead to extra well-defined wavelength shifts in these modes. Using spectrally-resolved lifetime measurements we study the emission dynamics of such quantum dot bioconjugates within their monodispersed size distribution. We show that, despite their close vicinity to the nanorods, the rate of energy transfer from these quantum dots to nanorods is rather weak, while the plasmon field enhancement can be strong. Our results reveal that the nanorods present a strongly wavelength or size-dependent non-radiative decay channel to the quantum dot bioconjugates.

  20. Strong light coupling effect for a glancing-deposited silver nanorod array in the Kretschmann configuration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work, three slanted silver nanorod arrays (NRAs) with different thicknesses are fabricated using the glancing angle deposition method. Each silver NRA in the Kretschmann configuration is arranged to form a prism/NRA/air system. Attenuated total reflection occurs over the visible wavelengths and wide incident angles of both s- and p-polarization states. The extinctance is inversely proportional to the thickness of the Ag NRA. The thinnest NRA, with a thickness of 169 nm, exhibits strong extinctance of more than 80% over the visible wavelengths. The associated forward scatterings from the three NRAs are measured and compared under illumination with a laser beam with a wavelength of 632.8 nm. PMID:25352769

  1. High-performance electrochemical glucose sensing enabled by Cu(TCNQ) nanorod array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiufeng; Lu, Wenbo

    2018-04-01

    It is highly attractive to construct stable enzyme-free glucose sensors based on three-dimensional direct electrochemical detection of glucose. In this paper, a copper 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (Cu(TCNQ)) nanorod array on Cu foam (Cu(TCNQ) NA/CF) is proposed as an efficient catalyst for electrochemical glucose oxidation in alkaline conditions. When Cu(TCNQ) NA/CF was used as the enzyme-free sensory of glucose, the sensor showed a response time within 3 s, a wide linear detection in the range 0.001-10.0 mM, the minimum limit of detection was as low as 10 nM (S/N = 3), and it had a high sensitivity of 26 987 μA mM-1 cm-2. Moreover, this sensor also possesses long-term stability, high selectivity, reproducibility, and actual applications for fresh human serum sample analysis is also successfully accepted.

  2. Enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 nanorod arrays decorated with CdS nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zheng; Liu, Xiangxuan; Wang, Weipeng; Liu, Can; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 nanorod arrays (TiO2 NRAs) sensitized with CdS nanoparticles were fabricated via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), and TiO2 NRAs were obtained by oxidizing Ti NRAs obtained through oblique angle deposition. The TiO2 NRAs decorated with CdS nanoparticles exhibited excellent photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic properties under visible light, and the one decorated with 20 SILAR cycles CdS nanoparticles shows the best performance. This can be attributed to the enhanced separation of electrons and holes by forming heterojunctions of CdS nanoparticles and TiO2 NRAs. This provides a promising way to fabricate the material for solar energy conversion and wastewater degradation. PMID:27877718

  3. Enhanced polarization of (11-22) semi-polar InGaN nanorod array structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasiou, M.; Smith, R. M.; Hou, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Y.; Wang, T.

    2015-10-01

    By means of a cost effective nanosphere lithography technique, an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure grown on (11-22) semipolar GaN has been fabricated into two dimensional nanorod arrays which form a photonic crystal (PhC) structure. Such a PhC structure demonstrates not only significantly increased emission intensity, but also an enhanced polarization ratio of the emission. This is due to an effective inhibition of the emission in slab modes and then redistribution to the vertical direction, thus minimizing the light scattering processes that lead to randomizing of the optical polarization. The PhC structure is designed based on a standard finite-difference-time-domain simulation, and then optically confirmed by detailed time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The results presented pave the way for the fabrication of semipolar InGaN/GaN based emitters with both high efficiency and highly polarized emission.

  4. ZnO nanorods/ZnS.(1,6-hexanediamine)0.5 hybrid nanoplates hierarchical heteroarchitecture with improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhengcui; Wu, Yaqin; Pei, Tonghui; Wang, Huan; Geng, Baoyou

    2014-02-01

    Novel hierarchical heteronanostructures of ZnO nanorods/ZnS.(HDA)0.5 (HDA = 1,6-hexanediamine) hybrid nanoplates on a zinc substrate are successfully synthesized on a large scale by combining hydrothermal growth (for ZnO nanorods) and liquid chemical conversion (for ZnS.(HDA)0.5 nanoplates) techniques. The formation of ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates branches takes advantage of the preferential binding of 1,6-hexanediamine on specific facets of ZnS, which makes the thickening rate much lower than the lateral growth rate. The ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates have a layered structure with 1,6-hexanediamine inserted into interlayers of wurtzite ZnS through the bonding of nitrogen. The number density and thickness of the secondary ZnS.(HDA)0.5 nanoplates can be conveniently engineered by variation of the sulfur source and straightforward adjustment of reactant concentrations such as 1,6-hexanediamine and the sulfur source. The fabricated ZnO/ZnS.(HDA)0.5 heteronanostructures show improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine compared with the primary ZnO nanorods. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, this approach could be similarly used to fabricate varieties of hybrid heterostructures made of materials with an intrinsic large lattice mismatch.Novel hierarchical heteronanostructures of ZnO nanorods/ZnS.(HDA)0.5 (HDA = 1,6-hexanediamine) hybrid nanoplates on a zinc substrate are successfully synthesized on a large scale by combining hydrothermal growth (for ZnO nanorods) and liquid chemical conversion (for ZnS.(HDA)0.5 nanoplates) techniques. The formation of ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates branches takes advantage of the preferential binding of 1,6-hexanediamine on specific facets of ZnS, which makes the thickening rate much lower than the lateral growth rate. The ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates have a layered structure with 1,6-hexanediamine inserted into interlayers of wurtzite ZnS through the bonding of nitrogen. The number density and thickness of the

  5. Electropolymerization of Uniform Polyaniline Nanorod Arrays on Conducting Oxides as Counter Electrodes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Khoo, Si Yun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-01-01

    Conventional techniques for the synthesis of oriented polyaniline (PANI) nanostructures are often complex or time consuming. Through an innovative reduced graphene oxide (rGO) modified FTO and a low-potential electropolymerization strategy, the rapid and template-free growth of a highly ordered PANI nanorod array on the FTO substrate is realized. The highly ordered nanostructure of the PANI array leads to a high electrocatalytic activity and chemical stability. The importance of the polymerization potential and rGO surface modification to achieve this nanostructure is revealed. Compared to platinum, the PANI nanorod array exhibits an enhanced performance and stability as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells, with a 17.6 % enhancement in power conversion efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Quantum dots coupled ZnO nanowire-array panels and their photocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yulong; Que, Wenxiu; Zhang, Jin; Zhong, Peng; Yuan, Yuan; Qiu, Xinku; Shen, Fengyu

    2013-02-01

    Fabrication and characterization of a heterojunction structured by CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels were presented. Firstly, ZnO nanowire-array panels were prepared by using a chemical bath deposition approach where wurtzite ZnO nanowires with a diameter of about 100 nm and 3 microm in length grew perpendicularly to glass substrate. Secondly, CdS quantum dots were deposited onto the surface of the ZnO nanowire-arrays by using successive ion layer absorption and reaction method, and the CdS shell/ZnO core heterojunction were thus obtained. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the morphological properties of the as-obtained CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels. X-ray diffraction was adopted to characterize the crystalline properties of the as-obtained CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels. Methyl orange was taken as a model compound to confirm the photocatalytic activities of the CdS shell/ZnO core heterojunction. Results indicate that CdS with narrow band gap not only acts as a visible-light sensitizer but also is responsible for an effective charge separation.

  7. Investigations into the impact of various substrates and ZnO ultra thin seed layers prepared by atomic layer deposition on growth of ZnO nanowire array

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The impact of various substrates and zinc oxide (ZnO) ultra thin seed layers prepared by atomic layer deposition on the geometric morphology of subsequent ZnO nanowire arrays (NWs) fabricated by the hydrothermal method was investigated. The investigated substrates included B-doped ZnO films, indium tin oxide films, single crystal silicon (111), and glass sheets. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the geometry and aligment of the NWs were controlled by surface topography of the substrates and thickness of the ZnO seed layers, respectively. According to atomic force microscopy data, we suggest that the substrate, fluctuate amplitude and fluctuate frequency of roughness on ZnO seed layers have a great impact on the alignment of the resulting NWs, whereas the influence of the seed layers' texture was negligible. PMID:22759838

  8. CuO-induced signal amplification strategy for multiplexed photoelectrochemical immunosensing using CdS sensitized ZnO nanotubes arrays as photoactive material and AuPd alloy nanoparticles as electron sink.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoqiang; Zhang, Yan; Kong, Qingkun; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Jinghua; Song, Xianrang

    2015-04-15

    In this work, multiplexed photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassays are introduced into an indium tin oxide (ITO) device. Firstly, the ITO device is fabricated using a simple acid etch treatment method. Secondly, AuPd alloy nanoparticles are electro-deposited on ITO working electrodes as electron sink to construct the immunosensor platform. After that, ZnO nanotubes (ZNTs) arrays are synthesized via chemical etching of ZnO nanorods that are grown on AuPd surface by electrochemical deposition method. Subsequently, CdS is electro-deposited on ZNTs arrays and used as photoactive material. Then, CuO nanoseeds are labeled with signal antibodies and firstly used as PEC signal amplification label. The introduction of CuO brings signal amplification because of the conduction band (CB) of both CuO and ZnO are lower than that of CdS, CuO will compete the photo-induced electrons in CB of CdS with ZnO, leading to the decrease of the photocurrent intensity. Using cancer antigen 125, prostate specific antigen and α-fetoprotein as model analytes, the proposed immunoassay exhibits excellent precision and sensitivity. Meanwhile, this work provides a promising, addressable and simple strategy for the multi-detection of tumor markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. III-nitride core–shell nanorod array on quartz substrates

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Si-Young; Min, Jung-Wook; Hwang, Hyeong-Yong; Lekhal, Kaddour; Lee, Ho-Jun; Jho, Young-Dahl; Lee, Dong-Seon; Lee, Yong-Tak; Ikarashi, Nobuyuki; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We report the fabrication of near-vertically elongated GaN nanorods on quartz substrates. To control the preferred orientation and length of individual GaN nanorods, we combined molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with pulsed-mode metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The MBE-grown buffer layer was composed of GaN nanograins exhibiting an ordered surface and preferred orientation along the surface normal direction. Position-controlled growth of the GaN nanorods was achieved by selective-area growth using MOCVD. Simultaneously, the GaN nanorods were elongated by the pulsed-mode growth. The microstructural and optical properties of both GaN nanorods and InGaN/GaN core–shell nanorods were then investigated. The nanorods were highly crystalline and the core–shell structures exhibited optical emission properties, indicating the feasibility of fabricating III-nitride nano-optoelectronic devices on amorphous substrates. PMID:28345641

  10. Controllable synthesis and optical properties of novel ZnO cone arrays via vapor transport at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinhai; Wang, Guanzhong; Jie, Jiansheng; Choy, Wallace C H; Luo, Yi; Yuk, T I; Hou, J G

    2005-02-24

    Novel ZnO cone arrays with controllable morphologies have been synthesized on silicon (100) substrates by thermal evaporation of metal Zn powder at a low temperature of 570 degrees C without a metal catalyst. Clear structure evolutions were observed using scanning electron microscopy: well-aligned ZnO nanocones, double-cones with growing head cones attached by stem cones, and cones with straight hexagonal pillar were obtained as the distance between the source and the substrates was increased. X-ray diffraction shows that all cone arrays grow along the c-axis. Raman and photoluminescence spectra reveal that the optical properties of the buffer layer between the ZnO cone arrays and the silicon substrates are better than those of the ZnO cone arrays due to high concentration of Zn in the heads of the ZnO cone arrays and higher growth temperature of the buffer layer. The growth of ZnO arrays reveals that the cone arrays are synthesized through a self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process.

  11. Indirect Determination of Mercury Ion by Inhibition of a Glucose Biosensor Based on ZnO Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Chey, Chan Oeurn; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    A potentiometric glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) on ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) has been developed for the indirect determination of environmental mercury ions. The ZnO-NRs were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by using the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) approach. Glucose oxidase in conjunction with a chitosan membrane and a glutaraldehyde (GA) were immobilized on the surface of the ZnO-NRs using a simple physical adsorption method and then used as a potentiometric working electrode. The potential response of the biosensor between the working electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode was measured in a 1mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The detection limit of the mercury ion sensor was found to be 0.5 nM. The experimental results provide two linear ranges of the inhibition from 0.5 × 10−6 mM to 0.5 × 10−4 mM, and from 0.5 × 10−4 mM to 20 mM of mercury ion for fixed 1 mM of glucose concentration in the solution. The linear range of the inhibition from 10−3 mM to 6 mM of mercury ion was also acquired for a fixed 10 mM of glucose concentration. The working electrode can be reactivated by more than 70% after inhibition by simply dipping the used electrode in a 10 mM PBS solution for 7 min. The electrodes retained their original enzyme activity by about 90% for more than three weeks. The response to mercury ions was highly sensitive, selective, stable, reproducible, and interference resistant, and exhibits a fast response time. The developed glucose biosensor has a great potential for detection of mercury with several advantages such as being inexpensive, requiring minimum hardware and being suitable for unskilled users. PMID:23202200

  12. Indirect determination of mercury ion by inhibition of a glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Chey, Chan Oeurn; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2012-11-06

    A potentiometric glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) on ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) has been developed for the indirect determination of environmental mercury ions. The ZnO-NRs were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by using the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) approach. Glucose oxidase in conjunction with a chitosan membrane and a glutaraldehyde (GA) were immobilized on the surface of the ZnO-NRs using a simple physical adsorption method and then used as a potentiometric working electrode. The potential response of the biosensor between the working electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode was measured in a 1mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The detection limit of the mercury ion sensor was found to be 0.5 nM. The experimental results provide two linear ranges of the inhibition from 0.5 × 10(-6) mM to 0.5 × 10(-4) mM, and from 0.5 × 10(-4) mM to 20 mM of mercury ion for fixed 1 mM of glucose concentration in the solution. The linear range of the inhibition from 10(-3) mM to 6 mM of mercury ion was also acquired for a fixed 10 mM of glucose concentration. The working electrode can be reactivated by more than 70% after inhibition by simply dipping the used electrode in a 10 mM PBS solution for 7 min. The electrodes retained their original enzyme activity by about 90% for more than three weeks. The response to mercury ions was highly sensitive, selective, stable, reproducible, and interference resistant, and exhibits a fast response time. The developed glucose biosensor has a great potential for detection of mercury with several advantages such as being inexpensive, requiring minimum hardware and being suitable for unskilled users.

  13. Octadecyltrimethoxysilane functionalized ZnO nanorods as a novel coating for solid-phase microextraction with strong hydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jingbin; Liu, Haihong; Chen, Jinmei; Huang, Jianli; Yu, Jianfeng; Wang, Yiru; Chen, Xi

    2012-09-21

    In this paper, we have, for the first time, proposed an approach by combining self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and nanomaterials (NMs) for the preparation of novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coatings. The self-assembly of octadecyltrimethoxysilane (OTMS) on the surface of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) was selected as a model system to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. The functionalization of OTMS on the surface of ZNRs was characterized and confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The OTMS-ZNRs coated fiber exhibited stronger hydrophobicity after functionalization, and its extraction efficiency for non-polar benzene homologues was increased by a factor of 1.5-3.6 when compared to a ZNRs fiber with almost identical thickness and façade. In contrast, the extraction efficiency of the OTMS-ZNRs coated fiber for polar aldehydes was 1.6-4.0-fold lower than that of the ZNRs coated fiber, further indicating its enhanced surface hydrophobicity. The OTMS-ZNRs coated fiber revealed a much higher capacity upon increasing the OTMS layer thickness to 5 μm, leading to a factor of 12.0-13.4 and 1.8-2.5 increase in extraction efficiency for the benzene homologues relative to a ZNRs coated fiber and a commercial PDMS fiber, respectively. The developed HS-SPME-GC method using the OTMS-ZNRs coated fiber was successfully applied to the determination of the benzene homologues in limnetic water samples with recovery ranging from 83 to 113% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 8%.

  14. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs. PMID:25988846

  15. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-05-19

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs.

  16. Piezoelectric coupling in a field-effect transistor with a nanohybrid channel of ZnO nanorods grown vertically on graphene.

    PubMed

    Quang Dang, Vinh; Kim, Do-Il; Thai Duy, Le; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Jang, Mi; Shin, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2014-12-21

    Piezoelectric coupling phenomena in a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) with a nano-hybrid channel of chemical-vapor-deposited Gr (CVD Gr) and vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) under mechanical pressurization were investigated. Transfer characteristics of the hybrid channel GFET clearly indicated that the piezoelectric effect of ZnO NRs under static or dynamic pressure modulated the channel conductivity (σ) and caused a positive shift of 0.25% per kPa in the Dirac point. However, the GFET without ZnO NRs showed no change in either σ or the Dirac point. Analysis of the Dirac point shifts indicated transfer of electrons from the CVD Gr to ZnO NRs due to modulation of their interfacial barrier height under pressure. High responsiveness of the hybrid channel device with fast response and recovery times was evident in the time-dependent behavior at a small gate bias. In addition, the hybrid channel FET could be gated by mechanical pressurization only. Therefore, a piezoelectric-coupled hybrid channel GFET can be used as a pressure-sensing device with low power consumption and a fast response time. Hybridization of piezoelectric 1D nanomaterials with a 2D semiconducting channel in FETs enables a new design for future nanodevices.

  17. The role of cellulosic chains of cotton in biosynthesis of ZnO nanorods producing multifunctional properties: Mechanism, characterizations and features.

    PubMed

    Aladpoosh, R; Montazer, M

    2015-08-01

    In situ synthesis of ZnO nanorods on cellulosic chains of cotton fabric was accomplished using natural plant source namely Keliab and zinc acetate. Hierarchical mechanism of nano ZnO generation and deposition on cellulosic chains of cotton fabric was discussed in details and several analytical techniques were used to characterize the formation of nano ZnO wurtzite structure. The morphology, crystal phase, and chemical structure of the fabric were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Further, interaction between ZnO and functional groups of cellulosic chains of cotton fabric was studied by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The influence of zinc acetate and Keliab solution on the self-cleaning activity of the treated cellulosic fabric was investigated with a central composite design based on surface response methodology. The treated fabrics showed self-cleaning activity toward methylene blue degradation under day light irradiation. The optimized treated sample showed high antibacterial efficiency against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with enhanced tensile strength and higher crease recovery angle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire arrays: fine tuning by precursor supersaturation

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Danhua; Cen, Jiajie; Zhang, Wenrui; ...

    2016-12-20

    In this paper, we develop a technique that fine tunes the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires to address the difficulties in controlling their growth in a conventional one-pot hydrothermal method. In our technique, precursors are separately and slowly supplied with the assistance of a syringe pump, through the entire course of the growth. Compared to the one-pot method, the significantly lowered supersaturation of precursors helps eliminating competitive homogeneous nucleation and improves the reproducibility. The supersaturation degree can be readily tuned by the precursor quantity and injection rate, thus forming ZnO nanowire arrays of various geometries and packing densities in amore » highly controllable fashion. The precise control of ZnO nanowire growth enables systematic studies on the correlation between the material's properties and its morphology. Finally, in this work, ZnO nanowire arrays of various morphologies are studied as photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting photoanodes, in which we establish clear correlations between the water splitting performance and the nanowires' size, shape, and packing density.« less

  19. Near-infrared photoluminescence biosensing platform with gold nanorods-over-gallium arsenide nanohorn array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiming; Jiang, Tao; Tang, Longhua

    2017-11-15

    The near-infrared (NIR) optical detection of biomolecules with high sensitivity and reliability have been expected, however, it is still a challenge. In this work, we present a gold nanorods (AuNRs)-over-gallium arsenide nanohorn-like array (GaAs NHA) system that can be used for the ultrasensitive and specific NIR photoluminescence (PL) detection of DNA and proteins. The fabrication of GaAs NHA involved the technique of colloidal lithography and inductively coupled plasma dry etching, yielding large-area and well-defined nanostructural array, and exhibiting an improved PL emission compared to the planar GaAs substrate. Importantly, we found that the DNA-bridged AuNRs attachment on NHA could further improve the PL intensity from GaAs, and thereby provide the basis for the NIR optical sensing of biological analytes. We demonstrated that DNA and thrombin could be sensitively and specifically detected, with the detection limit of 1 pM for target DNA and 10 pM for thrombin. Such ultrasensitive NIR optical platform can extend to the detection of other biomarkers and is promising for clinical diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasmon enhanced fluorescence studies from aligned gold nanorod arrays modified with SiO{sub 2} spacer layers

    SciT

    Damm, Signe; Fedele, Stefano; Rice, James H., E-mail: james.rice@ucd.ie

    Here, we demonstrate that quasi self-standing Au nanorod arrays prepared with plasma polymerisation deposited SiO{sub 2} dielectric spacers support surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF) while maintaining high signal reproducibility. We show that it is possible to find a balance between enhanced radiative and non-radiative decay rates at which the fluorescent intensity is maximized. The SEF signal optimised with a 30 nm spacer layer thickness showed a 3.5-fold enhancement with a signal variance of <15% thereby keeping the integrity of the nanorod array. We also demonstrate the decreased importance of obtaining resonance conditions when localized surface plasmon resonance is positioned within the spectralmore » region of Au interband transitions. Procedures for further increasing the SEF enhancement factor are also discussed.« less

  1. Influence of helium-ion bombardment on the optical properties of ZnO nanorods/p-GaN light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Alvi, Naveed Ul Hassan; Hussain, Sajjad; Jensen, Jen; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2011-12-12

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown by vapor-liquid-solid catalytic growth method were irradiated with 2-MeV helium (He+) ions. The fabricated LEDs were irradiated with fluencies of approximately 2 × 1013 ions/cm2 and approximately 4 × 1013 ions/cm2. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the morphology of the irradiated samples is not changed. The as-grown and He+-irradiated LEDs showed rectifying behavior with the same I-V characteristics. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed that there is a blue shift of approximately 0.0347 and 0.082 eV in the near-band emission (free exciton) and green emission of the irradiated ZnO nanorods, respectively. It was also observed that the PL intensity of the near-band emission was decreased after irradiation of the samples. The electroluminescence (EL) measurements of the fabricated LEDs showed that there is a blue shift of 0.125 eV in the broad green emission after irradiation and the EL intensity of violet emission approximately centered at 398 nm nearly disappeared after irradiations. The color-rendering properties show a small decrease in the color-rendering indices of 3% after 2 MeV He+ ions irradiation.

