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Sample records for zno nanorod surface

  1. Effect of bath temperature on surface morphology and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods

    SciT

    Sriharan, N.; Senthil, T. S., E-mail: tssenthi@gmail.com; Muthukumarasamy, N.

    2016-05-06

    ZnO nanorods were prepared by using simple hydrothermal method using four different bath temperatures. All the prepared ZnO nanorods are annealed at 450°C and are characterized by using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, UV spectra and scanning electron microscopy. Photocatalytic activity of the prepared ZnO nanorods is analyzed. A novel photocatalytic reactor designed with ZnO nanorods prepared at 90°C shows enhanced catalytic efficiency. The role of light irradiation time, bath temperature and surface morphology of the ZnO nanorods on the performance of photocatalytic reaction is analyzed.

  2. Surface modification of ZnO nanorods with Hamilton receptors.

    PubMed

    Zeininger, Lukas; Klaumünzer, Martin; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Andreas

    2015-04-13

    A new prototype of a Hamilton receptor suitable for the functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles was synthesized and characterized. The hydrogen bonding receptor was coupled to a catechol moiety, which served as anchor group for the functionalization of metal oxides, in particular zinc oxide. Synthesized zinc oxide nanorods [ZnO] were used for surface functionalization. The wet-chemical functionalization procedure towards monolayer-grafted particles [ZnO-HR] is described and a detailed characterization study is presented. In addition, the detection of specific cyanurate molecules is demonstrated. The hybrid structures [ZnO-HR-CA] were stable towards agglomeration and exhibited enhanced dispersability in apolar solvents. This observation, in combination with several spectroscopic experiments gave evidence of the highly directional supramolecular recognition at the surface of nanoparticles.

  3. New Insights into Mechanism of Surface Reactions of ZnO Nanorods During Electrons Beam Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngseung; Ji, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyoungsub; Yoon, Jinsuop; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2018-09-01

    This study provides new insight into mechanisms of ionic reactions on the surface of ZnO nanorod networks, which could result in enhanced performance in optical or molecular sensors. The current- voltage characteristics of ZnO nanorod network devices exhibit typical nonlinear behavior in air, which implies the formation of a Schottky barrier when metals are used as contacts. The conductance of the device increased significantly in vacuum, which can be explained by the desorption of hydroxyl groups at very low pressure. While physisorbed water or oxygen-related ions can detach from the ZnO surface during evacuation, exposure to high energy in the electron beam is believed to detach the chemisorbed anions of O- and O-2 from the surface of ZnO nanorods, which releases more electrons into the channel. The increase in available electrons enhances the conductance of the ZnO nanorods. Slow initialization of the conductance under ambient conditions indicates that the ionic re-adsorption is inactive under these conditions. Thus, the electron irradiation process can be used to reset the surface ionic molecules on metal oxide nano-structures by tuning the surface potential prior to the passivation process.

  4. Surface potential driven dissolution phenomena of [0 0 0 1]-oriented ZnO nanorods grown from ZnO and Pt seed layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Youngmi; Kim, Jung Hyeun

    2011-06-01

    Highly oriented ZnO nanorods are synthesized hydrothermally on ZnO and Pt seed layers, and they are dissolved in KOH solution. The rods grown on ZnO seed layer show uniform dissolution, but those grown on Pt seed layer are rod-selectively dissolved. The ZnO nanorods from both seed layers show the same crystalline structure through XRD and Raman spectrometer data. However, the surface potential analysis reveals big difference for ZnO and Pt seed cases. The surface potential distribution is very uniform for the ZnO seed case, but it is much fluctuated on the Pt seed case. It suggests that the rod-selective dissolution phenomena on Pt seed case are likely due to the surface energy difference.

  5. Photoresponsive surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods for uric acid detection in physiological fluids.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qian; Li, Zai-Yong; Wei, Yu-Bo; Yang, Xia; Liu, Lan-Tao; Gong, Cheng-Bin; Ma, Xue-Bing; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Chow, Cheuk-Fai

    2016-09-01

    A photoresponsive surface molecularly imprinted polymer for uric acid in physiological fluids was fabricated through a facile and effective method using bio-safe and biocompatible ZnO nanorods as a support. The strategy was carried out by introducing double bonds on the surface of the ZnO nanorods with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods was then prepared by surface polymerization using uric acid as template, water-soluble 5-[(4-(methacryloyloxy)phenyl)diazenyl]isophthalic acid as functional monomer, and triethanolamine trimethacryl ester as cross-linker. The surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods showed good photoresponsive properties, high recognition ability, and fast binding kinetics toward uric acid, with a dissociation constant of 3.22×10(-5)M in aqueous NaH2PO4 buffer at pH=7.0 and a maximal adsorption capacity of 1.45μmolg(-1). Upon alternate irradiation at 365 and 440nm, the surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods can quantitatively uptake and release uric acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Photoluminescence transient study of surface defects in ZnO nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagiovanni, E. G.; Strano, V.; Franzò, G.; Crupi, I.; Mirabella, S.

    2015-03-01

    Two deep level defects (2.25 and 2.03 eV) associated with oxygen vacancies (Vo) were identified in ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown by low cost chemical bath deposition. A transient behaviour in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the two Vo states was found to be sensitive to the ambient environment and to NR post-growth treatment. The largest transient was found in samples dried on a hot plate with a PL intensity decay time, in air only, of 23 and 80 s for the 2.25 and 2.03 eV peaks, respectively. Resistance measurements under UV exposure exhibited a transient behaviour in full agreement with the PL transient, indicating a clear role of atmospheric O2 on the surface defect states. A model for surface defect transient behaviour due to band bending with respect to the Fermi level is proposed. The results have implications for a variety of sensing and photovoltaic applications of ZnO NRs.

  7. ZnO nanorods for electronic and photonic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Gyu-Chul; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Park, Won Il; Jung, Sug Woo; An, Sung Jin; Kim, H. J.; Kim, D. W.

    2005-11-01

    We report on catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanorods and their nano-scale electrical and optical device applications. Catalyst-free metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) enables fabrication of size-controlled high purity ZnO single crystal nanorods. Various high quality nanorod heterostructures and quantum structures based on ZnO nanorods were also prepared using the MOVPE method and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. From the photoluminescence spectra of ZnO/Zn 0.8Mg 0.2O nanorod multi-quantum-well structures, in particular, we observed a systematic blue-shift in their PL peak position due to quantum confinement effect of carriers in nanorod quantum structures. For ZnO/ZnMgO coaxial nanorod heterostructures, photoluminescence intensity was significantly increased presumably due to surface passivation and carrier confinement. In addition to the growth and characterizations of ZnO nanorods and their quantum structures, we fabricated nanoscale electronic devices based on ZnO nanorods. We report on fabrication and device characteristics of metal-oxidesemiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), Schottky diodes, and metal-semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) as examples of the nanodevices. In addition, electroluminescent devices were fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanorods grown p-type GaN substrates, exhibiting strong visible electroluminescence.

  8. Falling Leaves Inspired ZnO Nanorods-Nanoslices Hierarchical Structure for Implant Surface Modification with Two Stage Releasing Features.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hang; Miao, Xinxin; Ye, Jing; Wu, Tianlong; Deng, Zhongbo; Li, Chen; Jia, Jingyu; Cheng, Xigao; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-04-19

    Inspired from falling leaves, ZnO nanorods-nanoslices hierarchical structure (NHS) was constructed to modify the surfaces of two widely used implant materials: titanium (Ti) and tantalum (Ta), respectively. By which means, two-stage release of antibacterial active substances were realized to address the clinical importance of long-term broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. At early stages (within 48 h), the NHS exhibited a rapid releasing to kill the bacteria around the implant immediately. At a second stage (over 2 weeks), the NHS exhibited a slow releasing to realize long-term inhibition. The excellent antibacterial activity of ZnO NHS was confirmed once again by animal test in vivo. According to the subsequent experiments, the ZnO NHS coating exhibited the great advantage of high efficiency, low toxicity, and long-term durability, which could be a feasible manner to prevent the abuse of antibiotics on implant-related surgery.

  9. Multifunctional transparent ZnO nanorod films.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Geunjae; Jung, Sungmook; Yong, Kijung

    2011-03-18

    Transparent ZnO nanorod (NR) films that exhibit extreme wetting states (either superhydrophilicity or superhydrophobicity through surface chemical modification), high transmittance, UV protection and antireflection have been prepared via the facile ammonia hydrothermal method. The periodic 1D ZnO NR arrays showed extreme wetting states as well as antireflection properties due to their unique surface structure and prevented the UVA region from penetrating the substrate due to the unique material property of ZnO. Because of the simple, time-efficient and low temperature preparation process, ZnO NR films with useful functionalities are promising for fabrication of highly light transmissive, antireflective, UV protective, antifogging and self-cleaning optical materials to be used for optical devices and photovoltaic energy devices.

  10. Hydrodynamic fabrication of structurally gradient ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Min; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2016-02-26

    We studied a new approach where structurally gradient nanostructures were fabricated by means of hydrodynamics. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized in a drag-driven rotational flow in a controlled manner. The structural characteristics of nanorods such as orientation and diameter were determined by momentum and mass transfer at the substrate surface. The nucleation of ZnO was induced by shear stress which plays a key role in determining the orientation of ZnO nanorods. The nucleation and growth of such nanostructures were modeled theoretically and analyzed numerically to understand the underlying physics of the fabrication of nanostructures controlled by hydrodynamics. The findings demonstrated that the precise control of momentum and mass transfer enabled the formation of ZnO nanorods with a structural gradient in diameter and orientation.

  11. Effect of an Electrochemically Oxidized ZnO Seed Layer on ZnO Nanorods Grown by using Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Woosung; Leem, Jae-Young

    2018-05-01

    ZnO nanorods were prepared on a Si substrate with and without a ZnO seed layer formed by electro-oxidation to investigate the effect of the seed layer on their growth. The ZnO nanorods grown on the ZnO seed layer had top surfaces that were flat whereas those grown without it had rough top surfaces, as observed in field-emission scanning electron microscopy images. In the Xray diffraction analysis, all ZnO nanorods showed preferential orientation with the (002) plane. In the case of ZnO nanorods prepared with a ZnO seed layer, the residual stress decreased, and the full width at half maximum of the ZnO (002) plane peak decreased. The photoluminescence spectra show a strong and narrow near-band-edge emission peak and high near-band-edge emission to deep-level emission peak ratio for the ZnO nanorods prepared with the seed layer. With respect to the photoresponse properties, the ZnO nanorods grown with the ZnO seed layer showed higher responsivity and faster rise/decay curves than those grown without it. Thus, the ZnO seed layer formed by electro-oxidation improves the structural, optical, and photoresponse properties of the ZnO nanorods formed on it. This method could serve as a new route for improving the properties of optoelectronic devices.

  12. Enhancement of local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect by biocompatible metal clustering based on ZnO nanorods in Raman measurements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghwa; Lee, Seung Ho; Paulson, Bjorn; Lee, Jae-Chul; Kim, Jun Ki

    2018-06-20

    The development of size-selective and non-destructive detection techniques for nanosized biomarkers has many reasons, including the study of living cells and diagnostic applications. We present an approach for Raman signal enhancement on biocompatible sensing chips based on surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A sensing chip was fabricated by forming a ZnO-based nanorod structure so that the Raman enhancement occurred at a gap of several tens to several hundred nanometers. The effect of coffee-ring formation was eliminated by introducing the porous ZnO nanorods for the bio-liquid sample. A peculiarity of this approach is that the gold sputtered on the ZnO nanorods initially grows at their heads forming clusters, as confirmed by secondary electron microscopy. This clustering was verified by finite element analysis to be the main factor for enhancement of local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). This clustering property and the ability to adjust the size of the nanorods enabled the signal acquisition points to be refined using confocal based Raman spectroscopy, which could be applied directly to the sensor chip based on the optimization process in this experiment. It was demonstrated by using common cancer cell lines that cell growth was high on these gold-clad ZnO nanorod-based surface-enhanced Raman substrates. The porosity of the sensing chip, the improved structure for signal enhancement, and the cell assay make these gold-coated ZnO nanorods substrates promising biosensing chips with excellent potential for detecting nanometric biomarkers secreted by cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of aspect ratio and surface defect density on hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods towards amperometric glucose biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Mayoorika; Pramila; Dixit, Tejendra; Prakash, Rajiv; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2017-11-01

    In this work, hydrothermally grown ZnO Nanorods Array (ZNA) has been synthesized over Platinum (Pt) coated glass substrate, for biosensing applications. In-situ addition of strong oxidizing agent viz KMnO4 during hydrothermal growth was found to have profound effect on the physical properties of ZNA. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was later immobilized over ZNA by means of physical adsorption process. Further influence of varying aspect ratio, enzyme loading and surface defects on amperometric glucose biosensor has been analyzed. Significant variation in biosensor performance was observed by varying the amount of KMnO4 addition during the growth. Moreover, investigations revealed that the suppression of surface defects and aspect ratio variation of the ZNA played key role towards the observed improvement in the biosensor performance, thereby significantly affecting the sensitivity and response time of the fabricated biosensor. Among different biosensors fabricated having varied aspect ratio and surface defect density of ZNA, the best electrode resulted into sensitivity and response time to be 18.7 mA cm-2 M-1 and <5 s respectively. The observed results revealed that apart from high aspect ratio nanostructures and the extent of enzyme loading, surface defect density also hold a key towards ZnO nanostructures based bio-sensing applications.

  14. Effect of Surface and Defect Chemistry on the Photocatalytic Properties of Intentionally Defect-Rich ZnO Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Jan; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z; Schmidt, Michael; Povey, Ian M; Pemble, Martyn E

    2018-05-30

    Due to the abundance of intrinsic defects in zinc oxide (ZnO), the material properties are often governed by same. Knowledge of the defect chemistry has proven to be highly important, especially in terms of the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants. Given the fact that defect-free materials or structures exhibiting only one type of defect are extremely difficult to produce, it is necessary to evaluate what influence various defects may have when present together in the material. In this study, intentionally defect-rich ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays are grown using a simple low-temperature solution-based growth technique. Upon changing the defect chemistry using rapid thermal annealing (RTA) the material properties are carefully assessed and correlated to the resulting photocatalytic properties. Special focus is put on the investigation of these properties for samples showing strong orange photoluminescence (PL). It is shown that intense orange emitting NR arrays exhibit improved dye-degradation rates under UV-light irradiation. Furthermore, strong dye-adsorption has been observed for some samples. This behavior is found to stem from a graphitic surface structure (e.g., shell) formed during RTA in vacuum. Since orange-luminescent samples also exhibit an enhancement of the dye adsorption a possible interplay and synergy of these two defects is elucidated. Additionally, evidence is presented suggesting that in annealed ZnO NRs structural defects may be responsible for the often observed PL emission at 3.31 eV. However, a clear correlation with the photocatalytic properties could not be established for these defects. Building on the specific findings presented here, this study also presents some more general guidelines which, it is suggested, should be employed when assessing the photocatalytic properties of defect-rich ZnO.

  15. Diameter Control and Photoluminescence of ZnO Nanorods from Trialkylamines

    DOE PAGES

    Andelman, Tamar; Gong, Yinyan; Neumark, Gertrude; ...

    2007-01-01

    A novel solution method to control the diameter of ZnO nanorods is reported. Small diameter (2-3 nm) nanorods were synthesized from trihexylamine, and large diameter (50–80 nm) nanorods were synthesized by increasing the alkyl chain length to tridodecylamine. The defect (green) emission of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the nanorods varies with diameter, and can thus be controlled by the diameter control. The small ZnO nanorods have strong green emission, while the large diameter nanorods exhibit a remarkably suppressed green band. We show that this observation supports surface oxygen vacancies as the defect that gives rise to the green emission.

  16. Comparative study of ZnO nanorods and thin films for chemical and biosensing applications and the development of ZnO nanorods based potentiometric strontium ion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun, K.; Ibupoto, Z. H.; Chey, C. O.; Lu, Jun.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the comparative study of ZnO nanorods and ZnO thin films were performed regarding the chemical and biosensing properties and also ZnO nanorods based strontium ion sensor is proposed. ZnO nanorods were grown on gold coated glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth method and the ZnO thin films were deposited by electro deposition technique. ZnO nanorods and thin films were characterised by field emission electron microscopy [FESEM] and X-ray diffraction [XRD] techniques and this study has shown that the grown nanostructures are highly dense, uniform and exhibited good crystal quality. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy [TEM] was used to investigate the quality of ZnO thin film and we observed that ZnO thin film was comprised of nano clusters. ZnO nanorods and thin films were functionalised with selective strontium ionophore salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone [ST] membrane, galactose oxidase, and lactate oxidase for the detection of strontium ion, galactose and L-lactic acid, respectively. The electrochemical response of both ZnO nanorods and thin films sensor devices was measured by using the potentiometric method. The strontium ion sensor has exhibited good characteristics with a sensitivity of 28.65 ± 0.52 mV/decade, for a wide range of concentrations from 1.00 × 10-6 to 5.00 × 10-2 M, selectivity, reproducibility, stability and fast response time of 10.00 s. The proposed strontium ion sensor was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of strontium ion versus ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid [EDTA]. This comparative study has shown that ZnO nanorods possessed better performance with high sensitivity and low limit of detection due to high surface area to volume ratio as compared to the flat surface of ZnO thin films.

  17. Octadecyltrimethoxysilane functionalized ZnO nanorods as a novel coating for solid-phase microextraction with strong hydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jingbin; Liu, Haihong; Chen, Jinmei; Huang, Jianli; Yu, Jianfeng; Wang, Yiru; Chen, Xi

    2012-09-21

    In this paper, we have, for the first time, proposed an approach by combining self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and nanomaterials (NMs) for the preparation of novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coatings. The self-assembly of octadecyltrimethoxysilane (OTMS) on the surface of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) was selected as a model system to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. The functionalization of OTMS on the surface of ZNRs was characterized and confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The OTMS-ZNRs coated fiber exhibited stronger hydrophobicity after functionalization, and its extraction efficiency for non-polar benzene homologues was increased by a factor of 1.5-3.6 when compared to a ZNRs fiber with almost identical thickness and façade. In contrast, the extraction efficiency of the OTMS-ZNRs coated fiber for polar aldehydes was 1.6-4.0-fold lower than that of the ZNRs coated fiber, further indicating its enhanced surface hydrophobicity. The OTMS-ZNRs coated fiber revealed a much higher capacity upon increasing the OTMS layer thickness to 5 μm, leading to a factor of 12.0-13.4 and 1.8-2.5 increase in extraction efficiency for the benzene homologues relative to a ZNRs coated fiber and a commercial PDMS fiber, respectively. The developed HS-SPME-GC method using the OTMS-ZNRs coated fiber was successfully applied to the determination of the benzene homologues in limnetic water samples with recovery ranging from 83 to 113% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 8%.

  18. Au sensitized ZnO nanorods for enhanced liquefied petroleum gas sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakate, U. T.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Lokhande, C. D.; Kale, S. N.

    2016-05-01

    The zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have grown on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) method using zinc acetate solution. The phase formation, surface morphology and elemental composition of ZnO films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing response was remarkably improved by sensitization of gold (Au) surface noble metal on ZnO nanorods film. Maximum LPG response of 21% was observed for 1040 ppm of LPG, for pure ZnO nanorods sample. After Au sensitization on ZnO nanorods film sample, the LPG response greatly improved up to 48% at operating temperature 623 K. The improved LPG response is attributed Au sensitization with spill-over mechanism. Proposed model for LPG sensing mechanism discussed.

  19. Constructing MnO{sub 2}/single crystalline ZnO nanorod hybrids with enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activity

    SciT

    Yu, Weiwei; Liu, Tiangui, E-mail: tianguiliu@gmail.com; Cao, Shiyi

    In order to improve the photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanorods, ZnO nanorods decorated with MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles (MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids) were prepared by using microwave assisted coprecipitation method under the influence of hydrogen peroxide, and the structure, photocatalytic activity and antibacterial property of the products were studied. Experimental results indicated that MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are decorated on the surface of single crystalline ZnO nanorods. Moreover, the resultant MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids have been proven to possess good photocatalytic and antibacterial activity, which their degradated efficiency for Rhodamin B (RhB) is twice as the pure ZnO nanorods. Enhancementmore » for photocatalytic and antibacterial activity is mainly attributed to the low band gap energy and excellent electrochemical properties of MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: The MnO{sub 2}/single crystalline ZnO nanorods hybrids, which MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are loaded on the surface of ZnO nanorods, were prepared by the step-by-step precipitation method under the assistance of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. Display Omitted - Highlights: • MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids were prepared by the step-by-step assembly method. • Single crystalline ZnO nanorods can be decorated by MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids possess good photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. • MnO{sub 2} can improve the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods under visible light.« less

  20. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  1. ZnO nanorod arrays and direct wire bonding on GaN surfaces for rapid fabrication of antireflective, high-temperature ultraviolet sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Hongyun; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2016-11-01

    Rapid, cost-effective, and simple fabrication/packaging of microscale gallium nitride (GaN) ultraviolet (UV) sensors are demonstrated using zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZnO NRAs) as an antireflective layer and direct bonding of aluminum wires to the GaN surface. The presence of the ZnO NRAs on the GaN surface significantly reduced the reflectance to less than 1% in the UV and 4% in the visible light region. As a result, the devices fabricated with ZnO NRAs and mechanically stable aluminum bonding wires (pull strength of 3-5 gf) showed higher sensitivity (136.3% at room temperature and 148.2% increase at 250 °C) when compared with devices with bare (uncoated) GaN surfaces. In addition, the devices demonstrated reliable operation at high temperatures up to 300 °C, supporting the feasibility of simple and cost-effective UV sensors operating with higher sensitivity in high-temperature conditions, such as in combustion, downhole, and space exploration applications.

  2. ZnO nanorods/AZO photoanode for perovskite solar cells fabricated in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Ferrara, Vera; De Maria, Antonella; Rametta, Gabriella; Della Noce, Marco; Vittoria Mercaldo, Lucia; Borriello, Carmela; Bruno, Annalisa; Delli Veneri, Paola

    2017-08-01

    ZnO nanorods are a good candidate for replacing standard photoanodes, such as TiO2, in perovskite solar cells and in principle superseding the high performances already obtained. This is possible because ZnO nanorods have a fast electron transport rate due to their large surface area. An array of ZnO nanorods is grown by chemical bath deposition starting from Al-doped ZnO (AZO) used both as a seed layer and as an efficient transparent anode in the visible spectral range. In particular, in this work we fabricate methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite solar cells using glass/AZO/ZnO nanorods/perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au as the architecture. The growth of ZnO nanorods has been optimized by varying the precursor concentrations, growth time and solution temperature. All the fabrication process and photovoltaic characterizations have been carried out in ambient air and the devices have not been encapsulated. Power conversion efficiency as high as 7.0% has been obtained with a good stability over 20 d. This is the highest reported value to the best of our knowledge and it is a promising result for the development of perovskite solar cells based on ZnO nanorods and AZO.

  3. Highly antireflective AlGaN/GaN ultraviolet photodetectors using ZnO nanorod arrays on inverted pyramidal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Hongyun; Lim, Jongwoo; Suria, Ateeq J.; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2017-07-01

    Highly antireflective heterostructured aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN)/GaN ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors were demonstrated using a combination of inverted pyramidal surfaces and zinc oxide nanorod arrays (i.e., antireflective surface modification) to enhance the optical sensitivity. The microfabricated hierarchical surfaces significantly reduced the average surface reflectance to less than 0.3% in the UV region and less than 1% in the visible light region, allowing near-perfect absorption of incident light regardless of the angle of incidence (5-80°). As a result, the photodetectors fabricated on highly antireflective AlGaN/GaN surfaces showed higher sensitivity and responsivity over a broad range of incidence angles compared to photodetectors on planar AlGaN/GaN surfaces, supporting the use of a hierarchically modified sensing surface for omnidirectional UV monitoring with higher sensitivity.

  4. Study of annealing effect on the growth of ZnO nanorods on ZnO seed layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannakashappanavar, Basavaraj S.; Pattanashetti, Nandini A.; Byrareddy, C. R.; Yadav, Aniruddh Bahadur

    2018-04-01

    A zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer was deposited on the SiO2/Si substrate by RF sputtering. To study the effect of annealing, the seed layers were classified into annealed and unannealed thin films. Annealing of the seed layers was carried at 450°C. Surface morphology of the seed layers were studied by Atomic force microscopy. ZnO nanorods were then grown on both the types of seed layer by hydrothermal method. The morphology and the structural properties of the nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. The effect of seed layer annealing on the growth and orientation of the ZnO nanorods were clearly examined on comparing with the nanorods grown on unannealed seed layer. The nanorods grown on annealed seed layers were found to be well aligned and oriented. Further, the I-V characteristic study was carried out on these aligned nanorods. The results supports positively for the future work to further enhance the properties of developed nanorods for their wide applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  5. Reversible superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic transition of ZnO nanorod/epoxy composite films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Lin, Ziyin; Lin, Wei; Moon, Kyoung Sik; Wong, C P

    2012-08-01

    Tuning the surface wettability is of great interest for both scientific research and practical applications. We demonstrated reversible transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity on a ZnO nanorod/epoxy composite film. The epoxy resin serves as an adhesion and stress relief layer. The ZnO nanorods were exposed after oxygen reactive ion etching of the epoxy matrix. A subsequent chemcial treatment with fluoroalkyl and alkyl silanes resulted in a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle up to 158.4° and a hysteresis as low as 1.3°. Under UV irradiation, the water contact angle decreased gradually, and the surface eventually became superhydrophilic because of UV induced decomposition of alkyl silanes and hydroxyl absorption on ZnO surfaces. A reversible transition of surface wettability was realized by alternation of UV illumination and surface treatment. Such ZnO nanocomposite surface also showed improved mechanical robustness.

  6. Flower-like ZnO nanorod arrays grown on HF-etched Si (111): constraining relation between ZnO seed layer and Si (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahma, Sanjaya; Liu, C.-W.; Huang, R.-J.; Chang, S.-J.; Lo, K.-Y.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the formation of self-assembled homogenous flower-like ZnO nanorods over a ZnO seed layer deposited on a HF-etched Si (111) substrate. The typical flower-like morphology of ZnO nanorod arrays is ascribed to the formation of the island-like seed layer which is deposited by the drop method followed by annealing at 300 °C. The island-like ZnO seed layer consists of larger ZnO grains, and is built by constraining of the Si (111) surface due to pattern matching. Pattern matching of Si with ZnO determines the shape and size of the seed layer and this controls the final morphology of ZnO nanorods to be either flower like or vertically aligned. The high quality of the island-like ZnO seed layer enhances the diameter and length of ZnO nanorods. Besides, while the amorphous layer formed during the annealing process would influence the strained ZnO grain, that subsequent amorphous layer will not block the constraining between the ZnO grain and the substrate.

  7. Tuning of defects in ZnO nanorod arrays used in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    With particular focus on bulk heterojunction solar cells incorporating ZnO nanorods, we study how different annealing environments (air or Zn environment) and temperatures impact on the photoluminescence response. Our work gives new insight into the complex defect landscape in ZnO, and it also shows how the different defect types can be manipulated. We have determined the emission wavelengths for the two main defects which make up the visible band, the oxygen vacancy emission wavelength at approximately 530 nm and the zinc vacancy emission wavelength at approximately 630 nm. The precise nature of the defect landscape in the bulk of the nanorods is found to be unimportant to photovoltaic cell performance although the surface structure is more critical. Annealing of the nanorods is optimum at 300°C as this is a sufficiently high temperature to decompose Zn(OH)2 formed at the surface of the nanorods during electrodeposition and sufficiently low to prevent ITO degradation. PMID:23186280

  8. Patterned Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Assisted with Polystyrene Monolayer by Oxygen Plasma Treatment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Ji; Lee, Yong-Min; Yu, Jung-Hoon; Hwang, Ki-Hwan; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2016-08-05

    Zinc oxide is known as a promising material for sensing devices due to its piezoelectric properties. In particular, the alignment of ZnO nanostructures into ordered nanoarrays is expected to improve the device sensitivity due to the large surface area which can be utilized to capture significant quantities of gas particles. However, ZnO nanorods are difficult to grow on the quartz substrate with well-ordered shape. So, we investigated nanostructures by adjusting the interval distance of the arranged ZnO nanorods using polystyrene (PS) spheres of various sizes (800 nm, 1300 nm and 1600 nm). In addition, oxygen plasma treatment was used to specify the nucleation site of round, patterned ZnO nanorod growth. Therefore, ZnO nanorods were grown on a quartz substrate with a patterned polystyrene monolayer by the hydrothermal method after oxygen plasma treatment. The obtained ZnO nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM).

  9. Effects of Chromium Dopant on Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of ZnO Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, S.; Safa, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2017-07-01

    Structural and optical properties of bare ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods have been investigated. Encapsulated ZnO nanorods were grown using a simple two-stage method in which ZnO nanorods were first grown on a glass substrate directly from a hydrothermal bath, then encapsulated with a thin layer of Cr-doped ZnO by dip coating. Comparative study of x-ray diffraction patterns showed that Cr was successfully incorporated into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods. Moreover, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed presence of Cr in this sample. It was observed that the thickness of the shell layer around the core of the ZnO nanorods was at least about 20 nm. Transmission electron microscopy of bare ZnO nanorods revealed single-crystalline structure. Based on optical results, both the encapsulation process and addition of Cr dopant decreased the optical bandgap of the samples. Indeed, the optical bandgap values of Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and bare ZnO nanorods were 2.89 eV, 3.15 eV, and 3.34 eV, respectively. The ultraviolet (UV) parameters demonstrated that incorporation of Cr dopant into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods considerably facilitated formation and transportation of photogenerated carriers, optimizing their performance as a practical UV detector. As a result, the photocurrent of the Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods was the highest (0.6 mA), compared with ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods and bare ZnO nanorods (0.21 mA and 0.06 mA, respectively).

  10. Fabrication and photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanorods/perovskite solar cells

    SciT

    Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Tanaike, Kohei; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    ZnO nanorods/perovskite solar cells with different lengths of ZnO nanorods were fabricated. The ZnO nanorods were prepared by chemical bath deposition and directly confirmed to be hexagon-shaped nanorods. The lengths of the ZnO nanorads were controlled by deposition condition of ZnO seed layer. Photovoltaic properties of the ZnO nanorods/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} solar cells were investigated by measuring current density-voltage characteristics and incident photon to current conversion efficiency. The highest conversion efficiency was obtained in ZnO nanorods/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} with the longest ZnO nanorods.

  11. One-step solvothermal deposition of ZnO nanorod arrays on a wood surface for robust superamphiphobic performance and superior ultraviolet resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Chao; Fan, Bitao; Wang, Hanwei; Sun, Qingfeng; Jin, Chunde; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    In the present paper, uniformly large-scale wurtzite-structured ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNAs) were deposited onto a wood surface through a one-step solvothermal method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). ZNAs with a diameter of approximately 85 nm and a length of approximately 1.5 μm were chemically bonded onto the wood surface through hydrogen bonds. The superamphiphobic performance and ultraviolet resistance were measured and evaluated by water or oil contact angles (WCA or OCA) and roll-off angles, sand abrasion tests and an artificially accelerated ageing test. The results show that the ZNA-treated wood demonstrates a robust superamphiphobic performance under mechanical impact, corrosive liquids, intermittent and transpositional temperatures, and water spray. Additionally, the as-prepared wood sample shows superior ultraviolet resistance.

  12. One-step solvothermal deposition of ZnO nanorod arrays on a wood surface for robust superamphiphobic performance and superior ultraviolet resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Chao; Fan, Bitao; Wang, Hanwei; Sun, Qingfeng; Jin, Chunde; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, uniformly large-scale wurtzite-structured ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNAs) were deposited onto a wood surface through a one-step solvothermal method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). ZNAs with a diameter of approximately 85 nm and a length of approximately 1.5 μm were chemically bonded onto the wood surface through hydrogen bonds. The superamphiphobic performance and ultraviolet resistance were measured and evaluated by water or oil contact angles (WCA or OCA) and roll-off angles, sand abrasion tests and an artificially accelerated ageing test. The results show that the ZNA-treated wood demonstrates a robust superamphiphobic performance under mechanical impact, corrosive liquids, intermittent and transpositional temperatures, and water spray. Additionally, the as-prepared wood sample shows superior ultraviolet resistance. PMID:27775091

  13. Multi-angle ZnO microstructures grown on Ag nanorods array for plasmon-enhanced near-UV-blue light emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Bharathi Mohan, D.

    2017-10-01

    Metal enhanced ultraviolet light emission has been explored in ZnO/Ag hybrid structures prepared by hydrothermal growth of multi-angled ZnO nanorods on slanted Ag nanorods array fabricated by the thermal evaporation technique. Slanted Ag nanorods are realized to be the stacking of non-spherical Ag nanoparticles, resulting in asymmetric surface plasmon resonance spectra. The surface roughness of Ag nanorod array films significantly influences the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods, leading to the formation of multi-angled ZnO microflowers. ZnO/Ag hybrid structures facilitate the interfacial charge transfer from Ag to ZnO with the realization of negative shift in binding energy of Ag 3d orbitals by ˜0.8 eV. These high quality ZnO nanorods in ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures exhibit strong ultraviolet emission in the 383-396 nm region without broad deep level emission, which can be explained by a suitable band diagram. The metal enhanced photoluminescence is witnessed mainly due to interfacial charge transfer with its dependence on surface roughness of bottom layer Ag nanorods, number density of ZnO nanorods and diversity in the interfacial area between Ag and ZnO nanorods. The existence of strong ultraviolet light with minor blue light emission and appearance of CIE shade in strong violet-blue region by ZnO/Ag hybrid structures depict exciting possibilities towards near UV-blue light emitting devices.

  14. Multi-angle ZnO microstructures grown on Ag nanorods array for plasmon-enhanced near-UV-blue light emitter.

    PubMed

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Mohan, D Bharathi

    2017-10-13

    Metal enhanced ultraviolet light emission has been explored in ZnO/Ag hybrid structures prepared by hydrothermal growth of multi-angled ZnO nanorods on slanted Ag nanorods array fabricated by the thermal evaporation technique. Slanted Ag nanorods are realized to be the stacking of non-spherical Ag nanoparticles, resulting in asymmetric surface plasmon resonance spectra. The surface roughness of Ag nanorod array films significantly influences the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods, leading to the formation of multi-angled ZnO microflowers. ZnO/Ag hybrid structures facilitate the interfacial charge transfer from Ag to ZnO with the realization of negative shift in binding energy of Ag 3d orbitals by ∼0.8 eV. These high quality ZnO nanorods in ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures exhibit strong ultraviolet emission in the 383-396 nm region without broad deep level emission, which can be explained by a suitable band diagram. The metal enhanced photoluminescence is witnessed mainly due to interfacial charge transfer with its dependence on surface roughness of bottom layer Ag nanorods, number density of ZnO nanorods and diversity in the interfacial area between Ag and ZnO nanorods. The existence of strong ultraviolet light with minor blue light emission and appearance of CIE shade in strong violet-blue region by ZnO/Ag hybrid structures depict exciting possibilities towards near UV-blue light emitting devices.

  15. Low temperature synthesis of hexagonal ZnO nanorods and their hydrogen sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq; Faiz, M.; Tabet, N.; Alam, Mir Waqas

    2011-08-01

    The growth of hexagonal ZnO nanorods was demonstrated by low temperature chemical synthesis approach. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a wurtzite hexagonal structure of the ZnO nanorods. The optical properties were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometer at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed high purity of the ZnO nanorods. The hydrogen sensor made of the ZnO nanorods showed reversible response. The hydrogen gas tests were carried out in presence of ambient air and the influence of operation temperature on the hydrogen gas sensing property of ZnO nanorods was also investigated.

  16. Dielectric behavior and transport properties of ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosen Samuel, M.; Koshy, Jiji; Chandran, Anoop; George, K. C.

    2011-08-01

    Highly optical, good crystalline and randomly aligned ZnO nanorods were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The dielectric properties of ZnO nanorods were attributed to the interfacial polarization at low frequencies (below 10 kHz) and orientational polarization at higher frequencies. The observed ω( n-1) dependence of dielectric loss was discussed on the basis of the Universal model of dielectric response. Dielectric loss peak was composed of the Debye like loss peak at higher frequencies and interfacial loss peak at lower frequencies. Charge transport through the grain and grain boundary region was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. At higher temperatures the conductivity of the nanorod was mainly through the grain interior and the overall impedance was contributed by the grain boundary region. The activation energy of nanorod was calculated as 0.078 eV, which is slightly higher than the reported bulk value.

  17. ZnO nanorods decorated with ZnS nanoparticles

    SciT

    Joicy, S.; Sivakumar, P.; Thangadurai, P., E-mail: thangaduraip.nst@pondiuni.edu.in

    In this study, ZnO nanorods (NRs) and ZnS nanoparticles decorated ZnO-NRs were prepared by a combination of hydrothermal and hydrolysis method. Structural and optical properties of the samples were studied by XRD, FE-SEM, UV-Vis DRS and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Microscopy analysis revealed that the diameter of ZnO-NRs was ∼500 nm and the length was ranging from a few hundred nm to several micrometers and their surface was decorated with ZnS nanoparticles. UV-Vis DRS showed the absorption of ZnS decorated ZnO-NRs was blue shifted with respect to pure ZnO-NRs which enhanced the separation of electron-hole pairs. PL spectrum of ZnS decorated ZnO-NRs showedmore » a decrease in intensity of UV and green emissions with the appearance of blue emission at 436 nm.« less

  18. Novel Gas Sensor Based on ZnO Nanorod Circular Arrays for C2H5OH Gas Detection.

    PubMed

    Jianjiao, Zhang; Hongyan, Yue; Erjun, Guo; Shaolin, Zhang; Liping, Wang; Chunyu, Zhang; Xin, Gao; Jing, Chang; Hong, Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Novel side-heating gas sensor based on ZnO nanorod circular arrays was firstly fabricated by hydrothermal treatment assisted with a kind of simple dip-coating technique. The structure and morphologies of ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), respectively. XRD result indicates that the obtained ZnO nanorods have good crystalline with the hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM result indicates that ZnO nanorod arrays are vertically growth on the surface of ceramic tube of side-heating sensor with controlled diameter and length, narrow size distribution and high orientation. The gas sensing properties of ZnO nanorod circular arrays are also evaluated. Comparative to the sensor based on scattered ZnO nanorods responding to 25 ppm H2, CO, C6H5CH3 and C2H5OH gas, respectively, the sensing values of high orientation gas sensor are generally increased by 5%. This novel sensor has good application promising for the fabrication of cost effective and high performance gas sensors.

  19. Work-Function and Surface Energy Tunable Cyanoacrylic Acid Small-Molecule Derivative Interlayer on Planar ZnO Nanorods for Improved Organic Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Bagde, Sushil S; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-12-28

    The issue of work-function and surface energy is fundamental to "decode" the critical inorganic/organic interface in hybrid organic photovoltaics, which influences important photovoltaic events like exciton dissociation, charge transfer, photocurrent (J sc ), open-circuit voltage (V oc ), etc. We demonstrate that by incorporating an interlayer of cyanoacrylic acid small molecular layer (SML) on solution-processed, spin-coated, planar ZnO nanorods (P-ZnO NRs), higher photovoltaic (PV) performances were achieved in both inverted organic photovoltaic (iOPV) and hybrid organic photovoltaic (HOPV) devices, where ZnO acts as an "electron-transporting layer" and as an "electron acceptor", respectively. For the tuned range of surface energy from 52.5 to 33 mN/m, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) iOPVs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C 60 -butyric acid methyl ester (PC 60 BM) increases from 3.16% to 3.68%, and that based on poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl)] (PTB7:Th):[6,6]-phenyl C 71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM) photoactive BHJ increases from 6.55% to 8.0%, respectively. The improved PV performance in iOPV devices is majorly attributed to enhanced photocurrents achieved as a result of reduced surface energy and greater electron affinity from the covalent attachment of the strong electron-withdrawing cyano moiety, while that in HOPV devices, where PCE increases from 0.21% to 0.79% for SML-modified devices, is ascribed to a large increase in V oc benefitted due to reduced work function effected from the presence of strong dipole moment in SML that points away from P-ZnO NRs.

  20. Enhanced photobactericidal activity of ZnO nanorods modified by meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin under visible LED lamp irradiation.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Rahmatollah; Shokraiyan, Javad; Rabbani, Mahboubeh; Fayyaz, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have been synthesized using a simple template-free precipitation technique and deposited on glass substrate. The meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS) has been synthesized and then immobilized on the surface of ZnO nanorods to prepare an organic/inorganic composite. The samples were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectra, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the photobactericidal activity of TPPS/ZnO composite, TPPS and ZnO nanorods was tested against the pathogenic bacterium of Escherichia coli under visible LED lamp irradiation. The results indicate that the photobactericidal activity of TPPS-loaded ZnO nanorods was better than TPPS or ZnO nanorods, separately.

  1. Fabrication of ZnO nanorod using spray-pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition method

    SciT

    Ramadhani, Muhammad F., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Pasaribu, Maruli A. H., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Yuliarto, Brian, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id

    2014-02-24

    ZnO thin films with nanorod structure were deposited using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method for seed growth, and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) for nanorod growth. High purity Zn-hydrate and Urea are used to control Ph were dissolved in ethanol and aqua bidest in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process. Glass substrate was placed above the heater plate of reaction chamber, and subsequently sprayed with the range duration of 5, 10 and 20 minutes at the temperatures of 3500 C. As for the Chemical Bath Deposition, the glass substrate with ZnO seed on the surface was immerse to Zn-hydrate, HMTA (Hexa Methylene Tetra Amine)more » and deionized water solution for duration of 3, 5 and 7 hour and temperatures of 600 C, washed in distilled water, dried, and annealed at 3500 C for an hour. The characterization of samples was carried out to reveal the surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the data, the combination of 5 minutes of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process and 3 hour of CBD has showed the best structure of nanorod. Meanwhile the longer Spraying process and CBD yield the bigger nanorod structure that have been made, and it makes the films more dense which make the nanorod collide each other and as a result produce unsymetric nanorod structure.« less

  2. Hydrothermally Processed Photosensitive Field-Effect Transistor Based on ZnO Nanorod Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Bhargava, Kshitij; Dixit, Tejendra; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2016-11-01

    Formation of a stable, reproducible zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod-network-based photosensitive field-effect transistor using a hydrothermal process at low temperature has been demonstrated. K2Cr2O7 additive was used to improve adhesion and facilitate growth of the ZnO nanorod network over the SiO2/Si substrate. Transistor characteristics obtained in the dark resemble those of the n-channel-mode field-effect transistor (FET). The devices showed I on/ I off ratio above 8 × 102 under dark condition, field-effect mobility of 4.49 cm2 V-1 s-1, and threshold voltage of -12 V. Further, under ultraviolet (UV) illumination, the FET exhibited sensitivity of 2.7 × 102 in off-state (-10 V) versus 1.4 in on-state (+9.7 V) of operation. FETs based on such nanorod networks showed good photoresponse, which is attributed to the large surface area of the nanorod network. The growth temperature for ZnO nanorod networks was kept at 110°C, enabling a low-temperature, cost-effective, simple approach for high-performance ZnO-based FETs for large-scale production. The role of network interfaces in the FET performance is also discussed.

  3. Ultrafast Formation of ZnO Nanorods via Seed-Mediated Microwave Assisted Hydrolysis Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S. T.; Umar, A. A.; Yahaya, M.; Yap, C. C.; Salleh, M. M.

    2013-04-01

    One dimensional (1D) zinc oxide, ZnO nanostructures have shown promising results for usage in photodiode and optoelectronic device due to their high surface area. Faster and conventional method for synthesis ZnO nanorods has become an attention for researcher today. In this paper, ZnO nanorods have been successfully synthesized via two-step process, namely alcothermal seeding and seed-mediated microwave hydrolysis process. In typical process, the ZnO nanoseeds were grown in the growth solution that contained equimolar (0.04 M) of zinc nitrate hexahydrate, Zn (NO3).6H2O and hexamethylenetetramine, HMT. The growth process was carried inside the inverted microwave within 5- 20 s. The effect of growth parameters (i.e. concentration, microwave power, time reaction) upon the modification of ZnO morphology was studied. ZnO nanostructures were characterized by Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The densities of nanorods were evaluated by the Image J analysis. It was found that the morphology (e.g. shape and size) of nanostructures has changed drastically with the increment of growth solution concentration. The density of ZnO nanorods was proven to increase with the increasing of reaction time and microwave power. We hypothesize that the microwave power might enhance the rate of nucleation and promote the faster nanostructure growth as compared with the normal heating condition due to the superheating phenomenon. This method might promote a new and faster alternative way in nanostructure growth which can be applied in currently existing application.

  4. Calculation of DSSC parameters based on ZnO nanorod/TiO2 mesoporous photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safriani, L.; Nurrida, A.; Mulyana, C.; Susilawati, T.; Bahtiar, A.; Aprilia, A.

    2017-07-01

    Photoanode of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) plays an important role as electron transport media to accept photogenerated electron from excited state of dye. There are several physical properties that are required from photoanode of DSSC. It should be highly transparent, have large surface area, has a conduction band lower than LUMO of dye molecule, has high charge carrier mobility and finally has a good stability in redox electrolyte process. In this work, DSSC with structure FTO/ZnO nanorod/TiO2 mesoporous/Ru-dye/gel electrolyte/ Pt/FTO has been fabricated. In order to modified the structures of photoanode, ZnO nanorod was grown on aluminium doped ZnO seed layer by variation concentration of Al (0 wt%, 0.5 wt% and 1.0 wt%). Zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine used as raw materials for ZnO nanorod growth solution and deposited by self-assembly methods on FTO/Al doped ZnO seed layer. It is then followed by deposition of titania (TiO2) paste by screen printing methods. DSSC parameters i.e. ideally factor (n), series resistance (RS ), and shunt resistance (RSH ) was derived from current density-voltage (I-V) curve using the simplify equation of ideal diode model. The influences of ZnO photoanode structures to the solar cell performance will be completely discussed.

  5. A selective potentiometric copper (II) ion sensor based on the functionalized ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Khun, K; Ibupoto, Z H; Liu, X; Nur, O; Willander, M; Danielsson, B

    2014-09-01

    In this work, ZnO nanorods were hydrothermally grown on the gold-coated glass substrate and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The ZnO nanorods were functionalized by two different approaches and performance of the sensor electrode was monitored. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out for the confirmation of interaction between the ionophore molecules and ZnO nanorods. In addition to this, the surface of the electrode was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showing the chemical and electronic state of the ionophore and ZnO nanorod components. The ionophore solution was prepared in the stabilizer, poly vinyl chloride (PVC) and additives, and then functionalized on the ZnO nanorods that have shown the Nernstian response with the slope of 31 mV/decade. However, the Cu2+ ion sensor was fabricated only by immobilizing the selective copper ion ionophore membrane without the use of PVC, plasticizers, additives and stabilizers and the sensor electrode showed a linear potentiometric response with a slope of 56.4 mV/decade within a large dynamic concentration range (from 1.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-1) M) of copper (II) nitrate solutions. The sensor showed excellent repeatability and reproducibility with response time of less than 10 s. The negligible response to potentially interfering metal ions such as calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), potassium (K+), iron (Fe3+), zinc (Zn2+), and sodium (Na+) allows this sensor to be used in biological studies. It may also be used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration.

  6. Doping Ag in ZnO Nanorods to Improve the Performance of Related Enzymatic Glucose Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fan; Jing, Weixuan; Liu, Pengcheng; Han, Dejun; Jiang, Zhuangde; Wei, Zhengying

    2017-09-27

    In this paper, the performance of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod-based enzymatic glucose sensor was enhanced with silver (Ag)-doped ZnO (ZnO-Ag) nanorods. The effect of the doped Ag on the surface morphologies, wettability, and electron transfer capability of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, as well as the catalytic character of glucose oxidase (GOx) and the performance of the glucose sensor was investigated. The results indicate that the doped Ag slightly weakens the surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, but remarkably increases their electron transfer ability and enhances the catalytic character of GOx. Consequently, the combined effects of the above influencing factors lead to a notable improvement of the performance of the glucose sensor, that is, the sensitivity increases and the detection limit decreases. The optimal amount of the doped Ag is determined to be 2 mM, and the corresponding glucose sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 3.85 μA/(mM·cm²), detection limit of 1.5 μM, linear range of 1.5 × 10 -3 -6.5 mM, and Michaelis-Menten constant of 3.87 mM. Moreover, the glucose sensor shows excellent selectivity to urea, ascorbic acid, and uric acid, in addition to displaying good storage stability. These results demonstrate that ZnO-Ag nanorods are promising matrix materials for the construction of other enzymatic biosensors.

  7. Doping Ag in ZnO Nanorods to Improve the Performance of Related Enzymatic Glucose Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fan; Jing, Weixuan; Liu, Pengcheng; Han, Dejun; Jiang, Zhuangde; Wei, Zhengying

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod-based enzymatic glucose sensor was enhanced with silver (Ag)-doped ZnO (ZnO-Ag) nanorods. The effect of the doped Ag on the surface morphologies, wettability, and electron transfer capability of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, as well as the catalytic character of glucose oxidase (GOx) and the performance of the glucose sensor was investigated. The results indicate that the doped Ag slightly weakens the surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the ZnO-Ag nanorods, but remarkably increases their electron transfer ability and enhances the catalytic character of GOx. Consequently, the combined effects of the above influencing factors lead to a notable improvement of the performance of the glucose sensor, that is, the sensitivity increases and the detection limit decreases. The optimal amount of the doped Ag is determined to be 2 mM, and the corresponding glucose sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 3.85 μA/(mM·cm2), detection limit of 1.5 μM, linear range of 1.5 × 10−3–6.5 mM, and Michaelis-Menten constant of 3.87 mM. Moreover, the glucose sensor shows excellent selectivity to urea, ascorbic acid, and uric acid, in addition to displaying good storage stability. These results demonstrate that ZnO-Ag nanorods are promising matrix materials for the construction of other enzymatic biosensors. PMID:28953217

  8. ZnO nanorods as catalyts for biodiesel production from olive oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Carmen Maria Miralda

    The motivation to determine a viable alternative to petroleum based energy has risen in recent years due to increased greenhouse gas emissions, environmental pollution, and the fear of exhausting oil and natural gas reserves. Biodiesel derived from the transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats has emerged as a viable alternative to petroleum diesel. However, for this to become an option available to the average consumer it is vital to find an effective catalyst. Metal oxides have emerged as potential heterogeneous catalysts. ZnO in particular is attractive because it is abundant. The use of nanostructures has been shown to improve the catalytic performance of ZnO. ZnO nanorods were synthesized using a solution approach. The crystalline structure, morphology, and surface area were confirmed using XRD, SEM, and BET surface area respectively. The characterized nanorods were used as catalysts for the production of biodiesel. The nanorods achieved conversions of 94.8% at 150°C for reaction times of eight hours. They also demonstrated better catalytic performance, attributed to their increased degree of crystallinity, than conventional ZnO. A kinetic study at 150°C to determine the reaction rate parameters was also conducted. Due to the presence of three distinct phases in the reaction, initially the reaction rate is dominated by mass transfer limitations. However, these are eventually overcome and the reaction proceeds with a pseudo-first order with respect to the oil and a reaction rate constant of 0.5136 h-1.

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic activity and synthesis of ZnO nanorods/MoS2 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Shen, Hao; Duan, Libing; Liu, Ruidi; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Xiaoru

    2018-05-01

    A stable and recyclable organic degradation catalyst based on MoS2 functionalized ZnO nanorods was introduced. ZnO nanorods were synthesized on the glass substrates (2 cm*2 cm) by sol-gel method and hydrothermal method and functionalized with MoS2 via an argon flow annealing method. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. Results showed that a small amount of MoS2 was successfully wrapped on the surfaces of ZnO nanorods. XPS analyses showed the existence of Zn-S between ZnO and MoS2, indicating that the MoS2 was combined with ZnO through chemical bonds and formed the ZnO/MoS2 heterostructure. PL results revealed that ZnO/MoS2 had lower fluorescence spectra indicating an electron transport channel between ZnO and MoS2 which separated electrons and holes. Photocatalytic experiment showed that ZnO/MoS2 composites showed a better photodegradation performance of Rhodamine B (RhB) after functionalized with MoS2 under the UV light irradiation which could be attributed to the separation and transfer of photogenerated electrons and holes between ZnO and MoS2. Meanwhile, the high active adsorption sites on the edges of MoS2 also accelerated the degradation process. Furthermore, the scavengers were used to investigate the major active species and results indicated that h+ was the major reactive species for the degradation.

  10. Electrodeposition of ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO substrate with tunable orientation and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Jehl, Z; Rousset, J; Donsanti, F; Renou, G; Naghavi, N; Lincot, D

    2010-10-01

    The electrodeposition of ZnO nanorods on ZnO:Al films with different orientations is reported. The influence of the total charge exchanged during electrodeposition on the nanorod's geometry (length, diameter, aspect ratio and surface density) and the optical transmission properties of the nanorod arrays is studied on a [0001]-oriented ZnO:Al substrate. The nanorods are highly vertically oriented along the c axis, following the lattice matching with the substrate. The growth on a [1010] and [1120] ZnO:Al-oriented substrate with c axis parallel to the substrate leads to a systematic deviation angle of 55 degrees from the perpendicular direction. This finding has been explained by the occurrence of a minority orientation with the [1011] planes parallel to the surface, with a preferential growth on corresponding [0001] termination. Substrate crystalline orientation is thereby found to be a major parameter in finely tuning the orientation of the nanorod array. This new approach allows us to optimize the light scattering properties of the films.

  11. Pre and post annealed low cost ZnO nanorods on seeded substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, M. N.; Kamil, Wan Maryam Wan Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    We wish to report the photonic band gap (where light is confined) in low cost ZnO nanorods created by two-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method where the glass substrates were pre-treated with two different seeding thicknesses, 100 nm (sample a) and 150 nm (sample b), of ZnO using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Then the samples were annealed at 600°C for 1 hour in air before and after immersed into the chemical solution for CBD process. To observe the presence of photonic band gap on the sample, UV-Visible-NIR spectrophotometer was utilized and showed that sample a and sample b both achieved wide band gap between 240 nm and 380 nm, within the UV range for typical ZnO, however sample b provided a better light confinement that may be attributed by the difference in average nanorods size. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) of the samples revealed better oriented nanorods uniformly scattered across the surface when substrates were coated with 100 nm of seeding layer whilst the 150 nm seeding sample showed a poor distribution of nanorods probably due to defects in the sample. Finally, the crystal structure of the ZnO crystallite is revealed by employing X-ray diffraction and both samples showed polycrystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure that matched with JCPDS No. 36-1451. The 100 nm pre-seeded samples was recognized to have bigger average crystallite size, however sample b was suggested as having a higher crystalline quality. In conclusion, the sample b is recognized as a better candidate for future photonic applications due to its more apparent of photonic band gap and this may be contributed by more random distribution of the nanorods as observed in FESEM images as well as higher crystalline quality as suggested from XRD measurements.

  12. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Eriksson, Martin; AlSalhi, Mohammad; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees; Willander, Magnus

    2013-08-19

    Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c -axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

  13. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Eriksson, Martin; AlSalhi, Mohammad; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees; Willander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c-axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role. PMID:28811454

  14. Room temperature synthesis and optical properties of small diameter (5 nm) ZnO nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seungho; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2010-10-01

    We report a simple wet-chemical synthesis of ∼5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays at room temperature (20 °C) and normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm) and their optical properties. They were single crystalline in nature, and grew in the [001] direction. These small diameter ZnO nanorod arrays can also be synthesized at 0 °C. Control experiments were also conducted. On the basis of the results, we propose a mechanism for the spontaneous growth of the small diameter ZnO structures. The optical properties of the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays synthesized using this method were probed by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. A clear blue-shift, relative to the absorption band from 50 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays, was attributed to the quantum confinement effects caused by the small nanocrystal size in the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorods.

  15. Photoelectrocatalytic activity of a hydrothermally grown branched Zno nanorod-array electrode for paracetamol degradation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin Jung; Liao, Shu-Jun; Kao, Li-Cheng; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2015-06-30

    Hierarchical branched ZnO nanorod (B-ZnR) arrays as an electrode for efficient photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using a solution route. The morphologic and structural studies show the ZnO trunks are single-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite ZnO with a [0001] growth direction and are densely covered by c-axis-oriented ZnO branches. The obvious enhancement in photocurrent response of the B-ZnR electrode was obtained than that in the ZnO nanoparticle (ZnO NP) electrode. For the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol in 20 h, the conversion fraction of the drug increased from 32% over ZnO NP electrode to 62% over B-ZnR arrays with about 3-fold increase in initial reaction rate. The light intensity-dependent photoelectrocatalytic experiment indicated that the superior performance over the B-ZnR electrode was mainly ascribed to the increased specific surface area without significantly sacrificing the charge transport and pollutant diffusion efficiencies. Two aromatic intermediate compounds were observed and eventually converted into harmless carboxylic acids and ammonia. Hierarchical tree-like ZnO arrays can be considered effective alternatives to improve photoelectro degradation rates without the need for expensive additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Room temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal reaction

    SciT

    Iwan, S., E-mail: iwan-sugihartono@unj.ac.id; Prodi Ilmu Material, Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok; Fauzia, Vivi

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were fabricated by a hydrothermal reaction on silicon (Si) substrate at 95 °C for 6 hours. The ZnO seed layer was fabricated by depositing ZnO thin films on Si substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolisis (USP). The annealing effects on crystal structure and optical properties of ZnO nanorods were investigated. The post-annealing treatment was performed at 800 °C with different environments. The annealed of ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) in order to analyze crystal structure and optical properties, respectively. The results show the orientations of [002], [101], [102], and [103] diffractionmore » peaks were observed and hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO nanorods were vertically grown on Si substrates. The room temperature PL spectra show ultra-violet (UV) and visible emissions. The annealed of ZnO nanorods in vacuum condition (3.8 × 10{sup −3} Torr) has dominant UV emission. Meanwhile, non-annealed of ZnO nanorods has dominant visible emission. It was expected that the annealed of ZnO in vacuum condition suppresses the existence of native defects in ZnO nanorods.« less

  17. Morphology-controllable of Sn doped ZnO nanorods prepared by spray pyrolysis for transparent electrode application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, M. Shahul; Princice, J. Joseph; Babu, N. Ramesh; Zahirullah, S. Syed; Deshmukh, Sampat G.; Arunachalam, A.

    2018-05-01

    Transparent conductive Sn doped ZnO nanorods have been deposited at various doping level by spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrate. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of these films have been investigated with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer respectively. XRD patterns revealed a successful high quality growth of single crystal ZnO nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite structure having (002) preferred orientation. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the prepared films exposed the uniform distribution of Sn doped ZnO nanorod shaped grains. All these films were highly transparent in the visible region with average transmittance of 90%.

  18. Effect of growth time to the properties of Al-doped ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Saidi, S. A.; Yusoff, M. M.; Mohamed, R.; Sin, N. D. Md; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Aluminum (Al)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod array films were successfully deposited at different growth time on zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer coated glass substrate using sol-gel immersion method. The morphology images of the films showed that the thicknesses of the films were increased parallel with the increment of growth period. The surface topology of the films displayed an increment of roughness as the growth period increased. Optical properties of the samples exposed that the percentage of transmittances reduced at higher growth time. Besides, the Urbach energy of the films slightly increased as the immersion time increased. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement indicated that the resistance increased as the immersion time increased owing to the appearance of intrinsic layer on top of the nanorods.

  19. Preparation and photovoltaic properties of perovskite solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Tian; Li, Zhaosong; Feng, Bingjie; Li, Siqian; Duan, Jinxia; Ye, Cong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    A careful control of ZnO nanorod arrays with various densities and thickness were achieved by hydrothermal method. An obvious increase in the ZnO nanorod density is observed as the concentrations of zinc acetate dropped as expected through the surface SEM images. On the other hand, samples with and without TiO2 compact layer were also studied and results had been analyzed to seek for an optimized substrate structure for light absorbing layer and increase the efficiency. What's more, a deep research for the drying temperature for perovskite layer was also conducted. As a result, SEM images discribe a promising surface appearance of perovskite layer which is finely attached onto the nanorod structure. Final power conversion efficiency (PCE) of FTO/ZnO seed layer/ZnO nanorods/perovskite/spiro-OMe-TAD/Au electrode photovoltaic device reached ∼9.15% together with open-circuit voltage of 957 mV, short-circuit current density of 17.8 mA/cm2 and fill factor of 0.537.

  20. Control of ZnO Nanorod Defects to Enhance Carrier Transportation in p-Cu₂O/i-ZnO Nanorods/n-IGZO Heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Ke, Nguyen Huu; Trinh, Le Thi Tuyet; Mung, Nguyen Thi; Loan, Phan Thi Kieu; Tuan, Dao Anh; Truong, Nguyen Huu; Tran, Cao Vinh; Hung, Le Vu Tuan

    2017-01-01

    The p-Cu₂O/i-ZnO nanorods/n-IGZO heterojunctions were fabricated by electrochemical and sputtering method. ZnO nanorods were grown on conductive indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film and then p-Cu₂O layer was deposited on ZnO nanorods to form the heterojunction. ZnO nanorods play an important role in carrier transport mechanisms and performance of the junction. The changing of defects in ZnO nanorods by annealing samples in air and vacuum have studied. The XRD, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and FTIR were used to study about structure, and defects in ZnO nanorods. The SEM, i–V characteristics methods were also used to define structure, electrical properties of the heterojunctions layers. The results show that the defects in ZnO nanorods affected remarkably on performance of heterojunctions of solar cells.

  1. NMR Observation of Mobile Protons in Proton-Implanted ZnO Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Kue; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Lee, Cheol Eui

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion properties of H+ in ZnO nanorods are investigated before and after 20 MeV proton beam irradiation by using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Herein, we unambiguously observe that the implanted protons occupy thermally unstable site of ZnO, giving rise to a narrow NMR line at 4.1 ppm. The activation barrier of the implanted protons was found to be 0.46 eV by means of the rotating-frame spin-lattice relaxation measurements, apparently being interstitial hydrogens. High-energy beam irradiation also leads to correlated jump diffusion of the surface hydroxyl group of multiple lines at ~1 ppm, implying the presence of structural disorder at the ZnO surface. PMID:26988733

  2. Highly sensitive hydrogen detection of catalyst-free ZnO nanorod networks suspended by lithography-assisted growth.

    PubMed

    Huh, Junghwan; Park, Jonghyurk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Park, Jeong Young

    2011-02-25

    We have successfully demonstrated a ZnO nanorod-based 3D nanostructure to show a high sensitivity and very fast response/recovery to hydrogen gas. ZnO nanorods have been synthesized selectively over the pre-defined area at relatively low temperature using a simple self-catalytic solution process assisted by a lithographic method. The conductance of the ZnO nanorod device varies significantly as the concentration of the hydrogen is changed without any additive metal catalyst, revealing a high sensitivity to hydrogen gas. Its superior performance can be explained by the porous structure of its three-dimensional network and the enhanced surface reaction of the hydrogen molecules with the oxygen defects resulting from a high surface-to-volume ratio. It was found that the change of conductance follows a power law depending on the hydrogen concentration. A Langmuir isotherm following an ideal power law and a cross-over behavior of the activation energy with respect to hydrogen concentration were observed. This is a very novel and intriguing phenomenon on nanostructured materials, which suggests competitive surface reactions in ZnO nanorod gas sensors.

  3. Growth of ZnO nanorods on glass substrate deposited using dip coating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Rozina Abdul; Ghafar, Safiah Ab; Zoolfakar, Ahmad Sabirin; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    ZnO unique properties make it attractive for electronics and optoelectronics application. There are varieties synthesis of ZnO nanostructure but one of the best ways is by using dip coating method due to its simplicity, low cost and reliability. This research investigated the effect of precursor concentration on the morphology of ZnO nanorods using dip coating technique. ZnO nanorods is synthesized by using zinc nitrate as precursor and glass slide as substrate. The morphology of ZnO is characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). By using different concentration of precursor, each outcome demonstrated diverse morphologies.

