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Sample records for zno nanowire arrays

  1. Engineered ZnO nanowire arrays using different nanopatterning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, János; Szabó, Zoltán; Erdélyi, Róbert; Khánh, Nguyen Q.

    2012-02-01

    The impact of various masking patterns and template layers on the wet chemically grown vertical ZnO nanowire arrays was investigated. The nanowires/nanorods were seeded at nucleation windows which were patterned in a mask layer using various techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanosphere photolithography, and atomic force microscope type nanolithography. The compared ZnO templates included single crystals, epitaxial layer, and textured polycrystalline films. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the alignment and crystal orientation of the nanowires were dictated by the underlying seed layer, while their geometry can be tuned by the parameters of the certain nanopatterning technique and of the wet chemical process. The comparison of the alternative nanolithography techniques showed that using direct writing methods the diameter of the ordered ZnO nanowires can be as low as 30-40 nm at a density of 100- 1000 NW/μm2 in a very limited area (10 μm2-1 mm2). Nanosphere photolithography assisted growth, on the other hand, favors thicker nanopillars (~400 nm) and enables large-area, low-cost patterning (1-100 cm2). These alternative lowtemperature fabrication routes can be used for different novel optoelectronic devices, such as nanorod based ultraviolet photodiode, light emitting device, and waveguide laser.

  2. Angle-dependent photodegradation over ZnO nanowire arrays on flexible paper substrates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we grew zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays on paper substrates using a two-step growth strategy. In the first step, we formed single-crystalline ZnO nanoparticles of uniform size distribution (ca. 4 nm) as seeds for the hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanowire arrays. After spin-coating of these seeds onto paper, we grew ZnO nanowire arrays conformally on these substrates. The crystal structure of a ZnO nanowire revealed that the nanowires were single-crystalline and had grown along the c axis. Further visualization through annular bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that the hydrothermally grown ZnO nanowires possessed Zn polarity. From photocatalytic activity measurements of the ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays on paper substrate, we extracted rate constants of 0.415, 0.244, 0.195, and 0.08 s-1 for the degradation of methylene blue at incident angles of 0°, 30°, 60°, and 75°, respectively; that is, the photocatalytic activity of these ZnO nanowire arrays was related to the cosine of the incident angle of the UV light. Accordingly, these materials have promising applications in the design of sterilization systems and light-harvesting devices. PMID:25593556

  3. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonally patterned quasi-1D ZnO nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) ZnO nanowire arrays with hexagonal pattern have been successfully synthesized via the vapor transport process without any metal catalyst. By utilizing polystyrene microsphere self-assembled monolayer, sol–gel-derived ZnO thin films were used as the periodic nucleation sites for the growth of ZnO nanowires. High-quality quasi-1D ZnO nanowires were grown from nucleation sites, and the original hexagonal periodicity is well-preserved. According to the experimental results, the vapor transport solid condensation mechanism was proposed, in which the sol–gel-derived ZnO film acting as a seed layer for nucleation. This simple method provides a favorable way to form quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures applicable to diverse fields such as two-dimensional photonic crystal, nanolaser, sensor arrays, and other optoelectronic devices. PMID:24521308

  4. Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays Using Bilayered Metal Catalysts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    12] J. P. Liu, C. X. Guo, C. M. Li et al., “Carbon-decorated ZnO nanowire array: a novel platform for direct electrochemistry of enzymes and...cited. Vertically aligned, high-density ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown for the first time on c-plane sapphire using binary alloys of Ni/Au or Cu/Au as...deleterious to the ZnO NW array growth. Significant improvement of the Au adhesion on the substrate was noted, opening the potential for direct

  5. Controlled Growth of Parallel Oriented ZnO Nanostructural Arrays on Ga2O3 Nanowires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Controlled Growth of Parallel Oriented ZnO Nanostructural Arrays on Ga2O3 Nanowires Lena Mazeina,* Yoosuf N. Picard, and Sharka M. Prokes Electronics...Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 6, 2008 ABSTRACT: Novel hierarchical ZnO- Ga2O3 nanostructures were fabricated via a two stage growth process. Nanowires of Ga2O3 ...nanobrushes (NBs) with Ga2O3 as the core and ZnO as the branches self-assembling symmetrically in six equiangular directions around the core

  6. Quantum dots coupled ZnO nanowire-array panels and their photocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yulong; Que, Wenxiu; Zhang, Jin; Zhong, Peng; Yuan, Yuan; Qiu, Xinku; Shen, Fengyu

    2013-02-01

    Fabrication and characterization of a heterojunction structured by CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels were presented. Firstly, ZnO nanowire-array panels were prepared by using a chemical bath deposition approach where wurtzite ZnO nanowires with a diameter of about 100 nm and 3 microm in length grew perpendicularly to glass substrate. Secondly, CdS quantum dots were deposited onto the surface of the ZnO nanowire-arrays by using successive ion layer absorption and reaction method, and the CdS shell/ZnO core heterojunction were thus obtained. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the morphological properties of the as-obtained CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels. X-ray diffraction was adopted to characterize the crystalline properties of the as-obtained CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels. Methyl orange was taken as a model compound to confirm the photocatalytic activities of the CdS shell/ZnO core heterojunction. Results indicate that CdS with narrow band gap not only acts as a visible-light sensitizer but also is responsible for an effective charge separation.

  7. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowire arrays: fine tuning by precursor supersaturation

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Danhua; Cen, Jiajie; Zhang, Wenrui; ...

    2016-12-20

    In this paper, we develop a technique that fine tunes the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires to address the difficulties in controlling their growth in a conventional one-pot hydrothermal method. In our technique, precursors are separately and slowly supplied with the assistance of a syringe pump, through the entire course of the growth. Compared to the one-pot method, the significantly lowered supersaturation of precursors helps eliminating competitive homogeneous nucleation and improves the reproducibility. The supersaturation degree can be readily tuned by the precursor quantity and injection rate, thus forming ZnO nanowire arrays of various geometries and packing densities in amore » highly controllable fashion. The precise control of ZnO nanowire growth enables systematic studies on the correlation between the material's properties and its morphology. Finally, in this work, ZnO nanowire arrays of various morphologies are studied as photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting photoanodes, in which we establish clear correlations between the water splitting performance and the nanowires' size, shape, and packing density.« less

  8. Growth of high-aspect ratio horizontally-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Soman, Pranav; Darnell, Max; Feldman, Marc D; Chen, Shaochen

    2011-08-01

    A method of fabricating horizontally-aligned zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) arrays with full control over the width and length is demonstrated. SEM images reveal the hexagonal structure typical of zinc oxide NWs. Arrays of high-aspect ratio horizontal ZnO NWs are fabricated by making use of the lateral overgrowth from dot patterns created by electron beam lithography (EBL). An array of patterned wires are lifted off and transferred to a flexible PDMS substrate with possible applications in several key nanotechnology areas.

  9. Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Vertical ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Flexible dye-sensitized solar cells are fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays that are transferred onto ITO-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates using a simple peel-off process. The solar cells demonstrate an energy conversion efficiency of 0.44% with good bending tolerance. This technique paves a new route for building large-scale cost-effective flexible photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:27502660

  10. Direct selective growth of ZnO nanowire arrays from inkjet-printed zinc acetate precursor on a heated substrate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Inkjet printing of functional materials has drawn tremendous interest as an alternative to the conventional photolithography-based microelectronics fabrication process development. We introduce direct selective nanowire array growth by inkjet printing of Zn acetate precursor ink patterning and subsequent hydrothermal ZnO local growth without nozzle clogging problem which frequently happens in nanoparticle inkjet printing. The proposed process can directly grow ZnO nanowires in any arbitrary patterned shape, and it is basically very fast, low cost, environmentally benign, and low temperature. Therefore, Zn acetate precursor inkjet printing-based direct nanowire local growth is expected to give extremely high flexibility in nanomaterial patterning for high-performance electronics fabrication especially at the development stage. As a proof of concept of the proposed method, ZnO nanowire network-based field effect transistors and ultraviolet photo-detectors were demonstrated by direct patterned grown ZnO nanowires as active layer. PMID:24252130

  11. A simple and transparent well-aligned ZnO nanowire array ultraviolet photodetector with high responsivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lei; Ding, Hesheng; Yuan, Zhaolin; Huang, Wendeng; Shuai, Chunjiang; Xiong, Zhaoxin; Deng, Jianping; Lv, Tengbo

    2018-06-01

    Well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays were grown on an interdigital patterned fluorine tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate by a facile chemical bath deposition at low temperature. Morphology, crystalline structure, and optical properties of the ZnO nanowire arrays were analyzed in detail. The results revealed that the ZnO nanowires had wurtzite structure, typically ∼40-60 nm in diameter, and ∼700-800 nm in length, a great number of highly uniform and dense nanowires grew vertically on the substrate to form the well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays, which had very high optical transmission (>86%) in the visible light region. In addition, the performance of ZnO nanowire arrays ultraviolet (UV) photodetector was systematically examined. The photosensitivity (S), responsivity (R), response and decay time of the photodetector were 703 at +0.2 V, 113 A/W at +5 V, 23 s and 73 s respectively. Also, the photoresponse mechanism of the UV photodetector was illuminated in terms of the oxygen adsorption-photodesorption process.

  12. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowires Arrays by Anodization and High-Vacuum Die Casting Technique, and Their Piezoelectric Properties.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chin-Guo; Chang, Ho; Wang, Jian-Hao

    2016-03-24

    In this investigation, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with arrayed and regularly arranged nanopores is used as a template in the high-vacuum die casting of molten zinc metal (Zn) into the nanopores. The proposed technique yields arrayed Zn nanowires with an aspect ratio of over 600. After annealing, arrayed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are obtained. Varying the anodizing time yields AAO templates with thicknesses of approximately 50 μm, 60 μm, and 70 μm that can be used in the fabrication of nanowires of three lengths with high aspect ratios. Experimental results reveal that a longer nanowire generates a greater measured piezoelectric current. The ZnO nanowires that are fabricated using an alumina template are anodized for 7 h and produce higher piezoelectric current of up to 69 pA.

  13. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowires Arrays by Anodization and High-Vacuum Die Casting Technique, and Their Piezoelectric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chin-Guo; Chang, Ho; Wang, Jian-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with arrayed and regularly arranged nanopores is used as a template in the high-vacuum die casting of molten zinc metal (Zn) into the nanopores. The proposed technique yields arrayed Zn nanowires with an aspect ratio of over 600. After annealing, arrayed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are obtained. Varying the anodizing time yields AAO templates with thicknesses of approximately 50 μm, 60 μm, and 70 μm that can be used in the fabrication of nanowires of three lengths with high aspect ratios. Experimental results reveal that a longer nanowire generates a greater measured piezoelectric current. The ZnO nanowires that are fabricated using an alumina template are anodized for 7 h and produce higher piezoelectric current of up to 69 pA. PMID:27023546

  14. Atomic Layer Deposition of Nickel on ZnO Nanowire Arrays for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Wang, Yong-Ping; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ji, Xin-Ming; Devi, Anjana; Jiang, An-Quan; Zhang, David Wei

    2018-01-10

    A novel hybrid core-shell structure of ZnO nanowires (NWs)/Ni as a pseudocapacitor electrode was successfully fabricated by atomic layer deposition of a nickel shell, and its capacitive performance was systemically investigated. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the NiO was formed at the interface between ZnO and Ni where the Ni was oxidized by ZnO during the ALD of the Ni layer. Electrochemical measurement results revealed that the Ti/ZnO NWs/Ni (1500 cycles) electrode with a 30 nm thick Ni-NiO shell layer had the best supercapacitor properties including ultrahigh specific capacitance (∼2440 F g -1 ), good rate capability (80.5%) under high current charge-discharge conditions, and a relatively better cycling stability (86.7% of the initial value remained after 750 cycles at 10 A g -1 ). These attractive capacitive behaviors are mainly attributed to the unique core-shell structure and the combined effect of ZnO NW arrays as short charge transfer pathways for ion diffusion and electron transfer as well as conductive Ni serving as channel for the fast electron transport to Ti substrate. This high-performance Ti/ZnO NWs/Ni hybrid structure is expected to be one of a promising electrodes for high-performance supercapacitor applications.

  15. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence analysis of ZnO nanowire array annealed in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanan; Gu, Xiuquan; Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Linmeng; Qiang, Yinghuai

    2018-05-01

    ZnO nanowire arrays (NWAs) were prepared on transparent conducting fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates through a facile hydrothermal method, followed by a 500 °C annealing to improve their crystalline qualities and photoelectrochemical (PEC) activities. It was found that the annealing didn't change the morphology, but resulted in a significant reduction of the donor concentration. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) was carried out for a comprehensive analysis of the effect from annealing. Noteworthy, four dominant peaks were identified from the 10 K spectrum of a 500 °C annealed sample, and they were assigned to FX, D0X, (e, D0) and (e, D0) -1LO, respectively. Of them, the FX emission was only existed below 130 K, while the room-temperature (RT) PL spectrum was dominated by the D0X emission.

  16. Investigations into the impact of various substrates and ZnO ultra thin seed layers prepared by atomic layer deposition on growth of ZnO nanowire array

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The impact of various substrates and zinc oxide (ZnO) ultra thin seed layers prepared by atomic layer deposition on the geometric morphology of subsequent ZnO nanowire arrays (NWs) fabricated by the hydrothermal method was investigated. The investigated substrates included B-doped ZnO films, indium tin oxide films, single crystal silicon (111), and glass sheets. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the geometry and aligment of the NWs were controlled by surface topography of the substrates and thickness of the ZnO seed layers, respectively. According to atomic force microscopy data, we suggest that the substrate, fluctuate amplitude and fluctuate frequency of roughness on ZnO seed layers have a great impact on the alignment of the resulting NWs, whereas the influence of the seed layers' texture was negligible. PMID:22759838

  17. Large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong L; Das, Suman; Xu, Sheng; Yuan, Dajun; Guo, Rui; Wei, Yaguang; Wu, Wenzhuo

    2013-02-05

    In a method for growing a nanowire array, a photoresist layer is placed onto a nanowire growth layer configured for growing nanowires therefrom. The photoresist layer is exposed to a coherent light interference pattern that includes periodically alternately spaced dark bands and light bands along a first orientation. The photoresist layer exposed to the coherent light interference pattern along a second orientation, transverse to the first orientation. The photoresist layer developed so as to remove photoresist from areas corresponding to areas of intersection of the dark bands of the interference pattern along the first orientation and the dark bands of the interference pattern along the second orientation, thereby leaving an ordered array of holes passing through the photoresist layer. The photoresist layer and the nanowire growth layer are placed into a nanowire growth environment, thereby growing nanowires from the nanowire growth layer through the array of holes.

  18. Synthesis of high crystallinity ZnO nanowire array on polymer substrate and flexible fiber-based sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinmei; Wu, Weiwei; Bai, Suo; Qin, Yong

    2011-11-01

    Well aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays are grown on Kevlar fiber and Kapton film via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. These NWs have better crystallinity than those synthesized through the low-temperature hydrothermal method. The average length and diameter of ZnO NWs grown on Kevlar fiber can be controlled from 0.5 to 2.76 μm and 30 to 300 nm, respectively. A flexible ultraviolet (UV) sensor based on Kevlar fiber/ZnO NWs hybrid structure is made to detect UV illumination quantificationally.

  19. Earth-Abundant Oxygen Evolution Catalysts Coupled onto ZnO Nanowire Arrays for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chaoran; Moniz, Savio J A; Khraisheh, Majeda; Tang, Junwang

    2014-01-01

    ZnO has long been considered as a model UV-driven photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting, but its performance has been limited by fast charge-carrier recombination, extremely poor stability in aqueous solution, and slow kinetics of water oxidation. These issues were addressed by applying a strategy of optimization and passivation of hydrothermally grown 1D ZnO nanowire arrays. The length and diameter of bare ZnO nanowires were optimized by varying the growth time and precursor concentration to achieve optimal photoelectrochemical performance. The addition of earth-abundant cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi) and nickel borate (Ni-B) oxygen evolution catalysts onto ZnO nanowires resulted in substantial cathodic shifts in onset potential to as low as about 0.3 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) for Ni-B/ZnO, for which a maximum photocurrent density of 1.1 mA cm−2 at 0.9 V (vs. RHE) with applied bias photon-to-current efficiency of 0.4 % and an unprecedented near-unity incident photon-to-current efficiency at 370 nm. In addition the potential required for saturated photocurrent was dramatically reduced from 1.6 to 0.9 V versus RHE. Furthermore, the stability of these ZnO nanowires was significantly enhanced by using Ni-B compared to Co-Pi due to its superior chemical robustness, and it thus has additional functionality as a stable protecting layer on the ZnO surface. These remarkable enhancements in both photocatalytic activity and stability directly address the current severe limitations in the use of ZnO-based photoelectrodes for water-splitting applications, and can be applied to other photoanodes for efficient solar-driven fuel synthesis. PMID:25156820

  20. High carrier concentration ZnO nanowire arrays for binder-free conductive support of supercapacitors electrodes by Al doping.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Sun, Yihui; Yan, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xu; Zhang, Guangjie; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Yaru; Gao, Wenchao; Zhang, Yue

    2016-12-15

    Doping semiconductor nanowires (NWs) for altering their electrical and optical properties is a critical strategy for tailoring the performance of nanodevices. Here, we prepared in situ Al-doped ZnO nanowire arrays by using continuous flow injection (CFI) hydrothermal method to promote the conductivity. This reasonable method offers highly stable precursor concentration for doping that effectively avoid the appearance of the low conductivity ZnO nanosheets. Benefit from this, three orders of magnitude rise of the carrier concentration from 10 16 cm -3 to 10 19 cm -3 can be achieved compared with the common hydrothermal (CH) mothed in Mott-Schottky measurement. Possible effect of Al-doping was discussed by first-principle theory. On this basis, Al-doped ZnO nanowire arrays was developed as a binder-free conductive support for supercapacitor electrodes and high capacitance was triggered. It is owing to the dramatically decreased transfer resistance induced by the growing free-moving electrons and holes. Our results have a profound significance not merely in the controlled synthesis of other doping nanomaterials by co-precipitation method but also in the application of binder-free energy materials or other materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 2D XANES-XEOL mapping: observation of enhanced band gap emission from ZnO nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Guo, Xiaoxuan; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-05-01

    Using 2D XANES-XEOL spectroscopy, it is found that the band gap emission of ZnO nanowire arrays is substantially enhanced i.e. that the intensity ratio between the band gap and defect emissions increases by more than an order of magnitude when the excitation energy is scanned across the O K-edge. Possible mechanisms are discussed.Using 2D XANES-XEOL spectroscopy, it is found that the band gap emission of ZnO nanowire arrays is substantially enhanced i.e. that the intensity ratio between the band gap and defect emissions increases by more than an order of magnitude when the excitation energy is scanned across the O K-edge. Possible mechanisms are discussed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XEOL spectra with different excitation energies. X-ray attenuation length vs. photon energy. Details of surface defects in ZnO NWs. The second O K-edge and Zn L-edge 2D XANES-XEOL maps. Comparison of the first and second TEY at O K-edge and Zn L-edge scans, respectively. Raman spectra of the ZnO NWs with different IBGE/IDE ratios. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01049c

  2. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    scattering (SERS) applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography...plasmonic nanowires to investigate this SERS effect. Here we used two types of vertical NWs, ZnO NWs, and Si NWs, respectively, to investigate SERS...successfully grow vertically aligned ZnO nanowires by the well-known VLS process. In this way, the ZnO NWs can be arranged in a repeatable hexagonal pattern

  3. Low temperature preparation of Ag-doped ZnO nanowire arrays for sensor and light-emitting diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupan, O.; Viana, B.; Cretu, V.; Postica, V.; Adelung, R.; Pauporté, T.

    2016-02-01

    Transition metal doped-oxide semiconductor nanostructures are important to achieve enhanced and new properties for advanced applications. We describe the low temperature preparation of ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod (NW/NR) arrays by electrodeposition at 90 °C. The NWs have been characterized by SEM, EDX, transmittance and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The integration of Ag in the crystal is shown. Single nanowire/nanorod of ZnO:Ag was integrated in a nanosensor structure leading to new and enhanced properties. The ultraviolet (UV) response of the nanosensor was investigated at room temperature. Experimental results indicate that ZnO:Ag (0.75 μM) nanosensor possesses faster response/recovery time and better response to UV light than those reported in literature. The sensor structure has been also shown to give a fast response for the hydrogen detection with improved performances compared to pristine ZnO NWs. ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod arrays electrochemically grown on p-type GaN single crystal layer is also shown to act as light emitter in LED structures. The emission wavelength is red-shifted compared to pristine ZnO NW array. At low Ag concentration a single UV-blue emission is found whereas at higher concentration of dopant the emission is broadened and extends up to the red wavelength range. Our study indicates that high quality ZnO:Ag NW/NR prepared at low temperature by electrodeposition can serve as building nanomaterials for new sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs) structures with low-power consumption.

  4. Characterizations of low-temperature electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire light-emitting arrays on the p-GaN layer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tzu-Chun; Ke, Min-Yung; Yang, Sheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yun-Wei; Chen, Liang-Yi; Lin, Guan-Jhong; Lu, Yu-Hsin; He, Jr-Hau; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Huang, JianJang

    2010-12-15

    Low-temperature electroluminescence from ZnO nanowire light-emitting arrays is reported. By inserting a thin MgO current blocking layer in between ZnO nanowire and p-GaN, high-purity UV light emission at wavelength 398 nm was obtained. As the temperature is decreased, contrary to the typical GaN-based light emitting diodes, our device shows a decrease of optical output intensity. The results are associated with various carrier tunneling processes and frozen MgO defects.

  5. Hierarchical Carbon Fibers with ZnO Nanowires for Volatile Sensing in Composite Curing (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    needed to demonstrate the use of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanowire coated carbon fibers as a volatile sensor. ZnO nanowires are demonstrated to function as...processing. For this work, we report on the foundational study needed to demonstrate the use of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanowire coated carbon fibers as a...array of ZnO nanowires. Zinc oxide nanowires become more conductive in the presence of ethanol – as analyte sorbs to the surface, electron density

  6. An Enhanced UV-Vis-NIR an d Flexible Photodetector Based on Electrospun ZnO Nanowire Array/PbS Quantum Dots Film Heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Gan, Lin; Zhang, Jianbing; Zhuge, Fuwei; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-03-01

    ZnO nanostructure-based photodetectors have a wide applications in many aspects, however, the response range of which are mainly restricted in the UV region dictated by its bandgap. Herein, UV-vis-NIR sensitive ZnO photodetectors consisting of ZnO nanowires (NW) array/PbS quantum dots (QDs) heterostructures are fabricated through modified electrospining method and an exchanging process. Besides wider response region compared to pure ZnO NWs based photodetectors, the heterostructures based photodetectors have faster response and recovery speed in UV range. Moreover, such photodetectors demonstrate good flexibility as well, which maintain almost constant performances under extreme (up to 180°) and repeat (up to 200 cycles) bending conditions in UV-vis-NIR range. Finally, this strategy is further verified on other kinds of 1D nanowires and 0D QDs, and similar enhancement on the performance of corresponding photodetecetors can be acquired, evidencing the universality of this strategy.

  7. Extreme Carrier Depletion and Superlinear Photoconductivity in Ultrathin Parallel-Aligned ZnO Nanowire Array Photodetectors Fabricated by Infiltration Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Chang-Yong; Stein, Aaron

    Ultrathin semiconductor nanowires enable high-performance chemical sensors and photodetectors, but their synthesis and device integration by standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible processes remain persistent challenges. This work demonstrates fully CMOS-compatible synthesis and integration of parallel-aligned polycrystalline ZnO nanowire arrays into ultraviolet photodetectors via infiltration synthesis, material hybridization technique derived from atomic layer deposition. The nanowire photodetector features unique, high device performances originating from extreme charge carrier depletion, achieving photoconductive on–off ratios of >6 decades, blindness to visible light, and ultralow dark currents as low as 1 fA, the lowest reported for nanostructure-based photoconductive photodetectors. Surprisingly, the low dark current is invariantmore » with increasing number of nanowires and the photodetector shows unusual superlinear photoconductivity, observed for the first time in nanowires, leading to increasing detector responsivity and other parameters for higher incident light powers. Temperature-dependent carrier concentration and mobility reveal the photoelectrochemical-thermionic emission process at grain boundaries, responsible for the observed unique photodetector performances and superlinear photoconductivity. Here, the results elucidate fundamental processes responsible for photogain in polycrystalline nanostructures, providing useful guidelines for developing nanostructure-based detectors and sensors. Lastly, the developed fully CMOS-compatible nanowire synthesis and device fabrication methods also have potentials for scalable integration of nanowire sensor devices and circuitries.« less

  8. Extreme Carrier Depletion and Superlinear Photoconductivity in Ultrathin Parallel-Aligned ZnO Nanowire Array Photodetectors Fabricated by Infiltration Synthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Nam, Chang-Yong; Stein, Aaron

    2017-11-15

    Ultrathin semiconductor nanowires enable high-performance chemical sensors and photodetectors, but their synthesis and device integration by standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible processes remain persistent challenges. This work demonstrates fully CMOS-compatible synthesis and integration of parallel-aligned polycrystalline ZnO nanowire arrays into ultraviolet photodetectors via infiltration synthesis, material hybridization technique derived from atomic layer deposition. The nanowire photodetector features unique, high device performances originating from extreme charge carrier depletion, achieving photoconductive on–off ratios of >6 decades, blindness to visible light, and ultralow dark currents as low as 1 fA, the lowest reported for nanostructure-based photoconductive photodetectors. Surprisingly, the low dark current is invariantmore » with increasing number of nanowires and the photodetector shows unusual superlinear photoconductivity, observed for the first time in nanowires, leading to increasing detector responsivity and other parameters for higher incident light powers. Temperature-dependent carrier concentration and mobility reveal the photoelectrochemical-thermionic emission process at grain boundaries, responsible for the observed unique photodetector performances and superlinear photoconductivity. Here, the results elucidate fundamental processes responsible for photogain in polycrystalline nanostructures, providing useful guidelines for developing nanostructure-based detectors and sensors. Lastly, the developed fully CMOS-compatible nanowire synthesis and device fabrication methods also have potentials for scalable integration of nanowire sensor devices and circuitries.« less

  9. Digital selective growth of a ZnO nanowire array by large scale laser decomposition of zinc acetate.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sukjoon; Yeo, Junyeob; Manorotkul, Wanit; Kang, Hyun Wook; Lee, Jinhwan; Han, Seungyong; Rho, Yoonsoo; Suh, Young Duk; Sung, Hyung Jin; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2013-05-07

    We develop a digital direct writing method for ZnO NW micro-patterned growth on a large scale by selective laser decomposition of zinc acetate. For ZnO NW growth, by replacing the bulk heating with the scanning focused laser as a fully digital local heat source, zinc acetate crystallites can be selectively activated as a ZnO seed pattern to grow ZnO nanowires locally on a larger area. Together with the selective laser sintering process of metal nanoparticles, more than 10,000 UV sensors have been demonstrated on a 4 cm × 4 cm glass substrate to develop all-solution processible, all-laser mask-less digital fabrication of electronic devices including active layer and metal electrodes without any conventional vacuum deposition, photolithographic process, premade mask, high temperature and vacuum environment.

  10. A case for ZnO nanowire field emitter arrays in advanced x-ray source applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Vance S.; Bergkvist, Magnus; Chen, Daokun; Chen, Jun; Huang, Mengbing

    2016-09-01

    Reviewing current efforts in X-ray source miniaturization reveals a broad spectrum of applications: Portable and/or remote nondestructive evaluation, high throughput protein crystallography, invasive radiotherapy, monitoring fluid flow and particulate generation in situ, and portable radiography devices for battle-front or large scale disaster triage scenarios. For the most part, all of these applications are being addressed with a top-down approach aimed at improving portability, weight and size. That is, the existing system or a critical sub-component is shrunk in some manner in order to miniaturize the overall package. In parallel to top-down x-ray source miniaturization, more recent efforts leverage field emission and semiconductor device fabrication techniques to achieve small scale x-ray sources via a bottom-up approach where phenomena effective at a micro/nanoscale are coordinated for macro-scale effect. The bottom-up approach holds potential to address all the applications previously mentioned but its entitlement extends into new applications with much more ground-breaking potential. One such bottom-up application is the distributed x-ray source platform. In the medical space, using an array of microscale x-ray sources instead of a single source promises significant reductions in patient dose as well as smaller feature detectability and fewer image artifacts. Cold cathode field emitters are ideal for this application because they can be gated electrostatically or via photonic excitation, they do not generate excessive heat like other common electron emitters, they have higher brightness and they are relatively compact. This document describes how ZnO nanowire field emitter arrays are well suited for distributed x-ray source applications because they hold promise in each of the following critical areas: emission stability, simple scalable fabrication, performance, radiation resistance and photonic coupling.

  11. Three-dimensional mesoscale heterostructures of ZnO nanowire arrays epitaxially grown on CuGaO2 nanoplates as individual diodes.

    PubMed

    Forticaux, Audrey; Hacialioglu, Salih; DeGrave, John P; Dziedzic, Rafal; Jin, Song

    2013-09-24

    We report a three-dimensional (3D) mesoscale heterostructure composed of one-dimensional (1D) nanowire (NW) arrays epitaxially grown on two-dimensional (2D) nanoplates. Specifically, three facile syntheses are developed to assemble vertical ZnO NWs on CuGaO2 (CGO) nanoplates in mild aqueous solution conditions. The key to the successful 3D mesoscale integration is the preferential nucleation and heteroepitaxial growth of ZnO NWs on the CGO nanoplates. Using transmission electron microscopy, heteroepitaxy was found between the basal planes of CGO nanoplates and ZnO NWs, which are their respective (001) crystallographic planes, by the observation of a hexagonal Moiré fringes pattern resulting from the slight mismatch between the c planes of ZnO and CGO. Careful analysis shows that this pattern can be described by a hexagonal supercell with a lattice parameter of almost exactly 11 and 12 times the a lattice constants for ZnO and CGO, respectively. The electrical properties of the individual CGO-ZnO mesoscale heterostructures were measured using a current-sensing atomic force microscopy setup to confirm the rectifying p-n diode behavior expected from the band alignment of p-type CGO and n-type ZnO wide band gap semiconductors. These 3D mesoscale heterostructures represent a new motif in nanoassembly for the integration of nanomaterials into functional devices with potential applications in electronics, photonics, and energy.

  12. Facile preparation of branched hierarchical ZnO nanowire arrays with enhanced photocatalytic activity: A photodegradation kinetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, M.; Yousefzadeh, S.; Samadi, M.; Dong, Chunyang; Zhang, Jinlong; Moshfegh, A. Z.

    2018-03-01

    Branched hierarchical zinc oxide nanowires (BH-ZnO NWs) were fabricated successfully by a facile and rapid synthesis using two-step growth process. Initially, ZnO NWs have been prepared by anodizing zinc foil at room temperature and followed by annealing treatment. Then, the BH- ZnO NWs were grown on the ZnO NWs by a solution based method at very low temperature (31 oC). The BH- ZnO NWs with different aspect ratio were obtained by varying reaction time (0.5, 2, 5, 10 h). Photocatalytic activity of the samples was studied under both UV and visible light. The results indicated that the optimized BH-ZnO NWs (5 h) as a photocatalyst exhibited the highest photoactivity with about 3 times higher than the ZnO NWs under UV light. In addition, it was also determined that photodegradation rate constant (k) for the BH- ZnO NWs surface obeys a linear function with the branch length (l) and their correlation was described by using a proposed kinetic model.

  13. Low-Temperature Preparation of Ag-Doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays, DFT Study, and Application to Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Zhang, Jie; Tugsuz, Tugba; Ciofini, Ilaria; Labat, Frédéric; Viana, Bruno

    2015-06-10

    Doping ZnO nanowires (NWs) by group IB elements is an important challenge for integrating nanostructures into functional devices with better and tuned performances. The growth of Ag-doped ZnO NWs by electrodeposition at 90 °C using a chloride bath and molecular oxygen precursor is reported. Ag acts as an electrocatalyst for the deposition and influences the nucleation and growth of the structures. The silver atomic concentration in the wires is controlled by the additive concentration in the deposition bath and a content up to 3.7 atomic % is reported. XRD analysis shows that the integration of silver enlarges the lattice parameters of ZnO. The optical measurements also show that the direct optical bandgap of ZnO is reduced by silver doping. The bandgap shift and lattice expansion are explained by first principle calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) on the silver impurity integration as an interstitial (Ag(i)) and as a substitute of zinc atom (Ag(Zn)) in the crystal lattice. They notably indicate that Ag(Zn) doping forms an impurity band because of Ag 4d and O 2p orbital interactions, shifting the Fermi level toward the valence band. At least, Ag-doped ZnO vertically aligned nanowire arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN(001) substrate. The heterostructure has been inserted in a light emitting device. UV-blue light emission has been achieved with a low emission threshold of 5 V and a tunable red-shifted emission spectrum related to the bandgap reduction induced by silver doping of the ZnO emitter material.

  14. Tunable, flexible antireflection layer of ZnO nanowires embedded in PDMS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Kyu; Yi, Dong Kee; Paik, Ungyu

    2010-05-18

    In this article, we report the fabrication of ordered hybrid structures composed of ZnO nanowires and a polymeric matrix with a polymer precursor infiltrating the nanowire arrays. The antireflective properties of the resulting ZnO nanowire-embedded polydimethylsiloxane composite (ZPC) were investigated at various ZnO nanowire lengths and ZPC bending angles. Interestingly, we found that whereas the antireflective properties showed a strong dependence on the length of the embedded ZnO nanowires in PDMS, the bending of ZPC has little effect on the antireflective properties.

  15. Application of Chemical Doping and Architectural Design Principles To Fabricate Nanowire Co2Ni3ZnO8 Arrays for Aqueous Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Yang, Bin; Liu, Jingyuan; Yuan, Yi; Zhang, Hongsen; Liu, Lianhe; Wang, Jun; Li, Rumin

    2016-08-10

    Electrode materials derived from transition metal oxides have a serious problem of low electron transfer rate, which restricts their practical application. However, chemically doped graphene transforms the chemical bonding configuration to enhance electron transfer rate and, therefore, facilitates the successful fabrication of Co2Ni3ZnO8 nanowire arrays. In addition, the Co2Ni3ZnO8 electrode materials, considered as Ni and Zn ions doped into Co3O4, have a high electron transfer rate and electrochemical response capability, because the doping increases the degree of crystal defect and reaction of Co/Ni ions with the electrolyte. Hence, the Co2Ni3ZnO8 electrode exhibits a high rate property and excellent electrochemical cycle stability, as determined by electrochemical analysis of the relationship between specific capacitance, IR drop, Coulomb efficiency, and different current densities. From the results of a three-electrode system of electrochemical measurement, the Co2Ni3ZnO8 electrode demonstrates a specific capacitance of 1115 F g(-1) and retains 89.9% capacitance after 2000 cycles at a current density of 4 A g(-1). The energy density of the asymmetric supercapacitor (AC//Co2Ni3ZnO8) is 54.04 W h kg(-1) at the power density of 3200 W kg(-1).

  16. Enhanced photoluminescence and field-emission behavior of vertically well aligned arrays of In-doped ZnO Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mashkoor; Sun, Hongyu; Zhu, Jing

    2011-04-01

    Vertically oriented well-aligned Indium doped ZnO nanowires (NWs) have been successfully synthesized on Au-coated Zn substrate by controlled thermal evaporation. The effect of indium dopant on the optical and field-emission properties of these well-aligned ZnO NWs is investigated. The doped NWs are found to be single crystals grown along the c-axis. The composition of the doped NWs is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photospectroscopy (XPS). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of doped NWs having a blue-shift in the UV region show a prominent tuning in the optical band gap, without any significant peak relating to intrinsic defects. The turn-on field of the field emission is found to be ∼2.4 V μm(-1) and an emission current density of 1.13 mA cm(-2) under the field of 5.9 V μm(-1). The field enhancement factor β is estimated to be 9490 ± 2, which is much higher than that of any previous report. Furthermore, the doped NWs exhibit good emission current stability with a variation of less than 5% during a 200 s under a field of 5.9 V μm(-1). The superior field emission properties are attributed to the good alignment, high aspect ratio, and better crystallinity of In-doped NWs. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Superhydrophobicity of Hierarchical and ZNO Nanowire Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2014-0141 SUPERHYDROPHOBICITY OF HIERARCHICAL ZNO NANOWIRE COATINGS (POSTPRINT) Shin Mou AFRL/RXAN JANUARY... SUPERHYDROPHOBICITY OF HIERARCHICAL ZNO NANOWIRE COATINGS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...or disclose the work. The final publication is available at www.rsc.org/MaterialsA. 14. ABSTRACT Hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces were

  18. A ZnO nanowire resistive switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, K. R. G.; Ramanujam Prabhakar, Rajiv; Hai, L.; Batabyal, Sudip K.; Huang, Y. Z.; Mhaisalkar, S. G.

    2013-09-01

    An individual ZnO nanowire resistive switch is evaluated with Pt/ZnO nanowire/Pt topology. A detailed DC I-V curve analysis is performed to bring both the conduction mechanism and the device characteristics to light. The device is further studied at various vacuum pressures to ascertain the presence of polar charges in ZnO nanowires as the phenomenon leading to the formation of the switch. The disappearance of the resistive switching is also analyzed with two kinds of fabrication approaches Focused Ion/Electron Beam involved in the making the device and a summary of both length and fabrication dependences of resistive switching in the ZnO nanowire is presented.

  19. CdS/CdSe quantum dot shell decorated vertical ZnO nanowire arrays by spin-coating-based SILAR for photoelectrochemical cells and quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ran; Luo, Qiu-Ping; Chen, Hong-Yan; Yu, Xiao-Yun; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2012-04-23

    A CdS/CdSe composite shell is assembled onto the surface of ZnO nanowire arrays with a simple spin-coating-based successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The as-prepared photoelectrode exhibit a high photocurrent density in photoelectrochemical cells and also generates good power conversion efficiency in quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Miniaturized accelerometer made with ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sangho; Kim, Jeong Woong; Kim, Hyun Chan; Yun, Youngmin; Kim, Jaehwan

    2017-04-01

    Miniaturized accelerometer is required in many applications, such as, robotics, haptic devices, gyroscopes, simulators and mobile devices. ZnO is an essential semiconductor material with wide direct band gap, thermal stability and piezoelectricity. Especially, well aligned ZnO nanowire is appropriate for piezoelectric applications since it can produce high electrical signal under mechanical load. To miniaturize accelerometer, an aligned ZnO nanowire is adopted to implement active piezoelectric layer of the accelerometer and copper is chosen for the head mass. To grow ZnO nanowire on the copper head mass, hydrothermal synthesis is conducted and the effect of ZnO nanowire length on the accelerometer performance is investigated. Refresh hydrothermal synthesis can increase the length of ZnO nanowire. The performance of the fabricated ZnO accelerometers is compared with a commercial accelerometer. Sensitivity and linearity of the fabricated accelerometers are investigated.