  2. Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Vertical ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Flexible dye-sensitized solar cells are fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays that are transferred onto ITO-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates using a simple peel-off process. The solar cells demonstrate an energy conversion efficiency of 0.44% with good bending tolerance. This technique paves a new route for building large-scale cost-effective flexible photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:27502660

  3. Preparation and characterization of nanorod-like TiO2 and ZnO films used for charge-transport buffer layers in P3HT based organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thao, Tran Thi; Long, Dang Dinh; Truong, Vo-Van; Dinh, Nguyen Nang

    2016-08-01

    With the aim of findingout the appropriate buffer layers for organic solar cells (OSC), TiO2 and ZnO on ITO/glass were prepared as nanorod-like thin films. The TiO2 films were crystallyzed in the anatase phase and the ZnO films, in the wurtzite structure. The nanorods in both the fims have a similar size of 15 to 20 nm in diameter and 30 to 50 nm in length. The nanorods have an orientation nearly perpendicular to the ITO-substrate surface. From UV-Vis data the bandgap of the TiO2 and ZnO films were determined tobe 3.26 eV and 3.42 eV, respectively. The laminar organic solar cells with added TiO2 and ZnO, namely ITO/TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al (TBD) and ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al (ZBD)were made for characterization of the energy conversion performance. As a result, comparing to TiO2,the nanorod-likeZnO filmwas found to be a much better buffer layer that made the fill factor improve from a value of 0.60 for TBD to 0.82 for ZBD, and consequently thePCE was enhanced from 0.84 for TBD to 1.17% for ZBD.

  4. Photodeposition of Ag2S on TiO2 nanorod arrays for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ag2S quantum dots were deposited on the surface of TiO2 nanorod arrays by a two-step photodeposition. The prepared TiO2 nanorod arrays as well as the Ag2S deposited electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope, suggesting a large coverage of Ag2S quantum dots on the ordered TiO2 nanorod arrays. UV–vis absorption spectra of Ag2S deposited electrodes show a broad absorption range of the visible light. The quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on these electrodes were fabricated, and the photoelectrochemical properties were examined. A high photocurrent density of 10.25 mA/cm2 with a conversion efficiency of 0.98% at AM 1.5 solar light of 100 mW/cm2 was obtained with an optimal photodeposition time. The performance of the QDSSC at different incident light intensities was also investigated. The results display a better performance at a lower incident light level with a conversion efficiency of 1.25% at 47 mW/cm2. PMID:23286551

  5. Understanding charge transfer dynamics in QDs-TiO2 nanorod array photoanodes for solar fuel generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangtian; McClure, Joshua P.; Fu, Richard; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2018-01-01

    Harvesting light to drive water splitting for hydrogen generation is an attractive approach to satisfy the urgent energy demands. The design and fabrication of photoelectrode materials that are able to harvest sunlight is an important scientific undertaking. In this study, a two-quantum-dot (QD) layer is developed to decorate one-dimensional TiO2 nanorod arrays, which are subsequently utilized as photoanodes to harvest the wide-spectrum sunlight for water splitting. The QD-coated TiO2 nanorod arrays extend the light absorption range from the UV into the visible region yielding increased solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies. Transient photocurrent decay measurements demonstrate that the multi-layer CdSe-CdS QDs deposited onto the TiO2 nanorod arrays result in a stepwise band alignment that not only improves the hole extraction but also facilitates electron injection from the QDs to TiO2 rods. Moreover, the multi-heterojunction photoanode introduces interfacial states that act as recombination centers to trap the photogenerated electrons.

  6. Cobalt selenide hollow nanorods array with exceptionally high electrocatalytic activity for high-efficiency quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhitong; Zhang, Meirong; Wang, Min; Feng, Chuanqi; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    In quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (QSDSSCs), electron transport through a random network of catalyst in the counter electrode (CE) and electrolyte diffusion therein are limited by the grain boundaries of catalyst particles, thus diminishing the electrocatalytic performance of CE and the corresponding photovoltaic performance of QSDSSCs. We demonstrate herein an ordered Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array film as the Pt-free CE of QSDSSCs. The Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array displays excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of I3- in the quasi-solid-state electrolyte with extremely low charge transfer resistance at the CE/electrolyte interface, and the diffusion of redox species within the Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array CE is pretty fast. The QSDSSC device with the Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array CE produces much higher photovoltaic conversion efficiency (8.35%) than that (4.94%) with the Co0.85Se randomly packed nanorods CE, against the control device with the Pt CE (7.75%). Moreover, the QSDSSC device based on the Co0.85Se hollow nanorods array CE presents good long-term stability with only 4% drop of power conversion efficiency after 1086 h one-sun soaking.

  7. Influence of substrates and rutile seed layers on the assembly of hydrothermally grown rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalb, Julian; Dorman, James A.; Folger, Alena; Gerigk, Melanie; Knittel, Vanessa; Plüisch, Claudia S.; Trepka, Bastian; Lehr, Daniela; Chua, Emily; Goodge, Berit H.; Wittemann, Alexander; Scheu, Christina; Polarz, Sebastian; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2018-07-01

    Rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) are applicable in various prospective technologies. Hydrothermal methods present a simple technique to fabricate such NRAs. In this report, we present the fabrication of seed layers for the hydrothermal growth of rutile TiO2 nanorods via sputter deposition, electron-beam evaporation, and sol-gel method and study the influence of each on the growth behavior. To satisfy the requirements of numerous applications, p-type silicon, platinum, levitating carbon membranes, a template made of polystyrene spheres, and commercial fluorine tin oxide (FTO) were employed as substrates. We document the structural properties of the TiO2 seed layers and describe the relationship between the characteristics of the seed crystals, the growth evolution, and the appearance of as-grown nanorods. Various growth stages of rutile TiO2 nanorods are compared depending on whether they are grown on polycrystalline TiO2 or FTO seed layers. In both cases, a homogenous TiO2 bottom layer is formed at the seed layer/substrate interface, which is essential for electronic applications such as hybrid solar cells. Detached NRAs illustrate the effect of rutile FTO and TiO2 on the porosity of this bottom layer. Further details about the formation process of this layer are obtained from the growth on confined seed layers fabricated by electron-beam lithography.

  8. In situ formation of a ZnO/ZnSe nanonail array as a photoelectrode for enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liyang; Tian, Guohui; Chen, Yajie; Xiao, Yuting; Fu, Honggang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a ZnO/ZnSe nanonail array was prepared via a two-step sequential hydrothermal synthetic route. In this synthetic process, the ZnO nanorod array was first grown on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using a seed-mediated growth approach via the hydrothermal process. Then, the ZnO nanonail array was obtained via in situ growth of ZnSe nano caps onto the ZnO nanorod array via a hydrothermal process in the presence of a Se source. The surface morphology and amount of ZnSe grown on the surface of the ZnO nanorods can be regulated by varying the reaction time and reactant concentration. Compared with pure ZnO nanorods, this unique nanonail array heterostructure exhibits enhanced visible light absorption. The transient photocurrent condition, in combination with steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, reveals that the ZnO/ZnSe nanonail array electrode has the highest charge separation rate, highest electron injection efficiency, and highest chemical stability. The photocurrent density of the ZnO/ZnSe nanonail array heterostructure reaches 1.01 mA cm-2 at an applied potential of 0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which is much higher than that of the ZnO/ZnSe nanorod array (0.71 mA cm-2), the pristine ZnO nanorod array (0.39 mA cm-2), and the ZnSe electrode (0.21 mA cm-2), indicating its significant visible light driven activities for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. This unique morphology of nail-capped nanorods might be important for providing better insight into the correlation between heterostructure and photoelectrochemical activity.In this study, a ZnO/ZnSe nanonail array was prepared via a two-step sequential hydrothermal synthetic route. In this synthetic process, the ZnO nanorod array was first grown on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using a seed-mediated growth approach via the hydrothermal process. Then, the ZnO nanonail array was obtained via in situ growth of ZnSe nano caps onto the ZnO nanorod array via a

  9. Thickness dependence of the MoO3 blocking layers on ZnO nanorod-inverted organic photovoltaic devices

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingjun; Li, Yuan; Huang, Huihui; Peterson, Eric D.; Nie, Wanyi; Zhou, Wei; Zeng, Wei; Huang, Wenxiao; Fang, Guojia; Sun, Nanhai; Zhao, Xingzhong; Carroll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Organic solar cells based on vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZNR) in an inverted structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)∕ZNR∕poly(3-hexylthiophene): (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester(P3HT:PCBM)∕MoO3∕aluminum(Al) were studied. We found that the optimum MoO3 layer thickness condition of 20 nm, the MoO3 can effectively decrease the probability of bimolecular recombination either at the Al interface or within the active layer itself. For this optimum condition we get a power conversion efficiency of 2.15%, a short-circuit current density of 9.02 mA∕cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.55V, and a fill factor of 0.44 under 100 mW∕cm2 irradiation. Our investigations also show that the highly crystallized ZNR can create short and continuous pathways for electron transport and increase the contact area between the ZNR and the organic materials. PMID:21464889

  10. Atomic Layer Deposition of Nickel on ZnO Nanowire Arrays for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Wang, Yong-Ping; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ji, Xin-Ming; Devi, Anjana; Jiang, An-Quan; Zhang, David Wei

    2018-01-10

    A novel hybrid core-shell structure of ZnO nanowires (NWs)/Ni as a pseudocapacitor electrode was successfully fabricated by atomic layer deposition of a nickel shell, and its capacitive performance was systemically investigated. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the NiO was formed at the interface between ZnO and Ni where the Ni was oxidized by ZnO during the ALD of the Ni layer. Electrochemical measurement results revealed that the Ti/ZnO NWs/Ni (1500 cycles) electrode with a 30 nm thick Ni-NiO shell layer had the best supercapacitor properties including ultrahigh specific capacitance (∼2440 F g -1 ), good rate capability (80.5%) under high current charge-discharge conditions, and a relatively better cycling stability (86.7% of the initial value remained after 750 cycles at 10 A g -1 ). These attractive capacitive behaviors are mainly attributed to the unique core-shell structure and the combined effect of ZnO NW arrays as short charge transfer pathways for ion diffusion and electron transfer as well as conductive Ni serving as channel for the fast electron transport to Ti substrate. This high-performance Ti/ZnO NWs/Ni hybrid structure is expected to be one of a promising electrodes for high-performance supercapacitor applications.

  11. Facile synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ZnO/zinc titanate core-shell nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ding-Chao; Fu, Qiu-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Bin; Zhao, Hong-Yang; Tu, Ya-Fang; Tian, Yu; Zhou, Di; Zheng, Guang; Lu, Hong-Bing

    2018-02-01

    ZnO/zinc titanate core-shell nanorod arrays (CSNRs) were successfully prepared via a simple synthesis process by combining hydrothermal synthesis and liquid phase deposition (LPD). The surface morphologies, crystalline characteristics, optical properties and surface electronic states of the ZnO/zinc titanate CSNRs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffractometer, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, PL and ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectra. By controlling the reaction time of LPD, the shell thickness could vary with the reaction time. Furthermore, the impacts of the reaction time and post-annealing temperature on the crystalline structure and chemical composition of the CSNRs were also investigated. The studies of photocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation revealed that the ZnO/zinc titanate CSNRs annealed at 700 °C with 30 min deposition exhibited the best photocatalytic activity and good stability for degradation of methylene blue. It had been found that the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the CSNRs led to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the ZnO/zinc titanate CSNRs grown on quartz glass substrate could be easily recycled for reuse with almost unchanged photocatalytic activity.

  12. Construction of self-supported porous TiO2/NiO core/shell nanorod arrays for electrochemical capacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. B.; Guo, R. Q.; Huang, X. H.; Lin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    High-quality metal oxides hetero-structured nanoarrays have been receiving great attention in electrochemical energy storage application. Self-supported TiO2/NiO core/shell nanorod arrays are prepared on carbon cloth via the combination of hydrothermal synthesis and electro-deposition methods. The obtained core/shell nanorods consist of nanorod core and interconnected nanoflake shell, as well as hierarchical porosity. As cathode materials for pseudo-capacitors, the TiO2/NiO core/shell nanorod arrays display impressive electrochemical performances with both high capacitance of 611 F g-1 at 2 A g-1, and pretty good cycling stability with a retention of 89% after 5000 cycles. Besides, as compared to the single NiO nanoflake arrays on carbon cloth, the TiO2/NiO core/shell nanorod arrays exhibit much better electrochemical properties with higher capacitance, better electrochemical activity and cycling life. This enhanced performance is mainly due to the core/shell nanorods architecture offering fast ion/electron transfer and sufficient contact between active materials and electrolyte.

  13. Influence of ZnO seed layer precursor molar ratio on the density of interface defects in low temperature aqueous chemically synthesized ZnO nanorods/GaN light-emitting diodes

    SciT

    Alnoor, Hatim, E-mail: hatim.alnoor@liu.se; Iandolo, Donata; Willander, Magnus

    Low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (LT-ACS) of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) has been attracting considerable research interest due to its great potential in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The influence of the molar ratio of the zinc acetate (ZnAc): KOH as a ZnO seed layer precursor on the density of interface defects and hence the presence of non-radiative recombination centers in LT-ACS of ZnO NRs/GaN LEDs has been systematically investigated. The material quality of the as-prepared seed layer as quantitatively deduced by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is found to be influenced by the molar ratio. It is revealedmore » by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence that the seed layer molar ratio plays a significant role in the formation and the density of defects at the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterostructure interface. Consequently, LED devices processed using ZnO NRs synthesized with molar ratio of 1:5 M exhibit stronger yellow emission (∼575 nm) compared to those based on 1:1 and 1:3 M ratios as measured by the electroluminescence. Furthermore, seed layer molar ratio shows a quantitative dependence of the non-radiative defect densities as deduced from light-output current characteristics analysis. These results have implications on the development of high-efficiency ZnO-based LEDs and may also be helpful in understanding the effects of the ZnO seed layer on defect-related non-radiative recombination.« less

  14. Influence of ZnO seed layer precursor molar ratio on the density of interface defects in low temperature aqueous chemically synthesized ZnO nanorods/GaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnoor, Hatim; Pozina, Galia; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Xianjie; Iandolo, Donata; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer

    2016-04-01

    Low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (LT-ACS) of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) has been attracting considerable research interest due to its great potential in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The influence of the molar ratio of the zinc acetate (ZnAc): KOH as a ZnO seed layer precursor on the density of interface defects and hence the presence of non-radiative recombination centers in LT-ACS of ZnO NRs/GaN LEDs has been systematically investigated. The material quality of the as-prepared seed layer as quantitatively deduced by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is found to be influenced by the molar ratio. It is revealed by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence that the seed layer molar ratio plays a significant role in the formation and the density of defects at the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterostructure interface. Consequently, LED devices processed using ZnO NRs synthesized with molar ratio of 1:5 M exhibit stronger yellow emission (˜575 nm) compared to those based on 1:1 and 1:3 M ratios as measured by the electroluminescence. Furthermore, seed layer molar ratio shows a quantitative dependence of the non-radiative defect densities as deduced from light-output current characteristics analysis. These results have implications on the development of high-efficiency ZnO-based LEDs and may also be helpful in understanding the effects of the ZnO seed layer on defect-related non-radiative recombination.

  15. Piezoelectric and opto-electrical properties of silver-doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by low temperature aqueous chemical method

    SciT

    Nour, E. S., E-mail: eiman.satti.osman@liu.se; Echresh, A.; Willander, M.

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we have synthesized Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) nanorods (NRs) via the hydrothermal method at low temperature on silicon substrate. The characterization and comparison between the different Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O samples, indicated that an increasing Ag concentration from x = 0 to a maximum of x = 0.09; All samples show a preferred orientation of (002) direction with no observable change of morphology. As the quantity of the Ag dopant was changed, the transmittances, as well as the optical band gap were decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data clearly indicate the presence ofmore » Ag in ZnO crystal lattice. A nanoindentation-based technique was used to measure the effective piezo-response of different concentrations of Ag for both direct and converse effects. The value of the piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}) as well as the piezo potential generated from the ZnO NRs and Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O NRs was found to decrease with the increase of Ag fraction. The finding in this investigation reveals that Ag doped ZnO is not suitable for piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.« less

  16. Hierarchical nanorods constructed by Mn2Mo3O8@reduced graphene oxide nanosheet arrays with enhanced lithium storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Shen, Kechao; He, Wenjie; Liu, Yi; Yin, Lixiong; Guo, Shouwu

    2018-10-01

    3D hierarchical nanorods of Mn2Mo3O8@reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanohybrid assembled with nanosheet arrays have been fabricated via a facile solvothermal process combined with subsequent anneal. It is identified that the annealing temperature and the input amount of graphene oxide (GO) are critical to form such unique Mn2Mo3O8@rGO nanostructure, whose hierarchical nanorods (ca. 470 nm of diameter) are constructed by vertical nanosheet arrays (30 ± 5 nm average thickness for individual nanosheet). As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the hierarchical Mn2Mo3O8@rGO electrode delivers superior capability and rate properties to the compared nanostructure synthesized at different annealing temperature. The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the rational combination of 3D nanorods and 2D nanosheets, which is beneficial to the fast penetration of electrolytes and thus provide more reactive facets, shorten the diffusion paths of Li+ and facilitate the electron conduction.

  17. Facile fabrication and configuration design of Co3O4 porous acicular nanorod arrays on Ni foam for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tongtong; Yang, Siyu; Bai, Zhiman; Dai, Peng; Yu, Xinxin; Wu, Mingzai; Hu, Haibo

    2018-08-03

    The configuration of electrode materials is of great significance to the performance of supercapacitors (SCs) because of its direct effects on specific surface area and electron transfer path. Given this, herein, a series of Co 3 O 4 hierarchical configurations composed of porous acicular nanorods are designedly synthesized on Ni foam with in-site self-organization method depending on the addition of NH 4 F. In the absence of NH 4 F, Co 3 O 4 nanorods self-assemble into porous urchin-like structure (PULS), while the introduction of NH 4 F can induce the vertical growth of Co 3 O 4 acicular nanorods, forming porous acicular nanorod arrays (PANRAs). By simply tuning the concentration of NH 4 F, the Co 3 O 4 PANRAs with different specific surface area can be obtained. As expected, Co 3 O 4 PANRAs electrode for SCs (using 1 mmol of NH 4 F) exhibits high specific capacitance (1486 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 ) and excellent cycling stability (98.8% retention after 5000 continuous charge-discharge cycles), which are better than those of Co 3 O 4 PULS electrode (658.2 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 , 90.4%). Corresponding solid-state symmetric SC achieves a high energy density of 48.63 Wh kg -1 at power density of 600 W kg -1 . Such superior performance is attributed to fast charge transfer kinetics, facile electron transport and ions diffusion rate resulting from porous array structure, indicating the importance of configuration design of electrode materials for high performance SCs.

  18. Pt-decorated zinc oxide nanorod arrays with graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets for highly efficient dual-functional gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hailin; Fan, Huiqing; Ma, Jiangwei; Liu, Zhiyong; Ma, Longtao; Lei, Shenhui; Fang, Jiawen; Long, Changbai

    2018-01-05

    In this work, well-aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the substrate of exfoliated g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, and then Pt/ZnO/g-C 3 N 4 nanostructures were obtained after the deposition of Pt nanoparticles. The growth of vertically ordered ZnO nanorods was occurred on g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets through the bonding interaction between Zn and N atoms, which was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR data and molecular orbital theory. The Pt/ZnO/g-C 3 N 4 nanostructures sensor exhibited the remarkable sensitivity, selectivity, and fast response/recovery time for air pollutants of ethanol and NO 2 . The application of Pt/ZnO/g-C 3 N 4 nanostructures could be used as a dual-functional gas sensor through the controlled working temperature. Besides, the Pt/ZnO/g-C 3 N 4 nanostructures sensor could be applied to the repeating detection of ethanol and NO 2 in the natural environment. The synergistic effect and improved the separation of electron-hole pairs in Pt/ZnO/g-C 3 N 4 nanostructures had been verified for the gas sensing mechanism. Additionally, Pt/ZnO/g-C 3 N 4 nanostructures revealed the excellent charge carriers transport properties in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), such as the longer electron lifetime (τ n ), higher electron diffusion coefficient (D n ) and bigger effective diffusion length (L n ), which also played an important role for Pt/ZnO/g-C 3 N 4 nanostructures with striking gas sensing activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sandwiched ZnO@Au@CdS nanorod arrays with enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shoutian; Wang, Yingying; Fan, Guanghua; Gao, Renxi; Liu, Wenjun

    2017-11-01

    The development of high-performance photocatalysts is central to efforts focused on taking advantage of solar energy to overcome environmental and energy crises. Integrating different functional materials artfully into nanostructures can deliver more efficient photocatalytic activity. Here, sandwiched ZnO@Au@CdS nanorod films were synthesized via successive ZnO nanorod electrodeposition, Au sputtering and CdS electrodeposition. The as-synthesized composites were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer, x-ray diffractometer, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Their photocatalytic activity was assessed by degrading Rhodamine B solution under visible light irradiation. ZnO@Au@CdS exhibited better photocatalytic performance than ZnO@CdS throughout the visible light region, and the corresponding enhancement factor of Au nanoparticles was measured as a function of CdS loading amount, and it could reach 190% with CdS deposition for 1 min. The normalized rate constant could reach 0.387 h-1 for ZnO@Au@CdS-1min, which was equivalent to or better than results in reference photocatalysts. The enhancement mechanism of Au nanoparticles was estimated by comparing the monochromatic photocatalytic action spectra with the absorption spectrum of ZnO@Au@CdS, and it was mainly determined by incident photon energy. With selective excitation of Au nanoparticles by incident photons, the excited hot electrons in Au NPs are transferred to the conduction band of ZnO to boost photocatalytic reaction. With selective excitation of CdS, the enhanced interband absorption of CdS and relay station effect of Au nanoparticles should be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic performance. Our work not only opens the door to the design of efficient supported photocatalysts, but also helps to understand the enhancement mechanism of LSPR effect on the photoelectric conversion of semiconductors.

  20. Peptide Modified ZnO Nanoparticles as Gas Sensors Array for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    PubMed Central

    Mascini, Marcello; Gaggiotti, Sara; Della Pelle, Flavio; Di Natale, Corrado; Qakala, Sinazo; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Pittia, Paola; Compagnone, Dario

    2018-01-01

    In this work a peptide based gas sensor array based of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) has been realized. Four different pentapeptides molecularly modeled for alcohols and esters having cysteine as a common spacer have been immobilized onto ZnONPs. ZnONPs have been morphologically and spectroscopically characterized. Modified nanoparticles have been then deposited onto quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) and used as gas sensors with nitrogen as carrier gas. Analysis of the pure compounds modeled demonstrated a nice fitting of modeling with real data. The peptide based ZnONPs had very low sensitivity to water, compared to previously studied AuNPs peptide based gas sensors allowing the use of the array on samples with high water content. Real samples of fruit juices have been assayed; stability of the signal, good repeatability, and discrimination ability of the array was achieved. PMID:29713626

  1. Peptide Modified ZnO Nanoparticles as Gas Sensors Array for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs).

    PubMed

    Mascini, Marcello; Gaggiotti, Sara; Della Pelle, Flavio; Di Natale, Corrado; Qakala, Sinazo; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Pittia, Paola; Compagnone, Dario

    2018-01-01

    In this work a peptide based gas sensor array based of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) has been realized. Four different pentapeptides molecularly modeled for alcohols and esters having cysteine as a common spacer have been immobilized onto ZnONPs. ZnONPs have been morphologically and spectroscopically characterized. Modified nanoparticles have been then deposited onto quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) and used as gas sensors with nitrogen as carrier gas. Analysis of the pure compounds modeled demonstrated a nice fitting of modeling with real data. The peptide based ZnONPs had very low sensitivity to water, compared to previously studied AuNPs peptide based gas sensors allowing the use of the array on samples with high water content. Real samples of fruit juices have been assayed; stability of the signal, good repeatability, and discrimination ability of the array was achieved.