  4. Growth of well-aligned ZnO nanorods using auge catalyst by vapor phase transportation.

    PubMed

    Ha, S Y; Jung, M N; Park, S H; Ko, H J; Ko, H; Oh, D C; Yao, T; Chang, J H

    2006-11-01

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorods have been achieved using new alloy (AuGe) catalyst. Zn powder was used as a source material and it was transported in a horizontal tube furnace onto an AuGe deposited Si substrates. The structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence. ZnO nanorods grown at 650 degrees C on 53 nm thick AuGe layer show uniform shape with the length of 8 +/- 0.5 microm and the diameter of 150 +/- 5 nm. Also, the tilting angle of ZnO nanorods (+/- 5.5 degrees) is confirmed by HRXRD. High structural quality of the nanorods is conformed by the photoluminescence measurement. All samples show strong UV emission without considerable deep level emission. However, weak deep level emission appears at high (700 degrees C) temperature due to the increase of oxygen desertion.

  5. Investigations on photoelectrochemical performance of boron doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by facile hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Akash; Chakraborty, Mohua; Thangavel, R.

    2018-05-01

    Undoped and 10% Boron (B)-doped Zinc Oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) on Tin doped Indium Oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates were synthesized using facile sol-gel, spin coating and hydrothermal method. The impact of adding Boron on the structural, optical properties, surface morphology and photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of the ZnO NRs have been investigated. The XRD pattern confirmed the formation of pure hexagonal phase with space group P63mc (186). The same can also be clearly observed form the FESEM images. The UV-Vis study shows the narrowing in band gap from 3.22 eV to 3.19 eV with incorporation of Boron in ZnO matrix. The B-doped ZnO NRs sample shows an enhanced photocurrent density of 1.31 mA/cm2 at 0.5 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which is more than 171% enhancement compared to bare ZnO NRs (0.483 mA/cm2) in 0.1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution. The results clearly indicates that the boron doped ZnO NRs can be used as an efficient photoelectrode material for photoelectrochemical cell.

  6. Synthesis of ZnO nanorods and observation of resistive switching memory in ZnO based polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Manjula G.; Malakar, Meenakshi; Mohapatra, Saumya R.; Chowdhury, Avijit

    2018-05-01

    This research reports the observation of bipolar resistive switching memory in ZnO nanorod based polymer nanocomposites. We synthesized ZnO nanorods by wet-chemical method and characterized them using XRD, UV-VIS spectroscopy and SEM. The synthesized materials have hexagonal ZnO phase with grain size of 24 nm and having strong orientation along (101) direction as observed from XRD. The SEM micrograph confirms the formation of ZnO nanorods with diameter in the range of 10 to 20 nm and length of the order of 1 µm. From optical absorption spectra the band gap is estimated to be 2.42 eV. ZnO nanorods were dispersed in PVDF-HFP polymer matrix to prepare the nanocomposite. This nanocomposite was used as active layer in the devices having sandwich structure of ITO/PVDF-HFP+ZnO nanorods/Al. Bipolar non-volatile memory was observed with ON-OFF resistance ratio of the order of 103 and with a wide voltage window of 2.3V. The switching mechanism could be due to the trapping and de-trapping of electrons by the ZnO nanorods in the nanocomposite during ON and OFF states respectively.

  7. Polycrystalline ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanorod arrays with variable dopant content via a template based synthesis from Zn(II) and Mn(II) Schiff base type single source molecular precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchanka, Mikhail; Hoffmann, Rudolf C.; Burghaus, Olaf; Corzilius, Björn; Cherkashinin, Gennady; Schneider, Jörg J.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and full characterisation of pure and Mn-doped polycrystalline zinc oxide nanorods with tailored dopant content are obtained via a single source molecular precursor approach using two Schiff base type coordination compounds is reported. The infiltration of precursor solutions into the cylindrical pores of a polycarbonate template and their thermal conversion into a ceramic green body followed by dissolution of the template gives the desired ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanomaterial as compact rods. The ZnO nanorods have a mean diameter between 170 and 180 nm or 60-70 nm, depending on the template pore size employed, comprising a length of 5-6 μm. These nanorods are composed of individual sub-5 nm ZnO nanocrystals. Exact doping of these hierarchically structured ZnO nanorods was achieved by introducing Mn(II) into the ZnO host lattice with the precursor complex Diaquo-bis[2-(meth-oxyimino)-propanoato]manganese, which allows to tailor the exact Mn(II) doping content of the ZnO rods. Investigation of the Mn-doped ZnO samples by XRD, TEM, XPS, PL and EPR, reveals that manganese occurs exclusively in its oxidation state + II and is distributed within the volume as well as on the surface of the ZnO host.

  8. Ultra-Fast Microwave Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods on Cellulose Substrates for UV Sensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Ana; Samouco, Ana; Araújo, Andreia; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, tracing and Whatman papers were used as substrates to grow zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures. Cellulose-based substrates are cost-efficient, highly sensitive and environmentally friendly. ZnO nanostructures with hexagonal structure were synthesized by hydrothermal under microwave irradiation using an ultrafast approach, that is, a fixed synthesis time of 10 min. The effect of synthesis temperature on ZnO nanostructures was investigated from 70 to 130 °C. An Ultra Violet (UV)/Ozone treatment directly to the ZnO seed layer prior to microwave assisted synthesis revealed expressive differences regarding formation of the ZnO nanostructures. Structural characterization of the microwave synthesized materials was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical characterization has also been performed. The time resolved photocurrent of the devices in response to the UV turn on/off was investigated and it has been observed that the ZnO nanorod arrays grown on Whatman paper substrate present a responsivity 3 times superior than the ones grown on tracing paper. By using ZnO nanorods, the surface area-to-volume ratio will increase and will improve the sensor sensibility, making these types of materials good candidates for low cost and disposable UV sensors. The sensors were exposed to bending tests, proving their high stability, flexibility and adaptability to different surfaces. PMID:29140304

  9. Al-doped ZnO seed layer-dependent crystallographic control of ZnO nanorods by using electrochemical deposition

    SciT

    Son, Hyo-Soo; Choi, Nak-Jung; Kim, Kyoung-Bo

    Highlights: • Polar and semipolar ZnO NRs were successfully achieved by hydrothermal synthesis. • Semipolar and polar ZnO NRs were grown on ZnO and AZO/m-sapphire, respectively. • Al % of AZO/m-sapphire enhanced the lateral growth rate of polar ZnO NRs. - Abstract: We investigated the effect of an Al-doped ZnO film on the crystallographic direction of ZnO nanorods (NRs) using electrochemical deposition. From high-solution X-ray diffraction measurements, the crystallographic plane of ZnO NRs grown on (1 0 0) ZnO/m-plane sapphire was (1 0 1). The surface grain size of the (100) Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film decreased with increasing Al contentmore » in the ZnO seed layer, implying that the Al dopant accelerated the three-dimensional (3D) growth of the AZO film. In addition, it was found that with increasing Al doping concentration of the AZO seed layer, the crystal orientation of the ZnO NRs grown on the AZO seed layer changed from [1 0 1] to [0 0 1]. With increasing Al content of the nonpolar (1 0 0) AZO seed layer, the small surface grains with a few crystallographic planes of the AZO film changed from semipolar (1 0 1) ZnO NRs to polar (0 0 1) ZnO NRs due to the increase of the vertical [0 0 1] growth rate of the ZnO NRs owing to excellent electrical properties.« less

  10. Improving ultraviolet photodetection of ZnO nanorods by Cr doped ZnO encapsulation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, S.; Mokhtari, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2018-04-01

    Encapsulated ZnO nanorods (NRs) with different Cr concentration (0-4.5 at.%) were prepared in two different steps. First, ZnO NRs were grown by hydrothermal method. Then, they were encapsulated by dip coating method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer analyses. XRD analysis proved that Cr incorporated into the ZnO structure successfully. Based on optical analysis, band gap changes in the range of 2.74-3.84 eV. Finally, UV responses of all samples were deeply investigated. It revealed 0.5 at.% Cr doped sample had the most photocurrent (0.75 mA) and photoresponsivity (0.8 A/W) of all which were about three times greater than photocurrent and photoresponsivity of the undoped sample.

  11. Tuning the emission of ZnO nanorods based light emitting diodes using Ag doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echresh, Ahmad; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Shoushtari, Morteza Zargar; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    We have fabricated, characterized, and compared ZnO nanorods/p-GaN and n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). Current-voltage measurement showed an obvious rectifying behaviour of both LEDs. A reduction of the optical band gap of the Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods compared to pure ZnO nanorods was observed. This reduction leads to decrease the valence band offset at n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN interface compared to n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN heterojunction. Consequently, this reduction leads to increase the hole injection from the GaN to the ZnO. From electroluminescence measurement, white light was observed for the n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs under forward bias, while for the reverse bias, blue light was observed. While for the n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN blue light dominated the emission in both forward and reverse biases. Further, the LEDs exhibited a high sensitivity in responding to UV illumination. The results presented here indicate that doping ZnO nanorods might pave the way to tune the light emission from n-ZnO/p-GaN LEDs.

  12. Patterned synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays for nanoplasmonic waveguide applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamson, Thomas L.; Khan, Sahar; Wang, Zhifei; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Yu, Yong; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Huizhong

    2018-03-01

    We report the patterned synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays of diameters between 50 nm and 130 nm and various spacings. This was achieved by patterning hole arrays in a polymethyl methacrylate layer with electron beam lithography, followed by chemical synthesis of ZnO nanorods in the patterned holes using the hydrothermal method. The fabrication of ZnO nanorod waveguide arrays is also demonstrated by embedding the nanorods in a silver film using the electroplating process. Optical transmission measurement through the nanorod waveguide arrays is performed and strong resonant transmission of visible light is observed. We have found the resonance shifts to a longer wavelength with increasing nanorod diameter. Furthermore, the resonance wavelength is independent of the nanowaveguide array period, indicating the observed resonant transmission is the effect of a single ZnO nanorod waveguide. These nanorod waveguides may be used in single-molecule imaging and sensing as a result of the nanoscopic profile of the light transmitted through the nanorods and the controlled locations of these nanoscale light sources.

  13. Plasmon-enhanced Electrically Light-emitting from ZnO Nanorod Arrays/p-GaN Heterostructure Devices.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junfeng; Shi, Zengliang; Wang, Yueyue; Lin, Yi; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Tian, Zhengshan; Dai, Jun; Wang, Shufeng; Xu, Chunxiang

    2016-05-16

    Effective and bright light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) have attracted broad interests in fundamental research and industrial application, especially on short wavelength LEDs. In this paper, a well aligned ZnO nanorod arrays grown on the p-GaN substrate to form a heterostructured light-emitting diode and Al nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated to improve the electroluminescence performance. More than 30-folds enhancement of the electroluminescence intensity was obtained compared with the device without Al NPs decoration. The investigation on the stable and transient photoluminescence spectraof the ZnO nanorod arrays before and after Al NPs decoration demonstrated that the metal surface plasmon resonance coupling with excitons of ZnO leads to the enhancement of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Our results provide aneffective approach to design novel optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and plasmonic nanolasers.

  14. Plasmon-enhanced Electrically Light-emitting from ZnO Nanorod Arrays/p-GaN Heterostructure Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Junfeng; Shi, Zengliang; Wang, Yueyue; Lin, Yi; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Tian, Zhengshan; Dai, Jun; Wang, Shufeng; Xu, Chunxiang

    2016-01-01

    Effective and bright light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) have attracted broad interests in fundamental research and industrial application, especially on short wavelength LEDs. In this paper, a well aligned ZnO nanorod arrays grown on the p-GaN substrate to form a heterostructured light-emitting diode and Al nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated to improve the electroluminescence performance. More than 30-folds enhancement of the electroluminescence intensity was obtained compared with the device without Al NPs decoration. The investigation on the stable and transient photoluminescence spectraof the ZnO nanorod arrays before and after Al NPs decoration demonstrated that the metal surface plasmon resonance coupling with excitons of ZnO leads to the enhancement of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Our results provide aneffective approach to design novel optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and plasmonic nanolasers. PMID:27181337

  15. Gallium ion-assisted room temperature synthesis of small-diameter ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seungho; Kim, Semi; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2011-09-15

    We report a method for synthesizing small-diameter ZnO nanorods at room temperature (20 °C), under normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm), and using a relatively short reaction time (1 h) by adding gallium salts to the reaction solution. The ZnO nanorods were, on average, 92 nm in length and 9 nm in diameter and were single crystalline in nature. Quantitative analyses revealed that gallium atoms were not incorporated into the synthesized nanocrystals. On the basis of the experimental results, we propose a mechanism for the formation of small-diameter ZnO nanorods in the presence of gallium ions. The optical properties were probed by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The absorption band of the small-diameter ZnO nanorods was blue-shifted relative to the absorption band of the ~230 nm diameter ZnO nanorods (control samples). Control experiments demonstrated that the absence of metal ion-containing precipitants (except ZnO) at room temperature is essential, and that the ZnO nanorod diameter distributions were narrow for the stirred reaction solution and broad when prepared without stirring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Superior photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanorods/poly(3-hexylthiophene) hybrid photoanodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, T.; Hmar, J. J. L.; Dhar, S.; Mondal, S. P.

    2017-06-01

    Photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer hybrid photoanodes have been studied. The hybrid photoanodes demonstrated higher photoconversion efficiency, incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) and lower interfacial resistance compared to pristine ZnO nanorods and P3HT based electrodes. The origin of superior photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO/P3HT photoanodes has been explained using carrier transport mechanism at semiconductor/electrolyte junction. The stability of ZnO NRs/P3HT photoanode has been demonstrated.

  17. Enhanced glucose biosensor properties of gold nanoparticle-decorated ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Hao; Yang, Chih-Chiang; Su, Yan-Kuin; Ruand, Jian-Long

    2017-04-01

    As new materials have been reported and more knowledge on detailed mechanism of glucose oxidation has been unveiled, the non-enzymatic glucose sensor keeps coming closer to practical applications. Nanostructures with higher surface specific area has great potential applications in sensing devices ZnO nanoords were synthesized in a hydrothermal method using simply available laboratory chemicals. Results showed that as-synthesized Gold Nanoparticle-decorated ZnO Nanorods possessing higher specific surface area, significantly increased the non-enzyme efficiency which in turn improved the sensing performances. The electrode also demonstrated excellent performance in sensing glucose concentration with remarkable sensitivity (46.6 μA/mM-cm2) and good repeatability. This work is expected to open a new avenue to fabricate non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors of glucose involving co-mediating.

  18. Aqueous chemical growth of free standing vertical ZnO nanoprisms, nanorods and nanodiskettes with improved texture co-efficient and tunable size uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, S. D. Gopal; Ravi, G.; Athimoolam, A.; Mahalingam, T.; Kulandainathan, M. Anbu

    2011-12-01

    Tuning the morphology, size and aspect ratio of free standing ZnO nanostructured arrays by a simple hydrothermal method is reported. Pre-coated ZnO seed layers of two different thicknesses (≈350 nm or 550 nm) were used as substrates to grow ZnO nanostructures for the study. Various parameters such as chemical ambience, pH of the solution, strength of the Zn2+ atoms and thickness of seed bed are varied to analyze their effects on the resultant ZnO nanostructures. Vertically oriented hexagonal nanorods, multi-angular nanorods, hexagonal diskette and popcorn-like nanostructures are obtained by altering the experimental parameters. All the produced nanostructures were analysed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis and found to be grown in the (002) orientation of wurtzite ZnO. The texture co-efficient of ZnO layer was improved by combining a thick seed layer with higher cationic strength. Surface morphological studies reveal various nanostructures such as nanorods, diskettes and popcorn-like structures based on various preparation conditions. The optical property of the closest packed nanorods array was recorded by UV-VIS spectrometry, and the band gap value simulated from the results reflect the near characteristic band gap of ZnO. The surface roughness profile taken from the Atomic Force Microscopy reveals a roughness of less than 320 nm.

  19. Room temperature growth of ZnO nanorods by hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateyama, Hiroki; Zhang, Qiyan; Ichikawa, Yo

    2018-05-01

    The effect of seed layer morphology on ZnO nanorod growth at room temperature was studied via hydrothermal synthesis on seed layers with different thicknesses and further annealed at different temperatures. The change in the thickness and annealing temperature enabled us to control over a diameter of ZnO nanorods which are attributed to the changing of crystallinity and roughness of the seed layers.

  20. Electrosynthesis of ZnO nanorods and nanotowers: Morphology and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigircik, Gokmen; Erken, Ozge; Tuken, Tunc; Gumus, Cebrail; Ozkendir, Osman M.; Ufuktepe, Yuksel

    2015-06-01

    Deposition mechanism of nano-structured ZnO films has been investigated in the absence and presence of chloride ions from aqueous solution. The resulting opto-electronic properties were interpreted extensively, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and four probe techniques. The ZnO deposition is mass transport controlled process and the interaction of chloride ions with the surface has great influence on diffusion kinetics, considering the substantial species (Zn2+ and OH-) involved in the construction of ZnO film. This effect does not change major lattice parameters, as shown with detailed analysis of XRD data. However, the texture coefficient (Tc) (0 0 2) value is higher in presence of chloride ions containing synthesis solution which gave vertically aligned, well defined and uniformly dispersed nanorods structure. The calculated Eg values are in the range 3.28-3.41 eV and 3.22-3.31 eV for ZnO nanorods and nanotowers synthesized at different deposition periods, respectively. Furthermore, the charge mobility values regarding the deposition periods were measured to be in the ranges from 130.4 to 449.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 126.2 to 204.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 for nanorods and nanotowers, respectively. From XANES results, it was shown that the Zn K-edge spectrum is dominated by the transition of Zn 1s core electrons into the unoccupied Zn 4p states of the conduction band. Comparing the rod and tower nano-structured ZnO thin films, the excitation behavior of valence band electrons is different. Moreover, the density states of Zn 4p are higher for ZnO nanorods.

  1. Characterization of spatial manipulation on ZnO nanocomposites consisting of Au nanoparticles, a graphene layer, and ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shen-Che; Lu, Chien-Cheng; Su, Wei-Ming; Weng, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Cian; Wang, Shing-Chung; Lu, Tien-Chang; Chen, Ching-Pang; Chen, Hsiang

    2018-01-01

    Three types of ZnO-based nanocomposites were fabricated consisting of 80-nm Au nanoparticles (NPs), a graphene layer, and ZnO nanorods (NRs). To investigate interactions between the ZnO NRs and Au nanoparticle, multiple material analysis techniques including field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), surface contact angle measurements, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopic characterizations were performed. Results indicate that incorporating a graphene layer could block the interaction between the ZnO NRs and the Au NPs. Furthermore, the Raman signal of the Au NPs could be enhanced by inserting a graphene layer on top of the ZnO NRs. Investigation of these graphene-incorporated nanocomposites would be helpful to future studies of the physical properties and Raman analysis of the ZnO-based nanostructure design.

  2. Preparation of ZnO nanorods on conductive PET-ITO-Ag fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiwen; Ji, Shuai; Chen, Yuanyu; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Yumei; Guo, Jing

    2016-12-01

    We studied the vertical ZnO nanorods grown on conductive conventional polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers which are prepared by electroless silver depositing on tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coated PET fibers through an efficient and low-cost green approach. The PET fibers were firstly functionalized with a layer of ITO gel synthesized through a sol-gel process at rather low temperature, simply by immersing the fibers into ITO sol for several minutes followed by gelation at 120 °C. Once the ITO gel layer surface was activated by SnCl2, a continuous, uniform, and compact layer of silver was carried out on the surface of the PET-ITO fibers through electroless plating operation at room temperature. The as-prepared PET-ITO-Ag fibers had good electrical conductivity, with surface resistivity as low as 0.23 mΩ cm. The overall procedure is simple, efficient, nontoxic, and controllable. The conductive PET-ITO-Ag fiber was used successfully as a flexible basal material to plant vertical ZnO nanorods through controlling the seeding and growth processes. The morphology of the PET-ITO, PET-ITO-Ag, and PET-ITO-Ag-ZnO fibers were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Undergone the whole process, although the tensile strength of the fiber decreased slightly, they may still exert their applications in flexible electronic such as photovoltaic and piezoelectric devices.

  3. Solution Process Synthesis of High Aspect Ratio ZnO Nanorods on Electrode Surface for Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Uric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Ahn, Min-Sang; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2017-04-01

    This study demonstrates a highly stable, selective and sensitive uric acid (UA) biosensor based on high aspect ratio zinc oxide nanorods (ZNRs) vertical grown on electrode surface via a simple one-step low temperature solution route. Uricase enzyme was immobilized on the ZNRs followed by Nafion covering to fabricate UA sensing electrodes (Nafion/Uricase-ZNRs/Ag). The fabricated electrodes showed enhanced performance with attractive analytical response, such as a high sensitivity of 239.67 μA cm-2 mM-1 in wide-linear range (0.01-4.56 mM), rapid response time (~3 s), low detection limit (5 nM), and low value of apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Kmapp, 0.025 mM). In addition, selectivity, reproducibility and long-term storage stability of biosensor was also demonstrated. These results can be attributed to the high aspect ratio of vertically grown ZNRs which provides high surface area leading to enhanced enzyme immobilization, high electrocatalytic activity, and direct electron transfer during electrochemical detection of UA. We expect that this biosensor platform will be advantageous to fabricate ultrasensitive, robust, low-cost sensing device for numerous analyte detection.

  4. Superior environment resistance of quartz crystal microbalance with anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wei; Wei, Li; Shaodan, Wang; Yu, Bai

    2015-08-01

    The precise measurement of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in the detection and weighing of organic gas molecules is achieved due to excellent superhydrophobicity of a deposited film composite. Photocatalysis is utilized as a method for the self-cleaning of organic molecules on the QCM for extended long-term stability in the precision of the instrument. In this paper, ZnO nanorod array is prepared via in situ methods on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process. Subsequently, a TiO2/ZnO composite film is synthesized by surface modification with TiO2 via sol-gel methods. Results show the anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite film with a sharp, pencil-like structure exhibiting excellent superhydrophobicity (water contact angle of 155°), non-sticking water properties, and an autonomous cleaning property under UV irradiation. The anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite film facilitates the precise measurement and extended lifetime of the QCM for the detection of organic gas molecules.

  5. ZnO Nanorod-Based Non-Enzymatic Optical Glucose Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Sachindra Nath; Nozaki, Shinji; Sahu, Surendra Nath

    2015-06-01

    The highly sensitive, interference-free and non-enzymatic optical sensing of glucose has been made possible for the first time using the hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanorods. The UV irradiation of glucose-treated ZnO nanorods decomposes glucose into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and gluconic acid by UV oxidation. The ZnO nanorods play the role of a catalyst similar to the oxidase used in the enzymatic glucose sensors. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the near-band edge emission of the ZnO nanorods linearly decreased with the increased concentration of H2O2. Therefore, the glucose concentration is monitored over the wide range of 0.5-30 mM, corresponding to 9-540 mg/dL. The concentration range of the linear region in the calibration curve is suitable for its clinical use as a glucose sensor, because the glucose concentration of human serum is typically in the range of 80-120 mg/dL. In addition, the optical glucose sensor made of the ZnO nanorods is free from interference by bovin serum albumin, ascorbic acid or uric acid, which are also present in human blood. The non-enzymatic ZnO-nanorod sensor has been demonstrated with human serum samples from both normal persons and diabetic patients. There is a good agreement between the glucose concentrations measured by the PL quenching and standard clinical methods.

  6. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized via template free approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajal, Priyanka; D, Pooja; Jaggi, Neena

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report a novel method for synthesis of semiconducting ZnO nanorods using Zinc acetate dehydrate precursor in a methanol—de-ionized (1:5) mixture via template free approach. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of as synthesized nanorods revealed hexagonal symmetry of rods, whereas x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for structure and phase has shown high crystallinity with wurtzite crystal structure. The structural characterization by FT-IR analysis revealed presence of various groups on as synthesized ZnO nanorods, whereas the UV-Vis analysis has shown a blue shift in the absorption spectra as compared to bulk ZnO due to quantum confinement of charge carriers. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study has also been performed revealing a good degree of phosphorescence in the ZnO nanorods. Further, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that as synthesized nanorods by present method are highly stable at high temperature (1000 °C). This study provides an alternative, less expensive and a very simple method for the fabrication of ZnO nanorods in abundance, which can be further used for various sensing applications, in particular, gas sensing.

  7. Cu-doped ZnO nanorod arrays: the effects of copper precursor and concentration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cu-doped ZnO nanorods have been grown at 90°C for 90 min onto a quartz substrate pre-coated with a ZnO seed layer using a hydrothermal method. The influence of copper (Cu) precursor and concentration on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of ZnO nanorods was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the nanorods grown are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure grown along the c-axis. The lattice strain is found to be compressive for all samples, where a minimum compressive strain of −0.114% was obtained when 1 at.% Cu was added from Cu(NO3)2. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate morphologies and the diameters of the grown nanorods. The morphological properties of the Cu-doped ZnO nanorods were influenced significantly by the presence of Cu impurities. Near-band edge (NBE) and a broad blue-green emission bands at around 378 and 545 nm, respectively, were observed in the photoluminescence spectra for all samples. The transmittance characteristics showed a slight increase in the visible range, where the total transmittance increased from approximately 80% for the nanorods doped with Cu(CH3COO)2 to approximately 90% for the nanorods that were doped with Cu(NO3)2. PMID:24855460

  8. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer.

    PubMed

    Khun, Kimleang; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees A; Willander, Magnus

    2013-09-30

    In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices.

  9. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Khun, Kimleang; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; AlSalhi, Mohamad S.; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees A.; Willander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices. PMID:28788336

  10. Significant enhancement of yellow-green light emission of ZnO nanorod arrays using Ag island films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chin-An; Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Chen, Cheng-Ying; He-Hau, Jr.

    2011-03-01

    Surface plasmon (SP) mediated emission from ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs)/Ag/Si structures has been investigated. The ratio of visible emission to UV emission can be increased by over 30 times via coupling with SP without deterioration of the crystal quality. The fact that the effect of SP crucially depends on the size of Ag island films provides the feasibility to significantly enhance the yellow-green emission of the ZnO nanostructures without sacrificing the crystallinity of ZnO.Surface plasmon (SP) mediated emission from ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs)/Ag/Si structures has been investigated. The ratio of visible emission to UV emission can be increased by over 30 times via coupling with SP without deterioration of the crystal quality. The fact that the effect of SP crucially depends on the size of Ag island films provides the feasibility to significantly enhance the yellow-green emission of the ZnO nanostructures without sacrificing the crystallinity of ZnO. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00732c

  11. Highly photoresponsive, ZnO nanorod-based photodetector for operation in the visible spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Daniel S.; Hansen, Matthew; Van Keuren, Edward; Hahm, Jong-in

    2017-04-01

    While significant advances have been made for gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-coupled zinc oxide (ZnO) as visibly blind, ultraviolet photodetection devices, very few ZnO nanomaterial systems have been developed specifically for use in the visible wavelength regime. Further efforts to develop ZnO-based visible photodetectors (PDs) are still highly warranted in order to better understand the precise effect of AuNP load, operation wavelength, and beam position on the device output. In this study, we demonstrate significantly enhanced, photoresponse behaviors of AuNP-coupled ZnO nanorod (NR) network devices in the visible wavelength range with their photoresponse capacity comparable to, if not far exceeding, most commercial PDs as well as recently reported, visible, AuNP-coupled ZnO detectors. In addition, the nature and degree of the photoresponsivity enhancement are systematically elucidated by investigating their light-triggered electrical signals under varying incident wavelengths, AuNP amounts, and illumination positions. We discuss a possible photoconduction mechanism of our AuNP-coupled ZnO NR PDs and the origins of the high photoresponsivity. Specifically related to the AuNP amount-dependent photoresponse behaviors, the nanoparticle density yielding photoresponse maxima is explained as the interplay between localized surface plasmon resonance, plasmonic heating, and scattering in our photothermoelectric effect-driven device. We show that the AuNP-coupled ZnO NR PDs can be constructed via a straightforward method without the need for ultrahigh vacuum, sputtering procedures, or photo/electron-beam lithographic tools. Hence, the approach demonstrated in this study may serve as a convenient and viable means to advance the current state of ZnO-based PDs for operation in the visible spectral range with greatly increased photoresponsivity.

  12. N doped ZnO and ZnO nanorods based p-n homojunction fabricated by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Thangavel, R.; Asokan, K.

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) doped and undoped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod p-n homojunctions were fabricated by ion implantation method. The structural and optical characterizations showed that the N atoms doped into the ZnO crystal lattice. The UV-Vis absorption spectra revealed shift in optical absorption edge towards higher wavelength with ion implantation on ZnO, which attributed N acceptor levels above the valence band. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements exhibit a typical semiconductor rectification characteristic indicating the electrical conductivity of the N-doped ZnO nanorod have p-type conductivity. Moreover, a high photocurrent response has been observed with these p-n homojunctions.

  13. Significantly enhanced UV luminescence by plasmonic metal on ZnO nanorods patterned by screen-printing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Cui, Shuyuan; Zhang, Xingang; Li, Wenqing

    2018-08-31

    A smart synthetic method is conceived to construct large batches of ZnO nanostructures to meet market demand for light-emitting diodes. Utilizing the localized surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles (NPs) facilitates the recombination of electron-hole pairs and the release of photons. Compared to raw ZnO nanorods (NRs), ZnO NRs@HfO 2 @Al NPs show a ∼120× enhancement in ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence (PL), while ZnO NRs@HfO 2 @Ag NPs show a six-fold enhancement. Because the surface plasmon energy of Al is nearer the ZnO band gap, the PL enhancement of ZnO NRs covered with Al is stronger than that of those covered with Ag. Based on this analysis, three-dimensional graphical ZnO NR arrays were manufactured by screen-printing, a mass production technique. After covering the arrays with layers of HfO 2 and Al NPs, the UV PL intensities of the corresponding substrates were increased by approximately 16×. This indicates the potential to mass-produce highly efficient optoelectronic devices.

  14. Preparation, characterization and electroluminescence studies of ZnO nanorods for optoelectronic device applications

    SciT

    Singh, Anju, E-mail: singh-nk24@yahoo.com; Vishwakarma, H. L., E-mail: horilal5@yahoo.com

    2015-07-31

    In this work, ZnO nanorods were achieved by a simple chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) at room temperature. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) result indicates that the synthesized undoped ZnO nanorods have wurtzite hexagonal structure without any impurities. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods were (101). XRD analysis revealed that the nanorods having the crystallite size 49 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image confirmed the size and shape of these nanorods. The diameter of nanorods has been found that 1.52 µm to 1.61 µm and the lengthmore » of about 4.89 µm. It has also been found that at room temperature Ultra Violet Visible (UV-VIS) absorption band is around 355 nm (blue shifted as compared to bulk). Electroluminescence (EL) studies show that emission of light is possible at very small threshold voltage and increases rapidly with increasing applied voltage. It is seen that smaller ZnO nanoparticles give higher electroluminescence brightness starting at lower threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.« less

  15. Bioanalytical system for detection of cancer cells with photoluminescent ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viter, R.; Jekabsons, K.; Kalnina, Z.; Poletaev, N.; Hsu, S. H.; Riekstina, U.

    2016-11-01

    Using photoluminescent ZnO nanorods and carbohydrate marker SSEA-4, a novel cancer cell recognition system was developed. Immobilization of SSEA-4 antibodies (αSSEA-4) on ZnO nanorods was performed in buffer solution (pH = 7.1) over 2 h. The cancer cell line probes were fixed on the glass slide. One hundred microliters of ZnO-αSSEA-4 conjugates were deposited on the cell probe and exposed for 30 min. After washing photoluminescence spectra were recorded. Based on the developed methodology, ZnO-αSSEA-4 probes were tested on patient-derived breast and colorectal carcinoma cells. Our data clearly show that the carbohydrate SSEA-4 molecule is expressed on cancer cell lines and patient-derived cancer cells. Moreover, SSEA-4 targeted ZnO nanorods bind to the patient-derived cancer cells with high selectivity and the photoluminescence signal increased tremendously compared to the signal from the control samples. Furthermore, the photoluminescence intensity increase correlated with the extent of malignancy in the target cell population. A novel portable bioanalytical system, based on optical ZnO nanorods and fiber optic detection system was developed. We propose that carbohydrate SSEA-4 specific ZnO nanorods could be used for the development of cancer diagnostic biosensors and for targeted therapy.

  16. PDMS-based triboelectric and transparent nanogenerators with ZnO nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Nagaraju, Goli; Lee, Soo Hyun; Yu, Jae Su

    2014-05-14

    Vertically-grown ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET), as a top electrode of nanogenerators, were investigated for the antireflective property as well as an efficient contact surface in bare polydimethysiloxane (PDMS)-based triboelectric nanogenerators. Compared to conventional ITO-coated PET (i.e., ITO/PET), the ZnO NRAs considerably suppressed the reflectance from 20 to 9.7% at wavelengths of 300-1100 nm, creating a highly transparent top electrode, as demonstrated by theoretical analysis. Also, the interval time between the peaks of generated output voltage under external pushing forces was significantly decreased from 1.84 to 0.19 s because the reduced contact area of the PDMS by discrete surfaces of the ZnO NRAs on ITO/PET causes a rapid sequence for triboelectric charge generation process including rubbing and separating. Therefore, the use of this top electrode enabled to operate the transparent PDMS-based triboelectric nanogenerator at high frequency of external pushing force. Under different external forces of 0.3-10 kgf, the output voltage and current were also characterized.

  17. ZnO Nano-Rod Devices for Intradermal Delivery and Immunization.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Tapas R; Wang, Hao; Pant, Aakansha; Zheng, Minrui; Junginger, Hans; Goh, Wei Jiang; Lee, Choon Keong; Zou, Shui; Alonso, Sylvie; Czarny, Bertrand; Storm, Gert; Sow, Chorng Haur; Lee, Chengkuo; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2017-06-15

    Intradermal delivery of antigens for vaccination is a very attractive approach since the skin provides a rich network of antigen presenting cells, which aid in stimulating an immune response. Numerous intradermal techniques have been developed to enhance penetration across the skin. However, these methods are invasive and/or affect the skin integrity. Hence, our group has devised zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods for non-destructive drug delivery. Chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate aligned nano-rods on ZnO pre-coated silicon chips. The nano-rods' length and diameter were found to depend on the temperature, time, quality of sputtered silicon chips, etc. Vertically aligned ZnO nano-rods with lengths of 30-35 µm and diameters of 200-300 nm were selected for in vitro human skin permeation studies using Franz cells with Albumin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) absorbed on the nano-rods. Fluorescence and confocal studies on the skin samples showed FITC penetration through the skin along the channels formed by the nano-rods. Bradford protein assay on the collected fluid samples indicated a significant quantity of Albumin-FITC in the first 12 h. Low antibody titres were observed with immunisation on Balb/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA) antigen coated on the nano-rod chips. Nonetheless, due to the reduced dimensions of the nano-rods, our device offers the additional advantage of excluding the simultaneous entrance of microbial pathogens. Taken together, these results showed that ZnO nano-rods hold the potential for a safe, non-invasive, and painless intradermal drug delivery.

  18. Synthesis of highly efficient antibacterial agent Ag doped ZnO nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical properties

    SciT

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed, E-mail: javed.saggu@iiu.edu.pk; Ismail, Muhammad

    Here, synthesis, structural, morphological, Raman, optical properties and antibacterial activity of undoped and Ag doped ZnO nanorods by chemical co-precipitation technique have been reported. Structural analysis has revealed that Ag doping cannot deteriorate the structure of ZnO and wurtzite phase is maintained. Lattice constants are found to be decreased with the Ag doping. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy also confirm the X-ray diffraction results. Scanning electron microscopy results have demonstrated the formation of ZnO nanorods with average diameter and length of 96 nm and 700 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the Ag doping enhances the number of defects inmore » ZnO crystal. It has been found from optical study that Ag doping results in positional shift of band edge absorption peak. This is attributed to the successful incorporation of Ag dopant into ZnO host matrix. The antibacterial activity of prepared nanorods has been determined by two different methods and compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. Ag doped ZnO nanorods exhibit excellent antibacterial activity as compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. This excellent antibacterial activity may be attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies and Zn{sup 2+} interstitial defects. Our preliminary findings suggest that Ag doped ZnO nanorods can be used externally to control the spreading of infections related with tested bacterial strains.« less

  19. Microwave Synthesized ZnO Nanorod Arrays for UV Sensors: A Seed Layer Annealing Temperature Study.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Ana; Ferreira, Sofia Henriques; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomas; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-04-20

    The present work reports the influence of zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, to be used as UV sensors. The ZnO seed layer was produced using the spin-coating method and several annealing temperatures, ranging from 100 to 500 °C, have been tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometry measurements have been used to investigate the structure, morphology, and optical properties variations of the produced ZnO nanorod arrays regarding the seed layer annealing temperatures employed. After the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays, the whole structure was tested as UV sensors, showing an increase in the sensitivity with the increase of seed layer annealing temperature. The UV sensor response of ZnO nanorod arrays produced with the seed layer annealed temperature of 500 °C was 50 times superior to the ones produced with a seed layer annealed at 100 °C.

  20. Microwave Synthesized ZnO Nanorod Arrays for UV Sensors: A Seed Layer Annealing Temperature Study

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Ana; Ferreira, Sofia Henriques; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomas; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the influence of zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, to be used as UV sensors. The ZnO seed layer was produced using the spin-coating method and several annealing temperatures, ranging from 100 to 500 °C, have been tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometry measurements have been used to investigate the structure, morphology, and optical properties variations of the produced ZnO nanorod arrays regarding the seed layer annealing temperatures employed. After the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays, the whole structure was tested as UV sensors, showing an increase in the sensitivity with the increase of seed layer annealing temperature. The UV sensor response of ZnO nanorod arrays produced with the seed layer annealed temperature of 500 °C was 50 times superior to the ones produced with a seed layer annealed at 100 °C. PMID:28773423

  1. Gravimetric humidity sensor based on ZnO nanorods covered piezoresistive Si microcantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiushuai; Bertke, Maik; Li, Xiaojing; Gad, Alaaeldin; Zhou, Hao; Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Peiner, Erwin

    2017-06-01

    A ZnO nanorods film covered silicon resonant cantilever sensor is developed for atmosphere humidity detection by monitoring the resonant frequency shifts induced by the additional weight of adsorbed water molecules. Two different crystalline seed-layer deposition methods were applied to grow different nanorods films. The morphology of the ZnO films were characterized and the sensor sensitivities were measured under different relative humidity (RH) levels. The experiments results showed that this novel humidity sensor with ZnO nanorods has a sensitivity of 101.5 +/- 12.0 ppm/RH% (amount of adsorbed water of 36.9 +/- 4.4 ng/RH%), indicating its potential for portable sensing applications.

  2. Controlled Defects of Fluorine-incorporated ZnO Nanorods for Photovoltaic Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hock Beng; Ginting, Riski Titian; Tan, Sin Tee; Tan, Chun Hui; Alshanableh, Abdelelah; Oleiwi, Hind Fadhil; Yap, Chi Chin; Jumali, Mohd Hafizuddin Hj.; Yahaya, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Anion passivation effect on metal-oxide nano-architecture offers a highly controllable platform for improving charge selectivity and extraction, with direct relevance to their implementation in hybrid solar cells. In current work, we demonstrated the incorporation of fluorine (F) as an anion dopant to address the defect-rich nature of ZnO nanorods (ZNR) and improve the feasibility of its role as electron acceptor. The detailed morphology evolution and defect engineering on ZNR were studied as a function of F-doping concentration (x). Specifically, the rod-shaped arrays of ZnO were transformed into taper-shaped arrays at high x. A hypsochromic shift was observed in optical energy band gap due to the Burstein-Moss effect. A substantial suppression on intrinsic defects in ZnO lattice directly epitomized the novel role of fluorine as an oxygen defect quencher. The results show that 10-FZNR/P3HT device exhibited two-fold higher power conversion efficiency than the pristine ZNR/P3HT device, primarily due to the reduced Schottky defects and charge transfer barrier. Essentially, the reported findings yielded insights on the functions of fluorine on (i) surface –OH passivation, (ii) oxygen vacancies (Vo) occupation and (iii) lattice oxygen substitution, thereby enhancing the photo-physical processes, carrier mobility and concentration of FZNR based device. PMID:27587295

  3. ZnO Nano-Rod Devices for Intradermal Delivery and Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Tapas R.; Wang, Hao; Pant, Aakansha; Zheng, Minrui; Junginger, Hans; Goh, Wei Jiang; Lee, Choon Keong; Zou, Shui; Alonso, Sylvie; Czarny, Bertrand; Storm, Gert; Sow, Chorng Haur; Lee, Chengkuo; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2017-01-01

    Intradermal delivery of antigens for vaccination is a very attractive approach since the skin provides a rich network of antigen presenting cells, which aid in stimulating an immune response. Numerous intradermal techniques have been developed to enhance penetration across the skin. However, these methods are invasive and/or affect the skin integrity. Hence, our group has devised zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods for non-destructive drug delivery. Chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate aligned nano-rods on ZnO pre-coated silicon chips. The nano-rods’ length and diameter were found to depend on the temperature, time, quality of sputtered silicon chips, etc. Vertically aligned ZnO nano-rods with lengths of 30–35 µm and diameters of 200–300 nm were selected for in vitro human skin permeation studies using Franz cells with Albumin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) absorbed on the nano-rods. Fluorescence and confocal studies on the skin samples showed FITC penetration through the skin along the channels formed by the nano-rods. Bradford protein assay on the collected fluid samples indicated a significant quantity of Albumin-FITC in the first 12 h. Low antibody titres were observed with immunisation on Balb/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA) antigen coated on the nano-rod chips. Nonetheless, due to the reduced dimensions of the nano-rods, our device offers the additional advantage of excluding the simultaneous entrance of microbial pathogens. Taken together, these results showed that ZnO nano-rods hold the potential for a safe, non-invasive, and painless intradermal drug delivery. PMID:28617335

  4. Enhanced NH3 gas sensing properties of a QCM sensor by increasing the length of vertically orientated ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh, Vu Anh; Tuan, Le Anh; Huy, Tran Quang; Hung, Vu Ngoc; Quy, Nguyen Van

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were directly synthesised on a gold electrode of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) by a simple low-temperature hydrothermal method for a NH3 gas sensing application. The length of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods was increased to purpose enhancement in the gas sensing response of the sensor. The length of ZnO nanorods increased with an increase in growth time. The growth time of ZnO nanorods was systematically varied in the range of 1-4 h to examine the effect of the length of the ZnO nanorods on the gas sensing properties of the fabricated sensors. The gas sensing properties of sensors with different ZnO nanorods lengths was examined at room temperature for various concentrations of NH3 (50-800 ppm) in synthetic air. Enhancement in gas sensing response by increasing the length of ZnO nanorods was observed.

  5. Effect of ZnO seed layer on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layers

    SciT

    Nandi, R., E-mail: rajunandi@iitb.ac.in; Mohan, S., E-mail: rajunandi@iitb.ac.in; Major, S. S.

    2014-04-24

    ZnO nanorods were grown by chemical bath deposition on sputtered, polycrystalline GaN buffer layers with and without ZnO seed layer. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layers are not vertically well aligned. Photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO nanorods grown on GaN buffer layer, however exhibits a much stronger near-band-edge emission and negligible defect emission, compared to the nanorods grown on ZnO buffer layer. These features are attributed to gallium incorporation at the ZnO-GaN interface. The introduction of a thin (25 nm) ZnO seed layer on GaN buffer layer significantly improves the morphology andmore » vertical alignment of ZnO-NRs without sacrificing the high optical quality of ZnO nanorods on GaN buffer layer. The presence of a thick (200 nm) ZnO seed layer completely masks the effect of the underlying GaN buffer layer on the morphology and optical properties of nanorods.« less

  6. Enzymatic glucose detection using ZnO nanorods on the gate region of AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, B. S.; Wang, H. T.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Morey, T. E.; Dennis, D. M.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    ZnO nanorod-gated AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are demonstrated for the detection of glucose. A ZnO nanorod array was selectively grown on the gate area using low temperature hydrothermal decomposition to immobilize glucose oxidase (GOx). The one-dimensional ZnO nanorods provide a large effective surface area with high surface-to-volume ratio and provide a favorable environment for the immobilization of GOx. The AlGaN /GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5s when target glucose in a buffer with a pH value of 7.4 was added to the GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanorod surface. We could detect a wide range of concentrations from 0.5nMto125μM. The sensor exhibited a linear range from 0.5nMto14.5μM and an experiment limit of detection of 0.5nM. This demonstrates the possibility of using AlGaN /GaN HEMTs for noninvasive exhaled breath condensate based glucose detection of diabetic application.

  7. Enhancement of multiple-phonon resonant Raman scattering in Co-doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, The-Long; Vincent, Roger; Cherns, David; Dan, Nguyen Huy; Yu, Seong-Cho

    2008-08-01

    We have studied Raman scattering in Co-doped ZnO nanorods prepared by thermal diffusion. Experimental results show that the features of their non-resonant spectra are similar to Raman spectra from Co-doped ZnO materials investigated previously. Under resonant conditions, however, there is a strong enhancement of multiple-phonon Raman scattering processes. Longitudinal optical (LO)-phonon overtones up to eleventh order are observed. The modes become more obvious when the Co concentration diffused into ZnO nanorods goes to an appropriate value. This phenomenon is explained due to the shift of the band-gap energy and also due to the decrease in the intensity of near-band-edge luminescence. Our observation is in agreement with the prediction [J. F. Scott, Phys. Rev. B 2, 1209 (1970)] that the number of LO-phonon lines in ZnO is higher than that observed for CdS.

  8. IGZO thin film transistor biosensors functionalized with ZnO nanorods and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi-Chun; Yang, Chun-Hsu; Chen, Shu-Wen; Wu, Shou-Hao; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Huang, Jian-Jang

    2014-04-15

    We demonstrate a biosensor structure consisting of an IGZO (Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide) TFT (thin film transistor) and an extended sensing pad. The TFT acts as the sensing and readout device, while the sensing pad ensures the isolation of biological solution from the transistor channel layer, and meanwhile increases the sensing area. The biosensor is functionalized by first applying ZnO nanorods to increase the surface area for attracting electrical charges of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) antibodies. The device is able to selectively detect 36.2 fM of EGFR in the total protein solution of 0.1 ng/ml extracted from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Furthermore, the conjugation duration of the functionalized device with EGFR can be limited to 3 min, implying that the biosensor has the advantage for real-time detection. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation of high-aspect-ratio ZnO nanorod arrays for the detection of several organic solvents at room working temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yi-Mu; Zheng, Min-Ren

    2013-11-01

    Chemical sensors based on ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared using chemical bath deposition (CBD) to investigate the sensing performance for the detection of several organic solvents with low concentrations (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, v/v) at room temperature. High quality and high aspect-ratio (value ˜28) ZnO nanorods have a diameter of about 74 nm and average length of 2.1 μm. Nyquist plots and Bode plots of the ZnO sensors under different organic solvents were obtained by electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensing properties such as charge-transfer resistance, double-layer capacitance and dielectric parameters were determined from the impedance spectra to explore the charge transport in low-concentration aqueous solutions. The decreasing trend of the charge-transfer resistance (Rct) as decreasing solvent concentrations is observed, and a straight line at low frequency regime indicates adsorption of water molecules on the oxide surface. The sensitivity of the ZnO sensors was calculated from the resistance variation in target solvents and in deionized water. We demonstrated the use of ZnO nanorod arrays as a chemical sensor capable of generating a different response upon exposure to methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, acetone and water, wherein the methanol sensing exhibited highest sensitivity. In addition, the ZnO sensor also demonstrates good stability and reproducibility for detection of methanol and ethanol.

  10. Growth of ZnO Nanorods on Stainless Steel Wire Using Chemical Vapour Deposition and Their Photocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

    2014-01-01

    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small I uv/I vis ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics. PMID:24587716

  11. Growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire using chemical vapour deposition and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

    2014-01-01

    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small I(uv)/I(vis) ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics.

  12. Influence of ZnO nanorod on the luminescent and electrical properties of fluorescent dye-doped polymer nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Xu, Z.; Qian, L.; Tao, D. L.; Teng, F.; Xu, X. R.

    2006-11-01

    The luminescent properties of fluorescent dye-doped polymer dispersed with ZnO nanorods were investigated. Embedding ZnO nanorods in blend film results in a blue-shifted emission of fluorescent dye. It is accounted for in terms of the difference in permittivity between inorganic oxide nano-material and dye-doped polymer. Moreover, polymer light-emitting diodes with the addition of ZnO nanorods showed the lower threshold voltage and the higher charge current and electroluminescence efficiency.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays: Dependence of morphology and alignment on growth conditions

    SciT

    Azzez, Shrook A., E-mail: shurouq44@yahoo.com; Hassan, Z.; Alimanesh, M.

    Highly oriented zinc oxide nanorod were successfully grown on seeded p-type silicon substrate by hydrothermal methode. The morphology and the crystallinty of ZnO c-axis (002) arrays were systematically studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The effect of seed layer pre-annealing on nanorods properties was explained according to the nucleation site of ZnO nanoparticles on silicon substrate. In addition, the variation of the equal molarity of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamine concentrations in the reaction vessel play a crucial role related to the ZnO nanorods.

  14. Non-enzymatic Fluorescent Biosensor for Glucose Sensing Based on ZnO Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Hong Hanh; Pham, Van Thanh; Nguyen, Viet Tuyen; Sai, Cong Doanh; Hoang, Chi Hieu; Nguyen, The Binh

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a non-enzymatic fluorescent biosensor for glucose sensing based on ZnO nanorods. ZnO nanorods of high density, high crystallinity, and good alignment were grown on low-cost industrial copper substrates at low temperature. To grow them directly on the substrates without using a seed layer, we utilized a simple one-step seedless hydrothermal method, which is based on galvanic cell structure. Herein, the glucose-treated ZnO nanorods together with the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the sample during the photoluminescent measurement played the role of a catalyst. They decomposed glucose into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and gluconic acid, which is similar to the glucose oxidase enzyme (GOx) used in enzymatic sensors. Due to the formation of H2O2, the photoluminescence intensity of the UV emission peak of ZnO nanorods decreased as the glucose concentration increased from 1 mM to 100 mM. In comparison with glucose concentration of a normal human serum, which is in the range of 4.4-6.6 mM, the obtained results show potential of non-enzymatic fluorescent biosensors in medical applications.

  15. A potentiometric biosensor for the detection of notch 3 using functionalized ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ibupoto, Z H; Khun, K; Liu, X; Willander, M

    2014-09-01

    The notch signalling plays a vital and radical role for the activity of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, for the first time a particular biosensor is developed for the detection of notch 3. ZnO nanorods were fabricated on the gold coated glass substrate by hydrothermal method and afterwards were decorated with the gold nanoparticles by electrodepositing technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has shown the perpendicular to the substrate growth pattern of ZnO nanorods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed the c-axis oriented growth direction with wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO nanorods. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques have shown the presence of Zn, O and Au atoms in the prepared functional material. Furthermore, the anti-notch 3 was physically adsorbed on the gold nanoparticles functionalized ZnO nanorods. The developed potentiometric immunosensor has shown response to the wide range of notch 3 molecules. The detected range included 1.00 x 10(-5)-1.50 x 10(0 ) μg/mL with a sensitivity of 23.15 ± 0.31 mV/decade. The analytical parameters including reproducibility, stability, and selectivity were also investigated and the observed results indicate the acceptable performance of the notch 3 biosensor. Moreover, the proposed notch 3 biosensor exhibited a fast response time of 10 s.

  16. Effect of annealing temperature on the photoluminescence and scintillation properties of ZnO nanorods

    SciT

    Kurudirek, Sinem V.; Menkara, H.; Klein, Benjamin D. B.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of the annealing to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) and scintillation properties, as determined by pulse height distribution of alpha particle irradiation, has been investigated for solution grown ZnO nanorods For this investigation the ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on glass for 22 h at 95 ◦ C as a substrate using a solution based hydrothermal technique. The samples were first annealed for different times (30, 60, 90 and 120 min) at 300 ◦ C and then at different temperatures (100 ◦ C–600 ◦ C) in order to determine the optimum annealing time and temperature, respectively. Before annealing, themore » ZnO nanorod arrays showed a broad yellow–orange visible and near-band gap UV emission peaks. After annealing in a forming gas atmosphere, the intensity of the sub-band gap PL was significantly reduced and the near-band gap PL emission intensity correspondingly increased (especially at temperatures higher than 100 ◦ C). Based on the ratio of the peak intensity ratio before and after annealing, it was concluded that samples at 350 ◦ C for 90 min resulted in the best near-band gap PL emission. Similarly, the analysis of the pulse height spectrum resulting from alpha particles revealed that ZnO nanorod arrays similarly annealed at 350 ◦ C for 90 min exhibited the highest scintillation response.« less

  17. ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kun; Xie, Yiyang; Ma, Huali; Du, Yinxiao; Zeng, Fanguang; Ding, Pei; Gao, Zhiyuan; Xu, Chen; Sun, Jie

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, by virtue of one-dimensional ZnO nanorods and two-dimensional graphene film hybrid structures, both the enhanced current spreading and enhanced light extraction were realized at the same time. A 1 nm/1 nm Ni/Au layer was used as an interlayer between graphene and pGaN to form ohmic contact, which makes the device have a good forward conduction properties. Through the comparison of the two groups of making ZnO nanorods or not, it was found that the 30% light extraction efficiency of the device was improved by using the ZnO nanorods. By analysis key parameters of two groups such as the turn-on voltage, work voltage and reverse leakage current, it was proved that the method for preparing surface nano structure by hydrothermal method self-organization growth ZnO nanorods applied in GaN LEDs has no influence to device's electrical properties. The hybrid structure application in GaN LED, make an achievement of a good ohmic contact, no use of ITO and enhancement of light extraction at the same time, meanwhile it does not change the device structure, introduce additional process, worsen the electrical properties.

  18. Controlled growth of c-axis oriented ZnO nanorod array films by electrodeposition method and characterization.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Andaç; Hür, Evrim; Ilican, Saliha; Caglar, Yasemin; Caglar, Mujdat

    2014-07-15

    ZnO nanorod array films were deposited from aqueous solution containing different concentrations (1×10(-2) M and 5×10(-3) M) Zn(NO3)2⋅6H2O and C6H12N4 and at different electrodeposition times (i.e., 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min and 180 min) using chronoamperometry method on p-Si substrate. Surface morphology and crystal structural properties of ZnO films were investigated by XRD and FESEM to select ZnO films which have optimum properties. The highest TC(hkl) value was observed in (002) plane for the film, which is deposited at 1×10(-2) M and 120 min. It is also observed that the highly oriented nanorods in this film are denser. Additionally, the conductivity type was determined by using Mott-Schottky which is electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method (EIS). On the other hand, to investigate the utility of obtained ZnO on p-Si (p-Si/n-ZnO) as supercapacitor electrode active material, the electrochemical storage properties of p-Si/ZnO was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and repeating chronopotentiometry methods. It is suggested from electrochemical tests results that p-Si/ZnO is a promising electrode materials for supercapacitor applications that required low voltage (<10 V). Rectifiying behavior was observed from the I-V characteristic of nanorod array n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diode. The n value, Io and the ϕb were found to be 5.48, 1.93×10(-8) A and 0.75 eV, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mn-doping-induced photocatalytic activity enhancement of ZnO nanorods prepared on glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Nur Ajrina; Fauzia, Vivi; Iwan, S.; Roza, Liszulfah; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Budi, Setia

    2018-05-01

    Mn-doped ZnO nanorods were synthesized on glass substrates via a two-steps process of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and hydrothermal methods with four different concentrations Mn-doping (0, 1, 3, and 7 mol%). Introduction of Mn into ZnO is known could enhance the photocatalytic activity owing to the increase in the defect sites that effectively suppress the recombination of free electrons and holes. In this study, results show that Mn-doping has effectively modified the nucleations and crystal growth of ZnO, as evidenced by the increasing in the diameter, height, and the number of nanorods per unit area, besides slightly reduced the band gap and increased the oxygen vacancy concentrations in the ZnO lattice. This condition has successfully multiplied the photocatalytic performance of the ZnO nanorods in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) compared to the undoped-ZnO sample where in the typical process the MB can be degraded approximately 77% within only 35 min under a UV light irradiation.

  20. Functionalized vertically aligned ZnO nanorods for application in electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor based pH sensors and label-free immuno-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Narendra; Senapati, Sujata; Kumar, Satyendra; Kumar, Jitendra; Panda, Siddhartha

    2016-04-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on a SiO2/Si surface by optimization of the temperature and atmosphere for annealing of the seed. The seed layer annealed at 500 °C in vacuum provided well separated and uniform seeds which also provided the best condition to get densely packed, uniformly distributed, and vertically aligned nanorods. These nanorods grown on the substrates were used to fabricate electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) devices for pH sensing. Etching of ZnO at acidic pH prevents the direct use of nanorods for pH sensing. Therefore, the nanorods functionalised with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) were utilized for pH sensing and showed the pH sensitivity of 50.1 mV/pH. APTES is also known to be used as a linker to immobilize biomolecules (such as antibodies). The EIS device with APTES functionalized nanorods was used for the label free detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Finally, voltage shifts of 23 mV and 35 mV were observed with PSA concentrations of 1 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml, respectively.

  1. Eradication of Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria by Ni Doped ZnO Nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed; Ismail, Muhammad; Mansoor, Qaisar; Mahmood, Arshad; Ahmad, Amaar

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, ZnO nanorods doped with varying amounts of Ni have been prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique. Structural investigations provide the evidence that Ni is successfully doped into ZnO host matrix without having any secondary phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal the formation of rodlike structure of undoped ZnO with average length and diameter of 1 μm and 80 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results show that the E1LO phonons mode band shifts to the higher values with Ni doping, which is attributed to large amount of crystal defects. Ni doping is also found to greatly influence the optical properties of ZnO nanorods. The influence of Ni doping on antibacterial characteristics of ZnO nanorods have been studied by measuring the growth curves of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria in the presence of prepared nanorods. ZnO nanorods antibacterial potency is found to increase remarkably with Ni doping against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa microbials, which might possibly be due to the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, it is observed that Ni doped ZnO nanorods completely eradicates these multi-drug resistant bacteria.

  2. Ag nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod array on a mechanical flexible substrate with enhanced optical and antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Tse, Wai Hei; Chen, Longyan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Heteronanostructured zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) array are vertically grown on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a hydrothermal method followed by an in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) through a photoreduction process. The Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorods on PDMS are measured with an average diameter of 160 nm and an average length of 2 μm. ZnO NRs measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) shows highly crystalline with a lattice fringe of 0.255 nm, which corresponds to the (0002) planes in ZnO crystal lattice. The average diameter of the Ag NPs in situ deposited on the ZnO NRs is estimated at 22 ± 2 nm. As compared to the bare ZnO NRs, the heterostructured Ag-ZnO nanorod array shows enhanced ultraviolet (UV) absorption at 440 nm, and significant emission in the visible region (λem = 542 nm). In addition, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorod array shows obvious improvement as compared to bare ZnO nanorod array. The cytotoxicity of ZnO nanorod array with and without Ag NPs was studied by using 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. No significant toxic effect is imposed on the cells.

  3. Ag nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod array on a mechanical flexible substrate with enhanced optical and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Tse, Wai Hei; Chen, Longyan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Heteronanostructured zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) array are vertically grown on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a hydrothermal method followed by an in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) through a photoreduction process. The Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorods on PDMS are measured with an average diameter of 160 nm and an average length of 2 μm. ZnO NRs measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) shows highly crystalline with a lattice fringe of 0.255 nm, which corresponds to the (0002) planes in ZnO crystal lattice. The average diameter of the Ag NPs in situ deposited on the ZnO NRs is estimated at 22 ± 2 nm. As compared to the bare ZnO NRs, the heterostructured Ag-ZnO nanorod array shows enhanced ultraviolet (UV) absorption at 440 nm, and significant emission in the visible region (λem = 542 nm). In addition, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorod array shows obvious improvement as compared to bare ZnO nanorod array. The cytotoxicity of ZnO nanorod array with and without Ag NPs was studied by using 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. No significant toxic effect is imposed on the cells.

  4. Effect of self-organization, defects, impurities, and autocatalytic processes on the parameters of ZnO films and nanorods

    SciT

    Mezdrogina, M. M., E-mail: Margaret.M@mail.ioffe.ru; Eremenko, M. V.; Levitskii, V. S.

    The effects of the parameters of ZnO-film deposition onto different substrates using the method of ac magnetron sputtering in a gas mixture of argon and oxygen hare studied. The phenomenon of self-organization is observed, which leads to invariability of the surface morphology of the ZnO films upon a variation in the substrate materials and deposition parameters. The parameters of the macro- and micro-photoluminescence spectra of the films differ insignificantly from the parameters of the photoluminescence spectra of bulk ZnO crystals obtained by the method of hydrothermal growth. The presence of intense emission with a narrow full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) inmore » different regions of the spectrum allows ZnO films obtained by magnetron sputtering doped with rare-earth metal impurities (REIs) to be considered as a promising material for the creation of optoelectronic devices working in a broad spectral range. The possibility of the implementation of magnetic ordering upon legierung with REIs significantly broadens the functional possibilities of ZnO films. The parameters of the photoluminescence spectra of ZnO nanorods are determined by their geometrical parameters and by the concentration and type of the impurities introduced.« less

  5. Tunable Spectrum Selectivity for Multiphoton Absorption with Enhanced Visible Light Trapping in ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Hong; Lim, Fang Sheng; Toh, Alfred Zhen Yang; Zheng, Xia-Xi; Dee, Chang Fu; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop; Chai, Siang-Piao; Chang, Wei Sea

    2018-04-17

    Observation of visible light trapping in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) correlated to the optical and photoelectrochemical properties is reported. In this study, ZnO NR diameter and c-axis length respond primarily at two different regions, UV and visible light, respectively. ZnO NR diameter exhibits UV absorption where large ZnO NR diameter area increases light absorption ability leading to high efficient electron-hole pair separation. On the other hand, ZnO NR c-axis length has a dominant effect in visible light resulting from a multiphoton absorption mechanism due to light reflection and trapping behavior in the free space between adjacent ZnO NRs. Furthermore, oxygen vacancies and defects in ZnO NRs are associated with the broad visible emission band of different energy levels also highlighting the possibility of the multiphoton absorption mechanism. It is demonstrated that the minimum average of ZnO NR c-axis length must satisfy the linear regression model of Z p,min = 6.31d to initiate the multiphoton absorption mechanism under visible light. This work indicates the broadening of absorption spectrum from UV to visible light region by incorporating a controllable diameter and c-axis length on vertically aligned ZnO NRs, which is important in optimizing the design and functionality of electronic devices based on light absorption mechanism. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Investigation of the phototoxic effect of ZnO nanorods on fibroblasts and melanoma human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishwar, S.; Siddique, M.; Israr-Qadir, M.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.; Öllinger, K.

    2014-11-01

    Photocytotoxic effects of as-grown and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods coated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) have been studied on human cells, i.e. melanoma and foreskin fibroblast, under dark and ultraviolet light exposures. Zinc oxide nanorods have been grown on the very sharp tip (diameter = 700 nm) of borosilicate glass pipettes and then were coated by the photosensitizer for targeted investigations inside human cells. The coated glass pipette’s tip with photosensitizer has been inserted inside the cells with the help of a micro-manipulator and irradiated through ultraviolet light (UVA), which reduces the membrane potential of the mitochondria leading to cell death. Cell viability loss has been detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay when exposed to the dissolved ZnO nanorods and the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been detected along with the enhanced cytotoxic effect under UVA irradiation. Additionally, the influence of the lipid soluble antioxidant vitamin E and water-soluble N-acetyl-cysteine toward the enhancement or reduction of the toxicity has been investigated. A comparative analysis of the toxic nature of ZnO nanorods has been drawn between normal human fibroblast and melanoma cells, which can be favorable for understanding the clinical setting for killing tumor cells.

  7. Vertical growth of ZnO nanorods on ZnO seeded FTO substrate for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) were electrochemically grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) and ZnO seeded FTO substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, Raman spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO grown on a seeded FTO substrate has a high crystallinity, crystal quality and less atomic defects. Felid emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images display a high growth density of NRs grown on seeded FTO substrate compared to NRs grown on FTO substrate. The efficiency of the DSSCs based on NRs grown on FTO and seeded FTO substrates is 0.85 and 1.52 %, respectively. UV-Vis absorption spectra and electrochemical impedance spectra depict that the NRs grown on seeded FTO photoanode have higher dye absorption and charge recombination resistance than that of the NRs grown on FTO substrate.