  1. Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Lerose, Damiana; Bochmann, Arne; Christiansen, Silke H; Nietzsche, Sandor; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-05-06

    Ion beams can be used to permanently bend and re-align nanowires after growth. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with energetic ions, achieving bending and alignment in different directions. Not only the bending of single nanowires is studied in detail, but also the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires. Computer simulations reveal how the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Detailed structural characterization identifies dislocations to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent, even surviving annealing procedures.

  2. Power generation from base excitation of a Kevlar composite beam with ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-04-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, and nanotubes with piezoelectric properties have gained interest in the fabrication of small scale power harvesting systems. However, the practical applications of the nanoscale materials in structures with true mechanical strengths have not yet been demonstrated. In this paper, piezoelectric ZnO nanowires are integrated into the fiber reinforced polymer composites serving as an active phase to convert the induced strain energy from ambient vibration into electrical energy. Arrays of ZnO nanowires are grown vertically aligned on aramid fibers through a low-cost hydrothermal process. The modified fabrics with ZnO nanowires whiskers are then placed between two carbon fabrics as the top and the bottom electrodes. Finally, vacuum resin transfer molding technique is utilized to fabricate these multiscale composites. The fabricated composites are subjected to a base excitation using a shaker to generate charge due to the direct piezoelectric effect of ZnO nanowires. Measuring the generated potential difference between the two electrodes showed the energy harvesting application of these multiscale composites in addition to their superior mechanical properties. These results propose a new generation of power harvesting systems with enhanced mechanical properties.

  3. Investigation of ZnO Nanowire Interfaces for Multi-Scale Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-06

    growth of zinc oxide ( ZnO ) nanowires on the surface of the...through the growth of zinc oxide ( ZnO ) nanowires on the surface of the reinforcing fibers. The nanowires functionally grade the interface, improve bonding...bulk composite. This has been accomplished through the growth of zinc oxide ( ZnO ) nanowires on the surface of the reinforcing fibers. ZnO

  4. Fabrication and Performance Study on Individual Zno Nanowires Based Bioelectrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanguang; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Lin, Pei

    2012-08-01

    One-dimensional zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) have unique advantages for use in biosensors as follows: oxide stable surface, excellent biosafety, high specific surface area, high isoelectric point (IEP = 9.5). In this work, we have prepared a kind of electrochemical bioelectrode based on individual ZnO NWs. Here, ZnO NWs with high quality were successfully synthesized by CVD method, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence. Then the Raman spectra and electrical characterization demonstrated the adsorption of uricase on ZnO wires. At last, a series of electrochemical measurements were carried out by using an electrochemical workstation with a conventional three-electrode system to obtain the cyclic voltammetry characteristics of the bioelectrodes. The excellent performance of the fabricated bioelectrode implies the potential application for single ZnO nanowire to construct electrochemical biosensor for the detection of uric acid.

  5. Functionalized ZnO nanowires for microcantilever biosensors with enhanced binding capability.

    PubMed

    Stassi, Stefano; Chiadò, Alessandro; Cauda, Valentina; Palmara, Gianluca; Canavese, Giancarlo; Laurenti, Marco; Ricciardi, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    An efficient way to increase the binding capability of microcantilever biosensors is here demonstrated by growing zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) on their active surface. A comprehensive evaluation of the chemical compatibility of ZnO NWs brought to the definition of an innovative functionalization method able to guarantee the proper immobilization of biomolecules on the nanostructured surface. A noteworthy higher amount of grafted molecules was evidenced with colorimetric assays on ZnO NWs-coated devices, in comparison with functionalized and activated silicon flat samples. ZnO NWs grown on silicon microcantilever arrays and activated with the proposed immobilization strategy enhanced the sensor binding capability (and thus the dynamic range) of nearly 1 order of magnitude, with respect to the commonly employed flat functionalized silicon devices. Graphical Abstract An efficient way to increase the binding capability of microcantilever biosensors is represented by growing zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) on their active surface. ZnO NWs grown on silicon microcantilever arrays and activated with an innovative immobilization strategy enhanced the sensor binding capability of nearly 1 order of magnitude, with respect to the commonly employed flat functionalized silicon devices.

  6. Near band edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires: Optimization via surface engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Danhua; Zhang, Wenrui; Cen, Jiajie; Stavitski, Eli; Sadowski, Jerzy T.; Vescovo, Elio; Walter, Andrew; Attenkofer, Klaus; Stacchiola, Darío J.; Liu, Mingzhao

    2017-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays have potential applications for various devices such as ultra-violet light emitting diodes and lasers, where photoluminescence of intense near band edge emission without defect emissions is usually desired. Here, we demonstrate, counter-intuitively, that the near band edge emission may become dominant by introducing certain surface defects to ZnO nanowires via surface engineering. Specifically, near band edge emission (NBE) is effectively enhanced after a low pressure O2 plasma treatment that sputters off surface oxygen species to produce a reduced and oxygen vacancy-rich surface. The effect is attributed to the lowered surface valence band maximum of the reduced ZnO surface that creates an accumulative band bending, which screens the photo-generated minority carriers (holes) from reaching or being trapped by the surface defects.

  7. Near band edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires: Optimization via surface engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Danhua; Zhang, Wenrui; Cen, Jiajie

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays have potential applications for various devices including ultra-violet light emitting diodes and lasers, where photoluminescence of intense near band edge emission without defect emissions is usually desired. Here, we demonstrate, counter-intuitively, that the near band edge emission may become dominant by introducing certain surface defects to ZnO nanowires via surface engineering. Specifically, near band edge emission (NBE) is effectively enhanced after a low pressure O 2 plasma treatment that sputters off surface oxygen species to produce a reduced and oxygen vacancy-rich surface. The effect is attributed to the lowered surface valence band maximum of themore » reduced ZnO surface that creates an accumulative band bending, which screens the photo-generated minority carriers (holes) from reaching or being trapped by the surface defects.« less

  8. Near band edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires: Optimization via surface engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Danhua; Zhang, Wenrui; Cen, Jiajie; ...

    2017-12-04

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays have potential applications for various devices including ultra-violet light emitting diodes and lasers, where photoluminescence of intense near band edge emission without defect emissions is usually desired. Here, we demonstrate, counter-intuitively, that the near band edge emission may become dominant by introducing certain surface defects to ZnO nanowires via surface engineering. Specifically, near band edge emission (NBE) is effectively enhanced after a low pressure O 2 plasma treatment that sputters off surface oxygen species to produce a reduced and oxygen vacancy-rich surface. The effect is attributed to the lowered surface valence band maximum of themore » reduced ZnO surface that creates an accumulative band bending, which screens the photo-generated minority carriers (holes) from reaching or being trapped by the surface defects.« less

  9. CdTe quantum-dot-modified ZnO nanowire heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi, Kanchana; Singh, R. S.; Singh, Ajaya Kumar; Aleksandrova, Mariya; Khenata, Rabah

    2018-03-01

    The effect of CdTe quantum-dot (QD) decoration on the photoluminescence (PL) behaviour of ZnO nanowire (NW) array is presented in the present work. Highly crystalline and vertically 40-50 nm diameter range and 1 µm in length aligned ZnO NWs are synthesized using low-cost method. The crystallinity and morphology of the NWs are studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction methods.Optical properties of the nanowires are studied using photo-response and PL spectroscopy. CdTe QDs are successfully synthesized on ZnO nanowire surface by dip-coating method. ZnO NWs are sensitized with CdTe QDs characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and PL spectroscopy. The highly quenched PL intensity indicates the charge transfer at interface between CdTe QDs and ZnO NWs and is due to the formation of type-II heterostructure between QDs and NWs. Photo-response behaviour of heterostructure of the film is also been incorporated in the present work.

  10. Mechanical behavior enhancement of ZnO nanowire by embedding different nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazinishayan, Ali; Yang, Shuming; Lambada, Dasaradha Rao; Wang, Yiming

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we employed commercial finite element modeling (FEM) software package ABAQUS to analyze mechanical properties of ZnO nanowire before and after embedding with different kinds of nanowires, having different materials and cross-section models such as Au (circular), Ag (pentagonal) and Si (rectangular) using three point bending technique. The length and diameter of the ZnO nanowire were measured to be 12,280 nm and 103.2 nm, respectively. In addition, Au, Ag and Si nanowires were considered to have the length of 12,280 nm and the diameter of 27 nm. It was found that after embedding Si nanowire with rectangular cross-section into the ZnO nanowire, the distribution of Von Misses stresses criterion, displacement and strain were decreased than the other nanowires embedded. The highest stiffness, the elastic deformation and the high strength against brittle failure have been made by Si nanowire comparison to the Au and Ag nanowires, respectively.

  11. Photosensitization of ZnO nanowires with CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Leschkies, Kurtis S; Divakar, Ramachandran; Basu, Joysurya; Enache-Pommer, Emil; Boercker, Janice E; Carter, C Barry; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Norris, David J; Aydil, Eray S

    2007-06-01

    We combine CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals (or quantum dots) and single-crystal ZnO nanowires to demonstrate a new type of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell. An array of ZnO nanowires was grown vertically from a fluorine-doped tin oxide conducting substrate. CdSe quantum dots, capped with mercaptopropionic acid, were attached to the surface of the nanowires. When illuminated with visible light, the excited CdSe quantum dots injected electrons across the quantum dot-nanowire interface. The morphology of the nanowires then provided the photoinjected electrons with a direct electrical pathway to the photoanode. With a liquid electrolyte as the hole transport medium, quantum-dot-sensitized nanowire solar cells exhibited short-circuit currents ranging from 1 to 2 mA/cm2 and open-circuit voltages of 0.5-0.6 V when illuminated with 100 mW/cm2 simulated AM1.5 spectrum. Internal quantum efficiencies as high as 50-60% were also obtained.

  12. Large-area fabrication of patterned ZnO-nanowire arrays using light stamping lithography.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae K; Cho, Sangho; Seo, Eun K; Myoung, Jae M; Sung, Myung M

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate selective adsorption and alignment of ZnO nanowires on patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) thin layers with (aminopropyl)siloxane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Light stamping lithography (LSL) was used to prepare patterned PDMS thin layers as neutral passivation regions on Si substrates. (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-based SAMs were selectively formed only on regions exposing the silanol groups of the Si substrates. The patterned positively charged amino groups define and direct the selective adsorption of ZnO nanowires with negative surface charges in the protic solvent. This procedure can be adopted in automated printing machines that generate patterned ZnO-nanowire arrays on large-area substrates. To demonstrate its usefulness, the LSL method was applied to prepare ZnO-nanowire transistor arrays on 4-in. Si wafers.

  13. Directed branch growth in aligned nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Allan L; LaForge, Joshua M; Tucker, Ryan T; Sorge, Jason B; Adamski, Nicholas L; Li, Peng; Taschuk, Michael T; Brett, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Branch growth is directed along two, three, or four in-plane directions in vertically aligned nanowire arrays using vapor-liquid-solid glancing angle deposition (VLS-GLAD) flux engineering. In this work, a dynamically controlled collimated vapor flux guides branch placement during the self-catalyzed epitaxial growth of branched indium tin oxide nanowire arrays. The flux is positioned to grow branches on select nanowire facets, enabling fabrication of aligned nanotree arrays with L-, T-, or X-branching. In addition, a flux motion algorithm is designed to selectively elongate branches along one in-plane axis. Nanotrees are found to be aligned across large areas by X-ray diffraction pole figure analysis and through branch length and orientation measurements collected over 140 μm(2) from scanning electron microscopy images for each array. The pathway to guided assembly of nanowire architectures with controlled interconnectivity in three-dimensions using VLS-GLAD is discussed.

  14. Ultra-fast microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of long vertically aligned ZnO nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cell application.

    PubMed

    Mahpeykar, S M; Koohsorkhi, J; Ghafoori-Fard, H

    2012-04-27

    Long vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays were synthesized using an ultra-fast microwave-assisted hydrothermal process. Using this method, we were able to grow ZnO nanowire arrays at an average growth rate as high as 200 nm min(-1) for maximum microwave power level. This method does not suffer from the growth stoppage problem at long growth times that, according to our investigations, a normal microwave-assisted hydrothermal method suffers from. Longitudinal growth of the nanowire arrays was investigated as a function of microwave power level and growth time using cross-sectional FESEM images of the grown arrays. Effect of seed layer on the alignment of nanowires was also studied. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed c-axis orientation and single-phase wurtzite structure of the nanowires. J-V curves of the fabricated ZnO nanowire-based mercurochrome-sensitized solar cells indicated that the short-circuit current density is increased with increasing the length of the nanowire array. According to the UV-vis spectra of the dyes detached from the cells, these increments were mainly attributed to the enlarged internal surface area and therefore dye loading enhancement in the lengthened nanowire arrays.

  15. The fabrication of ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors by roll-transfer printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Kuei; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2009-05-01

    A method with the potential to fabricate large-area nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) was demonstrated in this study. Using a high-speed roller (20-80 cm min-1), transfer printing was successfully employed to transfer vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires grown on a donor substrate to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp and then print the ordered ZnO nanowire arrays on the received substrate for the fabrication of NW-FETs. ZnO NW-FETs fabricated by this method exhibit high performances with a threshold voltage of around 0.25 V, a current on/off ratio as high as 105, a subthreshold slope of 360 mV/dec, and a field-effect mobility of around 90 cm2 V-1 s-1. The excellent device characteristics suggest that the roll-transfer printing technique, which is compatible with the roll-to-roll (R2R) process and operated in atmosphere, has a good potential for the high-speed fabrication of large-area nanowire transistors for flexible devices and flat panel displays.

  16. The fabrication of ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors by roll-transfer printing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Kuei; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2009-05-13

    A method with the potential to fabricate large-area nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) was demonstrated in this study. Using a high-speed roller (20-80 cm min(-1)), transfer printing was successfully employed to transfer vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires grown on a donor substrate to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp and then print the ordered ZnO nanowire arrays on the received substrate for the fabrication of NW-FETs. ZnO NW-FETs fabricated by this method exhibit high performances with a threshold voltage of around 0.25 V, a current on/off ratio as high as 10(5), a subthreshold slope of 360 mV/dec, and a field-effect mobility of around 90 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The excellent device characteristics suggest that the roll-transfer printing technique, which is compatible with the roll-to-roll (R2R) process and operated in atmosphere, has a good potential for the high-speed fabrication of large-area nanowire transistors for flexible devices and flat panel displays.

  17. Piezo-Phototronic Enhanced UV Sensing Based on a Nanowire Photodetector Array.

    PubMed

    Han, Xun; Du, Weiming; Yu, Ruomeng; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    A large array of Schottky UV photodetectors (PDs) based on vertical aligned ZnO nanowires is achieved. By introducing the piezo-phototronic effect, the performance of the PD array is enhanced up to seven times in photoreponsivity, six times in sensitivity, and 2.8 times in detection limit. The UV PD array may have applications in optoelectronic systems, adaptive optical computing, and communication. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-11-30

    An innovative solar cell based on inclined p-i-n nanowire array is designed and analyzed. The results show that the inclined geometry can sufficiently increase the conversion efficiency of solar cells by enhancing the absorption of light in the active region. By tuning the nanowire array density, nanowire diameter, nanowire length, as well as the proportion of intrinsic region of the inclined nanowire solar cell, a remarkable efficiency in excess of 16% can be obtained in GaAs. Similar results have been obtained in InP and Si nanowire solar cells, demonstrating the universality of the performance enhancement of inclined nanowire arrays.

  19. Hierarchically structured nanowires on and nanosticks in ZnO microtubes

    PubMed Central

    Rivaldo-Gómez, C. M.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Zúñiga, A.; Carbonari, A. W.; Souza, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    We report both coaxial core-shell structured microwires and ZnO microtubes with growth of nanosticks in the inner and nanowires on the outer surface as a novel hierarchical micro/nanoarchitecture. First, a core-shell structure is obtained—the core is formed by metallic Zn and the semiconducting shell is comprised by a thin oxide layer covered with a high density of nanowires. Such Zn/ZnO core-shell array showed magnetoresistance effect. It is suggested that magnetic moments in the nanostructured shell superimposes to the external magnetic field enhancing the MR effect. Second, microtubes decorated with nanowires on the external surface are obtained. In an intermediate stage, a hierarchical morphology comprised of discrete nanosticks in the inner surface of the microtube has been found. Hyperfine interaction measurements disclosed the presence of confined metallic Zn regions at the interface between linked ZnO grains forming a chain and a ZnO thicker layer. Surprisingly, the metallic clusters form highly textured thin flat regions oriented parallel to the surface of the microtube as revealed by the electrical field gradient direction. The driving force to grow the internal nanosticks has been ascribed to stress-induced migration of Zn ions due to compressive stress caused by the presence of these confined regions. PMID:26456527

  20. Quantitative and simultaneous analysis of the polarity of polycrystalline ZnO seed layers and related nanowires grown by wet chemical deposition.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Sophie; Parize, Romain; Carabetta, Joseph; Cantelli, Valentina; Albertini, David; Gautier, Brice; Brémond, Georges; Fong, Dillon D; Renevier, Hubert; Consonni, Vincent

    2017-03-03

    The polarity in ZnO nanowires is an important issue since it strongly affects surface configuration and reactivity, nucleation and growth, electro-optical properties, and nanoscale-engineering device performances. However, measuring statistically the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays grown by chemical bath deposition and elucidating its correlation with the polarity of the underneath polycrystalline ZnO seed layer grown by the sol-gel process represents a major difficulty. To address that issue, we combine resonant x-ray diffraction (XRD) at Zn K-edge using synchrotron radiation with piezoelectric force microscopy and polarity-sensitive chemical etching to statistically investigate the polarity of more than 10 7 nano-objects both on the macroscopic and local microscopic scales, respectively. By using high temperature annealing under an argon atmosphere, it is shown that the compact, highly c-axis oriented ZnO seed layer is more than 92% Zn-polar and that only a few small O-polar ZnO grains with an amount less than 8% are formed. Correlatively, the resulting ZnO nanowires are also found to be Zn-polar, indicating that their polarity is transferred from the c-axis oriented ZnO grains acting as nucleation sites in the seed layer. These findings pave the way for the development of new strategies to form unipolar ZnO nanowire arrays as a requirement for a number of nanoscale-engineering devices like piezoelectric nanogenerators. They also highlight the great advantage of resonant XRD as a macroscopic, non-destructive method to simultaneously and statistically measure the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays and of the underneath ZnO seed layer.

  1. Quantitative and simultaneous analysis of the polarity of polycrystalline ZnO seed layers and related nanowires grown by wet chemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemin, Sophie; Parize, Romain; Carabetta, Joseph; Cantelli, Valentina; Albertini, David; Gautier, Brice; Brémond, Georges; Fong, Dillon D.; Renevier, Hubert; Consonni, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    The polarity in ZnO nanowires is an important issue since it strongly affects surface configuration and reactivity, nucleation and growth, electro-optical properties, and nanoscale-engineering device performances. However, measuring statistically the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays grown by chemical bath deposition and elucidating its correlation with the polarity of the underneath polycrystalline ZnO seed layer grown by the sol-gel process represents a major difficulty. To address that issue, we combine resonant x-ray diffraction (XRD) at Zn K-edge using synchrotron radiation with piezoelectric force microscopy and polarity-sensitive chemical etching to statistically investigate the polarity of more than 107 nano-objects both on the macroscopic and local microscopic scales, respectively. By using high temperature annealing under an argon atmosphere, it is shown that the compact, highly c-axis oriented ZnO seed layer is more than 92% Zn-polar and that only a few small O-polar ZnO grains with an amount less than 8% are formed. Correlatively, the resulting ZnO nanowires are also found to be Zn-polar, indicating that their polarity is transferred from the c-axis oriented ZnO grains acting as nucleation sites in the seed layer. These findings pave the way for the development of new strategies to form unipolar ZnO nanowire arrays as a requirement for a number of nanoscale-engineering devices like piezoelectric nanogenerators. They also highlight the great advantage of resonant XRD as a macroscopic, non-destructive method to simultaneously and statistically measure the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays and of the underneath ZnO seed layer.

  2. Quantitative and simultaneous analysis of the polarity of polycrystalline ZnO seed layers and related nanowires grown by wet chemical deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Guillemin, Sophie; Parize, Romain; Carabetta, Joseph

    The polarity in ZnO nanowires is an important issue since it strongly affects surface configuration and reactivity, nucleation and growth, electro-optical properties, and nanoscaleengineering device performances. However, measuring statistically the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays grown by chemical bath deposition and elucidating its correlation with the polarity of the underneath polycrystalline ZnO seed layer grown by the sol–gel process represents a major difficulty. To address that issue, we combine resonant x-ray diffraction (XRD) at Zn K-edge using synchrotron radiation with piezoelectric force microscopy and polarity-sensitive chemical etching to statistically investigate the polarity of more than 107 nano-objects both on themore » macroscopic and local microscopic scales, respectively. By using high temperature annealing under an argon atmosphere, it is shown that the compact, highly c-axis oriented ZnO seed layer is more than 92% Zn-polar and that only a few small O-polar ZnO grains with an amount less than 8% are formed. Correlatively, the resulting ZnO nanowires are also found to be Zn-polar, indicating that their polarity is transferred from the c-axis oriented ZnO grains acting as nucleation sites in the seed layer. These findings pave the way for the development of new strategies to form unipolar ZnO nanowire arrays as a requirement for a number of nanoscaleengineering devices like piezoelectric nanogenerators. They also highlight the great advantage of resonant XRD as a macroscopic, non-destructive method to simultaneously and statistically measure the polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays and of the underneath ZnO seed layer.« less

  3. Fabrication of a Miniaturized ZnO Nanowire Accelerometer and Its Performance Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Chan; Song, Sangho; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a miniaturized piezoelectric accelerometer suitable for a small haptic actuator array. The accelerometer is made with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) grown on a copper wafer by a hydrothermal process. The size of the accelerometer is 1.5 × 1.5 mm2, thus fitting the 1.8 × 1.8 mm2 haptic actuator array cell. The detailed fabrication process of the miniaturized accelerometer is illustrated. Performance evaluation of the fabricated accelerometer is conducted by comparing it with a commercial piezoelectric accelerometer. The output current of the fabricated accelerometer increases linearly with the acceleration. The miniaturized ZnO NW accelerometer is feasible for acceleration measurement of small and lightweight devices. PMID:27649184

  4. Formation of Ordered and Disordered Dielectric/metal Nanowire Arrays and their Plasmonic Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    sheath geometry. 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Several different nanowire systems have been grown, including random Ga2O3 nanowires, InAs...nanowires, ZnO nanowires, as well as Au lines produced by e-beam lithography. The growth of the Ga2O3 nanowires was achieved by the controlled oxidation...CLOSELY-SPACED PARALLEL ZnO NANOWIRES AND CROSSED Ga2O3 NANOWIRES. As discussed above, due to the far separation of the gold colloid catalyst in the

  5. An optimal thermal evaporation synthesis of c-axis oriented ZnO nanowires with excellent UV sensing and emission characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Tridib, E-mail: tridib.saha@monash.edu; Achath Mohanan, Ajay, E-mail: ajay.mohanan@monash.edu; Swamy, Varghese, E-mail: varghese.swamy@monash.edu

    Highlights: • c-Axis alignment of ZnO nanowires was optimized using self-seeding thermal evaporation method. • Influence of purified air on the morphology and optoelectronic properties were studied. • Nanowires grown under optimal conditions exhibit strong UV emission peak in PL spectrum. • Optimized growth condition establish nanowires of excellent UV sensing characteristics - Abstract: Well-aligned (c-axis oriented) ZnO nanowire arrays were successfully synthesized on Si (1 0 0) substrates through an optimized self-seeding thermal evaporation method. An open-ended chemical vapor deposition (CVD) setup was used in the experiment, with argon and purified air as reaction gases. Epitaxial growth of c-axismore » oriented ZnO nanowires was observed for 5 sccm flow rate of purified air, whereas Zn/Zn suboxide layers and multiple polycrystalline layers of ZnO were obtained for absence and excess of purified air, respectively. Ultraviolet (UV) sensing and emission properties of the as-grown ZnO nanostructures were investigated through the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the nanowires under UV (λ = 365 nm) illumination of 8 mW/cm{sup 2} and using photoluminescence spectra. Nanowires grown under optimum flow of air emitted four times higher intensity of 380 nm UV light as well as exhibited 34 times higher UV radiation sensitivity compared to that of other nanostructures synthesized in this study.« less

  6. Nanowire sensor, sensor array, and method for making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar (Inventor); Vasquez, Richard (Inventor); Yun, Minhee (Inventor); Myung, Nosang (Inventor); Choi, Daniel (Inventor); Goddard, William (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a nanowire sensor and method for forming the same. More specifically, the nanowire sensor comprises at least one nanowire formed on a substrate, with a sensor receptor disposed on a surface of the nanowire, thereby forming a receptor-coated nanowire. The nanowire sensor can be arranged as a sensor sub-unit comprising a plurality of homogeneously receptor-coated nanowires. A plurality of sensor subunits can be formed to collectively comprise a nanowire sensor array. Each sensor subunit in the nanowire sensor array can be formed to sense a different stimulus, allowing a user to sense a plurality of stimuli. Additionally, each sensor subunit can be formed to sense the same stimuli through different aspects of the stimulus. The sensor array is fabricated through a variety of techniques, such as by creating nanopores on a substrate and electrodepositing nanowires within the nanopores.

  7. Performance improvement of miniaturized ZnO nanowire accelerometer fabricated by refresh hydrothermal synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sangho; Kim, Hyun Chan; Kim, Jung Woong; Kim, Debora

    2017-01-01

    Miniaturized accelerometers are necessary for evaluating the performance of small devices, such as haptics, robotics and simulators. In this study, we fabricated miniaturized accelerometers using well-aligned ZnO nanowires. The layer of ZnO nanowires is used for active piezoelectric layer of the accelerometer, and copper was chosen as a head mass. Seedless and refresh hydrothermal synthesis methods were conducted to grow ZnO nanowires on the copper substrate and the effect of ZnO nanowire length on the accelerometer performance was investigated. The refresh hydrothermal synthesis exhibits longer ZnO nanowires, 12 µm, than the seedless hydrothermal synthesis, 6 µm. Performance of the fabricated accelerometers was verified by comparing with a commercial accelerometer. The sensitivity of the fabricated accelerometer by the refresh hydrothermal synthesis is shown to be 37.7 pA g−1, which is about 30 times larger than the previous result. PMID:28989760

  8. Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.; Fasenfest, Benjamin J.; Behymer, Elaine M.

    2014-07-15

    Tunable plasmon resonant cavity arrays in paired parallel nanowire waveguides are presented. Resonances can be observed when the waveguide length is an odd multiple of quarter plasmon wavelengths, consistent with boundary conditions of node and antinode at the ends. Two nanowire waveguides can satisfy the dispersion relation of a planar metal-dielectric-metal waveguide of equivalent width equal to the square field average weighted gap. Confinement factors of over 10.sup.3 are possible due to plasmon focusing in the inter-wire space.

  9. Nanowire sensors and arrays for chemical/biomolecule detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Ramanathan, K.; Bangar, M. A.; Chen, W.; Mulchandan, A.; Myung, N. V.

    2005-01-01

    We report electrochemical growth of single nanowire based sensors using e-beam patterned electrolyte channels, potentially enabling the controlled fabrication of individually addressable high density arrays. The electrodeposition technique results in nanowires with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. Using this technique, we have fabricated single palladium nanowires with diameters ranging between 75 nm and 300 nm and conducting polymer nanowires (polypyrrole and polyaniline) with diameters between 100 nm and 200 nm. Using these single nanowires, we have successfully demonstrated gas sensing with Pd nanowires and pH sensing with polypirrole nanowires.

  10. On the difficulties in characterizing ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, E; Bakin, A; Weimann, T; Hinze, P; Weber, D H; Gölzhäuser, A; Wehmann, H-H; Waag, A

    2008-09-10

    The electrical properties of single ZnO nanowires grown by vapor phase transport were investigated. While some samples were contacted by Ti/Au electrodes, another set of samples was investigated using a manipulator tip in a low energy electron point-source microscope. The deduced resistivities range from 1 to 10(3) Ωcm. Additionally, the resistivities of nanowires from multiple publications were brought together and compared to the values obtained from our measurements. The overview of all data shows enormous differences (10(-3)-10(5) Ωcm) in the measured resistivities. In order to reveal the origin of the discrepancies, the influence of growth parameters, measuring methods, contact resistances, crystal structures and ambient conditions are investigated and discussed in detail.

  11. Photovoltaic devices based on quantum dot functionalized nanowire arrays embedded in an organic matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Patrick; Harris, Nicholas; Shen, Gang; Wilbert, David S.; Baughman, William; Balci, Soner; Dawahre, Nabil; Butler, Lee; Rivera, Elmer; Nikles, David; Kim, Seongsin M.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD) functionalized nanowire arrays are attractive structures for low cost high efficiency solar cells. QDs have the potential for higher quantum efficiency, increased stability and lifetime compared to traditional dyes, as well as the potential for multiple electron generation per photon. Nanowire array scaffolds constitute efficient, low resistance electron transport pathways which minimize the hopping mechanism in the charge transport process of quantum dot solar cells. However, the use of liquid electrolytes as a hole transport medium within such scaffold device structures have led to significant degradation of the QDs. In this work, we first present the synthesis uniform single crystalline ZnO nanowire arrays and their functionalization with InP/ZnS core-shell quantum dots. The structures are characterized using electron microscopy, optical absorption, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. Complementing photoluminescence, transmission electron microanalysis is used to reveal the successful QD attachment process and the atomistic interface between the ZnO and the QD. Energy dispersive spectroscopy reveals the co-localized presence of indium, phosphorus, and sulphur, suggestive of the core-shell nature of the QDs. The functionalized nanowire arrays are subsequently embedded in a poly-3(hexylthiophene) hole transport matrix with a high degree of polymer infiltration to complete the device structure prior to measurement.

  12. Nanowire arrays restore vision in blind mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Qin, Nan; Chong, Yan; Diao, Yupu; Yiliguma; Wang, Zhexuan; Xue, Tian; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Jiayi; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2018-03-06

    The restoration of light response with complex spatiotemporal features in retinal degenerative diseases towards retinal prosthesis has proven to be a considerable challenge over the past decades. Herein, inspired by the structure and function of photoreceptors in retinas, we develop artificial photoreceptors based on gold nanoparticle-decorated titania nanowire arrays, for restoration of visual responses in the blind mice with degenerated photoreceptors. Green, blue and near UV light responses in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are restored with a spatial resolution better than 100 µm. ON responses in RGCs are blocked by glutamatergic antagonists, suggesting functional preservation of the remaining retinal circuits. Moreover, neurons in the primary visual cortex respond to light after subretinal implant of nanowire arrays. Improvement in pupillary light reflex suggests the behavioral recovery of light sensitivity. Our study will shed light on the development of a new generation of optoelectronic toolkits for subretinal prosthetic devices.

  13. Hydrothermal Growth of ZnO Nanowires on UV-Nanoimprinted Polymer Structures.

    PubMed

    Park, Sooyeon; Moore, Sean A; Lee, Jaejong; Song, In-Hyouk; Farshchian, Bahador; Kim, Namwon

    2018-05-01

    Integration of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires on miniaturized polymer structures can broaden its application in multi-functional polymer devices by taking advantages of unique physical properties of ZnO nanowires and recent development of polymer microstructures in analytical systems. In this paper, we demonstrate the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires on polymer microstructures fabricated by UV nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) using a polyurethane acrylate (PUA). Since PUA is a siloxane-urethane-acrylate compound containing the alpha-hydroxyl ketone, UV-cured PUA include carboxyl groups, which inhibit and suppress the nucleation and growth of ZnO nanowires on polymer structures. The presence of carboxyl groups in UV-cured PUA was substantiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a Ag thin film was deposited on the nanoimprinted polymer structures to limit their inhibitive influence on the growth of ZnO nanowires. Furthermore, the naturally oxidized Ag layer (Ag2O) reduced crystalline lattice mismatches at the interface between ZnO-Ag during the seed annealing process. The ZnO nanowires grown on the Ag-deposited PUA microstructures were found to have comparable morphological characteristics with ZnO nanowires grown on a Si wafer.

  14. Visible electroluminescence from a ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Baratto, C; Kumar, R; Comini, E; Faglia, G; Sberveglieri, G

    2015-07-27

    In the current paper we apply catalyst assisted vapour phase growth technique to grow ZnO nanowires (ZnO nws) on p-GaN thin film obtaining EL emission in reverse bias regime. ZnO based LED represents a promising alternative to III-nitride LEDs, as in free devices: the potential is in near-UV emission and visible emission. For ZnO, the use of nanowires ensures good crystallinity of the ZnO, and improved light extraction from the interface when the nanowires are vertically aligned. We prepared ZnO nanowires in a tubular furnace on GaN templates and characterized the p-n ZnO nws/GaN heterojunction for LED applications. SEM microscopy was used to study the growth of nanowires and device preparation. Photoluminescence (PL) and Electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopies were used to characterize the heterojunction, showing that good quality of PL emission is observed from nanowires and visible emission from the junction can be obtained from the region near ZnO contact, starting from onset bias of 6V.

  15. Growth of catalyst-free high-quality ZnO nanowires by thermal evaporation under air ambient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanowires have been successfully fabricated on Si substrate by simple thermal evaporation of Zn powder under air ambient without any catalyst. Morphology and structure analyses indicated that ZnO nanowires had high purity and perfect crystallinity. The diameter of ZnO nanowires was 40 to 100 nm, and the length was about several tens of micrometers. The prepared ZnO nanowires exhibited a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. The growth of the ZnO nanostructure was explained by the vapor-solid mechanism. The simplicity, low cost and fewer necessary apparatuses of the process would suit the high-throughput fabrication of ZnO nanowires. The ZnO nanowires fabricated on Si substrate are compatible with state-of-the-art semiconductor industry. They are expected to have potential applications in functional nanodevices. PMID:22502639

  16. A low-temperature ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensor prepared on plastic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Hsueh, Ting-Jen

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a low-temperature ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensor was prepared on plastic substrate. The operating temperature of the ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensor was reduced to room temperature using ultraviolet illumination. The experimental results indicate a favorable sensor response at low temperature, with the best response at 60 °C. The results also reveal that the ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensor can be easily integrated into portable products, whose waste heat can improve sensor response and achieve energy savings, while energy consumption can be further reduced by solar irradiation.

  17. Ultraviolet photodetection of flexible ZnO nanowire sheets in polydimethylsiloxane polymer

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Nunzio; Lee, Soonil

    2012-01-01

    Summary ZnO nanowires are normally exposed to an oxygen atmosphere to achieve high performance in UV photodetection. In this work we present results on a UV photodetector fabricated using a flexible ZnO nanowire sheet embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a gas-permeable polymer, showing reproducible UV photoresponse and enhanced photoconduction. PDMS coating results in a reduced response speed compared to that of a ZnO nanowire film in air. The rising speed is slightly reduced, while the decay time is prolonged by about a factor of four. We conclude that oxygen molecules diffusing in PDMS are responsible for the UV photoresponse. PMID:23016139

  18. Ultraviolet photodetection of flexible ZnO nanowire sheets in polydimethylsiloxane polymer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinzhang; Motta, Nunzio; Lee, Soonil

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanowires are normally exposed to an oxygen atmosphere to achieve high performance in UV photodetection. In this work we present results on a UV photodetector fabricated using a flexible ZnO nanowire sheet embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a gas-permeable polymer, showing reproducible UV photoresponse and enhanced photoconduction. PDMS coating results in a reduced response speed compared to that of a ZnO nanowire film in air. The rising speed is slightly reduced, while the decay time is prolonged by about a factor of four. We conclude that oxygen molecules diffusing in PDMS are responsible for the UV photoresponse.

  19. Direct electrodeposition of porous gold nanowire arrays for biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyi; Li, Dan; Bourgeois, Laure; Wang, Huanting; Webley, Paul A

    2009-02-02

    Nanochannel alumina templates are used as templates for fabrication of porous gold nanowire arrays by a direct electrodeposition method. After modification with glucose oxidase, a porous gold nanowire-array electrode is shown to be an excellent electrochemical biosensor for the detection of glucose. The picture shows an SEM image of a nanowire array after removal of the alumina template by acid dissolution. We report the fabrication of porous gold nanowire arrays by means of a one-step electrodeposition method utilizing nanochannel alumina templates. The microstructure of gold nanowires depends strongly on the current density. The formation of porous gold nanowires is attributed to disperse crystallization under conditions of low nucleation rate. Interfacial electron transport through the porous gold nanowires is studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetric studies on the porous gold nanowire arrays reveal a low-potential electrocatalytic response towards hydrogen peroxide. The properties of the glucose oxidase modified porous gold nanowire array electrode are elucidated and compared with those of nonporous enzyme electrodes. The glucose oxidase modified porous gold nanowire-array electrode is shown to be an excellent electrochemical biosensor for the detection of glucose.

  20. A ZnO nanowire bio-hybrid solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaghoubi, Houman; Schaefer, Michael; Yaghoubi, Shayan; Jun, Daniel; Schlaf, Rudy; Beatty, J. Thomas; Takshi, Arash

    2017-02-01

    Harvesting solar energy as a carbon free source can be a promising solution to the energy crisis and environmental pollution. Biophotovoltaics seek to mimic photosynthesis to harvest solar energy and to take advantage of the low material costs, negative carbon footprint, and material abundance. In the current study, we report on a combination of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires with monolayers of photosynthetic reaction centers which are self-assembled, via a cytochrome c linker, as photoactive electrode. In a three-probe biophotovoltaics cell, a photocurrent density of 5.5 μA cm-2 and photovoltage of 36 mV was achieved, using methyl viologen as a redox mediator in the electrolyte. Using ferrocene as a redox mediator a transient photocurrent density of 8.0 μA cm-2 was obtained, which stabilized at 6.4 μA cm-2 after 20 s. In-depth electronic structure characterization using photoemission spectroscopy in conjunction with electrochemical analysis suggests that the fabricated photoactive electrode can provide a proper electronic path for electron transport all the way from the conduction band of the ZnO nanowires, through the protein linker to the RC, and ultimately via redox mediator to the counter electrode.

  1. Enhancement of Si solar cell efficiency using ZnO nanowires with various diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholizadeh, A.; Reyhani, A.; Parvin, P.; Mortazavi, S. Z.; Mehrabi, M.