  2. Peptide modified ZnO nanoparticles as gas sensors array for volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascini, Marcello; Gaggiotti, Sara; Della Pelle, Flavio; Di Natale, Corrado; Qakala, Sinazo; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Pittia, Paola; Compagnone, Dario

    2018-04-01

    In this work a peptide based gas sensor array based of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) has been realized. Four different pentapeptides molecularly modelled for alcohols and esters having cysteine as a common spacer have been immobilized onto ZnONPs. ZnONPs have been morphologically and spectroscopically characterized. Modified nanoparticles have been then deposited onto quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) and used as gas sensors with nitrogen as carrier gas. Analysis of the pure compounds modelled demonstrated a nice fitting of modelling with real data. The peptide based ZnONPs had very low sensitivity to water, compared to previously studied AuNPs peptide based gas sensors allowing the use of the array on samples with high water content. Real samples of fruit juices have been assayed; stability of the signal, good repeatability and discrimination ability of the array was achieved.

  3. Central composite design and genetic algorithm applied for the optimization of ultrasonic-assisted removal of malachite green by ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Azad, F Nasiri; Dashtian, K; Hajati, S; Goudarzi, A; Soylak, M

    2016-10-05

    Maximum malachite green (MG) adsorption onto ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon (ZnO-NR-AC) was achieved following the optimization of conditions, while the mass transfer was accelerated by ultrasonic. The central composite design (CCD) and genetic algorithm (GA) were used to estimate the effect of individual variables and their mutual interactions on the MG adsorption as response and to optimize the adsorption process. The ZnO-NR-AC surface morphology and its properties were identified via FESEM, XRD and FTIR. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm and kinetic models investigation revealed the well fit of the experimental data to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. It was shown that a small amount of ZnO-NR-AC (with adsorption capacity of 20mgg(-1)) is sufficient for the rapid removal of high amount of MG dye in short time (3.99min). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Central composite design and genetic algorithm applied for the optimization of ultrasonic-assisted removal of malachite green by ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Azad, F. Nasiri; Dashtian, K.; Hajati, S.; Goudarzi, A.; Soylak, M.

    2016-10-01

    Maximum malachite green (MG) adsorption onto ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon (ZnO-NR-AC) was achieved following the optimization of conditions, while the mass transfer was accelerated by ultrasonic. The central composite design (CCD) and genetic algorithm (GA) were used to estimate the effect of individual variables and their mutual interactions on the MG adsorption as response and to optimize the adsorption process. The ZnO-NR-AC surface morphology and its properties were identified via FESEM, XRD and FTIR. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm and kinetic models investigation revealed the well fit of the experimental data to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. It was shown that a small amount of ZnO-NR-AC (with adsorption capacity of 20 mg g- 1) is sufficient for the rapid removal of high amount of MG dye in short time (3.99 min).

  5. A simple and transparent well-aligned ZnO nanowire array ultraviolet photodetector with high responsivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lei; Ding, Hesheng; Yuan, Zhaolin; Huang, Wendeng; Shuai, Chunjiang; Xiong, Zhaoxin; Deng, Jianping; Lv, Tengbo

    2018-06-01

    Well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays were grown on an interdigital patterned fluorine tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate by a facile chemical bath deposition at low temperature. Morphology, crystalline structure, and optical properties of the ZnO nanowire arrays were analyzed in detail. The results revealed that the ZnO nanowires had wurtzite structure, typically ∼40-60 nm in diameter, and ∼700-800 nm in length, a great number of highly uniform and dense nanowires grew vertically on the substrate to form the well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays, which had very high optical transmission (>86%) in the visible light region. In addition, the performance of ZnO nanowire arrays ultraviolet (UV) photodetector was systematically examined. The photosensitivity (S), responsivity (R), response and decay time of the photodetector were 703 at +0.2 V, 113 A/W at +5 V, 23 s and 73 s respectively. Also, the photoresponse mechanism of the UV photodetector was illuminated in terms of the oxygen adsorption-photodesorption process.

  6. Structure and properties of nanostructured ZnO arrays and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition

    SciT

    Kopach, V. R.; Klepikova, K. S.; Klochko, N. P., E-mail: klochko-np@mail.ru

    We investigate the structure, surface morphology, and optical properties of nanostructured ZnO arrays fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition, Ag nanoparticles precipitated from colloidal solutions, and a ZnO/Ag nanocomposite based on them. The electronic and electrical parameters of the ZnO arrays and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites are analyzed by studying the I–V and C–V characteristics. Optimal modes for fabricating the ZnO/Ag heterostructures with the high stability and sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation as promising materials for use in photodetectors, gas sensors, and photocatalysts are determined.

  7. Annealing effects on the optical and morphological properties of ZnO nanorods on AZO substrate by using aqueous solution method at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Hang, Da-Ren; Islam, Sk Emdadul; Sharma, Krishna Hari; Kuo, Shiao-Wei; Zhang, Cheng-Zu; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) substrates were fabricated by a single-step aqueous solution method at low temperature. In order to optimize optical quality, the effects of annealing on optical and structural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL), and Raman spectroscopy. We found that the annealing temperature strongly affects both the near-band-edge (NBE) and visible (defect-related) emissions. The best characteristics have been obtained by employing annealing at 400°C in air for 2 h, bringing about a sharp and intense NBE emission. The defect-related recombinations were also suppressed effectively. However, the enhancement decreases with higher annealing temperature and prolonged annealing. PL study indicates that the NBE emission is dominated by radiative recombination associated with hydrogen donors. Thus, the enhancement of NBE is due to the activation of radiative recombinations associated with hydrogen donors. On the other hand, the reduction of visible emission is mainly attributed to the annihilation of OH groups. Our results provide insight to comprehend annealing effects and an effective way to improve optical properties of low-temperature-grown ZnO NRs for future facile device applications.

  8. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-02-01

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In3+) and smaller (Ga3+) than the host Zn2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications.

  9. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-02-03

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In 3+ ) and smaller (Ga 3+ ) than the host Zn 2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications.

  10. Annealing effects on the optical and morphological properties of ZnO nanorods on AZO substrate by using aqueous solution method at low temperature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) substrates were fabricated by a single-step aqueous solution method at low temperature. In order to optimize optical quality, the effects of annealing on optical and structural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL), and Raman spectroscopy. We found that the annealing temperature strongly affects both the near-band-edge (NBE) and visible (defect-related) emissions. The best characteristics have been obtained by employing annealing at 400°C in air for 2 h, bringing about a sharp and intense NBE emission. The defect-related recombinations were also suppressed effectively. However, the enhancement decreases with higher annealing temperature and prolonged annealing. PL study indicates that the NBE emission is dominated by radiative recombination associated with hydrogen donors. Thus, the enhancement of NBE is due to the activation of radiative recombinations associated with hydrogen donors. On the other hand, the reduction of visible emission is mainly attributed to the annihilation of OH groups. Our results provide insight to comprehend annealing effects and an effective way to improve optical properties of low-temperature-grown ZnO NRs for future facile device applications. PMID:25520589

  11. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In3+) and smaller (Ga3+) than the host Zn2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications. PMID:28155879

  12. Direct selective growth of ZnO nanowire arrays from inkjet-printed zinc acetate precursor on a heated substrate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Inkjet printing of functional materials has drawn tremendous interest as an alternative to the conventional photolithography-based microelectronics fabrication process development. We introduce direct selective nanowire array growth by inkjet printing of Zn acetate precursor ink patterning and subsequent hydrothermal ZnO local growth without nozzle clogging problem which frequently happens in nanoparticle inkjet printing. The proposed process can directly grow ZnO nanowires in any arbitrary patterned shape, and it is basically very fast, low cost, environmentally benign, and low temperature. Therefore, Zn acetate precursor inkjet printing-based direct nanowire local growth is expected to give extremely high flexibility in nanomaterial patterning for high-performance electronics fabrication especially at the development stage. As a proof of concept of the proposed method, ZnO nanowire network-based field effect transistors and ultraviolet photo-detectors were demonstrated by direct patterned grown ZnO nanowires as active layer. PMID:24252130

  13. Significantly Enhanced Energy Density in Nanocomposite Capacitors Combining the TiO2 Nanorod Array with Poly(vinylidene fluoride).

    PubMed

    Yao, Lingmin; Pan, Zhongbin; Liu, Shaohui; Zhai, Jiwei; Chen, Haydn H D

    2016-10-05

    A novel inorganic/polymer nanocomposite, using 1-dimensional TiO 2 nanorod array as fillers (TNA) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) as matrix, has been successfully synthesized for the first time. A carefully designed process sequence includes several steps with the initial epitaxial growth of highly oriented TNA on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass. Subsequently, PVDF is embedded into the nanorods by the spin-coating method followed by annealing and quenching processes. This novel structure with dispersive fillers demonstrates a successful compromise between the electric displacement and breakdown strength, resulting in a dramatic increase in the electric polarization which leads to a significant improvement on the energy density and discharge efficiency. The nanocomposites with various height ratios of fillers between the TNA and total film thickness were investigated by us. The results show that nanocomposite with 18% height ratio fillers obtains maximum increase in the energy density (10.62 J cm -3 ) at a lower applied electric field of 340 MV m -1 , and it also illustrates a higher efficiency (>85%) under the electric field less than 100 MV m -1 . Even when the electric field reached 340 MV m -1 , the efficiency of nanocomposites can still maintained at ∼70%. This energy density exceeds most of the previously reported TiO 2 -based nanocomposite values at such a breakdown strength, which provides another promising design for the next generation of dielectric nanocomposite material, by using the highly oriented nanorod array as fillers for the higher energy density capacitors. Additionally, the finite element simulation has been employed to analyze the distribution of electric fields and electric flux density to explore the inherent mechanism of the higher performance of the TNA/PVDF nanocomposites.

  14. Strong visible and near infrared photoluminescence from ZnO nanorods/nanowires grown on single layer graphene studied using sub-band gap excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biroju, Ravi K.; Giri, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Fabrication and optoelectronic applications of graphene based hybrid 2D-1D semiconductor nanostructures have gained tremendous research interest in recent times. Herein, we present a systematic study on the origin and evolution of strong broad band visible and near infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) from vertical ZnO nanorods (NRs) and nanowires (NWs) grown on single layer graphene using both above band gap and sub-band gap optical excitations. High resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies are carried out to reveal the morphology and crystalline quality of as-grown and annealed ZnO NRs/NWs on graphene. Room temperature PL studies reveal that besides the UV and visible PL bands, a new near-infrared (NIR) PL emission band appears in the range between 815 nm and 886 nm (1.40-1.52 eV). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed excess oxygen content and unreacted metallic Zn in the as-grown ZnO nanostructures, owing to the low temperature growth by a physical vapor deposition method. Post-growth annealing at 700 °C in the Ar gas ambient results in the enhanced intensity of both visible and NIR PL bands. On the other hand, subsequent high vacuum annealing at 700 °C results in a drastic reduction in the visible PL band and complete suppression of the NIR PL band. PL decay dynamics of green emission in Ar annealed samples show tri-exponential decay on the nanosecond timescale including a very slow decay component (time constant ˜604.5 ns). Based on these results, the NIR PL band comprising two peaks centered at ˜820 nm and ˜860 nm is tentatively assigned to neutral and negatively charged oxygen interstitial (Oi) defects in ZnO, detected experimentally for the first time. The evidence for oxygen induced trap states on the ZnO NW surface is further substantiated by the slow photocurrent response of graphene-ZnO NRs/NWs. These results are important for tunable light emission, photodetection, and other cutting edge

  15. TiO2 nanocrystals decorated Z-schemed core-shell CdS-CdO nanorod arrays as high efficiency anodes for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Hsun; Hsu, Chan-Wei; Lu, Shih-Yuan

    2018-07-01

    TiO 2 nanocrystals decorated core-shell CdS-CdO nanorod arrays, TiO 2 @CdO/CdS NR, were fabricated as high efficiency anodes for photoelctrochemical hydrogen generation. The novel sandwich heterostructure was constructed from first growth of CdS nanorod arrays on a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate with a hydrothermal process, followed by in situ generation of CdO thin films of single digit nanometers from the CdS nanorod surfaces through thermal oxidation, and final decoration of TiO 2 nanocrystals of 10-20 nm via a successive ionic layer absorption and reaction process. The core-shell CdS-CdO heterostructure possesses a Z-scheme band structure to enhance interfacial charge transfer, facilitating effective charge separation to suppress electron-hole recombination within CdS for much improved current density generation. The final decoration of TiO 2 nanocrystals passivates surface defects and trap states of CdO, further suppressing surface charge recombination for even higher photovoltaic conversion efficiencies. The photoelectrochemical performances of the plain CdS nanorod array were significantly improved with the formation of the sandwich heterostructure, achieving a photo current density of 3.2 mA/cm 2 at 1.23 V (vs. RHE), a 141% improvement over the plain CdS nanorod array and a 32% improvement over the CdO/CdS nanorod array. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An amorphous FeMoS4 nanorod array toward efficient hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis under neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiang; Wang, Weiyi; Ge, Ruixiang; Hao, Shuai; Qu, Fengli; Du, Gu; Asiri, Abdullah M; Wei, Qin; Chen, Liang; Sun, Xuping

    2017-08-08

    It is highly attractive to develop efficient hydrogen-evolving electrocatalysts under neutral conditions. In this communication, we report an amorphous FeMoS 4 nanorod array on carbon cloth (FeMoS 4 NRA/CC) prepared by hydrothermal treatment of an FeOOH nanorod array on carbon cloth (FeOOH NRA/CC) in (NH 4 ) 2 MoS 4 solution. As a 3D electrode for hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis, this FeMoS 4 NRA/CC demonstrates superior catalytic activity and strong long-term electrochemical durability in 1.0 M phosphate buffered saline (pH: 7). It needs an overpotential of 204 mV to drive a geometrical current density of 10 mA cm -2 , which is 450 mV less than that for FeOOH NRA/CC. Density functional theory calculations suggest that FeMoS 4 has a more favourable hydrogen adsorption free energy than FeOOH.

  17. Flexible asymmetric supercapacitors based upon Co9S8 nanorod//Co3O4@RuO2 nanosheet arrays on carbon cloth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Qiufan; Wang, Xiaowei; Xiang, Qingyi; Liang, Bo; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-06-25

    We have successfully fabricated flexible asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on acicular Co9S8 nanorod arrays as positive materials and Co3O4@RuO2 nanosheet arrays as negative materials on woven carbon fabrics. Co9S8 nanorod arrays were synthesized by a hydrothermal sulfuration treatment of acicular Co3O4 nanorod arrays, while the RuO2 was directly deposited on the Co3O4 nanorod arrays. Carbon cloth was selected as both the substrate and the current collector for its good conductivity, high flexibility, good physical strength, and lightweight architecture. Both aqueous KOH solutions and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/KOH were employed as electrolyte for electrochemical measurements. The as-fabricated ASCs can be cycled reversibly in the range of 0-1.6 V and exhibit superior electrochemical performance with an energy density of 1.21 mWh/cm(3) at a power density of 13.29 W/cm(3) in aqueous electrolyte and an energy density of 1.44 mWh/cm(3) at the power density of 0.89 W/cm(3) in solid-state electrolyte, which are almost 10-fold higher than those reported in early ASC work. Moreover, they present excellent cycling performance at multirate currents and large currents after thousands of cycles. The high-performance nanostructured ASCs have significant potential applications in portable electronics and electrical vehicles.

  18. Self-assembled vertically aligned Au nanorod arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of Cannabinol.

    PubMed

    Milliken, Sarah; Fraser, Jeff; Poirier, Shawn; Hulse, John; Tay, Li-Lin

    2018-05-05

    Self-assembled multi-layered vertically aligned gold nanorod (AuNR) arrays have been fabricated by a simple preparation process that requires a balance between the particle concentration and the ionic strength of the solvent. An experimentally determined critical AuNR concentration of 2.0nM and 50mM NaCl produces well-ordered vertically aligned hexagonally close-packed AuNR arrays. We demonstrate surface treatment via UV Ozone cleaning of such samples to allow introduction of analyte molecules (benzenethiol and cannabinol) for effective surface enhanced Raman scattering detection. This is the first demonstration of the SERS analysis of cannabinol. This approach demonstrates a cost-effective, high-yield and simple fabrication route to SERS sensors with application in the screening for the cannabinoids. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Self-assembled vertically aligned Au nanorod arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of Cannabinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, Sarah; Fraser, Jeff; Poirier, Shawn; Hulse, John; Tay, Li-Lin

    2018-05-01

    Self-assembled multi-layered vertically aligned gold nanorod (AuNR) arrays have been fabricated by a simple preparation process that requires a balance between the particle concentration and the ionic strength of the solvent. An experimentally determined critical AuNR concentration of 2.0 nM and 50 mM NaCl produces well-ordered vertically aligned hexagonally close-packed AuNR arrays. We demonstrate surface treatment via UV Ozone cleaning of such samples to allow introduction of analyte molecules (benzenethiol and cannabinol) for effective surface enhanced Raman scattering detection. This is the first demonstration of the SERS analysis of cannabinol. This approach demonstrates a cost-effective, high-yield and simple fabrication route to SERS sensors with application in the screening for the cannabinoids.

  20. Vertically aligned p-type single-crystalline GaN nanorod arrays on n-type Si for heterojunction photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y B; Chen, Z H; Song, H S; Lee, C S; Cong, H T; Cheng, H M; Zhang, W J; Bello, I; Lee, S T

    2008-12-01

    Vertically aligned Mg-doped GaN nanorods have been epitaxially grown on n-type Si substrate to form a heterostructure for fabricating p-n heterojunction photovoltaic cells. The p-type GaN nanorod/n-Si heterojunction cell shows a well-defined rectifying behavior with a rectification ratio larger than 10(4) in dark. The cell has a high short-circuit photocurrent density of 7.6 mAlcm2 and energy conversion efficiency of 2.73% under AM 1.5G illumination at 100 mW/cm2. Moreover, the nanorod array may be used as an antireflection coating for solar cell applications to effectively reduce light loss due to reflection. This study provides an experimental demonstration for integrating one-dimensional nanostructure arrays with the substrate to directly fabricate heterojunction photovoltaic cells.

  1. Short-length and high-density TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays for the efficient charge separation interface in perovskite solar cells

    SciT

    Xiao, Guannan; Shi, Chengwu, E-mail: shicw506@foxmail.com; Zhang, Zhengguo

    The TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays with the length of 70 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 1000 µm{sup −2} were firstly prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 60 min. Over-500 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layers were successfully obtained by sequential deposition routes using 1.7 M PbI{sub 2}·DMSO complex precursor solution and 0.465 M isopropanol solution of the methylammonium halide mixture with the molar ratio of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}Br=85/15. The perovskite solar cellsmore » based on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and 560 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layer exhibited the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.93%, while the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells without the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and with 530 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layer gave the best PCE of 12.82% at the relative humidity of 50–54%. - Graphical abstract: The TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays with the length of 70 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 1000 µm{sup −2} were prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 60 min. The optimal annealing temperature of TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays was 450 °C. The perovskite solar cells based on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and 560 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layer exhibited the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.93% and the average PCE of 13.41±2.52%, while the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells without the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and with 530 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layer gave the best PCE of 12.82% and the average PCE of 10.54±2.28% at the relative humidity of 50–54%. - Highlights

  2. Self-Supported CoP Nanorod Arrays Grafted on Stainless Steel as an Advanced Integrated Anode for Stable and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xijun; Liu, Jun; Hu, Renzong; Liu, Jiangwen; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Zhu, Min

    2017-04-19

    To alleviate the capacity degradation of anode materials for Li-ion batteries, caused by serious volume expansion and particle aggregation, intensive attention has been devoted to the rational design and fabrication of novel anode architectures. Herein, self-supported CoP nanorod arrays have been facilely synthesized using hydrothemally deposited Co(CO 3 ) 0.5 (OH)⋅0.11 H 2 O nanorod arrays as the precursor, through a gas-phase phosphidation method. As the anode for Li-ion batteries, such 3D interconnected CoP nanorod arrays show an initial discharge capacity of 1067 mAh g -1 and a high reversible charge capacity of 737 mAh g -1 at 0.4 Ag -1 . After 400 cycles, their specific capacity can reach 510 mAh g -1 ; even after 900 cycles, they can still deliver a specific capacity of 390 mAh g -1 . CoP//LiCoO 2 full-cells also exhibit a high reversible capacity of 400 mAh g -1 after 50 cycles. These unique 3D interconnected CoP nanorod arrays also show ultrastable cycling performance over 500 cycles when used as the anode in a Na-ion battery. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Doped ZnO Nanomaterials: Potential Application in Third Generation Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adcock Smith, Echo D.

    ZnO nanomaterials are being incorporated into next-generation solar cell designs including dye-sensitized solar cells, multijunction solar cells, and quantum dot sensitized solar cells. ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays and nanoparticles (NP) used in these devices are typically fabricated using chemical vapor deposition and/or high-temperature reaction conditions. These methods are costly, require high energy, pressure or excessive time, but produce repeatable, defined growth that is capable of easily incorporating metal dopants. Less expensive methods of fabrication such as chemical bath deposition (CBD) eliminate the costly steps but can suffer from undefined growth, excessive waste and have a difficult time incorporating dopants into ZnO materials without additives or increased pH. This dissertation presents a novel method of growing cobalt and vanadium doped ZnO nanomaterials through microwave synthesis. The cobalt growth was compared to standard CBD and found to be faster, less wasteful, reproducible and better at incorporating cobalt ions into the ZnO lattice than typical oven CBD method. The vanadium doped ZnO microwave synthesis procedure was found to produce nanorods, nanorod arrays, and nanoparticles simultaneously. Neither the cobalt nor the vanadium growth required pH changes, catalysts or additives to assist in doping and therefore use less materials than traditional CBD. This research is important because it offers a simple, quick way to grow ZnO nanostructures and is the first to report on growing both cobalt and vanadium doped zinc oxide nanorod arrays using microwave synthesis. This synthesis method presented is a viable candidate for replacing conventional growth synthesis which will result in lowering the cost and time of production of photovoltaics while helping drive forward the development of next-generation solar cells.