  8. Defects in ZnO nanorods prepared by a hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Tam, K H; Cheung, C K; Leung, Y H; Djurisić, A B; Ling, C C; Beling, C D; Fung, S; Kwok, W M; Chan, W K; Phillips, D L; Ding, L; Ge, W K

    2006-10-26

    ZnO nanorod arrays were fabricated using a hydrothermal method. The nanorods were studied by scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and positron annihilation spectroscopy before and after annealing in different environments and at different temperatures. Annealing atmosphere and temperature had significant effects on the PL spectrum, while in all cases the positron diffusion length and PL decay times were increased. We found that, while the defect emission can be significantly reduced by annealing at 200 degrees C, the rods still have large defect concentrations as confirmed by their low positron diffusion length and short PL decay time constants.

  9. Engineering safer-by-design, transparent, silica-coated ZnO nanorods with reduced DNA damage potential

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Watson, Christa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Elder, Alison; Brain, Joseph D.; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles absorb UV light efficiently while remaining transparent in the visible light spectrum rendering them attractive in cosmetics and polymer films. Their broad use, however, raises concerns regarding potential environmental health risks and it has been shown that ZnO nanoparticles can induce significant DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Even though research on ZnO nanoparticle synthesis has made great progress, efforts on developing safer ZnO nanoparticles that maintain their inherent optoelectronic properties while exhibiting minimal toxicity are limited. Here, a safer-by-design concept was pursued by hermetically encapsulating ZnO nanorods in a biologically inert, nanothin amorphous SiO2 coating during their gas-phase synthesis. It is demonstrated that the SiO2 nanothin layer hermetically encapsulates the core ZnO nanorods without altering their optoelectronic properties. Furthermore, the effect of SiO2 on the toxicological profile of the core ZnO nanorods was assessed using the Nano-Cometchip assay by monitoring DNA damage at a cellular level using human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6). Results indicate significantly lower DNA damage (>3 times) for the SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods compared to uncoated ones. Such an industry-relevant, scalable, safer-by-design formulation of nanostructured materials can liberate their employment in nano-enabled products and minimize risks to the environment and human health. PMID:24955241

  10. Polarization-dependent DANES study on vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods

    SciT

    Sun, Chengjun; Park, Chang-In; Jin, Zhenlan

    2016-05-01

    The local structural and local density of states of vertically-aligned ZnO nanorods were examined by using a polarization-dependent diffraction anomalous near edge structure (DANES) measurements from c-oriented ZnO nanorods at the Zn K edge with the incident x-ray electric field parallel and perpendicular to the x-ray momentum transfer direction. Orientation-dependent local structures determined by DANES were comparable with polarization-dependent EXAFS results. Unlike other techniques, polarization-dependent DANES can uniquely describe the orientation-dependent local structural properties and the local density of states of a selected element in selected-phased crystals of compounds or mixed-phased structures.

  11. Highly active lanthanum doped ZnO nanorods for photodegradation of metasystox.

    PubMed

    Korake, P V; Dhabbe, R S; Kadam, A N; Gaikwad, Y B; Garadkar, K M

    2014-01-05

    La-doped ZnO nanorods with different La contents were synthesized by microwave assisted method and characterized by various sophisticated techniques such as XRD, UV-Vis., EDS, XPS, SEM and TEM. The XRD patterns of the La-doped ZnO indicate hexagonal crystal structure with an average crystallite size of 30nm. It was found that the crystallite size of La-doped ZnO is much smaller as compared to pure ZnO and decreases with increasing La content. The photocatalytic activity of 0.5mol% La-doped ZnO in the degradation of metasystox was studied. It was observed that degradation efficiency of metasystox over La-doped ZnO increases up to 0.5mol% doping then decreases for higher doping levels. Among the catalyst studied, the 0.5mol% La-doped ZnO was the most active, showing high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of metasystox. The maximum reduction of concentration of metasystox was observed under static condition at pH 8. Reduction in the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of metasystox was observed after 150min. The cytotoxicological studies of meristematic root tip cells of Allium cepa were studied. The results obtained indicate that photocatalytically degraded products of metasystox were less toxic as compared to metasystox. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth of thin film containing high density ZnO nanorods with low temperature calcinated seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Rudrashish; Samal, Rudranarayan; Khatua, Lizina; Das, Susanta Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In this work we demonstrate the growth of thin film containing high density ZnO nanorods by using drop casting of the seed layer calcinated at a low temperature of 132 °C. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) method is used to grow the nanorods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) are performed for the structural and morphological characterizations of the nanorods. The average diameter and length of nanorods are found to be 33 nm and 270 nm respectively. The bandgap of the material is estimated to be 3.2 eV from the UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The reported method is much more cost-effective and can be used for growth of ZnO nanorods for various applications.

  13. Detection of quantum well induced single degenerate-transition-dipoles in ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Siddharth; Ghosh, Moumita; Seibt, Michael; Rao, G Mohan

    2016-02-07

    Quantifying and characterising atomic defects in nanocrystals is difficult and low-throughput using the existing methods such as high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In this article, using a defocused wide-field optical imaging technique, we demonstrate that a single ultrahigh-piezoelectric ZnO nanorod contains a single defect site. We model the observed dipole-emission patterns from optical imaging with a multi-dimensional dipole and find that the experimentally observed dipole pattern and model-calculated patterns are in excellent agreement. This agreement suggests the presence of vertically oriented degenerate-transition-dipoles in vertically aligned ZnO nanorods. The HRTEM of the ZnO nanorod shows the presence of a stacking fault, which generates a localised quantum well induced degenerate-transition-dipole. Finally, we elucidate that defocused wide-field imaging can be widely used to characterise defects in nanomaterials to answer many difficult questions concerning the performance of low-dimensional devices, such as in energy harvesting, advanced metal-oxide-semiconductor storage, and nanoelectromechanical and nanophotonic devices.

  14. Electrochemical l-Lactic Acid Sensor Based on Immobilized ZnO Nanorods with Lactate Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Ali Shah, Syed Muhammad Usman; Khun, Kimleang; Willander, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    In this work, fabrication of gold coated glass substrate, growth of ZnO nanorods and potentiometric response of lactic acid are explained. The biosensor was developed by immobilizing the lactate oxidase on the ZnO nanorods in combination with glutaraldehyde as a cross linker for lactate oxidase enzyme. The potentiometric technique was applied for the measuring the output (EMF) response of l-lactic acid biosensor. We noticed that the present biosensor has wide linear detection range of concentration from 1 × 10−4–1 × 100 mM with acceptable sensitivity about 41.33 ± 1.58 mV/decade. In addition, the proposed biosensor showed fast response time less than 10 s, a good selectivity towards l-lactic acid in presence of common interfering substances such as ascorbic acid, urea, glucose, galactose, magnesium ions and calcium ions. The present biosensor based on immobilized ZnO nanorods with lactate oxidase sustained its stability for more than three weeks. PMID:22736960

  15. Electrochemical L-lactic acid sensor based on immobilized ZnO nanorods with lactate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Shah, Syed Muhammad Usman Ali; Khun, Kimleang; Willander, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    In this work, fabrication of gold coated glass substrate, growth of ZnO nanorods and potentiometric response of lactic acid are explained. The biosensor was developed by immobilizing the lactate oxidase on the ZnO nanorods in combination with glutaraldehyde as a cross linker for lactate oxidase enzyme. The potentiometric technique was applied for the measuring the output (EMF) response of l-lactic acid biosensor. We noticed that the present biosensor has wide linear detection range of concentration from 1 × 10(-4)-1 × 10(0) mM with acceptable sensitivity about 41.33 ± 1.58 mV/decade. In addition, the proposed biosensor showed fast response time less than 10 s, a good selectivity towards l-lactic acid in presence of common interfering substances such as ascorbic acid, urea, glucose, galactose, magnesium ions and calcium ions. The present biosensor based on immobilized ZnO nanorods with lactate oxidase sustained its stability for more than three weeks.

  16. Well-aligned Vertically Oriented ZnO Nanorod Arrays and their Application in Inverted Small Molecule Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Wu, Shang-Hsuan; Hsiao, Li-Jen; Budiawan, Widhya; Chen, Shih-Lun; Tu, Wei-Chen; Lee, Chia-Yen; Chang, Yia-Chung; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2018-04-25

    This manuscript describes how to design and fabricate efficient inverted solar cells, which are based on a two-dimensional conjugated small molecule (SMPV1) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM), by utilizing ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown on a high quality Al-doped ZnO (AZO) seed layer. The inverted SMPV1:PC71BM solar cells with ZnO NRs that grew on both a sputtered and sol-gel processed AZO seed layer are fabricated. Compared with the AZO thin film prepared by the sol-gel method, the sputtered AZO thin film exhibits better crystallization and lower surface roughness, according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements. The orientation of the ZnO NRs grown on a sputtered AZO seed layer shows better vertical alignment, which is beneficial for the deposition of the subsequent active layer, forming better surface morphologies. Generally, the surface morphology of the active layer mainly dominates the fill factor (FF) of the devices. Consequently, the well-aligned ZnO NRs can be used to improve the carrier collection of the active layer and to increase the FF of the solar cells. Moreover, as an anti-reflection structure, it can also be utilized to enhance the light harvesting of the absorption layer, with the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cells reaching 6.01%, higher than the sol-gel based solar cells with an efficiency of 4.74%.

  17. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods: Effects of zinc salt concentration, various solvents and alkaline mineralizers

    SciT

    Edalati, Khatereh, E-mail: kh_ed834@stu.um.ac.ir; Shakiba, Atefeh; Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized ZnO nanorods by a simple hydrothermal process at 60 °C. • Effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent and alkaline mineralizer was studied. • Increasing concentration of zinc salt changed ZnO nucleation system. • NaOH yielded better results in the production of nanorods in both solvents. • Methanol performed better in the formation of nanorods using the two mineralizers. - Abstract: ZnO has been produced using various methods in the solid, gaseous, and liquid states, and the hydrothermal synthesis at low temperatures has been shown to be an environmentally-friendly one. The current work utilizes a low reactionmore » temperature (60 °C) for the simple hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorod morphologies. Furthermore, the effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent type and alkaline mineralizer type on ZnO nanorods synthesis at a low reaction temperature by hydrothermal processing was studied. Obtained samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increasing the concentration of the starting zinc salt from 0.02 to 0.2 M changed ZnO nucleation system from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous state. The XRD results confirmed the production hexagonal ZnO nanostructures of with a crystallite size of 40.4 nm. Varying the experimental parameters (mineralizer and solvent) yielded ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 90–250 nm and lengths of 1–2 μm.« less

  18. Seed layer effect on different properties and UV detection capability of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods over SiO2/p-Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannakashappanavar, Basavaraj S.; Byrareddy, C. R.; Kumar, Pesala Sudheer; Yadav, Aniruddh Bahadur

    2018-05-01

    Hydrothermally grown one dimensional ZnO nanostructures are among the most widely used semiconductor materials to build high-efficiency electronic devices for various applications. Few researchers have addressed the growth mechanism and effect of ZnO seed layer on different properties of ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal method, instead, no one has synthesized ZnO nanorod over SiO2/p-Si substrate. The aim of this study is to study the effect of ZnO seed layer and the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods over SiO2/p-Si substrate. To achieve the goal, we have synthesized ZnO nanorods over different thickness ZnO seed layers by using the hydrothermal method on SiO2/p-Si substrate. The effects of c-plane area ratio were identified for the growth rate of c-plane, reaction rate constant and stagnant layer thickness also calculated by using a modified rate growth equation. We have identified maximum seed layer thickness for the growth of vertical ZnO nanorod. A step dislocation in the ZnO nanorods grown on 150and 200 nm thick seed layers was observed, the magnitude of Burges vector was calculated for this disorder. The seed layer and ZnO nanorods were characterized by AFM, XPS, UV-visible, XRD (X-ray diffraction, and SEM(scanning electron microscope). To justify the application of the grown ZnO nanorods Ti/Au was deposited over ZnO nanorods grown over all seed layers for the fabrication of photoconductor type UV detector.

  19. Inactivation of bacterial biofilms using visible-light-activated unmodified ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponiene, Kristina; Serevičius, Tomas; Luksiene, Zivile; Juršėnas, Saulius

    2017-09-01

    Various zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are widely used for photocatalytic antibacterial applications. Since ZnO possesses a wide bandgap, it is believed that only UV light may efficiently assist bacterial inactivation, and diverse crystal lattice modifications should be applied in order to narrow the bandgap for efficient visible-light absorption. In this work we show that even unmodified ZnO nanorods grown by an aqueous chemical growth technique are found to possess intrinsic defects that can be activated by visible light (λ = 405 nm) and successfully applied for total inactivation of various highly resistant bacterial biofilms rather than more sensitive planktonic bacteria. Time-resolved fluorescence analysis has revealed that visible-light excitation creates long-lived charge carriers (τ > 1 μs), which might be crucial for destructive biochemical reactions achieving significant bacterial biofilm inactivation. ZnO nanorods covered with bacterial biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis MSCL 302 after illumination by visible light (λ = 405 nm) were inactivated by 2 log, and Listeria monocytogenes ATCL3C 7644 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilms by 4 log. Heterogenic waste-water microbial biofilms, consisting of a mixed population of mesophilic bacteria after illumination with visible light were also completely destroyed.

  20. Microstructure-Dependent Visible-Light Driven Photoactivity of Sputtering-Assisted Synthesis of Sulfide-Based Visible-Light Sensitizer onto ZnO Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuan-Chang; Chung, Cheng-Chia; Lo, Ya-Ju; Wang, Chein-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The ZnO-CdS core-shell composite nanorods with CdS shell layer thicknesses of 5 and 20 nm were synthesized by combining the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods with the sputtering thin-film deposition of CdS crystallites. The microstructures and optical properties of the ZnO-CdS nanorods were associated with the CdS shell layer thickness. A thicker CdS shell layer resulted in a rougher surface morphology, more crystal defects, and a broader optical absorbance edge in the ZnO-CdS rods. The ZnO-CdS (20 nm) nanorods thus engaged in more photoactivity in this study. When they were further subjected to a postannealing procedure in ambient Ar/H2, this resulted in the layer-like CdS shell layers being converted into the serrated CdS shell layers. By contrast, the ZnO-CdS nanorods conducted with the postannealing procedure exhibited superior photoactivity and photoelectrochemical performance; the substantial changes in the microstructures and optical properties of the composite nanorods following postannealing in this study might account for the observed results. PMID:28774134

  1. H2O2 sensing using HRP modified catalyst-free ZnO nanorods synthesized by RF sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Amit; Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Priti; Singh, Sunil Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Catalyst-free ( 00 l) oriented ZnO nanorods (NRs) -based biosensor for the H2O2 sensing has been reported. The (002) oriented ZnO NRs as confirmed by X-ray diffraction were successfully grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by radio frequency (RF) sputtering technique without using any catalyst. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme was immobilized on ZnO NRs by physical adsorption technique to prepare the biosensor. In this HRP/ZnO NR/ITO bioelectrode, nafion solution was added to form a tight membrane on surface. The prepared bioelectrode has been used for biosensing measurements by electrochemical analyzer. The electrochemical studies reveal that the prepared HRP/ZnO NR/ITO biosensor is highly sensitive to the detection of H2O2 over a linear range of 0.250-10 μM. The ZnO NR-based biosensor showed lower value of detection limit (0.125 μM) and higher sensitivity (13.40 µA/µM cm2) towards H2O2. The observed value of higher sensitivity attributed to larger surface area of ZnO nanostructure for effective loading of HRP besides its high electron communication capability. In addition, the biosensor also shows lower value of enzyme's kinetic parameter (Michaelis-Menten constant, K m) of 0.262 μM which indicates enhanced enzyme affinity of HRP to H2O2. The reported biosensor may be useful for various applications in biosensing, clinical, food, and beverage industry.

  2. Tuning the optical properties of ZnO nanorods by variation of precursor concentration through hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Lakshmi; Kar, Asit Kumar

    2018-05-01

    ZnO nanorods with varying precursor concentration have been successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The effect of the precursor concentration on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the resulting nanorods was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The crystalline structural characterization demonstrated that the synthesized materials crystallize in pure ZnO wurtzite structure without any other secondary phase. SEM micrographs demonstrate nanorod type features in all the samples. In addition, they show that increase of precursor concentration changes the length and diameter of nanorods. The UV-Vis studies show a strong absorption band in UV region at 373 nm attributed to the band-edge absorption of wurtzite hexagonal ZnO, blue shifted relative to its bulk form (380 nm). The PL spectra of obtained nanorods excited at 360 nm present broad visible emission. Moreover, as the visible region (from 510 to 550 nm) is concerned, it is speculated that the increase of the precursor concentration affects strongly the kind of interstitial defects (Oi, Zni and Vo) formed in ZnO nanorods. The luminescence intensity decreases with the increase of precursor concentration.

  3. Full coverage of perovskite layer onto ZnO nanorods via a modified sequential two-step deposition method for efficiency enhancement in perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruankham, Pipat; Wongratanaphisan, Duangmanee; Gardchareon, Atcharawon; Phadungdhitidhada, Surachet; Choopun, Supab; Sagawa, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Full coverage of perovskite layer onto ZnO nanorod substrates with less pinholes is crucial for achieving high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. In this work, a two-step sequential deposition method is modified to achieve an appropriate property of perovskite (MAPbI3) film. Surface treatment of perovskite layer and its precursor have been systematically performed and their morphologies have been investigated. By pre-wetting of lead iodide (PbI2) and letting it dry before reacting with methylammonium iodide (MAI) provide better coverage of perovskite film onto ZnO nanorod substrate than one without any treatment. An additional MAI deposition followed with toluene drop-casting technique on the perovskite film is also found to increase the coverage and enhance the transformation of PbI2 to MAPbI3. These lead to longer charge carrier lifetime, resulting in an enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 1.21% to 3.05%. The modified method could been applied to a complex ZnO nanorods/TiO2 nanoparticles substrate. The enhancement in PCE to 3.41% is observed. These imply that our introduced method provides a simple way to obtain the full coverage and better transformation to MAPbI3 phase for enhancement in performances of perovskite solar cells.

  4. Annealing effect on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorod array prepared by a PLD-assistant wet chemical method

    SciT

    Wei Sufeng; Lian Jianshe; Wu Hua, E-mail: weisufeng@gmail.com

    2010-11-15

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by a wet chemical method on the glass substrate with ZnO thin film as seed layer prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The effect of annealing temperature on the luminescence characteristics was investigated. As the annealing temperature increased, the photoluminescence properties show a general enhancing tendency. The nanorod array with high ultraviolet emission and negligible visible light emission (designated by the photoluminescence intensity ratio of ultraviolet to visible emission of 66.4) is obtained by annealing the sample at 700 deg. C for 1 h. Based on the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectra,more » the mechanisms of visible emission were discussed. - Research Highlights: {yields} ZnO nanorod array with good crystallography, low defects concentration and good optical property was obtained after annealed at 700 deg. C for 1 h. {yields} The transition from the conduction band to the O{sub i} level may be responsible for the yellow-green emission. {yields} The yellow emission may originate from the presence of Zn(OH){sub 2} on the surface or the band transition from conduction band to V{sub o}Zn{sub i} level. {yields} The transition from the Zn{sub i} level to the level should produce an orange emission or an orange-red emission.« less

  5. Chemical growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on textured nanoparticle nanoribbons and its second-harmonic generation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Zhou; Wang, Xian; Liu, Jian; Yan, Shanshan; Ding, Yanyan; Wang, Zhengzhou; Hu, Yuan

    2006-07-01

    On the basis of the highly oriented ZnO nanoparticle nanoribbons as the growth seed layer (GSL) and solution growth technique, we have synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod arrays with high density over a large area and multi-teeth brush nanostructure, respectively, according to the density degree of the arrangement of nanoparticle nanoribbons GSL on the glass substrate. This controllable and convenient technique opens the possibility of creating nanostructured film for industrial fabrication and may represent a facile way to get similar structures of other compounds by using highly oriented GSL to promote the vertical arrays growth. The growth mechanism of the formation of the ordered nanorod arrays is also discussed. The second-order nonlinear optical coefficient d31 of the vertical ZnO nanorod arrays measured by the Maker fringes technique is 11.3 times as large as that of d36 KH 2PO 4 (KDP).

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Mg-doped ZnO Nanorods for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemar, H.; Das, N. C.; Wanekaya, A.; Delong, R.; Ghosh, K.

    2013-03-01

    Nanomaterials research has become a major attraction in the field of advanced materials research in the area of Physics, Chemistry, and Materials Science. Bio-compatible and chemically stable metal nanoparticles have biomedical applications that includes drug delivery, cell and DNA separation, gene cloning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This research is aimed at the fabrication and characterization of Mg-doped ZnO nanorods. Hydrothermal synthesis of undoped ZnO and Mg-doped ZnO nanorods is carried out using aqueous solutions of Zn(NO3)2 .6H2O, MgSO4, and using NH4OH as hydrolytic catalyst. Nanomaterials of different sizes and shapes were synthesized by varying the process parameters such as molarity (0.15M, 0.3M, 0.5M) and pH (8-11) of the precursors, growth temperature (130°C), and annealing time during the hydrothermal Process. Structural, morphological, and optical properties are studied using various techniques such as XRD, SEM, UV-vis and PL spectroscopy. Detailed structural, and optical properties will be discussed in this presentation. This work is partially supported by National Cancer Institute (1 R15 CA139390-01).

  7. Growth of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays and Their Application for Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhaolin; Yao, Juncai

    2017-11-01

    We have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs) on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates by a facile chemical bath deposition method. We used field-emission scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy to study the morphology, crystalline structure and optical absorption of the fabricated ZNRAs, respectively. The results showed that ZnO nanorods stood almost perpendicularly on the substrate, were about 30-50 nm in diameter and 800-900 nm in length, and were wurtzite-structured (hexagonal) ZnO. In addition, well-aligned ZNRAs exhibited a weak absorption in the visible region and had an optical band gap value of 3.28 eV. Furthermore, a hybrid ZNRAs/polymer photovoltaic device was made, under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination (light intensity, ˜100 mW/cm2), and the device showed an open circuit voltage ( V oc) of 0.32 V, a short circuit current density ( J sc) of 7.67 mA/cm2, and a fill factor ( FF) of 0.37, yielding an overall power conversion efficiency of 0.91%. Also, the exciton dissociation and transportation processes of charge carriers in the device under illumination were explained according to its current density-voltage ( J- V) curve and the energy level diagram.

  8. On the growth and photocatalytic activity of the vertically aligned ZnO nanorods grafted by CdS shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirak, M.; Moradlou, O.; Bayati, M. R.; Nien, Y. T.; Moshfegh, A. Z.

    2013-05-01

    We have studied systematically photocatalytic properties of the vertically aligned ZnO@CdS core-shell nanorods where the features were grown through a multistep procedure including sol-gel for the formation of ZnO seed layer, hydrothermal process to grow ZnO nanorods, and successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process to deposit CdS nanoshells onto the ZnO nanorods. Formation of the ZnO seed layer and vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (d ∼ 40 nm) with a hexagonal cross-section was confirmed by AFM and SEM imaging. Successful capping of ZnO nanorods with homogeneous CdS nanocrystallites (∼5 nm) was ascertained by HRTEM diffraction and imaging. Optical properties of the samples were also studied using UV-vis spectrophotometry. It was found that the absorption edge of the CdS shell has a red shift when its thickness increases. Photocatalytic activity of the samples was examined by photodecomposition of methylene blue under UV and visible lights where the maximum reaction rate constant was found to be 0.012 min-1 under UV illumination and 0.007 min-1 under visible light. The difference in catalytic activities of the ZnO@CdS core-shell nanorods under UV and visible irradiations was explained based upon the electronic structure as well as the arrangement of the energy levels in the ZnO@CdS core-shells. It is shown that the structure and photocatalytic efficiency of the samples can be tuned by manipulating the SILAR variables.

  9. Size effect of ZnO nanorods on physicochemical properties of plasticized starch composites.

    PubMed

    Guz, L; Famá, L; Candal, R; Goyanes, S

    2017-02-10

    This work demonstrates that the size of ZnO nanorods (ZnONR) with similar aspect ratio determines several physicochemical and microbiological properties of thermoplastic starch composites (TPS/ZnONR) at a given concentration of ZnONRs. A combination of sol-gel and hydrothermal methods was developed to synthesize ZnONR with different sizes but similar aspect ratios. Starch composites containing 1wt.% of ZnONR were prepared by casting. Composites with smaller size nanorods (ZnONR-S) showed more efficiency in shielding UVA radiation and had a higher solubility and water vapor permeability than those with larger nanorods (ZnONR-L). Mechanical properties, biodegradability and antibacterial activity were also influenced by the size of the ZnONR. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that composites with ZnONR-S maintained the typical B-V type starch structure, intensifying the V-type starch structure peaks, while composite with ZnONR-L induced the formation of an amorphous structure, preventing starch retrogradation during storage. Properties affected by nanorods size are fundamental in determining composite applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nonenzymetic glucose sensing using carbon functionalized carbon doped ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Pinak; Majumder, Tanmoy; Dhar, Saurab; Mondal, Suvra Prakash

    2018-04-01

    Fabrication of highly sensitive, long stability and low cost glucose sensors are attractive for biomedical applications and food industries. Most of the commercial glucose sensors are based on enzymatic detection which suffers from problems underlying in enzyme activities. Development of high sensitive, enzyme free sensors is a great challenge for next generation glucose sensing applications. In our study Zinc oxide nanorod sensing electrodes have been grown using low cost hydrothermal route and their nonenzymatic glucose sensing properties have been demonstrated with carbon functionalized, carbon doped ZnO nanorods (C-ZnO NRs) in neutral medium (0.1M PBS, pH 7.4) using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements. The C-ZnO NRs electrodes demonstrated glucose sensitivity˜ 13.66 µAmM-1cm-2 in the concentration range 0.7 - 14 mM.

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays via Inverted Monolayer Colloidal Crystals Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Ding, Taotao; Qi, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Juan; Chen, Jingwen; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2018-04-01

    The periodically ordered ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays have been successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal approach on the silicon substrates by templating of the TiO2 ring deriving from the polystyrene (PS) nanosphere monolayer colloidal crystals (MCC). With the inverted MCC mask, sol-gel-derived ZnO seeds could serve as the periodic nucleation positions for the site-specific growth of ZnO NRs. The large-scale patterned arrays of single ZnO NR with good side-orientation can be readily produced. According to the experimental results, the as-integrated ZnO NR arrays showed an excellent crystal quality and optical property, very suitable for optoelectronic applications such as stimulated emitters and ZnO photonic crystal devices.

  12. A hetero-homogeneous investigation of chemical bath deposited Ga-doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhsha, Amir Hosein; Abdizadeh, Hossein; Pourshaban, Erfan; Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures of zinc oxide (ZnO) have been in the center of attention, mostly for electronic applications due to their distinctive properties such as high electron mobility (100 cm2V-1s-1) and crystallinity. Thanks to its high density of vacancies and interstitial sites, wurtzite lattice of ZnO is a suitable host for gallium (Ga) as a dopant element. Herein, ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) are synthesized by a low-temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD) method with various concentrations of gallium nitrate hydrate as a dopant precursor. Structural and morphological analyses confirm that optimum properties of gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) are obtained at 1% (Ga to Zn molar ratio). Owing to the replacement of smaller Ga3+ ions with Zn2+ ions in the GZO structure, a slight shift of (002) peak to higher angles could be observed in XRD pattern of GZO NRAs. The scanning electron microscope images demonstrate a proliferation in the ZnO NRAs length from 650 nm for undoped ZnO (UZO) to 1200 nm for GZO-1%. However, increasing the dopant concentration above 2.5% results in formation of homogeneous zinc gallium oxide in the bulk solution, which is a sign of inefficient process of doping in GZO NRAs. Furthermore, photoluminescence spectroscopy is used to characterize the band-gap variation of the samples, which demonstrates a small red-shift in the UV emission peak and a decrease in visible emission peak intensity with introducing Ga in ZnO lattice. Lower resistivity for GZO-1% (1.1 MΩ) sample compared to UZO (1.4 MΩ) is recorded, which is compelling evidence for the presence of Ga3+ in ZnO lattice. The results suggest that incorporating Ga into ZnO lattice using CBD method is an easy and effective technique to improve the electrical properties of ZnO NRAs that is an essential factor for a broad range of devices.

  13. Enhanced non-enzymatic glucose biosensor of Ga-doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wan-Chan; Wang, Zi-Hao; Yang, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Chien-Sheng; Su, Yan-Kuin; Ruan, Jian-Long

    2017-04-01

    In this work gallium (Ga)-Doped ZnO nanorods (GZO NRs) successfully applied for the development of enzyme free glucose. GZO NRs synthesized by using the hydrothermal on ZnO seed layer was subsequently deposited onto the glass substrate. The GZO NRs electrode has peak currents increasing from 620 to 941μA with glucose concentration (6, 8 and 10 mM) in cyclic voltammograms. GZO NRs electrode sensitivity of the sensor to glucose oxidation was 33.4 (μA/mM-cm2). The GZO NRs modified electrode showed a greatly enhanced electrocatalytic property toward glucose oxidation, as well as an excellent anti-interference and a good stability.

  14. Electrochemical growth of controlled tip shapes of ZnO nanorod arrays on silicon substrate and enhanced photoluminescence emission from nanopyramid arrays compared with flat-head nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimanesh, Mahmoud; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, Norzaini

    2017-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays (NRAs) with different morphologies such as; perfect hexagon flat-head, pyramidal, compact pencil, nail-shaped, and high-compact ZnO nanorod thin films, were successfully grown on silicon substrates. These NRAs were formed on substrates using a simple low-temperature electrochemical method without adding any catalyst or template via the precursors of zinc nitrate hexahydrate [Zn(NO3)2·6H2O] and hexamethylenetetramine [HMT; C6H12N4] with an equal molar concentration of 0.025 mol/l. The morphologies of the ZnO nanorods (NRs) could be controlled and transformed successfully in to other morphologies by changing the growth conditions, such as; growth temperature and applied current density. Detailed structural investigations reveal that the synthesized various NRs are single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase and preferentially grow along the c-axis direction. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra show that each spectrum consists of an ultraviolet (UV) band and a relative broad visible light emission and infrared emission peak. The enhanced light emission intensity at UV peak (∼375 nm) is observed significantly from ZnO nanopyramid (NP) arrays because of the conical shape of NP. The photoluminescence intensity of the UV peak from the NPs is found to be 1.5-17 times larger than those from the other various NRs.

  15. Efficient Solar-Induced Photoelectrochemical Response Using Coupling Semiconductor TiO2-ZnO Nanorod Film

    PubMed Central

    Abd Samad, Nur Azimah; Lai, Chin Wei; Lau, Kung Shiuh; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2016-01-01

    Efficient solar driven photoelectrochemical (PEC) response by enhancing charge separation has attracted great interest in the hydrogen generation application. The formation of one-dimensional ZnO nanorod structure without bundling is essential for high efficiency in PEC response. In this present research work, ZnO nanorod with an average 500 nm in length and average diameter of about 75 nm was successfully formed via electrodeposition method in 0.05 mM ZnCl2 and 0.1 M KCl electrolyte at 1 V for 60 min under 70 °C condition. Continuous efforts have been exerted to further improve the solar driven PEC response by incorporating an optimum content of TiO2 into ZnO nanorod using dip-coating technique. It was found that 0.25 at % of TiO2 loaded on ZnO nanorod film demonstrated a maximum photocurrent density of 19.78 mA/cm2 (with V vs. Ag/AgCl) under UV illumination and 14.75 mA/cm2 (with V vs. Ag/AgCl) under solar illumination with photoconversion efficiency ~2.9% (UV illumination) and ~4.3% (solar illumination). This performance was approximately 3–4 times higher than ZnO film itself. An enhancement of photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency occurred due to the sufficient Ti element within TiO2-ZnO nanorod film, which acted as an effective mediator to trap the photo-induced electrons and minimize the recombination of charge carriers. Besides, phenomenon of charge-separation effect at type-II band alignment of Zn and Ti could further enhance the charge carrier transportation during illumination. PMID:28774068

  16. Growth of hybrid carbon nanostructures on iron-decorated ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbuyisa, Puleng N.; Rigoni, Federica; Sangaletti, Luigi; Ponzoni, Stefano; Pagliara, Stefania; Goldoni, Andrea; Ndwandwe, Muzi; Cepek, Cinzia

    2016-04-01

    A novel carbon-based nanostructured material, which includes carbon nanotubes (CNTs), porous carbon, nanostructured ZnO and Fe nanoparticles, has been synthetized using catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of acetylene on vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs). The deposition of Fe before the CVD process induces the presence of dense CNTs in addition to the variety of nanostructures already observed on the process done on the bare NRs, which range from amorphous graphitic carbon up to nanostructured dendritic carbon films, where the NRs are partially or completely etched. The combination of scanning electron microscopy and in situ photoemission spectroscopy indicate that Fe enhances the ZnO etching, and that the CNT synthesis is favoured by the reduced Fe mobility due to the strong interaction between Fe and the NRs, and to the presence of many defects, formed during the CVD process. Our results demonstrate that the resulting new hybrid shows a higher sensitivity to ammonia gas at ambient conditions (∼60 ppb) than the carbon nanostructures obtained without the aid of Fe, the bare ZnO NRs, or other one-dimensional carbon nanostructures, making this system of potential interest for environmental ammonia monitoring. Finally, in view of the possible application in nanoscale optoelectronics, the photoexcited carrier behaviour in these hybrid systems has been characterized by time-resolved reflectivity measurements.

  17. Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods for efficient ultraviolet photodetection.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Shrabani; Basak, Durga

    2011-05-01

    Core-shell TiO(2)@ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been fabricated by a simple two step method: growth of ZnO NRs' array by an aqueous chemical technique and then coating of the NRs with a solution of titanium isopropoxide [Ti(OC(3)H(7))(4)] followed by a heating step to form the shell. The core-shell nanocomposites are composed of single-crystalline ZnO NRs, coated with a thin TiO(2) shell layer obtained by varying the number of coatings (one, three and five times). The ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity of the nanocomposite is largely quenched due to an efficient electron-hole separation reducing the band-to-band recombinations. The UV photoconductivity of the core-shell structure with three times TiO(2) coating has been largely enhanced due to photoelectron transfer between the core and the shell. The UV photosensitivity of the nanocomposite becomes four times larger while the photocurrent decay during steady UV illumination has been decreased almost by 7 times compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs indicating high efficiency of these core-shell structures as UV sensors. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  18. Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods for efficient ultraviolet photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Shrabani; Basak, Durga

    2011-05-01

    Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been fabricated by a simple two step method: growth of ZnO NRs' array by an aqueous chemical technique and then coating of the NRs with a solution of titanium isopropoxide [Ti(OC3H7)4] followed by a heating step to form the shell. The core-shell nanocomposites are composed of single-crystalline ZnO NRs, coated with a thin TiO2 shell layer obtained by varying the number of coatings (one, three and five times). The ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity of the nanocomposite is largely quenched due to an efficient electron-hole separation reducing the band-to-band recombinations. The UV photoconductivity of the core-shell structure with three times TiO2 coating has been largely enhanced due to photoelectron transfer between the core and the shell. The UV photosensitivity of the nanocomposite becomes four times larger while the photocurrent decay during steady UV illumination has been decreased almost by 7 times compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs indicating high efficiency of these core-shell structures as UV sensors.

  19. Low-temperature growth of aligned ZnO nanorods: effect of annealing gases on the structural and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Umar, Ahmad; Hahn, Yoon-Bong; Al-Hajry, A; Abaker, M

    2014-06-01

    Aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on ZnO/Si substrate via simple aqueous solution process at low-temperature of - 65 degrees C by using zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). The detailed morphological and structural properties measured by FESEM, XRD, EDS and TEM confirmed that the as-grown nanorods are vertically aligned, well-crystalline possessing wurtzite hexagonal phase and grown along the [0001] direction. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the grown nanorods exhibited a strong and broad green emission and small ultraviolet emission. The as-prepared ZnO nanorods were post-annealed in nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) environments and further characterized in terms of their morphological, structural and optical properties. After annealing the nanorods exhibit well-crystallinity and wurtzite hexagonal phase. Moreover, by annealing the PL spectra show the enhancement in the UV emission and suppression in the green emission. The presented results demonstrate that simply by post-annealing process, the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures can be controlled.

  20. ZnO Nanorods Based Enzymatic Biosensor for Selective Determination of Penicillin

    PubMed Central

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Ali, Syed Muhammad Usman; Khun, Kimleang; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of a biosensor based on well aligned single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods which were grown on gold coated glass substrate using a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. The ZnO nanorods were immobilized with penicillinase enzyme using the physical adsorption approach in combination with N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide (ANB-NOS) as cross linking molecules. The potentiometric response of the sensor configuration revealed good linearity over a large logarithmic concentration range from 100 µM to 100 mM. During the investigations, the proposed sensor showed a good stability with high sensitivity of ~121 mV/decade for sensing of penicillin. A quick electrochemical response of less than 5 s with a good selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility and a negligible response to common interferents such as Na1+, K1+, d-glucose, l-glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, urea, sucrose, lactose, glycine, penicilloic acid and cephalosporins, was observed. PMID:25585565

  1. ZnO Nanorods Based Enzymatic Biosensor for Selective Determination of Penicillin.

    PubMed

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Ali, Syed Muhammad Usman; Khun, Kimleang; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2011-10-27

    In this study, we have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of a biosensor based on well aligned single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods which were grown on gold coated glass substrate using a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. The ZnO nanorods were immobilized with penicillinase enzyme using the physical adsorption approach in combination with N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide (ANB-NOS) as cross linking molecules. The potentiometric response of the sensor configuration revealed good linearity over a large logarithmic concentration range from 100 µM to 100 mM. During the investigations, the proposed sensor showed a good stability with high sensitivity of ~121 mV/decade for sensing of penicillin. A quick electrochemical response of less than 5 s with a good selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility and a negligible response to common interferents such as Na1+, K1+, d-glucose, l-glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, urea, sucrose, lactose, glycine, penicilloic acid and cephalosporins, was observed.

  2. High-performance optical projection controllable ZnO nanorod arrays for microweighing sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; Jiang, Shulan; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Bingjun; Chen, Duoli; Yang, Weiqing; Qian, Linmao

    2018-03-08

    Optical microweighing sensors are an essential component of micro-force measurements in physical, chemical, and biological detection fields, although, their limited detection range (less than 15°) severely hinders their wide application. Such a limitation is mainly attributed to the essential restrictions of traditional light reflection and optical waveguide modes. Here, we report a high-performance optical microweighing sensor based on the synergistic effects of both a new optical projection mode and a ZnO nanorod array sensor. Ascribed to the unique configuration design of this sensing method, this optical microweighing sensor has a wide detection range (more than 80°) and a high sensitivity of 90 nA deg -1 , which is much larger than that of conventional microcantilever-based optical microweighing sensors. Furthermore, the location of the UV light source can be adjusted within a few millimeters, meaning that the microweighing sensor does not need repetitive optical calibration. More importantly, for low height and small incident angles of the UV light source, we can obtain highly sensitive microweighing properties on account of the highly sensitive ZnO nanorod array-based UV sensor. Therefore, this kind of large detection range, non-contact, and non-destructive microweighing sensor has potential applications in air quality monitoring and chemical and biological detection.

  3. Effect of Temperature and Growth Time on Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods by Simplified Hydrothermal Technique for Photoelectrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    Mohd Fudzi, Laimy; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Lim, Hong Ngee; Chang, Sook-Keng; Holi, Araa Mebdir; Sarif Mohd Ali, Mahanim

    2018-04-29

    Despite its large band gap, ZnO has wide applicability in many fields ranging from gas sensors to solar cells. ZnO was chosen over other materials because of its large exciton binding energy (60 meV) and its stability to high-energy radiation. In this study, ZnO nanorods were deposited on ITO glass via a simple dip coating followed by a hydrothermal growth. The morphological, structural and compositional characteristics of the prepared films were analyzed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Photoelectrochemical conversion efficiencies were evaluated via photocurrent measurements under calibrated halogen lamp illumination. Thin film prepared at 120 °C for 4 h of hydrothermal treatment possessed a hexagonal wurtzite structure with the crystallite size of 19.2 nm. The average diameter of the ZnO nanorods was 37.7 nm and the thickness was found to be 2680.2 nm. According to FESEM images, as the hydrothermal growth temperature increases, the nanorod diameter become smaller. Moreover, the thickness of the nanorods increase with the growth time. Therefore, the sample prepared at 120 °C for 4 h displayed an impressive photoresponse by achieving high current density of 0.1944 mA/cm².

  4. A patterned ZnO nanorod array/gas sensor fabricated by mechanoelectrospinning-assisted selective growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomei; Sun, Fazhe; Huang, Yongan; Duan, Yongqing; Yin, Zhouping

    2015-02-21

    Micropatterned ZnO nanorod arrays were fabricated by the mechanoelectrospinning-assisted direct-writing process and the hydrothermal growth process, and utilized as gas sensors that exhibited excellent Ohmic behavior and sensitivity response to oxidizing gas NO2 at low concentrations (1-100 ppm).

  5. Effect of growth time on Ti-doped ZnO nanorods prepared by low-temperature chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidier, Shaker A.; Hashim, M. R.; Al-Diabat, Ahmad M.; Bououdina, M.

    2017-04-01

    Ti-doped ZnO nanorod arrays were grown onto Si substrate using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 93 °C. To investigate the effect of time deposition on the morphological, and structural properties, four Ti-doped ZnO samples were prepared at various deposition periods of time (2, 3.5, 5, and 6.5 h). FESEM images displayed high-quality and uniform nanorods with a mean length strongly dependent upon deposition time; i.e. it increases for prolonged growth time. Additionally, EFTEM images reveal a strong erosion on the lateral side for the sample prepared for 6.5 h as compared to 5 h. This might be attributed to the dissolution reaction of ZnO with for prolonged growth time. XRD analysis confirms the formation of a hexagonal wurtzite-type structure for all samples with a preferred growth orientation along the c-axis direction. The (100) peak intensity was enhanced and then quenched, which might be the result of an erosion on the lateral side of nanorods as seen in EFTEM. This study confirms the important role of growth time on the morphological features of Ti-doped ZnO nanorods prepared using CBD. Increase the growth time causes an erosion in lateral side -(100) direction XRD- and enhances the axial direction -(002), XRD.

  6. Applications, Surface Modification and Functionalization of Nickel Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Reichinger, Daniela; Schotter, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    The growing number of nanoparticle applications in science and industry is leading to increasingly complex nanostructures that fulfill certain tasks in a specific environment. Nickel nanorods already possess promising properties due to their magnetic behavior and their elongated shape. The relevance of this kind of nanorod in a complex measurement setting can be further improved by suitable surface modification and functionalization procedures, so that customized nanostructures for a specific application become available. In this review, we focus on nickel nanorods that are synthesized by electrodeposition into porous templates, as this is the most common type of nickel nanorod fabrication method. Moreover, it is a facile synthesis approach that can be easily established in a laboratory environment. Firstly, we will discuss possible applications of nickel nanorods ranging from data storage to catalysis, biosensing and cancer treatment. Secondly, we will focus on nickel nanorod surface modification strategies, which represent a crucial step for the successful application of nanorods in all medical and biological settings. Here, the immobilization of antibodies or peptides onto the nanorod surface adds another functionality in order to yield highly promising nanostructures. PMID:29283415

  7. Preparation and characterization of nanorod-like TiO2 and ZnO films used for charge-transport buffer layers in P3HT based organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thao, Tran Thi; Long, Dang Dinh; Truong, Vo-Van; Dinh, Nguyen Nang

    2016-08-01

    With the aim of findingout the appropriate buffer layers for organic solar cells (OSC), TiO2 and ZnO on ITO/glass were prepared as nanorod-like thin films. The TiO2 films were crystallyzed in the anatase phase and the ZnO films, in the wurtzite structure. The nanorods in both the fims have a similar size of 15 to 20 nm in diameter and 30 to 50 nm in length. The nanorods have an orientation nearly perpendicular to the ITO-substrate surface. From UV-Vis data the bandgap of the TiO2 and ZnO films were determined tobe 3.26 eV and 3.42 eV, respectively. The laminar organic solar cells with added TiO2 and ZnO, namely ITO/TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al (TBD) and ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al (ZBD)were made for characterization of the energy conversion performance. As a result, comparing to TiO2,the nanorod-likeZnO filmwas found to be a much better buffer layer that made the fill factor improve from a value of 0.60 for TBD to 0.82 for ZBD, and consequently thePCE was enhanced from 0.84 for TBD to 1.17% for ZBD.

  8. Electromechanical and Photoluminescence Properties of Al-doped ZnO Nanorods Applied in Piezoelectric Nanogenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wen-Yang; Fang, Te-Hua; Tsai, Ju-Hsuan

    2015-02-01

    A piezoelectric nanogenerator based on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanorods with a V-zigzag layer is investigated at a low temperature. The growth temperature, growth time, growth concentration, photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, and AZO epitaxial growth on the ITO glass substrate using aqueous solution are reported and the associated electromechanical and PL properties are discussed. In general, the properties of piezoelectric nanogenerators and their functionality at ultralow temperatures (near liquid helium temperature) are important for applications in extreme environments. A V-zigzag layer is used to enhance the bending and compression deformation of the piezoelectric nanogenerator. The electromechanical properties of AZO nanorods are tested using an ultrasonic wave generator. Results show that the percent transmittance decreases with increasing growth time and growth temperature. The intensities of the PL spectrum and the (002) peak orientation increases with increasing growth temperature. AZO at a low growth temperature of 90 C has good piezoelectric harvesting efficiency when the piezoelectric nanogenerator has a zigzag structure. The average current, voltage, and power density of the piezoelectric harvesting are 0.76 A, 1.35 mV, and 1.026 nW/mm, respectively. These results confirm the feasibility of growing AZO at low temperature. AZO nanorods have potential for energy harvester applications.

  9. Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) Fabricated with Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanpowders and Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suman

    2018-03-01

    Due to their high efficiencies, along with lower production costs, many researchers are working on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) over last few decades as a substitute technology for nonconventional energy. Nanostructured ZnO has got many interesting properties such as wide band gap, large exciton binding energy, good exciton stability, and high breakdown strength, which are applicable as DSSC electrodes. This present work compares the device properties of DSSC fabricated using ZnO nanorods on a ZnO film and ZnO nanopowders. Different types of ZnO photoanode and dye combinations are used to study the stability and photovoltaic properties of the DSSC cell. The photovoltaic properties of the ZnO-based DSSC samples were systematically investigated. The photovoltaic properties of fabricated cell obtained are discussed in the light of band structure and density of states of different types of ZnO nanolayers. The ZnO nanorods fabricated through the sol-gel route have more uniform thickness resulting in enhanced photovoltaic properties of the fabricated device.

  10. Efficient Donor Impurities in ZnO Nanorods by Polyethylene Glycol for Enhanced Optical and Glutamate Sensing Properties.

    PubMed

    Elhag, Sami; Khun, Kimleang; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Xianjie; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer

    2016-02-06

    In this paper, we show that the possibility of using polyethylene glycol (EG) as a hydrogen source and it is used to assist the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs). EG doping in ZNRs has been found to significantly improve their optical and chemical sensing characteristics toward glutamate. The EG was found to have no role on the structural properties of the ZNRs. However, the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests that the EG could induce donor impurities effect in ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) and UV-Vis. spectra demonstrated this doping effect. Mott-Schottky analysis at the ZNRs/electrolyte interface was used to investigate the charge density for the doped ZNRs and showed comparable dependence on the used amount of EG. Moreover, the doped ZNRs were used in potentiometric measurements for glutamate for a range from 10(-6) M to 10(-3) M and the potential response of the sensor electrode was linear with a slope of 91.15 mV/decade. The wide range and high sensitivity of the modified ZNRs based glutamate biosensor is attributed to the doping effect on the ZNRs that is dictated by the EG along with the high surface area-to-volume ratio. The findings in the present study suggest new avenues to control the growth of n-ZnO nanostructures and enhance the performance of their sensing devices.

  11. Efficient Donor Impurities in ZnO Nanorods by Polyethylene Glycol for Enhanced Optical and Glutamate Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Elhag, Sami; Khun, Kimleang; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Xianjie; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the possibility of using polyethylene glycol (EG) as a hydrogen source and it is used to assist the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs). EG doping in ZNRs has been found to significantly improve their optical and chemical sensing characteristics toward glutamate. The EG was found to have no role on the structural properties of the ZNRs. However, the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests that the EG could induce donor impurities effect in ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) and UV-Vis. spectra demonstrated this doping effect. Mott-Schottky analysis at the ZNRs/electrolyte interface was used to investigate the charge density for the doped ZNRs and showed comparable dependence on the used amount of EG. Moreover, the doped ZNRs were used in potentiometric measurements for glutamate for a range from 10−6 M to 10−3 M and the potential response of the sensor electrode was linear with a slope of 91.15 mV/decade. The wide range and high sensitivity of the modified ZNRs based glutamate biosensor is attributed to the doping effect on the ZNRs that is dictated by the EG along with the high surface area-to-volume ratio. The findings in the present study suggest new avenues to control the growth of n-ZnO nanostructures and enhance the performance of their sensing devices. PMID:26861342

  12. In situ reduced graphene oxide interlayer for improving electrode performance in ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, A.; Ramesha, C. K.; Kannan, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) thin film on the transport characteristics of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) grown on ITO substrate was studied. GO was uniformly drop casted on ZnO NRs as a passivation layer and then converted into RGO by heating it at 60 °C prior to metal electrode deposition. This low temperature reduction is facilitated by the thermally excited electrons from ZnI interstitial sites (~30 meV). Successful reduction of GO was ascertained from the increased disorder band (D) intensity in the Raman spectra. Temperature (298 K-10 K) dependent transport measurements of RGO-ZnO NRs indicate that the RGO layer not only acts as a short circuiting inhibitor but also reduces the height of the potential barrier for electron tunneling. This is confirmed from the temperature dependent electrical characteristics which revealed a transition of carrier transport from thermionic emission at high temperature (T  >  100 K) to tunneling at low temperature (T  <  100 K) across the interface. Our technique is the most promising approach for making reliable electrical contacts on vertically aligned ZnO NRs and improving the reproducibility of device characteristics.

  13. Growing vertical ZnO nanorod arrays within graphite: efficient isolation of large size and high quality single-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ling; E, Yifeng; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe

    2013-07-18

    We report a unique strategy for efficiently exfoliating large size and high quality single-layer graphene directly from graphite into DMF dispersions by growing ZnO nanorod arrays between the graphene layers in graphite.

  14. Enhancement of external quantum efficiency and quality of heterojunction white LEDs by varying the size of ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Bano, N; Hussain, I; Sawaf, S; Alshammari, Abeer; Saleemi, F

    2017-06-16

    The size of ZnO nanorods (NRs) plays an important role in tuning the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and quality of light generated by white light emitting diodes (LEDs). In this work, we report on the enhancement of EQE and the quality of ZnO NR-based hetrojunction white LEDs fabricated on a p-GaN substrate using a low temperature solution method. Cathodoluminescence spectra demonstrate that ultraviolet (UV) emission decreases and visible deep band emission increases with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs. The UV emission could be internally reabsorbed by the ZnO NR excitation, thus enhancing the emission intensity of the visible deep band. Photocurrent measurements validated the fact that the EQE depends on the size of ZnO NRs, increasing by 87% with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs. Furthermore, the quality of white light was measured and clearly indicated an increase in the color rendering indices of the LEDs with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs, confirming that the quality of light generated by LEDs can be tuned by varying the length of the ZnO NRs. These results suggest that the EQE and visible deep band emission from n-ZnONRs/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs can be effectively controlled by adjusting the length of the ZnO NRs, which can be useful for realizing tunable white LEDs.

  15. Enhancement of external quantum efficiency and quality of heterojunction white LEDs by varying the size of ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bano, N.; Hussain, I.; Sawaf, S.; Alshammari, Abeer; Saleemi, F.

    2017-06-01

    The size of ZnO nanorods (NRs) plays an important role in tuning the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and quality of light generated by white light emitting diodes (LEDs). In this work, we report on the enhancement of EQE and the quality of ZnO NR-based hetrojunction white LEDs fabricated on a p-GaN substrate using a low temperature solution method. Cathodoluminescence spectra demonstrate that ultraviolet (UV) emission decreases and visible deep band emission increases with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs. The UV emission could be internally reabsorbed by the ZnO NR excitation, thus enhancing the emission intensity of the visible deep band. Photocurrent measurements validated the fact that the EQE depends on the size of ZnO NRs, increasing by 87% with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs. Furthermore, the quality of white light was measured and clearly indicated an increase in the color rendering indices of the LEDs with an increase in the length of the ZnO NRs, confirming that the quality of light generated by LEDs can be tuned by varying the length of the ZnO NRs. These results suggest that the EQE and visible deep band emission from n-ZnONRs/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs can be effectively controlled by adjusting the length of the ZnO NRs, which can be useful for realizing tunable white LEDs.

  16. Enhanced Structural and Luminescent Properties of Carbon-Assisted ZnO Nanorod Arrays on (100) Si Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Im Taek; Cho, Hak Dong; Lee, Sejoon; Roshchupkin, Dmitry V.

    2018-02-01

    We have fabricated as-grown ZnO nanorods (NRs) and carbon-assisted NR arrays on semi-insulating (100)-oriented Si substrates. We compared the structural and luminescent properties of them. High-resolution transmission microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray revealed that the as-grown ZnO NRs and carbon-assisted ZnO NRs were single crystals with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, and grew with a c-axis orientation perpendicular to the Si substrate. These measurements show that the carbon-assisted ZnO NRs were better synthesized vertically on an Si substrate compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs. Photoluminescence measurements showed that luminescence intensity of the carbon-assisted ZnO NRs was enhanced compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs. The enhanced luminescence intensity of the carbon-assisted ZnO demonstrates the possible improvement in the performance of photovoltaic nanodevices based on ZnO-like materials. This method can be applied to the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO NRs used widely in optoelectronic devices.

  17. Insight into Factors Affecting the Presence, Degree, and Temporal Stability of Fluorescence Intensification on ZnO Nanorod Ends

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manpreet; Jiang, Ruibin; Coia, Heidi; Choi, Daniel S.; Alabanza, Anginelle; Chang, Jae Young; Wang, Jianfang; Hahm, Jong-in

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a combined experimental and simulation study identifying the key physical and optical parameters affecting the presence and degree of fluorescence intensification measured on zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) ends. Previously, we reported on the highly localized, intensified, and prolonged fluorescence signal measured on the NR ends, termed as fluorescence intensification on NR ends (FINE). As a step towards understanding the mechanism of FINE, the present study aims to provide an insight into the unique optical phenomenon of FINE through experimental and simulation approaches and to elucidate the key factors affecting the occurrence, degree, and temporal stability of FINE. Specifically, we examined the effect of the length, width, and growth orientation of single ZnO NRs on the NR-enhanced biomolecular emission profile after decorating the NR surfaces with different amounts and types of fluorophore-coupled protein molecules. We quantitatively and qualitatively profiled the biomolecular fluorescence signal from individual ZnO NRs as a function of both position along the NR long axis and time. Regardless of the physical dimensions and growth orientations of the NRs, we confirmed the presence of FINE from all ZnO NRs tested by using a range of protein concentrations. We also showed that the manifestation of FINE is not dependent on the spectroscopic signatures of the fluorophores employed. We further observed that the degree of FINE is dependent on the length of the NR with longer NRs showing increased levels of FINE. We also demonstrated that vertically oriented NRs exhibit much stronger fluorescence intensity at the NR ends and a higher level of FINE than the laterally oriented NRs. Additionally, we employed finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods to understand the experimental outcomes and to promote our understanding of the mechanism of FINE. Particularly, we utilized the electrodynamic simulations to examine both near-field and far

  18. SILAR controlled CdSe nanoparticles sensitized ZnO nanorods photoanode for solar cell application: Electrolyte effect.

    PubMed

    Nikam, Pratibha R; Baviskar, Prashant K; Majumder, Sutripto; Sali, Jaydeep V; Sankapal, Babasaheb R

    2018-08-15

    Controlled growth of different sizes of cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles over well aligned ZnO nanorods have been performed using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique at room temperature (27 °C) in order to form nano heterostructure solar cells. Deposition of compact layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) by SILAR technique on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate followed by growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods array using chemical bath deposition (CBD) at low temperature (<100 °C). Different characterization techniques viz. X-ray diffractometer, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been used to know the structural, optical, morphological and compositional properties of synthesized nano heterostructure. The photovoltaic performance of the cells with variation in SILAR cycles for CdSe and with use of different electrolytes have been recorded as J-V characteristics and the maximum conversion efficiency of 0.63% have been attained with ferro/ferri cyanide electrolyte for 12 cycles CdSe coating over 1-D ZnO nanorods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Functionalization of carbon fiber tows with ZnO nanorods for stress sensor integration in smart composite materials.

    PubMed

    Calestani, D; Culiolo, M; Villani, M; Delmonte, D; Solzi, M; Kim, Tae-Yun; Kim, Sang-Woo; Marchini, L; Zappettini, A

    2018-08-17

    The physical and operating principle of a stress sensor, based on two crossing carbon fibers functionalized with ZnO nanorod-shaped nanostructures, was recently demonstrated. The functionalization process has been here extended to tows made of one thousand fibers, like those commonly used in industrial processing, to prove the idea that the same working principle can be exploited in the creation of smart sensing carbon fiber composites. A stress-sensing device made of two functionalized tows, fixed with epoxy resin and crossing like in a typical carbon fiber texture, was successfully tested. Piezoelectric properties of single nanorods, as well as those of the test device, were measured and discussed.

  20. Field enhancement of multiphoton induced luminescence processes in ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyyti, Janne; Perestjuk, Marko; Mahler, Felix; Grunwald, Rüdiger; Güell, Frank; Gray, Ciarán; McGlynn, Enda; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2018-03-01

    The near-ultraviolet photoluminescence of ZnO nanorods induced by multiphoton absorption of unamplified Ti:sapphire pulses is investigated. Power dependence measurements have been conducted with an adaptation of the ultrashort pulse characterization method of interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating. These measurements enable the separation of second harmonic and photoluminescence bands due to their distinct coherence properties. A detailed analysis yields fractional power dependence exponents in the range of 3-4, indicating the presence of multiple nonlinear processes. The range in measured exponents is attributed to differences in local field enhancement, which is supported by independent photoluminescence and structural measurements. Simulations based on Keldysh theory suggest contributions by three- and four-photon absorption as well as avalanche ionization in agreement with experimental findings.

  1. Effect of TiO{sub 2} thickness on nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO{sub 2} for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciT

    Saurdi, I., E-mail: saurdy788@gmail.com; Ishak, A.; UiTM Sarawak Kampus Kota Samarahan Jalan Meranek, Sarawak

    2016-07-06

    The TiO{sub 2} films were deposited on glass substrate at different thicknesses with different deposition frequencies (1, 2, 3 and 4 times) using spin coating technique and their structural properties were investigated. Subsequently, the nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorods and TiO{sub 2} were formed by deposited the TiO{sub 2} on top of aligned ZnO Nanorod on ITO-coated glass at different thicknesses using the same method of TiO{sub 2} deposited on glass substrate. The nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO{sub 2} were coated with different thicknesses of 900µm, 1815µm, 2710µm, 3620µm and ZnO without TiO{sub 2}. The dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated from themore » nanocomposited aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO{sub 2} with thickness of 900µm, 1815µm, 2710µm and 3620µm and ZnO without TiO{sub 2} and their photovoltaic properties of the DSSCs were investigated. From the solar simulator measurement the solar energy conversion efficiency (η) of 2.543% under AM 1.5 was obtained for the ZnO nanorod/TiO{sub 2} photoanode-2710µm Dye-Sensitized solar cell.« less

  2. Fabrication of needle-like ZnO nanorods arrays by a low-temperature seed-layer growth approach in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haimin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Huimin

    2007-11-01

    Uniform, large-scale, and well-aligned needle-like ZnO nanorods with good photoluminescence and photocatalysis properties on Zn substrates, have been successfully fabricated using a simple low-temperature seed-layer growth approach in solution (50 °C). The formation of ZnO seed-layer by the anodic oxidation technique (AOT) plays an important role in the subsequent growth of highly oriented ZnO nanorods arrays. Temperature also proved to be a significant factor in the growth of ZnO nanorods and had a great effect on their optical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicated that the needle-like ZnO nanorods were single crystal in nature and that they had grown up preferentially along the [0001] direction. The well-aligned ZnO nanorods arrays on Zn substrates exhibited strong UV emission at around 380 nm at room temperature. To investigate their potential as photocatalysts, degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous solution was carried out using photocatalytic processes, with comparison to direct photolysis. After 1 h, the degradation efficiencies of PCP by direct photolysis and photocatalytic processes achieved 57% and 76% under given experimental conditions, respectively. This improved degradation efficiency of PCP illustrates that ZnO nanorods arrays on Zn substrates have good photocatalytic activity. This simple low-temperature seed-layer growth approach in solution resulted in the development of an effective and low-cost fabrication process for high-quality ZnO nanorods arrays with good optical and photocatalytic properties that can be applicable in many fields such as photocatalysis, photovoltaic cells, luminescent sensors, and photoconductive sensors.

  3. Effect of immobilization technique on performance ZnO nanorods based enzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Mayoorika; Pramila; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, ZnO Nanorods (ZNR) have been synthesized over Platinum (Pt) coated glass substrate with in-situ addition KMnO4 during hydrothermal growth process. Significant variation in ZnO nanostructures was observed by KMnO4 addition during the growth. Glucose oxidase was later immobilized over ZNRs. The as-prepared ZNRs were further utilized for glucose detection by employing amperometric electrochemical transduction method. In order to optimize the performance of the prepared biosensor two different immobilization techniques i.e. physical adsorption and cross linking have been employed and compared. Further investigations suggest that immobilization via cross linking method resulted in the improvement of the biosensor performance, thereby significantly affecting the sensitivity and linear range of the fabricated biosensor. Among the two types of biosensors fabricated using ZNR, the best performance was shown by cross linked electrodes. The sensitivity for the same was found to be 17.7 mA-cm-2-M-1, along with a wide linear range of 0.5-8.5 mM.

  4. ZnO nanorod array polydimethylsiloxane composite solid phase micro-extraction fiber coating: fabrication and extraction capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Qingtang; Zhang, Zhuomin; Chen, Guonan

    2012-01-21

    ZnO nanorod array coating is a novel kind of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating which shows good extraction capability due to the nanostructure. To prepare the composite coating is a good way to improve the extraction capability. In this paper, the ZnO nanorod array polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite SPME fiber coating has been prepared and its extraction capability for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been studied by headspace sampling the typical volatile mixed standard solution of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX). Improved detection limit and good linear ranges have been achieved for this composite SPME fiber coating. Also, it is found that the composite SPME fiber coating shows good extraction selectivity to the VOCs with alkane radicals.

  5. High optical switching speed and flexible electrochromic display based on WO3 nanoparticles with ZnO nanorod arrays' supported electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingjun; Fang, Guojia; Yuan, Longyan; Huang, Huihui; Sun, Zhenhua; Liu, Nishuang; Xia, Shanhong; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2009-05-01

    The electrochromic (EC) property of WO3 nanoparticles grown on vertically self-aligned ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) is reported. An electrochromic character display based on WO3 nanoparticle-modified ZnO nanorod arrays on a flexible substrate has been fabricated and demonstrated. The ZNRs were first synthesized on ZnO-seed-coated In2O3:Sn (ITO) glass (1 cm2 cell) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (4 cm2 cell) substrates by a low temperature hydrothermal method, and then amorphous WO3 nanoparticles were grown directly on the surface of the ZNRs by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The ZNR-based EC device shows high transparence, good electrochromic stability and fast switching speed (4.2 and 4 s for coloration and bleaching, respectively, for a 1 cm2 cell). The good performance of the ZNR electrode-based EC display can be attributed to the large surface area, high crystallinity and good electron transport properties of the ZNR arrays. Its high contrast, fast switching, good memory and flexible characteristics indicate it is a promising candidate for flexible electrochromic displays or electronic paper.

  6. The role of cellulosic chains of cotton in biosynthesis of ZnO nanorods producing multifunctional properties: Mechanism, characterizations and features.

