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Sample records for zno nanostructured thin

  1. Development of nanostructured ZnO thin film via electrohydrodynamic atomization technique and its photoconductivity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Duraisamy, Navaneethan; Kwon, Ki Rin; Jo, Jeongdai; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2014-08-01

    This article presents the non-vacuum technique for the preparation of nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film on glass substrate through electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique. The detailed process parameters for achieving homogeneous ZnO thin films are clearly discussed. The crystallinity and surface morphology of ZnO thin film are investigated by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The result shows that the deposited ZnO thin film is oriented in the wurtzite phase with void free surface morphology. The surface roughness of deposited ZnO thin film is found to be ~17.8 nm. The optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films show the average transmittance is about 90% in the visible region and the energy band gap is found to be 3.17 eV. The surface chemistry and purity of deposited ZnO thin films are analyzed by fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, conforming the presence of Zn-O in the deposited thin films without any organic moiety. The photocurrent measurement of nanostructured ZnO thin film is examined in the presence of UV light illumination with wavelength of 365 nm. These results suggest that the deposited nanostructured ZnO thin film through EHDA technique possess promising applications in the near future.

  2. Fabrication of nanostructured Al-doped ZnO thin film for methane sensing applications

    SciT

    Shafura, A. K., E-mail: shafura@ymail.com; Azhar, N. E. I.; Uzer, M.

    2016-07-06

    CH{sub 4} gas sensor was fabricated using spin-coating method of the nanostructured ZnO thin film. Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical and structural properties of the film was investigated. Dense nanostructured ZnO film are obtained at higher annealing temperature. The optimal condition of annealing temperature is 500°C which has conductivity and sensitivity value of 3.3 × 10{sup −3} S/cm and 11.5%, respectively.

  3. Superhydrophobic Ag decorated ZnO nanostructured thin film as effective surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Sonia, S.; Poongodi, S.; Kumar, P. Suresh; Masuda, Yoshitake; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C.

    2015-11-01

    The present work is an attempt to overcome the challenges in the fabrication of super hydrophobic silver decorated zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure thin films via thermal evaporation process. The ZnO nanowire thin films are prepared without any surface modification and show super hydrophobic nature with a contact angle of 163°. Silver is further deposited onto the ZnO nanowire to obtain nanoworm morphology. Silver decorated ZnO (Ag@ZnO) thin films are used as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies. The formation of randomly arranged nanowire and silver decorated nanoworm structure is confirmed using FESEM, HR-TEM and AFM analysis. Crystallinity and existence of Ag on ZnO are confirmed using XRD and XPS studies. A detailed growth mechanism is discussed for the formation of the nanowires from nanobeads based on various deposition times. The prepared SERS substrate reveals a reproducible enhancement of 3.082 × 107 M for Rhodamine 6G dye (R6G) for 10-10 molar concentration per liter. A higher order of SERS spectra is obtained for a contact angle of 155°. Thus the obtained thin films show the superhydrophobic nature with a highly enhanced Raman spectrum and act as SERS substrates. The present nanoworm morphology shows a new pathway for the construction of semiconductor thin films for plasmonic studies and challenges the orderly arranged ZnO nanorods, wires and other nano structure substrates used in SERS studies.

  4. Impact of nanostructured thin ZnO film in ultraviolet protection

    PubMed Central

    Sasani Ghamsari, Morteza; Alamdari, Sanaz; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale ZnO is one of the best choices for ultraviolet (UV) protection, not only because of its antimicrobial properties but also due to its potential application for UV preservation. However, the behavior of nanostructured thin ZnO films and long-term effects of UV-radiation exposure have not been studied yet. In this study, we investigated the UV-protection ability of sol gel-derived thin ZnO films after different exposure times. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible optical spectroscopy were carried out to study the structure and optical properties of the ZnO films as a function of the UV-irradiation time. The results obtained showed that the prepared thin ZnO films were somewhat transparent under the visible wavelength region and protective against UV radiation. The UV-protection factor was 50+ for the prepared samples, indicating that they were excellent UV protectors. The deposited thin ZnO films demonstrated promising antibacterial potential and significant light absorbance in the UV range. The experimental results suggest that the synthesized samples have potential for applications in the health care field. PMID:28096668

  5. Impact of nanostructured thin ZnO film in ultraviolet protection.

    PubMed

    Sasani Ghamsari, Morteza; Alamdari, Sanaz; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale ZnO is one of the best choices for ultraviolet (UV) protection, not only because of its antimicrobial properties but also due to its potential application for UV preservation. However, the behavior of nanostructured thin ZnO films and long-term effects of UV-radiation exposure have not been studied yet. In this study, we investigated the UV-protection ability of sol gel-derived thin ZnO films after different exposure times. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible optical spectroscopy were carried out to study the structure and optical properties of the ZnO films as a function of the UV-irradiation time. The results obtained showed that the prepared thin ZnO films were somewhat transparent under the visible wavelength region and protective against UV radiation. The UV-protection factor was 50+ for the prepared samples, indicating that they were excellent UV protectors. The deposited thin ZnO films demonstrated promising antibacterial potential and significant light absorbance in the UV range. The experimental results suggest that the synthesized samples have potential for applications in the health care field.

  6. Nanostructured hybrid ZnO thin films for energy conversion

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report on hybrid films based on ZnO/organic dye prepared by electrodeposition using tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanines (TS-CuPc) and Eosin-Y (EoY). Both the morphology and porosity of hybrid ZnO films are highly dependent on the type of dyes used in the synthesis. High photosensitivity was observed for ZnO/EoY films, while a very weak photoresponse was obtained for ZnO/TS-CuPc films. Despite a higher absorption coefficient of TS-CuPc than EoY, in ZnO/EoY hybrid films, the excited photoelectrons between the EoY levels can be extracted through ZnO, and the porosity of ZnO/EoY can also be controlled. PMID:21711909

  7. ZnO thin films and nanostructures for emerging optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D. J.; Teherani, F. H.; Sandana, V. E.; Razeghi, M.

    2010-02-01

    ZnO-based thin films and nanostructures grown by PLD for various emerging optoelectronic applications. AZO thin films are currently displacing ITO for many TCO applications due to recent improvements in attainable AZO conductivity combined with processing, cost and toxicity advantages. Advances in the channel mobilities and Id on/off ratios in ZnO-based TTFTs have opened up the potential for use as a replacement for a-Si in AM-OLED and AM-LCD screens. Angular-dependent specular reflection measurements of self-forming, moth-eye-like, nanostructure arrays grown by PLD were seen to have <0.5% reflectivity over the whole visible spectrum for angles of incidence between 10 and 60 degrees. Such nanostructures may be useful for applications such as AR coatings on solar cells. Compliant ZnO layers on mismatched/amorphous substrates were shown to have potential for MOVPE regrowth of GaN. This approach could be used as a means to facilitate lift-off of GaN-based LEDs from insulating sapphire substrates and could allow the growth of InGaN-based solar cells on cheap substrates. The green gap in InGaN-based LEDs was combated by substituting low Ts PLD n-ZnO for MOCVD n-GaN in inverted hybrid heterojunctions. This approach maintained the integrity of the InGaN MQWs and gave LEDs with green emission at just over 510 nm. Hybrid n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunctions were also seen to have the potential for UV (375 nm) EL, characteristic of ZnO NBE emission. This suggests that there was significant hole injection into the ZnO and that such LEDs could profit from the relatively high exciton binding energy of ZnO.

  8. Acoustoelectric Effect on the Responses of SAW Sensors Coated with Electrospun ZnO Nanostructured Thin Film

    PubMed Central

    Tasaltin, Cihat; Ebeoglu, Mehmet Ali; Ozturk, Zafer Ziya

    2012-01-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) was a very good candidate for improving the sensitivity of gas sensor technology. The preparation of an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on a 433 MHz Rayleigh wave based Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor and the investigation of the acoustoelectric effect on the responses of the SAW sensor are reported. We prepared an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on the SAW devices by using an electrospray technique. To investigate the dependency of the sensor response on the structure and the number of the ZnO nanoparticles, SAW sensors were prepared with different coating loads. The coating frequency shifts were adjusted to fall between 100 kHz and 2.4 MHz. The sensor measurements were performed against VOCs such as acetone, trichloroethylene, chloroform, ethanol, n-propanol and methanol vapor. The sensor responses of n-propanol have opposite characteristics to the other VOCs, and we attributed these characteristics to the elastic effect/acoustoelectric effect.

  9. Visible and UV photo-detection in ZnO nanostructured thin films via simple tuning of solution method.

    PubMed

    Khokhra, Richa; Bharti, Bandna; Lee, Heung-No; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-11-08

    This study demonstrates significant visible light photo-detection capability of pristine ZnO nanostructure thin films possessing substantially high percentage of oxygen vacancies [Formula: see text] and zinc interstitials [Formula: see text], introduced by simple tuning of economical solution method. The demonstrated visible light photo-detection capability, in addition to the inherent UV light detection ability of ZnO, shows great dependency of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with the nanostructure morphology. The dependency was evaluated by analyzing the presence/percentage of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] using photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Morphologies of ZnO viz. nanoparticles (NPs), nanosheets (NSs) and nanoflowers (NFs), as a result of tuning of synthesis method contended different concentrations of defects, demonstrated different photo-detection capabilities in the form of a thin film photodetector. The photo-detection capability was investigated under different light excitations (UV; 380~420 nm, white ; λ > 420 nm and green; 490~570 nm). The as fabricated NSs photodetector possessing comparatively intermediate percentage of [Formula: see text] ~ 47.7% and [Formula: see text] ~ 13.8% exhibited superior performance than that of NPs and NFs photodetectors, and ever reported photodetectors fabricated by using pristine ZnO nanostructures in thin film architecture. The adopted low cost and simplest approach makes the pristine ZnO-NSs applicable for wide-wavelength applications in optoelectronic devices.

  10. Pulsed laser deposited hexagonal wurzite ZnO thin-film nanostructures/nanotextures for nanophotonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John Chelliah, Cyril Robinson Azariah; Swaminathan, Rajesh

    2018-01-01

    The high-quality and transparent thin-film zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures/nanotextures deposited on glass and silicon substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique are reported. A solid-state, Nd-YAG laser was used for the PLD process. The films were deposited (i) at room temperature of 25°C (as deposited), (ii) at 150°C, (iii) at 300°C, (iv) at 450°C, and (v) at 600°C and annealed in the vacuum chamber. The depositions were also carried out at different laser repetition rates such as 10 and 5 Hz. UV spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were carried out for optical studies. X-ray diffraction studies were carried out for all samples and analyzed the effects of the laser repetition rate, deposition, and annealing temperatures on the structural properties. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images are recorded for the best-structured samples. The electrical parameters were calibrated using the Hall effect measurement system and the IV characterization was performed using a CHI Electrochemical workstation. The deposition temperature has a significant effect on the microstrain and dislocation density of the ZnO thin film and optical phenomena with various electrical parameters, including the electron mobility, conductivity, and magnetoresistance. These promising results are suitable conditions for nanophotonics applications.

  11. Studies on visible light photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating method.

    PubMed

    Poongodi, G; Anandan, P; Kumar, R Mohan; Jayavel, R

    2015-09-05

    Nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that the thin films were well crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDAX and XPS revealed that Co was doped into ZnO structure. FESEM images revealed that the films possess granular morphology without any crack and confirm that Co doping decreases the grain size. UV-Vis transmission spectra show that the substitution of Co in ZnO leads to band gap narrowing. The Co doped ZnO films were found to exhibit improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light in comparison with the undoped ZnO film. The decrease in grain size and extending light absorption towards the visible region by Co doping in ZnO film contribute equally to the improved photocatalytic activity. The bactericidal efficiency of Co doped ZnO films were investigated against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The optical density (OD) measurement showed better bactericidal activity at higher level of Co doping in ZnO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ZnO nanostructures as electron extraction layers for hybrid perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaidou, Katerina; Sarang, Som; Tung, Vincent; Lu, Jennifer; Ghosh, Sayantani

    Optimum interaction between light harvesting media and electron transport layers is critical for the efficient operation of photovoltaic devices. In this work, ZnO layers of different morphologies are implemented as electron extraction and transport layers for hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin films. These include nanowires, nanoparticles, and single crystalline film. Charge transfer at the ZnO/perovskite interface is investigated and compared through ultra-fast characterization techniques, including temperature and power dependent spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence. The nanowires cause an enhancement in perovskite emission, which may be attributed to increased scattering and grain boundary formation. However, the ZnO layers with decreasing surface roughness exhibit better electron extraction, as inferred from photoluminescence quenching, reduction in the number of bound excitons, and reduced exciton lifetime in CH3NH3PbI3 samples. This systematic study is expected to provide an understanding of the fundamental processes occurring at the ZnO-CH3NH3PbI3 interface and ultimately, provide guidelines for the ideal configuration of ZnO-based hybrid Perovskite devices. This research was supported by National Aeronautics and Space administration (NASA) Grant No: NNX15AQ01A.

  13. Plasmonic enhanced optical characteristics of Ag nanostructured ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Arijit; Gogurla, Narendar; Shivakiran Bhaktha, B. N.; Ray, Samit K.

    2016-04-01

    We have demonstrated the enhanced photoluminescence and photoconducting characteristics of plasmonic Ag-ZnO films due to the light scattering effect from Ag nanoislands. Ag nanoislands have been prepared on ITO-coated glass substrates by thermal evaporation followed by annealing. Plasmonic Ag-ZnO films have been fabricated by depositing ZnO over Ag nanoislands by sol-gel process. The band-edge emission of ZnO is enhanced for 170 nm sized Ag nanoislands in ZnO as compared to pure ZnO. The defect emission is also found to be quenched simultaneously for plasmonic Ag-ZnO films. The enhancement and quenching of photoluminescence at different wavelengths for Ag-ZnO films can be well understood from the localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoislands. The Ag-ZnO M-S-M photoconductor device showed a tenfold increment in photocurrent and faster photoresponse as compared to the control ZnO device. The enhancement in photoresponse of the device is due to the increased photon absorption in ZnO films via scattering of the incident illumination.

  14. One-dimensional ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Jayadevan, K P; Tseng, T Y

    2012-06-01

    The wide-gap semiconductor ZnO with nanostructures such as nanoparticle, nanorod, nanowire, nanobelt, nanotube has high potential for a variety of applications. This article reviews the fundamentals of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures, including processing, structure, property, application and their processing-microstructure-property correlation. Various fabrication methods of the ZnO nanostructures including vapor-liquid-solid process, vapor-solid growth, solution growth, solvothermal growth, template-assisted growth and self-assembly are introduced. The characterization and properties of the ZnO nanostructures are described. The possible applications of these nanostructures are also discussed.

  15. Growth stimulation of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida using nanostructured ZnO thin film as transducer element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukanov, Alexandre; Filipov, Chavdar; Valcheva, Violeta; Lecheva, Marta; Emin, Saim

    2015-04-01

    The semiconductor zinc oxide nanomaterial (ZnO or ZnO:H) is widely used in advanced biosensor technology for the design of highly-sensitive detector elements for various applications. In the attempt to evaluate its effect on common microorganisms, two types of nanostructured transducer films have been used (average diameter 600-1000 nm). They have been prepared by using both wet sol-gel method and magnetron sputtering. Their polycrystalline structure and specific surface features have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. The assessment of growth stimulation of bacteria was determined using epifluorescent microscope by cell staining with Live/Dead BacLight kit. In our experiments, the growth stimulation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on nanostructured ZnO film is demonstrated by Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida. These two bacterial species have been selected, because they are well known and studied in biosensor technologies, with structural difference of their cell walls. These pathogens are easy for with common source in the liquid food or some commercial products. Our data has revealed that the method of transducer film preparation influences strongly bacterial inhibition and division. These results present the transforming signal precisely, when ZnO is used in biosensor applications.

  16. Surface nanostructuring of thin film composite membranes via grafting polymerization and incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isawi, Heba; El-Sayed, Magdi H.; Feng, Xianshe; Shawky, Hosam; Abdel Mottaleb, Mohamed S.

    2016-11-01

    A new approach for modification of polyamid thin film composite membrane PA(TFC) using synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was shown to enhance the membrane performances for reverse osmosis water desalination. First, active layer of synthesis PA(TFC) membrane was activated with an aqueous solution of free radical graft polymerization of hydrophilic methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer onto the surface of the PA(TFC) membrane resulting PMAA-g-PA(TFC). Second, the PA(TFC) membrane has been developed by incorporation of ZnO NPs into the MAA grafting solution resulting the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane. The surface properties of the synthesized nanoparticles and prepared membranes were investigated using the FTIR, XRD and SEM. Morphology studies demonstrated that ZnO NPs have been successfully incorporated into the active grafting layer over PA(TFC) composite membranes. The zinc leaching from the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was minimal, as shown by batch tests that indicated stabilization of the ZnO NPs on the membrane surfaces. Compared with the a pure PA(TFC) and PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membranes, the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was more hydrophilic, with an improved water contact angle (∼50 ± 3°) over the PMAA-g-PA(TFC) (63 ± 2.5°). The ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane showed salt rejection of 97% (of the total groundwater salinity), 99% of dissolved bivalent ions (Ca2+, SO42-and Mg2+), and 98% of mono valent ions constituents (Cl- and Na+). In addition, antifouling performance of the membranes was determined using E. coli as a potential foulant. This demonstrates that the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane can significantly improve the membrane performances and was favorable to enhance the selectivity, permeability, water flux, mechanical properties and the bio-antifouling properties of the membranes for water desalination.

  17. Nanostructured ZnO Films for Room Temperature Ammonia Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhivya Ponnusamy; Sridharan Madanagurusamy

    2014-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique onto a thoroughly cleaned glass substrate at room temperature. X-ray diffraction revealed that the deposited film was polycrystalline in nature. The field emission scanning electron micrograph (FE-SEM) showed the uniform formation of a rugby ball-shaped ZnO nanostructure. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) confirmed that the film was stoichiometric and the direct band gap of the film, determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy, was 3.29 eV. The ZnO nanostructured film exhibited better sensing towards ammonia (NH3) at room temperature (˜30°C). The fabricated ZnO film based sensor was capable of detecting NH3 at as low as 5 ppm, and its parameters, such as response, selectivity, stability, and response/recovery time, were also investigated.

  18. Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhengrong R; Voigt, James A; Liu, Jun; McKenzie, Bonnie; McDermott, Matthew J; Rodriguez, Mark A; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang

    2003-12-01

    Extended and oriented nanostructures are desirable for many applications, but direct fabrication of complex nanostructures with controlled crystalline morphology, orientation and surface architectures remains a significant challenge. Here we report a low-temperature, environmentally benign, solution-based approach for the preparation of complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures, and the systematic modification of their crystal morphology. Using controlled seeded growth and citrate anions that selectively adsorb on ZnO basal planes as the structure-directing agent, we prepared large arrays of oriented ZnO nanorods with controlled aspect ratios, complex film morphologies made of oriented nanocolumns and nanoplates (remarkably similar to biomineral structures in red abalone shells) and complex bilayers showing in situ column-to-rod morphological transitions. The advantages of some of these ZnO structures for photocatalytic decompositions of volatile organic compounds were demonstrated. The novel ZnO nanostructures are expected to have great potential for sensing, catalysis, optical emission, piezoelectric transduction, and actuations.

  19. Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in electrodeposited Co-doped ZnO nanostructured thin films by controlling the oxygen vacancy defects

    SciT

    Simimol, A.; Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601; Anappara, Aji A.

    We report the growth of un-doped and cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures fabricated on FTO coated glass substrates using electrodeposition method. A detailed study on the effects of dopant concentration on morphology, structural, optical, and magnetic properties of the ZnO nanostructures has been carried out systematically by varying the Co concentration (c.{sub Co}) from 0.01 to 1 mM. For c.{sub Co }≤ 0.2 mM, h-wurtzite phase with no secondary phases of Co were present in the ZnO nanostructures. For c.{sub Co} ≤ 0.2 mM, the photoluminescence spectra exhibited a decrease in the intensity of ultraviolet emission as well as band-gap narrowing with an increase in dopantmore » concentration. All the doped samples displayed a broad emission in the visible range and its intensity increased with an increase in Co concentration. It was found that the defect centers such as oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials were the source of the visible emission. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed, Co was primarily in the divalent state, replacing the Zn ion inside the tetrahedral crystal site of ZnO without forming any cluster or secondary phases of Co. The un-doped ZnO nanorods exhibited diamagnetic behavior and it remained up to a c.{sub Co} of 0.05 mM, while for c.{sub Co }> 0.05 mM, the ZnO nanostructures exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The coercivity increased to 695 G for 0.2 mM Co-doped sample and then it decreased for c.{sub Co }> 0.2 mM. Our results illustrate that up to a threshold concentration of 0.2 mM, the strong ferromagnetism is due to the oxygen vacancy defects centers, which exist in the Co-doped ZnO nanostructures. The origin of strong ferromagnetism at room temperature in Co-doped ZnO nanostructures is attributed to the s-d exchange interaction between the localized spin moments resulting from the oxygen vacancies and d electrons of Co{sup 2+} ions. Our findings provide a new insight for

  20. Internal stress induced natural self-chemisorption of ZnO nanostructured films

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Po-Wei; Su, Chih-Wei; Wei, Da-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The energetic particles bombardment can produce large internal stress in the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film, and it can be used to intentionally modify the surface characteristics of ZnO films. In this article, we observed that the internal stress increased from −1.62 GPa to −0.33 GPa, and the naturally wettability of the textured ZnO nanostructured films changed from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity. According to analysis of surface chemical states, the naturally controllable wetting behavior can be attributed to hydrocarbon adsorbates on the nanostructured film surface, which is caused by tunable internal stress. On the other hand, the interfacial water molecules near the surface of ZnO nanostructured films have been identified as hydrophobic hydrogen structure by Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflection. Moreover, a remarkable near-band-edge emission peak shifting also can be observed in PL spectra due to the transition of internal stress state. Furthermore, our present ZnO nanostructured films also exhibited excellent transparency over 80% with a wise surface wetting switched from hydrophobic to hydrophilic states after exposing in ultraviolet (UV) surroundings. Our work demonstrated that the internal stress of the thin film not only induced natural wettability transition of ZnO nanostructured films, but also in turn affected the surface properties such as surface chemisorption. PMID:28233827

  1. Internal stress induced natural self-chemisorption of ZnO nanostructured films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Po-Wei; Su, Chih-Wei; Wei, Da-Hua

    2017-02-01

    The energetic particles bombardment can produce large internal stress in the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film, and it can be used to intentionally modify the surface characteristics of ZnO films. In this article, we observed that the internal stress increased from -1.62 GPa to -0.33 GPa, and the naturally wettability of the textured ZnO nanostructured films changed from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity. According to analysis of surface chemical states, the naturally controllable wetting behavior can be attributed to hydrocarbon adsorbates on the nanostructured film surface, which is caused by tunable internal stress. On the other hand, the interfacial water molecules near the surface of ZnO nanostructured films have been identified as hydrophobic hydrogen structure by Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflection. Moreover, a remarkable near-band-edge emission peak shifting also can be observed in PL spectra due to the transition of internal stress state. Furthermore, our present ZnO nanostructured films also exhibited excellent transparency over 80% with a wise surface wetting switched from hydrophobic to hydrophilic states after exposing in ultraviolet (UV) surroundings. Our work demonstrated that the internal stress of the thin film not only induced natural wettability transition of ZnO nanostructured films, but also in turn affected the surface properties such as surface chemisorption.

  2. Internal stress induced natural self-chemisorption of ZnO nanostructured films.

    PubMed

    Chi, Po-Wei; Su, Chih-Wei; Wei, Da-Hua

    2017-02-24

    The energetic particles bombardment can produce large internal stress in the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film, and it can be used to intentionally modify the surface characteristics of ZnO films. In this article, we observed that the internal stress increased from -1.62 GPa to -0.33 GPa, and the naturally wettability of the textured ZnO nanostructured films changed from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity. According to analysis of surface chemical states, the naturally controllable wetting behavior can be attributed to hydrocarbon adsorbates on the nanostructured film surface, which is caused by tunable internal stress. On the other hand, the interfacial water molecules near the surface of ZnO nanostructured films have been identified as hydrophobic hydrogen structure by Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflection. Moreover, a remarkable near-band-edge emission peak shifting also can be observed in PL spectra due to the transition of internal stress state. Furthermore, our present ZnO nanostructured films also exhibited excellent transparency over 80% with a wise surface wetting switched from hydrophobic to hydrophilic states after exposing in ultraviolet (UV) surroundings. Our work demonstrated that the internal stress of the thin film not only induced natural wettability transition of ZnO nanostructured films, but also in turn affected the surface properties such as surface chemisorption.

  3. High Performance Flexible Actuator of Urchin-Like ZnO Nanostructure/Polyvinylenefluoride Hybrid Thin Film with Graphene Electrodes for Acoustic Generator and Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Oug Jae; Lee, James S; Kim, Jae Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2016-05-01

    A bass frequency response enhanced flexible polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based thin film acoustic actuator is successfully fabricated. High concentrations of various zinc oxide (ZnO) is embedded in PVDF matrix, enhancing the β phase content and the dielectric property of the composite thin film. ZnO acts as a nucleation agent for the crystallization of PVDF. A chemical vapor deposition grown graphene is used as electrodes, enabling high electron mobility for the distortion free acoustic signals. The frequency response of the fabricated acoustic actuator is studied as a function of the film thickness and filler content. The optimized film has a thickness of 80 μm with 30 wt% filler content and shows 72% and 42% frequency response enhancement in bass and midrange compared to the commercial PVDF, respectively. Also, the total harmonic distortion decreases to 82% and 74% in the bass and midrange regions, respectively. Furthermore, the composite film shows a promising potential for microphone applications. Most of all, it is demonstrated that acoustic actuator performance is strongly influenced by degree of PVDF crystalline. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Doping effect on SILAR synthesized crystalline nanostructured Cu-doped ZnO thin films grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaygude, H. D.; Shinde, S. K.; Velhal, Ninad B.; Takale, M. V.; Fulari, V. J.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a novel chemical route is used to synthesize the undoped and Cu-doped ZnO thin films in aqueous solution by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The synthesized thin films are characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX), contact angle goniometer and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. XRD study shows that the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal crystal structure. The change in morphology for different doping is observed in the studies of FE-SEM. EDAX spectrum shows that the thin films consist of zinc, copper and oxygen elements. Contact angle goniometer is used to measure the contact angle between a liquid and a solid interface and after detection, the nature of the films is initiated from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The optical band gap energy for direct allowed transition ranging between 1.60-2.91 eV is observed.

  5. New approach to biosensing of co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by incorporation of neutral red in aluminum doped nanostructured ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    V T, Fidal; T S, Chandra

    2017-06-01

    Biosensing of NADH on bare electrodes has drawbacks such as high over-potential and poisoning during the oxidation reaction. To overcome this challenge a different approach has been undertaken by incorporating neutral red (NR) in Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films using one-pot chemical bath deposition (CBD). The surface morphology of the films was hexagonal nanorods along the c-axis, perpendicular to the substrate. The thickness of the thin films were ranging from 400 to 3000nm varying dependent on time of deposition (30 to 150min). The average diameter of the nanorods was larger in the presence of neutral red (NR-AZO) with ~300nm in contrast to its absence (AZO) with ~200nm. The density of the packing of nanorods was dependent on the citrate concentration used during deposition. Control over the dopant concentration in the films was achieved by varying the area of Al foil used in the deposition solution. The selected area diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated 002 plane of orientation in the nanorods. FTIR and FT-Raman analysis revealed conserved structure of NR and AZO. Chronoamperometric (CA) analysis showed a sensitivity of 0.45μAcm -2 mM -1 and LoD of 22μM within the range 0.075-4mM of NADH. The biological sensing of NADH was validated by physical adsorption of NAD + dependent-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) on NR-AZO. CA showed sensitivity of 0.56μAcm -2 mM -1 and LoD for lactate was 27μM in the range of 0.1-1mM of lactate. Further validation with real-time serum sample shows that LDH/NR-AZO correlates with the clinical values. The distinction in this study is that the organic mediator like neutral red has been incorporated into the grain structure of the ZnO thin film whereas other study with the mediators have only attempted surface functionalization. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Recent Advances in Bionanomaterials" Guest Editor: Dr. Marie-Louise Saboungi and Dr. Samuel D. Bader. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. ZnO Nanostructures for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Laurenti, Marco; Cauda, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    This review focuses on the most recent applications of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures for tissue engineering. ZnO is one of the most investigated metal oxides, thanks to its multifunctional properties coupled with the ease of preparing various morphologies, such as nanowires, nanorods, and nanoparticles. Most ZnO applications are based on its semiconducting, catalytic and piezoelectric properties. However, several works have highlighted that ZnO nanostructures may successfully promote the growth, proliferation and differentiation of several cell lines, in combination with the rise of promising antibacterial activities. In particular, osteogenesis and angiogenesis have been effectively demonstrated in numerous cases. Such peculiarities have been observed both for pure nanostructured ZnO scaffolds as well as for three-dimensional ZnO-based hybrid composite scaffolds, fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies. Therefore, all these findings suggest that ZnO nanostructures represent a powerful tool in promoting the acceleration of diverse biological processes, finally leading to the formation of new living tissue useful for organ repair. PMID:29113133

  7. Confocal Raman microscopy of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singamaneni, Srikanth; Gupta, Maneesh; Yang, Rusen; Wang, Zhong; Tsukruk, Vladimir

    2009-03-01

    ZnO nanostructures with various shapes (vertically aligned nanorods, nanobelts, nanohelixes, nanorings) have been synthesized using both vapor phase and solution growth methods. In the simplest example of a nanobelt, the fast growth direction can be either (21 1 0) or (011 0) or (0001). Here, we show that confocal Raman microscopy can be employed as a fast and nondestructive analytical technique to identify the crystal planes and reveal the relative orientation of the ZnO nanostructure. Various features of the Raman spectrum of ZnO nanostructures (presence of the A1(TO) mode, width of the E2 mode) were found to be sensitive to relative orientation of the incident source laser and the crystal plane. Furthermore, owing to the optical anisotropy of ZnO, Raman scattering from the substrate is modulated (either enhanced or suppressed with respect to the background) depending on the polarization of the incident light with respect to orientation of the nanobelt. The results presented here describe a novel method to nondestructively identify the growth, relative orientation, and the waveguiding properties of the ZnO nanostructures.

  8. Comparative study of ZnO nanorods and thin films for chemical and biosensing applications and the development of ZnO nanorods based potentiometric strontium ion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun, K.; Ibupoto, Z. H.; Chey, C. O.; Lu, Jun.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the comparative study of ZnO nanorods and ZnO thin films were performed regarding the chemical and biosensing properties and also ZnO nanorods based strontium ion sensor is proposed. ZnO nanorods were grown on gold coated glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth method and the ZnO thin films were deposited by electro deposition technique. ZnO nanorods and thin films were characterised by field emission electron microscopy [FESEM] and X-ray diffraction [XRD] techniques and this study has shown that the grown nanostructures are highly dense, uniform and exhibited good crystal quality. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy [TEM] was used to investigate the quality of ZnO thin film and we observed that ZnO thin film was comprised of nano clusters. ZnO nanorods and thin films were functionalised with selective strontium ionophore salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone [ST] membrane, galactose oxidase, and lactate oxidase for the detection of strontium ion, galactose and L-lactic acid, respectively. The electrochemical response of both ZnO nanorods and thin films sensor devices was measured by using the potentiometric method. The strontium ion sensor has exhibited good characteristics with a sensitivity of 28.65 ± 0.52 mV/decade, for a wide range of concentrations from 1.00 × 10-6 to 5.00 × 10-2 M, selectivity, reproducibility, stability and fast response time of 10.00 s. The proposed strontium ion sensor was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of strontium ion versus ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid [EDTA]. This comparative study has shown that ZnO nanorods possessed better performance with high sensitivity and low limit of detection due to high surface area to volume ratio as compared to the flat surface of ZnO thin films.

  9. The growth of ZnO nanostructures using Arginine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Baljinder; Moudgil, Lovika; Singh, Gurinder; Kaura, Aman

    2018-05-01

    The growth mechanism of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterial with amino acid (Arginine) is explained at different shapes. The present study of ZnO nanostructures (NSs) in the presence of Arginine has enabled us to not only determine the growth mechanism of ZnO NSs but also to determine the effect of Arginine at different temperature of reactants. The synthesized samples are characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results reveal that Arginine is responsible for formation of NSs. Based on these results, a plausible mechanism is explained.

  10. Electrical properties of Mg doped ZnO nanostructure annealed at different temperature

    SciT

    Mohamed, R., E-mail: ruziana12@gmail.com; Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com; Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com

    In this work, ZincOxide (ZnO) nanostructures doped with Mg were successfully grown on the glass substrate. Magnesium (Mg) metal element was added in the ZnO host which acts as a doping agent. Different temperature in range of 250°C to 500°C was used in order to investigate the effect of annealing temperature of ZnO thin films. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to investigate the physical characteristic of ZnO thin films. FESEM results have revealed that ZnO nanorods were grown vertically aligned. The structural properties were determined by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. XRD results showed Mg doped ZnOmore » thin have highest crystalinnity at 500°C annealing temperature. The electrical properties were investigating by using Current-Voltage (I-V) measurement. I-V measurement showed the electrical properties were varied at different annealing temperature. The annealing temperature at 500°C has the highest electrical conductance properties.« less

  11. Nanostructured ZnO films for potential use in LPG gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latyshev, V. M.; Berestok, T. O.; Opanasyuk, A. S.; Kornyushchenko, A. S.; Perekrestov, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the work was to obtain ZnO nanostructures with heightened surface area and to study relationship between formation method and gas sensor properties towards propane-butane mixture (LPG). In order to synthesize ZnO nanostructures chemical and physical formation methods have been utilized. The first one was chemical bath deposition technology and the second one magnetron sputtering of Zn followed by oxidation. Optimal method and technological parameters corresponding to formation of material with the highest sensor response have been determined experimentally. Dynamical gas sensor response at different temperature values and dependencies of the sensor sensitivity on the temperature at different LPG concentrations in air have been investigated. It has been found, that sensor response depends on the sample morphology and has the highest value for the structure consisting of thin nanowires. The factors that lead to the decrease in the gas sensor operating temperature have been determined.

  12. Hydrothermal temperature effect on crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity of ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhafina, Wan Almaz; Salleh, Hasiah; Daud, Mohd Zalani; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ghazali, Salmah Mohd

    2017-09-01

    ZnO is an wide direct band gap semiconductor and possess rich family of nanostructures which turned to be a key role in the nanotechnology field of applications. Hydrothermal method was proven to be simple, robust and low cost among the reported methods to synthesize ZnO nanostructures. In this work, the properties of ZnO nanostructures were altered by varying temperatures of hydrothermal process. The changes in term of morphological, crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity were investigated. A drastic change of ZnO nanostructures morphology and decreases of 002 diffraction peak were observed as the hydrothermal temperature increased. The band gap of samples decreased as the size of ZnO nanostructure increased, whereas the electrical conductivity had no influence on the band gap value but more on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures instead.

  13. ZnO synthesized in air by fs laser irradiation on metallic Zn thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esqueda-Barrón, Y.; Herrera, M.; Camacho-López, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present results on rapid femtosecond laser synthesis of nanostructured ZnO. We used metallic Zn thin films to laser scan along straight tracks, until forming nanostructured ZnO. The synthesis dependence on laser irradiation parameters such as the per pulse fluence, integrated fluence, laser scan speed, and number of scans were explored carefully. SEM characterization showed that the morphology of the obtained ZnO is dictated by the integrated fluence and the laser scan speed; micro Raman and XRD results allowed to identify optimal laser processing conditions for getting good quality ZnO; and cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrated that a single laser scan at high per pulse laser fluence, but a medium integrated laser fluence and a medium laser scan speed favors a low density of point-defects in the lattice. Electrical measurements showed a correlation between resistivity of the laser produced ZnO and point-defects created during the synthesis. Transmittance measurements showed that, the synthesized ZnO can reach down to the supporting fused silica substrate under the right laser irradiation conditions. The physical mechanism for the formation of ZnO, under ultrashort pulse laser irradiation, is discussed in view of the distinct times scales given by the laser pulse duration and the laser pulse repetition rate.

  14. GaN and ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fündling, Sönke; Sökmen, Ünsal; Behrends, Arne; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Merzsch, Stephan; Li, Shunfeng; Bakin, Andrey; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas; Lähnemann, Jonas; Jahn, Uwe; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning

    2010-07-01

    GaN and ZnO are both wide band gap semiconductors with interesting properties concerning optoelectronic and sensor device applications. Due to the lack or the high costs of native substrates, alternatives like sapphire, silicon, or silicon carbide are taken, but the resulting lattice and thermal mismatches lead to increased defect densities which reduce the material quality. In contrast, nanostructures with high aspect ratio have lower defect densities as compared to layers. In this work, we give an overview on our results achieved on both ZnO as well as GaN based nanorods. ZnO nanostructures were grown by a wet chemical approach as well as by VPT on different substrates - even on flexible polymers. To compare the growth results we analyzed the structures by XRD and PL and show possible device applications. The GaN nano- and microstructures were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy either in a self- organized process or by selective area growth for a better control of shape and material composition. Finally we take a look onto possible device applications, presenting our attempts, e.g., to build LEDs based on GaN nanostructures.

  15. Nanostructured ZnO - its challenging properties and potential for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured ZnO possessing interesting structural and optical properties offers challenging opportunities for innovative applications. In this lecture the review of the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanostructured layers is presented. It is shown that they have a direct impact on the parameters of devices involving ZnO. An analysis of current trends in the photovoltaic (PV) field shows that improved light harvesting and efficiency of solar cells can be obtained by implementing nanostructured ZnO layers to process advanced solar cell structures. Because of amenability to doping, high chemical stability, sensitivity to different adsorbed gases, nontoxicity and low cost ZnO attracted much attention for application as gas sensors. The sensitivity of nano-grain ZnO gas elements is comparatively high because of the grain-size effect. Application of nanostructured ZnO for gas sensors and for increasing of light harvesting in solar cells is demonstrated.

  16. Facile synthesis of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures for DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.

    2016-05-01

    Development of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure based third generation dye sensitized solar cell is interesting compared to conventional silicon solar cells. ZnO nanostructured thin films were electrochemically deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The effect of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on structural, morphological and optical properties is investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) meter, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and micro Raman spectroscopy. XRD patterns reveal that the prepared nanostructures are hexagonal wutrzite structures with (101) plane orientation, the nanostructure prepared using EDTA exhibits better crystallinity. FE-SEM images illustrate that the morphological changes are observed from nanorod structure to cauliflower like structure as EDTA is added. Micro Raman spectra predict that cauliflower like structure possesses a higher crystalline nature with less atomic defects compared to nanorod structures. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is constructed for the optimized cauliflower structure, and open circuit voltage, short circuit density, fill factor and efficiency are estimated from the J-V curve.

  17. Seedless-grown of ZnO thin films for photoelectrochemical water splitting application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Aidahani; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul; Chiu, W. S.

    2018-04-01

    We developed a seedless hydrothermal method to grow a flower like ZnO nanorods. Prior to the growth, a layer of Au thin film is sputtered onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. The morphological, structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and diffuse reflection measurement to understand the growth process of the working thin film. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) results suggest that the deposition of ZnO nanorods on Au nanoparticles plays an important role in enhancing the photoelectrode activity. H2 evolution from photo-splitting of water over Au-incorporated ZnO in the 0.1M NaOH liquid system was enhanced, compared to that over bare ZnO; particularly, the production of 15.5 µL of H2 gas after twenty five minutes exposure of ZnO grown on Au-coated thin film.

  18. Controlling of ZnO nanostructures by solute concentration and its effect on growth, structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Yogendra; Rana, Amit Kumar; Bhojane, Prateek; Pusty, Manojit; Bagwe, Vivas; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M.

    2015-10-01

    ZnO nanostructured films were prepared by a chemical bath deposition method on glass substrates without any assistance of either microwave or high pressure autoclaves. The effect of solute concentration on the pure wurtzite ZnO nanostructure morphologies is studied. The control of the solute concentration helps to control the nanostructure to form nano-needles, and -rods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed highly c-axis oriented thin films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms the modification of the nanostructure dependent on the concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the single crystalline electron diffraction pattern, indicating high quality nano-material. UV-vis results show the variation in the band gap from 3.20 eV to 3.14 eV with increasing concentration as the nanostructures change from needle- to rod-like. Photoluminescence (PL) data indicate the existence of defects in the nanomaterials emitting light in the yellow-green region, with broad UV and visible spectra. A sharp and strong peak is observed at ˜438 cm-1 by Raman spectroscopy, assigned to the {{{{E}}}2}{{high}} optical mode of ZnO, the characteristic peak for the highly-crystalline wurtzite hexagonal phase. The solute concentration significantly affects the formation of defect states in the nanostructured films, and as a result, it alters the structural and optical properties. Current-voltage characteristics alter with the measurement environment, indicating potential sensor applications.

  19. Studies of surface morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown on different molarities of TiO{sub 2} seed layer

    SciT

    Asib, N. A. M., E-mail: amierahasib@yahoo.com; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) seed layer was prepared by using sol-gel spin-coating technique, followed by growth of 0.01 M of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures by solution-immersion. The molarities of TiO{sub 2} seed layer were varied from 1.1 M to 0.100 M on glass substrates. The nanostructures thin films were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electrons Microscope (FESEM), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FESEM images demonstrate that needle-like ZnO nanostructures are formed on all TiO{sub 2} seed layer. The smallest diameter of needle-like ZnO nanostructures (90.3 nm) were deposited on TiO{sub 2} seed layer of 0.100 M. PL spectramore » of the TiO{sub 2}: ZnO nanostructures thin films show the blue shifted emissions in the UV regions compared to the ZnO thin film. Meanwhile, UV-vis spectra of films display high absorption in the UV region and high trasparency in the visible region. The highest absorbance at UV region was recorded for sample which has 0.100 M of TiO{sub 2} seed layer.« less

  20. Mechanisms of electron transport and recombination in ZnO nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Vega-Poot, Alberto G; Macías-Montero, Manuel; Idígoras, Jesus; Borrás, Ana; Barranco, Angel; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustín R; Lizama-Tzec, Francisco I; Oskam, Gerko; Anta, Juan A

    2014-04-14

    ZnO is an attractive material for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells and related devices. This material has excellent electron-transport properties in the bulk but its electron diffusion coefficient is much smaller in mesoporous films. In this work the electron-transport properties of two different kinds of dye-sensitized ZnO nanostructures are investigated by small-perturbation electrochemical techniques. For nanoparticulate ZnO photoanodes prepared via a wet-chemistry technique, the diffusion coefficient is found to reproduce the typical behavior predicted by the multiple-trapping and the hopping models, with an exponential increase with respect to the applied bias. In contrast, in ZnO nanostructured thin films of controlled texture and crystallinity prepared via a plasma chemical vapor deposition method, the diffusion coefficient is found to be independent of the electrochemical bias. This observation suggests a different transport mechanism not controlled by trapping and electron accumulation. In spite of the quite different transport features, the recombination kinetics, the electron-collection efficiency and the photoconversion efficiency are very similar for both kinds of photoanodes, an observation that indicates that surface properties rather than electron transport is the main efficiency-determining factor in solar cells based on ZnO nanostructured photoanodes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Fabrication of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric for wearable device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandiyarasan, V.; Suhasini, S.; Archana, J.; Navaneethan, M.; Majumdar, Abhijit; Hayakawa, Y.; Ikeda, H.

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric (CF) s a flexible material for an application of wearable thermoelectric (TE) power generator which requires super-hydrophobicity, UV protection, and high TE efficiency. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the formed ZnO nanostructures have a mixture of nanorods and nanosheets and are uniformly coated on the CF. XRD pattern and Raman spectra revealed that the ZnO nanostructure has a wurtzite structure. Contact angle measurements showed that the ZnO-nanostructures-coated CF possessed a high super hydrophobic nature with an angle of 132.5°. ZnO nanocomposite/CF sample exhibited an excellent UV protection factor 183.84. Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power factor of the ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric were evaluated to be 28 μV/K, 0.04 Ω-cm, and 22 μW/m K2, respectively.

  2. Ligand induced ferromagnetism in ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Sun, Qiang; Jena, P

    2008-10-28

    Complementary to the experimental finding that ZnO nanoparticles become ferromagnetic when coated with N and S containing ligands such as dodecylamine and dodecanethiol [Garcia et al., Nano Lett. 7, 1489 (2007)], we provide the first theoretical understanding of the origin of magnetism in ligated ZnO nanoparticles as well as the structural properties of the ligated systems by using density functional theory and generalized gradient approximation for exchange and correlation, and a cluster model for the nanoparticles. We show that N or S atoms of the ligand bind to the Zn sites. The accompanying changes in the Zn-O bond length, hybridization between Zn 4s orbitals with N 2p or S 3p orbitals, and consequently the redistribution of charges between Zn and O atoms result in a magnetic system where the 2p electrons in O and N, and 3p electrons in S sites are spin polarized. Furthermore, the sites nearest to the Zn atom attached to the ligand carry bulk of the magnetic moment. Studies, as a function of cluster size, also illustrate that magnetism resides only on the surface. Our results confirm that the use of ligands can pave a new way for introducing magnetism in ZnO nanostructures, which can be used to develop magnetic sensors to detect N and S containing molecules.

  3. Influence of the morphology of ZnO nanostructures on luminescent and photovoltaic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, N. Kh.; Ilyassov, B. R.; Afanasyev, D. A.

    2017-03-01

    Arrays of ZnO nanorods and nanoplates are synthesized by the hydrothermal and electrochemical methods, respectively. The photoluminescence spectra indicate that the nanoplates have a more defective structure than the nanorods. The obtained ZnO nanostructures are used as the basis to construct dye-sensitized solar cells. The influence of morphology and defectiveness of ZnO nanostructures on the luminescent and photovoltaic properties of the cells is studied.

  4. Study of quantum confinement effects in ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movlarooy, Tayebeh

    2018-03-01

    Motivation to fact that zinc oxide nanowires and nanotubes with successful synthesis and the mechanism of formation, stability and electronic properties have been investigated; in this study the structural, electronic properties and quantum confinement effects of zinc oxide nanotubes and nanowires with different diameters are discussed. The calculations within density functional theory and the pseudo potential approximation are done. The electronic structure and energy gap for Armchair and zigzag ZnO nanotubes with a diameter of about 4 to 55 Angstrom and ZnO nanowires with a diameter range of 4 to 23 Å is calculated. The results revealed that due to the quantum confinement effects, by reducing the diameter of nanowires and nanotubes, the energy gap increases. Zinc oxide semiconductor nanostructures since having direct band gap with size-dependent and quantum confinement effect are recommended as an appropriate candidate for making nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Anilkumar, T. S., E-mail: anil24march@gmail.com; Girija, M. L., E-mail: girija.ml.grt1@gmail.com; Venkatesh, J., E-mail: phph9502@yahoo.com

    2016-05-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) Thin films were deposited on glass substrate using Spin coating method. Zinc acetate dehydrate, Carbinol and Mono-ethanolamine were used as the precursor, solvent and stabilizer respectively to prepare ZnO Thin-films. The molar ratio of Monoethanolamine to Zinc acetate was maintained as approximately 1. The thickness of the films was determined by Interference technique. The optical properties of the films were studied by UV Vis-Spectrophotometer. From transmittance and absorbance curve, the energy band gap of ZnO is found out. Electrical Conductivity measurements of ZnO are carried out by two probe method and Activation energy for the electrical conductivitymore » of ZnO are found out. The crystal structure and orientation of the films were analyzed by XRD. The XRD patterns show that the ZnO films are polycrystalline with wurtzite hexagonal structure.« less

  6. Effect of co-doping process on topography, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Ismail, A. S.; Yusoff, M. M.; Syamsir, S. A.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated of Undoped ZnO and Magnesium (Mg)-Aluminium (Al) co-doped Zinc Oxide (MAZO) nanostructured films were prepared by sol gel spin coating technique. The surface topography was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Based on the AFM results, Root Mean Square (RMS) of MAZO films have rougher surface compared to pure ZnO films. The optical and electrical properties of thin film samples were characterized using Uv-Vis spectroscopy and two point probes, current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The transmittance spectra for both thin samples was above 80% in the visible wavelength. The MAZO film shows the highest conductivity compared to pure ZnO films. This result indicates that the improvement of carrier mobility throughout doping process and possibly contribute by extra ion charge.

  7. Morphology engineering of ZnO nanostructures for high performance supercapacitors: enhanced electrochemistry of ZnO nanocones compared to ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoli; Yoo, Joung Eun; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Joonho

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the morphology of ZnO nanostructures is engineered to demonstrate enhanced supercapacitor characteristics of ZnO nanocones (NCs) compared to ZnO nanowires (NWs). ZnO NCs are obtained by chemically etching ZnO NWs. Electrochemical characteristics of ZnO NCs and NWs are extensively investigated to demonstrate morphology dependent capacitive performance of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures. Cyclic voltammetry measurements on these two kinds of electrodes in a three-electrode cell confirms that ZnO NCs exhibit a high specific capacitance of 378.5 F g-1 at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1, which is almost twice that of ZnO NWs (191.5 F g-1). The charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements also clearly result in enhanced capacitive performance of NCs as evidenced by higher specific capacitances and lower internal resistance. Asymmetric supercapacitors are fabricated using activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode and ZnO NWs and NCs as positive electrodes. The ZnO NC⫽AC can deliver a maximum specific capacitance of 126 F g-1 at a current density of 1.33 A g-1 with an energy density of 25.2 W h kg-1 at the power density of 896.44 W kg-1. In contrast, ZnO NW⫽AC displays 63% of the capacitance obtained from the ZnO NC⫽AC supercapacitor. The enhanced performance of NCs is attributed to the higher surface area of ZnO nanostructures after the morphology is altered from NWs to NCs.

  8. Morphology engineering of ZnO nanostructures for high performance supercapacitors: enhanced electrochemistry of ZnO nanocones compared to ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoli; Yoo, Joung Eun; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Joonho

    2017-06-16

    In this work, the morphology of ZnO nanostructures is engineered to demonstrate enhanced supercapacitor characteristics of ZnO nanocones (NCs) compared to ZnO nanowires (NWs). ZnO NCs are obtained by chemically etching ZnO NWs. Electrochemical characteristics of ZnO NCs and NWs are extensively investigated to demonstrate morphology dependent capacitive performance of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures. Cyclic voltammetry measurements on these two kinds of electrodes in a three-electrode cell confirms that ZnO NCs exhibit a high specific capacitance of 378.5 F g -1 at a scan rate of 20 mV s -1 , which is almost twice that of ZnO NWs (191.5 F g -1 ). The charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements also clearly result in enhanced capacitive performance of NCs as evidenced by higher specific capacitances and lower internal resistance. Asymmetric supercapacitors are fabricated using activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode and ZnO NWs and NCs as positive electrodes. The ZnO NC⫽AC can deliver a maximum specific capacitance of 126 F g -1 at a current density of 1.33 A g -1 with an energy density of 25.2 W h kg -1 at the power density of 896.44 W kg -1 . In contrast, ZnO NW⫽AC displays 63% of the capacitance obtained from the ZnO NC⫽AC supercapacitor. The enhanced performance of NCs is attributed to the higher surface area of ZnO nanostructures after the morphology is altered from NWs to NCs.

  9. Effect of solvents on sol-gel spin-coated nanostructured Al-doped ZnO thin films: a film for key optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. Deva Arun; Valanarasu, S.; Kathalingam, A.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd.; AlFaify, S.

    2017-12-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating technique onto the glass substrates using different solvents such as 2-methoxyethanol, methanol, ethanol and isopropanol. Prepared films were characterized by XRD, Raman spectrum, SEM, UV-visible spectrophotometer, photoluminescence (PL) and electrical studies. XRD studies showed that all the prepared films are hexagonal wurtzite structure with polycrystalline nature oriented along (002) direction. SEM images showed uniform particles of size around 60 nm distributed regularly on to the entire glass substrate. EDX analysis confirmed the composition of grown AZO film consisting of Al, Zn and O elements. The prepared films showed highest optical transmittance 94% in the visible range and band gap 3.30 eV. PL spectra for all AZO films showed a strong UV emission peak at 387 nm. The AZO films prepared using isopropanol solvent showed high carrier concentration and low resistivity values as 1.72 × 1020 cm-3 and 2.90 × 10-3 Ω cm, respectively, with high figure of merit ( ϕ) value 8.42 × 10-3 (Ω/sq)-1.

  10. Effect of Eu3+ doping on the structural, morphological and luminescence properties ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoditha, U.; Balakrishna, K. M.; Sarojini, B. K.; Narayana, B.; Kumara, K.

    2018-05-01

    Pure and Eu3+ ions (1, 3, 5 atomic wt%) doped ZnO nanostructures are synthesized by a surfactant assisted hydrothermal method. The effect of doping concentrations on structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures is studied. The XRD analysis shows good crystallinity and the phase purity of the ZnO nanostructures. A shift in the standard Zn-O stretching mode after Eu3+ doping is observed in the FTIR spectra. The images of FESEM demonstrate the morphological variations from hexagonal nanorods to nanoflowers on varying the dopant concentrations. Substitution of Eu3+ ions into Zn2+ sites is confirmed by EDX analysis. The dominance of particle shape over the UV-Visible absorption properties of the prepared samples is noticed. The photoluminescence (PL) emission of undoped and doped ZnO nanostructures show dominant near band edge emission (NBE) in the UV region and minor defect induced deep level emissions in the visible region.

  11. Low Temperature Annealed Zinc Oxide Nanostructured Thin Film-Based Transducers: Characterization for Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Haarindraprasad, R.; Hashim, U.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Kashif, Mohd; Veeradasan, P.; Balakrishnan, S. R.; Foo, K. L.; Poopalan, P.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of sensing surfaces highly relies on nanostructures to enhance their sensitivity and specificity. Herein, nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of various thicknesses were coated on glass and p-type silicon substrates using a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The deposited films were characterized for morphological, structural, and optoelectronic properties by high-resolution measurements. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the deposited films have a c-axis orientation and display peaks that refer to ZnO, which exhibits a hexagonal structure with a preferable plane orientation (002). The thicknesses of ZnO thin films prepared using 1, 3, 5, and 7 cycles were measured to be 40, 60, 100, and 200 nm, respectively. The increment in grain size of the thin film from 21 to 52 nm was noticed, when its thickness was increased from 40 to 200 nm, whereas the band gap value decreased from 3.282 to 3.268 eV. Band gap value of ZnO thin film with thickness of 200 nm at pH ranging from 2 to 10 reduces from 3.263eV to 3.200 eV. Furthermore, to evaluate the transducing capacity of the ZnO nanostructure, the refractive index, optoelectric constant, and bulk modulus were analyzed and correlated. The highest thickness (200 nm) of ZnO film, embedded with an interdigitated electrode that behaves as a pH-sensing electrode, could sense pH variations in the range of 2-10. It showed a highly sensitive response of 444 μAmM-1cm-2 with a linear regression of R2 =0.9304. The measured sensitivity of the developed device for pH per unit is 3.72μA/pH. PMID:26167853

  12. Highly sensitive H2 gas sensor of Co doped ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhati, Vijendra Singh; Ranwa, Sapana; Kumar, Mahesh

    2018-04-01

    In this report, the hydrogen gas sensing properties based on Co doped ZnO nanostructures are explored. The undoped and Co doped nanostructures were grown by RF magnetron sputtering system, and its structural, morphological, and hydrogen sensing behavior are investigated. The maximum relative response was occurred by the 2.5% Co doped ZnO nanostructures among undoped and other doped sensors. The enhancement of relative response might be due to large chemisorbed sites formation on the ZnO surface for the reaction to hydrogen gas.

  13. EFFECTS OF Au ON THE GROWTH OF ZnO NANOSTRUCTURES ON Si BY MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Chen; Fan, Lu Yang; Ping, He Hai; Wei, Wu Ke; Zhen, Ye Zhi

    2013-06-01

    The effects of Au on the growth of ZnO nanostructures on Si by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at a relatively low temperature (450°C) were investigated. The experimental results showed that Au nanoparticles played a critical role during the growth of the ZnO nanostructures and affected their morphology and optical properties. It was found that Au nanoparticles particularly affected the nucleation of ZnO nanostructures during the growth process and the Au-assisted growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructures should be ascribed to the vapor-solid (VS) mechanism. The formation of a nanoneedle may be attributed to a more reactive interface between Au and ZnO, which leads to more zinc gaseous species absorbed near the interface. Different nucleation sites on ZnO nuclei resulted in the disorder of ZnO nanoneedles. Moreover, the crystalline quality of nano-ZnO was improved due to the presence of Au, according to the smaller full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the low-temperature exciton emission. We confirmed that ZnO nanoneedles showed better crystalline quality than ZnO nanorods through the HRTEM images and the SAED patterns. The reason for the improvement of the crystalline quality of nano-ZnO may be due to the less lattice mismatch.

  14. Effect of Er3+ doping on structural, morphological and photocatalytical properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhouche, S.; Bensouici, F.; Toubane, M.; Azizi, A.; Otmani, A.; Chebout, K.; Kezzoula, F.; Tala-Ighil, R.; Bououdina, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this research work, structure, microstructure, optical and photocatalytic properties of undoped and Erbium doped nanostructured ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel dip-coating are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the deposited films crystallize within the hexagonal wurtzite-type structure with a preferential growth orientation along (002) plane. Morphological observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal important influence of Er concentration; displaying homogeneous and dense aspect for undoped to 0.3% then grid-like morphology for 0.4 and 0.5%. UV/vis/NIR transmittance spectroscopy spectra display a transmittance over 70%, and small variation in the energy gap energy 3.263–3.278 eV. Wettability test of ZnO thin films surface ranges from hydrophilic aspect for pure ZnO to hydrophobic one for Er doped ZnO, and the contact angle is found to increase from 58.7° for pure ZnO up to 98.4° for 0.4% Er doped ZnO. The photocatalytic activity measurements evaluated using the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation demonstrate that undoped ZnO film shows higher photocatalytic activity compared to Er doped ZnO films, which may be attributed to the deterioration of films’crystallinity resulting in lower transmittance.

  15. The structural properties of flower-like ZnO nanostructures on porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eswar, Kevin Alvin; Suhaimi, Mohd Husairi Fadzillah; Guliling, Muliyadi; Mohamad, Maryam; Khusaimi, Zuraida; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, Saifollah

    2018-05-01

    The flower-like zinc oxide (ZnO) were successfully synthesized on porous silicon (PSi) via hydrothermal method. The characteristic of ZnO nanostructures was investigated using field emission scanning microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (X-Ray). The FESEM images show the flower-like ZnO nanostructures composed ZnO nanoparticles. The X-ray diffraction shows that strong intensity of (100), (002) and (101) peaks. The structural analysis revealed that the peaks angles were shifted due to the stress or imperfection of the crystalline of ZnO nanostructures. The crystalline sizes in range of 42.60 to 54.09 nm were produced.

  16. Fabrication of Semiconductor ZnO Nanostructures for Versatile SERS Application

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lili; Yang, Yong; Ma, Yunfeng; Li, Shuai; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Zhengren; Long, Nguyen Viet

    2017-01-01

    Since the initial discovery of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in the 1970s, it has exhibited a huge potential application in many fields due to its outstanding advantages. Since the ultra-sensitive noble metallic nanostructures have increasingly exposed themselves as having some problems during application, semiconductors have been gradually exploited as one of the critical SERS substrate materials due to their distinctive advantages when compared with noble metals. ZnO is one of the most representative metallic oxide semiconductors with an abundant reserve, various and cost-effective fabrication techniques, as well as special physical and chemical properties. Thanks to the varied morphologies, size-dependent exciton, good chemical stability, a tunable band gap, carrier concentration, and stoichiometry, ZnO nanostructures have the potential to be exploited as SERS substrates. Moreover, other distinctive properties possessed by ZnO such as biocompatibility, photocatcalysis and self-cleaning, and gas- and chemo-sensitivity can be synergistically integrated and exerted with SERS activity to realize the multifunctional potential of ZnO substrates. In this review, we discuss the inevitable development trend of exploiting the potential semiconductor ZnO as a SERS substrate. After clarifying the root cause of the great disparity between the enhancement factor (EF) of noble metals and that of ZnO nanostructures, two specific methods are put forward to improve the SERS activity of ZnO, namely: elemental doping and combination of ZnO with noble metals. Then, we introduce a distinctive advantage of ZnO as SERS substrate and illustrate the necessity of reporting a meaningful average EF. We also summarize some fabrication methods for ZnO nanostructures with varied dimensions (0–3 dimensions). Finally, we present an overview of ZnO nanostructures for the versatile SERS application. PMID:29156600

  17. Investigations of rapid thermal annealing induced structural evolution of ZnO: Ge nanocomposite thin films via GISAXS

    SciT

    Ceylan, Abdullah, E-mail: aceylanabd@yahoo.com; Ozcan, Yusuf; Orujalipoor, Ilghar

    2016-06-07

    In this work, we present in depth structural investigations of nanocomposite ZnO: Ge thin films by utilizing a state of the art grazing incidence small angle x-ray spectroscopy (GISAXS) technique. The samples have been deposited by sequential r.f. and d.c. sputtering of ZnO and Ge thin film layers, respectively, on single crystal Si(100) substrates. Transformation of Ge layers into Ge nanoparticles (Ge-np) has been initiated by ex-situ rapid thermal annealing of asprepared thin film samples at 600 °C for 30, 60, and 90 s under forming gas atmosphere. A special attention has been paid on the effects of reactive and nonreactivemore » growth of ZnO layers on the structural evolution of Ge-np. GISAXS analyses have been performed via cylindrical and spherical form factor calculations for different nanostructure types. Variations of the size, shape, and distributions of both ZnO and Ge nanostructures have been determined. It has been realized that GISAXS results are not only remarkably consistent with the electron microscopy observations but also provide additional information on the large scale size and shape distribution of the nanostructured components.« less

  18. REVIEW ARTICLE: Structure, microstructure and physical properties of ZnO based materials in various forms: bulk, thin film and nano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shubra; Thiyagarajan, P.; Mohan Kant, K.; Anita, D.; Thirupathiah, S.; Rama, N.; Tiwari, Brajesh; Kottaisamy, M.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2007-10-01

    ZnO is a unique material that offers about a dozen different application possibilities. In spite of the fact that the ZnO lattice is amenable to metal ion doping (3d and 4f), the physics of doping in ZnO is not completely understood. This paper presents a review of previous research works on ZnO and also highlights results of our research activities on ZnO. The review pertains to the work on Al and Mg doping for conductivity and band gap tuning in ZnO followed by a report on transition metal (TM) ion doped ZnO. This review also highlights the work on the transport and optical studies of TM ion doped ZnO, nanostructured growth (ZnO polycrystalline and thin films) by different methods and the formation of unique nano- and microstructures obtained by pulsed laser deposition and chemical methods. This is followed by results on ZnO encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles that show promising trends suitable for various applications. We have also reviewed the non-linear characteristic studies of ZnO based heterostructures followed by an analysis on the work carried out on ZnO based phosphors, which include mainly the nanocrystalline ZnO encapsulated SiO2, a new class of phosphor that is suitable for white light emission.

  19. Nanoporous structures on ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gür, Emre; Kılıç, Bayram; Coşkun, C.; Tüzemen, S.; Bayrakçeken, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Porous structures were formed on ZnO thin films which were grown by an electrochemical deposition (ECD) method. The growth processes were carried out in a solution of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) zinc perchlorate, Zn(ClO 4) 2, at 120 ∘C on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. Optical and structural characterizations of electrochemically grown ZnO thin films have shown that the films possess high (0002) c-axis orientation, high nucleation, high intensity and low FWHM of UV emission at the band edge region and a sharp UV absorption edge. Nanoporous structures were formed via self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of hexanethiol (C 6SH) and dodecanethiol (C 12SH). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements showed that while a nanoporous structure (pore radius 20 nm) is formed on the ZnO thin films by hexanathiol solution, a macroporous structure (pore radius 360 nm) is formed by dodecanethiol solution. No significant variation is observed in X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements on the ZnO thin films after pore formation. However, photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed that green emission is observed as the dominant emission for the macroporous structures, while no variation is observed for the thin film nanoporous ZnO sample.