  4. Hydrothermal process assists undoped and Cr-doped semiconducting ZnO nanorods: Frontier of dielectric property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Tanumoy; Saha, Papiya; Patra, Nesla; Das, Sukhen; Sutradhar, Soumyaditya

    2018-05-01

    The influence of the hydrothermal synthesis route on the grain morphology and thereby the modulation of dielectric response of undoped and Cr3+ ion doped semiconducting ZnO nanoparticles is investigated in this report. The X-ray diffraction study reveals that all the samples are in a polycrystalline single phase of a hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study reveals the rod like structure of all the samples. The formation of synthesis route dependent morphology and the morphology dependent physical property of all the samples are the characteristic features of the present work and to date it has not been considered as the specific tool of dielectric property modulation by anyone else. The ultraviolet-visible measurement signifies the superior control over the charge density of the host semiconducting material due to the presence of Cr3+ ions in the structure of ZnO. In the photoluminescence measurement, no significant peak has been observed in the visible region. The frequency and temperature dependent dielectric constants of all the samples were investigated. The consequences of the dielectric measurement suggest that the hydrothermal synthesis route influences the growth mechanism of the semiconducting nanoparticles mostly towards the rod like structure and the doping element influences the charge density, nature of defects, and the defect densities inside the structure of ZnO nanomaterials. All these factors together make the semiconducting ZnO nanomaterials more effective for tailor made applications in magneto-dielectric devices.

  5. Enhanced performance of ZnO microballoon arrays for a triboelectric nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Deng, Weili; Zhang, Binbin; Jin, Long; Chen, Yueqi; Chu, Wenjun; Zhang, Haitao; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), harvesting energy from the environment as a sustainable power source, have attracted great attention. Currently, many reports focus on the effect of surface modification on the electrical output performance of the TENG. In this work, we have fabricated vertically grown ZnO microballoon (ZnOMB) arrays on top of pyramid-featured PDMS patterned film, contacted with PTFE film to construct the TENG. The electrical output performances of the designed TENG are presented under external forces with different frequencies. The corresponding output open-circuit voltage with ZnOMBs could reach about 57 V the current density about 59 mA m -2 at 100 Hz, which was about 2.3 times higher than without any ZnO. The global maximum of the instantaneous peak power could reach 1.1 W m -2 when the external load resistance was about 2 MΩ. Furthermore, the electrical output of the fabricated device could light 30 commercial LED bulbs without any rectifier circuits or energy-storage elements. This clearly suggests that this kind of surface modification can dramatically enhance the output performance of the TENG. Moreover, the design of TENG demonstrated here can be applied to various energy harvesting applications.

  6. Enhanced performance of ZnO microballoon arrays for a triboelectric nanogenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Weili; Zhang, Binbin; Jin, Long; Chen, Yueqi; Chu, Wenjun; Zhang, Haitao; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), harvesting energy from the environment as a sustainable power source, have attracted great attention. Currently, many reports focus on the effect of surface modification on the electrical output performance of the TENG. In this work, we have fabricated vertically grown ZnO microballoon (ZnOMB) arrays on top of pyramid-featured PDMS patterned film, contacted with PTFE film to construct the TENG. The electrical output performances of the designed TENG are presented under external forces with different frequencies. The corresponding output open-circuit voltage with ZnOMBs could reach about 57 V the current density about 59 mA m-2 at 100 Hz, which was about 2.3 times higher than without any ZnO. The global maximum of the instantaneous peak power could reach 1.1 W m-2 when the external load resistance was about 2 MΩ. Furthermore, the electrical output of the fabricated device could light 30 commercial LED bulbs without any rectifier circuits or energy-storage elements. This clearly suggests that this kind of surface modification can dramatically enhance the output performance of the TENG. Moreover, the design of TENG demonstrated here can be applied to various energy harvesting applications.

  7. CdS nanorods/organic hybrid LED array and the piezo-phototronic effect of the device for pressure mapping.

    PubMed

    Bao, Rongrong; Wang, Chunfeng; Dong, Lin; Shen, Changyu; Zhao, Kun; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-04-21

    As widely applied in light-emitting diodes and optical devices, CdS has attracted the attention of many researchers due to its nonlinear properties and piezo-electronic effect. Here, we demonstrate a LED array composed of PSS and CdS nanorods and research the piezo-photonic effect of the array device. The emission intensity of the device depends on the electron-hole recombination at the interface of the p-n junction which can be adjusted using the piezo-phototronic effect and can be used to map the pressure applied on the surface of the device with spatial resolution as high as 1.5 μm. A flexible LED device array has been prepared using a CdS nanorod array on a Au/Cr/kapton substrate. This device may be used in the field of strain mapping using its high pressure spatial-resolution and flexibility.

  8. Electroluminescence dependence on the organic thickness in ZnO nano rods/Alq3 heterostructure devices.

    PubMed

    Kan, Pengzhi; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Suling; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Dawei

    2011-04-01

    ZnO nanorods are synthesised by a hydrothermal method on ITO glass. Their crystallization and morphology are detected by XRD and SEM, respectively. The results show that the ZnO nanorod array has grown primarily along a direction aligned perpendicular to the ITO substrate. The average height and diameter of the nanorods is about 130 nm and 30 nm, respectively. Then ZnO nano rods/Alq3 heterostructure LEDs are prepared by thermal evaporation of Alq3 molecules. The thicknesses of the Alq3 layers are 130 nm, 150 nm, 170 nm and 190 nm, respectively. The electroluminescence of the devices is detected under different DC bias voltages. The exciton emission of Alq3 is detected in all devices. When the thickness of Alq3 is 130 nm, the UV electroluminescence of ZnO is around 382 nm, and defect emissions around 670 nm and 740 nm are detected. Defect emissions of ZnO nanorods are prominent. When the thickness of Alq3 increases to over 170 nm, it is difficult to observe defect emissions from the ZnO nano rods. In such devices, the exciton emission of Alq3 is more prominent than other emissions under different bias voltage.

  9. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence analysis of ZnO nanowire array annealed in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanan; Gu, Xiuquan; Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Linmeng; Qiang, Yinghuai

    2018-05-01

    ZnO nanowire arrays (NWAs) were prepared on transparent conducting fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates through a facile hydrothermal method, followed by a 500 °C annealing to improve their crystalline qualities and photoelectrochemical (PEC) activities. It was found that the annealing didn't change the morphology, but resulted in a significant reduction of the donor concentration. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) was carried out for a comprehensive analysis of the effect from annealing. Noteworthy, four dominant peaks were identified from the 10 K spectrum of a 500 °C annealed sample, and they were assigned to FX, D0X, (e, D0) and (e, D0) -1LO, respectively. Of them, the FX emission was only existed below 130 K, while the room-temperature (RT) PL spectrum was dominated by the D0X emission.

  10. Quick and Selective Dual Mode Detection of H2S Gas by Mobile App Employing Silver Nanorods Array.

    PubMed

    Gahlaut, Shashank Kumar; Yadav, Kavita; Sharan, Chandrashekhar; Singh, Jitendra Pratap

    2017-12-19

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is a hazardous gas, which not only harms living beings but also poses a significant risk to damage materials placed in culture and art museums, due to its corrosive nature. We demonstrate a novel approach for selective rapid detection of H 2 S gas using silver nanorods (AgNRs) arrays on glass substrates at ambient conditions. The arrays were prepared by glancing angle deposition method. The colorimetric and water wetting properties of as-fabricated arrays were found to be highly sensitive toward the sulfurization, in the presence of H 2 S gas with a minimal concentration in ppm range. The performance of AgNRs as H 2 S gas sensor is investigated by its sensing ability of 5 ppm of gas with an exposure time of only 30 s. We have developed an android-based mobile app to monitor real-time colorimetric detection of H 2 S. The wettability detection has been carried out by a mobile camera. A comparative analysis for different gases reveals the highest sensitivity and selectivity of the array AgNRs toward H 2 S. The rapid detection has also been demonstrated for H 2 S emission from aged wool fabric. Thus, high sensing ability of AgNRs toward H 2 S gas may have potential applications in health monitoring and art conservation.

  11. Enhancement of Perovskite Solar Cells Efficiency using N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays as Electron Transfer Layer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Long; Li, Jun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Li; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Shi, Wen-Jia; Liu, Yue-Feng; Gao, Hui-Ping; Mao, Yan-Li

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, N-doped TiO 2 (N-TiO 2 ) nanorod arrays were synthesized with hydrothermal method, and perovskite solar cells were fabricated using them as electron transfer layer. The solar cell performance was optimized by changing the N doping contents. The power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on N-TiO 2 with the N doping content of 1% (N/Ti, atomic ratio) has been achieved 11.1%, which was 14.7% higher than that of solar cells based on un-doped TiO 2 . To get an insight into the improvement, some investigations were performed. The structure was examined with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Tauc plot spectra indicated the incorporation of N in TiO 2 nanorods. Absorption spectra showed higher absorption of visible light for N-TiO 2 than un-doped TiO 2 . The N doping reduced the energy band gap from 3.03 to 2.74 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectra displayed the faster electron transfer from perovskite layer to N-TiO 2 than to un-doped TiO 2 . Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed the smaller resistance of device based on N-TiO 2 than that on un-doped TiO 2 .

  12. Coating polymeric carbon nitride photoanodes on conductive Y:ZnO nanorod arrays for overall water splitting.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuanxing; Xu, Yuntao; Li, Xiaochun; Ma, Yiwen; Wang, Xinchen

    2018-06-14

    Solar-to-fuel conversion via photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting has the potential to ease current energy and environmental concerns. In pursuit of sustainability, polymeric carbon nitride (PCN) photosensitizers are receiving increasing attention as replacements for their inorganic counterparts. However, intense charge recombination, primarily because of the numerous surface defects, limits the use of PCN in PEC systems. Herein, photoanodes are designed by coating PCN films onto highly conductive yttrium (Y) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) serving as charge collectors. The generation of charge carriers can therefore be promoted by this type II heterostructure. Accordingly, the charge collectors would be kept nearby for charge separation and transport to be used in the interfacial redox reactions. As such, the photocurrent density of the polymer electrode is improved to an exceptional value of 0.4 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) in a Na2SO4 electrolyte solution under AM 1.5 illumination. The result reveals a more than 50-fold enhancement over the PCN films achieved by powder, and the efficiency can be preserved at ca. 95% for 160 minutes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Synthesis of high crystallinity ZnO nanowire array on polymer substrate and flexible fiber-based sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinmei; Wu, Weiwei; Bai, Suo; Qin, Yong

    2011-11-01

    Well aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays are grown on Kevlar fiber and Kapton film via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. These NWs have better crystallinity than those synthesized through the low-temperature hydrothermal method. The average length and diameter of ZnO NWs grown on Kevlar fiber can be controlled from 0.5 to 2.76 μm and 30 to 300 nm, respectively. A flexible ultraviolet (UV) sensor based on Kevlar fiber/ZnO NWs hybrid structure is made to detect UV illumination quantificationally.

  14. ZnO nanosheet arrays constructed on weaved titanium wire for CdS-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ordered ZnO nanosheet arrays were grown on weaved titanium wires by a low-temperature hydrothermal method. CdS nanoparticles were deposited onto the ZnO nanosheet arrays using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode. Nanoparticle-sensitized solar cells were assembled using these CdS/ZnO nanostructured photoanodes, and their photovoltaic performance was studied systematically. The best light-to-electricity conversion efficiency was obtained to be 2.17% under 100 mW/cm2 illumination, and a remarkable short-circuit photocurrent density of approximately 20.1 mA/cm2 was recorded, which could attribute to the relatively direct pathways for transportation of electrons provided by ZnO nanosheet arrays as well as the direct contact between ZnO and weaved titanium wires. These results indicate that CdS/ZnO nanostructures on weaved titanium wires would open a novel possibility for applications of low-cost solar cells. PMID:24618047

  15. Synthesis of Various Metal/TiO2 Core/shell Nanorod Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Guan-zhong; Hong, Xun; Shen, Xiao-shuang

    2011-02-01

    We present a general approach to fabricate metal/TiO2 core/shell nanorod structures by two-step electrodeposition. Firstly, TiO2 nanotubes with uniform wall thickness are prepared in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes by electrodeposition. The wall thickness of the nanotubes could be easily controlled by modulating the deposition time, and their outer diameter and length are only limited by the channel diameter and the thickness of the AAO membranes, respectively. The nanotubes' tops prepared by this method are open, while the bottoms are connected directly with the Au film at the back of the AAO membranes. Secondly, Pd, Cu, and Fe elements are filled into the TiO2 nanotubes to form core/shell structures. The core/shell nanorods prepared by this two-step process are high density and free-standing, and their length is dependent on the deposition time.

  16. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowires Arrays by Anodization and High-Vacuum Die Casting Technique, and Their Piezoelectric Properties.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chin-Guo; Chang, Ho; Wang, Jian-Hao

    2016-03-24

    In this investigation, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with arrayed and regularly arranged nanopores is used as a template in the high-vacuum die casting of molten zinc metal (Zn) into the nanopores. The proposed technique yields arrayed Zn nanowires with an aspect ratio of over 600. After annealing, arrayed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are obtained. Varying the anodizing time yields AAO templates with thicknesses of approximately 50 μm, 60 μm, and 70 μm that can be used in the fabrication of nanowires of three lengths with high aspect ratios. Experimental results reveal that a longer nanowire generates a greater measured piezoelectric current. The ZnO nanowires that are fabricated using an alumina template are anodized for 7 h and produce higher piezoelectric current of up to 69 pA.

  17. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowires Arrays by Anodization and High-Vacuum Die Casting Technique, and Their Piezoelectric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chin-Guo; Chang, Ho; Wang, Jian-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with arrayed and regularly arranged nanopores is used as a template in the high-vacuum die casting of molten zinc metal (Zn) into the nanopores. The proposed technique yields arrayed Zn nanowires with an aspect ratio of over 600. After annealing, arrayed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are obtained. Varying the anodizing time yields AAO templates with thicknesses of approximately 50 μm, 60 μm, and 70 μm that can be used in the fabrication of nanowires of three lengths with high aspect ratios. Experimental results reveal that a longer nanowire generates a greater measured piezoelectric current. The ZnO nanowires that are fabricated using an alumina template are anodized for 7 h and produce higher piezoelectric current of up to 69 pA. PMID:27023546

  18. Selective formation of GaN-based nanorod heterostructures on soda-lime glass substrates by a local heating method.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Yong-Jin; Jeon, Jong-Myeong; Kim, Miyoung; Choi, Jun Hee; Baik, Chan Wook; Kim, Sun Il; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Jong Min; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2011-05-20

    We report on the fabrication of high-quality GaN on soda-lime glass substrates, heretofore precluded by both the intolerance of soda-lime glass to the high temperatures required for III-nitride growth and the lack of an epitaxial relationship with amorphous glass. The difficulties were circumvented by heteroepitaxial coating of GaN on ZnO nanorods via a local microheating method. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO nanorods and GaN layers using the microheater arrays produced high-quality GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructures at only the desired regions on the soda-lime glass substrates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy examination of the coaxial nanorod heterostructures indicated the formation of an abrupt, semicoherent interface. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy was also applied to confirm the high optical quality of the coaxial nanorod heterostructures. Mg-doped GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructure arrays, whose GaN shell layers were grown with various different magnesocene flow rates, were further investigated by using photoluminescence spectroscopy for the p-type doping characteristics. The suggested method for fabrication of III-nitrides on glass substrates signifies potentials for low-cost and large-size optoelectronic device applications.

  19. Ultra-thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on silver nanorod array substrates prepared by oblique angle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Abell, Justin; Huang, Yao-wen; Zhao, Yiping

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate the potential use of silver nanorod (AgNR) array substrates for on-chip separation and detection of chemical mixtures by ultra-thin layer chromatography (UTLC) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The capability of the AgNR substrates to separate different compounds in a mixture was explored using a mixture of the food colorant Brilliant Blue FCF and lactic acid, and the mixtures of Methylene Violet and BSA at various concentrations. After the UTLC process, spatially-resolved SERS spectra were collected along the mobile phase development direction and the intensities of specific SERS peaks from each component were used to generate chromatograms. The AgNR substrates demonstrate the capability of separating Brilliant Blue from lactic acid, as well as revealing the SERS signal of Methylene Violet from the massive BSA background after a simple UTLC step. This technique may have significant practical implications in actual detection of small molecules from complex food or clinical backgrounds.

  20. Enhanced field electron emission from aligned diamond-like carbon nanorod arrays prepared by reactive ion beam etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Qin, Shi-Qiao; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Chang, Sheng-Li; Li, Hui-Hui; Yuan, Ji-Ren

    2016-05-01

    Homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on Si supports by a pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition system. Using DLC films masked by Ni nanoparticles as precursors, highly aligned diamond-like carbon nanorod (DLCNR) arrays were fabricated by the etching of inductively coupled radio frequency oxygen plasma. The as-prepared DLCNR arrays exhibit excellent field emission properties with a low turn-on field of 2.005 V μm-1 and a threshold field of 4.312 V μm-1, respectively. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to determine the chemical bonding structural change of DLC films before and after etching. It is confirmed that DLC films have good connection with Si supports via the formation of the SiC phase, and larger conductive sp2 domains are formed in the as-etched DLC films, which play essential roles in the enhanced field emission properties for DLCNR arrays.

  1. Synthesis of ZnO nanorods and their application in the construction of a nanostructure-based electrochemical sensor for determination of levodopa in the presence of carbidopa.

    PubMed

    Molaakbari, Elahe; Mostafavi, Ali; Beitollahi, Hadi; Alizadeh, Reza

    2014-09-07

    A novel carbon paste electrode modified with ZnO nanorods and 5-(4'-amino-3'-hydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (3,4'-AAZCPE) was fabricated. The electrochemical study of the modified electrode, as well as its efficiency for the electrocatalytic oxidation of levodopa, is described. The electrode was employed to study the electrocatalytic oxidation of levodopa, using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CHA), and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) as diagnostic techniques. It has been found that the oxidation of levodopa at the surface of the modified electrode occurs at a potential of about 370 mV less positive than that of an unmodified carbon paste electrode. The SWV results exhibit a linear dynamic range from 1.0 × 10(-7) M to 7.0 × 10(-5) M and a detection limit of 3.5 × 10(-8) M for levodopa. In addition, this modified electrode was used for the simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa. Finally, the modified electrode was used for the determination of levodopa and carbidopa in some real samples.

  2. Evolution of the composition, structure, and piezoelectric performance of (K1-xNax)NbO3 nanorod arrays with hydrothermal reaction time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wenchao; Wang, Zhao; Li, Meng; He, Yahua; Hu, Xiaokang; Li, Luying; Gao, Yihua; Hu, Yongming; Gu, Haoshuang; Wang, Xiaolin

    2018-04-01

    Lead-free (K,Na)NbO3 (KNN) nanorod arrays were synthesized with the assistance of a Nb: SrTiO3 single-crystal substrate through the hydrothermal process. The evolutions of the morphology, composition, and structure of the as-synthesized KNN nanorods with the increase in reaction time were investigated. The results confirmed that the increase in reaction time up to 3 h led to the increase in the length and aspect ratio of the well-aligned KNN nanorods. All samples have K-rich orthorhombic crystal structures, while the diffraction peaks shifted towards a higher degree. The peak shifts should be attributed to the increase in the Na content in the KNN lattice, which could decrease the lattice parameters owing to the small ionic radius of Na+ than that of K+. Moreover, the increase in reaction time also resulted in the suppression of oxygen vacancies on the surface of the KNN nanorods. These evolutions of the composition and crystal structure, as well as the decrease in the defect content, lead to great enhancement of the nanorod's piezoelectric response, as their d33 value was increased from 19 to 64 pm/V. These results demonstrated the significant impact of reaction time on the hydrothermal growth of high-performance lead-free KNN one-dimensional nanomaterials.

  3. ZnO nanopowder induced light scattering for improved visualization of emission sites in carbon nanotube films and arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meško, Marcel; Ou, Qiongrong; Matsuda, Takafumi; Ishikawa, Tomokazu; Veis, Martin; Antoš, Roman; Ogino, Akihisa; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2009-06-01

    We report on ZnO nanopowder induced light scattering for improved visualization of emission sites in carbon nanotube films and arrays. We observed a significant reduction of the internal multiple light scattering phenomena, which are characteristic for ZnO micropowders. The microsized grains of the commercially available ZnO:Zn (P 15) were reduced to the nanometre scale by pulsed laser ablation at an oxygen ambient pressure of 10 kPa. Our investigations show no crystalline change and no shift of the broad green emission peak at 500 nm for the ZnO nanopowder. For the application in field emission displays, we demonstrate the possibility of achieving cathodoluminescence with a fine pitch size of 100 µm of the patterned pixels without requiring additional electron beam focusing and without a black matrix. Moreover, the presented results show the feasibility of employing ZnO nanopowder as a detection material for the phosphorus screen method, which is able to localize emission sites of carbon nanotube films and arrays with an accuracy comparable to scanning anode field emission microscopy.

  4. 2D XANES-XEOL mapping: observation of enhanced band gap emission from ZnO nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Guo, Xiaoxuan; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-05-01

    Using 2D XANES-XEOL spectroscopy, it is found that the band gap emission of ZnO nanowire arrays is substantially enhanced i.e. that the intensity ratio between the band gap and defect emissions increases by more than an order of magnitude when the excitation energy is scanned across the O K-edge. Possible mechanisms are discussed.Using 2D XANES-XEOL spectroscopy, it is found that the band gap emission of ZnO nanowire arrays is substantially enhanced i.e. that the intensity ratio between the band gap and defect emissions increases by more than an order of magnitude when the excitation energy is scanned across the O K-edge. Possible mechanisms are discussed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XEOL spectra with different excitation energies. X-ray attenuation length vs. photon energy. Details of surface defects in ZnO NWs. The second O K-edge and Zn L-edge 2D XANES-XEOL maps. Comparison of the first and second TEY at O K-edge and Zn L-edge scans, respectively. Raman spectra of the ZnO NWs with different IBGE/IDE ratios. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01049c

  5. The Effect of Eu Doping on Microstructure, Morphology and Methanal-Sensing Performance of Highly Ordered SnO2 Nanorods Array

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanping; Li, Yuehua; Ren, Xingping; Gao, Fan; Zhao, Heyun

    2017-01-01

    Layered Eu-doped SnO2 ordered nanoarrays constructed by nanorods with 10 nm diameters and several hundred nanometers length were synthesized by a substrate-free hydrothermal route using alcohol and water mixed solvent of sodium stannate and sodium hydroxide at 200 °C. The Eu dopant acted as a crystal growth inhibitor to prevent the SnO2 nanorods growth up, resulting in tenuous SnO2 nanorods ordered arrays. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the tetragonal rutile-type structure with a systematic average size reduction and unit cell volume tumescence, while enhancing the residual strain as the Eu-doped content increases. The surface defects that were caused by the incorporation of Eu ions within the surface oxide matrix were observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The results of the response properties of sensors based on the different levels of Eu-doped SnO2 layered nanoarrays demonstrated that the 0.5 at % Eu-doped SnO2 layered nanorods arrays exhibited an excellent sensing response to methanal at 278 °C. The reasons of the enhanced sensing performance were discussed from the complicated defect surface structure, the large specific surface area, and the excellent catalytic properties of Eu dopant. PMID:29168796

  6. Large-scale fabrication of polymer/Ag core-shell nanorod array as flexible SERS substrate by combining direct nanoimprint and electroless deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sisi; Xu, Zhimou; Sun, Tangyou; Zhao, Wenning; Wu, Xinghui; Ma, Zhichao; Xu, Haifeng; He, Jian; Chen, Cunhua

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate, which consists of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) assembled on the surface of a nanopatterned polymer film. The fabrication route of a polymer/Ag core-shell nanorod (PACSN) array employed a direct nanoimprint technique to create a high-resolution polymer nanorod array. The obtained nanopatterned polymer film was subjected to electroless deposition to form a sea-cucumber-like Ag shell over the surface of the polymer nanorod. The morphology and structures of PACSNs were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The as-synthesized PACSNs exhibited a remarkable SERS activity and Raman signal reproducibility to rhodamine 6G, and a concentration down to 10-12 M can be identified. The effect of electroless deposition time of Ag NPs onto the polymer nanorod surface was investigated. It was found that the electroless deposition time played an important role in SERS activity. Our results revealed that the combination of direct nanoimprint and electroless deposition provided a convenient and cost-effective way for large-scale fabrication of reliable SERS substrates without the requirement of expensive instruments.