    PubMed

    Aladpoosh, R; Montazer, M

    2015-08-01

    In situ synthesis of ZnO nanorods on cellulosic chains of cotton fabric was accomplished using natural plant source namely Keliab and zinc acetate. Hierarchical mechanism of nano ZnO generation and deposition on cellulosic chains of cotton fabric was discussed in details and several analytical techniques were used to characterize the formation of nano ZnO wurtzite structure. The morphology, crystal phase, and chemical structure of the fabric were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Further, interaction between ZnO and functional groups of cellulosic chains of cotton fabric was studied by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The influence of zinc acetate and Keliab solution on the self-cleaning activity of the treated cellulosic fabric was investigated with a central composite design based on surface response methodology. The treated fabrics showed self-cleaning activity toward methylene blue degradation under day light irradiation. The optimized treated sample showed high antibacterial efficiency against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with enhanced tensile strength and higher crease recovery angle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Superhydrophobic Ag decorated ZnO nanostructured thin film as effective surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Sonia, S.; Poongodi, S.; Kumar, P. Suresh; Masuda, Yoshitake; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C.

    2015-11-01

    The present work is an attempt to overcome the challenges in the fabrication of super hydrophobic silver decorated zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure thin films via thermal evaporation process. The ZnO nanowire thin films are prepared without any surface modification and show super hydrophobic nature with a contact angle of 163°. Silver is further deposited onto the ZnO nanowire to obtain nanoworm morphology. Silver decorated ZnO (Ag@ZnO) thin films are used as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies. The formation of randomly arranged nanowire and silver decorated nanoworm structure is confirmed using FESEM, HR-TEM and AFM analysis. Crystallinity and existence of Ag on ZnO are confirmed using XRD and XPS studies. A detailed growth mechanism is discussed for the formation of the nanowires from nanobeads based on various deposition times. The prepared SERS substrate reveals a reproducible enhancement of 3.082 × 107 M for Rhodamine 6G dye (R6G) for 10-10 molar concentration per liter. A higher order of SERS spectra is obtained for a contact angle of 155°. Thus the obtained thin films show the superhydrophobic nature with a highly enhanced Raman spectrum and act as SERS substrates. The present nanoworm morphology shows a new pathway for the construction of semiconductor thin films for plasmonic studies and challenges the orderly arranged ZnO nanorods, wires and other nano structure substrates used in SERS studies.

  8. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod core-polypyrrole conducting polymer sheath and nanotube arrays for electrochemical supercapacitor energy storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite electrodes having three-dimensional (3-D) nanoscale architecture comprising of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array core-polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer sheath and the vertical PPy nanotube arrays have been investigated for supercapacitor energy storage. The electrodes in the ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath structure are formed by preferential nucleation and deposition of PPy layer over hydrothermally synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod array by controlled pulsed current electropolymerization of pyrrole monomer under surfactant action. The vertical PPy nanotube arrays of different tube diameter are created by selective etching of the ZnO nanorod core in ammonia solution for different periods. Cyclic voltammetry studies show high areal-specific capacitance approximately 240 mF.cm-2 for open pore and approximately 180 mF.cm-2 for narrow 30-to-36-nm diameter PPy nanotube arrays attributed to intensive faradic processes arising from enhanced access of electrolyte ions through nanotube interior and exterior. Impedance spectroscopy studies show that capacitive response extends over larger frequency domain in electrodes with PPy nanotube structure. Simulation of Nyquist plots by electrical equivalent circuit modeling establishes that 3-D nanostructure is better represented by constant phase element which accounts for the inhomogeneous electrochemical redox processes. Charge-discharge studies at different current densities establish that kinetics of the redox process in PPy nanotube electrode is due to the limitation on electron transport rather than the diffusive process of electrolyte ions. The PPy nanotube electrodes show deep discharge capability with high coulomb efficiency and long-term charge-discharge cyclic studies show nondegrading performance of the specific areal capacitance tested for 5,000 cycles. PMID:25246867

  9. Tuning of deep level emission in highly oriented electrodeposited ZnO nanorods by post growth annealing treatments

    SciT

    Simimol, A.; Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut 673601; Manikandanath, N. T.

    Highly dense and c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite facets were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by a simple and cost-effective electrodeposition method at low bath temperature (80 °C). The as-grown samples were then annealed at various temperatures (T{sub A} = 100–500 °C) in different environments (e.g., zinc, oxygen, air, and vacuum) to understand their photoluminescence (PL) behavior in the ultra-violet (UV) and the visible regions. The PL results revealed that the as-deposited ZnO nanorods consisted of oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}), zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}), and oxygen interstitial (O{sub i}) defects and these can be reduced significantlymore » by annealing in different environments at optimal annealing temperatures. However, the intensity of deep level emission increased for T{sub A} greater than the optimized values for the respective environments due to the introduction of various defect centers. For example, for T{sub A} ≥ 450 °C in the oxygen and air environments, the density of O{sub i} defects increased, whereas, the green emission associated with V{sub O} is dominant in the vacuum annealed (T{sub A} = 500 °C) ZnO nanorods. The UV peak red shifted after the post-growth annealing treatments in all the environments and the vacuum annealed sample exhibited highest UV peak intensity. The observations from the PL data are supported by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present study gives new insight into the origin of different defects that exist in the electrodeposited ZnO nanorods and how these defects can be precisely controlled in order to get the desired emissions for the opto-electronic applications.« less

  10. Polyethylene glycol assisted growth of Sn-doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared via sol-gel immersion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Saidi, S. A.; Yusoff, M. M.; Mohamed, R.; Sin, N. D. Md; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Tin-doped zinc oxide (SZO) nanorod films at different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) were successfully deposited on zinc oxide (ZnO) seeded layer catalyst using sol-gel immersion method. The morphology of the samples were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), optical properties using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and electrical properties using I-V measurement system. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics displayed that 5 wt % sample produced the highest conductivity.

  11. Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors using ZnO Nanorods as the Sensor Substrate for Bioanalytical Applications.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ying; Ahmad, Norlaily; Briscoe, Joe; Zhang, De-Wen; Krause, Steffi

    2018-06-22

    Light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS) are of great interest in bioimaging applications such as the monitoring of concentrations in microfluidic channels or the investigation of metabolic and signaling events in living cells. By measuring the photocurrents at electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) and electrolyte-semiconductor structures, LAPS can produce spatiotemporal images of chemical or biological analytes, electrical potentials and impedance. However, its commercial applications are often restricted by their limited AC photocurrents and resolution of LAPS images. Herein, for the first time, the use of 1D semiconducting oxides in the form of ZnO nanorods for LAPS imaging is explored to solve this issue. A significantly increased AC photocurrent with enhanced image resolution has been achieved based on ZnO nanorods, with a photocurrent of 45.7 ± 0.1 nA at a light intensity of 0.05 mW, a lateral resolution as low as 3.0 μm as demonstrated by images of a PMMA dot on ZnO nanorods and a pH sensitivity of 53 mV/pH. The suitability of the device for bioanalysis and bioimaging was demonstrated by monitoring the degradation of a thin poly(ester amide) film with the enzyme α-chymotrypsin using LAPS. This simple and robust route to fabricate LAPS substrates with excellent performance would provide tremendous opportunities for bioimaging.

  12. Structural, optical, and electrical properties of Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared via sonicated sol-gel immersion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Saidi, S. A.; Yusoff, M. M.; Mohamed, R.; Sin, N. D. Md; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Nickel (Ni)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod array films were synthesised using sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The FESEM images showed that the Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays possess hexagonal shape with average diameter about 120 nm and thickness about 1.10 µm. The Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays possess better transmittance properties with 3.27 eV of optical band gap energy and 40 meV of urbach energy. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement indicated that the conductivity of ZnO film slightly improved with Ni-doping. The doped film displayed good humidity sensing performance with sensitivity of 1.21.

  13. Systematic study of inorganic functionalization of ZnO nanorods by Sol-Gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamarra, J. K.; Solano, C.; Piñeres, I.; Gómez, H.; Mass, J.; Montenegro, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic study of the inorganic surface functionalization of ZnO nanostructures by sol-gel method is shown. We have emphasized on the evolution of morphology properties of samples as a function of functionalization parameters. In addition, the effects on thermal stability and some optical properties of samples are discussed.

  14. Manipulation of surface morphology of flower-like Ag/ZnO nanorods to enhance photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U-thaipan, Kasira; Tedsree, Karaked

    2018-06-01

    The surface morphology of flower-like Ag/ZnO nanorod can be manipulated by adopting different synthetic routes and also loading different levels of Ag in order to alter their surface structures to achieve the maximum photocatalytic efficiency. In a single-step preparation method Ag/ZnO was prepared by heating directly a mixture of Zn2+ and Ag+ precursors in an aqueous NaOH-ethylene glycol solution, while in the two-step preparation method an intermediate of flower-shaped ZnO nanorod was obtained by a hydrothermal process before depositing Ag particles on the ZnO surfaces by chemical reduction. The structure, morphology and optical properties of the synthesized samples were characterized using TEM, SEM, XRD, DRS and PL techniques. The sample prepared by single-step method are characterized with agglomeration of Ag atoms as clusters on the surface of ZnO, whereas in the sample prepared by two-step method Ag atoms are found uniformly dispersed and deposited as discrete Ag nanoparticles on the surface of ZnO. A significant enhancement in the adsorption of visible light was evident for Ag/ZnO samples prepared by two-step method especially with low Ag content (0.5 mol%). The flower-like Ag/ZnO nanorod prepared with 0.5 mol% Ag by two-step process was found to be the most efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of phenol, which can decompose 90% of phenol within 120 min.

  15. ZnO nanomaterials based surface acoustic wave ethanol gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Li, X; Liu, J H; He, Y N; Yu, L M; Liu, W H

    2012-08-01

    ZnO nanomaterials based surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensor has been investigated in ethanol environment at room temperature. The ZnO nanomaterials have been prepared through thermal evaporation of high-purity zinc powder. The as-prepared ZnO nanomaterials have been characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results indicate that the obtained ZnO nanomaterials, including many types of nanostructures such as nanobelts, nanorods, nanowires as well as nanosheets, are wurtzite with hexagonal structure and well-crystallized. The SAW sensor coated with the nanostructured ZnO materials has been tested in ethanol gas of various concentrations at room temperature. A network analyzer is used to monitor the change of the insertion loss of the SAW sensor when exposed to ethanol gas. The insertion loss of the SAW sensor varies significantly with the change of ethanol concentration. The experimental results manifest that the ZnO nanomaterials based SAW ethanol gas sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity and good short-term reproducibility at room temperature.

  16. Cu2O-tipped ZnO nanorods with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance for CO2 photoreduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muzaffar; Wang, Yanjie; Hu, Haifeng; He, Meng; Hassan Shah, Aamir; Lin, Lin; Li, Pan; Shao, Kunjuan; Reda Woldu, Abebe; He, Tao

    2018-06-01

    The design of Cu2O-tipped ZnO nanorods is proposed here aiming at enhanced photoelectrochemical properties. The tip-selective deposition of Cu2O is confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The photoinduced charge behavior like charge generation, separation and transport has been thoroughly studied by UV-vis absorption analysis and different photoelectrochemical characterizations, including transient photocurrent, incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS), and Mott-Schottky measurements. The photoelectrochemical characterizations clearly indicate that ZnO/Cu2O structures exhibit much higher performance than pristine ZnO, due to the formation of p-n junction, as well as the tip selective growth of Cu2O on ZnO. Photocatalytic CO2 reduction in aqueous solution under UV-visible light illumination shows that CO is the main product, and with the increase of the Cu2O content in the heterostructure, the CO yield increases. This work shows that Cu2O-tipped ZnO nanorods possess improved behavior of charge generation, separation and transport, which may work as a potential candidate for photocatalytic CO2 reduction.

  17. Evolution of Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown on Vacuum Annealed Seed Crystallites

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fasihullah; Ajmal, Hafiz Muhammad Salman; Huda, Noor Ul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sam-Dong

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the ambient condition for the as-coated seed layer (SL) annealing at 350 °C is varied from air or nitrogen to vacuum to examine the evolution of structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods (NRs). The NR crystals of high surface density (~240 rods/μm2) and aspect ratio (~20.3) show greatly enhanced (002) degree of orientation and crystalline quality, when grown on the SLs annealed in vacuum, compared to those annealed in air or nitrogen ambient. This is due to the vacuum-annealed SL crystals of a highly preferred orientation toward (002) and large grain sizes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also reveals that the highest O/Zn atomic ratio of 0.89 is obtained in the case of vacuum-annealed SL crystals, which is due to the effective desorption of hydroxyl groups and other contaminants adsorbed on the surface formed during aqueous solution-based growth process. Near band edge emission (ultra violet range of 360–400 nm) of the vacuum-annealed SLs is also enhanced by 44% and 33% as compared to those annealed in air and nitrogen ambient, respectively, in photoluminescence with significant suppression of visible light emission associated with deep level transition. Due to this improvement of SL optical crystalline quality, the NR crystals grown on the vacuum-annealed SLs produce ~3 times higher ultra violet emission intensity than the other samples. In summary, it is shown that the ZnO NRs preferentially grow along the wurtzite c-axis direction, thereby producing the high crystalline quality of nanostructures when they grow on the vacuum-annealed SLs of high crystalline quality with minimized impurities and excellent preferred orientation. The ZnO nanostructures of high crystalline quality achieved in this study can be utilized for a wide range of potential device applications such as laser diodes, light-emitting diodes, piezoelectric transducers and generators, gas sensors, and ultraviolet detectors. PMID:29373523

  18. Enhanced photoelectrochemical property of ZnO nanorods array synthesized on reduced graphene oxide for self-powered biosensing application.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhuo; Gu, Yousong; Yan, Xiaoqin; Bai, Zhiming; Liu, Yichong; Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Xueji; Zhang, Yue

    2015-02-15

    We have realized the direct synthesis of ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) array on reduced graphene layer (rGO), and demonstrated the enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) property of the rGO/ZnO based photoanode under UV irradiation compared with the pristine ZnO NRs array. The introduction of the rGO layer resulted in a favorable energy band structure for electron migration, which finally led to the efficient photoinduced charge separation. Such nanostructure was subsequently employed for self-powered PEC biosensing of glutathione in the condition of 0 V bias, with a linear range from 10 to 200 µM, a detection limit of 2.17 µM, as well as excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability. The results indicated the rGO/ZnO nanostructure is a competitive candidate in the PEC biosensing field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Separating light absorption layer from channel in ZnO vertical nanorod arrays based photodetectors for high-performance image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yang; Wu, Congjun; Xu, Zhihao; Wang, Fei; Wang, Min

    2018-05-01

    Photoconductor arrays with both high responsivity and large ON/OFF ratios are of great importance for the application of image sensors. Herein, a ZnO vertical nanorod array based photoconductor with a light absorption layer separated from the device channel has been designed, in which the photo-generated carriers along the axial ZnO nanorods drive to the external electrodes through nanorod-nanorod junctions in the dense layer at the bottom. This design allows us to enhance the photocurrent with unchanged dark current by increasing the ratio between the ZnO nanorod length and the thickness of the dense layer to achieve both high responsivity and large ON/OFF ratios. As a result, the as-fabricated devices possess a high responsivity of 1.3 × 105 A/W, a high ON/OFF ratio of 790, a high detectivity of 1.3 × 1013 Jones, and a low detectable light intensity of 1 μW/cm2. More importantly, the developed approach enables the integration of ZnO vertical nanorod array based photodetectors as image sensors with uniform device-to-device performance.

  20. Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators based on a transferred ZnO nanorod/Si micro-pillar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Park, Il-Kyu

    2017-03-01

    Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) based on a composite of ZnO nanorods (NRs) and an array of Si micro-pillars (MPs) are demonstrated by a transfer process. The flexible composite structure was fabricated by hydrothermal growth of ZnO NRs on an electrochemically etched Si MP array with various lengths followed by mechanically delaminating the Si MP arrays from the Si substrate after embedding them in a polydimethylsiloxane matrix. Because the Si MP arrays act as a supporter to connect the ZnO NRs electrically and mechanically, verified by capacitance measurement, the output voltage from the flexible PNGs increased systematically with the increased density ZnO NRs depending on the length of the Si MPs. The flexible PNGs showed 3.2 times higher output voltage with a small change in current with increasing Si MP length from 5 to 20 μm. The enhancement of the output voltage is due to the increased number of series-connected ZnO NRs and the beneficial effect of a ZnO NR/Si MP heterojunction on reducing free charge screening effects. The flexible PNGs can be attached on fingers as a wearable electrical power source or motion sensor.

  1. Comparative assessment of toxicity of ZnO and amine-functionalized ZnO nanorods toward Daphnia magna in acute and chronic multigenerational tests.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Renata Amanda; de Oliveira Franco Rossetto, Ana Letícia; Nogueira, Diego José; Vicentini, Denice Schulz; Matias, William Gerson

    2018-04-01

    Zinc oxide nanomaterials (ZnO NM) have been used in a large number of applications due to their interesting physicochemical properties. However, the increasing use of ZnO NM has led to concerns regarding their environmental impacts. In this study, the acute and chronic toxicity of ZnO nanorods (NR) bare (ZnONR) and amine-functionalized (ZnONR@AF) toward the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia magna was evaluated. The ZnO NR were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameter (HD). The acute EC50 (48h) values for D. magna revealed that the ZnONR@AF were more toxic than the ZnONR. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in both NM. Regarding the chronic toxicity, the ZnONR@AF were again found to be more toxic than the ZnONR toward D. magna. An effect on longevity was observed for ZnONR, while ZnONR@AF affected the reproduction, growth and longevity. In the multigenerational recovery test, we observed that maternal exposure can affect the offspring even when these organisms are not directly exposed to the ZnO NR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel fabrication methodology for sulfur-doped ZnO nanorods as an active photoanode for improved water oxidation in visible-light regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Ahmed, M. I.; Adam, A.; Azad, A.-M.; Qamar, M.

    2017-02-01

    Incorporation of foreign moiety in the lattice of semiconductors significantly alters their optoelectronic behavior and opens a plethora of new applications. In this paper, we report the synthesis of sulfur-doped zinc oxide (S-doped ZnO) nanorods by reacting ZnO nanorods with diammonium sulfide in vapor phase. Microscopic investigation revealed that the morphological features, such as, the length (2-4 μm) and width (100-250 nm) of the original hexagonal ZnO nanorods remained intact post-sulfidation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the sulfide sample confirmed the incorporation of sulfur into ZnO lattice. The optical measurements suggested the extension of absorption threshold into visible region upon sulfidation. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) activities of pure and S-doped ZnO nanorods were compared for water oxidation in visible light (λ > 420 nm), which showed several-fold increment in the performance of S-doped ZnO sample; the observed amelioration in the PEC activity was rationalized in terms of preferred visible light absorption and low resistance of sulfide sample, as evidenced by optical and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  3. Highly-sensitive cholesterol biosensor based on platinum-gold hybrid functionalized ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengyan; Tan, Xingrong; Chen, Shihong; Yuan, Ruo; Hu, Fangxin; Yuan, Dehua; Xiang, Yun

    2012-05-30

    A novel scheme for the fabrication of gold/platinum hybrid functionalized ZnO nanorods (Pt-Au@ZnONRs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified electrode is presented and its application for cholesterol biosensor is investigated. Firstly, Pt-Au@ZnONRs was prepared by the method of chemical synthesis. Then, the Pt-Au@ZnONRs suspension was dropped on the MWCNTs modified glass carbon electrode, and followed with cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) immobilization by the adsorbing interaction between the nano-material and ChOx as well as the electrostatic interaction between ZnONRs and ChOx molecules. The combination of MWCNTs and Pt-Au@ZnONRs provided a favorable environment for ChOx and resulted in the enhanced analytical response of the biosensor. The resulted biosensor exhibited a linear response to cholesterol in the wide range of 0.1-759.3 μM with a low detection limit of 0.03 μM and a high sensitivity of 26.8 μA mM(-1). The calculated apparent Michaelis constant K(M)(app) was 1.84 mM, indicating a high affinity between ChOx and cholesterol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An enhanced low-frequency vibration ZnO nanorod-based tuning fork piezoelectric nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Deng, Weili; Jin, Long; Chen, Yueqi; Chu, Wenjun; Zhang, Binbin; Sun, Huan; Xiong, Da; Lv, Zekai; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing

    2018-01-03

    In this paper, a piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) based on a tuning fork-shaped cantilever was designed and fabricated, aiming at harvesting low frequency vibration energy in the environment. In the PENG, a tuning fork-shaped elastic beam combined with ZnO nanorods (NRs), instead of conventional rectangular cantilever beams, was adopted to extract vibration energy. Benefiting from the high flexibility and the controllable shape of the substrate, this PENG was extremely sensitive to vibration and can harvest weak vibration energy at a low frequency. Moreover, a series of simulation models were established to compare the performance of the PENG with that of different shapes. On this basis, the experimental results further verify that this designed energy harvester could operate at a low frequency which was about 13 Hz. The peak output voltage and current could respectively reach about 160 mV and 11 nA, and a maximum instantaneous peak power of 0.92 μW cm -3 across a matched load of 9 MΩ was obtained. Evidently, this newly designed PENG could harvest vibration energy at a lower frequency, which will contribute to broaden the application range of the PENG in energy harvesting and self-powered systems.

  5. Density-controlled, solution-based growth of ZnO nanorod arrays via layer-by-layer polymer thin films for enhanced field emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintraub, Benjamin; Chang, Sehoon; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Han, Won Hee; Choi, Young Jin; Bae, Joonho; Kirkham, Melanie; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Deng, Yulin

    2008-10-01

    A simple, scalable, and cost-effective technique for controlling the growth density of ZnO nanorod arrays based on a layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte polymer film is demonstrated. The ZnO nanorods were synthesized using a low temperature (T = 90 °C), solution-based method. The density-control technique utilizes a polymer thin film pre-coated on the substrate to control the mass transport of the reactant to the substrate. The density-controlled arrays were investigated as potential field emission candidates. The field emission results revealed that an emitter density of 7 nanorods µm-2 and a tapered nanorod morphology generated a high field enhancement factor of 5884. This novel technique shows promise for applications in flat panel display technology.

  6. Electroluminescence of ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene current spreading layer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated by introducing graphene as the current spreading layer, which exhibit improved electroluminescence performance by comparison to the LED using a conventional structure (indium-tin-oxide as the current spreading layer). In addition, by adjusting the diameter of ZnO nanorod array in use, the light emission of the ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs was enhanced further. This work has great potential applications in solid-state lighting, high performance optoelectronic devices, and so on. PACS 78.60.Fi; 85.60.Jb; 78.67.Lt; 81.10.Dn PMID:25489284

  7. Electroluminescence of ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene current spreading layer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing-Jing; Hao, Hui-Ying; Xing, Jie; Fan, Zhen-Jun; Zhang, Zi-Li

    2014-01-01

    Ordered ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated by introducing graphene as the current spreading layer, which exhibit improved electroluminescence performance by comparison to the LED using a conventional structure (indium-tin-oxide as the current spreading layer). In addition, by adjusting the diameter of ZnO nanorod array in use, the light emission of the ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs was enhanced further. This work has great potential applications in solid-state lighting, high performance optoelectronic devices, and so on. 78.60.Fi; 85.60.Jb; 78.67.Lt; 81.10.Dn.

  8. A comparative study of pure and copper (Cu)-doped ZnO nanorods for antibacterial and photocatalytic applications with their mechanism of action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Tamanna; Khanuja, Manika; Sharma, R.; Patel, S.; Reddy, M. R.; Anand, S.; Varma, A.

    2015-07-01

    The present study reports the synthesis of pure and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods for antibacterial and photocatalytic applications. The samples were synthesized by simple, low cost mechanical-assisted thermal decomposition process. The synthesized materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence studies. The antibacterial activity of characterized samples was determined against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes and Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli using shake flask method with respect to time. The significant antibacterial activity was perceived from scanning electron micrographs that clearly revealed bacterial cell lysis resulting in the release of cytoplasmic content followed by cell death. The degradation of methylene blue was used as a model organic dye for photocatalytic activity. The present study demonstrates the superior photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of Cu-doped ZnO nanorods with respect to pure ZnO nanorods.

  9. A study of the effects of aligned vertically growth time on ZnO nanorods deposited for the first time on Teflon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, O. F.; Halim, M. M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Oglat, Ammar A.; Abuelsamen, A. A.; Bououdina, M.; Qaeed, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, ZnO nanorods (NRs) were well deposited on Teflon substrates (PTFE) via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at low temperature. The consequences of growth time (1 h-4 h) on the structural and optical properties of the aligned ZnO (NRs) were investigated through X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and photoluminescence (PL) analyses. The results show that the ZnO (NRs) were preferred to grew aligned along the c-axis as hexagonal wurtzite structure as proved by the sharp and strong ZnO (002) peaks of the ZnO (NRs). Irrespective of the growth continuation, FESEM photos confirmed that the ZnO nanorods arrays were fit to be aligned along the c-axis and perpendicular to (PTFE) substrates. The ZnO nanorods that exhibited the sharper stand most intense PL peaks among the sample were grown for 3hs as demonstrated by PL spectra. The device further showed a sensitivity of 4068 to low-power (1.25 mW/cm2) 375 nm light pulses without an external bias. The measurements of photoresponse demonstrated the highly reproducible characteristics of the fabricated UV detector with rapid response and baseline recovery times of 48.05 ms. Thus, this work introduced a simple, low-cost method of fabricating rapid-response, and highly photosensitive UV detectors with zero power consumption on Teflon substrates.

  10. AuNPs Hybrid Black ZnO Nanorods Made by a Sol-Gel Method for Highly Sensitive Humidity Sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Min; Lin, Cunchong; Zhang, Jun

    2018-01-13

    A highly sensitive self-powered humidity sensor has been realized from AuNPs hybrid black zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods prepared through a sol-gel method. XRD pattern reveals that both ZnO and ZnO/AuNPs exhibit a wurtzite structure. ZnO/AuNPs nanorods grow in a vertical alignment, which possesses high uniformity and forms dense arrays with a smaller diameter than that of ZnO nanoparticles. All ZnO/AuNPs and pure black ZnO show lower band gap energy than the typically reported 3.34 eV of pure ZnO. Furthermore, the band gap of ZnO/AuNPs nanocomposites is effectively influenced by the amount of AuNPs. The humidity sensing tests clearly prove that all the ZnO/AuNPs humidity sensors exhibit much higher response than that of ZnO sensors, and the sensitivity of such ZnO/AuNPs nanorods (6 mL AuNPs) display a change three orders higher than that of pure ZnO with relative humidity (RH) ranging from 11% to 95% at room temperature. The response and recovery time of the ZnO/AuNPs are 5.6 s and 32.4 s, respectively. This study of the construction of semiconductor/noble metal sensors provides a rational way to control the morphology of semiconductor nanomaterials and to design a humidity sensor with high performance.

  11. Optimization of processing parameters on the controlled growth of ZnO nanorod arrays for the performance improvement of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciT

    Lee, Yi-Mu, E-mail: ymlee@nuu.edu.t; Yang, Hsi-Wen

    2011-03-15

    High-transparency and high quality ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on the ITO substrates by a two-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The effects of processing parameters including reaction temperature (25-95 {sup o}C) and solution concentration (0.01-0.1 M) on the crystal growth, alignment, optical and electrical properties were systematically investigated. It has been found that these process parameters are critical for the growth, orientation and aspect ratio of the nanorod arrays, showing different structural and optical properties. Experimental results reveal that the hexagonal ZnO nanorod arrays prepared under reaction temperature of 95 {sup o}C and solution concentration of 0.03 M possessmore » highest aspect ratio of {approx}21, and show the well-aligned orientation and optimum optical properties. Moreover the ZnO nanorod arrays based heterojunction electrodes and the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SS-DSSCs) were fabricated with an improved optoelectrical performance. -- Graphical abstract: The ZnO nanorod arrays demonstrate well-alignment, high aspect ratio (L/D{approx}21) and excellent optical transmittance by low-temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD). Display Omitted Research highlights: > Investigate the processing parameters of CBD on the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays. > Optimization of CBD process parameters: 0.03 M solution concentration and reaction temperature of 95 {sup o}C. > The prepared ZnO samples possess well-alignment and high aspect ratio (L/D{approx}21). > An n-ZnO/p-NiO heterojunction: great rectifying behavior and low leakage current. > SS-DSSC has J{sub SC} of 0.31 mA/cm{sup 2} and V{sub OC} of 590 mV, and an improved {eta} of 0.059%.« less

  12. Strong Surface Diffusion Mediated Glancing-Angle Deposition: Growth, Recrystallization and Reorientation of Tin Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huan-Hua; Shi, Yi-Jian; William, Chu; Yigal, Blum

    2008-01-01

    Different from usual glancing-angle deposition where low surface diffusion is necessary to form nanorods, strong surface diffusion mediated glancing-angle deposition is exemplified by growing tin nanorod films on both silicon and glass substrates simultaneously via thermal evaporation. During growth, the nanorods were simultaneously baked by the high-temperature evaporator, and therefore re-crystallized into single crystals in consequence of strong surface diffusion. The monocrystalline tin nanorods have a preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate surface, which is quite different from the usual uniformly oblique nanorods without recrystallization.

  13. Distributed feedback laser biosensor incorporating a titanium dioxide nanorod surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Chun; Lu, Meng; Zhang, Wei; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2010-04-01

    A dielectric nanorod structure is used to enhance the label-free detection sensitivity of a vertically-emitting distributed feedback laser biosensor (DFBLB). The device is comprised of a replica molded plastic grating that is subsequently coated with a dye-doped polymer layer and a TiO2 nanorod layer produced by the glancing angle deposition technique. The DFBLB emission wavelength is modulated by the adsorption of biomolecules, whose greater dielectric permittivity with respect to the surrounding liquid media will increase the laser wavelength in proportion to the density of surface-adsorbed biomaterial. The nanorod layer provides greater surface area than a solid dielectric thin film, resulting in the ability to incorporate a greater number of molecules. The detection of a monolayer of protein polymer poly (Lys, Phe) is used to demonstrate that a 90 nm TiO2 nanorod structure improves the detection sensitivity by a factor of 6.6 compared to an identical sensor with a nonporous TiO2 surface.

  14. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods on Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers grown by hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Su; Kim, Do Yeob; Kim, Sung-O; Leem, Jae-Young

    2013-05-01

    ZnO nanorods were grown on the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers with different thickness by hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) were carried out to investigate the effects of the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layer thickness on the structural and the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods. The residual stress in the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers was depended on the thickness while the texture coefficient of the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers was not affected significantly. The smaller full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the ZnO (002) diffraction and near-band-edge emission (NBE) peak and the larger average grain size were observed from the ZnO nanorods grown on the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers with 5 layers (thickness of 350 nm), which indicate the enhancement the structural and the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods.

  15. Highly Transparent and UV-Resistant Superhydrophobic SiO2-Coated ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Highly transparent and UV-resistant superhydrophobic arrays of SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods are prepared in a sequence of low-temperature (<150 °C) steps on both glass and thin sheets of PET (2 × 2 in.2), and the superhydrophobic nanocomposite is shown to have minimal impact on solar cell device performance under AM1.5G illumination. Flexible plastics can serve as front cell and backing materials in the manufacture of flexible displays and solar cells. PMID:24495100

  16. A comprehensive biosensor integrated with a ZnO nanorod FET array for selective detection of glucose, cholesterol and urea.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Park, Jin-Ho; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2015-08-04

    We report a novel straightforward approach for simultaneous and highly-selective detection of multi-analytes (i.e. glucose, cholesterol and urea) using an integrated field-effect transistor (i-FET) array biosensor without any interference in each sensor response. Compared to analytically-measured data, performance of the ZnO nanorod based i-FET array biosensor is found to be highly reliable for rapid detection of multi-analytes in mice blood, and serum and blood samples of diabetic dogs.

  17. Nanorod mediated surface plasmon resonance sensor based on effective medium theory

    A novel nanorod mediated surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was investigated for enhancing sensitivity of the sensor. The theoretical model containing an anisotropic layer of nanorod was investigated using four-layer Fresnel equations and effective medium theory. The properties of the nanorod me...

  18. The influence of annealing temperature on the interface and photovoltaic properties of CdS/CdSe quantum dots sensitized ZnO nanorods solar cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Ling; Gong, Haibo; Zhu, Min; Han, Jun; Zi, Min; Yang, Xiaopeng; Ji, Changjian; Cao, Bingqiang

    2014-09-15

    Arrays of ZnO/CdS/CdSe core/shell nanocables with different annealing temperatures have been investigated for CdS/CdSe quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). CdS/CdSe quantum dots were synthesized on the surface of ZnO nanorods that serve as the scaffold via a simple ion-exchange approach. The uniform microstructure was verified by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. UV-Visible absorption spectrum and Raman spectroscopy analysis indicated noticeable influence of annealing temperature on the interface structural and optical properties of the CdS/CdSe layers. Particularly, the relationship between annealing temperatures and photovoltaic performance of the corresponding QDSSCs was investigated employing photovoltaic conversion, quantum efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra. It is demonstrated that higher cell efficiency can be obtained by optimizing the annealing temperature through extending the photoresponse range and improving QD layer crystal quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Central composite design and genetic algorithm applied for the optimization of ultrasonic-assisted removal of malachite green by ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Azad, F Nasiri; Dashtian, K; Hajati, S; Goudarzi, A; Soylak, M

    2016-10-05

    Maximum malachite green (MG) adsorption onto ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon (ZnO-NR-AC) was achieved following the optimization of conditions, while the mass transfer was accelerated by ultrasonic. The central composite design (CCD) and genetic algorithm (GA) were used to estimate the effect of individual variables and their mutual interactions on the MG adsorption as response and to optimize the adsorption process. The ZnO-NR-AC surface morphology and its properties were identified via FESEM, XRD and FTIR. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm and kinetic models investigation revealed the well fit of the experimental data to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. It was shown that a small amount of ZnO-NR-AC (with adsorption capacity of 20mgg(-1)) is sufficient for the rapid removal of high amount of MG dye in short time (3.99min). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Central composite design and genetic algorithm applied for the optimization of ultrasonic-assisted removal of malachite green by ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Azad, F. Nasiri; Dashtian, K.; Hajati, S.; Goudarzi, A.; Soylak, M.

    2016-10-01

    Maximum malachite green (MG) adsorption onto ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon (ZnO-NR-AC) was achieved following the optimization of conditions, while the mass transfer was accelerated by ultrasonic. The central composite design (CCD) and genetic algorithm (GA) were used to estimate the effect of individual variables and their mutual interactions on the MG adsorption as response and to optimize the adsorption process. The ZnO-NR-AC surface morphology and its properties were identified via FESEM, XRD and FTIR. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm and kinetic models investigation revealed the well fit of the experimental data to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. It was shown that a small amount of ZnO-NR-AC (with adsorption capacity of 20 mg g- 1) is sufficient for the rapid removal of high amount of MG dye in short time (3.99 min).

  1. Indirect Determination of Mercury Ion by Inhibition of a Glucose Biosensor Based on ZnO Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Chey, Chan Oeurn; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    A potentiometric glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) on ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) has been developed for the indirect determination of environmental mercury ions. The ZnO-NRs were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by using the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) approach. Glucose oxidase in conjunction with a chitosan membrane and a glutaraldehyde (GA) were immobilized on the surface of the ZnO-NRs using a simple physical adsorption method and then used as a potentiometric working electrode. The potential response of the biosensor between the working electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode was measured in a 1mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The detection limit of the mercury ion sensor was found to be 0.5 nM. The experimental results provide two linear ranges of the inhibition from 0.5 × 10−6 mM to 0.5 × 10−4 mM, and from 0.5 × 10−4 mM to 20 mM of mercury ion for fixed 1 mM of glucose concentration in the solution. The linear range of the inhibition from 10−3 mM to 6 mM of mercury ion was also acquired for a fixed 10 mM of glucose concentration. The working electrode can be reactivated by more than 70% after inhibition by simply dipping the used electrode in a 10 mM PBS solution for 7 min. The electrodes retained their original enzyme activity by about 90% for more than three weeks. The response to mercury ions was highly sensitive, selective, stable, reproducible, and interference resistant, and exhibits a fast response time. The developed glucose biosensor has a great potential for detection of mercury with several advantages such as being inexpensive, requiring minimum hardware and being suitable for unskilled users. PMID:23202200

  2. Indirect determination of mercury ion by inhibition of a glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Chey, Chan Oeurn; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2012-11-06

    A potentiometric glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) on ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) has been developed for the indirect determination of environmental mercury ions. The ZnO-NRs were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by using the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) approach. Glucose oxidase in conjunction with a chitosan membrane and a glutaraldehyde (GA) were immobilized on the surface of the ZnO-NRs using a simple physical adsorption method and then used as a potentiometric working electrode. The potential response of the biosensor between the working electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode was measured in a 1mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The detection limit of the mercury ion sensor was found to be 0.5 nM. The experimental results provide two linear ranges of the inhibition from 0.5 × 10(-6) mM to 0.5 × 10(-4) mM, and from 0.5 × 10(-4) mM to 20 mM of mercury ion for fixed 1 mM of glucose concentration in the solution. The linear range of the inhibition from 10(-3) mM to 6 mM of mercury ion was also acquired for a fixed 10 mM of glucose concentration. The working electrode can be reactivated by more than 70% after inhibition by simply dipping the used electrode in a 10 mM PBS solution for 7 min. The electrodes retained their original enzyme activity by about 90% for more than three weeks. The response to mercury ions was highly sensitive, selective, stable, reproducible, and interference resistant, and exhibits a fast response time. The developed glucose biosensor has a great potential for detection of mercury with several advantages such as being inexpensive, requiring minimum hardware and being suitable for unskilled users.

  3. Effect of γ-irradiation on the growth of ZnO nanorod films for photocatalytic disinfection of contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Julio; Ponce, Silvia; Paraguay-Delgado, Francisco; Rodríguez, Juan

    2011-12-01

    The growth of ZnO nanorods on a flat substrate containing γ-irradiated seeds and their ability to photocatalytically eliminate bacteria in water were studied. The seed layer was obtained, by the spray pyrolysis technique, from zinc acetate solutions γ-irradiated within the range from 0 to 100 kGy. Subsequently, to grow the rods, the seeds were immersed in a basic solution of zinc nitrate maintained at 90 °C. The rate of crystal growth on the seed layer during the thermal bath treatment was kept constant. The resulting materials were characterized morphologically by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies; X-ray diffraction was used to study their morphology and structure and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy to determine their absorbance. The obtained seed films were morphologically dependent on the radiation dose and this was correlated with the ZnO nanorod films which presented a texture in the (002) direction perpendicular to the substrate. The rods have a hexagonal mean cross section between 20 and 140 nm. Using these rods, the photocatalytic degradation of Escherichia coli bacteria in water was studied; a positive influence of the crystalline texture on the degradation rate was observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance of natural-dye-sensitized solar cells by ZnO nanorod and nanowall enhanced photoelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Saadaoui, Saif; Ben Youssef, Mohamed Aziz; Ben Karoui, Moufida; Smecca, Emanuele; Strano, Vincenzina; Mirabella, Salvo; Alberti, Alessandra; Puglisi, Rosaria A

    2017-01-01

    In this work, two natural dyes extracted from henna and mallow plants with a maximum absorbance at 665 nm were studied and used as sensitizers in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the extract revealed the presence of anchoring groups and coloring constituents. Two different structures were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) using zinc oxide (ZnO) layers to obtain ZnO nanowall (NW) or nanorod (NR) layers employed as a thin film at the photoanode side of the DSSC. The ZnO layers were annealed at different temperatures under various gas sources. Indeed, the forming gas (FG) (N2/H2 95:5) was found to enhance the conductivity by a factor of 103 compared to nitrogen (N2) or oxygen (O2) annealing gas. The NR width varied between 40 and 100 nm and the length from 500 to 1000 nm, depending on the growth time. The obtained NWs had a length of 850 nm. The properties of the developed ZnO NW and NR layers with different thicknesses and their effect on the photovoltaic parameters were studied. An internal coverage of the ZnO NWs was also applied by the deposition of a thin TiO2 layer by reactive sputtering to improve the cell performance. The application of this layer increased the overall short circuit current J sc by seven times from 2.45 × 10−3 mA/cm2 to 1.70 × 10−2 mA /cm2. PMID:28243567

  5. Performance of natural-dye-sensitized solar cells by ZnO nanorod and nanowall enhanced photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Saadaoui, Saif; Ben Youssef, Mohamed Aziz; Ben Karoui, Moufida; Gharbi, Rached; Smecca, Emanuele; Strano, Vincenzina; Mirabella, Salvo; Alberti, Alessandra; Puglisi, Rosaria A

    2017-01-01

    In this work, two natural dyes extracted from henna and mallow plants with a maximum absorbance at 665 nm were studied and used as sensitizers in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the extract revealed the presence of anchoring groups and coloring constituents. Two different structures were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) using zinc oxide (ZnO) layers to obtain ZnO nanowall (NW) or nanorod (NR) layers employed as a thin film at the photoanode side of the DSSC. The ZnO layers were annealed at different temperatures under various gas sources. Indeed, the forming gas (FG) (N 2 /H 2 95:5) was found to enhance the conductivity by a factor of 10 3 compared to nitrogen (N 2 ) or oxygen (O 2 ) annealing gas. The NR width varied between 40 and 100 nm and the length from 500 to 1000 nm, depending on the growth time. The obtained NWs had a length of 850 nm. The properties of the developed ZnO NW and NR layers with different thicknesses and their effect on the photovoltaic parameters were studied. An internal coverage of the ZnO NWs was also applied by the deposition of a thin TiO 2 layer by reactive sputtering to improve the cell performance. The application of this layer increased the overall short circuit current J sc by seven times from 2.45 × 10 -3 mA/cm 2 to 1.70 × 10 -2 mA /cm 2 .

  6. Strong visible and near infrared photoluminescence from ZnO nanorods/nanowires grown on single layer graphene studied using sub-band gap excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biroju, Ravi K.; Giri, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Fabrication and optoelectronic applications of graphene based hybrid 2D-1D semiconductor nanostructures have gained tremendous research interest in recent times. Herein, we present a systematic study on the origin and evolution of strong broad band visible and near infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) from vertical ZnO nanorods (NRs) and nanowires (NWs) grown on single layer graphene using both above band gap and sub-band gap optical excitations. High resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies are carried out to reveal the morphology and crystalline quality of as-grown and annealed ZnO NRs/NWs on graphene. Room temperature PL studies reveal that besides the UV and visible PL bands, a new near-infrared (NIR) PL emission band appears in the range between 815 nm and 886 nm (1.40-1.52 eV). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed excess oxygen content and unreacted metallic Zn in the as-grown ZnO nanostructures, owing to the low temperature growth by a physical vapor deposition method. Post-growth annealing at 700 °C in the Ar gas ambient results in the enhanced intensity of both visible and NIR PL bands. On the other hand, subsequent high vacuum annealing at 700 °C results in a drastic reduction in the visible PL band and complete suppression of the NIR PL band. PL decay dynamics of green emission in Ar annealed samples show tri-exponential decay on the nanosecond timescale including a very slow decay component (time constant ˜604.5 ns). Based on these results, the NIR PL band comprising two peaks centered at ˜820 nm and ˜860 nm is tentatively assigned to neutral and negatively charged oxygen interstitial (Oi) defects in ZnO, detected experimentally for the first time. The evidence for oxygen induced trap states on the ZnO NW surface is further substantiated by the slow photocurrent response of graphene-ZnO NRs/NWs. These results are important for tunable light emission, photodetection, and other cutting edge

  7. AuNPs Hybrid Black ZnO Nanorods Made by a Sol-Gel Method for Highly Sensitive Humidity Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Lin, Cunchong; Zhang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    A highly sensitive self-powered humidity sensor has been realized from AuNPs hybrid black zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods prepared through a sol-gel method. XRD pattern reveals that both ZnO and ZnO/AuNPs exhibit a wurtzite structure. ZnO/AuNPs nanorods grow in a vertical alignment, which possesses high uniformity and forms dense arrays with a smaller diameter than that of ZnO nanoparticles. All ZnO/AuNPs and pure black ZnO show lower band gap energy than the typically reported 3.34 eV of pure ZnO. Furthermore, the band gap of ZnO/AuNPs nanocomposites is effectively influenced by the amount of AuNPs. The humidity sensing tests clearly prove that all the ZnO/AuNPs humidity sensors exhibit much higher response than that of ZnO sensors, and the sensitivity of such ZnO/AuNPs nanorods (6 mL AuNPs) display a change three orders higher than that of pure ZnO with relative humidity (RH) ranging from 11% to 95% at room temperature. The response and recovery time of the ZnO/AuNPs are 5.6 s and 32.4 s, respectively. This study of the construction of semiconductor/noble metal sensors provides a rational way to control the morphology of semiconductor nanomaterials and to design a humidity sensor with high performance. PMID:29342860

  8. Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using oblique deposited silver nanorods.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chih-Chia; Wu, Pin Chieh; Tseng, Ming Lun; Lin, Wen-Chi; Chen, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor is demonstrated to be enhanced by oblique deposited silver nanorods. Silver nanorods are thermally deposited on silver nanothin film by oblique angle deposition (OAD). The length of the nanorods can be tuned by controlling the deposition parameters of thermal deposition. By measuring the phase difference between the p and s waves of surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometer with different wavelength of incident light, we have demonstrated that maximum sensitivity of glucose detection down to 7.1 × 10(-8) refractive index units could be achieved with optimal deposition parameters of silver nanorods.

  9. Fabrication of PbS quantum dots and their applications in solar cells based on ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2018-05-01

    An efficient, inexpensive and large area scalable approach based on sol-gel technique is presented to fabricate quantum dots (QDs) of PbS. Size of the QDs is tuned by the varying the bath concentrations in the range of 50-200 mM. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm the growth of spherically shaped ˜5.6 nm QDs at 50 mM bath concentration. The optical bandgap of the QDs is found to be ˜0.9 eV and corresponds to the size obtained from TEM studies. ZnO/PbS solar cells are fabricated by sensitizing the ZnO nanorods with PbS QDs. The fabricated solar cells demonstrate the highest open circuit voltage ˜200 mV and short circuit current density ˜0.81 µA/cm2.

  10. Enhancement of two photon absorption with Ni doping in the dilute magnetic semiconductor ZnO crystalline nanorods

    SciT

    Rana, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra; Arjunan, M.S.

    2015-12-07

    In this letter, we have investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of high-quality Ni doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in wurtzite lattice, prepared by the wet chemical method. In our experiments, we found that the two photon absorption coefficient (β) increases by as much as 14 times, i.e., 7.6 ± 0.4 to 112 ± 6 cm/GW, when the Ni doping is increased from 0% to 10%. The substantial enhancement in β is discussed in terms of the bandgap scaling and Ni doping. Furthermore, we also show that the optical bandgap measured by UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies, continuously redshift with increasing Ni doping concentration.more » We envision that the strong nonlinear optical properties together with their dilute magnetic effects, they form an important class of materials for potential applications in magneto-optical and integrated optical chips.« less

  11. Enhancement of two photon absorption with Ni doping in the dilute magnetic semiconductor ZnO crystalline nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Amit Kumar; J, Aneesh; Kumar, Yogendra; M. S, Arjunan; Adarsh, K. V.; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M.

    2015-12-01

    In this letter, we have investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of high-quality Ni doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in wurtzite lattice, prepared by the wet chemical method. In our experiments, we found that the two photon absorption coefficient (β) increases by as much as 14 times, i.e., 7.6 ± 0.4 to 112 ± 6 cm/GW, when the Ni doping is increased from 0% to 10%. The substantial enhancement in β is discussed in terms of the bandgap scaling and Ni doping. Furthermore, we also show that the optical bandgap measured by UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies, continuously redshift with increasing Ni doping concentration. We envision that the strong nonlinear optical properties together with their dilute magnetic effects, they form an important class of materials for potential applications in magneto-optical and integrated optical chips.

  12. Competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon-induced luminescence in single, double and multiple ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun; Zeng, Jian-Hua; Lan, Sheng; Wan, Xia; Tie, Shao-Long

    2013-04-22

    The nonlinear optical properties of single, double and multiple ZnO nanorods (NRs) were investigated by using a focused femtosecond (fs) laser beam. The excitation wavelength of the fs laser was intentionally chosen to be 754 nm at which the energy of two photons is slightly larger than that of the exciton ground state but smaller than the bandgap energy of ZnO. Second harmonic generation (SHG) or/and two-photon-induced luminescence (TPL) were observed and their dependences on excitation density were examined. For single ZnO NRs, only SHG was observed even at the highest excitation density we used in the experiments. The situation was changed when the joint point of two ZnO NRs perpendicular to each other was excited. In this case, TPL could be detected at low excitation densities and it increased rapidly with increasing excitation density. At the highest excitation density of ~15 MW/cm(2), the intensity of the TPL became comparable to that of the SHG. For an ensemble of ZnO NRs packed closely, a rapid increase of TPL with a slope of more than 7.0 and a gradual saturation of SHG with a slope of ~0.34 were found at high excitation densities. Consequently, the nonlinear response spectrum was eventually dominated by the TPL at high excitation densities and the SHG appeared to be very weak. We interpret this phenomenon by considering both the difference in electric field distribution and the effect of heat accumulation. It is suggested that the electric field enhancement in double and multiple NRs plays a crucial role in determining the nonlinear response of the NRs. In addition, the reduction in the bandgap energy induced by the heat accumulation effect also leads to the significant change in nonlinear response. This explanation is supported by the calculation of the electric field distribution using the discrete dipole approximation method and the simulation of temperature rise in different ZnO NRs based on the finite element method.

  13. Co-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers for inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambade, Swapnil B.; Ambade, Rohan B.; Eom, Seung Hun; Baek, Myung-Jin; Bagde, Sushil S.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-02-01

    In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM-ZnO NRs) leads to higher aggregation owing to the weaker solubility of SMs in solutions of ZnO NRs dispersed in chlorobenzene (CB). A prior addition of organic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEA) over ZnO NRs not only inhibits aggregation of SMs over ZnO NRs, but also provides enough sites for the SM to strongly couple with the ZnO NRs to yield transparent SM-MEA-ZnO NRs hybrids that exhibited excellent capability as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells (iOSCs) of P3HT:PC60BM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layers. A strongly coupled SM-MEA-ZnO NR hybrid reduces the series resistance by enhancing the interfacial area and tunes the energy level alignment at the interface between the (indium-doped tin oxide, ITO) cathode and BHJ photoactive layers. A significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for iOSCs comprising ETLs of SM-MEA-ZnO NRs (3.64%) advancing from 0.9% for pristine ZnO NRs, while the iOSCs of aggregated SM-ZnO NRs ETL exhibited a much lower PCE of 2.6%, thus demonstrating the potential of the co-functionalization approach. The superiority of the co-functionalized SM-MEA-ZnO NRs ETL is also evident from the highest PCE of 7.38% obtained for the iOSCs comprising BHJ of PTB7-Th:PC60BM compared with extremely poor 0.05% for non-functionalized ZnO NRs.In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM

  14. Effect of Zn(NO3)2 concentration in hydrothermal-electrochemical deposition on morphology and photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Ceren; Unal, Ugur

    2016-04-01

    Zn(NO3)2 concentration had been reported to be significantly influential on electrodeposition of ZnO structures. In this work, this issue is revisited using hydrothermal-electrochemical deposition (HED). Seedless, cathodic electrochemical deposition of ZnO films is carried out on ITO electrode at 130 °C in a closed glass reactor with varying Zn(NO3)2 concentration. Regardless of the concentration of Zn2+ precursor (0.001-0.1 M) in the deposition solution, vertically aligned 1-D ZnO nanorods are obtained as opposed to electrodepositions at lower temperatures (70-80 °C). We also report the effects of high bath temperature and pressure on the photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO films. Manipulation of precursor concentration in the deposition solution allows adjustment of the aspect ratio of the nanorods and the degree of texturation along the c-axis; hence photoinduced current density. HED is shown to provide a single step synthesis route to prepare ZnO rods with desired aspect ratio specific for the desired application just by controlling the precursor concentration.

  15. Single and multi-layered core-shell structures based on ZnO nanorods obtained by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciT

    Sáenz-Trevizo, A.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.

    2015-07-15

    Core–shell nanorod structures were prepared by a sequential synthesis using an aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. Several samples consisting of ZnO nanorods were initially grown over TiO{sub 2} film-coated borosilicate glass substrates, following the synthesis conditions reported elsewhere. Later on, a uniform layer consisting of individual Al, Ni, Ti or Fe oxides was grown onto ZnO nanorod samples forming the so-called single MO{sub x}/ZnO nanorod core–shell structures, where MO{sub x} was the metal oxide shell. Additionally, a three-layer core–shell sample was developed by growing Fe, Ti and Fe oxides alternately, onto the ZnO nanorods. The microstructure of the core–shellmore » materials was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was employed to corroborate the formation of different metal oxides. X-ray diffraction outcomes for single core–shell structures showed solely the presence of ZnO as wurtzite and TiO{sub 2} as anatase. For the multi-layered shell sample, the existence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as hematite was also detected. Morphological observations suggested the existence of an outer material grown onto the nanorods and further microstructural analysis by HR-STEM confirmed the development of core–shell structures in all cases. These studies also showed that the individual Al, Fe, Ni and Ti oxide layers are amorphous; an observation that matched with X-ray diffraction analysis where no apparent extra oxides were detected. For the multi-layered sample, the development of a shell consisting of three different oxide layers onto the nanorods was found. Overall results showed that no alteration in the primary ZnO core was produced during the growth of the shells, indicating that the deposition technique used herein was and it is suitable for the synthesis of homogeneous and complex nanomaterials high in quality and purity. In

  16. High-yield, ultrafast, surface plasmon-enhanced, Au nanorod optical field electron emitter arrays.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Richard G; Yang, Yujia; Fallahi, Arya; Keathley, Philip D; De Leo, Eva; Kärtner, Franz X; Graves, William S; Berggren, Karl K

    2014-11-25

    Here we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of ultrafast, surface-plasmon enhanced Au nanorod optical field emitter arrays. We present a quantitative study of electron emission from Au nanorod arrays fabricated by high-resolution electron-beam lithography and excited by 35 fs pulses of 800 nm light. We present accurate models for both the optical field enhancement of Au nanorods within high-density arrays, and electron emission from those nanorods. We have also studied the effects of surface plasmon damping induced by metallic interface layers at the substrate/nanorod interface on near-field enhancement and electron emission. We have identified the peak optical field at which the electron emission mechanism transitions from a 3-photon absorption mechanism to strong-field tunneling emission. Moreover, we have investigated the effects of nanorod array density on nanorod charge yield, including measurement of space-charge effects. The Au nanorod photocathodes presented in this work display 100-1000 times higher conversion efficiency relative to previously reported UV triggered emission from planar Au photocathodes. Consequently, the Au nanorod arrays triggered by ultrafast pulses of 800 nm light in this work may outperform equivalent UV-triggered Au photocathodes, while also offering nanostructuring of the electron pulse produced from such a cathode, which is of interest for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) development where nanostructured electron pulses may facilitate more efficient and brighter XFEL radiation.

  17. Arginine-assisted immobilization of silver nanoparticles on ZnO nanorods: an enhanced and reusable antibacterial substrate without human cell cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnihotri, Shekhar; Bajaj, Geetika; Mukherji, Suparna; Mukherji, Soumyo

    2015-04-01

    Silver-based hybrid nanomaterials are gaining interest as potential alternatives for conventional antimicrobial agents. Herein, we present a simple, facile and eco-friendly approach for the deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on ZnO nanorods, which act as a nanoreactor for in situ synthesis and as an immobilizing template in the presence of arginine. The presence of arginine enhanced the stability of ZnO deposition on the glass substrate by hindering the dissolution of zinc under alkaline conditions. Various Ag/ZnO hybrid nanorod (HNR) samples were screened to obtain a high amount of silver immobilization on the ZnO substrate. Ag/ZnO HNRs displayed potent antibacterial ability and could achieve 100% kill for both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis strains under various test conditions. The hybrid material mediated its dual mode of antibacterial action through direct contact-killing and release of silver ions/nanoparticles and showed superior bactericidal performance compared to pure ZnO nanorods and colloidal AgNPs. No significant decline in antibacterial efficacy was observed even after the same substrate was repeatedly reused multiple times. Interestingly, the amount of Ag and Zn release was much below their maximal limit in drinking water, thus preventing potential health hazards. Immobilized AgNPs showed no cytotoxic effects on the human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). Moreover, treating cells with the antibacterial substrate for 24 hours did not lead to significant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The good biocompatibility and bactericidal efficacy would thus make it feasible to utilize this immobilization strategy for preparing new-generation antibacterial coatings.Silver-based hybrid nanomaterials are gaining interest as potential alternatives for conventional antimicrobial agents. Herein, we present a simple, facile and eco-friendly approach for the deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on ZnO nanorods, which act as a

  18. Anisotropic growth and formation mechanism investigation of 1D ZnO nanorods in spin-coating sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Song, Yijian; Zheng, Maojun; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanorods are fabricated on glass substrate by spin-coating sol-gel process using non-basic aged solution and annealing. Sample solutions reserved in room temperature for different time (one day, one month, two months and four months) are prepared for the experiment. The morphology study indicates that the aging time has direct influence on the final products. This is verified by the Transmission Electron Microscopy and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy study. Small crystalline nanoparticles would gradually nucleate and aggregate in the sol during the aging process. They act as nucleation site for the secondary crystal growth into nanorods during anneal. Both the size of crystalline particles in the sol and the size of nanorods will grow bigger as the aging time increases. The products' structure and optical property are further studied by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. This work also helps to further clarify the formation mechanism of ZnO nanorods by solution-based method.

  19. In-Doped ZnO Hexagonal Stepped Nanorods and Nanodisks as Potential Scaffold for Highly-Sensitive Phenyl Hydrazine Chemical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Umar, Ahmad; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kumar, Rajesh; Al-Assiri, Mohammad S; Al-Salami, A E; Ibrahim, Ahmed A; Baskoutas, Sotirios

    2017-11-21

    Herein, we report the growth of In-doped ZnO (IZO) nanomaterials, i.e., stepped hexagonal nanorods and nanodisks by the thermal evaporation process using metallic zinc and indium powders in the presence of oxygen. The as-grown IZO nanomaterials were investigated by several techniques in order to examine their morphological, structural, compositional and optical properties. The detailed investigations confirmed that the grown nanomaterials, i.e., nanorods and nanodisks possess well-crystallinity with wurtzite hexagonal phase and grown in high density. The room-temperature PL spectra exhibited a suppressed UV emissions with strong green emissions for both In-doped ZnO nanomaterials, i.e., nanorods and nanodisks. From an application point of view, the grown IZO nanomaterials were used as a potential scaffold to fabricate sensitive phenyl hydrazine chemical sensors based on the I-V technique. The observed sensitivities of the fabricated sensors based on IZO nanorods and nanodisks were 70.43 μA·mM -1 cm -2 and 130.18 μA·mM -1 cm -2 , respectively. For both the fabricated sensors, the experimental detection limit was 0.5 μM, while the linear range was 0.5 μM-5.0 mM. The observed results revealed that the simply grown IZO nanomaterials could efficiently be used to fabricate highly sensitive chemical sensors.

  20. ZnO nanorods/ZnS·(1,6-hexanediamine)(0.5) hybrid nanoplates hierarchical heteroarchitecture with improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengcui; Wu, Yaqin; Pei, Tonghui; Wang, Huan; Geng, Baoyou

    2014-03-07

    Novel hierarchical heteronanostructures of ZnO nanorods/ZnS·(HDA)0.5 (HDA = 1,6-hexanediamine) hybrid nanoplates on a zinc substrate are successfully synthesized on a large scale by combining hydrothermal growth (for ZnO nanorods) and liquid chemical conversion (for ZnS·(HDA)0.5 nanoplates) techniques. The formation of ZnS·(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates branches takes advantage of the preferential binding of 1,6-hexanediamine on specific facets of ZnS, which makes the thickening rate much lower than the lateral growth rate. The ZnS·(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates have a layered structure with 1,6-hexanediamine inserted into interlayers of wurtzite ZnS through the bonding of nitrogen. The number density and thickness of the secondary ZnS·(HDA)0.5 nanoplates can be conveniently engineered by variation of the sulfur source and straightforward adjustment of reactant concentrations such as 1,6-hexanediamine and the sulfur source. The fabricated ZnO/ZnS·(HDA)0.5 heteronanostructures show improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine compared with the primary ZnO nanorods. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, this approach could be similarly used to fabricate varieties of hybrid heterostructures made of materials with an intrinsic large lattice mismatch.

  1. Enhancement of UV photodetector properties of ZnO nanorods/PEDOT:PSS Schottky junction by NGQD sensitization along with conductivity improvement of PEDOT:PSS by DMSO additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Saurab; Majumder, Tanmoy; Chakraborty, Pinak; Mondal, Suvra Prakash

    2018-04-01

    Schottky junction ultraviolet (UV) photodetector was fabricated by spin coating a hole conducting polymer, poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene: polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on hydrothermally grown zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays. The UV detector performance was significantly improved two step process. Firstly, ZnO nanorods were modified by sensitizing N doped grapheme quantum dots (NGQDs) for better photoresponce behavior. Afterwards, the junction properties as well as photoresponse was enhanced by modifying electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS layer with organic solvent (DMSO). Our NGQD decorated ZnO NRs/DMSO-PEDOT:PSS Schottky junction device demonstrated superior external quantum efficiency (EQE ˜ 90063 %) and responsivity (Rλ˜247 A/W) at 340 nm wavelength and -1V external bias. The response and recovery times of the final photodetector device was very fast compared to GQD as well as NGQD modified and pristine ZnO nanorod based detectors.

  2. Scalable continuous flow synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays in 3-D ceramic honeycomb substrates for low-temperature desulfurization

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Sibo; Wu, Yunchao; Miao, Ran; ...