    2018-01-01

    Here, Zinc Oxide nanowires are synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition of a Zn granulate source and used to enhance a significant Si-solar cell efficiency with simple and low cost method. The nanowires are grown in various O2 flow rates. Those affect the shape, yield, structure and the quality of ZnO nanowires according to scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses. This delineates that the ZnO nanostructure is dependent on the synthesis conditions. The photoluminescence spectroscopy of ZnO indicates optical emission at the Ultra-Violet and blue-green regions whose intensity varies as a function of diameter of ZnO nano-wires. The optical property of ZnO layer is measured by UV-visible and diffuse reflection spectroscopy that demonstrate high absorbance at 280-550 nm. Furthermore, the photovoltaic characterization of ZnO nanowires is investigated based on the drop casting on Si-solar cell. The ZnO nanowires with various diameters demonstrate different effects on the efficiency of Si-solar cells. We have shown that the reduction of the spectral reflectance and down-shifting process as well as the reduction of photon trapping are essential parameters on the efficiency of Si-solar cells. However, the latter is dominated here. In fact, the trapped photons during the electron-hole generation are dominant due to lessening the absorption rate in ZnO nano-wires. The results indicate that the mean diameters reduction of ZnO nanowires is also essential to improve the fill factor. The external and internal quantum efficiency analyses attest the efficiency improvement over the blue region which is related to the key parameters above.

  2. Simple Analytic Model for Nanowire Array Polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Vincent; Asakawa, Koji; Wu, Mingshaw; Register, Richard; Chaikin, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Cylinder-forming diblock copolymers can be used to pattern nanowire arrays on a transparent substrate to be used as a polarizer, as described by Koji Asakawa in a complementary talk at this meeting. With a 33nm period, these wire arrays can polarize UV radiation, which is of great interest in lithography, astronomy and other areas. One can gain an analytical understanding of such an array made of non-perfectly conducting material of finite thickness using a model with an appropriately averaged complex dielectric function in an infinite wavelength approximation. This analysis predicts that the grid can go from an E-polarizer to an H-polarizer as the wavelength decreases below a cross-over wavelength, and experimental data confirm this cross-over. The overall response of the polarizing grid depends primarily on the plasma frequency of the metal used and the volume fraction of the nanowires, as well as the grid thickness. A numerical approach is also used to confirm the analytical model and assess departure from infinite wavelength effects. For our array dimensions, the polarization is only slightly different from this approximation for wavelengths down to 150nm.

  3. Development of nanowire arrays for neural probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Jose K.; Xie, Jining; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2005-05-01

    It is already established that functional electrical stimulation is an effective way to restore many functions of the brain in disabled individuals. The electrical stimulation can be done by using an array of electrodes. Neural probes stimulate or sense the biopotentials mainly through the exposed metal sites. These sites should be smaller relative to the spatial potential distribution so that any potential averaging in the sensing area can be avoided. At the same time, the decrease in size of these sensing sites is limited due to the increase in impedance levels and the thermal noise while decreasing its size. It is known that current density in a planar electrode is not uniform and a higher current density can be observer around the perimeter of the electrodes. Electrical measurements conducted on many nanotubes and nanowires have already proved that it could be possible to use for current density applications and the drawbacks of the present design in neural probes can be overcome by incorporating many nanotechnology solutions. In this paper we present the design and development of nanowire arrays for the neural probe for the multisite contact which has the ability to collect and analyze isolated single unit activity. An array of vertically grown nanowires is used as contact site and many of such arrays can be used for stimulating as well as recording sites. The nanolevel interaction and wireless communication solution can extend to applications involving the treatment of many neurological disorders including Parkinson"s disease, Alzheimer"s disease, spinal injuries and the treatment of blindness and paralyzed patients with minimal or no invasive surgical procedures.

  4. Piezo-Phototronic Matrix via a Nanowire Array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-12-01

    Piezoelectric semiconductors, such as ZnO and GaN, demonstrate multiproperty coupling effects toward various aspects of mechanical, electrical, and optical excitation. In particular, the three-way coupling among semiconducting, photoexcitation, and piezoelectric characteristics in wurtzite-structured semiconductors is established as a new field, which was first coined as piezo-phototronics by Wang in 2010. The piezo-phototronic effect can controllably modulate the charge-carrier generation, separation, transport, and/or recombination in optical-electronic processes by modifying the band structure at the metal-semiconductor or semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunction/interface. Here, the progress made in using the piezo-phototronic effect for enhancing photodetectors, pressure sensors, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells is reviewed. In comparison with previous works on a single piezoelectric semiconducting nanowire, piezo-phototronic nanodevices built using nanowire arrays provide a promising platform for fabricating integrated optoelectronics with the realization of high-spatial-resolution imaging and fast responsivity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Control of the ZnO nanowires nucleation site using microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Hyun Jung; Oh, Dongcheol; Lee, Seog Woo; Goto, Hiroki; Buckmaster, Ryan; Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Matsue, Tomokazu; Hong, Soon-Ku; Ko, HyunChul; Cho, Meoung-Whan; Yao, Takafumi

    2006-03-09

    We report on the growth of uniquely shaped ZnO nanowires with high surface area and patterned over large areas by using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic channel technique. The synthesis uses first a patterned seed template fabricated by zinc acetate solution flowing though a microfluidic channel and then growth of ZnO nanowire at the seed using thermal chemical vapor deposition on a silicon substrate. Variations the ZnO nanowire by seed pattern formed within the microfluidic channel were also observed for different substrates and concentrations of the zinc acetate solution. The photocurrent properties of the patterned ZnO nanowires with high surface area, due to their unique shape, were also investigated. These specialized shapes and patterning technique increase the possibility of realizing one-dimensional nanostructure devices such as sensors and optoelectric devices.

  6. Growth Mechanism Studies of ZnO Nanowires: Experimental Observations and Short-Circuit Diffusion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Po-Hsun

    2017-01-01

    Plenty of studies have been performed to probe the diverse properties of ZnO nanowires, but only a few have focused on the physical properties of a single nanowire since analyzing the growth mechanism along a single nanowire is difficult. In this study, a single ZnO nanowire was synthesized using a Ti-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to avoid the appearance of catalytic contamination. Two-dimensional energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping with a diffusion model was used to obtain the diffusion length and the activation energy ratio. The ratio value is close to 0.3, revealing that the growth of ZnO nanowires was attributed to the short-circuit diffusion. PMID:28754030

  7. Growth Mechanism Studies of ZnO Nanowires: Experimental Observations and Short-Circuit Diffusion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shih, Po-Hsun; Wu, Sheng Yun

    2017-07-21

    Plenty of studies have been performed to probe the diverse properties of ZnO nanowires, but only a few have focused on the physical properties of a single nanowire since analyzing the growth mechanism along a single nanowire is difficult. In this study, a single ZnO nanowire was synthesized using a Ti-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to avoid the appearance of catalytic contamination. Two-dimensional energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping with a diffusion model was used to obtain the diffusion length and the activation energy ratio. The ratio value is close to 0.3, revealing that the growth of ZnO nanowires was attributed to the short-circuit diffusion.

  8. Amplified Thermionic Cooling Using Arrays of Nanowires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok; Choi, Daniel; Shcheglov, Kirill; Hishinuma, Yoshikazu

    2007-01-01

    A class of proposed thermionic cooling devices would incorporate precise arrays of metal nanowires as electron emitters. The proposed devices could be highly miniaturized, enabling removal of heat from locations, very close to electronic devices, that have previously been inaccessible for heat-removal purposes. The resulting enhancement of removal of heat would enable operation of the devices at higher power levels and higher clock speeds. Moreover, the mass, complexity, and bulk of electronic circuitry incorporating these highly miniaturized cooling devices could be considerably reduced, relative to otherwise equivalent circuitry cooled by conventional electromechanical, thermoelectric, and fluidic means. In thermionic cooling, one exploits the fact that because only the highest-energy electrons are thermionically emitted, collecting those electrons to prevent their return to the emitting electrode results in the net removal of heat from that electrode. Collection is effected by applying an appropriate positive bias potential to another electrode placed near the emitting electrode. The concept underlying the proposal is that the thermionic-emission current and, hence, the cooling effect attainable by use of an array of nanowires could be significantly greater than that attainable by use of a single emitting electrode or other electron- emitting surface. The wires in an array according to the proposal would protrude perpendicularly from a planar surface and their heights would be made uniform to within a sub-nanometer level of precision

  9. Electrodeposited highly-ordered manganese oxide nanowire arrays for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haifeng; Lu, Bingqiang; Wei, Shuiqiang; Bao, Mi; Wen, Yanxuan; Wang, Fan

    2012-07-01

    Large arrays of well-aligned Mn oxide nanowires were prepared by electrodeposition using anodic aluminum oxide templates. The sizes of nanowires were tuned by varying the electrotype solution involved and the MnO2 nanowires with 10 μm in length were obtained in a neutral KMnO4 bath for 1 h. MnO2 nanowire arrays grown on conductor substance save the tedious electrode-making process, and electrochemical characterization demonstrates that the MnO2 nanowire arrays electrode has good capacitive behavior. Due to the limited mass transportation in narrow spacing, the spacing effects between the neighbor nanowires have show great influence to the electrochemical performance.

  10. Aluminum Nanowire Arrays via Soft Nanoimprint Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Michael J.; Nesbitt, Nathan T.; Merlo, Juan M.; Rose, Aaron H.; Calm, Yitzi M.; D'Imperio, Luke A.; Courtney, Dave T.; Shepard, Steve; Kempa, Krzysztof; Burns, Michael J.

    We have previously reported a method to fabricate freestanding, vertically-oriented, and lithographically-ordered Al nanowire arrays via directed assembly, and demonstrated their utility as a plasmonic waveguide. However, the process, a variation on the preparation of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO), involved imprinting Al with a hard stamp, which wore down the stamp and had a low yield of Al NWs. Here we show a new nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technique that uses a soft stamp to pattern a mask on the Al; it provides a greater yield of Al NWs and is less destructive to the stamp, providing a path to applications that require NW arrays over macroscopic areas. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. (DGE-1258923).

  11. ZnO Quantum Dot Decorated Zn2SnO4 Nanowire Heterojunction Photodetectors with Drastic Performance Enhancement and Flexible Ultraviolet Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ludong; Gu, Leilei; Lou, Zheng; Fan, Zhiyong; Shen, Guozhen

    2017-04-25

    Here we report the fabrication of high-performance ultraviolet photodetectors based on a heterojunction device structure in which ZnO quantum dots were used to decorate Zn 2 SnO 4 nanowires. Systematic investigations have shown their ultrahigh light-to-dark current ratio (up to 6.8 × 10 4 ), specific detectivity (up to 9.0 × 10 17 Jones), photoconductive gain (up to 1.1 × 10 7 ), fast response, and excellent stability. Compared with a pristine Zn 2 SnO 4 nanowire, a quantum dot decorated nanowire demonstrated about 10 times higher photocurrent and responsivity. Device physics modeling showed that their high performance originates from the rational energy band engineering, which allows efficient separation of electron-hole pairs at the interfaces between ZnO quantum dots and a Zn 2 SnO 4 nanowire. As a result of band engineering, holes migrate to ZnO quantum dots, which increases electron concentration and lifetime in the nanowire conduction channel, leading to significantly improved photoresponse. The enhancement mechanism found in this work can also be used to guide the design of high-performance photodetectors based on other nanomaterials. Furthermore, flexible ultraviolet photodetectors were fabricated and integrated into a 10 × 10 device array, which constitutes a high-performance flexible ultraviolet image sensor. These intriguing results suggest that the band alignment engineering on nanowires can be rationally achieved using compound semiconductor quantum dots. This can lead to largely improved device performance. Particularly for ZnO quantum dot decorated Zn 2 SnO 4 nanowires, these decorated nanowires may find broad applications in future flexible and wearable electronics.

  12. Geometrical optics, electrostatics, and nanophotonic resonances in absorbing nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Anttu, Nicklas

    2013-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowire arrays have shown promise for next-generation photovoltaics and photodetection, but enhanced understanding of the light-nanowire interaction is still needed. Here, we study theoretically the absorption of light in an array of vertical InP nanowires by moving continuously, first from the electrostatic limit to the nanophotonic regime and then to the geometrical optics limit. We show how the absorption per volume of semiconductor material in the array can be varied by a factor of 200, ranging from 10 times weaker to 20 times stronger than in a bulk semiconductor sample.

  13. Luminescence dynamics of bound exciton of hydrogen doped ZnO nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jinkyoung; Yi, Gyu -Chul; Chon, Bonghwan; ...

    2016-04-11

    In this study, all-optical camera, converting X-rays into visible photons, is a promising strategy for high-performance X-ray imaging detector requiring high detection efficiency and ultrafast detector response time. Zinc oxide is a suitable material for all-optical camera due to its fast radiative recombination lifetime in sub-nanosecond regime and its radiation hardness. ZnO nanostructures have been considered as proper building blocks for ultrafast detectors with spatial resolution in sub-micrometer scale. To achieve remarkable enhancement of luminescence efficiency n-type doping in ZnO has been employed. However, luminescence dynamics of doped ZnO nanostructures have not been thoroughly investigated whereas undoped ZnO nanostructures havemore » been employed to study their luminescence dynamics. Here we report a study of luminescence dynamics of hydrogen doped ZnO nanowires obtained by hydrogen plasma treatment. Hydrogen doping in ZnO nanowires gives rise to significant increase in the near-band-edge emission of ZnO and decrease in averaged photoluminescence lifetime from 300 to 140 ps at 10 K. The effects of hydrogen doping on the luminescent characteristics of ZnO nanowires were changed by hydrogen doping process variables.« less

  14. Aligned hierarchical Ag/ZnO nano-heterostructure arrays via electrohydrodynamic nanowire template for enhanced gas-sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhouping; Wang, Xiaomei; Sun, Fazhe; Tong, Xiaohu; Zhu, Chen; Lv, Qiying; Ye, Dong; Wang, Shuai; Luo, Wei; Huang, YongAn

    2017-09-22

    Gas sensing performance can be improved significantly by the increase in both the effective gas exposure area and the surface reactivitiy of ZnO nanorods. Here, we propose aligned hierarchical Ag/ZnO nano-heterostructure arrays (h-Ag/ZnO-NAs) via electrohydrodynamic nanowire template, together with a subsequent hydrothermal synthesis and photoreduction reaction. The h-Ag/ZnO-NAs scatter at top for higher specific surface areas with the air, simultaneously contact at root for the electrical conduction. Besides, the ZnO nanorods are uniformly coated with dispersed Ag nanoparticles, resulting in a tremendous enhancement of the surface reactivity. Compared with pure ZnO, such h-Ag/ZnO-NAs exhibit lower electrical resistance and faster responses. Moreover, they demonstrate enhanced NO 2 gas sensing properties. Self-assembly via electrohydrodynamic nanowire template paves a new way for the preparation of high performance gas sensors.

  15. Electronic Transport Properties of One Dimensional Zno Nanowires Studied Using Maximally-Localized Wannier Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xu; Gu, Yousong; Wang, Xueqiang

    2012-08-01

    One dimensional ZnO NWs with different diameters and lengths have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and Maximally Localized Wannier Functions (MLWFs). It is found that ZnO NWs are direct band gap semiconductors and there exist a turn on voltage for observable current. ZnO nanowires with different diameters and lengths show distinctive turn-on voltage thresholds in I-V characteristics curves. The diameters of ZnO NWs are greatly influent the transport properties of ZnO NWs. For the ZnO NW with large diameter that has more states and higher transmission coefficients leads to narrow band gap and low turn on voltage. In the case of thinner diameters, the length of ZnO NW can effects the electron tunneling and longer supercell lead to higher turn on voltage.

  16. Synthesis, structural and optical properties of silver nanoparticles uniformly decorated ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke-Xin; Wen, Xing; Yao, Cheng-Bao; Li, Jin; Zhang, Meng; Li, Qiang-Hua; Sun, Wen-Jun; Wu, Jia-Da

    2018-04-01

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles decorated Zinc oxide (A-ZnO) nanowires have been successfully synthesized by two-step chemical vapour deposition and magnetron sputtering method. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed their hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM images indicated the Ag nanoparticles are distributed uniformly on the surface of A-ZnO nanowires. By extending the sputtering time, the atomic percent of Ag increased gradually. Moreover, the photoluminescence results demonstrated two major emission peaks for the A-ZnO nanowires. Where, the visible emission peaks were stronger than those of unmodified ZnO nanowires. These studies promise their potential applications in multifunctional optical devices.

  17. Large-scale fabrication of single crystalline tin nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Yang, Dachi; Liang, Minghui; Zhi, Linjie

    2010-09-01

    Large-scale single crystalline tin nanowire arrays with preferred lattice orientation along the [100] direction were fabricated in porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes by the electrodeposition method using copper nanorod as a second electrode.

  18. Electrical properties of fluorine-doped ZnO nanowires formed by biased plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Yicong; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Zhipeng; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Doping is an effective method for tuning electrical properties of zinc oxide nanowires, which are used in nanoelectronic devices. Here, ZnO nanowires were prepared by a thermal oxidation method. Fluorine doping was achieved by a biased plasma treatment, with bias voltages of 100, 200, and 300 V. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the nanowires treated at bias voltages of 100 and 200 V featured low crystallinity. When the bias voltage was 300 V, the nanowires showed single crystalline structures. Photoluminescence measurements revealed that concentrations of oxygen and surface defects decreased at high bias voltage. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that the F content increased as the bias voltage was increased. The conductivity of the as-grown nanowires was less than 103 S/m; the conductivity of the treated nanowires ranged from 1 × 104-5 × 104, 1 × 104-1 × 105, and 1 × 103-2 × 104 S/m for bias voltage treatments at 100, 200, and 300 V, respectively. The conductivity improvements of nanowires formed at bias voltages of 100 and 200 V, were attributed to F-doping, defects and surface states. The conductivity of nanowires treated at 300 V was attributed to the presence of F ions. Thus, we provide a method of improving electrical properties of ZnO nanowires without altering their crystal structure.

  19. Nanowire array and nanowire solar cells and methods for forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong [Berkeley, CA; Greene, Lori [Berkeley, CA; Law, Matthew [Berkeley, CA

    2007-09-04

    Homogeneous and dense arrays of nanowires are described. The nanowires can be formed in solution and can have average diameters of 40-300 nm and lengths of 1-3 .mu.m. They can be formed on any suitable substrate. Photovoltaic devices are also described.

  20. Nanowire array and nanowire solar cells and methods for forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Greene, Lori E.; Law, Matthew

    2009-06-09

    Homogeneous and dense arrays of nanowires are described. The nanowires can be formed in solution and can have average diameters of 40-300 nm and lengths of 1-3 .mu.m. They can be formed on any suitable substrate. Photovoltaic devices are also described.

  1. Morphology engineering of ZnO nanostructures for high performance supercapacitors: enhanced electrochemistry of ZnO nanocones compared to ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoli; Yoo, Joung Eun; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Joonho

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the morphology of ZnO nanostructures is engineered to demonstrate enhanced supercapacitor characteristics of ZnO nanocones (NCs) compared to ZnO nanowires (NWs). ZnO NCs are obtained by chemically etching ZnO NWs. Electrochemical characteristics of ZnO NCs and NWs are extensively investigated to demonstrate morphology dependent capacitive performance of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures. Cyclic voltammetry measurements on these two kinds of electrodes in a three-electrode cell confirms that ZnO NCs exhibit a high specific capacitance of 378.5 F g-1 at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1, which is almost twice that of ZnO NWs (191.5 F g-1). The charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements also clearly result in enhanced capacitive performance of NCs as evidenced by higher specific capacitances and lower internal resistance. Asymmetric supercapacitors are fabricated using activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode and ZnO NWs and NCs as positive electrodes. The ZnO NC⫽AC can deliver a maximum specific capacitance of 126 F g-1 at a current density of 1.33 A g-1 with an energy density of 25.2 W h kg-1 at the power density of 896.44 W kg-1. In contrast, ZnO NW⫽AC displays 63% of the capacitance obtained from the ZnO NC⫽AC supercapacitor. The enhanced performance of NCs is attributed to the higher surface area of ZnO nanostructures after the morphology is altered from NWs to NCs.

  2. Morphology engineering of ZnO nanostructures for high performance supercapacitors: enhanced electrochemistry of ZnO nanocones compared to ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoli; Yoo, Joung Eun; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Joonho

    2017-06-16

    In this work, the morphology of ZnO nanostructures is engineered to demonstrate enhanced supercapacitor characteristics of ZnO nanocones (NCs) compared to ZnO nanowires (NWs). ZnO NCs are obtained by chemically etching ZnO NWs. Electrochemical characteristics of ZnO NCs and NWs are extensively investigated to demonstrate morphology dependent capacitive performance of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures. Cyclic voltammetry measurements on these two kinds of electrodes in a three-electrode cell confirms that ZnO NCs exhibit a high specific capacitance of 378.5 F g -1 at a scan rate of 20 mV s -1 , which is almost twice that of ZnO NWs (191.5 F g -1 ). The charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements also clearly result in enhanced capacitive performance of NCs as evidenced by higher specific capacitances and lower internal resistance. Asymmetric supercapacitors are fabricated using activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode and ZnO NWs and NCs as positive electrodes. The ZnO NC⫽AC can deliver a maximum specific capacitance of 126 F g -1 at a current density of 1.33 A g -1 with an energy density of 25.2 W h kg -1 at the power density of 896.44 W kg -1 . In contrast, ZnO NW⫽AC displays 63% of the capacitance obtained from the ZnO NC⫽AC supercapacitor. The enhanced performance of NCs is attributed to the higher surface area of ZnO nanostructures after the morphology is altered from NWs to NCs.

  3. Recrystallized arrays of bismuth nanowires with trigonal orientation.

    PubMed

    Limmer, Steven J; Yelton, W Graham; Erickson, Kristopher J; Medlin, Douglas L; Siegal, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate methods to improve the crystalline-quality of free-standing Bi nanowires arrays on a Si substrate and enhance the preferred trigonal orientation for thermoelectric performance by annealing the arrays above the 271.4 °C Bi melting point. The nanowires maintain their geometry during melting due to the formation of a thin Bi-oxide protective shell that contains the molten Bi. Recrystallizing nanowires from the melt improves crystallinity; those cooled rapidly demonstrate a strong trigonal orientation preference.

  4. Synthesis of high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires with an inexpensive handcrafted electrochemical setup

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, Ali, E-mail: at1361@aut.ac.ir, E-mail: atahery@aeoi.org.ir; Saramad, Shahyar; Setayeshi, Saeed

    In this work, high aspect ratio zinc oxide nanowires are synthesized using templated one-step electrodeposition technique. Electrodeposition of the nanowires is done using a handcrafted electronic system. Nuclear track-etched polycarbonate membrane is used as a template to form the high aspect ratio nanowires. The result of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy shows that nanowires with a good crystallinity and an aspect ratio of more than 30 can be achieved in a suitable condition. The height of electrodeposited nanowires reaches to about 11 μm. Based on the obtained results, high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires can be formed using inexpensive electrodepositionmore » setup with an acceptable quality.« less

  5. Non-classical logic inverter coupling a ZnO nanowire-based Schottky barrier transistor and adjacent Schottky diode.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Hossein; Raza, Syed Raza Ali; Lee, Hee Sung; Im, Seongil

    2014-08-21

    On a single ZnO nanowire (NW), we fabricated an inverter-type device comprising a Schottky diode (SD) and field-effect transistor (FET), aiming at 1-dimensional (1D) electronic circuits with low power consumption. The SD and adjacent FET worked respectively as the load and driver, so that voltage signals could be easily extracted as the output. In addition, NW FET with a transparent conducting oxide as top gate turned out to be very photosensitive, although ZnO NW SD was blind to visible light. Based on this, we could achieve an array of photo-inverter cells on one NW. Our non-classical inverter is regarded as quite practical for both logic and photo-sensing due to its performance as well as simple device configuration.

  6. Electrical tuning of spin splitting in Bi-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aras, Mehmet; Kılıç, ćetin

    2018-01-01

    The effect of applying an external electric field on doping-induced spin-orbit splitting of the lowest conduction-band states in a bismuth-doped zinc oxide nanowire is studied by performing electronic structure calculations within the framework of density functional theory. It is demonstrated that spin splitting in Bi-doped ZnO nanowires could be tuned and enhanced electrically via control of the strength and direction of the applied electric field, thanks to the nonuniform and anisotropic response of the ZnO:Bi nanowire to external electric fields. The results reported here indicate that a single ZnO nanowire doped with a low concentration of Bi could function as a spintronic device, the operation of which is controlled by applied lateral electric fields.

  7. Origin of luminescence from ZnO/CdS core/shell nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jian; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Yang, Shaoguang

    2014-07-01

    Chemical imaging, electronic structure and optical properties of ZnO/CdS nano-composites have been investigated using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) spectroscopy. STXM and XANES results confirm that the as-prepared product is ZnO/CdS core/shell nanowires (NWs), and further indicate that ZnS was formed on the surface of ZnO NWs as the interface between ZnO and CdS. The XEOL from ZnO/CdS NW arrays exhibits one weak ultraviolet (UV) emission at 375 nm, one strong green emission at 512 nm, and two broad infrared (IR) emissions at 750 and 900 nm. Combining XANES and XEOL, it is concluded that the UV luminescence is the near band gap emission (BGE) of ZnO; the green luminescence comes from both the BGE of CdS and defect emission (DE, zinc vacancies) of ZnO; the IR luminescence is attributed to the DE (bulk defect related to the S site) of CdS; ZnS contributes little to the luminescence of the ZnO/CdS NW arrays. Interestingly, the BGE and DE from oxygen vacancies of ZnO in the ZnO/CdS nano-composites are almost entirely quenched, while DE from zinc vacancies changes little.Chemical imaging, electronic structure and optical properties of ZnO/CdS nano-composites have been investigated using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) spectroscopy. STXM and XANES results confirm that the as-prepared product is ZnO/CdS core/shell nanowires (NWs), and further indicate that ZnS was formed on the surface of ZnO NWs as the interface between ZnO and CdS. The XEOL from ZnO/CdS NW arrays exhibits one weak ultraviolet (UV) emission at 375 nm, one strong green emission at 512 nm, and two broad infrared (IR) emissions at 750 and 900 nm. Combining XANES and XEOL, it is concluded that the UV luminescence is the near band gap emission (BGE) of ZnO; the green luminescence comes from both the

  8. Effects of mechanical strain on optical properties of ZnO nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazinishayan, Ali; Lambada, Dasaradha Rao; Yang, Shuming; Zhang, Guofeng; Cheng, Biyao; Woldu, Yonas Tesfaye; Shafique, Shareen; Wang, Yiming; Anastase, Ndahimana

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the influences of mechanical strain on optical properties of ZnO nanowire (NW) before and after embedding ZnS nanowire into the ZnO nanowire, respectively. For this work, commercial finite element modeling (FEM) software package ABAQUS and three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods were utilized to analyze the nonlinear mechanical behavior and optical properties of the sample, respectively. Likewise, in this structure a single focused Gaussian beam with wavelength of 633 nm was used as source. The dimensions of ZnO nanowire were defined to be 12280 nm in length and 103.2 nm in diameter with hexagonal cross-section. In order to investigate mechanical properties, three-point bending technique was adopted so that both ends of the model were clamped with mid-span under loading condition and then the physical deformation model was imported into FDTD solutions to study optical properties of ZnO nanowire under mechanical strain. Moreover, it was found that increase in the strain due to the external load induced changes in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance, respectively.

  9. Persistent photoconductivity in ZnO nanowires: Influence of oxygen and argon ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madel, M.; Huber, F.; Mueller, R.; Amann, B.; Dickel, M.; Xie, Y.; Thonke, K.

    2017-03-01

    ZnO nanowires typically show persistent photoconductivity (PPC), which depends in their temporal behaviour on the ambient. We investigate ZnO nanowires in oxygen and argon ambient and analyze the PPC both on the short and on the long time scale to sort out the underlying mechanisms. Wavelength dependent excitation shows the energy barrier for the PPC to be around 150 meV below the band gap of ZnO, independent of the ambient atmosphere. In photocurrent measurements at constant wavelength, a log-logistic dependence of the conductivity on the partial oxygen pressure is observed. The experimental results are compared to a model of Bonasewicz et al. [J. Electrochem. Soc. 133, 2270 (1986)] and can be explained by oxygen adsorption processes occurring on the surface of the ZnO nanowires. From temperature dependent measurements of the decay times in oxygen and argon ambient, the related activation energies for the fast and slow decay processes are determined. Comparing our results to theoretical calculations of energy levels of intrinsic defects [Janotti and Van de Walle, Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 799 (2011)], we find oxygen vacancies to be related to the fast decay processes, whereas adsorption and desorption processes of oxygen on the ZnO nanowire surface account for the slow part.

  10. Effect of cobalt doping on the mechanical properties of ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Vahtrus, Mikk; Šutka, Andris

    In this work, we investigate the influence of doping on the mechanical properties of ZnO nanowires (NWs) by comparing the mechanical properties of pure and Co-doped ZnO NWs grown in similar conditions and having the same crystallographic orientation [0001]. The mechanical characterization included three-point bending tests made with atomic force microscopy and cantilever beam bending tests performed inside scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the Young's modulus of ZnO NWs containing 5% of Co was approximately a third lower than that of the pure ZnO NWs. Bending strength values were comparable for both materials and in both cases weremore » close to theoretical strength indicating high quality of NWs. Dependence of mechanical properties on NW diameter was found for both doped and undoped ZnO NWs. - Highlights: •Effect of Co doping on the mechanical properties of ZnO nanowires is studied. •Co substitutes Zn atoms in ZnO crystal lattice. •Co addition affects crystal lattice parameters. •Co addition results in significantly decreased Young's modulus of ZnO. •Bending strength for doped and undoped wires is close to the theoretical strength.« less

  11. Impact of the air gap in nanowire array transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mativetsky, Jeffrey; Yang, Tong; Mehta, Jeremy

    Organic and inorganic semiconducting nanowires are promising for flexible electronic, energy harvesting, and sensing applications. Nanowire arrays processed from solution are particularly attractive for their ease of processing coupled with their potential for high performance. Random stacking has been observed, however, to hinder the collective electrical performance of such nanowire arrays. Here, we employ solution-processed organic semiconducting nanowires as a model system to assess the impact of the air gap that exists under a large portion of the active material in nanowire array transistors. Confocal Raman spectroscopy is used to non-invasively quantify the average air gap thickness which is found to be unexpectedly large - two to three times the nanowire diameter. This substantial air gap acts as an additional dielectric layer that diminishes the buildup of charge carriers, and can affect the measured charge carrier mobility and current on/off ratio by more than one order of magnitude. These results establish the importance of taking the air gap into account when fabricating and analyzing the performance of transistors based on one-dimensional nanostructures, such as organic and inorganic nanowires, or carbon nanotubes. NSF CAREER award DMR-1555028, NSF CMMI-1537648 , NSF MRI CMMI-1429176.

  12. ZnO Nanowire-Based Corona Discharge Devices Operated Under Hundreds of Volts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenming; Zhu, Rong; Zong, Xianli

    2016-12-01

    Minimizing the voltage of corona discharges, especially when using nanomaterials, has been of great interest in the past decade or so. In this paper, we report a new corona discharge device by using ZnO nanowires operated in atmospheric air to realize continuous corona discharge excited by hundreds of volts. ZnO nanowires were synthesized on microelectrodes using electric-field-assisted wet chemical method, and a thin tungsten film was deposited on the microchip to enhance discharging performance. The testing results showed that the corona inception voltages were minimized greatly by using nanowires compared to conventional dischargers as a result of the local field enhancement of nanowires. The corona could be continuously generated and self-sustaining. It was proved that the law of corona inception voltage obeyed the conventional Peek's breakdown criterion. An optimal thickness of tungsten film coated over ZnO nanowires was figured out to obtain the lowest corona inception voltage. The ion concentration of the nanowire-based discharger attained 10(17)/m(3) orders of magnitude, which is practicable for most discharging applications.

  13. Enhancing absorption in coated semiconductor nanowire/nanorod core-shell arrays using active host matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jule, Leta; Dejene, Francis; Roro, Kittessa

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, we investigated theoretically and experimentally the interaction of radiation field phenomena interacting with arrays of nanowire/nanorod core-shell embedded in active host matrices. The optical properties of composites are explored including the case when the absorption of propagating wave by dissipative component is completely compensated by amplification in active (lasing) medium. On the basis of more elaborated modeling approach and extended effective medium theory, the effective polarizability and the refractive index of electromagnetic mode dispersion of the core-shell nanowire arrays are derived. ZnS(shell)-coated by sulphidation process on ZnO(shell) nanorod arrays grown on (100) silicon substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) has been used for theoretical comparison. Compared with the bare ZnO nanorods, ZnS-coated core/shell nanorods exhibit a strongly reduced ultraviolet (UV) emission and a dramatically enhanced deep level (DL) emission. Obviously, the UV and DL emission peaks are attributed to the emissions of ZnO nanorods within ZnO/ZnS core/shell nanorods. The reduction of UV emission after ZnS coating seems to agree with the charge separation mechanism of type-II band alignment that holes transfer from the core to shell, which would quench the UV emission to a certain extent. Our theoretical calculations and numerical simulation demonstrate that the use of active host (amplifying) medium to compensate absorption at metallic inclusions. Moreover the core-shell nanorod/nanowire arrays create the opportunity for broad band absorption and light harvesting applications.

  14. Seedless Growth of Bismuth Nanowire Array via Vacuum Thermal Evaporation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Chang-Yong; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Here a seedless and template-free technique is demonstrated to scalably grow bismuth nanowires, through thermal evaporation in high vacuum at RT. Conventionally reserved for the fabrication of metal thin films, thermal evaporation deposits bismuth into an array of vertical single crystalline nanowires over a flat thin film of vanadium held at RT, which is freshly deposited by magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. By controlling the temperature of the growth substrate the length and width of the nanowires can be tuned over a wide range. Responsible for this novel technique is a previously unknown nanowire growth mechanism that roots in the mild porosity of the vanadium thin film. Infiltrated into the vanadium pores, the bismuth domains (~ 1 nm) carry excessive surface energy that suppresses their melting point and continuously expels them out of the vanadium matrix to form nanowires. This discovery demonstrates the feasibility of scalable vapor phase synthesis of high purity nanomaterials without using any catalysts. PMID:26709727

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanowires with various diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyhani, A.; Gholizadeh, A.; vahedi, V.; Khanlary, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation are studied on the morphology and structural properties of ZnO nanowire with various diameters. The ZnO nanowires are grown using Zn thin films at various initial thicknesses including 125, 250 and 500 nm in air ambient. The results illustrate dramatic effects of Gamma-irradiation on the deformation of ZnO nanowires. Thus, radiation induce ripple ZnO surfaces instead ZnO nanowires. Gamma-irradiation has also been effective on the optical and crystalline properties of the nanowires. X-ray diffraction attests that size of the ZnO nano-structures has changed and (l00) crystalline direction related to Zn metal has been created after irradiation. UV-Visible spectra display two areas for transmittance of irradiated ZnO nanowires, one in the Visible-light and the other in IR sub-region. In the Visible-light area, the layer gets thicker from 125 to 500 nm; the difference between the layer transmittance spectra is reduced before and after gamma irradiation. In the IR-light region, with increasing of ZnO initial thickness, the difference between the layer transmittance spectra is increased before and after gamma irradiation. The photoluminescence spectroscopy displays that intensity of green-yellow band improves in compared to near-band-edge emission due to formation of Zn metal and oxygen vacancies after gamma irradiation.

  16. Highly stable field emission from ZnO nanowire field emitters controlled by an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zhipeng; Ou, Hai; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Lowering the driving voltage and improving the stability of nanowire field emitters are essential for them to be applied in devices. In this study the characteristics of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire field emitter arrays (FEAs) controlled by an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) were studied. A low driving voltage along with stabilization of the field emission current were achieved. Modulation of field emission currents up to three orders of magnitude was achieved at a gate voltage of 0–32 V for a constant anode voltage. Additionally, a-IGZO TFT control can dramatically reduce the emission current fluctuation (i.e., from 46.11 to 1.79% at an emission current of ∼3.7 µA). Both the a-IGZO TFT and ZnO nanowire FEAs were prepared on glass substrates in our research, demonstrating the feasibility of realizing large area a-IGZO TFT-controlled ZnO nanowire FEAs.

  17. The sensitivity of gas sensor based on single ZnO nanowire modulated by helium ion radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, L.; Lu, H. B.; Li, J. C.

    2007-10-22

    In this letter, we present a gas sensor using a single ZnO nanowire as a sensing unit. This ZnO nanowire-based sensor has quick and high sensitive response to H{sub 2}S in air at room temperature. It has also been found that the gas sensitivity of the ZnO nanowires could be modulated and enhanced by He{sup +} implantation at an appropriate dose. A possible explanation is given based on the modulation model of the depletion layer.

  18. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires on flexible fabric substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Gwang-Wook; Yun, Sang-Ho; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2016-04-01

    ZnO nanowires (NWs) would provide significant enhancement in sensitivity due to high surface to volume ratio. We investigated the first methodical study on the quantitative relationship between the process parameters of solution concentration ratio, structure, and physical and properties of ZnO NWs grown on different flexible fabric surfaces. To develop a fundamental following concerning various substrates, we controlled the growth speed of ZnO NWs and nanowires on cotton surface with easy and moderate cost fabrication method. Using ammonium hydroxide as the reactant with zinc nitrate hexahydrate, ZnO NWs layer have been grown on metal layers, instead of seed layer. ZnO NWs fabrication was done on different fabric substrates such as wool, nylon and polypropylene (PP). After the ZnO NWs grown to each substrates, we coated insulating layer with polyurethane (PU) and ethyl cellulose for prevent external intervention. Detailed electrical characterization was subsequently performed to reveal the working characteristics of the hybrid fabric. For electrical verification of fabricated ZnO NWs, we implemented measurement impact test and material properties with FFT analyzer and LCR meter.

  19. Electronic transport properties of single-crystal bismuth nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Sun, Xiangzhong; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Ying, Jackie Y.; Heremans, J.

    2000-02-01

    We present here a detailed study of the electrical transport properties of single-crystal bismuth nanowire arrays embedded in a dielectric matrix. Measurements of the resistance of Bi nanowire arrays with different wire diameters (60-110 nm) have been carried out over a wide range of temperatures (2.0-300 K) and magnetic fields (0-5.4 T). The transport properties of a heavily Te-doped Bi nanowire array have also been studied. At low temperatures, we show that the wire boundary scattering is the dominant scattering process for carriers in the undoped single-crystal Bi nanowires, while boundary scattering is less important for a heavily Te-doped sample, consistent with general theoretical considerations. The temperature dependences of the zero-field resistivity and of the longitudinal magneto-coefficient of the Bi nanowires were also studied and were found to be sensitive to the wire diameter. The quantum confinement of carriers is believed to play an important role in determining the overall temperature dependence of the zero-field resistivity. Theoretical considerations of the quantum confinement effects on the electronic band structure and on the transport properties of Bi nanowires are discussed. Despite the evidence for localization effects and diffusive electron interactions at low temperatures (T<=4.0 K), localization effects are not the dominant mechanisms affecting the resistivity or the magnetoresistance in the temperature range of this study.