  7. Fabrication of nickel hydroxide electrodes with open-ended hexagonal nanotube arrays for high capacitance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Huang, Kuo-Chih

    2011-11-28

    A nickel hydroxide electrode with open-ended hexagonal nanotube arrays, prepared by hydrolysis of nickel chloride in the presence of hexagonal ZnO nanorods, shows a very high capacitance of 1328 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 1 A g(-1) due to the significantly improved ion transport.

  8. Piezo-phototronic effect enhanced photo-detector based on ZnO nano-arrays/NiO structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingchang; Li, Peida; Gao, Ruixue; Lu, Xue; Li, Chengren; Lang, Yueyi; Zhang, Xiwen; Bian, Jiming

    2018-01-01

    A photo-detector with n-ZnO nano-arrays/p-NiO film structure was synthesized on flexible Ni foil substrate. In contrast to conventional detectors that detect only the photon energies greater than the band gap of working materials, the visible light with smaller photon energies (3.0 eV) than the band gap of both ZnO (3.3 eV) and NiO (3.7 eV) can be sensitively detected by this detector due to the spatially indirect type-II transition between ZnO nano-arrays and NiO film. The increase in output currents of the photo-detector with illumination density was observed at both forward and reverse bias, and it can be further enhanced by exerting external compressive strain along the c axis of ZnO nano-arrays by piezo-phototronic effect. A maximum enhancement of 1020% of the responsivity (R) was achieved under external compressive strain. The similar behaviors were demonstrated at four different excitation wavelengths (325, 365, 388 and 405 nm), providing compelling evidence that the responses performance of the photo-detector can be effectively enhanced using piezo-phototronic effect. Moreover, the piezo-phototronic effect enhanced performance can be well elucidated by the corresponding energy band diagram.

  9. Construction of porous CuCo2S4 nanorod arrays via anion exchange for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Siyi; Shi, Tielin; Chen, Chen; Zhong, Yan; Huang, Yuanyuan; Tao, Xiangxu; Li, Junjie; Liao, Guanglan; Tang, Zirong

    2017-07-27

    To push the energy density limit of supercapacitors, proper pseudocapacitive materials with favorable nanostructures are urgently pursued. Ternary transition metal sulfides are promising electrode materials due to the better conductivity and higher electrochemical activity in comparison to the single element sulfides and transition metal oxides. In this work, we have successfully synthesized porous CuCo 2 S 4 nanorod array (NRAs) on carbon textile through a stepwise hydrothermal method, including the growth of the Cu-Co precursor nanowire arrays and subsequent conversion into CuCo 2 S 4 NRAs via anion exchange reaction. The CuCo 2 S 4 NRAs electrode exhibits a greatly enhanced specific capacitance and an outstanding cycling stability. Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor using the CuCo 2 S 4 NRAs as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode delivers a high energy density of 56.96 W h kg -1 . Such superior performance demonstrate that the CuCo 2 S 4 NRAs are promising materials for future energy storage applications.

  10. Single-layer graphene/titanium oxide cubic nanorods array/FTO heterojunction for sensitive ultraviolet light detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Feng-Xia; Wang, Jiu-Zhen; Wang, Yi; Lin, Yi; Liang, Lin; Gao, Yang; Luo, Lin-Bao

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we report on the fabrication of a sensitive ultraviolet photodetector (UVPD) by simply transferring single-layer graphene (SLG) on rutile titanium oxide cubic nanorod (TiO2NRs) array. The cubic TiO2NRs array with strong light trapping effect was grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass through a hydrothermal approach. The as-assembled UVPD was very sensitive to UV light illumination, but virtually blind to white light illumination. The responsivity and specific detectivity were estimated to be 52.1 A/W and 4.3 × 1012 Jones, respectively. What is more, in order to optimize device performance of UVPD, a wet-chemistry treatment was then employed to reduce the high concentration of defects in TiO2NRs during hydrothermal growth. It was found that the UVPD after treatment showed obvious decrease in sensitivity, but the response speed (rise time: 80 ms, fall time: 160 ms) and specific detectivity were substantially increased. It is also found that the speicific detectivity was imporoved by six-fold to 3.2 × 1013 Jones, which was the best result in comparison with previously reported TiO2 nanostructures or thin film based UVPDs. This totality of this study shows that the present SLG/TiO2NR/FTO UVPD may find potential application in future optoelectronic devices and systems.

  11. Earth-Abundant Oxygen Evolution Catalysts Coupled onto ZnO Nanowire Arrays for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chaoran; Moniz, Savio J A; Khraisheh, Majeda; Tang, Junwang

    2014-01-01

    ZnO has long been considered as a model UV-driven photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting, but its performance has been limited by fast charge-carrier recombination, extremely poor stability in aqueous solution, and slow kinetics of water oxidation. These issues were addressed by applying a strategy of optimization and passivation of hydrothermally grown 1D ZnO nanowire arrays. The length and diameter of bare ZnO nanowires were optimized by varying the growth time and precursor concentration to achieve optimal photoelectrochemical performance. The addition of earth-abundant cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi) and nickel borate (Ni-B) oxygen evolution catalysts onto ZnO nanowires resulted in substantial cathodic shifts in onset potential to as low as about 0.3 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) for Ni-B/ZnO, for which a maximum photocurrent density of 1.1 mA cm−2 at 0.9 V (vs. RHE) with applied bias photon-to-current efficiency of 0.4 % and an unprecedented near-unity incident photon-to-current efficiency at 370 nm. In addition the potential required for saturated photocurrent was dramatically reduced from 1.6 to 0.9 V versus RHE. Furthermore, the stability of these ZnO nanowires was significantly enhanced by using Ni-B compared to Co-Pi due to its superior chemical robustness, and it thus has additional functionality as a stable protecting layer on the ZnO surface. These remarkable enhancements in both photocatalytic activity and stability directly address the current severe limitations in the use of ZnO-based photoelectrodes for water-splitting applications, and can be applied to other photoanodes for efficient solar-driven fuel synthesis. PMID:25156820

  12. Short-length and high-density TiO2 nanorod arrays for the efficient charge separation interface in perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Guannan; Shi, Chengwu; Zhang, Zhengguo; Li, Nannan; Li, Long

    2017-05-01

    The TiO2 nanorod arrays with the length of 70 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 1000 μm-2 were firstly prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 60 min. Over-500 nm-thickness CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx absorber layers were successfully obtained by sequential deposition routes using 1.7 M PbI2·DMSO complex precursor solution and 0.465 M isopropanol solution of the methylammonium halide mixture with the molar ratio of CH3NH3I/CH3NH3Br=85/15. The perovskite solar cells based on the TiO2 nanorod array and 560 nm-thickness CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx absorber layer exhibited the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.93%, while the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells without the TiO2 nanorod array and with 530 nm-thickness CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx absorber layer gave the best PCE of 12.82% at the relative humidity of 50-54%.

  13. Work-Function and Surface Energy Tunable Cyanoacrylic Acid Small-Molecule Derivative Interlayer on Planar ZnO Nanorods for Improved Organic Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Bagde, Sushil S; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-12-28

    The issue of work-function and surface energy is fundamental to "decode" the critical inorganic/organic interface in hybrid organic photovoltaics, which influences important photovoltaic events like exciton dissociation, charge transfer, photocurrent (J sc ), open-circuit voltage (V oc ), etc. We demonstrate that by incorporating an interlayer of cyanoacrylic acid small molecular layer (SML) on solution-processed, spin-coated, planar ZnO nanorods (P-ZnO NRs), higher photovoltaic (PV) performances were achieved in both inverted organic photovoltaic (iOPV) and hybrid organic photovoltaic (HOPV) devices, where ZnO acts as an "electron-transporting layer" and as an "electron acceptor", respectively. For the tuned range of surface energy from 52.5 to 33 mN/m, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) iOPVs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C 60 -butyric acid methyl ester (PC 60 BM) increases from 3.16% to 3.68%, and that based on poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl)] (PTB7:Th):[6,6]-phenyl C 71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM) photoactive BHJ increases from 6.55% to 8.0%, respectively. The improved PV performance in iOPV devices is majorly attributed to enhanced photocurrents achieved as a result of reduced surface energy and greater electron affinity from the covalent attachment of the strong electron-withdrawing cyano moiety, while that in HOPV devices, where PCE increases from 0.21% to 0.79% for SML-modified devices, is ascribed to a large increase in V oc benefitted due to reduced work function effected from the presence of strong dipole moment in SML that points away from P-ZnO NRs.

  14. A novel multifunctional electrochemical platform for simultaneous detection, elimination, and inactivation of pathogenic bacteria based on the Vancomycin-functionalised AgNPs/3D-ZnO nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiqing; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Dun

    2017-12-15

    A novel fast, sensitive, and specific multifunctional electrochemical platform has been proposed for simultaneous detection, elimination, and inactivation of pathogenic bacteria for the first time. The platform is constituted with three-dimensional ZnO nanorod arrays (3D-ZnO) decorated with sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and functionalized with vancomycin (Van). Based on the specific recognition of Van for Gram-positive bacteria, the fabricated electrochemical platform has presented high detection sensitivity to Staphylococcus aureus with a low detection limit of 330cfu/mL and adaptable bacterial-elimination efficiency (50%) at low concentrations (1000-2000cfu/mL). Moreover, the platform has shown high antibacterial activity (99.99%) arising from the synergistic germicidal effect of the composited antibacterial AgNPs and Van units. The current work could provide new strategies to construct advanced platforms for simultaneous detection, elimination, and inactivation of various pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of ZnO nanorods loaded on activated carbon for ultrasonic assisted dyes removal: Experimental design and derivative spectrophotometry method.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Fatemeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Taghdiri, Mehdi; Asfaram, Arash

    2016-11-01

    A method based on application of ZnO nanorods loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NRs-AC) for adsorption of Bromocresol Green (BCG) and Eosin Y (EY) accelerated by ultrasound was described. The present material was synthesized under ultrasound assisted wet-chemical method and subsequently was characterized by FE-SEM, TEM, BET and XRD analysis. The extent of contribution of conventional variables like pH (2.0-10.0), BCG concentration (4-20mgL(-1)), EY concentration (3-23mgL(-1)), adsorbent dosage (0.01-0.03g), sonication time (1-5min) and centrifuge time (2-6min) as main and interaction part were investigated by central composite design under response surface methodology. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adapted to experimental data and guide the best operational conditions mass by set at 6.0, 9mgL(-1), 10mgL(-1), 0.02g, 4 and 4min for pH, BCG concentration, EY concentration, adsorbent dosage, sonication and centrifuge time, respectively. At these specified conditions dye adsorption efficiency was higher than 99.5%. The suitability and well prediction of optimum point was tested by conducting five experiments and respective results revel that RSD% was lower than 3% and high quality of fitting was confirmed by t-test. The experimental data were best fitted in Langmuir isotherm equation and the removal followed pseudo second order kinetics. The experimentally obtained maximum adsorption capacities were estimated as 57.80 and 61.73mgg(-1) of ZnO-NRs-AC for BCG and EY respectively from binary dye solutions. The mechanism of removal was explained by boundary layer diffusion via intraparticle diffusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gigahertz acoustic vibrations of elastically anisotropic Indium–tin-oxide nanorod arrays [Gigahertz modulation of the full visible spectrum via acoustic vibrations of elastically anisotropic Indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays

    SciT

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D.; Ocola, Leonidas E.

    Active control of light is important for photonic integrated circuits, optical switches,. and telecommunications. Coupling light with acoustic vibrations in nanoscale optical resonators offers optical modulation capabilities with high bandwidth and Small footprint Instead of using noble metals, here we introduce indium tin-oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) as the operating media;and demonstrate optical modulation covering the visible spectral range (from 360 to 700 nm), with similar to 20 GHz bandwidth through the excitation of coherent acoustic vibrations in ITO-NRAs. This broadband modulation results from the collective optical diffraction by the dielectric ITO-NRAs, and a high differential transmission modulation up to 10%more » is achieved through efficient near-infrared, on-plasmon-resonance pumping. By combining the frequency signatures Of the vibrational modes with finite-element simulations, we,further determine the anisotropic elastic constants for single-crystalline ITO, which are not known-for the bulk phase. Furthermore, this technique to determine elastic constants using Coherent acoustic vibrations of uniform nanostructures can be generalized to the study of other inorganic materials.« less

  17. Gigahertz acoustic vibrations of elastically anisotropic Indium–tin-oxide nanorod arrays [Gigahertz modulation of the full visible spectrum via acoustic vibrations of elastically anisotropic Indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Peijun; Schaller, Richard D.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; ...

    2016-08-15

    Active control of light is important for photonic integrated circuits, optical switches,. and telecommunications. Coupling light with acoustic vibrations in nanoscale optical resonators offers optical modulation capabilities with high bandwidth and Small footprint Instead of using noble metals, here we introduce indium tin-oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) as the operating media;and demonstrate optical modulation covering the visible spectral range (from 360 to 700 nm), with similar to 20 GHz bandwidth through the excitation of coherent acoustic vibrations in ITO-NRAs. This broadband modulation results from the collective optical diffraction by the dielectric ITO-NRAs, and a high differential transmission modulation up to 10%more » is achieved through efficient near-infrared, on-plasmon-resonance pumping. By combining the frequency signatures Of the vibrational modes with finite-element simulations, we,further determine the anisotropic elastic constants for single-crystalline ITO, which are not known-for the bulk phase. Furthermore, this technique to determine elastic constants using Coherent acoustic vibrations of uniform nanostructures can be generalized to the study of other inorganic materials.« less

  18. High carrier concentration ZnO nanowire arrays for binder-free conductive support of supercapacitors electrodes by Al doping.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Sun, Yihui; Yan, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xu; Zhang, Guangjie; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Yaru; Gao, Wenchao; Zhang, Yue

    2016-12-15

    Doping semiconductor nanowires (NWs) for altering their electrical and optical properties is a critical strategy for tailoring the performance of nanodevices. Here, we prepared in situ Al-doped ZnO nanowire arrays by using continuous flow injection (CFI) hydrothermal method to promote the conductivity. This reasonable method offers highly stable precursor concentration for doping that effectively avoid the appearance of the low conductivity ZnO nanosheets. Benefit from this, three orders of magnitude rise of the carrier concentration from 10 16 cm -3 to 10 19 cm -3 can be achieved compared with the common hydrothermal (CH) mothed in Mott-Schottky measurement. Possible effect of Al-doping was discussed by first-principle theory. On this basis, Al-doped ZnO nanowire arrays was developed as a binder-free conductive support for supercapacitor electrodes and high capacitance was triggered. It is owing to the dramatically decreased transfer resistance induced by the growing free-moving electrons and holes. Our results have a profound significance not merely in the controlled synthesis of other doping nanomaterials by co-precipitation method but also in the application of binder-free energy materials or other materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of substrate preheating on the photovoltaic performance of ZnO nanorod-based perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Shuo; Lin, Tsyr-Rou; Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Li, Yu-Ren; Chuang, Kai-Chi; Li, Yi-Shao; Luo, Jun-Dao; Hus, Chain-Shu; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2018-06-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO-NRs) grown via a low-temperature hydrothermal growth process are used as the electron transport layer (ETL) owing to their low temperature process and three-dimensional structure, which increases the surface area and thereby improves photovoltaic performance. To further improve the performance of solar cells, substrate preheating before spin-coating PbI2 and perovskite films was conducted. With the increase in preheating temperature, the grain size, surface uniformity, and crystallinity of perovskite increased. Consequently, the photovoltaic performances of the devices with 150-nm-long ZnO-NRs and substrate preheating at 150 °C showed an optimum open-circuit voltage (V oc) of 0.84 V, a short-circuit current (J sc) of 21.43 mA/cm2, a fill factor (FF) of 57.42%, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.34% owing to the superior quality of the perovskite films having smooth surfaces with fewer pinholes.

  20. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for SERS and EIS measurements by incorporating ZnO nanorod growth with electroplating

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Xianli; Zhu, Rong; Guo, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fine gold nanostructure synthesized on selective planar microelectrodes in micro-chip is realized by using an advanced hybrid fabrication approach incorporating growth of nanorods (NRs) with gold electroplating. By this developed nanostructure, integration of in-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement for label-free, nondestructive, real-time and rapid monitoring on a single cell has been achieved. Moreover, parameters of Au nanostructures such as size of nanoholes/nanogaps can be controllably adjusted in the fabrication. We have demonstrated a SERS enhancement factor of up to ~2.24 × 106 and double-layer impedance decrease ratio of 90% ~ 95% at low frequency range below 200 kHz by using nanostructured microelectrodes. SERS detection and in-situ EIS measurement of a trapped single cell by using planar microelectrodes are realized to demonstrate the compatibility, multi-functions, high-sensitivity and simplicity of the micro-chip system. This dual function platform integrating SERS and EIS is of great significance in biological, biochemical and biomedical applications. PMID:26558325

  1. Highly piezoelectric BaTiO3 nanorod bundle arrays using epitaxially grown TiO2 nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seon-Min; Yang, Su Chul

    2018-06-08

    Low-dimensional piezoelectric nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoribbons and nanosheets have been developed for potential applications as energy harvesters, tunable sensors, functional transducers and low-power actuators. In this study, lead-free BaTiO 3 nanorod bundle arrays (NBA) with highly piezoelectric properties were successfully synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate via a two-step process consisting of TiO 2 epitaxial growth and BaTiO 3 conversion. Through the TiO 2 epitaxial growth on FTO substrate, (001) oriented TiO 2 nanostructures formed vertically-aligned NBA with a bundle diameter of 80 nm and an aspect ratio of six. In particular, chemical etching of the TiO 2 NBA was conducted to enlarge the surface area for effective Ba 2+ ion diffusion during the perovskite conversion process from TiO 2 to BaTiO 3 . The final structure of perovskite BaTiO 3 NBA was found to exhibit a feasible piezoelectric response of 3.56 nm with a clear phase change of 180° from the single BaTiO 3 bundle, by point piezoelectric forced microscopy (PFM) analysis. Consequently, highly piezoelectric NBA could be a promising nanostructure for various nanoscale electronic devices.

  2. Efficient PbS/CdS co-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 nanorod arrays

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Narrow bandgap PbS nanoparticles, which may expand the light absorption range to the near-infrared region, were deposited on TiO2 nanorod arrays by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). The thicknesses of PbS nanoparticles were optimized to enhance the photovoltaic performance of PbS QDSCs. A uniform CdS layer was directly coated on previously grown PbS-TiO2 photoanode to protect the PbS from the chemical attack of polysulfide electrolytes. A remarkable short-circuit photocurrent density (approximately 10.4 mA/cm2) for PbS/CdS co-sensitized solar cell was recorded while the photocurrent density of only PbS-sensitized solar cells was lower than 3 mA/cm2. The power conversion efficiency of the PbS/CdS co-sensitized solar cell reached 1.3%, which was beyond the arithmetic addition of the efficiencies of single constituents (PbS and CdS). These results indicate that the synergistic combination of PbS with CdS may provide a stable and effective sensitizer for practical solar cell applications. PMID:23394609

  3. Three-dimensional architecture hybrid perovskite solar cells using CdS nanorod arrays as an electron transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zihang; Tong, Guoqing; Li, Huan; Li, Guopeng; Ma, Shuai; Yu, Shimeng; Liu, Qian; Jiang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) architecture perovskite solar cells (PSCs) using CdS nanorod (NR) arrays as an electron transport layer were designed and prepared layer-by-layer via a physical-chemical vapor deposition (P-CVD) process. The CdS NRs not only provided a scaffold to the perovskite film, but also increased the interfacial contact between the perovskite film and electron transport layer. As an optimized result, a high power conversion efficiency of 12.46% with a short-circuit current density of 19.88 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage of 1.01 V and a fill factor of 62.06% was obtained after 12 h growth of CdS NRs. It was four times the efficiency of contrast planar structure with a similar thickness. The P-CVD method assisted in achieving flat and voidless CH3NH3PbI3-x Cl x perovskite film and binding the CdS NRs and perovskite film together. The different density of CdS NRs had obvious effects on light transmittance of 350-550 nm, the interfacial area and the difficulty of combining layers. Moreover, the efficient 1D transport paths for electrons and multiple absorption of light, which are generated in 3D architecture, were beneficial to realize a decent power conversion efficiency.

  4. Highly Sensitive and Reproducible SERS Sensor for Biological pH Detection Based on a Uniform Gold Nanorod Array Platform.

    PubMed

    Bi, Liyan; Wang, Yunqing; Yang, Ying; Li, Yuling; Mo, Shanshan; Zheng, Qingyin; Chen, Lingxin

    2018-05-09

    Conventional research on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based pH sensors often depends on nanoparticle aggregation, whereas the variability in nanoparticle aggregation gives rise to poor repeatability in the SERS signal. Herein, we fabricated a gold nanorod array platform via an efficient evaporative self-assembly method. The platform exhibits great SERS sensitivity with an enhancement factor of 5.6 × 10 7 and maintains excellent recyclability and reproducibility with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of less than 8%. On the basis of the platform, we developed a highly sensitive bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy)-linked (BMP) SERS-based pH sensor to report pH ranging from pH 3.0 to pH 8.0. The intensity ratio variation of 1004 and 1096 cm -1 in 4-MPy showed excellent pH sensitivity, which decreased as the surrounding pH increased. Furthermore, this BMP SERS-based pH sensor was employed to measure the pH value in C57BL/6 mouse blood. We have demonstrated that the pH sensor has great advantages such as good stability, reliability, and accuracy, which could be extended for the design of point-of-care devices.

  5. Conformal Coating of a Phase Change Material on Ordered Plasmonic Nanorod Arrays for Broadband All-Optical Switching.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peijun; Weimer, Matthew S; Emery, Jonathan D; Diroll, Benjamin T; Chen, Xinqi; Hock, Adam S; Chang, Robert P H; Martinson, Alex B F; Schaller, Richard D

    2017-01-24

    Actively tunable optical transmission through artificial metamaterials holds great promise for next-generation nanophotonic devices and metasurfaces. Plasmonic nanostructures and phase change materials have been extensively studied to this end due to their respective strong interactions with light and tunable dielectric constants under external stimuli. Seamlessly integrating plasmonic components with phase change materials, as demonstrated in the present work, can facilitate phase change by plasmonically enabled light confinement and meanwhile make use of the high sensitivity of plasmon resonances to the variation of dielectric constant associated with the phase change. The hybrid platform here is composed of plasmonic indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) conformally coated with an ultrathin layer of a prototypical phase change material, vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ), which enables all-optical modulation of the infrared as well as the visible spectral ranges. The interplay between the intrinsic plasmonic nonlinearity of ITO-NRAs and the phase transition induced permittivity change of VO 2 gives rise to spectral and temporal responses that cannot be achieved with individual material components alone.