    2017-07-26

    Scalable and cost-effective synthesis and assembly of technologically important nanostructures in three-dimensional (3D) substrates hold keys to bridge the demonstrated nanotechnologies in academia with industrially relevant scalable manufacturing. In this paper, using ZnO nanorod arrays as an example, a hydrothermal-based continuous flow synthesis (CFS) method is successfully used to integrate the nano-arrays in multi-channeled monolithic cordierite. Compared to the batch process, CFS enhances the average growth rate of nano-arrays by 125%, with the average length increasing from 2 μm to 4.5 μm within the same growth time of 4 hours. The precursor utilization efficiency of CFS is enhanced by 9more » times compared to that of batch process by preserving the majority of precursors in recyclable solution. Computational fluid dynamic simulation suggests a steady-state solution flow and mass transport inside the channels of honeycomb substrates, giving rise to steady and consecutive growth of ZnO nano-arrays with an average length of 10 μm in 12 h. The monolithic ZnO nano-array-integrated cordierite obtained through CFS shows enhanced low-temperature (200 °C) desulfurization capacity and recyclability in comparison to ZnO powder wash-coated cordierite. This can be attributed to exposed ZnO {101¯0} planes, better dispersion and stronger interactions between sorbent and reactant in the ZnO nanorod arrays, as well as the sintering-resistance of nano-array configurations during sulfidation–regeneration cycles. Finally, with the demonstrated scalable synthesis and desulfurization performance of ZnO nano-arrays, a promising, industrially relevant integration strategy is provided to fabricate metal oxide nano-array-based monolithic devices for various environmental and energy applications.« less

  3. Scalable continuous flow synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays in 3-D ceramic honeycomb substrates for low-temperature desulfurization

    SciT

    Wang, Sibo; Wu, Yunchao; Miao, Ran

    Scalable and cost-effective synthesis and assembly of technologically important nanostructures in three-dimensional (3D) substrates hold keys to bridge the demonstrated nanotechnologies in academia with industrially relevant scalable manufacturing. In this paper, using ZnO nanorod arrays as an example, a hydrothermal-based continuous flow synthesis (CFS) method is successfully used to integrate the nano-arrays in multi-channeled monolithic cordierite. Compared to the batch process, CFS enhances the average growth rate of nano-arrays by 125%, with the average length increasing from 2 μm to 4.5 μm within the same growth time of 4 hours. The precursor utilization efficiency of CFS is enhanced by 9more » times compared to that of batch process by preserving the majority of precursors in recyclable solution. Computational fluid dynamic simulation suggests a steady-state solution flow and mass transport inside the channels of honeycomb substrates, giving rise to steady and consecutive growth of ZnO nano-arrays with an average length of 10 μm in 12 h. The monolithic ZnO nano-array-integrated cordierite obtained through CFS shows enhanced low-temperature (200 °C) desulfurization capacity and recyclability in comparison to ZnO powder wash-coated cordierite. This can be attributed to exposed ZnO {101¯0} planes, better dispersion and stronger interactions between sorbent and reactant in the ZnO nanorod arrays, as well as the sintering-resistance of nano-array configurations during sulfidation–regeneration cycles. Finally, with the demonstrated scalable synthesis and desulfurization performance of ZnO nano-arrays, a promising, industrially relevant integration strategy is provided to fabricate metal oxide nano-array-based monolithic devices for various environmental and energy applications.« less

  4. Preparation of patterned graphene-ZnO hybrid nanoflower and nanorods on ITO surface

    SciT

    Tan, Sin Tee; Umar, Marjoni Imamora Ali; Ginting, Riski Titian

    2013-11-27

    Hybrid ZnO nanostructure with controlled morphology have been proved to enhance the physical and chemical properties of the material and used as photodiode and sensor. In this paper, hybrid graphene-ZnO nanoflower and nanorods have been successfully synthesized via a seed mediated method with micropatterned ZnO nanoseed treated with multilayer graphene (MLG) in a hydrothermal process. In typical process, the ZnO nanoseeds with and without resists were spin coated with a multilayer graphene prior to the growth process. The treated seed was then used to grow the ZnO nanostructures in the growth solution that contained equimolar (0.04 M) of zinc nitratemore » hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine. The growth process was carried out inside an autoclave at temperature 70 °C. The growth time was 4 h. It was proved that the MLG treatment on micropatterning substrate may induce new morphology formation of ZnO nanostructure. It is expected that the heteroepitaxy reaction occurred between the MLG and ZnO interface. This presence method can be used as an alternative approach to control the morphology of hybrid ZnO nanostructure growth.« less

  5. Effect of Cobalt Concentration and Oxygen Vacancy on Magnetism of Co Doped ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Li, Congli; Che, Ping; Sun, Changyan; Li, Wenjun

    2016-03-01

    Zn(1-x)Co(x)O (x = 0-0.07) single-crystalline nanorods were prepared by a modified microemulsion route. The crystalline structure, morphology, optical, and hysteresis loop at low and room temperature of as-prepared materials were characterized by XRD, TEM, PL spectra, and magnetic measurement respectively. The nanorods are 80-250 nm in diameter and about 3 μm in length. X-ray diffraction data, TEM images confirm that the materials synthesized in optimal conditions are ZnO:Co single crystalline solid solution without any impurities related to Co. The PL spectra show that the ferromagnetic samples exhibit strong Zn interstitials and oxygen vacancy emission indicating defects may stabilize ferromagnetic order in the obtained diluted magnetic semiconductors. Magnetic measurements show that the Zn(1-x)Co(x)O nanorods exist obvious ferromagnetic characteristics with T(c) above 300 K. M(s) and coercivities first increase and then decrease with dopant concentration increasing, reaching the highest for 3% doping level. The structural and magnetic properties of these samples support the hypothesis that the FM of DMS nanorods is due to a defect mediated mechanism instead of cobalt nanoclusters and carrier mediated.

  6. Miniaturized pH Sensors Based on Zinc Oxide Nanotubes/Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Fulati, Alimujiang; Ali, Syed M.Usman; Riaz, Muhammad; Amin, Gul; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    ZnO nanotubes and nanorods grown on gold thin film were used to create pH sensor devices. The developed ZnO nanotube and nanorod pH sensors display good reproducibility, repeatability and long-term stability and exhibit a pH-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl reference electrode over a large dynamic pH range. We found the ZnO nanotubes provide sensitivity as high as twice that of the ZnO nanorods, which can be ascribed to the fact that small dimensional ZnO nanotubes have a higher level of surface and subsurface oxygen vacancies and provide a larger effective surface area with higher surface-to-volume ratio as compared to ZnO nanorods, thus affording the ZnO nanotube pH sensor a higher sensitivity. Experimental results indicate ZnO nanotubes can be used in pH sensor applications with improved performance. Moreover, the ZnO nanotube arrays may find potential application as a novel material for measurements of intracellular biochemical species within single living cells. PMID:22291545

  7. Orientation-Controllable ZnO Nanorod Array Using Imprinting Method for Maximum Light Utilization in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Huisu; Song, Hui; Lee, Ryeri; Pak, Yusin; Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Lee, Heon; Jung, Gun Young

    2015-12-01

    We present a holey titanium dioxide (TiO2) film combined with a periodically aligned ZnO nanorod layer (ZNL) for maximum light utilization in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Both the holey TiO2 film and the ZNL were simultaneously fabricated by imprint technique with a mold having vertically aligned ZnO nanorod (NR) array, which was transferred to the TiO2 film after imprinting. The orientation of the transferred ZNL such as laid, tilted, and standing ZnO NRs was dependent on the pitch and height of the ZnO NRs of the mold. The photoanode composed of the holey TiO2 film with the ZNL synergistically utilized the sunlight due to enhanced light scattering and absorption. The best power conversion efficiency of 8.5 % was achieved from the DSC with the standing ZNL, which represented a 33 % improvement compared to the reference cell with a planar TiO2.

  8. Morphology Transition Engineering of ZnO Nanorods to Nanoplatelets Grafted Mo8O23-MoO2 by Polyoxometalates: Mechanism and Possible Applicability to other Oxides.

    PubMed

    Abdelmohsen, Ahmed H; Rouby, Waleed M A El; Ismail, Nahla; Farghali, Ahmed A

    2017-07-19

    A new fundamental mechanism for reliable engineering of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods to nanoplatelets grafted Mo 8 O 23 -MoO 2 mixed oxide with controlled morphology, composition and precise understanding of the nanoscale reaction mechanism was developed. These hybrid nanomaterials are gaining interest due to their potential use for energy, catalysis, biomedical and other applications. As an introductory section, we demonstrate a new expansion for the concept 'materials engineering' by discussing the fabrication of metal oxides nanostructures by bottom-up approach and carbon nanoparticles by top-down approach. Moreover, we propose a detailed mechanism for the novel phenomenon that was experienced by ZnO nanorods when treated with phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) under ultra-sonication stimulus. This approach is expected to be the basis of a competitive fabrication approach to 2D hybrid nanostructures. We will also discuss a proposed mechanism for the catalytic deposition of Mo 8 O 23 -MoO 2 mixed oxide over ZnO nanoplatelets. A series of selection rules (SRs) which applied to ZnO to experience morphology transition and constitute Abdelmohsen theory for morphology transition engineering (ATMTE) will be demonstrated through the article, besides a brief discussion about possibility of other oxides to obey this theory.

  9. Multiplexed enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor based on ZnO nanorods modified reduced graphene oxide-paper electrode and silver deposition-induced signal amplification strategy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoqiang; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Hongmei; Ma, Chao; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua; Song, Xianrang

    2015-09-15

    Herein, an origami multiplexed enzyme-free electrochemical (EC) immunodevice is developed for the first time. Typically, ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-paper electrode is used as a sensor platform, in which rGO improves the electronic transmission rate and ZNRs provide abundant sites for capture probes binding. Furthermore, by combining the large surface area of rGO and high catalytic activity of bovine serum protein (BSA)-stabilized silver nanoparticles (Ag@BSA) toward H2O2 reduction, rGO/Ag@BSA composites can be used as an excellent signal labels. The current signal is generated from the reduction of H2O2 and further amplified by a subsequent signal labels-promoted deposition of silver. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunoassays exhibit excellent precision, high sensitivity and a wide linear range of 0.002-120 mIU mL(-1) for human chorionic gonadotropin, 0.001-110 ng mL(-1) for prostate-specific antigen, and 0.001-100 ng mL(-1) for carcinoembryonic antigen. The results for real sample analysis demonstrate that the newly constructed immunosensor arrays provide a simple and cost-effective method for clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis of ZnO nanorods and their application in the construction of a nanostructure-based electrochemical sensor for determination of levodopa in the presence of carbidopa.

    PubMed

    Molaakbari, Elahe; Mostafavi, Ali; Beitollahi, Hadi; Alizadeh, Reza

    2014-09-07

    A novel carbon paste electrode modified with ZnO nanorods and 5-(4'-amino-3'-hydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (3,4'-AAZCPE) was fabricated. The electrochemical study of the modified electrode, as well as its efficiency for the electrocatalytic oxidation of levodopa, is described. The electrode was employed to study the electrocatalytic oxidation of levodopa, using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CHA), and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) as diagnostic techniques. It has been found that the oxidation of levodopa at the surface of the modified electrode occurs at a potential of about 370 mV less positive than that of an unmodified carbon paste electrode. The SWV results exhibit a linear dynamic range from 1.0 × 10(-7) M to 7.0 × 10(-5) M and a detection limit of 3.5 × 10(-8) M for levodopa. In addition, this modified electrode was used for the simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa. Finally, the modified electrode was used for the determination of levodopa and carbidopa in some real samples.

  11. MOF-5 decorated hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays and its photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinmin; Lan, Ding; Wang, Yuren; Cao, He; Jiang, Heng

    2011-04-01

    The strategy to manipulate nanoscale materials into well-organized hierarchical architectures is very important to both material synthesis and nanodevice applications. Here, nanoscale MOF-5 crystallites were successfully fabricated onto ordered hierarchical ZnO arrays based on aqueous chemical synthesis and molecule self-assembly technology guided room temperature diffusion method, which has the advantages of energy saving and simple operation. The structures and morphologies of the samples were performed by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electronic microscopy. The MOF-5 crystallites have good quality and bind well to the hexagonal-patterned ZnO arrays. The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the emission of hybrid MOF-5-ZnO films displays a blue shift in green emission and intensity reduction in UV emission. This ordered hybrid semiconductor material is expected to exploit the great potentiality in sensors, micro/nanodevices, and screen displays.

  12. Controlled Defects of Zinc Oxide Nanorods for Efficient Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabahi, Jamal; Bora, Tanujjal; Al-Abri, Mohammed; Dutta, Joydeep

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution from human and industrial activities has received much attention as it adversely affects human health and bio-diversity. In this work we report efficient visible light photocatalytic degradation of phenol using supported zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and explore the role of surface defects in ZnO on the visible light photocatalytic activity. ZnO nanorods were synthesized on glass substrates using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal process, while the surface defect states were controlled by annealing the nanorods at various temperatures and were characterized by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the evaluation of phenol photocatalytic degradation. ZnO nanorods with high surface defects exhibited maximum visible light photocatalytic activity, showing 50% degradation of 10 ppm phenol aqueous solution within 2.5 h, with a degradation rate almost four times higher than that of nanorods with lower surface defects. The mineralization process of phenol during degradation was also investigated, and it showed the evolution of different photocatalytic byproducts, such as benzoquinone, catechol, resorcinol and carboxylic acids, at different stages. The results from this study suggest that the presence of surface defects in ZnO nanorods is crucial for its efficient visible light photocatalytic activity, which is otherwise only active in the ultraviolet region. PMID:28773363

  13. Controlled Defects of Zinc Oxide Nanorods for Efficient Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabahi, Jamal; Bora, Tanujjal; Al-Abri, Mohammed; Dutta, Joydeep

    2016-03-28

    Environmental pollution from human and industrial activities has received much attention as it adversely affects human health and bio-diversity. In this work we report efficient visible light photocatalytic degradation of phenol using supported zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and explore the role of surface defects in ZnO on the visible light photocatalytic activity. ZnO nanorods were synthesized on glass substrates using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal process, while the surface defect states were controlled by annealing the nanorods at various temperatures and were characterized by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the evaluation of phenol photocatalytic degradation. ZnO nanorods with high surface defects exhibited maximum visible light photocatalytic activity, showing 50% degradation of 10 ppm phenol aqueous solution within 2.5 h, with a degradation rate almost four times higher than that of nanorods with lower surface defects. The mineralization process of phenol during degradation was also investigated, and it showed the evolution of different photocatalytic byproducts, such as benzoquinone, catechol, resorcinol and carboxylic acids, at different stages. The results from this study suggest that the presence of surface defects in ZnO nanorods is crucial for its efficient visible light photocatalytic activity, which is otherwise only active in the ultraviolet region.

  14. The effect of cation doping on the morphology, optical and structural properties of highly oriented wurtzite ZnO-nanorod arrays grown by a hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, A.; Guo, P.; Shen, S.; Bianucci, P.

    2017-10-01

    Undoped and C-doped (C: Mg2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Cr3+) ZnO nanorods were synthesized by a hydrothermal method at temperatures as low as 60 °C. The effect of doping on the morphology of the ZnO nanorods was visualized by taking their cross section and top SEM images. The results show that the size of nanorods was increased in both height and diameter by cation doping. The crystallinity change of the ZnO nanorods due to each doping element was thoroughly investigated by an x-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns show that the wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO nanorods was maintained after cation addition. The optical Raman-active modes of undoped and cation-doped nanorods were measured with a micro-Raman setup at room temperature. The surface chemistry of samples was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Finally, the effect of each cation dopant on band-gap shift of the ZnO nanorods was investigated by a photoluminescence setup at room temperature. Although the amount of dopants (Mg2+, Ni2+, and Co2+) was smaller than the amount of Mn2+, Cu2+, and Cr3+ in the nanorods, their effect on the band structure of the ZnO nanorods was profound. The highest band-gap shift was achieved for a Co-doped sample, and the best crystal orientation was for Mn-doped ZnO nanorods. Our results can be used as a comprehensive reference for engineering of the morphological, structural and optical properties of cation-doped ZnO nanorods by using a low-temperature synthesis as an economical mass-production approach.

  15. Surface-modified gold nanorods for specific cell targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chan-Ung; Arai, Yoshie; Kim, Insun; Jang, Wonhee; Lee, Seonghyun; Hafner, Jason H.; Jeoung, Eunhee; Jung, Deokho; Kwon, Youngeun

    2012-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have unique properties that make them highly attractive materials for developing functional reagents for various biomedical applications including photothermal therapy, targeted drug delivery, and molecular imaging. For in vivo applications, GNPs need to be prepared with very little or negligible cytotoxicitiy. Most GNPs are, however, prepared using growth-directing surfactants such as cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which are known to have considerable cytotoxicity. In this paper, we describe an approach to remove CTAB to a non-toxic concentration. We optimized the conditions for surface modification with methoxypolyethylene glycol thiol (mPEG), which replaced CTAB and formed a protective layer on the surface of gold nanorods (GNRs). The cytotoxicities of pristine and surface-modified GNRs were measured in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human cell lines derived from hepatic carcinoma cells, embryonic kidney cells, and thyroid papillary carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that treating cells with GNRs did not significantly affect cell viability except for thyroid papillary carcinoma cells. Thyroid cancer cells were more susceptible to residual CTAB, so CTAB had to be further removed by dialysis in order to use GNRs for thyroid cell targeting. PEGylated GNRs are further modified to present monoclonal antibodies that recognize a specific surface marker, Na-I symporter, for thyroid cells. Antibody-conjugated GNRs specifically targeted human thyroid cells in vitro.

  16. Microwave synthesis and photocatalytic activities of ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios

    SciT

    Sun, Fazhe; Zhao, Zengdian; Qiao, Xueliang, E-mail: xuelqiao@163.com

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized linked ZnO nanorods by a facile microwave method. • The effect of reaction parameters on ZnO was investigated. • ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios were prepared. • The photocatalytic performance of ZnO bipods was evaluated. - Abstract: Linked ZnO nanorods have been successfully prepared via a facile microwave method without any post-synthesis treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated the precursor had completely transformed into the pure ZnO crystal. The images of field emitting scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that linked ZnO nanorods consisted predominantly of ZnO bipods. The formationmore » process of the ZnO bipods was clearly discussed. ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios have been obtained by tuning the concentrations of reagents and microwave power. Moreover, the photocatalytic performance of ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios for degradation of methylene blue was systematically evaluated. The results of photocatalytic experiments showed that the photocatalytic activity increased with the aspect ratios of ZnO bipods increased. The reason is that ZnO bipods with larger aspect ratio have higher surface area, which can absorb more MB molecules to react with ·OH radicals.« less

  17. Biocompatible Surface Chemistry Manipulation of Gold Nanorods Preserves Optical Properties for Bio-Imaging Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-18

    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2014 – Sept 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biocompatible surface chemistry manipulation of gold nanorods preserves...Due to their anisotropic shape, gold nanorods (GNRs) possess a number of advantages for biosystem use including, enhanced surface area and tunable...intracellular aggregation of MTAB-TA GNRs, and identify them as prime andidates for use in nanobased bio-imaging applications. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Gold

  18. Plasma treatment of p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorod light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Yu Hang; Ng, Alan M. C.; Djurišic, Aleksandra B.; Chan, Wai Kin; Fong, Patrick W. K.; Lui, Hsien Fai; Surya, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a material of great interest for short-wavelength optoelectronic applications due to its wide band gap (3.37 eV) and high exciton binding energy (60 meV). Due to the difficulty in stable p-type doping of ZnO, other p-type materials such as gallium nitride (GaN) have been used to form heterojunctions with ZnO. p-GaN/n-ZnO heterojunction devices, in particular light-emitting diodes (LED) have been extensively studied. There was a huge variety of electronic properties and emission colors on the reported devices. It is due to the different energy alignment at the interface caused by different properties of the GaN layer and ZnO counterpart in the junction. Attempts have been made on modifying the heterojunction by various methods, such as introducing a dielectric interlayer and post-growth surface treatment, and changing the growth methods of ZnO. In this study, heterojunction LED devices with p-GaN and ZnO nanorods array are demonstrated. The ZnO nanorods were grown by a solution method. The ZnO nanorods were exposed to different kinds of plasma treatments (such as nitrogen and oxygen) after the growth. It was found that the treatment could cause significant change on the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods, as well as the electronic properties and light emissions of the resultant LED devices.

  19. ZnO nanorod array/CuAlO2 nanofiber heterojunction on Ni substrate: synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Sui, Yongming; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin; Zhao, Bo; Li, Minghui

    2011-07-22

    A novel ZnO nanorod array (NR)/CuAlO(2) nanofiber (NF) heterojunction nanostructure was grown on a substrate of Ni plates using sol-gel synthesis for the NFs and hydrothermal reaction for the NRs. Compared with a traditional ZnO/CuAlO(2) laminar film nanostructure, the photocurrent of this fibrous network heterojunction is significantly increased. A significant blue-shift of the absorption edge and a favorable forward current to reverse current ratio at applied voltages of -2 to +2 V were observed in this heterojunction with the increase of Zn(2+) ion concentration in the hydrothermal reaction. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical properties were investigated and the highest photocurrent of 3.1 mA cm(-2) was obtained under AM 1.5 illumination with 100 mW cm(-2) light intensity at 0.71 V (versus Ag/AgCl). This novel 3D fibrous network nanostructure plays an important role in the optoelectronic field and can be extended to other binary or ternary oxide compositions for various applications.

  20. ZnO nanorod array/CuAlO2 nanofiber heterojunction on Ni substrate: synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Juan; Sui, Yongming; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin; Zhao, Bo; Li, Minghui

    2011-07-01

    A novel ZnO nanorod array (NR)/CuAlO2 nanofiber (NF) heterojunction nanostructure was grown on a substrate of Ni plates using sol-gel synthesis for the NFs and hydrothermal reaction for the NRs. Compared with a traditional ZnO/CuAlO2 laminar film nanostructure, the photocurrent of this fibrous network heterojunction is significantly increased. A significant blue-shift of the absorption edge and a favorable forward current to reverse current ratio at applied voltages of - 2 to + 2 V were observed in this heterojunction with the increase of Zn2 + ion concentration in the hydrothermal reaction. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical properties were investigated and the highest photocurrent of 3.1 mA cm - 2 was obtained under AM 1.5 illumination with 100 mW cm - 2 light intensity at 0.71 V (versus Ag/AgCl). This novel 3D fibrous network nanostructure plays an important role in the optoelectronic field and can be extended to other binary or ternary oxide compositions for various applications.

  1. Mobility of indium on the ZnO(0001) surface

    SciT

    Heinhold, R.; Reeves, R. J.; Allen, M. W.

    2015-02-02

    The mobility of indium on the Zn-polar (0001) surface of single crystal ZnO wafers was investigated using real-time x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A sudden transition in the wettability of the ZnO(0001) surface was observed at ∼520 °C, with indium migrating from the (0001{sup ¯}) underside of the wafer, around the non-polar (11{sup ¯}00) and (112{sup ¯}0) sidewalls, to form a uniform self-organized (∼20 Å) adlayer. The In adlayer was oxidized, in agreement with the first principles calculations of Northrup and Neugebauer that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} precipitation can only be avoided under a combination of In-rich and Zn-rich conditions. These findings suggest that unintentionalmore » In adlayers may form during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on indium-bonded substrates.« less

  2. Encapsulating Quantum Dots into ZnO Nanorods for Advanced photonics and Laser Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-12

    nanotechnology , Nanofabrication 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17.  LIMITATION OF       ABSTRACT SAR 18.  NUMBER        OF        PAGES    15             19a...nanorods and microrods. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology , 2014. 5: p. 485-493. 2. Liu, J. and N. Motta, The nanonail flower. Materials Today...storage.(Review) Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 7: 149-196. (2016) 4. Mei Lyu, Jinzhang Liu, Jun Zhu⃰, Llew Rintoul, Nunzio Motta

  3. Postbuckling behaviors of nanorods including the effects of nonlocal elasticity theory and surface stress

    SciT

    Thongyothee, Chawis, E-mail: chawist@hotmail.com; Chucheepsakul, Somchai

    2013-12-28

    This paper is concerned with postbuckling behaviors of nanorods subjected to an end concentrated load. One end of the nanorod is clamped while the other end is fixed to a support that can slide in the slot. The governing equation is developed from static equilibrium and geometrical conditions by using the exact curvature corresponding to the elastica theory. The nonlocal elasticity, the effect of surface stress, and their combined effects are taken into account in Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. Differential equations in this problem can be solved numerically by using the shooting-optimization technique for the postbuckling loads and the buckled configurations.more » The results show that nanorods with the nonlocal elasticity effect undergo increasingly large deformation while the effect of surface stress in combination with nonlocal elasticity decreases the deflection of nanorods under the same postbuckling load.« less

  4. ZnO nanorods/ZnS.(1,6-hexanediamine)0.5 hybrid nanoplates hierarchical heteroarchitecture with improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhengcui; Wu, Yaqin; Pei, Tonghui; Wang, Huan; Geng, Baoyou

    2014-02-01

    Novel hierarchical heteronanostructures of ZnO nanorods/ZnS.(HDA)0.5 (HDA = 1,6-hexanediamine) hybrid nanoplates on a zinc substrate are successfully synthesized on a large scale by combining hydrothermal growth (for ZnO nanorods) and liquid chemical conversion (for ZnS.(HDA)0.5 nanoplates) techniques. The formation of ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates branches takes advantage of the preferential binding of 1,6-hexanediamine on specific facets of ZnS, which makes the thickening rate much lower than the lateral growth rate. The ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates have a layered structure with 1,6-hexanediamine inserted into interlayers of wurtzite ZnS through the bonding of nitrogen. The number density and thickness of the secondary ZnS.(HDA)0.5 nanoplates can be conveniently engineered by variation of the sulfur source and straightforward adjustment of reactant concentrations such as 1,6-hexanediamine and the sulfur source. The fabricated ZnO/ZnS.(HDA)0.5 heteronanostructures show improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine compared with the primary ZnO nanorods. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, this approach could be similarly used to fabricate varieties of hybrid heterostructures made of materials with an intrinsic large lattice mismatch.Novel hierarchical heteronanostructures of ZnO nanorods/ZnS.(HDA)0.5 (HDA = 1,6-hexanediamine) hybrid nanoplates on a zinc substrate are successfully synthesized on a large scale by combining hydrothermal growth (for ZnO nanorods) and liquid chemical conversion (for ZnS.(HDA)0.5 nanoplates) techniques. The formation of ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates branches takes advantage of the preferential binding of 1,6-hexanediamine on specific facets of ZnS, which makes the thickening rate much lower than the lateral growth rate. The ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates have a layered structure with 1,6-hexanediamine inserted into interlayers of wurtzite ZnS through the bonding of nitrogen. The number density and thickness of the

  5. Growth of High-Density Zinc Oxide Nanorods on Porous Silicon by Thermal Evaporation

    PubMed Central

    Rusli, Nurul Izni; Tanikawa, Masahiro; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Yasui, Kanji; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2012-01-01

    The formation of high-density zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods on porous silicon (PS) substrates at growth temperatures of 600–1000 °C by a simple thermal evaporation of zinc (Zn) powder in the presence of oxygen (O2) gas was systematically investigated. The high-density growth of ZnO nanorods with (0002) orientation over a large area was attributed to the rough surface of PS, which provides appropriate planes to promote deposition of Zn or ZnOx seeds as nucleation sites for the subsequent growth of ZnO nanorods. The geometrical morphologies of ZnO nanorods are determined by the ZnOx seed structures, i.e., cluster or layer structures. The flower-like hexagonal-faceted ZnO nanorods grown at 600 °C seem to be generated from the sparsely distributed ZnOx nanoclusters. Vertically aligned hexagonal-faceted ZnO nanorods grown at 800 °C may be inferred from the formation of dense arrays of ZnOx clusters. The formation of disordered ZnO nanorods formed at 1000 °C may due to the formation of a ZnOx seed layer. The growth mechanism involved has been described by a combination of self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) and vapor-solid (VS) mechanism. The results suggest that for a more precise study on the growth of ZnO nanostructures involving the introduction of seeds, the initial seed structures must be taken into account given their significant effects.

  6. Controllable electrodeposition of ZnO nanorod arrays on flexible stainless steel mesh substrate for photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hui; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

    2014-10-01

    Well-aligned single-crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs) were prepared on flexible stainless steel mesh (SSM) substrate in large-scale by using a direct electrodeposition method. The effects of electrochemical parameters, such as applied potential, applied nucleation potential time, substrate pretreatment, electrodeposition duration and times, on the orientation, morphology and density of ZNRAs were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The results showed that ZNRAs on SSM substrate with [0 0 1] preferred orientation and well crystallization were obtained by controlling the applied potential in the range of -0.9 to -1.1 V. The density of ZNRAs could be increased obviously by applying a nucleation potential (-1.3 V for more than 10 s before deposition) or by means of substrate pretreatment (the SSM immersed in zinc acetate colloid for more than 10 min before deposition), meanwhile, the deposited ZNRAs also had small average diameter (<46 ± 4 nm), narrow size distribution and good orientation. In addition, it was also found that the average diameter of ZNRAs could be increased from 89 to 201 ± 5 nm by extending the electrodeposition duration from 1800 to 7200 s, and the length of rods was from 0.8 to 2.2 ± 0.1 μm when the times of the electrodeposition from one to six times. Furthermore, the band gap energy (Eg) of as-prepared ZNTAs was not closely related to the electrodeposition times (only changed from 3.30 to 3.32 eV). The ZNRAs prepared with more electrodeposition times showed enhanced photocatalytic performance under the UV-lamp for degradation of Rhodamine B. The degradation efficiency of ZNRAs improved from 89.4% to 98.3% with the deposition times from one to six times.

  7. Application of ZnO nanorods loaded on activated carbon for ultrasonic assisted dyes removal: Experimental design and derivative spectrophotometry method.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Fatemeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Taghdiri, Mehdi; Asfaram, Arash

    2016-11-01

    A method based on application of ZnO nanorods loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NRs-AC) for adsorption of Bromocresol Green (BCG) and Eosin Y (EY) accelerated by ultrasound was described. The present material was synthesized under ultrasound assisted wet-chemical method and subsequently was characterized by FE-SEM, TEM, BET and XRD analysis. The extent of contribution of conventional variables like pH (2.0-10.0), BCG concentration (4-20mgL(-1)), EY concentration (3-23mgL(-1)), adsorbent dosage (0.01-0.03g), sonication time (1-5min) and centrifuge time (2-6min) as main and interaction part were investigated by central composite design under response surface methodology. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adapted to experimental data and guide the best operational conditions mass by set at 6.0, 9mgL(-1), 10mgL(-1), 0.02g, 4 and 4min for pH, BCG concentration, EY concentration, adsorbent dosage, sonication and centrifuge time, respectively. At these specified conditions dye adsorption efficiency was higher than 99.5%. The suitability and well prediction of optimum point was tested by conducting five experiments and respective results revel that RSD% was lower than 3% and high quality of fitting was confirmed by t-test. The experimental data were best fitted in Langmuir isotherm equation and the removal followed pseudo second order kinetics. The experimentally obtained maximum adsorption capacities were estimated as 57.80 and 61.73mgg(-1) of ZnO-NRs-AC for BCG and EY respectively from binary dye solutions. The mechanism of removal was explained by boundary layer diffusion via intraparticle diffusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs. PMID:25988846

  9. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-05-19

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs.

  10. Piezoelectric coupling in a field-effect transistor with a nanohybrid channel of ZnO nanorods grown vertically on graphene.

    PubMed

    Quang Dang, Vinh; Kim, Do-Il; Thai Duy, Le; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Jang, Mi; Shin, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2014-12-21

    Piezoelectric coupling phenomena in a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) with a nano-hybrid channel of chemical-vapor-deposited Gr (CVD Gr) and vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) under mechanical pressurization were investigated. Transfer characteristics of the hybrid channel GFET clearly indicated that the piezoelectric effect of ZnO NRs under static or dynamic pressure modulated the channel conductivity (σ) and caused a positive shift of 0.25% per kPa in the Dirac point. However, the GFET without ZnO NRs showed no change in either σ or the Dirac point. Analysis of the Dirac point shifts indicated transfer of electrons from the CVD Gr to ZnO NRs due to modulation of their interfacial barrier height under pressure. High responsiveness of the hybrid channel device with fast response and recovery times was evident in the time-dependent behavior at a small gate bias. In addition, the hybrid channel FET could be gated by mechanical pressurization only. Therefore, a piezoelectric-coupled hybrid channel GFET can be used as a pressure-sensing device with low power consumption and a fast response time. Hybridization of piezoelectric 1D nanomaterials with a 2D semiconducting channel in FETs enables a new design for future nanodevices.

  11. Attachment of Quantum Dots on Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seay, Jared; Liang, Huan; Harikumar, Parameswar

    2011-03-01

    ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal technique are of great interest for potential applications in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. In this study we investigate the optimization of the optical absorption properties by a low temperature, chemical bath deposition technique. Our group fabricated nanorods on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate with precursor solution of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetramine (1:1 molar ratio) at 95C for 9 hours. In order to optimize the light absorption characteristics of ZnO nanorods, CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) of various diameters were attached to the surface of ZnO nanostructures grown on ITO and gold-coated silicon substrates. Density of quantum dots was varied by controlling the number drops on the surface of the ZnO nanorods. For a 0.1 M concentration of QDs of 10 nm diameter, the PL intensity at 385 nm increased as the density of the quantum dots on ZnO nanostructures was increased. For quantum dots at 1 M concentration, the PL intensity at 385 nm increased at the beginning and then decreased at higher density. We will discuss the observed changes in PL intensity with QD concentration with ZnO-QD band structure and recombination-diffusion processes taking place at the interface.

  12. Hierarchical core-shell structure of ZnO nanorod@NiO/MoO₂ composite nanosheet arrays for high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sucheng; Zhang, Guanhua; Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Jian; Gong, Feilong; Li, Feng; Duan, Huigao

    2014-08-27

    A hierarchical core-shell structure of ZnO nanorod@NiO/MoO2 composite nanosheet arrays on nickel foam substrate for high-performance supercapacitors was constructed by a two-step solution-based method involving two hydrothermal processes followed by a calcination treatment. Compared to one composed of pure NiO/MoO2 composite nanosheets, the hierarchical core-shell structure electrode displays better pseudocapacitive behaviors in 2 M KOH, including high areal specific capacitance values of 1.18 F cm(-2) at 5 mA cm(-2) and 0.6 F cm(-2) at 30 mA cm(-2) as well as relatively good rate capability at high current densities. Furthermore, it also shows remarkable cycle stability, remaining at 91.7% of the initial value even after 4000 cycles at a current density of 10 mA cm(-2). The enhanced pseudocapacitive behaviors are mainly due to the unique hierarchical core-shell structure and the synergistic effect of combining ZnO nanorod arrays and NiO/MoO2 composite nanosheets. This novel hierarchical core-shell structure shows promise for use in next-generation supercapacitors.

  13. Influence of helium-ion bombardment on the optical properties of ZnO nanorods/p-GaN light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Alvi, Naveed Ul Hassan; Hussain, Sajjad; Jensen, Jen; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2011-12-12

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown by vapor-liquid-solid catalytic growth method were irradiated with 2-MeV helium (He+) ions. The fabricated LEDs were irradiated with fluencies of approximately 2 × 1013 ions/cm2 and approximately 4 × 1013 ions/cm2. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the morphology of the irradiated samples is not changed. The as-grown and He+-irradiated LEDs showed rectifying behavior with the same I-V characteristics. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed that there is a blue shift of approximately 0.0347 and 0.082 eV in the near-band emission (free exciton) and green emission of the irradiated ZnO nanorods, respectively. It was also observed that the PL intensity of the near-band emission was decreased after irradiation of the samples. The electroluminescence (EL) measurements of the fabricated LEDs showed that there is a blue shift of 0.125 eV in the broad green emission after irradiation and the EL intensity of violet emission approximately centered at 398 nm nearly disappeared after irradiations. The color-rendering properties show a small decrease in the color-rendering indices of 3% after 2 MeV He+ ions irradiation.

  14. Switchable polarization-sensitive surface plasmon resonance of highly stable gold nanorods liquid crystals composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingkun; Qian, Jun; Cai, Fuhong; Smalyukh, Ivan I.; He, Sailing

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the bulk self-alignment of gold nanorods (GNRs) dispersed in lyotropic nematic liquid crystals (LCs) with high optical absorption coefficient at the surface plasmon resonant wavelength. The polymer-coated GNRs which show spontaneous long-range orientational ordering along the director of LC host exhibit long-term stability as well as high concentration. External magnetic field and shearing allow for alignment and realignment of the orientation of gold nanorods by changing the director of the liquid crystal matrix. This results in a switchable polarization-sensitive surface plasmon resonance exhibiting stark differences from that of the same nanorods in isotropic fluids. The devise-scale bulk nanoparticle alignment may enable optical metamaterial mass production and control of surface plasmon resonance of nanoparticles.

  15. Plasmonic detection of mercury via amalgam formation on surface-immobilized single Au nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopf, Carola; Martín, Alfonso; Iacopino, Daniela

    2017-12-01

    Au nanorods were used as plasmonic transducers for investigation of mercury detection through a mechanism of amalgam formation at the nanorod surfaces. Marked scattering color transitions and associated blue shifts of the surface plasmon resonance peak wavelengths (λmax) were measured in individual nanorods by darkfield microscopy upon chemical reduction of Hg(II). Such changes were related to compositional changes occurring as a result of Hg-Au amalgam formation as well as morphological changes in the nanorods' aspect ratios. The plot of λmax shifts vs. Hg(II) concentration showed a linear response in the 10-100 nM concentration range. The sensitivity of the system was ascribed to the narrow width of single nanorod scattering spectra, which allowed accurate determination of peak shifts. The system displayed good selectivity as the optical response obtained for mercury was one order of magnitude higher than the response obtained with competitor ions. Analysis of mercury content in river and tap water were also performed and highlighted both the potential and limitation of the developed method for real sensing applications.

  16. Influence of ZnO seed layer precursor molar ratio on the density of interface defects in low temperature aqueous chemically synthesized ZnO nanorods/GaN light-emitting diodes

    SciT

    Alnoor, Hatim, E-mail: hatim.alnoor@liu.se; Iandolo, Donata; Willander, Magnus

    Low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (LT-ACS) of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) has been attracting considerable research interest due to its great potential in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The influence of the molar ratio of the zinc acetate (ZnAc): KOH as a ZnO seed layer precursor on the density of interface defects and hence the presence of non-radiative recombination centers in LT-ACS of ZnO NRs/GaN LEDs has been systematically investigated. The material quality of the as-prepared seed layer as quantitatively deduced by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is found to be influenced by the molar ratio. It is revealedmore » by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence that the seed layer molar ratio plays a significant role in the formation and the density of defects at the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterostructure interface. Consequently, LED devices processed using ZnO NRs synthesized with molar ratio of 1:5 M exhibit stronger yellow emission (∼575 nm) compared to those based on 1:1 and 1:3 M ratios as measured by the electroluminescence. Furthermore, seed layer molar ratio shows a quantitative dependence of the non-radiative defect densities as deduced from light-output current characteristics analysis. These results have implications on the development of high-efficiency ZnO-based LEDs and may also be helpful in understanding the effects of the ZnO seed layer on defect-related non-radiative recombination.« less

  17. Influence of ZnO seed layer precursor molar ratio on the density of interface defects in low temperature aqueous chemically synthesized ZnO nanorods/GaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnoor, Hatim; Pozina, Galia; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Xianjie; Iandolo, Donata; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer

    2016-04-01

    Low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (LT-ACS) of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) has been attracting considerable research interest due to its great potential in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The influence of the molar ratio of the zinc acetate (ZnAc): KOH as a ZnO seed layer precursor on the density of interface defects and hence the presence of non-radiative recombination centers in LT-ACS of ZnO NRs/GaN LEDs has been systematically investigated. The material quality of the as-prepared seed layer as quantitatively deduced by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is found to be influenced by the molar ratio. It is revealed by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence that the seed layer molar ratio plays a significant role in the formation and the density of defects at the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterostructure interface. Consequently, LED devices processed using ZnO NRs synthesized with molar ratio of 1:5 M exhibit stronger yellow emission (˜575 nm) compared to those based on 1:1 and 1:3 M ratios as measured by the electroluminescence. Furthermore, seed layer molar ratio shows a quantitative dependence of the non-radiative defect densities as deduced from light-output current characteristics analysis. These results have implications on the development of high-efficiency ZnO-based LEDs and may also be helpful in understanding the effects of the ZnO seed layer on defect-related non-radiative recombination.

  18. Piezoelectric and opto-electrical properties of silver-doped ZnO nanorods synthesized by low temperature aqueous chemical method

    SciT

    Nour, E. S., E-mail: eiman.satti.osman@liu.se; Echresh, A.; Willander, M.

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we have synthesized Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09) nanorods (NRs) via the hydrothermal method at low temperature on silicon substrate. The characterization and comparison between the different Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O samples, indicated that an increasing Ag concentration from x = 0 to a maximum of x = 0.09; All samples show a preferred orientation of (002) direction with no observable change of morphology. As the quantity of the Ag dopant was changed, the transmittances, as well as the optical band gap were decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data clearly indicate the presence ofmore » Ag in ZnO crystal lattice. A nanoindentation-based technique was used to measure the effective piezo-response of different concentrations of Ag for both direct and converse effects. The value of the piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}) as well as the piezo potential generated from the ZnO NRs and Zn{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x}O NRs was found to decrease with the increase of Ag fraction. The finding in this investigation reveals that Ag doped ZnO is not suitable for piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.« less

  19. Effect of substrate preheating on the photovoltaic performance of ZnO nanorod-based perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Shuo; Lin, Tsyr-Rou; Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Li, Yu-Ren; Chuang, Kai-Chi; Li, Yi-Shao; Luo, Jun-Dao; Hus, Chain-Shu; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2018-06-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO-NRs) grown via a low-temperature hydrothermal growth process are used as the electron transport layer (ETL) owing to their low temperature process and three-dimensional structure, which increases the surface area and thereby improves photovoltaic performance. To further improve the performance of solar cells, substrate preheating before spin-coating PbI2 and perovskite films was conducted. With the increase in preheating temperature, the grain size, surface uniformity, and crystallinity of perovskite increased. Consequently, the photovoltaic performances of the devices with 150-nm-long ZnO-NRs and substrate preheating at 150 °C showed an optimum open-circuit voltage (V oc) of 0.84 V, a short-circuit current (J sc) of 21.43 mA/cm2, a fill factor (FF) of 57.42%, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.34% owing to the superior quality of the perovskite films having smooth surfaces with fewer pinholes.

  20. A high efficiency microreactor with Pt/ZnO nanorod arrays on the inner wall for photodegradation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang

    2013-06-15

    A high efficiency microreactor with Pt coated ZnO (Pt/ZnO) nanorod arrays on the inner wall was successfully fabricated by pumping a Pt sol into the microchannel containing preformed ZnO nanorod arrays. Phenol was selected as a persistent organic pollutant to evaluate the photocatalytic performance of the microreactors. The microreactor which was coated by Pt sol for 5 min showed the best photocatalytic performance compared with other Pt/ZnO nanorod array-modified microreactors. The presence of Pt nanoparticles on the surfaces of ZnO nanorods promoted the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and thus enhanced the photocatalytic activity. In addition, the recyclable property of the microcreator was investigated. It was found that the microreactor displayed higher durability during the continuous photocatalytic process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detuned surface plasmon resonance scattering of gold nanorods for continuous wave multilayered optical recording and readout.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adam B; Kim, Jooho; Chon, James W M

    2012-02-27

    In a multilayered structure of absorptive optical recording media, continuous-wave laser operation is highly disadvantageous due to heavy beam extinction. For a gold nanorod based recording medium, the narrow surface plasmon resonance (SPR) profile of gold nanorods enables the variation of extinction through mulilayers by a simple detuning of the readout wavelength from the SPR peak. The level of signal extinction through the layers can then be greatly reduced, resulting more efficient readout at deeper layers. The scattering signal strength may be decreased at the detuned wavelength, but balancing these two factors results an optimal scattering peak wavelength that is specific to each layer. In this paper, we propose to use detuned SPR scattering from gold nanorods as a new mechanism for continuous-wave readout scheme on gold nanorod based multilayered optical storage. Using this detuned scattering method, readout using continuous-wave laser is demonstrated on a 16 layer optical recording medium doped with heavily distributed, randomly oriented gold nanorods. Compared to SPR on-resonant readout, this method reduced the required readout power more than one order of magnitude, with only 60 nm detuning from SPR peak. The proposed method will be highly beneficial to multilayered optical storage applications as well as applications using a continuous medium doped heavily with plasmonic nanoparticles.

  2. Surface engineering on CeO2 nanorods by chemical redox etching and their enhanced catalytic activity for CO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyun; Li, Jing; Ma, Yuanyuan; Qu, Yongquan

    2015-07-01

    Controllable surface properties of nanocerias are desired for various catalytic processes. There is a lack of efficient approaches to adjust the surface properties of ceria to date. Herein, a redox chemical etching method was developed to controllably engineer the surface properties of ceria nanorods. Ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide were used to perform the redox chemical etching process, resulting in a rough surface and/or pores on the surface of ceria nanorods. Increasing the etching cycles induced a steady increase of the specific surface area, oxygen vacancies and surface Ce3+ fractions. As a result, the etched nanorods delivered enhanced catalytic activity for CO oxidation, compared to the non-etched ceria nanorods. Our method provides a novel and facile approach to continuously adjust the surface properties of ceria for practical applications.Controllable surface properties of nanocerias are desired for various catalytic processes. There is a lack of efficient approaches to adjust the surface properties of ceria to date. Herein, a redox chemical etching method was developed to controllably engineer the surface properties of ceria nanorods. Ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide were used to perform the redox chemical etching process, resulting in a rough surface and/or pores on the surface of ceria nanorods. Increasing the etching cycles induced a steady increase of the specific surface area, oxygen vacancies and surface Ce3+ fractions. As a result, the etched nanorods delivered enhanced catalytic activity for CO oxidation, compared to the non-etched ceria nanorods. Our method provides a novel and facile approach to continuously adjust the surface properties of ceria for practical applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Diameter distributions of as-prepared and etched samples, optical images, specific catalytic data of CO oxidation and comparison of CO oxidation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01846c

  3. Bias-polarity-dependent UV/visible transferable electroluminescence from ZnO nanorod array LED with graphene oxide electrode supporting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weizhen; Wang, Wei; Xu, Haiyang; Li, Xinghua; Yang, Liu; Ma, Jiangang; Liu, Yichun

    2015-09-01

    A simple top electrode preparation process, employing continuous graphene oxide films as electrode supporting layers, was adopted to fabricate a ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction LED. The achieved LED demonstrated different electroluminescence behaviors under forward and reverse biases: a yellow-red emission band was observed under forward bias, whereas a blue-UV emission peak was obtained under reverse bias. Electroluminescence spectra under different currents and temperatures, as well as heterojunction energy-band alignments, reveal that the yellow-red emission under forward bias originates from recombinations related to heterointerface defects, whereas the blue-UV electroluminescence under reverse bias is ascribed to transitions from near-band-edge and Mg-acceptor levels in p-GaN.

  4. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for SERS and EIS measurements by incorporating ZnO nanorod growth with electroplating

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Xianli; Zhu, Rong; Guo, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fine gold nanostructure synthesized on selective planar microelectrodes in micro-chip is realized by using an advanced hybrid fabrication approach incorporating growth of nanorods (NRs) with gold electroplating. By this developed nanostructure, integration of in-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement for label-free, nondestructive, real-time and rapid monitoring on a single cell has been achieved. Moreover, parameters of Au nanostructures such as size of nanoholes/nanogaps can be controllably adjusted in the fabrication. We have demonstrated a SERS enhancement factor of up to ~2.24 × 106 and double-layer impedance decrease ratio of 90% ~ 95% at low frequency range below 200 kHz by using nanostructured microelectrodes. SERS detection and in-situ EIS measurement of a trapped single cell by using planar microelectrodes are realized to demonstrate the compatibility, multi-functions, high-sensitivity and simplicity of the micro-chip system. This dual function platform integrating SERS and EIS is of great significance in biological, biochemical and biomedical applications. PMID:26558325

  5. Fabrication and photoluminescence properties of graphite fiber/ZnO nanorod core-shell structures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianbin; Du, Hejun; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jianxiong; Sun, Xiao Wei; Sun, Handong

    2011-08-01

    Graphite fiber/ZnO nanorod core-shell structures were synthesized by thermal evaporation process. The core-shell hybrid architectures were comprised of ZnO nanorods grown on the surface of graphite fiber. In addition, Hollow ZnO hierarchical structure can be obtained by oxidizing the graphite fiber. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of the as-made graphite fiber/ZnO nanorod structures shows two UV peaks at around 3.274 eV and 3.181 eV. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra demonstrate the two UV emissions are attributed to the intrinsic optical transitions and extrinsic defect-related emissions in ZnO. These hybrid structures may be used as the building block for fabrication of nanodevices.

  6. Annealing effects on the optical and morphological properties of ZnO nanorods on AZO substrate by using aqueous solution method at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Hang, Da-Ren; Islam, Sk Emdadul; Sharma, Krishna Hari; Kuo, Shiao-Wei; Zhang, Cheng-Zu; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) substrates were fabricated by a single-step aqueous solution method at low temperature. In order to optimize optical quality, the effects of annealing on optical and structural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL), and Raman spectroscopy. We found that the annealing temperature strongly affects both the near-band-edge (NBE) and visible (defect-related) emissions. The best characteristics have been obtained by employing annealing at 400°C in air for 2 h, bringing about a sharp and intense NBE emission. The defect-related recombinations were also suppressed effectively. However, the enhancement decreases with higher annealing temperature and prolonged annealing. PL study indicates that the NBE emission is dominated by radiative recombination associated with hydrogen donors. Thus, the enhancement of NBE is due to the activation of radiative recombinations associated with hydrogen donors. On the other hand, the reduction of visible emission is mainly attributed to the annihilation of OH groups. Our results provide insight to comprehend annealing effects and an effective way to improve optical properties of low-temperature-grown ZnO NRs for future facile device applications.

  7. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-02-01

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In3+) and smaller (Ga3+) than the host Zn2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications.

  8. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-02-03

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In 3+ ) and smaller (Ga 3+ ) than the host Zn 2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications.

  9. Annealing effects on the optical and morphological properties of ZnO nanorods on AZO substrate by using aqueous solution method at low temperature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) substrates were fabricated by a single-step aqueous solution method at low temperature. In order to optimize optical quality, the effects of annealing on optical and structural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL), and Raman spectroscopy. We found that the annealing temperature strongly affects both the near-band-edge (NBE) and visible (defect-related) emissions. The best characteristics have been obtained by employing annealing at 400°C in air for 2 h, bringing about a sharp and intense NBE emission. The defect-related recombinations were also suppressed effectively. However, the enhancement decreases with higher annealing temperature and prolonged annealing. PL study indicates that the NBE emission is dominated by radiative recombination associated with hydrogen donors. Thus, the enhancement of NBE is due to the activation of radiative recombinations associated with hydrogen donors. On the other hand, the reduction of visible emission is mainly attributed to the annihilation of OH groups. Our results provide insight to comprehend annealing effects and an effective way to improve optical properties of low-temperature-grown ZnO NRs for future facile device applications. PMID:25520589

  10. Synergistic effect of Indium and Gallium co-doping on growth behavior and physical properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jun Hyung; Lee, Seung Muk; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jozeph; Jung, Seung-Boo; Park, Geun Chul; Kim, Jungho; Joo, Jinho

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized ZnO nanorods (NRs) using simple hydrothermal method, with the simultaneous incorporation of gallium (Ga) and indium (In), in addition, investigated the co-doping effect on the morphology, microstructure, electronic structure, and electrical/optical properties. The growth behavior of the doped NRs was affected by the nuclei density and polarity of the (001) plane. The c-axis parameter of the co-doped NRs was similar to that of undoped NRs due to the compensated lattice distortion caused by the presence of dopants that are both larger (In3+) and smaller (Ga3+) than the host Zn2+ cations. Red shifts in the ultraviolet emission peaks were observed in all doped NRs, owing to the combined effects of NR size, band gap renormalization, and the presence of stacking faults created by the dopant-induced lattice distortions. In addition, the NR/p-GaN diodes using co-doped NRs exhibited superior electrical conductivity compared to the other specimens due to the increase in the charge carrier density of NRs and the relatively large effective contact area of (001) planes. The simultaneous doping of In and Ga is therefore anticipated to provide a broader range of optical, physical, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs for a variety of opto-electronic applications. PMID:28155879

  11. Enhanced photoluminescence and heterojunction characteristics of pulsed laser deposited ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannam, Ramanjaneyulu; Kumar, E. Senthil; Priyadarshini, D. M.; Bellarmine, F.; DasGupta, Nandita; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the growth of ZnO nanostructures in different gas ambient (Ar and N2) using pulsed laser deposition technique. Despite the similar growth temperature, use of N2 ambient gas resulted in well-aligned nanorods with flat surface at the tip, whereas, nanorods grown with Ar ambient exhibited tapered tips. The Nanorods grown under N2 ambient exhibited additional Raman modes corresponding to N induced zinc interstitials. The nanorods are c-axis oriented and highly epitaxial in nature. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals that the UV emission can be significantly enhanced by 10 times for the nanorods grown under Ar ambient. The enhanced UV emission is attributed to the reduction in polarization electric field along the c-axis. n-ZnO nanorods/p-Si heterojunction showed rectifying I-V characteristics with a turn of voltage of 3.4 V.

  12. Surface Coverage and Metallicity of ZnO Surfaces from First-Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Schleife, Andre; The Schleife research Group Team

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) surfaces are widely used in different applications such as catalysis, biosensing, and solar cells. These surfaces are, in many cases, chemically terminated by hydroxyl groups. In experiment, a transition of the ZnO surface electronic properties from semiconducting to metallic was reported upon increasing the hydroxyl coverage to more than approximately 80 %. The reason for this transition is not well understood yet. We report on first-principles calculations based on density functional theory for the ZnO [ 10 1 0 ] surface, taking different amounts of hydroxyl coverage into account. We calculated band structures for fully relaxed configurations and verified the existence of this transition. However, we only find the fully covered surface to be metallic. We thus explore the possibility for clustering of the surface-terminating hydroxyl groups based on total-energy calculations. We also found that the valence band maximum consists of oxygen p states from both the surface hydroxyl groups and the surface oxygen atoms of the material. The main contribution to the metallicity is found to be from the hydroxyl groups.

  13. Natural Biowaste-Cocoon-Derived Granular Activated Carbon-Coated ZnO Nanorods: A Simple Route To Synthesizing a Core-Shell Structure and Its Highly Enhanced UV and Hydrogen Sensing Properties.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Adhimoorthy; Huang, Bohr-Ran; Kathiravan, Deepa; Prasannan, Adhimoorthy

    2017-11-15

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) materials were prepared via simple gas activation of silkworm cocoons and were coated on ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) by the facile hydrothermal method. The present combination of GAC and ZNRs shows a core-shell structure (where the GAC is coated on the surface of ZNRs) and is exposed by systematic material analysis. The as-prepared samples were then fabricated as dual-functional sensors and, most fascinatingly, the as-fabricated core-shell structure exhibits better UV and H 2 sensing properties than those of as-fabricated ZNRs and GAC. Thus, the present core-shell structure-based H 2 sensor exhibits fast responses of 11% (10 ppm) and 23.2% (200 ppm) with ultrafast response and recovery. However, the UV sensor offers an ultrahigh photoresponsivity of 57.9 A W -1 , which is superior to that of as-grown ZNRs (0.6 A W -1 ). Besides this, switching photoresponse of GAC/ZNR core-shell structures exhibits a higher switching ratio (between dark and photocurrent) of 1585, with ultrafast response and recovery, than that of as-grown ZNRs (40). Because of the fast adsorption ability of GAC, it was observed that the finest distribution of GAC on ZNRs results in rapid electron transportation between the conduction bands of GAC and ZNRs while sensing H 2 and UV. Furthermore, the present core-shell structure-based UV and H 2 sensors also well-retained excellent sensitivity, repeatability, and long-term stability. Thus, the salient feature of this combination is that it provides a dual-functional sensor with biowaste cocoon and ZnO, which is ecological and inexpensive.

  14. Self-Healing Thermal Annealing: Surface Morphological Restructuring Control of GaN Nanorods

    SciT

    Conroy, Michele; Li, Haoning; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z.

    With advances in nanolithography and dry etching, top-down methods of nanostructuring have become a widely used tool for improving the efficiency of optoelectronics. These nano dimensions can offer various benefits to the device performance in terms of light extraction and efficiency, but often at the expense of emission color quality. Broadening of the target emission peak and unwanted yellow luminescence are characteristic defect-related effects due to the ion beam etching damage, particularly for III–N based materials. In this article we focus on GaN based nanorods, showing that through thermal annealing the surface roughness and deformities of the crystal structure canmore » be “self-healed”. Correlative electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show the change from spherical nanorods to faceted hexagonal structures, revealing the temperature-dependent surface morphology faceting evolution. The faceted nanorods were shown to be strain- and defect-free by cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging, micro-Raman, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In-situ TEM thermal annealing experiments allowed for real time observation of dislocation movements and surface restructuring observed in ex-situ annealing TEM sampling. This thermal annealing investigation gives new insight into the redistribution path of GaN material and dislocation movement post growth, allowing for improved understanding and in turn advances in optoelectronic device processing of compound semiconductors.« less

  15. Synthesis of gold nanorods with a longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak of around 1250 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi Nhat Hang; Le Trinh Nguyen, Thi; Thanh Tuyen Luong, Thi; Thang Nguyen, Canh Minh; Nguyen, Thi Phuong Phong

    2016-03-01

    We prepared gold nanorods and joined them to chemicals such as tetrachloauric (III) acid trihydrate, silver nitrate, hydroquinone, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, sodium hydroxide and sodium borohydride using the seed-mediated method. The combination of hydroquinone, with or without salicylic acid, influences the size of the gold nanorods, and this is demonstrated by the results of TEM images, UV-vis spectra and the value of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak with respect to the UV-vis spectra. By changing the Ag+ ion and hydroquinone concentration and the combination of hydroquinone and salicylic acid, the size of the gold nanorods can be controlled and this is manifested by longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peaks forming between 875 and 1278 nm. In particular, sample E2 achieved a longitudinal surface plasmon peak at 1273 nm and an aspect ratio of more than 10 by modifying the hydroquinone to 2.5 mM and salicylic acid to 0.5 mM concentration in the growth solution.

  16. A simple route to vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanofilms on FTO surfaces: 1D-crystal growth of nanoseeds under ammonia-assisted hydrolysis process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A simple method for the synthesis of ZnO nanofilms composed of vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures (quasi-NRs) on the surface was demonstrated via a 1D crystal growth of the attached nanoseeds under a rapid hydrolysis process of zinc salts in the presence of ammonia at room temperature. In a typical procedure, by simply controlling the concentration of zinc acetate and ammonia in the reaction, a high density of vertically oriented nanorod-like morphology could be successfully obtained in a relatively short growth period (approximately 4 to 5 min) and at a room-temperature process. The average diameter and the length of the nanostructures are approximately 30 and 110 nm, respectively. The as-prepared quasi-NRs products were pure ZnO phase in nature without the presence of any zinc complexes as confirmed by the XRD characterisation. Room-temperature optical absorption spectroscopy exhibits the presence of two separate excitonic characters inferring that the as-prepared ZnO quasi-NRs are high-crystallinity properties in nature. The mechanism of growth for the ZnO quasi-NRs will be proposed. Due to their simplicity, the method should become a potential alternative for a rapid and cost-effective preparation of high-quality ZnO quasi-NRs nanofilms for use in photovoltaic or photocatalytics applications. PACS: 81.07.Bc; 81.16.-c; 81.07.Gf. PMID:22027275

  17. Hydrothermal process assists undoped and Cr-doped semiconducting ZnO nanorods: Frontier of dielectric property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Tanumoy; Saha, Papiya; Patra, Nesla; Das, Sukhen; Sutradhar, Soumyaditya

    2018-05-01

    The influence of the hydrothermal synthesis route on the grain morphology and thereby the modulation of dielectric response of undoped and Cr3+ ion doped semiconducting ZnO nanoparticles is investigated in this report. The X-ray diffraction study reveals that all the samples are in a polycrystalline single phase of a hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study reveals the rod like structure of all the samples. The formation of synthesis route dependent morphology and the morphology dependent physical property of all the samples are the characteristic features of the present work and to date it has not been considered as the specific tool of dielectric property modulation by anyone else. The ultraviolet-visible measurement signifies the superior control over the charge density of the host semiconducting material due to the presence of Cr3+ ions in the structure of ZnO. In the photoluminescence measurement, no significant peak has been observed in the visible region. The frequency and temperature dependent dielectric constants of all the samples were investigated. The consequences of the dielectric measurement suggest that the hydrothermal synthesis route influences the growth mechanism of the semiconducting nanoparticles mostly towards the rod like structure and the doping element influences the charge density, nature of defects, and the defect densities inside the structure of ZnO nanomaterials. All these factors together make the semiconducting ZnO nanomaterials more effective for tailor made applications in magneto-dielectric devices.

  18. Combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through surface nanoengineering

    DOE PAGES

    Elliott, Paul R.; Stagon, Stephen P.; Huang, Hanchen; ...

    2015-04-08

    This paper reports combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through the nanoscale engineering of surfaces in the form of nanorod-polymer composites. Specifically, the hydrophobicity derives from nanoscale features of mechanically hard ZnO nanorods and the mechanical durability derives from the composite structure of a hard ZnO nanorod core and soft polymer shell. Experimental characterization correlates the morphology of the nanoengineered surfaces with the combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability, and reveals the responsible mechanisms. Such surfaces may find use in applications, such as boat hulls, that benefit from hydrophobicity and require mechanical durability.

  19. Large enhancement of X-ray excited luminescence in Ga-doped ZnO nanorod arrays by hydrogen annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianli; Liu, Xiaoliln; Gu, Mu; Li, Fengrui; Zhang, Juannan; Wu, Qiang; Huang, Shiming; Liu, Si

    2018-03-01

    Highly c-axis oriented and densely packed ZnO:Ga nanorod arrays were fabricated on ZnO-seeded substrates by hydrothermal method, and the effect of hydrogen annealing on their morphology, structure and luminescence properties was investigated in detail. Under ultraviolet or X-ray excitation, an intense ultraviolet luminescence appeared in the hydrogen-annealed samples owing to the formation of a shallow hydrogen donor state, which can sharply activate the reconbination radiation. The luminescence intensity increased with the annealing temperature, and then decreased at a higher temperature due to the dissociation of the hydrogen ion. The optimum concentration and time of hydrogen annealing were acquired simultaneously. It is expected that the ZnO:Ga nanorod array is a promising candidate for application in ultrafast and high-spatial-resolution X-ray imaging detector.

  20. Low temperature growth of ZnO nanorods array via solution-immersion on TiO2 seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asib, N. A. M.; Aadila, A.; Afaah, A. N.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, TiO2:ZNR thin films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates at low temperatures of 75 to 90°C. The substrates were coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) using sol-gel spin coating, which act as seed layer to grow zinc oxide nanorods (ZNR) by solution-immersion method. At 90 and 95° C, ZNR with hexagonal tip are well dispersed without any aggregation and exhibit more uniform nanorods array as observed using FESEM. The diffraction peak intensity of the (0 0 2)-plane increased as the temperature increased, indicating improved orientation in the c-axis direction of the ZNR as detected in XRD patterns. From UV-Vis absorbance spectra, it was found that the samples has higher absorption properties at middle range of immersion temperatures; 80, 85 and 90°C.

  1. Charge carrier dynamics and surface plasmon interaction in gold nanorod-blended organic solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Aniket; Gupta, Neeraj; Lochan, Abhiram; Sharma, G. D.; Chand, Suresh; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Rajiv K.

    2016-08-01

    The inclusion of plasmonic nanoparticles into organic solar cell enhances the light harvesting properties that lead to higher power conversion efficiency without altering the device configuration. This work defines the consequences of the nanoparticle overloading amount and energy transfer process between gold nanorod and polymer (active matrix) in organic solar cells. We have studied the hole population decay dynamics coupled with gold nanorods loading amount which provides better understanding about device performance limiting factors. The exciton and plasmon together act as an interacting dipole; however, the energy exchange between these two has been elucidated via plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) mechanism. Further, the charge species have been identified specifically with respect to their energy levels appearing in ultrafast time domain. The specific interaction of these charge species with respective surface plasmon resonance mode, i.e., exciton to transverse mode of oscillation and polaron pair to longitudinal mode of oscillations, has been explained. Thus, our analysis reveals that PRET enhances the carrier population density in polymer via non-radiative process beyond the concurrence of a particular plasmon resonance oscillation mode and polymer absorption range. These findings give new insight and reveal specifically the factors that enhance and control the performance of gold nanorods blended organic solar cells. This work would lead in the emergence of future plasmon based efficient organic electronic devices.

  2. Chiroptic response of ferroelectric liquid crystals triggered with localized surface plasmon resonance of achiral gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgornov, F. V.; Haase, W.

    2018-01-01

    The chiroptic response of a multi-component molecular mixture [chiral smectic C (SmC*) liquid crystal] modified by achiral capped gold nanorods (GNRs) has been reported. The dispersion of the GNRs (radius rGNR = 5 × 10-9 m; length L = 4.5 × 10-8 m) with two concentrations (0.1 wt. % and 0.5 wt. %) resulted in the concentration dependent change in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of the SmC*-GNR complex. Three effects could be responsible for the change in the chiroptic properties of the SmC* liquid crystal. The first one is the stabilization of the helical superstructure due to the GNRs. The second one is the change in the angle between the transition electric and magnetic dipole moments near the absorption bands due to the influence of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) excited in nanorods. The third effect is the induction of chiral current in gold nanorods by the chiral component of the mixture. The latter phenomenon leads to the broad CD band at the wavelength of the LSPR.