  20. Rapidly synthesized ZnO nanowires by ultraviolet decomposition process in ambient air for flexible photodetector.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jyh Ming; Chen, Yi-Ru; Lin, Yu-Hung

    2011-03-01

    We are the first group to use a simple direct ultraviolet light (UV, λ=365 nm, I=76 mW cm(-2)) in a decomposition process to fabricate ZnO nanowires on a flexible substrate using a zinc acetylacetonate hydrate precursor in ambient air. ZnO nanocrystal (or nanowire) production only requires three to ten minutes. A field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) image reveals a high aspect ratio of the ZnO nanowires, which are grown on a substrate with a diameter of ∼50-100 nm, and a length of up to several hundred microns. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images reveal that the nanowires consist of many single crystalline ZnO nanoparticles that grow along the c axis, which suggests an oriented attachment process. A potential application for flexible UV photodetectors was investigated using a UV lamp (λ=365 nm, I=2.34 mW cm(-2)). A significant ratio of photocurrent to dark current--around 11,300%--was achieved.

  1. Study of spin dynamics and damping on the magnetic nanowire arrays with various nanowire widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jaehun; Fujii, Yuya; Konioshi, Katsunori; Yoon, Jungbum; Kim, Nam-Hui; Jung, Jinyong; Miwa, Shinji; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Suzuki, Yoshishige; You, Chun-Yeol

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the spin dynamics including Gilbert damping in the ferromagnetic nanowire arrays. We have measured the ferromagnetic resonance of ferromagnetic nanowire arrays using vector-network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) and analyzed the results with the micromagnetic simulations. We find excellent agreement between the experimental VNA-FMR spectra and micromagnetic simulations result for various applied magnetic fields. We find that the same tendency of the demagnetization factor for longitudinal and transverse conditions, Nz (Ny) increases (decreases) as increasing the nanowire width in the micromagnetic simulations while Nx is almost zero value in transverse case. We also find that the Gilbert damping constant increases from 0.018 to 0.051 as the increasing nanowire width for the transverse case, while it is almost constant as 0.021 for the longitudinal case.

  2. ZnO nanowires: Synthesis and charge transfer mechanism in the detection of ammonia vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nancy Anna Anasthasiya, A.; Ramya, S.; Rai, P. K.; Jeyaprakash, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    ZnO nanowires with hexagonal wurtzite structure were grown on the glass substrate using Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. Both experimental and theoretical studies demonstrated that NH3 chemisorbed and transferred the charge to the surface of the nanowire via its nitrogen site to the zinc site of ZnO nanowires, leading to the detection of NH3 vapour. The adsorbed ammonia dissociated into NH2 and H due to steric repulsion, and then into N2 and H2 gas. The formation of the N2 gas during the desorption process confirmed by observing peak at 14 and 28 m/z in the GC-MS spectrum.

  3. Silicon nanowire arrays as thermoelectric material for a power microgenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dávila, D.; Tarancón, A.; Fernández-Regúlez, M.; Calaza, C.; Salleras, M.; San Paulo, A.; Fonseca, L.

    2011-10-01

    A novel design of a silicon-based thermoelectric power microgenerator is presented in this work. Arrays of silicon nanowires, working as thermoelectric material, have been integrated in planar uni-leg thermocouple microstructures to convert waste heat into electrical energy. Homogeneous, uniformly dense, well-oriented and size-controlled arrays of silicon nanowires have been grown by chemical vapor deposition using the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. Compatibility issues between the nanowire growth method and microfabrication techniques, such as electrical contact patterning, are discussed. Electrical measurements of the nanowire array electrical conductivity and the Seebeck voltage induced by a controlled thermal gradient or under harvesting operation mode have been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the microdevice. A resistance of 240 Ω at room temperature was measured for an array of silicon nanowires 10 µm -long, generating a Seebeck voltage of 80 mV under an imposed thermal gradient of 450 °C, whereas only 4.5 mV were generated under a harvesting operation mode. From the results presented, a Seebeck coefficient of about 150-190 µV K-1 was estimated, which corresponds to typical values for bulk silicon.

  4. Conducting polymer nanowire arrays for high performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wu, Haiping; Meng, Yuena; Wei, Zhixiang

    2014-01-15

    This Review provides a brief summary of the most recent research developments in the fabrication and application of one-dimensional ordered conducting polymers nanostructure (especially nanowire arrays) and their composites as electrodes for supercapacitors. By controlling the nucleation and growth process of polymerization, aligned conducting polymer nanowire arrays and their composites with nano-carbon materials can be prepared by employing in situ chemical polymerization or electrochemical polymerization without a template. This kind of nanostructure (such as polypyrrole and polyaniline nanowire arrays) possesses high capacitance, superior rate capability ascribed to large electrochemical surface, and an optimal ion diffusion path in the ordered nanowire structure, which is proved to be an ideal electrode material for high performance supercapacitors. Furthermore, flexible, micro-scale, threadlike, and multifunctional supercapacitors are introduced based on conducting polyaniline nanowire arrays and their composites. These prototypes of supercapacitors utilize the high flexibility, good processability, and large capacitance of conducting polymers, which efficiently extend the usage of supercapacitors in various situations, and even for a complicated integration system of different electronic devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Novel gradient-diameter magnetic nanowire arrays with unconventional magnetic anisotropy behaviors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zuo, Zhili; Huang, Liang; Warsi, Muhammad Asif; Xiao, John Q; Hu, Jun

    2018-06-21

    Fe-Co-Ni gradient-diameter magnetic nanowire arrays were fabricated via direct-current electrodeposition into a tapered anodic aluminium oxide template. In contrast to the magnetic behaviors of uniform-diameter nanowire arrays, these arrays exhibited tailorable magnetic anisotropy that can be used to switch magnetic nanowires easily and unconventional temperature-dependent coercivity with much better thermal stability.

  6. Large-scale fabrication of single crystalline tin nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bin; Yang, Dachi; Liang, Minghui; Zhi, Linjie

    2010-09-01

    Large-scale single crystalline tin nanowire arrays with preferred lattice orientation along the [100] direction were fabricated in porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes by the electrodeposition method using copper nanorod as a second electrode.Large-scale single crystalline tin nanowire arrays with preferred lattice orientation along the [100] direction were fabricated in porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes by the electrodeposition method using copper nanorod as a second electrode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and the information for single crystalline copper nanorods. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00206b

  7. Crystallographic alignment of high-density gallium nitride nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Kuykendall, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter J; Zhang, Yanfeng; Goldberger, Joshua; Sirbuly, Donald; Denlinger, Jonathan; Yang, Peidong

    2004-08-01

    Single-crystalline, one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are considered to be one of the critical building blocks for nanoscale optoelectronics. Elucidation of the vapour-liquid-solid growth mechanism has already enabled precise control over nanowire position and size, yet to date, no reports have demonstrated the ability to choose from different crystallographic growth directions of a nanowire array. Control over the nanowire growth direction is extremely desirable, in that anisotropic parameters such as thermal and electrical conductivity, index of refraction, piezoelectric polarization, and bandgap may be used to tune the physical properties of nanowires made from a given material. Here we demonstrate the use of metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and appropriate substrate selection to control the crystallographic growth directions of high-density arrays of gallium nitride nanowires with distinct geometric and physical properties. Epitaxial growth of wurtzite gallium nitride on (100) gamma-LiAlO(2) and (111) MgO single-crystal substrates resulted in the selective growth of nanowires in the orthogonal [1\\[Evec]0] and [001] directions, exhibiting triangular and hexagonal cross-sections and drastically different optical emission. The MOCVD process is entirely compatible with the current GaN thin-film technology, which would lead to easy scale-up and device integration.

  8. Opto-mechano-electrical tripling in ZnO nanowires probed by photocurrent spectroscopy in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Golberg, D., E-mail: xuzhi@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: golberg.dmitri@nims.go.jp; Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3058577

    2015-08-31

    Photocurrent spectroscopy of individual free-standing ZnO nanowires inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) is reported. By using specially designed optical in situ TEM system capable of scanning tunneling microscopy probing paired with light illumination, opto-mechano-electrical tripling phenomenon in ZnO nanowires is demonstrated. Splitting of photocurrent spectra at around 3.3 eV under in situ TEM bending of ZnO nanowires directly corresponds to nanowire deformation and appearance of expanded and compressed nanowire sides. Theoretical simulation of a bent ZnO nanowire has an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The splitting effect could be explained by a change in the valence band structuremore » of ZnO nanowires due to a lattice strain. The strain-induced splitting provides important clues for future flexible piezo-phototronics.« less

  9. Fully Tunable Silicon Nanowire Arrays Fabricated by Soft Nanoparticle Templating.

    PubMed

    Rey, By Marcel; Elnathan, Roey; Ditcovski, Ran; Geisel, Karen; Zanini, Michele; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Miguel-Angel; Naik, Vikrant V; Frutiger, Andreas; Richtering, Walter; Ellenbogen, Tal; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Isa, Lucio

    2016-01-13

    We demonstrate a fabrication breakthrough to produce large-area arrays of vertically aligned silicon nanowires (VA-SiNWs) with full tunability of the geometry of the single nanowires and of the whole array, paving the way toward advanced programmable designs of nanowire platforms. At the core of our fabrication route, termed "Soft Nanoparticle Templating", is the conversion of gradually compressed self-assembled monolayers of soft nanoparticles (microgels) at a water-oil interface into customized lithographical masks to create VA-SiNW arrays by means of metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE). This combination of bottom-up and top-down techniques affords excellent control of nanowire etching site locations, enabling independent control of nanowire spacing, diameter and height in a single fabrication route. We demonstrate the fabrication of centimeter-scale two-dimensional gradient photonic crystals exhibiting continuously varying structural colors across the entire visible spectrum on a single silicon substrate, and the formation of tunable optical cavities supported by the VA-SiNWs, as unambiguously demonstrated through numerical simulations. Finally, Soft Nanoparticle Templating is combined with optical lithography to create hierarchical and programmable VA-SiNW patterns.

  10. Understanding InP Nanowire Array Solar Cell Performance by Nanoprobe-Enabled Single Nanowire Measurements.

    PubMed

    Otnes, Gaute; Barrigón, Enrique; Sundvall, Christian; Svensson, K Erik; Heurlin, Magnus; Siefer, Gerald; Samuelson, Lars; Åberg, Ingvar; Borgström, Magnus T

    2018-05-09

    III-V solar cells in the nanowire geometry might hold significant synthesis-cost and device-design advantages as compared to thin films and have shown impressive performance improvements in recent years. To continue this development there is a need for characterization techniques giving quick and reliable feedback for growth development. Further, characterization techniques which can improve understanding of the link between nanowire growth conditions, subsequent processing, and solar cell performance are desired. Here, we present the use of a nanoprobe system inside a scanning electron microscope to efficiently contact single nanowires and characterize them in terms of key parameters for solar cell performance. Specifically, we study single as-grown InP nanowires and use electron beam induced current characterization to understand the charge carrier collection properties, and dark current-voltage characteristics to understand the diode recombination characteristics. By correlating the single nanowire measurements to performance of fully processed nanowire array solar cells, we identify how the performance limiting parameters are related to growth and/or processing conditions. We use this understanding to achieve a more than 7-fold improvement in efficiency of our InP nanowire solar cells, grown from a different seed particle pattern than previously reported from our group. The best cell shows a certified efficiency of 15.0%; the highest reported value for a bottom-up synthesized InP nanowire solar cell. We believe the presented approach have significant potential to speed-up the development of nanowire solar cells, as well as other nanowire-based electronic/optoelectronic devices.

  11. Synthesis of ZnO nanowires for thin film network transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, S. H.; Unalan, H. E.; Zhang, Y.; Hiralal, Pritesh; Gangloff, L.; Flewitt, Andrew J.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Milne, William I.

    2008-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanowire networks are attractive as alternatives to organic and amorphous semiconductors due to their wide bandgap, flexibility and transparency. We demonstrate the fabrication of thin film transistors (TFT)s which utilize ZnO nanowires as the semiconducting channel. These thin film transistors can be transparent and flexible and processed at low temperatures on to a variety of substrates. The nanowire networks are created using a simple contact transfer method that is easily scalable. Apparent nanowire network mobility values can be as high as 3.8 cm2/Vs (effective thin film mobility: 0.03 cm2/Vs) in devices with 20μm channel lengths and ON/OFF ratios of up to 104.

  12. CONDUCTING-POLYMER NANOWIRE IMMUNOSENSOR ARRAYS FOR MICROBIAL PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lack of methods for routine rapid and sensitive detection and quantification of specific pathogens has limited the amount of information available on their occurrence in drinking water and other environmental samples. The nanowire biosensor arrays developed in this study w...

  13. Growth Evolution and Characterization of PLD Zn(Mg)O Nanowire Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Andreas; Nobis, Thomas; Lorenz, Michael; Zimmermann, Gregor; Boukos, Nikos; Travlos, Anastasios; Grundmann, Marius

    ZnO and Zn0.98Mg0.02O nanowires have been grown by high-pressure pulsed laser deposition on sapphire substrates covered with gold colloidal particles as nucleation sites. We present a detailed study of the nanowire size and length distribution and of the growth evolution. We find that the aspect ratio varies linearly with deposition time. The linearity coefficient is independent of the catalytic gold particle size and lateral nanowire density. The superior structural quality of the whiskers is proven by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The defect-free ZnO nanowires exhibit a FWHM(2θ-ω) of the ZnO(0002) reflection of 22 arcsec. We show (0-11) step habit planes on the side faces of the nanowires that are a few atomic steps in height. The microscopic homogeneity of the optical properties is confirmed by temperature-dependent cathodoluminescence.

  14. Reconstruction of perfect ZnO nanowires facets with high optical quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehani, E.; Hassani, S.; Lusson, A.; Vigneron, J.; Etcheberry, A.; Galtier, P.; Sallet, V.

    2017-07-01

    ZnO nanowires were grown on sapphire substrates using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The samples were subsequently annealed under zinc pressure in a vacuum-sealed ampoule, at temperature ranging from 500 to 800 °C. The originality and the main motivation to provide a zinc-rich atmosphere were to prevent the out-diffusion of zinc from the nanowires. In doing so, the perfect structural properties and the morphology of the nanowires are kept. Interestingly, photoluminescence experiments performed on nanowires annealed in a narrow window of temperature [580-620 °C] show a spectacular improvement of the optical quality, as transitions commonly observable in high quality bulk samples are found. In addition, the intensity of the so-called "surface excitons" (SX) is strongly decreased. To accurately investigate the chemical modifications of the surface, XPS experiments were carried out and show that zinc hydroxide species and/or Zn(OH)2 sublayer were partially removed from the surface. These results suggest that the annealing process in zinc vapor helps to properly reconstruct the surface of ZnO nanowires, and improves the optical quality of their core. Such a thermal treatment at moderate temperature should be beneficial to nanodevices involving surface reaction, e.g. gas sensors.

  15. Ferromagnetic resonance in low interacting permalloy nanowire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Raposo, V.; Zazo, M.; Flores, A. G.

    2016-04-14

    Dipolar interactions on magnetic nanowire arrays have been investigated by various techniques. One of the most powerful techniques is the ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy, because the resonance field depends directly on the anisotropy field strength and its frequency dependence. In order to evaluate the influence of magnetostatic dipolar interactions among ferromagnetic nanowire arrays, several densely packed hexagonal arrays of NiFe nanowires have been prepared by electrochemical deposition filling self-ordered nanopores of alumina membranes with different pore sizes but keeping the same interpore distance. Nanowires’ diameter was changed from 90 to 160 nm, while the lattice parameter was fixed to 300 nm, which wasmore » achieved by carefully reducing the pore diameter by means of Atomic Layer Deposition of conformal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers on the nanoporous alumina templates. Field and frequency dependence of ferromagnetic resonance have been studied in order to obtain the dispersion diagram which gives information about anisotropy, damping factor, and gyromagnetic ratio. The relationship between resonance frequency and magnetic field can be explained by the roles played by the shape anisotropy and dipolar interactions among the ferromagnetic nanowires.« less

  16. Doping-induced spin-orbit splitting in Bi-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aras, Mehmet; Güler-Kılıç, Sümeyra; Kılıç, ćetin

    2017-04-01

    Our predictions, based on density-functional calculations, reveal that surface doping of ZnO nanowires with Bi leads to a linear-in-k splitting of the conduction-band states, through spin-orbit interaction, due to the lowering of the symmetry in the presence of the dopant. This finding implies that spin polarization of the conduction electrons in Bi-doped ZnO nanowires could be controlled with applied electric (as opposed to magnetic) fields, making them candidate materials for spin-orbitronic applications. Our findings also show that the degree of spin splitting could be tuned by adjusting the dopant concentration. Defect calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations indicate that stable doping configurations exhibiting the foregoing linear-in-k splitting could be realized under reasonable thermodynamic conditions.

  17. Abnormal temperature dependence of conductance of single Cd-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. H.; Wan, Q.; Wang, Y. G.; Wang, T. H.

    2005-06-01

    Positive temperature coefficient of resistance is observed on single Cd-doped ZnO nanowires. The current along the nanowire increases linearly with the bias and saturates at large biases. The conductance is greatly enhanced either by ultraviolet illumination or infrared illumination. However, the conductance decreases with increasing temperature, in contrast to the reported temperature behavior either for ZnO nanostructures or for CdO nanoneedles. The increase of the conductance under illumination is related to surface effect and the decrease with increasing temperature to bulk effect. These results show that Cd doping does not change surface effect but affects bulk effect. Such a bulk effect could be used to realize on-chip temperature-independent varistors.

  18. Integration of ZnO and CuO nanowires into a thermoelectric module

    PubMed Central

    Dalola, Simone; Faglia, Guido; Comini, Elisabetta; Ferroni, Matteo; Soldano, Caterina; Ferrari, Vittorio; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Zinc oxide (ZnO, n-type) and copper oxide (CuO, p-type) nanowires have been synthesized and preliminarily investigated as innovative materials for the fabrication of a proof-of-concept thermoelectric device. The Seebeck coefficients, electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power factors (TPF) of both semiconductor materials have been determined independently using a custom experimental set-up, leading to results in agreement with available literature with potential improvement. Combining bundles of ZnO and CuO nanowires in a series of five thermocouples on alumina leads to a macroscopic prototype of a planar thermoelectric generator (TEG) unit. This demonstrates the possibility of further integration of metal oxide nanostructures into efficient thermoelectric devices. PMID:24991531

  19. Integration of ZnO and CuO nanowires into a thermoelectric module.

    PubMed

    Zappa, Dario; Dalola, Simone; Faglia, Guido; Comini, Elisabetta; Ferroni, Matteo; Soldano, Caterina; Ferrari, Vittorio; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO, n-type) and copper oxide (CuO, p-type) nanowires have been synthesized and preliminarily investigated as innovative materials for the fabrication of a proof-of-concept thermoelectric device. The Seebeck coefficients, electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power factors (TPF) of both semiconductor materials have been determined independently using a custom experimental set-up, leading to results in agreement with available literature with potential improvement. Combining bundles of ZnO and CuO nanowires in a series of five thermocouples on alumina leads to a macroscopic prototype of a planar thermoelectric generator (TEG) unit. This demonstrates the possibility of further integration of metal oxide nanostructures into efficient thermoelectric devices.

  20. Direct synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires on FTO substrates using a CVD method and the improvement of photovoltaic performance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we report a direct synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated substrates using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. ZnO nanowires with a length of more than 30 μm were synthesized, and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on the as-grown nanowires were fabricated, which showed improvement of the device performance compared to those fabricated using transferred ZnO nanowires. Dependence of the cell performance on nanowire length and annealing temperature was also examined. This synthesis method provided a straightforward, one-step CVD process to grow relatively long ZnO nanowires and avoided subsequent nanowire transfer process, which simplified DSSC fabrication and improved cell performance. PMID:22673046

  1. Selectivity shifting behavior of Pd nanoparticles loaded zinc stannate/zinc oxide (Zn2SnO4/ZnO) nanowires sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafat, M. M.; Ong, J. Y.; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, the gas sensing behavior of Pd nanoparticles loaded zinc stannate/zinc oxide (Zn2SnO4/ZnO) nanowires were investigated. The Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires were grown on Au interdigitated alumina substrate by carbon assisted thermal evaporation process. Pd nanoparticles were loaded on the Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires by wet reduction process. The nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, field emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope. The Zn2SnO4/ZnO and Pd nanoparticles loaded Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires were investigated for detecting H2, H2S and C2H5OH gases in N2 background. Results revealed that the average diameter and length of as-grown Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires were 74 nm and 30 μm, respectively. During wet reduction process,Pd particles having size of 20-60 nm were evenly distributed on the Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires. The Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires based sensors showed selective response towards C2H5OH whereas Pd nanoparticles loaded Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires showed selective response towards H2. The recovery time of the sensors reduced with Pd loading on Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires. A mechanism is proposed to elucidate the gas sensing mechanism of Pd nanoparticles loaded Zn2SnO4/ZnO nanowires.

  2. Structural and optical characterization of ZnO nanowires grown on alumina by thermal evaporation method.

    PubMed

    Mute, A; Peres, M; Peiris, T C; Lourenço, A C; Jensen, Lars R; Monteiro, T

    2010-04-01

    Zinc oxide nanowires have been grown on alumina substrate by thermal evaporation of zinc nanopowder in the presence of oxygen flow. The growth was performed under ambient pressure and without the use of foreign catalyst. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation showed that the as-grown sample consists of bulk ZnO crystal on the substrate surface with nanowires growing from this base. Growth mechanism of the observed morphology is suggested to be governed by the change of zinc vapour supersaturation during the growth process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement was used to identify the crystalline phase of the nanowires. Optical properties of the nanowires were investigated using Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). The appearance of dominant, Raman active E2 (high) phonon mode in the Raman spectrum has confirmed the wurtzite hexagonal phase of the nanowires. With above bandgap excitation the low temperature PL recombination is dominated by donor bound exciton luminescence at -3.37 eV with a narrow full width at half maximum. Free exciton emission is also seen at low temperature and can be observed up to room temperature. The optical data indicates that the grown nanowires have high optical quality.

  3. Photo-assisted hysteresis of electronic transport for ZnO nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qianqian; Ye, Jiandong; Xu, Zhonghua; Zhu, Shunming; Tang, Kun; Gu, Shulin; Zheng, Youdou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, ZnO nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) have received renewed interest due to their extraordinary low dimensionality and high sensitivity to external chemical environments and illumination conditions. These prominent properties have promising potential in nanoscale chemical and photo-sensors. In this article, we have fabricated ZnO nanowire FETs and have found hysteresis behavior in their transfer characteristics. The mechanism and dynamics of the hysteresis phenomena have been investigated in detail by varying the sweeping rate and range of the gate bias with and without light irradiation. Significantly, light irradiation is of great importance on charge trapping by regulating adsorption and desorption of oxygen at the interface of ZnO/SiO2. Carriers excited by light irradiation can dramatically promote trapping/detrapping processes. With the assistance of light illumination, we have demonstrated a photon-assisted nonvolatile memory which employs the ZnO nanowire FET. The device exhibits reliable programming/erasing operations and a large on/off ratio. The proposed proto-type memory has thus provided a possible novel path for creating a memory functionality to other low-dimensional material systems.

  4. Transmission type flat-panel X-ray source using ZnO nanowire field emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Daokun; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Zhipeng

    2015-12-14

    A transmission type flat-panel X-ray source in diode structure was fabricated. Large-scale patterned ZnO nanowires grown on a glass substrate by thermal oxidation were utilized as field emitters, and tungsten thin film coated on silica glass was used as the transmission anode. Uniform distribution of X-ray generation was achieved, which benefited from the uniform electron emission from ZnO nanowires. Self-ballasting effect induced by the intrinsic resistance of ZnO nanowire and decreasing of screening effect caused by patterned emitters account for the uniform emission. Characteristic X-ray peaks of W-L lines and bremsstrahlung X-rays have been observed under anode voltages at amore » range of 18–20 kV, the latter of which were the dominant X-ray signals. High-resolution X-ray images with spatial resolution less than 25 μm were obtained by the flat-panel X-ray source. The high resolution was attributed to the small divergence angle of the emitted X-rays from the transmission X-ray source.« less

  5. Synthesis and characterization of silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichfeld, Sarah M.

    The overall objective of this thesis was the development of processes for the fabrication of radial p-n silicon nanowires (SiNWs) using bottom-up nanowire growth techniques on silicon and glass substrates. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth was carried out on Si(111) substrates using SiCl4 as the silicon precursor. Growth conditions including temperature, PSiCl4, PH2, and position were investigated to determine the optimum growth conditions for epitaxially oriented silicon nanowire arrays. The experiments revealed that the growth rate of the silicon nanowires exhibits a maximum as a function of PSiCl4 and P H2. Gas phase equilibrium calculations were used in conjunction with a mass transport model to explain the experimental data. The modeling results demonstrate a similar maximum in the mass of solid silicon predicted to form as a function of PSiCl4 and PH2, which results from a change in the gas phase concentration of SiHxCly and SiClx species. This results in a shift in the process from growth to etching with increasing PSiCl4. In general, for the atmospheric pressure conditions employed in this study, growth at higher temperatures >1000°C and higher SiCl4 concentrations gave the best results. The growth of silicon nanowire arrays on anodized alumina (AAO)-coated glass substrates was also investigated. Glass will not hold up to the high temperatures required for Si nanowire growth with SiCl4 so SiH 4 was used as the Si precursor instead. Initial studies were carried out to measure the resistivity of p-type and n-type silicon nanowires grown in freestanding AAO membranes. A series of nanowire samples were grown in which the doping and the nanowire length inside the membrane were varied. Circular metal contacts were deposited on the top surface of the membranes and the resistance of the nanowire arrays was measured. The measured resistance versus nanowire length was plotted and the nanowire resistivity was extracted from the slope. The resistivity of the silicon

  6. ZnO nanowires for tunable near-UV/blue LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Viana, Bruno

    2012-02-01

    Nanowires (NWs)-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have drawn large interest due to many advantages compared to thin film based devices. Markedly improved performances are expected from nanostructured active layers for light emission. Nanowires can act as direct waveguides and favor light extraction without the use of lenses and reflectors. Moreover, the use of wires avoids the presence of grain boundaries and then the emission efficiency should be boosted by the absence of non-radiative recombinations at the joint defects. Electrochemical deposition technique was used for the preparation of ZnO-NWs based light emitters. Nanowires of high structural and optical quality have been epitaxially grown on p-GaN single crystalline films substrates. We have shown that the emission is directional with a wavelength that was tuned and red-shifted toward the visible region by doping with Cu in ZnO NWs.

  7. MOF-Based Membrane Encapsulated ZnO Nanowires for Enhanced Gas Sensor Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Drobek, Martin; Kim, Jae-Hun; Bechelany, Mikhael; Vallicari, Cyril; Julbe, Anne; Kim, Sang Sub

    2016-04-06

    Gas sensors are of a great interest for applications including toxic or explosive gases detection in both in-house and industrial environments, air quality monitoring, medical diagnostics, or control of food/cosmetic properties. In the area of semiconductor metal oxides (SMOs)-based sensors, a lot of effort has been devoted to improve the sensing characteristics. In this work, we report on a general methodology for improving the selectivity of SMOx nanowires sensors, based on the coverage of ZnO nanowires with a thin ZIF-8 molecular sieve membrane. The optimized ZnO@ZIF-8-based nanocomposite sensor shows markedly selective response to H2 in comparison with the pristine ZnO nanowires sensor, while showing the negligible sensing response to C7H8 and C6H6. This original MOF-membrane encapsulation strategy applied to nanowires sensor architecture pave the way for other complex 3D architectures and various types of applications requiring either gas or ion selectivity, such as biosensors, photo(catalysts), and electrodes.

  8. Growth of ZnO nanowires on polypropylene membrane surface-Characterization and reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarska, Marta; Nowak, Bartosz; Skowroński, Jarosław; Piątkiewicz, Wojciech; Gradoń, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Need for a new membrane is clearly visible in recent studies, mostly due to the fouling phenomenon. Authors, focused on problem of biofouling caused by microorganisms that are present in water environment. An attempt to form a new membrane with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires was made; where plasma treatment was used as a first step of modification followed by chemical bath deposition. Such membrane will exhibit additional reactive properties. ZnO, because of its antibacterial and photocatalytic properties, is more and more often used in commercial applications. The authors used SEM imaging, measurement of the contact angle, XRD and the FT-IR analysis for membrane characterization. Amount of ZnO deposited on membrane surface was also investigated by dithizone method. Photocatalytic properties of such membranes were examined through methylene blue and humic acid degradation in laboratory scale modules with LEDs as either: wide range white or UV light source. Antibacterial and antifouling properties of polypropylene membranes modified with ZnO nanowires were examined through a series of tests involving microorganisms: model gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The obtained results showed that it is possible to modify the membrane surface in such a way, that additional reactive properties will be given. Thus, not only did the membrane become a physical barrier, but also turned out to be a reactive one.

  9. Assembly of Nanowire Arrays: Exploring Interparticle Interactions, Particle Orientation, and Mixed Particle Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, David J.

    This dissertation explores the fundamental interparticle and particle-substrate forces that contribute to nanowire assembly. Nanowires have a large aspect ratio which has made them favorable materials for applications in energy and sensing technologies. However, this anisotropy means that nanowires must be positioned and oriented during an assembly process. Within this work, the roles of gravity, van der Waals (VDW) attractions, and electrostatic repulsions are explored when different nanowire assemblies are created. Particles were synthesized by the template electrodeposition process so that stripes of different materials and therefore different VDW interactions could be patterned along the particle length. Electrostatic repulsions were provided by a small molecule coating or a porous silica shell to prevent aggregation during the assembly process. Chapters 2, 3, 5, 6, and 8 all used particles whose asymmetry was further adjusted by removal of a sacrificial segment to leave a partially etched nanowire (PEN), a rigid silica shell partially filled with a metal core. For these particles, the role of gravity was amplified due to the drastic density differences between the two segments. Topographic and high VDW surface interactions were patterned onto assembly substrates using photolithographic processing. These forces served as a passive template to direct nanowire assembly. The segment anisotropy of PENs allowed gravity to drive their sedimentation with the long axis perpendicular to the surface. The density difference between the two ends allowed them to convert between the horizontal and vertical orientation as they diffused on the substrate. Vertical arrays formed as particle concentrations increased while VDW attractions from neighboring PENs or the physical barrier of a microwell wall supported this structure. While vertical arrays were typically PENs, microwell walls were also able to enforce a vertical orientation on solid Au nanowires. These particles

  10. Comparative study of absorption in tilted silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanowire arrays have been shown to demonstrate light trapping properties and promising potential for next-generation photovoltaics. In this paper, we show that the absorption enhancement in vertical nanowire arrays on a perfectly electric conductor can be further improved through tilting. Vertical nanowire arrays have a 66.2% improvement in ultimate efficiency over an ideal double-pass thin film of the equivalent amount of material. Tilted nanowire arrays, with the same amount of material, exhibit improved performance over vertical nanowire arrays across a broad range of tilt angles (from 38° to 72°). The optimum tilt of 53° has an improvement of 8.6% over that of vertical nanowire arrays and 80.4% over that of the ideal double-pass thin film. Tilted nanowire arrays exhibit improved absorption over the solar spectrum compared with vertical nanowires since the tilt allows for the excitation of additional modes besides the HE 1m modes that are excited at normal incidence. We also observed that tilted nanowire arrays have improved performance over vertical nanowire arrays for a large range of incidence angles (under about 60°). PMID:25435833

  11. Comparative study of absorption in tilted silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Kayes, Md Imrul; Leu, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanowire arrays have been shown to demonstrate light trapping properties and promising potential for next-generation photovoltaics. In this paper, we show that the absorption enhancement in vertical nanowire arrays on a perfectly electric conductor can be further improved through tilting. Vertical nanowire arrays have a 66.2% improvement in ultimate efficiency over an ideal double-pass thin film of the equivalent amount of material. Tilted nanowire arrays, with the same amount of material, exhibit improved performance over vertical nanowire arrays across a broad range of tilt angles (from 38° to 72°). The optimum tilt of 53° has an improvement of 8.6% over that of vertical nanowire arrays and 80.4% over that of the ideal double-pass thin film. Tilted nanowire arrays exhibit improved absorption over the solar spectrum compared with vertical nanowires since the tilt allows for the excitation of additional modes besides the HE 1m modes that are excited at normal incidence. We also observed that tilted nanowire arrays have improved performance over vertical nanowire arrays for a large range of incidence angles (under about 60°).

  12. Ordered arrays of Ni magnetic nanowires: Synthesis and investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolskii, K. S.; Eliseev, A. A.; Yesin, N. V.; Lukashin, A. V.; Tretyakov, Yu. D.; Grigorieva, N. A.; Grigoriev, S. V.; Eckerlebe, H.

    2007-03-01

    The present study is focused on the synthesis and investigation of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films and magnetic nanocomposites Ni/AAO obtained by Ni electrodeposition into porous matrix. AAO membranes and magnetic nanocomposites were investigated by HRSEM, EDX microanalysis, XRD, nitrogen capillary adsorption method, SQUID magnetometry, and polarized small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The influence of synthesis conditions and form factor effect on the magnetic properties of nanowire arrays is reported.

  13. Manipulation and Investigation of Uniformly-Spaced Nanowire Array on a Substrate via Dielectrophoresis and Electrostatic Interaction.

    PubMed

    Choi, U Hyeok; Park, Ji Hun; Kim, Jaekyun

    2018-06-21

    Directed-assembly of nanowires on the dielectrics-covered parallel electrode structure is capable of producing uniformly-spaced nanowire array at the electrode gap due to dielectrophoretic nanowire attraction and electrostatic nanowire repulsion. Beyond uniformly-spaced nanowire array formation, the control of spacing in the array is beneficial in that it should be the experimental basis of the precise positioning of functional nanowires on a circuit. Here, we investigate the material parameters and bias conditions to modulate the nanowire spacing in the ordered array, where the nanowire array formation is readily attained due to the electrostatic nanowire interaction. A theoretical model for the force calculation and the simulation of the induced charge in the assembled nanowire verifies that the longer nanowires on thicker dielectric layer tend to be assembled with a larger pitch due to the stronger nanowire-nanowire electrostatic repulsion, which is consistent with the experimental results. It was claimed that the stronger dielectrophoretic force is likely to attract more nanowires that are suspended in solution at the electrode gap, causing them to be less-spaced. Thus, we propose a generic mechanism, competition of dielectrophoretic and electrostatic force, to determine the nanowire pitch in an ordered array. Furthermore, this spacing-controlled nanowire array offers a way to fabricate the high-density nanodevice array without nanowire registration.

  14. A fast and effective approach for reversible wetting-dewetting transitions on ZnO nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Kavita; Mehta, B. R.; Bhattacharya, Saswata; Singh, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate a facile approach for the preparation of ZnO nanowires (NWs) with tunable surface wettability that can be manipulated reversibly in a controlled manner from a superhydrophilic state to a superhydrophobic state. The as-synthesized ZnO NWs obtained by a chemical vapor deposition method are superhydrophilic with a contact angle (CA) value of ~0°. After H2 gas annealing at 300 °C for 90 minutes, ZnO NWs display superhydrophobic behavior with a roll-off angle less than 5°. However, O2 gas annealing converts these superhydrophobic ZnO NWs into a superhydrophilic state. For switching from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic state and vice versa in cyclic manner, H2 and O2 gas annealing treatment was used, respectively. A model based on density functional theory indicates that the oxygen-related defects are responsible for CA switching. The water resistant properties of the ZnO NWs coating is found to be durable and can be applied to a variety of substrates including glass, metals, semiconductors, paper and even flexible polymers. PMID:27713536

  15. Design Concepts, Fabrication and Advanced Characterization Methods of Innovative Piezoelectric Sensors Based on ZnO Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Araneo, Rodolfo; Rinaldi, Antonio; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Bini, Fabiano; Pea, Marialilia; Celozzi, Salvatore; Marinozzi, Franco; Lovat, Giampiero

    2014-12-08

    Micro- and nano-scale materials and systems based on zinc oxide are expected to explode in their applications in the electronics and photonics, including nano-arrays of addressable optoelectronic devices and sensors, due to their outstanding properties, including semiconductivity and the presence of a direct bandgap, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and biocompatibility. Most applications are based on the cooperative and average response of a large number of ZnO micro/nanostructures. However, in order to assess the quality of the materials and their performance, it is fundamental to characterize and then accurately model the specific electrical and piezoelectric properties of single ZnO structures. In this paper, we report on focused ion beam machined high aspect ratio nanowires and their mechanical and electrical (by means of conductive atomic force microscopy) characterization. Then, we investigate the suitability of new power-law design concepts to accurately model the relevant electrical and mechanical size-effects, whose existence has been emphasized in recent reviews.

  16. Design Concepts, Fabrication and Advanced Characterization Methods of Innovative Piezoelectric Sensors Based on ZnO Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Araneo, Rodolfo; Rinaldi, Antonio; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Bini, Fabiano; Pea, Marialilia; Celozzi, Salvatore; Marinozzi, Franco; Lovat, Giampiero

    2014-01-01

    Micro- and nano-scale materials and systems based on zinc oxide are expected to explode in their applications in the electronics and photonics, including nano-arrays of addressable optoelectronic devices and sensors, due to their outstanding properties, including semiconductivity and the presence of a direct bandgap, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and biocompatibility. Most applications are based on the cooperative and average response of a large number of ZnO micro/nanostructures. However, in order to assess the quality of the materials and their performance, it is fundamental to characterize and then accurately model the specific electrical and piezoelectric properties of single ZnO structures. In this paper, we report on focused ion beam machined high aspect ratio nanowires and their mechanical and electrical (by means of conductive atomic force microscopy) characterization. Then, we investigate the suitability of new power-law design concepts to accurately model the relevant electrical and mechanical size-effects, whose existence has been emphasized in recent reviews. PMID:25494351

  17. Veritable electronic characteristics in ZnO nanowire circuits uncovered by the four-terminal method at a low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Qi

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the natural electrical properties in semiconductor channels and the carrier transport across the metal-semiconductor contact is essential to improve the performance of nanowire devices. This work presents the true electronic characteristics of ZnO nanowire devices measured by a four-electrode method at a low-temperature environment. The temperature rise leads to the decrease in near-band-gap emission, which is attributed to two non-radiative recombination processes. For ZnO circuits, thermionic emission carrier transport mechanism plays a dominant role at Ti-Au/ZnO interface and the transport mechanism in ZnO nanowires is governed by two competitive thermal activation conduction processes: optical or acoustic phonons assisting hopping.