  6. A TiO2/FeMnP Core/Shell Nanorod Array Photoanode for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Oxygen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Desmond E; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Leitner, Andrew P; Xie, Lixin; Qin, Fan; Alam, Md Kamrul; Chen, Shuo; Wang, Dezhi; Ren, Zhifeng; Wang, Zhiming; Bao, Jiming; Whitmire, Kenton H

    2017-04-25

    A variety of catalysts have recently been developed for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution, but very few of them can be readily integrated with semiconducting light absorbers for photoelectrochemical or photocatalytic water splitting. Here, we demonstrate an efficient core/shell photoanode with a highly active oxygen evolution electrocatalyst shell (FeMnP) and semiconductor core (rutile TiO 2 ) for photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution reaction. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition from a single-source precursor was used to ensure good contact between the FeMnP and the TiO 2 . The TiO 2 /FeMnP core/shell photoanode reaches the theoretical photocurrent density for rutile TiO 2 of 1.8 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode under simulated 100 mW cm -2 (1 sun) irradiation. The dramatic enhancement is a result of the synergistic effects of the high oxygen evolution reaction activity of FeMnP (delivering an overpotential of 300 mV with a Tafel slope of 65 mV dec -1 in 1 M KOH) and the conductive interlayer between the surface active sites and semiconductor core which boosts the interfacial charge transfer and photocarrier collection. The facile fabrication of the TiO 2 /FeMnP core/shell nanorod array photoanode offers a compelling strategy for preparing highly efficient photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion devices.

  7. Highly piezoelectric BaTiO3 nanorod bundle arrays using epitaxially grown TiO2 nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seon-Min; Yang, Su Chul

    2018-06-01

    Low-dimensional piezoelectric nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoribbons and nanosheets have been developed for potential applications as energy harvesters, tunable sensors, functional transducers and low-power actuators. In this study, lead-free BaTiO 3 nanorod bundle arrays (NBA) with highly piezoelectric properties were successfully synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate via a two-step process consisting of TiO2 epitaxial growth and BaTiO3 conversion. Through the TiO2 epitaxial growth on FTO substrate, (001) oriented TiO2 nanostructures formed vertically-aligned NBA with a bundle diameter of 80 nm and an aspect ratio of six. In particular, chemical etching of the TiO2 NBA was conducted to enlarge the surface area for effective Ba2+ ion diffusion during the perovskite conversion process from TiO2 to BaTiO3. The final structure of perovskite BaTiO3 NBA was found to exhibit a feasible piezoelectric response of 3.56 nm with a clear phase change of 180° from the single BaTiO3 bundle, by point piezoelectric forced microscopy (PFM) analysis. Consequently, highly piezoelectric NBA could be a promising nanostructure for various nanoscale electronic devices.

  8. Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhengrong R; Voigt, James A; Liu, Jun; McKenzie, Bonnie; McDermott, Matthew J; Rodriguez, Mark A; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang

    2003-12-01

    Extended and oriented nanostructures are desirable for many applications, but direct fabrication of complex nanostructures with controlled crystalline morphology, orientation and surface architectures remains a significant challenge. Here we report a low-temperature, environmentally benign, solution-based approach for the preparation of complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures, and the systematic modification of their crystal morphology. Using controlled seeded growth and citrate anions that selectively adsorb on ZnO basal planes as the structure-directing agent, we prepared large arrays of oriented ZnO nanorods with controlled aspect ratios, complex film morphologies made of oriented nanocolumns and nanoplates (remarkably similar to biomineral structures in red abalone shells) and complex bilayers showing in situ column-to-rod morphological transitions. The advantages of some of these ZnO structures for photocatalytic decompositions of volatile organic compounds were demonstrated. The novel ZnO nanostructures are expected to have great potential for sensing, catalysis, optical emission, piezoelectric transduction, and actuations.

  9. Renewable Lignosulfonate-Assisted Synthesis of Hierarchical Nanoflake-Array-Flower ZnO Nanomaterials in Mixed Solvents and Their Photocatalytic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Zuo, Hong-Fen; Guo, Yuan-Ru; Miao, Ting-Ting; Pan, Qing-Jiang

    2016-05-01

    With the assistance of sodium lignosulfonate, hierarchical nanoflake-array-flower nanostructure of ZnO has been fabricated by a facile precipitation method in mixed solvents. The sodium lignosulfonate amount used in our synthetic route is able to fine-tune ZnO morphology and an abundance of pores have been observed in the nanoflake-array-flower ZnO, which result in specific surface area reaching as high as 82.9 m2 · g-1. The synthesized ZnO exhibits superior photocatalytic activity even under low-power UV illumination (6 W). It is conjectured that both nanoflake-array structure and plenty of pores embedded in ZnO flakes may provide scaffold microenvironments to enhance photocatalytic activity. Additionally, this catalyst can be used repeatedly without a significant loss in photocatalytic activity. The low-cost, simple synthetic approach as well as high photocatalytic and recycling efficiency of our ZnO nanomaterials allows for application to treat wastewater containing organic pollutants in an effective way.

  10. Large-scale horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with controlled orientation, periodic distribution as building blocks for chip-in piezo-phototronic LEDs.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Li, Haiwen; Zhou, Lianqun; Zhao, Dongxu; Wu, Yihui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Chuanyu; Yao, Jia

    2015-01-27

    A novel method of fabricating large-scale horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with controlled orientation and periodic distribution via combing technology is introduced. Horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with uniform orientation and periodic distribution can be realized based on the conventional bottom-up method prepared vertically aligned ZnO microrod matrix via the combing method. When the combing parameters are changed, the orientation of horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays can be adjusted (θ = 90° or 45°) in a plane and a misalignment angle of the microrods (0.3° to 2.3°) with low-growth density can be obtained. To explore the potential applications based on the vertically and horizontally aligned ZnO microrods on p-GaN layer, piezo-phototronic devices such as heterojunction LEDs are built. Electroluminescence (EL) emission patterns can be adjusted for the vertically and horizontally aligned ZnO microrods/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs by applying forward bias. Moreover, the emission color from UV-blue to yellow-green can be tuned by investigating the piezoelectric properties of the materials. The EL emission mechanisms of the LEDs are discussed in terms of band diagrams of the heterojunctions and carrier recombination processes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Hierarchical Fe₃O₄@Fe₂O₃ Core-Shell Nanorod Arrays as High-Performance Anodes for Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao; Jia, Ruyue; Zhai, Teng; Xia, Hui

    2015-12-16

    Anode materials with relatively low capacitance remain a great challenge for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) to pursue high energy density. Hematite (α-Fe2O3) has attracted intensive attention as anode material for ASCs, because of its suitable reversible redox reactions in a negative potential window (from 0 V to -1 V vs Ag/AgCl), high theoretical capacitance, rich abundance, and nontoxic features. Nevertheless, the Fe2O3 electrode cannot deliver large volumetric capacitance at a high rate, because of its poor electrical conductivity (∼10(-14) S/cm), resulting in low power density and low energy density. In this work, a hierarchical heterostructure comprising Fe3O4@Fe2O3 core-shell nanorod arrays (NRAs) is presented and investigated as the negative electrode for ASCs. Consequently, the Fe3O4@Fe2O3 electrode exhibits superior supercapacitive performance, compared to the bare Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 NRAs electrodes, demonstrating large volumetric capacitance (up to 1206 F/cm(3) with a mass loading of 1.25 mg/cm(2)), as well as good rate capability and cycling stability. The hybrid electrode design is also adopted to prepare Fe3O4@MnO2 core-shell NRAs as the positive electrode for ASCs. Significantly, the as-assembled 2 V ASC device delivered a high energy density of 0.83 mWh/cm(3) at a power density of 15.6 mW/cm(3). This work constitutes the first demonstration of Fe3O4 as the conductive supports for Fe2O3 to address the concerns about its poor electronic and ionic transport.

  12. Role of ZnO photoanode nanostructures and sensitizer deposition approaches on the photovoltaic properties of CdS/CdSe and CdS1-xSex quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şişman, İlkay; Tekir, Oktay; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-02-01

    Hierarchical bundle-like ZnO nanorod arrays (BNRs) were synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal method based on two consecutive temperature steps for cascade CdS/CdSe and ternary CdS1-xSex alloy quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) as photoanode. The CdS/CdSe and CdS1-xSex QDs were deposited on the surface of the ZnO BNRs by conventional and modified successive ionic-layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods, respectively. Using the ZnO BNRs/CdS/CdSe photoanode, the power conversion efficiency reaches 2.08%, which is 1.8 times higher than that of pristine ZnO nanorods/CdS/CdSe photoanode, while by applying ZnO BNRs/CdS1-xSex, the power conversion efficiency improves 2.52%. The remarkably improved photovoltaic performance is mainly derived from the bundle-like nanorod arrays structure, which increases the QDs loading amount and the scattering effect for light absorption, and the appropriate conduction band energy, sufficient Se amount and well coverage of the ternary CdS1-xSex QDs result in enhanced photogenerated electron injection, high light absorption and reduced recombination, respectively. As a result, ZnO BNRs/CdS1-xSex combination can significantly improve performance of QDSSCs.

  13. Role of Ag2S coupling on enhancing the visible-light-induced catalytic property of TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengcao; Xiong, Shan; Wang, Guojing; Xie, Zheng; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain a better photocatalytic performance under visible light, Ag2S-coupled TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) were prepared through the electron beam deposition with glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique, annealing in air, followed by the successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The properties of the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) were thus conducted. The presence of Ag2S on TiO2 NRAs was observed to have a significant improvement on the response to visible light. It’s resulted from that Ag2S coupling can improve the short circuit photocurrent density and enhance the photocatalytic activity remarkably.

  14. Semiconductor@metal-organic framework core-shell heterostructures: a case of ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorods with selective photoelectrochemical response.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Wen-wen; Kuang, Qin; Zhou, Jian-zhang; Kong, Xiang-jian; Xie, Zhao-xiong; Zheng, Lan-sun

    2013-02-06

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and related material classes are attracting considerable attention for their applications in gas storage/separation as well as catalysis. In contrast, research concerning potential uses in electronic devices (such as sensors) is in its infancy, which might be due to a great challenge in the fabrication of MOFs and semiconductor composites with well-designed structures. In this paper, we proposed a simple self-template strategy to fabricate metal oxide semiconductor@MOF core-shell heterostructures, and successfully obtained freestanding ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorods as well as vertically standing arrays (including nanorod arrays and nanotube arrays). In this synthetic process, ZnO nanorods not only act as the template but also provide Zn(2+) ions for the formation of ZIF-8. In addition, we have demonstrated that solvent composition and reaction temperature are two crucial factors for successfully fabricating well-defined ZnO@ZIF-8 heterostructures. As we expect, the as-prepared ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorod arrays display distinct photoelectrochemical response to hole scavengers with different molecule sizes (e.g., H(2)O(2) and ascorbic acid) owing to the limitation of the aperture of the ZIF-8 shell. Excitingly, such ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorod arrays were successfully applied to the detection of H(2)O(2) in the presence of serous buffer solution. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that the semiconductor@MOFs heterostructure potentially has promising applications in many electronic devices including sensors.

  15. An Enhanced UV-Vis-NIR an d Flexible Photodetector Based on Electrospun ZnO Nanowire Array/PbS Quantum Dots Film Heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Gan, Lin; Zhang, Jianbing; Zhuge, Fuwei; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-03-01

    ZnO nanostructure-based photodetectors have a wide applications in many aspects, however, the response range of which are mainly restricted in the UV region dictated by its bandgap. Herein, UV-vis-NIR sensitive ZnO photodetectors consisting of ZnO nanowires (NW) array/PbS quantum dots (QDs) heterostructures are fabricated through modified electrospining method and an exchanging process. Besides wider response region compared to pure ZnO NWs based photodetectors, the heterostructures based photodetectors have faster response and recovery speed in UV range. Moreover, such photodetectors demonstrate good flexibility as well, which maintain almost constant performances under extreme (up to 180°) and repeat (up to 200 cycles) bending conditions in UV-vis-NIR range. Finally, this strategy is further verified on other kinds of 1D nanowires and 0D QDs, and similar enhancement on the performance of corresponding photodetecetors can be acquired, evidencing the universality of this strategy.

  16. High quality boron carbon nitride/ZnO-nanorods p-n heterojunctions based on magnetron sputtered boron carbon nitride films

    SciT

    Qian, J. C.; Department of Engineering Physics, Polytechnique Montréal, Montreal, Quebec H3A 3A7; Jha, S. K., E-mail: skylec@gmail.com, E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-11-10

    Boron carbon nitride (BCN) films were synthesized on Si (100) and fused silica substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from a B{sub 4}C target in an Ar/N{sub 2} gas mixture. The BCN films were amorphous, and they exhibited an optical band gap of ∼1.0 eV and p-type conductivity. The BCN films were over-coated with ZnO nanorod arrays using hydrothermal synthesis to form BCN/ZnO-nanorods p-n heterojunctions, exhibiting a rectification ratio of 1500 at bias voltages of ±5 V.

  17. Construction and evaluation of high-quality n-ZnO nanorod/p-diamond heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Wang, C D; Jha, S K; Chen, Z H; Ng, T W; Liu, Y K; Yuen, M F; Lu, Z Z; Kwok, S Y; Zapien, J A; Bello, I; Lee, C S; Zhang, W J

    2012-06-01

    Vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) arrays were synthesized by a low-temperature solution method on boron-doped diamond (BDD) films. The morphology, growth direction, and crystallinity of the ZnO NRs were studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and cathodoluminescence. Electrical characterization of the ZnO NR/BBD heterostructures revealed characteristic p-n junction properties with an on/off ratio of about 50 at +/- 4 V and a small reverse leakage current approximately 1 microA. Moreover, the junctions showed an ideality factor around 1.0 at a low forward voltage from 0 to 0.3 V and about 2.1 for an increased voltage ranging from 1.2 to 3.0 V, being consistent with that of an ideal diode according to the Sah-Noyce-Shockley theory.

  18. Concerted growth and ordering of cobalt nanorod arrays as revealed by tandem in situ SAXS-XAS studies

    DOE PAGES

    Cormary, Benoit; Li, Tao; Liakakos, Nikos; ...

    2016-06-14

    The molecular and ensemble dynamics for the growth of hierarchical supercrystals of cobalt nanorods have been studied by in situ tandem X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy – Small Angle X-ray Scattering (XAS - SAXS). The super-crystals were obtained by reducing a Co(II) precursor under H 2 in the presence of a long chain amine and a long chain carboxylic acid. Complementary time-dependent ex situ TEM studies were also performed. The experimental data provide critical insights into the nanorod growth mechanism, and unequivocal evidence for a concerted growth-organization process. Nanorod formation involves cobalt nucleation, a fast atom by atom anisotropic growth and amore » slower oriented attach-ment process that continues well after cobalt reduction is complete. As a result, smectic-like ordering of the nanorods appears very early in the process, as soon as nanoparticle elongation appears, and nanorod growth takes place inside organized super-lattices, which can be regarded as mesocrystals.« less

  19. Pr3+ doped biphasic TiO2 (rutile-brookite) nanorod arrays grown on activated carbon fibers: Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Ying; Yang, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Praseodymium-doped biphasic TiO2 (rutile-brookite) nanorod arrays (Pr-TiO2 NRAs) were successfully prepared via a two-step hydrothermal reaction on activated carbon fibers (ACFs) which pre-coated with TiO2 nanoparticles at first step. The bicrystalline arrays grown on ACFs are primarily constructed by the well-aligned TiO2 nanorods growing along [0 0 1] direction, which were indicated by the results of SEM and XRD. The nanorods are uniform in diameter and length with about 250 nm and 2.5 μm. The composite photocatalyst with high specific surface area and well-aligned nanostructure are beneficial to enhance the adsorption capacity and even help to suppress electron-hole recombination effectively, which consequently revealed much better (2 times) catalytic performance than that of commercially available P25 TiO2 on methylene blue(MB) photodegradation. In addition, the existence of praseodymium in TiO2 gives rise to shift of absorption edge towards long wavelength, which was indicated by the results of UV-vis DRS. Photodegradation results reveal that Pr-doping significantly improves the activity of TiO2, which was 20% higher than that of undoped TiO2 NRAs for the photodegradation of MB in aqueous medium under visible light irradiation. Meanwhile, the doped amount of Pr had a tiny influence on the photocatalytic performance of the composites. In our experiment, 3% Pr-doped molar concentration was proven to be the relatively optimal dopant concentration for the doping of TiO2 NRAs. Moreover, the photocatalyst grown on ACFs substrates is favorable to reuse and photodegradation rate kept on 76% even after 4 times of reuse.

  20. A self-powered nano-photodetector based on PFH/ZnO nanorods organic/inorganic heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyun; Liu, Wei; Li, Peigang; Song, Jia; An, Yuehua; Shen, Jingqin; Wang, Shunli; Guo, Daoyou

    2018-03-01

    PFH/ZnO nanorods heterojunctions were fabricated by spin-coating p-type Poly (9,9-dihexylfluorene) (PFH) on n-type vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays grown by a facile hydrothermal method on indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent conductive glass. A typical p-n junction behavior was observed in the fabricated heterojunction. The current of heterojunction increases and decreases dramatically by switching the illumination on and off at zero bias, showing potential self-powered photodetector applications. The heterojunction were capable of generating negative current when illuminated under an appropriate wavelength. The photoresponse properties of the heterojunction can be tuned by the applied bias. In vacuum, the rectifying behavior disappeared, and show only simple semiconductor behavior. Band structure of the heterojunction was schematic drawn and explain the mechanism of the properties of PFH/ZnO nanorods heterojunctions.

  1. Three-dimensional mesoscale heterostructures of ZnO nanowire arrays epitaxially grown on CuGaO2 nanoplates as individual diodes.

    PubMed

    Forticaux, Audrey; Hacialioglu, Salih; DeGrave, John P; Dziedzic, Rafal; Jin, Song

    2013-09-24

    We report a three-dimensional (3D) mesoscale heterostructure composed of one-dimensional (1D) nanowire (NW) arrays epitaxially grown on two-dimensional (2D) nanoplates. Specifically, three facile syntheses are developed to assemble vertical ZnO NWs on CuGaO2 (CGO) nanoplates in mild aqueous solution conditions. The key to the successful 3D mesoscale integration is the preferential nucleation and heteroepitaxial growth of ZnO NWs on the CGO nanoplates. Using transmission electron microscopy, heteroepitaxy was found between the basal planes of CGO nanoplates and ZnO NWs, which are their respective (001) crystallographic planes, by the observation of a hexagonal Moiré fringes pattern resulting from the slight mismatch between the c planes of ZnO and CGO. Careful analysis shows that this pattern can be described by a hexagonal supercell with a lattice parameter of almost exactly 11 and 12 times the a lattice constants for ZnO and CGO, respectively. The electrical properties of the individual CGO-ZnO mesoscale heterostructures were measured using a current-sensing atomic force microscopy setup to confirm the rectifying p-n diode behavior expected from the band alignment of p-type CGO and n-type ZnO wide band gap semiconductors. These 3D mesoscale heterostructures represent a new motif in nanoassembly for the integration of nanomaterials into functional devices with potential applications in electronics, photonics, and energy.

  2. High-Performance Schottky Diode Gas Sensor Based on the Heterojunction of Three-Dimensional Nanohybrids of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Vertical ZnO Nanorods on an AlGaN/GaN Layer.

    PubMed

    Minh Triet, Nguyen; Thai Duy, Le; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Hanif, Adeela; Siddiqui, Saqib; Park, Kyung-Ho; Cho, Chu-Young; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2017-09-13

    A Schottky diode based on a heterojunction of three-dimensional (3D) nanohybrid materials, formed by hybridizing reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with epitaxial vertical zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) and Al 0.27 GaN 0.73 (∼25 nm)/GaN is presented as a new class of high-performance chemical sensors. The RGO nanosheet layer coated on the ZnO NRs enables the formation of a direct Schottky contact with the AlGaN layer. The sensing results of the Schottky diode with respect to NO 2 , SO 2 , and HCHO gases exhibit high sensitivity (0.88-1.88 ppm -1 ), fast response (∼2 min), and good reproducibility down to 120 ppb concentration levels at room temperature. The sensing mechanism of the Schottky diode can be explained by the effective modulation of the reverse saturation current due to the change in thermionic emission carrier transport caused by ultrasensitive changes in the Schottky barrier of a van der Waals heterostructure between RGO and AlGaN layers upon interaction with gas molecules. Advances in the design of a Schottky diode gas sensor based on the heterojunction of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas channel and highly responsive 3D-engineered sensing nanomaterials have potential not only for the enhancement of sensitivity and selectivity but also for improving operation capability at room temperature.

  3. Gold nanoparticle-embedded silk protein-ZnO nanorod hybrids for flexible bio-photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogurla, Narendar; Kundu, Subhas C.; Ray, Samit K.

    2017-04-01

    Silk protein has been used as a biopolymer substrate for flexible photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate ZnO nanorod array hybrid photodetectors on Au nanoparticle-embedded silk protein for flexible optoelectronics. Hybrid samples exhibit optical absorption at the band edge of ZnO as well as plasmonic energy due to Au nanoparticles, making them attractive for selective UV and visible wavelength detection. The device prepared on Au-silk protein shows a much lower dark current and a higher photo to dark-current ratio of ∼105 as compared to the control sample without Au nanoparticles. The hybrid device also exhibits a higher specific detectivity due to higher responsivity arising from the photo-generated hole trapping by Au nanoparticles. Sharp pulses in the transient photocurrent have been observed in devices prepared on glass and Au-silk protein substrates due to the light induced pyroelectric effect of ZnO, enabling the demonstration of self-powered photodetectors at zero bias. Flexible hybrid detectors have been demonstrated on Au-silk/polyethylene terephthalate substrates, exhibiting characteristics similar to those fabricated on rigid glass substrates. A study of the performance of photodetectors with different bending angles indicates very good mechanical stability of silk protein based flexible devices. This novel concept of ZnO nanorod array photodetectors on a natural silk protein platform provides an opportunity to realize integrated flexible and self-powered bio-photonic devices for medical applications in near future.

  4. Characterizations of low-temperature electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire light-emitting arrays on the p-GaN layer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tzu-Chun; Ke, Min-Yung; Yang, Sheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yun-Wei; Chen, Liang-Yi; Lin, Guan-Jhong; Lu, Yu-Hsin; He, Jr-Hau; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Huang, JianJang

    2010-12-15

    Low-temperature electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire light-emitting arrays is reported. By inserting a thin MgO current blocking layer in between ZnO nanowire and p-GaN, high-purity UV light emission at wavelength 398 nm was obtained. As the temperature is decreased, contrary to the typical GaN-based light emitting diodes, our device shows a decrease of optical output intensity. The results are associated with various carrier tunneling processes and frozen MgO defects.