  3. Charge carrier dynamics and surface plasmon interaction in gold nanorod-blended organic solar cell

    SciT

    Rana, Aniket; Lochan, Abhiram; Chand, Suresh

    The inclusion of plasmonic nanoparticles into organic solar cell enhances the light harvesting properties that lead to higher power conversion efficiency without altering the device configuration. This work defines the consequences of the nanoparticle overloading amount and energy transfer process between gold nanorod and polymer (active matrix) in organic solar cells. We have studied the hole population decay dynamics coupled with gold nanorods loading amount which provides better understanding about device performance limiting factors. The exciton and plasmon together act as an interacting dipole; however, the energy exchange between these two has been elucidated via plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET)more » mechanism. Further, the charge species have been identified specifically with respect to their energy levels appearing in ultrafast time domain. The specific interaction of these charge species with respective surface plasmon resonance mode, i.e., exciton to transverse mode of oscillation and polaron pair to longitudinal mode of oscillations, has been explained. Thus, our analysis reveals that PRET enhances the carrier population density in polymer via non-radiative process beyond the concurrence of a particular plasmon resonance oscillation mode and polymer absorption range. These findings give new insight and reveal specifically the factors that enhance and control the performance of gold nanorods blended organic solar cells. This work would lead in the emergence of future plasmon based efficient organic electronic devices.« less

  4. Surface chemistry of gold nanorods: origin of cell membrane damage and cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liming; Jiang, Xiumei; Ji, Yinglu; Bai, Ru; Zhao, Yuliang; Wu, Xiaochun; Chen, Chunying

    2013-08-01

    We investigated how surface chemistry influences the interaction between gold nanorods (AuNRs) and cell membranes and the subsequent cytotoxicity arising from them in a serum-free cell culture system. Our results showed that the AuNRs coated with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) molecules can generate defects in the cell membrane and induce cell death, mainly due to the unique bilayer structure of CTAB molecules on the surface of the rods rather than their charge. Compared to CTAB-capped nanorods, positively charged polyelectrolyte-coated, i.e. poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDAC), AuNRs show improved biocompatibility towards cells. Thus, the present results indicate that the nature of surface molecules, especially their packing structures on the surface of AuNRs rather than surface charge, play a more crucial role in determining cytotoxicity. These findings about interfacial interactions could also explain the effects of internalized AuNRs on the structures or functions of organelles. This study will help understanding of the toxic nature of AuNRs and guide rational design of the surface chemistry of AuNRs for good biocompatibility in pharmaceutical therapy.

  5. Advanced thermopower wave in novel ZnO nanostructures/fuel composite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Yeol; Hwang, Hayoung; Choi, Wonjoon

    2014-09-10

    Thermopower wave is a new concept of energy conversion from chemical to thermal to electrical energy, produced from the chemical reaction in well-designed hybrid structures between nanomaterials and combustible fuels. The enhancement and optimization of energy generation is essential to make it useful for future applications. In this study, we demonstrate that simple solution-based synthesized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, such as nanorods and nanoparticles are capable of generating high output voltage from thermopower waves. In particular, an astonishing improvement in the output voltage (up to 3 V; average 2.3 V) was achieved in a ZnO nanorods-based composite film with a solid fuel (collodion, 5% nitrocellulose), which generated an exothermic chemical reaction. Detailed analyses of thermopower waves in ZnO nanorods- and cube-like nanoparticles-based hybrid composites have been reported in which nanostructures, output voltage profile, wave propagation velocities, and surface temperature have been characterized. The average combustion velocities for a ZnO nanorods/fuel and a ZnO cube-like nanoparticles/fuel composites were 40.3 and 30.0 mm/s, while the average output voltages for these composites were 2.3 and 1.73 V. The high output voltage was attributed to the amplified temperature in intermixed composite of ZnO nanostructures and fuel due to the confined diffusive heat transfer in nanostructures. Moreover, the extended interfacial areas between ZnO nanorods and fuel induced large amplification in the dynamic change of the chemical potential, and it resulted in the enhanced output voltage. The differences of reaction velocity and the output voltage between ZnO nanorods- and ZnO cube-like nanoparticles-based composites were attributed to variations in electron mobility and grain boundary, as well as thermal conductivities of ZnO nanorods and particles. Understanding this astonishing increase and the variation of the output voltage and reaction velocity, precise

  6. Surface polyPEGylation of Eu3+ doped luminescent hydroxyapatite nanorods through the combination of ligand exchange and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Guangjian; Liu, Meiying; Heng, Chunning; Huang, Qiang; Mao, Liucheng; Huang, Hongye; Hui, Junfeng; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-03-01

    The Eu3+ doped luminescent hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods with uniform size and morphology can be synthesized by hydrothermal route. However, these HAp nanorods are coated by hydrophobic oleylamine, which makes them difficult to be dispersed in aqueous solution and impede their biomedical applications. In this work, Eu3+ doped luminescent polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. In this procedure, the amino group functionalized HAp nanorods were first prepared by ligand exchange reaction using adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as ligand. Then the Br-containing initiators (HAp-Br) were introduced onto the surface of HAp-AMP nanorods through the amidation reaction. Finally, polymers functionalized HAp nanorods were prepared by metal free ATRP method using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) as monomer and 10-phenylphenothiazine (PTH) as organic photocatalyst. The properties of these obtained HAp nanocomposites (HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods) were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis in detail. The cell imaging of these HAP-polyPEGMA nanorods was examined using laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate their biomedical applications. We demonstrated for the first time that hydrophobic luminescent HAp nanorods can be functionalized with polyPEGMA through the combination of ligand exchange reaction and metal free surface initiated ATRP. As compared with the traditional ATRP, the metal free ATRP can overcome the toxic and fluorescence quenching effects of metal catalysts such as copper ions. More importantly, the strategy described in this work should also be utilized for fabrications of many other luminescent polymer nanocomposites due to its good monomer adoptability.

  7. Low temperature grown ZnO@TiO{sub 2} core shell nanorod arrays for dye sensitized solar cell application

    SciT

    Goh, Gregory Kia Liang; Le, Hong Quang, E-mail: lehq@imre.a-star.edu.sg; Huang, Tang Jiao

    High aspect ratio ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glasses via a low temperature solution method. By adjusting the growth condition and adding polyethylenimine, ZnO nanorod arrays with tunable length were successfully achieved. The ZnO@TiO{sub 2} core shells structures were realized by a fast growth method of immersion into a (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}·TiF{sub 6} solution. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray measurements all confirmed the existence of a titania shell uniformly covering the ZnO nanorod's surface. Results of solar cell testing showed that addition of a TiO{sub 2} shell to the ZnO nanorod significantlymore » increased short circuit current (from 4.2 to 5.2 mA/cm{sup 2}), open circuit voltage (from 0.6 V to 0.8 V) and fill factor (from 42.8% to 73.02%). The overall cell efficiency jumped from 1.1% for bare ZnO nanorod to 3.03% for a ZnO@TiO{sub 2} core shell structured solar cell with a 18–22 nm shell thickness, a nearly threefold increase. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis process of coating TiO{sub 2} shell onto ZnO nanorod core is shown schematically. A thin, uniform, and conformal shell had been grown on the surface of the ZnO core after immersing in the (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}·TiF{sub 6} solution for 5–15 min. - Highlights: • ZnO@TiO{sub 2} core shell nanorod has been grown on FTO substrate using low temperature solution method. • TEM, XRD, EDX results confirmed the existing of titana shell, uniformly covered rod's surface. • TiO{sub 2} shell suppressed recombination, demonstrated significant enhancement in cell's efficiency. • Core shell DSSC's efficiency achieved as high as 3.03%, 3 times higher than that of ZnO nanorods.« less

  8. Fast light-induced reversible wettability of a zinc oxide nanorod array coated with a thin gold layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuefan; Du, Hejun; Kong, Junhua; Tran, Van-Thai; Koh, Jia Kai; Zhao, Chenyang; He, Chaobin

    2017-11-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has gained much attention recently due to its excellent physical and chemical properties, and has been extensively studied in energy harvesting applications such as photovoltaic and piezoelectric devices. In recent years, its reversible wettability has also attracted increasing interest. The wettability of ZnO nanostructures with various morphologies has been studied. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is still a lack of investigations on further modifications on ZnO to provide more benefits than pristine ZnO. Comprehensive studies on the reversible wettability are still needed. In this study, a ZnO nanorod array was prepared via a hydrothermal process and subsequently coated with thin gold layers with varied thickness. The morphologies and structures, optical properties and wettability were investigated. It is revealed that the ZnO-Au system possesses recoverable wettability upon switching between visible-ultraviolet light and a dark environment, which is verified by the contact angle change. The introduction of the thin gold layer to the ZnO nanorod array effectively increases the recovery rate of the wettability. The improvements are attributed to the hierarchical structures, which are formed by depositing thin gold layers onto the ZnO nanorod array, the visible light sensitivity due to the plasmonic effect of the deposited gold, as well as the fast charge-induced surface status change upon light illumination or dark storage. The improvement is beneficial to applications in environmental purification, energy harvesting, micro-lenses, and smart devices.

  9. Near band edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires: Optimization via surface engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Danhua; Zhang, Wenrui; Cen, Jiajie; Stavitski, Eli; Sadowski, Jerzy T.; Vescovo, Elio; Walter, Andrew; Attenkofer, Klaus; Stacchiola, Darío J.; Liu, Mingzhao

    2017-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays have potential applications for various devices such as ultra-violet light emitting diodes and lasers, where photoluminescence of intense near band edge emission without defect emissions is usually desired. Here, we demonstrate, counter-intuitively, that the near band edge emission may become dominant by introducing certain surface defects to ZnO nanowires via surface engineering. Specifically, near band edge emission (NBE) is effectively enhanced after a low pressure O2 plasma treatment that sputters off surface oxygen species to produce a reduced and oxygen vacancy-rich surface. The effect is attributed to the lowered surface valence band maximum of the reduced ZnO surface that creates an accumulative band bending, which screens the photo-generated minority carriers (holes) from reaching or being trapped by the surface defects.

  10. Near band edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires: Optimization via surface engineering

    SciT

    Yan, Danhua; Zhang, Wenrui; Cen, Jiajie

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays have potential applications for various devices including ultra-violet light emitting diodes and lasers, where photoluminescence of intense near band edge emission without defect emissions is usually desired. Here, we demonstrate, counter-intuitively, that the near band edge emission may become dominant by introducing certain surface defects to ZnO nanowires via surface engineering. Specifically, near band edge emission (NBE) is effectively enhanced after a low pressure O 2 plasma treatment that sputters off surface oxygen species to produce a reduced and oxygen vacancy-rich surface. The effect is attributed to the lowered surface valence band maximum of themore » reduced ZnO surface that creates an accumulative band bending, which screens the photo-generated minority carriers (holes) from reaching or being trapped by the surface defects.« less

  11. Near band edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires: Optimization via surface engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Danhua; Zhang, Wenrui; Cen, Jiajie; ...

    2017-12-04

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays have potential applications for various devices including ultra-violet light emitting diodes and lasers, where photoluminescence of intense near band edge emission without defect emissions is usually desired. Here, we demonstrate, counter-intuitively, that the near band edge emission may become dominant by introducing certain surface defects to ZnO nanowires via surface engineering. Specifically, near band edge emission (NBE) is effectively enhanced after a low pressure O 2 plasma treatment that sputters off surface oxygen species to produce a reduced and oxygen vacancy-rich surface. The effect is attributed to the lowered surface valence band maximum of themore » reduced ZnO surface that creates an accumulative band bending, which screens the photo-generated minority carriers (holes) from reaching or being trapped by the surface defects.« less

  12. Fine golden rings: Tunable surface plasmon resonance from assembled nanorods in topological defects of liquid crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Elaine; Xia, Yu; Ferrier, Jr., Robert C.; ...

    2016-02-08

    Unprecedented, reversible, and dynamic control over an assembly of gold nanorods dispersed in liquid crystals (LC) is demonstrated. The LC director field is dynamically tuned at the nanoscale using microscale ring confinement through the interplay of elastic energy at different temperatures, thus fine-tuning its core replacement energy to reversibly sequester nanoscale inclusions at the microscale. As a result, this leads to shifts of 100 nm or more in the surface plasmon resonance peak, an order of magnitude greater than any previous work with AuNR composites.

  13. Physicochemical properties of surface charge-modified ZnO nanoparticles with different particle sizes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Choi, Mun-Hyoung; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Paek, Seung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    In this study, four types of standardized ZnO nanoparticles were prepared for assessment of their potential biological risk. Powder-phased ZnO nanoparticles with different particle sizes (20 nm and 100 nm) were coated with citrate or L-serine to induce a negative or positive surface charge, respectively. The four types of coated ZnO nanoparticles were subjected to physicochemical evaluation according to the guidelines published by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. All four samples had a well crystallized Wurtzite phase, with particle sizes of ∼30 nm and ∼70 nm after coating with organic molecules. The coating agents were determined to have attached to the ZnO surfaces through either electrostatic interaction or partial coordination bonding. Electrokinetic measurements showed that the surface charges of the ZnO nanoparticles were successfully modified to be negative (about −40 mV) or positive (about +25 mV). Although all the four types of ZnO nanoparticles showed some agglomeration when suspended in water according to dynamic light scattering analysis, they had clearly distinguishable particle size and surface charge parameters and well defined physicochemical properties. PMID:25565825

  14. Surface-emitting stimulated emission in high-quality ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Q.; Suemune, Ikuo; Kumano, H.; Wang, J.; Huang, S. H.

    2004-10-01

    High-quality ZnO thin films were grown by plasma-enhanced molecular-beam epitaxy on sapphire substrates. Three excitonic transitions associated with the valence bands A, B, and C were clearly revealed in the reflectance spectrum measured at 33K. This result indicates that the ZnO thin films have the wurtzite crystalline structure. The emission spectra were measured with backscattering geometry at room temperature. When the excitation exceeded a certain value, linewidth narrowing, nonlinear rise of emission intensity, and the shortening of the carrier lifetime were clearly observed and these demonstrate the onset of stimulated emission. Together with the ZnO thickness dependence, we conclude that the observation of a stimulated emission in a direction perpendicular to the film surface is predominantly due to scattering of the in-plane stimulated emission by slightly remaining surface undulations in the ZnO films.

  15. Effects of surface morphology of ZnO seed layers on growth of ZnO nanostructures prepared by hydrothermal method and annealing.

    PubMed

    Yim, Kwang Gug; Kim, Min Su; Leem, Jae-Young

    2013-05-01

    ZnO nanostructures were grown on Si (111) substrates by a hydrothermal method. Prior to growing the ZnO nanostructures, ZnO seed layers with different post-heat temperatures were prepared by a spin-coating process. Then, the ZnO nanostructures were annealed at 500 degrees C for 20 min under an Ar atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) were carried out at room temperature (RT) to investigate the structural and optical properties of the as-grown and annealed ZnO nanostructures. The surface morphologies of the seed layers changed from a smooth surface to a mountain chain-like structure as the post-heating temperatures increased. The as-grown and annealed ZnO nanostructures exhibited a strong (002) diffraction peak. Compared to the as-grown ZnO nanostructures, the annealed ZnO nanostructures exhibited significantly strong enhancement in the PL intensity ratio by almost a factor of 2.

  16. Efficient visible light photocatalysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in aqueous solutions using supported zinc oxide nanorods.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabahi, Jamal; Bora, Tanujjal; Al-Abri, Mohammed; Dutta, Joydeep

    2017-01-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) are some of the common environmental pollutants originating mainly from oil and gas industries, which are toxic to human as well as other living organisms in the ecosystem. Here we investigate photocatalytic degradation of BTEX under visible light irradiation using supported zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown on glass substrates using a microwave assisted hydrothermal method. ZnO nanorods were characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area, UV/visible absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Visible light photocatalytic degradation products of BTEX are studied for individual components using gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). ZnO nanorods with significant amount of electronic defect states, due to the fast crystallization of the nanorods under microwave irradiation, exhibited efficient degradation of BTEX under visible light, degrading more than 80% of the individual BTEX components in 180 minutes. Effect of initial concentration of BTEX as individual components is also probed and the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO nanorods in different conditions is explored. Formation of intermediate byproducts such as phenol, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and benzoic acid were confirmed by our HPLC analysis which could be due to the photocatalytic degradation of BTEX. Carbon dioxide was evaluated and showed an increasing pattern over time indicating the mineralization process confirming the conversion of toxic organic compounds into benign products.

  17. Efficient visible light photocatalysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in aqueous solutions using supported zinc oxide nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Tanujjal; Al-Abri, Mohammed; Dutta, Joydeep

    2017-01-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) are some of the common environmental pollutants originating mainly from oil and gas industries, which are toxic to human as well as other living organisms in the ecosystem. Here we investigate photocatalytic degradation of BTEX under visible light irradiation using supported zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown on glass substrates using a microwave assisted hydrothermal method. ZnO nanorods were characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area, UV/visible absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Visible light photocatalytic degradation products of BTEX are studied for individual components using gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). ZnO nanorods with significant amount of electronic defect states, due to the fast crystallization of the nanorods under microwave irradiation, exhibited efficient degradation of BTEX under visible light, degrading more than 80% of the individual BTEX components in 180 minutes. Effect of initial concentration of BTEX as individual components is also probed and the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO nanorods in different conditions is explored. Formation of intermediate byproducts such as phenol, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and benzoic acid were confirmed by our HPLC analysis which could be due to the photocatalytic degradation of BTEX. Carbon dioxide was evaluated and showed an increasing pattern over time indicating the mineralization process confirming the conversion of toxic organic compounds into benign products. PMID:29261711

  18. The role of annealing temperature variation on ZnO nanorods array deposited on TiO2 seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asib, N. A. M.; Aadila, A.; Afaah, A. N.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Seed layer of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) by sol-gel spin coating technique were coated on glass substrate to grow Zinc oxide nanorods (ZNR) by solution-immersion method. The fabricated ZNR were annealed at various temperatures ranged from 400 to 600° C. FESEM images revealed that smaller ZNR were densely grown at optimum temperature of 450 and 500°C. Meanwhile, for all samples a dominant (0 0 2) diffraction peak of ZNR recorded by XRD patterns was at 34.4° which corresponding to hexagonal ZNR with a wurtzite structure. UV-Vis absorbance spectra showed the maximum absorption properties at UV region were detected at 450 and 500°C. The samples also showed high absorbance values at visible region.

  19. Physico-chemical characteristics of ZnO nanoparticles-based discs and toxic effect on human cervical cancer HeLa cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirelkhatim, Amna; Mahmud, Shahrom; Seeni, Azman; Kaus, Noor Haida Mohd.; Sendi, Rabab

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we investigated physico-chemical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs)-based discs and their toxicity on human cervical cancer HeLa cell lines. ZnO NPs (80 nm) were produced by the conventional ceramic processing method. FESEM analysis indicated dominant structure of nanorods with dimensions 100-500 nm in length, and 20-100 nm in diameter. The high content of ZnO nanorods in the discs probably played significant role in toxicity towards HeLa cells. Structural defects (oxygen vacancies and zinc/oxygen interstitials) were revealed by PL spectra peaks at 370-376 nm and 519-533 nm for the ZnO discs. The structural, optical and electrical properties of prepared sample have influenced the toxicological effects of ZnO discs towards HeLa cell lines via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), internalization, membrane damage, and eventually cell death. The larger surface to volume area of the ZnO nanorods, combined with defects, stimulated enhanced toxicity via ROS generation hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide anion. The preliminary results confirmed the ZnO-disc toxicity on HeLa cells was significantly associated with the unique physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs and to our knowledge, this is the first cellular study for treatment of HeLa cells with ZnO discs made from 80 nm ZnO particles.

  20. Annealing temperature dependent reversible wettability switching of micro/nano structured ZnO superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velayi, Elmira; Norouzbeigi, Reza

    2018-05-01

    Superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces with reversibly tunable wettability were fabricated on stainless steel meshes via a facile chemical bath deposition method just by regulating the micro/nano structured ZnO needles without using chemical post modifications. The obtained surfaces can be easily and reversibly switched between superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic characteristics by altering the annealing temperatures. As-prepared sample exhibited long-term superhydrophobic properties with a water contact angle (WCA) of 163.8° ± 1.8° and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of 1.1° ± 0.8°. The SEM, XRD, XPS and Raman analyses were employed to characterize the morphological features and surface chemistry of the prepared samples. SEM images showed the formation of ZnO micro/nanoneedles with a diameter of ∼90 nm on the substrate. The superhydrophobic ZnO surface was switched to highly hydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic properties with an oil contact angle (OCA) of about 172.5° after being annealed at 400 °C in air for 30 min and restored to superhydrophobic state again by altering the annealing temperature to 150 °C. Mechanical durability of the ZnO superhydrophobic surface was tested by an abrasion test. Results confirmed that the prepared surface exhibited an excellent robustness after 20 abrasion cycles under the pressure of 4.7 kPa.

  1. ZnO based potentiometric and amperometric nanosensors.

    PubMed

    Willander, Magnus; Khun, Kimleang; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain

    2014-09-01

    The existence of nanomaterials provides the solid platform for sensing applications due to owing of high sensitivity and a low concentration limit of detection. More likely used nanomaterials for sensing applications includes gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles such as Fe3O4, quantum dots and metal oxides etc. Recently nanomaterial and biological detection becomes an interdisciplinary field and is very much focussed by the researchers. Among metal oxides ZnO is largely considered due to its less toxic nature, biocompatible, cheap and easy to synthesis. ZnO nanomaterial is highly used for the chemical sensing, especially electrochemical sensing due to its fascinating properties such as high surface to volume ratio, atoxic, biosafe and biocompatible. Moreover, ZnO nanostructures exhibit unique features which could expose a suitable nanoenviroment for the immobilization of proteineous material such as enzymes, DNA, antibodies, etc. and in doing so it retains the biological efficiency of the immobilized bio sensitive material. The following review describes the two different coatings (i.e., ionophore and enzyme) on the surface of ZnO nanorods for the chemical sensing of zinc ion detection, thallium (I) ion detection, and L-lactic acid and the measurement of galactose molecules. ZnO nanorods provide the excellent transducing properties in the generation of strong electrical signals. Moreover, this review is very much focused on the applications of ZnO nanostructures in the sensing field.

  2. Strong compensation hinders the p-type doping of ZnO: a glance over surface defect levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a surface doping model of ZnO to elucidate the p-type doping and compensations in ZnO nanomaterials. With an N-dopant, the effects of N on the ZnO surface demonstrate a relatively shallow acceptor level in the band gap. As the dimension of the ZnO materials decreases, the quantum confinement effects will increase and render the charge transfer on surface to influence the shifting of Fermi level, by evidence of transition level changes of the N-dopant. We report that this can overwhelm the intrinsic p-type conductivity and transport of the ZnO bulk system. This may provide a possible route of using surface doping to modify the electronic transport and conductivity of ZnO nanomaterials.

  3. Characterization of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) piezoelectric properties for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosydi Zakaria, Mohd; Johari, Shazlina; Hafiz Ismail, Mohd; Hashim, Uda

    2017-11-01

    In fabricating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) biosensors device, the substrate is one of important factors that affected to performance device. there are many types of piezoelectric substrate in the markets and the cheapest is zinc Oxide substrate. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with its unique properties can be used as piezoelectric substrate along with SAW devices for detection of DNA in this research. In this project, ZnO thin film is deposited onto silicon oxide substrate using electron beam evaporation (E-beam) and Sol-Gel technique. Different material structure is used to compare the roughness and best piezoelectric substrate of ZnO thin film. Two different structures of ZnO target which are pellet and granular are used for e-beam deposition and one sol-gel liquid were synthesize and compared. Parameter for thickness of ZnO e-beam deposition is fixed to a 0.1kÅ for both materials structure and sol-gel was coat using spin coat technique. After the process is done, samples are annealed at temperature of 500°C for 2 hours. The structural properties of effect of post annealing using different material structure of ZnO are studied using Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) for surface morphology and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for phase structure.

  4. Improvement in LPG sensing response by surface activation of ZnO thick films with Cr2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastir, Anita; Virpal, Kaur, Jasmeet; Singh, Gurpreet; Kohli, Nipin; Singh, Onkar; Singh, Ravi Chand

    2015-05-01

    Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) sensing response of pure and Cr2O3 activated ZnO has been investigated in this study. Zinc oxide was synthesized by co-precipitation route and deposited as a thick film on an alumina substrate. The surface of ZnO sensor was activated by chromium oxide on surface oxidation by chromium chloride. The concentration of chromium chloride solution used to activate the ZnO sensor surface has been varied from 0 to 5 %. It is observed that response to LPG has improved as compared to pure ZnO.

  5. Chemically stable Au nanorods as probes for sensitive surface enhanced scattering (SERS) analysis of blue BIC ballpoint pens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyami, Abeer; Saviello, Daniela; McAuliffe, Micheal A. P.; Cucciniello, Raffaele; Mirabile, Antonio; Proto, Antonio; Lewis, Liam; Iacopino, Daniela

    2017-08-01

    Au nanorods were used as an alternative to commonly used Ag nanoparticles as Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) probes for identification of dye composition of blue BIC ballpoint pens. When used in combination with Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Au nanorod colloids allowed identification of the major dye components of the BIC pen ink, otherwise not identifiable by normal Raman spectroscopy. Thanks to their enhanced chemical stability compared to Ag colloids, Au nanorods provided stable and reproducible SERS signals and allowed easy identification of phthalocyanine and triarylene dyes in the pen ink mixture. These findings were supported by FTIR and MALDI analyses, also performed on the pen ink. Furthermore, the self-assembly of Au nanorods into large area ordered superstructures allowed identification of BIC pen traces. SERS spectra of good intensity and high reproducibility were obtained using Au nanorod vertical arrays, due to the high density of hot spots and morphological reproducibility of these superstructures. These results open the way to the employment of SERS for fast screening analysis and for quantitative analysis of pens and faded pens which are relevant for the fields of forensic and art conservation sciences.

  6. Thickness dependence of the MoO3 blocking layers on ZnO nanorod-inverted organic photovoltaic devices

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingjun; Li, Yuan; Huang, Huihui; Peterson, Eric D.; Nie, Wanyi; Zhou, Wei; Zeng, Wei; Huang, Wenxiao; Fang, Guojia; Sun, Nanhai; Zhao, Xingzhong; Carroll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Organic solar cells based on vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZNR) in an inverted structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)∕ZNR∕poly(3-hexylthiophene): (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester(P3HT:PCBM)∕MoO3∕aluminum(Al) were studied. We found that the optimum MoO3 layer thickness condition of 20 nm, the MoO3 can effectively decrease the probability of bimolecular recombination either at the Al interface or within the active layer itself. For this optimum condition we get a power conversion efficiency of 2.15%, a short-circuit current density of 9.02 mA∕cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.55V, and a fill factor of 0.44 under 100 mW∕cm2 irradiation. Our investigations also show that the highly crystallized ZNR can create short and continuous pathways for electron transport and increase the contact area between the ZNR and the organic materials. PMID:21464889

  7. Charge transfer and surface defect healing within ZnO nanoparticle decorated graphene hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Chuyen V.; Repp, Sergej; Thomann, Ralf; Krueger, Michael; Weber, Stefan; Erdem, Emre

    2016-05-01

    To harness the unique properties of graphene and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) for novel applications, the development of graphene-ZnO nanoparticle hybrid materials has attracted great attention and is the subject of ongoing research. For this contribution, graphene-oxide-ZnO (GO-ZnO) and thiol-functionalized reduced graphene oxide-ZnO (TrGO-ZnO) nanohybrid materials were prepared by novel self-assembly processes. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescence (PL) investigations on bare ZnO NPs, GO-ZnO and TrGO-ZnO hybrid materials, we found that several physical phenomena were occurring when ZnO NPs were hybridized with GO and TrGO. The electrons trapped in Zn vacancy defects (VZn-) within the core of ZnO NPs vanished by transfer to GO and TrGO in the hybrid materials, thus leading to the disappearance of the core signals in the EPR spectra of ZnO NPs. The thiol groups of TrGO and sulfur can effectively ``heal'' the oxygen vacancy (VO+) related surface defects of ZnO NPs while oxygen-containing functionalities have low healing ability at a synthesis temperature of 100 °C. Photoexcited electron transfer from the conduction band of ZnO NPs to graphene leads to photoluminescence (PL) quenching of near band gap emission (NBE) of both GO-ZnO and TrGO-ZnO. Simultaneously, electron transfer from graphene to defect states of ZnO NPs is the origin of enhanced green defect emission from GO-ZnO. This observation is consistent with the energy level diagram model of hybrid materials.To harness the unique properties of graphene and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) for novel applications, the development of graphene-ZnO nanoparticle hybrid materials has attracted great attention and is the subject of ongoing research. For this contribution, graphene-oxide-ZnO (GO-ZnO) and thiol-functionalized reduced graphene oxide-ZnO (TrGO-ZnO) nanohybrid materials were prepared by novel self-assembly processes. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescence (PL

  8. Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Mu-Tian; Liu, Shao-Ding; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2008-04-01

    We theoretically investigated the dynamics of exciton populations [ρyy(t ) and ρxx(t )] on two orthogonal polarization eigenstates (∣x⟩ and ∣y⟩) and the polarization ratio P(t )=[ρyy(t )-ρxx(t )]/[ρyy(t )+ρxx(t )] of an anisotropic InGaAs quantum dot modulated by the surface plasmon of an Au nanorod (NR). In the resonance of longitudinal surface plasmon of AuNR, the polarization ratio P(t ) increases from 0.22 to 0.99 during the excitation due to the efficient enhancement of Rabi frequency of the transition between the ∣y⟩ and vacuum states, and decreases from 0.02 to -0.92 after the excitation pulse due to the enhancement of decay rate of the ∣y⟩ state. This offers an approach to modulate the dynamic polarization ratio of radiative emissions.

  9. Synthesis of supported silver nano-spheres on zinc oxide nanorods for visible light photocatalytic applications

    SciT

    Saoud, Khaled; Alsoubaihi, Rola; Bensalah, Nasr

    Highlights: • Synthesis of supported Ag NPs on ZnO nanorods using open vessel microwave reactor. • Use of the Ag/ZnO NPs as an efficient visible light photocatalyst. • Complete degradation of methylene blue in 1 h with 0.5 g/L Ag/ZnO NPs. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of silver (Ag) nano-spheres (NS) supported on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods through two step mechanism, using open vessel microwave reactor. Direct reduction of ZnO from zinc nitrates was followed by deposition precipitation of the silver on the ZnO nanorods. The supported Ag/ZnO nanoparticles were then characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, photoluminescencemore » and UV–vis spectroscopy. The visible light photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO system was investigated using a test contaminant, methylene blue (MB). Almost complete removal of MB in about 60 min for doses higher than 0.5 g/L of the Ag/ZnO photocatalyst was achieved. This significant improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of Ag/ZnO photocatalyst under visible light irradiation can be attributed to the presence of Ag nanoparticles on the ZnO nanoparticles which greatly enhances absorption in the visible range of solar spectrum enabled by surface plasmon resonance effect from Ag nanoparticles.« less

  10. Spectroscopic study of binding of chlorogenic acid with the surface of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belay, Abebe; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the interaction properties of biological materials with ZnO NPs is fundamental interest in the field of biotechnological applications as well as in the formation of optoelectronic devices. In this research, the binding of ZnO NPs and chlorogenic acid (CGA) were investigated using fluorescence quenching, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The study results indicated the fluorescence quenching between ZnO NPs and CGA rationalized in terms of static quenching mechanism or the formation of nonfluorescent CGA-ZnO. From fluorescence quenching spectral analysis the binding constant ( K a ), number of binding sites ( n), and thermodynamic properties, were determined. The quenching constants ( K sv) and binding constant ( K a ), decrease with increasing the temperature and their binding sites n are 2. The thermodynamic parameters determined using Van't Hoff equation indicated binding occurs spontaneously involving the hydrogen bond and van der Walls forces played the major role in the reaction of ZnO NPs with CGA. The Raman, SEM, DLS, and Zeta potential measurements were also indicated the differences in the structure, morphology and sizes of CGA, ZnO NPs, and their corresponding CGA-ZnO due to adsorption of CGA on the surface of ZnO NPs

  11. Tailoring surface and photocatalytic properties of ZnO and nitrogen-doped ZnO nanostructures using microwave-assisted facile hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel, R.; Cedeño, V.; Ramos-Corona, A.; Gutiérrez, R.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Ares, O.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.; Quintana, P.

    2017-08-01

    Microwave hydrothermal synthesis, using an experimental 23 factorial design, was used to produce tunable ZnO nano- and microstructures, and their potential as photocatalysts was explored. Photocatalytic reactions were conducted in a microreactor batch system under UV and visible light irradiation, while monitoring methylene blue degradation, as a model system. The variables considered in the microwave reactor to produce ZnO nano- or microstructures, were time, NaOH concentration and synthesis temperature. It was found that, specific surface area and volume/surface area ratio were affected as a consequence of the synthesis conditions. In the second stage, the samples were plasma treated in a nitrogen atmosphere, with the purpose of introducing nitrogen into the ZnO crystalline structure. The central idea is to induce changes in the material structure as well as in its optical absorption, to make the plasma-treated material useful as photocatalyst in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Pristine ZnO and nitrogen-doped ZnO compounds were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface area (BET), XPS, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results show that the methodology presented in this work is effective in tailoring the specific surface area of the ZnO compounds and incorporation of nitrogen into their structure, factors which in turn, affect its photocatalytic behavior.

  12. Charge transfer and surface defect healing within ZnO nanoparticle decorated graphene hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Pham, Chuyen V; Repp, Sergej; Thomann, Ralf; Krueger, Michael; Weber, Stefan; Erdem, Emre

    2016-05-05

    To harness the unique properties of graphene and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) for novel applications, the development of graphene-ZnO nanoparticle hybrid materials has attracted great attention and is the subject of ongoing research. For this contribution, graphene-oxide-ZnO (GO-ZnO) and thiol-functionalized reduced graphene oxide-ZnO (TrGO-ZnO) nanohybrid materials were prepared by novel self-assembly processes. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescence (PL) investigations on bare ZnO NPs, GO-ZnO and TrGO-ZnO hybrid materials, we found that several physical phenomena were occurring when ZnO NPs were hybridized with GO and TrGO. The electrons trapped in Zn vacancy defects (VZn(-)) within the core of ZnO NPs vanished by transfer to GO and TrGO in the hybrid materials, thus leading to the disappearance of the core signals in the EPR spectra of ZnO NPs. The thiol groups of TrGO and sulfur can effectively "heal" the oxygen vacancy (VO(+)) related surface defects of ZnO NPs while oxygen-containing functionalities have low healing ability at a synthesis temperature of 100 °C. Photoexcited electron transfer from the conduction band of ZnO NPs to graphene leads to photoluminescence (PL) quenching of near band gap emission (NBE) of both GO-ZnO and TrGO-ZnO. Simultaneously, electron transfer from graphene to defect states of ZnO NPs is the origin of enhanced green defect emission from GO-ZnO. This observation is consistent with the energy level diagram model of hybrid materials.

  13. Physical study on Cobalt-Indium Co-doped ZnO nanofilms as hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimouni, R.; Mahdhi, N.; Boubaker, K.; Madouri, A.; Amlouk, M.

    2016-03-01

    The present work reports some physical investigations on (Co,In) codoped zinc oxide nanofilms deposited on glass substrates at 460 °C by the spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of Co and In concentration on the structural, morphological, optical and surface wettability properties have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, optical measurement, photoluminescence spectroscopy as well as the measurement of hydrophobicity in terms of water contact angle. It is found that all films crystallized in würtzite ZnO phase, with a preferentially orientation towards (002) direction parallel to c-axis. The Raman spectra of the samples exhibit the presence of E2high characteristic mode of würtzite structure with high crystallinity as well as two dominant bands 1LO and 2LO. Also, no additional modes introduced by codopoing have been found. SEM micrographs show the uniform deposition of fine grains on surface films. Thicknesses of films are less than 100 nm. In addition, optical investigations indicate that the band gap narrowing of (Co,In) codoped ZnO thin films is due to the increase in the band tail width. Indeed, PL study indicates that (Co,In) codoped ZnO nanofilms exhibit a large decrease of the UV luminescence, which is assigned to the trapping of photo-generated electrons by both In3+ and Co2+ ions as well as an improvement of charge separation in the ZnO thin films. Finally, the (Co,In) codoping influences the surface wettability property and transform the ZnO character from hydrophilic (θ < 90°) for pure ZnO nanofilm to hydrophobic (θ > 90°) for (Co,In) codoped ZnO ones.

  14. On-chip surface modified nanostructured ZnO as functional pH sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Wenpeng; Sun, Chongling; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua; Duan, Xuexin

    2015-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are promising candidates as electronic components for biological and chemical applications. In this study, ZnO ultra-fine nanowire (NW) and nanoflake (NF) hybrid structures have been prepared by Au-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure. Their surface morphology, lattice structures, and crystal orientation were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two types of ZnO nanostructures were successfully integrated as gate electrodes in extended-gate field-effect transistors (EGFETs). Due to the amphoteric properties of ZnO, such devices function as pH sensors. We found that the ultra-fine NWs, which were more than 50 μm in length and less than 100 nm in diameter, performed better in the pH sensing process than NW-NF hybrid structures because of their higher surface-to-volume ratio, considering the Nernst equation and the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model. Furthermore, the surface coating of (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) protects ZnO nanostructures in both acidic and alkaline environments, thus enhancing the device stability and extending its pH sensing dynamic range.

  15. Enhancement in ion adsorption rate and desalination efficiency in a capacitive deionization cell through improved electric field distribution using electrodes composed of activated carbon cloth coated with zinc oxide nanorods.

    PubMed

    Laxman, Karthik; Myint, Myo Tay Zar; Bourdoucen, Hadj; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-07-09

    Electrodes composed of activated carbon cloth (ACC) coated with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods are compared with plain ACC electrodes, with respect to their desalination efficiency of a 17 mM NaCl solution at different applied potentials. Polarization of the ZnO nanorods increased the penetration depth and strength of the electric field between the electrodes, leading to an increase in the capacitance and charge efficiency at reduced input charge ratios. Uniform distribution of the electric field lines between two electrodes coated with ZnO nanorods led to faster ion adsorption rates, reduced the electrode saturation time, and increased the average desalination efficiency by ∼45% for all applied potentials. The electrodes were characterized for active surface area, capacitance from cyclic voltammetry, theoretical assessment of surface area utilization, and the magnitude of electric field force acting on an ion of unit charge for each potential.

  16. Development and surface characterization of a glucose biosensor based on a nanocolumnar ZnO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, A.; Castegnaro, M. V.; Arguello, J.; Alves, M. C. M.; Morais, J.

    2017-04-01

    Highly oriented nanostructured ZnO films were grown on the surface of stainless steel plates (ZnO/SS) by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The films consisted of vertically aligned ZnO nanocolumns, ∼1 μm long and ∼80 nm wide, as observed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FIB (focused ion beam). XRD (X-ray diffraction) confirmed the c-axis preferred orientation of the ZnO columns, which were functionalized with the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme into a biosensor of glucose. The electrochemical response studied by CV (cyclic voltammetry) proved that the biosensor was capable of detecting glucose from 1.5 up to 16 mM concentration range. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis, excited with synchrotron radiation, probed the atom specific chemical environment at the electrode's surface and shed some light on the nature of the ZnO-GOx interaction.

  17. In vitro and in vivo photothermal cancer therapy using excited gold nanorod surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Bruce; Ou, Min-Nan; Chang, Fu-Hsiung; Lin, Win-Li; Chia, Chih-Ta; Chen, Yang-Yuan

    2013-03-01

    The application of heat to eliminate or restrain specific cancer cells is proposed as an encouraging approach in optimizing cancer therapy. This talk presents the in vitro and in vivo photothermal cancer therapy using photo-excited gold nanorods (Au NRs), and studies the impact of thermal heat on the necrosis of tumor tissue. The therapeutic efficacy in vivo was evaluated by analyzing tumor size change, vascular development, and histological images. The safety standard for the therapy process and administration of Au NRs were conducted to exclude side effects arising from the irradiation and materials. It is found that the smaller size of Au NRs exhibits better therapeutic efficacy due to their optical absorption efficiency and space distribution uniformity in the cell. The generation of local heating from excited Au NR surface plasmons is high enough to make the tumor tissue gradually develop to an eschar; resulting in a dramatic size decreases in these treated tumors.

  18. "Cleaning" the Surface of Hydroxyapatite Nanorods by a Reaction-Dissolution Approach.

    PubMed

    Cao, Binrui; Yang, Mingying; Wang, Lin; Xu, Hong; Zhu, Ye; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-10-21

    Synthetic nanoparticles are always terminated with coating molecules, which are often cytotoxic and not desired in biomedicine. Here we propose a novel reaction-dissolution approach to remove the cytotoxic coating molecules. A two-component solution is added to the nanoparticle solution; one component reacts with the coating molecules to form a salt whereas another is a solvent for dissolving and thus removing the salt. As a proof of concept, this work uses a NaOH-ethanol solution to remove the cytotoxic linoleic acid molecules coated on the hydroxyapatite nanorods (HAP-NRs). The removal of the coating molecules not only significantly improves the biocompatibility of HAP-NRs but also enables their oriented attachment into tightly-bound superstructures, which mimic the organized HAP crystals in bone and enamel and can promote the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Our reaction-dissolution approach can be extended to the surface "cleaning" of other nanomaterials.

  19. Localized surface plasmon resonance properties of Ag nanorod arrays on graphene-coated Au substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Haiwei; Lv, Jingwei; Liu, Chao; Sun, Tao; Chu, Paul K.; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-11-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) on silver nanorod (SNR) arrays deposited on a graphene-coated Au substrate is investigated by the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method. The resonance peaks in the extinction spectra of the SNR/graphene/Au structure show significantly different profiles as SNR height, and refractive index of the surrounding medium are varied gradually. Numerical simulation reveals that the shifts in the resonance peaks arise from hybridization of multiple plasmon modes as a result of coupling between the SNR arrays and graphene-coated Au substrate. Moreover, the LSPR modes blue-shifts from 800 nm to 700 nm when the thickness of the graphene layer in the metal nanoparticle (NP) - graphene hybrid nanostructure increases from 1 nm to 5 nm, which attribute to charge transfer between the graphene layer and SNR arrays. The results provide insights into metal NP-graphene hybrid nanostructures which have potential applications in plasmonics.

  20. Effects of different surface modifying agents on the cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties of ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Esparza-González, S C; Sánchez-Valdés, S; Ramírez-Barrón, S N; Loera-Arias, M J; Bernal, J; Meléndez-Ortiz, H Iván; Betancourt-Galindo, R

    2016-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have received considerable attention in the medical field because of their antibacterial properties, primarily for killing and reducing the activity of numerous microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether surface-modified ZnO NPs exhibit different properties compared with unmodified ZnO. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of modified ZnO NPs as well as their effects on inflammatory cytokine production were evaluated. ZnO NPs were prepared using a wet chemical method. Then, the surfaces of these NPs were modified using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as modifying agents via a chemical hydrolysis method. According to infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR), the structure of the ZnO remained unchanged after modification. Antibacterial assays demonstrated that APTES modification is more effective at inducing an antimicrobial effect against Gram-negative bacteria than against Gram-positive bacteria. Cytotoxicity studies showed that cell viability was dose-dependent; moreover, pristine and APTES-modified ZnO exhibited low cytotoxicity, whereas DMSO-modified ZnO exhibited toxicity even at a low NP concentration. An investigation of inflammatory cytokine production demonstrated that the extent of stimulation was related to the ZnO NP concentration but not to the surface modification, except for IFN-γ and IL-10, which were not detected even at high NP concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. White Electroluminescence Using ZnO Nanotubes/GaN Heterostructure Light-Emitting Diode

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We report the fabrication of heterostructure white light–emitting diode (LED) comprised of n-ZnO nanotubes (NTs) aqueous chemically synthesized on p-GaN substrate. Room temperature electroluminescence (EL) of the LED demonstrates strong broadband white emission spectrum consisting of predominating peak centred at 560 nm and relatively weak violet–blue emission peak at 450 nm under forward bias. The broadband EL emission covering the whole visible spectrum has been attributed to the large surface area and high surface states of ZnO NTs produced during the etching process. In addition, comparison of the EL emission colour quality shows that ZnO nanotubes have much better quality than that of the ZnO nanorods. The colour-rendering index of the white light obtained from the nanotubes was 87, while the nanorods-based LED emit yellowish colour. PMID:20672120

  2. ZnO:Ag nanorods as efficient photocatalysts: Sunlight driven photocatalytic degradation of sulforhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raji, R.; K. S., Sibi; K. G., Gopchandran

    2018-01-01

    Visible light responsive highly photocatalytic ZnO:Ag nanorods with varying Ag concentration were synthesized via co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction analysis and high resolution transmission electron microscopy investigations confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite phase for these ZnO:Ag nanorods with preferential growth along the (101) plane. Raman shift and luminescence measurements indicated that the incorporation of Ag influences the lattice vibrational modes; there by causing distortion in lattice, inducing silent vibrational modes and emission behavior by quenching of both the band edge and visible emissions respectively. The photocatalytic performance of these nanorods as catalysts was tested by observing the photodegradation of a representative dye pollutant, viz., sulforhodamine B under sunlight irradiation. Photocatalytic performance was evaluated by determining the rate of reaction kinetics, photodegradation efficiency and mineralization efficiency. A high rate constant of 0.552 min-1, chemical oxygen demand value of 5.8 ppm and a mineralization efficiency of 94% were obtained when ZnO: Ag nanorods with an Ag content of 1.5 at.% were used as catalysts. The observed increase in photocatalytic efficiency with Ag content in ZnO:Ag nanorods is attributed to the electron scavenging action of silver, Schottky barrier between the Ag and ZnO interface and the better utilization of sunlight due to enhanced absorption due to plasmons in the visible region. BET analysis indicated that silver doping causes effective surface area of nanorods to increase, which in turn increases the photocatalytic efficiency. The possible mechanism for degradation of dye under sunlight irradiation is described with a schematic and the photostability of the ZnO:Ag nanorods were also tested through five repetitive cycles. This work suggests that the prepared ZnO:Ag nanorods are excellent reusable photocatalysts for the degradation of toxic organic waste in water, which causes severe

  3. Electron mobility enhancement in ZnO thin films via surface modification by carboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalenka, Josef W.; Gopalan, Padma; Katz, Howard E.; Evans, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    Modifying the surface of polycrystalline ZnO films using a monolayer of organic molecules with carboxylic acid attachment groups increases the field-effect electron mobility and zero-bias conductivity, resulting in improved transistors and transparent conductors. The improvement is consistent with the passivation of defects via covalent bonding of the carboxylic acid and is reversible by exposure to a UV-ozone lamp. The properties of the solvent used for the attachment are crucial because solvents with high acid dissociation constants (Ka) for carboxylic acids lead to high proton activities and etching of the nanometers-thick ZnO films, masking the electronic effect.

  4. Superhydrophobic Surface Based on a Coral-Like Hierarchical Structure of ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Xia, Jun; Lei, Wei; Wang, Baoping

    2010-01-01

    Background Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces has attracted much interest in the past decade. The fabrication methods that have been studied are chemical vapour deposition, the sol-gel method, etching technique, electrochemical deposition, the layer-by-layer deposition, and so on. Simple and inexpensive methods for manufacturing environmentally stable superhydrophobic surfaces have also been proposed lately. However, work referring to the influence of special structures on the wettability, such as hierarchical ZnO nanostructures, is rare. Methodology This study presents a simple and reproducible method to fabricate a superhydrophobic surface with micro-scale roughness based on zinc oxide (ZnO) hierarchical structure, which is grown by the hydrothermal method with an alkaline aqueous solution. Coral-like structures of ZnO were fabricated on a glass substrate with a micro-scale roughness, while the antennas of the coral formed the nano-scale roughness. The fresh ZnO films exhibited excellent superhydrophilicity (the apparent contact angle for water droplet was about 0°), while the ability to be wet could be changed to superhydrophobicity after spin-coating Teflon (the apparent contact angle greater than 168°). The procedure reported here can be applied to substrates consisting of other materials and having various shapes. Results The new process is convenient and environmentally friendly compared to conventional methods. Furthermore, the hierarchical structure generates the extraordinary solid/gas/liquid three-phase contact interface, which is the essential characteristic for a superhydrophobic surface. PMID:21209931

  5. Effect of calcium oxalate on the photocatalytic degradation of Orange II on ZnO surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassaid, S.; Ziane, B.; Badaoui, M.; Chaib, M.; Robert, D.

    2013-06-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of aqueous solution of Orange II, has been investigated in the presence of ZnO catalyst with calcium oxalate as sacrificial agent. This study demonstrated that the performance of ZnO photocatalyst can be improved by addition of calcium oxalate. Results show that adsorption is an important parameter controlling the degradation phenomena. Indeed, the added oxalate causes a drop in the pH medium, what causes a better adsorption of Orange II on the ZnO surface. The effect of calcium oxalate is to increase the concentration of superoxides (O{2/·-}) and hydroperoxides (HO2·) radicals, which are key intermediaries in the mechanism of photodegradation because of their powerful force of oxidation.

  6. Temperature dependent optical properties of (002) oriented ZnO thin film using surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Shibu; Mehan, Navina; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-08-01

    Temperature dependent optical properties of c-axis oriented ZnO thin film were investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. SPR data for double layer (prism-Au-ZnO-air) and single layer (prism-Au-air) systems were taken over a temperature range (300-525 K). Dielectric constant at optical frequency and real part of refractive index of the ZnO film shows an increase with temperature. The bandgap of the oriented ZnO film was found to decrease with rise in temperature. The work indicates a promising application of the system as a temperature sensor and highlights an efficient scientific tool to study optical properties of thin film under varying ambient conditions.

  7. Biocompatible gold nanorods: one-step surface functionalization, highly colloidal stability, and low cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Zheng, Yuanhui; Lu, Xun; Thai, Thibaut; Lee, Nanju Alice; Bach, Udo; Gooding, J Justin

    2015-05-05

    The conjugation of gold nanorods (AuNRs) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is one of the most effective ways to reduce their cytotoxicity arising from the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and silver ions used in their synthesis. However, typical PEGylation occurs only at the tips of the AuNRs, producing partially modified AuNRs. To address this issue, we have developed a novel, facile, one-step surface functionalization method that involves the use of Tween 20 to stabilize AuNRs, bis(p-sulfonatophenyl)phenylphosphine (BSPP) to activate the AuNR surface for the subsequent PEGylation, and NaCl to etch silver from the AuNRs. This method allows for the complete removal of the surface-bound CTAB and the most active surface silver from the AuNRs. The produced AuNRs showed far lower toxicity than other methods to PEGylate AuNRs, with no apparent toxicity when their concentration is lower than 5 μg/mL. Even at a high concentration of 80 μg/mL, their cell viability is still four times higher than that of the tip-modified AuNRs.

  8. [Chemical modification on the surface of nano-particles of ZnO and its characterization].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-yin; Du, Jun; Gu, Jia-shan; Guan, Ming-yun; Wu, Zheng-cui; Ling, Qing; Sun, Yi-min

    2004-02-01

    After nano-particles (ZnO) had been encapsulated by a kind of water-soluble cellulose Hydoxyl-Propyl-Methyl Cellulose (HPMC), then methyl methacrylate was grafted onto the surface of them. Thus the surface of nano-ZnO had been successfully modified. FTIR, DTA and TEM were utilized to confirm the results. FTIR shows that HPMC was adsorbed onto the surface of ZnO, and PMMA was also grafted onto its surface, DTA says that the heat stability of HPMC, HPMC-g-PMMA and ZnO/HPMC-g-PMMA increased greatly, TEM photo demonstrates that polymer adhered onto the surface of nano-ZnO which was encapsulated by a layer of film-like polymer.

  9. Infiltration of CdTe nano crystals into a ZnO wire vertical matrix by using the isothermal closed space technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larramendi, S.; Vaillant Roca, Lidice; Saint-Gregoire, Pierre; Ferraz Dias, Johnny; Behar, Moni

    2017-10-01

    A ZnO nanorod structure was grown by the hydrothermal method and interpenetrated with CdTe using the isothermal closed space sublimation technique. The obtained structure was studied by using the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technique confirmed the presence of CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) of very small size formed on the surface and in the interspaces between the ZnO nanorods. The RBS observations together with the SEM observations give information on the obtained structure. Finally the photoluminescence studies show a strong energy confinement effect on the grown CdTe NCs.

  10. Fabrication of luminescent hydroxyapatite nanorods through surface-initiated RAFT polymerization: Characterization, biological imaging and drug delivery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Chunning; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Meiying; Xu, Dazhuang; Huang, Hongye; Deng, Fengjie; Hui, Junfeng; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2016-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanomaterials as an important class of nanomaterials, have been widely applied for different biomedical applications for their excellent biocompatibility, biodegradation potential and low cost. In this work, hydroxyapatite nanorods with uniform size and morphology were prepared through hydrothermal synthesis. The surfaces of these hydroxyapatite nanorods are covered with hydrophobic oleic acid, making them poor dispersibility in aqueous solution and difficult for biomedical applications. To overcome this issue, a simple surface initiated polymerization strategy has been developed via combination of the surface ligand exchange and reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Hydroxyapatite nanorods were first modified with Riboflavin-5-phosphate sodium (RPSSD) via ligand exchange reaction between the phosphate group of RPSSD and oleic acid. Then hydroxyl group of nHAp-RPSSD was used to immobilize chain transfer agent, which was used as the initiator for surface-initiated RAFT polymerization. The nHAp-RPSSD-poly(IA-PEGMA) nanocomposites were characterized by means of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis in detailed. The biocompatibility, biological imaging and drug delivery of nHAp-RPSSD-poly(IA-PEGMA) were also investigated. Results showed that nHAp-RPSSD-poly(IA-PEGMA) exhibited excellent water dispersibility, desirable optical properties, good biocompatibility and high drug loading capability, making them promising candidates for biological imaging and controlled drug delivery applications.

  11. Toward a durable superhydrophobic aluminum surface by etching and ZnO nanoparticle deposition.

    PubMed

    Rezayi, Toktam; Entezari, Mohammad H

    2016-02-01

    Fabrication of suitable roughness is a fundamental step for acquiring superhydrophobic surfaces. For this purpose, a deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on Al surface was carried out by simple immersion and ultrasound approaches. Then, surface energy reduction was performed using stearic acid (STA) ethanol solution for both methods. The results demonstrated that ultrasound would lead to more stable superhydrophobic Al surfaces (STA-ZnO-Al-U) in comparison with simple immersion method (STA-ZnO-Al-I). Besides, etching in HCl solution in another sample was carried out before ZnO deposition for acquiring more mechanically stable superhydrophobic surface. The potentiodynamic measurements demonstrate that etching in HCl solution under ultrasound leads to superhydrophobic surface (STA-ZnO-Al(E)-U). This sample shows remarkable decrease in corrosion current density (icorr) and long-term stability improvement versus immersion in NaCl solution (3.5%) in comparison with the sample prepared without etching (STA-ZnO-Al-U). Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed a more condense and further particle deposition on Al substrate when ultrasound was applied in the system. The crystallite evaluation of deposited ZnO nanoparticles was carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Finally, for STA grafting verification on Al surface, Fourier transform infrared in conjunction with attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) was used as a proper technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth of ZnO nanowires on polypropylene membrane surface-Characterization and reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarska, Marta; Nowak, Bartosz; Skowroński, Jarosław; Piątkiewicz, Wojciech; Gradoń, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Need for a new membrane is clearly visible in recent studies, mostly due to the fouling phenomenon. Authors, focused on problem of biofouling caused by microorganisms that are present in water environment. An attempt to form a new membrane with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires was made; where plasma treatment was used as a first step of modification followed by chemical bath deposition. Such membrane will exhibit additional reactive properties. ZnO, because of its antibacterial and photocatalytic properties, is more and more often used in commercial applications. The authors used SEM imaging, measurement of the contact angle, XRD and the FT-IR analysis for membrane characterization. Amount of ZnO deposited on membrane surface was also investigated by dithizone method. Photocatalytic properties of such membranes were examined through methylene blue and humic acid degradation in laboratory scale modules with LEDs as either: wide range white or UV light source. Antibacterial and antifouling properties of polypropylene membranes modified with ZnO nanowires were examined through a series of tests involving microorganisms: model gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The obtained results showed that it is possible to modify the membrane surface in such a way, that additional reactive properties will be given. Thus, not only did the membrane become a physical barrier, but also turned out to be a reactive one.

  13. Positive and negative ZnO micropatterning on functionalized polymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Zou, Shengli; Yang, Wantai

    2008-09-01

    Patterned ZnO deposition on substrates has received increasing attention because of its great potential in photocatalysis, energy conversion, and electro-optical techniques. Chemical solution growth is especially promising for organic substrates due to its very mild reaction conditions. Here this method is used on functionality-patterned polymer surfaces in order to fabricate positive and negative ZnO micropatterns. A ZnO film made of arrayed rods, typically 500-750 nm in diameter and 2.5 microm in length, is selectively obtained on sulfated and hydroxylated regions of biaxially oriented poly(propylene), giving rise to positive patterns. For reactive polyesters such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), the ZnO rods selectively remain on the unmodified original regions, creating negative patterns. Unlike complex photolithography procedures, the irradiation and patterning processes do not require the use of positive or negative photoresists, and possible damage from acidic solutions on the underlying substrate during the chemical etching process is avoided. The process thus proves to be a simple, creditable, and low-cost method, which could be easily applied on a variety of inert and reactive polymer surfaces.

  14. Gold nanorods as contrast agents for biological imaging: optical properties, surface conjugation, and photothermal effects†

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ling; Wei, Qingshan; Wei, Alexander; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2009-01-01

    Gold nanorods (NRs) have plasmon-resonant absorption and scattering in the near-infrared (NIR) region, making them attractive probes for in vitro and in vivo imaging. In the cellular environment, NRs can provide scattering contrast for darkfield microscopy, or emit a strong two-photon luminescence (TPL) due to plasmon-enhanced two-photon absorption. NRs have also been employed in biomedical imaging modalities such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) or photoacoustic tomography (PAT). Careful control over surface chemistry enhances the capacity of NRs as biological imaging agents by enabling cell-specific targeting, and by increasing their dispersion stability and circulation lifetimes. NRs can also efficiently convert optical energy into heat, and inflict localized damage to tumor cells. Laser-induced heating of NRs can disrupt cell membrane integrity and homeostasis, resulting in Ca2+ influx and the depolymerization of the intracellular actin network. The combination of plasmon-resonant optical properties, intense local photothermal effects, and robust surface chemistry render gold NRs as promising theragnostic agents. PMID:19161395

  15. Cobalt-doped ZnO nanocrystals: quantum confinement and surface effects from ab initio methods.

    PubMed

    Schoenhalz, Aline L; Dalpian, Gustavo M

    2013-10-14

    Cobalt-doped ZnO nanocrystals were studied through ab initio methods based on the Density Functional Theory. Both quantum confinement and surface effects were explicitly taken into account. When only quantum confinement effects are considered, Co atoms interact through a superexchange mechanism, stabilizing an antiferromagnetic ground state. Usually, this is the case for high quality nanoparticles with perfect surface saturation. When the surfaces were considered, a strong hybridization between the Co atoms and surfaces was observed, strongly changing their electronic and magnetic properties. Our results indicated that the surfaces might qualitatively change the properties of impurities in semiconductor nanocrystals.

  16. Gold Ultrathin Nanorods with Controlled Aspect Ratios and Surface Modifications: Formation Mechanism and Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Ryo; Yamazoe, Seiji; Koyasu, Kiichirou; Imura, Kohei; Tsukuda, Tatsuya

    2018-05-30

    We synthesized gold ultrathin nanorods (AuUNRs) by slow reductions of gold(I) in the presence of oleylamine (OA) as a surfactant. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the lengths of AuUNRs were tuned in the range of 5-20 nm while keeping the diameter constant (∼2 nm) by changing the relative concentration of OA and Au(I). It is proposed on the basis of time-resolved optical spectroscopy that AuUNRs are formed via the formation of small (<2 nm) Au spherical clusters followed by their one-dimensional attachment in OA micelles. The surfactant OA on AuUNRs was successfully replaced with glutathionate or dodecanethiolate by the ligand exchange approach. Optical extinction spectroscopy on a series of AuUNRs with different aspect ratios (ARs) revealed a single intense extinction band in the near-IR (NIR) region due to the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the peak position of which is red-shifted with the AR. The NIR bands of AuUNRs with AR < 5 were blue-shifted upon the ligand exchange from OA to thiolates, in sharp contrast to the red shift observed in the conventional Au nanorods and nanospheres (diameter >10 nm). This behavior suggests that the NIR bands of thiolate-protected AuUNRs with AR < 5 are not plasmonic in nature, but are associated with a single-electron excitation between quantized states. The LSPR band was attenuated by thiolate passivation that can be explained by the direct decay of plasmons into an interfacial charge transfer state (chemical interface damping). The LSPR wavelengths of AuUNRs are remarkably longer than those of the conventional AuNRs with the same AR, demonstrating that the miniaturization of the diameter to below ∼2 nm significantly affects the optical response. The red shift of the LSPR band can be ascribed to the increase in the effective mass of electrons in AuUNRs.

  17. Carrier confinement effects of InxGa1-xN/GaN multi quantum disks with GaN surface barriers grown in GaN nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngsin; Chan, Christopher C. S.; Taylor, Robert A.; Kim, Nammee; Jo, Yongcheol; Lee, Seung W.; Yang, Woochul; Im, Hyunsik

    2018-04-01

    Structural and optical properties of InxGa1-xN/GaN multi quantum disks (QDisks) grown on GaN nanorods by molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and micro-photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Two types of InGaN QDisks were grown: a pseudo-3D confined InGaN pillar-type QDisks embedded in GaN nanorods; and QDisks in flanged cone type GaN nanorods. The PL emission peak and excitation dependent PL behavior of the pillar-type Qdisks differ greatly from those of the flanged cone type QDisks. Time resolved PL was carried out to probe the differences in charge carrier dynamics. The results suggest that by constraining the formation of InGaN QDisks within the centre of the nanorod, carriers are restricted from migrating to the surface, decreasing the surface recombination at high carrier densities.

  18. In vitro antibacterial activity of ZnO and Nd doped ZnO nanoparticles against ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Abdulrahman Syedahamed Haja; Karthikeyan, Chandrasekaran; Ahamed, Abdulazees Parveez; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Ravi, Ganasan

    2016-04-01

    Pure ZnO and Neodymium (Nd) doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles retained the wurtzite hexagonal structure. From FESEM studies, ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs showed nanorod and nanoflower like morphology respectively. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the Zn-O stretching bands at 422 and 451 cm-1 for ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs respectively. From the UV-VIS spectroscopic measurement, the excitonic peaks were found around 373 nm and 380 nm for the respective samples. The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the broad emission was composed of ten different bands due to zinc vacancies, oxygen vacancies and surface defects. The antibacterial studies performed against extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that the Nd doped ZnO NPs possessed a greater antibacterial effect than the pure ZnO NPs. From confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analysis, the apoptotic nature of the cells was confirmed by the cell shrinkage, disorganization of cell wall and cell membrane and dead cell of the bacteria. SEM analysis revealed the existence of bacterial loss of viability due to an impairment of cell membrane integrity, which was highly consistent with the damage of cell walls.

  19. In vitro antibacterial activity of ZnO and Nd doped ZnO nanoparticles against ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Abdulrahman Syedahamed Haja; Karthikeyan, Chandrasekaran; Ahamed, Abdulazees Parveez; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Ravi, Ganasan

    2016-01-01

    Pure ZnO and Neodymium (Nd) doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles retained the wurtzite hexagonal structure. From FESEM studies, ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs showed nanorod and nanoflower like morphology respectively. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the Zn-O stretching bands at 422 and 451 cm−1 for ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs respectively. From the UV-VIS spectroscopic measurement, the excitonic peaks were found around 373 nm and 380 nm for the respective samples. The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the broad emission was composed of ten different bands due to zinc vacancies, oxygen vacancies and surface defects. The antibacterial studies performed against extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that the Nd doped ZnO NPs possessed a greater antibacterial effect than the pure ZnO NPs. From confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analysis, the apoptotic nature of the cells was confirmed by the cell shrinkage, disorganization of cell wall and cell membrane and dead cell of the bacteria. SEM analysis revealed the existence of bacterial loss of viability due to an impairment of cell membrane integrity, which was highly consistent with the damage of cell walls. PMID:27071382

  20. Tuning the EDTA-induced self-assembly and plasmonic spectral properties of gold nanorods: application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-jun; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Chun-yu; Zhu, Jian; Zhao, Jun-wu

    2016-02-01

    Self-assembly of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-protected colloidal gold nanorods with different aspect ratios has been studied by adding the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Both the assembly strength and assembly configuration fashion of the gold nanorods could be tuned by changing the aspect ratio. For gold nanorods with small aspect ratio, side-by-side assembly takes the major role in the aggregation. In this case, the blue shift of the longitudinal absorption and the increase of the transverse absorption lead to the great uplift of the middle spectrum dip as the EDTA is increased. For gold nanorods with large aspect ratio, end-to-end assembly takes the major role in the aggregation. In this case, the longitudinal absorption peak fades down rapidly and a tailing absorption peak at longer wavelength uplifts greatly as the EDTA is increased. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of the assembled gold nanorods has been studied using alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as the Raman active probe. It has been found that both the side-by-side assembly and end-to-end assembly of the gold nanorods could effectively improve the Raman signal of the AFP. And the gold nanorod substrate with side-by-side assembly has higher SERS activity.