  18. Room temperature synthesis and optical properties of small diameter (5 nm) ZnO nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seungho; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2010-10-01

    We report a simple wet-chemical synthesis of ∼5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays at room temperature (20 °C) and normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm) and their optical properties. They were single crystalline in nature, and grew in the [001] direction. These small diameter ZnO nanorod arrays can also be synthesized at 0 °C. Control experiments were also conducted. On the basis of the results, we propose a mechanism for the spontaneous growth of the small diameter ZnO structures. The optical properties of the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays synthesized using this method were probed by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. A clear blue-shift, relative to the absorption band from 50 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays, was attributed to the quantum confinement effects caused by the small nanocrystal size in the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorods.

  19. Toward optimized light utilization in nanowire arrays using scalable nanosphere lithography and selected area growth.

    PubMed

    Madaria, Anuj R; Yao, Maoqing; Chi, Chunyung; Huang, Ningfeng; Lin, Chenxi; Li, Ruijuan; Povinelli, Michelle L; Dapkus, P Daniel; Zhou, Chongwu

    2012-06-13

    Vertically aligned, catalyst-free semiconducting nanowires hold great potential for photovoltaic applications, in which achieving scalable synthesis and optimized optical absorption simultaneously is critical. Here, we report combining nanosphere lithography (NSL) and selected area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (SA-MOCVD) for the first time for scalable synthesis of vertically aligned gallium arsenide nanowire arrays, and surprisingly, we show that such nanowire arrays with patterning defects due to NSL can be as good as highly ordered nanowire arrays in terms of optical absorption and reflection. Wafer-scale patterning for nanowire synthesis was done using a polystyrene nanosphere template as a mask. Nanowires grown from substrates patterned by NSL show similar structural features to those patterned using electron beam lithography (EBL). Reflection of photons from the NSL-patterned nanowire array was used as a measure of the effect of defects present in the structure. Experimentally, we show that GaAs nanowires as short as 130 nm show reflection of <10% over the visible range of the solar spectrum. Our results indicate that a highly ordered nanowire structure is not necessary: despite the "defects" present in NSL-patterned nanowire arrays, their optical performance is similar to "defect-free" structures patterned by more costly, time-consuming EBL methods. Our scalable approach for synthesis of vertical semiconducting nanowires can have application in high-throughput and low-cost optoelectronic devices, including solar cells.

  20. Electrical properties of lightly Ga-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagha, S.; Heedt, S.; Vakulov, D.; Mohammadbeigi, F.; Senthil Kumar, E.; Schäpers, Th; Isheim, D.; Watkins, S. P.; Kavanagh, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the growth, crystal structure, elemental composition and electrical transport characteristics of ZnO nanowires, a promising candidate for optoelectronic applications in the UV-range. Nominally-undoped and Ga-doped ZnO nanowires were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Photoluminescence measurements confirmed the incorporation of Ga via donor-bound exciton emission. With atom-probe tomography we estimated an upper limit of the Ga impurity concentration ({10}18 {{cm}}-3). We studied the electrical transport characteristics of these nanowires with a W-nanoprobe technique inside a scanning electron microscope and with lithographically-defined contacts allowing back-gated measurements. An increase in apparent resistivity by two orders of magnitude with decreasing radius was measured with both techniques with a much larger distribution width for the nanoprobe method. A drop in the effective carrier concentration and mobility was found with decreasing radius which can be attributed to carrier depletion and enhanced scattering due to surface states. Little evidence of a change in resistivity was observed with Ga doping, which indicates that the concentration of native or background dopants is higher than the Ga doping concentration.

  1. Penetration length-dependent hot electrons in the field emission from ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yicong; Song, Xiaomeng; Li, Zhibing; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of field emission, whether or not hot electrons can form in the semiconductor emitters under a surface penetration field is of great concern, which will provide not only a comprehensive physical picture of field emission from semiconductor but also guidance on how to improve device performance. However, apart from some theoretical work, its experimental evidence has not been reported yet. In this article, the field penetration length-dependent hot electrons were observed in the field emission of ZnO nanowires through the in-situ study of its electrical and field emission characteristic before and after NH3 plasma treatment in an ultrahigh vacuum system. After the treatment, most of the nanowires have an increased carrier density but reduced field emission current. The raised carrier density was caused by the increased content of oxygen vacancies, while the degraded field emission current was attributed to the lower kinetic energy of hot electrons caused by the shorter penetration length. All of these results suggest that the field emission properties of ZnO nanowires can be optimized by modifying their carrier density to balance both the kinetic energy of field induced hot electrons and the limitation of saturated current under a given field.

  2. Lattice diffusion and vapor solid growths forming nanoarchitectures on ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sombrio, Guilherme; Rivaldo-Gómez, C. M.; Pomar, Cesar A. D.; Souza, Jose A.

    2017-12-01

    We report hierarchical nanoarchitectures formed on the tips and sidewalls of ZnO nanowires which is formed on the top of microtubes. The whole growth process of these micro/nanostructures during thermal oxidation combines lattice/grain/surface ionic diffusion along with vapor solid mechanism. All the process takes place along with the presence of an electric current, which plays an important role forming the ZnO molecules due to Zn metal evaporation and attracting them to condense into nanostructures of several morphologies. The observation of a very long needle-like nanowire reveals the stack nature of the growth. These nanoarchitectures are rarely observed experimentally. Raman scattering confirms phonon confinement in the nanostructures. Photoluminescence measurements indicate a route for engineering defects on the surface of ZnO microtubes after the complete coalescence of the nanostructures through heat treatment. This experiment would be useful for improving nanostructure organization which could provide an impact in the manufacturability of nanostructure-based systems.

  3. A metal-semiconductor-metal detector based on ZnO nanowires grown on a graphene layer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Cheng, Qijin; Zhong, Jinxiang; Cai, Weiwei; Zhang, Zifeng; Wu, Zhengyun; Zhang, Fengyan

    2014-02-07

    High quality ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on a graphene layer by a hydrothermal method. The ZnO NWs revealed higher uniform surface morphology and better structural properties than ZnO NWs grown on SiO2/Si substrate. A low dark current metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector based on ZnO NWs with Au Schottky contact has also been fabricated. The photodetector displays a low dark current of 1.53 nA at 1 V bias and a large UV-to-visible rejection ratio (up to four orders), which are significantly improved compared to conventional ZnO NW photodetectors. The improvement in UV detection performance is attributed to the existence of a surface plasmon at the interface of the ZnO and the graphene.

  4. Synthesis and photonic property study of ZnO nanowires for a real time photodynamic therapy monitoring probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, D.; Xie, Jining; Abraham, Jose K.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we present how the photonic properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires can be used to potentially advance the effectiveness of Photodynamic therapy (PDT), one of the most recent and promising approaches among cancer therapies. Presently, PDT employs laser light to activate intravenously or topically administered photosensitizers to give rise to highly reactive singlet oxygen which has a very short lifetime and is capable of biochemical damage to cell membranes of the tumor. A probe that can monitor in real time the penetration depth of the laser in the tumor and also the evolution of the singlet oxygen, which is critical for tumor eradication, is capable of improving the efficacy of PDT quite significantly. Such a probe, by providing real time feedback, can help us determine whether to increase or decrease the light exposure dose and also if further local administration of photosensitizers is required or not. ZnO nanowires are known to be photoconductive and recent research also demonstrated the temperature dependence of the photocurrent in the nanowires. They are also sensitive to blue and other near UV spectra which is same range of activation wavelengths of most photosensitizers, and hence making them a good candidate for a potential PDT monitoring probe. ZnO nanowires were fabricated on silicon substrates by vapor phase deposition using e-beam evaporated gold as a catalyst. Control of the dimensions of the nanowires could be achieved by varying the dimensions of the catalyst by means of e-beam evaporation process. Photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanowires were investigated at UV and near UV wavelengths. Further, ZnO is also known for its antimicrobial properties, thereby ruling out any possibility of bacterial infection because of the implanted probe. This study was done to compliment the existing expertise of our research group in the design and fabrication of several nanowire based probes and microsensors specifically for neuroelectronic and

  5. High-quality metal oxide core/shell nanowire arrays on conductive substrates for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinhui; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Yongqi; Wang, Xiuli; Gu, Changdong; Zhao, Xin-Bing; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-06-26

    The high performance of a pseudocapacitor electrode relies largely on a scrupulous design of nanoarchitectures and smart hybridization of bespoke active materials. We present a powerful two-step solution-based method for the fabrication of transition metal oxide core/shell nanostructure arrays on various conductive substrates. Demonstrated examples include Co(3)O(4) or ZnO nanowire core and NiO nanoflake shells with a hierarchical and porous morphology. The "oriented attachment" and "self-assembly" crystal growth mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of the NiO nanoflake shell. Supercapacitor electrodes based on the Co(3)O(4)/NiO nanowire arrays on 3D macroporous nickel foam are thoroughly characterized. The electrodes exhibit a high specific capacitance of 853 F/g at 2 A/g after 6000 cycles and an excellent cycling stability, owing to the unique porous core/shell nanowire array architecture, and a rational combination of two electrochemically active materials. Our growth approach offers a new technique for the design and synthesis of transition metal oxide or hydroxide hierarchical nanoarrays that are promising for electrochemical energy storage, catalysis, and gas sensing applications.

  6. Size-dependent Young’s modulus in ZnO nanowires with strong surface atomic bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shiwen; Bi, Sheng; Li, Qikun; Guo, Qinglei; Liu, Junshan; Ouyang, Zhongliang; Jiang, Chengming; Song, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    The mechanical properties of size-dependent nanowires are important in nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMSs), and have attracted much research interest. Characterization of the size effect of nanowires in atmosphere directly to broaden their practical application instead of just in high vacuum situations, as reported previously, is desperately needed. In this study, we systematically studied the Young’s modulus of vertical ZnO nanowires in atmosphere. The diameters ranged from 48 nm to 239 nm with a resonance method using non-contact atomic force microscopy. The values of Young’s modulus in atmosphere present extremely strong increasing tendency with decreasing diameter of nanowire due to stronger surface atomic bonds compared with that in vacuum. A core-shell model for nanowires is proposed to explore the Young’s modulus enhancement in atmosphere, which is correlated with atoms of oxygen occurring near the nanowire surface. The modified model is more accurate for analyzing the mechanical behavior of nanowires in atmosphere compared with the model in vacuum. Furthermore, it is possible to use this characterization method to measure the size-related elastic properties of similar wire-sharp nanomaterials in atmosphere and estimate the corresponding mechanical behavior. The study of the size-dependent Young’s modulus in ZnO nanowires in atmosphere will improve the understanding of the mechanical properties of nanomaterials as well as providing guidance for applications in NEMSs, nanogenerators, biosensors and other related areas.

  7. Photovoltaic Performance of a Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Nanostructure Array Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-02-23

    An innovative solar cell based on a nanowire/quantum dot hybrid nanostructure array is designed and analyzed. By growing multilayer InAs quantum dots on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires, not only the absorption spectrum of GaAs nanowires is extended by quantum dots but also the light absorption of quantum dots is dramatically enhanced due to the light-trapping effect of the nanowire array. By incorporating five layers of InAs quantum dots into a 500-nm high-GaAs nanowire array, the power conversion efficiency enhancement induced by the quantum dots is six times higher than the power conversion efficiency enhancement in thin-film solar cells which contain the same amount of quantum dots, indicating that the nanowire array structure can benefit the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot solar cells.

  8. Photovoltaic Performance of a Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Nanostructure Array Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-02-01

    An innovative solar cell based on a nanowire/quantum dot hybrid nanostructure array is designed and analyzed. By growing multilayer InAs quantum dots on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires, not only the absorption spectrum of GaAs nanowires is extended by quantum dots but also the light absorption of quantum dots is dramatically enhanced due to the light-trapping effect of the nanowire array. By incorporating five layers of InAs quantum dots into a 500-nm high-GaAs nanowire array, the power conversion efficiency enhancement induced by the quantum dots is six times higher than the power conversion efficiency enhancement in thin-film solar cells which contain the same amount of quantum dots, indicating that the nanowire array structure can benefit the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot solar cells.

  9. Multiscale Study of Plasmonic Scattering and Light Trapping Effect in Silicon Nanowire Array Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingyi; Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung

    2017-02-02

    Nanometallic structures that support surface plasmons provide new ways to confine light at deep-subwavelength scales. The effect of light scattering in nanowire array solar cells is studied by a multiscale approach combining classical electromagnetic (EM) and quantum mechanical simulations. A photovoltaic device is constructed by integrating a silicon nanowire array with a plasmonic silver nanosphere. The light scatterings by plasmonic element and nanowire array are obtained via classical EM simulations, while current-voltage characteristics and optical properties of the nanowire cells are evaluated quantum mechanically. We found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of photovoltaic device is substantially improved due to the local field enhancement of the plasmonic effect and light trapping by the nanowire array. In addition, we showed that there exists an optimal nanowire number density in terms of optical confinement and solar cell PCE.

  10. In situ biasing and off-axis electron holography of a ZnO nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hertog, Martien; Donatini, Fabrice; McLeod, Robert; Monroy, Eva; Sartel, Corinne; Sallet, Vincent; Pernot, Julien

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of electrically active dopants and surface charges in nano-objects is challenging, since most characterization techniques using electrons [1-3], ions [4] or field ionization effects [5-7] study the chemical presence of dopants, which are not necessarily electrically active. We perform cathodoluminescence and voltage contrast experiments on a contacted and biased ZnO nanowire with a Schottky contact and measure the depletion length as a function of reverse bias. We compare these results with state-of-the-art off-axis electron holography in combination with electrical in situ biasing on the same nanowire. The extension of the depletion length under bias observed in scanning electron microscopy based techniques is unusual as it follows a linear rather than square root dependence, and is therefore difficult to model by bulk equations or finite element simulations. In contrast, the analysis of the axial depletion length observed by holography may be compared with three-dimensional simulations, which allows estimating an n-doping level of 1 × 1018 cm-3 and negative sidewall surface charge of 2.5 × 1012 cm-2 of the nanowire, resulting in a radial surface depletion to a depth of 36 nm. We found excellent agreement between the simulated diameter of the undepleted core and the active thickness observed in the experimental data. By combining TEM holography experiments and finite element simulation of the NW electrostatics, the bulk-like character of the nanowire core is revealed.

  11. ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gang; Wu, Xinghui; Liu, Bing; Li, Bing; Zhang, Xingtang; Du, Zuliang

    2011-11-01

    ZnO nanowire (NW) ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors have high sensitivity, while the long recovery time is an important limitation for its applications. In this paper, we demonstrate the promising applications of ZnO NW Schottky barrier as high performance UV photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed. The on/off ratio, sensitivity, and photocurrent gain are 4 × 105, 2.6 × 103 A/W, and 8.5 × 103, respectively. The recovery time is 0.28 s when photocurrent decreases by 3 orders of magnitude, and the corresponding time constant is as short as 46 ms. The physical mechanisms of the fast recovery properties have also been discussed.

  12. Enhanced H2 sensitivity at room temperature of ZnO nanowires functionalized by Pd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shoutian; Fan, Guanghua; Qu, Shiliang; Wang, Qiang

    2011-10-01

    For sensitive detection of H2, ZnO nanowires networks decorated with photo-decomposed Pd nanoparticles were fabricated between femtosecond laser-writing interdigitated electrodes by chemical vapor deposition method. When H2 concentration is increased from 20 to 4000 ppm at room temperature, sensitivity of the sample is increased from 3.7% to 1017.9%. The high sensitivity can be explained by considering the reaction between the adsorbed O2- and the disassociated H atoms facilitated by Pd nanoparticles. This mechanism is further supported by the H2 response results under UV light illumination, which can reduce the amount of O2- on the ZnO surface, leading to depressed sensitivity. The sensor also shows high selectivity, long-term stability, and ultra-low power consumption of nanowatt level, due to the novel fabrication process.

  13. Single ZnO nanowire-PZT optothermal field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chun-Yi; Lu, Meng-Lin; Chen, Ju-Ying; Chen, Yung-Ting; Chen, Yang-Fang; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2012-09-07

    A new type of pyroelectric field effect transistor based on a composite consisting of single zinc oxide nanowire and lead zirconate titanate (ZnO NW-PZT) has been developed. Under infrared (IR) laser illumination, the transconductance of the ZnO NW can be modulated by optothermal gating. The drain current can be increased or decreased by IR illumination depending on the polarization orientation of the Pb(Zr(0.3)Ti(0.7))O(3) (PZT) substrate. Furthermore, by combining the photocurrent behavior in the UV range and the optothermal gating effect in the IR range, the wide spectrum of response of current by light offers a variety of opportunities for nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  14. Exciton diffusion coefficient measurement in ZnO nanowires under electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Donatini, Fabrice; Pernot, Julien

    2018-03-09

    In semiconductor nanowires (NWs) the exciton diffusion coefficient can be determined using a scanning electron microscope fitted with a cathodoluminescence system. High spatial and temporal resolution cathodoluminescence experiments are needed to measure independently the exciton diffusion length and lifetime in single NWs. However, both diffusion length and lifetime can be affected by the electron beam bombardment during observation and measurement. Thus, in this work the exciton lifetime in a ZnO NW is measured versus the electron beam dose (EBD) via a time-resolved cathodoluminescence experiment with a temporal resolution of 50 ps. The behavior of the measured exciton lifetime is consistent with our recent work on the EBD dependence of the exciton diffusion length in similar NWs investigated under comparable SEM conditions. Combining the two results, the exciton diffusion coefficient in ZnO is determined at room temperature and is found constant over the full span of EBD.

  15. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowire Based Piezoelectric Generators and Related Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opoku, Charles; Dahiya, Abhishek Singh; Oshman, Christopher; Cayrel, Frederic; Poulin-Vittrant, Guylaine; Alquier, Daniel; Camara, Nicolas

    Using vertically grown hydrothermal ZnO nanowires, we demonstrate the assembly of fully functional piezoelectric energy harvesters on plastics substrates. A seedless hydrothermal process is employed for the growth of single crystalline vertically orientated ZnO NWs at around 100oC. Flexible NG are assembled using ∼7 μm thick PDMS polymer matrix on a 3x3cm substrate. A representative device with an active area of 4cm2 is characterised revealing average output voltage generation of ∼22mV (±1.2) and -32mV (±0.16) in the positive and negative cycles after 3-4mm periodic deflection at 20Hz. A power density of ∼288nW/cm3 is estimated for the device. It is envisaged that such energy scavengers may find potential applications targeting self-powered systems, sensors and on-body charging of electronics.

  16. MnO 2 nanotube and nanowire arrays by electrochemical deposition for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hui; Feng, Jinkui; Wang, Hailong; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li

    Highly ordered MnO 2 nanotube and nanowire arrays are successfully synthesized via a electrochemical deposition technique using porous alumina templates. The morphologies and microstructures of the MnO 2 nanotube and nanowire arrays are investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical characterization demonstrates that the MnO 2 nanotube array electrode has superior capacitive behaviour to that of the MnO 2 nanowire array electrode. In addition to high specific capacitance, the MnO 2 nanotube array electrode also exhibits good rate capability and good cycling stability, which makes it promising candidate for supercapacitors.

  17. Synthesis and high catalytic properties of mesoporous Pt nanowire array by novel conjunct template method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yi; Xu, Cai-Ling; Kong, Ling-Bin; Li, Hu-Lin

    2008-12-01

    A novel conjunct template method for fabricating mesoporous Pt nanowire array through direct current (DC) electrodeposition of Pt into the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template on Ti/Si substrate from hexagonal structured lyotropic liquid crystalline phase is demonstrated in this paper. The morphology and structure of as-prepared Pt nanowire array are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrocatalytic properties of Pt nanowire array for methanol are also investigated in detail. The results indicate that Pt nanowire array has the unique mesoporous structure of approximate 40-50 nm in diameter, which resulted in the high surface area and greatly improved electrocatalytic activity for methanol. The mesoporous Pt nanowire array synthesized by the new conjunct template method has a very promising application in portable fuel cell power sources.

  18. Vertical group III-V nanowires on si, heterostructures, flexible arrays and fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Deli; Soci, Cesare; Bao, Xinyu; Wei, Wei; Jing, Yi; Sun, Ke

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method for direct heteroepitaxial growth of vertical III-V semiconductor nanowires on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is etched to substantially completely remove native oxide. It is promptly placed in a reaction chamber. The substrate is heated and maintained at a growth temperature. Group III-V precursors are flowed for a growth time. Preferred embodiment vertical Group III-V nanowires on silicon have a core-shell structure, which provides a radial homojunction or heterojunction. A doped nanowire core is surrounded by a shell with complementary doping. Such can provide high optical absorption due to the long optical path in the axial direction of the vertical nanowires, while reducing considerably the distance over which carriers must diffuse before being collected in the radial direction. Alloy composition can also be varied. Radial and axial homojunctions and heterojunctions can be realized. Embodiments provide for flexible Group III-V nanowire structures. An array of Group III-V nanowire structures is embedded in polymer. A fabrication method forms the vertical nanowires on a substrate, e.g., a silicon substrate. Preferably, the nanowires are formed by the preferred methods for fabrication of Group III-V nanowires on silicon. Devices can be formed with core/shell and core/multi-shell nanowires and the devices are released from the substrate upon which the nanowires were formed to create a flexible structure that includes an array of vertical nanowires embedded in polymer.

  19. Thermal Conduction in Vertically Aligned Copper Nanowire Arrays and Composites.

    PubMed

    Barako, Michael T; Roy-Panzer, Shilpi; English, Timothy S; Kodama, Takashi; Asheghi, Mehdi; Kenny, Thomas W; Goodson, Kenneth E

    2015-09-02

    The ability to efficiently and reliably transfer heat between sources and sinks is often a bottleneck in the thermal management of modern energy conversion technologies ranging from microelectronics to thermoelectric power generation. These interfaces contribute parasitic thermal resistances that reduce device performance and are subjected to thermomechanical stresses that degrade device lifetime. Dense arrays of vertically aligned metal nanowires (NWs) offer the unique combination of thermal conductance from the constituent metal and mechanical compliance from the high aspect ratio geometry to increase interfacial heat transfer and device reliability. In the present work, we synthesize copper NW arrays directly onto substrates via templated electrodeposition and extend this technique through the use of a sacrificial overplating layer to achieve improved uniformity. Furthermore, we infiltrate the array with an organic phase change material and demonstrate the preservation of thermal properties. We use the 3ω method to measure the axial thermal conductivity of freestanding copper NW arrays to be as high as 70 W m(-1) K(-1), which is more than an order of magnitude larger than most commercial interface materials and enhanced-conductivity nanocomposites reported in the literature. These arrays are highly anisotropic, and the lateral thermal conductivity is found to be only 1-2 W m(-1) K(-1). We use these measured properties to elucidate the governing array-scale transport mechanisms, which include the effects of morphology and energy carrier scattering from size effects and grain boundaries.

  20. Efficient photocatalytic performance enhancement in Co-doped ZnO nanowires coupled with CuS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Guojing; Feng, Yimeng; Li, Zhengcao

    2018-01-01

    In this research, a kind of highly efficient semiconductor photocatalyst was fabricated by depositing CuS nanoparticles uniformly on the surface of Co-doped ZnO nanowires. ZnO nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal method and CuS nanoparticles were modified by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). By conducting methyl orange (MO) degradation experiments under the illumination of visible light, the photocatalytic activity of Co-doped ZnO nanowires modified with CuS nanoparticles was found to be nearly three times active when compared to bare ZnO nanowires. Its superior photocatalytic performance has two main reasons. The doped Co2+ ions can inhibit the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs and decrease the optical bandgap, while the p-n heterostructure can enhance the visible light absorption ability and promote the separation of photo-excited charge carriers. Furthermore, the effect of the amount of deposited CuS nanoparticles on the photocatalysis was also investigated. The photocatalytic efficiency firstly raised along with the increment of SILAR cycle times and reached a maximum at 10 cycles but then decreased as the cycle times continue to increase. This originates from that an excessive amount of CuS would not only cover the active reacting sites, but also serve as recombination centers. Overall, this new nanostructure is expected to work as an efficient photocatalyst.

  1. Effects of annealing on the ferromagnetism and photoluminescence of Cu-doped ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Xu, H J; Zhu, H C; Shan, X D; Liu, Y X; Gao, J Y; Zhang, X Z; Zhang, J M; Wang, P W; Hou, Y M; Yu, D P

    2010-01-13

    Room temperature ferromagnetic Cu-doped ZnO nanowires have been synthesized using the chemical vapor deposition method. By combining structural characterizations and comparative annealing experiments, it has been found that both extrinsic (CuO nanoparticles) and intrinsic (Zn(1-x)Cu(x)O nanowires) sources are responsible for the observed ferromagnetic ordering of the as-grown samples. As regards the former, annealing in Zn vapor led to a dramatic decrease of the ferromagnetism. For the latter, a reversible switching of the ferromagnetism was observed with sequential annealings in Zn vapor and oxygen ambience respectively, which agreed well with previous reports for Cu-doped ZnO films. In addition, we have for the first time observed low temperature photoluminescence changed with magnetic properties upon annealing in different conditions, which revealed the crucial role played by interstitial zinc in directly mediating high T(c) ferromagnetism and indirectly modulating the Cu-related structured green emission via different charge transfer transitions.

  2. A ZnO nanowire-based photo-inverter with pulse-induced fast recovery.

    PubMed

    Raza, Syed Raza Ali; Lee, Young Tack; Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Hossein; Ha, Ryong; Choi, Heon-Jin; Im, Seongil

    2013-11-21

    We demonstrate a fast response photo-inverter comprised of one transparent gated ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor (FET) and one opaque FET respectively as the driver and load. Under ultraviolet (UV) light the transfer curve of the transparent gate FET shifts to the negative side and so does the voltage transfer curve (VTC) of the inverter. After termination of UV exposure the recovery of photo-induced current takes a long time in general. This persistent photoconductivity (PPC) is due to hole trapping on the surface of ZnO NWs. Here, we used a positive voltage short pulse after UV exposure, for the first time resolving the PPC issue in nanowire-based photo-detectors by accumulating electrons at the ZnO/dielectric interface. We found that a pulse duration as small as 200 ns was sufficient to reach a full recovery to the dark state from the UV induced state, realizing a fast UV detector with a voltage output.

  3. Reversal modes in FeCoNi nanowire arrays: Correlation between magnetostatic interactions and nanowires length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanifar, S.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Alikhani, M.

    2015-03-01

    FeCoNi nanowire arrays (175 nm in diameter and lengths ranging from 5 to 40 μm) were fabricated into nanopores of hard-anodized aluminum oxide templates using pulsed ac electrodeposition technique. Increasing the length had no considerable effect on the composition and crystalline characteristics of Fe47Co38Ni15 nanowires (NWs). By eliminating the dendrites formed at the bottom of the pores, we report a careful investigation on the effect of magnetostatic interactions on magnetic properties and the effect of nanowire length on reversal modes. Hysteresis loop measurements indicated that increasing the length decreases coercivity and squareness values. On the other hand, first-order reversal curve measurements show a linear correlation between the magnetostatic interactions and length of NWs. Comparing reversal modes of the NWs both experimentally and theoretically using angular dependence of coercivity, we find that when L≤22 μm, a vortex domain wall mode is only occurred. When L>22 μm, a non-monotonic behavior indicates a transition from the vortex to transverse domain wall propagation. As a result, a critical length was found above which the transition between the reversal modes is occurred due the enhanced interactions. The transition angle also shifts toward a lower angle as the length increases. Moreover, with increasing length from 22 to 31 μm, the single domain structure of NWs changes to a pseudo single domain state. A multidomain-like behavior is also found for the longest NWs length.

  4. Alignment nature of ZnO nanowires grown on polished and nanoscale etched lithium niobate surface through self-seeding thermal evaporation method

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanan, Ajay Achath; Parthiban, R.; Ramakrishnan, N., E-mail: ramakrishnan@monash.edu

    Highlights: • ZnO nanowires were grown directly on LiNbO{sub 3} surface for the first time by thermal evaporation. • Self-alignment of the nanowires due to step bunching of LiNbO{sub 3} surface is observed. • Increased roughness in surface defects promoted well-aligned growth of nanowires. • Well-aligned growth was then replicated in 50 nm deep trenches on the surface. • Study opens novel pathway for patterned growth of ZnO nanowires on LiNbO{sub 3} surface. - Abstract: High aspect ratio catalyst-free ZnO nanowires were directly synthesized on lithium niobate substrate for the first time through thermal evaporation method without the use ofmore » a buffer layer or the conventional pre-deposited ZnO seed layer. As-grown ZnO nanowires exhibited a crisscross aligned growth pattern due to step bunching of the polished lithium niobate surface during the nanowire growth process. On the contrary, scratches on the surface and edges of the substrate produced well-aligned ZnO nanowires in these defect regions due to high surface roughness. Thus, the crisscross aligned nature of high aspect ratio nanowire growth on the lithium niobate surface can be changed to well-aligned growth through controlled etching of the surface, which is further verified through reactive-ion etching of lithium niobate. The investigations and discussion in the present work will provide novel pathway for self-seeded patterned growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowires on lithium niobate based micro devices.« less

  5. Investigation of nanoscale voids in Sb-doped p-type ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Pradel, Ken C; Uzuhashi, Jun; Takei, Toshiaki; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Hono, Kazuhiro; Fukata, Naoki

    2018-08-17

    While it has multiple advantageous optoelectronic and piezoelectric properties, the application of zinc oxide has been limited by the lack of a stable p-type dopant. Recently, it was discovered that antimony doping can lead to stable p-type doping in ZnO, but one curious side effect of the doping process is the formation of voids inside the nanowire. While previously used as a signifier of successful doping, up until now, little research has been performed on these structures themselves. In this work, the effect of annealing on the size and microstructure of the voids was investigated using TEM and XRD, finding that the voids form around a region of Zn 7 Sb 2 O 12 . Furthermore, using Raman spectroscopy, a new peak associated with successful doping was identified. The most surprising finding, however, was the presence of water trapped inside the nanowire, showing that this is actually a composite structure. Water was initially discovered in the nanowires using atom probe tomography, and verified using Raman spectroscopy.

  6. Diameter and location control of ZnO nanowires using electrodeposition and sodium citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifson, Max L.; Levey, Christopher G.; Gibson, Ursula J.

    2013-10-01

    We report single-step growth of spatially localized ZnO nanowires of controlled diameter to enable improved performance of piezoelectric devices such as nanogenerators. This study is the first to demonstrate the combination of electrodeposition with zinc nitrate and sodium citrate in the growth solution. Electrodeposition through a thermally-grown silicon oxide mask results in localization, while the growth voltage and solution chemistry are tuned to control the nanowire geometry. We observe a competition between lateral (relative to the (0001) axis) citrate-related morphology and voltage-driven vertical growth which enables this control. High aspect ratios result with either pure nitrate or nitrate-citrate mixtures if large voltages are used, but low growth voltages permit the growth of large diameter nanowires in solution with citrate. Measurements of the current density suggest a two-step growth process. An oxide mask blocks the electrodeposition, and suppresses nucleation of thermally driven growth, permitting single-step lithography on low cost p-type silicon substrates.

  7. Effects of silver impurity on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of ZnO nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    1, 3, and 5 wt.% silver-doped ZnO (SZO) nanowires (NWs) are grown by hot-walled pulsed laser deposition. After silver-doping process, SZO NWs show some change behaviors, including structural, electrical, and optical properties. In case of structural property, the primary growth plane of SZO NWs is switched from (002) to (103) plane, and the electrical properties of SZO NWs are variously measured to be about 4.26 × 106, 1.34 × 106, and 3.04 × 105 Ω for 1, 3, and 5 SZO NWs, respectively. In other words, the electrical properties of SZO NWs depend on different Ag ratios resulting in controlling the carrier concentration. Finally, the optical properties of SZO NWs are investigated to confirm p-type semiconductor by observing the exciton bound to a neutral acceptor (A0X). Also, Ag presence in ZnO NWs is directly detected by both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. These results imply that Ag doping facilitates the possibility of changing the properties in ZnO NWs by the atomic substitution of Ag with Zn in the lattice. PMID:21985620

  8. Uniaxial Magnetization Performance of Textured Fe Nanowire Arrays Electrodeposited by a Pulsed Potential Deposition Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neetzel, C.; Ohgai, T.; Yanai, T.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2017-11-01

    Textured ferromagnetic Fe nanowire arrays were electrodeposited using a rectangular-pulsed potential deposition technique into anodized aluminum oxide nanochannels. During the electrodeposition of Fe nanowire arrays at a cathodic potential of - 1.2 V, the growth rate of the nanowires was ca. 200 nm s-1. The aspect ratio of Fe nanowires with a diameter of 30 ± 5 nm reached ca. 2000. The long axis of Fe nanowires corresponded with the <200> direction when a large overpotential during the on-time pulse was applied, whereas it orientated to the <110> direction under the potentiostatic condition with a small overpotential. By shifting the on-time cathode potential up to - 1.8 V, the texture coefficient for the (200) plane, TC200, reached up to 1.94. Perpendicular magnetization performance was observed in Fe nanowire arrays. With increasing TC200, the squareness of Fe nanowire arrays increased up to 0.95 with the coercivity maintained at 1.4 kOe at room temperature. This research result has opened a novel possibility of Fe nanowire arrays that can be applied for a new permanent magnetic material without rare-earth metals.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of axial heterojunction inorganic-organic semiconductor nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Qian, Xuemin; Lin, Haowei; Liu, Huibiao; Li, Yongjun; Li, Yuliang

    2011-11-07

    The end-to-end P-N heterojunction nanowire arrays combined organic (poly[1,4-bis(pyrrol-2-yl)benzene], BPB) and inorganic (CdS) molecules have been successfully designed and fabricated. The electrical properties of P-N heterojunctions of organic-inorganic nanowire arrays were investigated. The diode nature and rectifying feature of P-N heterojunction nanowire arrays were observed. The rectification ratio of the diode increased from 29.9 to 129.7 as the illumination intensity increased. The material exhibits a new property, which is an improvement in the integration of the physical and chemical properties of the two independent components.

  10. The kinetic friction of ZnO nanowires on amorphous SiO2 and SiN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Aditi; Xie, Hongtao; Wang, Shiliang; Huang, Han

    2016-12-01

    ZnO nanowires were bent on amorphous SiO2 and SiN substrates in an ambient atmosphere using optical nanomanipulation. The kinetic friction between the nanowires and substrate was determined from the bent shape of the nanowires. The kinetic friction force per unit area, i.e. frictional shear stress, for the ZnO/SiO2 and ZnO/SiN nanowire/substrate systems being measured were 1.05 ± 0.28 and 2.08 ± 0.33 MPa, respectively. The surface roughness and the Hamaker constant of SiO2 and SiN substrates had significant effect on the frictional stresses.

  11. Si/InGaN core/shell hierarchical nanowire arrays and their photoelectrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yun Jeong; Wu, Cheng Hao; Hahn, Chris; Jeong, Hoon Eui; Yang, Peidong

    2012-03-14

    Three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures were synthesized by the halide chemical vapor deposition of InGaN nanowires on Si wire arrays. Single phase InGaN nanowires grew vertically on the sidewalls of Si wires and acted as a high surface area photoanode for solar water splitting. Electrochemical measurements showed that the photocurrent density with hierarchical Si/InGaN nanowire arrays increased by 5 times compared to the photocurrent density with InGaN nanowire arrays grown on planar Si (1.23 V vs RHE). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that InGaN nanowires are stable after 15 h of illumination. These measurements show that Si/InGaN hierarchical nanostructures are a viable high surface area electrode geometry for solar water splitting. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  12. Ammonia sensing using arrays of silicon nanowires and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fobelets, K.; Panteli, C.; Sydoruk, O.; Li, Chuanbo

    2018-06-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a toxic gas released in different industrial, agricultural and natural processes. It is also a biomarker for some diseases. These require NH3 sensors for health and safety reasons. To boost the sensitivity of solid-state sensors, the effective sensing area should be increased. Two methods are explored and compared using an evaporating pool of 0.5 mL NH4OH (28% NH3). In the first method an array of Si nanowires (Si NWA) is obtained via metal-assisted-electrochemical etching to increase the effective surface area. In the second method CVD graphene is suspended on top of the Si nanowires to act as a sensing layer. Both the effective surface area as well as the density of surface traps influences the amplitude of the response. The effective surface area of Si NWAs is 100 × larger than that of suspended graphene for the same top surface area, leading to a larger response in amplitude by a factor of ~7 notwithstanding a higher trap density in suspended graphene. The use of Si NWAs increases the response rate for both Si NWAs as well as the suspended graphene due to more effective NH3 diffusion processes.

  13. Harvesting Mechanical and Thermal Energy by Combining ZnO Nanowires and NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Radousky, Harry; Qian, Fang; An, Yonghao; ...

    2017-02-19

    In the expanding world of small scale energy harvesting, the ability to combine thermal and mechanical harvesting is growing ever more important. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of using ZnO nanowires to harvest both mechanical and low-quality thermal energy in simple, scalable devices. These devices were fabricated on kapton films and used ZnO nanowires with the same growth direction to assure alignment of the piezoelectric potentials of all of the wires. Mechanical harvesting from these devices was demonstrated using a periodic application of force, modeling the motion of the human body. Tapping the device from the top of the devicemore » with a wood stick, for example yielded an Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) of 0.2 - 4 V, which is in an ideal range for device applications. In order to demonstrate thermal harvesting from low quality heat sources, a commercially available Nitinol (Ni-Ti alloy) foil was attached to the nanowire piezoelectric device to create a compound thermoelectric. When bent at room temperature and then heated to 50°C, the Nitinol foil was restored to its original flat shape, which yielded an output voltage of nearly 1 V from the ZnO nanowire device.« less

  14. Harvesting Mechanical and Thermal Energy by Combining ZnO Nanowires and NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, Harry; Qian, Fang; An, Yonghao

    In the expanding world of small scale energy harvesting, the ability to combine thermal and mechanical harvesting is growing ever more important. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of using ZnO nanowires to harvest both mechanical and low-quality thermal energy in simple, scalable devices. These devices were fabricated on kapton films and used ZnO nanowires with the same growth direction to assure alignment of the piezoelectric potentials of all of the wires. Mechanical harvesting from these devices was demonstrated using a periodic application of force, modeling the motion of the human body. Tapping the device from the top of the devicemore » with a wood stick, for example yielded an Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) of 0.2 - 4 V, which is in an ideal range for device applications. In order to demonstrate thermal harvesting from low quality heat sources, a commercially available Nitinol (Ni-Ti alloy) foil was attached to the nanowire piezoelectric device to create a compound thermoelectric. When bent at room temperature and then heated to 50°C, the Nitinol foil was restored to its original flat shape, which yielded an output voltage of nearly 1 V from the ZnO nanowire device.« less

  15. Effect of in situ Al doping on structure and optical properties of ZnO nanowires grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souissi, H.; Jabri, S.; Souissi, A.; Lusson, A.; Galtier, P.; Meftah, A.; Sallet, V.; Oueslati, M.