  5. Combination of short-length TiO2 nanorod arrays and compact PbS quantum-dot thin films for efficient solid-state quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengguo; Shi, Chengwu; Chen, Junjun; Xiao, Guannan; Li, Long

    2017-07-01

    Considering the balance of the hole diffusion length and the loading quantity of quantum-dots, the rutile TiO2 nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 500 μm-2 is successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 105 min. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO2 nanorod array is firstly obtained by the spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The result reveals that the strong interaction between lead and EDT is very important to control the crystallite size of PbS quantum-dots and obtain the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO2 nanorod array. The all solid-state sensitized solar cell with the combination of the short-length, high-density TiO2 nanorod array and the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film achieves the photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.10%, along with an open-circuit voltage of 0.52 V, a short-circuit photocurrent density of 13.56 mA cm-2 and a fill factor of 0.58.

  6. Enhancement in photo-electrochemical efficiency by reducing recombination rate in branched TiO2 nanotube array on functionalizing with ZnO micro crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boda, Muzaffar Ahmad; Ashraf Shah, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In this study, branched TiO2 nanotube array were fabricated through electrochemical anodization process at constant voltage using third generation electrolyte. On account of morphological advantage, these nanotubes shows significant enhancement in photo-electrochemical property than compact or conventional titania nanotube array. However, their photo-electrochemical efficiency intensifies on coating with ZnO micro-crystals. ZnO coated branched TiO2 nanotube array shows a photocurrent density of 27.8 mA cm‑2 which is 1.55 times the photocurrent density (17.2 mA cm‑2) shown by bare branched titania nanotubes. The significant enhancement in photocurrent density shown by the resulting ZnO/TiO2 hybrid structure is attributed to suppression in electron–hole recombination phenomenon by offering smooth pathway to photo generated excitons on account of staggered band edge positions in individual semiconductors.

  7. Effect of ZnO core electrodeposition conditions on electrochemical and photocatalytic properties of polypyrrole-graphene oxide shelled nanoarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruna, A.; Shao, Q.; Kamruzzaman, M.; Li, Y. Y.; Zapien, J. A.; Pullini, D.; Busquets Mataix, D.; Ruotolo, A.

    2017-01-01

    Novel hybrid core-shell nanoarchitectures were fabricated by a simple two-step electrochemical approach: first ZnO nanorod core was electrodeposited from Zn(NO3)2 solution; further, the core nanoarray was coated with a shell based on polypyrrole hybridized with graphene oxide by electropolymerization. The properties of the core/shell nanoarchitectures were studied as a function of the core properties induced by electrodeposition parameters. The ZnO nanostructures showed improved crystallinity and c-axis preferred orientation with increasing cathodic deposition potential while the increased deposition duration resulted in a morphology transition from nanorod to pyramidal shape. The electrochemical activity of the core/shell arrays was found to increase with the deposition potential of ZnO core but decreased when morphology changed from nanorod to pyramid shape. The photocatalytic results showed improved activity for the core/hybrid shell nanoarrays with respect to ZnO and ZnO/PPy ones. The degradation rate for methylene blue decreased with prolonged deposition duration of the core. The obtained results highlight the importance of electrochemical tuning of ZnO-based core/shell nanoarrays for improved performance in electrochemical and photocatalytic applications.

  8. Design and construction of hierarchical TiO2 nanorod arrays by combining layer-by-layer and hydrothermal crystallization techniques for electrochromic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongbo; Li, Xiaomin; Bi, Zhijie; He, Xiaoli; Li, Guanjie; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong

    2018-05-01

    The hierarchical TiO2 (H-TiO2) nanorod arrays (NRAs) composed of single-crystalline nanorods and nanocrystals were finely designed and successfully constructed for electrochromic (EC) application. By combining layer-by-layer (LBL) method and hydrothermal crystallization technique, the superfine nanocrystals (5-7 nm), which can provide abundant active sites and facilitate ion insertion/extraction during EC reactions, were uniformly and conformally assembled on the surface of single-crystalline TiO2 (SC-TiO2) NRAs. The as-formed H-TiO2 NRAs integrate the advantages of one-dimensional NRAs with fast kinetics and superfine nanocrystals with high ion capacity, showing highly enhanced EC performance. Large optical contrast (40.3%), shorter coloring/bleaching time (22/4 s), high coloration efficiency (11.2 cm2 C-1), and excellent cycling stability can be achieved in H-TiO2 NRAs, superior to the pristine SC-TiO2 NRAs and nanocrystalline TiO2 films. This work provides a feasible and well-designed strategy to explore high-performance materials for EC application.

  9. Enhanced solar photoelectrochemical conversion efficiency of the hydrothermally-deposited TiO2 nanorod arrays: Effects of the light trapping and optimum charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Gil Woo; Mahadik, Mahadeo A.; Chae, Weon-Sik; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Cho, Min; Jang, Jum Suk

    2018-05-01

    The vertically aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRA) with manipulated aspect ratio were hydrothermally synthesized by changing the amount of the titanium (Ti) precursor in the initial growth solution. FE-SEM images show the optimum morphology, density and aspect ratio of the well-aligned TB-1.2 NRs on the surface of the FTO substrate. The UV-vis-absorption measurements revealed that a sample prepared at TB-1.2 can provide an increased light trapping effect. PEC analyses demonstrated that the TiO2 nanorods deposited at TB-1.2 of Titanium butoxide show a relatively high PEC conversion efficiency (3.5 times) compared with the TB-0.8 prepared TiO2 at a 1.0 V versus RHE. The higher PEC performance is believed to be the result of an enhancement of the optimum aspect ratio, light trapping, an efficient charge separation, and the high carrier transport in the vertically aligned TiO2 NRs. Further, the PEC based organic dye degradation experiments showed 77% and 94% removal of Orange II and methylene blue respectively. Additionally, 109 μmol h-1 cm-2 hydrogen generations were attributed using optimized vertically aligned TiO2 NRA's. Thus, the appropriate morphology manipulated the TiO2 NRAs are useful for solar conversion applications.

  10. Very low-refractive-index optical thin films consisting of an array of SiO2 nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, J.-Q.; Kim, Jong Kyu; Schubert, E. F.; Ye, Dexian; Lu, T.-M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Juneja, Jasbir S.

    2006-03-01

    The refractive-index contrast in dielectric multilayer structures, optical resonators, and photonic crystals is an important figure of merit that creates a strong demand for high-quality thin films with a low refractive index. A SiO2 nanorod layer with low refractive index of n=1.08, to our knowledge the lowest ever reported in thin-film materials, is grown by oblique-angle electron-beam deposition of SiO2. A single-pair distributed Bragg reflector employing a SiO2 nanorod layer is demonstrated to have enhanced reflectivity, showing the great potential of low-refractive-index films for applications in photonic structures and devices.

  11. Application of Chemical Doping and Architectural Design Principles To Fabricate Nanowire Co2Ni3ZnO8 Arrays for Aqueous Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Yang, Bin; Liu, Jingyuan; Yuan, Yi; Zhang, Hongsen; Liu, Lianhe; Wang, Jun; Li, Rumin

    2016-08-10

    Electrode materials derived from transition metal oxides have a serious problem of low electron transfer rate, which restricts their practical application. However, chemically doped graphene transforms the chemical bonding configuration to enhance electron transfer rate and, therefore, facilitates the successful fabrication of Co2Ni3ZnO8 nanowire arrays. In addition, the Co2Ni3ZnO8 electrode materials, considered as Ni and Zn ions doped into Co3O4, have a high electron transfer rate and electrochemical response capability, because the doping increases the degree of crystal defect and reaction of Co/Ni ions with the electrolyte. Hence, the Co2Ni3ZnO8 electrode exhibits a high rate property and excellent electrochemical cycle stability, as determined by electrochemical analysis of the relationship between specific capacitance, IR drop, Coulomb efficiency, and different current densities. From the results of a three-electrode system of electrochemical measurement, the Co2Ni3ZnO8 electrode demonstrates a specific capacitance of 1115 F g(-1) and retains 89.9% capacitance after 2000 cycles at a current density of 4 A g(-1). The energy density of the asymmetric supercapacitor (AC//Co2Ni3ZnO8) is 54.04 W h kg(-1) at the power density of 3200 W kg(-1).

  12. Aligned hierarchical Ag/ZnO nano-heterostructure arrays via electrohydrodynamic nanowire template for enhanced gas-sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhouping; Wang, Xiaomei; Sun, Fazhe; Tong, Xiaohu; Zhu, Chen; Lv, Qiying; Ye, Dong; Wang, Shuai; Luo, Wei; Huang, YongAn

    2017-09-22

    Gas sensing performance can be improved significantly by the increase in both the effective gas exposure area and the surface reactivitiy of ZnO nanorods. Here, we propose aligned hierarchical Ag/ZnO nano-heterostructure arrays (h-Ag/ZnO-NAs) via electrohydrodynamic nanowire template, together with a subsequent hydrothermal synthesis and photoreduction reaction. The h-Ag/ZnO-NAs scatter at top for higher specific surface areas with the air, simultaneously contact at root for the electrical conduction. Besides, the ZnO nanorods are uniformly coated with dispersed Ag nanoparticles, resulting in a tremendous enhancement of the surface reactivity. Compared with pure ZnO, such h-Ag/ZnO-NAs exhibit lower electrical resistance and faster responses. Moreover, they demonstrate enhanced NO 2 gas sensing properties. Self-assembly via electrohydrodynamic nanowire template paves a new way for the preparation of high performance gas sensors.

  13. Role of Ag2S coupling on enhancing the visible-light-induced catalytic property of TiO2 nanorod arrays

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengcao; Xiong, Shan; Wang, Guojing; Xie, Zheng; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain a better photocatalytic performance under visible light, Ag2S-coupled TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) were prepared through the electron beam deposition with glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique, annealing in air, followed by the successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The properties of the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) were thus conducted. The presence of Ag2S on TiO2 NRAs was observed to have a significant improvement on the response to visible light. It’s resulted from that Ag2S coupling can improve the short circuit photocurrent density and enhance the photocatalytic activity remarkably. PMID:26790759

  14. Effect of the polymeric coating thickness on the photocurrent performance of titanium dioxide nanorod arrays-polyaniline composite-based UV photosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, M. M.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Othman, , N.; Ismail, A. S.; Saidi, S. A.; Mohamed, R.; Suriani, A. B.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorod arrays (TNAs) were synthesized and deposited on fluorine tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate using a one-step immersion method in a glass container. The effect of the polymeric coating thickness of p-type polyaniline (PANI) on the n-type TNAs was investigated in the p-n heterojunction photodiode (PD) for the application of ultraviolet (UV) photosensor. The fabricated photosensor demonstrated an increased photocurrent under UV irradiation in correlation with the thickness layer of PANI. The measured UV response showed the highest photocurrent of 0.014 µA at 1.0 V of reverse bias with low dark current under the UV radiation (365 nm, 750 µW/cm2). The thickness of the PANI film improved the photocurrent of the fabricated TNAs/PANI composite-based UV photosensor.

  15. Synthesis of p-type nickel oxide nanosheets on n-type titanium dioxide nanorod arrays for p-n heterojunction-based UV photosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, M. M.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Abdullah, M. A. R.; Ismail, A. S.; Saidi, S. A.; Mohamed, R.; Suriani, A. B.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorod arrays (TNAs) were synthesized and deposited on fluorine tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate using a novel and facile immersion method in a glass container. The synthesis and deposition of p-type nickel oxide (NiO) nanosheets (NS) on the n-type TNAs was investigated in the p-n heterojunction photodiode (PD) for the application of ultraviolet (UV) photosensor. The fabricated TNAs/NiO NS based UV photosensor exhibited a highly increased photocurrent of 4.3 µA under UV radiation (365 nm, 750 µW/cm2) at 1.0 V reverse bias. In this study, the fabricated TNAs/NiO NS p-n heterojunction based photodiode showed potential applications for UV photosensor based on the stable photo-generated current attained under UV radiation.

  16. 3D highly oriented nanoparticulate and microparticulate array ofmetal oxide materials

    SciT

    Vayssieres, Lionel; Guo, Jinghua; Nordgren, Joseph

    2006-09-15

    Advanced nano and micro particulate thin films of 3d transition and post-transition metal oxides consisting of nanorods and microrods with parallel and perpendicular orientation with respect to the substrate normal, have been successfully grown onto various substrates by heteronucleation, without template and/or surfactant, from the aqueous condensation of solution of metal salts or metal complexes (aqueous chemical growth). Three-dimensional arrays of iron oxide nanorods and zinc oxide nanorods with parallel and perpendicular orientation are presented as well as the oxygen K-edge polarization dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study of anisotropic perpendicularly oriented microrod array of ZnO performed at synchrotron radiationmore » source facility.« less

  17. Defect study in ZnO related structures—A multi-spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, C. C.; Cheung, C. K.; Gu, Q. L.; Dai, X. M.; Xu, S. J.; Zhu, C. Y.; Luo, J. M.; Zhu, C. Y.; Tam, K. H.; Djurišić, A. B.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.; Lu, L. W.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Ong, H. C.

    2008-10-01

    ZnO has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years because of its potential applications for fabricating optoelectronic devices. Using a multi-spectroscopic approach including positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we have studied the two observed phenomena from ZnO related structures. They namely included the H 2O 2 pre-treatment induced ohmic to rectifying contact conversion on Au/ n-ZnO contact and the p-type doping by nitrogen ion implantation. The aim of the studies was to offering comprehensive views as to how the defects influenced the structures electrical and optical properties of the structures. It was also shown that PAS measurement using the monoenergetic positron beam could offer valuable information of vacancy type defects in the vertical ZnO nanorod array structure.

  18. Large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L; Das, Suman; Xu, Sheng; Yuan, Dajun; Guo, Rui; Wei, Yaguang; Wu, Wenzhuo

    2013-02-05

    In a method for growing a nanowire array, a photoresist layer is placed onto a nanowire growth layer configured for growing nanowires therefrom. The photoresist layer is exposed to a coherent light interference pattern that includes periodically alternately spaced dark bands and light bands along a first orientation. The photoresist layer exposed to the coherent light interference pattern along a second orientation, transverse to the first orientation. The photoresist layer developed so as to remove photoresist from areas corresponding to areas of intersection of the dark bands of the interference pattern along the first orientation and the dark bands of the interference pattern along the second orientation, thereby leaving an ordered array of holes passing through the photoresist layer. The photoresist layer and the nanowire growth layer are placed into a nanowire growth environment, thereby growing nanowires from the nanowire growth layer through the array of holes.

  19. Low-Temperature Preparation of Ag-Doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays, DFT Study, and Application to Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Zhang, Jie; Tugsuz, Tugba; Ciofini, Ilaria; Labat, Frédéric; Viana, Bruno

    2015-06-10

    Doping ZnO nanowires (NWs) by group IB elements is an important challenge for integrating nanostructures into functional devices with better and tuned performances. The growth of Ag-doped ZnO NWs by electrodeposition at 90 °C using a chloride bath and molecular oxygen precursor is reported. Ag acts as an electrocatalyst for the deposition and influences the nucleation and growth of the structures. The silver atomic concentration in the wires is controlled by the additive concentration in the deposition bath and a content up to 3.7 atomic % is reported. XRD analysis shows that the integration of silver enlarges the lattice parameters of ZnO. The optical measurements also show that the direct optical bandgap of ZnO is reduced by silver doping. The bandgap shift and lattice expansion are explained by first principle calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) on the silver impurity integration as an interstitial (Ag(i)) and as a substitute of zinc atom (Ag(Zn)) in the crystal lattice. They notably indicate that Ag(Zn) doping forms an impurity band because of Ag 4d and O 2p orbital interactions, shifting the Fermi level toward the valence band. At least, Ag-doped ZnO vertically aligned nanowire arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN(001) substrate. The heterostructure has been inserted in a light emitting device. UV-blue light emission has been achieved with a low emission threshold of 5 V and a tunable red-shifted emission spectrum related to the bandgap reduction induced by silver doping of the ZnO emitter material.

  20. Natural Biowaste-Cocoon-Derived Granular Activated Carbon-Coated ZnO Nanorods: A Simple Route To Synthesizing a Core-Shell Structure and Its Highly Enhanced UV and Hydrogen Sensing Properties.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Adhimoorthy; Huang, Bohr-Ran; Kathiravan, Deepa; Prasannan, Adhimoorthy

    2017-11-15

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) materials were prepared via simple gas activation of silkworm cocoons and were coated on ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) by the facile hydrothermal method. The present combination of GAC and ZNRs shows a core-shell structure (where the GAC is coated on the surface of ZNRs) and is exposed by systematic material analysis. The as-prepared samples were then fabricated as dual-functional sensors and, most fascinatingly, the as-fabricated core-shell structure exhibits better UV and H 2 sensing properties than those of as-fabricated ZNRs and GAC. Thus, the present core-shell structure-based H 2 sensor exhibits fast responses of 11% (10 ppm) and 23.2% (200 ppm) with ultrafast response and recovery. However, the UV sensor offers an ultrahigh photoresponsivity of 57.9 A W -1 , which is superior to that of as-grown ZNRs (0.6 A W -1 ). Besides this, switching photoresponse of GAC/ZNR core-shell structures exhibits a higher switching ratio (between dark and photocurrent) of 1585, with ultrafast response and recovery, than that of as-grown ZNRs (40). Because of the fast adsorption ability of GAC, it was observed that the finest distribution of GAC on ZNRs results in rapid electron transportation between the conduction bands of GAC and ZNRs while sensing H 2 and UV. Furthermore, the present core-shell structure-based UV and H 2 sensors also well-retained excellent sensitivity, repeatability, and long-term stability. Thus, the salient feature of this combination is that it provides a dual-functional sensor with biowaste cocoon and ZnO, which is ecological and inexpensive.

  1. Effect of Sn doping on structural, mechanical, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanoarrays prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Manish Baboo; Sharma, Akash; Malaidurai, M.; Thangavel, R.

    2018-05-01

    Undoped and Sn doped Zinc oxide nanorods were prepared by two step process: initially growth of seed layers by sol-gel spin coating technique and then zinc oxide nanorods by hydrothermal process using the precursors zinc nitrate hexahydrate, hexamine and tin chloride. The effects on the electrical, optical, mechanical and structural properties for various Sn concentrations were studied. The crystalline phase determination from X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that Sn doped ZnO nanorods have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The variations of stress and strain with different doping concentration of Sn in ZnO nanorods were studied. The doping effect on electrical properties and optical bandgap is estimated by current voltage characteristics and absorbance spectra respectively. The surface morphology was studied with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), which shows that the formation of hexagonal nanorods arrays with increasing Sn concentration. The calculated value of Young's modulus of elasticity (Y) for all the samples remains same. These results can be used in optoelectronic devices.

  2. A case for ZnO nanowire field emitter arrays in advanced x-ray source applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Vance S.; Bergkvist, Magnus; Chen, Daokun; Chen, Jun; Huang, Mengbing

    2016-09-01

    Reviewing current efforts in X-ray source miniaturization reveals a broad spectrum of applications: Portable and/or remote nondestructive evaluation, high throughput protein crystallography, invasive radiotherapy, monitoring fluid flow and particulate generation in situ, and portable radiography devices for battle-front or large scale disaster triage scenarios. For the most part, all of these applications are being addressed with a top-down approach aimed at improving portability, weight and size. That is, the existing system or a critical sub-component is shrunk in some manner in order to miniaturize the overall package. In parallel to top-down x-ray source miniaturization, more recent efforts leverage field emission and semiconductor device fabrication techniques to achieve small scale x-ray sources via a bottom-up approach where phenomena effective at a micro/nanoscale are coordinated for macro-scale effect. The bottom-up approach holds potential to address all the applications previously mentioned but its entitlement extends into new applications with much more ground-breaking potential. One such bottom-up application is the distributed x-ray source platform. In the medical space, using an array of microscale x-ray sources instead of a single source promises significant reductions in patient dose as well as smaller feature detectability and fewer image artifacts. Cold cathode field emitters are ideal for this application because they can be gated electrostatically or via photonic excitation, they do not generate excessive heat like other common electron emitters, they have higher brightness and they are relatively compact. This document describes how ZnO nanowire field emitter arrays are well suited for distributed x-ray source applications because they hold promise in each of the following critical areas: emission stability, simple scalable fabrication, performance, radiation resistance and photonic coupling.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of CdS nanorods anchored on α-Fe2O3 nanotube arrays with enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Lei, Rui; Ni, Hongwei; Chen, Rongsheng; Gu, Huazhi; Zhang, Bowei; Zhan, Weiting

    2018-03-15

    As an n-type semiconductor with an excellent physicochemical properties, iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) has been extensively used in the fields of environmental pollution control and solar energy conversion. However, the high recombination rate of the photoinduced electron-hole pairs and poor charge mobility for Fe 2 O 3 nanomaterial generally result in low photocatalytic efficiency. Herein, an uniform CdS nanorods grown directly on one-dimensional α-Fe 2 O 3 nanotube arrays (NTAs) are successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method and the constructed heterojunction can be a kind of efficient and recyclable photocatalysts. Successful deposition of CdS nanorods onto the α-Fe 2 O 3 NTAs is verified by field emission scanning electron microscopy(FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates that α-Fe 2 O 3 /CdS NTAs possess the intense visible light absorption and also display a red-shift of the band-edge compared with the pure α-Fe 2 O 3 NTAs. The as-obtained α-Fe 2 O 3 /CdS NTAs display excellent photocatalytic activity for decomposition of methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), and phenol under visible light illumination. Among all the tested photocatalysts, the film synthesized for 3h with good stability exhibits the best photocatalytic properties and produces the highest photocurrent of 1.43 mA/cm 2 at 0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl electrode, owing to its well formed heterojunction structure, effective electron-hole pair separation and direct electron transfer pathway along the CdS nanorods and α-Fe 2 O 3 NTAs. Besides, the photogenerated holes (h + ) and superoxide radicals (O 2 - ) play dominant roles in the photocatalytic process. On the basis of the photocatalytic results and energy band diagram, the photocatalytic process mechanism is proposed. Considering the easy preparation and excellent performance, α-Fe 2 O 3 /CdS NTAs could

  4. Ag-nanoparticles-decorated NiO-nanoflakes grafted Ni-nanorod arrays stuck out of porous AAO as effective SERS substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qitao; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Zhu, Chuhong; Tang, Haibin; Qian, Yiwu; Chen, Bin; Chen, Bensong

    2014-02-28

    NiO-nanoflakes (NiO-NFs) grafted Ni-nanorod (Ni-NR) arrays stuck out of the porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template are achieved by a combinatorial process of AAO-confined electrodeposition of Ni-NRs, selectively etching part of the AAO template to expose the Ni-NRs, wet-etching the exposed Ni-NRs in ammonia to obtain Ni(OH)2-NFs grafted onto the cone-shaped Ni-NRs, and annealing to transform Ni(OH)2-NFs in situ into NiO-NFs. By top-view sputtering, Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are decorated on each NiO-NFs grafted Ni-NR (denoted as NiO-NFs@Ni-NR). The resultant Ag-NPs-decorated NiO-NFs@Ni-NR (denoted as Ag-NPs@NiO-NFs@Ni-NR) arrays exhibit not only strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity but also reproducible SERS-signals over the whole array. It is demonstrated that the strong SERS-activity is mainly ascribed to the high density of sub-10 nm gaps (hot spots) between the neighboring Ag-NPs, the semiconducting NiO-NFs induced chemical enhancement effect, and the lightning rod effect of the cone-shaped Ni-NRs. The three-level hierarchical nanostructure arrays stuck out of the AAO template can be utilized to probe polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a kind of global environmental hazard) with a concentration as low as 5 × 10(-6) M, showing promising potential in SERS-based rapid detection of organic environmental pollutants.