  20. Controlled Growth of Parallel Oriented ZnO Nanostructural Arrays on Ga2O3 Nanowires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Controlled Growth of Parallel Oriented ZnO Nanostructural Arrays on Ga2O3 Nanowires Lena Mazeina,* Yoosuf N. Picard, and Sharka M. Prokes Electronics...Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 6, 2008 ABSTRACT: Novel hierarchical ZnO- Ga2O3 nanostructures were fabricated via a two stage growth process. Nanowires of Ga2O3 ...nanobrushes (NBs) with Ga2O3 as the core and ZnO as the branches self-assembling symmetrically in six equiangular directions around the core

  1. Layer-by-layer deposition of nanostructured CsPbBr3 perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnikova, A. A.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Andronov, A. A.; Sokolov, V. S.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of nanostructured perovskites cesium lead halide thin films is described. The method of deposition is based on alternate immersion of the substrate in the precursor solutions or colloidal solution of nanocrystals and methyl acetate/lead nitrate solution using the device for deposition of films by SILAR and dip-coating techniques. An example of obtaining a photosensitive structure based on nanostructures of ZnO nanowires and layers of CsBbBr3 nanocrystals is also shown.

  2. Thin metal nanostructures: synthesis, properties and applications

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhanxi; Huang, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional nanomaterials, especially graphene and single- or few-layer transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets, have attracted great research interest in recent years due to their distinctive physical, chemical and electronic properties as well as their great potentials for a broad range of applications. Recently, great efforts have also been devoted to the controlled synthesis of thin nanostructures of metals, one of the most studied traditional materials, for various applications. In this minireview, we review the recent progress in the synthesis and applications of thin metal nanostructures with a focus on metal nanoplates and nanosheets. First of all, various methods for the synthesis of metal nanoplates and nanosheets are summarized. After a brief introduction of their properties, some applications of metal nanoplates and nanosheets, such as catalysis, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), sensing and near-infrared photothermal therapy are described. PMID:28553459

  3. Effects of surface morphology of ZnO seed layers on growth of ZnO nanostructures prepared by hydrothermal method and annealing.

    PubMed

    Yim, Kwang Gug; Kim, Min Su; Leem, Jae-Young

    2013-05-01

    ZnO nanostructures were grown on Si (111) substrates by a hydrothermal method. Prior to growing the ZnO nanostructures, ZnO seed layers with different post-heat temperatures were prepared by a spin-coating process. Then, the ZnO nanostructures were annealed at 500 degrees C for 20 min under an Ar atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) were carried out at room temperature (RT) to investigate the structural and optical properties of the as-grown and annealed ZnO nanostructures. The surface morphologies of the seed layers changed from a smooth surface to a mountain chain-like structure as the post-heating temperatures increased. The as-grown and annealed ZnO nanostructures exhibited a strong (002) diffraction peak. Compared to the as-grown ZnO nanostructures, the annealed ZnO nanostructures exhibited significantly strong enhancement in the PL intensity ratio by almost a factor of 2.

  4. Effect of morphology on the non-ohmic conduction in ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, E.; Jayakumar, K.

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructures of ZnO is synthesized with nanoflower like morphology by simple wet chemical method. The structural, morphological and electrical characterization have been carried out. The temperature dependent electrical characterization of ZnO pellets of thickness 1150 µm is made by the application of 925MPa pressure. The morphological dependence of non-ohmic conduction beyond some arbitrary tunneling potential and grain boundary barrier thickness is compared with the commercially available bulk ZnO. Our results show the suitability of nano-flower like ZnO for the devices like sensors, rectifiers etc.

  5. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol on electrochemically deposited ZnO thin films for DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructures of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film are electrochemically deposited in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of hexagonal structure of ZnO. The film prepared in the presence of PVA showed a better crystallinity and its crystalline growth along the (002) plane orientation. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images display nanowire arrays (NWAs) and sponge like morphology for films prepared in the absence and presence of PVA, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra depict the film prepared in the presence PVA having less atomic defects with good crystal quality compared with other film. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is constructed using low cost eosin yellow dye and current-voltage (J-V) curve is recorded for optimized sponge like morphology based solar cell.

  6. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-04-01

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  7. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    SciT

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo

    2015-04-24

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shiftedmore » of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.« less

  8. Nanostructured ZnO films on stainless steel are highly safe and effective for antimicrobial applications.

    PubMed

    Shim, Kyudae; Abdellatif, Mohamed; Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun

    2017-04-01

    The safety and effectiveness of antimicrobial ZnO films must be established for general applications. In this study, the antimicrobial activity, skin irritation, elution behavior, and mechanical properties of nanostructured ZnO films on stainless steel were evaluated. ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and ZnO nanowall (NW) structures were prepared with different surface roughnesses, wettability, and concentrations using an RF magnetron sputtering system. The thicknesses of ZnO NP and ZnO NW were approximately 300 and 620 nm, respectively, and ZnO NW had two diffraction directions of [0002] and [01-10] based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ZnO NW structure demonstrated 99.9% antimicrobial inhibition against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Penicillium funiculosum, and no skin irritation was detected using experimental rabbits. Approximately 27.2 ± 3.0 μg L -1 Zn ions were eluted from the ZnO NW film at 100 °C for 24 h, which satisfies the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. Furthermore, the Vickers hardness and fracture toughness of ZnO NW films on stainless steel were enhanced by 11 and 14% compared to those of the parent stainless steel. Based on these results, ZnO NW films on STS316L sheets are useful for household supplies, such as water pipes, faucets, and stainless steel containers.

  9. Microstructure of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0185 MICROSTRUCTURE OF ZNO THIN FILMS DEPOSITED BY HIGH POWER IMPULSE MAGNETRON SPUTTERING (POSTPRINT) A. N. Reed...COVERED (From – To) 29 January 2013 – 16 February 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MICROSTRUCTURE OF ZNO THIN FILMS DEPOSITED BY HIGH POWER IMPULSE MAGNETRON...ABSTRACT High power impulse magnetron sputtering was used to deposit thin (~100 nm) zinc oxide (ZnO) films from a ceramic ZnO target onto substrates

  10. ZnO Thin Film Electronics for More than Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Jose Israel

    Zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) are investigated in this work for large-area electronic applications outside of display technology. A constant pressure, constant flow, showerhead, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process has been developed to fabricate high mobility TFTs and circuits on rigid and flexible substrates at 200 °C. ZnO films and resulting devices prepared by PEALD and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) have been compared. Both PEALD and PLD ZnO films result in densely packed, polycrystalline ZnO thin films that were used to make high performance devices. PEALD ZnO TFTs deposited at 300 °C have a field-effect mobility of ˜ 40 cm2/V-s (and > 20 cm2/V-S deposited at 200 °C). PLD ZnO TFTs, annealed at 400 °C, have a field-effect mobility of > 60 cm2/V-s (and up to 100 cm2/V-s). Devices, prepared by either technique, show high gamma-ray radiation tolerance of up to 100 Mrad(SiO2) with only a small radiation-induced threshold voltage shift (VT ˜ -1.5 V). Electrical biasing during irradiation showed no enhanced radiation-induced effects. The study of the radiation effects as a function of material stack thicknesses revealed the majority of the radiation-induced charge collection happens at the semiconductor-passivation interface. A simple sheet-charge model at that interface can describe the radiation-induced charge in ZnO TFTs. By taking advantage of the substrate-agnostic process provided by PEALD, due to its low-temperature and excellent conformal coatings, ZnO electronics were monolithically integrated with thin-film complex oxides. Application-based examples where ZnO electronics provide added functionality to complex oxide-based devices are presented. In particular, the integration of arrayed lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 or PZT) thin films with ZnO electronics for microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) and deformable mirrors is demonstrated. ZnO switches can provide voltage to PZT capacitors with fast charging and slow

  11. Three-Dimensional ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructures: Solution Phase Synthesis and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Ahmad, Mashkoor

    2017-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been studied extensively in the past 20 years due to their novel electronic, photonic, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Recently, more attention has been paid to assemble nanoscale building blocks into three-dimensional (3D) complex hierarchical structures, which not only inherit the excellent properties of the single building blocks but also provide potential applications in the bottom-up fabrication of functional devices. This review article focuses on 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures, and summarizes major advances in the solution phase synthesis, applications in environment, and electrical/electrochemical devices. We present the principles and growth mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures via different solution methods, with an emphasis on rational control of the morphology and assembly. We then discuss the applications of 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures in photocatalysis, field emission, electrochemical sensor, and lithium ion batteries. Throughout the discussion, the relationship between the device performance and the microstructures of 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructures will be highlighted. This review concludes with a personal perspective on the current challenges and future research. PMID:29137195

  12. Skyrmion states in thin confined polygonal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Ryan Alexander; Beg, Marijan; Cortés-Ortuño, David; Kluyver, Thomas; Bisotti, Marc-Antonio; Carey, Rebecca; Vousden, Mark; Albert, Maximilian; Wang, Weiwei; Hovorka, Ondrej; Fangohr, Hans

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that skyrmionic states can be the ground state in thin-film FeGe disk nanostructures in the absence of a stabilising applied magnetic field. In this work, we advance this understanding by investigating to what extent this stabilisation of skyrmionic structures through confinement exists in geometries that do not match the cylindrical symmetry of the skyrmion—such as squares and triangles. Using simulation, we show that skyrmionic states can form the ground state for a range of system sizes in both triangular and square-shaped FeGe nanostructures of 10 nm thickness in the absence of an applied field. We further provide data to assist in the experimental verification of our prediction; to imitate an experiment where the system is saturated with a strong applied field before the field is removed, we compute the time evolution and show the final equilibrium configuration of magnetization fields, starting from a uniform alignment.

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Various Hierarchical ZnO Nanostructures and Their Methane Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qu; Chen, Weigen; Xu, Lingna; Peng, Shudi

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods, net-like ZnO nanofibers and ZnO nanobulks have been successfully synthesized via a surfactant assisted hydrothemal method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the various hierarchical ZnO nanostructures is discussed in detail. Gas sensors based on the as-prepared ZnO nanostructures were fabricated by screen-printing on a flat ceramic substrate. Furthermore, their gas sensing characteristics towards methane were systematically investigated. Methane is an important characteristic hydrocarbon contaminant found dissolved in power transformer oil as a result of faults. We find that the hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods and net-like ZnO nanofibers samples show higher gas response and lower operating temperature with rapid response-recovery time compared to those of sensors based on ZnO nanobulks. These results present a feasible way of exploring high performance sensing materials for on-site detection of characteristic fault gases dissolved in transformer oil. PMID:23666136

  14. Growth of hybrid carbon nanostructures on iron-decorated ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbuyisa, Puleng N.; Rigoni, Federica; Sangaletti, Luigi; Ponzoni, Stefano; Pagliara, Stefania; Goldoni, Andrea; Ndwandwe, Muzi; Cepek, Cinzia

    2016-04-01

    A novel carbon-based nanostructured material, which includes carbon nanotubes (CNTs), porous carbon, nanostructured ZnO and Fe nanoparticles, has been synthetized using catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of acetylene on vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs). The deposition of Fe before the CVD process induces the presence of dense CNTs in addition to the variety of nanostructures already observed on the process done on the bare NRs, which range from amorphous graphitic carbon up to nanostructured dendritic carbon films, where the NRs are partially or completely etched. The combination of scanning electron microscopy and in situ photoemission spectroscopy indicate that Fe enhances the ZnO etching, and that the CNT synthesis is favoured by the reduced Fe mobility due to the strong interaction between Fe and the NRs, and to the presence of many defects, formed during the CVD process. Our results demonstrate that the resulting new hybrid shows a higher sensitivity to ammonia gas at ambient conditions (∼60 ppb) than the carbon nanostructures obtained without the aid of Fe, the bare ZnO NRs, or other one-dimensional carbon nanostructures, making this system of potential interest for environmental ammonia monitoring. Finally, in view of the possible application in nanoscale optoelectronics, the photoexcited carrier behaviour in these hybrid systems has been characterized by time-resolved reflectivity measurements.

  15. Structural studies of ZnO nanostructures by varying the deposition parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, S. H. A.; Sahdan, M. Z.; Ichimura, M.; Supee, A.; Rahim, S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film on the growth of ZnO nanorods (NRs) was investigated. The structures of ZnO NRs were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method in aqueous solution of N2O6Zn.6H2O and C6H12N4 at 90°C of deposition temperature. One of the ZnO NRs samples was deposited on a ZnO seed layer coated on a glass substrate to investigate the properties of ZnO NRs without receiving effect of other materials. Next, for diode application, the ZnO NRs was deposited on tin monosulfide (SnS) coated on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate (SnS/ITO). The next, the ZnO structural properties were studied from surface morphology, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) spectra, and chemical composition by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), XRD and energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The growth of ZnO NRs on ZnO seed layer was investigated by ZnO seed layer condition while the growth of ZnO NRs on SnS/ITO was investigated by deposition time and deposition temperature parameters. From FESEM images, aligned ZnO NRs were obtained, and the diameters of ZnO NRs were 0.024-3.94 µm. The SnS thin film was affected by the diameter of ZnO NRs which are the ZnO NRs grow on SnS thin films has a larger diameter compared to ZnO NRs grow on ZnO seed layer. Besides that, all of ZnO peaks observed from XRD corresponding to the wurzite structure and preferentially oriented along the c-axis. In addition, EDX shows a high composition of zinc (Zn) and oxygen (O) signals, which indicated that the NRs are indeed made up of Zn and O.

  16. Advanced thermopower wave in novel ZnO nanostructures/fuel composite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Yeol; Hwang, Hayoung; Choi, Wonjoon

    2014-09-10

    Thermopower wave is a new concept of energy conversion from chemical to thermal to electrical energy, produced from the chemical reaction in well-designed hybrid structures between nanomaterials and combustible fuels. The enhancement and optimization of energy generation is essential to make it useful for future applications. In this study, we demonstrate that simple solution-based synthesized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, such as nanorods and nanoparticles are capable of generating high output voltage from thermopower waves. In particular, an astonishing improvement in the output voltage (up to 3 V; average 2.3 V) was achieved in a ZnO nanorods-based composite film with a solid fuel (collodion, 5% nitrocellulose), which generated an exothermic chemical reaction. Detailed analyses of thermopower waves in ZnO nanorods- and cube-like nanoparticles-based hybrid composites have been reported in which nanostructures, output voltage profile, wave propagation velocities, and surface temperature have been characterized. The average combustion velocities for a ZnO nanorods/fuel and a ZnO cube-like nanoparticles/fuel composites were 40.3 and 30.0 mm/s, while the average output voltages for these composites were 2.3 and 1.73 V. The high output voltage was attributed to the amplified temperature in intermixed composite of ZnO nanostructures and fuel due to the confined diffusive heat transfer in nanostructures. Moreover, the extended interfacial areas between ZnO nanorods and fuel induced large amplification in the dynamic change of the chemical potential, and it resulted in the enhanced output voltage. The differences of reaction velocity and the output voltage between ZnO nanorods- and ZnO cube-like nanoparticles-based composites were attributed to variations in electron mobility and grain boundary, as well as thermal conductivities of ZnO nanorods and particles. Understanding this astonishing increase and the variation of the output voltage and reaction velocity, precise

  17. Morphological driven photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Khaldoon N.; Bidin, Noriah

    2017-02-01

    Using a simple combination of pulse laser ablation in liquid and hydrothermal (PLAL-H) approaches, we control the morphology of ZnO nanostructures (ZNSs) to determine the feasibility of their photocatalytic efficacy. These ZNSs are deposited on Si (100) substrates and two different morphologies are achieved. In this synergistic approach, PLAL synthesized NSs are used as a nutrient solution with different pH for further hydrothermal treatment at 110 °C under varying growth time (5, 30 and 60 min). Surface morphology, structure, composition, and optical characteristics of the prepared ZNSs are determined using FESEM, XRD, FTIR and Photoluminescence (PL) and UV-vis absorption measurements. The morphology revealed remarkable transformation from nanorods (NRs)/nanoflowers (NFs) (at pH 7.6) to nanoparticles (NPs)-like (at pH 10.5) structure. XRD patterns showed better polycrystallinity for NPs with enlarged band gap than NR/NF-like structures. Both PL and UV-vis spectral analysis of ZNPs exhibited higher surface area and deep level defects density dependent morphology, where the nutrient pH and growth time variation are found to play a significant role towards structural evolution. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activities of, such ZNSs are evaluated via sunlight driven photo-degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye. The photocatalytic efficiency of ZNPs is demonstrated to be much superior (97.4%) than ZNRs/ZNFs-like morphology (86%). Such enhanced photocatalytic activities of as-synthesized ZNPs is attributed to the synergism of the improved surface area and defects density, which is useful for promoting the adsorption of the MB dye and suppressed surface recombination of photo-generated charge carriers.

  18. Formation of quasi-single crystalline porous ZnO nanostructures with a single large cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seungho; Kim, Semi; Jung, Dae-Won; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2011-09-01

    We report a method for synthesizing quasi-single crystalline porous ZnO nanostructures containing a single large cavity. The microwave-assisted route consists of a short (about 2 min) temperature ramping stage (from room temperature to 120 °C) and a stage in which the temperature is maintained at 120 °C for 2 h. The structures produced by this route were 200-480 nm in diameter. The morphological yields of this method were very high. The temperature- and time-dependent evolution of the synthesized powders and the effects of an additive, vitamin C, were studied. Spherical amorphous/polycrystalline structures (70-170 nm in diameter), which appeared transitorily, may play a key role in the formation of the single crystalline porous hollow ZnO nanostructures. Studies and characterization of the nanostructures suggested a possible mechanism for formation of the quasi-single crystalline porous ZnO nanostructures with an interior space.We report a method for synthesizing quasi-single crystalline porous ZnO nanostructures containing a single large cavity. The microwave-assisted route consists of a short (about 2 min) temperature ramping stage (from room temperature to 120 °C) and a stage in which the temperature is maintained at 120 °C for 2 h. The structures produced by this route were 200-480 nm in diameter. The morphological yields of this method were very high. The temperature- and time-dependent evolution of the synthesized powders and the effects of an additive, vitamin C, were studied. Spherical amorphous/polycrystalline structures (70-170 nm in diameter), which appeared transitorily, may play a key role in the formation of the single crystalline porous hollow ZnO nanostructures. Studies and characterization of the nanostructures suggested a possible mechanism for formation of the quasi-single crystalline porous ZnO nanostructures with an interior space. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images and the corresponding SAED image of a ZnO

  19. A flexible UV nanosensor based on reduced graphene oxide decorated ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Zhan, Xueying; Wang, Yajun; Muhammad, Safdar; Huang, Ying; He, Jun

    2012-03-01

    A low-cost, compatible with flexible electronics, high performance UV sensor has been achieved from a reduced graphene oxide (RGO) decorated hydrangea-like ZnO film on a PDMS substrate. The hydrangea-like ZnO UV sensor has the best UV sensing performance among devices made of three kinds of ZnO nanostructures synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and demonstrated a dramatic enhancement in on/off ratio and photoresponse current by introducing an appropriate weight ratio of RGO. The on/off ratio of the 0.05% RGO/ZnO sensor increases almost one order of magnitude compared to that of a pristine hydrangea-like ZnO UV sensor. While for the 5% RGO decorated ZnO sensor, the photoresponse current reaches as high as ~1 μA and exceeds 700 times that of a ZnO UV sensor. These results indicate that RGO is an appropriate material to enhance the performance of ZnO nanostructure UV sensors based on its unique features, especially the high optical transparency and excellent electronic conductivity. Our findings will make RGO/ZnO nanohybrids extraordinarily promising in optoelectronics, flexible electronics and sensor applications.

  20. A flexible UV nanosensor based on reduced graphene oxide decorated ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenxing; Zhan, Xueying; Wang, Yajun; Muhammad, Safdar; Huang, Ying; He, Jun

    2012-04-21

    A low-cost, compatible with flexible electronics, high performance UV sensor has been achieved from a reduced graphene oxide (RGO) decorated hydrangea-like ZnO film on a PDMS substrate. The hydrangea-like ZnO UV sensor has the best UV sensing performance among devices made of three kinds of ZnO nanostructures synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and demonstrated a dramatic enhancement in on/off ratio and photoresponse current by introducing an appropriate weight ratio of RGO. The on/off ratio of the 0.05% RGO/ZnO sensor increases almost one order of magnitude compared to that of a pristine hydrangea-like ZnO UV sensor. While for the 5% RGO decorated ZnO sensor, the photoresponse current reaches as high as ∼1 μA and exceeds 700 times that of a ZnO UV sensor. These results indicate that RGO is an appropriate material to enhance the performance of ZnO nanostructure UV sensors based on its unique features, especially the high optical transparency and excellent electronic conductivity. Our findings will make RGO/ZnO nanohybrids extraordinarily promising in optoelectronics, flexible electronics and sensor applications.

  1. Enhanced ultraviolet photo-response in Dy doped ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Ranveer; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, a Dy doped ZnO thin film deposited by the spin coating method has been studied for its potential application in a ZnO based UV detector. The investigations on the structural property and surface morphology of the thin film ensure that the prepared samples are crystalline and exhibit a hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO. A small change in crystallite size has been observed due to Dy doping in ZnO. AFM analysis ascertains the grain growth and smooth surface of the thin films. The Dy doped ZnO thin film exhibits a significant enhancement in UV region absorption as compared to the pure ZnO thin film, which suggests that Dy doped ZnO can be used as a UV detector. Under UV irradiation of wavelength 325 nm, the photocurrent value of Dy doped ZnO is 105.54 μA at 4.5 V, which is 31 times greater than that of the un-doped ZnO thin film (3.39 μA). The calculated value of responsivity is found to increase significantly due to the incorporation of Dy in the ZnO lattice. The observed higher value of photocurrent and responsivity could be attributed to the substitution of Dy in the ZnO lattice, which enhances the conductivity, electron mobility, and defects in ZnO and benefits the UV sensing property.

  2. Enhanced stimulated emission in ZnO thin films using microdisk top-down structuring

    SciT

    Nomenyo, K.; Kostcheev, S.; Lérondel, G.

    2014-05-05

    Microdisks were fabricated in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films using a top-down approach combining electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. These microdisk structured thin films exhibit a stimulated surface emission between 3 and 7 times higher than that from a reference film depending on the excitation power density. Emission peak narrowing, reduction in lasing threshold and blue-shifting of the emission wavelength were observed along with enhancement in the emitted intensity. Results indicate that this enhancement is due to an increase in the internal quantum efficiency combined with an amplification of the stimulated emission. An analysis in terms of waveguidingmore » is presented in order to explain these effects. These results demonstrate that very significant gains in emission can be obtained through conventional microstructuration without the need for more onerous top-down nanostructuration techniques.« less

  3. Highly stable precursor solution containing ZnO nanoparticles for the preparation of ZnO thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Heh-Chang; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

    2010-07-23

    ZnO particles with an average size of about 5 nm were prepared via a sol-gel chemical route and the silane coupling agent, (3-glycidyloxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane (GPTS), was adopted to enhance the dispersion of the ZnO nanoparticles in ethyl glycol (EG) solution. A ZnO surface potential as high as 66 mV was observed and a sedimentation test showed that the ZnO precursor solution remains transparent for six months of storage, elucidating the success of surface modification on ZnO nanoparticles. The ZnO thin films were then prepared by spin coating the precursor solution on a Si wafer and annealing treatments at temperatures up to 500 degrees C were performed for subsequent preparation of ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs). Microstructure characterization revealed that the coalescence of ZnO nanoparticles occurs at temperatures as low as 200 degrees C to result in a highly uniform, nearly pore-free layer. However, annealing at higher temperatures was required to remove organic residues in the ZnO layer for satisfactory device performance. The 500 degrees C-annealed ZnO TFT sample exhibited the best electrical properties with on/off ratio = 10(5), threshold voltage = 17.1 V and mobility (micro) = 0.104 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

  4. The SL-assisted synthesis of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Ting-Ting; Guo, Yuan-Ru; Pan, Qing-Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Hierarchical ZnO nanoparticle-bar, nanomesh-lamina, and quasi-nanosphere structures have been successfully synthesized by the precipitation method with assistance of sodium lignosulphonate (SL). It is shown that the obtained ZnO nanomaterials are well crystallized and possess hexagonal wurtzite structure after calcination. Morphologies of ZnO with particle sizes ranging from 50 to 200 nm can be fabricated by tuning the SL amount in our synthetic route. Plenty of pores have been observed both in nanoparticle-bar and nanomesh-lamina ZnO. This may provide scaffold microenvironments to enhance their photocatalytic activity. It is evident that the synthesized ZnO exhibits good photocatalytic activity of degrading methylene blue, even under a very low-power UV illumination, which allows for the treatment of wastewater containing organic pollutants in an effective way. Among our synthesized nanomaterials, the nanomesh-lamina ZnO has the highest photodegradation efficiency, achieving nearly 100 % degradation only within 1.5 h (UV irradiation power of 12 W). As these ZnO nanomaterials are simply synthesized using SL which is a pulp industry by-product and their intrinsic hierarchical nanostructures show outstanding photocatalytic behavior, we expect the present controllable, environment-friendly, and cost-effective approach to be applied in the synthesis of small-sized ZnO materials.

  5. On-chip surface modified nanostructured ZnO as functional pH sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Wenpeng; Sun, Chongling; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua; Duan, Xuexin

    2015-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are promising candidates as electronic components for biological and chemical applications. In this study, ZnO ultra-fine nanowire (NW) and nanoflake (NF) hybrid structures have been prepared by Au-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure. Their surface morphology, lattice structures, and crystal orientation were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two types of ZnO nanostructures were successfully integrated as gate electrodes in extended-gate field-effect transistors (EGFETs). Due to the amphoteric properties of ZnO, such devices function as pH sensors. We found that the ultra-fine NWs, which were more than 50 μm in length and less than 100 nm in diameter, performed better in the pH sensing process than NW-NF hybrid structures because of their higher surface-to-volume ratio, considering the Nernst equation and the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model. Furthermore, the surface coating of (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) protects ZnO nanostructures in both acidic and alkaline environments, thus enhancing the device stability and extending its pH sensing dynamic range.

  6. Luminescence studies of laser MBE grown GaN on ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewan, Sheetal; Tomar, Monika; Kapoor, Ashok K.; Tandon, R. P.; Gupta, Vinay

    2017-08-01

    GaN films have been successfully fabricated using Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy (LMBE) technique on bare c-plane sapphire substrate and ZnO nanostructures (NS) decorated Si (100) substrates. The ZnO nanostructures were grown on Si (100) substrate using high pressure assisted Pulsed laser deposition technique in inert gas ambience. Discrete nanostructured morphology of ZnO was obtained using the PLD growth on Si substrates. Photoluminescence studies performed on the prepared GaN/Sapphire and GaN/ZnO-NS/Si systems, revealed a significant PL enhancement in case of GaN/ZnO-NS/Si system compared to the former. The hexagonal nucleation sites provided by the ZnO nanostructures strategically enhanced the emission of GaN film grown by Laser MBE Technique at relatively lower temperature of 700°C. The obtained results are attractive for the realization of highly luminescent GaN films on Si substrate for photonic devices.

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of ZnO nanostructures by electrochemical hybridization with graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruna, A.; Wu, Z.; Zapien, J. A.; Li, Y. Y.; Ruotolo, A.

    2018-05-01

    Synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures is reported by electrochemical deposition from an aqueous electrolyte in presence of graphene oxide (GO) with varying oxidation degree. The properties of hybrids were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman, Fourier-Transform Infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques and photocatalytic measurements. The results indicated the electrodeposition of ZnO in presence of GO with increased oxygen content led to marked differences in the morphology while Raman measurements indicated an increased defect level both in the ZnO and the electrochemically reduced GO (ErGO) within the hybrids. The decrease in C/O atomic ratio of GO (from 0.79 to 0.71) employed for the electrodeposition of ZnO resulted in an increase in photocatalytic efficiency for methylene blue degradation under UV irradiation from 4-folds to 10-folds with respect to non-hybridized ZnO. The observed synergetic effect of cathodic deposition potential and oxygen content in GO towards improving the photocatalytic activity of immobilized ZnO is expected to contribute to further development of more effective deposition approaches for the preparation of high performance hybrid nanostructures.

  8. Influence Al doped ZnO nanostructure on structural and optical properties

    SciT

    Ramelan, Ari Handono, E-mail: aramelan@mipa.uns.ac.id; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti; Chasanah, Uswatul

    2016-04-19

    The preparation of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films prepared by the spin-coating method was reported. Preparation of AZO was conducted by annealing treatment at a temperature of 700°C. While the spin-coating process of AZO thin films were done at 2000 and 3000 rpm respectively. The structural properties of ZnO were determined by X- ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. ZnOnanostructure was formed after annealed at atemperature of 400°C.The morphology of ZnO was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed the irregular morphology about 30-50µm in size. Al doped on ZnO influenced the optical properties of those material. Increasing Al contain on ZnO causemore » of shifting to the lower wavelength. The optical properties of the ZnO as well as AZO films showed that higher reflectance on the ultraviolet region so those materials were used as anti-reflecting agent.Al addition significantly enhance the optical transparency and induce the blue-shift in optical bandgap of ZnO films.« less

  9. Electrochemical synthesis of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures on ZnO seed layer for DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.; Thangamuthu, R.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition of vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were prepared on ZnO seeded fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate in the solutions consisting of different concentrations of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). The electrochemical, structural, morphological, vibrational and optical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. CV curves confirm that metallic zinc phase is not deposited as the HMTA concentration is about 9 mM in a deposition solution. XRD patterns of the as-prepared films show that the increasing HMTA concentrations from 0 mM to 9 mM not only increase the formation of zinc hydrate chloride (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) but also decrease and finally disappear the metallic Zn deposition. After the as-prepared films annealed at 450 ° C, the crystalline phases of Zn and Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O are completely converted to ZnO hexagonal wurtzite phase with high intense growth (002) plane orientation. SEM images support that the vertical growth of ZnO nanostructures (nanorods and petals) with a few flowers is found to be in the cordillera structure as the films are deposited in the solutions consisting of 3 mM, 6 mM and 9 mM HMTA respectively. Raman and PL spectra confirm that the ZnO film deposited in the solution consisting of 9 mM HMTA has a higher crystalline nature with lesser atomic defects and is also higher c-axis growth than that of other films deposited in the solutions consisting of 0 mM, 3 mM and 6 mM, respectively. UV-vis absorbance spectra corroborate that the ZnO film deposited in the solution consisting of 9 mM HMTA shows a high dye absorbance as compared with other films. The efficiency of DSSCs based on ZnO photoanodes deposited in the solutions consisting of 0 mM and 9 mM HMTA was 1.79 and 3.75%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra revealed that DSSC based on ZnO photoanode

  10. Simple chemical synthesis of novel ZnO nanostructures: Role of counter ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudukudy, Manoj; Yaakob, Zahira

    2014-04-01

    This article reports the synthesis, characterisation and photocatalytic activity of novel ZnO nanostructures prepared via the thermal decomposition of hydrozincite. Hydrozincites were obtained by the conventional precipitation route using different zinc salts such as acetate, nitrate, chloride and sulphate. The effect of counter ions (CH3COO-, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) on the structural, textural, morphological and optical properties was investigated. Various characterisations depicted the active role of counter ions in the properties of ZnO. Hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO with fine crystalline size was obvious from the XRD results, irrespective of the counter ions. Electron microscopic images indicated the role of counter ions in the surface and internal morphology of ZnO nanomaterials. Special coral like agglomerated morphology of elongated particles with high porosity was observed for the ZnO prepared from acetate precursor. Spherical, elongated and irregular shaped bigger lumps of ZnO nanoparticles with various novel morphologies were resulted for the sulphate, nitrate and chloride precursors respectively. Highly ordered porous micro disc like morphology was noted for the ZnO samples prepared from the sulphate and nitrate salts. Photoluminescence spectra showed the characteristic blue and green emission bands, depicting the presence of large crystal defects and high oxygen vacancies in the samples. Photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared ZnO catalysts was examined by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. Degradation results indicated their substantial activity with respect to the counter ions. ZnO prepared from the acetate precursor showed highest photoactivity due to its high surface area, special morphology and high oxygen vacancies.

  11. Polarization induced conductive AFM on cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Pradosh Kumar; Mangamma, G.; Rajesh, A.; Kamruddin, M.; Dash, S.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work cobalt doped ZnO (CZO) nanostructures (NS) have been synthesized by of sol-gel and spin coating process. After the crystal phase confirmation by GIXRD and Raman spectroscopy, Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) measurement was performed on CZO NS which shows the random distribution of electrically conducting zones on the surface of the material exhibiting current in the range 4-170 pA. We provide the possible mechanisms for variation in current distribution essential for quantitative understanding of transport properties of ZnO NS in doped and undoped forms.

  12. Photoluminescence of Sequential Infiltration Synthesized ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocola, Leonidas; Gosztola, David; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Connolly, Aine

    We have investigated a variation of atomic layer deposition (ALD), called sequential infiltration synthesis (SiS), as an alternate method to incorporate ZnO and other oxides inside polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and other polymers. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results show that we synthesize ZnO up to 300 nm inside a PMMA film. Photoluminescence data on a PMMA film shows that we achieve a factor of 400X increase in photoluminescence (PL) intensity when comparing a blank Si sample and a 270 nm thick PMMA film, where both were treated with the same 12 alternating cycles of H2O and diethyl zinc (DEZ). PMMA is a well-known ebeam resist. We can expose and develop patterns useful for photonics or sensing applications first, and then convert them afterwards into a hybrid polymer-oxide material. We show that patterning does indeed affect the photoluminescence signature of native ZnO. We demonstrate we can track the growth of the ZnO inside the PMMA polymer using both photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy and determine the point in the process where ZnO is first photoluminescent and also at which point ZnO first exhibits long range order in the polymer. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  13. Nanostructured refractory thin films for solar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollier, E.; Dunoyer, N.; Dellea, O.; Szambolics, H.

    2014-08-01

    Selective solar absorbers are key elements of all solar thermal systems. Solar thermal panels and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems aim respectively at producing heat and electricity. In both cases, a surface receives the solar radiation and is designed to have the highest optical absorption (lowest optical reflectivity) of the solar radiation in the visible wavelength range where the solar intensity is the highest. It also has a low emissivity in the infrared (IR) range in order to avoid radiative thermal losses. Current solutions in the state of the art usually consist in deposited interferential thin films or in cermets [1]. Structured surfaces have been proposed and have been simulated because they are supposed to be more efficient when the solar radiation is not normal to the receiving surface and because they could potentially be fabricated with refractory materials able to sustain high operating temperatures. This work presents a new method to fabricate micro/nanostructured surfaces on molybdenum (refractory metal with a melting temperature of 2623°C). This method now allows obtaining a refractory selective surface with an excellent optical selectivity and a very high absorption in the visible range. This high absorption performance was obtained by achieving a double structuration at micro and nano scales thanks to an innovative process flow.

  14. CoFe2O4-TiO2 and CoFe2O4-ZnO thin film nanostructures elaborated from colloidal chemistry and atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Guylhaine; Marichy, Catherine; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Ravaine, Serge; Zitoun, David; Pinna, Nicola

    2010-12-07

    CoFe(2)O(4)-TiO(2) and CoFe(2)O(4)-ZnO nanoparticles/film composites were prepared from directed assembly of colloidal CoFe(2)O(4) in a Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of an oxide (TiO(2) or ZnO). The combination of these two methods permits the use of well-defined nanoparticles from colloidal chemistry, their assembly on a large scale, and the control over the interface between a ferrimagnetic material (CoFe(2)O(4)) and a semiconductor (TiO(2) or ZnO). Using this approach, architectures can be assembled with a precise control from the Angstrom scale (ALD) to the micrometer scale (Langmuir-Blodgett film). The resulting heterostructures present well-calibrated thicknesses. Electron microscopy and magnetic measurement studies give evidence that the size of the nanoparticles and their intrinsic magnetic properties are not altered by the various steps involved in the synthesis process. Therefore, the approach is suitable to obtain a layered composite with a quasi-monodisperse layer of ferrimagnetic nanoparticles embedded in an ultrathin film of semiconducting material.

  15. Effect of K-doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Linhua; Li, Xiangyin; Yuan, Jun

    2008-09-01

    In this work, K-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by a sol-gel method on Si(111) and glass substrates. The effect of different K-doping concentrations on structural and optical properties of the ZnO thin films was studied. The results showed that the 1 at.% K-doped ZnO thin film had the best crystallization quality and the strongest ultraviolet emission ability. When the concentration of K was above 1 at.%, the crystallization quality and ultraviolet emission ability dropped. For the K-doped ZnO thin films, there was not only ultraviolet emission, but also a blue emission signal in their photoluminescent spectra. The blue emission might be connected with K impurity or/and the intrinsic defects (Zn interstitial and Zn vacancy) of the ZnO thin films.

  16. Facile Hydrothermal Preparation of ZNO/CO3O4 Heterogeneous Nanostructures and its Photovoltaic Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Fanan; Jiang, Minlin; Liu, Lianqing

    2015-07-01

    Photovoltaic technology offers great potential in the replacement of fossil fuel resources, but still suffers from high device fabrication cost. Herein, we attempted to provide a solution to these issues with heterogeneous nanostructures. Firstly, Zinc oxide (ZnO)/cobalt oxide (Co3O4) heterojunction nanowires are prepared through facile fabrication methods. By assembling Co(OH)2 nanoplates on ZnO nanowire arrays, the ZnO/Co3O4 heterogeneous nanostructures are uniformly synthesized on ITO coated glass and wafer. Current (I)-voltage (V) measurement through conductive atomic force microscope shows excellent photovoltaic effect. And, the heterojunction nanostructures shows unprecedented high open circuit voltage. Therefore, the potential application of the heterogeneous nanostructures in solar cells is demonstrated.

  17. Ultraviolet emission enhancement in ZnO thin films modified by nanocrystalline TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Gaige; Lu, Xi; Qian, Liming; Xian, Fenglin

    2017-05-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline TiO2 modified ZnO thin films were prepared by electron beam evaporation. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. The composition of the films was examined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The photoluminescent spectrum shows that the pure ZnO thin film exhibits an ultraviolet (UV) emission peak and a strong green emission band. Surface analysis indicates that the ZnO thin film contains many oxygen vacancy defects on the surface. After the ZnO thin film is modified by the nanocrystalline TiO2 layer, the UV emission of ZnO is largely enhanced and the green emission is greatly suppressed, which suggests that the surface defects such as oxygen vacancies are passivated by the TiO2 capping layer. As for the UV emission enhancement of the ZnO thin film, the optimized thickness of the TiO2 capping layer is ∼16 nm. When the thickness is larger than 16 nm, the UV emission of the ZnO thin film will decrease because the TiO2 capping layer absorbs most of the excitation energy. The UV emission enhancement in the nanocrystalline TiO2 modified ZnO thin film can be attributed to surface passivation and flat band effect.

  18. Composite multifunctional nanostructures based on ZnO tetrapods and superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Villani, M; Rimoldi, T; Calestani, D; Lazzarini, L; Chiesi, V; Casoli, F; Albertini, F; Zappettini, A

    2013-04-05

    A nanocomposite material is obtained by coupling superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NP) and vapor phase grown zinc oxide nanostructures with 'tetrapod' morphology (ZnO TP). The aim is the creation of a multifunctional material which retains the attractive features of ZnO (e.g. surface reactivity, strong UV emission, piezoelectricity) together with added magnetism. Structural, morphological, optical, magnetic and functional characterization are performed. In particular, the high saturation magnetization of Fe3O4 NP (above 50 A m(2) kg(-1)), the strong UV luminescence and the enhanced photocatalytic activity of coupled nanostructures are discussed. Thus the nanocomposite turns out to be suitable for applications in energy harvesting and conversion, gas- and bio-sensing, bio-medicine and filter-free photocatalysis.

  19. Effect of Mg doping in ZnO buffer layer on ZnO thin film devices for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Pushpa; Chakrabarti, P.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been grown on p-silicon (Si) substrate using magnesium doped ZnO (Mg: ZnO) buffer layer by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering method. In this paper, we have optimized the concentration of Mg (0-5 atomic percent (at. %)) ZnO buffer layer to examine its effect on ZnO thin film based devices for electronic and optoelectronic applications. The crystalline nature, morphology and topography of the surface of the thin film have been characterized. The optical as well as electrical properties of the active ZnO film can be tailored by varying the concentration of Mg in the buffer layer. The crystallite size in the active ZnO thin film was found to increase with the Mg concentration in the buffer layer in the range of 0-3 at. % and subsequently decrease with increasing Mg atom concentration in the ZnO. The same was verified by the surface morphology and topography studies carried out with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic electron microscopy (AFM) respectively. The reflectance in the visible region was measured to be less than 80% and found to decrease with increase in Mg concentration from 0 to 3 at. % in the buffer region. The optical bandgap was initially found to increase from 3.02 eV to 3.74 eV by increasing the Mg content from 0 to 3 at. % but subsequently decreases and drops down to 3.43 eV for a concentration of 5 at. %. The study of an Au:Pd/ZnO Schottky diode reveals that for optimum doping of the buffer layer the device exhibits superior rectifying behavior. The barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratio, reverse saturation current and series resistance of the Schottky diode were extracted from the measured current voltage (I-V) characteristics.

  20. Correlated effects of preparation parameters and thickness on morphology and optical properties of ZnO very thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliot, Mickaël; Hadjadj, Aomar

    2015-08-01

    Nano-granular ZnO layers have been grown using a sol-gel synthesis and spin-coating deposition process. Thin films with thicknesses ranging from 15 to 150 nm have been obtained by varying the number of deposition cycles and prepared with different synthesis conditions. Morphologies and optical properties have been carefully investigated by joint spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. A correlation between the evolution of optical properties and grains morphology has been observed. It is shown that both synthesis temperature and concentration similarly allow us to change the correlated growth and properties evolution rate. Thickness variation associated to choice of synthesis parameters could be a useful way to tune morphology and optical properties of the nanostructured ZnO layers.

  1. Detectors based on Pd-doped and PdO-functionalized ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postica, V.; Lupan, O.; Ababii, N.; Hoppe, M.; Adelung, R.; Chow, L.; Sontea, V.; Aschehoug, P.; Viana, V.; Pauporté, Th.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured films were grown using a simple synthesis from chemical solutions (SCS) approach from aqueous baths at relatively low temperatures (< 95 °C). The samples were doped with Pd (0.17 at% Pd) and functionalized with PdO nanoparticles (NPs) using the PdCl2 aqueous solution and subsequent thermal annealing at 650 °C for 30 min. The morphological, micro-Raman and optical properties of Pd modified samples were investigated in detail and were demonstrated to have high crystallinity. Gas sensing studies unveiled that compared to pure ZnO films, the Pd-doped ZnO (ZnO:Pd) nanostructured films showed a decrease in ethanol vapor response and slight increase in H2 response with low selectivity. However, the PdO-functionalized samples showed excellent H2 gas sensing properties with possibility to detect H2 gas even at room temperature (gas response of 2). Up to 200 °C operating temperature the samples are highly selective to H2 gas, with highest response of 12 at 150 °C. This study demonstrates that surface functionalization of n-ZnO nanostructured films with p-type oxides is very important for improvement of gas sensing properties.

  2. Flower-like ZnO nanostructure based electrochemical DNA biosensor for bacterial meningitis detection.

    PubMed

    Tak, Manvi; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2014-09-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures possessing flower-like morphology have been synthesised onto platinized silicon substrate by simple and economical hydrothermal method. The interaction of physically immobilized single stranded thiolated DNA (ss th-DNA) probe of N. meningitides onto the nanostructured ZnO (ZNF) matrix surface have been investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impeadance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical sensing response behaviour of the DNA bioelectrode (ss th-DNA/ZNF/Pt/Si) has been studied by both differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) as well as impedimetric techniques. The fabricated DNA biosensor can quantify wide range of the complementary target ss th-DNA in the range 5-240 ng μl(-1) with good linearity (R=0.98), high sensitivity (168.64 μA ng(-1) μl cm(-2)) and low detection limit of about 5 ng μl(-1). Results emphasise that the fabricated flower-like ZnO nanostructures offer a useful platform for the immobilization of DNA molecules and could be exploited for efficient detection of complementary target single stranded DNA corresponding to N. meningitides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ZnO Nanostructures for Drug Delivery and Theranostic Applications.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Carmona, Marina; Gun'ko, Yurii; Vallet-Regí, María

    2018-04-23

    In the last two decades, zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductor Quantum dots (QDs) have been shown to have fantastic luminescent properties, which together with their low-cost, low-toxicity and biocompatibility have turned these nanomaterials into one of the main candidates for bio-imaging. The discovery of other desirable traits such as their ability to produce destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS), high catalytic efficiency, strong adsorption capability and high isoelectric point, also make them promising nanomaterials for therapeutic and diagnostic functions. Herein, we review the recent progress on the use of ZnO based nanoplatforms in drug delivery and theranostic in several diseases such as bacterial infection and cancer.

  4. ZnO Nanostructures for Drug Delivery and Theranostic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Carmona, Marina

    2018-01-01

    In the last two decades, zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductor Quantum dots (QDs) have been shown to have fantastic luminescent properties, which together with their low-cost, low-toxicity and biocompatibility have turned these nanomaterials into one of the main candidates for bio-imaging. The discovery of other desirable traits such as their ability to produce destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS), high catalytic efficiency, strong adsorption capability and high isoelectric point, also make them promising nanomaterials for therapeutic and diagnostic functions. Herein, we review the recent progress on the use of ZnO based nanoplatforms in drug delivery and theranostic in several diseases such as bacterial infection and cancer. PMID:29690644

  5. Effect of ZnO buffer layer on phase transition properties of vanadium dioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huiqun; Li, Lekang; Li, Chunbo

    2016-03-01

    VO2 thin films were prepared on ZnO buffer layers by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature using vanadium target and post annealing at 400 °C. The ZnO buffer layers with different thickness deposited on glass substrates by magnetron sputtering have a high visible and near infrared optical transmittance. The electrical resistivity and the phase transition properties of the VO2/ZnO composite thin films in terms of temperature were investigated. The results showed that the resistivity variation of VO2 thin film with ZnO buffer layer deposited for 35 min was 16 KΩ-cm. The VO2/ZnO composite thin films exhibit a reversible semiconductor-metal phase transition at 48 °C.

  6. Effects of surface morphology on the optical and electrical properties of Schottky diodes of CBD deposited ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwankemwa, Benard S.; Akinkuade, Shadrach; Maabong, Kelebogile; Nel, Jackie M.; Diale, Mmantsae

    2018-04-01

    We report on effect of surface morphology on the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures. ZnO nanostructures were deposited on the seeded conducting indium doped tin oxide substrate positioned in three different directions in the growth solution. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the morphological properties of the synthesized nanostructures and revealed that the positioning of the substrate in the growth solution affects the surface morphology of the nanostructures. The optical absorbance, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of the resulting nanostructures are discussed. The electrical characterization of the Schottky diode such as barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratios, reverse saturation current and series resistance were found to depend on the nanostructures morphology. In addition, current transport mechanism in the higher forward bias of the Schottky diode was studied and space charge limited current was found to be the dominant transport mechanism in all samples.

  7. Blue emitting ZnO nanostructures grown through cellulose bio-templates.

    PubMed

    Oudhia, Anjali; Sharma, Savita; Kulkarni, Pragya; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a green and cost-effective recipe for the synthesis of blue-emitting ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using cellulose bio-templates. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract prepared in different solvents were used as biological templates to produce nanostructures of wurtzite ZnO with a particle size ~12-36 nm. A cellulose-driven capping mechanism is used to describe the morphology of ZnO NPs. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) studies showed that solvents affect the growth process and the capping mechanism of bio-template severely. Structural changes in ZnO NPs were evident with variation in pH, dielectric constants (DC) and boiling points (BP) of solvents. Furthermore, an energy band model is proposed to explain the origin of the blue emission in the as-obtained ZnO NPs. PL excitation studies and the theoretical enthalpy values of individual defects were used to establish the association between the interstitial-zinc-related defect levels and the blue emission. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effect of annealing on the sub-bandgap, defects and trapping states of ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuono, Ruri Agung; Hermann-Westendorf, Felix; Dellith, Andrea; Schmidt, Christa; Dellith, Jan; Plentz, Jonathan; Schulz, Martin; Presselt, Martin; Seyring, Martin; Rettenmeyer, Markus; Dietzek, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Annealing treatment was applied to different mesoporous ZnO nanostructures prepared by wet chemical synthesis, i.e. nanoflowers (NFs), spherical aggregates (SPs), and nanorods (NRs). The sub-bandgap, defect properties as well as the trapping state characteristics after annealing were characterized spectroscopically, including ultrasensitive photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), photoluminescence and photo-electrochemical methods. The comprehensive experimental analysis reveals that annealing alters both the bandgap and the sub-bandgap. The defect concentration and the density of surface traps in the ZnO nanostructures are suppressed upon annealing as deduced from photoluminescence and open-circuit voltage decay analysis. The photo-electrochemical investigations reveal that the surface traps dominate the near conduction band edge of ZnO and, hence, lead to high recombination rates when used in DSSCs. The density of bulk traps in ZnO SPs is higher than that in ZnO NFs and ZnO NRs and promote lower recombination loss between photoinjected electrons with the electrolyte-oxidized species on the surface. The highest power conversion efficiency of ZnO NFs-, ZnO SPs-, and ZnO NRs-based DSSC obtained in our system is 2.0, 4.5, and 1.8%, respectively.

  9. Nanostructured manganese oxide thin films as electrode material for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hui; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, are alternative energy storage devices, particularly for applications requiring high power densities. Recently, manganese oxides have been extensively evaluated as electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their low cost, environmental benignity, and promising supercapacitive performance. In order to maximize the utilization of manganese oxides as the electrode material for the supercapacitors and improve their supercapacitive performance, the nanostructured manganese oxides have therefore been developed. This paper reviews the synthesis of the nanostructured manganese oxide thin films by different methods and the supercapacitive performance of different nanostructures.

  10. Oxygen vacancy-induced ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Peng; Wang, Weipeng; Liu, Can; Hu, Yang; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Baoyi; Cao, Xingzhong

    2012-02-01

    ZnO films became ferromagnetic when defects were introduced by thermal-annealing in flowing argon. This ferromagnetism, as shown by the photoluminescence measurement and positron annihilation analysis, was induced by the singly occupied oxygen vacancy with a saturated magnetization dependent positively on the amount of this vacancy. This study clarified the origin of the ferromagnetism of un-doped ZnO thin films and provides possibly an alternative way to prepare ferromagnetic ZnO films.

  11. Fabrication of nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer of organic photovoltaic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyomin; Kwon, Yiseul; Choe, Youngson

    2013-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of fibrous nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer on the performance of polymer photovoltaic cells. By increasing the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate, the changes of performance characteristics were evaluated. Fibrous nanostructured ZnO film was prepared by sol-gel process and annealed on a hot plate. As the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate increased, ZnO fibrous nanostructure grew from 300 to 600 nm. The obtained ZnO nanostructured fibrous films have taken the shape of a maze-like structure and were characterized by UV-visible absorption, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The intensity of absorption bands in the ultraviolet region was increased with increasing precursor concentration. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO fibrous nanostructures became strongly (002)-oriented with increasing concentration of precursor. The bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells were fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and indene-C60 bisadduct as active layer, and their electrical properties were investigated. The external quantum efficiency of the fabricated device increased with increasing precursor concentration.

  12. Fabrication of nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer of organic photovoltaic cell

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of fibrous nanostructured ZnO film as a hole-conducting layer on the performance of polymer photovoltaic cells. By increasing the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate, the changes of performance characteristics were evaluated. Fibrous nanostructured ZnO film was prepared by sol-gel process and annealed on a hot plate. As the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate increased, ZnO fibrous nanostructure grew from 300 to 600 nm. The obtained ZnO nanostructured fibrous films have taken the shape of a maze-like structure and were characterized by UV-visible absorption, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The intensity of absorption bands in the ultraviolet region was increased with increasing precursor concentration. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the ZnO fibrous nanostructures became strongly (002)-oriented with increasing concentration of precursor. The bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells were fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and indene-C60 bisadduct as active layer, and their electrical properties were investigated. The external quantum efficiency of the fabricated device increased with increasing precursor concentration. PMID:23680100

  13. Pulsed photonic fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, Briley B.; Luo, Sijun; Riggs, Brian C.; Adireddy, Shiva; Chrisey, Douglas B.

    2017-09-01

    Nanostructured metal oxide thin films with a large specific surface area are preferable for practical device applications in energy conversion and storage. Herein, we report instantaneous (milliseconds) photonic synthesis of three-dimensional (3-D) nanostructured metal oxide thin films through the pulsed photoinitiated pyrolysis of organometallic precursor films made by chemical solution deposition. High wall-plug efficiency-pulsed photonic irradiation (xenon flash lamp, pulse width of 1.93 ms, fluence of 7.7 J/cm2 and frequency of 1.2 Hz) is used for scalable photonic processing. The photothermal effect of subsequent pulses rapidly improves the crystalline quality of nanocrystalline metal oxide thin films in minutes. The following paper highlights pulsed photonic fabrication of 3-D nanostructured TiO2, Co3O4, and Fe2O3 thin films, exemplifying a promising new method for the low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing of nanostructured metal oxide thin films for energy applications.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanostructures using palm olein as biotemplate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A green approach to synthesize nanomaterials using biotemplates has been subjected to intense research due to several advantages. Palm olein as a biotemplate offers the benefits of eco-friendliness, low-cost and scale-up for large scale production. Therefore, the effect of palm olein on morphology and surface properties of ZnO nanostructures were investigated. Results The results indicate that palm olein as a biotemplate can be used to modify the shape and size of ZnO particles synthesized by hydrothermal method. Different morphology including flake-, flower- and three dimensional star-like structures were obtained. FTIR study indicated the reaction between carboxyl group of palm olein and zinc species had taken place. Specific surface area enhanced while no considerable change were observed in optical properties. Conclusion Phase-pure ZnO particles were successfully synthesized using palm olein as soft biotemplating agent by hydrothermal method. The physico-chemical properties of the resulting ZnO particles can be tuned using the ratio of palm olein to Zn cation. PMID:23601826

  15. Growth and properties of electrodeposited transparent Al-doped ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baka, O.; Mentar, L.; Khelladi, M. R.; Azizi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanostructures were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO)- coated glass substrates by using electrodeposition. The effects of the doping concentration of Al on the morphological, microstructural, electrical and optical properties of the nanostructures were investigated. From the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observation, when the amount of Al was increased in the solution, the grains size was observed to decreases. The observed changes in the morphology indicate that Al acts as nucleation centers in the vacancy sites of ZnO and destroys the crystalline structure at high doping level. Effectively, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the undoped and the doped ZnO nanostructures has a polycrystalline nature and a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a (002) preferential orientation. The photoluminescence (PL) room-temperature measurements showed that the incorporation of Al in the Zn lattice can improve the intensity of ultraviolet (UV) emission, thus suggesting its greater prospects for use in UV optoelectronic devices.

  16. Ionic pH and glucose sensors fabricated using hydrothermal ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jyh-Liang; Yang, Po-Yu; Hsieh, Tsang-Yen; Juan, Pi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermally synthesized aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructures have been adopted in extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) sensors to demonstrate the sensitive and stable pH and glucose sensing characteristics of AZO-nanostructured EGFET sensors. The AZO-nanostructured EGFET sensors exhibited the following superior pH sensing characteristics: a high current sensitivity of 0.96 µA1/2/pH, a high linearity of 0.9999, less distortion of output waveforms, a small hysteresis width of 4.83 mV, good long-term repeatability, and a wide sensing range from pHs 1 to 13. The glucose sensing characteristics of AZO-nanostructured biosensors exhibited the desired sensitivity of 60.5 µA·cm-2·mM-1 and a linearity of 0.9996 up to 13.9 mM. The attractive characteristics of high sensitivity, high linearity, and repeatability of using ionic AZO-nanostructured EGFET sensors indicate their potential use as electrochemical and disposable biosensors.

  17. Simultaneous tuning of electric field intensity and structural properties of ZnO: Graphene nanostructures for FOSPR based nicotine sensor.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2017-05-15

    We report theoretical and experimental realization of a SPR based fiber optic nicotine sensor having coatings of silver and graphene doped ZnO nanostructure onto the unclad core of the optical fiber. The volume fraction (f) of graphene in ZnO was optimized using simulation of electric field intensity. Four types of graphene doped ZnO nanostructures viz. nanocomposites, nanoflowers, nanotubes and nanofibers were prepared using optimized value of f. The morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and UV-vis spectra of these nanostructures were studied. The peak PL intensity was found to be highest for ZnO: graphene nanofibers. The optimized value of f in ZnO: graphene nanofiber was reconfirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy. The experiments were performed on the fiber optic probe fabricated with Ag/ZnO: graphene layer and optimized parameters for in-situ detection of nicotine. The interaction of nicotine with ZnO: graphene nanostructures alters the dielectric function of ZnO: graphene nanostructure which is manifested in terms of shift in resonance wavelength. From the sensing signal, the performance parameters were measured including sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), stability, repeatability and selectivity. The real sample prepared using cigarette tobacco leaves and analyzed using the fabricated sensor makes it suitable for practical applications. The achieved values of LOD and LOQ are found to be unrivalled in comparison to the reported ones. The sensor possesses additional advantages such as, immunity to electromagnetic interference, low cost, capability of online monitoring, remote sensing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication of Vertical Organic Light-Emitting Transistor Using ZnO Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Masaaki; Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2007-04-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) combined with thin film transistor (TFT) are well suitable elements for low-cost, large-area active matrix displays. On the other hand, zinc oxide (ZnO) is a transparent material and its electrical conductivity is controlled from conductive to insulating by growth conditions. The drain current of ZnO FET is 180 μA. The OLED uses ZnO thin film (Al-doped) for the electron injection layer and is controlled by radio frequency (rf) and direct current (dc) sputtering conditions, such as Al concentration and gas pressure. Al concentration in the ZnO film and deposition rate have strong effects on electron injection. Furthermore, the OLED driven by ZnO FET shows a luminance of 13 cd/m2, a luminance efficiency of 0.7 cd/A, and an on-off ratio of 650.

  19. Screen-Printing of ZnO Nanostructures from Sol-Gel Solutions for Their Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Kuhu; Braden, Erik V; Bonke, Shannon A; Bach, Udo; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-08-24

    Diblock copolymers have been used in sol-gel synthesis to successfully tailor the nanoscale morphology of thin ZnO films. As the fabrication of several-micron-thick mesoporous films such as those required in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was difficult with this approach, we exploited the benefits of diblock-copolymer-directed synthesis that made it compatible with screen printing. The simple conversion of the diblock copolymer ZnO precursor sol to a screen-printing paste was not possible as it resulted in poor film properties. To overcome this problem, an alternative route is proposed in which the diblock copolymer ZnO precursor sol is first blade coated and calcined, then converted to a screen-printing paste. This allows the benefits of diblock-copolymer-directed particle formation to be compatible with printing methods. The morphologies of the ZnO nanostructures were studied by SEM and correlated with the current density-voltage characteristics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A Comprehensive Review of Semiconductor Ultraviolet Photodetectors: From Thin Film to One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Liwen; Liao, Meiyong; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors have drawn extensive attention owing to their applications in industrial, environmental and even biological fields. Compared to UV-enhanced Si photodetectors, a new generation of wide bandgap semiconductors, such as (Al, In) GaN, diamond, and SiC, have the advantages of high responsivity, high thermal stability, robust radiation hardness and high response speed. On the other hand, one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure semiconductors with a wide bandgap, such as β-Ga2O3, GaN, ZnO, or other metal-oxide nanostructures, also show their potential for high-efficiency UV photodetection. In some cases such as flame detection, high-temperature thermally stable detectors with high performance are required. This article provides a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research activities in the UV photodetection field, including not only semiconductor thin films, but also 1D nanostructured materials, which are attracting more and more attention in the detection field. A special focus is given on the thermal stability of the developed devices, which is one of the key characteristics for the real applications. PMID:23945739

  1. Tuning the nanostructures and optical properties of undoped and N-doped ZnO by supercritical fluid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaping; Wang, Hui-Qiong; Chu, Tian-Jian; Li, Yu-Chiuan; Li, Xiaojun; Liao, Xiaxia; Wang, Xiaodan; Zhou, Hua; Kang, Junyong; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Zheng, Jin-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of ZnO films in a supercritical fluid (SCF) has been reported to improve the performance of devices in which the treated ZnO films are incorporated; however, the mechanism of this improvement remains unclear. In this paper, we study the transformation of the surface morphologies and emission properties of ZnO films before and after SCF treatment, establishing the relationship between the treated and untreated structures and thereby enabling tuning of the catalytic or opto-electronic performance of ZnO films or ZnO-film-based devices. Both undoped and N-doped ZnO nanostructures generated by SCF treatment of films are investigated using techniques to characterize their surface morphology (scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)) as well as room-temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) spectroscopy. The water-mixed supercritical CO2 (W-SCCO2) technology was found to form nanostructures in ZnO films through a self-catalyzed process enabled by the Zn-rich conditions in the ZnO films. The W-SCCO2 was also found to promote the inhibition of defect luminescence by introducing -OH groups onto the films. Two models are proposed to explain the effects of the treatment with W-SCCO2. This work demonstrates that the W-SCCO2 technology can be used as an effective tool for the nanodesign and property enhancement of functional metal oxides.

  2. Thin film thermocouples for thermoelectric characterization of nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Matthew; Zhou, Chuanle; Varrenti, Andrew; Chyung, Seung Hye; Long, Jieyi; Memik, Seda

    2011-03-01

    The increased use of nanostructured materials as thermoelectrics requires reliable and accurate characterization of the anisotropic thermal coefficients of small structures, such as superlattices and quantum wire networks. Thin evaporated metal films can be used to create thermocouples with a very small thermal mass and low thermal conductivity, in order to measure thermal gradients on nanostructures and thereby measure the thermal conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient of the nanostructure. In this work we confirm the known result that thin metal films have lower Seebeck coefficients than bulk metals, and we also calibrate the Seebeck coefficient of a thin-film Ni/Cr thermocouple with 50 nm thickness, showing it to have about 1/4 the bulk value. We demonstrate reproducibility of this thin-filmSeebeck coefficient on multiple substrates, and we show that this coefficient does, in fact, change as a function of film thickness. We will discuss prototype measurement designs and preliminary work as to how these thin films can be used to study both Seebeck coefficients and thermal conductivities of superlattices in various geometries. The same technology can in principle be used on integrated circuits for thermal mapping, under the name ``Integrated On-Chip Thermocouple Array'' (IOTA).

  3. pH effect on structural and optical properties of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films

    SciT

    Munef, R. A.

    2015-03-30

    ZnO nanostructures were Deposited on Objekttrager glasses for various pH values by chemical bath deposition method using Zn (NO3)2·6H2O (zinc nitrate hexahydrate) solution at 75°C reaction temperature without any posterior treatments. The ZnO nanostructures obtained were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, UV). The structure was hexagonal and it was found that some peaks disappear with various pH values. The grain sizes of ZnO films increases from 22-to-29nm with increasing pH. The transmission of the films was (85-95%)

  4. Synthesis of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films by electron beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondkar, V.; Rukade, D.; Bhattacharyya, V.

    2018-05-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films have potential for applications in variety of optoelectronic devices. In the present study, nanocrystalline thin films of ZnO are grown on fused silica substrate using electron beam (e-beam) evaporation technique. Phase identification is carried out using Glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic analysis is carried out to calculate energy band gap of the ZnO film. Surface morphology of the film is investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Highly quality nanocrystalline thin films of hexagonal wurtzite ZnO are synthesized using e-beam evaporation technique.

  5. Performance improvement for solution-processed high-mobility ZnO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha Li, Chen; Li, Yu Ning; Wu, Yi Liang; Ong, Beng S.; Loutfy, Rafik O.

    2008-06-01

    The fabrication technology of stable, non-toxic, transparent, high performance zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film semiconductors via the solution process was investigated. Two methods, which were, respectively, annealing a spin-coated precursor solution and annealing a drop-coated precursor solution, were compared. The prepared ZnO thin-film semiconductor transistors have well-controlled, preferential crystal orientation and exhibit superior field-effect performance characteristics. But the ZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) fabricated by annealing a drop-coated precursor solution has a distinctly elevated linear mobility, which further approaches the saturated mobility, compared with that fabricated by annealing a spin-coated precursor solution. The performance of the solution-processed ZnO TFT was further improved when substituting the spin-coating process by the drop-coating process.

  6. SHI irradiation effect on pure and Mn doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawal, H. A.; Raskar, N. D.; Dole, B. N.

    2017-05-01

    Investigated the structural, surface, electrical and modifications induced by Swift Heavy Ions (SHI) irradiation on pure and Mn substituted ZnO thin films were observed. Thin films of Zn1-xMnxO (x = 0.00, 0.04) were synthesized using the dip coating technique. All thin films irradiated by Li3+ swift heavy ions with fluence 5 × 1013 ions/cm2. The XRD peak reveals that all the samples exhibit wurtzite structures. Surface morphology of samples was investigated by SEM, it was observed that pristine samples of ZnO thin film shows spherical shape but for 4 % Mn substituted ZnO thin film with 5 × 1013 ions/cm2 fluence, it reveals that big grain spherical morphology like structure respectively. I-V characteristics were recorded in the voltage range -5 to 5 V. All curves were passed through origin and nearly linear exhibit ohmic in nature for the films.