    2018-01-01

    Al-doped ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on C-axis oriented sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using dimethylzinc-triethylamine (DMZn-TEN), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and TMAl as zinc, oxygen and aluminum doping sources respectively. The NWs morphology has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibit a strong excitonic transition bond that confirms the Al incorporation in the ZnO NWs. Raman results support PL conclusion by showing additional modes in Al-doped ZnO NWs at nearly 270, 510, 579 and 641 cm-1. The micro-Raman scattering analysis along a single Al-doped ZnO needle-like NW shows an increase of the Al concentration from the basis to the tip of the wire.

  16. Effect of atomic layer deposition temperature on the performance of top-down ZnO nanowire transistors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature on the performance of top-down ZnO nanowire transistors. Electrical characteristics are presented for 10-μm ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and for deposition temperatures in the range 120°C to 210°C. Well-behaved transistor output characteristics are obtained for all deposition temperatures. It is shown that the maximum field-effect mobility occurs for an ALD temperature of 190°C. This maximum field-effect mobility corresponds with a maximum Hall effect bulk mobility and with a ZnO film that is stoichiometric. The optimized transistors have a field-effect mobility of 10 cm2/V.s, which is approximately ten times higher than can typically be achieved in thin-film amorphous silicon transistors. Furthermore, simulations indicate that the drain current and field-effect mobility extraction are limited by the contact resistance. When the effects of contact resistance are de-embedded, a field-effect mobility of 129 cm2/V.s is obtained. This excellent result demonstrates the promise of top-down ZnO nanowire technology for a wide variety of applications such as high-performance thin-film electronics, flexible electronics, and biosensing. PMID:25276107

  17. Photoelectrocatalytic activity of a hydrothermally grown branched Zno nanorod-array electrode for paracetamol degradation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin Jung; Liao, Shu-Jun; Kao, Li-Cheng; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2015-06-30

    Hierarchical branched ZnO nanorod (B-ZnR) arrays as an electrode for efficient photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using a solution route. The morphologic and structural studies show the ZnO trunks are single-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite ZnO with a [0001] growth direction and are densely covered by c-axis-oriented ZnO branches. The obvious enhancement in photocurrent response of the B-ZnR electrode was obtained than that in the ZnO nanoparticle (ZnO NP) electrode. For the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol in 20 h, the conversion fraction of the drug increased from 32% over ZnO NP electrode to 62% over B-ZnR arrays with about 3-fold increase in initial reaction rate. The light intensity-dependent photoelectrocatalytic experiment indicated that the superior performance over the B-ZnR electrode was mainly ascribed to the increased specific surface area without significantly sacrificing the charge transport and pollutant diffusion efficiencies. Two aromatic intermediate compounds were observed and eventually converted into harmless carboxylic acids and ammonia. Hierarchical tree-like ZnO arrays can be considered effective alternatives to improve photoelectro degradation rates without the need for expensive additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficiency improvement of silicon solar cells enabled by ZnO nanowhisker array coating

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An efficient antireflection coating is critical for the improvement of silicon solar cell performance via increased light coupling. Here, we have grown well-aligned ZnO nanowhisker (NW) arrays on Czochralski silicon solar cells by a seeding-growth two-step process. It is found that the ZnO NWs have a great effect on the macroscopic antireflection effect and, therefore, improves the solar cell performance. The ZnO NW array-coated solar cells display a broadband reflection suppression from 500 to 1,100 nm, and the minimum reflectance smaller than 3% can easily be achieved. By optimizing the time of ZnO NW growth, it has been confirmed that an increase of 3% relatively in the solar cell efficiency can be obtained. These results are quite interesting for the application of ZnO nanostructure in the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells. PMID:22704578

  19. Magnetoresistance manipulation and sign reversal in Mn-doped ZnO nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Sapkota, Keshab R.; Chen, Weimin; Maloney, F. Scott; ...

    2016-10-14

    We report magnetoresistance (MR) manipulation and sign reversal induced by carrier concentration modulation in Mn-doped ZnO nanowires. At low temperatures positive magnetoresistance was initially observed. When the carrier concentration was increased through the application of a gate voltage, the magnetoresistance also increased and reached a maximum value. However, further increasing the carrier concentration caused the MR to decrease, and eventually an MR sign reversal from positive to negative was observed. An MR change from a maximum positive value of 25% to a minimum negative value of 7% was observed at 5 K and 50 KOe. The observed MR behavior wasmore » modeled by considering combined effects of quantum correction to carrier conductivity and bound magnetic polarons. Finally, this work could provide important insights into the mechanisms that govern magnetotransport in dilute magnetic oxides, and it also demonstrated an effective approach to manipulating magnetoresistance in these materials that have important spintronic applications.« less

  20. Mechanisms involved in the hydrothermal growth of ultra-thin and high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demes, Thomas; Ternon, Céline; Morisot, Fanny; Riassetto, David; Legallais, Maxime; Roussel, Hervé; Langlet, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanowires (NWs) with tailored dimensions, notably high aspect ratios (AR) and small diameters, is a major concern for a wide range of applications and still represents a challenging and recurring issue. In this work, an additive-free and reproducible hydrothermal procedure has been developed to grow ultra-thin and high AR ZnO NWs on sol-gel deposited ZnO seed layers. Controlling the substrate temperature and using a low reagent concentration (1 mM) has been found to be essential for obtaining such NWs. We show that the NW diameter remains constant at about 20-25 nm with growth time contrary to the NW length that can be selectively increased leading to NWs with ARs up to 400. On the basis of investigated experimental conditions along with thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, a ZnO NW growth mechanism has been developed which involves the formation and growth of nuclei followed by NW growth when the nuclei reach a critical size of about 20-25 nm. The low reagent concentration inhibits NW lateral growth leading to ultra-thin and high AR NWs. These NWs have been assembled into electrically conductive ZnO nanowire networks, which opens attractive perspectives toward the development of highly sensitive low-cost gas- or bio-sensors.

  1. Localized temperature and chemical reaction control in nanoscale space by nanowire array.

    PubMed

    Jin, C Yan; Li, Zhiyong; Williams, R Stanley; Lee, K-Cheol; Park, Inkyu

    2011-11-09

    We introduce a novel method for chemical reaction control with nanoscale spatial resolution based on localized heating by using a well-aligned nanowire array. Numerical and experimental analysis shows that each individual nanowire could be selectively and rapidly Joule heated for local and ultrafast temperature modulation in nanoscale space (e.g., maximum temperature gradient 2.2 K/nm at the nanowire edge; heating/cooling time < 2 μs). By taking advantage of this capability, several nanoscale chemical reactions such as polymer decomposition/cross-linking and direct and localized hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide nanowires were demonstrated.

  2. Superconducting Properties of Lead-Bismuth Films Controlled by Ferromagnetic Nanowire Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zuxin; Lyuksyutov, Igor F.; Wu, Wenhao; Naugle, Donald G.

    2011-03-01

    Superconducting properties of lead-bismuth (82% Pb and 18% Bi) alloy films deposited on ferromagnetic nanowire arrays have been investigated. Ferromagnetic Co or Ni nanowires are first electroplated into the columnar pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Superconducting Pb 82 Bi 18 films are then quench-condensed onto the polished surface of the AAO membranes filled with magnetic nanowires. A strong dependence of the Pb 82 Bi 18 superconducting properties on the ratio of the superconducting film thickness to the magnetic nanowire diameter and the material variety was observed.

  3. Superconducting properties of Pb82Bi18 films controlled by ferromagnetic nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zuxin; Lyuksyutov, Igor F.; Wu, Wenhao; Naugle, Donald G.

    2011-02-01

    The superconducting properties of Pb82Bi18 alloy films deposited on ferromagnetic nanowire arrays have been investigated. Ferromagnetic Co or Ni nanowires are first electroplated into the columnar pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Superconducting Pb82Bi18 films are then quench condensed onto the polished surface of the AAO membranes filled with magnetic nanowires. A strong dependence of the Pb82Bi18 superconducting properties on the ratio of the superconducting film thickness to the magnetic nanowire diameter and material variety was observed.

  4. Conductivity of Nanowire Arrays under Random and Ordered Orientation Configurations

    PubMed Central

    Jagota, Milind; Tansu, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    A computational model was developed to analyze electrical conductivity of random metal nanowire networks. It was demonstrated for the first time through use of this model that a performance gain in random metal nanowire networks can be achieved by slightly restricting nanowire orientation. It was furthermore shown that heavily ordered configurations do not outperform configurations with some degree of randomness; randomness in the case of metal nanowire orientations acts to increase conductivity. PMID:25976936

  5. Template-assisted fabrication of tin and antimony based nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Kurowska, Elżbieta; Sulka, Grzegorz D.; Jaskuła, Marian

    2012-10-01

    Antimony nanowires with diameters ranging from 35 nm to 320 nm were successfully prepared by simple, galvanostatic electrodeposition inside the pores of anodic alumina membranes from a citrate based electrolyte. The use of the potassium antimonyl tartrate electrolyte for electrodeposition results in the formation of Sb/Sb2O3 nanowires. The structural features of the nanowire arrays were investigated by FE-SEM, and the nanowire composition was confirmed by EDS and XRD measurements. A distinct peak at about 27.5° in the XRD pattern recorded for nanowires formed in the tartrate electrolyte was attributed to the presence of co-deposited Sb2O3. Three types of dense arrays of Sn-SnSb nanowires with diameters ranging from 82 nm to 325 nm were also synthesized by DC galvanostatic electrodeposition into the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes for the first time. Only Sn and SnSb peaks appeared in the XRD pattern and both phases seem to have a relatively high degree of crystallinity. The influence of current density applied during electrodeposition on the composition of nanowires was investigated. It was found that the Sb content in fabricated nanowires decreases with increasing current density. The diameters of all synthesized nanowires roughly correspond to the dimensions of the nanochannels of AAO templates used for electrodeposition.

  6. Developing high coercivity in large diameter cobalt nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazer, A. H.; Ramazani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Zavašnik, J.

    2016-11-01

    Regardless of the synthetic method, developing high magnetic coercivity in ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) with large diameters has been a challenge over the past two decades. Here, we report on the synthesis of highly coercive cobalt NW arrays with diameters of 65 and 80 nm, which are embedded in porous anodic alumina templates with high-aspect-ratio pores. Using a modified electrochemical deposition method enabled us to reach room temperature coercivity and remanent ratio up to 3000 Oe and 0.70, respectively, for highly crystalline as-synthesized hcp cobalt NW arrays with a length of 8 μm. The first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis showed the presence of both soft and hard magnetic phases along the length of the resulting NWs. To develop higher coercive fields, the length of the NWs was then gradually reduced in order from bottom to top, thereby reaching NW sections governed by the hard phase. Consequently, this resulted in record high coercivities of 4200 and 3850 Oe at NW diameters of 65 and 80 nm, respectively. In this case, the FORC diagrams confirmed a significant reduction in interactions between the magnetic phases of the remaining sections of NWs. At this stage, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and dark-field transmission electron microscopy analyses indicated the formation of highly crystalline bamboo-like sections along the [0 0 2] direction during a progressive pulse-controlled electrochemical growth of NW arrays under optimized parameters. Our results both provide new insights into the growth process, crystalline characteristics and magnetic phases along the length of large diameter NW arrays and, furthermore, develop the performance of pure 3d transition magnetic NWs.

  7. High-Density ZnO Nanowires as a Reversible Myogenic-Differentiation Switch.

    PubMed

    Errico, Vito; Arrabito, Giuseppe; Fornetti, Ersilia; Fuoco, Claudia; Testa, Stefano; Saggio, Giovanni; Rufini, Stefano; Cannata, Stefano; Desideri, Alessandro; Falconi, Christian; Gargioli, Cesare

    2018-04-25

    Mesoangioblasts are outstanding candidates for stem-cell therapy and are already being explored in clinical trials. However, a crucial challenge in regenerative medicine is the limited availability of undifferentiated myogenic progenitor cells because growth is typically accompanied by differentiation. Here reversible myogenic-differentiation switching during proliferation is achieved by functionalizing the glass substrate with high-density ZnO nanowires (NWs). Specifically, mesoangioblasts grown on ZnO NWs present a spherical viable undifferentiated cell state without lamellopodia formation during the entire observation time (8 days). Consistently, the myosin heavy chain, typically expressed in skeletal muscle tissue and differentiated myogenic progenitors, is completely absent. Remarkably, NWs do not induce any damage while they reversibly block differentiation, so that the differentiation capabilities are completely recovered upon cell removal from the NW-functionalized substrate and replating on standard culture glass. This is the first evidence of a reversible myogenic-differentiation switch that does not affect the viability. These results can be the first step toward for the in vitro growth of a large number of undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells and therefore can represent a breakthrough for cell-based therapy and tissue engineering.

  8. A High-Efficiency Si Nanowire Array/Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Jiamin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-12-01

    A low-cost Si nanowire array/perovskite hybrid solar cell is proposed and simulated. The solar cell consists of a Si p-i-n nanowire array filled with CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 , in which both the nanowires and perovskite absorb the incident light while the nanowires act as the channels for transporting photo-generated electrons and holes. The hybrid structure has a high absorption efficiency in a broad wavelength range of 300~800 nm. A large short-circuit current density of 28.8 mA/cm 2 and remarkable conversion efficiency of 13.3% are obtained at a thin absorber thickness of 1.6 μm, which are comparable to the best results of III-V nanowire solar cells.

  9. Adsorbed Molecules and Surface Treatment Effect on Optical Properties of ZnO Nanowires Grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, S.; Souissi, H.; Sallet, V.; Lusson, A.; Meftah, A.; Galtier, P.; Oueslati, M.

    2017-07-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of ZnO nanowires grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with nitrous oxide (N2O) as oxygen precursor. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman measurements showed the influence of adsorbed molecules on the optical properties. Low-temperature (4 K) PL studies on the surface exciton (SX) at 3.3660 eV elucidated the nature and origin of this emission. In particular, surface treatment by annealing at high temperature under inert gas reduced the emission intensity of SX. Raman vibrational spectra proved that presence of a considerable amount of adsorbed molecules on the surface of ZnO nanowires plays a key role in the occurrence of surface excitons.

  10. Superconductivity of a Sn film controlled by an array of Co nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhiyuan; Ye, Zuxin; Rathnayaka, Daya; Lyuksyutov, Igor; Wu, Wenhao; Naugle, Donald

    2012-02-01

    Superconducting properties of a hybrid structure composed of ferromagnetic Co nanowire arrays and a superconducting Sn film have been investigated. Ordered Co nanowires arrays with 60 nm, 150 nm and 200 nm diameter were electroplated into the pores of self organized anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Hysteretic dependence of the Sn film superconducting properties on applied magnetic field and critical current enhancement at moderate fields has been observed. This behavior strongly depends on the ratio of the Sn film thickness to the Co nanowire diameter.

  11. Superconductivity of a Sn film controlled by an array of Co nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z.; Ye, Z.; Rathnayaka, K. D. D.; Lyuksyutov, I. F.; Wu, W.; Naugle, D. G.

    2012-09-01

    Superconducting properties of a hybrid structure composed of ferromagnetic Co nanowire arrays and a superconducting Sn film have been investigated. Ordered Co nanowires arrays with 60 nm, 150 nm and 200 nm diameter were electroplated into the pores of self organized Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membranes. Hysteretic dependence of the Sn film superconducting properties on applied magnetic field and critical current enhancement at moderate fields has been observed. This behavior strongly depends on the ratio of the Sn film thickness to the Co nanowire diameter.

  12. ZnO/ZnSxSe1-x core/shell nanowire arrays as photoelectrodes with efficient visible light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Zhan, Xueying; Wang, Yajun; Safdar, Muhammad; Niu, Mutong; Zhang, Jinping; Huang, Ying; He, Jun

    2012-08-01

    ZnO/ZnSxSe1-x core/shell nanowires have been synthesized on n+-type silicon substrate via a two-step chemical vapor deposition method. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that ZnSxSe1-x can be deposited on the entire surface of ZnO nanowire, forming coaxial heterojunction along ZnO nanowire with very smooth shell surface and high shell thickness uniformity. The photoelectrode after deposition of the ternary alloy shell significantly improves visible light absorption efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results explicitly indicate that the introduction of ZnSxSe1-x shell to ZnO nanowires effectively improves the photogenerated charge separation process. Our finding opens up an efficient means for achieving high efficient energy conversion devices.

  13. Sensors and devices containing ultra-small nanowire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Xiao, Zhili

    2014-09-23

    A network of nanowires may be used for a sensor. The nanowires are metallic, each nanowire has a thickness of at most 20 nm, and each nanowire has a width of at most 20 nm. The sensor may include nanowires comprising Pd, and the sensor may sense a change in hydrogen concentration from 0 to 100%. A device may include the hydrogen sensor, such as a vehicle, a fuel cell, a hydrogen storage tank, a facility for manufacturing steel, or a facility for refining petroleum products.

  14. Sensors and devices containing ultra-small nanowire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Xiao, Zhili

    2017-04-11

    A network of nanowires may be used for a sensor. The nanowires are metallic, each nanowire has a thickness of at most 20 nm, and each nanowire has a width of at most 20 nm. The sensor may include nanowires comprising Pd, and the sensor may sense a change in hydrogen concentration from 0 to 100%. A device may include the hydrogen sensor, such as a vehicle, a fuel cell, a hydrogen storage tank, a facility for manufacturing steel, or a facility for refining petroleum products.

  15. A force sensor using nanowire arrays to understand biofilm formation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Prasana K.; Cavalli, Alessandro; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Murillo, Duber M.; Souza, Alessandra A.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Cotta, Monica A.

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the cellular signaling and function at the nano-bio interface can pave the way towards developing next-generation smart diagnostic tools. From this perspective, limited reports detail so far the cellular and subcellular forces exerted by bacterial cells during the interaction with abiotic materials. Nanowire arrays with high aspect ratio have been used to detect such small forces. In this regard, live force measurements were performed ex-vivo during the interaction of Xylella fastidiosa bacterial cells with InP nanowire arrays. The influence of nanowire array topography and surface chemistry on the response and motion of bacterial cells was studied in detail. The nanowire arrays were also functionalized with different cell adhesive promoters, such as amines and XadA1, an afimbrial protein of X.fastidiosa. By employing the well-defined InP nanowire arrays platform, and single cell confocal imaging system, we were able to trace the bacterial growth pattern, and show that their initial attachment locations are strongly influenced by the surface chemistry and nanoscale surface topography. In addition, we measure the cellular forces down to few nanonewton range using these nanowire arrays. In case of nanowire functionalized with XadA1, the force exerted by vertically and horizontally attached single bacteria on the nanowire is in average 14% and 26% higher than for the pristine array, respectively. These results provide an excellent basis for live-cell force measurements as well as unravel the range of forces involved during the early stages of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.

  16. Vertically building Zn2SnO4 nanowire arrays on stainless steel mesh toward fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengdao; Zhou, Yong; Bao, Chunxiong; Xue, Guogang; Zhang, Jiyuan; Liu, Jianguo; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2012-06-07

    Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowire arrays were for the first time grown onto a stainless steel mesh (SSM) in a binary ethylenediamine (En)/water solvent system using a solvothermal route. The morphology evolution following this reaction was carefully followed to understand the formation mechanism. The SSM-supported Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowire was utilized as a photoanode for fabrication of large-area (10 cm × 5 cm size as a typical sample), flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The synthesized Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowires exhibit great bendability and flexibility, proving potential advantage over other metal oxide nanowires such as TiO(2), ZnO, and SnO(2) for application in flexible solar cells. Relative to the analogous Zn(2)SnO(4) nanoparticle-based flexible DSSCs, the nanowire geometry proves to enhance solar energy conversion efficiency through enhancement of electron transport. The bendable nature of the DSSCs without obvious degradation of efficiency and facile scale up gives the as-made flexible solar cell device potential for practical application.

  17. Microwave Synthesized ZnO Nanorod Arrays for UV Sensors: A Seed Layer Annealing Temperature Study.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Ana; Ferreira, Sofia Henriques; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomas; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-04-20

    The present work reports the influence of zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, to be used as UV sensors. The ZnO seed layer was produced using the spin-coating method and several annealing temperatures, ranging from 100 to 500 °C, have been tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometry measurements have been used to investigate the structure, morphology, and optical properties variations of the produced ZnO nanorod arrays regarding the seed layer annealing temperatures employed. After the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays, the whole structure was tested as UV sensors, showing an increase in the sensitivity with the increase of seed layer annealing temperature. The UV sensor response of ZnO nanorod arrays produced with the seed layer annealed temperature of 500 °C was 50 times superior to the ones produced with a seed layer annealed at 100 °C.

  18. Microwave Synthesized ZnO Nanorod Arrays for UV Sensors: A Seed Layer Annealing Temperature Study

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Ana; Ferreira, Sofia Henriques; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomas; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    The present work reports the influence of zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, to be used as UV sensors. The ZnO seed layer was produced using the spin-coating method and several annealing temperatures, ranging from 100 to 500 °C, have been tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometry measurements have been used to investigate the structure, morphology, and optical properties variations of the produced ZnO nanorod arrays regarding the seed layer annealing temperatures employed. After the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays, the whole structure was tested as UV sensors, showing an increase in the sensitivity with the increase of seed layer annealing temperature. The UV sensor response of ZnO nanorod arrays produced with the seed layer annealed temperature of 500 °C was 50 times superior to the ones produced with a seed layer annealed at 100 °C. PMID:28773423

  19. Impedance analysis of PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells with different ZnO nanowire lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Takahashi, Akihiro; Wang, Haibin; Takahira, Kazuya; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    The photoconversion efficiency of colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been markedly improved by optimizing the surface passivation and device structure, and details of device physics are now under investigation. In this study, we investigated the resistance and capacitance components at the ZnO/PbS-QD interface and inside a PbS-QD layer by measuring the impedance spectrum while the interface area was controlled by changing the ZnO nanowire length. By evaluating the dependence of optical intensity and DC bias voltage on the ZnO nanowire length, only the capacitance was observed to be influenced by the interface area, and this indicates that photoinduced carriers are generated at the surface of PbS-QD. In addition, since the capacitance is proportional to the surface area of the QD, the interface area can be evaluated from the capacitance. Finally, photovoltaic performance was observed to increase with increasing ZnO nanowire length owing to the large interface area, and this result is in good agreement with the capacitance measurement.

  20. High thermoelectric properties of (Sb, Bi)2Te3 nanowire arrays by tilt-structure engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ming; Hao, Yanming; Deng, Yuan; Chen, Jingyi

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative tilt-structure design concept for (Sb, Bi)2Te3 nanowire array assembled by high-quality nanowires with well oriented growth, utilizing a simple vacuum thermal evaporation technique. The unusual tilt-structure (Sb, Bi)2Te3 nanowire array with a tilted angle of 45° exhibits a high thermoelectric dimensionless figure-of-merit ZT = 1.72 at room temperature. The relatively high ZT value in contrast to that of previously reported (Sb, Bi)2Te3 materials and the vertical (Sb, Bi)2Te3 nanowire arrays evidently reveals the crucial role of the unique tilt-structure in favorably influencing carrier and phonon transport properties, resulting in a significantly improved ZT value. The transport mechanism of such tilt-structure is proposed and investigated. This method opens a new approach to optimize nano-structure in thin films for next-generation thermoelectric materials and devices.

  1. Directed growth of horizontally aligned gallium nitride nanowires for nanoelectromechanical resonator arrays.

    PubMed

    Henry, Tania; Kim, Kyungkon; Ren, Zaiyuan; Yerino, Christopher; Han, Jung; Tang, Hong X

    2007-11-01

    We report the growth of horizontally aligned arrays and networks of GaN nanowires (NWs) as resonant components in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). A combination of top-down selective area growth (SAG) and bottom-up vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) synthesis enables flexible fabrication of highly ordered nanowire arrays in situ with no postgrowth dispersion. Mechanical resonance of free-standing nanowires are measured, with quality factors (Q) ranging from 400 to 1000. We obtained a Young's modulus (E) of approximately 338 GPa from an array of NWs with varying diameters and lengths. The measurement allows detection of nanowire motion with a rotating frame and reveals dual fundamental resonant modes in two orthogonal planes. A universal ratio between the resonant frequencies of these two fundamental modes, irrespective of their dimensions, is observed and attributed to an isosceles cross section of GaN NWs.

  2. ZnO nanotube waveguide arrays on graphene films for local optical excitation on biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hyeonjun; Kwak, Hankyul; Song, Minho S.; Ha, Go Eun; Park, Jongwoo; Tchoe, Youngbin; Hyun, Jerome K.; Park, Hye Yoon; Cheong, Eunji; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2017-04-01

    We report on scalable and position-controlled optical nanoprobe arrays using ZnO nanotube waveguides on graphene films for use in local optical excitation. For the waveguide fabrication, position-controlled and well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays were grown on chemical vapor deposited graphene films with a submicron patterned mask layer and Au prepared between the interspace of nanotubes. Mammalian cells were cultured on the nanotube waveguide arrays and were locally excited by light illuminated through the nanotubes. Fluorescence and optogenetic signals could be excited through the optical nanoprobes. This method offers the ability to investigate cellular behavior with a high spatial resolution that surpasses the current limitation.

  3. Silver nanowires network encapsulated by low temperature sol-gel ZnO for transparent flexible electrodes with ambient stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Wonjung; Cho, Wonki; Baik, Seung Jae

    2018-01-01

    As a geometrically engineered realization of transparent electrode, Ag nanowires network is promising for its superior characteristics both on electrical conductivity and optical transmittance. However, for a potential commercialization of Ag nanowires network, further investigations on encapsulation materials are necessary to prevent degradation caused by ambient aging. In addition, the temperature range of the coating process for the encapsulation material needs to be low enough to prevent degradation of polymer substrates during the film coating processes, when considering emerging flexible device application of transparent electrodes. We present experimental results showing that low temperature sol-gel ZnO processed under 130 °C is an effective encapsulation material preventing ambient oxidation of Ag nanowires network without degrading electrical, optical, and mechanical properties.

  4. Ultrahigh-density sub-10 nm nanowire array formation via surface-controlled phase separation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Mukherjee, Pinaki; Jayaraman, Tanjore V; Xu, Zhanping; Yu, Yongsheng; Tan, Li; Sellmyer, David J; Shield, Jeffrey E

    2014-08-13

    We present simple, self-assembled, and robust fabrication of ultrahigh density cobalt nanowire arrays. The binary Co-Al and Co-Si systems phase-separate during physical vapor deposition, resulting in Co nanowire arrays with average diameter as small as 4.9 nm and nanowire density on the order of 10(16)/m(2). The nanowire diameters were controlled by moderating the surface diffusivity, which affected the lateral diffusion lengths. High resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the Co nanowires formed in the face-centered cubic structure. Elemental mapping showed that in both systems the nanowires consisted of Co with undetectable Al or Si and that the matrix consisted of Al with no distinguishable Co in the Co-Al system and a mixture of Si and Co in the Co-Si system. Magnetic measurements clearly indicate anisotropic behavior consistent with shape anisotropy. The dynamics of nanowire growth, simulated using an Ising model, is consistent with the experimental phase and geometry of the nanowires.

  5. Atomistic Interface Dynamics in Sn-Catalyzed Growth of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende ZnO Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuangfeng; Hu, Shuaishuai; Zheng, He; Wei, Yanjie; Meng, Shuang; Sheng, Huaping; Liu, Huihui; Zhou, Siyuan; Zhao, Dongshan; Wang, Jianbo

    2018-06-11

    Unraveling the phase selection mechanisms of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) is critical for the applications in future advanced nanodevices. In this study, the atomistic vapor-solid-liquid growth processes of Sn-catalyzed wurtzite (WZ) and zinc blende (ZB) ZnO are directly revealed based on the in situ transmission electron microscopy. The growth kinetics of WZ and ZB crystal phases in ZnO appear markedly different in terms of the NW-droplet interface, whereas the nucleation site as determined by the contact angle ϕ between the seed particle and the NW is found to be crucial for tuning the NW structure through combined experimental and theoretical investigations. These results offer an atomic-scale view into the dynamic growth process of ZnO NW, which has implications for the phase-controllable synthesis of II-VI compounds and heterostructures with tunable band structures.

  6. Passivation of surface states in the ZnO nanowire with thermally evaporated copper phthalocyanine for hybrid photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Ding, Huaiyi; Wu, Yukun; Sui, Mengqiao; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Su, Wenming; Cui, Zheng; Chen, Liwei

    2013-05-21

    The adsorption of O2/H2O molecules on the ZnO nanowire (NW) surface results in the long lifetime of photo-generated carriers and thus benefits ZnO NW-based ultraviolet photodetectors by suppressing the dark current and improving the photocurrent gain, but the slow adsorption process also leads to slow detector response time. Here we show that a thermally evaporated copper phthalocyanine film is effective in passivating surface trap states of ZnO NWs. As a result, the organic/inorganic hybrid photodetector devices exhibit simultaneously improved photosensitivity and response time. This work suggests that it could be an effective way in interfacial passivation using organic/inorganic hybrid structures.

  7. Electrodeposition of bismuth:tellurium nanowire arrays into porous alumina templates for thermoelectric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahey, Lynn

    Bismuth telluride is a well-known thermoelectric material for refrigeration applications. Thermoelectrics possess several advantages over conventional refrigeration and power generation devices, yet are not widely-used due to low efficiencies. It has been predicted and shown experimentally that the efficiency of thermoelectric devices increases when the semiconducting materials have reduced dimensions. Therefore, the aim of this research was to show enhanced thermoelectric efficiency in one-dimensional nanowires. The nanowires were synthesized via electrochemical deposition into porous alumina templates. Electrodeposition is a versatile technique that ensures electrical continuity in the deposited material. The nanowire templates, porous alumina, were made by the double anodization of high-purity aluminum foil in oxalic acid solutions. This technique produces parallel, hexagonally packed, and nanometer-range diameter pores that can reach high aspect ratios (greater than 2000:1). The main anodization variables (electrolyte concentration, applied potential, 2nd anodization time, and temperature) were studied systematically in order to deconvolute their effects on the resulting pores and to obtain high aspect ratio pores. The porous alumina is of great importance because the pore dimensions determine the dimensions of the electrodeposited nanowires, which influence the thermoelectric performance of the nanowire arrays. Nanowire arrays were characterized in several ways. Powder X-ray diffraction was used to assess crystallinity and preferred orientation of the nanowires, revealing that the nanowires are highly crystalline and grow with strong preferred orientation such that the material is suited for optimal thermoelectric performance. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the nanowire nucleation percentage and growth-front uniformity, both of which were enhanced by pulsed-potential electrodeposition. Compositional analysis via electron microprobe indicates

  8. Enhanced broadband absorption in nanowire arrays with integrated Bragg reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaeipour, Mahtab; Pettersson, Håkan

    2018-05-01

    A near-unity unselective absorption spectrum is desirable for high-performance photovoltaics. Nanowire (NW) arrays are promising candidates for efficient solar cells due to nanophotonic absorption resonances in the solar spectrum. The absorption spectra, however, display undesired dips between the resonance peaks. To achieve improved unselective broadband absorption, we propose to enclose distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) in the bottom and top parts of indium phosphide (InP) NWs, respectively. We theoretically show that by enclosing only two periods of In0.56Ga0.44As/InP DBRs, an unselective 78% absorption efficiency (72% for NWs without DBRs) is obtained at normal incidence in the spectral range from 300 nm to 920 nm. Under oblique light incidence, the absorption efficiency is enhanced up to about 85% at an incidence angle of 50°. By increasing the number of DBR periods from two to five, the absorption efficiency is further enhanced up to 95% at normal incidence. In this work, we calculated optical spectra for InP NWs, but the results are expected to be valid for other direct band gap III-V semiconductor materials. We believe that our proposed idea of integrating DBRs in NWs offers great potential for high-performance photovoltaic applications.

  9. Ultracompliant Heterogeneous Copper-Tin Nanowire Arrays Making a Supersolder.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei; Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Yunheng; Feng, Xuhui; Major, Joshua; DeVoto, Douglas; Paret, Paul; King, Charles; Narumanchi, Sreekant; Shen, Sheng

    2018-06-13

    Due to the substantial increase in power density, thermal interface resistance that can constitute more than 50% of the total thermal resistance has generally become a bottleneck for thermal management in electronics. However, conventional thermal interface materials (TIMs) such as solder, epoxy, gel, and grease cannot fulfill the requirements of electronics for high-power and long-term operation. Here, we demonstrate a high-performance TIM consisting of a heterogeneous copper-tin nanowire array, which we term "supersolder" to emulate the role of conventional solders in bonding various surfaces. The supersolder is ultracompliant with a shear modulus 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than traditional solders and can reduce the thermal resistance by two times as compared with the state-of-the-art TIMs. This supersolder also exhibits excellent long-term reliability with >1200 thermal cycles over a wide temperature range. By resolving this critical thermal bottleneck, the supersolder enables electronic systems, ranging from microelectronics and portable electronics to massive data centers, to operate at lower temperatures with higher power density and reliability.

  10. Ultracompliant Heterogeneous Copper-Tin Nanowire Arrays Making a Supersolder

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, Sreekant V; Feng, Xuhui; Major, Joshua

    Due to the substantial increase in power density, thermal interface resistance that can constitute more than 50% of the total thermal resistance has generally become a bottleneck for thermal management in electronics. However, conventional thermal interface materials (TIMs) such as solder, epoxy, gel, and grease cannot fulfill the requirements of electronics for high-power and long-term operation. Here, we demonstrate a high-performance TIM consisting of a heterogeneous copper-tin nanowire array, which we term 'supersolder' to emulate the role of conventional solders in bonding various surfaces. The supersolder is ultracompliant with a shear modulus 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than traditional soldersmore » and can reduce the thermal resistance by two times as compared with the state-of-the-art TIMs. This supersolder also exhibits excellent long-term reliability with >1200 thermal cycles over a wide temperature range. By resolving this critical thermal bottleneck, the supersolder enables electronic systems, ranging from microelectronics and portable electronics to massive data centers, to operate at lower temperatures with higher power density and reliability.« less

  11. Misfit-guided self-organization of anticorrelated Ge quantum dot arrays on Si nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soonshin; Chen, Zack C Y; Kim, Ji-Hun; Xiang, Jie

    2012-09-12

    Misfit-strain guided growth of periodic quantum dot (QD) arrays in planar thin film epitaxy has been a popular nanostructure fabrication method. Engineering misfit-guided QD growth on a nanoscale substrate such as the small curvature surface of a nanowire represents a new approach to self-organized nanostructure preparation. Perhaps more profoundly, the periodic stress underlying each QD and the resulting modulation of electro-optical properties inside the nanowire backbone promise to provide a new platform for novel mechano-electronic, thermoelectronic, and optoelectronic devices. Herein, we report a first experimental demonstration of self-organized and self-limited growth of coherent, periodic Ge QDs on a one-dimensional Si nanowire substrate. Systematic characterizations reveal several distinctively different modes of Ge QD ordering on the Si nanowire substrate depending on the core diameter. In particular, Ge QD arrays on Si nanowires of around 20 nm diameter predominantly exhibit an anticorrelated pattern whose wavelength agrees with theoretical predictions. The correlated pattern can be attributed to propagation and correlation of misfit strain across the diameter of the thin nanowire substrate. The QD array growth is self-limited as the wavelength of the QDs remains unchanged even after prolonged Ge deposition. Furthermore, we demonstrate a direct kinetic transformation from a uniform Ge shell layer to discrete QD arrays by a postgrowth annealing process.

  12. Highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires via hydrothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bowland, Christopher C.; Zhou, Zhi; Malakooti, Mohammad H.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the development of a hydrothermal synthesis procedure that results in the growth of highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires. Using a multiple step, scalable hydrothermal reaction, a textured titanium dioxide film is deposited on titanium foil upon which highly aligned nanowires are grown via homoepitaxy and converted to barium titanate. Scanning electron microscope images clearly illustrate the effect the textured film has on the degree of orientation of the nanowires. The alignment of nanowires is quantified by calculating the Herman's Orientation Factor, which reveals a 58% improvement in orientation as compared to growthmore » in the absence of the textured film. The ferroelectric properties of barium titanate combined with the development of this scalable growth procedure provide a powerful route towards increasing the efficiency and performance of nanowire-based devices in future real-world applications such as sensing and power harvesting.« less

  13. Fabrication of a Combustion-Reacted High-Performance ZnO Electron Transport Layer with Silver Nanowire Electrodes for Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Minkyu; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Donghyuk; Kang, Juhoon; Lee, Jung-Yong; Han, Seung Min

    2018-02-28

    Herein, a new methodology for solution-processed ZnO fabrication on Ag nanowire network electrode via combustion reaction is reported, where the amount of heat emitted during combustion was minimized by controlling the reaction temperature to avoid damaging the underlying Ag nanowires. The degree of participation of acetylacetones, which are volatile fuels in the combustion reaction, was found to vary with the reaction temperature, as revealed by thermogravimetric and compositional analyses. An optimized processing temperature of 180 °C was chosen to successfully fabricate a combustion-reacted ZnO and Ag nanowire hybrid electrode with a sheet resistance of 30 Ω/sq and transmittance of 87%. A combustion-reacted ZnO on Ag nanowire hybrid structure was demonstrated as an efficient transparent electrode and electron transport layer for the PTB7-Th-based polymer solar cells. The superior electrical conductivity of combustion-reacted ZnO, compared to that of conventional sol-gel ZnO, increased the external quantum efficiency over the entire absorption range, whereas a unique light scattering effect due to the presence of nanopores in the combustion-derived ZnO further enhanced the external quantum efficiency in the 450-550 nm wavelength range. A power conversion efficiency of 8.48% was demonstrated for the PTB7-Th-based polymer solar cell with the use of a combustion-reacted ZnO/Ag NW hybrid transparent electrode.

  14. Ultrahigh-Density Nanowire Arrays Grown in Self-Assembled Diblock Copolymer Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurn-Albrecht, T.; Schotter, J.; Kästle, G. A.; Emley, N.; Shibauchi, T.; Krusin-Elbaum, L.; Guarini, K.; Black, C. T.; Tuominen, M. T.; Russell, T. P.