  1. Thermally induced growth of ZnO nanocrystals on mixed metal oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Alexandra; Makky, Ayman; Giraldo, Jose; Kuhnt, Andreas; Busse, Corinna; Schwieger, Wilhelm

    2014-06-23

    An in situ method for the growth of ZnO nanocrystals on Zn/Al mixed metal oxide (MMO) surfaces is presented. The key to this method is the thermal treatment of Zn/Al layered double hydroxides (Zn/Al LDHs) in the presence of nitrate anions, which results in partial demixing of the LDH/MMO structure and the subsequent crystallization of ZnO crystals on the surface of the forming MMO layers. In a first experimental series, thermal treatment of Zn/Al LDHs with different fractions of nitrate and carbonate in the interlayer space was examined by thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and in situ XRD. In a second experimental series, Zn/Al LDHs with only carbonate in the interlayer space were thermally treated in the presence of different amounts of an external nitrate source (NH4NO3). All obtained Zn/Al MMO samples were analysed by electron microscopy, nitrogen physisorption and powder X-ray diffraction. The gas phase formed during nitrate decomposition turned out to be responsible for the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles. Accordingly, both interlayer nitrate and the presence of ammonium nitrate led to the formation of supported ZnO nanocrystals with mean diameters between 100 and 400 nm, and both methods offer the possibility to tailor the amount and size of the ZnO crystals by means of the amount of nitrate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Investigation into the effects of surface stripping ZnO nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Chris J; Jackson, Georgina; Jones, Daniel R; Lewis, Aled R; Welsby, Kathryn; Evans, Jon E; McGettrick, James D; Watson, Trystan; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Dunstan, Peter R; Barron, Andrew R; Cobley, Richard J

    2018-04-20

    ZnO nanosheets are polycrystalline nanostructures that are used in devices including solar cells and gas sensors. However, for efficient and reproducible device operation and contact behaviour the conductivity characteristics must be controlled and surface contaminants removed. Here we use low doses of argon bombardment to remove surface contamination and make reproducible lower resistance contacts. Higher doses strip the surface of the nanosheets altering the contact type from near-ohmic to rectifying by removing the donor-type defects, which photoluminescence shows to be concentrated in the near-surface. Controlled doses of argon treatments allow nanosheets to be customised for device formation.

  3. Investigation into the effects of surface stripping ZnO nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Chris J.; Jackson, Georgina; Jones, Daniel R.; Lewis, Aled R.; Welsby, Kathryn; Evans, Jon E.; McGettrick, James D.; Watson, Trystan; Maffeis, Thierry G. G.; Dunstan, Peter R.; Barron, Andrew R.; Cobley, Richard J.

    2018-04-01

    ZnO nanosheets are polycrystalline nanostructures that are used in devices including solar cells and gas sensors. However, for efficient and reproducible device operation and contact behaviour the conductivity characteristics must be controlled and surface contaminants removed. Here we use low doses of argon bombardment to remove surface contamination and make reproducible lower resistance contacts. Higher doses strip the surface of the nanosheets altering the contact type from near-ohmic to rectifying by removing the donor-type defects, which photoluminescence shows to be concentrated in the near-surface. Controlled doses of argon treatments allow nanosheets to be customised for device formation.

  4. Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhengrong R; Voigt, James A; Liu, Jun; McKenzie, Bonnie; McDermott, Matthew J; Rodriguez, Mark A; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang

    2003-12-01

    Extended and oriented nanostructures are desirable for many applications, but direct fabrication of complex nanostructures with controlled crystalline morphology, orientation and surface architectures remains a significant challenge. Here we report a low-temperature, environmentally benign, solution-based approach for the preparation of complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures, and the systematic modification of their crystal morphology. Using controlled seeded growth and citrate anions that selectively adsorb on ZnO basal planes as the structure-directing agent, we prepared large arrays of oriented ZnO nanorods with controlled aspect ratios, complex film morphologies made of oriented nanocolumns and nanoplates (remarkably similar to biomineral structures in red abalone shells) and complex bilayers showing in situ column-to-rod morphological transitions. The advantages of some of these ZnO structures for photocatalytic decompositions of volatile organic compounds were demonstrated. The novel ZnO nanostructures are expected to have great potential for sensing, catalysis, optical emission, piezoelectric transduction, and actuations.

  5. High-Performance Schottky Diode Gas Sensor Based on the Heterojunction of Three-Dimensional Nanohybrids of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Vertical ZnO Nanorods on an AlGaN/GaN Layer.

    PubMed

    Minh Triet, Nguyen; Thai Duy, Le; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Hanif, Adeela; Siddiqui, Saqib; Park, Kyung-Ho; Cho, Chu-Young; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2017-09-13

    A Schottky diode based on a heterojunction of three-dimensional (3D) nanohybrid materials, formed by hybridizing reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with epitaxial vertical zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) and Al 0.27 GaN 0.73 (∼25 nm)/GaN is presented as a new class of high-performance chemical sensors. The RGO nanosheet layer coated on the ZnO NRs enables the formation of a direct Schottky contact with the AlGaN layer. The sensing results of the Schottky diode with respect to NO 2 , SO 2 , and HCHO gases exhibit high sensitivity (0.88-1.88 ppm -1 ), fast response (∼2 min), and good reproducibility down to 120 ppb concentration levels at room temperature. The sensing mechanism of the Schottky diode can be explained by the effective modulation of the reverse saturation current due to the change in thermionic emission carrier transport caused by ultrasensitive changes in the Schottky barrier of a van der Waals heterostructure between RGO and AlGaN layers upon interaction with gas molecules. Advances in the design of a Schottky diode gas sensor based on the heterojunction of high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas channel and highly responsive 3D-engineered sensing nanomaterials have potential not only for the enhancement of sensitivity and selectivity but also for improving operation capability at room temperature.

  6. Effect of annealing on the sub-bandgap, defects and trapping states of ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuono, Ruri Agung; Hermann-Westendorf, Felix; Dellith, Andrea; Schmidt, Christa; Dellith, Jan; Plentz, Jonathan; Schulz, Martin; Presselt, Martin; Seyring, Martin; Rettenmeyer, Markus; Dietzek, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Annealing treatment was applied to different mesoporous ZnO nanostructures prepared by wet chemical synthesis, i.e. nanoflowers (NFs), spherical aggregates (SPs), and nanorods (NRs). The sub-bandgap, defect properties as well as the trapping state characteristics after annealing were characterized spectroscopically, including ultrasensitive photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), photoluminescence and photo-electrochemical methods. The comprehensive experimental analysis reveals that annealing alters both the bandgap and the sub-bandgap. The defect concentration and the density of surface traps in the ZnO nanostructures are suppressed upon annealing as deduced from photoluminescence and open-circuit voltage decay analysis. The photo-electrochemical investigations reveal that the surface traps dominate the near conduction band edge of ZnO and, hence, lead to high recombination rates when used in DSSCs. The density of bulk traps in ZnO SPs is higher than that in ZnO NFs and ZnO NRs and promote lower recombination loss between photoinjected electrons with the electrolyte-oxidized species on the surface. The highest power conversion efficiency of ZnO NFs-, ZnO SPs-, and ZnO NRs-based DSSC obtained in our system is 2.0, 4.5, and 1.8%, respectively.

  7. Seedless-grown of ZnO thin films for photoelectrochemical water splitting application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Aidahani; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul; Chiu, W. S.

    2018-04-01

    We developed a seedless hydrothermal method to grow a flower like ZnO nanorods. Prior to the growth, a layer of Au thin film is sputtered onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. The morphological, structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and diffuse reflection measurement to understand the growth process of the working thin film. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) results suggest that the deposition of ZnO nanorods on Au nanoparticles plays an important role in enhancing the photoelectrode activity. H2 evolution from photo-splitting of water over Au-incorporated ZnO in the 0.1M NaOH liquid system was enhanced, compared to that over bare ZnO; particularly, the production of 15.5 µL of H2 gas after twenty five minutes exposure of ZnO grown on Au-coated thin film.

  8. Zinc oxide nano-rods based glucose biosensor devices fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, H. A.; Salama, A. A.; El Saeid, A. A.; Willander, M.; Nur, O.; Battisha, I. K.

    2018-06-01

    ZnO is distinguished multifunctional material that has wide applications in biochemical sensor devices. For extracellular measurements, Zinc oxide nano-rods will be deposited on conducting plastic substrate with annealing temperature 150 °C (ZNRP150) and silver wire with annealing temperature 250 °C (ZNRW250), for the extracellular glucose concentration determination with functionalized ZNR-coated biosensors. It was performed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) over the range from 1 μM to 10 mM and on human blood plasma. The prepared samples crystal structure and surface morphologies were characterized by XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope FESEM respectively.

  9. Differential effect of hydroxyapatite nano-particle versus nano-rod decorated titanium micro-surface on osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Bai, Long; Liu, Yanlian; Du, Zhibin; Weng, Zeming; Yao, Wei; Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Yao, Xiaohong; Crawford, Ross; Hang, Ruiqiang; Huang, Di; Tang, Bin; Xiao, Yin

    2018-06-15

    Coating materials applied for intraosseous implants must be optimized to stimulate osseointegration. Osseointegration is a temporal and spatial physiological process that not only requires interactions between osteogenesis and angiogenesis but also necessitates a favorable immune microenvironment. It is now well-documented that hierarchical nano-micro surface structures promote the long-term stability of implants, the interactions between nano-micro structure and the immune response are largely unknown. Here, we report the effects of microporous titanium (Ti) surfaces coated with nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) produced by micro-arc oxidation and steam-hydrothermal treatment (SHT) on multiple cell behavior and osseointegration. By altering the processing time of SHT it was possible to shift HA structures from nano-particles to nano-rods on the microporous Ti surfaces. Ti surfaces coated with HA nano-particles were found to modulate the inflammatory response resulting in an osteoimmune microenvironment more favorable for osteo-/angio-genesis, most likely via the activation of certain key signaling pathways (TGF-β, OPG/RANKL, and VEGF). By contrast, Ti surfaces coated with nano-rod shaped HA particles had a negative impact on osteo-/angio-genesis and osteoimmunomodulation. In vivo results further demonstrated that Ti implant surfaces decorated with HA nano-particles can stimulate new bone formation and osseointegration with enhanced interaction between osteocytes and implant surfaces. This study demonstrated that Ti implants with micro-surfaces coated with nano-particle shaped HA have a positive impact on osseointegration. Osteo-/angio-genesis are of importance during osteointegration of the implants. Recent advances unravel that immune response of macrophages and its manipulated osteoimmunomodulation also exerts a pivotal role to determine the fate of the implant. Surface nano-micro modification has evidenced to be efficient to influence osteogenesis, however, little is

  10. Round-patterned ZnO nanostructure coated with siloxane-based polymer for nerve agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyun Ji; Lee, Ji Won; Jeong, Dong-Cheol; Ha, Seonggyun; Song, Changsik; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2018-01-01

    The alignment of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures is expected to improve device sensitivities due to large surface areas which can be utilized to capture significant quantities of gas particles. In this study, we investigated patterned ZnO nanorods modified with polystyrene monolayers synthesized directly onto a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) cell to increase the coating surface area of the sensing material. Also, we designed and synthesized a siloxane-based polymer (S1 polymer) as a sensing material. The patterned ZnO nanorods coated with S1 polymers were fabricated and used for the detection of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The resonance frequency of QCM was shifted due to the adsorption and desorption of a compound at the surface of the modified electrodes. We have synthesized an S1 polymer that exhibited high sensitivity to DMMP. The patterned ZnO nanorods coated with the polymer also exhibited improved sensitivity due to an enhanced surface area capable of adsorbing more DMMP vapor.

  11. Spatially resolved surface-related exciton polariton dynamics in a single ZnO tetrapod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fangfang; Sun, Liaoxin; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Hailong

    2018-02-01

    The band-edge emission lifetime in a single ZnO tetrapod is studied by using the time-resolved confocal micro-photoluminescence (TR- μPL) spectroscopic technique at room temperature. By performing μPL and TR- μPL mapping along the tapered arm of tetrapod, we observe whispering gallery mode (WGM) polaritons and find that the predominant radiative lifetime of exciton polaritons decreases linearly with increasing the surface-to-volume ratio of the sample. This behavior is ascribed to the surface electric field induced enhancement of the radiative decay rate of the exciton-like polaritons coupling with LO phonons.

  12. Structural studies of ZnO nanostructures by varying the deposition parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, S. H. A.; Sahdan, M. Z.; Ichimura, M.; Supee, A.; Rahim, S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film on the growth of ZnO nanorods (NRs) was investigated. The structures of ZnO NRs were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method in aqueous solution of N2O6Zn.6H2O and C6H12N4 at 90°C of deposition temperature. One of the ZnO NRs samples was deposited on a ZnO seed layer coated on a glass substrate to investigate the properties of ZnO NRs without receiving effect of other materials. Next, for diode application, the ZnO NRs was deposited on tin monosulfide (SnS) coated on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate (SnS/ITO). The next, the ZnO structural properties were studied from surface morphology, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) spectra, and chemical composition by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), XRD and energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The growth of ZnO NRs on ZnO seed layer was investigated by ZnO seed layer condition while the growth of ZnO NRs on SnS/ITO was investigated by deposition time and deposition temperature parameters. From FESEM images, aligned ZnO NRs were obtained, and the diameters of ZnO NRs were 0.024-3.94 µm. The SnS thin film was affected by the diameter of ZnO NRs which are the ZnO NRs grow on SnS thin films has a larger diameter compared to ZnO NRs grow on ZnO seed layer. Besides that, all of ZnO peaks observed from XRD corresponding to the wurzite structure and preferentially oriented along the c-axis. In addition, EDX shows a high composition of zinc (Zn) and oxygen (O) signals, which indicated that the NRs are indeed made up of Zn and O.

  13. Effects of nanorod structure and conformation of fatty acid self-assembled layers on superhydrophobicity of zinc oxide surface.

    PubMed

    Badre, Chantal; Dubot, P; Lincot, Daniel; Pauporte, Thierry; Turmine, Mireille

    2007-12-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have been prepared from nanostructured zinc oxide layers by a treatment with fatty acid molecules. The layers are electrochemically deposited from an oxygenated aqueous zinc chloride solution. The effects of the layer's structure, from a dense film to that of a nanorod array, as well as that of the properties of the fatty acid molecules based on C18 chains are described. A contact angle (CA) as high as 167 degrees is obtained with the nanorod structure and the linear saturated molecule (stearic acid). Lower values are found with molecules having an unsaturated bond on C9, in particular with a cis conformation (140 degrees ). These results, supplemented by infrared spectroscopy, indicate an enhancement of the sensitivity to the properties of the fatty acid molecules (conformation, flexibility, saturated or not) when moving from the flat surface to the nanostructured surface. This is attributed to a specific influence of the structure of the tops of the rods and lateral wall properties on the adsorption and organization of the molecules. CA measurements show a very good stability of the surface in time if stored in an environment protected from UV radiations.

  14. Solid frustrated-Lewis-pair catalysts constructed by regulations on surface defects of porous nanorods of CeO2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sai; Huang, Zheng-Qing; Ma, Yuanyuan; Gao, Wei; Li, Jing; Cao, Fangxian; Li, Lin; Chang, Chun-Ran; Qu, Yongquan

    2017-01-01

    Identification on catalytic sites of heterogeneous catalysts at atomic level is important to understand catalytic mechanism. Surface engineering on defects of metal oxides can construct new active sites and regulate catalytic activity and selectivity. Here we outline the strategy by controlling surface defects of nanoceria to create the solid frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) metal oxide for efficient hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes. Porous nanorods of ceria (PN-CeO2) with a high concentration of surface defects construct new Lewis acidic sites by two adjacent surface Ce3+. The neighbouring surface lattice oxygen as Lewis base and constructed Lewis acid create solid FLP site due to the rigid lattice of ceria, which can easily dissociate H–H bond with low activation energy of 0.17 eV. PMID:28516952

  15. The use of silver nanorod array based surface enhanced Raman scattering sensor for food safety applications

    For the advancement of preventive strategies, it is critical to develop rapid and sensitive detection methods with nanotechnology for food safety applications. This article reports the recent development on the use of aligned silver nanorod (AgNR) arrays prepared by oblique angle deposition, as surf...

  16. Tailoring surface plasmon resonance and dipole cavity plasmon modes of scattering cross section spectra on the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod

    SciT

    Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong, E-mail: chou.fong@ubd.edu.bn; Lim, Chee Ming; Kumara, N. T. R. N.

    Tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and dipole cavity plasmon modes of the scattering cross section (SCS) spectra on the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod have been numerically investigated by using the finite element method. Various effects, such as the influence of SCS spectra under x- and y-polarizations on the surface of the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod, are discussed in detail. With the single gold-shell nanorod, one can independently tune the relative SCS spectrum width by controlling the rod length and rod diameter, and the surface scattering by varying the shell thickness and polarization direction, as well as the dipole peak energy. These behaviorsmore » are consistent with the properties of localized SPRs and offer a way to optically control and produce selected emission wavelengths from the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod. The electric field and magnetic distributions provide us a qualitative idea of the geometrical properties of the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod on plasmon resonance.« less

  17. Tailoring surface plasmon resonance and dipole cavity plasmon modes of scattering cross section spectra on the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Lim, Chee Ming; Lee, Chuanyo; Huang, Hung Ji; Lin, Chun-Ting; Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Yoong, Voo Nyuk; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2016-09-01

    Tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and dipole cavity plasmon modes of the scattering cross section (SCS) spectra on the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod have been numerically investigated by using the finite element method. Various effects, such as the influence of SCS spectra under x- and y-polarizations on the surface of the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod, are discussed in detail. With the single gold-shell nanorod, one can independently tune the relative SCS spectrum width by controlling the rod length and rod diameter, and the surface scattering by varying the shell thickness and polarization direction, as well as the dipole peak energy. These behaviors are consistent with the properties of localized SPRs and offer a way to optically control and produce selected emission wavelengths from the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod. The electric field and magnetic distributions provide us a qualitative idea of the geometrical properties of the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod on plasmon resonance.

  18. Nickel oxide decorated zinc oxide composite nanorods: Excellent catalyst for photoreduction of hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Singh, Simranjeet; Ahmed, Imtiaz; Haldar, Krishna Kanta

    2018-08-01

    In light of the growing interest and ability to search for new materials, we have synthesized Nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles decorated Zinc (ZnO) nanorods composite (NiO/ZnO) nanostructure. The NiO/ZnO heterostructure formation was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The fabricated environmental friendly NiO/ZnO composite nanostructure shows a well-defined photoreduction characteristic of hexavalent Chromium (Cr) (VI) to tri-valent Chromium (Cr) (III) under UV-light. Such an enhanced photoreduction property is attributed due to the decreased electron-hole recombination process which was proved by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, photocurrent study, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity rate of the NiO decorated ZnO nanorods was much higher than that of bare ZnO nanorods for the reduction of chromium (VI) and the rate is found to be 0.306 min -1 . These results have demonstrates that suitable surface engineering may open up new opportunities in the development of high-performance photocatalyst. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical deoxygenation of graphene oxide paper surface and facile in situ synthesis of graphene based ZnO films

    SciT

    Ding, Jijun; Wang, Minqiang, E-mail: mqwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiangyu

    2014-12-08

    In-situ sputtering ZnO films on graphene oxide (GO) paper are used to fabricate graphene based ZnO films. Crystal structure and surface chemical states are investigated. Results indicated that GO paper can be effectively deoxygenated by in-situ sputtering ZnO on them without adding any reducing agent. Based on the principle of radio frequency magnetron sputtering, we propose that during magnetron sputtering process, plasma streams contain large numbers of electrons. These electrons not only collide with argon atoms to produce secondary electrons but also they are accelerated to bombard the substrates (GO paper) resulting in effective deoxygenation of oxygen-containing functional groups. In-situmore » sputtering ZnO films on GO paper provide an approach to design graphene-semiconductor nanocomposites.« less

  20. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z{sub 1}) and nanograins by SILAR (Z{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. Themore » X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10{sup 2} Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10{sup 5} Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method.« less

  1. A new insight into the interaction of ZnO with calf thymus DNA through surface defects.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumita; Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Pramanik, Srikrishna; Devi, Parukuttyamma Sujatha; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2018-01-01

    Experimental evidences on the binding interaction of ZnO and Calf Thymus (CT) DNA using several biophysical techniques are the centre of interest of the present study. The interaction of ZnO with CT DNA has been investigated in detail by absorption spectral study, fluorescence titration, Raman analysis, zeta potential measurement, viscometric experiment along with thermal melting study and microscopic analysis. Steady-state fluorescence study revealed the quenching (48%) of the surface defect related peak intensity of ZnO on interaction with DNA. The optimized concentration of ZnO and DNA to obtain this level of quenching has been found to be 0.049mM and 1.027μM, respectively. Additional fluorescence study with 8-hydroxy-5-quinoline (HQ) as a fluorescence probe for Zn 2+ ruled out the dissolution effect of ZnO under the experimental conditions. DNA conjugation on the surface of ZnO was also supported by Raman study. The quantitative variation in conductivity as well as electrophoretic mobility indicated significant interaction of ZnO with the DNA molecule. Circular dichroism (CD) and viscometry titrations provided clear evidence in support of the conformational retention of the DNA on interaction with ZnO. The binding interaction was found to be predominantly entropy driven in nature. The bio-physical studies presented in this paper exploring ZnO-CT DNA interaction could add a new horizon to understand the interaction between metal oxide and DNA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Velocity surface measurements for ZnO films over /001/-cut GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yoonkee; Hunt, William D.; Liu, Yongsheng; Jen, Cheng-Kuei

    1994-01-01

    A potential application for a piezoelectic film deposited on a GaAs substrate is the monolithic integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with GaAs electronics. Knowledge of the SAW properties of the filmed structure is critical for the optimum design of such devices. In this article, the measurements of the velocity surface, which directly affects the SAW diffraction, on the bare and metallized ZnO/SiO2 or Si3N4/GaAs /001/-cut samples are reported using two different techniques: (1) knife-edge laser probe, (2) line-focus-beam scanning acoustic microscope. Comparisons, such as measurement accuracy and tradeoffs, between the former (dry) and the latter (wet) method are given. It is found that near the group of zone axes (110) propagation direction the autocollimating SAW property of the bare GaAs changes into a noncollimating one for the layered structure, but a reversed phenomenon exists near the group of zone axes (100) direction. The passivation layer of SiO2 or Si3N4 (less than 0.2 micrometer thick) and the metallization layer change the relative velocity but do not significantly affect the velocity surface. On the other hand, the passivation layer reduces the propagation loss by 0.5-1.3 dB/microseconds at 240 MHz depending upon the ZnO film thickness. Our SAW propagation measurements agree well with theorectical calculations. We have also obtained the anisotropy factors for samples with ZnO films of 1.6, 2.8, and 4.0 micrometer thickness. Comparisons concerning the piezoelectric coupling and acoustic loss between dc triode and rf magnetron sputtered ZnO films are provided.

  3. Robust superhydrophobic needle-like nanostructured ZnO surfaces prepared without post chemical-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velayi, Elmira; Norouzbeigi, Reza

    2017-12-01

    Robust superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces with micro/nano hybrid hierarchical structures were synthesized on the stainless steel mesh by a facile single-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method without using further low surface energy materials. The Taguchi L16 experimental design was applied to evaluate the effects of reaction time, type and concentration of the additive, type of the chelating agent, and the molar ratio of the chelating agent to the initial zinc (II) ions. The prepared sample at the optimal conditions exhibited a sustainable and time-independent superhydrophobic behavior with the water contact angle (WCA) of 162.8° ± 2.5° and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of 1.8° ± 0.5°. The XRD, SEM, TEM and FTIR analyses were used to characterize the prepared samples. Surface characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated accumulation of micro/nano branched ZnO needles on the substrate with the average diameters of ∼85 nm. After 20 abrasion cycles the optimum sample indicated an excellent mechanical robustness via exposure to the pressure of 4.7 kPa. A suitable chemical resistance to the acidic and basic droplets with the pH range of 4 and 9 was observed.

  4. Bioeffects of Gold Nanorods as a Function of Aspect Ratio and Surface Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    M., Hamad-Schifferli, K . 2009, Release Mechanism of Octadecyl Rhodamine B Chloride from Au Nanorods by Ultrafast Laser Pulses. J. Phys. Chem. C 113...Endosomal Escape During Gene Transfection. Biomaterials 30: 402-208. 94. Subbarao , N.K., Parente, R.A., Szoka, F.C., Nadasdi, L., Pongracz, K ...RESPONSIBLE PERSON S. Hussain a. REPORT U b . ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U SAR 75 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code

  5. Surface nanostructuring of thin film composite membranes via grafting polymerization and incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isawi, Heba; El-Sayed, Magdi H.; Feng, Xianshe; Shawky, Hosam; Abdel Mottaleb, Mohamed S.

    2016-11-01

    A new approach for modification of polyamid thin film composite membrane PA(TFC) using synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was shown to enhance the membrane performances for reverse osmosis water desalination. First, active layer of synthesis PA(TFC) membrane was activated with an aqueous solution of free radical graft polymerization of hydrophilic methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer onto the surface of the PA(TFC) membrane resulting PMAA-g-PA(TFC). Second, the PA(TFC) membrane has been developed by incorporation of ZnO NPs into the MAA grafting solution resulting the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane. The surface properties of the synthesized nanoparticles and prepared membranes were investigated using the FTIR, XRD and SEM. Morphology studies demonstrated that ZnO NPs have been successfully incorporated into the active grafting layer over PA(TFC) composite membranes. The zinc leaching from the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was minimal, as shown by batch tests that indicated stabilization of the ZnO NPs on the membrane surfaces. Compared with the a pure PA(TFC) and PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membranes, the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was more hydrophilic, with an improved water contact angle (∼50 ± 3°) over the PMAA-g-PA(TFC) (63 ± 2.5°). The ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane showed salt rejection of 97% (of the total groundwater salinity), 99% of dissolved bivalent ions (Ca2+, SO42-and Mg2+), and 98% of mono valent ions constituents (Cl- and Na+). In addition, antifouling performance of the membranes was determined using E. coli as a potential foulant. This demonstrates that the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane can significantly improve the membrane performances and was favorable to enhance the selectivity, permeability, water flux, mechanical properties and the bio-antifouling properties of the membranes for water desalination.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Graphene oxide/Zinc oxide nanorods sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhoubza, I.; Khenfouch, M.; Achehboune, M.; Mouthudi, B.; Zorkani, I.; Jorio, A.

    2018-03-01

    Graphene-ZnO nanostructures composite materials have been used as very efficient candidates for various optoelectronic applications. Nowadays, the composite structure formation of ZnO nanostructures with graphene or graphene oxide is a novel, cost effective and efficient approach to control the morphology, surface defect states, band gap of ZnO nanocrystals. In this paper, we have prepared ZnO nanorods between two layers graphene oxide (GO/ZnO NRs/GO) via a simple hydrothermal method. Their morphology, structural and optical properties have been investigated. The obtained results of our composites GO/ZnO NRs/GO presented here showing an enhancement in the structural and optical properties. Thus may hold great promise to the development of the optoelectronic devices.

  7. Super low threshold plasmonic WGM lasing from an individual ZnO hexagonal microrod on an Au substrate for plasmon lasers.

    PubMed

    Dong, H M; Yang, Y H; Yang, G W

    2015-03-05

    We demonstrate an individual ZnO hexagonal microrod on the surface of an Au substrate which can become new sources for manufacturing miniature ZnO plasmon lasers by surface plasmon polariton coupling to whispering-gallery modes (WGMs). We also demonstrate that the rough surface of Au substrates can acquire a more satisfied enhancement of ZnO emission if the surface geometry of Au substrates is appropriate. Furthermore, we achieve high Q factor and super low threshold plasmonic WGM lasing from an individual ZnO hexagonal microrod on the surface of the Au substrate, in which Q factor can reach 5790 and threshold is 0.45 KW/cm(2) which is the lowest value reported to date for ZnO nanostructures lasing, at least 10 times smaller than that of ZnO at the nanometer. Electron transfer mechanisms are proposed to understand the physical origin of quenching and enhancement of ZnO emission on the surface of Au substrates. These investigations show that this novel coupling mode holds a great potential of ZnO hexagonal micro- and nanorods for data storage, bio-sensing, optical communications as well as all-optic integrated circuits.

  8. Facile construction of vertically aligned EuS-ZnO hybrid core shell nanorod arrays for visible light driven photocatalytic properties

    SciT

    Ranjith, K. S.; Kumar, D. Ranjith; Kumar, R. T. Rajendra, E-mail: rtrkumar@buc.edu.in

    2015-06-24

    We demonstrated the development of coupled semiconductor in the form of hybrid heterostructures for significant advancement in catalytic functional materials. In this article, we report the preparation of vertically aligned core shell ZnO-EuS nanorod photocatalyst arrays by a simple chemical solution process followed by sulfudation process. The XRD pattern confirmed formation of the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and cubic nature of the EuS. Cross sectional FESEM images show vertical rod array structure, and the size of the nanorods ranges from 80 to 120 nm. UV-Vis DRS spectra showed that the optical absorption of ZnO was significantly enhanced to the visiblemore » region by modification with EuS surfaces. TEM study confirmed that the surface of ZnO was drastically improved by the modification with EuS nanoparticle. The catalytic activity of EuS−ZnO core shell nanorod arrays were evaluated by the photodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye under visible irradiation. The results revealed that the photocatalytic activity of EuS−ZnO was much higher than that of ZnO under natural sunlight. EuS−ZnO was found to be stable and reusable without appreciable loss of catalytic activity up to four consecutive cycles.« less

  9. Gold Nanorods as Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Substrates for Rapid and Sensitive Analysis of Allura Red and Sunset Yellow in Beverages.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yiming; Wang, Xiaohui; Lai, Keqiang; Huang, Yiqun; Rasco, Barbara A; Fan, Yuxia

    2018-03-21

    Synthetic colorants in food can be a potential threat to human health. In this study, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) coupled with gold nanorods as substrates is proposed to analyze allura red and sunset yellow in beverages. The gold nanorods with different aspect ratios were synthesized, and their long-term stability, SERS activity, and the effect of the different salts on the SERS signal were investigated. The results demonstrate that gold nanorods have a satisfactory stability (stored up to 28 days). SERS coupled with gold nanorods exhibit stronger sensitivity. MgSO 4 was chosen to improve the SERS signal of sunset yellow, and no salts could enhance the SERS signal of allura red. The lowest concentration was 0.10 mg/L for both colorant standard solutions. The successful prediction results using SERS were much closer to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography for the sample in beverages. SERS combined with gold nanorods shows potential for analyzing food colorants and other food additives as a rapid, convenient, and sensitive method.

  10. Hydrophobic and Metallophobic Surfaces: Highly Stable Non-wetting Inorganic Surfaces Based on Lanthanum Phosphate Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Sasidharan; Nair, Balagopal N.; Suzuki, Takehiro; Anilkumar, Gopinathan M.; Padmanabhan, Moothetty; Hareesh, Unnikrishnan Nair S.; Warrier, Krishna G.

    2016-03-01

    Metal oxides, in general, are known to exhibit significant wettability towards water molecules because of the high feasibility of synergetic hydrogen-bonding interactions possible at the solid-water interface. Here we show that the nano sized phosphates of rare earth materials (Rare Earth Phosphates, REPs), LaPO4 in particular, exhibit without any chemical modification, unique combination of intrinsic properties including remarkable hydrophobicity that could be retained even after exposure to extreme temperatures and harsh hydrothermal conditions. Transparent nanocoatings of LaPO4 as well as mixture of other REPs on glass surfaces are shown to display notable hydrophobicity with water contact angle (WCA) value of 120° while sintered and polished monoliths manifested WCA greater than 105°. Significantly, these materials in the form of coatings and monoliths also exhibit complete non-wettability and inertness towards molten metals like Ag, Zn, and Al well above their melting points. These properties, coupled with their excellent chemical and thermal stability, ease of processing, machinability and their versatile photo-physical and emission properties, render LaPO4 and other REP ceramics utility in diverse applications.

  11. Hydrophobic and Metallophobic Surfaces: Highly Stable Non-wetting Inorganic Surfaces Based on Lanthanum Phosphate Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Sasidharan; Nair, Balagopal N; Suzuki, Takehiro; Anilkumar, Gopinathan M; Padmanabhan, Moothetty; Hareesh, Unnikrishnan Nair S; Warrier, Krishna G

    2016-03-09

    Metal oxides, in general, are known to exhibit significant wettability towards water molecules because of the high feasibility of synergetic hydrogen-bonding interactions possible at the solid-water interface. Here we show that the nano sized phosphates of rare earth materials (Rare Earth Phosphates, REPs), LaPO4 in particular, exhibit without any chemical modification, unique combination of intrinsic properties including remarkable hydrophobicity that could be retained even after exposure to extreme temperatures and harsh hydrothermal conditions. Transparent nanocoatings of LaPO4 as well as mixture of other REPs on glass surfaces are shown to display notable hydrophobicity with water contact angle (WCA) value of 120° while sintered and polished monoliths manifested WCA greater than 105°. Significantly, these materials in the form of coatings and monoliths also exhibit complete non-wettability and inertness towards molten metals like Ag, Zn, and Al well above their melting points. These properties, coupled with their excellent chemical and thermal stability, ease of processing, machinability and their versatile photo-physical and emission properties, render LaPO4 and other REP ceramics utility in diverse applications.

  12. Hydrophobic and Metallophobic Surfaces: Highly Stable Non-wetting Inorganic Surfaces Based on Lanthanum Phosphate Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Sasidharan; Nair, Balagopal N.; Suzuki, Takehiro; Anilkumar, Gopinathan M.; Padmanabhan, Moothetty; Hareesh, Unnikrishnan Nair S.; Warrier, Krishna G.

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides, in general, are known to exhibit significant wettability towards water molecules because of the high feasibility of synergetic hydrogen-bonding interactions possible at the solid-water interface. Here we show that the nano sized phosphates of rare earth materials (Rare Earth Phosphates, REPs), LaPO4 in particular, exhibit without any chemical modification, unique combination of intrinsic properties including remarkable hydrophobicity that could be retained even after exposure to extreme temperatures and harsh hydrothermal conditions. Transparent nanocoatings of LaPO4 as well as mixture of other REPs on glass surfaces are shown to display notable hydrophobicity with water contact angle (WCA) value of 120° while sintered and polished monoliths manifested WCA greater than 105°. Significantly, these materials in the form of coatings and monoliths also exhibit complete non-wettability and inertness towards molten metals like Ag, Zn, and Al well above their melting points. These properties, coupled with their excellent chemical and thermal stability, ease of processing, machinability and their versatile photo-physical and emission properties, render LaPO4 and other REP ceramics utility in diverse applications. PMID:26955962

  13. Preparation of narrow dispersity gold nanorods by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation and investigation of surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Runyon, J Ray; Goering, Adam; Yong, Ken-Tye; Williams, S Kim Ratanathanawongs

    2013-01-15

    The development of an asymmetrical field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) method for separating gold nanorods (GNR) is reported. Collected fractions containing GNR subpopulations with aspect ratios, sizes, and shapes which are more narrowly dispersed than the original population were further characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This ability to obtain different sizes and shapes of nanoparticles enabled the evaluation of a new approach to estimating the retention time and hydrodynamic size of nanorods and the investigation of GNR optical properties at a previously unattainable level of detail. Experimental results demonstrate that the longitudinal surface plasmon absorption maximum of GNRs is correlated with the effective particle radius in addition to the aspect ratio. This may account for some of the variabilities reported in published empirical data from different research groups and supports reports of simulated absorption spectra of GNRs of different physical dimensions. The use of AsFlFFF with dual UV-vis detection to rapidly assess relative changes in GNR subpopulations was demonstrated for irregularly shaped gold nanoparticles formed at different synthesis temperatures.

  14. Surface plasmon optical sensor with enhanced sensitivity using top ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ming; Li, Ge; Jiang, Dongmei; Cheng, Wenjuan; Ma, Xueming

    2012-05-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is one of the most sensitive label-free detection methods and has been used in a wide range of chemical and biochemical sensing. Upon using a 200 nm top layer of dielectric film with a high value of the real part ɛ' of the dielectric function, on top of an SPR sensor in the Kretschmann configuration, the sensitivity is improved. The refractive index effect of dielectric film on sensitivity is usually ignored. Dielectric films with different refractive indices were prepared by radio frequency magnetron (RF) sputtering and measured with spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The imaginary part ɛ'' of the top nanolayer permittivity needs to be small enough in order to reduce the losses and get sharper dips. The stability of the sensor is also improved because the nanolayer is protecting the Ag film from interacting with the environment. The response curves of the Ag/ZnO chips were obtained by using SPR sensor. Theoretical analysis of the sensitivity of the SPR sensors with different ZnO film refractive indices is presented and studied. Both experimental and simulation results show that the Ag/ZnO films exhibit an enhanced SPR over the pure Ag film with a narrower full width at half maximum (FWHM). It shows that the top ZnO layer is effective in enhancing the surface plasmon resonance and thus its sensitivity.

  15. Self-assembled vertically aligned Au nanorod arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of Cannabinol.

    PubMed

    Milliken, Sarah; Fraser, Jeff; Poirier, Shawn; Hulse, John; Tay, Li-Lin

    2018-05-05

    Self-assembled multi-layered vertically aligned gold nanorod (AuNR) arrays have been fabricated by a simple preparation process that requires a balance between the particle concentration and the ionic strength of the solvent. An experimentally determined critical AuNR concentration of 2.0nM and 50mM NaCl produces well-ordered vertically aligned hexagonally close-packed AuNR arrays. We demonstrate surface treatment via UV Ozone cleaning of such samples to allow introduction of analyte molecules (benzenethiol and cannabinol) for effective surface enhanced Raman scattering detection. This is the first demonstration of the SERS analysis of cannabinol. This approach demonstrates a cost-effective, high-yield and simple fabrication route to SERS sensors with application in the screening for the cannabinoids. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. High sensitive detection of copper II ions using D-penicillamine-coated gold nanorods based on localized surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yoochan; Jo, Seongjae; Park, Joohyung; Park, Jinsung; Yang, Jaemoon

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a nanoplasmonic biosensor based on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect that enables a sensitive and selective recognition of copper II ions. First, we fabricated the nanoplasmonics as LSPR substrates using gold nanorods (GNR) and the nano-adsorption method. The LSPR sensitivity of the nanoplasmonics was evaluated using various solvents with different refractive indexes. Subsequently, D-penicillamine (DPA)—a chelating agent of copper II ions—was conjugated to the surface of the GNR. The limit of detection (LOD) for the DPA-conjugated nanoplasmonics was 100 pM. Furthermore, selectivity tests were conducted using various divalent cations, and sensitivity tests were conducted on the nanoplasmonics under blood-like environments. Finally, the developed nanoplasmonic biosensor based on GNR shows great potential for the effective recognition of copper II ions, even in human blood conditions.

  17. Self-assembled vertically aligned Au nanorod arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of Cannabinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, Sarah; Fraser, Jeff; Poirier, Shawn; Hulse, John; Tay, Li-Lin

    2018-05-01

    Self-assembled multi-layered vertically aligned gold nanorod (AuNR) arrays have been fabricated by a simple preparation process that requires a balance between the particle concentration and the ionic strength of the solvent. An experimentally determined critical AuNR concentration of 2.0 nM and 50 mM NaCl produces well-ordered vertically aligned hexagonally close-packed AuNR arrays. We demonstrate surface treatment via UV Ozone cleaning of such samples to allow introduction of analyte molecules (benzenethiol and cannabinol) for effective surface enhanced Raman scattering detection. This is the first demonstration of the SERS analysis of cannabinol. This approach demonstrates a cost-effective, high-yield and simple fabrication route to SERS sensors with application in the screening for the cannabinoids.

  18. High sensitive detection of copper II ions using D-penicillamine-coated gold nanorods based on localized surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yoochan; Jo, Seongjae; Park, Joohyung; Park, Jinsung; Yang, Jaemoon

    2018-05-25

    In this paper, we describe the development of a nanoplasmonic biosensor based on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect that enables a sensitive and selective recognition of copper II ions. First, we fabricated the nanoplasmonics as LSPR substrates using gold nanorods (GNR) and the nano-adsorption method. The LSPR sensitivity of the nanoplasmonics was evaluated using various solvents with different refractive indexes. Subsequently, D-penicillamine (DPA)-a chelating agent of copper II ions-was conjugated to the surface of the GNR. The limit of detection (LOD) for the DPA-conjugated nanoplasmonics was 100 pM. Furthermore, selectivity tests were conducted using various divalent cations, and sensitivity tests were conducted on the nanoplasmonics under blood-like environments. Finally, the developed nanoplasmonic biosensor based on GNR shows great potential for the effective recognition of copper II ions, even in human blood conditions.

  19. Ultra-strong surface plasmon amplification characteristic of a spaser based on gold-silver core-shell nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Haopeng; Jiang, Tao; Lou, Cibo

    2015-03-01

    We proposed an efficient spaser based on gold-silver core-shell nanorods (NRs) encapsulated by an outer silica shell doped with a gain medium. The optical characteristics of the spaser were numerically simulated based on the finite element method (FEM). The results showed that the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) amplification characteristics of the spaser strongly depend on the thickness of silver shell, the aspect ratio of the inner gold NRs, and the polarization direction of the incident light. And, the maximum absolute value of optical cross-section of the spaser can reach 21,824 μm2, which is about 1115, 523, and 18 times higher than that of spasers based on the gold NRs, the silver NRs, and the silver-gold core-shell NRs, respectively. The ultra-strong surface plasmon amplification characteristics of the spaser have potential applications in optical information storage, high sensitivity biochemical sensing, and medical engineering.

  20. Facet control of gold nanorods

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Qingfeng; Han, Lili; Jing, Hao; ...

    2016-01-21

    While great success has been achieved in fine-tuning the aspect ratios and thereby the plasmon resonances of cylindrical Au nanorods, facet control with atomic level precision on the highly curved nanorod surfaces has long been a significantly more challenging task. The intrinsic structural complexity and lack of precise facet control of the nanorod surfaces remain the major obstacles for the atomic-level elucidation of the structure–property relationships that underpin the intriguing catalytic performance of Au nanorods. Here we demonstrate that the facets of single-crystalline Au nanorods can be precisely tailored using cuprous ions and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a unique pair ofmore » surface capping competitors to guide the particle geometry evolution during nanorod overgrowth. By deliberately maneuvering the competition between cuprous ions and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, we have been able to create, in a highly controllable and selective manner, an entire family of nanorod-derived anisotropic multifaceted geometries whose surfaces are enclosed by specific types of well-defined high-index and low-index facets. This facet-controlled nanorod overgrowth approach also allows us to fine-tune the particle aspect ratios while well-preserving all the characteristic facets and geometric features of the faceted Au nanorods. Furthermore, taking full advantage of the combined structural and plasmonic tunability, we have further studied the facet-dependent heterogeneous catalysis on well-faceted Au nanorods using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy as an ultrasensitive spectroscopic tool with unique time-resolving and molecular finger-printing capabilities.« less

  1. Role of ZnO photoanode nanostructures and sensitizer deposition approaches on the photovoltaic properties of CdS/CdSe and CdS1-xSex quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şişman, İlkay; Tekir, Oktay; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-02-01

    Hierarchical bundle-like ZnO nanorod arrays (BNRs) were synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal method based on two consecutive temperature steps for cascade CdS/CdSe and ternary CdS1-xSex alloy quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) as photoanode. The CdS/CdSe and CdS1-xSex QDs were deposited on the surface of the ZnO BNRs by conventional and modified successive ionic-layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods, respectively. Using the ZnO BNRs/CdS/CdSe photoanode, the power conversion efficiency reaches 2.08%, which is 1.8 times higher than that of pristine ZnO nanorods/CdS/CdSe photoanode, while by applying ZnO BNRs/CdS1-xSex, the power conversion efficiency improves 2.52%. The remarkably improved photovoltaic performance is mainly derived from the bundle-like nanorod arrays structure, which increases the QDs loading amount and the scattering effect for light absorption, and the appropriate conduction band energy, sufficient Se amount and well coverage of the ternary CdS1-xSex QDs result in enhanced photogenerated electron injection, high light absorption and reduced recombination, respectively. As a result, ZnO BNRs/CdS1-xSex combination can significantly improve performance of QDSSCs.

  2. Ultrathin SnO2 nanorods: template- and surfactant-free solution phase synthesis, growth mechanism, optical, gas-sensing, and surface adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Xi, Guangcheng; Ye, Jinhua

    2010-03-01

    A novel template- and surfactant-free low temperature solution-phase method has been successfully developed for the controlled synthesis of ultrathin SnO(2) single-crystalline nanorods for the first time. The ultrathin SnO(2) single-crystalline nanorods are 2.0 +/- 0.5 nm in diameter, which is smaller than its exciton Bohr radius. The ultrathin SnO(2) nanorods show a high specific area (191.5 m(2) g(-1)). Such a thin SnO(2) single-crystalline nanorod is new in the family of SnO(2) nanostrucures and presents a strong quantum confinement effect. Its formation depends on the reaction temperature as well as on the concentration of the urea solution. A nonclassical crystallization process, Ostwald ripening process followed by an oriented attachment mechanism, is proposed based on the detailed observations from a time-dependent crystal evolution process. Importantly, such structured SnO(2) has shown a strong structure-induced enhancement of gas-sensing properties and has exhibited greatly enhanced gas-sensing property for the detection of ethanol than that of other structured SnO(2), such as the powders of nanobelts and microrods. Moreover, these ultrathin SnO(2) nanorods exhibit excellent ability to remove organic pollutant in wastewater by enormous surface adsorption. These properties are mainly attributed to its higher surface-to-volume ratio and ultrathin diameter. This work provides a novel low temperature, green, and inexpensive pathway to the synthesis of ultrathin nanorods, offering a new material form for sensors, solar cells, catalysts, water treatments, and other applications.

  3. Influence of the Interaction Between Graphite and Polar Surfaces of ZnO on the Formation of Schottky Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, R.; Grym, J.

    2018-03-01

    We show that the interaction between graphite and polar surfaces of ZnO affects electrical properties of graphite/ZnO Schottky junctions. A strong interaction of the Zn-face with the graphite contact causes interface imperfections and results in the formation of laterally inhomogeneous Schottky contacts. On the contrary, high quality Schottky junctions form on the O-face, where the interaction is significantly weaker. Charge transport through the O-face ZnO/graphite junctions is well described by the thermionic emission model in both forward and reverse directions. We further demonstrate that the parameters of the graphite/ZnO Schottky diodes can be significantly improved when a thin layer of ZnO2 forms at the interface between graphite and ZnO after hydrogen peroxide surface treatment.

  4. Passivation of surface states in the ZnO nanowire with thermally evaporated copper phthalocyanine for hybrid photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Ding, Huaiyi; Wu, Yukun; Sui, Mengqiao; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Su, Wenming; Cui, Zheng; Chen, Liwei

    2013-05-21

    The adsorption of O2/H2O molecules on the ZnO nanowire (NW) surface results in the long lifetime of photo-generated carriers and thus benefits ZnO NW-based ultraviolet photodetectors by suppressing the dark current and improving the photocurrent gain, but the slow adsorption process also leads to slow detector response time. Here we show that a thermally evaporated copper phthalocyanine film is effective in passivating surface trap states of ZnO NWs. As a result, the organic/inorganic hybrid photodetector devices exhibit simultaneously improved photosensitivity and response time. This work suggests that it could be an effective way in interfacial passivation using organic/inorganic hybrid structures.

  5. Growth and characterization of ZnO multipods on functional surfaces with different sizes and shapes of Ag particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Kamalianfar; S, A. Halim; Mahmoud Godarz, Naseri; M, Navasery; Fasih, Ud Din; J, A. M. Zahedi; Kasra, Behzad; K, P. Lim; A Lavari, Monghadam; S, K. Chen

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional ZnO multipods are successfully synthesized on functional substrates using the vapor transport method in a quartz tube. The functional surfaces, which include two different distributions of Ag nanoparticles and a layer of commercial Ag nanowires, are coated onto silicon substrates before the growth of ZnO nanostructures. The structures and morphologies of the ZnO/Ag heterostructures are investigated using X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The sizes and shapes of the Ag particles affect the growth rates and initial nucleations of the ZnO structures, resulting in different numbers and shapes of multipods. They also influence the orientation and growth quality of the rods. The optical properties are studied by photoluminescence, UV-vis, and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the surface plasmon resonance strongly depends on the sizes and shapes of the Ag particles.

  6. Inhibition of Photocatalytic Activity of Basic Blue-41 by ZnO Modified Surface with Amino Silane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limsapapkasiphon, S.; Sirisaksoontorn, W.; Songsasen, A.

    2018-03-01

    The reduction of the photo catalytic efficiency of ZnO can be achieved by modifying its surface with amino silane, which synthesized through condensation reaction under basic condition. The pH of solution was varied from 8 to 14 during the synthesis and was found that pH 12 was the most suitable pH for the preparation. All of ZMAS were characterized by Elemental Analysis which showed the highest percentage of nitrogen at 3.1064% and IR technique which indicated the Si-O-Zn bond at about 1000 cm-1. The photodegradation property of ZMAS prepared at pH 8-12 toward basic blue 41 was retarded when compared with the unmodified ZnO. Effect of mole ratio of ZnO:APTES (1:0.1, 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2) in the preparation of ZMAS was investigated. The photodegration activity of ZMAS prepared at mole ratio of ZnO:APTES as 1:0.5 to 1:2 toward basic blue 41 was retarded when compared with the unmodified ZnO. The coating of amino silane on ZnO surface did not have much effect on the band gap energy of modified ZnO. The absorption edge of ZMAS was only slightly shifted from 392 to 397 nm.

  7. Large enhancement of UV luminescence emission of ZnO nanoparticles by coupling excitons with Ag surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiri, Probodh K.; Pramanik, Subhamay

    2018-04-01

    For an emitter based on bandgap emission, defect mediated emission has always been considered as the most important loss. Here, a novel approach which can overcome such emission loss is proposed using films of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) on Ag NPs embedded in silica. The effects of the size of Ag NPs on the enhancement of ultra-violet (UV) photoluminescence (PL) of ZnO NPs for such a system have been studied. For the ZnO NPs without Ag NPs, two emission bands have been seen: one in the UV region and the other one in the visible region. This UV PL emission intensity has been seen to increase significantly with a drastic reduction of the visible PL emission intensity in the case of the sample containing ZnO NPs on silica embedded Ag NPs. A linear increase in UV emission with increase in the size of Ag NPs has been found. For the largest size of Ag NPs (˜10 nm, considered in the present study), the PL emission enhancement becomes about 4 times higher than that of sample without Ag NPs. The observed enhancement of the UV PL emission was caused by coupling between spontaneous emission in ZnO and surface plasmons of Ag. The larger Ag NPs provided a larger scattering cross section in coupling surface plasmons to light leading to an increase in UV emission. Thus, it is possible to convert the useless defect emission to the useful excitonic emission with a large enhancement factor.

  8. Influence of Atomic Hydrogen, Band Bending, and Defects in the Top Few Nanometers of Hydrothermally Prepared Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saadi, Mubarak J.; Al-Harthi, Salim H.; Kyaw, Htet H.; Myint, Myo T. Z.; Bora, Tanujjal; Laxman, Karthik; Al-Hinai, Ashraf; Dutta, Joydeep

    2017-01-01

    We report on the surface, sub-surface (top few nanometers) and bulk properties of hydrothermally grown zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) prior to and after hydrogen treatment. Upon treating with atomic hydrogen (H*), upward and downward band bending is observed depending on the availability of molecular H2O within the structure of the NRs. In the absence of H2O, the H* treatment demonstrated a cleaning effect of the nanorods, leading to a 0.51 eV upward band bending. In addition, enhancement in the intensity of room temperature photoluminescence (PL) signals due to the creation of new surface defects could be observed. The defects enhanced the visible light activity of the ZnO NRs which were subsequently used to photocatalytically degrade aqueous phenol under simulated sunlight. On the contrary, in the presence of H2O, H* treatment created an electronic accumulation layer inducing downward band bending of 0.45 eV ( 1/7th of the bulk ZnO band gap) along with the weakening of the defect signals as observed from room temperature photoluminescence spectra. The results suggest a plausible way of tailoring the band bending and defects of the ZnO NRs through control of H2O/H* species.

  9. Preparation of thin hexagonal highly-ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template onto silicon substrate and growth ZnO nanorod arrays by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahrour, Khaled M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hashim, M. R.; Elfadill, Nezar G.; Qaeed, M. A.; Bououdina, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates of Aluminum thin films onto Ti-coated silicon substrates were prepared for growth of nanostructure materials. Hexagonally highly ordered thin AAO templates were fabricated under controllable conditions by using a two-step anodization. The obtained thin AAO templates were approximately 70 nm in pore diameter and 250 nm in length with 110 nm interpore distances within an area of 3 cm2. The difference between first and second anodization was investigated in details by in situ monitoring of current-time curve. A bottom barrier layer of the AAO templates was removed during dropping the voltage in the last period of the anodization process followed by a wet etching using phosphoric acid (5 wt%) for several minutes at ambient temperature. As an application, Zn nanorod arrays embedded in anodic alumina (AAO) template were fabricated by electrodeposition. Oxygen was used to oxidize the electrodeposited Zn nanorods in the AAO template at 700 °C. The morphology, structure and photoluminescence properties of ZnO/AAO assembly were analyzed using Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL).

  10. Chelator free gallium-68 radiolabelling of silica coated iron oxide nanorods via surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Benjamin P.; Baghdadi, Neazar; Kownacka, Alicja E.; Nigam, Shubhanchi; Clemente, Gonçalo S.; Al-Yassiry, Mustafa M.; Domarkas, Juozas; Lorch, Mark; Pickles, Martin; Gibbs, Peter; Tripier, Raphaël; Cawthorne, Christopher; Archibald, Stephen J.

    2015-09-01

    The commercial availability of combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/positron emission tomography (PET) scanners for clinical use has increased demand for easily prepared agents which offer signal or contrast in both modalities. Herein we describe a new class of silica coated iron-oxide nanorods (NRs) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and/or a tetraazamacrocyclic chelator (DO3A). Studies of the coated NRs validate their composition and confirm their properties as in vivo T2 MRI contrast agents. Radiolabelling studies with the positron emitting radioisotope gallium-68 (t1/2 = 68 min) demonstrate that, in the presence of the silica coating, the macrocyclic chelator was not required for preparation of highly stable radiometal-NR constructs. In vivo PET-CT and MR imaging studies show the expected high liver uptake of gallium-68 radiolabelled nanorods with no significant release of gallium-68 metal ions, validating our innovation to provide a novel simple method for labelling of iron oxide NRs with a radiometal in the absence of a chelating unit that can be used for high sensitivity liver imaging.The commercial availability of combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/positron emission tomography (PET) scanners for clinical use has increased demand for easily prepared agents which offer signal or contrast in both modalities. Herein we describe a new class of silica coated iron-oxide nanorods (NRs) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and/or a tetraazamacrocyclic chelator (DO3A). Studies of the coated NRs validate their composition and confirm their properties as in vivo T2 MRI contrast agents. Radiolabelling studies with the positron emitting radioisotope gallium-68 (t1/2 = 68 min) demonstrate that, in the presence of the silica coating, the macrocyclic chelator was not required for preparation of highly stable radiometal-NR constructs. In vivo PET-CT and MR imaging studies show the expected high liver uptake of gallium-68 radiolabelled nanorods with no

  11. Effect of angle of deposition on the Fractal properties of ZnO thin film surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. P.; Agarwal, D. C.; Kumar, Manvendra; Rajput, Parasmani; Tomar, D. S.; Pandey, S. N.; Priya, P. K.; Mittal, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared by atom beam sputtering at various deposition angles in the range of 20-75°. The deposited thin films were examined by glancing angle X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scaling law analysis was performed on AFM images to show that the thin film surfaces are self-affine. Fractal dimension of each of the 256 vertical sections along the fast scan direction of a discretized surface, obtained from the AFM height data, was estimated using the Higuchi's algorithm. Hurst exponent was computed from the fractal dimension. The grain sizes, as determined by applying self-correlation function on AFM micrographs, varied with the deposition angle in the same manner as the Hurst exponent.

  12. Surface structure, optoelectronic properties and charge transport in ZnO nanocrystal/MDMO-PPV multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Lian, Qing; Chen, Mu; Mokhtar, Muhamad Z; Wu, Shanglin; Zhu, Mingning; Whittaker, Eric; O'Brien, Paul; Saunders, Brian R

    2018-05-07

    Blends of semiconducting nanocrystals and conjugated polymers continue to attract major research interest because of their potential applications in optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, photodetectors and light-emitting diodes. In this study we investigate the surface structure, morphological and optoelectronic properties of multilayer films constructed from ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) and poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV). The effects of layer number and ZnO concentration (C ZnO ) used on the multilayer film properties are investigated. An optimised solvent blend enabled well-controlled layers to be sequentially spin coated and the construction of multilayer films containing six ZnO NC (Z) and MDMO-PPV (M) layers (denoted as (ZM) 6 ). Contact angle data showed a strong dependence on C ZnO and indicated distinct differences in the coverage of MDMO-PPV by the ZnO NCs. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that the MDMO-PPV absorption increased linearly with the number of layers in the films and demonstrates highly tuneable light absorption. Photoluminescence spectra showed reversible quenching as well as a surprising red-shift of the MDMO-PPV emission peak. Solar cells were constructed to probe vertical photo-generated charge transport. The measurements showed that (ZM) 6 devices prepared using C ZnO = 14.0 mg mL -1 had a remarkably high open circuit voltage of ∼800 mV. The device power conversion efficiency was similar to that of a control bilayer device prepared using a much thicker MDMO-PPV layer. The results of this study provide insight into the structure-optoelectronic property relationships of new semiconducting multilayer films which should also apply to other semiconducting NC/polymer combinations.

  13. Improvement in the luminous efficiency of MEH-PPV based light emitting diodes using zinc oxide nanorods grown by the electrochemical deposition technique on ITO substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rohini B.; Kumar, Jitender; Madhwal, Devinder; Singh, Inderpreet; Kaur, I.; Bhardwaj, L. M.; Nagpal, S.; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C.

    2011-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown by the electrochemical technique have been used to enhance the luminance of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV)-based polymer light-emitting diodes. The luminance of the device with ZnO nanorods is found to increase by more than two times as compared with the device without ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods used in device fabrication was ~145 nm. The size of the nanorods was estimated from field emission scanning electron microscope images. Optical and structural characterizations of the nanorods were also performed by using absorption, photoluminescence and x-ray diffraction, confirming the formation of ZnO nanorods.

  14. Tailoring the optical and hydrophobic property of zinc oxide nanorod by coating with amorphous graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahari, D.; Das, N. S.; Das, B.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Banerjee, D.

    2016-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized at room temperature on potassium permanganate activated silicon and glass substrate by simple chemical method using zinc acetate as precursor. To modify the surface energy of the as prepared ZnO thin films the samples were coated with amorphous graphene (a-G) synthesized by un-zipping of chemically synthesized amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs). All the pure and coated samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The roughness analysis of the as prepared samples was done by atomic force microscopic analysis. The detail optical properties of all the samples were studied with the help of a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The surface energy of the as prepared pure and coated samples was calculated by measuring the contact angle of two different liquids. It is seen that the water repellence of ZnO nanorods got increased after they are being coated with a-Gs. Also even after UV irradiation the contact angle remain same unlike the case for the uncoated sample where the contact angle gets decreased significantly after UV irradiation. Existing Cassie-Wenzel model has been employed along with the Owen's approach to determine the different components of surface energy.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations and photoluminescence measurements of annealed ZnO surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Tjun Kit; Yoon, Tiem Leong; Ling, Chuo Ann; Mahmud, Shahrom; Lim, Thong Leng; Saw, Kim Guan

    2017-06-01

    The effect of thermal annealing on wurtzite ZnO, terminated by two surfaces, (000 1 bar) (which is oxygen-terminated) and (0 0 0 1) (which is Zn-terminated), is investigated via molecular dynamics simulation using reactive force field (ReaxFF). As a result of annealing at a threshold temperature range of 700 K surface oxygen atoms begin to sublimate from the (000 1 bar) surface, while no atom leaves the (0 0 0 1) surface. The ratio of oxygen leaving the surface increases with temperature T (for T ≥Tt). The relative luminescence intensity of the secondary peak in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, interpreted as a measurement of amount of vacancies on the sample surfaces, qualitatively agrees with the threshold behavior as found in the MD simulations. Our simulations have also revealed the formation of oxygen dimers on the surface and evolution of partial charge distribution during the annealing process. Our MD simulation based on the ReaxFF is consistent with experimental observations.

  16. Absolute surface energy calculations of Wurtzite (0001)/(000-1): a study of ZnO and GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingzhao; Zhang, Yiou; Tse, Kinfai; Deng, Bei; Xu, Hu; Zhu, Junyi

    The accurate absolute surface energies of (0001)/(000-1) surfaces of wurtzite structures are crucial in determining the thin film growth mode of important energy materials. However, the surface energies still remain to be solved due to the intrinsic difficulty of calculating dangling bond energy of asymmetrically bonded surface atoms. We used a pseudo-hydrogen passivation method to estimate the dangling bond energy and calculate the polar surfaces of ZnO and GaN. The calculations were based on the pseudo chemical potentials obtained from a set of tetrahedral clusters or simple pseudo-molecules, using density functional theory approaches, for both GGA and HSE. And the surface energies of (0001)/(000-1) surfaces of wurtzite ZnO and GaN we obtained showed relatively high self-consistencies. A wedge structure calculation with a new bottom surface passivation scheme of group I and group VII elements was also proposed and performed to show converged absolute surface energy of wurtzite ZnO polar surfaces. Part of the computing resources was provided by the High Performance Cluster Computing Centre, Hong Kong Baptist University. This work was supported by the start-up funding and direct Grant with the Project code of 4053134 at CUHK.

  17. Ultra-thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on silver nanorod array substrates prepared by oblique angle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Abell, Justin; Huang, Yao-wen; Zhao, Yiping

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate the potential use of silver nanorod (AgNR) array substrates for on-chip separation and detection of chemical mixtures by ultra-thin layer chromatography (UTLC) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The capability of the AgNR substrates to separate different compounds in a mixture was explored using a mixture of the food colorant Brilliant Blue FCF and lactic acid, and the mixtures of Methylene Violet and BSA at various concentrations. After the UTLC process, spatially-resolved SERS spectra were collected along the mobile phase development direction and the intensities of specific SERS peaks from each component were used to generate chromatograms. The AgNR substrates demonstrate the capability of separating Brilliant Blue from lactic acid, as well as revealing the SERS signal of Methylene Violet from the massive BSA background after a simple UTLC step. This technique may have significant practical implications in actual detection of small molecules from complex food or clinical backgrounds.

  18. ZnO nanostructures directly grown on paper and bacterial cellulose substrates without any surface modification layer.

    PubMed

    Costa, Saionara V; Gonçalves, Agnaldo S; Zaguete, Maria A; Mazon, Talita; Nogueira, Ana F

    2013-09-21

    In this report, hierarchical ZnO nano- and microstructures were directly grown for the first time on a bacterial cellulose substrate and on two additional different papers by hydrothermal synthesis without any surface modification layer. Compactness and smoothness of the substrates are two important parameters that allow the growth of oriented structures.