  7. Engineering Nano-Structured Multiferroic Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Pui Lam

    Multiferroics exhibit remarkable tunabilities in their ferromagnetic, ferroelectric and magnetoelectric properties that provide the potential in enabling the control of magnetizations by electric field for the next generation non-volatile memories, antennas and motors. In recent research and developments in integrating single-phase ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, multiferroic composite demonstrated a promising magnetoelectric (ME) coupling for future applications. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique, on the other hand, allows fabrications of complex multiferroic nanostructures to investigate interfacial coupling between the two materials. In this work, radical-enhanced ALD of cobalt ferrite (CFO) and thermal ALD of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) were combined in fabricating complex multiferroic architectures in investigating the effect of nanostructuring and magnetic shape anisotropy on improving ME coupling. In particular, 1D CFO nanotubes and nanowires; 0D-3D CFO/PZT mesoporous composite; and 1D-1D CFO/PZT core-shell nanowire composite were studied. The potential implementation of nanostructured multiferroic composites into functioning devices was assessed by quantifying the converse ME coupling coefficient. The synthesis of 1D CFO nanostructures was realized by ALD of CFO in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. This work provided a simple and inexpensive route to create parallel and high aspect ratio ( 55) magnetic nanostructures. The change in magnetic easy axis of (partially filled) CFO nanotubes from perpendicular to parallel in (fully-filled) nanowires indicated the significance of the geometric factor in controlling magnetizations and ME coupling. The 0D-3D CFO/PZT mesoporous composite demonstrated the optimizations of the strain transfer could be achieved by precise thickness control. 100 nm of mesoporous PZT was synthesized on Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si using amphiphilic diblock copolymers as a porous ferroelectric template (10 nm pore diameter) for

  8. Influences of Co doping on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed Khan, M. A.; Wasi Khan, M.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Alsalhi, M. S.; Aldwayyan, A. S.

    2010-07-01

    Pure and Co-doped ZnO nanostructured samples have been synthesized by a chemical route. We have studied the structural and optical properties of the samples by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), field-emission transmission electron microscope (FETEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The XRD patterns show that all the samples are hexagonal wurtzite structures. Changes in crystallite size due to mechanical activation were also determined from X-ray measurements. These results were correlated with changes in particle size followed by SEM and TEM. The average crystallite sizes obtained from XRD were between 20 to 25 nm. The TEM images showed the average particle size of undoped ZnO nanostructure was about 20 nm whereas the smallest average grain size at 3% Co was about 15 nm. Optical parameters such as absorption coefficient ( α), energy band gap ( E g ), the refractive index ( n), and dielectric constants ( σ) have been determined using different methods.

  9. Enabling antibacterial coating via bioinspired mineralization of nanostructured ZnO on fabrics under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Manna, Joydeb; Begum, Gousia; Kumar, K Pranay; Misra, Sunil; Rana, Rohit K

    2013-05-22

    Herein, we present an environmentally benign method capable of mineralization and deposition of nanomaterials to introduce antibacterial functionalities into cotton fabrics under mild conditions. Similar to the way in which many naturally occurring biominerals evolve around the living organism under ambient conditions, this technique enables flexible substrates like the cotton fabric to be coated with inorganic-based functional materials. Specifically, our strategy involves the use of long-chain polyamines known to be responsible in certain biomineralization processes, to nucleate, organize, and deposit nanostructured ZnO on cotton bandage in an aqueous solution under mild conditions of room temperature and neutral pH. The ZnO-coated cotton bandages as characterized by SEM, confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy, XRD, UV-DRS, and fluorescence microscopy demonstrate the importance of polyamine in generating a stable and uniform coating of spindle-shaped ZnO particles on individual threads of the fabric. As the coating process requires only mild conditions, it avoids any adverse effect on the thermal and mechanical properties of the substrate. Furthermore, the ZnO particles on cotton fabric show efficient antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negetive bacteria. Therefore, the developed polyamine mediated bioinspired coating method provides not only a facile and "green" synthesis for coating on flexible substrate but also the fabrication of antibacterial enabled materials for healthcare applications.

  10. Doping induced c-axis oriented growth of transparent ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, Bhaumik V.; Joshi, U. S.

    2018-04-01

    c-Axis oriented In doped ZnO (IZO) transparent conducting thin films were optimized on glass substrate using sol gel spin coating method. The Indium content in ZnO was varied systematically and the structural parameters were studied. Along with the crystallographic properties, the optoelectronic and electrical properties of IZO thin films were investigated in detail. The IZO thin films revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure. It was found that In doping in ZnO promotes the c-axis oriented growth of the thin films deposited on amorphous substrate. The particle size of the IZO films were increase as doping content increases from 2% to 5%. The 2% In doped ZnO film show electrical resistivity of 0.11 Ω cm, which is far better than the reported value for ZnO thin film. Better than 75% average optical transmission was estimated in the wavelength range from 400-800 nm. Systematic variartions in the electron concentration and band gap was observed with increasing In doping. Note worthy finding is that, with suitable amount of In doping improves not only transparency and conductivity but also improves the preferred orientation of the oxide thin film.

  11. Nucleation effect and growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition from aqueous zinc nitrate baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Sujuan; Jiao, Shujie; Zhang, Kejun; Wang, Dongbo; Gao, Shiyong; Li, Hongtao; Wang, Jinzhong; Yu, Qingjiang; Guo, Fengyun; Zhao, Liancheng

    2012-11-01

    We presented a systematic study of the nucleation effect and growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructures from electrolyte mixed with different concentration of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O and KCl by cathodic electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the concentration of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O is important to control the dimension and nucleation rate, which 1D ZnO nanostructures with smaller diameters and rougher facets are formed at lower Zn(NO3)2 precursor concentration(1 mM) and dense and well-defined nanorods are achieved above 5 mM. We also found other major effects of KCl besides as a supporting electrolyte. A high [Cl-] not only makes the transition of morphology from 1D to 2D, but also has important influence on the nucleation in the initial stage in electrodeposition. Very sparse ZnO nanoclusters composed of two dimensional nanosheets evolve from dense ZnO nanotowers when the KCl supporting electrolyte concentration is added to 2 M. Thus, altering the content of Zn(NO3)2 precursor and KCl is a effective method to obtain ZnO nanostructures with different morphology for more applications.

  12. Structural, morphological and optical studies of ripple-structured ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navin, Kumar; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2015-11-01

    Ripple-structured ZnO thin films were prepared on Si (100) substrate by sol-gel spin-coating method with different heating rates during preheating process and finally sintered at 500 °C for 2 h in ambient condition. The structural, morphological and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the nanostructured films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and PL spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed that films have hexagonal wurtzite structure and texture coefficient increases along (002) plane with preheating rate. The faster heating rate produced higher crystallization and larger average crystallite size. The AFM and SEM images indicate that all the films have uniformly distributed ripple structure with skeletal branches. The number of ripples increases, while the rms roughness, amplitude and correlation length of the ripple structure decrease with preheating rates. The PL spectra show the presence of different defects in the structure. The ultraviolet emission improved with the heating rate which indicates its better crystallinity.

  13. Fabrication of Flower-like ZnO Micro/Nanostructures for Photodegradation of Pre-treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Sze-Mun; Wong, Kok-Ann; Sin, Jin-Chung

    2018-01-01

    Flower-like ZnO micro/nanostructures were fabricated by a simple and surfactant-free reflux method. X-ray diffraction findings showed that the prepared ZnO product was highly crystallite with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The band gap energy of ZnO sample was measured to be 3.18 eV via an optical reflectance spectrum. The flower-like morphological features of ZnO micro/nanostructures were witnessed through field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Such micro/nanoparticles could be used in the photodegradation of pre-treated palm oil mil effluent (POME) under UV irradiation.

  14. Effect of growth parameters on the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by simple solution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Anjana

    2017-05-01

    ZnO, a wide band gap semiconductor is of significant interest for a range of practical applications. One of the highly attractive features of ZnO is to grow variety of nanostructures by using low-cost techniques. In this paper, we report deposition of ZnO nanostructure rod-arrays (NRA) via low-temperature, solution-based deposition techniques such as chemical bath deposition (CBD) and microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition (MACBD). A detailed study of film deposition parameters such as variation in concentration of precursors and deposition temperature has been carried out. Compositional and structural study of the films has been done by X-ray Diffractometer to know the phase and purity of the final product. Morphological study of these structures has been carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Optical study such as transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the films has been carried out as a function of growth parameters.

  15. Bioinspired phase-separated disordered nanostructures for thin photovoltaic absorbers.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Radwanul H; Donie, Yidenekachew J; Gomard, Guillaume; Yalamanchili, Sisir; Merdzhanova, Tsvetelina; Lemmer, Uli; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2017-10-01

    The wings of the black butterfly, Pachliopta aristolochiae , are covered by micro- and nanostructured scales that harvest sunlight over a wide spectral and angular range. Considering that these properties are particularly attractive for photovoltaic applications, we analyze the contribution of these micro- and nanostructures, focusing on the structural disorder observed in the wing scales. In addition to microspectroscopy experiments, we conduct three-dimensional optical simulations of the exact scale structure. On the basis of these results, we design nanostructured thin photovoltaic absorbers of disordered nanoholes, which combine efficient light in-coupling and light-trapping properties together with a high angular robustness. Finally, inspired by the phase separation mechanism of self-assembled biophotonic nanostructures, we fabricate these bioinspired absorbers using a scalable, self-assembly patterning technique based on the phase separation of binary polymer mixture. The nanopatterned absorbers achieve a relative integrated absorption increase of 90% at a normal incident angle of light to as high as 200% at large incident angles, demonstrating the potential of black butterfly structures for light-harvesting purposes in thin-film solar cells.

  16. Bioinspired phase-separated disordered nanostructures for thin photovoltaic absorbers

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Radwanul H.; Donie, Yidenekachew J.; Gomard, Guillaume; Yalamanchili, Sisir; Merdzhanova, Tsvetelina; Lemmer, Uli; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    The wings of the black butterfly, Pachliopta aristolochiae, are covered by micro- and nanostructured scales that harvest sunlight over a wide spectral and angular range. Considering that these properties are particularly attractive for photovoltaic applications, we analyze the contribution of these micro- and nanostructures, focusing on the structural disorder observed in the wing scales. In addition to microspectroscopy experiments, we conduct three-dimensional optical simulations of the exact scale structure. On the basis of these results, we design nanostructured thin photovoltaic absorbers of disordered nanoholes, which combine efficient light in-coupling and light-trapping properties together with a high angular robustness. Finally, inspired by the phase separation mechanism of self-assembled biophotonic nanostructures, we fabricate these bioinspired absorbers using a scalable, self-assembly patterning technique based on the phase separation of binary polymer mixture. The nanopatterned absorbers achieve a relative integrated absorption increase of 90% at a normal incident angle of light to as high as 200% at large incident angles, demonstrating the potential of black butterfly structures for light-harvesting purposes in thin-film solar cells. PMID:29057320

  17. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Co-deposition Using Pulsed Laser Deposition for ZnO and Radio Frequency Sputtering for Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyun Wook; Son, Jong Yeog

    2018-05-01

    Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) thin films were fabricated on single-crystalline (0001) Al2O3 substrates by co-deposition using pulsed laser deposition for ZnO and radio frequency sputtering for Cu. CZO thin films with 0-20% molar concentrations are obtained by adjusting the deposition rates of ZnO and Cu. The CZO thin films exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism, and CZO with 5% Cu molar concentration has maximum remanent magnetization, which is consistent with theoretical results.

  18. Oxygen vacancy mediated enhanced photo-absorption from ZnO(0001) nanostructures fabricated by atom beam sputtering

    SciT

    Solanki, Vanaraj; Joshi, Shalik R.; Mishra, Indrani

    2016-08-07

    The nanoscale patterns created on the ZnO(0001) surfaces during atom beam irradiation have been investigated here for their photo absorption response. Preferential sputtering, during irradiation, promotes Zn-rich zones that serve as the nucleation centers for the spontaneous creation of nanostructures. Nanostructured surfaces with bigger (78 nm) nanodots, displaying hexagonal ordering and long ranged periodic behavior, show higher photo absorption and a ∼0.09 eV reduced bandgap. These nanostructures also demonstrate higher concentration of oxygen vacancies which are crucial for these results. The enhanced photo-response, as observed here, has been achieved in the absence of any dopant elements.

  19. Thin Carbon Layers on Nanostructured Silicon-Properties and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelescu, Anca; Kleps, Irina; Miu, Mihaela; Simion, Monica; Bragaru, Adina; Petrescu, Stefana; Paduraru, Crina; Raducanu, Aurelia

    Thin carbon layers such as silicon carbide (SiC) and diamond like carbon (DLC) layers on silicon, or on nanostructured silicon substrats were obtained by different methods. This paper is a review of our results in the areas of carbon layer microfabrication technologies and their properties related to different microsystem apllications. So, silicon membranes using a-SiC or DLC layers as etching mask, as well as silicon carbide membranes using a combined porous silicon — DLC structure were fabricated for sensor applications. A detailed evaluation of the field emission (FE) properties of these films was done to demonstrate their capability to be used in field emission devices. Carbon thin layers on nanostructured silicon samples were also investigated with respect to the living cell adhesion on these structures. The experiments indicate that the cell attachment on the surface of carbon coatings can be controlled by deposition parameters during the technological process.

  20. Plasmonic Ag nanostructures on thin substrates for enhanced energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osgood, R. M.; Giardini, S. A.; Carlson, J. B.; Gear, C.; Diest, K.; Rothschild, M.; Fernandes, G. E.; Xu, J.; Kooi, S.; Periasamy, P.; O'Hayre, R.; Parilla, P.; Berry, J.; Ginley, D.

    2013-09-01

    Nanoparticles and nanostructures with plasmonic resonances are currently being employed to enhance the efficiency of solar cells. Ag stripe arrays have been shown theoretically to enhance the short-circuit current of thin silicon layers. Such Ag stripes are combined with 200 nm long and 60 nm wide "teeth", which act as nanoantennas, and form vertical rectifying metal-insulator-metal (MIM) nanostructures on metallic substrates coated with thin oxides, such as Nb/NbOx films. We characterize experimentally and theoretically the visible and near-infrared spectra of these "stripeteeth" arrays, which act as microantenna arrays for energy harvesting and detection, on silicon substrates. Modeling the stripe-teeth arrays predicts a substantial net a.c. voltage across the MIM diode, even when the stripe-teeth microrectenna arrays are illuminated at normal incidence.

  1. Influence of ZnO nanostructures in liquid crystal interfaces for bistable switching applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Kaushik; Zhan, Bihong; Madhu Mohan, M. L. N.; Schirhagl, Romana; Wang, Guoping

    2015-12-01

    The controlled fabrication of nanometer-scale objects is without doubt one of the central issues in current science and technology. In this article, we exhibit a simple, one-step bench top synthesis of zinc oxide nano-tetrapods and nano-spheres which were tailored by the facial growth of nano-wires (diameter ≈ 24 nm; length ≈ 118 nm) and nano-cubes (≈395 nm edge) to nano-sphere (diameter ≈ 585 nm) appeaded. The possibilities of inexpensive, simple solvo-chemical synthesis of nanostructures were considered. In this article, a successful attempt has been made that ZnO nano-structures dispersed on well aligned hydrogen bonded liquid crystals (HBLC) comprising azelaic acid (AC) with p-n-alkyloxy benzoic acid (nBAO) by varying the respective alkyloxy carbon number (n = 5). The dispersion of nanomaterials with HBLC is an effective route to enhance the existing functionalities. A series of these composite materials were analyzed by polarizing optical microscope's electro-optical switching. An interesting feature of AC + nBAO is the inducement of tilted smectic G phase with increasing carbon chain length. Phase diagrams of the above hybrid ZnO nanomaterial influenced LC complex and pure LC were constructed and compared. The switching times, the contrast ratio and spontaneous polarization of the nanostructures-HBLC composite film were carried out by systematic investigation. The sample preparation parameters, such as the curing time and curing intensity were optimized. The critical applied voltage to achieve the switching bi-stability of our device is only 4.5 V, which is approximately twice its threshold voltage for Freedericksz transition. This performance puts the hybrid structure at the top level in the state of the art in application oriented research in optics of liquid crystalline composite materials.

  2. Micro-patterned ZnO semiconductors for high performance thin film transistors via chemical imprinting with a PDMS stamp.

    PubMed

    Seong, Kieun; Kim, Kyongjun; Park, Si Yun; Kim, Youn Sang

    2013-04-07

    Chemical imprinting was conducted on ZnO semiconductor films via a chemical reaction at the contact regions between a micro-patterned PDMS stamp and ZnO films. In addition, we applied the chemical imprinting on Li doped ZnO thin films for high performance TFTs fabrication. The representative micro-patterned Li doped ZnO TFTs showed a field effect mobility of 4.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) after sintering at 300 °C.

  3. Surface-emitting stimulated emission in high-quality ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Q.; Suemune, Ikuo; Kumano, H.; Wang, J.; Huang, S. H.

    2004-10-01

    High-quality ZnO thin films were grown by plasma-enhanced molecular-beam epitaxy on sapphire substrates. Three excitonic transitions associated with the valence bands A, B, and C were clearly revealed in the reflectance spectrum measured at 33K. This result indicates that the ZnO thin films have the wurtzite crystalline structure. The emission spectra were measured with backscattering geometry at room temperature. When the excitation exceeded a certain value, linewidth narrowing, nonlinear rise of emission intensity, and the shortening of the carrier lifetime were clearly observed and these demonstrate the onset of stimulated emission. Together with the ZnO thickness dependence, we conclude that the observation of a stimulated emission in a direction perpendicular to the film surface is predominantly due to scattering of the in-plane stimulated emission by slightly remaining surface undulations in the ZnO films.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured bismuth selenide thin films.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhengliang; Liufu, Shengcong; Chen, Lidong

    2010-12-07

    Nanostructured bismuth selenide thin films have been successfully fabricated on a silicon substrate at low temperature by rational design of the precursor solution. Bi(2)Se(3) thin films were constructed of coalesced lamella in the thickness of 50-80 nm. The nucleation and growth process of Bi(2)Se(3) thin films, as well as the influence of solution chemistry on the film structure were investigated in detail. As one of the most promising thermoelectric materials, the thermoelectric properties of the prepared Bi(2)Se(3) thin films were also investigated. The power factor increased with increasing carrier mobility, coming from the enlarged crystallites and enhanced coalesced structure, and reached 1 μW cm(-1) K(-1).

  5. High performance thin film transistor with ZnO channel layer deposited by DC magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yeon-Keon; Moon, Dae-Yong; Lee, Sang-Ho; Jeong, Chang-Oh; Park, Jong-Wan

    2008-09-01

    Research in large area electronics, especially for low-temperature plastic substrates, focuses commonly on limitations of the semiconductor in thin film transistors (TFTs), in particular its low mobility. ZnO is an emerging example of a semiconductor material for TFTs that can have high mobility, while a-Si and organic semiconductors have low mobility (<1 cm2/Vs). ZnO-based TFTs have achieved high mobility, along with low-voltage operation low off-state current, and low gate leakage current. In general, ZnO thin films for the channel layer of TFTs are deposited with RF magnetron sputtering methods. On the other hand, we studied ZnO thin films deposited with DC magnetron sputtering for the channel layer of TFTs. After analyzing the basic physical and chemical properties of ZnO thin films, we fabricated a TFT-unit cell using ZnO thin films for the channel layer. The field effect mobility (micro(sat)) of 1.8 cm2/Vs and threshold voltage (Vth) of -0.7 V were obtained.

  6. Formation of p-type ZnO thin film through co-implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yao-Teng; Liou, Jhe-Wei; Woon, Wei-Yen

    2017-01-01

    We present a study on the formation of p-type ZnO thin film through ion implantation. Group V dopants (N, P) with different ionic radii are implanted into chemical vapor deposition grown ZnO thin film on GaN/sapphire substrates prior to thermal activation. It is found that mono-doped ZnO by N+ implantation results in n-type conductivity under thermal activation. Dual-doped ZnO film with a N:P ion implantation dose ratio of 4:1 is found to be p-type under certain thermal activation conditions. Higher p-type activation levels (1019 cm-3) under a wider thermal activation range are found for the N/P dual-doped ZnO film co-implanted by additional oxygen ions. From high resolution x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy it is concluded that the observed p-type conductivities are a result of the promoted formation of PZn-4NO complex defects via the concurrent substitution of nitrogen at oxygen sites and phosphorus at zinc sites. The enhanced solubility and stability of acceptor defects in oxygen co-implanted dual-doped ZnO film are related to the reduction of oxygen vacancy defects at the surface. Our study demonstrates the prospect of the formation of stable p-type ZnO film through co-implantation.

  7. Influence of External Gaseous Environments on the Electrical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures Obtained by a Hydrothermal Method

    PubMed Central

    Procek, Marcin; Pustelny, Tadeusz; Stolarczyk, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with experimental investigations of ZnO nanostructures, consisting of a mixture of nanoparticles and nanowires, obtained by the chemical (hydrothermal) method. The influences of both oxidizing (NO2) and reducing gases (H2, NH3), as well as relative humidity (RH) on the physical and chemical properties of ZnO nanostructures were tested. Carrier gas effect on the structure interaction with gases was also tested; experiments were conducted in air and nitrogen (N2) atmospheres. The effect of investigated gases on the resistance of the ZnO nanostructures was tested over a wide range of concentrations at room temperature (RT) and at 200 °C. The impact of near- ultraviolet (UV) excitation (λ = 390 nm) at RT was also studied. These investigations indicated a high response of ZnO nanostructures to small concentrations of NO2. The structure responses to 1 ppm of NO2 amounted to about: 600% in N2/230% in air at 200 °C (in dark conditions) and 430% in N2/340% in air at RT (with UV excitation). The response of the structure to the effect of NO2 at 200 °C is more than 105 times greater than the response to NH3, and more than 106 times greater than that to H2 in the relation of 1 ppm. Thus the selectivity of the structure for NO2 is very good. What is more, the selectivity to NO2 at RT with UV excitation increases in comparison at elevated temperature. This paper presents a great potential for practical applications of ZnO nanostructures (including nanoparticles) in resistive NO2 sensors. PMID:28335355

  8. Slow positron beam study of hydrogen ion implanted ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yi; Xue, Xudong; Wu, Yichu

    2014-08-01

    The effects of hydrogen related defect on the microstructure and optical property of ZnO thin films were investigated by slow positron beam, in combination with x-ray diffraction, infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The defects were introduced by 90 keV proton irradiation with doses of 1×1015 and 1×1016 ions cm-2. Zn vacancy and OH bonding (VZn+OH) defect complex were identified in hydrogen implanted ZnO film by positron annihilation and infrared spectroscopy. The formation of these complexes led to lattice disorder in hydrogen implanted ZnO film and suppressed the luminescence process.

  9. Melioration of Optical and Electrical Performance of Ga-N Codoped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Nripasree; Deepak, N. K.

    2018-06-01

    Transparent and conducting p-type zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films doped with gallium (Ga) and nitrogen (N) simultaneously were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. Phase composition analysis by X-ray diffraction confirmed the polycrystallinity of the films with pure ZnO phase. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed excellent incorporation of N in the ZnO matrix by means of codoping. The optical transmittance of N monodoped film was poor but got improved with Ga-N codoping and also resulted in the enhancement of optical energy gap. Hole concentration increased with codoping and consequently, lower resistivity and high stability were obtained.

  10. Effect of Doping Materials on the Low-Level NO Gas Sensing Properties of ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çorlu, Tugba; Karaduman, Irmak; Yildirim, Memet Ali; Ateş, Aytunç; Acar, Selim

    2017-07-01

    In this study, undoped, Cu-doped, and Ni-doped ZnO thin films have been successfully prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The structural, compositional, and morphological properties of the thin films are characterized by x-ray diffractometer, energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Doping effects on the NO gas sensing properties of these thin films were investigated depending on gas concentration and operating temperature. Cu-doped ZnO thin film exhibited a higher gas response than undoped and Ni-doped ZnO thin film at the operating temperature range. The sensor with Cu-doped ZnO thin film gave faster responses and recovery speeds than other sensors, so that is significant for the convenient application of gas sensor. The response and recovery speeds could be associated with the effective electron transfer between the Cu-doped ZnO and the NO molecules.

  11. Synthesis of porous and nonporous ZnO nanobelt, multipod, and hierarchical nanostructure from Zn-HDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Eue-Soon; Won, Jung-Hee; Kim, Young-Woon; Cheng, Zhen; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2010-08-01

    Zn based hydroxide double salts (Zn-HDS) with an interlayer spacing of 20 Å was produced by dissolving dumbbell-like ZnO crystal. The resulting Zn-HDS with a ribbon-like shape has a suitable morphology to explore the remarkably mild procedure for synthesis of ZnO nanobelts. We found that the intercalated water molecules into the Zn-HDS could play a key role in the ZnO nanobelts porosity. The nonporous ZnO nanobelts were successfully synthesized from the Zn-HDS by soft-solution process at 95 °C through mild dehydration agent as Na 2CO 3. As-synthesized ZnO nanobelts were grown along not only the [0 1 -1 0], but also the [2 -1 -1 0]. On the other hand, the porous ZnO nanobelts were obtained from the Zn-HDS by calcinations at 200 and 400 °C. In addition, flower-like ZnO multipod and hierarchical nanostructures were produced from the Zn-HDS by using of strong dehydration agent (NaOH) through hydrothermal reaction at 150 and 230 °C.

  12. Anisotropic magnetism and spin-dependent transport in Co nanoparticle embedded ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. Y.; Zeng, Y. J.; Pereira, L. M. C.; Batuk, D.; Hadermann, J.; Zhang, Y. Z.; Ye, Z. Z.; Temst, K.; Vantomme, A.; Van Bael, M. J.; Van Haesendonck, C.

    2013-07-01

    Oriented Co nanoparticles were obtained by Co ion implantation in crystalline ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of elliptically shaped Co precipitates with nanometer size, which are embedded in the ZnO thin films, resulting in anisotropic magnetic behavior. The low-temperature resistance of the Co-implanted ZnO thin films follows the Efros-Shklovskii type variable-range-hopping. Large negative magnetoresistance (MR) exceeding 10% is observed in a magnetic field of 1 T at 2.5 K and the negative MR survives up to 250 K (0.3%). The negative MR reveals hysteresis as well as anisotropy that correlate well with the magnetic properties, clearly demonstrating the presence of spin-dependent transport.

  13. Third generation biosensing matrix based on Fe-implanted ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Shibu; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2010-09-01

    Third generation biosensor based on Fe-implanted ZnO (Fe-ZnO) thin film has been demonstrated. Implantation of Fe in rf-sputtered ZnO thin film introduces redox center along with shallow donor level and thereby enhance its electron transfer property. Glucose oxidase (GOx), chosen as model enzyme, has been immobilized on the surface of the matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and photometric assay show that the prepared bioelectrode, GOx/Fe-ZnO/ITO/Glass is sensitive to the glucose concentration with enhanced response of 0.326 μA mM-1 cm-2 and low Km of 2.76 mM. The results show promising application of Fe-implanted ZnO thin film as an attractive matrix for third generation biosensing.

  14. Growth mechanism, surface and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures deposited on various Au-seeded thickness obtained by mist-atomization

    SciT

    Afaah, A. N., E-mail: afaahabdullah@yahoo.com; Aadila, A., E-mail: aadilaazizali@gmail.com; Asib, N. A. M., E-mail: amierahasib@yahoo.com

    2016-07-06

    In this paper, growth mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures on non-seeded glass, 6 nm and 12 nm Au seed layer obtained by mist-atomization was proposed. ZnO films were successfully deposited on glass substrate with different thickness of Au seed layer i.e. 6 nm and 12 nm. The surface and optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and photoluminescence (PL). FESEM micrograph show that ZnO nanostructure deposited on 6 nm Au seed layer has uniform formation and well distributed. From PL spectroscopy, the UV emission shows that ZnO deposited on 6 nm Au seedmore » layer has the more intense UV intensity which proved that high crystal quality of nanostructured ZnO deposited on 6 nm Au seed layer.« less

  15. Multiferroics and magnetoelectrics: thin films and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L. W.; Crane, S. P.; Chu, Y.-H.; Holcomb, M. B.; Gajek, M.; Huijben, M.; Yang, C.-H.; Balke, N.; Ramesh, R.

    2008-10-01

    Multiferroic materials, or materials that simultaneously possess two or more ferroic order parameters, have returned to the forefront of materials research. Driven by the desire to achieve new functionalities—such as electrical control of ferromagnetism at room temperature—researchers have undertaken a concerted effort to identify and understand the complexities of multiferroic materials. The ability to create high quality thin film multiferroics stands as one of the single most important landmarks in this flurry of research activity. In this review we discuss the basics of multiferroics including the important order parameters and magnetoelectric coupling in materials. We then discuss in detail the growth of single phase, horizontal multilayer, and vertical heterostructure multiferroics. The review ends with a look to the future and how multiferroics can be used to create new functionalities in materials.

  16. Synthesis and annealing study of RF sputtered ZnO thin film

    SciT

    Singh, Shushant Kumar, E-mail: singhshushant86@gmail.com; Sharma, Himanshu; Singhal, R.

    2016-05-23

    In this paper, we have investigated the annealing effect on optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films, synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering. ZnO thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates simultaneously at a substrate temperature of 300 °C using Argon gas in sputtering chamber. Thickness of as deposited ZnO thin film was found to be ~155 nm, calculated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). These films were annealed at 400 °C and 500 °C temperature in the continuous flow of oxygen gas for 1 hour in tube furnace. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structuremore » of ZnO thin film along the c-axis (002) orientation. Transmittance of thin films was increased with increasing the annealing temperature estimated by UV-visible transmission spectroscopy. Quality and texture of the thin films were improved with annealing temperature, estimated by Raman spectroscopy.« less

  17. Thickness Dependent Nanostructural, Morphological, Optical and Impedometric Analyses of Zinc Oxide-Gold Hybrids: Nanoparticle to Thin Film.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Veeradasan; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C B; Haarindraprasad, R; Liu, Wei-Wen; Poopalan, P; Balakrishnan, S R; Thivina, V; Ruslinda, A R

    2015-01-01

    The creation of an appropriate thin film is important for the development of novel sensing surfaces, which will ultimately enhance the properties and output of high-performance sensors. In this study, we have fabricated and characterized zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon substrates, which were hybridized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain ZnO-Aux (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm) hybrid structures with different thicknesses. Nanoscale imaging by field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed increasing film uniformity and coverage with the Au deposition thickness. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the AuNPs exhibit an increasing average diameter (5-10 nm). The face center cubic Au were found to co-exist with wurtzite ZnO nanostructure. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed that as the Au content increased, the overall crystallite size increased, which was supported by X-ray diffraction measurements. The structural characterizations indicated that the Au on the ZnO crystal lattice exists without any impurities in a preferred orientation (002). When the ZnO thickness increased from 10 to 40 nm, transmittance and an optical bandgap value decreased. Interestingly, with 50 nm thickness, the band gap value was increased, which might be due to the Burstein-Moss effect. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the overall structural defect (green emission) improved significantly as the Au deposition increased. The impedance measurements shows a decreasing value of impedance arc with increasing Au thicknesses (0 to 40 nm). In contrast, the 50 nm AuNP impedance arc shows an increased value compared to lower sputtering thicknesses, which indicated the presence of larger sized AuNPs that form a continuous film, and its ohmic characteristics changed to rectifying characteristics. This improved hybrid thin film (ZnO/Au) is suitable for a wide range of sensing applications.

  18. Thickness Dependent Nanostructural, Morphological, Optical and Impedometric Analyses of Zinc Oxide-Gold Hybrids: Nanoparticle to Thin Film

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, Veeradasan; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Haarindraprasad, R.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Poopalan, P.; Balakrishnan, S. R.; Thivina, V.; Ruslinda, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    The creation of an appropriate thin film is important for the development of novel sensing surfaces, which will ultimately enhance the properties and output of high-performance sensors. In this study, we have fabricated and characterized zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon substrates, which were hybridized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain ZnO-Aux (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm) hybrid structures with different thicknesses. Nanoscale imaging by field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed increasing film uniformity and coverage with the Au deposition thickness. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the AuNPs exhibit an increasing average diameter (5–10 nm). The face center cubic Au were found to co-exist with wurtzite ZnO nanostructure. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed that as the Au content increased, the overall crystallite size increased, which was supported by X-ray diffraction measurements. The structural characterizations indicated that the Au on the ZnO crystal lattice exists without any impurities in a preferred orientation (002). When the ZnO thickness increased from 10 to 40 nm, transmittance and an optical bandgap value decreased. Interestingly, with 50 nm thickness, the band gap value was increased, which might be due to the Burstein-Moss effect. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the overall structural defect (green emission) improved significantly as the Au deposition increased. The impedance measurements shows a decreasing value of impedance arc with increasing Au thicknesses (0 to 40 nm). In contrast, the 50 nm AuNP impedance arc shows an increased value compared to lower sputtering thicknesses, which indicated the presence of larger sized AuNPs that form a continuous film, and its ohmic characteristics changed to rectifying characteristics. This improved hybrid thin film (ZnO/Au) is suitable for a wide range of sensing applications. PMID:26694656

  19. Annealing Temperature Dependence of ZnO Nanostructures Grown by Facile Chemical Bath Deposition for EGFET pH Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilah Rosli, Aimi; Awang, Zaiki; Sobihana Shariffudin, Shafinaz; Herman, Sukreen Hana

    2018-03-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were deposited using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique in water bath at 95 °C for 4 h. Post-deposition heat treatment in air ambient at various temperature ranging from 200-600 °C for 30 min was applied in order to enhance the electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures as the sensing membrane of extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) pH sensor. The as-deposited sample was prepared for comparison. The samples were characterized in terms of physical and sensing properties. FESEM images showed that scattered ZnO nanorods were formed for the as-deposited sample, and the morphology of the ZnO nanorods changed to ZnO nanoflowers when the heat treatment was applied from 200-600 °C. For sensing properties, the samples heated at 300 °C showed the higher sensitivity which was 39.9 mV/pH with the linearity of 0.9792. The sensing properties was increased with the increasing annealing treatment temperature up to 300 °C before decreased drastically.

  20. Application of electrochemically deposited nanostructured ZnO layers on quartz crystal microbalance for NO2 detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, B.; Petrov, M.; Lovchinov, K.; Ganchev, M.; Georgieva, V.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    2014-11-01

    The research was fixed on sensing behavior of ZnO nanostructured (NS) films to NO2 concentrations in the environment. The ZnO NS layers are deposited by electrochemical method on quartz resonators with Au electrodes. The sorption properties of ZnO layers were defined by measuring the resonant frequency shift (Δf) of the QCM-ZnO structure for different NO2 concentrations. The measurements were based on the correlation between the frequency shift of the QCM and additional mass loading (Δm) on the resonator calculated using Sauerbrey equation for the AT-cut quartz plate. Frequency - Time Characteristics (FTCs) of the samples were measured as a function of different NO2 concentrations in order to define the sorption abilities of ZnO layers. The experiments were carried out on a special set up in a dynamical regime. From FTCs the response and the recovery times of the QCM-ZnO structure were measured with varying NO2. Frequency shift changed from 23 Hz to 58Hz when NO2 was varied in the range of 250ppm - 5000ppm. The process of sorption was estimated as reversible and the sorption as physical. The obtained results demonstrated that QCM covered with the electrochemically deposited nanostructured ZnO films can be used as application in NO2 sensors.

  1. Anomalous luminescence phenomena of indium-doped ZnO nanostructures grown on Si substrates by the hydrothermal method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, zinc oxide (ZnO) has become one of the most popular research materials due to its unique properties and various applications. ZnO is an intrinsic semiconductor, with a wide bandgap (3.37 eV) and large exciton binding energy (60 meV) making it suitable for many optical applications. In this experiment, the simple hydrothermal method is used to grow indium-doped ZnO nanostructures on a silicon wafer, which are then annealed at different temperatures (400°C to 1,000°C) in an abundant oxygen atmosphere. This study discusses the surface structure and optical characteristic of ZnO nanomaterials. The structure of the ZnO nanostructures is analyzed by X-ray diffraction, the superficial state by scanning electron microscopy, and the optical measurements which are carried out using the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra. In this study, we discuss the broad peak energy of the yellow-orange emission which shows tendency towards a blueshift with the temperature increase in the PL spectra. This differs from other common semiconductors which have an increase in their peak energy of deep-level emission along with measurement temperature. PMID:22647253

  2. Efficient acetone sensor based on Ni-doped ZnO nanostructures prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darunkar, Swapnil S.; Acharya, Smita A.

    2018-05-01

    Ni-doped ZnO thin film was prepared by home-built spray pyrolysis unit for the detection of acetone at 300°C. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of as-developed thin film of undoped ZnO exhibits large quantity of spherical, non-agglomerated particles with uniform size while in Ni-doped ZnO, particles are quite non-uniform in nature. The particle size estimated by using image J are obtained to be around 20-200 nm. Ni-doping effect on band gaps are determined by UV-vis optical spectroscopy and band gap of Ni-doped ZnO is found to be 3.046 eV. Nickel doping exceptionally enhances the sensing response of ZnO as compared to undoped ZnO system. The major role of the Ni-doping is to create more active sites for chemisorbed oxygen on the surface of sensor and correspondingly, to improve the sensing response. The 6 at.% of Ni-doped ZnO exhibits the highest response (92%) for 100 ppm acetone at 300 °C.

  3. Morphology evolution of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures modulated by supersaturation and growth temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Youguo; Zhou, Lixia; Yu, Lianqing; Zhang, Ye

    2008-07-01

    Three kinds of ZnO hierarchical structures, nanocombs with tube- and needle-shaped teeth and hierarchical nanorod arrays, were successfully synthesized through the chemical vapor deposition method. Combining the experimental parameters, the microcosmic growing conditions (growth temperature and supersaturation) along the flux was discussed at length, and, based on the conclusions, three reasonable growth processes were proposed. The results and discussions were beneficial to further realize the relation between the growing behavior of the nanomaterial and microcosmic conditions, and the hierarchical nanostructures obtained were also expected to have potential applications as functional blocks in future nanodevices. Furthermore, the study of photoluminescence further indicated that the physical properties were strongly dependent on the crystal structure.

  4. Photoluminescence quenching processes by NO2 adsorption in ZnO nanostructured films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretı, A.; Valerini, D.; Taurino, A.; Quaranta, F.; Lomascolo, M.; Rella, R.

    2012-04-01

    The optical response by NO2 gas adsorption at different concentrations has been investigated, at room temperature, in ZnO nanostructured films grown by controlled vapor phase deposition. The variation (quenching) in the photoluminescence signal from excitonic and defects bands, due to the interactions between the oxidizing gas molecules and the sample surface, has been detected and dynamic responses and calibration curves as a function of gas concentration have been obtained and analyzed for each band. We showed that the sensing response results larger in excitonic band than in defect one and that the emission signal rises from two different quenchable and unquenchable states. A simple model was proposed in order to explain the quenching processes on the emission intensity and to correlate them to the morphological features of the samples. Finally, the reversibility of the quenching effects has also been tested at high gas concentration.

  5. Enhanced photoluminescence and heterojunction characteristics of pulsed laser deposited ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannam, Ramanjaneyulu; Kumar, E. Senthil; Priyadarshini, D. M.; Bellarmine, F.; DasGupta, Nandita; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the growth of ZnO nanostructures in different gas ambient (Ar and N2) using pulsed laser deposition technique. Despite the similar growth temperature, use of N2 ambient gas resulted in well-aligned nanorods with flat surface at the tip, whereas, nanorods grown with Ar ambient exhibited tapered tips. The Nanorods grown under N2 ambient exhibited additional Raman modes corresponding to N induced zinc interstitials. The nanorods are c-axis oriented and highly epitaxial in nature. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals that the UV emission can be significantly enhanced by 10 times for the nanorods grown under Ar ambient. The enhanced UV emission is attributed to the reduction in polarization electric field along the c-axis. n-ZnO nanorods/p-Si heterojunction showed rectifying I-V characteristics with a turn of voltage of 3.4 V.

  6. Characteristics of ZnO nanostructures synthesized by sonochemical reaction: Effects of continuous and pulse waves

    SciT

    Widiyastuti, W., E-mail: widi@chem-eng.its.ac.id; Machmudah, Siti; Kusdianto,

    Nanostructured ZnO was synthesized by a sonochemical reaction. Ultrasonic irradiation were set up in continuous, pulse in 3 seconds on and a second off (on:off=3:1), and pulse in 2 seconds on and a second off (on:off=2:1) wave modes for 1.5 hours. The characteristics of particles generated by these modes such as morphology, crystallinity, FTIR, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic activity to degrade methylene blue were compared. Zinc nitrate and ammonia water-based solutions were selected as chemicals without the addition of other surfactants. The morphology of the generated ZnO particles could be tuned from flower-like, needle- or hairy-like, and spherical structures by changingmore » the mode of ultrasonic irradiation from continuous, on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes, respectively. The generated particles indicated that a wurtzite structure of ZnO in a hexagonal phase was formed. The crystalline sizes of particles generated in continuous, on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes were 28, 27, 24 nm. A similar position of reduction peak of FTIR in all samples indicated that no differences in particles chemical bonding characteristics. Photoluminescence intensity was also decreased with changes the wave mode from continuous to pulse. Photocatalytic activity was also evaluated resulting in particles synthesized by continuous mode had the highest methylene blue degradation degree following by on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes.« less

  7. Characteristics of ZnO nanostructures synthesized by sonochemical reaction: Effects of continuous and pulse waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiyastuti, W.; Machmudah, Siti; Kusdianto, Nurtono, Tantular; Winardi, Sugeng

    2015-12-01

    Nanostructured ZnO was synthesized by a sonochemical reaction. Ultrasonic irradiation were set up in continuous, pulse in 3 seconds on and a second off (on:off=3:1), and pulse in 2 seconds on and a second off (on:off=2:1) wave modes for 1.5 hours. The characteristics of particles generated by these modes such as morphology, crystallinity, FTIR, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic activity to degrade methylene blue were compared. Zinc nitrate and ammonia water-based solutions were selected as chemicals without the addition of other surfactants. The morphology of the generated ZnO particles could be tuned from flower-like, needle- or hairy-like, and spherical structures by changing the mode of ultrasonic irradiation from continuous, on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes, respectively. The generated particles indicated that a wurtzite structure of ZnO in a hexagonal phase was formed. The crystalline sizes of particles generated in continuous, on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes were 28, 27, 24 nm. A similar position of reduction peak of FTIR in all samples indicated that no differences in particles chemical bonding characteristics. Photoluminescence intensity was also decreased with changes the wave mode from continuous to pulse. Photocatalytic activity was also evaluated resulting in particles synthesized by continuous mode had the highest methylene blue degradation degree following by on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes.

  8. Structure and properties of nanostructured ZnO arrays and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition

    SciT

    Kopach, V. R.; Klepikova, K. S.; Klochko, N. P., E-mail: klochko-np@mail.ru

    We investigate the structure, surface morphology, and optical properties of nanostructured ZnO arrays fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition, Ag nanoparticles precipitated from colloidal solutions, and a ZnO/Ag nanocomposite based on them. The electronic and electrical parameters of the ZnO arrays and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites are analyzed by studying the I–V and C–V characteristics. Optimal modes for fabricating the ZnO/Ag heterostructures with the high stability and sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation as promising materials for use in photodetectors, gas sensors, and photocatalysts are determined.

  9. Theory and Device Modeling for Nano-Structured Transistor Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    zinc oxide ( ZnO ) thin film transistors ( TFTs ) that contain nanocrystalline grains on the order of ~20nm. The authors of ref. 1 present results...problem in order to determine the threshold voltage. 15. SUBJECT TERMS nano-structured transistor , mesoscopic, zinc oxide , ZnO , field-effect...and R. Neidhard, “Microwave ZnO Thin - Film Transistors ”, IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 29, 1024 (2008); doi: 10.1109/LED.2008.2001635.

  10. Nanostructure of aluminium (Al) - Doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussin, Rosniza; Husin, M. Asri

    2017-12-01

    Aluminium (Al)-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) was deposited on glass substrates by using the sol-gel dip coating technique. Next, AZO sol-gel solution was produced via sol-gel method. Al was used as doped element with molar ratios of 1%, 2%, and 3%, while the calcination temperatures were set at 400°C, 500°C, and 600°C for 2 hours. In fact, characterization was carried out in order to determine the effect of calcination temperature and molar ratio of doping by using several techniques, such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). XRD was performed to investigate the crystal structure in which the ZnO was in wurtzite hexagonal form. Next, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the composition of thin films where the result revealed the existence of zinc, oxygen, and aluminium. The roughness of the deposited film was later measured by using the AFM approach where the findings indicated increment in RMS from 8.496 nm to 35.883 nm as the temperature was increased. Additionally, FESEM was carried out to look into the microstructure surfaces of the deposited AZO thin film for increased temperature caused the particle to grow bigger for all molar ratio of dopant. Lastly, UV-Vis was conducted to study the optical properties of AZO, in which the result demonstrated that AZO thin film possessed the highest transmittance percentage among all samples above 90% with band gap value that ranged from 3.25 eV to 3.32 eV.

  11. Optimization of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin-film growth parameters for thin-film transistors (TFT) application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manisha; Chowdhury, Fatema Rezwana; Barlage, Douglas; Tsui, Ying Yin

    2013-03-01

    In this work we present the optimization of zinc oxide (ZnO) film properties for a thin-film transistor (TFT) application. Thin films, 50±10 nm, of ZnO were deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) under a variety of growth conditions. The oxygen pressure, laser fluence, substrate temperature and annealing conditions were varied as a part of this study. Mobility and carrier concentration were the focus of the optimization. While room-temperature ZnO growths followed by air and oxygen annealing showed improvement in the (002) phase formation with a carrier concentration in the order of 1017-1018/cm3 with low mobility in the range of 0.01-0.1 cm2/V s, a Hall mobility of 8 cm2/V s and a carrier concentration of 5×1014/cm3 have been achieved on a relatively low temperature growth (250 °C) of ZnO. The low carrier concentration indicates that the number of defects have been reduced by a magnitude of nearly a 1000 as compared to the room-temperature annealed growths. Also, it was very clearly seen that for the (002) oriented films of ZnO a high mobility film is achieved.

  12. Probing defects in ZnO nanostructures by Photoluminescence and Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Manoranjan; Raychaudhuri, A. K.; Chaudhuri, S. K.; Das, Dipankar

    2008-03-01

    We have investigated defect related emission in the blue green region (2.2 eV -- 2.5 eV) of ZnO nanostructures having spherical (5 nm-15 nm) as well as those with hexagonal platelet and rod like morphologies (20nm-100 nm), synthesized by solvo-thermal route. This emission show anomalous size dependence. Emission energy near 2.2 eV, shifts to higher energy (2.5 eV) for increase in size beyond 20nm when shape of the nanostructures changes. This change in photoluminescence has a close correlation with the size (and shape) induced change in the positron trapping rate which is directly proportional to the defect concentration. The trapping rates show non-monotonous dependence on size. It increases initially as the size increases (5nm-15nm) and then decreases as the size increases beyond 20nm. While increase of the trapping rate on size reduction is expected due to accumulation of more defects at the surface, the initial dependence of the trapping rate on the size (below 20nm) is anomalous. The data are explained by the presence of defects like Zn vacancy and confinement due to size reduction.

  13. Role of vacancy defects in Al doped ZnO thin films for optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotella, H.; Mazel, Y.; Brochen, S.; Valla, A.; Pautrat, A.; Licitra, C.; Rochat, N.; Sabbione, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Nolot, E.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the electrical, optical and photoluminescence properties of industry-ready Al doped ZnO thin films grown by physical vapor deposition, and their evolution after annealing under vacuum. Doping ZnO with Al atoms increases the carrier density but also favors the formation of Zn vacancies, thereby inducing a saturation of the conductivity mechanism at high aluminum content. The electrical and optical properties of these thin layered materials are both improved by annealing process which creates oxygen vacancies that releases charge carriers thus improving the conductivity. This study underlines the effect of the formation of extrinsic and intrinsic defects in Al doped ZnO compound during the fabrication process. The quality and the optoelectronic response of the produced films are increased (up to 1.52 mΩ \\cdotcm and 3.73 eV) and consistent with the industrial device requirements.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Molybdenum Doped ZnO Thin Films by SILAR Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, R.; Sakthivelu, A.; Pradhabhan, D.

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) deposition method. The effect of Mo dopant concentration of 5, 6.6 and 10 mol% on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of n-type Mo doped ZnO films was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the Mo doped ZnO thin films were polycrystalline with wurtzite structure. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) studies shows that the surface morphology of the films changes with Mo doping. A blue shift of the optical band gap was observed in the optical studies. Effect of Mo dopant concentration on electrical conductivity was studied and it shows comparatively high electrical conductivity at 10 mol% of Mo doping concentration.

  15. Temperature dependent optical properties of (002) oriented ZnO thin film using surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Shibu; Mehan, Navina; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-08-01

    Temperature dependent optical properties of c-axis oriented ZnO thin film were investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. SPR data for double layer (prism-Au-ZnO-air) and single layer (prism-Au-air) systems were taken over a temperature range (300-525 K). Dielectric constant at optical frequency and real part of refractive index of the ZnO film shows an increase with temperature. The bandgap of the oriented ZnO film was found to decrease with rise in temperature. The work indicates a promising application of the system as a temperature sensor and highlights an efficient scientific tool to study optical properties of thin film under varying ambient conditions.

  16. Thickness dependence of crystal and optical characterization on ZnO thin film grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2018-06-01

    We studied the thickness dependence of the crystallographic and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown on c-plane sapphire substrate using atomic layer deposition. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) revealed two peaks at 34.5° and 36.2° in the initial growth stage of ZnO on the sapphire substrate, corresponding to the (002) and (101) ZnO planes, respectively. However, as the thickness of the ZnO film increased, the XRD intensity of the (002) ZnO peak increased drastically, compared with that of the (101) ZnO peak. This indicated that (002) and (101) ZnO were simultaneously grown on the c-plane sapphire substrate in the initial growth stage, and that (002) ZnO was predominantly grown with the increase in the thickness of ZnO film. The ZnO thin film presented an anisotropic surface structure at the initial stage, whereas the isotropic surface morphology was developed with an increase in the film thickness of ZnO. These observations were consistent with the HR-XRD results.

  17. High Performance and Highly Reliable ZnO Thin Film Transistor Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition for Next Generation Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-19

    zinc oxide ( ZnO ) thin film as an active channel layer in TFT has become of great interest owing to their specific...630-0192 Japan Phone: +81-743-72-6060 Fax: +81-743-72-6069 E-mail: uraoka@ms.naist.jp Keywords: zinc oxide , thin film transistors , atomic layer...deposition Symposium topic: Transparent Semiconductors Oxides [Abstract] In this study, we fabricated TFTs using ZnO thin film as the

  18. Fabrication and characterization of lithographically patterned and optically transparent anodic aluminum Oxide (AAO) nanostructure thin film.

    PubMed

    He, Yuan; Li, Xiang; Que, Long

    2012-10-01

    Optically transparent anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructure thin film has been successfully fabricated from lithographically patterned aluminum on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates for the first time, indicating the feasibility to integrate the AAO nanostructures with microdevices or microfluidics for a variety of applications. Both one-step and two-step anodization processes using sulfuric acid and oxalic acid have been utilized for fabricating the AAO nanostructure thin film. The optical properties of the fabricated AAO nanostructure thin film have been evaluated and analyzed.

  19. On the possibility of room temperature ferromagnetism on chunk-shape BaSnO3/ZnO core/shell nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamanickam, N.; Jayakumar, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    2018-04-01

    Core/shell BaSnO3/ZnO (BS-ZO) nanostructures were prepared by oxalate precipitation method and wet-chemical method. BaSnO3 (BSO) cubic perovskite structure and ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystallite sizes is 23 nm, 29 nm and 27 nm for BSO, ZnO and BS-ZO, respectively. Chunk-shape and cuboids morphology observed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The magnetic properties were studied by VSM for bare and core-shell nano systems and the room temperature ferromagnetism observed for core-shell nanostructures. The BSO/ZnO shows enhanced coercivity and saturated magnetization as compared with BSO and ZnO nanostructures.

  20. Influence of annealing to the defect of inkjet-printed ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Van-Thai; Wei, Yuefan; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Du, Hejun

    2018-03-01

    The advantages of additive manufacturing for electronic devices have led to the demand of printing functional material in search of a replacement for the conventional subtractive fabrication process. Zinc oxide (ZnO), thanks to its interesting properties for the electronic and photonic applications, has gathered many attentions in the effort to fabricate functional devices additively. Although many potential methods have been proposed, most of them focus on the lowtemperature processing of the printed material to be compatible with the polymer substrate. These low-temperature fabrication processes could establish a high concentration of defects in printed ZnO which significantly affect the performance of the device. In this study, ZnO thin film for UV photodetector application was prepared by inkjet printing of zinc acetate dihydrate solution following by different heat treatment schemes. The effects of annealing to the intrinsic defect of printed ZnO and photoresponse characteristics under UV illumination were investigated. A longer response/decay time and higher photocurrent were observed after the annealing at 350°C for 30 minutes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis suggests that the reducing of defect concentration, such as oxygen vacancy, and excess oxygen species in printed ZnO is the main mechanism for the variation in photoresponse. The result provides a better understanding on the defect of inkjet-printed ZnO and could be applied in engineering the properties of the printed oxide-based semiconductor.

  1. Nanostructuring and texturing of pulsed laser deposited hydroxyapatite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunbin; Catledge, Shane; Vohra, Yogesh; Camata, Renato; Lacefield, William

    2003-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca_10(PO_4)_6(OH)_2] is commonly deposited onto orthopedic and dental metallic implants to speed up bone formation around devices, allowing earlier stabilization in a patient. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a suitable means of placing thin HA films on these implants because of its control over stoichiometry, crystallinity, and nanostructure. These characteristics determine the mechanical properties of the films that must be optimized to improve the performance of load-bearing implants and other devices that undergo bone insertion. We have used PLD to produce nanostructured and preferentially oriented HA films and evaluated their mechanical properties. Pure, highly crystalline HA films on Ti-6Al-4V substrates were obtained using a KrF excimer laser (248nm) with energy density of 4-8 J/cm^2 and deposition temperature of 500-700^rcC. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopies reveal that our careful manipulation of energy density and substrate temperature has led to films made up of HA grains in the nanometer scale. Broadening of x-ray diffraction peaks as a function of deposition temperature suggests it may be possible to control the film nanostructure to a great extent. X-ray diffraction also shows that as the laser energy density is increased in the 4-8 J/cm^2 range, the hexagonal HA films become preferentially oriented along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Texture, nanostructure, and phase make-up all significantly influence the mechanical properties. We will discuss how each of these factors affects hardness and Young's modulus of the HA films as measured by nanoindentation.

  2. Temperature dependent optical properties of ZnO thin film using ellipsometry and photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzourâa, M.-B.; Battie, Y.; Dalmasso, S.; Zaïbi, M.-A.; Oueslati, M.; En Naciri, A.

    2018-05-01

    We report the temperature dependence of the dielectric function, the exciton binding energy and the electronic transitions of crystallized ZnO thin film using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and photoluminescence (PL). ZnO layers were prepared by sol-gel method and deposited on crystalline silicon (Si) by spin coating technique. The ZnO optical properties were determined between 300 K and 620 K. Rigorous study of optical responses was achieved in order to demonstrate the quenching exciton of ZnO as a function of temperature. Numerical technique named constrained cubic splines approximation (CCS), Tauc-Lorentz (TL) and Tanguy dispersion models were selected for the ellipsometry data modeling in order to obtain the dielectric function of ZnO. The results reveals that the exciton bound becomes widely flattening at 470 K on the one hand, and on the other that the Tanguy dispersion law is more appropriate for determining the optical responses of ZnO thin film in the temperature range of 300 K-420 K. The Tauc-Lorentz, for its part, reproduces correctly the ZnO dielectric function in 470 K-620 K temperature range. The temperature dependence of the electronic transition given by SE and PL shows that the exciton quenching was observed in 420 K-∼520 K temperature range. This quenching effect can be explained by the equilibrium between the Coulomb force of exciton and its kinetic energy in the film. The kinetic energy was found to induce three degrees of freedom of the exciton.

  3. Investigations into the impact of various substrates and ZnO ultra thin seed layers prepared by atomic layer deposition on growth of ZnO nanowire array

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The impact of various substrates and zinc oxide (ZnO) ultra thin seed layers prepared by atomic layer deposition on the geometric morphology of subsequent ZnO nanowire arrays (NWs) fabricated by the hydrothermal method was investigated. The investigated substrates included B-doped ZnO films, indium tin oxide films, single crystal silicon (111), and glass sheets. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the geometry and aligment of the NWs were controlled by surface topography of the substrates and thickness of the ZnO seed layers, respectively. According to atomic force microscopy data, we suggest that the substrate, fluctuate amplitude and fluctuate frequency of roughness on ZnO seed layers have a great impact on the alignment of the resulting NWs, whereas the influence of the seed layers' texture was negligible. PMID:22759838

  4. Dimensional-Hybrid Structures of 2D Materials with ZnO Nanostructures via pH-Mediated Hydrothermal Growth for Flexible UV Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Bum; Kim, Seong Ku; Lim, Yi Rang; Jeon, In Su; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lee, Sun Sook; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok

    2017-05-03

    Complementary combination of heterostructures is a crucial factor for the development of 2D materials-based optoelectronic devices. Herein, an appropriate solution for fabricating complementary dimensional-hybrid nanostructures comprising structurally tailored ZnO nanostructures and 2D materials such as graphene and MoS 2 is suggested. Structural features of ZnO nanostructures hydrothermally grown on graphene and MoS 2 are deliberately manipulated by adjusting the pH value of the growing solution, which will result in the formation of ZnO nanowires, nanostars, and nanoflowers. The detailed growth mechanism is further explored for the structurally tailored ZnO nanostructures on the 2D materials. Furthermore, a UV photodetector based on the dimensional-hybrid nanostructures is fabricated, which demonstrates their excellent photocurrent and mechanical durability. This can be understood by the existence of oxygen vacancies and oxygen-vacancies-induced band narrowing in the ZnO nanostructures, which is a decisive factor for determining their photoelectrical properties in the hybrid system.

  5. Growth and characterization of highly conducting Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardana, Sanjay K.; Singh, Anil; Srivastava, Sanjay K.; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2018-05-01

    A comparative study of undoped ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis has been carried out at various aqueous molar concentration of zinc acetate. The thin films deposited on glass shows the wurtzite phase of ZnO, confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The optical study shows the high transmittance over 80% in the visible regime. The band gap of AZO thin films shows a blue shift as compared to undoped ZnO, which has been attributed to Burstein-Moss shift. Heat treatment of these samples in vacuum showed the improved conductivity in compared to as-deposited thin films. The electric study shows the minimum resistivity of 8 x 10-3 Ω-cm and carrier concentration of 6.5 × 1019 /cm3 correspond to AZO thin films.

  6. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on ZnO and M13 Bacteriophage nanostructures (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong-Myeong; Kim, Kyujungg; Hong, Suck Won; Oh, Jin-Woo; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the portable and wearable electronic devices, operated in the power range of microwatt to miliwatt, become available thank to the nanotechnology development and become an essential element for a comfortable life. Our recent research interest mainly focuses on the fabrication of piezoelectric nanogenerators based on smart nanomaterials such as zinc oxide novel nanostructure, M13 bacteriophage. In this talk, we present a simple strategy for fabricating the freestanding ZnO nanorods/graphene/ZnO nanorods double sided heterostructures. The characterization of the double sided heterostructures by using SEM, and Raman scattering spectroscopy reveals the key process and working mechanism of a formation of the heterostructure. The mechanism is discussed in detail in term of the decomposed seed layer and the vacancy defect of graphene. The approach consists of a facile one-step fabrication process and could achieve ZnO coverage with a higher number density than that of the epitaxial single heterostructure. The resulting improvement in the number density of nanorods has a direct beneficial effect on the double side heterostructured nanogenerator performance. The total output voltage and current density are improved up to 2 times compared to those of a single heterostructure due to the coupling of the piezoelectric effects from both upward and downward grown nanorods. The facile one-step fabrication process suggests that double sided heterostructures would improve the performance of electrical and optoelectrical device, such as touch pad, pressure sensor, biosensor and dye-sensitized solar cells. Further, ioinspired nanogenerators based on vertically aligned phage nanopillars are inceptively demonstrated. Vertically aligned phage nanopillars enable not only a high piezoelectric response but also a tuneable piezoelectricity. Piezoelectricity is also modulated by tuning of the protein's dipoles in each phage. The sufficient electrical power from phage nanopillars thus

  7. Low-temperature synthesis of rose-like ZnO nanostructures using surfactin and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A Satyanarayana; Kuo, Yi-Hao; Atla, Shashi B; Chen, Chien-Yen; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Shih, Ruey-Chyuan; Chang, Young-Fo; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Chen, How-Ji

    2011-06-01

    Rose-like ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by the precipitation method using a biosurfactant (surfactin) as a templating-agent stabilizer. The concentration of surfactin in the precursor solution significantly influenced the thickness and density of the petals in the rose-like structures, and all samples were of a wurtzite phase. The thickness of the petal was found to decrease with increasing surfactin concentration. The average thickness of the petals was found to be between 10 and 13 nm. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using rose-like ZnO nanostuctures was investigated, and the morphology, density and thickness of the ZnO petals were found to influence the photodegradation activity. The samples with loosely-spread petals, or plate-like ZnO structures, brought about the strongest photodegradation in comparison with the dense rose-like structures. The greater activity of the loose-petal structures was correlated with their higher absorption in the UV region in comparison with the other samples. The ZnO samples prepared using low surfactin concentrations had higher rate constant values, i.e., 9.1 x 10(-3) min(-1), which revealed that the photodegradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation progressed by a pseudo first-order kinetic reaction.

  8. Franz-Keldysh effect in epitaxial ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridoux, G.; Villafuerte, M.; Ferreyra, J. M.; Guimpel, J.; Nieva, G.; Figueroa, C. A.; Straube, B.; Heluani, S. P.

    2018-02-01

    Photoconductance spectroscopy has been studied in epitaxial ZnO thin films with different thicknesses that range between 136 and 21 nm. We report a systematic decrease in photoconductivity and a red shift in band edge photoconductance spectra when the thickness is reduced. For thinner films, it is found that the effective energy gap value diminishes. By time dependent photoconductivity measurements, we found an enhanced contribution of the slow relaxation times for thicker films. These effects are interpreted in terms of a band-bending contribution where the Franz-Keldysh effect and the polarization of ZnO play a major role in thinner films.

  9. ZrO{sub 2}-ZnO composite thin films for humidity sensing

    SciT

    Velumani, M., E-mail: velumanimohan@gmail.com; Sivacoumar, R.; Alex, Z. C.

    2016-05-23

    ZrO{sub 2}-ZnO composite thin films were grown by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the composite nature of the films with separate ZnO and ZrO{sub 2} phase. Scanning electron microscopy studies confirm the nanocrystalline structure of the films. The films were studied for their impedometric relative humidity (RH) sensing characteristics. The complex impedance plot was fitted with a standard equivalent circuit consisting of an inter-granular resistance and a capacitance in parallel. The DC resistance was found to be decreasing with increase in RH.

  10. Microwave Characterization of Ba-Substituted PZT and ZnO Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Tierno, Davide; Dekkers, Matthijn; Wittendorp, Paul; Sun, Xiao; Bayer, Samuel C; King, Seth T; Van Elshocht, Sven; Heyns, Marc; Radu, Iuliana P; Adelmann, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    The microwave dielectric properties of (Ba 0.1 Pb 0.9 )(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (BPZT) and ZnO thin films with thicknesses below were investigated. No significant dielectric relaxation was observed for both BPZT and ZnO up to 30 GHz. The intrinsic dielectric constant of BPZT was as high as 980 at 30 GHz. The absence of strong dielectric dispersion and loss peaks in the studied frequency range can be linked to the small grain diameters in these ultrathin films.

  11. Al decorated ZnO thin-film photoanode for SPR-enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongxia; Li, Xin; Dong, Wei; Xi, Junhua; Wu, Xin

    2018-06-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting has been considered to be a promising approach to ease the energy and environmental crisis. Herein, Al decorated ZnO thin films are successfully achieved through a facile dc magnetron-sputtering method followed with Al evaporation for further enhanced PEC performance. The Al/ZnO thin film with 60 s Al evaporating time exhibits the highest photocurrent density under AM1.5G and visible light irradiation, which are more than 5 and 3 times as the pure ZnO film, respectively. Such surface modification by Al not only enlarges the visible light absorption based on surface plasmonic resonance effect, but facilitates the charge separation and transportation at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Finally, a possible mechanism is proposed for the photocatalytic activity enhancement of Al/ZnO thin film photoanode.