    2000-12-01

    We show a simple, robust, chemical route to the fabrication of ultrahigh-density arrays of nanopores with high aspect ratios using the equilibrium self-assembled morphology of asymmetric diblock copolymers. The dimensions and lateral density of the array are determined by segmental interactions and the copolymer molecular weight. Through direct current electrodeposition, we fabricated vertical arrays of nanowires with densities in excess of 1.9 × 1011 wires per square centimeter. We found markedly enhanced coercivities with ferromagnetic cobalt nanowires that point toward a route to ultrahigh-density storage media. The copolymer approach described is practical, parallel, compatible with current lithographic processes, and amenable to multilayered device fabrication.

  15. Flower-like ZnO nanorod arrays grown on HF-etched Si (111): constraining relation between ZnO seed layer and Si (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahma, Sanjaya; Liu, C.-W.; Huang, R.-J.; Chang, S.-J.; Lo, K.-Y.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the formation of self-assembled homogenous flower-like ZnO nanorods over a ZnO seed layer deposited on a HF-etched Si (111) substrate. The typical flower-like morphology of ZnO nanorod arrays is ascribed to the formation of the island-like seed layer which is deposited by the drop method followed by annealing at 300 °C. The island-like ZnO seed layer consists of larger ZnO grains, and is built by constraining of the Si (111) surface due to pattern matching. Pattern matching of Si with ZnO determines the shape and size of the seed layer and this controls the final morphology of ZnO nanorods to be either flower like or vertically aligned. The high quality of the island-like ZnO seed layer enhances the diameter and length of ZnO nanorods. Besides, while the amorphous layer formed during the annealing process would influence the strained ZnO grain, that subsequent amorphous layer will not block the constraining between the ZnO grain and the substrate.

  16. Preparation and enhanced infrared response properties of ordered W-doped VO2 nanowire array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bing He; Fu, Wen Biao; Fei, Guang Tao; Xu, Shao Hui; Gao, Xu Dong; Zhang, Li De

    2018-04-01

    In this article, pure and tungsten-doped (W-doped) highly ordered two-dimensional (2D) vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanowire arrays were successfully prepared by a hydrothermal treatment, followed by a self-assembly progress and the in-situ high temperature treatment. The infrared photodetector devices based on monoclinic VO2 (VO2(M)) and W-doped VO2(M) nanowires were comparatively studied . It was found that the device based on W-doped VO2(M) nanowires exhibits a rapid infrared response and an enhanced photoelectric responsivity of 21.4 mA/W under the incident infrared light intensity of 280 mW/cm2, which is nearly two orders of magnitude superior to pure VO2(M) nanowire array. Our experimental results provided a direct and convenient path for design of future high-performance photodetector devices.

  17. Epitaxial growth of InGaN nanowire arrays for light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Christopher; Zhang, Zhaoyu; Fu, Anthony; Wu, Cheng Hao; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Gargas, Daniel J; Yang, Peidong

    2011-05-24

    Significant synthetic challenges remain for the epitaxial growth of high-quality InGaN across the entire compositional range. One strategy to address these challenges has been to use the nanowire geometry because of its strain relieving properties. Here, we demonstrate the heteroepitaxial growth of In(x)Ga(1-x)N nanowire arrays (0.06 ≤ x ≤ 0.43) on c-plane sapphire (Al(2)O(3)(001)) using a halide chemical vapor deposition (HCVD) technique. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction characterization confirmed the long-range order and epitaxy of vertically oriented nanowires. Structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy showed that single crystalline nanowires were grown in the ⟨002⟩ direction. Optical properties of InGaN nanowire arrays were investigated by absorption and photoluminescence measurements. These measurements show the tunable direct band gap properties of InGaN nanowires into the yellow-orange region of the visible spectrum. To demonstrate the utility of our HCVD method for implementation into devices, LEDs were fabricated from In(x)Ga(1-x)N nanowires epitaxially grown on p-GaN(001). Devices showed blue (x = 0.06), green (x = 0.28), and orange (x = 0.43) electroluminescence, demonstrating electrically driven color tunable emission from this p-n junction.

  18. Fabrication of vertically aligned Pd nanowire array in AAO template by electrodeposition using neutral electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Taşaltın, Nevin; Oztürk, Sadullah; Kılınç, Necmettin; Yüzer, Hayrettin; Oztürk, Zaferziya

    2010-05-01

    A vertically aligned Pd nanowire array was successfully fabricated on an Au/Ti substrate using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by a direct voltage electrodeposition method at room temperature using diluted neutral electrolyte. The fabrication of Pd nanowires was controlled by analyzing the current-time transient during electrodeposition using potentiostat. The AAO template and the Pd nanowires were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) methods and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). It was observed that the Pd nanowire array was standing freely on an Au-coated Ti substrate after removing the AAO template in a relatively large area of about 5 cm2, approximately 50 nm in diameter and 2.5 μm in length with a high aspect ratio. The nucleation rate and the number of atoms in the critical nucleus were determined from the analysis of current transients. Pd nuclei density was calculated as 3.55 × 108 cm-2. Usage of diluted neutral electrolyte enables slower growing of Pd nanowires owing to increase in the electrodeposition potential and thus obtained Pd nanowires have higher crystallinity with lower dislocations. In fact, this high crystallinity of Pd nanowires provides them positive effect for sensor performances especially.

  19. Magnetic hysteresis in small-grained CoxPd1-x nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viqueira, M. S.; Pozo-López, G.; Urreta, S. E.; Condó, A. M.; Cornejo, D. R.; Fabietti, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Co-Pd nanowires with small grain size are fabricated by AC electrodeposition into hexagonally ordered alumina pores, 20-35 nm in diameter and about 1 μm long. The effects of the alloy composition, the nanowire diameter and the grain size on the hysteresis properties are considered. X-ray diffraction indicates that the nanowires are single phase, a fcc Co-Pd solid solution; electron microscopy results show that they are polycrystalline, with randomly oriented grains (7-12 nm), smaller than the wire diameter. Nanowire arrays are ferromagnetic, with an easy magnetization axis parallel to the nanowire long axis. Both, the coercive field and the loop squareness monotonously increase with the Co content and with the grain size, but no clear correlation with the wire diameter is found. The Co and Co-rich nanowire arrays exhibit coercive fields and reduced remanence values quite insensitive to temperature in the range 4 K-300 K; on the contrary, in Pd-rich nanowires both magnitudes are smaller and they largely increase during cooling below 100 K. These behaviors are systematized by considering the strong dependences displayed by the magneto-crystalline anisotropy and the saturation magnetostriction on composition and temperature. At low temperatures the effective anisotropy value and the domain-wall width to grain size ratio drastically change, promoting less cooperative and harder nucleation modes.

  20. Fabrication of vertically aligned Pd nanowire array in AAO template by electrodeposition using neutral electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A vertically aligned Pd nanowire array was successfully fabricated on an Au/Ti substrate using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by a direct voltage electrodeposition method at room temperature using diluted neutral electrolyte. The fabrication of Pd nanowires was controlled by analyzing the current–time transient during electrodeposition using potentiostat. The AAO template and the Pd nanowires were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) methods and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). It was observed that the Pd nanowire array was standing freely on an Au-coated Ti substrate after removing the AAO template in a relatively large area of about 5 cm2, approximately 50 nm in diameter and 2.5 μm in length with a high aspect ratio. The nucleation rate and the number of atoms in the critical nucleus were determined from the analysis of current transients. Pd nuclei density was calculated as 3.55 × 108 cm−2. Usage of diluted neutral electrolyte enables slower growing of Pd nanowires owing to increase in the electrodeposition potential and thus obtained Pd nanowires have higher crystallinity with lower dislocations. In fact, this high crystallinity of Pd nanowires provides them positive effect for sensor performances especially. PMID:20596417

  1. Tunable absorption resonances in the ultraviolet for InP nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Aghaeipour, Mahtab; Anttu, Nicklas; Nylund, Gustav; Samuelson, Lars; Lehmann, Sebastian; Pistol, Mats-Erik

    2014-11-17

    The ability to tune the photon absorptance spectrum is an attracting way of tailoring the response of devices like photodetectors and solar cells. Here, we measure the reflectance spectra of InP substrates patterned with arrays of vertically standing InP nanowires. Using the reflectance spectra, we calculate and analyze the corresponding absorptance spectra of the nanowires. We show that we can tune absorption resonances for the nanowire arrays into the ultraviolet by decreasing the diameter of the nanowires. When we compare our measurements with electromagnetic modeling, we generally find good agreement. Interestingly, the remaining differences between modeled and measured spectra are attributed to a crystal-phase dependence in the refractive index of InP. Specifically, we find indication of significant differences in the refractive index between the modeled zinc-blende InP nanowires and the measured wurtzite InP nanowires in the ultraviolet. We believe that such crystal-phase dependent differences in the refractive index affect the possibility to excite optical resonances in the large wavelength range of 345 < λ < 390 nm. To support this claim, we investigated how resonances in nanostructures can be shifted in wavelength by geometrical tuning. We find that dispersion in the refractive index can dominate over geometrical tuning and stop the possibility for such shifting. Our results open the door for using crystal-phase engineering to optimize the absorption in InP nanowire-based solar cells and photodetectors.

  2. A general melt-injection-decomposition route to oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dongqiang; Zhang, Xinwei; Hua, Zhenghe; Yang, Shaoguang

    2016-12-01

    In this manuscript, a general melt-injection-decomposition (MID) route has been proposed and realized for the fabrication of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. Nitrate was used as the starting materials, which was injected into the nanopores of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane through the capillarity action in its liquid state. At higher temperature, the nitrate decomposed into corresponding metal oxide within the nanopores of the AAO membrane. Oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays were formed within the AAO membrane as a result of the confinement of the nanopores. Four kinds of metal oxide (CuO, Mn2O3, Co3O4 and Cr2O3) nanowire arrays are presented here as examples fabricated by this newly developed process. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies showed clear evidence of the formations of the oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. Formation mechanism of the metal oxide nanowire arrays is discussed based on the Thermogravimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis measurement results.

  3. Air-bridged Ohmic contact on vertically aligned si nanowire arrays: application to molecule sensors.

    PubMed

    Han, Hee; Kim, Jungkil; Shin, Ho Sun; Song, Jae Yong; Lee, Woo

    2012-05-02

    A simple, cost-effective, and highly reliable method for constructing an air-bridged electrical contact on large arrays of vertically aligned nanowires was developed. The present method may open up new opportunities for developing advanced nanowire-based devices for energy harvest and storage, power generation, and sensing applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Electro-pumped whispering gallery mode ZnO microlaser array

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, G. Y.; State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096; Li, J. T.

    2015-01-12

    By employing vapor-phase transport method, ZnO microrods are fabricated and directly assembled on p-GaN substrate to form a heterostructural microlaser array, which avoids of the relatively complicated etching process comparing previous work. Under applied forward bias, whispering gallery mode ZnO ultraviolet lasing is obtained from the as-fabricated heterostructural microlaser array. The device's electroluminescence originates from three distinct electron-hole recombination processes in the heterojunction interface, and whispering gallery mode ultraviolet lasing is obtained when the applied voltage is beyond the lasing threshold. This work may present a significant step towards future fabrication of a facile technique for micro/nanolasers.

  5. The microstructure and magnetic properties of Cu/CuO/Ni core/multi-shell nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feng; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Hao, Shijie; Liu, Yinong; Feng, Chun; Cui, Lishan

    2018-04-01

    Multifunctional metal/oxide/metal core/multi-shell nanowire arrays were prepared mostly by physical or chemical vapor deposition. In our study, the Cu/CuO/Ni core/multi-shell nanowire arrays were prepared by AAO template-electrodeposition and oxidation processes. The Cu/Ni core/shell nanowire arrays were prepared by AAO template-electrodeposition method. The microstructure and chemical compositions of the core/multi-shell nanowires and core/shell nanowires have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy with HADDF-STEM and X-ray diffraction. Magnetization measurements revealed that the Cu/CuO/Ni and Cu/Ni nanowire arrays have high coercivity and remanence ratio.

  6. Construction of 3D Metallic Nanowire Arrays on Arbitrarily-Shaped Substrate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Li, Jingning; Yu, Fangfang; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu; Mu Wang Team

    Formation of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures is an important step of advanced manufacture for new concept devices with novel functionality. Despite of great achievements in fabricating nanostructures with state of the art lithography approaches, these nanostructures are normally limited on flat substrates. Up to now it remains challenging to build metallic nanostructures directly on a rough and bumpy surface. Here we demonstrate a unique approach to fabricate metallic nanowire arrays on an arbitrarily-shaped surface by electrodeposition, which is unknown before 2016. Counterintuitively here the growth direction of the nanowires is perpendicular to their longitudinal axis, and the specific geometry of nanowires can be achieved by introducing specially designed shaped substrate. The spatial separation and the width of the nanowires can be tuned by voltage, electrolyte concentration and temperature in electrodeposition. By taking cobalt nanowire array as an example, we demonstrate that head-to-head and tail-to-tail magnetic domain walls can be easily introduced and modulated in the nanowire arrays, which is enlightening to construct new devices such as domain wall racetrack memory. We acknowledge the foundation from MOST and NSF(China).

  7. Investigation of the temperature dependent field emission from individual ZnO nanowires for evidence of field-induced hot electrons emission.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yicong; Zhang, Zhipeng; Li, Zhi-Bing; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ning-Sheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-06-27

    ZnO nanowires as field emitters have important applications in flat panel display and X-ray source. Understanding the intrinsic field emission mechanism is crucial for further improving the performance of ZnO nanowire field emitters. In this article, the temperature dependent field emission from individual ZnO nanowires was investigated by an in-situ measurement in ultra-high vacuum. The divergent temperature-dependent Fowler-Nordheim plots is found in the low field region. A field-induced hot electrons emission model that takes into account penetration length is proposed to explain the results. The carrier density and temperature dependence of the field-induced hot electrons emission current are derived theoretically. The obtained results are consistent with the experimental results, which could be attributed to the variation of effective electron temperature. All of these are important for a better understanding on the field emission process of semiconductor nanostructures. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Piezo-phototronic Effect Enhanced UV/Visible Photodetector Based on Fully Wide Band Gap Type-II ZnO/ZnS Core/Shell Nanowire Array.

    PubMed

    Rai, Satish C; Wang, Kai; Ding, Yong; Marmon, Jason K; Bhatt, Manish; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Weilie; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-06-23

    A high-performance broad band UV/visible photodetector has been successfully fabricated on a fully wide bandgap ZnO/ZnS type-II heterojunction core/shell nanowire array. The device can detect photons with energies significantly smaller (2.2 eV) than the band gap of ZnO (3.2 eV) and ZnS (3.7 eV), which is mainly attributed to spatially indirect type-II transition facilitated by the abrupt interface between the ZnO core and ZnS shell. The performance of the device was further enhanced through the piezo-phototronic effect induced lowering of the barrier height to allow charge carrier transport across the ZnO/ZnS interface, resulting in three orders of relative responsivity change measured at three different excitation wavelengths (385, 465, and 520 nm). This work demonstrates a prototype UV/visible photodetector based on the truly wide band gap semiconducting 3D core/shell nanowire array with enhanced performance through the piezo-phototronic effect.

  9. Optimization of dielectric matrix for ZnO nanowire based nanogenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Santhosh; Parmar, Mitesh; Tao, Ran; Ardila, Gustavo; Mouis, Mireille

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the role of selection of suitable dielectric layer in nanogenerator (NG) structure and its influence on the output performance. The basic NG structure is a composite material integrating hydrothermally grown vertical piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) into a dielectric matrix. To accomplish this study, three materials - poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), silicon nitride (Si3N4) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are selected, processed and used as matrix dielectric in NGs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis shows the well-aligned NWs with a diameter of 200±50 nm and length of 3.5±0.3 μm. This was followed by dielectric material deposition as a matrix material. After fabricating NG devices, the output generated voltage under manual and automatic bending were recorded, observed and analyzed for the selection of the best dielectric material to obtain an optimum output. The maximum peak-to-peak open-circuit voltage output for PMMA, Si3N4 and Al2O3 under manual bending was recorded as approximately 880 mV, 1.2 V and 2.1 V respectively. These preliminary results confirm the predicted effect of using more rigid dielectrics as matrix material for the NGs. The generated voltage is increased by about 70% using Si3N4 or Al2O3, instead of a less rigid material as PMMA.

  10. Origin of magnetic properties in carbon implanted ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y F; Shao, Y C; Hsieh, S H; Chang, Y K; Yeh, P H; Hsueh, H C; Chiou, J W; Wang, H T; Ray, S C; Tsai, H M; Pao, C W; Chen, C H; Lin, H J; Lee, J F; Wu, C T; Wu, J J; Chang, Y M; Asokan, K; Chae, K H; Ohigashi, T; Takagi, Y; Yokoyama, T; Kosugi, N; Pong, W F

    2018-05-17

    Various synchrotron radiation-based spectroscopic and microscopic techniques are used to elucidate the room-temperature ferromagnetism of carbon-doped ZnO-nanowires (ZnO-C:NW) via a mild C + ion implantation method. The photoluminescence and magnetic hysteresis loops reveal that the implantation of C reduces the number of intrinsic surface defects and increases the saturated magnetization of ZnO-NW. The interstitial implanted C ions constitute the majority of defects in ZnO-C:NW as confirmed by the X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies. The X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra of O and C K-edge respectively indicate there is a reduction in the number of unpaired/dangling O 2p bonds in the surface region of ZnO-C:NW and the C 2p-derived states of the implanted C ions strongly affect the net spin polarization in the surface and bulk regions of ZnO-C:NW. Furthermore, these findings corroborate well with the first-principles calculations of C-implanted ZnO in surface and bulk regions, which highlight the stability of implanted C for the suppression and enhancement of the ferromagnetism of the ZnO-C:NW in the surface region and bulk phase, respectively.

  11. Patterned synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays for nanoplasmonic waveguide applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamson, Thomas L.; Khan, Sahar; Wang, Zhifei; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Yu, Yong; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Huizhong

    2018-03-01

    We report the patterned synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays of diameters between 50 nm and 130 nm and various spacings. This was achieved by patterning hole arrays in a polymethyl methacrylate layer with electron beam lithography, followed by chemical synthesis of ZnO nanorods in the patterned holes using the hydrothermal method. The fabrication of ZnO nanorod waveguide arrays is also demonstrated by embedding the nanorods in a silver film using the electroplating process. Optical transmission measurement through the nanorod waveguide arrays is performed and strong resonant transmission of visible light is observed. We have found the resonance shifts to a longer wavelength with increasing nanorod diameter. Furthermore, the resonance wavelength is independent of the nanowaveguide array period, indicating the observed resonant transmission is the effect of a single ZnO nanorod waveguide. These nanorod waveguides may be used in single-molecule imaging and sensing as a result of the nanoscopic profile of the light transmitted through the nanorods and the controlled locations of these nanoscale light sources.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays via Inverted Monolayer Colloidal Crystals Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Ding, Taotao; Qi, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Juan; Chen, Jingwen; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2018-04-01

    The periodically ordered ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays have been successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal approach on the silicon substrates by templating of the TiO2 ring deriving from the polystyrene (PS) nanosphere monolayer colloidal crystals (MCC). With the inverted MCC mask, sol-gel-derived ZnO seeds could serve as the periodic nucleation positions for the site-specific growth of ZnO NRs. The large-scale patterned arrays of single ZnO NR with good side-orientation can be readily produced. According to the experimental results, the as-integrated ZnO NR arrays showed an excellent crystal quality and optical property, very suitable for optoelectronic applications such as stimulated emitters and ZnO photonic crystal devices.

  13. Field emission from in situ-grown vertically aligned SnO2 nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Vertically aligned SnO2 nanowire arrays have been in situ fabricated on a silicon substrate via thermal evaporation method in the presence of a Pt catalyst. The field emission properties of the SnO2 nanowire arrays have been investigated. Low turn-on fields of 1.6 to 2.8 V/μm were obtained at anode-cathode separations of 100 to 200 μm. The current density fluctuation was lower than 5% during a 120-min stability test measured at a fixed applied electric field of 5 V/μm. The favorable field-emission performance indicates that the fabricated SnO2 nanowire arrays are promising candidates as field emitters. PMID:22330800

  14. High energy density in PVDF nanocomposites using an optimized nanowire array.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ru; Luo, Hang; Liu, Weiwei; Zhou, Xuefan; Tang, Lin; Zhou, Kechao; Zhang, Dou

    2018-06-22

    TiO2 nanowire arrays are often utilized to prepare high performance polymer nanocomposites, however, the contribution to the energy density is limited due to their non-ferroelectric characteristics. A nanocomposite with an optimized nanowire array combining the ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) with TiO2, readily forming nanowires (denoted as a TiO2-P nanowire array), is prepared to enhance the permittivity. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is used as the polymer matrix due to its high breakdown strength, e.g. 600-700 kV mm-1. As a result, the permittivity and breakdown electric field reach 53 at 1 kHz and 550 kV mm-1, respectively. Therefore, the nanocomposites achieve a higher discharge energy density of 12.4 J cm-3 with excellent cycle stability, which is the highest among nanocomposites based on a nanowire array as a filler in a PVDF matrix. This work provides not only a feasible approach to obtain high performance dielectric nanocomposites, but also a wide range of potential applications in the energy storage and energy harvesting fields.

  15. Vapor-liquid-solid growth of <110> silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Hainey, Mel F.; Shen, Haoting; Kendrick, Chito E.; Fucinato, Emily A.; Yim, Joanne; Black, Marcie R.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2013-09-01

    The epitaxial growth of <110> silicon nanowires on (110) Si substrates by the vapor-liquid-solid growth process was investigated using SiCl4 as the source gas. A high percentage of <110> nanowires was obtained at high temperatures and reduced SiCl4 partial pressures. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of the <110> Si nanowires revealed symmetric V-shaped {111} facets at the tip and large {111} facets on the sidewalls of the nanowires. The symmetric {111} tip faceting was explained as arising from low catalyst supersaturation during growth which is expected to occur given the near-equilibrium nature of the SiCl4 process. The predominance of {111} facets obtained under these conditions promotes the growth of <110> SiNWs.

  16. MOF-5 decorated hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays and its photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinmin; Lan, Ding; Wang, Yuren; Cao, He; Jiang, Heng

    2011-04-01

    The strategy to manipulate nanoscale materials into well-organized hierarchical architectures is very important to both material synthesis and nanodevice applications. Here, nanoscale MOF-5 crystallites were successfully fabricated onto ordered hierarchical ZnO arrays based on aqueous chemical synthesis and molecule self-assembly technology guided room temperature diffusion method, which has the advantages of energy saving and simple operation. The structures and morphologies of the samples were performed by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electronic microscopy. The MOF-5 crystallites have good quality and bind well to the hexagonal-patterned ZnO arrays. The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the emission of hybrid MOF-5-ZnO films displays a blue shift in green emission and intensity reduction in UV emission. This ordered hybrid semiconductor material is expected to exploit the great potentiality in sensors, micro/nanodevices, and screen displays.

  17. Soft-solution route to ZnO nanowall array with low threshold power density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Eue-Soon; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Won, Jung-Hee; Chung, Jae-Hun; Jang, Du-Jeon; Kim, Young-Woon; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2010-07-01

    ZnO nanowall array (ZNWA) has been directionally grown on the buffer layer of ZnO nanoparticles dip-coated on Si-wafer under a soft solution process. Nanowalls on substrate are in most suitable shape and orientation not only as an optical trap but also as an optical waveguide due to their unique growth habit, V[011¯0]≫V[0001]≈V[0001¯]. Consequently, the stimulated emission at 384 nm through nanowalls is generated by the threshold power density of only 25 kW/cm2. Such UV lasing properties are superior to those of previously reported ZnO nanorod arrays. Moreover, there is no green (defect) emission due to the mild procedure to synthesize ZNWA.

  18. Improving emission uniformity and linearizing band dispersion in nanowire arrays using quasi-aperiodicity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P. Duke; Koleske, Daniel D.; Povinelli, Michelle L.

    For this study, we experimentally investigate a new class of quasi-aperiodic structures for improving the emission pattern in nanowire arrays. Efficient normal emission, as well as lasing, can be obtained from III-nitride photonic crystal (PhC) nanowire arrays that utilize slow group velocity modes near the Γ-point in reciprocal space. However, due to symmetry considerations, the emitted far-field pattern of such modes are often ‘donut’-like. Many applications, including lighting for displays or lasers, require a more uniform beam profile in the far-field. Previous work has improved far-field beam uniformity of uncoupled modes by changing the shape of the emitting structure. However,more » in nanowire systems, the shape of nanowires cannot always be arbitrarily changed due to growth or etch considerations. Here, we investigate breaking symmetry by instead changing the position of emitters. Using a quasi-aperiodic geometry, which changes the emitter position within a photonic crystal supercell (2x2), we are able to linearize the photonic bandstructure near the Γ-point and greatly improve emitted far-field uniformity. We realize the III-nitride nanowires structures using a top-down fabrication procedure that produces nanowires with smooth, vertical sidewalls. Comparison of room-temperature micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) measurements between periodic and quasi-aperiodic nanowire arrays reveal resonances in each structure, with the simple periodic structure producing a donut beam in the emitted far-field and the quasi-aperiodic structure producing a uniform Gaussian-like beam. We investigate the input pump power vs. output intensity in both systems and observe the simple periodic array exhibiting a non-linear relationship, indicative of lasing. We believe that the quasi-aperiodic approach studied here provides an alternate and promising strategy for shaping the emission pattern of nanoemitter systems.« less

  19. High density group IV semiconductor nanowire arrays fabricated in nanoporous alumina templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redwing, Joan M.; Dilts, Sarah M.; Lew, Kok-Keong; Cranmer, Alexana E.; Mohney, Suzanne E.

    2005-11-01

    The fabrication of high density arrays of semiconductor nanowires is of interest for nanoscale electronics, chemical and biological sensing and energy conversion applications. We have investigated the synthesis, intentional doping and electrical characterization of Si and Ge nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method in nanoporous alumina membranes. Nanoporous membranes provide a convenient platform for nanowire growth and processing, enabling control of wire diameter via pore size and the integration of contact metals for electrical testing. For VLS growth in nanoporous materials, reduced pressures and temperatures are required in order to promote the diffusion of reactants into the pore without premature decomposition on the membrane surface or pore walls. The effect of growth conditions on the growth rate of Si and Ge nanowires from SiH 4 and GeH 4 sources, respectively, was investigated and compared. In both cases, the measured activation energies for nanowire growth were substantially lower than activation energies typically reported for Si and Ge thin film deposition under similar growth conditions, suggesting that gold plays a catalytic role in the VLS growth process. Intentionally doped SiNW arrays were also prepared using trimethylboron (TMB) and phosphine (PH 3) as p-type and n-type dopant sources, respectively. Nanowire resistivities were calculated from plots of the array resistance as a function of nanowire length. A decrease in resistivity was observed for both n-type and p-type doped SiNW arrays compared to those grown without the addition of a dopant source.

  20. Transparently wrap-gated semiconductor nanowire arrays for studies of gate-controlled photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Nylund, Gustav; Storm, Kristian; Torstensson, Henrik

    2013-12-04

    We present a technique to measure gate-controlled photoluminescence (PL) on arrays of semiconductor nanowire (NW) capacitors using a transparent film of Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) wrapping around the nanowires as the gate electrode. By tuning the wrap-gate voltage, it is possible to increase the PL peak intensity of an array of undoped InP NWs by more than an order of magnitude. The fine structure of the PL spectrum reveals three subpeaks whose relative peak intensities change with gate voltage. We interpret this as gate-controlled state-filling of luminescing quantum dot segments formed by zincblende stacking faults in the mainly wurtzite NW crystal structure.

  1. High-efficiency second harmonic generation from a single hybrid ZnO nanowire/Au plasmonic nano-oligomer.

    PubMed

    Grinblat, Gustavo; Rahmani, Mohsen; Cortés, Emiliano; Caldarola, Martín; Comedi, David; Maier, Stefan A; Bragas, Andrea V

    2014-11-12

    We introduce a plasmonic-semiconductor hybrid nanosystem, consisting of a ZnO nanowire coupled to a gold pentamer oligomer by crossing the hot-spot. It is demonstrated that the hybrid system exhibits a second harmonic (SH) conversion efficiency of ∼3 × 10(-5)%, which is among the highest values for a nanoscale object at optical frequencies reported so far. The SH intensity was found to be ∼1700 times larger than that from the same nanowire excited outside the hot-spot. Placing high nonlinear susceptibility materials precisely in plasmonic confined-field regions to enhance SH generation opens new perspectives for highly efficient light frequency up-conversion on the nanoscale.

  2. In situ monitoring of laser-assisted hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires: thermally deactivating growth kinetics.

    PubMed

    In, Jung Bin; Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Lee, Daeho; Ko, Seung Hwan; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2014-02-26

    The laser-assisted hydrothermal growth kinetics of a cluster of ZnO nanowires are studied based on optical in situ growth monitoring. The growth yields are orders of magnitude higher than those of conventional hydrothermal methods that use bulk heating. This remarkable improvement is attributed to suppression of precursor depletion occurring by homogeneous growth reactions, as well as to enhanced mass transport. The obtained in situ data show gradually decaying growth kinetics even with negligible precursor consumption. It is revealed that the growth deceleration is caused by thermal deactivation resulting from heat dissipation through the growing nanowires. Finally, it is demonstrated that the tailored temporal modulation of the input power enables sustained growth to extended dimensions. These results provide a key to highly efficient use of growth precursors that has been pursued for industrial use of this functional metal oxide semiconductor. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Characterization of planar pn heterojunction diodes constructed with Cu2O nanoparticle films and single ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Kiyeol; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we fabricate planar pn heterojunction diodes composed of Cu2O nanoparticle (NP) films and single ZnO nanowires (NWs) on SiO2 (300 nm)/Si substrates and investigate their characteristics in the dark and under the illumination of white light and 325 nm wavelength light. The diode at bias voltages of +/- 1 V shows rectification ratios of 10 (in the dark) and 34 (under the illumination of white light). On the other hand, the diode exposed to the 325 nm wavelength light exhibits Ohmic characteristics which are associated with efficient photocurrent generation in both the Cu2O NP film and the single ZnO NW.

  4. Upconversion luminescence from Er-N codoped of ZnO nanowires prepared by ion implantation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Kun; Xu, Jie; Su, Jing; Chen, Yu lin

    2011-02-01

    Nitrogen and erbium co-doped of ZnO nanowires (NWs) are fabricated by ion implantation and subsequent annealing in air. The incorporation of Er3+ and N+ ions is verified by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectra. The samples exhibit upconversion photoluminescence around ∼550 nm and ∼660 nm under an excitation at 980 nm. It is discovered that the N-doped can drastically increase the upconversion photoluminescence intensity by modifying the local structure around Er3+ in ZnO matrix. The enhancement of the PL intensity by the N-doped is caused by the formation of ErO6-xNx octahedron complexes. With the increase of the annealing temperature (Ta), the Er3+ ions diffuse towards the surface of the NWs, which benefits the red emission and evokes the variation of intensity ratio owing to the existence of some organic groups.

  5. Enhanced magnetic performance of metal-organic nanowire arrays by FeCo/polypyrrole co-electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X. J.; Xia, W. B.; Gao, J. L.; Zhang, S. Y.; Li, Y. L.; Tang, S. L.; Du, Y. W.

    2013-05-01

    FeCo/polypyrrole (PPy) composite nanowire array, which shows enhanced magnetic remanence and coercivity along the nanowires, was fabricated by AC electrodeposition using anodic aluminum oxide templates. High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that PPy grows on the surface of FeCo nanowires forming a coaxial nanowire structure, with a coating layer of about 4 nm. It suggests that the decreased dipolar interaction due to the reduced nanowire diameters is responsible for the enhancement of magnetic performance. The possible mechanism of this coating may be that PPy is inclined to nucleate along the pore wall of the templates.

  6. Facile synthesis of highly uniform Mn/Co-codoped ZnO nanowires: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Huifeng; Huang, Yunhua; Zhang, Qi; Qiao, Yi; Gu, Yousong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yue

    2011-02-01

    In this article, Co/Mn-codoped ZnO nanowires (NWs) were successfully synthesized on a silicon substrate by the thermal evaporation method with Au catalyst. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicated that the Co/Mn-codoped ZnO NWs are a hexagonal wurtzite structure without a second phase, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the Co and Mn ions were introduced into the ZnO NWs with the content of ∼0.8 at% and ∼1.2 at%, respectively. Photoluminescence spectra and Raman spectra showed that the Co/Mn were doped into the NWs and resulted in the shift of the near-band-edge emission. Moreover, the novel Raman peak at 519.3 cm(-1) has suggested that the two kinds of cations via doping could affect the local polarizability. Compared with the undoped ZnO NW, the electrical measurement showed that the Co/Mn-codoping enhanced the conductivity by an order of magnitude due to the presence of Co, Mn cations. The electron mobility and carrier concentration of a fabricated field effect transistor (FET) device is 679 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) and 2×10(18) cm(-3), respectively. Furthermore, the M-H curve demonstrated that the Co/Mn-codoped ZnO NWs have obvious ferromagnetic characteristics at room temperature. Our study enhances the understanding of the novel performances of transition-metal codoped ZnO NWs and also provides a potential way to fabricate optoelectronic devices.

  7. Prevalence of information stored in arrays of magnetic nanowires against external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, D.; Cisternas, E.; Vogel, E. E.; Allende, S.

    2018-04-01

    Arrays of magnetic nanowires in porous alumina can be used to store information inscribed on the system by orienting the magnetization of selected wires pointing in a desired direction, so symbols can be read as ferromagnetic sectors. However, this information is subject to aging and the stored information could be gradually lost. We investigate here two mechanisms proposed to improve the prevalence of the stored information: opposite ferromagnetic band at the center of the symbol and bi-segmented nanowires acting as two layers of nanowires storing the same information. Both mechanisms prove to increase resistance to the action of external magnetic fields for the case of Ni wires in a geometry compatible with actually grown nanowires. Advantages and disadvantages of these mechanisms are discussed.

  8. Magnetization reversal and coercivity of Fe3Se4 nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Li, S. J.; Zhou, Y. T.; Bai, Y.; Zhu, Y. L.; Ren, W. J.; Long, G.; Zeng, H.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2015-05-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe3Se4 nanowire (NW) arrays in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous membrane are studied. Cross-sectional SEM and plane-view TEM images show that the mean wire diameter (dw) and the center-to-center spacing (D) of Fe3Se4 nanowires are about 220 nm and 330 nm, respectively. The field-cooled magnetization dependent on the temperature indicates a Curie temperature around 334 K for the Fe3Se4 nanowires. The coercivities of Fe3Se4 nanowires at 10 K, obtained from the in-plane and out-of-plane hysteresis loops, are as high as 22.4 kOe and 23.3 kOe, which can be understood from the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and the magnetization reversal process.

  9. Electrolyte-gated transistors based on conducting polymer nanowire junction arrays.

    PubMed

    Alam, Maksudul M; Wang, Jun; Guo, Yaoyao; Lee, Stephanie P; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2005-07-07

    In this study, we describe the electrolyte gating and doping effects of transistors based on conducting polymer nanowire electrode junction arrays in buffered aqueous media. Conducting polymer nanowires including polyaniline, polypyrrole, and poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) were investigated. In the presence of a positive gate bias, the device exhibits a large on/off current ratio of 978 for polyaniline nanowire-based transistors; these values vary according to the acidity of the gate medium. We attribute these efficient electrolyte gating and doping effects to the electrochemically fabricated nanostructures of conducting polymer nanowires. This study demonstrates that two-terminal devices can be easily converted into three-terminal transistors by simply immersing the device into an electrolyte solution along with a gate electrode. Here, the field-induced modulation can be applied for signal amplification to enhance the device performance.

  10. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyang; Leung, Calvin; Gao, Fan; Gu, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA) with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM−1·cm−2) among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water) was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors. PMID:26404303

  11. Fast Response and High Sensitivity of ZnO Nanowires-Cobalt Phthalocyanine Heterojunction Based H2S Sensor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwini; Samanta, Soumen; Singh, Ajay; Roy, Mainak; Singh, Surendra; Basu, Saibal; Chehimi, Mohmad M; Roy, Kallol; Ramgir, Niranjan; Navaneethan, M; Hayakawa, Y; Debnath, Anil K; Aswal, Dinesh K; Gupta, Shiv K

    2015-08-19

    The room temperature chemiresistive response of n-type ZnO nanowire (ZnO NWs) films modified with different thicknesses of p-type cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) has been studied. With increasing thickness of CoPc (>15 nm), heterojunction films exhibit a transition from n- to p-type conduction due to uniform coating of CoPc on ZnO. The heterojunction films prepared with a 25 nm thick CoPc layer exhibit the highest response (268% at 10 ppm of H2S) and the fastest response (26 s) among all samples. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and work function measurements reveal that electron transfer takes place from ZnO to CoPc, resulting in formation of a p-n junction with a barrier height of 0.4 eV and a depletion layer width of ∼8.9 nm. The detailed XPS analysis suggests that these heterojunction films with 25 nm thick CoPc exhibit the least content of chemisorbed oxygen, enabling the direct interaction of H2S with the CoPc molecule, and therefore exhibit the fastest response. The improved response is attributed to the high susceptibility of the p-n junctions to the H2S gas, which manipulates the depletion layer width and controls the charge transport.