  5. Embedded vertically aligned cadmium telluride nanorod arrays grown by one-step electrodeposition for enhanced energy conversion efficiency in three-dimensional nanostructured solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Shurong; Mu, Yannan; Liu, Li; A, Runa; Yang, Jiandong; Zhu, Guijie; Meng, Xianwei; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    Vertically aligned CdTe nanorods (NRs) arrays are successfully grown by a simple one-step and template-free electrodeposition method, and then embedded in the CdS window layer to form a novel three-dimensional (3D) heterostructure on flexible substrates. The parameters of electrodeposition such as deposition potential and pH of the solution are varied to analyze their important role in the formation of high quality CdTe NRs arrays. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the solar cell based on the 3D heterojunction structure is studied in detail. In comparison with the standard planar heterojunction solar cell, the 3D heterojunction solar cell exhibits better photovoltaic performance, which can be attributed to its enhanced optical absorption ability, increased heterojunction area and improved charge carrier transport. The better photoelectric property of the 3D heterojunction solar cell suggests great application potential in thin film solar cells, and the simple electrodeposition process represents a promising technique for large-scale fabrication of other nanostructured solar energy conversion devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High Stability Induced by the TiN/Ti Interlayer in Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Nanorod Arrays as Anode in Micro Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chuang; Yu, Yingjian; Wu, Zhenguo; Sun, Shibo; He, Xu; Li, Juntao; Zhao, Libo; Wu, Suntao; Li, Jing; Kang, Junyong; Lin, Liwei

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) Si/Ge-based micro/nano batteries are promising lab-on-chip power supply sources because of the good process compatibility with integrated circuits and Micro/Nano-Electro-Mechanical System technologies. In this work, the effective interlayer of TiN/Ti thin films were introduced to coat around the 3D Si nanorod (NR) arrays before the amorphous Ge layer deposition as anode in micro/nano lithium ion batteries, thus the superior cycling stability was realized by reason for the restriction of Si activation in this unique 3D matchlike Si/TiN/Ti/Ge NR array electrode. Moreover, the volume expansion properties after the repeated lithium-ion insertion/extraction were experimentally investigated to evidence the superior stability of this unique multilayered Si composite electrode. The demonstration of this wafer-scale, cost-effective, and Si-compatible fabrication for anodes in Li-ion micro/nano batteries provides new routes to configurate more efficient 3D energy storage systems for micro/nano smart semiconductor devices.

  7. Heterostructured TiO2/NiTiO3 Nanorod Arrays for Inorganic Sensitized Solar Cells with Significantly Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance and Stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Ying; Wang, Jian-Gan; Sun, Huan-Huan; Wei, Bingqing

    2018-04-11

    Organic dyes used in the conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) suffer from poor light stability and high cost. In this work, we demonstrate a new inorganic sensitized solar cell based on ordered one-dimensional semiconductor nanorod arrays of TiO 2 /NiTiO 3 (NTO) heterostructures prepared via a facile two-step hydrothermal approach. The semiconductor heterostructure arrays are highly desirable and promising for DSSCs because of their direct charge transport capability and slow charge recombination rate. The low-cost NTO inorganic semiconductor possesses an appropriate band gap that matches well with TiO 2 , which behaves like a "dye" to enable efficient light harvesting and fast electron-hole separation. The solar cells constructed by the ordered TiO 2 /NTO heterostructure photoanodes show a significantly improved power conversion efficiency, high fill factor, and more promising, outstanding life stability. The present work will open up an avenue to design heterostructured inorganics for high-performance solar cells.

  8. Improvement in the luminous efficiency of MEH-PPV based light emitting diodes using zinc oxide nanorods grown by the electrochemical deposition technique on ITO substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rohini B.; Kumar, Jitender; Madhwal, Devinder; Singh, Inderpreet; Kaur, I.; Bhardwaj, L. M.; Nagpal, S.; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C.

    2011-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown by the electrochemical technique have been used to enhance the luminance of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV)-based polymer light-emitting diodes. The luminance of the device with ZnO nanorods is found to increase by more than two times as compared with the device without ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods used in device fabrication was ~145 nm. The size of the nanorods was estimated from field emission scanning electron microscope images. Optical and structural characterizations of the nanorods were also performed by using absorption, photoluminescence and x-ray diffraction, confirming the formation of ZnO nanorods.

  9. Wettability control of micropore-array films by altering the surface nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Jung; Hung, Shao-Tsu

    2010-07-01

    By controlling the surface nanostructure, the wettability of films with similar pore-array microstructure can be tuned from hydrophilic to nearly superhydrophobic without variation of the chemical composition. PA1 pore-array film consisting of the horizontal ZnO nanosheets was nearly superhydrophobic. PA2 pore-array film consisting of growth-hindered vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods was hydrophilic. The influences of the nanostructure shape, orientation and the micropore size on the contact angle of the PA1 films were studied. This study provides a new approach to control the wettability of films with similar pore-array structure at the micro-scale by changing their surface nanostructure. PA1 films exhibited irradiation induced reversible wettability transition. The feasibility of creating a wetted radial pattern by selective UV irradiation of PA1 film through a mask with radial pattern and water vapor condensation was also evaluated.

  10. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic behaviors of MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Co, Zn and Sr) modified TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Xiangxuan; Zhu, Zuoming; Wang, Xuanjun; Xie, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Modified TiO2 nanomaterials are considered to be promising in energy conversion and ferrites modification may be one of the most efficient modifications. In this research, various ferrites, incorporated with various cations (MFe2O4, M = Ni, Co, Zn, and Sr), are utilized to modify the well aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs), which is synthesized by hydrothermal method. It is found that all MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs show obvious red shift into the visible light region compared with the TiO2 NRAs. In particular, NiFe2O4 modification is demonstrated to be the best way to enhance the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NRAs. Furthermore, the separation and transfer of charge carriers after MFe2O4 modification are clarified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Finally, the underlying mechanism accounting for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs is proposed. Through comparison among different transition metals modified TiO2 with the same synthesis process and under the same evaluating condition, this work may provide new insight in designing modified TiO2 nanomaterials as visible light active photocatalysts.

  11. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic behaviors of MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Co, Zn and Sr) modified TiO2 nanorod arrays

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Xiangxuan; Zhu, Zuoming; Wang, Xuanjun; Xie, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Modified TiO2 nanomaterials are considered to be promising in energy conversion and ferrites modification may be one of the most efficient modifications. In this research, various ferrites, incorporated with various cations (MFe2O4, M = Ni, Co, Zn, and Sr), are utilized to modify the well aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs), which is synthesized by hydrothermal method. It is found that all MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs show obvious red shift into the visible light region compared with the TiO2 NRAs. In particular, NiFe2O4 modification is demonstrated to be the best way to enhance the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NRAs. Furthermore, the separation and transfer of charge carriers after MFe2O4 modification are clarified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Finally, the underlying mechanism accounting for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of MFe2O4/TiO2 NRAs is proposed. Through comparison among different transition metals modified TiO2 with the same synthesis process and under the same evaluating condition, this work may provide new insight in designing modified TiO2 nanomaterials as visible light active photocatalysts. PMID:27464888

  12. Digital selective growth of a ZnO nanowire array by large scale laser decomposition of zinc acetate.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sukjoon; Yeo, Junyeob; Manorotkul, Wanit; Kang, Hyun Wook; Lee, Jinhwan; Han, Seungyong; Rho, Yoonsoo; Suh, Young Duk; Sung, Hyung Jin; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2013-05-07

    We develop a digital direct writing method for ZnO NW micro-patterned growth on a large scale by selective laser decomposition of zinc acetate. For ZnO NW growth, by replacing the bulk heating with the scanning focused laser as a fully digital local heat source, zinc acetate crystallites can be selectively activated as a ZnO seed pattern to grow ZnO nanowires locally on a larger area. Together with the selective laser sintering process of metal nanoparticles, more than 10,000 UV sensors have been demonstrated on a 4 cm × 4 cm glass substrate to develop all-solution processible, all-laser mask-less digital fabrication of electronic devices including active layer and metal electrodes without any conventional vacuum deposition, photolithographic process, premade mask, high temperature and vacuum environment.

  13. Unique spatiotemporal biomolecular emission profiles on single zinc oxide nanorods and applications in ultrasensitive biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpreet

    There has been longstanding interest in improving the optical detection capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy to achieve ultrahigh resolution and sensitivity in chemical and biological sensing applications. To promote these efforts, I present my work characterizing and developing zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) as advanced optical detection platforms that can enable enhanced intensity and stability of adsorbed fluorophore-coupled biomolecules. First, I present my unique findings profiling the temporal and spatial characteristics of biomolecular fluorescence on individual ZnO NRs in which I've identified highly localized, non-linear optical phenomena of fluorescence intensification on nanorod ends (FINE) and enhanced photostability. Using combined experimental and computational strategies, I elucidate the fundamental physicochemical origins of these optical phenomena by systematically decoupling various biomolecular, chemical, and nanomaterial factors. On the biomolecular side, I evaluate the roles of fluorophores with varying spectroscopic properties and concentrations as well as facet-selective biomolecular adsorption on the unique spatiotemporal optical responses on single ZnO NRs. From the chemical/nanomaterial context, I profile the biomolecular emission behaviors on single ZnO NRs as a function of varying NR physical dimensions, NR orientations, and positions along the NR long axis I also present the results of employing finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulations to corroborate my multifold experimental findings. The FDTD results further clarify the passive waveguiding capacity of the ZnO NRs to couple the radiation of surface-adsorpbed emitters and form evanescent waves that propagate to the NR ends before final emission into the far-field, confirming the experimental manifestation of FINE.. I also present an application exploiting the optical enhancement enabled by ZnO NRs in which I've engineered and validated a novel biosensing assay for the

  14. Facile preparation of branched hierarchical ZnO nanowire arrays with enhanced photocatalytic activity: A photodegradation kinetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, M.; Yousefzadeh, S.; Samadi, M.; Dong, Chunyang; Zhang, Jinlong; Moshfegh, A. Z.

    2018-03-01

    Branched hierarchical zinc oxide nanowires (BH-ZnO NWs) were fabricated successfully by a facile and rapid synthesis using two-step growth process. Initially, ZnO NWs have been prepared by anodizing zinc foil at room temperature and followed by annealing treatment. Then, the BH- ZnO NWs were grown on the ZnO NWs by a solution based method at very low temperature (31 oC). The BH- ZnO NWs with different aspect ratio were obtained by varying reaction time (0.5, 2, 5, 10 h). Photocatalytic activity of the samples was studied under both UV and visible light. The results indicated that the optimized BH-ZnO NWs (5 h) as a photocatalyst exhibited the highest photoactivity with about 3 times higher than the ZnO NWs under UV light. In addition, it was also determined that photodegradation rate constant (k) for the BH- ZnO NWs surface obeys a linear function with the branch length (l) and their correlation was described by using a proposed kinetic model.

  15. Microstructure evolution of zinc oxide films derived from dip-coating sol-gel technique: formation of nanorods through orientation attachment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nan; Sun, Chao; Zhu, Mingwei; Zhang, Bin; Gong, Jun; Jiang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    ZnO:Al thin films with Al incorporation of 0-20 at.% were deposited through the sol-gel technique. Such a film undergoes a significant microstructure development, from columnar to granular structures and then nanorod arrays with increasing Al content. The important role of Al incorporation level in the microstructure evolution was determined using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. At low Al level, the transition from columnar to granular grains can be attributed to the coarsening barrier resulting from the introduction of Al into the matrix. However, oriented structures of ZnO nanorod arrays are formed at a high Al level. TEM investigation reveals that a nanorod with smooth morphology at the top and rough morphology at the bottom has a single-crystalline wurtzite structure, which is the aggregation of nanoparticles of a few nanometers in size formed through the orientation attachment mechanism followed by epitaxial growth on the aggregated particles. Finally, the physical properties of the ZnO films with different degrees of Al concentration are discussed. Such detailed microstructure studies may aid the understanding of the doping effect process on the growth of a film, which is essential to altering its physical or chemical properties.

  16. One-dimensional ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Jayadevan, K P; Tseng, T Y

    2012-06-01

    The wide-gap semiconductor ZnO with nanostructures such as nanoparticle, nanorod, nanowire, nanobelt, nanotube has high potential for a variety of applications. This article reviews the fundamentals of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures, including processing, structure, property, application and their processing-microstructure-property correlation. Various fabrication methods of the ZnO nanostructures including vapor-liquid-solid process, vapor-solid growth, solution growth, solvothermal growth, template-assisted growth and self-assembly are introduced. The characterization and properties of the ZnO nanostructures are described. The possible applications of these nanostructures are also discussed.

  17. Nucleation and growth of zinc oxide nanorods directly on metal wire by sonochemical method.

    PubMed

    Rayathulhan, Ruzaina; Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Aziz, Azlan Abdul

    2017-03-01

    ZnO nanorods were directly grown on four different wires (silver, nickel, copper, and tungsten) using sonochemical method. Zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) were used as precursors. Influence of growth parameters such as precursors' concentration and ultrasonic power on the grown nanorods were determined. The results demonstrated that the precursor concentration affected the growth structure and density of the nanorods. The morphology, distribution, and orientation of nanorods changed as the ultrasonic power changed. Nucleation of ZnO nanorods on the wire occurred at lower ultrasonic power and when the power increased, the formation and growth of ZnO nanorods on the wires were initiated. The best morphology, size, distribution, and orientation of the nanorods were observed on the Ag wire. The presence of single crystal nanorod with hexagonal shaped was obtained. This shape indicates that the ZnO nanorods corresponded to the hexagonal wurtzite structure with growth preferential towards the (002) direction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Generation of four-wave mixing with highly sharp idlers using 2 mm home-made side-polished fiber deposited by ZnO nanorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaei, R.; Amiri, Iraj S.; Sorger, Volker J.; Azzuhri, SRB; Rezaei, M.; Ahmad, H.; Yupapin, P.

    2018-07-01

    A side-polished fiber with embedded zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO-NRs) is proposed, fabricated, and tested to generate four-wave-mixing (FWM). The side-polished fiber is manufactured by polishing a conventional single mode fiber to completely remove 2 mm of its cladding and its core partially, after which the fiber is simply immersed into a solution consisting of ZnO-NRs and allowing it to dry. A pump and a signal wavelength of 1550 and 1551 nm are injected into the fiber and generate idlers at 1549 and 1552 nm which agree well with theoretical values. Our experimental results show that the optimum FWM range is determined to be a 6 nm shifted away from the pump wavelength and occurs in the pump and wavelength spacing as narrow as 0.1 nm. The proposed system allows for the easy integration of optically active materials into a fiber.

  19. Solution Process Synthesis of High Aspect Ratio ZnO Nanorods on Electrode Surface for Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Uric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Ahn, Min-Sang; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2017-04-01

    This study demonstrates a highly stable, selective and sensitive uric acid (UA) biosensor based on high aspect ratio zinc oxide nanorods (ZNRs) vertical grown on electrode surface via a simple one-step low temperature solution route. Uricase enzyme was immobilized on the ZNRs followed by Nafion covering to fabricate UA sensing electrodes (Nafion/Uricase-ZNRs/Ag). The fabricated electrodes showed enhanced performance with attractive analytical response, such as a high sensitivity of 239.67 μA cm-2 mM-1 in wide-linear range (0.01-4.56 mM), rapid response time (~3 s), low detection limit (5 nM), and low value of apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Kmapp, 0.025 mM). In addition, selectivity, reproducibility and long-term storage stability of biosensor was also demonstrated. These results can be attributed to the high aspect ratio of vertically grown ZNRs which provides high surface area leading to enhanced enzyme immobilization, high electrocatalytic activity, and direct electron transfer during electrochemical detection of UA. We expect that this biosensor platform will be advantageous to fabricate ultrasensitive, robust, low-cost sensing device for numerous analyte detection.

  20. Formation, transformation and superhydrophobicity of compound surfactant-assisted aligned ZnO nanoplatelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Mingshan; Xu, Tao; Xie, Xiaolin; Ou, Junfei; Wang, Fajun; Li, Wen

    2015-11-01

    Synthesis and understanding of hierarchically nanostructured materials are significant for exploring peculiar functional properties and underlying applications. In this study, the self-assembly formation and detailed transformation process of ZnO nanoplatelets grown by hydrothermal methods with the addition of compound surfactants (CTAB and Tween-20) have been investigated. The initial growth of ZnO nanoplatelets as well as the subsequent formation of bilayer nanorod arrays and divergent nanocone arrays on the surface and side face of these nanoplatelets were found. Compared with the formation of bulk/block crystals without the case of surfactants, the addition of compound surfactants into zinc nitrate solution is responsible for the self-assembly processes of ZnO because of the effective role of CTAB in decreasing the degree of crystallinity and the positive effect of Tween-20 on decreasing the particle size owing to the space hindered effect. As-formed hierarchically micro-nanostructured ZnO exhibits superhydrophobicity without any chemical modification, which can make water droplets suspend on the air film trapped between the nanoplatelet and nanoplatelet as well as between nanocone and nanocone.

  1. Ni nanoparticles@Ni-Mo nitride nanorod arrays: a novel 3D-network hierarchical structure for high areal capacitance hybrid supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yunjun; Lv, Lin; Li, Zhishan; Wang, Chundong; Jiang, Jianjun

    2017-11-23

    Because of the advanced nature of their high power density, fast charge/discharge time, excellent cycling stability, and safety, supercapacitors have attracted intensive attention for large-scale applications. Nevertheless, one of the obstacles for their further development is their low energy density caused by sluggish redox reaction kinetics, low electroactive electrode materials, and/or high internal resistance. Here, we develop a facile and simple nitridation process to successfully synthesize hierarchical Ni nanoparticle decorated Ni 0.2 Mo 0.8 N nanorod arrays on a nickel foam (Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF) from its NiMoO 4 precursor, which delivers a high areal capacity of 2446 mC cm -2 at a current density of 2 mA cm -2 and shows outstanding cycling stability. The superior performance of the Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF can be ascribed to the metallic conductive nature of the Ni-Mo nitride, the fast surface redox reactions for the electrolyte ions and electrode materials, and the low contacted resistance between the active materials and the current collectors. Furthermore, a hybrid supercapacitor (HSC) is assembled using the Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF as the positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as the negative electrode. The optimized HSC exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a high energy density of 40.9 W h kg -1 at a power density of 773 W kg -1 and a retention of 80.1% specific capacitance after 6000 cycles. These results indicate that the Ni-Mo-N NRA/NF have a promising potential for use in high-performance supercapacitors.

  2. Using carbon nanotubes-gold nanocomposites to quench energy from pinnate titanium dioxide nanorods array for signal-on photoelectrochemical aptasensing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenping; Shen, Lei; Wang, Xiu; Yang, Chunlei; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2016-08-15

    On the basis of the absorption and emission spectra overlap, an enhanced resonance energy transfer caused by excition-plasmon resonance between carbon nanotubes-gold nanoparticles (CNTs-Au) and pinnate titanium dioxide nanorods array (P-TiO2 NA) was obtained. Three-dimensional single crystalline P-TiO2 were prepared successfully on fluorine-doped tin oxide conducting glass (FTO glass), and its optical absorption properties and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties were investigated. With the synergy of CNTs-Au as energy acceptor, it resulted in the enhancement of energy transfer between excited P-TiO2 NA and CNTs-Au. Upon the novel sandwichlike structure formed via DNA hybridization, the exciton produced in P-TiO2 NA was annihilated and a damped photocurrent was obtained. With the use of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a model which bonded to its specific aptamer and destroyed the sandwichlike structure, the energy transfer efficiency was lowered, leading to PEC response augment. Thus a signal-on PEC aptasensor was constructed. Under the optimal conditions, the PEC aptasensor for CEA determination exhibited a linear range from 0.001 to 2.5ngmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.39pgmL(-1) and was satisfactory for clinical sample detection. Furthermore, the proposed aptasensor shows satisfying performance, such as easy preparation, rapid detection and so on. Moreover, since different aptamer can specifically bind to different target molecules, the designed strategy has an expansive application for the construction of versatile PEC platforms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CdS Nanoparticle-Modified α-Fe2O3/TiO2 Nanorod Array Photoanode for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ruiyang; Liu, Mingyang; Tang, Rui; Yin, Longwei

    2017-09-02

    In this work, we demonstrate a facile successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process accompanied by hydrothermal method to synthesize CdS nanoparticle-modified α-Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 nanorod array for efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. By integrating CdS/α-Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 ternary system, light absorption ability of the photoanode can be effectively improved with an obviously broadened optical-response to visible light region, greatly facilitates the separation of photogenerated carriers, giving rise to the enhancement of PEC water oxidation performance. Importantly, for the designed abnormal type-II heterostructure between Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 , the conduction band position of Fe 2 O 3 is higher than that of TiO 2 , the photogenerated electrons from Fe 2 O 3 will rapidly recombine with the photogenerated holes from TiO 2 , thus leads to an efficient separation of photogenerated electrons from Fe 2 O 3 /holes from TiO 2 at the Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 interface, greatly improving the separation efficiency of photogenerated holes within Fe 2 O 3 and enhances the photogenerated electron injection efficiency in TiO 2 . Working as the photoanodes of PEC water oxidation, CdS/α-Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 heterostucture electrode exhibits improved photocurrent density of 0.62 mA cm - 2 at 1.23 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) in alkaline electrolyte, with an obviously negatively shifted onset potential of 80 mV. This work provides promising methods to enhance the PEC water oxidation performance of the TiO 2 -based heterostructure photoanodes.

  4. TiO2 Nanorod Arrays Based Self-Powered UV Photodetector: Heterojunction with NiO Nanoflakes and Enhanced UV Photoresponse.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanyan; Xu, Jianping; Shi, Shaobo; Dong, Hong; Cheng, Yahui; Wei, Chengtai; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yin, Shougen; Li, Lan

    2018-04-04

    The self-powered ultraviolet photodetectors (UV PDs) have attracted increasing attention due to their potential applications without consuming any external power. It is important to obtain the high-performance self-powered UV PDs by a simple method for the practical application. Herein, TiO 2 nanorod arrays (NRs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method, which were integrated with p-type NiO nanoflakes to realize a high performance pn heterojunction for the efficient UV photodetection. TiO x thin film can improve the morphological and carrier transport properties of TiO 2 NRs and decrease the surface and defect states, resulting in the enhanced photocurrent of the devices. NiO/TiO 2 nanostructural heterojunctions show excellent rectifying characteristics (rectification ratio of 2.52 × 10 4 and 1.45