  12. Enhanced optical band-gap of ZnO thin films by sol-gel technique

    SciT

    Raghu, P., E-mail: dpr3270@gmail.com; Naveen, C. S.; Shailaja, J.

    2016-05-06

    Transparent ZnO thin films were prepared using different molar concentration (0.1 M, 0.2 M & 0.8 M) of zinc acetate on soda lime glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating technique. The optical properties revealed that the transmittance found to decrease with increase in molar concentration. Absorption edge showed that the higher concentration film has increasingly red shifted. An increased band gap energy of the thin films was found to be direct allowed transition of ∼3.9 eV exhibiting their relevance for photovoltaic applications. The extinction coefficient analysis revealed maximum transmittance with negligible absorption coefficient in the respective wavelengths. The resultsmore » of ZnO thin film prepared by sol-gel technique reveal its suitability for optoelectronics and as a window layer in solar cell applications.« less

  13. Effect of Al doping on performance of ZnO thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Junchen; Han, Dedong; Li, Huijin; Yu, Wen; Zhang, Shendong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we investigate the Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) thin films and their feasibility as the active layer for thin film transistors (TFTs). A comparison on performance is made between the AZO TFTs and ZnO TFTs. The electrical properties such as saturation mobility, subthreshold swing, and on-to-off current ratio are improved when AZO is utilized as the active layer. Oxygen component of the thin film materials indicates that Al is the suppressor for oxygen defect in active layer, which improves the subthreshold swing. Moreover, based on band structure analyzation, we observe that the carrier concentration of AZO is higher than ZnO, leading to the enhancement of saturation mobility. The microstructure of the thin films convey that the AZO films exhibit much smaller grain boundaries than ZnO films, which results in the lower off-state current and higher on-to-off current ratio of AZO TFTs. The AZO thin films show huge potential to be the active layer of TFTs.

  14. Thermal-induced structural and optical investigations of Agsbnd ZnO nanocomposite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. K.; Singhal, R.

    2018-07-01

    In the present paper, we have successfully synthesized Agsbnd ZnO nanocomposite thin films by RF-magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature. Systematic investigations of thermal-induced structural and optical modifications in Agsbnd ZnO thin films have been observed and described. The Agsbnd ZnO thin films were annealed at three different temperatures of 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C in vacuum to prevent the oxidation of Ag. The presence and formation of Ag nanoparticles were estimated by transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the structural information about the crystalline quality of ZnO. The crystallinity as well as the crystallite size of the films have been found to be improved with annealing temperatures. The estimated crystallite size was ∼15.8 nm for as-deposited film and 19.0 nm for the film at a higher temperature. The chemical composition and structural analysis of as-deposited film were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A very sharp absorption band appeared at ∼540 nm for Ag NPs that is associated with the surface plasmon resonance band of Ag. A noticeable red shift of about ∼12 nm has been recorded for films annealed at 500 °C. Atomic force microscopy has been utilized to examine the surface morphology of the as-deposited and annealed films. The grain size was found to be increase with increasing annealing temperature, while no significant changes were observed in the roughness of Agsbnd ZnO thin films. Raman spectroscopy revealed lattice defects and disordering in the films after the thermal annealing.

  15. Manipulation of ZnO composition affecting electrical properties of MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite thin film via spin coating for OLEDs application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, N. E. A.; Shariffudin, S. S.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Recent investigations of the promising materials for optoelectronic have been demonstrated by introducing n-type inorganic material into conjugated polymer. Morphology, optical and electrical of nanocomposites thin films based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotetrapods with various ZnO composition (0 wt% to 0.4 wt%) have been investigated. The MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite thin film was deposited using spin-coating method. Surface morphology was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy and shows the uniform dispersion of MEH-PPV and ZnO phases for sample deposited at 0.2 wt%. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra shows the visible emission intensities increased when the ZnO composition increased. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement shows the highest conductivity of nanocomposite thin film deposited at 0.2 wt% of ZnO is 7.40 × 10-1 S. cm-1. This study will provide better performance and suitable for optoelectronic device especially OLEDs application.

  16. Improvement of antimony sulfide photo absorber performance by interface modification in Sb2S3-ZnO hybrid nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Asad; Hasanain, Syed Khurshid; Ali, Tahir; Sultan, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    Metal-oxide chalcogenide nanostructures as part of hybrid systems are very important for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. It is however known that the various interfaces within the hybrid structures play a crucial role in limiting the efficiency of these devices. Here we report on the improvement of Sb2S3 structure through modification of interface between Zn-oxide nanostructures and chalcogenides. ZnO nanorods were grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM analysis confirmed the single phase wurtzite structure and c-axis orientation of the ZnO nanorod arrays. Antimony tri-sulfide (Sb2S3) was deposited on ZnO nanords by CBD and subsequently annealed at 300 °C in argon environment for 30 min. XRD and the XPS analysis of ZnO-Sb2S3 system showed the dominant presence of Sb2O3 rather than Sb2S3. Since oxidation of Sb2S3 is understood to proceed mainly from the ZnO-Sb2S3 interface, a ZnS interlayer was introduced between ZnO nanorods and Sb2S3 by chemical route. The subsequent structural and optical properties of the ZnO-ZnS-Sb2S3 system are analyzed in detail. The introduction of sulfide interlayer prevents the oxidation of Sb2S3 which is evident from reduced oxide phase in Sb2S3. Significant improvement in the structural and optical properties of Sb2S3 are reported as compared to the parent ZnO-Sb2S3 system. This gain in the optical properties of hybrid ZnO-ZnS-Sb2S3 nanostructures is explained as being related to successful prevention of Sb2O3 formation at the Sb-ZnO interface and stabilization of the desired Sb2S3.

  17. Defect studies of thin ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlček, M.; Čížek, J.; Procházka, I.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Mosnier, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    Thin ZnO films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on four different substrates: sapphire (0 0 0 1), MgO (1 0 0), fused silica and nanocrystalline synthetic diamond. Defect studies by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) revealed significantly higher concentration of defects in the studied films when compared to a bulk ZnO single crystal. The concentration of defects in the films deposited on single crystal sapphire and MgO substrates is higher than in the films deposited on amorphous fused silica substrate and nanocrystalline synthetic diamond. Furthermore, the effect of deposition temperature on film quality was investigated in ZnO films deposited on synthetic diamond substrates. Defect studies performed by SPIS revealed that the concentration of defects firstly decreases with increasing deposition temperature, but at too high deposition temperatures it increases again. The lowest concentration of defects was found in the film deposited at 450° C.

  18. Role of Ni doping on transport properties of ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Dar, Tanveer Ahmad, E-mail: tanveerphysics@gmail.com; Agrawal, Arpana; Sen, Pratima

    2015-06-24

    Nickel doped (Ni=0.05) and undoped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared by Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The structural analysis of the films was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies which reveal absence of any secondary phase in the prepared samples. UV transmission spectra show that Ni doping reduces the transparency of the films. X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also shows the presence of metallic Ni along with +2 oxidation state in the sample. Low temperature magneto transport properties of the ZnO and NiZnO films are also discussed in view of Khosla fisher model. Ni doping in ZnO resultsmore » in decrease in magnitude of negative MR.« less

  19. Microwave-assisted Facile and Ultrafast Growth of ZnO Nanostructures and Proposition of Alternative Microwave-assisted Methods to Address Growth Stoppage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Kang, Mingi; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2016-04-01

    The time constraint in the growth of ZnO nanostructures when using a hydrothermal method is of paramount importance in contemporary research, where a long fabrication time rots the very essence of the research on ZnO nanostructures. In this study, we present the facile and ultrafast growth of ZnO nanostructures in a domestic microwave oven within a pressurized environment in just a few minutes. This method is preferred for the conventional solution-based method because of the ultrafast supersaturation of zinc salts and the fabrication of high-quality nanostructures. The study of the effect of seed layer density, growth time, and the solution’s molar concentration on the morphology, alignment, density, and aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) is explored. It is found in a microwave-assisted direct growth method that ~5 mins is the optimum time beyond which homogeneous nucleation supersedes heterogeneous nucleation, which results in the growth stoppage of ZNRs. To deal with this issue, we propound different methods such as microwave-assisted solution-replacement, preheating, and PEI-based growth methods, where growth stoppage is addressed and ZNRs with a high aspect ratio can be grown. Furthermore, high-quality ZnO nanoflowers and ZnO nanowalls are fabricated via ammonium hydroxide treatment in a very short time.

  20. The properties of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) ZnO thin films and comparison with thermal ALD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Doyoung; Kang, Hyemin; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Hyungjun

    2011-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) using oxygen plasma as a reactant and the properties were compared with those of thermal atomic layer deposition (TH-ALD) ZnO thin films. While hexagonal wurzite phase with preferential (0 0 2) orientation was obtained for both cases, significant differences were observed in various aspects of film properties including resistivity values between these two techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements have shown that high resistivity of PE-ALD ZnO thin films is due to the oxygen interstitials at low growth temperature of 200 °C, whose amount decreases with increasing growth temperature. Thin film transistors (TFT) using TH- and PE-ALD ZnO as an active layer were also fabricated and the device properties were evaluated comparatively.

  1. Electromagnetic and Microwave Absorption Properties of Carbonyl Tetrapod-Shaped Zno Nanostructures Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Qin, Hui; Huang, Yunhua

    2012-08-01

    CIP/T-ZnO/EP composite coatings with carbonyl iron powders (CIP) and tetrapodshaped ZnO (T-ZnO) nanostructures as absorbers, and epoxy resin (EP) as matrix were prepared. The complex permittivity, permeability and microwave absorption properties of the coatings were investigated in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The effects of the weight ratio (CIP/T-ZnO/EP), the thickness and the solidification temperature on microwave absorption properties were discussed. When the weight ratio (CIP/TZnO/ EP), the thickness and the solidification temperature is 28:2:22, 1.8 mm, and 10°C, respectively, the optimal wave absorption with the minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -22.38 dB at 15.67 GHz and the bandwidth (RL<-10 dB) of 5.74 GHz was obtained, indicating that the composite coatings may have a promising application in Ku-band (12-18 GHz).

  2. Structural and optical properties of cobalt doped multiferroics BiFeO3 nanostructure thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasannakumara, R.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2018-05-01

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) and Cobalt doped BiFeO3 (BiFe1-XCoXO3) nanostructure thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating method. The X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) of the grown BiFeO3 and BiFe1-XCoXO3 nanostructure thin films showed distorted rhombohedral structure. The shifting of peaks to higher angles was observed in cobalt doped BiFeO3. The surface morphology of the BiFeO3 and BiFe1-XCoXO3 nanostructure thin films were studied using FESEM, an increase in grain size was observed as Co concentration increases. The thickness of the nanostructure thin films was examined using FESEM cross-section. The EDX studies confirmed the elemental composition of the grown BiFeO3 and BiFe1-XCoXO3 nanostructure thin films. The optical characterizations of the grown nanostructure thin films were carried out using FTIR, it confirms the existence of Fe-O and Bi-O bands and UV-Visible spectroscopy shows the increase in optical band gap of the BiFeO3 nanostructure thin films with Co doping by ploting Tauc plot.

  3. Nanostructured hematite thin films for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maabong, Kelebogile; Machatine, Augusto G. J.; Mwankemwa, Benard S.; Braun, Artur; Bora, Debajeet K.; Toth, Rita; Diale, Mmantsae

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured hematite thin films prepared by dip coating technique were investigated for their photoelectrochemical activity for generation of hydrogen from water splitting. Structural, morphological and optical analyses of the doped/undoped films were performed by X-ray diffraction, high resolution field emission-scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometry and Raman spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements of the films showed enhanced photoresponse and cathodic shift of the onset potential upon Ti doping indicating improved transfer of photoholes at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. Films doped with 1 at% Ti produced 0.72 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs RHE which is 2 times higher than current density for the pure film (0.30 mA/cm2, at 1.23 V vs RHE). Gas chromatography analysis of the films also showed enhanced hydrogen evolution at 1 at% Ti with respect to pure film.

  4. ZnO thin film as MSG for sensitive biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimie, N.; Savin, A.; Steigmann, R.; Faktorova, D.; Salaoru, I.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the cholesterol sensors consisting of a mixture of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were grown on ITO/glass substrates by vacuum thermal evaporation method and their sensing characteristics are examined in air. Also, the interest in surface waves appeared due to evanescent waves in the metallic strip grating in sub-wavelength regime. Before testing the transducer with metamaterials lens in the sub-wavelength regime, a simulation of the evanescent wave's formation has been performed at the edge of Ag strips, with thicknesses in the range of micrometers.

  5. Effect of doping on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructure ZnO films deposited onto a-Si:H/Si heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sali, S.; Boumaour, M.; Kermadi, S.; Keffous, A.; Kechouane, M.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the structural; optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films as the n-type semiconductor for silicon a-Si:H/Si heterojunction photodiodes. The ZnO film forms the front contact of the super-strata solar cell and has to exhibit good electrical (high conductivity) and optical (high transmittance) properties. In this paper we focused our attention on the influence of doping on device performance. The results show that the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed a preferred orientation of the crystallites along c-axis. SEM images show that all films display a granular, polycrystalline morphology and the ZnO:Al exhibits a better grain uniformity. The transmittance of the doped films was found to be higher when compared to undoped ZnO. A low resistivity of the order of 2.8 × 10-4 Ω cm is obtained for ZnO:Al using 0.4 M concentration of zinc acetate. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibit a blue band with two peaks centered at 442 nm (2.80 eV) and 490 nm (2.53 eV). It is noted that after doping the ZnO films a shift of the band by 22 nm (0.15 eV) is recorded and a high luminescence occurs when using Al as a dopant. Dark I-V curves of ZnO/a-Si:H/Si structure showed large difference, which means there is a kind of barrier to current flow between ZnO and a-Si:H layer. Doping films was applied and the turn-on voltages are around 0.6 V. Under reverse bias, the current of the ZnO/a-Si:H/Si heterojunction is larger than that of ZnO:Al/a-Si:H/Si. The improvement with ZnO:Al is attributed to a higher number of generated carriers in the nanostructure (due to the higher transmittance and a higher luminescence) that increases the probability of collisions.

  6. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z{sub 1}) and nanograins by SILAR (Z{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. Themore » X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10{sup 2} Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10{sup 5} Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method.« less

  7. ZnO thin film piezoelectric MEMS vibration energy harvesters with two piezoelectric elements for higher output performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peihong; Du, Hejun

    2015-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based vibration energy harvesters with two different designs are presented. These harvesters consist of a silicon cantilever, a silicon proof mass, and a ZnO piezoelectric layer. Design I has a large ZnO piezoelectric element and Design II has two smaller and equally sized ZnO piezoelectric elements; however, the total area of ZnO thin film in two designs is equal. The ZnO thin film is deposited by means of radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method and is characterized by means of XRD and SEM techniques. These ZnO energy harvesters are fabricated by using MEMS micromachining. The natural frequencies of the fabricated ZnO energy harvesters are simulated and tested. The test results show that these two energy harvesters with different designs have almost the same natural frequency. Then, the output performance of different ZnO energy harvesters is tested in detail. The effects of series connection and parallel connection of two ZnO elements on the load voltage and power are also analyzed. The experimental results show that the energy harvester with two ZnO piezoelectric elements in parallel connection in Design II has higher load voltage and higher load power than the fabricated energy harvesters with other designs. Its load voltage is 2.06 V under load resistance of 1 MΩ and its maximal load power is 1.25 μW under load resistance of 0.6 MΩ, when it is excited by an external vibration with frequency of 1300.1 Hz and acceleration of 10 m/s(2). By contrast, the load voltage of the energy harvester of Design I is 1.77 V under 1 MΩ resistance and its maximal load power is 0.98 μW under 0.38 MΩ load resistance when it is excited by the same vibration.

  8. Effective tuning of electron charge and spin distribution in a dot-ring nanostructure at the ZnO interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tapash; Manaselyan, Aram; Barseghyan, Manuk

    2018-05-01

    Electronic states and the Aharonov-Bohm effect in ZnO quantum dot-ring nanostructures containing few interacting electrons reveal several unique features. We have shown here that in contrast to the dot-rings made of conventional semiconductors, such as InAs or GaAs, the dot-rings in ZnO heterojunctions demonstrate several unique characteristics due to the unusual properties of quantum dots and rings in ZnO. In particular the energy spectra of the ZnO dot-ring and the Aharnov-Bohm oscillations are strongly dependant on the electron number in the dot or in the ring. Therefore even small changes of the confinement potential, sizes of the dot-ring or the magnetic field can drastically change the energy spectra and the behavior of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the system. Due to this interesting phenomena it is possible to effectively control with high accuracy the electron charge and spin distribution inside the dot-ring structure. This controlling can be achieved either by changing the magnetic field or the confinement potentials.

  9. Round-patterned ZnO nanostructure coated with siloxane-based polymer for nerve agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyun Ji; Lee, Ji Won; Jeong, Dong-Cheol; Ha, Seonggyun; Song, Changsik; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2018-01-01

    The alignment of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures is expected to improve device sensitivities due to large surface areas which can be utilized to capture significant quantities of gas particles. In this study, we investigated patterned ZnO nanorods modified with polystyrene monolayers synthesized directly onto a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) cell to increase the coating surface area of the sensing material. Also, we designed and synthesized a siloxane-based polymer (S1 polymer) as a sensing material. The patterned ZnO nanorods coated with S1 polymers were fabricated and used for the detection of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The resonance frequency of QCM was shifted due to the adsorption and desorption of a compound at the surface of the modified electrodes. We have synthesized an S1 polymer that exhibited high sensitivity to DMMP. The patterned ZnO nanorods coated with the polymer also exhibited improved sensitivity due to an enhanced surface area capable of adsorbing more DMMP vapor.

  10. Precursor-controlled synthesis of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures, using oligoaniline-coated Au nanoparticle seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Deepti; Pradeep, T.

    2009-07-01

    Shape-selected synthesis of a large number of zinc oxide (ZnO) nano- and microstructures was achieved by the seed-mediated growth of oligoaniline-coated gold nanoparticle precursors. Distinctive ZnO structures such as nanoplates, nanospheres, microstars, microflowers, microthorns and micromultipods were synthesized by this method. Slightly different shapes were obtained in the absence of the seed solution. This is a fast, low temperature (60 °C) and biomimetic route to make a wide variety of structures. The structure and morphology of the nanostructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were utilized for the characterization of the nanostructures. A growth mechanism for these nanostructures was proposed based on these results. The concentrations of the reacting species were the main parameter causing the changes in the morphologies. The variation in morphologies of these structures is believed to be due to the ability of the seed solution as well as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to selectively suppress/depress the growth of certain planes, allowing growth to occur only in certain specific directions. Changes in the amount of growth nuclei with varying sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration is also seen to affect the morphology of these structures.

  11. Nanostructured ZnO films with various morphologies prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis and its growing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, H. L.; Liu, Z. W.; Zeng, D. C.; Zhong, M. L.; Yu, H. Y.; Mikmekova, E.

    2013-10-01

    Nanostructured ZnO films were prepared by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method using Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O as a precursor. The effects of substrate temperature (Ts) on the morphology and properties were systematically studied. As the Ts increased from 430 °C to 610 °C, the morphology of the film transforms from closed packed nanosheets to dense nanocrystalline film and then to hexagonal nanorod array. The dense film formed at a temperature of 550 °C has the lowest electric resistivity and highest carrier concentration. The optical transmittance for all prepared samples was higher than 90%. The photoluminescence (PL) properties varied with the Ts due to the internal defect difference. The growth mechanism of ZnO film involves island growth and diffusion, which was evident by observing the samples prepared at various times.

  12. Preparation and characterization of ALD deposited ZnO thin films studied for gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyadjiev, S. I.; Georgieva, V.; Yordanov, R.; Raicheva, Z.; Szilágyi, I. M.

    2016-11-01

    Applying atomic layer deposition (ALD), very thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films were deposited on quartz resonators, and their gas sensing properties were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method. The gas sensing of the ZnO films to NO2 was tested in the concentration interval between 10 and 5000 ppm. On the basis of registered frequency change of the QCM, for each concentration the sorbed mass was calculated. Further characterization of the films was carried out by various techniques, i.e. by SEM-EDS, XRD, ellipsometry, and FTIR spectroscopy. Although being very thin, the films were gas sensitive to NO2 already at room temperature and could register very well as low concentrations as 100 ppm, while the sorption was fully reversible. Our results for very thin ALD ZnO films show that the described fast, simple and cost-effective technology could be implemented for producing gas sensors working at room temperature and being capable to detect in real time low concentrations of NO2.

  13. Effect of aluminium doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films by sol-gel method

    SciT

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Murugan, R.; Ravi, G., E-mail: raviganesa@rediffmail.com, E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com

    2015-06-24

    We systematically investigated the structural, morphological and optical properties of 0.05 mol % Al doped ZnO (Al:ZnO) thin films deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. The influences of Al doping in ZnO thin films are characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction study. ZnO and Al:ZnO thin films have showed hexagonal wurtzite structure without any secondary phase in c-axis (002) orientation. The SEM images also proved the hexagonal rod like morphologies for both films. All the films exhibited transmittance of 70-80% in the visible range up to 800 nm and cut-off wavelength observed at ∼390 nm corresponding to the fundamental absorption ofmore » ZnO. The band gap of the ZnO thin films slightly widened with the Al doping. The photoluminescence properties have been studied for Al: ZnO thin films and the results are presented in detail.« less

  14. Structural characterization of ZnO thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, M.; Čížek, J.; Kužel, R.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J.; Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.

    2012-06-01

    ZnO thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on three different substrates: sapphire (0 0 0 1), MgO (1 0 0) and fused silica (FS). The structure and morphology of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and defect studies were carried out using slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). Films deposited on all substrates studied in this work exhibit the wurtzite ZnO structure and are characterized by an average crystallite size of 20-100 nm. However, strong differences in the microstructure of films deposited on various substrates were found. The ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit local epitaxy, i.e. a well-defined relation between film crystallites and the substrate. Domains with different orientation relationships with the substrate were found in both films. On the other hand, the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits fibre texture with random lateral orientation of crystallites. Extremely high compressive in-plane stress of σ ˜ 14 GPa was determined in the film deposited on the MgO substrate, while the film deposited on sapphire is virtually stress-free, and the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits a tensile in-plane stress of σ ˜ 0.9 GPa. SPIS investigations revealed that the concentration of open-volume defects in the ZnO films is substantially higher than that in a bulk ZnO single crystal. Moreover, the ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit a significantly higher density of defects than the film deposited on the amorphous FS substrate.

  15. LPG ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing properties of nanostructured polypyrrole thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagul, Sagar B.; Upadhye, Deepak S.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film was synthesized by easy and economic chemical oxidative polymerization technique on glass at room temperature. The prepared thin film of Polypyrrole was characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy and electrical study by I-V measurement system. The optical absorbance spectrum of Polypyrrole shows two fundamental peaks in region of 420 and 890 nm, which confirms the formation of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. The I-V graph of nanostructured Polypyrrole represents the Ohmic nature. Furthermore, the thin film of Polypyrrole was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents spherical nanostructured morphology of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. In order to investigate gas sensing properties, 100 ppm of LPG, Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide were injected in the gas chamber and magnitude of resistance has been recorded as a function of time in second. It was observed that nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film shows good sensing behavior at room temperature.

  16. Nanostructured tungsten trioxide thin films synthesized for photoelectrocatalytic water oxidation: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Chong, Meng Nan; Chan, Eng Seng

    2014-11-01

    The recent developments of nanostructured WO3 thin films synthesized through the electrochemical route of electrochemical anodization and cathodic electrodeposition for the application in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting are reviewed. The key fundamental reaction mechanisms of electrochemical anodization and cathodic electrodeposition methods for synthesizing nanostructured WO3 thin films are explained. In addition, the effects of metal oxide precursors, electrode substrates, applied potentials and current densities, and annealing temperatures on size, composition, and thickness of the electrochemically synthesized nanostructured WO3 thin films are elucidated in detail. Finally, a summary is given for the general evaluation practices used to calculate the energy conversion efficiency of nanostructured WO3 thin films and a recommendation is provided to standardize the presentation of research results in the field to allow for easy comparison of reported PEC efficiencies in the near future. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Nondestructive imaging of atomically thin nanostructures buried in silicon

    PubMed Central

    Gramse, Georg; Kölker, Alexander; Lim, Tingbin; Stock, Taylor J. Z.; Solanki, Hari; Schofield, Steven R.; Brinciotti, Enrico; Aeppli, Gabriel; Kienberger, Ferry; Curson, Neil J.

    2017-01-01

    It is now possible to create atomically thin regions of dopant atoms in silicon patterned with lateral dimensions ranging from the atomic scale (angstroms) to micrometers. These structures are building blocks of quantum devices for physics research and they are likely also to serve as key components of devices for next-generation classical and quantum information processing. Until now, the characteristics of buried dopant nanostructures could only be inferred from destructive techniques and/or the performance of the final electronic device; this severely limits engineering and manufacture of real-world devices based on atomic-scale lithography. Here, we use scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) to image and electronically characterize three-dimensional phosphorus nanostructures fabricated via scanning tunneling microscope–based lithography. The SMM measurements, which are completely nondestructive and sensitive to as few as 1900 to 4200 densely packed P atoms 4 to 15 nm below a silicon surface, yield electrical and geometric properties in agreement with those obtained from electrical transport and secondary ion mass spectroscopy for unpatterned phosphorus δ layers containing ~1013 P atoms. The imaging resolution was 37 ± 1 nm in lateral and 4 ± 1 nm in vertical directions, both values depending on SMM tip size and depth of dopant layers. In addition, finite element modeling indicates that resolution can be substantially improved using further optimized tips and microwave gradient detection. Our results on three-dimensional dopant structures reveal reduced carrier mobility for shallow dopant layers and suggest that SMM could aid the development of fabrication processes for surface code quantum computers. PMID:28782006

  18. Growth parameter dependent structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures on Si substrate by a two-zone thermal CVD.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Kwan; Yu, Jae Su

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the effect of growth parameters on the structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures (NSs) grown on Au-coated Si substrate by a two-zone thermal chemical vapor deposition. The morphologies of ZnO NSs were controlled by various growth parameters, such as growth temperature, O2 flow rate, and working pressure, for different thicknesses of Au layer. The nanorod-like ZnO NSs were formed at 915 degrees C and the growth of two-dimensional structures, i.e., nanosheets, was enhanced with the increase of growth temperature up to 965 degrees C. It was found that the low working pressure contributed to improvement in vertical alignment and uniformity of ZnO NSs. The Zn/O atomic % ratio, which plays a key role in the growth mechanism of ZnO NSs, was changed by the growth parameters. The Zn/O atomic % ratio was increased with increasing the growth temperature, while it was decreased with increasing the working pressure. Under proper O2 flow rate, the ZnO nanorods with good crystallinity were fabricated with a Zn/O atomic % ratio of -0.9. For various growth parameters, the photoluminescence emission was slightly shifted with the ultraviolet emission related to the near band edge transition.

  19. Thermoelectric Properties of Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, S.; Mele, P.; Honda, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Miyazaki, K.; Ichinose, A.

    2014-06-01

    We have prepared 2 % Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films on SrTiO3 substrates by a pulsed laser deposition technique at various deposition temperatures ( T dep = 300-600 °C). The thermoelectric properties of AZO thin films were studied in a low temperature range (300-600 K). Thin film deposited at 300 °C is fully c-axis-oriented and presents electrical conductivity 310 S/cm with Seebeck coefficient -65 μV/K and power factor 0.13 × 10-3 Wm-1 K-2 at 300 K. The performance of thin films increases with temperature. For instance, the power factor is enhanced up to 0.55 × 10-3 Wm-1 K-2 at 600 K, surpassing the best AZO film previously reported in the literature.

  20. Effect of Li doping on the electric and pyroelectric properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinca, L. M.; Galca, A. C.; Boni, A. G.; Botea, M.; Pintilie, L.

    2018-01-01

    Un-doped ZnO (UDZO) and Li-doped ZnO (LZO) polycrystalline thin films were grown on platinized silicon by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The electrical properties were investigated on as-grown and annealed UDZO and LZO films with capacitor configuration, using top and bottom platinum electrodes. In the case of the as-grown films it was found that the introduction of Li increases the resistivity of ZnO and induces butterfly shape in the C-V characteristic, suggesting ferroelectric-like behavior in LZO films. The properties of LZO samples does not significantly changes after thermal annealing while the properties of UDZO samples show significant changes upon annealing, manifested in a butterfly shape of the C-V characteristic and resistive-like switching. However, the butterfly shape disappears if long delay time is used in the C-V measurement, the characteristic remaining non-linear. Pyroelectric signal could be measured only on annealed films. Comparing the UDZO results with those obtained in the case of Li:ZnO, it was found that the pyroelectric properties are considerably enhanced by Li doping, leading to pyroelectric signal with about one order of magnitude larger at low modulation frequencies than for un-doped samples. Although the results of this study hint towards a ferroelectric-like behavior of Li doped ZnO, the presence of real ferroelectricity in this material remains controversial.

  1. Hybrid nanostructure heterojunction solar cells fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes grown on reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kaikun; Xu, Congkang; Huang, Liwei; Zou, Lianfeng; Wang, Howard

    2011-10-07

    Using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films as the transparent conductive coating, inorganic/organic hybrid nanostructure heterojunction photovoltaic devices have been fabricated through hydrothermal synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and nanotubes (ZnO-NTs) on rGO films followed by the spin casting of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) film. The data show that larger interfacial area in ZnO-NT/P3HT composites improves the exciton dissociation and the higher electrode conductance of rGO films helps the power output. This study offers an alternative to manufacturing nanostructure heterojunction solar cells at low temperatures using potentially low cost materials.

  2. The effect of induced strains on photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by thermal evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, Yaser; Eshghi, Hosein

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by thermal evaporation process using metallic zinc powder in the presence of oxygen on p-Si (100) at different distances from the boat. The structural and optical characterizations have been carried out. The morphological study shows various shape nanostructures. XRD data indicate that all samples have a polycrystalline wurtzite hexagonal structure in such a way that the closer sample has a preferred orientation along (101) while the ones farther are grown along (002) direction. From the structural and optical data analysis, we found that the induced strains are the main parameter controlling the UV/green peaks ratios in the PL spectra of the studied samples.

  3. Annealing effect on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO bilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. I.; Imran, S.; Shahnawaz; Saleem, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif

    2018-03-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO (TZ) thin films has been observed. Bilayer thin films of TiO2/ZnO are deposited on FTO glass substrate by spray pyrolysis method. After deposition, these films are annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K. XRD shows that TiO2 is present in anatase phase only and ZnO is present in hexagonal phase. No other phases of TiO2 and ZnO are present. Also, there is no evidence of other compounds like Zn-Ti etc. It also shows that the average grain size of TiO2/ZnO films is increased by increasing annealing temperature. AFM (Atomic force microscope) showed that the average roughness of TiO2/ZnO films is decreased at temperature 573-723 K and then increased at 873 K. The calculated average sheet resistivity of thin films annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K is 152.28 × 102, 75.29 × 102 and 63.34 × 102 ohm-m respectively. This decrease in sheet resistivity might be due to the increment of electron concentration with increasing thickness and the temperature of thin films.

  4. Effect of copper doping on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidani, T.; Zaabat, M.; Aida, M. S.; Boudine, B.

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, we prepared undoped and copper doped ZnO thin films by the sol-gel dip coating method on glass substrates from zinc acetate dissolved in a solution of ethanol. The objective of our work is to study the effect of Cu doping with different concentrations on structural, morphological, optical properties and photocatalytic activity of ZnO thin films. For this purpose, we have used XRD to study the structural properties, and AFM to determine the morphology of the surface of the ZnO thin films. The optical properties and the photocatalytic degradation of the films were examined by UV-visibles spectrophotometer. The Tauc method was used to estimate the optical band gap. The XRD spectra indicated that the films have an hexagonal wurtzite structure, which gradually deteriorated with increasing Cu concentration. The results showed that the incorporation of Cu decreases the crystallite size. The AFM study showed that an increase of the concentration of Cu causes the decrease of the surface roughness, which passes from 20.2 for Un-doped ZnO to 12.16 nm for doped ZnO 5 wt% Cu. Optical measurements have shown that all the deposited films show good optical transmittance (77%-92%) in the visible region and increases the optical gap with increasing Cu concentration. The presence of copper from 1% to 5 wt% in the ZnO thin films is found to decelerate the photocatalytic process.

  5. Eosin-Y sensitized core-shell TiO2-ZnO nano-structured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, V S; Palai, Akshaya K; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2018-06-01

    In the current investigation, TiO 2 and TiO 2 -ZnO (core-shell) spherical nanoparticles were synthesized by simple combined hydrolysis and refluxing method. A TiO 2 core nanomaterial on the shell material of ZnO was synthesized by utilizing variable ratios of ZnO. The structural characterization of TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles were done by XRD analysis. The spherical structured morphology of the TiO 2 -ZnO has been confirmed through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The UV-visible spectra of TiO 2 -ZnO nanostructures were also compared with the pristine TiO 2 to investigate the shift of wavelength. The TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles at the interface efficiently collect the photogenarated electrons from ZnO and also ZnO act a barrier for reduced charge recombination of electrolyte and dye-nanoparticles interface. This combination improved the light absorption which induced the charge transfer ability and dye loading capacity of core-shell nanoparticles. An enhancement in the short circuit current (J sc ) from 1.67 mA/cm 2 to 2.1 mA/cm 2 has been observed for TiO 2 -ZnObased photoanode (with platinum free counter electrode), promises an improvement in the energy conversion efficiency by 57% in comparison with that of the DSSCs based on the pristine TiO 2 . Henceforth, TiO 2 -ZnO photoelectrode in ZnO will effectively act as barrier at the interface of TiO 2 -ZnO and TiO 2 , ensuring the potential for DSSC application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Photoelectrochemical properties of highly mobilized Li-doped ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Shinde, S S; Bhosale, C H; Rajpure, K Y

    2013-03-05

    Li-doped ZnO thin films with preferred (002) orientation have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique in aqueous medium on to the corning glass substrates. The effect of Li-doping on to the photoelectrochemical, structural, morphological, optical, luminescence, electrical and thermal properties has been investigated. XRD and Raman study indicates that the films have hexagonal crystal structure. The transmittance, reflectance, refractive index, extinction coefficient and bandgap have been analyzed by optical study. PL spectra consist of a near band edge and visible emission due to the electronic defects, which are related to deep level emissions, such as oxide antisite (OZn), interstitial zinc (Zni), interstitial oxygen (Oi) and zinc vacancy (VZn). The Li-doped ZnO films prepared for 1at% doping possesses the highest electron mobility of 102cm(2)/Vs and carrier concentration of 3.62×10(19)cm(-3). Finally, degradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene using Li-doped ZnO thin films has been reported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bipolar charge storage characteristics in copper and cobalt co-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Herng, Tun Seng; Zeng, Kaiyang; Ding, Jun

    2012-10-24

    The bipolar charge phenomenon in Cu and Co co-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) film samples has been studied using scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques. Those ZnO samples are made using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. It is found that the addition of Cu and Co dopants suppresses the electron density in ZnO and causes a significant change in the work function (Fermi level) value of the ZnO film; this results in the ohmic nature of the contact between the electrode (probe tip) and codoped sample, whereas this contact exhibits a Schottky nature in the undoped and single-element-doped samples. These results are verified by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) measurements. It is also found that the co-doping (Cu and Co) can stabilize the bipolar charge, whereas Cu doping only stabilizes the positive charge in ZnO thin films.

  8. Microstructure study of ZnO thin films on Si substrate grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingyun; Ye, Zhizhen; Lu, Huanming; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Binghui; Li, Xianhang

    2007-08-01

    The microstructure of zinc oxide thin films on silicon substrates grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) was characterized. The cross-sectional bright-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image showed that small ZnO columnar grains were embedded into large columnar grains, and the selected-area electron diffraction pattern showed that the ZnO/Si thin films were nearly c-axis oriented. The deviation angle along the ZnO (0 0 0 1) direction with respect to the growth direction of Si (1 0 0) was no more than 5°. The [0 0 0 1]-tilt grain boundaries in ZnO/Si thin films were investigated symmetrically by plan-view high resolution TEM. The boundaries can be classified into three types: low-angle boundaries described as an irregular array of edge dislocations, boundaries of near 30° angle with (1\\,0\\,\\bar{1}\\,0) facet structures and large-angle boundaries with symmetric structure which could be explained by a low Σ coincident site lattice structure mode. The research was useful to us for finding optimized growth conditions to improve ZnO/Si thin film quality.

  9. Growth of pure ZnO thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayouchi, R.; Martin, F.; Leinen, D.; Ramos-Barrado, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis from zinc acetate (Zn(CH 3COO) 2 2H 2O) aqueous solutions, on polished Si(1 0 0), and fused silica substrates for optical characterization, have been studied in terms of deposition time and substrate temperature. The growth of the films present three regimes depending on the substrate temperature, with increasing, constant and decreasing growth rates at lower, middle, and higher-temperature ranges, respectively. Growth rate higher than 15 nm min -1 can be achieved at Ts=543 K. ZnO film morphological and electrical properties have been related to these growth regimes. The films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  10. Exciton and core-level electron confinement effects in transparent ZnO thin films

    PubMed Central

    Mosquera, Adolfo A.; Horwat, David; Rashkovskiy, Alexandr; Kovalev, Anatoly; Miska, Patrice; Wainstein, Dmitry; Albella, Jose M.; Endrino, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    The excitonic light emission of ZnO films have been investigated by means of photoluminescence measurements in ultraviolet-visible region. Exciton confinement effects have been observed in thin ZnO coatings with thickness below 20 nm. This is enhanced by a rise of the intensity and a blue shift of the photoluminescence peak after extraction of the adsorbed species upon annealing in air. It is found experimentally that the free exciton energy (determined by the photoluminescence peak) is inversely proportional to the square of the thickness while core-level binding energy is inversely proportional to the thickness. These findings correlate very well with the theory of kinetic and potential confinements.

  11. Perovskite solar cells based on nanocolumnar plasma-deposited ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F Javier; López-Santos, Maria C; Guillén, Elena; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R; Ahmad, Shahzada

    2014-04-14

    ZnO thin films having a nanocolumnar microstructure are grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 423 K on pre-treated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The films consist of c-axis-oriented wurtzite ZnO nanocolumns with well-defined microstructure and crystallinity. By sensitizing CH3NH3PbI3 on these photoanodes a power conversion of 4.8% is obtained for solid-state solar cells. Poly(triarylamine) is found to be less effective when used as the hole-transport material, compared to 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), while the higher annealing temperature of the perovskite leads to a better infiltration in the nanocolumnar structure and an enhancement of the cell efficiency. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Contact resistance reduction of ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) with saw-shaped electrode.

    PubMed

    Park, Woojin; Shaikh, Sohail F; Min, Jung-Wook; Lee, Sang Kyung; Lee, Byoung Hun; Hussain, Muhammad M

    2018-08-10

    We report on a saw-shaped electrode architecture ZnO thin film transistor (TFT), which effectively increases the channel width. The contact line of the saw-shaped electrode is almost twice as long at the contact metal/ZnO channel junction. We experimentally observed an enhancement in the output drive current by 50% and a reduction in the contact resistance by over 50%, when compared to a typically shaped electrode ZnO TFT consuming the same chip area. This performance enhancement is attributed to the extension of the channel width. This technique can contribute to device performance enhancement, and in particular reduce the contact resistance, which is a serious challenge.

  13. Band-Gap Engineering in ZnO Thin Films: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Vani; Jha, Pardeep K.; Panda, S. K.; Jha, Priyanka A.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide thin films are synthesized and characterized using x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. Our results reveal that the structural, morphological, and optical properties are closely related to the stress of the sample provided that the texture of the film remains the same. The anomalous results are obtained once the texture is altered to a different orientation. We support this experimental observation by carrying out first-principles hybrid functional calculations for two different orientations of the sample and show that the effect of quantum confinement is much stronger for the (100) surface than the (001) surface of ZnO. Furthermore, our calculations provide a route to enhance the band gap of ZnO by more than 50% compared to the bulk band gap, opening up possibilities for wide-range industrial applications.

  14. Impact of Temperature and UV Irradiation on Dynamics of NO2 Sensors Based on ZnO Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Pustelny, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    The main object of this study is the improvement of the dynamics of NO2 sensors based on ZnO nanostructures. Investigations presented in this paper showed that the combination of temperature and ultraviolet (UV) activation of the sensors can significantly decrease the sensor response and regeneration times. In comparison with the single activation method (elevated temperature or UV), these times for 1 ppm of NO2 decreased from about 10 min (or more) to less than 40 s. In addition, at the optimal conditions (200 °C and UV), sensors were very stable, were fully scalable (in the range on NO2 concentration of 1–20 ppm) and baseline drift was significantly reduced. Furthermore, in this paper, extensive studies of the influence of temperature and carrier gas (nitrogen and air) on NO2 sensing properties of the ZnO nanostructures were conducted. The NO2 sensing mechanisms of the sensors operating at elevated temperatures and under UV irradiation were also discussed. Our study showed that sensor responses to NO2 and response/regeneration times are comparable from sensor to sensor in air and nitrogen conditions, which suggests that the proposed simple technology connected with well-chosen operation conditions is repeatable. The estimated limit of detection of the sensors is within the level of ≈800 ppb in nitrogen and ≈700 ppb in air. PMID:29019924

  15. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of nano-structured Zinc(II)-based metal-organic frameworks as precursors for the synthesis of ZnO nano-structures.

    PubMed

    Bigdeli, Fahime; Ghasempour, Hosein; Azhdari Tehrani, Alireza; Morsali, Ali; Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    A 3D, porous Zn(II)-based metal-organic framework {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmn)]·(DMF) 1.5 } n (TMU-21), (4-bpmn=N,N'-Bis-pyridin-4-ylmethylene-naphtalene-1,5-diamine, H 2 oba=4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid)) with nano-rods morphology under ultrasonic irradiation at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure was prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Sonication time and concentration of initial reagents effects on the size and morphology of nano-structured MOFs were studied. Also {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmn)] (TMU-21) and {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmb)] (TMU-6), 4-bpmb=N,N'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(1-(pyridin-4-yl)methanimine) were easily prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. Nanostructures of Zinc(II) oxide were obtained by calcination of these compounds and their de-solvated analogue as activated MOFs, at 550°C under air atmosphere. As a result of that, different Nanostructures of Zinc(II) oxide were obtained. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FT-IR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Room-temperature sensitivity to NO2 exposure of electrochemically-deposited nanostructured ZnO layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovchinov, K.; Petrov, M.; Ganchev, M.; Georgieva, V.; Nichev, H.; Georgieva, B.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports studies on the sensitivity of ZnO layers to NO2 exposure. ZnO layers were fabricated by electrochemical deposition on the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with Au electrodes. The sensitivity was estimated using the frequency-time characteristics of the QCM. For this purpose, the resonance frequency shift was measured. The sorption process was investigated in a NO2 gas flow. The change in the resonance frequency, f of the QCM as a function of the loaded mass of NO2 was followed for a NO2 concentration of 500 ppm. Under gas exposure, the frequency decreased and reached saturation in five min. A frequency shift of 38 Hz was measured and a mass loading of 8.39 ng was calculated. The resonance frequency showed a very good recovery within two minutes after the NO2 flow was switched off. The results demonstrate that the electrodeposited nanostructured ZnO layers have a potential for application as NO2 gas sensors.

  17. Incorporation of ZnO and their composite nanostructured material into a cotton fabric platform for wearable device applications.

    PubMed

    Veluswamy, Pandiyarasan; Sathiyamoorthy, Suhasini; Khan, Faizan; Ghosh, Aranya; Abhijit, Majumdar; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro; Ikeda, Hiroya

    2017-02-10

    The central idea of this paper is to innovate a new approach for the development of wearable device materials through the coating of cotton fabric with ZnO and Sb-/Ag-/ZnO composites. The study was designed in order to have a clear understanding of the role of ZnO as well as the modified composite thereof under investigation. Cotton fabric with uniform ZnO/ZnO-composite layers on the surface was successfully synthesized via a solvothermal method. The growth behaviors were investigated by comparing ZnO and ZnO-composites. The structural, morphological, chemical states, optical, electrical and thermopower properties of these fabrics were studied. Nanostructured ZnO-composite fabric had enhanced UV shielding with a value of 83.96. It is found that the ZnO-composite fabrics have increased electrical conductivity. The thermopower value of the ZnO-composite fabric could reach 471.9μVK -1 . Such materials are anticipated to be worthwhile as wearable electronic devices and as protective textiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical Property Evaluation of ZnO Thin Film Fabricated by Low-Temperature Process for Flexible Transparent TFT.

    PubMed

    Khafe, Adie Bin Mohd; Watanabe, Hiraku; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kuniyoshi, Shigekazu; Iizuka, Masaaki; Sakai, Masatoshi; Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2016-04-01

    The usual silicon-based display back planes require fairly high process temperature and thus the development of a low temperature process is needed on flexible plastic substrates. A new type of flexible organic light emitting transistor (OLET) had been proposed and investigated in the previous work. By using ultraviolet/ozone (UV/O3) assisted thermal treatments on wet processed zinc oxide field effect transistor (ZnO-FET), through low-process temperature, ZnO-FETs were fabricated which succeeded to achieve target drain current value and mobility. In this study, physical property evaluation of ZnO was conducted in term of their crystallinity, the increase composition of ZnO formed inside the thin film and the decrease of the carbon impurities originated from aqueous solution of the ZnO itself. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) evaluation showed UV/03 assisted thermal treatment has no obvious effect towards crystallinity of ZnO in the range of low process temperature. Moreover, through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) evaluation and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy evaluation, more carbon impurities disappeared from the ZnO thin film and the increase of composition amount of ZnO, when the thin film was subjected to UV/O3 assisted thermal treatment. Therefore, UV/O3 assisted thermal treatment contributed in carbon impurities elimination and accelerate ZnO formation in ZnO thin film, which led to the improvement in the electrical property of ZnO-FET in the low-process temperature.

  19. Highly conductive and transparent thin ZnO films prepared in situ in a low pressure system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataev, B. M.; Bagamadova, A. M.; Mamedov, V. V.; Omaev, A. K.; Rabadanov, M. R.

    1999-03-01

    Sucessful preparation of ZnO : M epitaxial thin films (ETF) in situ doped with donor impurity M=Ga, Sn by chemical vapor despsition in a low-pressure system is reported. Highly conductive (up to 10 -4 Ω cm) and transparent ( T>85%) ZnO : M ETF have been successfully produced on single crystal (1012) sapphire substrates. Electrical properties of the films as well as their excition luminescence were studied.

  20. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    PubMed

    Thandavan, Tamil Many K; Gani, Siti Meriam Abdul; San Wong, Chiow; Md Nor, Roslan

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni), oxygen interstitials (Oi), zinc vacancy (Vzn), singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-), oxygen vacancy (Vo), singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+) and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn) in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE) and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  1. Effect of angle of deposition on the Fractal properties of ZnO thin film surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. P.; Agarwal, D. C.; Kumar, Manvendra; Rajput, Parasmani; Tomar, D. S.; Pandey, S. N.; Priya, P. K.; Mittal, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared by atom beam sputtering at various deposition angles in the range of 20-75°. The deposited thin films were examined by glancing angle X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scaling law analysis was performed on AFM images to show that the thin film surfaces are self-affine. Fractal dimension of each of the 256 vertical sections along the fast scan direction of a discretized surface, obtained from the AFM height data, was estimated using the Higuchi's algorithm. Hurst exponent was computed from the fractal dimension. The grain sizes, as determined by applying self-correlation function on AFM micrographs, varied with the deposition angle in the same manner as the Hurst exponent.

  2. Synthesis of ZnO nanowires for thin film network transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, S. H.; Unalan, H. E.; Zhang, Y.; Hiralal, Pritesh; Gangloff, L.; Flewitt, Andrew J.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Milne, William I.

    2008-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanowire networks are attractive as alternatives to organic and amorphous semiconductors due to their wide bandgap, flexibility and transparency. We demonstrate the fabrication of thin film transistors (TFT)s which utilize ZnO nanowires as the semiconducting channel. These thin film transistors can be transparent and flexible and processed at low temperatures on to a variety of substrates. The nanowire networks are created using a simple contact transfer method that is easily scalable. Apparent nanowire network mobility values can be as high as 3.8 cm2/Vs (effective thin film mobility: 0.03 cm2/Vs) in devices with 20μm channel lengths and ON/OFF ratios of up to 104.

  3. Effects of optical band gap energy, band tail energy and particle shape on photocatalytic activities of different ZnO nanostructures prepared by a hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klubnuan, Sarunya; Suwanboon, Sumetha; Amornpitoksuk, Pongsaton

    2016-03-01

    The dependence of the crystallite size and the band tail energy on the optical properties, particle shape and oxygen vacancy of different ZnO nanostructures to catalyse photocatalytic degradation was investigated. The ZnO nanoplatelets and mesh-like ZnO lamellae were synthesized from the PEO19-b-PPO3 modified zinc acetate dihydrate using aqueous KOH and CO(NH2)2 solutions, respectively via a hydrothermal method. The band tail energy of the ZnO nanostructures had more influence on the band gap energy than the crystallite size. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue increased as a function of the irradiation time, the amount of oxygen vacancy and the intensity of the (0 0 0 2) plane. The ZnO nanoplatelets exhibited a better photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue than the mesh-like ZnO lamellae due to the migration of the photoelectrons and holes to the (0 0 0 1) and (0 0 0 -1) planes, respectively under the internal electric field, that resulted in the enhancement of the photocatalytic activities.

  4. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures converted from ZnS nanoparticles

    SciT

    Patel, Prayas Chandra; Ghosh, Surajit; Srivastava, P.C., E-mail: pcsrivastava50@gmail.com

    Graphical abstract: The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. - Highlights: • Phase change of cubic ZnS to hexagonal ZnO via heat treatment. • Band gap was found to decrease with increasing calcinations temperature. • ZnO samples have higher magnetic moment than ZnS. • Blocking Temperature of the samples is well above room temperature. • Maximum negative%MR with saturation value ∼38% was found for sample calcined at 600° C. - Abstract: The present work concentrates on the synthesis of cubic ZnS and hexagonal ZnO semiconducting nanoparticle from same precursor via co-precipitation method.more » The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. From the analysis of influence of calcination temperature on the structural, optical and vibrational properties of the samples, an optimum temperature was found for the total conversion of ZnS nanoparticles to ZnO. Role of quantum confinement due to finite size is evident from the blue shift of the fundamental absorption in UV–vis spectra only in the ZnS nanoparticles. The semiconducting nature of the prepared samples is confirmed from the UV–vis, PL study and transport study. From the magnetic and transport studies, pure ZnO phase was found to be more prone to magnetic field.« less

  5. The Effect of Thickness of ZnO Thin Films on Hydrophobic Self-Cleaning Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mufti, N.; Arista, D.; Diantoro, M.; Fuad, A.; Taufiq, A.; Sunaryono

    2017-05-01

    Glass coating can be conducted by using ZnO-photocatalyst based semiconductor material since it is preeminent in decomposing organics compound and dangerous bacteria which often contaminates the environment. If there are dirt containing organics compound on the glass, the ZnO photocatalyst coat can be applied as self-cleaning, usually called self-cleaning glass. It depends on the coating thickness which can be controlled by setting the speed of spin coating. In this research, the various rotating speeds of spin coating were conducted at 2000 rpm, 3000 rpm, and 4000 rpm to control the thickness. The raw materials used in this research were Zn(CH3COOH)2.2H2O (PA 99,5%), Ethylene glycol, Diethanolamine (PA 99%), Isopropanol Alkohol, Glycerol, and Ashton. Synthesis methods used were sol-gel prior to spin coating technic were applied. The results of the film were characterized by using SEM, XRD, and UV-Spectrophotometer. The crystal structure was analyzed by using Highscore plus and GSAS software, the size crystal was calculated by using Scherrer equation, a contact angle with ImageJ software. It was shown that ZnO thin film had been successfully synthesized with the crystal size around 21 nm up to 26 nm. The absorption value is higher due to the increasing of coat thickness with bandgap ± 3.2 eV. The test result of hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics show that all samples of ZnO thin film with the thickness ± 1.050 μm, ± 0.450 μm, ± 0.250 μm can be applied as self-cleaning glass. The best result was gained with the thickness of thin film ± 1.050 μm.

  6. Spectroscopic Study of Deep Level Emissions from Acceptor Defects in ZnO Thin Films with Oxygen Rich Stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyas, Usman; Rawat, R. S.; Tan, T. L.

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports the tailoring of acceptor defects in oxygen rich ZnO thin films at different post-deposition annealing temperatures (500-800°C) and Mn doping concentrations. The XRD spectra exhibited the nanocrystalline nature of ZnO thin films along with inconsistent variation in lattice parameters suggesting the temperature-dependent activation of structural defects. Photoluminescence emission spectra revealed the temperature dependent variation in deep level emissions (DLE) with the presence of acceptors as dominating defects. The concentration of native defects was estimated to be increased with temperature while a reverse trend was observed for those with increasing doping concentration. A consistent decrease in DLE spectra, with increasing Mn content, revealed the quenching of structural defects in the optical band gap of ZnO favorable for good quality thin films with enhanced optical transparency.

  7. Effect of Ag doping on the properties of ZnO thin films for UV stimulated emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeen, Ahmed S.; Gadallah, A.-S.; El-Nahass, M. M.

    2018-06-01

    Ag doped ZnO thin films have been prepared using sol-gel spin coating method, with different doping concentrations. Structural and morphological properties of the films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Thin films have been optically pumped and stimulated emission has been observed with strong peaks in the UV region. The UV stimulated emission is found to be due to exciton-exciton scattering, and Ag doping promoted this process by increasing the excitons concentrations in the ZnO lattice. Output-input intensity relation and peak emission, FWHM, and quantum efficiency relations with pump intensity have been reported. The threshold for which stimulated emission started has been evaluated to be about 18 MW/cm2 with quantum efficiency of about 58.7%. Mechanisms explaining the role of Ag in enhancement of stimulated emission from ZnO thin films have been proposed.

  8. Alternate deposition and hydrogen doping technique for ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myong, Seung Yeop; Lim, Koeng Su

    2006-08-01

    We propose an alternate deposition and hydrogen doping (ADHD) technique for polycrystalline hydrogen-doped ZnO thin films, which is a sublayer-by-sublayer deposition based on metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and mercury-sensitized photodecomposition of hydrogen doping gas. Compared to conventional post-deposition hydrogen doping, the ADHD process provides superior electrical conductivity, stability, and surface roughness. Photoluminescence spectra measured at 10 K reveal that the ADHD technique improves ultraviolet and violet emissions by suppressing the green and yellow emissions. Therefore, the ADHD technique is shown to be very promising aid to the manufacture of improved transparent conducting electrodes and light emitting materials.

  9. Electrical and optical properties of p-type codoped ZnO thin films prepared by spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Trilok Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Swart, H. C.; Purohit, L. P.

    2016-03-01

    Undoped, doped and codoped ZnO thin films were synthesized on glass substrates using a spin coating technique. Zinc acetate dihydrate, ammonium acetate and aluminum nitrate were used as precursor for zinc, nitrogen and aluminum, respectively. X-ray diffraction shows that the thin films have a hexagonal wurtzite structure for the undoped, doped and co-doped ZnO. The transmittance of the films was above 80% and the band gap of the film varied from 3.20 eV to 3.24 eV for undoped and doped ZnO. An energy band diagram to describe the photoluminescence from the thin films was also constructed. This diagram includes the various defect levels and possible quasi-Fermi levels. A minimum resistivity of 0.0834 Ω-cm was obtained for the N and Al codoped ZnO thin films with p-type carrier conductivity. These ZnO films can be used as a window layer in solar cells and in UV lasers.

  10. Synergistic effect of indium and gallium co-doping on the properties of RF sputtered ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaheera, M.; Girija, K. G.; Kaur, Manmeet; Geetha, V.; Debnath, A. K.; Karri, Malvika; Thota, Manoj Kumar; Vatsa, R. K.; Muthe, K. P.; Gadkari, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    ZnO thin films were synthesized using RF magnetron sputtering, with simultaneous incorporation of Indium (In) and Gallium (Ga). The structural, optical, chemical composition and surface morphology of the pure and co-doped (IGZO) thin films were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. XRD revealed that these films were oriented along c-axis with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The (002) diffraction peak in the co-doped sample was observed at 33.76° with a slight shift towards lower 2θ values as compared to pure ZnO. The surface morphology of the two thin films was observed to differ. For pure ZnO films, round grains were observed and for IGZO thin films round as well as rod type grains were observed. All thin films synthesized show excellent optical properties with more than 90% transmission in the visible region and band gap of the films is observed to decrease with co-doping. The co doping of In and Ga is therefore expected to provide a broad range optical and physical properties of ZnO thin films for a variety of optoelectronic applications.

  11. ZnO nanostructures with different morphology for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, I. John; Praveen, E.; Vignesh, G.; Nithiananthi, P.

    2017-12-01

    ZnO nanomaterials of different morphologies have been synthesized and the effect of morphology on Photocatalytic activity on natural dye has been investigated. Crystalline size and lattice strain of the synthesized particles are determined by XRD analysis and Williamson-Hall (W-H) method respectively. All other important physical parameters such as strain, stress and energy density values are also calculated using W-H analysis using different models such as uniform deformation model, uniform deformation stress model and uniform deformation energy density model. A shift in the peak of FTIR spectrum of ZnO is observed due to morphology effects. The SEM analysis reveals that the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles appear as flake, rod and dot. ZnO quantum dot exhibits higher photocatalytic activity comparing to the other morphologies. Larger surface area, high adsorption rate, large charge separation and the slow recombination of electrons/holes in ZnO dots establish dots as favorable morphology for good photocatalysis. Among the three, ZnO quantum dot shows three-times enhancement in the kinetic rate constants of photocatalysis. The results confirm that availability of specific (active) surface area, photocatalytic potential and quantum confinement of photo-induced carriers differ with morphology.

  12. Influence of hydrogen on the structure and stability of ultra-thin ZnO on metal substrates

    SciT

    Bieniek, Bjoern; Hofmann, Oliver T.; Institut für Festkörperphysik, TU Graz, 8010 Graz

    2015-03-30

    We investigate the atomic and electronic structure of ultra-thin ZnO films (1 to 4 layers) on the (111) surfaces of Ag, Cu, Pd, Pt, Ni, and Rh by means of density-functional theory. The ZnO monolayer is found to adopt an α-BN structure on the metal substrates with coincidence structures in good agreement with experiment. Thicker ZnO layers change into a wurtzite structure. The films exhibit a strong corrugation, which can be smoothed by hydrogen (H) adsorption. An H over-layer with 50% coverage is formed at chemical potentials that range from low to ultra-high vacuum H{sub 2} pressures. For the Agmore » substrate, both α-BN and wurtzite ZnO films are accessible in this pressure range, while for Cu, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ni wurtzite films are favored. The surface structure and the density of states of these H passivated ZnO thin films agree well with those of the bulk ZnO(0001{sup ¯})-2×1-H surface.« less

  13. Study of Growth Kinetics in One Dimensional and Two Dimensional ZnO Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xin

    Because of the merits arising from the unique geometry, nanostructure materials have been an essential class of materials, which have shown great potentials in the fields of electronics, photonics, and biology. With various nanostructures being intensively investigated and successfully complemented into device applications, there has been one increasing demand to the investigation of the growth mechanism devoted to the controlled nanostructure synthesis. Motivated by this situation, this thesis is focused on the fundamental understanding of the nanostructure growth. Specifically, by taking zinc oxide as an example material, through controlling the basic driving force, that is, the supersaturation, I have rationally designed and synthesized various of nanostructures, and further applied the classical layer-by-layer growth mechanism to the understanding on the formation of these nanostructures, they are, the convex-plate-capped nanowires, the concave-plate-capped nanowires, the facet evolution at the tip of the nanowires, and the ultrathin 2D nanosheets.

  14. Analysis of stability improvement in ZnO thin film transistor with dual-gate structure under negative bias stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Ho-Jin; Kim, Young-Su; Jeong, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Yu-Mi; Yang, Seung-dong; Lee, Hi-Deok; Lee, Ga-Won

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated dual-gate zinc oxide thin film transistors (ZnO TFTs) without additional processes and analyzed their stability characteristics under a negative gate bias stress (NBS) by comparison with conventional bottom-gate structures. The dual-gate device shows superior electrical parameters, such as subthreshold swing (SS) and on/off current ratio. NBS of VGS = -20 V with VDS = 0 was applied, resulting in a negative threshold voltage (Vth) shift. After applying stress for 1000 s, the Vth shift is 0.60 V in a dual-gate ZnO TFT, while the Vth shift is 2.52 V in a bottom-gate ZnO TFT. The stress immunity of the dual-gate device is caused by the change in field distribution in the ZnO channel by adding another gate as the technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation shows. Additionally, in flicker noise analysis, a lower noise level with a different mechanism is observed in the dual-gate structure. This can be explained by the top side of the ZnO film having a larger crystal and fewer grain boundaries than the bottom side, which is revealed by the enhanced SS and XRD results. Therefore, the improved stability of the dual-gate ZnO TFT is greatly related to the E-field cancellation effect and crystal quality of the ZnO film.

  15. ZnO thin-film transistors with a polymeric gate insulator built on a polyethersulfone substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyung, Gun Woo; Park, Jaehoon; Koo, Ja Ryong; Choi, Kyung Min; Kwon, Sang Jik; Cho, Eou Sik; Kim, Yong Seog; Kim, Young Kwan

    2012-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (c-PVA) insulator are fabricated on a polyethersulfone substrate. The ZnO film, formed by atomic layer deposition, shows a polycrystalline hexagonal structure with a band gap energy of about 3.37 eV. The fabricated ZnO TFT exhibits a field-effect mobility of 0.38 cm2/Vs and a threshold voltage of 0.2 V. The hysteresis of the device is mainly caused by trapped electrons at the c-PVA/ZnO interface, whereas the positive threshold voltage shift occurs as a consequence of constant positive gate bias stress after 5000 s due to an electron injection from the ZnO film into the c-PVA insulator.

  16. Photoluminescence and photoconductivity studies on amorphous and crystalline ZnO thin films obtained by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde-Aguilar, G.; Manríquez Zepeda, J. L.

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous and crystalline ZnO thin films were obtained by the sol-gel process. A precursor solution of ZnO was synthesized by using zinc acetate dehydrate as inorganic precursor at room temperature. The films were spin-coated on silicon and glass wafers and gelled in humid air. The films were calcined at 450 °C for 15 min to produce ZnO nanocrystals with a wurtzite structure. Crystalline ZnO film exhibits an absorption band located at 359 nm (3.4 eV). Photoconductivity technique was used to determine the charge transport mechanism on both kinds of films. Experimental data were fitted with straight lines at darkness and under illumination at 355 and 633 nm wavelengths. This indicates an ohmic behavior. The photovoltaic and photoconductivity parameters were determined from the current density versus the applied electrical field results.

  17. Defect characterization and magnetic properties in un-doped ZnO thin film annealed in a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Shuai; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Wei-Peng; Li, Zheng-Cao; Zhang, Zheng-Jun

    2014-12-01

    Highly c-axis oriented un-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films, each with a thickness of ~ 100 nm, are deposited on Si (001) substrates by pulsed electron beam deposition at a temperature of ~ 320 °C, followed by annealing at 650 °C in argon in a strong magnetic field. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), positron annihilation analysis (PAS), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) characterizations suggest that the major defects generated in these ZnO films are oxygen vacancies. Photoluminescence (PL) and magnetic property measurements indicate that the room-temperature ferromagnetism in the un-doped ZnO film originates from the singly ionized oxygen vacancies whose number depends on the strength of the magnetic field applied in the thermal annealing process. The effects of the magnetic field on the defect generation in the ZnO films are also discussed.

  18. Chemical bath deposition of semiconductor thin films & nanostructures in novel microreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPeak, Kevin M.