  19. The Pine-Needle-Inspired Structure of Zinc Oxide Nanorods Grown on Electrospun Nanofibers for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Sami, Syed Kamran; Siddiqui, Saqib; Shrivastava, Sajal; Lee, Nae-Eung; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2017-12-01

    Flexible supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance and stability along with mechanical robustness have gained immense attraction due to the substantial advancements and rampant requirements of storage devices. To meet the exponentially growing demand of microsized energy storage device, a cost-effective and durable supercapacitor is mandatory to realize their practical applications. Here, in this work, the fabrication route of novel electrode materials with high flexibility and charge-storage capability is reported using the hybrid structure of 1D zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and conductive polyvinylidene fluoride-tetrafluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) electrospun nanofibers. The ZnO nanorods are conformably grown on conductive P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers to fabricate the light-weighted porous electrodes for supercapacitors. The conductive nanofibers acts as a high surface area scaffold with significant electrochemical performance, while the addition of ZnO nanorods further enhances the specific capacitance by 59%. The symmetric cell with the fabricated electrodes presents high areal capacitance of 1.22 mF cm -2 at a current density of 0.1 mA cm -2 with a power density of more than 1600 W kg -1 . Furthermore, these electrodes show outstanding flexibility and high stability with 96% and 78% retention in specific capacitance after 1000 and 5000 cycles, respectively. The notable mechanical durability and robustness of the cell acquire both good flexibility and high performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Hierarchical laser-induced periodic surface structures induced by femtosecond laser on the surface of a ZnO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaojun; Jiang, Lan; Han, Weina; Hu, Jie; Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Qingsong; Lu, Yongfeng

    2018-05-01

    We realize hierarchical laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) on the surface of a ZnO thin film in a single step by the irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses. The structures are characterized by the high-spatial-frequency LIPSSs (HSFLs) formed on the abnormal bumped low-spatial-frequency LIPSSs (LSFLs). Localized electric-field enhancement based on the initially formed LSFLs is proposed as a potential mechanism for the formation of HSFLs. The simulation results through the finite-difference time-domain method show good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the crucial role of the LSFLs in the formation of HSFLs is validated by an elaborate experimental design with preprocessed HSFLs.

  1. Role of bonding mechanisms during transfer hydrogenation reaction on heterogeneous catalysts of platinum nanoparticles supported on zinc oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alawi, Reem A.; Laxman, Karthik; Dastgir, Sarim; Dutta, Joydeep

    2016-07-01

    For supported heterogeneous catalysis, the interface between a metal nanoparticle and the support plays an important role. In this work the dependency of the catalytic efficiency on the bonding chemistry of platinum nanoparticles supported on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods is studied. Platinum nanoparticles were deposited on ZnO nanorods (ZnO NR) using thermal and photochemical processes and the effects on the size, distribution, density and chemical state of the metal nanoparticles upon the catalytic activities are presented. The obtained results indicate that the bonding at Pt-ZnO interface depends on the deposition scheme which can be utilized to modulate the surface chemistry and thus the activity of the supported catalysts. Additionally, uniform distribution of metal on the catalyst support was observed to be more important than the loading density. It is also found that oxidized platinum Pt(IV) (platinum hydroxide) provided a more suitable surface for enhancing the transfer hydrogenation reaction of cyclohexanone with isopropanol compared to zero valent platinum. Photochemically synthesized ZnO supported nanocatalysts were efficient and potentially viable for upscaling to industrial applications.

  2. Shape and surface chemistry effects on the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of metallic nanorods and nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Favi, Pelagie Marlene; Valencia, Mariana Morales; Elliott, Paul Robert; Restrepo, Alejandro; Gao, Ming; Huang, Hanchen; Pavon, Juan Jose; Webster, Thomas Jay

    2015-12-01

    Metallic nanoparticles (such as gold and silver) have been intensely studied for wound healing applications due to their ability to be easily functionalized, possess antibacterial properties, and their strong potential for targeted drug release. In this study, rod-shaped silver nanorods (AgNRs) and gold nanorods (AuNRs) were fabricated by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD), and their cytotoxicity toward human skin fibroblasts were assessed and compared to sphere-shaped silver nanospheres (AgNSs) and gold nanospheres (AuNSs). Results showed that the 39.94 nm AgNSs showed the greatest toxicity with fibroblast cells followed by the 61.06 nm AuNSs, ∼556 nm × 47 nm (11.8:1 aspect ratio) AgNRs, and the ∼534 nm × 65 nm (8.2:1 aspect ratio) AuNRs demonstrated the least amount of toxicity. The calculated IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) value for the AgNRs exposed to fibroblasts was greater after 4 days of exposure (387.3 μg mL(-1)) compared to the AgNSs and AuNSs (4.3 and 23.4 μg mL(-1), respectively), indicating that these spherical metallic nanoparticles displayed a greater toxicity to fibroblast cells. The IC50 value could not be measured for the AuNRs due to an incomplete dose response curve. The reduced cell toxicity with the presently developed rod-shaped nanoparticles suggests that they may be promising materials for use in numerous biomedical applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Adsorbed Molecules and Surface Treatment Effect on Optical Properties of ZnO Nanowires Grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, S.; Souissi, H.; Sallet, V.; Lusson, A.; Meftah, A.; Galtier, P.; Oueslati, M.

    2017-07-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of ZnO nanowires grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with nitrous oxide (N2O) as oxygen precursor. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman measurements showed the influence of adsorbed molecules on the optical properties. Low-temperature (4 K) PL studies on the surface exciton (SX) at 3.3660 eV elucidated the nature and origin of this emission. In particular, surface treatment by annealing at high temperature under inert gas reduced the emission intensity of SX. Raman vibrational spectra proved that presence of a considerable amount of adsorbed molecules on the surface of ZnO nanowires plays a key role in the occurrence of surface excitons.

  4. Influence of the morphology of ZnO nanostructures on luminescent and photovoltaic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, N. Kh.; Ilyassov, B. R.; Afanasyev, D. A.

    2017-03-01

    Arrays of ZnO nanorods and nanoplates are synthesized by the hydrothermal and electrochemical methods, respectively. The photoluminescence spectra indicate that the nanoplates have a more defective structure than the nanorods. The obtained ZnO nanostructures are used as the basis to construct dye-sensitized solar cells. The influence of morphology and defectiveness of ZnO nanostructures on the luminescent and photovoltaic properties of the cells is studied.

  5. Tuning the Band Bending and Controlling the Surface Reactivity at Polar and Nonpolar Surfaces of ZnO through Phosphonic Acid Binding.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Alexandra R; Hyndman, Adam R; Reeves, Roger J; Downard, Alison J; Allen, Martin W

    2016-11-16

    ZnO is a prime candidate for future use in transparent electronics; however, development of practical materials requires attention to factors including control of its unusual surface band bending and surface reactivity. In this work, we have modified the O-polar (0001̅), Zn-polar (0001), and m-plane (101̅0) surfaces of ZnO with phosphonic acid (PA) derivatives and measured the effect on the surface band bending and surface sensitivity to atmospheric oxygen. Core level and valence band synchrotron X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to measure the surface band bending introduced by PA modifiers with substituents of opposite polarity dipole moment: octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) and 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctylphosphonic acid (F 13 OPA). Both PAs act as surface electron donors, increasing the downward band bending and the strength of the two-dimensional surface electron accumulation layer on all of the ZnO surfaces investigated. On the O-polar (0001̅) and m-plane (101̅0) surfaces, the ODPA modifier produced the largest increase in downward band bending relative to the hydroxyl-terminated unmodified surface of 0.55 and 0.35 eV, respectively. On the Zn-polar (0001) face, the F 13 OPA modifier gave the largest increase (by 0.50 eV) producing a total downward band bending of 1.00 eV, representing ∼30% of the ZnO band gap. Ultraviolet (UV) photoinduced surface wettability and photoconductivity measurements demonstrated that the PA modifiers are effective at decreasing the sensitivity of the surface toward atmospheric oxygen. Modification with PA derivatives produced a large increase in the persistence of UV-induced photoconductivity and a large reduction in UV-induced changes in surface wettability.

  6. One-dimensional ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Jayadevan, K P; Tseng, T Y

    2012-06-01

    The wide-gap semiconductor ZnO with nanostructures such as nanoparticle, nanorod, nanowire, nanobelt, nanotube has high potential for a variety of applications. This article reviews the fundamentals of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures, including processing, structure, property, application and their processing-microstructure-property correlation. Various fabrication methods of the ZnO nanostructures including vapor-liquid-solid process, vapor-solid growth, solution growth, solvothermal growth, template-assisted growth and self-assembly are introduced. The characterization and properties of the ZnO nanostructures are described. The possible applications of these nanostructures are also discussed.

  7. Nucleation and growth of zinc oxide nanorods directly on metal wire by sonochemical method.

    PubMed

    Rayathulhan, Ruzaina; Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Aziz, Azlan Abdul

    2017-03-01

    ZnO nanorods were directly grown on four different wires (silver, nickel, copper, and tungsten) using sonochemical method. Zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) were used as precursors. Influence of growth parameters such as precursors' concentration and ultrasonic power on the grown nanorods were determined. The results demonstrated that the precursor concentration affected the growth structure and density of the nanorods. The morphology, distribution, and orientation of nanorods changed as the ultrasonic power changed. Nucleation of ZnO nanorods on the wire occurred at lower ultrasonic power and when the power increased, the formation and growth of ZnO nanorods on the wires were initiated. The best morphology, size, distribution, and orientation of the nanorods were observed on the Ag wire. The presence of single crystal nanorod with hexagonal shaped was obtained. This shape indicates that the ZnO nanorods corresponded to the hexagonal wurtzite structure with growth preferential towards the (002) direction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Generation of four-wave mixing with highly sharp idlers using 2 mm home-made side-polished fiber deposited by ZnO nanorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaei, R.; Amiri, Iraj S.; Sorger, Volker J.; Azzuhri, SRB; Rezaei, M.; Ahmad, H.; Yupapin, P.

    2018-07-01

    A side-polished fiber with embedded zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO-NRs) is proposed, fabricated, and tested to generate four-wave-mixing (FWM). The side-polished fiber is manufactured by polishing a conventional single mode fiber to completely remove 2 mm of its cladding and its core partially, after which the fiber is simply immersed into a solution consisting of ZnO-NRs and allowing it to dry. A pump and a signal wavelength of 1550 and 1551 nm are injected into the fiber and generate idlers at 1549 and 1552 nm which agree well with theoretical values. Our experimental results show that the optimum FWM range is determined to be a 6 nm shifted away from the pump wavelength and occurs in the pump and wavelength spacing as narrow as 0.1 nm. The proposed system allows for the easy integration of optically active materials into a fiber.

  9. Surface properties of sprayed and electrodeposited ZnO rod layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromyko, I.; Krunks, M.; Dedova, T.; Katerski, A.; Klauson, D.; Oja Acik, I.

    2017-05-01

    Herein we present a comparative study on as-deposited, two-month-stored, and heat-treated ZnO rods obtained by spray pyrolysis (SP) at 550 °C, and electrodeposition (ED) at 80 °C. The aim of the study is to establish the reason for different behaviour of wettability and photocatalytic activity (PA) of SP and ED rods. Samples were studied using XPS, SEM, XRD, Raman, contact angle (CA) measurements and photocatalytic oxidation of doxycycline. Wettability and PA are mainly controlled by surface composition rather than by morphology. The relative amount of hydroxyl groups on the surface of as-deposited ED rods is four times higher compared to as-deposited SP rods. Opposite to SP rods, ED rods contain oxygen vacancy defects (Vo). Therefore, as-deposited ED rods are superhydrophilic (CA ∼ 3°) and show highest PA among studied samples, being three times higher compared to SP rods (removing of 75% of doxycycline after 30 min). It was revealed that as-deposited ED rods are inclined to faster contamination. The amount of Cdbnd C groups on the surface of aged ED rods is six times higher compared to aged SP rods. Stored ED samples become hydrophobic (CA ∼ 120°) and PA decreases sharply while SP rods remain hydrophilic (CA ∼ 50°), being more resistive to the contamination.

  10. Photoswitching in azobenzene self-assembled monolayers capped on zinc oxide: nanodots vs nanorods.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Martini, Cyril; Ackermann, Jörg; Fages, Frédéric

    2012-02-01

    We report the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of nanohybrid structures consisting of an azobenzene compound grafted on the surface of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Characteristic bathochromic shifts indicate that the azobenzene photochromic molecules self-assemble onto the surface of the nanocrystals. The extent of packing is dependent on the shape of the nanoparticle. ZnO nanorods, with flat facets, enable a tighter organization of the molecules in the self-assembled monolayer than in the case of nanodots that display a more curvated shape. Consistently, the efficiency of photochromic switching of the self-assembled monolayer on ZnO nanoparticles is also shown to be strongly affected by nanoparticle shape. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Sn doping on structural, mechanical, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanoarrays prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Manish Baboo; Sharma, Akash; Malaidurai, M.; Thangavel, R.

    2018-05-01

    Undoped and Sn doped Zinc oxide nanorods were prepared by two step process: initially growth of seed layers by sol-gel spin coating technique and then zinc oxide nanorods by hydrothermal process using the precursors zinc nitrate hexahydrate, hexamine and tin chloride. The effects on the electrical, optical, mechanical and structural properties for various Sn concentrations were studied. The crystalline phase determination from X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that Sn doped ZnO nanorods have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The variations of stress and strain with different doping concentration of Sn in ZnO nanorods were studied. The doping effect on electrical properties and optical bandgap is estimated by current voltage characteristics and absorbance spectra respectively. The surface morphology was studied with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), which shows that the formation of hexagonal nanorods arrays with increasing Sn concentration. The calculated value of Young's modulus of elasticity (Y) for all the samples remains same. These results can be used in optoelectronic devices.

  12. Mechanism insight of PFOA degradation by ZnO assisted-photocatalytic ozonation: Efficiency and intermediates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Li, Xukai; Tang, Yiming; Lu, Ping; Chen, Weirui; Xu, Xiaoting; Li, Laisheng

    2017-08-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were prepared by a directly pyrolysis method and employed as catalyst for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) degradation. Comparative experiments were conducted to discuss the catalytic activity and flexibility of ZnO. After ZnO addition, the best PFOA degradation efficiency (70.5%) was achieved by ZnO/UV/O 3 system, only 9.5% by sole ozonation and 18.2% by UV 254 light irradiation. PFOA degradation was sensitive with pH value and temperature. The better PFOA removal efficiency was achieved at acidic condition. A novel relationship was found among PFOA degradation efficiency with hydroxyl radicals and photo-generated holes. Hydroxyl radicals generated on the surfaces of ZnO nanorods played dominant roles in PFOA degradation. PFOA degradation was found to follow the photo-Kolbe reaction mechanism. C 2 -C 7 shorter-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids and fluoride ion were detected as main intermediates during PFOA degradation process. Based on the results, a proposal degradation pathway was raised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tuning the surface morphology of aluminium doped zinc oxide thin films by arrayed nanorods through chemical growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devasia, Sebin; Anila, E. I.

    2018-04-01

    Here we report the growth and characterization of chemically grown aluminium doped zinc oxide nanorods on seed layers. The seed layers were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis which acted as the growth centers. The growth duration of nanorods were varied from 3h to 12h in steps of 3h. Further, investigations on their structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties. The SEM images confirmed the hexagonal shaped nanorod arrays grown on the seed layers. Later, the x-ray diffraction measurements revealed the pure zinc oxide phase of the samples. Photoluminescence and photoconductivity studies were carried out to analyze the potential of its optoelectronic properties.

  14. Uniform distribution of ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of grpahene and its enhanced photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bing; Zou, Yingquan

    2018-05-01

    Herein, a ZnO-graphene nanocomposite photocatalyst was obtained by a facile one-step photochemical method. Both the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and uniform loading of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of graphene were achieved during the photochemical reaction process using GO as the precursor of graphene and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) as the single source of ZnO. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO/rGO composites was studied by the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye. The as-prepared ZnO/rGO photocatalyst possesses great adsorptivity of dyes (e.g., MB) and high charge separation properties. After receiving the photoelectrons from ZnO, graphene plane can effectively transfer the photoelectrons, thereby showing highly efficient photocatalytic degradation towards pollutants. The effective introduction of rGO significantly improved the photocatalysis and sensing properties of ZnO, and we believe that the as-prepared ZnO/rGO nanocomposite would be promising for practical applications in future nanotechnology.

  15. Hydrogen effects on the electroluminescence of n-ZnO nanorod/p-GaN film heterojunction light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Zhao, Dongxu; Li, Binghui; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Shen, Dezhen

    2010-07-07

    Through a facile low-temperature solution process, vertically n-type ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on a GaN film to form a n-ZnO nanorod/p-GaN film heterojunction. A study of the electroluminescence (EL) characteristics of the heterojunction in air and in air with 2000 ppm hydrogen revealed the sensitivity of such a device to the surrounding atmosphere. The additional hydrogen shallow donors increased the effective electron concentration in ZnO nanorods and the EL recombination zone changed from the ZnO nanorods to the GaN film, which can be identified visually from the color change.

  16. Growth mechanism, surface and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures deposited on various Au-seeded thickness obtained by mist-atomization

    SciT

    Afaah, A. N., E-mail: afaahabdullah@yahoo.com; Aadila, A., E-mail: aadilaazizali@gmail.com; Asib, N. A. M., E-mail: amierahasib@yahoo.com

    2016-07-06

    In this paper, growth mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures on non-seeded glass, 6 nm and 12 nm Au seed layer obtained by mist-atomization was proposed. ZnO films were successfully deposited on glass substrate with different thickness of Au seed layer i.e. 6 nm and 12 nm. The surface and optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and photoluminescence (PL). FESEM micrograph show that ZnO nanostructure deposited on 6 nm Au seed layer has uniform formation and well distributed. From PL spectroscopy, the UV emission shows that ZnO deposited on 6 nm Au seedmore » layer has the more intense UV intensity which proved that high crystal quality of nanostructured ZnO deposited on 6 nm Au seed layer.« less

  17. Formation and electrical transport properties of pentacene nanorod crystal.

    PubMed

    Akai-Kasaya, M; Ohmori, C; Kawanishi, T; Nashiki, M; Saito, A; Aono, M; Kuwahara, Y

    2010-09-10

    The monophasic formation of an uncharted pentacene crystal, the pentacene nanorod, has been investigated. The restricted formation of the pentacene nanorod on a bare mica surface reveals a peculiar surface catalytic crystal growth mode of the pentacene. We demonstrated the charge transport measurements through a single pentacene nanorod and analyzed the data using a periodic hopping conduction model. The results revealed that the pentacene nanorod has a periodic conductive node within their one-dimensional crystal.

  18. High quality gold nanorods and nanospheres for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jin-Liang; Xu, Han-Hong; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Hu, Zhun; Xu, Bo-Qing

    2012-12-01

    Nearly monodisperse Au nanorods (NRs) with different aspect ratios were separated from home-synthesized polydisperse samples using a gradient centrifugation method. The morphology, size and its distribution, and photo-absorption property were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. Subsequently, using colloidal Au NRs (36.2 nm ×10.7 nm) with 97.4% yield after centrifugation and Au nanospheres (NSs) (22.9 ± 1.0 nm in diameter) with 97.6% yield as Au substrates, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were recorded using laser excitation at 632.8 nm. Results show that surface enhancement factors (EF) for Au NRs and NSs are 6.2 × 105 and 5.7 × 104 using 1.0 × 10-6 M 2,4-D, respectively, illustrating that EF value is a factor of ˜10 greater for Au NRs substrates than for Au NSs substrates. As a result, large EF are a mainly result of chemical enhancement mechanisms. Thus, it is expected that Au NPs can find a comprehensive SERS application in the trace detection of pesticide residues.

  19. High quality gold nanorods and nanospheres for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jin-Liang; Xu, Han-Hong; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Hu, Zhun; Xu, Bo-Qing

    2012-12-14

    Nearly monodisperse Au nanorods (NRs) with different aspect ratios were separated from home-synthesized polydisperse samples using a gradient centrifugation method. The morphology, size and its distribution, and photo-absorption property were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. Subsequently, using colloidal Au NRs (36.2 nm ×10.7 nm) with 97.4% yield after centrifugation and Au nanospheres (NSs) (22.9 ± 1.0 nm in diameter) with 97.6% yield as Au substrates, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were recorded using laser excitation at 632.8 nm. Results show that surface enhancement factors (EF) for Au NRs and NSs are 6.2 × 10(5) and 5.7 × 10(4) using 1.0 × 10(-6) M 2,4-D, respectively, illustrating that EF value is a factor of ~10 greater for Au NRs substrates than for Au NSs substrates. As a result, large EF are a mainly result of chemical enhancement mechanisms. Thus, it is expected that Au NPs can find a comprehensive SERS application in the trace detection of pesticide residues.

  20. Effects of surface morphology on the optical and electrical properties of Schottky diodes of CBD deposited ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwankemwa, Benard S.; Akinkuade, Shadrach; Maabong, Kelebogile; Nel, Jackie M.; Diale, Mmantsae

    2018-04-01

    We report on effect of surface morphology on the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures. ZnO nanostructures were deposited on the seeded conducting indium doped tin oxide substrate positioned in three different directions in the growth solution. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the morphological properties of the synthesized nanostructures and revealed that the positioning of the substrate in the growth solution affects the surface morphology of the nanostructures. The optical absorbance, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of the resulting nanostructures are discussed. The electrical characterization of the Schottky diode such as barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratios, reverse saturation current and series resistance were found to depend on the nanostructures morphology. In addition, current transport mechanism in the higher forward bias of the Schottky diode was studied and space charge limited current was found to be the dominant transport mechanism in all samples.

  1. Joining the un-joinable: adhesion between low surface energy polymers using tetrapodal ZnO linkers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Strueben, Jan; Heepe, Lars; Kovalev, Alexander; Mishra, Yogendra K; Adelung, Rainer; Gorb, Stanislav N; Staubitz, Anne

    2012-11-08

    Tetrapodal ZnO crystals are used for mechanical interlocking of PTFE and cross-linked PDMS, classically non-adhesive polymers. This novel approach is straightforward and easily applicable and leads to a peel strength that is higher than 200 N m(-1) without chemical modification of the surfaces. The shape of these fillers emerged as a crucial aspect of the interlocking mechanism. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Significant Enhancement of Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2 with H2O over ZnO by the Formation of Basic Zinc Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Xin, Chunyu; Hu, Maocong; Wang, Kang; Wang, Xitao

    2017-07-11

    Electron-hole pair separation efficiency and adsorption performance of photocatalysts to CO 2 are the two key factors affecting the performance of photocatalytic CO 2 reduction with H 2 O. Distinct from conventional promoter addition, this study proposed a novel approach to address these two issues by tuning the own surface features of semiconductor photocatalyst. Three ZnO samples with different morphologies, surface area, and defect content were fabricated by varying preparation methods, characterized by XRD, TEM, and room-temperature PL spectra, and tested in photoreduction of CO 2 with H 2 O. The results show that the as-prepared porous ZnO nanosheets exhibit a much higher activity for photoreduction of CO 2 with H 2 O when compared to ZnO nanoparticles and nanorods attributed to the existence of more defect sites, that is, zinc and oxygen vacancies. These defects would lower the combination rate of electron-hole pair as well as promote the formation of basic zinc carbonate by Lewis acid-base interaction, which is the active intermediate species for photoreduction of CO 2 . ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO nanorods with few defects show weak adsorption for CO 2 leading to the inferior photocatalytic activities. This work provides new insight on the CO 2 activation under light irradiation.

  3. Deactivation of photocatalytically active ZnO nanoparticle and enhancement of its compatibility with organic compounds by surface-capping with organically modified silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhi; Zhang, Zhijun

    2011-02-01

    Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and dimethyldiethoxysilane (DEDMS) were used as co-precursors to prepare organically modified silica (ormosil) via sol-gel process. The resultant ormosil was adopted for surface-capping of ZnO nanoparticle, where methyl (organic functional group) and silica (inorganic component) were simultaneously introduced onto the surface of the nanoparticles for realizing dual surface-modification. The ormosil-capped ZnO nanoparticle showed strong hydrophobicity and good compatibility with organic phases, as well as effectively decreased photocatalytic activity and almost unchanged ultraviolet (UV)-shielding ability. More importantly, the comprehensive properties of ormosil-capped ZnO nanoparticle could be manipulated by adjusting the molar ratio of TEOS to DEDMS during sol-gel process. This should help to open a wider window to better utilizing the unique and highly attractive properties such as high UV-shielding ability and high-visible light transparency of ZnO nanoparticle in sunscreen cosmetics.

  4. Magnetic-plasmonic multilayered nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumthan, Orathai

    Multilayered nanorods which consist of alternating magnetic layers separated by Au layers combine two distinctive properties, magnetic properties and surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) properties into one nano-entity. Their magnetic properties are tunable by changing the layer thickness, varying from single domain to superparamagnetic state. Superparamagnetic is a key requirement for magnetic nanoparticles for bioapplications. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles exhibit high magnetic moments at low applied magnetic field while retain no magnetic moments when magnetic field is removed preventing them from aggregation due to magnetic attraction. Au layers in the nanorods provide anchorage sites for functional group attachment. Also, Au nanodisks exhibit SPR properties. The SPR peak can be tuned from 540 nm to 820 nm by controlling the thickness of magnetic segments while keeping Au thickness constant. In this research, there are three types of multilayered nanorod have been fabricated: Au/NiFe nanorods, Au/Fe nanorods, and Au/Co nanorods. These magnetic nanorods were fabricated by templated electrodeposition into the channels in Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membrane. The setup for AAO fabrication was developed as a part of this research. Our fabricated AAO membrane has channels with a diameter ranging from 40nm to 80 nm and a thickness of 10um to 12um. Magnetic properties of nanorods such as saturation field, saturation moment, coercivity and remanence are able to manipulate through their shape anisotropy. The magnetization will be easier in long axis rather than short axis of particle. In addition, Au nanodisks in the nanorod structure are not only serving as anchorage sites for functional groups but also provide SPR properties. Under irradiation of light Au nanodisks strongly absorb light at SPR frequency which ranging from 540 nm to 820 nm by controlling the thickness of magnetic segments while keeping Au thickness constant. The SPR tunability of nanorods in near

  5. Cytotoxicity of ZnO Nanoparticles Can Be Tailored by Modifying Their Surface Structure: A Green Chemistry Approach for Safer Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Punnoose, Alex; Dodge, Kelsey; Rasmussen, John W; Chess, Jordan; Wingett, Denise; Anders, Catherine

    2014-07-07

    ZnO nanoparticles (NP) are extensively used in numerous nanotechnology applications; however, they also happen to be one of the most toxic nanomaterials. This raises significant environmental and health concerns and calls for the need to develop new synthetic approaches to produce safer ZnO NP, while preserving their attractive optical, electronic, and structural properties. In this work, we demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of ZnO NP can be tailored by modifying their surface-bound chemical groups, while maintaining the core ZnO structure and related properties. Two equally sized (9.26 ± 0.11 nm) ZnO NP samples were synthesized from the same zinc acetate precursor using a forced hydrolysis process, and their surface chemical structures were modified by using different reaction solvents. X-ray diffraction and optical studies showed that the lattice parameters, optical properties, and band gap (3.44 eV) of the two ZnO NP samples were similar. However, FTIR spectroscopy showed significant differences in the surface structures and surface-bound chemical groups. This led to major differences in the zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, photocatalytic rate constant, and more importantly, their cytotoxic effects on Hut-78 cancer cells. The ZnO NP sample with the higher zeta potential and catalytic activity displayed a 1.5-fold stronger cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. These results suggest that by modifying the synthesis parameters/conditions and the surface chemical structures of the nanocrystals, their surface charge density, catalytic activity, and cytotoxicity can be tailored. This provides a green chemistry approach to produce safer ZnO NP.

  6. Cytotoxicity of ZnO Nanoparticles Can Be Tailored by Modifying Their Surface Structure: A Green Chemistry Approach for Safer Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NP) are extensively used in numerous nanotechnology applications; however, they also happen to be one of the most toxic nanomaterials. This raises significant environmental and health concerns and calls for the need to develop new synthetic approaches to produce safer ZnO NP, while preserving their attractive optical, electronic, and structural properties. In this work, we demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of ZnO NP can be tailored by modifying their surface-bound chemical groups, while maintaining the core ZnO structure and related properties. Two equally sized (9.26 ± 0.11 nm) ZnO NP samples were synthesized from the same zinc acetate precursor using a forced hydrolysis process, and their surface chemical structures were modified by using different reaction solvents. X-ray diffraction and optical studies showed that the lattice parameters, optical properties, and band gap (3.44 eV) of the two ZnO NP samples were similar. However, FTIR spectroscopy showed significant differences in the surface structures and surface-bound chemical groups. This led to major differences in the zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, photocatalytic rate constant, and more importantly, their cytotoxic effects on Hut-78 cancer cells. The ZnO NP sample with the higher zeta potential and catalytic activity displayed a 1.5-fold stronger cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. These results suggest that by modifying the synthesis parameters/conditions and the surface chemical structures of the nanocrystals, their surface charge density, catalytic activity, and cytotoxicity can be tailored. This provides a green chemistry approach to produce safer ZnO NP. PMID:25068096

  7. Characteristics of zinc oxide nanorod array/titanium oxide film heterojunction prepared by aqueous solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Hong, Min-Hsuan; Li, Bo-Wei

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a ZnO nanorod array/TiO2 film heterojunction were investigated. A TiO2 film was prepared on glass by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid at 40 °C. Then, a ZnO seed layer was prepared on a TiO2 film/glass substrate by RF sputtering. A vertically oriented ZnO nanorod array was grown on a ZnO seed layer/TiO2 film/glass substrate by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) at 70 °C. After thermal annealing in N2O ambient at 300 °C, this heterojunction used as an oxygen gas sensor shows much better rise time, decay time, and on/off current ratio than as-grown and annealed ZnO nanorods.

  8. ZnO/perovskite core–shell nanorod array based monolithic catalysts with enhanced propane oxidation and material utilization efficiency at low temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Sibo; Ren, Zheng; Song, Wenqiao; ...

    2015-04-24

    Here, a hydrothermal strategy combined with colloidal deposition synthesis was successfully used to grow ZnO/perovskite (LaBO 3, B=Mn, Co, Ni) core-shell nanorod arrays within three dimensional (3-D) honeycomb cordierite substrates. A facile sonication assisted colloidal wash coating process is able to coat a uniformly dispersed perovskite nanoparticles onto the large scale ZnO nanorod arrays rooted on the channel surfaces of the 3D cordierite substrate achieved by hydrothermal synthesis. Compared to traditional wash-coated perovskite catalysts, an enhanced catalytic performance was observed for propane oxidation with 25°C lower light-off temperature than wash-coated perovskite catalyst of similar LaMnO 3 loading (4.3mg). Temperature programmedmore » reduction and desorption under H 2 and O 2 atmosphere, respectively, were used to study the reducibility and oxygen activity of these core-shell nanorod arrays based monolithic catalysts, revealing a catalytic activity sequence of LaCoO 3>LaMnO 3>La 2NiO 4 at the initial stage of catalytic reaction. The good dispersion and size control in La-based perovskite nanoparticles and their interfaces to ZnO nanorod arrays support may contribute to the enhancement of catalytic performance. Lastly, this work may provide a new type of Pt-group metals (PGM) free catalysts with improved catalytic performance for hydrocarbon oxidations at low temperatures.« less

  9. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite and TiO 2 nanorods on microarc-oxidized titanium surface using hydrothermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ho-Jun; Kim, Ji-Woo; Kook, Min-Suk; Moon, Won-Jin; Park, Yeong-Joon

    2010-09-01

    AC-type microarc oxidation (MAO) and hydrothermal treatment techniques were used to enhance the bioactivity of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti). The porous TiO 2 layer fabricated by the MAO treatment had a dominant anatase structure and contained Ca and P ions. The MAO-treated specimens were treated hydrothermally to form HAp crystallites on the titanium oxide layer in an alkaline aqueous solution (OH-solution) or phosphorous-containing alkaline solution (POH-solution). A small number of micro-sized hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystallites and a thin layer composed of nano-sized HAps were formed on the Ti-MAO-OH group treated hydrothermally in an OH-solution, whereas a large number of micro-sized HAp crystallites and dense anatase TiO 2 nanorods were formed on the Ti-MAO-POH group treated hydrothermally in a POH-solution. The layer of bone-like apatite that formed on the surface of the POH-treated sample after soaking in a modified simulated body fluid was thicker than that on the OH-treated samples.

  10. Physico-chemical changes of ZnO nanoparticles with different size and surface chemistry under physiological pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Gyeong-Hyeon; Lee, Won-Jae; Paek, Seung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min

    2015-03-01

    We studied the physico-chemical properties of ZnO nanoparticles under physiological pH conditions (gastric, intestinal and plasma) as functions of their size (20 and 70 nm) and surface chemistry (pristine, L-serine, or citrate coating). ZnO nanoparticles were dispersed in phosphate buffered saline under physiological pH conditions and aliquots were collected at specific time points (0.5, 1, 4, 10 and 24 h) for further characterization. The pH values of the aqueous ZnO colloids at each condition were in the neutral to slightly basic range and showed different patterns depending on the original size and surface chemistry of the ZnO nanoparticles. The gastric pH condition was found to significantly dissolve ZnO nanoparticles up to 18-30 wt%, while the intestinal or plasma pH conditions resulted in much lower dissolution amounts than expected. Based on the X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray absorption spectra, we identified partial phase transition of the ZnO nanoparticles from wurtzite to Zn(OH)2 under the intestinal and plasma pH conditions. Using scanning electron microscopy, we verified that the overall particle size and morphology of all ZnO nanoparticles were maintained regardless of the pH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Alignment nature of ZnO nanowires grown on polished and nanoscale etched lithium niobate surface through self-seeding thermal evaporation method

    SciT

    Mohanan, Ajay Achath; Parthiban, R.; Ramakrishnan, N., E-mail: ramakrishnan@monash.edu

    Highlights: • ZnO nanowires were grown directly on LiNbO{sub 3} surface for the first time by thermal evaporation. • Self-alignment of the nanowires due to step bunching of LiNbO{sub 3} surface is observed. • Increased roughness in surface defects promoted well-aligned growth of nanowires. • Well-aligned growth was then replicated in 50 nm deep trenches on the surface. • Study opens novel pathway for patterned growth of ZnO nanowires on LiNbO{sub 3} surface. - Abstract: High aspect ratio catalyst-free ZnO nanowires were directly synthesized on lithium niobate substrate for the first time through thermal evaporation method without the use ofmore » a buffer layer or the conventional pre-deposited ZnO seed layer. As-grown ZnO nanowires exhibited a crisscross aligned growth pattern due to step bunching of the polished lithium niobate surface during the nanowire growth process. On the contrary, scratches on the surface and edges of the substrate produced well-aligned ZnO nanowires in these defect regions due to high surface roughness. Thus, the crisscross aligned nature of high aspect ratio nanowire growth on the lithium niobate surface can be changed to well-aligned growth through controlled etching of the surface, which is further verified through reactive-ion etching of lithium niobate. The investigations and discussion in the present work will provide novel pathway for self-seeded patterned growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowires on lithium niobate based micro devices.« less

  12. Quantum-interference transport through surface layers of indium-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Shao-Pin; Lu, Jia Grace; Lin, Juhn-Jong

    2013-06-01

    We have fabricated indium-doped ZnO (IZO) nanowires (NWs) and carried out four-probe electrical-transport measurements on two individual NWs with geometric diameters of ≈70 and ≈90 nm in a wide temperature T interval of 1-70 K. The NWs reveal overall charge conduction behavior characteristic of disordered metals. In addition to the T dependence of resistance R, we have measured the magnetoresistance (MR) in magnetic fields applied either perpendicular or parallel to the NW axis. Our R(T) and MR data in different T intervals are consistent with the theoretical predictions of the one- (1D), two- (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) weak-localization (WL) and the electron-electron interaction (EEI) effects. In particular, a few dimensionality crossovers in the two effects are observed. These crossover phenomena are consistent with the model of a ‘core-shell-like structure’ in individual IZO NWs, where an outer shell of thickness t (≃15-17 nm) is responsible for the quantum-interference transport. In the WL effect, as the electron dephasing length Lφ gradually decreases with increasing T from the lowest measurement temperatures, a 1D-to-2D dimensionality crossover takes place around a characteristic temperature where Lφ approximately equals d, an effective NW diameter which is slightly smaller than the geometric diameter. As T further increases, a 2D-to-3D dimensionality crossover occurs around another characteristic temperature where Lφ approximately equals t (ZnO NWs. This work also strongly

  13. Quantum-interference transport through surface layers of indium-doped ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shao-Pin; Lu, Jia Grace; Lin, Juhn-Jong

    2013-06-21

    We have fabricated indium-doped ZnO (IZO) nanowires (NWs) and carried out four-probe electrical-transport measurements on two individual NWs with geometric diameters of ≈70 and ≈90 nm in a wide temperature T interval of 1-70 K. The NWs reveal overall charge conduction behavior characteristic of disordered metals. In addition to the T dependence of resistance R, we have measured the magnetoresistance (MR) in magnetic fields applied either perpendicular or parallel to the NW axis. Our R(T) and MR data in different T intervals are consistent with the theoretical predictions of the one- (1D), two- (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) weak-localization (WL) and the electron-electron interaction (EEI) effects. In particular, a few dimensionality crossovers in the two effects are observed. These crossover phenomena are consistent with the model of a 'core-shell-like structure' in individual IZO NWs, where an outer shell of thickness t (~15-17 nm) is responsible for the quantum-interference transport. In the WL effect, as the electron dephasing length Lφ gradually decreases with increasing T from the lowest measurement temperatures, a 1D-to-2D dimensionality crossover takes place around a characteristic temperature where Lφ approximately equals d, an effective NW diameter which is slightly smaller than the geometric diameter. As T further increases, a 2D-to-3D dimensionality crossover occurs around another characteristic temperature where Lφ approximately equals t (ZnO NWs. This work also strongly

  14. Surface modification of SiO2 coated ZnO nanoparticles for multifunctional cotton fabrics.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Mehrez E; Hassabo, Ahmed G; Mohamed, Amina L; Shaheen, Tharwat I

    2017-07-15

    A simple chemical synthetic route was designed to prepare zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) by using sodium alginate as anti-agglomeration agent in the presence of sodium hydroxide as alkali. Next, surface modification of ZnO-NPs with SiO 2 nanoparticles was achieved as per to sol-gel process. Further enhancing of the multifunctional properties of SiO 2 @ZnO-NPs was conducted successfully thanks to (aminopropyl)triethoxysilan (APTES) and vinyltriethoxysilan (VTES) which, in turns, increase the affinity of the SiO 2 @ZnO-NPs nanocomposite towards glycosidic chains of cotton fabrics. Thorough characterizations of synthesized ZnO-NPs, SiO 2 @ZnO-NPs, SiO 2 @ZnO-NPs/APTES and SiO 2 @ZnO-NPs/VTES were conducted by the making use of well advanced techniques such as FT-IR, XRD, TEM, DLS and SEM-EDX. The data obtained clarified the formation of an interfacial chemical bond between ZnO and SiO 2 as affirmed by FT-IR and XRD analysis. In addition, the results revealed by TEM, zeta sizer and SEM-EDX techniques, declared that the amorphous layers of SiO 2 , APTES or VTES evenly coated the surface of ZnO-NPs. For these nanocomposites, the work was extended to render cotton fabrics multifunctional properties such as antibacterial and UV protection with high durability even after 20 washing cycles using pad dry cure method. Taking the advantages of the silane compounds terminated by active groups such as OH, NH 2 , etc., open the door for further functionalization of the cotton fabrics' surfaces by durable multifunctional agents applied in various applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Coupling Resonances of Surface Plasmon in Gold Nanorod/Copper Chalcogenide Core-Shell Nanostructures and Their Enhanced Photothermal Effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingying; Pan, Guiming; Liu, Qiyu; Ma, Liang; Xie, Ying; Zhou, Li; Hao, Zhonghua; Wang, Ququan

    2018-06-04

    Dual plasmonic Au@Cu 2-x S core-shell nanorods (NRs) have been fabricated by using a hydrothermal method and plasmon-coupled effect between the Au core and Cu 2-x S shell in the near-infrared (NIR) region. The extinction spectrum of Au@Cu 2-x S NRs is dominated by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the Cu 2-x S shell, the transverse surface plasmon resonance (TSPR), and the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the Au NRs. With the Cu 2-x S shell increasing (fixed Au NRs), the TSPR peak slightly redshifts and the LSPR and SPR peaks blueshift, owing to competition between the redshift of the refractive index effect and blueshift from the plasmon coupled effect. Although, for Au@Cu 2 S NRs, only TSPR and LSPR peaks can be seen and a redshift arises with the increasing Cu 2 S shell thickness, implying that no plasmonic coupling between Au NRs and Cu 2 S shell occurred. The extinction spectrum of the Au@Cu 2-x S NRs with three coupled resonance peaks is simulated by using the FDTD method, taking into account the electron-transfer effect. The dispersion properties of the coupling of Au@Cu 2-x S NRs with the LSPR of the initial Au core are studied experimentally by changing the length of the Au NRs, which are explained theoretically by the coupled harmonic oscillator model. The calculated coupled coefficients between SPR of the Cu 2-x S shell and LSPR of the Au NRs is 180 meV, which is much stronger than that of TSPR of Au NRs of 55 meV. Finally, the enhanced photothermal effect of Au@Cu 2-x S NRs has been demonstrated. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Unique spatiotemporal biomolecular emission profiles on single zinc oxide nanorods and applications in ultrasensitive biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpreet

    There has been longstanding interest in improving the optical detection capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy to achieve ultrahigh resolution and sensitivity in chemical and biological sensing applications. To promote these efforts, I present my work characterizing and developing zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) as advanced optical detection platforms that can enable enhanced intensity and stability of adsorbed fluorophore-coupled biomolecules. First, I present my unique findings profiling the temporal and spatial characteristics of biomolecular fluorescence on individual ZnO NRs in which I've identified highly localized, non-linear optical phenomena of fluorescence intensification on nanorod ends (FINE) and enhanced photostability. Using combined experimental and computational strategies, I elucidate the fundamental physicochemical origins of these optical phenomena by systematically decoupling various biomolecular, chemical, and nanomaterial factors. On the biomolecular side, I evaluate the roles of fluorophores with varying spectroscopic properties and concentrations as well as facet-selective biomolecular adsorption on the unique spatiotemporal optical responses on single ZnO NRs. From the chemical/nanomaterial context, I profile the biomolecular emission behaviors on single ZnO NRs as a function of varying NR physical dimensions, NR orientations, and positions along the NR long axis I also present the results of employing finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulations to corroborate my multifold experimental findings. The FDTD results further clarify the passive waveguiding capacity of the ZnO NRs to couple the radiation of surface-adsorpbed emitters and form evanescent waves that propagate to the NR ends before final emission into the far-field, confirming the experimental manifestation of FINE.. I also present an application exploiting the optical enhancement enabled by ZnO NRs in which I've engineered and validated a novel biosensing assay for the

  17. Surface modification of a polyimide gate insulator with an yttrium oxide interlayer for aqueous-solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kwang-Suk; Wee, Duyoung; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Jinsoo; Ahn, Taek; Ka, Jae-Won; Yi, Mi Hye

    2013-06-11

    We report a simple approach to modify the surface of a polyimide gate insulator with an yttrium oxide interlayer for aqueous-solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors. It is expected that the yttrium oxide interlayer will provide a surface that is more chemically compatible with the ZnO semiconductor than is bare polyimde. The field-effect mobility and the on/off current ratio of the ZnO TFT with the YOx/polyimide gate insulator were 0.456 cm(2)/V·s and 2.12 × 10(6), respectively, whereas the ZnO TFT with the polyimide gate insulator was inactive.

  18. Importance of Plasmonic Heating on Visible Light Driven Photocatalysis of Gold Nanoparticle Decorated Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Tanujjal; Zoepfl, David; Dutta, Joydeep

    2016-01-01

    Herein we explore the role of localized plasmonic heat generated by resonantly excited gold (Au) NPs on visible light driven photocatalysis process. Au NPs are deposited on the surface of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs). The localized heat generated by Au NPs under 532 nm continuous laser excitation (SPR excitation) was experimentally probed using Raman spectroscopy by following the phonon modes of ZnO. Under the resonant excitation the temperature at the surface of the Au-ZnO NRs reaches up to about 300 °C, resulting in almost 6 times higher apparent quantum yield (AQY) for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) compared to the bare ZnO NRs. Under solar light irradiation the Au-ZnO NRs demonstrated visible light photocatalytic activity twice that of what was achieved with bare ZnO NRs, while significantly reduced the activation energy required for the photocatalytic reactions allowing the reactions to occur at a faster rate. PMID:27242172

  19. Nanoscale Characterization of Carrier Dynamic and Surface Passivation in InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Wells on GaN Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weijian; Wen, Xiaoming; Latzel, Michael; Heilmann, Martin; Yang, Jianfeng; Dai, Xi; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Patterson, Robert; Christiansen, Silke; Conibeer, Gavin

    2016-11-23

    Using advanced two-photon excitation confocal microscopy, associated with time-resolved spectroscopy, we characterize InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on nanorod heterostructures and demonstrate the passivation effect of a KOH treatment. High-quality InGaN/GaN nanorods were fabricated using nanosphere lithography as a candidate material for light-emitting diode devices. The depth- and time-resolved characterization at the nanoscale provides detailed carrier dynamic analysis helpful for understanding the optical properties. The nanoscale spatially resolved images of InGaN quantum well and defects were acquired simultaneously. We demonstrate that nanorod etching improves light extraction efficiency, and a proper KOH treatment has been found to reduce the surface defects efficiently and enhance the luminescence. The optical characterization techniques provide depth-resolved and time-resolved carrier dynamics with nanoscale spatially resolved mapping, which is crucial for a comprehensive and thorough understanding of nanostructured materials and provides novel insight into the improvement of materials fabrication and applications.

  20. The correlation between radiative surface defect states and high color rendering index from ZnO nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Combined surface, structural and opto-electrical investigations are drawn from the chemically fashioned ZnO nanotubes and its heterostructure with p-GaN film. A strong correlation has been found between the formation of radiative surface defect states in the nanotubes and the pure cool white light possessing averaged eight color rendering index value of 96 with appropriate color temperature. Highly important deep-red color index value has been realized > 95 which has the capability to render and reproduce natural and vivid colors accurately. Diverse types of deep defect states and their relative contribution to the corresponding wavelengths in the broad emission band is suggested. PMID:21878100

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of leather dye over ZnO catalyst supported on alumina and glass surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, S; Neppoiian, B; Palanichamy, M; Arabindoo, B; Murugesan, V

    2001-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of leather dye, Acid green 16, has been investigated over a ZnO catalyst supported on two different materials, namely alumina and glass beads (3-5 mm diameter). Sunlight was used as the energy source. The alumina-supported ZnO outperformed the glass-supported ZnO under identical operational conditions suggesting that the dye molecules are adsorbed on the alumina supports to make a high concentration environment around the loaded ZnO. The degradation efficiency was greater at pH = 4 compared to other acidic and neutral pH. Also, the degradation efficiency was a little bit higher in alkaline medium, which correlates with the adsorption behaviour of acid green 16 on the alumina supported ZnO. The influence of inorganic oxidants like H2O2, FeCl3 and Fenton reagent on the degradation efficiency were systematically studied. The decolourisation and extent of degradation of the dye were determined by UV-VIS spectroscopy and COD reflux methods, respectively. Complete mineralisation of the dye was conformed by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis.

  2. Nanosecond laser switching of surface wettability and epitaxial integration of c-axis ZnO thin films with Si(111) substrates.

    PubMed

    Molaei, R; Bayati, M R; Alipour, H M; Estrich, N A; Narayan, J

    2014-01-08

    We have achieved integration of polar ZnO[0001] epitaxial thin films with Si(111) substrates where cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (c-YSZ) was used as a template on a Si(111) substrate. Using XRD (θ-2θ and φ scans) and HRTEM techniques, the epitaxial relationship between the ZnO and the c-YSZ layers was shown to be [0001]ZnO || [111]YSZ and [21¯1¯0]ZnO || [1¯01](c-YSZ), where the [21¯1¯0] direction lies in the (0001) plane, and the [1¯01] direction lies in the (111) plane. Similar studies on the c-YSZ/Si interface revealed epitaxy as (111)YSZ || (111)Si and in-plane (110)YSZ || (110)Si. HRTEM micrographs revealed atomically sharp and crystallographically continuous interfaces. The ZnO epilayers were subsequently laser annealed by a single pulse of a nanosecond excimer KrF laser. It was shown that the hydrophobic behavior of the pristine sample became hydrophilic after laser treatment. XPS was employed to study the effect of laser treatment on surface stoichiometry of the ZnO epilayers. The results revealed the formation of oxygen vacancies, which are envisaged to control the observed hydrophilic behavior. Our AFM studies showed surface smoothing due to the coupling of the high energy laser beam with the surface. The importance of integration of c-axis ZnO with Si(111) substrates is emphasized using the paradigm of domain matching epitaxy on the c-YSZ[111] buffer platform along with their out-of-plane orientation, which leads to improvement of the performance of the solid-state devices. The observed ultrafast response and switching in photochemical characteristics provide new opportunities for application of ZnO in smart catalysts, sensors, membranes, DNA self-assembly and multifunctional devices.

  3. Role of Surface-Capping Ligands in Photoexcited Electron Transfer between CdS Nanorods and [FeFe] Hydrogenase and the Subsequent H 2 Generation

    DOE PAGES

    Wilker, Molly B.; Utterback, James K.; Greene, Sophie; ...

    2017-12-08

    Complexes of CdS nanorods and [FeFe] hydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum have been shown to photochemically produce H 2. This study examines the role of the ligands that passivate the nanocrystal surfaces in the electron transfer from photoexcited CdS to hydrogenase and the H 2 generation that follows. We functionalized CdS nanorods with a series of mercaptocarboxylate surface-capping ligands of varying lengths and measured their photoexcited electron relaxation by transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy before and after hydrogenase adsorption. Rate constants for electron transfer from the nanocrystals to the enzyme, extracted by modeling of TA kinetics, decrease exponentially with ligand length, suggestingmore » that the ligand layer acts as a barrier to charge transfer and controls the degree of electronic coupling. Relative light-driven H 2 production efficiencies follow the relative quantum efficiencies of electron transfer, revealing the critical role of surface-capping ligands in determining the photochemical activity of these nanocrystal-enzyme complexes. Our results suggest that the H 2 production in this system could be maximized with a choice of a surface-capping ligand that decreases the distance between the nanocrystal surface and the electron injection site of the enzyme.« less

  4. Role of Surface-Capping Ligands in Photoexcited Electron Transfer between CdS Nanorods and [FeFe] Hydrogenase and the Subsequent H 2 Generation

    SciT

    Wilker, Molly B.; Utterback, James K.; Greene, Sophie

    Complexes of CdS nanorods and [FeFe] hydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum have been shown to photochemically produce H 2. This study examines the role of the ligands that passivate the nanocrystal surfaces in the electron transfer from photoexcited CdS to hydrogenase and the H 2 generation that follows. We functionalized CdS nanorods with a series of mercaptocarboxylate surface-capping ligands of varying lengths and measured their photoexcited electron relaxation by transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy before and after hydrogenase adsorption. Rate constants for electron transfer from the nanocrystals to the enzyme, extracted by modeling of TA kinetics, decrease exponentially with ligand length, suggestingmore » that the ligand layer acts as a barrier to charge transfer and controls the degree of electronic coupling. Relative light-driven H 2 production efficiencies follow the relative quantum efficiencies of electron transfer, revealing the critical role of surface-capping ligands in determining the photochemical activity of these nanocrystal-enzyme complexes. Our results suggest that the H 2 production in this system could be maximized with a choice of a surface-capping ligand that decreases the distance between the nanocrystal surface and the electron injection site of the enzyme.« less

  5. Photoelectrochemical water splitting strongly enhanced in fast-grown ZnO nanotree and nanocluster structures† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ta02788a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sangle, Abhijeet; Zhang, Siyuan; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Shi, Liyi; Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Cho, Seungho; Li, Dongdong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate selective growth of ZnO branched nanostructures: from nanorod clusters (with branches parallel to parent rods) to nanotrees (with branches perpendicular to parent rods). The growth of these structures was realized using a three-step approach: electrodeposition of nanorods (NRs), followed by the sputtering of ZnO seed layers, followed by the growth of branched arms using hydrothermal growth. The density, size and direction of the branches were tailored by tuning the deposition parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first report of control of branch direction. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of the ZnO nanostructures follows the order: nanotrees (NTs) > nanorod clusters (NCs) > parent NRs. The NT structure with the best PEC performance also possesses the shortest fabrication period which had never been reported before. The photocurrent of the NT and NC photoelectrodes is 0.67 and 0.56 mA cm–2 at 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively, an enhancement of 139% and 100% when compared to the ZnO NR structures. The key reason for the improved performance is shown to be the very large surface-to-volume ratios in the branched nanostructures, which gives rise to enhanced light absorption, improved charge transfer across the nanostructure/electrolyte interfaces to the electrolyte and efficient charge transport within the material. PMID:27774147

  6. Synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties of a novel CuO/ZnO nanorod photocathode for solar hydrogen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaislamov, Ulugbek; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2016-10-01

    Here, we present a facile synthesis method and photoelectrochemical characterizations of a p-type CuO-nanorod array photoelectrode with ZnO nanorod branches. Vertically-aligned CuO nanorods were synthesized by using direct oxidation of metallic Cu nanorods grown on a Cu substrate by using a facile template-assisted electrodeposition method. The formed CuONR/ZnONB hierarchically-structured photoelectrode exhibited remarkable photoelectrodechemical performance and outstanding stability compared to the CuO NR photoelectrode without ZnO NR branches. Morphological, optical and electrochemical characterizations were carried out in order to examine the effects of ZnO nanorod branches on the stability and the overall electrochemical performance of the electrode.

  7. Surface modification of oxygen-deficient ZnO nanotubes by interstitially incorporated carbon: a superior photocatalytic platform for sustainable water and surface treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninnora Meethal, Bhabhina; Ramanarayanan, Rajita; Swaminathan, Sindhu

    2018-05-01

    An interesting architecture of robust, highly reproducible, template-free synthesis of phase pure carbon-incorporated short ZnO nanotubes through polymer assisted sol-gel method is presented here. These nanotubes exhibit enormous surface oxygen vacancies and mid bandgap levels confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These carbon-modified nanotubes exhibit encouraging results in photocatalytic studies, as there is a 16% greater degradation of contaminant dye than in the pristine ZnO nanotube. The reactive oxygen species generated from the photocatalysts were experimentally confirmed and quantified. Super hydrophilic nature renders these nanotubes suitable for antifogging application as observed from contact angle measurements. Characterisation and mechanism of a competent material with improved photoresponse, promising greater energy efficiency and anti-fog have been described in this investigation.

  8. Enhanced super-hydrophobic and switching behavior of ZnO nanostructured surfaces prepared by simple solution--immersion successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process.

    PubMed

    Suresh Kumar, P; Sundaramurthy, J; Mangalaraj, D; Nataraj, D; Rajarathnam, D; Srinivasan, M P

    2011-11-01

    A simple and cost-effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was adopted to fabricate hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured surfaces on transparent indium-tin oxide (ITO), glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. ZnO films deposited on different substrates show hierarchical structures like spindle, flower and spherical shape with diameters ranging from 30 to 300 nm. The photo-induced switching behaviors of ZnO film surfaces between hydrophobic and hydrophilic states were examined by water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. ZnO nanostructured films had contact angles of ~140° and 160°±2 on glass and PET substrates, respectively, exhibiting hydrophobic behavior without any surface modification or treatment. Upon exposure to ultraviolet (UV) illumination, the films showed hydrophilic behavior (contact angle: 15°±2), which upon low thermal stimuli revert back to its original hydrophobic nature. Such reversible and repeatable switching behaviors were observed upon cyclical exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These biomimetic ZnO surfaces exhibit good anti-reflective properties with lower reflectance of 9% for PET substrates. Thus, the present work is significant in terms of its potential application in switching devices, solar coatings and self-cleaning smart windows. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Gold Nanorod Surface Chemistry on Cellular Interactions In Vitro

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    properties of GNRs on cells. Previous studies on the cytotoxicity of various nanoparticles indicated that surface chemistry has a strong influence on cell...supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, ATCC) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin (pen/strep, Sigma). For nanoparticle exposure, media was supplemented...reagent ( phenazine ethosulfate; PES). Metabolically active cells reduce the MTS compound into a colored formazan product that is soluble in tissue

  10. Fourier Transform Surface Plasmon Resonance of Nanodisks Embedded in Magnetic Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Jung, Insub; Ih, Seongkeun; Yoo, Haneul; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Sungho

    2018-03-14

    In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis and application of magnetic plasmonic gyro-nanodisks (GNDs) for Fourier transform surface plasmon resonance based biodetection. Plasmonically active and magnetically responsive gyro-nanodisks were synthesized using electrochemical methods with anodized aluminum templates. Due to the unique properties of GNDs (magnetic responsiveness and surface plasmon bands), periodic extinction signals were generated under an external rotating magnetic field, which is, in turn, converted into frequency domains using Fourier transformation. After the binding of a target on GNDs, an increase in the shear force causes a shift in the frequency domain, which allows us to investigate biodetection for HA1 (the influenza virus). Most importantly, by modulating the number and the location of plasmonic nanodisks (a method for controlling the hydrodynamic forces by rationally designing the nanomaterial architecture), we achieved enhanced biodetection sensitivity. We expect that our results will contribute to improved sensing module performance, as well as a better understanding of dynamic nanoparticle systems, by harnessing the perturbed periodic fluctuation of surface plasmon bands under the modulated magnetic field.

  11. RGD-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods on the surface of carbon nanotubes for targeted photoacoustic imaging of gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Can; Bao, Chenchen; Liang, Shujing; Fu, Hualin; Wang, Kan; Deng, Min; Liao, Qiande; Cui, Daxiang

    2014-05-01

    Herein, we reported for the first time that RGD-conjugated silica-coated gold nanorods on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes were successfully used for targeted photoacoustic imaging of in vivo gastric cancer cells. A simple strategy was used to attach covalently silica-coated gold nanorods (sGNRs) onto the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to fabricate a hybrid nanostructure. The cross-linked reaction occurred through the combination of carboxyl groups on the MWNTs and the amino group on the surface of sGNRs modified with a silane coupling agent. RGD peptides were conjugated with the sGNR/MWNT nanostructure; resultant RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes were investigated for their influences on viability of MGC803 and GES-1 cells. The nude mice models loaded with gastric cancer cells were prepared, the RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes were injected into gastric cancer-bearing nude mice models via the tail vein, and the nude mice were observed by an optoacoustic imaging system. Results showed that RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes showed good water solubility and low cellular toxicity, could target in vivo gastric cancer cells, and obtained strong photoacoustic imaging in the nude model. RGD-conjugated sGNR/MWNT probes will own great potential in applications such as targeted photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy in the near future.

  12. Photochemical Synthesis of Shape-Controlled Nanostructured Gold on Zinc Oxide Nanorods as Photocatalytically Renewable Sensors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia-Quan; Duo, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Yu-Ge; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Fang, Wei; Liu, Yan-Ling; Shen, Ai-Guo; Hu, Ji-Ming; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2016-04-05

    Biosensors always suffer from passivation that prevents their reutilization. To address this issue, photocatalytically renewable sensors composed of semiconductor photocatalysts and sensing materials have emerged recently. In this work, we developed a robust and versatile method to construct different kinds of renewable biosensors consisting of ZnO nanorods and nanostructured Au. Via a facile and efficient photochemical reduction, various nanostructured Au was obtained successfully on ZnO nanorods. As-prepared sensors concurrently possess excellent sensing capability and desirable photocatalytic cleaning performance. Experimental results demonstrate that dendritic Au/ZnO composite has the strongest surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement, and dense Au nanoparticles (NPs)/ZnO composite has the highest electrochemical activity, which was successfully used for electrochemical detection of NO release from cells. Furthermore, both of the SERS and electrochemical sensors can be regenerated efficiently for renewable applications via photodegrading adsorbed probe molecules and biomolecules. Our strategy provides an efficient and versatile method to construct various kinds of highly sensitive renewable sensors and might expand the application of the photocatalytically renewable sensor in the biosensing area.

  13. Size-dependent Young’s modulus in ZnO nanowires with strong surface atomic bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shiwen; Bi, Sheng; Li, Qikun; Guo, Qinglei; Liu, Junshan; Ouyang, Zhongliang; Jiang, Chengming; Song, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    The mechanical properties of size-dependent nanowires are important in nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMSs), and have attracted much research interest. Characterization of the size effect of nanowires in atmosphere directly to broaden their practical application instead of just in high vacuum situations, as reported previously, is desperately needed. In this study, we systematically studied the Young’s modulus of vertical ZnO nanowires in atmosphere. The diameters ranged from 48 nm to 239 nm with a resonance method using non-contact atomic force microscopy. The values of Young’s modulus in atmosphere present extremely strong increasing tendency with decreasing diameter of nanowire due to stronger surface atomic bonds compared with that in vacuum. A core-shell model for nanowires is proposed to explore the Young’s modulus enhancement in atmosphere, which is correlated with atoms of oxygen occurring near the nanowire surface. The modified model is more accurate for analyzing the mechanical behavior of nanowires in atmosphere compared with the model in vacuum. Furthermore, it is possible to use this characterization method to measure the size-related elastic properties of similar wire-sharp nanomaterials in atmosphere and estimate the corresponding mechanical behavior. The study of the size-dependent Young’s modulus in ZnO nanowires in atmosphere will improve the understanding of the mechanical properties of nanomaterials as well as providing guidance for applications in NEMSs, nanogenerators, biosensors and other related areas.

  14. ZnO-nanorods: A possible white LED phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, Sachindra Nath; T., Arun; Ray, Dinseh K.; Sahoo, Pratap Kumar; Nozaki, Shinji; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Uchida, Kazuo

    2017-05-01

    The white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have drawn much attention to replace conventional lighting sources because of low energy consumption, high light efficiency and long lifetime. Although the most common approach to produce white light is to combine a blue LED chip and a yellow phosphor, such a white LED cannot be used for a general lighting application, which requires a broad luminescence spectrum in the visible wavelength range. We have successfully chemically synthesized the ZnO nanorods showing intense broad luminescence in the visible wavelength range and made a white LED using the ZnO nanorods as phosphor excited with a blue LED. Their lengths and diameters were 2 - 10 μm and 200 - 800 nm, respectively. The wurtzite structure was confirmed by the x-ray diffraction measurement. The PL spectrum obtained by exciting the ZnO nanorods with the He-Cd laser has two peaks, one associated with the near band-edge recombination and the other with recombination via defects. The peak intensity of the near band-edge luminescence at 388 nm is much weaker than that of the defect-related luminescence. The latter luminescence peak ranges from 450 to 850 nm and broad enough to be used as a phosphor for a white LED. A white LED has been fabricated using a blue LED with 450 nm emission and ZnO nanorod powders. The LED performances show a white light emission and the electroluminescence measurement shows a stiff increase in white light intensity with increasing blue LED current. The Commission International de1'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity colour coordinates of 450 nm LED pumped white emission shows a coordinate of (0.31, 0.32) for white LED at 350 mA. These results indicate that ZnO nanorods provides an alternate and effective approach to achieve high-performance white LEDs and also other optoelectronic devices.

  15. Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance in Au Nanoparticles Embedded dc Sputtered ZnO Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Patra, Anuradha; Balasubrahmaniyam, M; Lahal, Ranjit; Malar, P; Osipowicz, T; Manivannan, A; Kasiviswanathan, S

    2015-02-01

    The plasmonic behavior of metallic nanoparticles is explicitly dependent on their shape, size and the surrounding dielectric space. This study encompasses the influence of ZnO matrix, morphology of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and their organization on the optical behavior of ZnO/AuNPs-ZnO/ZnO/GP structures (GP: glass plate). These structures have been grown by a multiple-step physical process, which includes dc sputtering, thermal evaporation and thermal annealing. Different analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and optical absorption have been used to study the structures. In-situ rapid thermal treatment during dc sputtering of ZnO film has been found to induce subtle changes in the morphology of AuNPs, thereby altering the profile of the plasmon band in the absorption spectra. The results have been contrasted with a recent study on the spectral response of dc magnetron sputtered ZnO films embedded with AuNPs. Initial simulation results indicate that AuNPs-ZnO/Au/GP structure reflects/absorbs UV and infrared radiations, and therefore can serve as window coatings.

  16. Influence of Frequency-Dependent Dielectric Loss on Electrorheology of Surface Modified ZnO Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, H. M.; Adil, M.; Lee, KC; Latiff, N. R. A.

    2018-05-01