    Chemical bath deposition (CBD) offers a simple and inexpensive route to deposit semiconductor nanostructures and thin films, but lack of fundamental understanding and control of the underlying chemistry has limited its versatility. CBD is traditionally performed in a batch reactor, requiring only a substrate to be immersed in a supersaturated solution of aqueous precursors such as metal salts, complexing agents, and pH buffers. Highlights of CBD include low cost, operation at low temperature and atmospheric pressure, and scalability to large area substrates. In this dissertation, I explore CBD of semiconductor thin films and nanowire arrays in batch and continuous flow microreactors. Microreactors offer many advantages over traditional reactor designs including a reduction in mass transport limitations, precise temperature control and ease of production scale-up by "numbering up". Continuous flow micoreactors offer the unique advantage of providing reaction conditions that are time-invariant but change smoothly as a function of distance down the reaction channel. Growth from a bath whose composition changes along the reactor length results in deposited materials whose properties vary as a function of position on the substrate, essentially creating a combinatorial library. These substrates can be rapidly characterized to identify relationships between growth conditions and material properties or growth mechanisms. I have used CBD in a continuous flow microreactor to deposit ZnO nanowire arrays and CdZnS films whose optoelectronic properties vary as a function of position. The spatially-dependent optoelectronic properties of these materials have been correlated to changes in the composition, structure or growth mechanisms of the materials and ultimately their growth conditions by rigorous spatial characterization. CBD in a continuous flow microreactor, coupled with spatial characterization, provides a new route to understanding the connection between CBD growth

  19. Annealing Temperature Dependent Structural and Optical Properties of RF Sputtered ZnO Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shashikant; Varma, Tarun; Asokan, K; Periasamy, C; Boolchandani, Dharmendar

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown over Si 100 and glass substrates using RF sputtering technique. Annealing temperature has been varied from 300 °C to 600 °C in steps of 100, and different microstructural parameters such as grain size, dislocation density, lattice constant, stress and strain have been evaluated. The structural and surface morphological characterization has been done using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). XRD analysis reveals that the peak intensity of 002 crystallographic orientation increases with increased annealing temperature. Optical characterization of deposited films have been done using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectrometer. An increase in optical bandgap of deposited ZnO thin films with increasing annealing temperature has been observed. The average optical transmittance was found to be more than 85% for all deposited films. Photoluminiscense spectra (PL) suggest that the crystalline quality of deposited film has increased at higher annealing temperature.

  20. ZnO transparent conductive oxide for thin film silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, T.; Dominé, D.; Feltrin, A.; Despeisse, M.; Meillaud, F.; Bugnon, G.; Boccard, M.; Cuony, P.; Haug, F.-J.; Faÿ, S.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

    2010-03-01

    There is general agreement that the future production of electric energy has to be renewable and sustainable in the long term. Photovoltaic (PV) is booming with more than 7GW produced in 2008 and will therefore play an important role in the future electricity supply mix. Currently, crystalline silicon (c-Si) dominates the market with a share of about 90%. Reducing the cost per watt peak and energy pay back time of PV was the major concern of the last decade and remains the main challenge today. For that, thin film silicon solar cells has a strong potential because it allies the strength of c-Si (i.e. durability, abundancy, non toxicity) together with reduced material usage, lower temperature processes and monolithic interconnection. One of the technological key points is the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) used for front contact, barrier layer or intermediate reflector. In this paper, we report on the versatility of ZnO grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (ZnO LP-CVD) and its application in thin film silicon solar cells. In particular, we focus on the transparency, the morphology of the textured surface and its effects on the light in-coupling for micromorph tandem cells in both the substrate (n-i-p) and superstrate (p-i-n) configurations. The stabilized efficiencies achieved in Neuchâtel are 11.2% and 9.8% for p-i-n (without ARC) and n-i-p (plastic substrate), respectively.

  1. Enhanced super-hydrophobic and switching behavior of ZnO nanostructured surfaces prepared by simple solution--immersion successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process.

    PubMed

    Suresh Kumar, P; Sundaramurthy, J; Mangalaraj, D; Nataraj, D; Rajarathnam, D; Srinivasan, M P

    2011-11-01

    A simple and cost-effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was adopted to fabricate hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured surfaces on transparent indium-tin oxide (ITO), glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. ZnO films deposited on different substrates show hierarchical structures like spindle, flower and spherical shape with diameters ranging from 30 to 300 nm. The photo-induced switching behaviors of ZnO film surfaces between hydrophobic and hydrophilic states were examined by water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. ZnO nanostructured films had contact angles of ~140° and 160°±2 on glass and PET substrates, respectively, exhibiting hydrophobic behavior without any surface modification or treatment. Upon exposure to ultraviolet (UV) illumination, the films showed hydrophilic behavior (contact angle: 15°±2), which upon low thermal stimuli revert back to its original hydrophobic nature. Such reversible and repeatable switching behaviors were observed upon cyclical exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These biomimetic ZnO surfaces exhibit good anti-reflective properties with lower reflectance of 9% for PET substrates. Thus, the present work is significant in terms of its potential application in switching devices, solar coatings and self-cleaning smart windows. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Accelerated Thermal-Aging-Induced Degradation of Organometal Triiodide Perovskite on ZnO Nanostructures and Its Effect on Hybrid Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Dhar, A

    2016-07-20

    Organometal halide perovskite materials are presently some of the pacesetters for light harvesting in hybrid photovoltaic devices because of their excellent inherent electrical and optical properties. However, long-term durability of such perovskite materials remains a major bottleneck for their commercialization especially in countries with hot and humid climatic conditions, thus violating the international standards for photovoltaic technology. Albeit, TiO2 as an electron-transport layer has been well investigated for perovskite solar cells; the high-temperature processing makes it unsuitable for low-cost and large-scale roll-to-roll production of flexible photovoltaic devices. Herein, we have chosen low-temperature (<150 °C)-processable nanostructured ZnO as the electron-selective layer and used a two-step method for sensitizing ZnO nanorods with methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite, which is viable for flexible photovoltaic devices. We have also elaborately addressed the effect of the annealing duration on the conversion of a precursor solution into the required perovskite phase on ZnO nanostructures. The investigations show that the presence of ZnO nanostructures accelerates the rate of degradation of MAPbI3 films under ambient annealing and thus requires proper optimization. The role of ZnO in enhancing the degradation kinetics of the perovskite layer has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and a buffer layer passivation technique. The effect of the annealing duration of the MAPbI3 perovskite on the optical, morphological, and compositional behavior has been closely studied and correlated with the photovoltaic efficiency. The study captures the degradation behavior of the commercially interesting MAPbI3 perovskite on a ZnO electron-transport layer and thus can provide insight for developing alternative families of perovskite material with better thermal and environmental stability for application in low-cost flexible photovoltaic

  3. The investigation of the Cr doped ZnO thin films deposited by thermionic vacuum arc technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadigharehbagh, Reza; Pat, Suat; Musaoglu, Caner; Korkmaz, Şadan; Özen, Soner

    2018-02-01

    Cr doped ZnO thin films were prepared onto glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using thermionic vacuum arc. XRD patterns show the polycrystalline nature of the films. Cr, Zn, ZnO and Cr2O3 were detected in the layers. The mean crystallite sizes of the films were calculated about 20 nm for the films onto glass and PET substrates. The maximum dislocation density and internal strain values of the films are calculated. According to the optical analysis, the average transmittance and reflectance of the films were found to be approximately 53% and 16% for glass and PET substrates, respectively. The mean refractive index of the layer decreased to 2.15 from 2.38 for the PET substrate. The band gap values of the Cr-doped ZnO thin films were determined as 3.10 and 3.13 eV for glass and PET substrates.

  4. Performance and stability analysis of curcumin dye as a photo sensitizer used in nanostructured ZnO based DSSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, D.; De, D.; Ayaz, A.

    2018-03-01

    Environmental friendly natural dye curcumin extracted from low-cost Curcumina longa stem is used as a photo-sensitizer for the fabrication of ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Nanostructured ZnO is fabricated on a transparent conducting glass (TCO), using a cost-effective chemical bath deposition technique. Scanning electron microscopic images show hexagonal patterned ZnO nano-towers decorated with several nanosteps. The average length of ZnO nano-tower is 5 μm and diameter is 1.2 μm. The UV-Vis spectroscopic study of the curcumin dye is used to understand the light absorption behavior as well as band gap energy of the extracted natural dye. The dye shows wider absorption band-groups over 350-470 nm and 500-600 nm with two peaks positioned at 425 nm and 525 nm. The optical band gap energy and energy band position of the dye is derived which supports its stability and high electron affinity that makes it suitable for light harvesting and effortless electron transfer from dye to the semiconductor or interface between them. FTIR spectrum of curcumin dye-sensitized ZnO-based DSSC shows the presence of anchoring groups and colouring constitutes. The I-V and P-V curves of the fabricated DSSC are measured under simulated light (100 mW/cm2). The highest visible light to electric conversion efficiency of 0.266% (using ITO) and 0.33% (using FTO) is achieved from the curcumin dye-sensitized cell.

  5. Nanostructured GdxZn1-xO thin films by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique: Role of doping concentration on the structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, R.; Ponnuswamy, V.; Suresh, P.; Suresh, R.; Ragavendar, M.

    2013-07-01

    Nanostructured GdxZn1-xO thin films with different Gd concentration from 0% to 10% deposited at 400 °C using the NSP technique. The films were characterized by structural, surface and optical properties, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the Gd doped ZnO films have lattice parameters a = 3.2497 Å and c = 5.2018 Å with hexagonal structure and preferential orientation along (0 0 2) plane. The estimated values compare well with the standard values. When film thickness increases from 222 to 240 nm a high visible region transmittance (>70%) is observed. The optical band gap energy, optical constants (n and k), complex dielectric constants (ɛr and ɛi) and optical conductivities (σr and σi) were calculated from optical transmittance data. The optical band gap energy is 3.2 eV for pure ZnO film and 3.6 eV for Gd0.1Zn0.9O film. The PL studies confirm the presence of a strong UV emission peak at 399 nm. Besides, the UV emission of ZnO films decreases with the increase of Gd doping concentration correspondingly the ultra-violet emission is replaced by blue and green emissions.

  6. The use of novel biodegradable, optically active and nanostructured poly(amide-ester-imide) as a polymer matrix for preparation of modified ZnO based bionanocomposites

    SciT

    Abdolmaleki, Amir, E-mail: abdolmaleki@cc.iut.ac.ir; Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran; Mallakpour, Shadpour, E-mail: mallak@cc.iut.ac.ir

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel biodegradable and nanostructured PAEI based on two amino acids, was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO nanoparticles were modified via two different silane coupling agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAEI/modified ZnO BNCs were synthesized through ultrasound irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO particles were dispersed homogeneously in PAEI matrix on nanoscale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of ZnO nanoparticles on the properties of synthesized polymer was examined. -- Abstract: A novel biodegradable and nanostructured poly(amide-ester-imide) (PAEI) based on two different amino acids, was synthesized via direct polycondensation of biodegradable N,N Prime -bis[2-(methyl-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate)]isophthaldiamide and N,N Prime -(pyromellitoyl)-bis-L-phenylalanine diacid. The resulting polymer was characterized by FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR,more » specific rotation, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis. The synthesized polymer showed good thermal stability with nano and sphere structure. Then PAEI/ZnO bionanocomposites (BNCs) were fabricated via interaction of pure PAEI and ZnO nanoparticles. The surface of ZnO was modified with two different silane coupling agents. PAEI/ZnO BNCs were studied and characterized by FT-IR, XRD, UV/vis, FE-SEM and TEM. The TEM and FE-SEM results indicated that the nanoparticles were dispersed homogeneously in PAEI matrix on nanoscale. Furthermore the effect of ZnO nanoparticle on the thermal stability of the polymer was investigated with TGA and DSC technique.« less

  7. Friction and wear behavior of nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films deposited via MOCVD under dry contact

    DOE PAGES

    Mbamara, U. S.; Olofinjana, B.; Ajayi, O. O.; ...

    2016-02-01

    Most researches on doped ZnO thin films are tilted toward their applications in optoelectronics and semiconductor devices. Research on their tribological properties is still unfolding. In this work, nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on 304 L stainless steel substrate from a combination of zinc acetate and ammonium acetate precursor by MOCVD technique. Compositional and structural studies of the films were done using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The frictional behavior of the thin film coatings was evaluated using a ball-on-flat configuration in reciprocating sliding under dry contact condition. After friction test, the flat and ball counter-facemore » surfaces were examined to assess the wear dimension and failure mechanism. In conclusion, both friction behavior and wear (in the ball counter-face) were observed to be dependent on the crystallinity and thickness of the thin film coatings.« less

  8. An investigation on the In doping of ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh, Devika; Kumar, M. C. Santhosh

    2018-04-01

    Indium doped zinc oxide (IGZO)thin films are gaining much interest owing to its commercial application as transparent conductive oxide thin films. In the current study thin films indium doped ZnO thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique with an indium concentration of 1, 2.5 and 4% in Zinc source. The films show a peak shift in the X-Ray Diffraction patterns with varying indium doping concentration. The (101) peak was enhanced for the 2.5 % indium doped films and variation in grain size with the different doping levels was studied. The as-deposited films are uniform and shown high transparency (>90%) in the visible region. Average thicknesses of films are found to be 800nm, calculated using the envelope method. The film with 2.5 % of indium content was found to be highly conducting than the rest, since for the lower and higher concentrations the conductivity was possibly halted by the limit in carrier concentration and indium segregation in the grain boundaries respectively. The enhancement of mobility and carrier concentration was clearly seen in the optimum films.

  9. X-ray diffraction analysis of residual stresses in textured ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobročka, E.; Novák, P.; Búc, D.; Harmatha, L.; Murín, J.

    2017-02-01

    Residual stresses are commonly generated in thin films during the deposition process and can influence the film properties. Among a number of techniques developed for stress analysis, X-ray diffraction methods, especially the grazing incidence set-up, are of special importance due to their capability to analyze the stresses in very thin layers as well as to investigate the depth variation of the stresses. In this contribution a method combining multiple {hkl} and multiple χ modes of X-ray diffraction stress analysis in grazing incidence set-up is used for the measurement of residual stress in strongly textured ZnO thin films. The method improves the precision of the stress evaluation in textured samples. Because the measurements are performed at very low incidence angles, the effect of refraction of X-rays on the measured stress is analyzed in details for the general case of non-coplanar geometry. It is shown that this effect cannot be neglected if the angle of incidence approaches the critical angle. The X-ray stress factors are calculated for hexagonal fiber-textured ZnO for the Reuss model of grain-interaction and the effect of texture on the stress factors is analyzed. The texture in the layer is modelled by Gaussian distribution function. Numerical results indicate that in the process of stress evaluation the Reuss model can be replaced by much simpler crystallite group method if the standard deviation of Gaussian describing the texture is less than 6°. The results can be adapted for fiber-textured films of various hexagonal materials.

  10. The Influence of Shape on the Output Potential of ZnO Nanostructures: Sensitivity to Parallel versus Perpendicular Forces.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, José; Oliveira, Filipe F; Proenca, Mariana P; Ventura, João

    2018-05-22

    With the consistent shrinking of devices, micro-systems are, nowadays, widely used in areas such as biomedics, electronics, automobiles, and measurement devices. As devices shrunk, so too did their energy consumptions, opening the way for the use of nanogenerators (NGs) as power sources. In particular, to harvest energy from an object's motion (mechanical vibrations, torsional forces, or pressure), present NGs are mainly composed of piezoelectric materials in which, upon an applied compressive or strain force, an electrical field is produced that can be used to power a device. The focus of this work is to simulate the piezoelectric effect in different ZnO nanostructures to optimize the output potential generated by a nanodevice. In these simulations, cylindrical nanowires, nanomushrooms, and nanotrees were created, and the influence of the nanostructures' shape on the output potential was studied as a function of applied parallel and perpendicular forces. The obtained results demonstrated that the output potential is linearly proportional to the applied force and that perpendicular forces are more efficient in all structures. However, nanotrees were found to have an increased sensitivity to parallel applied forces, which resulted in a large enhancement of the output efficiency. These results could then open a new path to increase the efficiency of piezoelectric nanogenerators.

  11. ZnO Nanostructure Templates as a Cost-Efficient Mass-Producible Route for the Development of Cellular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Makarona, Eleni; Peter, Beatrix; Szekacs, Inna; Tsamis, Christos; Horvath, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The development of artificial surfaces which can regulate or trigger specific functions of living cells, and which are capable of inducing in vivo-like cell behaviors under in vitro conditions has been a long-sought goal over the past twenty years. In this work, an alternative, facile and cost-efficient method for mass-producible cellular templates is presented. The proposed methodology consists of a cost-efficient, two-step, all-wet technique capable of producing ZnO-based nanostructures on predefined patterns on a variety of substrates. ZnO—apart from the fact that it is a biocompatible material—was chosen because of its multifunctional nature which has rendered it a versatile material employed in a wide range of applications. Si, Si3N4, emulated microelectrode arrays and conventional glass cover slips were patterned at the micrometer scale and the patterns were filled with ZnO nanostructures. Using HeLa cells, we demonstrated that the fabricated nanotopographical features could promote guided cellular adhesion on the pre-defined micron-scale patterns only through nanomechanical cues without the need for further surface activation or modification. The basic steps of the micro/nanofabrication are presented and the results from the cell adhesion experiments are discussed, showing the potential of the suggested methodology for creating low-cost templates for engineered cellular networks. PMID:28773382

  12. Structural, optical, and LED characteristics of ZnO and Al doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, K. M.; Bhat, Shreesha; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    ZnO (pristine) and Al doped ZnO (AZO) films were prepared using sol-gel spin coating method. The XRD analysis showed the enhanced compressive stress in AZO film. The presence of extended states below the conduction band edge in AZO accounts for the redshift in optical bandgap. The PL spectra of AZO showed significant blue emission due to the carrier recombination from defect states. The TRPL curves showed the dominant DAP recombination in ZnO film, whereas defect related recombination in Al doped ZnO film. Color parameters viz: the dominant wavelength, color coordinates (x,y), color purity, luminous efficiency and correlated color temperature (CCT) of ZnO and AZO films are calculated using 1931 (CIE) diagram. Further, a strong blue emission with color purity more than 96% is observed in both the films. The enhanced blue emission in AZO significantly increased the luminous efficiency (22.8%) compared to ZnO film (10.8%). The prepared films may be used as blue phosphors in white light generation.

  13. Mechanisms involved in the hydrothermal growth of ultra-thin and high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demes, Thomas; Ternon, Céline; Morisot, Fanny; Riassetto, David; Legallais, Maxime; Roussel, Hervé; Langlet, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanowires (NWs) with tailored dimensions, notably high aspect ratios (AR) and small diameters, is a major concern for a wide range of applications and still represents a challenging and recurring issue. In this work, an additive-free and reproducible hydrothermal procedure has been developed to grow ultra-thin and high AR ZnO NWs on sol-gel deposited ZnO seed layers. Controlling the substrate temperature and using a low reagent concentration (1 mM) has been found to be essential for obtaining such NWs. We show that the NW diameter remains constant at about 20-25 nm with growth time contrary to the NW length that can be selectively increased leading to NWs with ARs up to 400. On the basis of investigated experimental conditions along with thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, a ZnO NW growth mechanism has been developed which involves the formation and growth of nuclei followed by NW growth when the nuclei reach a critical size of about 20-25 nm. The low reagent concentration inhibits NW lateral growth leading to ultra-thin and high AR NWs. These NWs have been assembled into electrically conductive ZnO nanowire networks, which opens attractive perspectives toward the development of highly sensitive low-cost gas- or bio-sensors.

  14. Structural, optical and field emission properties of urchin-shaped ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Al-Heniti, Saleh; Umar, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    In this work, well-crystallized urchin-shaped ZnO structures were synthesized on silicon substrate by simple non-catalytic thermal evaporation process by using metallic zinc powder in the presence of oxygen as source materials for zinc and oxygen, respectively. The synthesized ZnO structures were characterized in detail in terms of their morphological, structural, optical and field emission properties. The detailed morphological investigations revealed that the synthesized structures possess urchin-shape and grown in high-density over the substrate surface. The detailed structural and optical characterizations revealed that the synthesized urchin-shaped ZnO structures are well-crystallized and exhibiting good optical properties. The field emission analysis for urchin-shaped ZnO structures exhibits a turn-on field of 4.6 V/microm. The emission current density reached to 0.056 mA/cm2 at an applied electrical field of 6.4 V/microm and shows no saturation. The calculated field enhancement factor 'beta', from the F-N plot, was found to be approximately 2.2 x 10(3).

  15. Removal of Micrometer Size Morphological Defects and Enhancement of Ultraviolet Emission by Thermal Treatment of Ga-Doped ZnO Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Umair; Kim, Do K.; Islam, Mohammad; Bhatti, Arshad S.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed morphologies of Ga-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are synthesized by vapor transport method. Systematic scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of different morphologies, after periodic heat treatments, gives direct evidence of sublimation. SEM micrographs give direct evidence that morphological defects of nanostructures can be removed by annealing. Ultra Violet (UV) and visible emission depends strongly on the annealing temperatures and luminescent efficiency of UV emission is enhanced significantly with each subsequent heat treatment. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results suggest that crystal quality improved by annealing and phase separation may occur at high temperatures. PMID:24489725

  16. Removal of micrometer size morphological defects and enhancement of ultraviolet emission by thermal treatment of Ga-doped ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Umair; Kim, Do K; Islam, Mohammad; Bhatti, Arshad S

    2014-01-01

    Mixed morphologies of Ga-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are synthesized by vapor transport method. Systematic scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of different morphologies, after periodic heat treatments, gives direct evidence of sublimation. SEM micrographs give direct evidence that morphological defects of nanostructures can be removed by annealing. Ultra Violet (UV) and visible emission depends strongly on the annealing temperatures and luminescent efficiency of UV emission is enhanced significantly with each subsequent heat treatment. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results suggest that crystal quality improved by annealing and phase separation may occur at high temperatures.

  17. Acceptor-modulated optical enhancements and band-gap narrowing in ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ali; Jin, Yuhua; Irfan, Muhammad; Jiang, Yijian

    2018-03-01

    Fermi-Dirac distribution for doped semiconductors and Burstein-Moss effect have been correlated first time to figure out the conductivity type of ZnO. Hall Effect in the Van der Pauw configuration has been applied to reconcile our theoretical estimations which evince our assumption. Band-gap narrowing has been found in all p-type samples, whereas blue Burstein-Moss shift has been recorded in the n-type films. Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) analysis shows that both p-type and n-type films have almost same granular-like structure with minor change in average grain size (˜ 6 nm to 10 nm) and surface roughness rms value 3 nm for thickness ˜315 nm which points that grain size and surface roughness did not play any significant role in order to modulate the conductivity type of ZnO. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been employed to perform the structural, chemical and elemental analysis. Hexagonal wurtzite structure has been observed in all samples. The introduction of nitrogen reduces the crystallinity of host lattice. 97% transmittance in the visible range with 1.4 × 107 Ω-1cm-1 optical conductivity have been detected. High absorption value in the ultra-violet (UV) region reveals that NZOs thin films can be used to fabricate next-generation high-performance UV detectors.

  18. Growth process optimization of ZnO thin film using atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Binbin; Wang, Jingyu; Larson, Preston; Liu, Yingtao

    2016-12-01

    The work reports experimental studies of ZnO thin films grown on Si(100) wafers using a customized thermal atomic layer deposition. The impact of growth parameters including H2O/DiethylZinc (DEZn) dose ratio, background pressure, and temperature are investigated. The imaging results of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal that the dose ratio is critical to the surface morphology. To achieve high uniformity, the H2O dose amount needs to be at least twice that of DEZn per each cycle. If the background pressure drops below 400 mTorr, a large amount of nanoflower-like ZnO grains would emerge and increase surface roughness significantly. In addition, the growth temperature range between 200 °C and 250 °C is found to be the optimal growth window. And the crystal structures and orientations are also strongly correlated to the temperature as proved by electron back-scattering diffraction and x-ray diffraction results.

  19. Influence of solution viscosity on hydrothermally grown ZnO thin films for DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.; Thangamuthu, R.; Surya, S.

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays (NWAs) were grown onto zinc oxide-titanium dioxide (ZnO-TiO2) seeded fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive substrate by hydrothermal technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns depict that ZnO thin films are preferentially oriented along the (002) plane with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Viscosity measurements reveal that viscosity of the solutions linearly increases as the concentrations of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) increase in the growth solution. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images show that the NWAs are vertically grown to seeded FTO substrate with hexagonal structure, and the growth of NWAs decreases as the concentration of the PVA increases. Stylus profilometer and atomic force microscopic (AFM) studies predict that the thickness and roughness of the films decrease with increasing the PVA concentrations. The NWAs prepared at 0.1% of PVA exhibits a lower transmittance and higher absorbance than that of the other films. The band gap of the optimized films prepared at 0.0 and 0.1% of PVA is found to be 3.270 and 3.268 eV, respectively. The photo to current conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on photoanodes prepared at 0.0 and 0.1% of PVA exhibits about 0.64 and 0.82%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra reveal that the DSSC based on photoanode prepared at 0.1% of PVA has the highest charge transfer recombination resistance.

  20. Exploration of Al-Doped ZnO in Photovoltaic Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccarino, Christopher; Sahiner, M. Alper

    The electrical properties of Al doped ZnO-based thin films represent a potential advancement in the push for increasing solar cell efficiency. Doping with Aluminum will theoretically decrease resistivity of the film and therefore achieve this potential as a viable option in the P-N junction phase of photovoltaic cells. The n-type semi-conductive characteristics of the ZnO layer will theoretically be optimized with the addition of Aluminum carriers. In this study, Aluminum doping concentrations ranging from 1-3% by mass were produced, analyzed, and compared. Films were developed onto ITO coated glass using the Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. Target thickness was 250 nm and ellipsometry measurements showed uniformity and accuracy in this regard. Active dopant concentrations were determined using Hall Effect measurements. Efficiency measurements showed possible applications of this doped compound, with upwards of 7% efficiency measured, using a Keithley 2602 SourceMeter set-up. XRD scans showed highly crystalline structures, with effective Al intertwining of the hexagonal wurtzile ZnO molecular structure. This alone indicates a promising future of collaboration between these two materials.

  1. Thermal phonon transport in Si thin film with dog-leg shaped asymmetric nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kage, Yuta; Hagino, Harutoshi; Yanagisawa, Ryoto; Maire, Jeremie; Miyazaki, Koji; Nomura, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    Thermal phonon transport in single-crystalline Si thin films with dog-leg shaped nanostructures was investigated. Thermal conductivities for the forward and backward directions were measured and compared at 5 and 295 K by micro thermoreflectance. The Si thin film with dog-leg shaped nanostructures showed lower thermal conductivities than those of nanowires and two-dimensional phononic crystals with circular holes at the same surface-to-volume ratio. However, asymmetric thermal conductivity was not observed at small temperature gradient condition in spite of the highly asymmetric shape though the size of the pattern is within thermal phonon mean free path range. We conclude that strong temperature dependent thermal conductivity is required to observe the asymmetric thermal phonon conduction in monolithic materials with asymmetric nanostructures.

  2. MnSi nanostructures obtained from epitaxially grown thin films: magnetotransport and Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeter, D.; Steinki, N.; Schilling, M.; Fernández Scarioni, A.; Krzysteczko, P.; Dziomba, T.; Schumacher, H. W.; Menzel, D.; Süllow, S.

    2018-06-01

    We present a comparative study of the (magneto)transport properties, including Hall effect, of bulk, epitaxially grown thin film and nanostructured MnSi. In order to set our results in relation to published data we extensively characterize our materials, this way establishing a comparatively good sample quality. Our analysis reveals that in particular for thin film and nanostructured material, there are extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the electronic transport properties, which by modeling the data we separate out. Finally, we discuss our Hall effect data of nanostructured MnSi under consideration of the extrinsic contributions and with respect to the question of the detection of a topological Hall effect in a skyrmionic lattice.

  3. LPG ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing properties of nanostructured polypyrrole thin film

    SciT

    Bagul, Sagar B., E-mail: nano.sbbagul@gmail.com; Upadhye, Deepak S.; Sharma, Ramphal, E-mail: rps.phy@gmail.com

    Nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film was synthesized by easy and economic chemical oxidative polymerization technique on glass at room temperature. The prepared thin film of Polypyrrole was characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy and electrical study by I-V measurement system. The optical absorbance spectrum of Polypyrrole shows two fundamental peaks in region of 420 and 890 nm, which confirms the formation of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. The I-V graph of nanostructured Polypyrrole represents the Ohmic nature. Furthermore, the thin film of Polypyrrole was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents spherical nanostructured morphology ofmore » Polypyrrole on glass substrate. In order to investigate gas sensing properties, 100 ppm of LPG, Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide were injected in the gas chamber and magnitude of resistance has been recorded as a function of time in second. It was observed that nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film shows good sensing behavior at room temperature.« less

  4. IGZO thin film transistor biosensors functionalized with ZnO nanorods and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi-Chun; Yang, Chun-Hsu; Chen, Shu-Wen; Wu, Shou-Hao; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Huang, Jian-Jang

    2014-04-15

    We demonstrate a biosensor structure consisting of an IGZO (Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide) TFT (thin film transistor) and an extended sensing pad. The TFT acts as the sensing and readout device, while the sensing pad ensures the isolation of biological solution from the transistor channel layer, and meanwhile increases the sensing area. The biosensor is functionalized by first applying ZnO nanorods to increase the surface area for attracting electrical charges of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) antibodies. The device is able to selectively detect 36.2 fM of EGFR in the total protein solution of 0.1 ng/ml extracted from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Furthermore, the conjugation duration of the functionalized device with EGFR can be limited to 3 min, implying that the biosensor has the advantage for real-time detection. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ZnO thin film transistor immunosensor with high sensitivity and selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Pavel Ivanoff; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Duan, Ziqing; Lu, Yicheng; Solanki, Aniruddh; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2011-04-01

    A zinc oxide thin film transistor-based immunosensor (ZnO-bioTFT) is presented. The back-gate TFT has an on-off ratio of 108 and a threshold voltage of 4.25 V. The ZnO channel surface is biofunctionalized with primary monoclonal antibodies that selectively bind with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Detection of the antibody-antigen reaction is achieved through channel carrier modulation via pseudo double-gating field effect caused by the biochemical reaction. The sensitivity of 10 fM detection of pure EGFR proteins is achieved. The ZnO-bioTFT immunosensor also enables selectively detecting 10 fM of EGFR in a 5 mg/ml goat serum solution containing various other proteins.

  6. The magnetic ordering in high magnetoresistance Mn-doped ZnO thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Venkatesh, S.; Baras, A.; Lee, J. -S.; ...

    2016-03-24

    Here, we studied the nature of magnetic ordering in Mn-doped ZnO thin films that exhibited ferromagnetism at 300 K and superparamagnetism at 5 K. We directly inter-related the magnetisation and magnetoresistance by invoking the polaronpercolation theory and variable range of hopping conduction below the metal-to-insulator transition. By obtaining a qualitative agreement between these two models, we attribute the ferromagnetism to the s-d exchange-induced spin splitting that was indicated by large positive magnetoresistance (~40 %). Low temperature superparamagnetism was attributed to the localization of carriers and non-interacting polaron clusters. This analysis can assist in understanding the presence or absence of ferromagnetismmore » in doped/un-doped ZnO.« less

  7. Characterization of a new transparent-conducting material of ZnO doped ITO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. M.

    2005-11-01

    Thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) doped with zinc oxide have the remarkable properties of being conductive yet still highly transparent in the visible and near-IR spectral ranges. The Electron beam deposi- tion technique is one of the simplest and least expensive ways of preparing. High-quality ITO thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by Electron beam evaporation technique. The effect of doping and substrate deposition temperature was found to have a significant effect on the structure, electrical and optical properties of ZnO doped ITO films. The average optical transmittance has been increased with in- creasing the substrate temperature. The maximum value of transmittance is greater than 84% in the visible region and 85% in the NIR region obtained for film with Zn/ITO = 0.13 at substrate temperature 200 °C. The dielectric constant, average excitation energy for electronic transitions (E o), the dispersion energy (E d), the long wavelength refractive index (n ), average oscillator wave length ( o) and oscillator strength S o for the thin films were determined and presented in this work.

  8. Effect of pressure-assisted thermal annealing on the optical properties of ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Berger, Danielle; Kubaski, Evaldo Toniolo; Sequinel, Thiago; da Silva, Renata Martins; Tebcherani, Sergio Mazurek; Varela, José Arana

    2013-01-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared by the polymeric precursor method. The films were deposited on silicon substrates using the spin-coating technique, and were annealed at 330 °C for 32 h under pressure-assisted thermal annealing and under ambient pressure. Their structural and optical properties were characterized, and the phases formed were identified by X-ray diffraction. No secondary phase was detected. The ZnO thin films were also characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence and ultraviolet emission intensity measurements. The effect of pressure on these thin films modifies the active defects that cause the recombination of deep level states located inside the band gap that emit yellow-green (575 nm) and orange (645 nm) photoluminescence. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Fully Transparent ZnO Thin-Film Transistors and Self-Switching Nano-Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Ashida, K.; Sasaki, S.; Koyama, M.; Maemoto, T.; Sasa, S.; Kasai, S.; Iñiguez-de-la-Torre, I.; González, T.

    2015-10-01

    Fully transparent zinc oxide (ZnO) based thin-film transistors (TFTs) and a new type of rectifiers calls self-switching nano-diodes (SSDs) were fabricated on glass substrates at room temperature by using low resistivity and transparent conducting Al- doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films. The deposition conditions of AZO thin-films were optimized with pulsed laser deposition (PLD). AZO thin-films on glass substrates were characterized and the transparency of 80% and resistivity with 1.6*10-3 Ωcm were obtained of 50 nm thickness. Transparent ZnO-TFTs were fabricated on glass substrates by using AZO thin-films as electrodes. A ZnO-TFT with 2 μm long gate device exhibits a transconductance of 400 μS/mm and an ON/OFF ratio of 2.8*107. Transparent ZnO-SSDs were also fabricated by using ZnO based materials and clear diode-like characteristics were observed.

  10. Growth Method-Dependent and Defect Density-Oriented Structural, Optical, Conductive, and Physical Properties of Solution-Grown ZnO Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Lee, Ji Young; Shahid, Areej; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2017-09-10

    It is time for industry to pay a serious heed to the application and quality-dependent research on the most important solution growth methods for ZnO, namely, aqueous chemical growth (ACG) and microwave-assisted growth (MAG) methods. This study proffers a critical analysis on how the defect density and formation behavior of ZnO nanostructures (ZNSs) are growth method-dependent. Both antithetical and facile methods are exploited to control the ZnO defect density and the growth mechanism. In this context, the growth of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs), nanoflowers, and nanotubes (ZNTs) are considered. The aforementioned growth methods directly stimulate the nanostructure crystal growth and, depending upon the defect density, ZNSs show different trends in structural, optical, etching, and conductive properties. The defect density of MAG ZNRs is the least because of an ample amount of thermal energy catered by high-power microwaves to the atoms to grow on appropriate crystallographic planes, which is not the case in faulty convective ACG ZNSs. Defect-centric etching of ZNRs into ZNTs is also probed and methodological constraints are proposed. ZNS optical properties are different in the visible region, which are quite peculiar, but outstanding for ZNRs. Hall effect measurements illustrate incongruent conductive trends in both samples.

  11. Immobilization and direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase on a tetragonal pyramid-shaped porous ZnO nanostructure for a glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhihui; Shao, Guojian; Hong, Jianmin; Bao, Jianchun; Shen, Jian

    2009-01-01

    A tetragonal pyramid-shaped porous ZnO (TPSP-ZnO) nanostructure is used for the immobilization, direct electrochemistry and biosensing of proteins. The prepared ZnO has a large surface area and good biocompatibility. Using glucose oxidase (GOD) as a model, this shaped ZnO is tested for immobilization of proteins and the construction of electrochemical biosensors with good electrochemical performances. The interaction between GOD and TPSP-ZnO is examined by using AFM, N(2) adsorption isotherms and electrochemical methods. The immobilized GOD at a TPSP-ZnO-modified glassy carbon electrode shows a good direct electrochemical behavior, which depends on the properties of the TPSP-ZnO. Based on a decrease of the electrocatalytic response of the reduced form of GOD to dissolved oxygen, the proposed biosensor exhibits a linear response to glucose concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 8.2mM with a detection limit of 0.01mM at an applied potential of -0.50V which has better biosensing properties than those from other morphological ZnO nanoparticles. The biosensor shows good stability, reproducibility, low interferences and can diagnose diabetes very fast and sensitively. Such the TPSP-ZnO nanostructure provides a good matrix for protein immobilization and biosensor preparation.

  12. Multiscale modeling of nanostructured ZnO based devices for optoelectronic applications: Dynamically-coupled structural fields, charge, and thermal transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Abdulmuin; Alqahtani, Saad; Nishat, Md Rezaul Karim; Ahmed, Shaikh; SIU Nanoelectronics Research Group Team

    Recently, hybrid ZnO nanostructures (such as ZnO deposited on ZnO-alloys, Si, GaN, polymer, conducting oxides, and organic compounds) have attracted much attention for their possible applications in optoelectronic devices (such as solar cells, light emitting and laser diodes), as well as in spintronics (such as spin-based memory, and logic). However, efficiency and performance of these hybrid ZnO devices strongly depend on an intricate interplay of complex, nonlinear, highly stochastic and dynamically-coupled structural fields, charge, and thermal transport processes at different length and time scales, which have not yet been fully assessed experimentally. In this work, we study the effects of these coupled processes on the electronic and optical emission properties in nanostructured ZnO devices. The multiscale computational framework employs the atomistic valence force-field molecular mechanics, models for linear and non-linear polarization, the 8-band sp3s* tight-binding models, and coupling to a TCAD toolkit to determine the terminal properties of the device. A series of numerical experiments are performed (by varying different nanoscale parameters such as size, geometry, crystal cut, composition, and electrostatics) that mainly aim to improve the efficiency of these devices. Supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation Grant No. 1102192.

  13. CuO-Decorated ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructures as Efficient and Established Sensing Materials for H2S Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Nguyen Minh; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Huy, Bui The; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2016-01-01

    Highly sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas sensors were developed from CuO-decorated ZnO semiconducting hierarchical nanostructures. The ZnO hierarchical nanostructure was fabricated by an electrospinning method following hydrothermal and heat treatment. CuO decoration of ZnO hierarchical structures was carried out by a wet method. The H2S gas-sensing properties were examined at different working temperatures using various quantities of CuO as the variable. CuO decoration of the ZnO hierarchical structure was observed to promote sensitivity for H2S gas higher than 30 times at low working temperature (200 °C) compared with that in the nondecorated hierarchical structure. The sensing mechanism of the hybrid sensor structure is also discussed. The morphology and characteristics of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and electrical measurements. PMID:27231026

  14. Efficiency enhancement of ZnO nanostructure assisted Si solar cell based on fill factor enlargement and UV-blue spectral down-shifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholizadeh, A.; Reyhani, A.; Parvin, P.; Mortazavi, S. Z.

    2017-05-01

    ZnO nanostructures (including nano-plates and nano-rods (NRs)) are grown in various temperatures and Ar/O2 flow rates using thermal chemical vapor deposition, which affect the structure, nano-plate/NR population, and the quality of ZnO nanostructures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) attests that the peak intensity of the crystallographic plane (1 0 0) is correlated to nano-plate abundance. Moreover, optical properties elucidate that the population of nano-plates in samples strongly affect the band gap, binding energy of the exciton, and UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption and spectral luminescence emissions. In fact, the exciton binding energy reduces from ~100 to 80 meV when the population of nano-plates increases in samples. Photovoltaic characteristics based on the drop-casting on Si solar cells reveals three dominant factors, namely, the equivalent series resistance, decreasing reflectance, and down-shifting, in order to scale up the absolute efficiency by 3%. As a consequence, the oxygen vacancies in ZnO nanostructures give rise to the down-shifting and increase of free-carriers, leading to a reduction in the equivalent series resistance and an enlargement of fill factor. To obtain a larger I sc, reduction of spectral reflectance is essential; however, the down-shifting process is shown to be dominant by lessening the surface electron-hole recombination rate over the UV-blue spectral range.

  15. Influence of rare earth ions on microstructural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures

    SciT

    Riyajuddin, Sk., E-mail: riyaj5303@gmail.com; Ahmad, Shabbir; Faizan, M.

    2016-05-23

    Pure and 3% rare earth ions (Nd{sup 3+} & Gd{sup 3+}) doped ZnO samples were synthesized by sol-gel method, followed by annealing at temperature 450°C for 2hr. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD result confirmed single phase nature of all samples with crystalline structure. The average crystallite size of the doped samples found to be decreases as caculated using Debye-Scherrer’s formula. FTIR spectra indicate absorption band centered at 464 cm{sup −1} which is attributed to Zn-O lattice vibration. It confirms the formaton of compounds. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to study the optical properties and band gapmore » of the synthesised materials using Tauc’s relation.« less

  16. Different magnetic origins of (Mn, Fe)-codoped ZnO powders and thin films

    SciT

    Fan, Jiuping; Jiang, Fengxian; Quan, Zhiyong

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The effects of the sample forms, fabricated methods, and process conditions on the structural and magnetic properties of (Mn, Fe)-codoped ZnO powders and films were systematically studied. The origins of ferromagnetism in the vacuum-annealed powder and PLD-deposited film are different. The former originates from the impurities of magnetic clusters, whereas the latter comes from the almost homogenous phase. Highlights: ► The magnetic natures of Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.01}Fe{sub 0.01}O powders and thin films come from different origins. ► The ferromagnetism of the powder is mainly from the contribution of magnetic clusters. ► Whereas the ferromagnetic behavior of the filmmore » comes from the almost homogenous phase. -- Abstract: The structural and magnetic properties of (Mn, Fe)-codoped ZnO powders as well as thin films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements indicated that the higher sintering temperature facilitates more Mn and Fe incorporation into ZnO. Magnetic measurements indicated that the powder sintered in air at 800 °C showed paramagnetic, but it exhibited obvious room temperature ferromagnetism after vacuum annealing at 600 °C. The results revealed that magnetic clusters were the major contributors to the observed ferromagnetism in vacuum-annealed Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.01}Fe{sub 0.01}O powder. Interestingly, the room temperature ferromagnetism was also observed in the Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.01}Fe{sub 0.01}O film deposited via pulsed laser deposition from the air-sintered paramagnetic target, but the secondary phases in the film were not detected from X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and zero-field cooling and field cooling. Apparently, the magnetic natures of powders and films come from different origins.« less

  17. Rietveld-refinement and optical study of the Fe doped ZnO thin film by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Dhiman, Pooja; Singh, M.

    2017-05-01

    Fe Doped ZnO Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrate and Influence of 3% Fe-doping on structural and Optical properties has been studied. The Rietveld-refinement analysis shows that Fe doping has a significant effect on crystalline structure, grain size and strain in the thin film. Two dimensional and three-dimensional atom probe tomography of the thin film shows that Fe ions are randomly distributed which is supported by Xray Diffraction (XRD). Fe-doping is found to effectively modify the band gap energy up to 3.5 eV.

  18. Cd-doped ZnO nano crystalline thin films prepared at 723K by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joishy, Sumanth; Rajendra B., V.

    2018-04-01

    Ternary Zn1-xCdxO(x=0.10, 0.40, 0.70 at.%) thin films of 0.025M precursor concentration have been successfully deposited on preheated (723K) glass substrates using spray pyrolysis route. The structure, morphology and optical properties of deposited films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. X-ray diffraction study shows that the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature. 10% Cd doped ZnO film belongs to the hexagonal wurtzite system and 70% Cd doped ZnO film belongs to the cubic system, although mixed phases were formed for 40% Cd doped ZnO film. The optical transmittance spectra has shown red shift with increasing cadmium content. Optical energy band gap has been reduced with cadmium dopant.

  19. Electric-field driven insulator-metal transition and tunable magnetoresistance in ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le; Chen, Shanshan; Chen, Xiangyang; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhu, Liping

    2018-04-01

    Electrical control of the multistate phase in semiconductors offers the promise of nonvolatile functionality in the future semiconductor spintronics. Here, by applying an external electric field, we have observed a gate-induced insulator-metal transition (MIT) with the temperature dependence of resistivity in ZnO thin films. Due to a high-density carrier accumulation, we have shown the ability to inverse change magnetoresistance in ZnO by ionic liquid gating from 10% to -2.5%. The evolution of photoluminescence under gate voltage was also consistent with the MIT, which is due to the reduction of dislocation. Our in-situ gate-controlled photoluminescence, insulator-metal transition, and the conversion of magnetoresistance open up opportunities in searching for quantum materials and ZnO based photoelectric devices.

  20. Thin-film fractal nanostructures formed by electrical breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadtaev, P. O.; Bobkov, A. A.; Borodzyulya, V. F.; Lamkin, I. A.; Mihailov, I. I.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Permyakov, N. V.; Solomonov, A. V.; Sudar, N. T.; Tarasov, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    This is a study of the fractal micro- and nanostructures formation caused by the electrical breakdown of the indium-tin oxide (ITO) covered with various organic coatings. The samples were created by covering a glass substrate with a 1 to 10um-thick layer of indium-tin oxide. Some of the samples were then coated with organic layers of polycarbonate, poly(methyl methacrylate) and others. In order to create high local electrical field densities a special setup based on a eutectic GaIn liquid needle was created: it allowed for the contact area of 60um in diameter and application of the step voltage swept from 20 to 300 volts. The setup also contained a spectrometer for measuring the spectra of the breakdown optical effects. The results showed that the destruction of ITO led to the formation of the spiral fractal nanostructures, parameters of which depended on the thickness of the layer and the presence of the organic cover. In case of the latter, polymer coating was shown to visualize and zoom the topography of the nanostructures which might be used as a method of “polymer photography” for such fractal formations. The analysis of the spectra showed their dependence on the parameters of the structures which proves the possibility of conducting optical diagnostics of the created structures.

  1. Electrodeposition and characterization of ZnO thin films using sodium thiosulfate as an additive for photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahal, Hassiba; Kihal, Rafiaa; Affoune, Abed Mohamed; Ghers, Mokhtar; Djazi, Faycal

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide thin films have been grown by electrodeposition technique onto Cu and ITO-coated glass substrates from an aqueous zinc nitrate solution with addition of sodium thiosulfate at 90 °C. The effects of sodium thiosulfate on the electrochemical deposition of ZnO were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. Deposited films were obtained at -0.60 V vs. SCE and characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, optical, photoelectrochemical and electrical measurements. Thickness of the deposited film was measured to be 357 nm. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the synthesized ZnO has a pure hexagonal wurtzite structure with a marked preferential orientation along (002) plane. FTIR results confirmed the presence of ZnO films at peak 558 cm-1. SEM images showed uniform, compact morphology without any cracks and films composed of large flower-like ZnO agglomerates with star-shape. Optical properties of ZnO reveal a high optical transmission (> 80 % ) and high absorption coefficient (α > {10}5 {{cm}}-1) in visible region. The optical energy band gap was found to be 3.28 eV. Photoelectrochemical measurements indicated that the ZnO films had n-type semiconductor conduction. Electrical properties of ZnO films showed a low electrical resistivity of 6.54 {{Ω }}\\cdot {cm}, carrier concentration of -1.3× {10}17 {{cm}}-3 and mobility of 7.35 cm2 V-1 s-1. Project supported by the Algerian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Algeria (No. J0101520090018).

  2. Zno Micro/Nanostructures Grown on Sapphire Substrates Using Low-Temperature Vapor-Trapped Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition: Structural and Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Hu, Po-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-En; Chen, Guan-Lin

    2017-12-21

    In this research, the Zn(C₅H₇O₂)₂·xH₂O-based growth of ZnO micro/nanostructures in a low temperature, vapor-trapped chemical vapor deposition system was attempted to optimize structural and optical properties for potential biomedical applications. By trapping in-flow gas molecules and Zinc vapor inside a chamber tube by partially obstructing a chamber outlet, a high pressure condition can be achieved, and this experimental setup has the advantages of ease of synthesis, being a low temperature process, and cost effectiveness. Empirically, the growth process proceeded under a chamber condition of an atmospheric pressure of 730 torr, a controlled volume flow rate of input gas, N₂/O₂, of 500/500 Standard Cubic Centimeters per Minute (SCCM), and a designated oven temperature of 500 °C. Specifically, the dependence of structural and optical properties of the structures on growth duration and spatially dependent temperature were investigated utilizing scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and ultraviolet-visible transmission spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that the grown thin film observed with hexagonal structures and higher structural uniformity enables more prominent structural and optical signatures. XRD spectra present the dominant peaks along crystal planes of (002) and (101) as the main direction of crystallization. In addition, while the structures excited with laser wavelength of 325 nm emit a signature radiation around 380 nm, an ultraviolet lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm revealed distinctive photoluminescence peaks at 363.96 nm and 403.52 nm, elucidating different degrees of structural correlation as functions of growth duration and the spatial gradient of temperature. Transmittance spectra of the structures illustrate typical variation in the wavelength range of 200 nm to 400 nm, and its structural correlation is less significant when compared with PL.

  3. Zno Micro/Nanostructures Grown on Sapphire Substrates Using Low-Temperature Vapor-Trapped Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition: Structural and Optical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Po-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-En; Chen, Guan-Lin

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the Zn(C5H7O2)2·xH2O-based growth of ZnO micro/nanostructures in a low temperature, vapor-trapped chemical vapor deposition system was attempted to optimize structural and optical properties for potential biomedical applications. By trapping in-flow gas molecules and Zinc vapor inside a chamber tube by partially obstructing a chamber outlet, a high pressure condition can be achieved, and this experimental setup has the advantages of ease of synthesis, being a low temperature process, and cost effectiveness. Empirically, the growth process proceeded under a chamber condition of an atmospheric pressure of 730 torr, a controlled volume flow rate of input gas, N2/O2, of 500/500 Standard Cubic Centimeters per Minute (SCCM), and a designated oven temperature of 500 °C. Specifically, the dependence of structural and optical properties of the structures on growth duration and spatially dependent temperature were investigated utilizing scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and ultraviolet-visible transmission spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that the grown thin film observed with hexagonal structures and higher structural uniformity enables more prominent structural and optical signatures. XRD spectra present the dominant peaks along crystal planes of (002) and (101) as the main direction of crystallization. In addition, while the structures excited with laser wavelength of 325 nm emit a signature radiation around 380 nm, an ultraviolet lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm revealed distinctive photoluminescence peaks at 363.96 nm and 403.52 nm, elucidating different degrees of structural correlation as functions of growth duration and the spatial gradient of temperature. Transmittance spectra of the structures illustrate typical variation in the wavelength range of 200 nm to 400 nm, and its structural correlation is less significant when compared with PL. PMID:29267196

  4. Nucleant layer effect on nanocolumnar ZnO films grown by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosa, Maria D. Reyes; Damonte, Laura C.; Brine, Hicham; Bolink, Henk J.; Hernández-Fenollosa, María A.

    2013-03-01

    Different ZnO nanostructured films were electrochemically grown, using an aqueous solution based on ZnCl2, on three types of transparent conductive oxides grow on commercial ITO (In2O3:Sn)-covered glass substrates: (1) ZnO prepared by spin coating, (2) ZnO prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering, and (3) commercial ITO-covered glass substrates. Although thin, these primary oxide layers play an important role on the properties of the nanostructured films grown on top of them. Additionally, these primary oxide layers prevent direct hole combination when used in optoelectronic devices. Structural and optical characterizations were carried out by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical transmission spectroscopy. We show that the properties of the ZnO nanostructured films depend strongly on the type of primary oxide-covered substrate used. Previous studies on different electrodeposition methods for nucleation and growth are considered in the final discussion.

  5. Nucleant layer effect on nanocolumnar ZnO films grown by electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Maria D Reyes; Damonte, Laura C; Brine, Hicham; Bolink, Henk J; Hernández-Fenollosa, María A

    2013-03-23

    Different ZnO nanostructured films were electrochemically grown, using an aqueous solution based on ZnCl2, on three types of transparent conductive oxides grow on commercial ITO (In2O3:Sn)-covered glass substrates: (1) ZnO prepared by spin coating, (2) ZnO prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering, and (3) commercial ITO-covered glass substrates. Although thin, these primary oxide layers play an important role on the properties of the nanostructured films grown on top of them. Additionally, these primary oxide layers prevent direct hole combination when used in optoelectronic devices. Structural and optical characterizations were carried out by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical transmission spectroscopy. We show that the properties of the ZnO nanostructured films depend strongly on the type of primary oxide-covered substrate used. Previous studies on different electrodeposition methods for nucleation and growth are considered in the final discussion.

  6. Nucleant layer effect on nanocolumnar ZnO films grown by electrodeposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Different ZnO nanostructured films were electrochemically grown, using an aqueous solution based on ZnCl2, on three types of transparent conductive oxides grow on commercial ITO (In2O3:Sn)-covered glass substrates: (1) ZnO prepared by spin coating, (2) ZnO prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering, and (3) commercial ITO-covered glass substrates. Although thin, these primary oxide layers play an important role on the properties of the nanostructured films grown on top of them. Additionally, these primary oxide layers prevent direct hole combination when used in optoelectronic devices. Structural and optical characterizations were carried out by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical transmission spectroscopy. We show that the properties of the ZnO nanostructured films depend strongly on the type of primary oxide-covered substrate used. Previous studies on different electrodeposition methods for nucleation and growth are considered in the final discussion. PMID:23522332

  7. In2O3-ZnO heterostructure development in electrical and photoluminescence properties of In2O3 1-D nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariati, M.; Ghafouri, V.

    2014-05-01

    Indium Oxide quasi one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures known as nanowires and nanorods synthesis using the thermal evaporation method, has been articulated. To nucleate growth sites, substrate seeding promoted 1D nanostructures growth. The catalyst-mediated growth mechanism showed more favorable morphologies and physical properties in under vacuum conditions associated with bottom-up technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the Zn-doped 1D nanostructures had spherical caps. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum indicated that these caps intensively associated with ZnO. Therefore, it was reasonable that the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism (VLS) was responsible for the growth of the In2O3-ZnO heterostructure nanowires. This technique enhances optical and electrical properties in nanostructures. The photoluminescence (PL) analysis in Zn-doped In2O3 nanowires and nanorods shows that the intensity of the visible and UV-region emissions overwhelmingly increases and resistance measurement professes the improvement of linear conductance in VLS growth mechanism.

  8. Synthesis, Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Cu-Doped Zno Nano-Fibers Thin Films: Nonlinear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, V.; Salem, G. F.; Yahia, I. S.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2018-03-01

    Different concentrations of copper-doped zinc oxide thin films were coated on a glass substrate by sol-gel/spin-coating technique. The structural properties of pure and Cu-doped ZnO films were characterized by different techniques, i.e., atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The AFM study revealed that pure and doped ZnO films are formed as nano-fibers with a granular structure. The photoluminescence spectra of these films showed a strong ultraviolet emission peak centered at 392 nm and a strong blue emission peak cantered at 450 nm. The optical band gap of the pure and copper-doped ZnO thin films calculated from optical transmission spectra (3.29-3.23 eV) were found to be increasing with increasing copper doping concentration. The refractive index dispersion curve of pure and Cu-doped ZnO film obeyed the single-oscillator model. The optical dispersion parameters such as E o , E d , and n_{∞}2 were calculated. Further, the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear optical susceptibility were also calculated and interpreted.

  9. Variation of microstructural and optical properties in SILAR grown ZnO thin films by thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Valanarasu, S; Dhanasekaran, V; Chandramohan, R; Kulandaisamy, I; Sakthivelu, A; Mahalingam, T

    2013-08-01

    The influence of thermal treatment on the structural and morphological properties of the ZnO films deposited by double dip Successive ionic layer by adsorption reaction is presented. The effect of annealing temperature and time in air ambient is presented in detail. The deposited films were annealed from 200 to 400 degrees C in air and the structural properties were determined as a function of annealing temperature by XRD. The studies revealed that films were exhibiting preferential orientation along (002) plane. The other structural parameters like the crystallite size (D), micro strain (epsilon), dislocation density (delta) and stacking fault (alpha) of as-deposited and annealed ZnO films were evaluated and reported. The optical properties were also studied and the band gap of the ZnO thins films varied from 3.27 to 3.04 eV with the annealing temperature. SEM studies revealed that the hexagonal shaped grains with uniformly distributed morphology in annealed ZnO thin films. It has been envisaged using EDX analysis that the near stoichiometric composition of the film can be attained by thermal treatment during which microstructural changes do occur.

  10. Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Cd Doped ZnO Thin Films by Reactive dc Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. Guru Sampath; Obulapathi, L.; Sarmash, T. Sofi; Rani, D. Jhansi; Maddaiah, M.; Rao, T. Subba; Asokan, K.

    2015-04-01

    Thin films of cadmium (Cd) (0 wt.%, 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 10 wt.%) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) have been deposited on a glass substrate by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The synthesized films are characterized by glancing angle x-ray diffraction (GAXRD), UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, four probe resistivity measurement, Hall measurement system, field emission-scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis by x-rays. A systematic study has been made on the structure, electrical and optical properties of Cd doped ZnO thin films as a function of Cd concentration (0 wt.%, 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 10 wt.%). All these films have a hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure with (0 0 2) orientation without any Cd related phase from the GAXRD patterns. The grain size was increased and maximum appears at 4 wt.% Cd concentration. The electrical resistivity of the films decreased with the Cd doping and minimum resistivity was observed at 4 wt.% Cd concentration. UV-Vis-NIR studies showed that the optical band gap of ZnO (3.37 eV) was reduced to 3.10 eV which is at 4 wt.% Cd concentration.

  11. Effect of substrate on thermoelectric properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, P.; Saini, S.; Honda, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Miyazaki, K.; Hagino, H.; Ichinose, A.

    2013-06-01

    We have prepared 2% Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films on SrTiO3 (STO) and Al2O3 substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique at various deposition temperatures (Tdep = 300 °C-600 °C). Transport and thermoelectric properties of AZO thin films were studied in low temperature range (300 K-600 K). AZO/STO films present superior performance respect to AZO/Al2O3 films deposited at the same temperature, except for films deposited at 400 °C. Best film is the fully c-axis oriented AZO/STO deposited at 300 °C, which epitaxial strain and dislocation density are the lowest: electrical conductivity 310 S/cm, Seebeck coefficient -65 μV/K, and power factor 0.13 × 10-3 W m-1 K-2 at 300 K. Its performance increases with temperature. For instance, power factor is enhanced up to 0.55 × 10-3 W m-1 K-2 at 600 K, surpassing the best AZO film previously reported in literature.

  12. Ultraviolet electroluminescence from hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film.

    PubMed

    Tetsuyama, Norihiro; Fusazaki, Koshi; Mizokami, Yasuaki; Shimogaki, Tetsuya; Higashihata, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Daisuke; Okada, Tatsuo

    2014-04-21

    We report ultraviolet electroluminescence from a hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film. ZnO microspheres, which have high crystalline quality, have been synthesized by ablating a ZnO sintered target. It was found that synthesized ZnO microspheres had a high-optical property and exhibit the laser action in the whispering gallery mode under pulsed optical pumping. A hetero p-n junction was formed between the single ZnO microsphere/ p-GaN thin film, and a good rectifying property with a turn-on voltage of approximately 6 V was observed in I-V characteristic across the junction. Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence were observed under forward bias.

  13. Nanostructured vanadium oxide thin film with high TCR at room temperature for microbolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Lai, Jianjun; Li, Hui; Hu, Haoming; Chen, Sihai

    2013-03-01

    In order to obtain high quality of thermal sensitive material, VOx thin film of high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of 6.5%/K at room temperature has been deposited by reactive ion beam sputtering and post annealing method. AFM and XRD measurements indicate that the VOx thin film with nanostructured crystalline is composed of VO2 and V2O3. The nanostructured VOx microbolometer has been designed and fabricated. The measurement of the film system with TiN absorbing layer indicates that it has about 92% infrared absorption in the range of 8-14 μm. The performance of this bolometer, comparing with that of bolometer with common VOx, has a better result. At 20 Hz frequency and 10 μA bias current, the bolometer with high TCR has reached detectivity of 1.0 × 109 cm Hz1/2/W. It also indicates that this nanostructured VOx thin film has not only a higher TCR but also a lower noise than common VOx thin film without annealing.

  14. Electrical and photocatalytic properties of boron-doped ZnO nanostructure grown on PET-ITO flexible substrates by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Ai, Taotao; Yu, Qi

    2017-02-01

    Boron-doped zinc oxide sheet-spheres were synthesized on PET-ITO flexible substrates using a hydrothermal method at 90 °C for 5 h. The results of X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the B atoms were successfully doped into the ZnO lattice, the incorporation of B led to an increase in the lattice constant of ZnO and a change in its internal stress. The growth mechanism of pure ZnO nanorods and B-doped ZnO sheet-spheres was specifically investigated. The as-prepared BZO/PET-ITO heterojunction possessed obvious rectification properties and its positive turn-on voltage was 0.4 V. The carrier transport mechanisms involved three models such as hot carrier tunneling theory, tunneling recombination, and series-resistance effect were explored. The BZO/PET-ITO nanostructures were more effective than pure ZnO to degrade the RY 15, and the degradation rate reached 41.45%. The decomposition process with BZO nanostructure followed first-order reaction kinetics. The photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the B-doping could promote the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, which was beneficial to enhance the photocatalytic activity. The photocurrent density of B-doped and pure ZnO/PET-ITO were 0.055 mA/cm2 and 0.016 mA/cm2, respectively. The photocatalytic mechanism of the sample was analyzed by the energy band theory.

  15. Estimation of electron–phonon coupling and Urbach energy in group-I elements doped ZnO nanoparticles and thin films by sol–gel method

    SciT

    Vettumperumal, R.; Kalyanaraman, S., E-mail: mayura_priya2003@yahoo.co.in; Santoshkumar, B.

    Highlights: • Comparison of group-I elements doped ZnO nanoparticles and thin films. • Calculation of electron–phonon coupling and phonon lifetime from Raman spectroscopy. • Estimation of interband states from Urbach energy. - Abstract: Group-I (Li, Na, K & Cs) elements doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and thin films were prepared using sol–gel method. XRD data and TEM images confirm the absence of any other secondary phase different from wurtzite type ZnO. Spherical shapes of grains are observed from the surfaces of doped ZnO films by atomic force microscope images (AFM) and presences of dopants are confirmed from energy dispersive X-ray spectra.more » The Raman active E{sub 2} (high), E{sub 2} (low), E{sub 1} and A{sub 1} (LO) modes are observed from both ZnO NPs and thin films. First-order longitudinal optical (LO) phonon is found to have contributions from direct band transition and localized excitons. Electron–phonon coupling, phonon lifetime and deformation energy of ZnO are calculated based on the effect of dopants with respect to the multiple Raman LO phonon scattering. Presence of localized interbands states in doped ZnO NPs and thin films are found from the Urbach energy calculations.« less

  16. Ti-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared at Different Ambient Conditions: Electronic Structures and Magnetic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Uruga, Tomoya; Tanida, Hajime; Qi, Dongchen; Rusydi, Andrivo; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study on Ti-doped ZnO thin films using X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Ti K edge XAFS spectra were measured to study the electronic and chemical properties of Ti ions in the thin films grown under different ambient atmospheres. A strong dependence of Ti speciation, composition, and local structures upon the ambient conditions was observed. The XAFS results suggest a major tetrahedral coordination and a 4+ valence state. The sample grown in a mixture of 80% Ar and 20% O2 shows a portion of precipitates with higher coordination. A large distortion was observed by the Ti substitution in the ZnO lattice. Interestingly, the film prepared in 80% Ar, 20% O2 shows the largest saturation magnetic moment of 0.827 ± 0.013 µB/Ti.

  17. Effect of copper doping sol-gel ZnO thin films: physical properties and sensitivity to ethanol vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukaous, Chahra; Benhaoua, Boubaker; Telia, Azzedine; Ghanem, Salah

    2017-10-01

    In the present paper, the effect of copper doping ZnO thin films, deposited using a sol-gel dip-coating technique, on the structural, optical and ethanol vapor-sensing properties, was investigated. The range of the doping content is 0 wt. %-5 wt. % Cu/Zn and the films’ properties were studied using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The obtained results indicated that undoped and copper-doped zinc oxide thin films have polycrystalline wurtzite structure with (1 0 1) preferred orientation. All samples have a smooth and dense structure free of pinholes. A decrease in the band gap with Cu concentration in the ZnO network was observed. The influence of the dopant on ethanol vapor-sensing properties shows an increase in the film sensitivity to the ethanol vapor within the Cu concentration.

  18. Robust superhydrophobic needle-like nanostructured ZnO surfaces prepared without post chemical-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velayi, Elmira; Norouzbeigi, Reza

    2017-12-01

    Robust superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces with micro/nano hybrid hierarchical structures were synthesized on the stainless steel mesh by a facile single-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method without using further low surface energy materials. The Taguchi L16 experimental design was applied to evaluate the effects of reaction time, type and concentration of the additive, type of the chelating agent, and the molar ratio of the chelating agent to the initial zinc (II) ions. The prepared sample at the optimal conditions exhibited a sustainable and time-independent superhydrophobic behavior with the water contact angle (WCA) of 162.8° ± 2.5° and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of 1.8° ± 0.5°. The XRD, SEM, TEM and FTIR analyses were used to characterize the prepared samples. Surface characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated accumulation of micro/nano branched ZnO needles on the substrate with the average diameters of ∼85 nm. After 20 abrasion cycles the optimum sample indicated an excellent mechanical robustness via exposure to the pressure of 4.7 kPa. A suitable chemical resistance to the acidic and basic droplets with the pH range of 4 and 9 was observed.

  19. Effect of different coating layer on the topography and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Ismail, A. S.; Yusoff, M. M.; Asiah, M. N.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) co-doped zinc oxide (MAZO) thin films were synthesized on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating method. MAZO thin films were prepared at different coating layers range from 1 to 9. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate the topography of the thin films. According to the AFM results, Root Means Square (RMS) of MAZO thin films was increased from 0.747 to 6.545 nm, with increase of number coating layer from 1 to 9, respectively. The results shown the variation on structural and topography properties of MAZO seed film when it's deposited at different coating layers on glass substrate. The optical properties was analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The obtained results show that the transmittance spectra was increased as thin films coating layer increases.

  20. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties of Sol-Gel-Derived ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Mohd.; Sanger, Amit; Vilarinho, Paula M.; Singh, Arun

    2018-04-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate via sol-gel dip-coating technique then annealed at 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C for 1 h. Their optical, structural, and morphological properties were studied using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD diffraction revealed that the crystalline nature of the thin films increased with increasing annealing temperature. The c-axis orientation improved, and the grain size increased, as indicated by increased intensity of the (002) plane peak at 2θ = 34.42° corresponding to hexagonal ZnO crystal. The average crystallite size of the thin films ranged from 13 nm to 23 nm. Increasing the annealing temperature resulted in larger crystallite size and higher crystallinity with increased surface roughness. The grain size according to SEM analysis was in good agreement with the x-ray diffraction data. The optical bandgap of the thin films narrowed with increasing annealing temperature, lying in the range of 3.14 eV to 3.02 eV. The transmission of the thin films was as high as 94% within the visible region. The thickness of the thin films was 400 nm, as measured by ellipsometry, after annealing at the different temperatures of 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C.

  1. Sol-gel derived Al-Ga co-doped transparent conducting oxide ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Serrao, Felcy Jyothi, E-mail: jyothiserrao@gmail.com; Department of Physics, Karnataka Government Research centre SCEM, Mangalore, 575007; Sandeep, K. M.

    2016-05-23

    Transparent conducting ZnO doped with Al, Ga and co-doped Al and Ga (1:1) (AGZO) thin films were grown on glass substrates by cost effective sol-gel spin coating method. The XRD results showed that all the films are polycrystalline in nature and highly textured along the (002) plane. Enhanced grain size was observed in the case of AGZO thin films. The transmittance of all the films was more than 83% in the visible region of light. The electrical properties such as carrier concentration and mobility values are increased in case of AGZO compared to that of Al and Ga doped ZnOmore » thin films. The minimum resistivity of 2.54 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm was observed in AGZO thin film. The co-doped AGZO thin films exhibited minimum resistivity and high optical transmittance, indicate that co-doped ZnO thin films could be used in transparent electronics mainly in display applications.« less

  2. Self-Styled ZnO Nanostructures Promotes the Cancer Cell Damage and Supresses the Epithelial Phenotype of Glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Kaushik, Neha; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive researches have been done on the applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) for the biological purposes. However, the role and toxicity mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures (ZnO-NSts) such as nanoplates (NPls), nanorods (NRs), nanosheets (NSs), nanoflowers (NFs) on cancer cells are not largely known. Present study was focused to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by self-designed ZnO-NSts, prepared at fix pH via solution process and exposed against human T98G gliomas including various cancers and non-malignant embryonic kidney HEK293, MRC5 fibroblast cells. NSts were used for the induction of cell death in malignant human T98G gliomas including various cancers and compared with the non-malignant cells. Notably, NRs were found to induce higher cytotoxicity, inhibitory effects on cancer and normal cells in a dose dependent manner. We also showed that NRs induced cancer cell death through oxidative stress and caspase-dependent pathways. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative analysis of ZnO-NSts have also been confirmed by statistical analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, limits of detection and limit of quantitation. These self-styled NSts could provide new perception in the research of targeted cancer nanotechnology and have potentiality to improve new therapeutic outcomes with poor diagnosis.

  3. Effect of Mg doping in the gas-sensing performance of RF-sputtered ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoth, E.; Gowrishankar, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2018-06-01

    Thin films of Mg-free and Mg-doped (3, 10 and 20 mol%) ZnO thin films have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering for gas-sensing application. Preferential orientation along (002) plane with hexagonal wurtzite structure has been observed in X-ray diffraction analysis. The conductivity, resistivity, and mobility of the deposited films have been measured by Hall effect measurement. The bandgap of the films has been calculated from the UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. It has been found that the bandgap was increased from 3.35 to 3.91 eV with Mg content in ZnO due to the radiative recombination of excitons. The change in morphology of the grown films has been investigated by scanning electron microscope. Gas-sensing measurements have been conducted for fabricated films. The sensor response, selectivity, and stability measurement were done for the fabricated films. Though better response was found towards ethanol, methanol, and ammonia for MZ2 (Mg at 10 mol%) film and maximum gas response was observed towards ammonia. The selectivity measurement reveals maximum sensitivity about 42% for ammonia. The low response time of 123 s and recovery time of 152 s towards ammonia were observed for MZ2 (Mg at 10 mol%). Stability of the Mg-doped ZnO thin film confirmed by the continuous sensing measurements for 4 months.

  4. Effect of Fe incorporation on the optical behavior of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel derived spin coating techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakkesh, R. Ajay; Malathi, R.; Balakumar, S.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, Fe doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films were fabricated on the glass substrate by sol-gel derived spin coating technique. X-ray Diffraction studies revealed that the obtained pure and Fe doped ZnO thin films were in the wurtzite and spinel phase respectively. The three well defined Raman lines at 432, 543 and 1091 cm-1 also confirmed the lattice structure of the ZnO thin film has wurtzite symmetry. While doping Fe atoms in the ZnO, there was a significant change in the phase from wurtzite to spinel structure; owing to Fe (III) ions being incorporated into the lattice through substitution of Zn (II) ions. Room temperature PL spectra showed that the role of defect mediated red emissions at 612 nm was due to radial recombination of a photogenerated hole with an electron that belongs to the Fe atoms, which were discussed in detail.

  5. Broadband enhancement of dielectric light trapping nanostructure used in ultra-thin solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong; Xu, Zhaopeng; Bian, Fei; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Jiazhuang; Sun, Lu

    2018-03-01

    A dielectric fishnet nanostructure is designed to increase the light trapping capability of ultra-thin solar cells. The complex performance of ultra-thin cells such as the optical response and electrical response are fully quantified in simulation through a complete optoelectronic investigation. The results show that the optimized light trapping nanostructure can enhances the electromagnetic resonance in active layer then lead to extraordinary enhancement of both absorption and light-conversion capabilities in the solar cell. The short-circuit current density increases by 49.46% from 9.40 mA/cm2 to 14.05 mA/cm2 and light-conversion efficiency increases by 51.84% from 9.51% to 14.44% compared to the benchmark, a solar cell with an ITO-GaAs-Ag structure.

  6. Effects of substrate on the structure and orientation of ZnO thin film grown by rf-magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Liu, H. F.; Chua, S. J.; Hu, G. X.

    2007-10-15

    X-ray diffractions, Nomarski microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence have been used to study the effects of substrate on the structure and orientation of ZnO thin films grown by rf-magnetron sputtering. GaAs(001), GaAs(111), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0002) (c-plane), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1102) (r-plane) wafers have been selected as substrates in this study. X-ray diffractions reveal that the ZnO film grown on GaAs(001) substrate is purely textured with a high c-axis orientation while that grown on GaAs(111) substrate is a single ZnO(0002) crystal; a polycrystalline structure with a large-single-crystal area of ZnO(0002) is obtained on a c-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate whilemore » a ZnO(1120) single crystal is formed on an r-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. There is absence of significant difference between the photoluminescence spectra collected from ZnO/GaAs(001), ZnO/GaAs(111), and ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0002), while the photoluminescence from ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1102) shows a reduced intensity together with an increased linewidth, which is, likely, due to the increased incorporation of native defects during the growth of ZnO(1120)« less

  7. Various Silver Nanostructures on Sapphire Using Plasmon Self-Assembly and Dewetting of Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Sundar; Sui, Mao; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Li, Ming-Yu; Lee, Jihoon

    2017-04-01

    Silver (Ag) nanostructures demonstrate outstanding optical, electrical, magnetic, and catalytic properties and are utilized in photonic, energy, sensors, and biomedical devices. The target application and the performance can be inherently tuned by control of configuration, shape, and size of Ag nanostructures. In this work, we demonstrate the systematical fabrication of various configurations of Ag nanostructures on sapphire (0001) by controlling the Ag deposition thickness at different annealing environments in a plasma ion coater. In particular, the evolution of Ag particles (between 2 and 20 nm), irregular nanoclusters (between 30 and 60 nm), and nanocluster networks (between 80 and 200 nm) are found be depended on the thickness of Ag thin film. The results were systematically analyzed and explained based on the solid-state dewetting, surface diffusion, Volmer-Weber growth model, coalescence, and surface energy minimization mechanism. The growth behavior of Ag nanostructures is remarkably differentiated at higher annealing temperature (750 °C) due to the sublimation and temperature-dependent characteristic of dewetting process. In addition, Raman and reflectance spectra analyses reveal that optical properties of Ag nanostructures depend on their morphology.

  8. Nanostructured Thin Film Synthesis by Aerosol Chemical Vapor Deposition for Energy Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, Tandeep S.

    Renewable energy sources offer a viable solution to the growing energy demand while mitigating concerns for greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. This has led to a tremendous momentum towards solar and wind-based energy harvesting technologies driving efficiencies higher and costs lower. However, the intermittent nature of these energy sources necessitates energy storage technologies, which remain the Achilles heel in meeting the renewable energy goals. This dissertation focusses on two approaches for addressing the needs of energy storage: first, targeting direct solar to fuel conversion via photoelectrochemical water-splitting and second, improving the performance of current rechargeable batteries by developing new electrode architectures and synthesis processes. The aerosol chemical vapor deposition (ACVD) process has emerged as a promising single-step approach for nanostructured thin film synthesis directly on substrates. The relationship between the morphology and the operating parameters in the process is complex. In this work, a simulation based approach has been developed to understand the relationship and acquire the ability of predicting the morphology. These controlled nanostructured morphologies of TiO2 , compounded with gold nanoparticles of various shapes, are used for solar water-splitting applications. Tuning of light absorption in the visible-light range along with reduced electron-hole recombination in the composite structures has been demonstrated. The ACVD process is further extended to a novel single-step synthesis of nanostructured TiO2 electrodes directly on the current collector for applications as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, mainly for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The effect of morphology of the nanostructures has been investigated via experimental studies and electrochemical transport modelling. Results demonstrate the exceptional performance of the single crystal one-dimensional nanostructures over granular

  9. Nanostructural Tailoring to Induce Flexibility in Thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9 Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Because of their inherent rigidity and brittleness, inorganic materials have seen limited use in flexible thermoelectric applications. On the other hand, for high output power density and stability, the use of inorganic materials is required. Here, we demonstrate a concept of fully inorganic flexible thermoelectric thin films with Ca3Co4O9-on-mica. Ca3Co4O9 is promising not only because of its high Seebeck coefficient and good electrical conductivity but also because of the abundance, low cost, and nontoxicity of its constituent raw materials. We show a promising nanostructural tailoring approach to induce flexibility in inorganic thin-film materials, achieving flexibility in nanostructured Ca3Co4O9 thin films. The films were grown by thermally induced phase transformation from CaO–CoO thin films deposited by reactive rf-magnetron cosputtering from metallic targets of Ca and Co to the final phase of Ca3Co4O9 on a mica substrate. The pattern of nanostructural evolution during the solid-state phase transformation is determined by the surface energy and strain energy contributions, whereas different distributions of CaO and CoO phases in the as-deposited films promote different nanostructuring during the phase transformation. Another interesting fact is that the Ca3Co4O9 film is transferable onto an arbitrary flexible platform from the parent mica substrate by etch-free dry transfer. The highest thermoelectric power factor obtained is above 1 × 10–4 W m–1 K–2 in a wide temperature range, thus showing low-temperature applicability of this class of materials. PMID:28699345

  10. Photo-Patternable ZnO Thin Films Based on Cross-Linked Zinc Acrylate for Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Complementary Inverters.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong Jin; An, Tae Kyu; Yun, Dong-Jin; Kim, Lae Ho; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Yebyeol; Nam, Sooji; Lee, Keun Hyung; Kim, Se Hyun; Jang, Jaeyoung; Park, Chan Eon

    2016-03-02

    Complementary inverters consisting of p-type organic and n-type metal oxide semiconductors have received considerable attention as key elements for realizing low-cost and large-area future electronics. Solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) have great potential for use in hybrid complementary inverters as n-type load transistors because of the low cost of their fabrication process and natural abundance of active materials. The integration of a single ZnO TFT into an inverter requires the development of a simple patterning method as an alternative to conventional time-consuming and complicated photolithography techniques. In this study, we used a photocurable polymer precursor, zinc acrylate (or zinc diacrylate, ZDA), to conveniently fabricate photopatternable ZnO thin films for use as the active layers of n-type ZnO TFTs. UV-irradiated ZDA thin films became insoluble in developing solvent as the acrylate moiety photo-cross-linked; therefore, we were able to successfully photopattern solution-processed ZDA thin films using UV light. We studied the effects of addition of a tiny amount of indium dopant on the transistor characteristics of the photopatterned ZnO thin films and demonstrated low-voltage operation of the ZnO TFTs within ±3 V by utilizing Al2O3/TiO2 laminate thin films or ion-gels as gate dielectrics. By combining the ZnO TFTs with p-type pentacene TFTs, we successfully fabricated organic/inorganic hybrid complementary inverters using solution-processed and photopatterned ZnO TFTs.

  11. Hydrogen Gas Sensing Characteristics of Nanostructured NiO Thin Films Synthesized by SILAR Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaduman, Irmak; Çorlu, Tugba; Yıldırım, M. Ali; Ateş, Aytunç; Acar, Selim

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructured NiO thin films have been synthesized by a facile, low-cost successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, and the effects of the film thickness on their hydrogen gas sensing properties investigated. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. The XRD results revealed that the crystallinity improved with increasing thickness, exhibiting polycrystalline structure. SEM studies showed that all the films covered the glass substrate well. According to optical absorption measurements, the optical bandgap decreased with increasing film thickness. The gas sensing properties of the nanostructured NiO thin films were studied as a function of operating temperature and gas concentration. The samples showed good sensing performance of H2 gas with high response. The maximum response was 75% at operating temperature of 200°C for hydrogen gas concentration of 40 ppm. These results demonstrate that nanostructured NiO thin films synthesized by the SILAR method have potential for application in hydrogen detection.

  12. Enhanced light absorption of silicon solar cells with dielectric nanostructured back reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Rui; Zhong, Zheng

    2018-06-01

    This paper investigates the light absorption property of nanostructured dielectric reflectors in silicon thin film solar cells using numerical simulation. Flat thin film solar cell with ZnO nanostructured back reflector can produce comparable photocurrent to the control model with Ag nanostructured back reflector. Furthermore, when it is integrated with nano-pillar surface decoration, a photocurrent density of 29.5 mA/cm2 can be achieved, demonstrating a photocurrent enhancement of 5% as compared to the model with Ag nanostructured back reflector.

  13. Nanostructured zinc oxide thin film for application to surface plasmon resonance based cholesterol biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-11-01

    ZnO thin film was deposited on gold coated glass prism by RF sputtering technique in glancing angle deposition (GLAD) configuration. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the deposited film were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. ZnO coated Au prisms (ZnO/Au/prism) were used to excite surface plasmons in Kretschmann configuration at the Au- ZnO interface on a laboratory assembled Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) measurement setup. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) enzyme was immobilized on the ZnO/Au/prism structure by physical adsorption technique. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels were fabricated over ChOx/ZnO/Au/prism system and various concentrations of cholesterol were passed over the sensor surface. The concentration of cholesterol was varied from 0.12 to 10.23 mM and the SPR reflectance curves were recorded in both static as well as dynamic modes demonstrating a high sensitivity of 0.36° mM-1.

  14. Nanostructured TiO2 and ZnO prepared by using pressurized hot water and their eco-toxicological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troppová, Ivana; Matějová, Lenka; Sezimová, Hana; Matěj, Zdeněk; Peikertová, Pavlína; Lang, Jaroslav

    2017-06-01

    The eco-toxicological effects of unconventionally prepared nanostructured TiO2 and ZnO were evaluated in this study, since both oxides are keenly investigated semiconductor photocatalysts in the last three decades. Unconventional processing by pressurized hot water was applied in order to crystallize oxide materials as an alternative to standard calcination. Acute biological toxicity of the synthesized oxides was evaluated using germination of Sinapis alba seed (ISO 11269-1) and growth of Lemna minor fronds (ISO 20079) and was compared to commercially available TiO2 Degussa P25. Toxicity results revealed that synthesized ZnO as well as TiO2 is toxic contrary to commercial TiO2 Degussa P25 which showled stimulation effect to L. minor and no toxicity to S. alba. ZnO was significantly more toxic than TiO2. The effect of crystallite size was considered, and it was revealed that small crystallite size and large surface area are not the toxicity-determining factors. Factors such as the rate of nanosized crystallites aggregation and concentration, shape and surface properties of TiO2 nanoparticles affect TiO2 toxicity to both plant species. Seriously, the dissolution of Ti4+ ions from TiO2 was also observed which may contribute to its toxicity. In case of ZnO, the dissolution of Zn2+ ions stays the main cause of its toxicity.

  15. Microwave-assisted synthesis of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO hybrid nanostructured materials as quantum-dots sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel-Mendez, Jose R.; Matos, Juan; Cházaro-Ruiz, Luis F.; González-Castillo, Ana C.; Barrios-Yáñez, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    The microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO hybrid materials was performed. Saccharose, titanium isopropoxide and zinc acetate were used as organic and inorganic sources for the synthesis. The influence of temperature and reaction time on the textural and optoelectronic properties of the hybrid materials was verified. Carbon quantum-dots of TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured spheres were obtained in a second pot by controlled calcination steps of the precursor hybrid materials. A carefully characterization by adsorption-desorption N2 isotherms, XRD, XPS, SEM, UV-vis/DR and electro- and photo-electrochemistry properties of the carbon quantum-dots TiO2 and ZnO spheres was performed. The photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2-C and ZnO-C films proved to be dependent on the conditions of synthesis. It was found a red-shift in the energy band gap of the semiconductors with values of 3.02 eV and 3.13 eV for the TiO2-C and ZnO-C, respectively, clearly lower than those on bare semiconductors, which is associated with the C-doping effect. From the photo-electrochemistry characterization of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO films can be concluded that the present materials have potential applications as photoelectrodes for quantum-dots sensitized solar cells.

  16. ZnO Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide Bilayer Thin Films for Improved NH3-Sensing Performances at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Huiling; Yuan, Zhen; Zheng, Weijian; Ye, Zongbiao; Liu, Chunhua; Du, Xiaosong

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) thin film were deposited on gold interdigital electrodes (IDEs) in sequence via simple spraying process, which was further restored to ZnO/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) bilayer thin film by the thermal reduction treatment and employed for ammonia (NH3) detection at room temperature. rGO was identified by UV-vis absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analyses, and the adhesion between ZnO nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets might also be formed. The NH3-sensing performances of pure rGO film and ZnO/rGO bilayer films with different sprayed GO amounts were compared. The results showed that ZnO/rGO film sensors exhibited enhanced response properties, and the optimal GO amount of 1.5 ml was achieved. Furthermore, the optimal ZnO/rGO film sensor showed an excellent reversibility and fast response/recovery rate within the detection range of 10-50 ppm. Meanwhile, the sensor also displayed good repeatability and selectivity to NH3. However, the interference of water molecules on the prepared sensor is non-ignorable; some techniques should be researched to eliminate the effect of moisture in the further work. The remarkably enhanced NH3-sensing characteristics were speculated to be attributed to both the supporting role of ZnO nanoparticles film and accumulation heterojunction at the interface between ZnO and rGO. Thus, the proposed ZnO/rGO bilayer thin film sensor might give a promise for high-performance NH3-sensing applications.

  17. Nanostructured surfaces using thermal nanoimprint lithography: Applications in thin membrane technology, piezoelectric energy harvesting and tactile pressure sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabar, Bhargav Pradip

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is emerging as a viable contender for fabrication of large-scale arrays of 5-500 nm features. The work presented in this dissertation aims to leverage the advantages of NIL for realization of novel Nano Electro Mechanical Systems (NEMS). The first application is a nanoporous membrane blood oxygenator system. A fabrication process for realization of thin nanoporous membranes using thermal nanoimprint lithography is presented. Suspended silicon nitride membranes were fabricated by Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) in conjunction with a potassium hydroxide-based bulk micromachining process. Nanoscale features were imprinted into a commercially available thermoplastic polymer resist using a pre-fabricated silicon mold. The pattern was reversed and transferred to a thin aluminum oxide layer by means of a novel two stage lift-off technique. The patterned aluminum oxide was used as an etch mask in a CHF3/He based reactive ion etch process to transfer the pattern to silicon nitride. Highly directional etch profiles with near vertical sidewalls and excellent Si3N4/Al2O3 etch selectivity was observed. One-micrometer-thick porous membranes with varying dimensions of 250x250 microm2 to 450x450 microm 2 and pore diameter of 400 nm have been engineered and evaluated. Results indicate that the membranes have consistent nanopore dimensions and precisely defined porosity, which makes them ideal as gas exchange interfaces in blood oxygenation systems as well as other applications such as dialysis. Additionally, bulk -- micromachined microfluidic channels have been developed for uniform, laminar blood flow with minimal cell trauma. NIL has been used for ordered growth of crystalline nanostructures for sensing and energy harvesting. Highly ordered arrays of crystalline ZnO nanorods have been fabricated using a polymer template patterned by thermal nanoimprint lithography, in conjunction with a low temperature hydrothermal growth process. Zinc

  18. Synchrotron X-ray studies of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Jeffrey A.

    The study of ferroelectric thin films is a field of considerable scientific and technological interest. In this dissertation synchrotron x-ray techniques were applied to examine the effects of lateral confinement and epitaxial strain in ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures. Three materials systems were investigated: laterally confined epitaxial BiFeO3 nanostructures on SrTiO3 (001), ultra-thin commensurate SrTiO 3 films on Si (001), and coherently strained films of BaTiO3 on DyScO3 (110). Epitaxial films of BiFeO3 were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO 3 (001) substrates. Laterally confined nanostructures were fabricated using focused ion-beam processing and subsequently characterized with focused beam x-ray nanodiffraction measurements with unprecedented spatial resolution. Results from a series of rectangular nanostructures with lateral dimensions between 500 nm and 1 mum and a comparably-sized region of the unpatterned BiFeO3 film revealed qualitatively similar distributions of local strain and lattice rotation with a 2-3 times larger magnitude of variation observed in those of the nanostructures compared to the unpatterned film. This indicates that lateral confinement leads to enhanced variation in the local strain and lattice rotation fields in epitaxial BiFeO3 nanostructures. A commensurate 2 nm thick film of SrTiO3 on Si was characterized by the x-ray standing wave (XSW) technique to determine the Sr and Ti cation positions in the strained unit cell in order to verify strain-induced ferroelectricity in SrTiO3/Si. A Si (004) XSW measurement at 10°C indicated that the average Ti displacement from the midpoint between Sr planes was consistent in magnitude to that predicted by a density functional theory (DFT) calculated ferroelectric structure. The Ti displacement determined from a 35°C measurement better matched a DFT-predicted nonpolar structure. The thin film extension of the XSW technique was employed to

  19. Optical characterization of Mg-doped ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    SciT

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Shweta; Hazra, Purnima

    2016-05-06

    This paper reports the in-depth analysis on optical characteristics of magnesium (Mg) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films grown on p-silicon (Si) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The variable angle ellipsometer is used for the optical characterization of as-deposited thin films. The optical reflectance, transmission spectra and thickness of as-deposited thin films are measured in the spectral range of 300-800 nm with the help of the spectroscopic ellipsometer. The effect of Mg-doping on optical parameters such as optical bandgap, absorption coefficient, absorbance, extinction coefficient, refractive Index and dielectric constant for as-deposited thin films are extracted to show its application inmore » optoelectronic and photonic devices.« less

  20. Fabrication of thin ZnO films with wide-range tuned optical properties by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, A.; Tselikov, G.; Dilone, D.; Rao, K. V.; Kabashin, A. V.; Belova, L.

    2018-02-01

    We report the manufacturing of thin zinc oxide films by reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature, and examine their structural and optical properties. We show that the partial oxygen pressure in DC mode can have dramatic effect on absorption and refractive index (RI) of the films in a broad spectral range. In particular, the change of the oxygen pressure from 7% to 5% can lead to either conventional crystalline ZnO films having low absorption and characteristic descending dependence of RI from 2.4-2.7 RIU in the visible to 1.8-2 RIU in the near-infrared (1600 nm) range, or to untypical films, composed of ZnO nano-crystals embedded into amorphous matrix, exhibiting unexpectedly high absorption in the visible-infrared region and ascending dependence of RI with values varying from 1.5 RIU in the visible to 4 RIU in the IR (1600 nm), respectively. Untypical optical characteristics in the second case are explained by defects in ZnO structure arising due to under-oxidation of ZnO crystals. We also show that the observed defect-related film structure remains stable even after annealing of films under relatively high temperatures (30 min under 450 °C). We assume that both types of films can be of importance for photovoltaic (as contact or active layers, respectively), as well as for chemical or biological sensing, optoelectronics etc.

  1. Gate insulator effects on the electrical performance of ZnO thin film transistor on a polyethersulphone substrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Kyu; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2012-07-01

    Low temperature processing for fabrication of transistor backplane is a cost effective solution while fabrication on a flexible substrate offers a new opportunity in display business. Combination of both merits is evaluated in this investigation. In this study, the ZnO thin film transistor on a flexible Polyethersulphone (PES) substrate is fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering. Since the selection and design of compatible gate insulator is another important issue to improve the electrical properties of ZnO TFT, we have evaluated three gate insulator candidates; SiO2, SiNx and SiO2/SiNx. The SiO2 passivation on both sides of PES substrate prior to the deposition of ZnO layer was effective to enhance the mechanical and thermal stability. Among the fabricated devices, ZnO TFT employing SiNx/SiO2 stacked gate exhibited the best performance. The device parameters of interest are extracted and the on/off current ratio, field effect mobility, threshold voltage and subthreshold swing are 10(7), 22 cm2/Vs, 1.7 V and 0.4 V/decade, respectively.

  2. Stable and High-Performance Flexible ZnO Thin-Film Transistors by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Yu; Hsu, Che-Chen; Tseng, Ming-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2015-10-14

    Passivation is a challenging issue for the oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies because it requires prolonged high-temperature annealing treatments to remedy defects produced in the process, which greatly limits its manufacturability as well as its compatibility with temperature-sensitive materials such as flexible plastic substrates. This study investigates the defect-formation mechanisms incurred by atomic layer deposition (ALD) passivation processes on ZnO TFTs, based on which we demonstrate for the first time degradation-free passivation of ZnO TFTs by a TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminated (TAO) film deposited by a low-temperature (110 °C) ALD process. By combining the TAO passivation film with ALD dielectric and channel layers into an integrated low-temperature ALD process, we successfully fabricate flexible ZnO TFTs on plastics. Thanks to the exceptional gas-barrier property of the TAO film (water vapor transmission rate (WVTR)<10(-6) g m(-2) day(-1)) as well as the defect-free nature of the ALD dielectric and ZnO channel layers, the TFTs exhibit excellent device performance with high stability and flexibility: field-effect mobility>20 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), subthreshold swing<0.4 V decade(-1) after extended bias-stressing (>10,000 s), air-storage (>1200 h), and bending (1.3 cm radius for 1000 times).

  3. Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Electrical Characteristics of ZnO Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remashan, Kariyadan; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Park, Seong-Ju; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2008-04-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a bottom-gate configuration were fabricated with an RF magnetron sputtered undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) channel layer and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) grown silicon nitride as a gate dielectric. Postfabrication rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and subsequent nitrous oxide (N2O) plasma treatment were employed to improve the performance of ZnO TFTs in terms of on-current and on/off current ratio. The RTA treatment increases the on-current of the TFT significantly, but it also increases its off-current. The off-current of 2×10-8 A and on/off current ratio of 3×103 obtained after the RTA treatment were improved to 10-10 A and 105, respectively, by the subsequent N2O plasma treatment. The better device performance can be attributed to the reduction of oxygen vacancies at the top region of the channel due to oxygen incorporation from the N2O plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the TFT samples showed that the RTA-treated ZnO surface has more oxygen vacancies than as-deposited samples, which results in the increased drain current. The XPS study also showed that the subsequent N2O plasma treatment reduces oxygen vacancies only at the surface of ZnO so that the better off-current and on/off current ratio can be obtained.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonally patterned quasi-1D ZnO nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) ZnO nanowire arrays with hexagonal pattern have been successfully synthesized via the vapor transport process without any metal catalyst. By utilizing polystyrene microsphere self-assembled monolayer, sol–gel-derived ZnO thin films were used as the periodic nucleation sites for the growth of ZnO nanowires. High-quality quasi-1D ZnO nanowires were grown from nucleation sites, and the original hexagonal periodicity is well-preserved. According to the experimental results, the vapor transport solid condensation mechanism was proposed, in which the sol–gel-derived ZnO film acting as a seed layer for nucleation. This simple method provides a favorable way to form quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures applicable to diverse fields such as two-dimensional photonic crystal, nanolaser, sensor arrays, and other optoelectronic devices. PMID:24521308

  5. Praseodymium - A Competent Dopant for Luminescent Downshifting and Photocatalysis in ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Nripasree; Deepak, N. K.

    2018-05-01

    Highly transparent and conducting Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films doped with Praseodymium (Pr) were deposited on glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the polycrystallinity of the deposited films with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, whereas the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis confirmed the incorporation of Pr in the films. The optical energy gap decreased by Pr doping due to the merging of the conduction band with the impurity bands formed within the forbidden gap. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the Pr-doped film showed enhancement of visible emission, suggesting efficient luminescent downshifting. The photocatalytic activity of the Pr-doped films is higher than that of undoped films due to the effective suppression of the rapid recombination of the photo-generated electron-hole pairs. The impurity levels formed within the forbidden gap act as efficient luminescent centers and electron traps, which lead to luminescent downshifting and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  6. Atomic layer deposition of Nb-doped ZnO for thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A.; Wrench, J. S.; Jin, J. D.; Whittles, T. J.; Mitrovic, I. Z.; Raja, M.; Dhanak, V. R.; Chalker, P. R.; Hall, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present physical and electrical characterization of niobium-doped zinc oxide (NbZnO) for thin film transistor (TFT) applications. The NbZnO films were deposited using atomic layer deposition. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the crystallinity of the NbZnO films reduces with an increase in the Nb content and lower deposition temperature. It was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that Nb5+ is present within the NbZnO matrix. Furthermore, photoluminescence indicates that the band gap of the ZnO increases with a higher Nb content, which is explained by the Burstein-Moss effect. For TFT applications, a growth temperature of 175 °C for 3.8% NbZnO provided the best TFT characteristics with a saturation mobility of 7.9 cm2/Vs, the current On/Off ratio of 1 × 108, and the subthreshold swing of 0.34 V/decade. The transport is seen to follow a multiple-trap and release mechanism at lower gate voltages and percolation thereafter.

  7. Inverter Circuits Using ZnO Nanoparticle Based Thin-Film Transistors for Flexible Electronic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vidor, Fábio F.; Meyers, Thorsten; Hilleringmann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Innovative systems exploring the flexibility and the transparency of modern semiconducting materials are being widely researched by the scientific community and by several companies. For a low-cost production and large surface area applications, thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the key elements driving the system currents. In order to maintain a cost efficient integration process, solution based materials are used as they show an outstanding tradeoff between cost and system complexity. In this paper, we discuss the integration process of ZnO nanoparticle TFTs using a high-k resin as gate dielectric. The performance in dependence on the transistor structure has been investigated, and inverted staggered setups depict an improved performance over the coplanar device increasing both the field-effect mobility and the ION/IOFF ratio. Aiming at the evaluation of the TFT characteristics for digital circuit applications, inverter circuits using a load TFT in the pull-up network and an active TFT in the pull-down network were integrated. The inverters show reasonable switching characteristics and V/V gains. Conjointly, the influence of the geometry ratio and the supply voltage on the devices have been analyzed. Moreover, as all integration steps are suitable to polymeric templates, the fabrication process is fully compatible to flexible substrates. PMID:28335282

  8. Inverter Circuits Using ZnO Nanoparticle Based Thin-Film Transistors for Flexible Electronic Applications.

    PubMed

    Vidor, Fábio F; Meyers, Thorsten; Hilleringmann, Ulrich

    2016-08-23

    Innovative systems exploring the flexibility and the transparency of modern semiconducting materials are being widely researched by the scientific community and by several companies. For a low-cost production and large surface area applications, thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the key elements driving the system currents. In order to maintain a cost efficient integration process, solution based materials are used as they show an outstanding tradeoff between cost and system complexity. In this paper, we discuss the integration process of ZnO nanoparticle TFTs using a high- k resin as gate dielectric. The performance in dependence on the transistor structure has been investigated, and inverted staggered setups depict an improved performance over the coplanar device increasing both the field-effect mobility and the I ON / I OFF ratio. Aiming at the evaluation of the TFT characteristics for digital circuit applications, inverter circuits using a load TFT in the pull-up network and an active TFT in the pull-down network were integrated. The inverters show reasonable switching characteristics and V / V gains. Conjointly, the influence of the geometry ratio and the supply voltage on the devices have been analyzed. Moreover, as all integration steps are suitable to polymeric templates, the fabrication process is fully compatible to flexible substrates.

  9. Deposition of undoped and Al doped ZnO thin films using RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, optical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvathy Venu, M.; Shrisha B., V.; Balakrishna, K. M.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2017-05-01

    Undoped ZnO and Al doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass and p-Si(100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature using homemade targets. ZnO target containing 5 at% of Al2O3 as doping source was used for the growth of Al doped ZnO thin films. XRD revealed that the films have hexagonal wurtzite structure with high crystallinity. Morphology and chemical composition of the films have been indicated by FESEM and EDAX studies. A blue shift of the band gap energy and higher optical transmittance has been observed in the case of Al doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) thin films with respect to the ZnO thin films. The as deposited films on p-Si were used to fabricate n-ZnO/p-Si(100) and n-ZnO:Al/p-Si(100) heterojunction diodes and their room temperature current-voltage characteristics were studied.

  10. Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the microstructural and magnetic properties of Er-doped ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Chen, Wei-Bin; Li, Fei; Chen, Hong-Ming

    2015-06-15

    Er-doped ZnO thin films have been prepared by using inductively coupled plasma enhanced physical vapor deposition at different O{sub 2}:Ar gas flow ratio (R = 0:30, 1:30, 1:15, 1:10 and 1:6). The influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structural, optical and magnetic properties was studied. It is found that an appropriate oxygen partial pressure (R=1:10) can produce the best crystalline quality with a maximum grain size. The internal strain, estimated by fitting the X-ray diffraction peaks, varied with oxygen partial pressure during growth. PL measurements show that plenty of defects, especially zinc vacancy, exist in Er-doped ZnO films. Allmore » the samples show room-temperature ferromagnetism. Importantly, the saturation magnetization exhibits similar dependency on oxygen partial pressure with the internal strain, which indicates that internal strain has an important effect on the magnetic properties of Er-doped ZnO thin films.« less

  11. Realizing luminescent downshifting in ZnO thin films by Ce doping with enhancement of photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Nripasree; Deepak, N. K.

    2018-04-01

    ZnO thin films doped with Ce at different concentration were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. XRD analysis revealed the phase purity and polycrystalline nature of the films with hexagonal wurtzite geometry and the composition analysis confirmed the incorporation of Ce in the ZnO lattice in the case of doped films. Crystalline quality and optical transmittance diminished while electrical conductivity enhanced with Ce doping. Ce doping resulted in a red-shift of optical energy gap due to the downshift of the conduction band minimum after merging with Ce related impurity bands formed below the conduction band in the forbidden gap. In the room temperature photoluminescence spectra, UV emission intensity of the doped films decreased while the intensity of the visible emission band increased drastically implying the degradation in crystallinity as well as the incorporation of defect levels capable of luminescence downshifting. Ce doping showed improvement in photocatalytic efficiency by effectively trapping the free carriers and then transferring for dye degradation. Thus Ce doped ZnO thin films are capable of acting as luminescent downshifters as well as efficient photocatalysts.

  12. Electrical properties of solution-deposited ZnO thin-film transistors by low-temperature annealing.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chul; Oh, Ji Young; Koo, Jae Bon; Park, Chan Woo; Jung, Soon-Won; Na, Bock Soon; Chu, Hye Yong

    2014-11-01

    Flexible oxide thin-film transistors (Oxide-TFTs) have emerged as next generation transistors because of their applicability in electronic device. In particular, the major driving force behind solution-processed zinc oxide film research is its prospective use in printing for electronics. A low-temperature process to improve the performance of solution-processed n-channel ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated via spin-coating and inkjet-printing is introduced here. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using a facile sonochemical method that was slightly modified based on a previously reported method. The influence of the annealing atmosphere on both nanoparticle-based TFT devices fabricated via spin-coating and those created via inkjet printing was investigated. For the inkjet-printed TFTs, the characteristics were improved significantly at an annealing temperature of 150 degrees C. The field effect mobility, V(th), and the on/off current ratios were 3.03 cm2/Vs, -3.3 V, and 10(4), respectively. These results indicate that annealing at 150 degrees C 1 h is sufficient to obtain a mobility (μ(sat)) as high as 3.03 cm2/Vs. Also, the active layer of the solution-based ZnO nanoparticles allowed the production of high-performance TFTs for low-cost, large-area electronics and flexible devices.

  13. Tailoring surface and photocatalytic properties of ZnO and nitrogen-doped ZnO nanostructures using microwave-assisted facile hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel, R.; Cedeño, V.; Ramos-Corona, A.; Gutiérrez, R.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Ares, O.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.; Quintana, P.

    2017-08-01

    Microwave hydrothermal synthesis, using an experimental 23 factorial design, was used to produce tunable ZnO nano- and microstructures, and their potential as photocatalysts was explored. Photocatalytic reactions were conducted in a microreactor batch system under UV and visible light irradiation, while monitoring methylene blue degradation, as a model system. The variables considered in the microwave reactor to produce ZnO nano- or microstructures, were time, NaOH concentration and synthesis temperature. It was found that, specific surface area and volume/surface area ratio were affected as a consequence of the synthesis conditions. In the second stage, the samples were plasma treated in a nitrogen atmosphere, with the purpose of introducing nitrogen into the ZnO crystalline structure. The central idea is to induce changes in the material structure as well as in its optical absorption, to make the plasma-treated material useful as photocatalyst in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Pristine ZnO and nitrogen-doped ZnO compounds were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface area (BET), XPS, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results show that the methodology presented in this work is effective in tailoring the specific surface area of the ZnO compounds and incorporation of nitrogen into their structure, factors which in turn, affect its photocatalytic behavior.

  14. Modification of opto-electronic properties of ZnO by incorporating metallic tin for buffer layer in thin film solar cells

    SciT

    Deepu, D. R.; Jubimol, J.; Kartha, C. Sudha

    2015-06-24

    In this report, the effect of incorporation of metallic tin (Sn) on opto-electronic properties of ZnO thin films is presented. ZnO thin films were deposited through ‘automated chemical spray pyrolysis’ (CSP) technique; later different quantities of ‘Sn’ were evaporated on it and subsequently annealed. Vacuum annealing showed a positive effect on crystallinity of films. Creation of sub band gap levels due to ‘Sn’ diffusion was evident from the absorption and PL spectra. The tin incorporated films showed good photo response in visible region. Tin incorporated ZnO thin films seem to satisfy the desirable criteria for buffer layer in thin filmmore » solar cells.« less

  15. Passive optical limiting studies of nanostructured Cu doped ZnO-PVA composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamgadge, Y. S.; Sunatkari, A. L.; Talwatkar, S. S.; Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    We prepared undoped and Cu doped ZnO semiconducting nanoparticles (NPs) by chemical co-precipitation method and obtained Cu doped ZnO-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite thin films by spin coating to investigate third order nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties under cw laser excitation. Powder samples of NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. XRD pattern and FE-SEM micrograph revealed the presence of hexagonal wurtzite phase ZnO NPs having uniform morphology with average particle size of 20 nm. The presence of excitons and absorption peaks in the range 343-360 nm, revealed by UV-vis study, were attributed to excitons in n = 1 quantum state. Third order NLO properties of all composite thin films were investigated by He-Ne continuous wave (cw) laser of wavelength 632.8 nm using Z-scan technique. Thermally stimulated enhanced values of nonlinear refraction and absorption coefficients were obtained which may be attributed to self-defocusing effect, reverse saturable absorption, weak free carrier absorption and surface states properties originated from thermo optic effect. Optical limiting properties have been studied using cw diode laser of wavelength 808 nm and results are presented.

  16. Enhanced photo response of mesoporous nanostructured CdS thin film via electrospray aerosol deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logu, T.; Soundarrajan, P.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Sethuraman, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a high crystalline and mesoporous nanostructured cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin film was successfully grown on the FTO substrates using facile Electrospray Aerosol Deposition (ESAD) technique. The structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties of CdS thin film have been systematically examined. CdS thin film exhibits the hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with polycrystalline nature. The optical band gap energy of the prepared film was estimated from the Tauc plot and is 2.43 eV. The SEM and AFM images show that the well-interconnected CdS nanoparticles gives mesoporous like morphology. The fine aerosol generated from the ESAD process induces the alteration in the surface morphological structure of deposited CdS film that consequences in enhanced electrical and photo-physical properties. The photoconductivity of the sample has been studied which demonstrates significant photo current. The present study predicts that mesoporous nanostructured CdS thin film would be given a special interest for optoelectronic applications.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative differentiation of gases using ZnO thin film gas sensors and pattern recognition analysis.

    PubMed

    Pati, Sumati; Maity, A; Banerji, P; Majumder, S B

    2014-04-07

    In the present work we have grown highly textured, ultra-thin, nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique and addressed their selectivity towards hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane gas sensing. Structural and microstructural characteristics of the synthesized films were investigated utilizing X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques respectively. Using a dynamic flow gas sensing measurement set up, the sensing characteristics of these films were investigated as a function of gas concentration (10-1660 ppm) and operating temperature (250-380 °C). ZnO thin film sensing elements were found to be sensitive to all of these gases. Thus at a sensor operating temperature of ~300 °C, the response% of the ZnO thin films were ~68, 59, and 52% for hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane gases respectively. The data matrices extracted from first Fourier transform analyses (FFT) of the conductance transients were used as input parameters in a linear unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) pattern recognition technique. We have demonstrated that FFT combined with PCA is an excellent tool for the differentiation of these reducing gases.

  18. Regulation of Epithelial Cell Permeability by Nanostructured Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Tarianna V.

    Epithelia form barriers that regulate the movement of water, ions and molecules from one part of an organ to another. Facilitated transepithelial transport is important to enable drug delivery. Using human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) epithelial cells as a model, I found that contact with patterned nanostructured films (NSFs) enhanced the transepithelial transport of several different macromolecules without using chemical permeation agents. To determine the maximum paracellular permeability through tight junctions (TJs) I modified a calcium-"switch" model, as measured by the diffusion rate for all of the probes examined when media was changed from standard (20 mM) to low (10 microM) calcium. I then compared the permeability of Caco-2 cells in contact with NSFs to the maximum paracellular permeability of cells without NSFs at baseline. Caco-2 cells stimulated with NSFs showed an enhanced level of apical to basolateral transport for intact IgG compared to maximum paracellular permeability. However for the other probes examined, the paracellular permeability induced by NSFs was less than the maximum paracellular permeability of cells. These findings suggest that Caco-2 cells in contact with NSFs induce the specific, active transport of IgG from the apical to the basolateral cell surface of the epithelium. A series of experiments demonstrated the presence of so-called "neonatal" Fc receptors (FcRn) in Caco-2 cells and that these mediated the transcytosis of IgG across the cells. Moreover, contact with NSFs also enhanced paracellular transport, as determined by changes in TJ morphology and decreased transepithelial resistance (TER). To better understand the effects of NSFs on paracellular transport, we measured changes in matrix-metalloendoprotease (MMP) expression and activity was examined. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were upregulated by contact with NSFs. Roles for MMPs in regulating the effects of NSFs on epithelial cells are discussed. Thus, NSFs specifically enhance the

  19. Influence of Fe doping on the structural, optical and acetone sensing properties of sprayed ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Prajapati, C.S.; Kushwaha, Ajay; Sahay, P.P., E-mail: dr_ppsahay@rediffmail.com

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: All the films are found to be polycrystalline ZnO possessing hexagonal wurtzite structure. The intensities of all the peaks are diminished strongly in the Fe-doped films, indicating their lower crystallinity as compared to the undoped ZnO film. The average crystallite size decreases from 35.21 nm (undoped sample) to 15.43 nm (1 at% Fe-doped sample). - Highlights: • Fe-doped ZnO films show smaller crystallinity with crystallite size: 15–26 nm. • Optical band gap in ZnO films decreases on Fe doping. • Fe-doped films exhibit the normal dispersion for the wavelength range 450–600 nm. • PL spectra of the Fe-dopedmore » films show quenching of the broad green-orange emission. • Acetone response of the Fe-doped films increases considerably at 300 °C. - Abstract: The ZnO thin films (undoped and Fe-doped) deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique have been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that all the films possess hexagonal wurtzite structure of zinc oxide having crystallite sizes in the range 15–36 nm. On 1 at% Fe doping, the surface roughness of the film increases which favors the adsorption of atmospheric oxygen on the film surface and thereby increase in the gas response. Optical studies reveal that the band gap decreases due to creation of some defect energy states below the conduction band edge, arising out of the lattice disorder in the doped films. The refractive index of the films decreases on Fe doping and follows the Cauchy relation of normal dispersion. Among all the films examined, the 1 at% Fe-doped film exhibits the maximum response (∼72%) at 300 °C for 100 ppm concentration of acetone in air.« less

  20. Correlation between nano-scale microstructural behavior and the performance of ZnO thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Lee, Ju Ho; Lee, Jeong Yong; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2014-12-01

    Binary ZnO active layers possessing a polycrystalline structure were deposited with various argon/oxygen flow ratios at 250 degrees C via sputtering. Then ZnO thin-film-transistors (TFTs) were fabricated without additional thermal treatments. As the oxygen content increased during the deposition, the preferred orientation along the (0002) was weakened and the rotation of the grains increased, and furthermore, less conducting films were observed. On the other hand, the reduced oxygen flow rate induced the formation of amorphous-like transition layers during the initial growth due to a high growth rate and high energetic bombardment of the adatoms. As a result, the amorphous phases at the gate dielectric/channel interface were responsible for the formation of a hump shape in the subthreshold region of the TFT transfer curve. In addition, the relationship between the crystal properties and the shift in the threshold voltage was experimentally confirmed by a hysteresis test.

  1. Cation vacancies and electrical compensation in Sb-doped thin-film SnO2 and ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, E.; Prozheeva, V.; Tuomisto, F.; Bierwagen, O.; Speck, J. S.; White, M. E.; Galazka, Z.; Liu, H.; Izyumskaya, N.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

    2015-02-01

    We present positron annihilation results on Sb-doped SnO2 and ZnO thin films. The vacancy types and the effect of vacancies on the electrical properties of these intrinsically n-type transparent semiconducting oxides are studied. We find that in both materials low and moderate Sb-doping leads to formation of vacancy clusters of variable sizes. However, at high doping levels cation vacancy defects dominate the positron annihilation signal. These defects, when at sufficient concentrations, can efficiently compensate the n-type doping produced by Sb. This is the case in ZnO, but in SnO2 the concentrations appear too low to cause significant compensation.

  2. Growth of thin film containing high density ZnO nanorods with low temperature calcinated seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Rudrashish; Samal, Rudranarayan; Khatua, Lizina; Das, Susanta Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In this work we demonstrate the growth of thin film containing high density ZnO nanorods by using drop casting of the seed layer calcinated at a low temperature of 132 °C. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) method is used to grow the nanorods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) are performed for the structural and morphological characterizations of the nanorods. The average diameter and length of nanorods are found to be 33 nm and 270 nm respectively. The bandgap of the material is estimated to be 3.2 eV from the UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The reported method is much more cost-effective and can be used for growth of ZnO nanorods for various applications.

  3. A comparative study: Effect of plasma on V2O5 nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Megha; Kumar, Prabhat; Sharma, Rabindar K.; Reddy, G. B.

    2016-05-01

    Vanadium pentoxide nanostructured thin films (NSTs) have been studied to analyze the effect of plasma on nanostructures grown and morphology of films deposited using sublimation process. Nanostructured thin films were deposited on glass substrates, one in presence of oxygen plasma and other in oxygen environment (absence of plasma). Films were characterized using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM and HRTEM. XRD studies revealed α-V2O5 films (orthorhombic phase) with good crystallinity. However, film deposited in presence of plasma have higher peak intensities as compared to those deposited in absence of plasma. Raman studies also support these finding following same trends of considerable increase in intensity in case of film deposited in presence of plasma. SEM micrographs makes the difference more visible, as film deposited in plasma have well defined plate like structures whereas other film have not-clearly-defined petal-like structures. HRTEM results show orthorhombic phase with 0.39 nm interplanar spacing, as reported by XRD. Results are hereby in good agreement with each other.

  4. Physical properties of nanostructured strontium oxide thin film grown by chemical bath deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Farhan; Belkhedkar, M. R.; Salodkar, R. V.

    2018-05-01

    Nanostructured SrO thin film of thickness 139 nm was deposited by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrates using SrCl2.6H2O and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors without complexing agents. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that, SrO thin film is nanocrystalline in nature with cubic structure. The surface morphology of the SrO film was investigated by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy. The optical studies showed that SrO film exhibits direct as well as indirect optical band gap energy. The electrical resistivity and activation energy of SrO thin film is found to be of the order of 106 Ω cm and 0.58eV respectively.

  5. Room temperature ammonia gas sensing properties of MoS2 nanostructured thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shubham; Kumar, Arvind; Kaur, Davinder

    2018-05-01

    Here, we have fabricated the MoS2 nanostructure thin films on the Si (100) substrate using DC magnetron sputtering technique. The MoS2 thin film sensor shows the selective responses towards the ammonia gas (NH3) under low detection range 10-500 ppm. The sensor displays a significantly high sensing response (Rg/Ra ˜2.2) towards 100 ppm ammonia gas with a very fast response and recovery time of 22 sec and 30 sec respectively. Selectivity and stability investigations exhibit the excellent sensing properties of MoS2 thin film sensor. The working principle and sensing mechanism behind their remarkable performance was also investigated in detail.

  6. Characterization of nanostructured VO2 thin films grown by magnetron controlled sputtering deposition and post annealing method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sihai; Lai, Jianjun; Dai, Jun; Ma, Hong; Wang, Hongchen; Yi, Xinjian

    2009-12-21

    By magnetron controlled sputtering system, a new nanostructured metastable monoclinic phase VO2 (B) thin film has been fabricated. The testing result shows that this nanostructured VO2 (B) thin film has high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of -7%/K. Scanning electron microscopy measurement shows that the average grain diameter of the VO2 (B) crystallite is between 100 and 250 nm. After post annealed, VO2 (B) crystallite is changed into monoclinic (M) phase VO2 (M) crystallite with the average grain diameter between 20 and 50 nm. A set up of testing the thin film switching time is established. The test result shows the switching time is about 50 ms. With the nanostructured VO2 (B) and VO2 (M) thin films, optical switches and high sensitivity detectors will be presented.

  7. Nanostructure CdS/ZnO heterojunction configuration for photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velanganni, S.; Pravinraj, S.; Immanuel, P.; Thiruneelakandan, R.

    2018-04-01

    In the present manuscript, thin films of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) have been deposited on a FTO substrate using a simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles are sensitized over ZnO thin films using SILAR method. The synthesized nanostructured CdS/ZnO heterojunction thin films was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Vis spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The band gap of CdS nanoparticles over ZnO nanostructure was found to be about 3.20 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the deposited CdS/ZnO thin films were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution under sun light irradiation.

  8. Deposition of Nanostructured Thin Film from Size-Classified Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camata, Renato P.; Cunningham, Nicholas C.; Seol, Kwang Soo; Okada, Yoshiki; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    Materials comprising nanometer-sized grains (approximately 1_50 nm) exhibit properties dramatically different from those of their homogeneous and uniform counterparts. These properties vary with size, shape, and composition of nanoscale grains. Thus, nanoparticles may be used as building blocks to engineer tailor-made artificial materials with desired properties, such as non-linear optical absorption, tunable light emission, charge-storage behavior, selective catalytic activity, and countless other characteristics. This bottom-up engineering approach requires exquisite control over nanoparticle size, shape, and composition. We describe the design and characterization of an aerosol system conceived for the deposition of size classified nanoparticles whose performance is consistent with these strict demands. A nanoparticle aerosol is generated by laser ablation and sorted according to size using a differential mobility analyzer. Nanoparticles within a chosen window of sizes (e.g., (8.0 plus or minus 0.6) nm) are deposited electrostatically on a surface forming a film of the desired material. The system allows the assembly and engineering of thin films using size-classified nanoparticles as building blocks.

  9. Effect of Pre-Annealing on Thermal and Optical Properties of ZnO and Al-ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, P.; Gnanavelbabu, A.; Pandiaraj, P.

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple solution route method using zinc acetate as the precursor and ethanol as the solvent. At a temperature of 60∘C, a clear homogenous solution is heated to 100∘C for ethanol evaporation. Then the obtained precursor powder is annealed at 600∘C for the formation of ZnO nanocrystalline structure. Doped ZnO particle is also prepared by using aluminum nitrate nonahydrate to produce aluminum (Al)-doped nanoparticles using the same solution route method followed by annealing. Thin film fabrication is done by air evaporation method using the polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). To analyze the optical and thermal properties for undoped and doped ZnO nanocrystalline thin film by precursor annealing, characterizations such as UV, FTIR, AFM, TGA/DTA, XRD, EDAX and Photoluminescence (PL) were also taken. It was evident that precursor annealing had great influence on thermal and optical properties of thin films while ZnO and AZO film showed low crystallinity and intensity than in the powder form. TGA/DTA suggests pre-annealing effect improves the thermal stability, which ensures that Al ZnO nanoparticle can withstand at high temperature too which is the crucial advantage in the semiconductor devices. UV spectroscopy confirmed the presence of ZnO nanoparticles in the thin film by an absorbance peak observed at 359nm with an energy bandgap of 3.4eV. A peak obtained at 301nm with an energy bandgap of 4.12eV shows a blue shift due to the presence of Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles. Both ZnO and AZO bandgap increased due to precursor annealing. In this research, PL spectrum is also studied in order to determine the optical property of the nanoparticle embedded thin film. From PL spectrum, it is observed that the intensity of the doped ZnO is much more enhanced as the dopant concentration is increased to 1wt.% and 2wt.% of Al in ZnO.

  10. Correlation between reflectance and photoluminescent properties of al-rich ZnO nano-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Firoz; Baek, Seong-Ho; Ahmad, Nafis; Lee, Gun Hee; Seo, Tae Hoon; Suh, Eun-kyung; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Al rich zinc oxide nano-structured films were synthesized using spin coating sol-gel technique. The films were annealed in oxygen ambient in the temperature range of 200-700 °C. The structural, optical, and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the films were studied at various annealing temperatures using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence emission spectra measurement, and Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The optical band gap was found to decrease with the increase of the annealing temperature following the Gauss Amp function due to the confinement of the exciton. The PL peak intensity in the near band region (INBE) was found to increase with the increase of the annealing temperature up to 600 °C, then to decrease fast to a lower value for the annealing temperature of 700 °C due to crystalline quality. The Raman peak of E2 (low) was red shifted from 118 cm-1 to 126 cm-1 with the increase of the annealing temperature. The intensity of the second order phonon (TA+LO) at 674 cm-1 was found to decrease with the increase of the annealing temperature. The normalized values of the reflectance and the PL intensity in the NBE region were highest for the annealing temperature of 600 °C. A special correlation was found between the reflectance at λ = 1000 nm and the normalized PL intensity in the green region due to scattering due to presence of grains.

  11. Percentage of different aluminum doping influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured growth for sensor application

    SciT

    Mohamed, R., E-mail: ruziana12@gmail.com; NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor; Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, 26400 Bandar Tun Razak Jengka, Pahang

    In this work, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with different aluminum (Al) doping percentage was synthesis by sol gel immersion method. Al doped ZnO at various doping percentage from 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. It was found that with different Al percentage influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO growth. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) image showed the use of different Al doping causes the difference in geometry and size of ZnO nanorods growth. Based on UV-Vis spectroscopy, the transmittance at 1% Al doping has the highest spectrum.

  12. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Trejo, Rosa M.; Jellison, Gerald E.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Hillesheim, Daniel A.; Winter, Kyle O.; Christen, David K.; Hunter, Scott R.; Haynes, J. Allen

    2013-08-01

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military.

  13. Optically transparent, mechanically durable, nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces enabled by spinodally phase-separated glass thin films.

    PubMed

    Aytug, Tolga; Simpson, John T; Lupini, Andrew R; Trejo, Rosa M; Jellison, Gerald E; Ivanov, Ilia N; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Winter, Kyle O; Christen, David K; Hunter, Scott R; Haynes, J Allen

    2013-08-09

    We describe the formation and properties of atomically bonded, optical quality, nanostructured thin glass film coatings on glass plates, utilizing phase separation by spinodal decomposition in a sodium borosilicate glass system. Following deposition via magnetron sputtering, thermal processing and differential etching, these coatings are structurally superhydrophilic (i.e., display anti-fogging functionality) and demonstrate robust mechanical properties and superior abrasion resistance. After appropriate chemical surface modification, the surfaces display a stable, non-wetting Cassie-Baxter state and exhibit exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles as large as 172°. As an added benefit, in both superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states these nanostructured surfaces can block ultraviolet radiation and can be engineered to be anti-reflective with broadband and omnidirectional transparency. Thus, the present approach could be tailored toward distinct coatings for numerous markets, such as residential windows, windshields, specialty optics, goggles, electronic and photovoltaic cover glasses, and optical components used throughout the US military.

  14. Structural and optical properties of nanostructured CdSe thin films prepared by electrochemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Rekha; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2018-05-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanostructured thin films have been grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates by potentiostatic electrochemical deposition (ECD) technique for use in solar energy conversion devices. The effect of bath temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of prepared CdSe films has been explored. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy clearly show that the CdSe films are polycrystalline and exhibit phase transformation from wurtzite to zincblende structure with increase in bath temperature. Optical spectra reveal that the nanostructured CdSe films have high absorbance in visible region and the films show a red shift in direct optical energy band gap from 1.90 to 1.65 eV with increase in bath temperature due to change in phase and bandgap tuning related to quantum confinement effect.

  15. Magneto-optical Phase Transition in a Nanostructured Co/Pd Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwokoye, Chidubem; Bennett, Lawrence; Della Torre, Edward; Siddique, Abid; Zhang, Ming; Wagner, Michael; Narducci, Frank

    Interest in the study of magnetism in nanostructures at low temperatures is growing. We report work that extends the magnetics experiments in that studied Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) of magnons in confined nanostructures. We report experimental investigation of the magneto-optical properties, influenced by photon-magnon interactions, of a Co/Pd thin film below and above the magnon BEC temperature. Comparison of results from SQUID and MOKE experiments revealed a phase transition temperature in both magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the material that is attributed to the magnon BEC. Recent research in magnonics has provided a realization scheme for developing magnon BEC qubit gates for a quantum computing processor. Future research work will explore this technology and find ways to apply quantum computing to address some computational challenges in communication systems. We recognize financial support from the Naval Air Systems Command Section 219 grant.

  16. New insights into the nanostructure of innovative thin film solar cells gained by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eijt, S. W. H.; Shi, W.; Mannheim, A.; Butterling, M.; Schut, H.; Egger, W.; Dickmann, M.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Shakeri, B.; Meulenberg, R. W.; Callewaert, V.; Saniz, R.; Partoens, B.; Barbiellini, B.; Bansil, A.; Melskens, J.; Zeman, M.; Smets, A. H. M.; Kulbak, M.; Hodes, G.; Cahen, D.; Brück, E.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies showed that positron annihilation methods can provide key insights into the nanostructure and electronic structure of thin film solar cells. In this study, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is applied to investigate CdSe quantum dot (QD) light absorbing layers, providing evidence of positron trapping at the surfaces of the QDs. This enables one to monitor their surface composition and electronic structure. Further, 2D-Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation (2D-ACAR) is used to investigate the nanostructure of divacancies in photovoltaic-high-quality a-Si:H films. The collected momentum distributions were converted by Fourier transformation to the direct space representation of the electron-positron autocorrelation function. The evolution of the size of the divacancies as a function of hydrogen dilution during deposition of a-Si:H thin films was examined. Finally, we present a first positron Doppler Broadening of Annihilation Radiation (DBAR) study of the emerging class of highly efficient thin film solar cells based on perovskites.

  17. Fabrication of ZnO Thin Films by Sol-Gel Spin Coating and Their UV and White-Light Emission Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mirgender; Dubey, Sarvesh; Rajendar, Vanga; Park, Si-Hyun

    2017-10-01

    ZnO thin films have been fabricated by the sol-gel spin-coating technique and annealed under different conditions, and their ultraviolet (UV) and white-light emission properties investigated. Different ambient conditions including oxygen, nitrogen, zinc-rich nitrogen, and vacuum were used to tune the main properties of the ZnO thin films. The resistivity varied from the conductive to semi-insulating regime, and the luminescence emission from fairly intense UV to polychromatic. The emission intensity was also found to be a function of the annealing conditions. Possible routes to compensate the loss of emission characteristics are discussed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was carried out to detect the chemical states of the zinc/oxygen species. The changes in the electrical and emission properties are explained based on annihilation/formation of inherent donor/acceptor-type defects. Such ZnO thin films could have potential applications in solid-state lighting.

  18. Synthesis of ZnO thin film by sol-gel spin coating technique for H2S gas sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimbalkar, Amol R.; Patil, Maruti G.

    2017-12-01

    In this present work, zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film synthesized by a simple sol-gel spin coating technique. The structural, morphology, compositional, microstructural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of the film were studied by using XRD, FESEM, EDS, XPS, HRTEM, Raman, FTIR and UV-vis techniques. The ZnO thin film shows hexagonal wurtzite structure with a porous structured morphology. Gas sensing performance of synthesized ZnO thin film was tested initially for H2S gas at different operating temperatures as well as concentrations. The maximum gas response is achieved towards H2S gas at 300 °C operating temperature, at 100 ppm gas concentration as compared to other gases like CH3OH, Cl2, NH3, LPG, CH3COCH3, and C2H5OH with a good stability.

  19. Voltammetric Sensor Based on Fe-doped ZnO and TiO2 Nanostructures-modified Carbon-paste Electrode for Determination of Levodopa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaraki Firooz, Azam; Hosseini Nia, Bahram; Beheshtian, Javad; Ghalkhani, Masoumeh

    2017-10-01

    In this study, undoped and 1 wt.% Fe-doped with ZnO, and TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method without using templates. The influence of the Fe dopant on structural, optical and electrochemical response was studied by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectra, photoluminescence spectra and electrochemical characterization system. The electrochemical response of the carbon paste electrode modified with synthesized nanostructures (undoped ZnO and TiO2 as well as doped with Fe ions) toward levodopa (L-Dopa) was studied. Cyclic voltammetry using provided modified electrodes showed electro-catalytic properties for electro-oxidation of L-Dopa and a significant reduction was observed in the anodic overvoltage compared to the bare electrode. The results indicated the presence of the sufficient dopants. The best response was obtained in terms of the current enhancement, overvoltage reduction, and reversibility improvement of the L-Dopa oxidation reaction under experimental conditions by the modified electrode with TiO2 nanoparticles doped with Fe ions.

  20. Uniform Fe3O4 coating on flower-like ZnO nanostructures by atomic layer deposition for electromagnetic wave absorption.

    PubMed

    Wan, Gengping; Wang, Guizhen; Huang, Xianqin; Zhao, Haonan; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Kan; Yu, Lei; Peng, Xiange; Qin, Yong

    2015-11-21

    An elegant atomic layer deposition (ALD) method has been employed for controllable preparation of a uniform Fe3O4-coated ZnO (ZnO@Fe3O4) core-shell flower-like nanostructure. The Fe3O4 coating thickness of the ZnO@Fe3O4 nanostructure can be tuned by varying the cycle number of ALD Fe2O3. When serving as additives for microwave absorption, the ZnO@Fe3O4-paraffin composites exhibit a higher absorption capacity than the ZnO-paraffin composites. For ZnO@500-Fe3O4, the effective absorption bandwidth below -10 dB can reach 5.2 GHz and the RL values below -20 dB also cover a wide frequency range of 11.6-14.2 GHz when the coating thickness is 2.3 mm, suggesting its potential application in the treatment of the electromagnetic pollution problem. On the basis of experimental observations, a mechanism has been proposed to understand the enhanced microwave absorption properties of the ZnO@Fe3O4 composites.

  1. Study of morphology effects on magnetic interactions and band gap variations for 3d late transition metal bi-doped ZnO nanostructures by hybrid DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Soumendu; Kaphle, Gopi Chandra; Baral, Sayan; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2015-08-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculations, the effects of morphology of semiconducting nanostructures on the magnetic interaction between two magnetic dopant atoms as well as a possibility of tuning band gaps have been studied in the case of the bi-doped (ZnO)24 nanostructures with the impurity dopant atoms of the 3d late transition metals—Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. To explore the morphology effect, three different structures of the host (ZnO)24 nano-system, having different degrees of spatial confinement, have been considered: a two dimensional nanosheet, a one dimensional nanotube, and a finite cage-shaped nanocluster. The present study employs hybrid density functional theory to accurately describe the electronic structure of all the systems. It is shown here that the magnetic coupling between the two dopant atoms remains mostly anti-ferromagnetic in the course of changing the morphology from the sheet geometry to the cage-shaped geometry of the host systems, except for the case of energetically most stable bi-Mn doping, which shows a transition from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic coupling with decreasing aspect ratio of the host system. The effect of the shape change, however, has a significant effect on the overall band gap variations of both the pristine as well as all the bi-doped systems, irrespective of the nature of the dopant atoms and provides a means for easy tunability of their optoelectronic properties.

  2. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of molecular thin films and semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaan, Sandeep

    Work presented in this thesis mostly deals with nano-scale study of electronic properties of organic semiconducting molecules using pentacene (Pn) as a model system and compared with various SiC surfaces to gain more insight into physical processes at nano-scale. In addition, InAs quantum dots (QDs) in a GaAs matrix are studied to probe electronic states of individual QDs. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) are the primary experimental techniques used to probe local electronic properties on the nano-scale. Vacuum sublimated Pn thin films were deposited onto SiC substrates for STM/STS experiments. STM studies show high quality ordered Pn films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images reveal dendritic growth pattern of these films. Local density of states (LDOS) measurements using STS reveals a HOMO-LUMO bandgap. In order to study charge transport properties of Pn films, different amount of charge were injected into the sample by systematically changing the tip-sample separation. Saturation of the tunnel current was observed at positive sample voltages (LUMO states). This effect was attributed to a transport/space charge limitation in tunnel current by treating it as a situation analogous to charge injection into insulators which gives rise to space charge limited current (also previously observed in the case of organic semiconductors). Using a simple model we were able to derive a hopping rate that characterizes nano-scale transport in Pn films at least in the vicinity of the STM probe-tip. We have studied effect of transport limitation in the tunnel current for various semiconductor surfaces. In order to probe surfaces of varying conductivities, we have used Si-rich SiC surfaces such as 3x3 and 3x3 -R30° (both Mott-Hubbard insulators) as well as a highly conducting C-rich graphene surface, and compared those results with the data obtained from Pn. We observe variation of the decay constant kappa (which characterizes the tunneling process) on

  3. Low-cost and facile synthesis of Ni(OH)2/ZnO nanostructures for high-sensitivity glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strano, V.; Mirabella, S.

    2018-01-01

    An efficient electrode for non-enzymatic glucose detection is produced with low-cost techniques on a Cu wire. ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on a Cu wire by chemical bath deposition and were used as the substrate for pulsed electrodeposition of nanostructured Ni(OH)2 flakes. The effect of the electrodeposition potential on the final morphology and electrochemical behavior of the Ni(OH)2/ZnO/Cu structures is reported. ZnO NRs resulted to be well dressed by Ni(OH)2 flakes and were tested as glucose sensing electrodes in 0.1 M NaOH solution, showing high sensitivities (up to 3 mA mM-1 cm-2) and long-term stability. The presence of ZnO NRs was shown to improve the performance of the glucose sensor in terms of electrochemical stability over the time and sensitivity compared to Ni(OH)2/Cu sample. The reported data demonstrate a simple, versatile and low-cost fabrication approach for effective glucose sensing system within a urban mines framework.

  4. Nanostructuring on zinc phthalocyanine thin films for single-junction organic solar cells

    SciT

    Chaudhary, Dhirendra K.; Kumar, Lokendra, E-mail: lokendrakr@allduniv.ac.in

    2016-05-23

    Vertically aligned and random oriented crystalline molecular nanorods of organic semiconducting Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc) have been grown on ITO coated glass substrate using solvent volatilization method. Interesting changes in surface morphology were observed under different solvent treatment. Vertically aligned nanorods of ZnPc thin film were observed in the films treated with acetone, where as the random oriented nanorods were observed in the films treated with chloroform. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used for characterization of nanostructures. The optical properties of the nanorods have been investigated by UV-Vis. absorption spectroscopy.

  5. Physical properties of nanostructured CeO2 thin films grown by SILAR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ishaque Ahmed; Belkhedkar, M. R.; Salodkar, R. V.; Ubale, A. U.

    2018-05-01

    Nanostructured CeO2 thin films have been deposited by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method onto glass substrate using (CeNO3)3 6H2O and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors respectively. The structural and morphological characterizations were carried out by means of X-ray diffraction, FTIR, FESEM and EDX studies. The highly resistive (1010 Ω cm) semiconducting CeO2 film exhibits 2.95 eV optical band gap.

  6. Femtosecond manipulation of spins, charges, and ions in nanostructures, thin films, and surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, F.; Hengsberger, M.; Castiglioni, L.; Osterwalder, J.

    2017-01-01

    Modern ultrafast techniques provide new insights into the dynamics of ions, charges, and spins in photoexcited nanostructures. In this review, we describe the use of time-resolved electron-based methods to address specific questions such as the ordering properties of self-assembled nanoparticles supracrystals, the interplay between electronic and structural dynamics in surfaces and adsorbate layers, the light-induced control of collective electronic modes in nanowires and thin films, and the real-space/real-time evolution of the skyrmion lattice in topological magnets. PMID:29308416

  7. Molecular separations using nanostructured porous thin films fabricated by glancing angle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuidenhout, Louis Wentzel

    Biomolecular separation techniques are an enabling technology that indirectly in.uence many aspects of our lives. Advances have led to faster analyses, reduced costs, higher specificity, and new analytical techniques, impacting areas such as health care, environmental monitoring, polymer sciences, agriculture, and nutrition. Further development of separations technology is anticipated to follow the path of computing technology such that miniaturization through the development of microfluidics technology, lab-on-a-chip systems, and other integrative, multi-component systems will further extend our analysis capabilities. Creation of new and improvement of existing separation technologies is an integral part of the pathway to miniaturized systems. the work of this thesis investigates molecular separations using porous nanostructured films fabricated by the thin film process glancing angle deposition (GLAD). Structural architecture, pore size and shape, and film density can be finely controlled to produce high-surface area thin films with engineered morphology. The characteristic size scales and structural control of GLAD films are well-suited to biomolecules and separation techniques, motivating investigation into the utility and performance of GLAD films for biomolecular separations. This project consisted of three phases. First, chromatographic separation of dye molecules on silica GLAD films was demonstrated by thin layer chromatography Direct control of film nanostructure altered the separation characteristics; most strikingly, anisotropic structures provided two-dimensional analyte migration. Second, nanostructures made with GLAD were integrated in PDMS microfluidic channels using a sacrificial etching process; DNA molecules (10/48 kbp and 6/10/20 kbp mixtures) were electrophoretically separated on a microfluidic chip using a porous bed of SiO2 vertical posts. Third, mass spectrometry of proteins and drugs in the mass range of 100-1300 m/z was performed using

  8. Patterned Diblock Co-Polymer Thin Films as Templates for Advanced Anisotropic Metal Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Roth, Stephan V; Santoro, Gonzalo; Risch, Johannes F H; Yu, Shun; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Boese, Torsten; Döhrmann, Ralph; Zhang, Peng; Besner, Bastian; Bremer, Philipp; Rukser, Dieter; Rübhausen, Michael A; Terrill, Nick J; Staniec, Paul A; Yao, Yuan; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-06-17

    We demonstrate glancing-angle deposition of gold on a nanostructured diblock copolymer, namely polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film. Exploiting the selective wetting of gold on the polystyrene block, we are able to fabricate directional hierarchical structures. We prove the asymmetric growth of the gold nanoparticles and are able to extract the different growth laws by in situ scattering methods. The optical anisotropy of these hierarchical hybrid materials is further probed by angular resolved spectroscopic methods. This approach enables us to tailor functional hierarchical layers in nanodevices, such as nanoantennae arrays, organic photovoltaics, and sensor electronics.

  9. Behaviour of a ZnO thin film as MSG for biosensing material in sub-wavelength regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimie, N.; Steigmann, R.; Danila, N. A.; Iacomi, F.; Faktorova, D.; Savin, A.

    2016-11-01

    Zinc oxide nanostructured materials, such as films and nanoparticles, could provide a suitable platform for development of high performance biosensing material due to their unique fundamental material properties. In this study, the enzyme biosensing consisting of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were grown on SiO2/Si substrates by vacuum thermal evaporation method and their sensing characteristics are examined in air and investigated. The film morphology is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) the film crystalline quality and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, the interest in surface waves appeared due to evanescent waves in the metallic strip grating structure (MSG-Ag/ZnO/SiO2/Si) in sub-wavelength regime. Before testing the sensor with metamaterials (MMs) lens in the sub-wavelength regime, a simulation of the evanescent wave's formation has been performed at the edge of Ag strips, with thicknesses in the range of micrometers.

  10. Study on silver doped and undoped ZnO thin films working as capacitive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, S.; Kumar, N. Santhosh; Kumar, S. K. Naveen

    2013-06-01

    Nanomaterials have been found to exhibit interesting properties like good conductivity, piezoelectricity, high band gap etc. among those metal oxide family, Zinc Oxide has become a material of interest among scientific community. In this paper, we present a method of fabricating capacitive sensors, in which Silver doped ZnO and pure ZnO nanoparticles act as active layer. For the synthesis of the nanoparticle, we followed biosynthesis method and wet chemical method for Ag and Ag doped ZnO nanoparticles respectively. Characterization has been done for both the particles. The XRD pattern taken for the Ag Doped ZnO nanoparticles confirmed the average size of the particles to be 15nm. AFM image of the sample is taken by doping on Silicon wafer. Also we have presented the results of CV characteristics and IV characteristics of the capacitive sensor.

  11. Plasmon-enhanced electron scattering in nanostructured thin metal films revealed by low-voltage scanning electron microscopy

    SciT

    Mikhailovskii, V., E-mail: v.mikhailovskii@spbu.ru; IRC for Nanotechnology, Research Park, St.-Petersburg State University; Petrov, Yu.

    2016-06-17

    The drastic enhancement of backscattered electrons (BSE) yield from nanostructured thin metal film which exceeded well the one from massive metal was observed at accelerating voltages below 400 V. The dependences of BSE signal from nanostructured gold film on accelerating voltage and on retarding grid potential applied to BSE detector were investigated. It was shown that enhanced BSE signal was formed by inelastic scattered electrons coming from the gaps between nanoparticles. A tentative explanation of the mechanism of BSE signal enhancement was suggested.

  12. Simulation, fabrication and characterization of ZnO based thin film transistors grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shaivalini; Chakrabarti, P

    2012-03-01

    We report the performance of the thin film transistors (TFTs) using ZnO as an active channel layer grown by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The bottom gate type TFT, consists of a conventional thermally grown SiO2 as gate insulator onto p-type Si substrates. The X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the ZnO films are preferentially orientated in the (002) plane, with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. A typical ZnO TFT fabricated by this method exhibits saturation field effect mobility of about 0.6134 cm2/V s, an on to off ratio of 102, an off current of 2.0 x 10(-7) A, and a threshold voltage of 3.1 V at room temperature. Simulation of this TFT is also carried out by using the commercial software modeling tool ATLAS from Silvaco-International. The simulated global characteristics of the device were compared and contrasted with those measured experimentally. The experimental results are in fairly good agreement with those obtained from simulation.

  13. EXAFS and XANES investigation of (Li, Ni) codoped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Mino, Lorenzo; Gianolio, Diego; Bardelli, Fabrizio; Prestipino, Carmelo; Senthil Kumar, E; Bellarmine, F; Ramanjaneyulu, M; Lamberti, Carlo; Ramachandra Rao, M S

    2013-09-25

    Ni doped, Li doped and (Li, Ni) codoped ZnO thin films were successfully grown using a pulsed laser deposition technique. Undoped and doped ZnO thin films were investigated using extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). Preliminary investigations on the Zn K-edge of the undoped and doped ZnO thin films revealed that doping has not influenced the average Zn-Zn bond length and Debye-Waller factor. This shows that both Ni and Li doping do not appreciably affect the average local environment of Zn. All the doped ZnO thin films exhibited more than 50% of substitutional Ni, with a maximum of 77% for 2% Ni and 2% Li doped ZnO thin film. The contribution of Ni metal to the EXAFS signal clearly reveals the presence of Ni clusters. The Ni-Ni distance in the Ni(0) nanoclusters, which are formed in the film, is shorter with respect to the reference Ni metal foil and the Debye-Waller factor is higher. Both facts perfectly reflect what is expected for metal nanoparticles. At the highest doping concentration (5%), the presence of Li favors the growth of a secondary NiO phase. Indeed, 2% Ni and 5% Li doped ZnO thin film shows %Nisub = 75 ± 11, %Nimet = 10 ± 8, %NiO = 15 ± 8. XANES studies further confirm that the substitutional Ni is more than 50% in all the samples. These results explain the observed magnetic properties.

  14. Chemical and thermal stability of the characteristics of filtered vacuum arc deposited ZnO, SnO2 and zinc stannate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çetinörgü, E.; Goldsmith, S.

    2007-09-01

    ZnO, SnO2 and zinc stannate thin films were deposited on commercial microscope glass and UV fused silica substrates using filtered vacuum arc deposition system. During the deposition, the substrate temperature was at room temperature (RT) or at 400 °C. The film structure and composition were determined using x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The transmission of the films in the VIS was 85% to 90%. The thermal stability of the film electrical resistance was determined in air as a function of the temperature in the range 28 °C (RT) to 200 °C. The resistance of ZnO increased from ~ 5000 to 105 Ω when heated to 200 °C, that of SnO2 films increased from 500 to 3900 Ω, whereas that of zinc stannate thin films increased only from 370 to 470 Ω. During sample cooling to RT, the resistance of ZnO and SnO2 thin films continued to rise considerably; however, the increase in the zinc stannate thin film resistance was significantly lower. After cooling to RT, ZnO and SnO2 thin films became practically insulators, while the resistance of zinc stannate was 680 Ω. The chemical stability of the films was determined by immersing in acidic and basic solutions up to 27 h. The SnO2 thin films were more stable in the HCl solution than the ZnO and the zinc stannate thin films; however, SnO2 and zinc stannate thin films that were immersed in the NaOH solution did not dissolve after 27 h.

  15. Bi-layer channel structure-based oxide thin-film transistors consisting of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO with different Al compositions and stacking sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Woon; Yun, Myeong Gu; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Kim, So Hee; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2015-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)-based bi-layers, consisting of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layers grown by atomic layer deposition, were utilized as the channels of oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). Thin AZO layers (5 nm) with different Al compositions (5 and 14 at. %) were deposited on top of and beneath the ZnO layers in a bi-layer channel structure. All of the bi-layer channel TFTs that included the AZO layers showed enhanced stability (Δ V Th ≤ 3.2 V) under a positive bias stress compared to the ZnO single-layer channel TFT (Δ V Th = 4.0 V). However, the AZO/ZnO bi-layer channel TFTs with an AZO interlayer between the gate dielectric and the ZnO showed a degraded field effect mobility (0.3 cm2/V·s for 5 at. % and 1.8 cm2/V·s for 14 at. %) compared to the ZnO single-layer channel TFT (5.5 cm2/V·s) due to increased scattering caused by Al-related impurities near the gate dielectric/channel interface. In contrast, the ZnO/AZO bi-layer channel TFTs with an AZO layer on top of the ZnO layer exhibited an improved field effect mobility (7.8 cm2/V·s for 14 at. %) and better stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Temperature-dependent phosphorous dopant activation in ZnO thin film deposited using plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murkute, Punam; Ghadi, Hemant; Saha, Shantanu; Chavan, Vinayak; Chakrabarti, Subhananda

    2018-03-01

    High band gap (3.34 eV) and large exciton binding energy (60 meV) at room temperature facilitates ZnO as a useful candidate for optoelectronics devices. Presence of zinc interstitial and oxygen vacancies results in n-type ZnO film. Phosphorus implantation was carried out using plasma immersion ion implantation technique (2kV, 900W) for constant duration (50 s) on RF sputtered ZnO thin films (Sample A). For dopant activation, sample A was subjected to Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) at 700, 800, 900 and 1000°C for 10 s in Oxygen ambient (Sample B, C, D, E). Low temperature (18 K) photoluminescence measurement demonstrated strong donor bound exciton peak for sample A. Dominant donor to acceptor pair peak (DAP) was observed for sample D at around 3.22 eV with linewidth of 131.3 meV. High resolution x-ray diffraction measurement demonstrated (001) and (002) peaks for sample A. (002) peak with high intensity was observed from all annealed samples. Incorporation of phosphorus in ZnO films leads to peak shift towards higher 2θ angle indicate tensile strain in implanted samples. Scanning electron microscopy images reveals improvement in grain size distribution along with reduction of implantation related defects. Raman spectra measured A1(LO) peak at around 576 cm-1 for sample A. Low intensity E2 (high) peak was observed for sample D indicating formation of (PZn+2VZn) complexes. From room temperature Hall measurement, sample D measured 1.17 x 1018 cm -3 carrier concentration with low resistivity of 0.464 Ω.

  17. Plasma assisted facile synthesis of vanadium oxide (V3O7) nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Megha; Saini, Sujit K.; Kumar, Prabhat; Sharma, Rabindar K.; Reddy, G. B.

    2018-05-01

    Vanadium oxides nanostructured thin films are synthesized using plasma assisted sublimation process. The effect of temperatures on growth of V2O5 and V3O7 thin films is studied. Scanning electron micrographs shows different morphologies are obtained at different temperatures i.e. at 450 °C nano cubes-like structures are obtained, whereas at 550 °C and 650 °C nanorods are obtained. Sample deposited at 450 °C is entirely composed of V2O5 and sample at higher temperatures are composed of mixed phase of vanadium oxides i.e. V2O5 and V3O7. As temperature increased, so the content of V3O7 in the sample is increased as confirmed by XRD and Raman analyses.

  18. Experimental Observation of Temperature Variation of Surface Magnetization on a Nanostructured Co/Pt Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwokoye, Chidubem; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence; Siddique, Abid; Narducci, Frank A.

    2015-04-01

    Magneto-optic Kerr effect, MOKE, is used to observe the complex rotation of the polarization plane of linearly polarized incident light reflected from the surface of a magnetic material. The rotation is directly related to the surface magnetization of the material. We report work that extends the experiments in that studied Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) of magnons in confined nanostructures. We report the MOKE experimental results of an investigation of surface magnetic remanence and coercivity on a Co/Pt ferromagnetic thin film at low-temperatures. Our findings are explained and are attributed to the BEC of confined magnons in the Co/Pt thin film. We recognize financial support from the Naval Air Systems Command Section 219 grant.

  19. Nanostructure iron-silicon thin film deposition using plasma focus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb, M.; Saudy, A. H.; Hassaballa, S.; Eloker, M. M.

    2013-03-01

    The presented study in this paper reports the deposition of nano-structure iron-silicon thin film on a glass substrate using 3.3 KJ Mather-type plasma focus device. The iron-silicon powder was put on the top of hollow copper anode electrode. The deposition was done under different experimental conditions such as numbers of electric discharge shots and angular position of substrate. The film samples were exposed to energetic argon ions generated by plasma focus device at different distances from the top of the central electrode. The exposed samples were then analyzed for their structure and optical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The structure of iron-silicon thin films deposited using plasma focus device depends on the distance from the anode, the number of focus deposition shots and the angular position of the sample

  20. Local Anodic Oxidation of Thin GeO Films and Formation of Nanostructures Based on Them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astankova, K. N.; Kozhukhov, A. S.; Azarov, I. A.; Gorokhov, E. B.; Sheglov, D. V.; Latyshev, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The process of local anodic oxidation of thin GeO films has been studied using an atomic force microscope. The electron-probe microanalysis showed that oxidized areas of a GeO film were germanium dioxide. The effect of the voltage pulse duration applied to the probe-substrate system and the atmospheric humidity on the height of the oxide structures has been studied. The kinetics of the local anodic oxidation (LAO) in a semi-contact mode obeys the Cabrera-Mott model for large times. The initial growth rate of the oxide ( R 0) significantly increases and the time of starting the oxidation ( t 0) decreases as the atmospheric humidity increases by 20%, which is related to an increase in the concentration of oxygen-containing ions at the surface of the oxidized GeO film. It was shown that nanostructures in thin GeO layers can be formed by the LAO method.

  1. Nanostructuring of thin Au films deposited on ordered Ti templates for applications in SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grochowska, Katarzyna; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Macewicz, Łukasz; Skiba, Franciszek; Szkoda, Mariusz; Karczewski, Jakub; Burczyk, Łukasz; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2017-10-01

    In this work the results on thermal nanostructuring of the Au films on Ti templates as well as morphology and optical properties of the obtained structures are reported. The bimetal nanostructures are fabricated in a multi-step process. First, the titania nanotubes are produced on the surface of Ti foil by anodization in an ethylene glycol-water solution containing fluoride ions. This is followed by chemical etching in oxalic acid and results in a highly ordered dimpled surface. Subsequently, thin gold films (5-20 nm) are deposited onto prepared Ti substrates by magnetron sputtering. The as-prepared layers are then dewetted by the UV nanosecond laser pulses or alternatively in the furnace (temperature < 500 °C). The SEM inspection reveals formation of honeycomb nanostructures (cavity diameter: ∼100 nm) covered with Au nanoparticles (NPs). It is observed that both the laser annealing and continuous thermal treatment in furnace can lead to the creation of NPs inside every Ti dimple and result in uniform coating of the whole area of structured templates. The size and localization of NPs obtained via both dewetting processes as well as their shape can be tuned by the annealing time and the laser processing parameters and also by initial thickness of Au layer and presence of the dimples themselves in the substrate. Results confirm that the prepared material can be used as substrate for SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy).

  2. TiN/Al2O3/ZnO gate stack engineering for top-gate thin film transistors by combination of post oxidation and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kimihiko; Matsui, Hiroaki; Tabata, Hitoshi; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Control of fabrication processes for a gate stack structure with a ZnO thin channel layer and an Al2O3 gate insulator has been examined for enhancing the performance of a top-gate ZnO thin film transistor (TFT). The Al2O3/ZnO interface and the ZnO layer are defective just after the Al2O3 layer formation by atomic layer deposition. Post treatments such as plasma oxidation, annealing after the Al2O3 deposition, and gate metal formation (PMA) are promising to improve the interfacial and channel layer qualities drastically. Post-plasma oxidation effectively reduces the interfacial defect density and eliminates Fermi level pinning at the Al2O3/ZnO interface, which is essential for improving the cut-off of the drain current of TFTs. A thermal effect of post-Al2O3 deposition annealing at 350 °C can improve the crystalline quality of the ZnO layer, enhancing the mobility. On the other hand, impacts of post-Al2O3 deposition annealing and PMA need to be optimized because the annealing can also accompany the increase in the shallow-level defect density and the resulting electron concentration, in addition to the reduction in the deep-level defect density. The development of the interfacial control technique has realized the excellent TFT performance with a large ON/OFF ratio, steep subthreshold characteristics, and high field-effect mobility.

  3. Nanostructured Ti-Ta thin films synthesized by combinatorial glancing angle sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motemani, Yahya; Khare, Chinmay; Savan, Alan; Hans, Michael; Paulsen, Alexander; Frenzel, Jan; Somsen, Christoph; Mücklich, Frank; Eggeler, Gunther; Ludwig, Alfred

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Ta alloys are attractive materials for applications in actuators as well as biomedical implants. When fabricated as thin films, these alloys can potentially be employed as microactuators, components for micro-implantable devices and coatings on surgical implants. In this study, Ti100-x Ta x (x = 21, 30) nanocolumnar thin films are fabricated by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) at room temperature using Ti73Ta27 and Ta sputter targets. Crystal structure, morphology and microstructure of the nanostructured thin films are systematically investigated by XRD, SEM and TEM, respectively. Nanocolumns of ˜150-160 nm in width are oriented perpendicular to the substrate for both Ti79Ta21 and Ti70Ta30 compositions. The disordered α″ martensite phase with orthorhombic structure is formed in room temperature as-deposited thin films. The columns are found to be elongated small single crystals which are aligned perpendicular to the (20\\bar{4}) and (204) planes of α″ martensite, indicating that the films’ growth orientation is mainly dominated by these crystallographic planes. Laser pre-patterned substrates are utilized to obtain periodic nanocolumnar arrays. The differences in seed pattern, and inter-seed distances lead to growth of multi-level porous nanostructures. Using a unique sputter deposition geometry consisting of Ti73Ta27 and Ta sputter sources, a nanocolumnar Ti-Ta materials library was fabricated on a static substrate by a co-deposition process (combinatorial-GLAD approach). In this library, a composition spread developed between Ti72.8Ta27.2 and Ti64.4Ta35.6, as confirmed by high-throughput EDX analysis. The morphology over the materials library varies from well-isolated nanocolumns to fan-like nanocolumnar structures. The influence of two sputter sources is investigated by studying the resulting column angle on the materials library. The presented nanostructuring methods including the use of the GLAD technique along with pre-patterning and a

  4. Influence of amines as surfactant on the optical, thermal, and structural properties of nanostructured ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehgal, Preeti; Narula, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation method using triethanolamine (TEA) and hexamine (HA) as capping agents, and their effects on the optical, thermal, and morphological properties were analyzed. We have also analyzed the role of solvents on the aforementioned properties of ZnO nanoparticles. The optical properties of capped zinc oxide nanoparticles were investigated by UV-visible and fluorescent techniques. The HA@ZnO and TEA@ZnO that showed blueshift in comparison with ZnO without surfactant revealed the role of surfactant in reducing the trap sites by forming defect-free nanoparticles. TG-DTA curves indicated that optimum annealing temperature for ZnO nanoparticles was in the range of 360-469 °C depending upon the surfactant and solvent; no weight loss was observed above 469 °C. Synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had pure wurtzite structure as elucidated by X-ray diffraction studies (XRD). Scanning electron microscope revealed that the ZnO synthesized in isopropyl alcohol had spherical morphology, whereas ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in methanol had agglomerate sheet-like structure. The average size of the nanocrystal was estimated around 85-169 nm for ZnO.

  5. Surface modification of a polyimide gate insulator with an yttrium oxide interlayer for aqueous-solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kwang-Suk; Wee, Duyoung; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Jinsoo; Ahn, Taek; Ka, Jae-Won; Yi, Mi Hye

    2013-06-11

    We report a simple approach to modify the surface of a polyimide gate insulator with an yttrium oxide interlayer for aqueous-solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors. It is expected that the yttrium oxide interlayer will provide a surface that is more chemically compatible with the ZnO semiconductor than is bare polyimde. The field-effect mobility and the on/off current ratio of the ZnO TFT with the YOx/polyimide gate insulator were 0.456 cm(2)/V·s and 2.12 × 10(6), respectively, whereas the ZnO TFT with the polyimide gate insulator was inactive.

  6. Self-assembled photosystem-I biophotovoltaics on nanostructured TiO(2 )and ZnO.

    PubMed

    Mershin, Andreas; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Kaiser, Liselotte; Yu, Daoyong; Vaughn, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Md K; Bruce, Barry D; Graetzel, Michael; Zhang, Shuguang

    2012-01-01

    The abundant pigment-protein membrane complex photosystem-I (PS-I) is at the heart of the Earth's energy cycle. It is the central molecule in the "Z-scheme" of photosynthesis, converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. Commandeering this intricately organized photosynthetic nanocircuitry and re-wiring it to produce electricity carries the promise of inexpensive and environmentally friendly solar power. We here report that dry PS-I stabilized by surfactant peptides functioned as both the light-harvester and charge separator in solar cells self-assembled on nanostructured semiconductors. Contrary to previous attempts at biophotovoltaics requiring elaborate surface chemistries, thin film deposition, and illumination concentrated into narrow wavelength ranges the devices described here are straightforward and inexpensive to fabricate and perform well under standard sunlight yielding open circuit photovoltage of 0.5 V, fill factor of 71%, electrical power density of 81 µW/cm(2) and photocurrent density of 362 µA/cm(2), over four orders of magnitude higher than any photosystem-based biophotovoltaic to date.

  7. Self-assembled photosystem-I biophotovoltaics on nanostructured TiO2 and ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Mershin, Andreas; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Kaiser, Liselotte; Yu, Daoyong; Vaughn, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Md. K.; Bruce, Barry D.; Graetzel, Michael; Zhang, Shuguang

    2012-01-01

    The abundant pigment-protein membrane complex photosystem-I (PS-I) is at the heart of the Earth’s energy cycle. It is the central molecule in the “Z-scheme” of photosynthesis, converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. Commandeering this intricately organized photosynthetic nanocircuitry and re-wiring it to produce electricity carries the promise of inexpensive and environmentally friendly solar power. We here report that dry PS-I stabilized by surfactant peptides functioned as both the light-harvester and charge separator in solar cells self-assembled on nanostructured semiconductors. Contrary to previous attempts at biophotovoltaics requiring elaborate surface chemistries, thin film deposition, and illumination concentrated into narrow wavelength ranges the devices described here are straightforward and inexpensive to fabricate and perform well under standard sunlight yielding open circuit photovoltage of 0.5 V, fill factor of 71%, electrical power density of 81 µW/cm2 and photocurrent density of 362 µA/cm2, over four orders of magnitude higher than any photosystem-based biophotovoltaic to date. PMID:22355747

  8. Properties of plasmonic arrays produced by pulsed-laser nanostructuring of thin Au films

    PubMed Central

    Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Atanasov, Peter A; Bittencourt, Carla; Dikovska, Anna; Nedyalkov, Nikolay N; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Summary A brief description of research advances in the area of short-pulse-laser nanostructuring of thin Au films is followed by examples of experimental data and a discussion of our results on the characterization of structural and optical properties of gold nanostructures. These consist of partially spherical or spheroidal nanoparticles (NPs) which have a size distribution (80 ± 42 nm) and self-organization characterized by a short-distance order (length scale ≈140 nm). For the NP shapes produced, an observably broader tuning range (of about 150 nm) of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band is obtained by renewal thin film deposition and laser annealing of the NP array. Despite the broadened SPR bands, which indicate damping confirmed by short dephasing times not exceeding 4 fs, the self-organized Au NP structures reveal quite a strong enhancement of the optical signal. This was consistent with the near-field modeling and micro-Raman measurements as well as a test of the electrochemical sensing capability. PMID:25551038

  9. Fabrication of solution processed 3D nanostructured CuInGaS₂ thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Van Ben; Cho, Jin Woo; Park, Se Jin; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Park, Hoo Keun; Do, Young Rag; Min, Byoung Koun

    2014-03-28

    In this study we demonstrate the fabrication of CuInGaS₂ (CIGS) thin film solar cells with a three-dimensional (3D) nanostructure based on indium tin oxide (ITO) nanorod films and precursor solutions (Cu, In and Ga nitrates in alcohol). To obtain solution processed 3D nanostructured CIGS thin film solar cells, two different precursor solutions were applied to complete gap filling in ITO nanorods and achieve the desirable absorber film thickness. Specifically, a coating of precursor solution without polymer binder material was first applied to fill the gap between ITO nanorods followed by deposition of the second precursor solution in the presence of a binder to generate an absorber film thickness of ∼1.3 μm. A solar cell device with a (Al, Ni)/AZO/i-ZnO/CdS/CIGS/ITO nanorod/glass structure was constructed using the CIGS film, and the highest power conversion efficiency was measured to be ∼6.3% at standard irradiation conditions, which was 22.5% higher than the planar type of CIGS solar cell on ITO substrate fabricated using the same precursor solutions.

  10. Enhanced electrical properties of dual-layer channel ZnO thin film transistors prepared by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huijin; Han, Dedong; Dong, Junchen; Yu, Wen; Liang, Yi; Luo, Zhen; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2018-05-01

    The thin film transistors (TFTs) with a dual-layer channel structure combing ZnO thin layer grown at 200 °C and ZnO film grown at 120 °C by atomic layer deposition are fabricated. The dual-layer channel TFT exhibits a low leakage current of 2.8 × 10-13 A, Ion/Ioff ratio of 3.4 × 109, saturation mobility μsat of 12 cm2 V-1 s-1, subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.25 V/decade. The SS value decreases to 0.18 V/decade after the annealing treatment in O2 due to the reduction of the trap states at the channel/dielectric interface and in the bulk channel layer. The enhanced performance obtained from the dual-layer channel TFTs is due to the ability of maintaining high mobility and suppressing the increase in the off-current at the same time.

  11. Resistive switching: An investigation of the bipolar–unipolar transition in Co-doped ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Santos, Daniel A.A., E-mail: danielandrade.ufs@gmail.com; Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260; Zeng, Hao

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • A purely bipolar behavior on a Co-doped ZnO thin film has been demonstrated. • We have shown what can happen if a unipolar test is performed in a purely bipolar device. • An explanation for how a sample can show a purely bipolar switching behavior was suggested. • An important open issue about resistive switching effect was put in debate. - Abstract: In order to investigate the resistive switching effect we built devices in a planar structure in which two Al contacts were deposited on the top of the film and separated by a small gap using amore » shadow mask. Therefore, two samples of 10% Co-doped ZnO thin films were sputtered on glass substrate. High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) revealed a highly c-axis oriented crystalline structure, without secondary phase. The high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) showed a flat surface with good coverage and thickness about 300 nm. A Keithley 2425 semiconductor characterization system was used to perform the resistive switching tests in the bipolar and unipolar modes. Considering only the effect of compliance current (CC), the devices showed a purely bipolar behavior since an increase in CC did not induce a transition to unipolar behavior.« less

  12. Effect of morphology evolution on the thermoelectric properties of oxidized ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiying; Li, Guojian; Xiao, Lin; Jia, Baohai; Gao, Yang; Wang, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    The effects of nanowire content on the thermoelectric properties of ZnO films were investigated. The nanowire content of ZnO films was tuned by thermal oxidation of evaporated Zn films. The results showed that hexagonal and polyhedral morphologies on the surface of Zn films can be used to tune the nanowire content of ZnO films. Hexagonal nanoplates with a diameter of 100-350 nm readily grew ZnO nanowires with c-axis preferential orientation. Conversely, it was difficult to grow nanowires on polyhedral nanoparticles with diameters of 500-750 nm because the meeting of ZnO (101) and (001) facets suppressed nanowire growth. Thermoelectric parameters were strongly affected by nanowire content. In particular, carrier concentration increased with nanowire content. Carrier mobility also increased with nanowire content because the nanowires behaved as channels for electronic migration. The band gap of the films narrowed with increasing nanowire content because the binding energy of O 1s electrons with oxygen vacancies decreased. The maximum power factor of the film with high nanowire content (8.80 μW/m K2 at 530 K) was approximately 300% higher than that of the film with low nanowire content.

  13. Li diffusion in epitaxial (11 $bar 2$ 0) ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, P.; Zhong, J.; Emanetoglu, N. W.; Chen, Y.; Muthukumar, S.; Lu, Y.

    2004-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) possesses many interesting properties, such as a wide energy bandgap, large photoconductivity, and high excitonic binding energy. Chemical-vapor-deposition-grown ZnO films generally show n-type conductivity. A compensation doping process is needed to achieve piezoelectric ZnO, which is needed for surface acoustic wave (SAW), bulk acoustic wave, and micro-electromechanical system devices. In this work, a gas-phase diffusion process is developed to achieve piezoelectric (11bar 20) ZnO films. Comparative x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements confirmed that high crystal quality and good surface morphology were preserved after diffusion. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements show a broad band emission with a peak wavelength at ˜580 nm, which is associated with Li doping. The SAW, including both Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave modes, is achieved along different directions in piezoelectric (11bar 20) ZnO films grown on an r-plane sapphire substrate.

  14. ZnO thin film piezoelectric micromachined microphone with symmetric composite vibrating diaphragm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junhong; Wang, Chenghao; Ren, Wei; Ma, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Residual stress is an important factor affecting the sensitivity of piezoelectric micromachined microphone. A symmetric composite vibrating diaphragm was adopted in the micro electro mechanical systems piezoelectric microphone to decrease the residual stress and improve the sensitivity of microphone in this paper. The ZnO film was selected as piezoelectric materials of microphone for its higher piezoelectric coefficient d 31 and lower relative dielectric constant. The thickness optimization of piezoelectric film on square diaphragm is difficult to be fulfilled by analytic method. To optimize the thickness of ZnO films, the stress distribution in ZnO film was analyzed by finite element method and the average stress in different thickness of ZnO films was given. The ZnO films deposited using dc magnetron sputtering exhibits a densely packed structure with columnar crystallites preferentially oriented along (002) plane. The diaphragm of microphone fabricated by micromachining techniques is flat and no wrinkling at corners, and the sensitivity of microphone is higher than 1 mV Pa-1. These results indicate the diaphragm has lower residual stress.

  15. Semiconducting Properties of Nanostructured Amorphous Carbon Thin Films Incorporated with Iodine by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruzaman, Dayana; Ahmad, Nurfadzilah; Annuar, Ishak; Rusop, Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured iodine-post doped amorphous carbon (a-C:I) thin films were prepared from camphor oil using a thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique at different doping temperatures. The structural properties of the films were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies. FESEM and EDS studies showed successful iodine doping. FTIR and Raman studies showed that the a-C:I thin films consisted of a mixture of sp2- and sp3-bonded carbon atoms. The optical and electrical properties of a-C:I thin films were determined by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and current-voltage (I-V) measurement respectively. The optical band gap of a-C thin films decreased upon iodine doping. The highest electrical conductivity was found at 400 °C doping. Heterojunctions are confirmed by rectifying the I-V characteristics of an a-C:I/n-Si junction.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured strontium hexaferrite thin films by the sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudpanah, S. M.; Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. A.

    2012-07-01

    Nanostructured single phase strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12O19, thin films have been synthesized on the (100) silicon substrate using a spin coating sol-gel process. The thin films with various Fe/Sr molar ratios of 8-12 were calcined at different temperatures from 500 to 900 °C. The composition, microstructure and magnetic properties of the SrFe12O19 thin films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that the optimum molar ratio for Fe/Sr was 10 at which the lowest calcination temperature to obtain the single phase strontium hexaferrite thin film was 800 °C. The magnetic measurements revealed that the sample with Fe/Sr molar ratio of 10, exhibited higher saturation magnetization (267.5 emu/cm3) and coercivity (4290 Oe) in comparison with those synthesized under other Fe/Sr molar ratios.

  17. Effect of Ce doping on structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of ZnO nano-structures.

    PubMed

    Selvam, N Clament Sagaya; Vijaya, J Judith; Kennedy, L John

    2014-03-01

    A novel self-assembled pure and Ce doped ZnO nano-particles (NPs) were successfully synthesized by a simple low temperature co-precipitation method. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the prepared photocatalysts shows a novel morphology, high crystallinity, uniform size distribution, and more defects. Photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of nonylphenol, a potent endocrine disrupting chemical in aqueous medium was investigated. Higher amount of oxygen defects exhibits enhanced PCD of nonylphenol. In addition, the influence of the Ce contents on the structure, morphology, absorption, emission and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were investigated systematically. The relative PCD efficiency of pure ZnO, Ce-doped ZnO NPs and commercial TiO2 (Degussa P-25) have also been discussed.

  18. ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructure Photoanode in a CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Gengmin; Sun, Wentao; Shen, Ziyong; Shi, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical array of ZnO nanocones covered with ZnO nanospikes was hydrothermally fabricated and employed as the photoanode in a CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). This QDSSC outperformed the QDSSC based on a simple ZnO nanocone photoanode in all the four principal photovoltaic parameters. Using the hierarchical photoanode dramatically increased the short circuit current density and also slightly raised the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. As a result, the conversion efficiency of the QDSSC based on the hierarchical photoanode was more than twice that of the QDSSC based on the simple ZnO nanocone photoanode. This improvement is attributable to both the enlarged specific area of the photoanode and the reduction in the recombination of the photoexcited electrons. PMID:26379268

  19. Enhanced ZnO Thin-Film Transistor Performance Using Bilayer Gate Dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Alshammari, Fwzah H; Nayak, Pradipta K; Wang, Zhenwei; Alshareef, Husam N

    2016-09-07

    We report ZnO TFTs using Al2O3/Ta2O5 bilayer gate dielectrics grown by atomic layer deposition. The saturation mobility of single layer Ta2O5 dielectric TFT was 0.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), but increased to 13.3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) using Al2O3/Ta2O5 bilayer dielectric with significantly lower leakage current and hysteresis. We show that point defects present in ZnO film, particularly VZn, are the main reason for the poor TFT performance with single layer dielectric, although interfacial roughness scattering effects cannot be ruled out. Our approach combines the high dielectric constant of Ta2O5 and the excellent Al2O3/ZnO interface quality, resulting in improved device performance.

  20. Effect of stress, strain and optical properties in vacuum and normal annealed ZnO thin films using RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. Santhosh; Purvaja, K.; Harinee, N.; Venkateswaran, C.

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide thin films have been deposited on quartz substrate using RF magnetron sputtering. The deposited films were subjected to different annealing atmosphere at a fixed temperature of 500 °C for 5h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveals the shift in the peak of both normal annealed and vacuum annealed thin films when compared to as-deposited ZnO film. The crystallite size, intrinsic stress and other parameters were calculated from XRD data. The surface morphology of the obtained films were studied using Atomic force microscopy (AFM). From Uv-Visible spectroscopy, the peak at 374 nm of all the films is characteristics of ZnO. The structural, thermal stability and optical properties of the annealed ZnO films are discussed in detail.

  1. Contrastive Study on the Structure and the Ultraviolet Absorption Property of Multiple-Doped and Element-Doped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yunyun; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Zhenrong; Tian, Yanfeng; Zhou, Shandan

    Sb2O3- and CeO2-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The influence of Sb2O3 and CeO2 on the structure and ultraviolet (UV) absorption properties was studied by X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Results show that multiple doping of films had a prominent effect on the development of crystal grains and the UV absorption property. Ce and Sb exist in many forms in the ZnO film. The multiple-doped films also show enhanced UVA absorption, and the UV absorption peak widens and the absorption intensity increases. Sb plays a dominant role on the structure and UV absorption of ZnO thin films, which are enhanced by Ce.

  2. Electron mobility enhancement in ZnO thin films via surface modification by carboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalenka, Josef W.; Gopalan, Padma; Katz, Howard E.; Evans, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    Modifying the surface of polycrystalline ZnO films using a monolayer of organic molecules with carboxylic acid attachment groups increases the field-effect electron mobility and zero-bias conductivity, resulting in improved transistors and transparent conductors. The improvement is consistent with the passivation of defects via covalent bonding of the carboxylic acid and is reversible by exposure to a UV-ozone lamp. The properties of the solvent used for the attachment are crucial because solvents with high acid dissociation constants (Ka) for carboxylic acids lead to high proton activities and etching of the nanometers-thick ZnO films, masking the electronic effect.

  3. Solvent-controlled preparation and photocatalytic properties of nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin films with different morphologies

    SciT

    Ao, Yanhui, E-mail: andyao@hhu.edu.cn; Gao, Yinyin; Wang, Peifang

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Low-temperature growth of nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin films was presented by a solvent-controlled method. Nanoparticle structured films in anatase phase have been successfully fabricated with some adjustment. The effects of the solvent were investigated and the formation mechanism was proposed. - Highlights: • Nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin films with different morphologies were obtained at low temperature. • The effects of the solvent on the morphologies of the products were investigated. • The effects of the solvent on the phtocatalytic activity were investigated. - Abstract: A low-temperature growth method of nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin films with different morphologies wasmore » reported. Rod-like, grass-like and nanosheet structured films have been successfully fabricated just by adjusting the ratio of different solvents. The effects of the solvent on the morphologies of the TiO{sub 2} nanostructures were investigated. The formation mechanism of different morphologies was proposed based on the experiment results. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water was evaluated under UV illumination. Results showed that the solvents exhibited important effect on the morphologies and photocatalytic activity of as-prepared nanostructured titania films.« less

  4. Smart chemical sensors using ZnO semiconducting thin films for freshness detection of foods and beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanto, Hidehito; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Dougami, Naganori; Habara, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kusano, Eiji; Kinbara, Akira; Douguchi, Yoshiteru

    1998-07-01

    The sensitivity of the chemical sensor, based on the resistance change of Al2O3-doped and SnO2-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al and ZnO:SnO2) thin film, is studied for exposure to various gases. It is found that the ZnO:Al and ZnO:Sn thin film chemical sensor has a high sensitivity and excellent selectivity for amine (TMA and DMA) gas and ethanol gas, respectively. The ZnO:Al (5.0 wt%) thin film chemical sensor which exhibit a high sensitivity for exposure to odors from rotten sea foods, such as salmon, sea bream, oyster, squid and sardine, responds to the freshness change of these sea foods. The ZnO:SnO2 (78 wt%) thin film chemical sensor which exhibit a high sensitivity for exposure to aroma from alcohols, such as wine, Japanese sake, and whisky, responds to the freshness change of these alcohols.

  5. Nanostructured ZnO in a Metglas/ZnO/Hemoglobin Modified Electrode to Detect the Oxidation of the Hemoglobin Simultaneously by Cyclic Voltammetry and Magnetoelastic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Sagasti, Ariane; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Kouzoudis, Dimitris; Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos; Topoglidis, Emmanuel; Gutiérrez, Jon

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, a nanostructured ZnO layer was synthesized onto a Metglas magnetoelastic ribbon to immobilize hemoglobin (Hb) on it and study the Hb’s electrochemical behavior towards hydrogen peroxide. Hb oxidation by H2O2 was monitored simultaneously by two different techniques: Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Magnetoelastic Resonance (MR). The Metglas/ZnO/Hb system was simultaneously used as a working electrode for the CV scans and as a magnetoelastic sensor excited by external coils, which drive it to resonance and interrogate it. The ZnO nanoparticles for the ZnO layer were grown hydrothermally and fully characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL). Additionally, the ZnO layer’s elastic modulus was measured using a new method, which makes use of the Metglas substrate. For the detection experiments, the electrochemical cell was performed with a glass vial, where the three electrodes (working, counter and reference) were immersed into PBS (Phosphate Buffer Solution) solution and small H2O2 drops were added, one at a time. CV scans were taken every 30 s and 5 min after the addition of each drop and meanwhile a magnetoelastic measurement was taken by the external coils. The CV plots reveal direct electrochemical behavior of Hb and display good electrocatalytic response to the reduction of H2O2. The measured catalysis currents increase linearly with the H2O2 concentration in a wide range of 25–350 μM with a correlation coefficient 0.99. The detection limit is 25–50 μM. Moreover, the Metglas/ZnO/Hb electrode displays rapid response (30 s) to H2O2, and exhibits good stability and reproducibility of the measurements. On the other hand, the magnetoelastic measurements show a small linear mass increase versus the H2O2 concentration with a slope of 152 ng/μM, which is probably due to H2O2 adsorption in ZnO during the electrochemical reaction. No such effects were detected during the control experiment

  6. Nanostructured ZnO in a Metglas/ZnO/Hemoglobin Modified Electrode to Detect the Oxidation of the Hemoglobin Simultaneously by Cyclic Voltammetry and Magnetoelastic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Sagasti, Ariane; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Kouzoudis, Dimitris; Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos; Topoglidis, Emmanuel; Gutiérrez, Jon

    2017-07-25

    In the present work, a nanostructured ZnO layer was synthesized onto a Metglas magnetoelastic ribbon to immobilize hemoglobin (Hb) on it and study the Hb's electrochemical behavior towards hydrogen peroxide. Hb oxidation by H₂O₂ was monitored simultaneously by two different techniques: Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Magnetoelastic Resonance (MR). The Metglas/ZnO/Hb system was simultaneously used as a working electrode for the CV scans and as a magnetoelastic sensor excited by external coils, which drive it to resonance and interrogate it. The ZnO nanoparticles for the ZnO layer were grown hydrothermally and fully characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL). Additionally, the ZnO layer's elastic modulus was measured using a new method, which makes use of the Metglas substrate. For the detection experiments, the electrochemical cell was performed with a glass vial, where the three electrodes (working, counter and reference) were immersed into PBS (Phosphate Buffer Solution) solution and small H₂O₂ drops were added, one at a time. CV scans were taken every 30 s and 5 min after the addition of each drop and meanwhile a magnetoelastic measurement was taken by the external coils. The CV plots reveal direct electrochemical behavior of Hb and display good electrocatalytic response to the reduction of H₂O₂. The measured catalysis currents increase linearly with the H₂O₂ concentration in a wide range of 25-350 μM with a correlation coefficient 0.99. The detection limit is 25-50 μM. Moreover, the Metglas/ZnO/Hb electrode displays rapid response (30 s) to H₂O₂, and exhibits good stability and reproducibility of the measurements. On the other hand, the magnetoelastic measurements show a small linear mass increase versus the H₂O₂ concentration with a slope of 152 ng/μM, which is probably due to H₂O₂ adsorption in ZnO during the electrochemical reaction. No such effects were detected during

  7. Significant mobility enhancement in extremely thin highly doped ZnO films

    SciT

    Look, David C., E-mail: david.look@wright.edu; Wyle Laboratories, Inc., 2601 Mission Point Blvd., Dayton, Ohio 45431; Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433

    2015-04-13

    Highly Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films of thicknesses d = 5, 25, 50, and 300 nm, grown on 160-nm ZnO buffer layers by molecular beam epitaxy, had 294-K Hall-effect mobilities μ{sub H} of 64.1, 43.4, 37.0, and 34.2 cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. This extremely unusual ordering of μ{sub H} vs d is explained by the existence of a very high-mobility Debye tail in the ZnO, arising from the large Fermi-level mismatch between the GZO and the ZnO. Scattering theory in conjunction with Poisson analysis predicts a Debye-tail mobility of 206 cm{sup 2}/V-s at the interface (z = d), falling to 58 cm{sup 2}/V-s at z = d + 2 nm. Excellent fits to μ{sub H}more » vs d and sheet concentration n{sub s} vs d are obtained with no adjustable parameters.« less

  8. Fabrication and electrical properties of low temperature-processed thin-film-transistors with chemical-bath deposited ZnO layer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joo-Seob; Kwon, Ji-Hye; Yang, Heesun

    2013-06-01

    ZnO film was grown on ZnO quantum dot seed layer-coated substrate by a low-temperature chemical bath deposition, where sodium citrate serves as a complexing agent for Zn2+ ion. The ZnO film deposited under the optimal condition exhibited a highly uniform surface morphology with a thickness of approimately 30 nm. For the fabrication of thin-film-transistor with a bottom-gate structure, ZnO film was chemically deposited on the transparent substrate of a seed layer-coated SiN(x)/ITO (indium tin oxide)/glass. As-deposited ZnO channel was baked at low temperatures of 60-200 degrees C to investigate the effect of baking temperature on electrical performances. Compared to the device with 60 degrees C-baked ZnO channel, the TFT performances of one with 200 degrees C-baked channel were substantially improved, exhibiting an on-off current ratio of 3.6 x 10(6) and a saturated field-effect mobility of 0.27 cm2/V x s.

  9. A Photoactivated Gas Detector for Toluene Sensing at Room Temperature Based on New Coral-Like ZnO Nanostructure Arrays.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Li-Ko; Luo, Jie-Chun; Chen, Min-Chun; Wu, Chih-Hung; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Cheng, I-Chun; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Tian, Wei-Cheng

    2016-10-31

    A photoactivated gas detector operated at room temperature was microfabricated using a simple hydrothermal method. We report that the photoactivated gas detector can detect toluene using a UV illumination of 2 μW/cm². By ultraviolet (UV) illumination, gas detectors sense toluene at room temperature without heating. A significant enhancement of detector sensitivity is achieved because of the high surface-area-to-volume ratio of the morphology of the coral-like ZnO nanorods arrays (NRAs) and the increased number of photo-induced oxygen ions under UV illumination. The corresponding sensitivity (ΔR/R₀) of the detector based on coral-like ZnO NRAs is enhanced by approximately 1022% compared to that of thin-film detectors. The proposed detector greatly extends the dynamic range of detection of metal-oxide-based detectors for gas sensing applications. We report the first-ever detection of toluene with a novel coral-like NRAs gas detector at room temperature. A sensing mechanism model is also proposed to explain the sensing responses of gas detectors based on coral-like ZnO NRAs.

  10. A Photoactivated Gas Detector for Toluene Sensing at Room Temperature Based on New Coral-Like ZnO Nanostructure Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Li-Ko; Luo, Jie-Chun; Chen, Min-Chun; Wu, Chih-Hung; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Cheng, I-Chun; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Tian, Wei-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    A photoactivated gas detector operated at room temperature was microfabricated using a simple hydrothermal method. We report that the photoactivated gas detector can detect toluene using a UV illumination of 2 μW/cm2. By ultraviolet (UV) illumination, gas detectors sense toluene at room temperature without heating. A significant enhancement of detector sensitivity is achieved because of the high surface-area-to-volume ratio of the morphology of the coral-like ZnO nanorods arrays (NRAs) and the increased number of photo-induced oxygen ions under UV illumination. The corresponding sensitivity (ΔR/R0) of the detector based on coral-like ZnO NRAs is enhanced by approximately 1022% compared to that of thin-film detectors. The proposed detector greatly extends the dynamic range of detection of metal-oxide-based detectors for gas sensing applications. We report the first-ever detection of toluene with a novel coral-like NRAs gas detector at room temperature. A sensing mechanism model is also proposed to explain the sensing responses of gas detectors based on coral-like ZnO NRAs. PMID:27809222

  11. Patterning of magnetic thin films and multilayers using nanostructured tantalum gettering templates.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenlan; Chang, Long; Lee, Dahye; Dannangoda, Chamath; Martirosyan, Karen; Litvinov, Dmitri

    2015-03-25

    This work demonstrates that a nonmagnetic thin film of cobalt oxide (CoO) sandwiched between Ta seed and capping layers can be effectively reduced to a magnetic cobalt thin film by annealing at 200 °C, whereas CoO does not exhibit ferromagnetic properties at room temperature and is stable at up to ∼400 °C. The CoO reduction is attributed to the thermodynamically driven gettering of oxygen by tantalum, similar to the exothermic reduction-oxidation reaction observed in thermite systems. Similarly, annealing at 200 °C of a nonmagnetic [CoO/Pd]N multilayer thin film sandwiched between Ta seed and Ta capping layers results in the conversion into a magnetic [Co/Pd]N multilayer, a material with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy that is of interest for magnetic data storage applications. A nanopatterning approach is introduced where [CoO/Pd]N multilayers is locally reduced into [Co/Pd]N multilayers to achieve perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanostructured array. This technique can potentially be adapted to nanoscale patterning of other systems for which thermodynamically favorable combination of oxide and gettering layers can be identified.

  12. Synthesis of highly conductive thin-walled Al-doped ZnO single-crystal microtubes by a solid state method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shuopeng; Wang, Yue; Wang, Qiang; Xing, Cheng; Yan, Yinzhou; Jiang, Yijian

    2018-06-01

    ZnO has attracted considerable attention in fundamental studies and practical applications for the past decade due to its outstanding performance in gas sensing, photocatalytic degradation, light harvesting, UV-light emitting/lasing, etc. The large-sized thin-walled ZnO (TW-ZnO) microtube with stable and rich VZn-related acceptors grown by optical vapor supersaturated precipitation (OVSP) is a novel multifunctional optoelectronic material. Unfortunately, the OVSP cannot achieve doping due to the vapor growth process. To obtain doped TW-ZnO microtubes, a solid state method is introduced in this work to achieve thin-walled Al-doping ZnO (TW-ZnO:Al) microtubes with high electrical conductivity. The morphology and microstructures of ZnO:Al microtubes are similar to undoped ones. The Al3+ ions are confirmed to substitute Zn2+ sites and Zn(0/-1) vacancies in the lattice of ZnO by EDS, XRD, Raman and temperature-dependent photoluminescence analyses. The Al dopant acting as a donor level offers massive free electrons to increase the carrier concentrations. The resistivity of the ZnO:Al microtube is reduced down to ∼10-3 Ω·cm, which is one order of magnitude lower than that of the undoped microtube. The present work provides a simple way to achieve doped ZnO tubular components for potential device applications in optoelectronics.

  13. Effect of time varying phosphorus implantation on optoelectronics properties of RF sputtered ZnO thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murkute, Punam; Ghadi, Hemant; Saha, Shantanu; Chavan, Vinayak; Chakrabarti, Subhananda

    2018-03-01

    ZnO has potential application in the field of short wavelength devices like LED's, laser diodes, UV detectors etc, because of its wide band gap (3.34 eV) and high exciton binding energy (60 meV). ZnO possess N-type conductivity due to presence of defects arising from oxygen and zinc interstitial vacancies. In order to achieve P-type or intrinsic carrier concentration an implantation study is preferred. In this report, we have varied phosphorous implantation time and studied its effect on optical as well structural properties of RF sputtered ZnO thin-films. Implantation was carried out using Plasma Immersion ion implantation technique for 10 and 20 s. These films were further annealed at 900°C for 10 s in oxygen ambient to activate phosphorous dopants. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra measured two distinct peaks at 3.32 and 3.199 eV for 20 s implanted sample annealed at 900°C. Temperature dependent PL measurement shows slightly blue shift in peak position from 18 K to 300 K. 3.199 eV peak can be attributed to donoracceptor pair (DAP) emission and 3.32 eV peak corresponds to conduction-band-to-acceptor (eA0) transition. High resolution x-ray diffraction revels dominant (002) peak from all samples. Increasing implantation time resulted in low peak intensity suggesting a formation of implantation related defects. Compression in C-axis with implantation time indicates incorporation of phosphorus in the formed film. Improvement in surface quality was observed from 20 s implanted sample which annealed at 900°C.

  14. Analysis of ultraviolet photo-response of ZnO nanostructures prepared by electrodeposition and atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, Houssin; Karam, Chantal; Lamouchi, Amina; Tingry, Sophie; Miele, Philippe; Habchi, Roland; Chtourou, Radhouane; Bechelany, Mikhael

    2018-06-01

    In this work, ZnO nanowires (ZnO NWs) and urchin-like ZnO nanowires (U-ZnO NWs) based on self-assembled ordered polystyrene sphere (PS) were successfully prepared by combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) and electrochemical deposition (ECD) processes to build UV photosensors. The photo-response of the prepared samples was investigated and compared. The growth of the nanowires on self-assembled, ordered PS introduces a significant modification on the morphology, crystal orientation and grain size of U-ZnO NWs compared to randomly, vertically aligned ZnO NWs, and therefore improves the photo-response of U-ZnO NWs. The photocurrent may be produced by either a surface or bulk-related process. For ZnO NW-based photosensors, the photocurrent was monitored by a surface related process, whereas, it was mainly governed by a bulk related process for U-ZnO NWs, resulting in a higher and faster photo-response. The study of the rise and decay time constants for both materials showed that these parameters were strikingly sensitive to the optical properties.

  15. Structural, optical, and improved field-emission properties of tetrapod-shaped Sn-doped ZnO nanostructures synthesized via thermal evaporation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiongtu; Lin, Tihang; Liu, Yuhui; Wu, Chaoxing; Zeng, Xiangyao; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Yong-ai; Guo, Tailiang

    2013-10-23

    High-quality tetrapod-shaped Sn-doped ZnO (T-SZO) nanostructures have been successfully synthesized via the thermal evaporation of mixed Zn and Sn powder. The effects of the Sn dopant on the morphology, microstructure, optical, and field-emission (FE) properties of T-SZO were investigated. It was found that the growth direction of the legs of T-SZO is parallel to the [0001] crystal c-axis direction and that the incorporation of Sn in the ZnO matrix increases the aspect ratio of the tetrapods, leads to blue shift in the UV region, and considerably improves the FE performance. The results also show that tetrapod cathodes with around a 0.84 atom % Sn dosage have the best FE properties, with a turn-on field of 1.95 V/μm, a current density of 950 μA/cm2 at a field of 4.5 V/μm, and a field-enhancement factor as high as 9556.

  16. One-pot ultrasonic-assisted method for preparation of Ag/AgCl sensitized ZnO nanostructures as visible-light-driven photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghizadeh-Alamdari, Sara; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz; Pirhashemi, Mahsa

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted method was applied for preparation of Ag/AgCl sensitized ZnO nanostructures by one-pot procedure in water without using any post preparation treatments. The resultant nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, DRS, XPS, BET, and PL techniques. In the nanocomposites, ZnO and AgCl have wurtzite hexagonal and cubic crystalline phases, respectively and their surface morphologies remarkably change with increasing mole fraction of silver chloride. The EDX and XPS techniques show that the prepared samples are extremely pure. Ability of the nanocomposites for absorption of visible-light irradiation enhanced with increasing AgCl content. Photocatalytic examination of the nanocomposites was carried out using aqueous solution of methylene blue under visible-light irradiation. The degradation rate constant on the nancomposite rapidly increases with mole fraction of silver chloride up to 0.237. Enhancing activity of the nanocomposite was attributed to its ability for absorbing visible light and separation of electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, influence of ultrasonic irradiation time, calcination temperature, catalyst weight, pH of solution, and scavengers of reactive species on the degradation activity was investigated and the results were discussed. Finally, the photocatalyst has good activity after five successive cycles.

  17. Nanosecond laser switching of surface wettability and epitaxial integration of c-axis ZnO thin films with Si(111) substrates.

    PubMed

    Molaei, R; Bayati, M R; Alipour, H M; Estrich, N A; Narayan, J

    2014-01-08

    We have achieved integration of polar ZnO[0001] epitaxial thin films with Si(111) substrates where cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (c-YSZ) was used as a template on a Si(111) substrate. Using XRD (θ-2θ and φ scans) and HRTEM techniques, the epitaxial relationship between the ZnO and the c-YSZ layers was shown to be [0001]ZnO || [111]YSZ and [21¯1¯0]ZnO || [1¯01](c-YSZ), where the [21¯1¯0] direction lies in the (0001) plane, and the [1¯01] direction lies in the (111) plane. Similar studies on the c-YSZ/Si interface revealed epitaxy as (111)YSZ || (111)Si and in-plane (110)YSZ || (110)Si. HRTEM micrographs revealed atomically sharp and crystallographically continuous interfaces. The ZnO epilayers were subsequently laser annealed by a single pulse of a nanosecond excimer KrF laser. It was shown that the hydrophobic behavior of the pristine sample became hydrophilic after laser treatment. XPS was employed to study the effect of laser treatment on surface stoichiometry of the ZnO epilayers. The results revealed the formation of oxygen vacancies, which are envisaged to control the observed hydrophilic behavior. Our AFM studies showed surface smoothing due to the coupling of the high energy laser beam with the surface. The importance of integration of c-axis ZnO with Si(111) substrates is emphasized using the paradigm of domain matching epitaxy on the c-YSZ[111] buffer platform along with their out-of-plane orientation, which leads to improvement of the performance of the solid-state devices. The observed ultrafast response and switching in photochemical characteristics provide new opportunities for application of ZnO in smart catalysts, sensors, membranes, DNA self-assembly and multifunctional devices.

  18. Effects of annealing temperature on the physicochemical, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of nanostructured hematite thin films prepared via electrodeposition method

    SciT

    Phuan, Yi Wen; Chong, Meng Nan, E-mail: Chong.Meng.Nan@monash.edu; Sustainable Water Alliance, Advanced Engineering Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructured hematite thin films were synthesized via electrodeposition method. • Effects of annealing on size, grain boundary and PEC properties were examined. • Photocurrents generation was enhanced when the thin films were annealed at 600 °C. • The highest photocurrent density of 1.6 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl was achieved. - Abstract: Hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is a promising photoanode material for hydrogen production from photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to its wide abundance, narrow band-gap energy, efficient light absorption and high chemical stability under aqueous environment. The key challenge to the wider utilisation of nanostructuredmore » hematite-based photoanode in PEC water splitting, however, is limited by its low photo-assisted water oxidation caused by large overpotential in the nominal range of 0.5–0.6 V. The main aim of this study was to enhance the performance of hematite for photo-assisted water oxidation by optimising the annealing temperature used during the synthesis of nanostructured hematite thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-based photoanodes prepared via the cathodic electrodeposition method. The resultant nanostructured hematite thin films were characterised using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for their elemental composition, average nanocrystallites size and morphology; phase and crystallinity; UV-absorptivity and band gap energy; and the functional groups, respectively. Results showed that the nanostructured hematite thin films possess good ordered nanocrystallites array and high crystallinity after annealing treatment at 400–600 °C. FE-SEM images illustrated an increase in the average hematite nanocrystallites size from 65 nm to 95 nm when the annealing temperature was varied from 400

  19. Al-/Ga-Doped ZnO Window Layers for Highly Efficient Cu₂ZnSn(S,Se)₄ Thin Film Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Se Won; Seo, Jung Woo; Kim, Donghwan; Cheon, Ki-Beom; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Jin Young

    2018-09-01

    The successful use of Al-/Ga-doped ZnO (AGZO) thin films as a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer of a Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin film solar cell is demonstrated. The AGZO thin films were prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The structural, crystallographic, electrical, and optical properties of the AGZO thin films were systematically investigated. The photovoltaic properties of CZTSSe thin film solar cells incorporating the AGZO-based TCO layer were also reported. It has been found that the RF power and substrate temperature of the AGZO thin film are important factors determining the electrical, optical, and structural properties. The optimization process involving the RF power and the substrate temperature leads to good electrical and optical transmittance of the AGZO thin films. Finally, the CZTSSe solar cell with the AGZO TCO layer demonstrated a high conversion efficiency of 9.68%, which is higher than that of the conventional AZO counterpart by 12%.

  20. Enhancing Modulation of Thermal Conduction in Vanadium Dioxide Thin Film by Nanostructured Nanogaps

    DOE PAGES

    Choe, Hwan Sung; Suh, Joonki; Ko, Changhyun; ...

    2017-08-02

    Efficient thermal management at the nanoscale is important for reducing energy consumption and dissipation in electronic devices, lab-on-a-chip platforms and energy harvest/conversion systems. For many of these applications, it is much desired to have a solid-state structure that reversibly switches thermal conduction with high ON/OFF ratios and at high speed. We describe design and implementation of a novel, all-solid-state thermal switching device by nanostructured phase transformation, i.e., modulation of contact pressure an d area between two poly-silicon surfaces activated by microstructural change of a vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) thin film. Our solid-state devices demonstrate large and reversible alteration ofmore » cross-plane thermal conductance as a function of temperature, achieving a conductance ratio of at least 2.5. This new approach using nanostructured phase transformation provides new opportunities for applications that require advanced temperature and heat regulations.« less

  1. Enhancing Modulation of Thermal Conduction in Vanadium Dioxide Thin Film by Nanostructured Nanogaps

    SciT

    Choe, Hwan Sung; Suh, Joonki; Ko, Changhyun

    Efficient thermal management at the nanoscale is important for reducing energy consumption and dissipation in electronic devices, lab-on-a-chip platforms and energy harvest/conversion systems. For many of these applications, it is much desired to have a solid-state structure that reversibly switches thermal conduction with high ON/OFF ratios and at high speed. We describe design and implementation of a novel, all-solid-state thermal switching device by nanostructured phase transformation, i.e., modulation of contact pressure an d area between two poly-silicon surfaces activated by microstructural change of a vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) thin film. Our solid-state devices demonstrate large and reversible alteration ofmore » cross-plane thermal conductance as a function of temperature, achieving a conductance ratio of at least 2.5. This new approach using nanostructured phase transformation provides new opportunities for applications that require advanced temperature and heat regulations.« less

  2. Study of structural and optical properties of ZnS zigzag nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahchamani, Seyyed Zabihollah; Rezagholipour Dizaji, Hamid; Ehsani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-11-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanostructured thin films of different thicknesses with zigzag shapes have been deposited on glass substrates by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. Employing a homemade accessory attached to the substrate holder enabled the authors to control the substrate temperature and substrate angle. The prepared samples were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-VIS. spectroscopy techniques. The structural studies revealed that the film deposited at room temperature crystallized in cubic structure. The FESEM images of the samples confirmed the formation of zigzag nano-columnar shape with mean diameter about 60-80 nm. By using the data obtained from optical studies, the real part of the refractive index (n), the absorption coefficient (α) and the band gap (Eg) of the samples were calculated. The results show that the refractive indices of the prepared films are very sensitive to deposition conditions.

  3. Phase-selective vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructured thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, B. N.; Lafane, S.; Wu, L.; Akande, A. A.; Mwakikunga, B.; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T.; Forbes, A.

    2015-10-01

    Thin films of monoclinic nanostructured vanadium dioxide are notoriously difficult to produce in a selective manner. To date, post-annealing, after pulsed laser deposition (PLD), has been used to revert the crystal phase or to remove impurities, and non-glass substrates have been employed, thus reducing the efficacy of the transparency switching. Here, we overcome these limitations in PLD by optimizing a laser-ablation and deposition process through optical imaging of the laser-induced plasma. We report high quality monoclinic rutile-type vanadium dioxide (VO2) (M1) nanoparticles without post-annealing, and on a glass substrate. Our samples demonstrate a reversible metal-to-insulator transition at ˜43 °C, without any doping, paving the way to switchable transparency in optical materials at room temperature.

  4. Effective role of deposition duration on the growth of V2O5 nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Saini, Sujit Kumar; Singh, Megha; Reddy, G. B.

    2016-05-01

    In this report, vanadium pentoxide nanostructured thin films (NSTs) with nanoplates (NPs) have synthesized on Ni coated glass substrate employing plasma assisted sublimation process (PASP), as a function of deposition/growth durations. The effect of deposition durations on the morphological, structural, vibrational, and compositional properties have been investigated one by one. The structural and vibrational studies endorsed that the grown NPs have only orthorhombic phase, no other sub oxide phases are recorded in the limit of resolution. The morphological results of all samples using SEM, revealed that the features, coverage density, and alignments of NPs are greatly controlled by deposition duration and the best sample is obtained for 25 min (S2). Further, the more insight information is accomplished by HRTEM/SAED on the best featured sample, which confirmed the single crystalline nature of NPs. The XPS result again confirmed the compositional purity and the nearly stoichiometric nature of NPs.

  5. Phase-selective vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) nanostructured thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciT

    Masina, B. N., E-mail: BMasina@csir.co.za, E-mail: slafane@cdta.dz; School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000; Lafane, S., E-mail: BMasina@csir.co.za, E-mail: slafane@cdta.dz

    2015-10-28

    Thin films of monoclinic nanostructured vanadium dioxide are notoriously difficult to produce in a selective manner. To date, post-annealing, after pulsed laser deposition (PLD), has been used to revert the crystal phase or to remove impurities, and non-glass substrates have been employed, thus reducing the efficacy of the transparency switching. Here, we overcome these limitations in PLD by optimizing a laser-ablation and deposition process through optical imaging of the laser-induced plasma. We report high quality monoclinic rutile-type vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) (M1) nanoparticles without post-annealing, and on a glass substrate. Our samples demonstrate a reversible metal-to-insulator transition at ∼43 °C, withoutmore » any doping, paving the way to switchable transparency in optical materials at room temperature.« less

  6. Linking morphology with activity through the lifetime of pretreated PtNi nanostructured thin film catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Cullen, David A.; Lopez-Haro, Miguel; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; ...

    2015-04-10

    In this study, the nanoscale morphology of highly active Pt 3Ni 7 nanostructured thin film fuel cell catalysts is linked with catalyst surface area and activity following catalyst pretreatments, conditioning and potential cycling. The significant role of fuel cell conditioning on the structure and composition of these extended surface catalysts is demonstrated by high resolution imaging, elemental mapping and tomography. The dissolution of Ni during fuel cell conditioning leads to highly complex, porous structures which were visualized in 3D by electron tomography. Quantification of the rendered surfaces following catalyst pretreatment, conditioning, and cycling shows the important role pore structure playsmore » in surface area, activity, and durability.« less

  7. Influence of Different Aluminum Sources on the NH3 Gas-Sensing Properties of ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozutok, Fatma; Karaduman, Irmak; Demiri, Sani; Acar, Selim

    2018-02-01

    Herein we report Al-doped ZnO films (AZO) deposited on the ZnO seed layer by chemical bath deposition method. Al powder, Al oxide and Al chloride were used as sources for the deposition process and investigated for their different effects on the NH3 gas-sensing performance. The morphological and microstructural properties were investigated by employing x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy analysis and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The characterization studies showed that the AZO thin films are crystalline and exhibit a hexagonal wurtzite structure. Ammonia (NH3) gas-sensing measurements of AZO films were performed at different concentration levels and different operation temperatures from 50°C to 210°C. The sample based on powder-Al source showed a higher response, selectivity and short response/recovery time than the remaining samples. The powder Al sample exhibited 33% response to 10-ppm ammonia gas at 190°C, confirming a strong dependence on the dopant source type.

  8. Visible tunable lighting system based on polymer composites embedding ZnO and metallic clusters: from colloids to thin films

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thai Giang; Dierre, Benjamin; Grasset, Fabien; Saito, Noriko; Saito, Norio; Nguyen, Thi Kim Ngan; Takahashi, Kohsei; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Amela-Cortes, Marian; Molard, Yann; Cordier, Stéphane; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The development of phosphor devices free of heavy metal or rare earth elements is an important issue for environmental reasons and energy efficiency. Different mixtures of ZnO nanocrystals with Cs2Mo6I8(OOC2F5)6 cluster compound (CMIF) dispersed into polyvinylpyrrolidone matrix have been prepared by very simple and low cost solution chemistry. The resulting solutions have been used to fabricate highly transparent and luminescent films by dip coating free of heavy metal or rare earth elements. The luminescence properties of solution and dip-coated films were investigated. The luminescence of such a system is strongly dependent on the ratios between ZnO and CMIF amounts, the excitation wavelength and the nature of the system. By varying these two parameters (ratio and wavelength), a large variety of colors, from blue to red as well as white, can be achieved. In addition, differences in the luminescence properties have been observed between solutions and thin films as well as changes of CMIF emission band maximum wavelength. This may suggest some possible interactions between the different luminophore centers, such as energy transfer or ligands exchange on the Mo6 clusters. PMID:27877895

  9. Visible tunable lighting system based on polymer composites embedding ZnO and metallic clusters: from colloids to thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Thai Giang; Dierre, Benjamin; Grasset, Fabien; Saito, Noriko; Saito, Norio; Nguyen, Thi Kim Ngan; Takahashi, Kohsei; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Amela-Cortes, Marian; Molard, Yann; Cordier, Stéphane; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The development of phosphor devices free of heavy metal or rare earth elements is an important issue for environmental reasons and energy efficiency. Different mixtures of ZnO nanocrystals with Cs2Mo6I8(OOC2F5)6 cluster compound (CMIF) dispersed into polyvinylpyrrolidone matrix have been prepared by very simple and low cost solution chemistry. The resulting solutions have been used to fabricate highly transparent and luminescent films by dip coating free of heavy metal or rare earth elements. The luminescence properties of solution and dip-coated films were investigated. The luminescence of such a system is strongly dependent on the ratios between ZnO and CMIF amounts, the excitation wavelength and the nature of the system. By varying these two parameters (ratio and wavelength), a large variety of colors, from blue to red as well as white, can be achieved. In addition, differences in the luminescence properties have been observed between solutions and thin films as well as changes of CMIF emission band maximum wavelength. This may suggest some possible interactions between the different luminophore centers, such as energy transfer or ligands exchange on the Mo6 clusters.

  10. Visible tunable lighting system based on polymer composites embedding ZnO and metallic clusters: from colloids to thin films.

    PubMed

    Truong, Thai Giang; Dierre, Benjamin; Grasset, Fabien; Saito, Noriko; Saito, Norio; Nguyen, Thi Kim Ngan; Takahashi, Kohsei; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Amela-Cortes, Marian; Molard, Yann; Cordier, Stéphane; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The development of phosphor devices free of heavy metal or rare earth elements is an important issue for environmental reasons and energy efficiency. Different mixtures of ZnO nanocrystals with Cs 2 Mo 6 I 8 (OOC 2 F 5 ) 6 cluster compound (CMIF) dispersed into polyvinylpyrrolidone matrix have been prepared by very simple and low cost solution chemistry. The resulting solutions have been used to fabricate highly transparent and luminescent films by dip coating free of heavy metal or rare earth elements. The luminescence properties of solution and dip-coated films were investigated. The luminescence of such a system is strongly dependent on the ratios between ZnO and CMIF amounts, the excitation wavelength and the nature of the system. By varying these two parameters (ratio and wavelength), a large variety of colors, from blue to red as well as white, can be achieved. In addition, differences in the luminescence properties have been observed between solutions and thin films as well as changes of CMIF emission band maximum wavelength. This may suggest some possible interactions between the different luminophore centers, such as energy transfer or ligands exchange on the Mo 6 clusters.

  11. Development of Room Temperature Excitonic Lasing From ZnO and MgZnO Thin Film Based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suja, Mohammad Zahir Uddin

    Room temperature excitonic lasing is demonstrated and developed by utilizing metal-semiconductor-metal devices based on ZnO and MgZnO materials. At first, Cu-doped p-type ZnO films are grown on c-sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments reveal a shallow acceptor state at 0.15 eV above the valence band edge. Hall effect results indicate that a growth condition window is found for the formation of p-type ZnO thin films and the best conductivity is achieved with a high hole concentration of 1.54x1018 cm-3, a low resistivity of 0.6 O cm and a moderate mobility of 6.65 cm2 V -1 s-1 at room temperature. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor devices have been fabricated on the Cu-doped ZnO films and the characteristics of capacitance-voltage measurements demonstrate that the Cu-doped ZnO thin films under proper growth conditions are p-type. Seebeck measurements on these Cu-doped ZnO samples lead to positive Seebeck coefficients and further confirm the p-type conductivity. Other measurements such as XRD, XPS, Raman and absorption are also performed to elucidate the structural and optical characteristics of the Cu-doped p-type ZnO films. The p-type conductivity is explained to originate from Cu substitution of Zn with a valency of +1 state. However, all p-type samples are converted to n-type over time, which is mostly due to the carrier compensation from extrinsic defects of ZnO. To overcome the stability issue of p-type ZnO film, alternate devices other than p-n junction has been developed. Electrically driven plasmon-exciton coupled random lasing is demonstrated by incorporating Ag nanoparticles on Cu-doped ZnO metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) devices. Both photoluminescence and electroluminescence studies show that emission efficiencies have been enhanced significantly due to coupling between ZnO excitons and Ag surface plasmons. With the incorporation of Ag nanoparticles on ZnO MSM structures, internal quantum

  12. Numerical experiments on evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid argon film on aluminum nanostructure substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weidong; Zhang, Haiyan; Tian, Conghui; Meng, Xiaojie

    2015-04-01

    Evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film are of great significant fundamental importance for both science and engineering applications. The evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film absorbed on an aluminum nanostructure solid wall are investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulated system consists of three regions: liquid argon, vapor argon, and an aluminum substrate decorated with nanostructures of different heights. Those simulations begin with an initial configuration for the complex liquid-vapor-solid system, followed by an equilibrating system at 90 K, and conclude with two different jump temperatures, including 150 and 310 K which are far beyond the critical temperature. The space and time dependences of temperature, pressure, density number, and net evaporation rate are monitored to investigate the phase transition process on a flat surface with and without nanostructures. The simulation results reveal that the nanostructures are of great help to raise the heat transfer efficiency and that evaporation rate increases with the nanostructures' height in a certain range.

  13. Numerical experiments on evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid argon film on aluminum nanostructure substrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weidong; Zhang, Haiyan; Tian, Conghui; Meng, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film are of great significant fundamental importance for both science and engineering applications. The evaporation and explosive boiling of ultra-thin liquid film absorbed on an aluminum nanostructure solid wall are investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulated system consists of three regions: liquid argon, vapor argon, and an aluminum substrate decorated with nanostructures of different heights. Those simulations begin with an initial configuration for the complex liquid-vapor-solid system, followed by an equilibrating system at 90 K, and conclude with two different jump temperatures, including 150 and 310 K which are far beyond the critical temperature. The space and time dependences of temperature, pressure, density number, and net evaporation rate are monitored to investigate the phase transition process on a flat surface with and without nanostructures. The simulation results reveal that the nanostructures are of great help to raise the heat transfer efficiency and that evaporation rate increases with the nanostructures' height in a certain range.

  14. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong

    2015-04-01

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection oven will be discussed in this paper.

  15. Evidence of cation vacancy induced room temperature ferromagnetism in Li-N codoped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B. Y.; Yao, B.; Li, Y. F.; Liu, A. M.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Li, B. H.; Xing, G. Z.; Wu, T.; Qin, X. B.; Zhao, D. X.; Shan, C. X.; Shen, D. Z.

    2011-10-01

    Room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) was observed in Li-N codoped ZnO thin films [ZnO:(Li, N)] fabricated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, and p-type ZnO:(Li, N) shows the strongest RTFM. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and low temperature photoluminescence measurements indicate that the RTFM in ZnO:(Li, N) is attributed to the defect complex related to VZn, such as VZn and Lii-NO-VZn complex, well supported by first-principles calculations. The incorporation of NO can stabilize and enhance the RTFM of ZnO:(Li, N) by combining with Lii to form Lii-NO complex, which restrains the compensation of Lii for VZn and makes the ZnO:(Li, N) conduct in p-type.

  16. Influence of baking method and baking temperature on the optical properties of ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Ng, Zi-Neng; Chan, Kah-Yoong

    In this work, sol-gel spin coating technique was utilised to coat ZnO thin films on glass substrates. During the intermediate 3 minutes baking process, either hotplate or convection oven was employed to bake the samples. The temperature for the baking process was varied from 150°C to 300°C for both instruments. Avantes Optical Spectrophotometer was used to characterise the optical property. The optical transmittances of hotplate-baked and oven-baked samples showed different trends with increasing baking temperatures, ranging from below 50% transmittance to over 90% transmittance in the visible range of wavelength. The difference in baking mechanisms using hotplate and convection ovenmore » will be discussed in this paper.« less

  17. Enhanced Performance in Al-Doped ZnO Based Transparent Flexible Transparent Thin-Film Transistors Due to Oxygen Vacancy in ZnO Film with Zn-Al-O Interfaces Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Yao, Rui; Wang, Huanhuan; Wu, Xiaoming; Wu, Jinzhu; Wu, Xiaohong; Qin, Wei

    2017-04-05

    Highly conductive and optical transparent Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin film composed of ZnO with a Zn-Al-O interface was fabricated by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The as-prepared AZO thin film exhibits excellent electrical and optical properties with high stability and compatibility with temperature-sensitive flexible photoelectronic devices; film resistivity is as low as 5.7 × 10 -4 Ω·cm, the carrier concentration is high up to 2.2 × 10 21 cm -3 . optical transparency is greater than 80% in a visible range, and the growth temperature is below 150 °C on the PEN substrate. Compared with the conventional AZO film containing by a ZnO-Al 2 O 3 interface, we propose that the underlying mechanism of the enhanced electrical conductivity for the current AZO thin film is attributed to the oxygen vacancies deficiency derived from the free competitive growth mode of Zn-O and Al-O bonds in the Zn-Al-O interface. The flexible transparent transistor based on this AZO electrode exhibits a favorable threshold voltage and I on /I off ratio, showing promising for use in high-resolution, fully transparent, and flexible display applications.

  18. Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance in Au Nanoparticles Embedded dc Sputtered ZnO Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Patra, Anuradha; Balasubrahmaniyam, M; Lahal, Ranjit; Malar, P; Osipowicz, T; Manivannan, A; Kasiviswanathan, S

    2015-02-01

    The plasmonic behavior of metallic nanoparticles is explicitly dependent on their shape, size and the surrounding dielectric space. This study encompasses the influence of ZnO matrix, morphology of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and their organization on the optical behavior of ZnO/AuNPs-ZnO/ZnO/GP structures (GP: glass plate). These structures have been grown by a multiple-step physical process, which includes dc sputtering, thermal evaporation and thermal annealing. Different analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and optical absorption have been used to study the structures. In-situ rapid thermal treatment during dc sputtering of ZnO film has been found to induce subtle changes in the morphology of AuNPs, thereby altering the profile of the plasmon band in the absorption spectra. The results have been contrasted with a recent study on the spectral response of dc magnetron sputtered ZnO films embedded with AuNPs. Initial simulation results indicate that AuNPs-ZnO/Au/GP structure reflects/absorbs UV and infrared radiations, and therefore can serve as window coatings.

  19. Optical absorption edge of ZnO thin films: The effect of substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikant, V.; Clarke, D. R.

    1997-05-01

    The optical absorption edge and the near-absorption edge characteristics of undoped ZnO films grown by laser ablation on various substrates have been investigated. The band edge of films on C [(0001)] and R-plane [(1102)] sapphire, 3.29 and 3.32 eV, respectively, are found to be very close to the single crystal value of ZnO (3.3 eV) with the differences being accounted for in terms of the thermal mismatch strain using the known deformation potentials of ZnO. In contrast, films grown on fused silica consistently exhibit a band edge ˜0.1 eV lower than that predicted using the known deformation potential and the thermal mismatch strains. This behavior is attributed to the small grain size (50 nm) realized in these films and the effect of electrostatic potentials that exist at the grain boundaries. Additionally, the spread in the tail (E0) of the band edge for the different films is found to be very sensitive to the defect structure in the films. For films grown on sapphire substrates, values of E0 as low as 30 meV can be achieved on annealing in air, whereas films on fused silica always show a value >100 meV. We attribute this difference to the substantially higher density of high-angle grain boundaries in the films on fused silica.

  20. The electrical, elemental, optical, and surface properties of Si-doped ZnO thin films prepared by thermionic vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadigharehbagh, Reza; Özen, Soner; Yudar, Hafizittin Hakan; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the properties of Si-doped ZnO (SZO) thin films, which were prepared using the non-reactive thermionic vacuum arc technique. The analysis of the elemental, optical, and surface properties of ZnO:Si thin films was carried out using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-VIS spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The current-voltage measurement was employed in order to study the electrical properties of the films. The effect of Si doping on the physical properties of ZnO films was investigated. The film thicknesses were measured as 55 and 35 nm for glass and PET substrates, respectively. It was clearly observed from the x-ray diffraction results that the Si and ZnO peaks were present in the coated SZO films for all samples. The morphological studies showed that the deposited surfaces are homogenous, dense, and have a uniform surface, with the existence of some cracks only on the glass substrate. The elemental composition has confirmed the existence of Zn, Si, and O elements within the prepared films. Using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer, the optical parameters such as transmittance, absorbance, refractive index, and reflectance were calculated. It should be noted that the transparency and refractive indices obtained from the measurements decrease with increasing Si concentration. The obtained optical bandgap values using transmittance spectra were determined to be 3.74 and 3.84 eV for the glass and PET substrates, respectively. An increase in the bandgap results demonstrates that the Si doping concentration is comparable to the pure ZnO thin films. The current versus voltage curves revealed the ohmic nature of the films. Subsequently, the development and fabrication of excellent transparent conducting electrodes enabled the appropriate use of Si-doped ZnO thin films.

  1. ZnO nanostructures directly grown on paper and bacterial cellulose substrates without any surface modification layer.

    PubMed

    Costa, Saionara V; Gonçalves, Agnaldo S; Zaguete, Maria A; Mazon, Talita; Nogueira, Ana F

    2013-09-21

    In this report, hierarchical ZnO nano- and microstructures were directly grown for the first time on a bacterial cellulose substrate and on two additional different papers by hydrothermal synthesis without any surface modification layer. Compactness and smoothness of the substrates are two important parameters that allow the growth of oriented structures.

  2. Highly periodic laser-induced nanostructures on thin Ti and Cu foils for potential application in laser ion acceleration

    SciT

    Das, Susanta Kumar, E-mail: skdasfpy@kiit.ac.in; Andreev, Alexander; Braenzel, Julia

    2016-03-21

    The feasibility of femtosecond laser-induced periodic nanostructures on thin Ti and Cu foils (thickness down to 1 μm) is demonstrated. At pulse durations of 120 fs and a wavelength of 400 nm, periods of 61 nm to 320 nm were obtained. Particle-in-cell simulations of laser ion acceleration processes with such nanostructured targets indicate their potential for high energy particle physics applications. In particular, a measurable enhancement of the proton cut-off energy and a significant enhancement of the number of accelerated particles compared to non- or weakly structured targets of same thickness and material are expected.

  3. Evolution of dielectric function of Al-doped ZnO thin films with thermal annealing: effect of band gap expansion and free-electron absorption.

    PubMed

    Li, X D; Chen, T P; Liu, Y; Leong, K C

    2014-09-22

    Evolution of dielectric function of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films with annealing temperature is observed. It is shown that the evolution is due to the changes in both the band gap and the free-electron absorption as a result of the change of free-electron concentration of the AZO thin films. The change of the electron concentration could be attributed to the activation of Al dopant and the creation/annihilation of the donor-like defects like oxygen vacancy in the thin films caused by annealing.

  4. Protein functionalization of ZnO nanostructure exhibits selective and enhanced toxicity to breast cancer cells through oxidative stress-based cell death mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Sailendra; Prathap, S; Ban, Deependra Kumar; Paul, Subhankar

    2017-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanostructure (ZnONS) was chemically synthesized and functionalized (FZnONS BLA ) with a small protein bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA) by chemical cross-linking methods. Both nano-structures were characterized using various techniques such as electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, photo-luminescence and X-ray diffraction. Electron microscopy and DLS analysis revealed their (ZnONS and FZnONS BLA ) average size of 200nm and 450nm, respectively. When cytotoxicity of both the nanostructures were assessed in breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDAMB231 by MTT assay and PI/Annexin V staining (FACS), FZnONS BLA demonstrated higher cell death than ZnONS primarily due to generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our experimental results also suggested that such enhanced toxicity was due to the lethal structural variant of BLA in FZnONS BLA as well as higher cellular uptake than ZnONS by cancer cells. The death kinetics study with time in cancer cells further proved that FZnONS BLA caused toxicity much faster than ZnONS, thus suggested a strong role of lethal variant of BLA in FZnONS BLA as a cytotoxic agent in cancer cells. Furthermore, FZnONS BLA demonstrated excellent cytocompatibility (normal cells) and hemocompatibility compared to ZnONS. Hence, considering the biodegradable nature of ZnO nonmaterial, our results demonstrated that BLA functionalized ZnONS could be used to develop a suitable therapeutic strategy in cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Surface induced phonon decay rates in thin film nano-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Photiadis, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    Nano-scale structure significantly impacts phonon transport and related phonon relaxation rates, with order of magnitude effects on the thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films and quantum wires, and even larger effects on the lifetimes of ultrasonic phonons of micro- (nano-) oscillators. In both cases, efforts to explain the data have been hampered by our lack of knowledge of the effects of confined dimensionality on phonon-phonon scattering rates. Using a phonon Boltzmann equation with appropriate boundary conditions on the free surfaces to take surface roughness into account, we have obtained an expression yielding phonon lifetimes in 2-D dielectric nanostructures(thin films) resulting from phonon-phonon scattering in conjunction with phonon-surface scattering. We present these theoretical results and, in the limit in which surface induced losses dominate, obtain explicit predictions for the phonon lifetimes. The predicted temperature dependence of the ultrason! ic loss does not explain the observed saturation of the loss at low temperatures(τ(T) → const), but does give results of the order of magnitude of measured ultrasonic lifetimes.

  6. Room-temperature synthesis of carnation-like ZnO@AgI hierarchical nanostructures assembled by AgI nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanosheets with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Huang, Ni; Wang, Zhonghua; Xia, Guangqiang; Chen, Ming; He, Lingling; Tong, Zhifang; Ren, Chunguang

    2017-09-15

    The preparation of highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst for the photodegradation of organic pollutants has received much attention due to the increasing global energy crises and environmental pollution. In this study, carnation-like ZnO@AgI hierarchical nanostructures assembled by AgI nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanosheets were successfully prepared via a room-temperature route. The as-prepared ZnO@AgI nanostructures exhibited highly efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation (λ>400nm). Under optimized AgI content, the ZnO@AgI-5% sample showed high photocatalytic activity, which was 25.7 and 1.5 times the activity of pure ZnO and pure AgI, respectively. Mechanism studies indicated that superoxide anion radicals (O 2 - ) was the main reactive species in the photocatalytic process. The high photocatalytic activity of the ZnO@AgI nanostructures is attributed to the highly active AgI nanoparticles and the heterojunction between AgI nanoparticles and ZnO nanosheets. The heterojunction structure reduced the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) of AgI nanoparticles by transferring the electrons from the CB of AgI nanoparticles to the CB of ZnO nanosheets. The composite of ZnO and AgI not only improves photocatalytic efficiency but also reduces photocatalyst cost, which is beneficial for practical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanostructure and Dynamics of Polymers and Thin Polymer Films: Studies by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Albert F.

    1997-03-01

    The relaxational, mechanical and transport properties of glassy polymers are strongly influenced by the nanostructural and dynamical characteristics of each material. In very thin polymer films such characteristics may be affected by the presence of a free surface or a substrate. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) is a useful and in some ways unique tool for probing these important characteristics. Conventional PALS on several bulk polymers over an extended temperature range are used to illustrate how these characteristics are obtained(HA Hristov, B Bolan, AF Yee, L Xie, and DW Gidley, accepted by Macromolecules.). A new technique, which we shall call "beam-PALS", and the results of its application on nm-thick polystyrene films supported on one side by a Si substrate are described. In beam-PALS the lifetime, τ _3, and formation fraction, I_3, of triplet positronium decaying in the void volume near the polymer surface are measured versus the positron implantation energy, E. The strong E dependence of I3 supports a spur-electron capture model of Ps formation with deduced spur sizes ranging from 200 to 660 ÅThin film measurements indicate that the mean probe depth can be much smaller, given mainly by the average positron implantation distance, Z(E)(L Xie, GB DeMaggio, WE Frieze, J DeVries, DW Gidley, HA Hristov and AF Yee, PRL 74, 4947 (1995).). The thermal expansion behaviors of thin, Si-supported polystyrene films near the glass transition temperature, Tg were also measured. A reduction in void volume expansion is correlated with a reduction in the apparent Tg as film thickness decreases. Our results can be fitted using a 3-layer model incorporating a 50 Åconstrained layer at the Si interface and a 20 Åsurface region with reduced T_g(GB DeMaggio, WE Frieze, DW Gidley, M Zhu, HA Hristov, and AF Yee, accepted by PRL.).

  8. Dopant-driven enhancements in the optoelectronic properties of laser ablated ZnO: Ga thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ali; Jin, Yuhua; Chao, Feng; Irfan, Muhammad; Jiang, Yijian

    2018-04-01

    Theoretically and experimentally evaluated optoelectronic properties of GZO (Ga-doped zinc oxide) were correlated in the present article. Density functional theory and Hubbard U (DFT + Ud + Up) first-principle calculations were used for the theoretical study. The pulsed laser deposition technique was used to fabricate GZO thin films on p-GaN, Al2O3, and p-Si substrates. X-ray diffraction graphs show single crystal growth of GZO thin films with (002) preferred crystallographic orientation. The chemical composition was studied via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and no other unwanted impurity-related peaks were found, which indicated the impurity-free thin film growth of GZO. Field emission scanning electron microscopic micrographs revealed noodle-, seed-, and granular-like structures of GZO/GaN, GZO/Al2O3, and GZO/Si, respectively. Uniform growth of GZO/GaN was found due to fewer mismatches between ZnO and GaN (0.09%). Hall effect measurements in the van der Pauw configuration were used to check electrical properties. The highest mobility (53 cm2/Vs) with a high carrier concentration was found with low laser shots (1800). A 5-fold photoluminescence enhancement in the noodle-like structure of GZO/GaN compared with GZO/Al2O3 and GZO/Si was detected. This points toward shape-driven optical properties because the noodle-like structure is more favorable for optical enhancements in GZO thin films. Theoretical (3.539 eV) and experimental (3.54 eV) values of the band-gap were also found to be comparable. Moreover, the lowest resistivity (3.5 × 10-4 Ωcm) with 80% transmittance is evidence that GZO is a successful alternate of ITO.

  9. Correlation of structural properties with energy transfer of Eu-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel process and magnetron reactive sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Julien; Brimont, Christelle; Gallart, Mathieu; Schmerber, Guy; Gilliot, Pierre; Ulhaq-Bouillet, Corinne; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Colis, Silviu; Becker, Claude; Slaoui, Abdelillah; Dinia, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the structural and optical properties of Eu-doped ZnO thin films made by sol-gel technique and magnetron reactive sputtering on Si (100) substrate. The films elaborated by sol-gel process are polycrystalline while the films made by sputtering show a strongly textured growth along the c-axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy analysis show that all samples are free of spurious phases. The presence of Eu2+ and Eu3+ into the ZnO matrix has been confirmed by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. This means that a small fraction of Europium substitutes Zn2+ as Eu2+ into the ZnO matrix; the rest of Eu being in the trivalent state. This is probably due to the formation of Eu2O3 oxide at the surface of ZnO particles. This is at the origin of the strong photoluminescence band observed at 2 eV, which is characteristic of the 5D0→7F2 Eu3+ transition. In addition the photoluminescence excitonic spectra showed efficient energy transfer from the ZnO matrix to the Eu3+ ion, which is qualitatively similar for both films although the sputtered films have a better structural quality compared to the sol-gel process grown films. PMID:20644657

  10. Electrical characteristics and density of states of thin-film transistors based on sol-gel derived ZnO channel layers with different annealing temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Mirkhani, V.; Yapabandara, K.; Cheng, R.; Hernandez, G.; Khanal, M. P.; Sultan, M. S.; Uprety, S.; Shen, L.; Zou, S.; Xu, P.; Ellis, C. D.; Sellers, J. A.; Hamilton, M. C.; Niu, G.; Sk, M. H.; Park, M.

    2018-04-01

    We report on the fabrication and electrical characterization of bottom gate thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on a sol-gel derived ZnO channel layer. The effect of annealing of ZnO active channel layers on the electrical characteristics of the ZnO TFTs was systematically investigated. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the crystal quality of the ZnO improves with increasing annealing temperature. Both the device turn-on voltage (Von) and threshold voltage (VT) shift to a positive voltage with increasing annealing temperature. As the annealing temperature is increased, both the subthreshold slope and the interfacial defect density (Dit) decrease. The field effect mobility (μFET) increases with annealing temperature, peaking at 800 °C and decreases upon further temperature increase. An improvement in transfer and output characteristics was observed with increasing annealing temperature. However, when the annealing temperature reaches 900 °C, the TFTs demonstrate a large degradation in both transfer and output characteristics, which is possibly produced by non-continuous coverage of the film. By using the temperature-dependent field effect measurements, the localized sub-gap density of states (DOSs) for ZnO TFTs with different annealing temperatures were determined. The DOSs for the subthreshold regime decrease with increasing annealing temperature from 600 °C to 800 °C and no substantial change was observed with further temperature increase to 900 °C.

  11. Effect of Co doping concentration on structural properties and optical parameters of Co-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel dip-coating method.

    PubMed

    Nam, Giwoong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Kim, Byunggu; Lee, Dong-Yul; Kim, Jong Su; Leem, Jae-Young

    2014-11-01

    The structural and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by a sol-gel dip-coating method were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films were grown with a c-axis preferred orientation. The position of the (002) peak was almost the same in all samples, irrespective of the Co concentration. It is thus clear that Co doping had little effect on the position of the (002) peak. To confirm that Co2+ was substituted for Zn2+ in the wurtzite structure, optical measurements were conducted at room temperature by a UV-visible spectrometer. Three absorption peaks are apparent in the Co-doped ZnO thin films that do not appear for the undoped ZnO thin film. As the Co concentration was increased, absorption related to characteristic Co2+ transitions increased because three absorption band intensities and the area underneath the absorption wells between 500 and 700 nm increased with increasing Co concentration. The optical band gap and static dielectric constant decreased and the Urbach energy and extinction coefficient increased with increasing Co concentration.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of High c-axis ZnO Thin Film by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition System and its UV Photodetector Application

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chung-Hua; Wei, Da-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with high c-axis (0002) preferential orientation have been successfully and effectively synthesized onto silicon (Si) substrates via different synthesized temperatures by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The effects of different synthesized temperatures on the crystal structure, surface morphologies and optical properties have been investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that the intensity of (0002) diffraction peak became stronger with increasing synthesized temperature until 400 oC. The diffraction intensity of (0002) peak gradually became weaker accompanying with appearance of (10-10) diffraction peak as the synthesized temperature up to excess of 400 oC. The RT photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibited a strong near-band-edge (NBE) emission observed at around 375 nm and a negligible deep-level (DL) emission located at around 575 nm under high c-axis ZnO thin films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images revealed the homogeneous surface and with small grain size distribution. The ZnO thin films have also been synthesized onto glass substrates under the same parameters for measuring the transmittance. For the purpose of ultraviolet (UV) photodetector application, the interdigitated platinum (Pt) thin film (thickness ~100 nm) fabricated via conventional optical lithography process and radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. In order to reach Ohmic contact, the device was annealed in argon circumstances at 450 oC by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system for 10 min. After the systematic measurements, the current-voltage (I-V) curve of photo and dark current and time-dependent photocurrent response results exhibited a good responsivity and reliability, indicating that the high c-axis ZnO thin film is a suitable sensing layer for UV photodetector application. PMID:26484561

  13. Realizing a facile and environmental-friendly fabrication of high-performance multi-crystalline silicon solar cells by employing ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 passivation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Long; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Hao; Ji, Xin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, the multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells dominate the photovoltaic industry. However, the current acid etching method on mc-Si surface used by firms can hardly suppress the average reflectance value below 25% in the visible light spectrum. Meanwhile, the nitric acid and the hydrofluoric contained in the etching solution is both environmental unfriendly and highly toxic to human. Here, a mc-Si solar cell based on ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 spacer layer is demonstrated. The eco-friendly fabrication is realized by low temperature atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 layer as well as ZnO seed layer. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures are prepared by nontoxic and low cost hydro-thermal growth process. Results show that the best passivation quality of the n+ -type mc-Si surface can be achieved by balancing the Si dangling bond saturation level and the negative charge concentration in the Al2O3 film. Moreover, the average reflectance on cell surface can be suppressed to 8.2% in 400-900 nm range by controlling the thickness of ZnO seed layer. With these two combined refinements, a maximum solar cell efficiency of 15.8% is obtained eventually. This work offer a facile way to realize the environmental friendly fabrication of high performance mc-Si solar cells.

  14. Realizing a facile and environmental-friendly fabrication of high-performance multi-crystalline silicon solar cells by employing ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 passivation layer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Long; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Hao; Ji, Xin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells dominate the photovoltaic industry. However, the current acid etching method on mc-Si surface used by firms can hardly suppress the average reflectance value below 25% in the visible light spectrum. Meanwhile, the nitric acid and the hydrofluoric contained in the etching solution is both environmental unfriendly and highly toxic to human. Here, a mc-Si solar cell based on ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 spacer layer is demonstrated. The eco-friendly fabrication is realized by low temperature atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 layer as well as ZnO seed layer. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures are prepared by nontoxic and low cost hydro-thermal growth process. Results show that the best passivation quality of the n+ -type mc-Si surface can be achieved by balancing the Si dangling bond saturation level and the negative charge concentration in the Al2O3 film. Moreover, the average reflectance on cell surface can be suppressed to 8.2% in 400–900 nm range by controlling the thickness of ZnO seed layer. With these two combined refinements, a maximum solar cell efficiency of 15.8% is obtained eventually. This work offer a facile way to realize the environmental friendly fabrication of high performance mc-Si solar cells. PMID:27924911

  15. Morphogenesis of nanostructures in glancing angle deposition of metal thin film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy James

    -ray diffraction analysis, and comparisons to related scientific literature, support this hypothesis. I also designed a highly modular ultrahigh vacuum deposition chamber, capable of concurrently mounting several different pieces of deposition equipment, that allows for a high degree of control of the growth dynamics of deposited thin films. I used the newly designed chamber to fabricate tailor-made nanostructured tantalum films for use in ultracapacitors, for the Cabot Corporation.

  16. Effect of concentration and irradiation on the optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeoye Victor, Babalola

    2017-12-01

    This study involves the preparation of ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis and to investigate the effect of concentration of the film and irradiation on ZnO thin film deposited by spray pyrolysis method deposited at 350 ± 5 °C. The precursor for zinc oxide was produced from zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO))2. The samples were annealed at 500 °C for 6 h and irradiated using 137Cs 90.998 mCi radiation. They were then characterised using ultra violet-visible spectrophotometry, X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) with Cu-Kα radiation to determine the structure of the film, Four-point probe for electrical properties and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) were used for the composition of the film. XRD diffraction peaks observed for 0.05 M ZnO were (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1) and (1 1 0) planes for the annealed and irradiated annealed ZnO films with no preferential orientation. The as-deposited films have low peaks belonging to (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1), (1 1 0) plane and other peaks such as (1 1 2), (2 0 0) and (2 0 1). The results are explained with regard to the irradiation damage introduced to the samples. The as-deposited, annealed and irradiated-annealed films are highly transparent in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average percent transmittance values of 85% and present a sharp ultraviolet cut-off at approximately 380 nm for the ZnO thin film.

  17. Improved efficiency of ZnO hierarchical particle based dye sensitized solar cell by incorporating thin passivation layer in photo-anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Priyanka; Mondal, Biswanath; Mukherjee, Kalisadhan

    2018-01-01

    Present article describes the DSSC performances of photo-anodes prepared using hydrothermal route derived ZnO particles having dissimilar morphologies i.e. simple micro-rod and nano-tips decorated micro-rod. The surface of nano-tips decorated micro-rod is uneven and patterned which facilitate more dye adsorption and better scattering of the incident light resulting superior photo-conversion efficiency (PCE) ( η 1.09%) than micro-rod ZnO ( η 0.86%). To further improve the efficiency of nano-tips decorated micro-rod ZnO based DSSC, thin passivation layer of ZnO is introduced in the corresponding photo-anode and a higher PCE ( η 1.29%) is achieved. The compact thin passivation layer here expedites the transportation of photo-excited electrons, restricts the undesired recombination reactions and prevents the direct contact of electrolyte with conducting substrates. Attempt is made to understand the effect of passivation layer on the transportation kinetics of photo-excited electrons by analyzing the electrochemical impedance spectra of the developed cells.

  18. A Low Temperature, Solution-Processed Poly(4-vinylphenol), YO(x) Nanoparticle Composite/Polysilazane Bi-Layer Gate Insulator for ZnO Thin Film Transistor.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeonwoo; Kang, Chan-Mo; Chae, Hyunsik; Kim, Hyun-Gwan; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Park, Man-Young; Do, Lee-Mi; Lee, Changhee

    2016-03-01

    Low temperature, solution-processed metal oxide thin film transistors (MEOTFTs) have been widely investigated for application in low-cost, transparent, and flexible electronics. To enlarge the application area, solution-processed gate insulators (GI) have been investigated in recent years. We investigated the effects of the organic/inorganic bi-layer GI to ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs). PVP, YO(x) nanoparticle composite, and polysilazane bi-layer showed low leakage current (-10(-8) A/cm2 in 2 MV), which are applicable in low temperature processed MEOTFTs. Polysilazane was used as an interlayer between ZnO and PVP, YO(x) nanoparticle composite as a good charge transport interface with ZnO. By applying the PVP, YO(x), nanoparticle composite/polysilazane bi-layer structure to ZnO TFTs, we successfully suppressed the off current (I(off)) to -10(-11) and fabricated good MEOTFTs in 180 degrees C.

  19. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Deposited by a Sol-Gel Process Using Two Copper Precursors: Gas-Sensing Performance in a Propane Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; Arredondo, Emma Julia Luna; Maldonado Álvarez, Arturo; Biswal, Rajesh; Kudriavtsev, Yuriy; Pérez, Jaime Vega; Casallas-Moreno, Yenny Lucero; Olvera Amador, María de la Luz

    2016-01-01

    A study on the propane gas-sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films is presented in this work. The films were deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel and dip coating methods, using zinc acetate as a zinc precursor, copper acetate and copper chloride as precursors for doping. For higher sensitivity values, two film thickness values are controlled by the six and eight dippings, whereas for doping, three dippings were used, irrespective of the Cu precursor. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, and the analysis of the surface morphology and film composition was made through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), respectively. The sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films were then characterized in a propane atmosphere, C3H8, at different concentration levels and different operation temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Cu-doped ZnO films doped with copper chloride presented the highest sensitivity of approximately 6 × 104, confirming a strong dependence on the dopant precursor type. The results obtained in this work show that the use of Cu as a dopant in ZnO films processed by sol-gel produces excellent catalysts for sensing C3H8 gas. PMID:28787885

  20. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Deposited by a Sol-Gel Process Using Two Copper Precursors: Gas-Sensing Performance in a Propane Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Pozos, Heberto; Arredondo, Emma Julia Luna; Maldonado Álvarez, Arturo; Biswal, Rajesh; Kudriavtsev, Yuriy; Pérez, Jaime Vega; Casallas-Moreno, Yenny Lucero; Olvera Amador, María de la Luz

    2016-01-29

    A study on the propane gas-sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films is presented in this work. The films were deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel and dip coating methods, using zinc acetate as a zinc precursor, copper acetate and copper chloride as precursors for doping. For higher sensitivity values, two film thickness values are controlled by the six and eight dippings, whereas for doping, three dippings were used, irrespective of the Cu precursor. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, and the analysis of the surface morphology and film composition was made through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), respectively. The sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films were then characterized in a propane atmosphere, C₃H₈, at different concentration levels and different operation temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Cu-doped ZnO films doped with copper chloride presented the highest sensitivity of approximately 6 × 10⁴, confirming a strong dependence on the dopant precursor type. The results obtained in this work show that the use of Cu as a dopant in ZnO films processed by sol-gel produces excellent catalysts for sensing C₃H₈ gas.

  1. Effect of substrates and thickness on optical properties in atomic layer deposition grown ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Dipayan; Singhal, Jaya; Mathur, Aakash; Singh, Ajaib; Dutta, Surjendu; Zollner, Stefan; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-11-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition technique was used to grow high quality, very low roughness, crystalline, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon (Si) and fused quartz (SiO2) substrates to study the optical properties. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results of ZnO/Si system, staggered type-II quantum well, demonstrate that there is a significant drop in the magnitudes of both the real and imaginary parts of complex dielectric constants and in near-band gap absorption along with a blue shift of the absorption edge with decreasing film thickness at and below ∼20 nm. Conversely, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy of ZnO/SiO2, thin type-I quantum well, consisting of a narrower-band gap semiconductor grown on a wider-band gap (insulator) substrate, shows the similar thickness dependent blue-shift of the absorption edge but with an increase in the magnitude of near-band gap absorption with decreasing film thickness. Thickness dependent blue shift, energy vs. 1/d2, in two different systems, ZnO/Si and ZnO/SiO2, show a difference in their slopes. The observed phenomena can be consistently explained by the corresponding exciton (or carrier/s) deconfinement and confinement effects at the ZnO/Si and ZnO/SiO2 interface respectively, where Tanguy-Elliott amplitude pre-factor plays the key role through the electron-hole overlap factor at the interface.

  2. On the dependence of structural and ammonia gas sensing properties of ZnO thin films on Mg doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Saeideh; Khojier, Kaykhosrow

    2018-01-01

    Ammonia is one of the most hazardous substances and it is extremely toxic if inhaled above the moderate level. Therefore, the detection of the ammonia at low concentration levels and at room temperature is one of the most challenging tasks. Among different methods to this goal, metal oxide semiconductors (MOSs) based vapor or gas sensors are mostly preferred because of their fast and high response, and cost effectiveness. This research reports the effect of Mg doping on structural and ammonia gas sensing properties of zinc oxide thin films. The spray pyrolysis technique was employed to deposit undoped and Mg-doped ZnO thin films on glass substrates. Doping concentration was varied from 0.003 to 0.009 M in steps of 0.002 M. The crystalline structure of the samples was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis while a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to study the surface physical morphology of the samples. The sensitivity of the samples was investigated to ammonia gas with different concentrations in the range of 10 to 100 ppm at room temperature. The results reveal that the best sensitivity is attributed to the sample doped with 0.005 M Mg while an increase in Mg concentration results in a reduction in the sensitivity of the samples.

  3. Surface plasmon optical sensor with enhanced sensitivity using top ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ming; Li, Ge; Jiang, Dongmei; Cheng, Wenjuan; Ma, Xueming

    2012-05-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is one of the most sensitive label-free detection methods and has been used in a wide range of chemical and biochemical sensing. Upon using a 200 nm top layer of dielectric film with a high value of the real part ɛ' of the dielectric function, on top of an SPR sensor in the Kretschmann configuration, the sensitivity is improved. The refractive index effect of dielectric film on sensitivity is usually ignored. Dielectric films with different refractive indices were prepared by radio frequency magnetron (RF) sputtering and measured with spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The imaginary part ɛ'' of the top nanolayer permittivity needs to be small enough in order to reduce the losses and get sharper dips. The stability of the sensor is also improved because the nanolayer is protecting the Ag film from interacting with the environment. The response curves of the Ag/ZnO chips were obtained by using SPR sensor. Theoretical analysis of the sensitivity of the SPR sensors with different ZnO film refractive indices is presented and studied. Both experimental and simulation results show that the Ag/ZnO films exhibit an enhanced SPR over the pure Ag film with a narrower full width at half maximum (FWHM). It shows that the top ZnO layer is effective in enhancing the surface plasmon resonance and thus its sensitivity.

  4. ZnO deposition on metal substrates: Relating fabrication, morphology, and wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaini, Sara S.; Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Carey, Van P.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2013-05-01

    It is not common practice to deposit thin films on metal substrates, especially copper, which is a common heat exchanger metal and practical engineering material known for its heat transfer properties. While single crystal substrates offer ideal surfaces with uniform structure for compatibility with oxide deposition, metallic surfaces needed for industrial applications exhibit non-idealities that complicate the fabrication of oxide nanostructure arrays. The following study explored different ZnO fabrication techniques to deposit a (super)hydrophobic thin film of ZnO on a metal substrate, specifically copper, in order to explore its feasibility as an enhanced condensing surface. ZnO was selected for its non-toxicity, ability to be made (super)hydrophobic with hierarchical roughness, and its photoinduced hydrophilicity characteristic, which could be utilized to pattern it to have both hydrophobic-hydrophilic regions. We investigated the variation of ZnO's morphology and wetting state, using SEMs and sessile drop contact angle measurements, as a function of different fabrication techniques: sputtering, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), electrodeposition and annealing Zn. We successfully fabricated (super)hydrophobic ZnO on a mirror finish, commercially available copper substrate using the scalable electrodeposition technique. PLD for ZnO deposition did not prove viable, as the ZnO samples on metal substrates were hydrophilic and the process does not lend itself to scalability. The annealed Zn sheets did not exhibit consistent wetting state results.

  5. Effect of atomic layer deposited Al2O3:ZnO alloys on thin-film silicon photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Hadi, Sabina; Dushaq, Ghada; Nayfeh, Ammar

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present the effects of the Al2O3:ZnO ratio on the optical and electrical properties of aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) layers deposited by atomic layer deposition, along with AZO application as the anti-reflective coating (ARC) layer and in heterojunction configurations. Here, we report complex refractive indices for AZO layers with different numbers of aluminum atomic cycles (ZnO:Al2O3 = 1:0, 39:1, 19:1, and 9:1) and we confirm their validity by fitting models to experimental data. Furthermore, the most conductive layer (ZnO:Al2O3 = 19:1, conductivity ˜4.6 mΩ cm) is used to fabricate AZO/n+/p-Si thin film solar cells and AZO/p-Si heterojunction devices. The impact of the AZO layer on the photovoltaic properties of these devices is studied by different characterization techniques, resulting in the extraction of recombination and energy band parameters related to the AZO layer. Our results confirm that AZO 19:1 can be used as a low cost and effective conductive ARC layer for solar cells. However, AZO/p-Si heterojunctions suffer from an insufficient depletion region width (˜100 nm) and recombination at the interface states, with an estimated potential barrier of ˜0.6-0.62 eV. The work function of AZO (ZnO:Al2O3 = 19:1) is estimated to be in the range between 4.36 and 4.57 eV. These material properties limit the use of AZO as an emitter in Si solar cells. However, the results imply that AZO based heterojunctions could have applications as low-cost photodetectors or photodiodes, operating under relatively low reverse bias.

  6. Structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared using sol—gel dip coating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhenoufa, N.; Mahamdi, R.; Rechem, D.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, sol—gel dip-coating technique was used to elaborate ZnO pure and ZnO/Al films. The impact of Al-doped concentration on the structural, optical, surface morphological and electrical properties of the elaborated samples was investigated. It was found that better electrical and optical performances have been obtained for an Al concentration equal to 5%, where the ZnO thin films exhibit a resistivity value equal to 1.64104 Ω·cm. Moreover, highest transparency has been recorded for the same Al concentration value. The obtained results from this investigation make the developed thin film structure a potential candidate for high optoelectronic performance applications.

  7. Effect of precursor on epitaxially grown of ZnO thin film on p-GaN/sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate by hydrothermal technique

    SciT

    Sahoo, Trilochan; Ju, Jin-Woo; Kannan, V.

    2008-03-04

    Single crystalline ZnO thin film on p-GaN/sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate, using two different precursors by hydrothermal route at a temperature of 90 deg. C were successfully grown. The effect of starting precursor on crystalline nature, surface morphology and optical emission of the films were studied. ZnO thin films were grown in aqueous solution of zinc acetate and zinc nitrate. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all the thin films were single crystalline in nature and exhibited wurtzite symmetry and c-axis orientation. The thin films obtained with zinc nitrate had a more pitted rough surface morphology compared to the filmmore » grown in zinc acetate. However the thickness of the films remained unaffected by the nature of the starting precursor. Sharp luminescence peaks were observed from the thin films almost at identical energies but deep level emission was slightly prominent for the thin film grown in zinc nitrate.« less

  8. Fabrication Methods and Luminescent Properties of ZnO Materials for Light-Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ching-Ting

    2010-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a potential candidate material for optoelectronic applications, especially for blue to ultraviolet light emitting devices, due to its fundamental advantages, such as direct wide band gap of 3.37 eV, large exciton binding energy of 60 meV, and high optical gain of 320 cm−1 at room temperature. Its luminescent properties have been intensively investigated for samples, in the form of bulk, thin film, or nanostructure, prepared by various methods and doped with different impurities. In this paper, we first review briefly the recent progress in this field. Then a comprehensive summary of the research carried out in our laboratory on ZnO preparation and its luminescent properties, will be presented, in which the involved samples include ZnO films and nanorods prepared with different methods and doped with n-type or p-type impurities. The results of ZnO based LEDs will also be discussed.

  9. Influence of electron beam irradiation on nonlinear optical properties of Al doped ZnO thin films for optoelectronic device applications in the cw laser regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Albin; Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.; Kityk, I. V.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2016-12-01

    We present the studies on third-order nonlinear optical properties of Al doped ZnO thin films irradiated with electron beam at different dose rate. Al doped ZnO thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by spray pyrolysis deposition technique. The thin films were irradiated using the 8 MeV electron beam from microtron ranging from 1 kG y to 5 kG y. Nonlinear optical studies were carried out by employing the single beam Z-scan technique to determine the sign and magnitude of absorptive and refractive nonlinearities of the irradiated thin films. Continuous wave He-Ne laser operating at 633 nm was used as source of excitation. The open aperture Z-scan measurements indicated the sample displays reverse saturable absorption (RSA) process. The negative sign of the nonlinear refractive index n2 was noted from the closed aperture Z-scan measurements indicates, the films exhibit self-defocusing property due to thermal nonlinearity. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) varies from 8.17 × 10-5 esu to 1.39 × 10-3 esu with increase in electron beam irradiation. The present study reveals that the irradiation of electron beam leads to significant changes in the third-order optical nonlinearity. Al doped ZnO displays good optical power handling capability with optical clamping of about ∼5 mW. The irradiation study endorses that the Al doped ZnO under investigation is a promising candidate photonic device applications such as all-optical power limiting.

  10. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for SERS and EIS measurements by incorporating ZnO nanorod growth with electroplating

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Xianli; Zhu, Rong; Guo, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a fine gold nanostructure synthesized on selective planar microelectrodes in micro-chip is realized by using an advanced hybrid fabrication approach incorporating growth of nanorods (NRs) with gold electroplating. By this developed nanostructure, integration of in-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement for label-free, nondestructive, real-time and rapid monitoring on a single cell has been achieved. Moreover, parameters of Au nanostructures such as size of nanoholes/nanogaps can be controllably adjusted in the fabrication. We have demonstrated a SERS enhancement factor of up to ~2.24 × 106 and double-layer impedance decrease ratio of 90% ~ 95% at low frequency range below 200 kHz by using nanostructured microelectrodes. SERS detection and in-situ EIS measurement of a trapped single cell by using planar microelectrodes are realized to demonstrate the compatibility, multi-functions, high-sensitivity and simplicity of the micro-chip system. This dual function platform integrating SERS and EIS is of great significance in biological, biochemical and biomedical applications. PMID:26558325

  11. Nanostructured zinc oxide films synthesized by successive chemical solution deposition for gas sensor applications

    SciT

    Lupan, O.; Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, FL 32816-2385; Chow, L.

    2009-01-08

    Nanostructured ZnO thin films have been deposited using a successive chemical solution deposition method. The structural, morphological, electrical and sensing properties of the films were studied for different concentrations of Al-dopant and were analyzed as a function of rapid photothermal processing temperatures. The films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Electrical and gas sensitivity measurements were conducted as well. The average grain size is 240 and 224 A for undoped ZnO and Al-doped ZnO films, respectively. We demonstrate that rapid photothermal processing is an efficient method for improving themore » quality of nanostructured ZnO films. Nanostructured ZnO films doped with Al showed a higher sensitivity to carbon dioxide than undoped ZnO films. The correlations between material compositions, microstructures of the films and the properties of the gas sensors are discussed.« less

  12. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Studies of Ag and ZnO Thin Films and Their Interfaces for Thin Film Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainju, Deepak

    Many modern optical and electronic devices, including photovoltaic devices, consist of multilayered thin film structures. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is a critically important characterization technique for such multilayers. SE can be applied to measure key parameters related to the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the components of multilayers with high accuracy and precision. One of the key advantages of this non-destructive technique is its capability of monitoring the growth dynamics of thin films in-situ and in real time with monolayer level precision. In this dissertation, the techniques of SE have been applied to study the component layer materials and structures used as back-reflectors and as the transparent contact layers in thin film photovoltaic technologies, including hydrogenated silicon (Si:H), copper indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe). The component layer materials, including silver and both intrinsic and doped zinc oxide, are fabricated on crystalline silicon and glass substrates using magnetron sputtering techniques. These thin films are measured in-situ and in real time as well as ex-situ by spectroscopic ellipsometry in order to extract parameters related to the structural properties, such as bulk layer thickness and surface roughness layer thickness and their time evolution, the latter information specific to real time measurements. The index of refraction and extinction coefficient or complex dielectric function of a single unknown layer can also be obtained from the measurement versus photon energy. Applying analytical expressions for these optical properties versus photon energy, parameters that describe electronic transport, such as electrical resistivity and electron scattering time, can be extracted. The SE technique is also performed as the sample is heated in order to derive the effects of annealing on the optical properties and derived electrical transport parameters, as well as the

  13. Nanostructured Si(₁-x)Gex for tunable thin film lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Abel, Paul R; Chockla, Aaron M; Lin, Yong-Mao; Holmberg, Vincent C; Harris, Justin T; Korgel, Brian A; Heller, Adam; Mullins, C Buddie

    2013-03-26

    Both silicon and germanium are leading candidates to replace the carbon anode of lithium ions batteries. Silicon is attractive because of its high lithium storage capacity while germanium, a superior electronic and ionic conductor, can support much higher charge/discharge rates. Here we investigate the electronic, electrochemical and optical properties of Si(1-x)Gex thin films with x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1. Glancing angle deposition provided amorphous films of reproducible nanostructure and porosity. The film's composition and physical properties were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, four-point probe conductivity, Raman, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The films were assembled into coin cells to test their electrochemical properties as a lithium-ion battery anode material. The cells were cycled at various C-rates to determine the upper limits for high rate performance. Adjusting the composition in the Si(1-x)Gex system demonstrates a trade-off between rate capability and specific capacity. We show that high-capacity silicon anodes and high-rate germanium anodes are merely the two extremes; the composition of Si(1-x)Gex alloys provides a new parameter to use in electrode optimization.

  14. Impression of plasma voltage on growth of α-V2O5 nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Kumar, Prabhat; Reddy, G. B.

    2015-06-01

    In this communication, we synthesized vanadium pentoxide (α-V2O5) nanostructured thin films (NSTs) accompanied with nanoflakes/ nanoplates on the Ni-coated glass substrates employing plasma assisted sublimation process (PASP) as a function of plasma voltage (Vp). The effect of plasma voltage on structural, morphological, compositional, and vibrational properties have been studied systematically. The structural analysis divulged that all films deposited at different Vp have pure orthorhombic phase, no impurity phase is detected under resolution limit of XRD and XPS. The morphological studies of samples is carried out by SEM, revealed that features as well as alignment of V2O5 NSTs is greatly monitored by Vp and the film possessing the best features is obtained at 2500volt. In addition, XPS results reveal that V5+ oxidation state is the most prominent state in sample V2, which represents better stoichiometric nature of film. The vibrational study of all samples is performed by FTIR and strongly support the XRD observations. All the results are in consonance with each other.

  15. SERS activity of silver and gold nanostructured thin films deposited by pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, N. R.; Tommasini, M.; Fazio, E.; Neri, F.; Ponterio, R. C.; Trusso, S.; Ossi, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    Nanostructured Au and Ag thin films were obtained by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in presence of a controlled Ar atmosphere. Keeping constant other deposition parameters such as target-to-substrate distance, incidence angle, laser wavelength and laser fluence, the film morphology, revealed by SEM, ranges from isolated NPs to island structures and sensibly depends on gas pressure (10-100 Pa) and on the laser pulse number (500-3 × 10). The control of these two parameters allows tailoring the morphology and correspondingly the optical properties of the films. The position and width of the surface plasmon resonance peak, in fact, can be varied with continuity. The films showed remarkable surface-enhanced Raman activity (SERS) that depends on the adopted deposition conditions. Raman maps were acquired on micrometer-sized areas of both silver and gold substrates selected among those with the strongest SERS activity. Organic dyes of interest in cultural heritage studies (alizarin, purpurin) have been also considered for bench marking the substrates produced in this work. Also the ability to detect the presence of biomolecules was tested using lysozyme in a label free configuration.

  16. Long-term stability of nanostructured thin film electrodes at operating potentials

    DOE PAGES

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Peng, J. -K.; Wang, X.; ...

    2017-02-09

    Long-term stability of nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts at operating potentials has been investigated. Compared to high surface area Pt/C catalysts, NSTF electrodes show 20–50x smaller F – emission rates (FER) because of their high specific activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but are susceptible to poisoning by the products of membrane degradation because of their low electrochemically active surface area (ECSA). The observed voltage degradation rates at potentials corresponding to 1–1.5 A/cm 2 current density are much higher than the allowable 13–14 μV/h. Although F – is not itself responsible for performance decay, cumulative fluoride release (CFR) is amore » good marker for catalyst surface contamination. The observed performance decay is not only due to loss of active Pt sites but also adsorbed impurities impeding ORR kinetics. There is a strong correlation between measured CFR and observed decrease in specific ORR activity and limiting current density and increase in mass transfer overpotentials. Furthermore, the correlations indicate that the target of <10% lifetime performance degradation can be achieved by restricting CFR in NSTF electrodes to 0.7 μg/cm 2, as may be possible with more stable membranes, higher surface area NSTF catalysts, and cell operation at lower temperatures and higher relative humidities.« less

  17. Long-term stability of nanostructured thin film electrodes at operating potentials

    SciT

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Peng, J. -K.; Wang, X.

    Long-term stability of nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts at operating potentials has been investigated. Compared to high surface area Pt/C catalysts, NSTF electrodes show 20–50x smaller F – emission rates (FER) because of their high specific activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but are susceptible to poisoning by the products of membrane degradation because of their low electrochemically active surface area (ECSA). The observed voltage degradation rates at potentials corresponding to 1–1.5 A/cm 2 current density are much higher than the allowable 13–14 μV/h. Although F – is not itself responsible for performance decay, cumulative fluoride release (CFR) is amore » good marker for catalyst surface contamination. The observed performance decay is not only due to loss of active Pt sites but also adsorbed impurities impeding ORR kinetics. There is a strong correlation between measured CFR and observed decrease in specific ORR activ