  12. Metal Catalyst for Low-Temperature Growth of Controlled Zinc Oxide Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Baek Hyun; Kwon, Jae W.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanowires generated by hydrothermal method present superior physical and chemical characteristics. Quality control of the growth has been very challenging and controlled growth is only achievable under very limited conditions using homogeneous seed layers with high temperature processes. Here we show the controlled ZnO nanowire growth on various organic and inorganic materials without the requirement of a homogeneous seed layer and a high temperature process. We also report the discovery of an important role of the electronegativity in the nanowire growth on arbitrary substrates. Using heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers with low-temperature hydrothermal methods, we demonstrate well-controlled ZnO nanowire arrays and single nanowires on flat or curved surfaces. A metal catalyst and heterogeneous metal oxide interlayers are found to determine lattice-match with ZnO and to largely influence the controlled alignment. These findings will contribute to the development of novel nanodevices using controlled nanowires. PMID:24625584

  13. Platinum nanowire microelectrode arrays for neurostimulation applications: Fabrication, characterization, and in-vitro retinal cell stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, John J., III

    Implantable electrical neurostimulating devices are being developed for a number of applications, including artificial vision through retinal stimulation. The epiretinal prosthesis will use a two-dimensional array microelectrodes to address individual cells of the retina. MEMS fabrication processes can produce arrays of microelectrodes with these dimensions, but there are two critical issues that they cannot satisfy. One, the stimulating electrodes are the only part of the implanted electrical device that penetrate through the water impermeable package, and must do so without sacrificing hermeticity. Two, As electrode size decreases, the current density (A cm-2 ) increases, due to increased electrochemical impedance. This reduces the amount of charge that can be safely injected into the tissue. To date, MEMS processing method, cannot produce electrode arrays with good, prolonged hermetic properties. Similarly, MEMS approaches do not account for the increased impedance caused by decreased surface area. For these reasons there is a strong motivation for the development of a water-impermeable, substrate-penetrating electrode array with low electrochemical impedance. This thesis presents a stimulating electrode array fabricated from platinum nanowires using a modified electrochemical template synthesis approach. Nanowires are electrochemically deposited from ammonium hexachloroplatinate solution into lithographically patterned nanoporous anodic alumina templates to produce microarrays of platinum nanowires. The platinum nanowires penetrating through the ceramic aluminum oxide template serve as parallel electrical conduits through the water impermeable, electrically insulating substrate. Electrode impedance can be adjusted by either controlling the nanowire hydrous platinum oxide content or by partially etching the alumina template to expose additional surface area. A stepwise approach to this project was taken. First, the electrochemistry of ammonium

  14. Vertical Si nanowire arrays fabricated by magnetically guided metal-assisted chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Dong Won; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Choi, Duyoung; Caldwell, Elizabeth; Kim, Young Jin; Paik, Jae Cheol; Jin, Sungho; Chen, Renkun

    2016-11-01

    In this work, vertically aligned Si nanowire arrays were fabricated by magnetically guided metal-assisted directional chemical etching. Using an anodized aluminum oxide template as a shadow mask, nanoscale Ni dot arrays were fabricated on an Si wafer to serve as a mask to protect the Si during the etching. For the magnetically guided chemical etching, we deposited a tri-layer metal catalyst (Au/Fe/Au) in a Swiss-cheese configuration and etched the sample under the magnetic field to improve the directionality of the Si nanowire etching and increase the etching rate along the vertical direction. After the etching, the nanowires were dried with minimal surface-tension-induced aggregation by utilizing a supercritical CO2 drying procedure. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis confirmed the formation of single-crystal Si nanowires. The method developed here for producing vertically aligned Si nanowire arrays could find a wide range of applications in electrochemical and electronic devices.

  15. Fabrication of free-standing copper foils covered with highly-ordered copper nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Sulka, Grzegorz D.; Jaskuła, Marian

    2012-07-01

    The through-hole nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with relatively large surface area (ca. 2 cm2) were employed for fabrication of free-standing and mechanically stable copper foils covered with close-packed and highly-ordered copper nanowire arrays. The home-made AAO membranes with different pore diameters and interpore distances were fabricated via a two-step self-organized anodization of aluminum performed in sulfuric acid, oxalic acid and phosphoric acid followed by the pore opening/widening procedure. The direct current (DC) electrodeposition of copper was performed efficiently on both sides of AAO templates. The bottom side of the AAO templates was not insulated and consequently Cu nanowire arrays on thick Cu layers were obtained. The proposed template-assisted fabrication of free-standing copper nanowire array electrodes is a promising method for synthesis of nanostructured current collectors. The composition of Cu nanowires was confirmed by energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The structural features of nanowires were evaluated from field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images and compared with the characteristic parameters of anodic alumina membranes.

  16. Quantum-interference transport through surface layers of indium-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Shao-Pin; Lu, Jia Grace; Lin, Juhn-Jong

    2013-06-01

    We have fabricated indium-doped ZnO (IZO) nanowires (NWs) and carried out four-probe electrical-transport measurements on two individual NWs with geometric diameters of ≈70 and ≈90 nm in a wide temperature T interval of 1-70 K. The NWs reveal overall charge conduction behavior characteristic of disordered metals. In addition to the T dependence of resistance R, we have measured the magnetoresistance (MR) in magnetic fields applied either perpendicular or parallel to the NW axis. Our R(T) and MR data in different T intervals are consistent with the theoretical predictions of the one- (1D), two- (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) weak-localization (WL) and the electron-electron interaction (EEI) effects. In particular, a few dimensionality crossovers in the two effects are observed. These crossover phenomena are consistent with the model of a ‘core-shell-like structure’ in individual IZO NWs, where an outer shell of thickness t (≃15-17 nm) is responsible for the quantum-interference transport. In the WL effect, as the electron dephasing length Lφ gradually decreases with increasing T from the lowest measurement temperatures, a 1D-to-2D dimensionality crossover takes place around a characteristic temperature where Lφ approximately equals d, an effective NW diameter which is slightly smaller than the geometric diameter. As T further increases, a 2D-to-3D dimensionality crossover occurs around another characteristic temperature where Lφ approximately equals t (ZnO NWs. This work also strongly

  17. Quantum-interference transport through surface layers of indium-doped ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shao-Pin; Lu, Jia Grace; Lin, Juhn-Jong

    2013-06-21

    We have fabricated indium-doped ZnO (IZO) nanowires (NWs) and carried out four-probe electrical-transport measurements on two individual NWs with geometric diameters of ≈70 and ≈90 nm in a wide temperature T interval of 1-70 K. The NWs reveal overall charge conduction behavior characteristic of disordered metals. In addition to the T dependence of resistance R, we have measured the magnetoresistance (MR) in magnetic fields applied either perpendicular or parallel to the NW axis. Our R(T) and MR data in different T intervals are consistent with the theoretical predictions of the one- (1D), two- (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) weak-localization (WL) and the electron-electron interaction (EEI) effects. In particular, a few dimensionality crossovers in the two effects are observed. These crossover phenomena are consistent with the model of a 'core-shell-like structure' in individual IZO NWs, where an outer shell of thickness t (~15-17 nm) is responsible for the quantum-interference transport. In the WL effect, as the electron dephasing length Lφ gradually decreases with increasing T from the lowest measurement temperatures, a 1D-to-2D dimensionality crossover takes place around a characteristic temperature where Lφ approximately equals d, an effective NW diameter which is slightly smaller than the geometric diameter. As T further increases, a 2D-to-3D dimensionality crossover occurs around another characteristic temperature where Lφ approximately equals t (ZnO NWs. This work also strongly

  18. Co/Au multisegmented nanowires: a 3D array of magnetostatically coupled nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bran, C.; Ivanov, Yu P.; Kosel, J.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Vazquez, M.

    2017-03-01

    Arrays of multisegmented Co/Au nanowires with designed segment lengths and diameters have been prepared by electrodeposition into aluminum oxide templates. The high quality of the Co/Au interface and the crystallographic structure of Co segments have determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements show larger coercivity and squareness of multisegmented nanowires as compared to single segment Co nanowires. The complementary micromagnetic simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results, confirming that the magnetic behavior is defined mainly by magnetostatic coupling between different segments. The proposed structure constitutes an innovative route towards a 3D array of synchronized magnetic nano-oscillators with large potential in nanoelectronics.

  19. Time-dependent optical response of three-dimensional Au nanoparticle arrays formed on silica nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mario, Lorenzo; Otomalo, Tadele Orbula; Catone, Daniele; O'Keeffe, Patrick; Tian, Lin; Turchini, Stefano; Palpant, Bruno; Martelli, Faustino

    2018-03-01

    We present stationary and transient absorption measurements on 3D Au nanoparticle (NP)-decorated Si O2 nanowire arrays. The 3D NP array has been produced by the dewetting of a thin Au film deposited on silica nanowires produced by oxidation of silicon nanowires. The experimental behaviors of the spectral and temporal dynamics observed in the experiment are accurately described by a two-step, three-temperature model. Using an arbitrary set of Au NPs with different aspect ratios, we demonstrate that the width of the experimental spectra, the energy shift of their position with time, and the asymmetry between the two positive wings in the dynamical variation of absorption can all be attributed to the nonuniform shape distribution of the Au NPs in the sample.

  20. Hierarchically structured Co₃O₄@Pt@MnO₂ nanowire arrays for high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui; Zhu, Dongdong; Luo, Zhentao; Yu, Yue; Shi, Xiaoqin; Yuan, Guoliang; Xie, Jianping

    2013-10-17

    Here we proposed a novel architectural design of a ternary MnO2-based electrode - a hierarchical Co3O4@Pt@MnO2 core-shell-shell structure, where the complemental features of the three key components (a well-defined Co3O4 nanowire array on the conductive Ti substrate, an ultrathin layer of small Pt nanoparticles, and a thin layer of MnO2 nanoflakes) are strategically combined into a single entity to synergize and construct a high-performance electrode for supercapacitors. Owing to the high conductivity of the well-defined Co3O4 nanowire arrays, in which the conductivity was further enhanced by a thin metal (Pt) coating layer, in combination with the large surface area provided by the small MnO2 nanoflakes, the as-fabricated Co3O4@Pt@MnO2 nanowire arrays have exhibited high specific capacitances, good rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. The architectural design demonstrated in this study provides a new approach to fabricate high-performance MnO2-based nanowire arrays for constructing next-generation supercapacitors.

  1. Magnetic-optical bifunctional CoPt3/Co multilayered nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yi-Kun; Yan, Zhi-Long; Wu, Xi-Ming; Liu, Huan; Ren, Xiao; Yang, Hai-Tao

    2015-10-01

    CoPt3/Co multilayered nanowire (NW) arrays are synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition into nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The electrochemistry deposition parameters are determined by cyclic voltammetry to realize the well control of the ratio of Co to Pt and the length of every segment. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that both Co and CoPt3 NWs exhibit face-centered cubic (fcc) structures. In the UV-visible absorption spectra, CoPt3/Co NW arrays show a red-shift with respect to pure CoPt3NWs. Compared with the pure Co nanowire arrays, the CoPt3/Co multilayered nanowire arrays show a weak shape anisotropy and well-modulated magnetic properties. CoPt3/Co multilayered nanowires are highly encouraging that new families of bimetallic nanosystems may be developed to meet the needs of nanomaterials in emerging multifunctional nanotechnologies. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51472165, 51471185, and 11274370).

  2. Single Zno Nanowire-Based Biofet Sensors for Ultrasensitive, Label-Free and Real-Time Detection of Uric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pei; Liu, Xi; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Lei, Yang; Zhao, Yanguang

    2012-08-01

    Qualitative and quantitative detection of biological and chemical species is crucial in many areas, ranging from clinical diagnosis to homeland security. Due to the advantages of ultrahigh sensitivity, label-free, fast readout and easy fabrication over the traditional detection systems, semiconductor nanowire based electronic devices have emerged as a potential platform. In this paper, we fabricated a single ZnO nanowire-based bioFET sensor for the detection of low and high concentration uric acid solution at the same time. The addition of uric acid with the concentrations from 1 pM to 0.5 mM resulted in the electrical conductance changes of up to 227 nS, and the response time turns out to be in the order of millisecond. The ZnO NW biosensor could easily detect as low as 1 pM of the uric acid with 14.7 nS of conductance increase, which implied that the sensitivity of the biosensor can be below the 1pM concentration.

  3. Optical analysis of a III-V-nanowire-array-on-Si dual junction solar cell.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Höhn, Oliver; Tucher, Nico; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Anttu, Nicklas

    2017-08-07

    A tandem solar cell consisting of a III-V nanowire subcell on top of a planar Si subcell is a promising candidate for next generation photovoltaics due to the potential for high efficiency. However, for success with such applications, the geometry of the system must be optimized for absorption of sunlight. Here, we consider this absorption through optics modeling. Similarly, as for a bulk dual-junction tandem system on a silicon bottom cell, a bandgap of approximately 1.7 eV is optimum for the nanowire top cell. First, we consider a simplified system of bare, uncoated III-V nanowires on the silicon substrate and optimize the absorption in the nanowires. We find that an optimum absorption in 2000 nm long nanowires is reached for a dense array of approximately 15 nanowires per square micrometer. However, when we coat such an array with a conformal indium tin oxide (ITO) top contact layer, a substantial absorption loss occurs in the ITO. This ITO could absorb 37% of the low energy photons intended for the silicon subcell. By moving to a design with a 50 nm thick, planarized ITO top layer, we can reduce this ITO absorption to 5%. However, such a planarized design introduces additional reflection losses. We show that these reflection losses can be reduced with a 100 nm thick SiO 2 anti-reflection coating on top of the ITO layer. When we at the same time include a Si 3 N 4 layer with a thickness of 90 nm on the silicon surface between the nanowires, we can reduce the average reflection loss of the silicon cell from 17% to 4%. Finally, we show that different approximate models for the absorption in the silicon substrate can lead to a 15% variation in the estimated photocurrent density in the silicon subcell.

  4. Disposable sensor based on enzyme-free Ni nanowire array electrode to detect glutamate.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mamun; Hasan, Maksudul; Mathewson, Alan; Razeeb, Kafil M

    2013-02-15

    Enzyme free electrochemical sensor platform based on a vertically aligned nickel nanowire array (NiNAE) and Pt coated nickel nanowire array (Pt/NiNAE) have been developed to detect glutamate. Morphological characterisation of Ni electrodes was carried out using scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry were used to evaluate the catalytic activity of the NiNAE and the Pt/NiNAE for glutamate. It has been found that both NiNAE and Pt/NiNAE electrodes showed remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards glutamate compared to planar Ni electrodes, and showed higher catalytic activity when compared to other metallic nanostructure electrodes such as gold nanowire array electrodes (AuNAE) and Pt coated gold nanowire array electrode (Pt/AuNAE). The sensitivity of NiNAE and Pt/NiNAE has been found to be 65 and 96 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), respectively, which is approximately 6 to 9 times higher than the state of the art glutamate sensor. Under optimal detection conditions, the as prepared sensors exhibited linear behaviour for glutamate detection in the concentration up to 8mM for both NiNAE and Pt/NiNAE with a limit of detection of 68 and 83 μM, respectively. Experimental results show that the vertically aligned ordered nickel nanowire array electrode (NiNAE) has significant promise for fabricating cost effective, enzyme-less, sensitive, stable and selective sensor platform. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural, optical and electrical properties of well-ordered ZnO nanowires grown on (1 1 1) oriented Si, GaAs and InP substrates by electrochemical deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Huyen T.; Nguyen, Tam D.; Tran, Dat Q.; Akabori, Masashi

    2017-05-01

    ZnO semiconductors, especially in form of nanomaterials, possess many excellent properties and have been employed in many applications. In this article, we reported the selective area growth of ZnO nanowires on different (1 1 1) oriented Si, GaAs, and first time on InP substrates by electrochemical deposition method without any seed layers, using zinc nitrate hexahydrate precursor in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine. The position, density and orientation of such ZnO nanowires were controlled by the substrate patterning technique using electron-beam lithography. As-synthesized ZnO nanowires grown on patterned substrates show smaller diameter, higher density and better orientation, compared to the one grown on unpatterned substrates. In particular, the ZnO nanowires grown on GaAs patterned substrate indicate the best morphological property, with the average diameter, length and density of about 100 nm, 2.4 µm and 35 µm-2, respectively. The x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering also demonstrate high crystalline quality of our ZnO nanowires. Moreover, as-reported ZnO nanowires are also conductive, which would allow their use in field-effect transistor and other potential nanoscale device applications.

  6. Three-dimensional electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells: synthesis of indium-tin-oxide nanowire arrays and ITO/TiO2 core-shell nanowire arrays by electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Wen; Ting, Chi-Feng; Hung, Miao-Ken; Chiou, Chwei-Huann; Liu, Ying-Ling; Liu, Zongwen; Ratinac, Kyle R.; Ringer, Simon P.

    2009-02-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) show promise as a cheaper alternative to silicon-based photovoltaics for specialized applications, provided conversion efficiency can be maximized and production costs minimized. This study demonstrates that arrays of nanowires can be formed by wet-chemical methods for use as three-dimensional (3D) electrodes in DSSCs, thereby improving photoelectric conversion efficiency. Two approaches were employed to create the arrays of ITO (indium-tin-oxide) nanowires or arrays of ITO/TiO2 core-shell nanowires; both methods were based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD) within a polycarbonate template. The 3D electrodes for solar cells were constructed by using a doctor-blade for coating TiO2 layers onto the ITO or ITO/TiO2 nanowire arrays. A photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 4.3% was achieved in the DSSCs made from ITO nanowires; this performance was better than that of ITO/TiO2 core-shell nanowires or pristine TiO2 films. Cyclic voltammetry confirmed that the reaction current was significantly enhanced when a 3D ITO-nanowire electrode was used. Better separation of charge carriers and improved charge transport, due to the enlarged interfacial area, are thought to be the major advantages of using 3D nanowire electrodes for the optimization of DSSCs.

  7. Controllable synthesis and optical properties of novel ZnO cone arrays via vapor transport at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinhai; Wang, Guanzhong; Jie, Jiansheng; Choy, Wallace C H; Luo, Yi; Yuk, T I; Hou, J G

    2005-02-24

    Novel ZnO cone arrays with controllable morphologies have been synthesized on silicon (100) substrates by thermal evaporation of metal Zn powder at a low temperature of 570 degrees C without a metal catalyst. Clear structure evolutions were observed using scanning electron microscopy: well-aligned ZnO nanocones, double-cones with growing head cones attached by stem cones, and cones with straight hexagonal pillar were obtained as the distance between the source and the substrates was increased. X-ray diffraction shows that all cone arrays grow along the c-axis. Raman and photoluminescence spectra reveal that the optical properties of the buffer layer between the ZnO cone arrays and the silicon substrates are better than those of the ZnO cone arrays due to high concentration of Zn in the heads of the ZnO cone arrays and higher growth temperature of the buffer layer. The growth of ZnO arrays reveals that the cone arrays are synthesized through a self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process.

  8. In Situ X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy of ZnO Nanowire Growth During Chemical Bath Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    McPeak, Kevin M.; Becker, Matthew A.; Britton, Nathan G.

    2010-12-03

    Chemical bath deposition (CBD) offers a simple and inexpensive route to deposit semiconductor nanostructures, but lack of fundamental understanding and control of the underlying chemistry has limited its versatility. Here we report the first use of in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy during CBD, enabling detailed investigation of both reaction mechanisms and kinetics of ZnO nanowire growth from zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) precursors. Time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra were used to quantify Zn(II) speciation in both solution and solid phases. ZnO crystallizes directly from [Zn(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} without long-lived intermediates. Using ZnO nanowire deposition as an example,more » this study establishes in situ XANES spectroscopy as an excellent quantitative tool to understand CBD of nanomaterials.« less

  9. Ag nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod array on a mechanical flexible substrate with enhanced optical and antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Tse, Wai Hei; Chen, Longyan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Heteronanostructured zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) array are vertically grown on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a hydrothermal method followed by an in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) through a photoreduction process. The Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorods on PDMS are measured with an average diameter of 160 nm and an average length of 2 μm. ZnO NRs measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) shows highly crystalline with a lattice fringe of 0.255 nm, which corresponds to the (0002) planes in ZnO crystal lattice. The average diameter of the Ag NPs in situ deposited on the ZnO NRs is estimated at 22 ± 2 nm. As compared to the bare ZnO NRs, the heterostructured Ag-ZnO nanorod array shows enhanced ultraviolet (UV) absorption at 440 nm, and significant emission in the visible region (λem = 542 nm). In addition, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorod array shows obvious improvement as compared to bare ZnO nanorod array. The cytotoxicity of ZnO nanorod array with and without Ag NPs was studied by using 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. No significant toxic effect is imposed on the cells.

  10. Ag nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod array on a mechanical flexible substrate with enhanced optical and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Tse, Wai Hei; Chen, Longyan; Zhang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Heteronanostructured zinc oxide nanorod (ZnO NR) array are vertically grown on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a hydrothermal method followed by an in situ deposition of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) through a photoreduction process. The Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorods on PDMS are measured with an average diameter of 160 nm and an average length of 2 μm. ZnO NRs measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) shows highly crystalline with a lattice fringe of 0.255 nm, which corresponds to the (0002) planes in ZnO crystal lattice. The average diameter of the Ag NPs in situ deposited on the ZnO NRs is estimated at 22 ± 2 nm. As compared to the bare ZnO NRs, the heterostructured Ag-ZnO nanorod array shows enhanced ultraviolet (UV) absorption at 440 nm, and significant emission in the visible region (λem = 542 nm). In addition, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag-ZnO heterostructured nanorod array shows obvious improvement as compared to bare ZnO nanorod array. The cytotoxicity of ZnO nanorod array with and without Ag NPs was studied by using 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. No significant toxic effect is imposed on the cells.

  11. Interactions and reversal-field memory in complex magnetic nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Aurelian; Lim, Jin-Hee; Lenormand, Denny; Diaconu, Andrei; Wiley, John. B.; Postolache, Petronel; Stancu, Alexandru; Spinu, Leonard

    2011-10-01

    Interactions and magnetization reversal of Ni nanowire arrays have been investigated by the first-order reversal curve (FORC) method. Several series of samples with controlled spatial distribution were considered including simple wires of different lengths and diameters (70 and 110 nm) and complex wires with a single modulated diameter along their length. Subtle features of magnetic interactions are revealed through a quantitative analysis of the local interaction field profile distributions obtained from the FORC method. In addition, the FORC analysis indicates that the nanowire systems with a mean diameter of 70 nm appear to be organized in symmetric clusters indicative of a reversal-field memory effect.

  12. Titanium dioxide nanowire sensor array integration on CMOS platform using deterministic assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Oren Z.; Zhong, Xiahua; Schulman, Daniel S.; Kang, Myungkoo; Razavieh, Ali; Mayer, Theresa S.

    2017-06-01

    Nanosensor arrays have recently received significant attention due to their utility in a wide range of applications, including gas sensing, fuel cells, internet of things, and portable health monitoring systems. Less attention has been given to the production of sensor platforms in the μW range for ultra-low power applications. Here, we discuss how to scale the nanosensor energy demand by developing a process for integration of nanowire sensing arrays on a monolithic CMOS chip. This work demonstrates an off-chip nanowire fabrication method; subsequently nanowires link to a fused SiO2 substrate using electric-field assisted directed assembly. The nanowire resistances shown in this work have the highest resistance uniformity reported to date of 18%, which enables a practical roadmap towards the coupling of nanosensors to CMOS circuits and signal processing systems. The article also presents the utility of optimizing annealing conditions of the off-chip metal-oxides prior to CMOS integration to avoid limitations of thermal budget and process incompatibility. In the context of the platform demonstrated here, directed assembly is a powerful tool that can realize highly uniform, cross-reactive arrays of different types of metal-oxide nanosensors suited for gas discrimination and signal processing systems.

  13. High-Performance Carbon Dioxide Electrocatalytic Reduction by Easily Fabricated Large-Scale Silver Nanowire Arrays.

    PubMed

    Luan, Chuhao; Shao, Yang; Lu, Qi; Gao, Shenghan; Huang, Kai; Wu, Hui; Yao, Kefu

    2018-05-30

    An efficient and selective catalyst is in urgent need for carbon dioxide electroreduction and silver is one of the promising candidates with affordable costs. Here we fabricated large-scale vertically standing Ag nanowire arrays with high crystallinity and electrical conductivity as carbon dioxide electroreduction catalysts by a simple nanomolding method that was usually considered not feasible for metallic crystalline materials. A great enhancement of current densities and selectivity for CO at moderate potentials was achieved. The current density for CO ( j co ) of Ag nanowire array with 200 nm in diameter was more than 2500 times larger than that of Ag foil at an overpotential of 0.49 V with an efficiency over 90%. The origin of enhanced performances are attributed to greatly increased electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) and higher intrinsic activity compared to those of polycrystalline Ag foil. More low-coordinated sites on the nanowires which can stabilize the CO 2 intermediate better are responsible for the high intrinsic activity. In addition, the impact of surface morphology that induces limited mass transportation on reaction selectivity and efficiency of nanowire arrays with different diameters was also discussed.

  14. Titanium dioxide nanowire sensor array integration on CMOS platform using deterministic assembly.

    PubMed

    Gall, Oren Z; Zhong, Xiahua; Schulman, Daniel S; Kang, Myungkoo; Razavieh, Ali; Mayer, Theresa S

    2017-06-30

    Nanosensor arrays have recently received significant attention due to their utility in a wide range of applications, including gas sensing, fuel cells, internet of things, and portable health monitoring systems. Less attention has been given to the production of sensor platforms in the μW range for ultra-low power applications. Here, we discuss how to scale the nanosensor energy demand by developing a process for integration of nanowire sensing arrays on a monolithic CMOS chip. This work demonstrates an off-chip nanowire fabrication method; subsequently nanowires link to a fused SiO 2 substrate using electric-field assisted directed assembly. The nanowire resistances shown in this work have the highest resistance uniformity reported to date of 18%, which enables a practical roadmap towards the coupling of nanosensors to CMOS circuits and signal processing systems. The article also presents the utility of optimizing annealing conditions of the off-chip metal-oxides prior to CMOS integration to avoid limitations of thermal budget and process incompatibility. In the context of the platform demonstrated here, directed assembly is a powerful tool that can realize highly uniform, cross-reactive arrays of different types of metal-oxide nanosensors suited for gas discrimination and signal processing systems.

  15. Comparative study on CO2 and CO sensing performance of LaOCl-coated ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Van Hieu, Nguyen; Khoang, Nguyen Duc; Trung, Do Dang; Toan, Le Duc; Van Duy, Nguyen; Hoa, Nguyen Duc

    2013-01-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from industries and combustion fuels such as coal, oil, hydrocarbon, and natural gases are increasing, thus causing environmental pollution and climate change. The selective detection of CO(2) and CO gases is important for environmental monitoring and industrial safety applications. In this work, LaOCl-coated ZnO nanowires (NWs) sensors are fabricated and characterized for the detection of CO(2) (250-4000 ppm) and CO (10-200 ppm) gases at different operating temperatures. The effects of the LaCl(3) coating concentration and calcination temperature of the sensors are studied. They are found to have a strong influence on the sensing performance to CO(2) gas, but a relatively slight influence on that to CO. The LaOCl coating enhances the response and shortens the response and recovery times to CO(2) compared with those to CO. The enhanced response of the LaOCl-coated ZnO NW sensors is attributed to the extension of the electron depletion layer due to the formation of p-LaOCl/n-ZnO junctions on the surfaces of the ZnO NWs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrahigh-density nanowire arrays grown in self-assembled diblock copolymer templates.

    PubMed

    Thurn-Albrecht, T; Schotter, J; Kästle, G A; Emley, N; Shibauchi, T; Krusin-Elbaum, L; Guarini, K; Black, C T; Tuominen, M T; Russell, T P

    2000-12-15

    We show a simple, robust, chemical route to the fabrication of ultrahigh-density arrays of nanopores with high aspect ratios using the equilibrium self-assembled morphology of asymmetric diblock copolymers. The dimensions and lateral density of the array are determined by segmental interactions and the copolymer molecular weight. Through direct current electrodeposition, we fabricated vertical arrays of nanowires with densities in excess of 1.9 x 10(11) wires per square centimeter. We found markedly enhanced coercivities with ferromagnetic cobalt nanowires that point toward a route to ultrahigh-density storage media. The copolymer approach described is practical, parallel, compatible with current lithographic processes, and amenable to multilayered device fabrication.

  17. Construction of 1D SnO2-coated ZnO nanowire heterojunction for their improved n-butylamine sensing performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liwei; Li, Jintao; Wang, Yinghui; Yu, Kefu; Tang, Xingying; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shaopeng; Wei, Chaoshuai

    2016-10-01

    One-dimensional (1D) SnO2-coated ZnO nanowire (SnO2/ZnO NW) N-N heterojunctions were successfully constructed by an effective solvothermal treatment followed with calcination at 400 °C. The obtained samples were characterized by means of XRD, SEM, TEM, Scanning TEM coupled with EDS and XPS analysis, which confirmed that the outer layers of N-type SnO2 nanoparticles (avg. 4 nm) were uniformly distributed onto our pre-synthesized n-type ZnO nanowire supports (diameter 80~100 nm, length 12~16 μm). Comparisons of the gas sensing performances among pure SnO2, pure ZnO NW and the as-fabricated SnO2/ZnO NW heterojunctions revealed that after modification, SnO2/ZnO NW based sensor exhibited remarkably improved response, fast response and recovery speeds, good selectivity and excellent reproducibility to n-butylamine gas, indicating it can be used as promising candidates for high-performance organic amine sensors. The enhanced gas-sensing behavior should be attributed to the unique 1D wire-like morphology of ZnO support, the small size effect of SnO2 nanoparticles, and the semiconductor depletion layer model induced by the strong interfacial interaction between SnO2 and ZnO of the heterojunctions. The as-prepared SnO2/ZnO NW heterojunctions may also supply other novel applications in the fields like photocatalysis, lithium-ion batteries, waste water purification, and so on.

  18. Dynamical formation of spatially localized arrays of aligned nanowires in plastic films with magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Fragouli, Despina; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Bertoni, Giovanni; Sangregorio, Claudio; Innocenti, Claudia; Falqui, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Cozzoli, Pantaleo Davide; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Cingolani, Roberto

    2010-04-27

    We present a simple technique for magnetic-field-induced formation, assembling, and positioning of magnetic nanowires in a polymer film. Starting from a polymer/iron oxide nanoparticle casted solution that is allowed to dry along with the application of a weak magnetic field, nanocomposite films incorporating aligned nanocrystal-built nanowire arrays are obtained. The control of the dimensions of the nanowires and of their localization across the polymer matrix is achieved by varying the duration of the applied magnetic field, in combination with the evaporation dynamics. These multifunctional anisotropic free-standing nanocomposite films, which demonstrate high magnetic anisotropy, can be used in a wide field of technological applications, ranging from sensors to microfluidics and magnetic devices.

  19. A top-down approach to fabrication of high quality vertical heterostructure nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Sun, Minghua; Ding, Kang; Hill, Martin T; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate a novel top-down approach for fabricating nanowires with unprecedented complexity and optical quality by taking advantage of a nanoscale self-masking effect. We realized vertical arrays of nanowires of 20-40 nm in diameter with 16 segments of complex longitudinal InGaAsP/InP structures. The unprecedented high quality of etched wires is evidenced by the narrowest photoluminescence linewidth ever produced in similar wavelengths, indistinguishable from that of the corresponding wafer. This top-down, mask-free, large scale approach is compatible with the established device fabrication processes and could serve as an important alternative to the bottom-up approach, significantly expanding ranges and varieties of applications of nanowire technology.

  20. Transparent arrays of silver nanowire rings driven by evaporation of sessile droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Kang, Giho; Seong, Baekhoon; Chae, Illkyeong; Teguh Yudistira, Hadi; Lee, Hyungdong; Kim, Hyunggun; Byun, Doyoung

    2017-11-01

    A coffee-ring pattern can be yielded on the three-phase contact line following evaporation of sessile droplets with suspended insoluble solutes, such as particles, DNA molecules, and mammalian cells. The formation of such coffee-ring, together with their suppression has been applied in printing and coating technologies. We present here an experimental study on the assembly of silver nanowires inside an evaporating droplet of a colloidal suspension. The effects of nanowire length and concentration on coffee-ring formation of the colloidal suspension were investigated. Several sizes of NWs with an aspect ratio between 50 and 1000 were systematically investigated to fabricate coffee-ring patterns. Larger droplets containing shorter nanowires formed clearer ring deposits after evaporation. An order-to-disorder transition of the nanowires’ alignment was found inside the rings. A printing technique with the evaporation process enabled fabrication of arrays of silver nanowire rings. We could manipulate the patterns silver nanowire rings, which might be applied to the transparent and flexible electrode.

  1. Optimal geometrical design of inertial vibration DC piezoelectric nanogenerators based on obliquely aligned InN nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Ku, Nai-Jen; Liu, Guocheng; Wang, Chao-Hung; Gupta, Kapil; Liao, Wei-Shun; Ban, Dayan; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2017-09-28

    Piezoelectric nanogenerators have been investigated to generate electricity from environmental vibrations due to their energy conversion capabilities. In this study, we demonstrate an optimal geometrical design of inertial vibration direct-current piezoelectric nanogenerators based on obliquely aligned InN nanowire (NW) arrays with an optimized oblique angle of ∼58°, and driven by the inertial force of their own weight, using a mechanical shaker without any AC/DC converters. The nanogenerator device manifests potential applications not only as a unique energy harvesting device capable of scavenging energy from weak mechanical vibrations, but also as a sensitive strain sensor. The maximum output power density of the nanogenerator is estimated to be 2.9 nW cm -2 , leading to an improvement of about 3-12 times that of vertically aligned ZnO NW DC nanogenerators. Integration of two nanogenerators also exhibits a linear increase in the output power, offering an enormous potential for the creation of self-powered sustainable nanosystems utilizing incessantly natural ambient energy sources.

  2. Magnetization mechanisms in ordered arrays of polycrystalline Fe100-xCox nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viqueira, M. S.; Bajales, N.; Urreta, S. E.; Bercoff, P. G.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetization reversal processes and coercivity mechanisms in polycrystalline Fe100-xCox nanowire arrays, resulting from an AC electrodeposition process, are investigated. The array coercivity is described on the basis of polarization reversal mechanisms operating in individual wires, under the effect of inter-wire dipolar interactions described by a mean field approximation. For individual wires, a reversal mechanism involving the nucleation and further expansion of domain-wall like spin configuration is considered. The wires have a mean grain size larger than both the nanowire diameter and the exchange length, so localized and non-cooperative nucleation modes are considered. As the Co content increases, the alloy saturation polarization gradually decreases, but the coercive field and the relative remanence of the arrays increase, indicating that they are not controlled by the shape anisotropy in all the composition range. The coercive field dependence on the angle between the applied field and the wire long axis is not well described by reversal mechanisms involving nucleation and further displacement of neither vortex nor transverse ideal domain walls. On the contrary, the angular dependence of the coercive field observed at room temperature is well predicted by a model considering nucleation of inverse domains by localized curling, in regions smaller than the grain size, exhibiting quite small aspect ratios as compared to those of the entire nanowire. In arrays with higher Co contents, a transition from an initial (small angle) localized curling nucleation mechanism to another one, involving localized coherent rotation is observed at about π/4.

  3. Fabrication of Ni-silicide/Si heterostructured nanowire arrays by glancing angle deposition and solid state reaction.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsun-Feng; Huang, Wan-Ru; Chen, Ting-Hsuan; Wu, Hwang-Yuan; Chen, Chun-An

    2013-05-10

    This work develops a method for growing Ni-silicide/Si heterostructured nanowire arrays by glancing angle Ni deposition and solid state reaction on ordered Si nanowire arrays. Samples of ordered Si nanowire arrays were fabricated by nanosphere lithography and metal-induced catalytic etching. Glancing angle Ni deposition deposited Ni only on the top of Si nanowires. When the annealing temperature was 500°C, a Ni3Si2 phase was formed at the apex of the nanowires. The phase of silicide at the Ni-silicide/Si interface depended on the diameter of the Si nanowires, such that epitaxial NiSi2 with a {111} facet was formed at the Ni-silicide/Si interface in Si nanowires with large diameter, and NiSi was formed in Si nanowires with small diameter. A mechanism that is based on flux divergence and a nucleation-limited reaction is proposed to explain this phenomenon of size-dependent phase formation.

  4. Fabrication of Ni-silicide/Si heterostructured nanowire arrays by glancing angle deposition and solid state reaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This work develops a method for growing Ni-silicide/Si heterostructured nanowire arrays by glancing angle Ni deposition and solid state reaction on ordered Si nanowire arrays. Samples of ordered Si nanowire arrays were fabricated by nanosphere lithography and metal-induced catalytic etching. Glancing angle Ni deposition deposited Ni only on the top of Si nanowires. When the annealing temperature was 500°C, a Ni3Si2 phase was formed at the apex of the nanowires. The phase of silicide at the Ni-silicide/Si interface depended on the diameter of the Si nanowires, such that epitaxial NiSi2 with a {111} facet was formed at the Ni-silicide/Si interface in Si nanowires with large diameter, and NiSi was formed in Si nanowires with small diameter. A mechanism that is based on flux divergence and a nucleation-limited reaction is proposed to explain this phenomenon of size-dependent phase formation. PMID:23663726

  5. Effect of indium on photovoltaic property of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction device prepared using solution-synthesized ZnO nanowire film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathalingam, Adaikalam; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Hyung-Moo; Valanarasu, Santiyagu; Mahalingam, Thaiyan

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of n-ZnO/p-Si heterostructures using solution-synthesized ZnO nanowire films and their photovoltaic characterization is reported. The solution-grown ZnO nanowire film is characterized using scanning electron microscope, electron dispersive x-ray, and optical absorption studies. Electrical and photovoltaic properties of the fabricated heterostructures are studied using e-beam-evaporated aluminum as metal contacts. In order to use transparent contact and to simultaneously collect the photogenerated carriers, sandwich-type solar cells were fabricated using ZnO nanorod films grown on p-silicon and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass as ITO/n-ZnO NR/p-Si. The electrical properties of these structures are analyzed from current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. ZnO nanowire film thickness-dependent photovoltaic properties are also studied. Indium metal was also deposited over the ZnO nanowires and its effects on the photovoltaic response of the devices were studied. The results demonstrated that all the samples exhibit a strong rectifying behavior indicating the diode nature of the devices. The sandwich-type ITO/n-ZnO NR/p-Si solar cells exhibit improved photovoltaic performance over the Al-metal-coated n-ZnO/p-Si structures. The indium deposition is found to show enhancement in photovoltaic behavior with a maximum open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.3 V and short-circuit current (Isc) of 70×10-6 A under ultraviolet light excitation.

  6. Si-H induced synthesis of Si/Cu2O nanowire arrays for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaoyang; She, Guangwei; Li, Shengyang; Mu, Lixuan; Shi, Wensheng

    2018-01-01

    We report a facile and low-cost method to synthesize Si/Cu2O heterojunction nanowire arrays, without SiOx, at the Si/Cu2O interface. The reductive Si-H bonds on the surface of Si nanowires plays a key role in situ by reducing Cu(II) ions to Cu2O nanocubes and avoiding the SiOx interface layer. Different pH values would vary the electrochemical potential of reactions and as a result, different products would be formed. Utilized as a photoanode for water splitting, Si/Cu2O nanowire arrays exhibit good photoelectrochemical performance.

  7. Controllable fabrication of ultrafine oblique organic nanowire arrays and their application in energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Cheng, Li; Bai, Suo; Su, Chen; Chen, Xiaobo; Qin, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafine organic nanowire arrays (ONWAs) with a controlled direction were successfully fabricated by a novel one-step Faraday cage assisted plasma etching method. The mechanism of formation of nanowire arrays is proposed; the obliquity and aspect ratio can be accurately controlled from approximately 0° to 90° via adjusting the angle of the sample and the etching time, respectively. In addition, the ONWAs were further utilized to improve the output of the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). Compared with the output of TENG composed of vertical ONWAs, the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current and inductive charges were improved by 73%, 150% and 98%, respectively. This research provides a convenient and practical method to fabricate ONWAs with various obliquities on different materials, which can be used for energy harvesting.

  8. Controllable fabrication of ultrafine oblique organic nanowire arrays and their application in energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Cheng, Li; Bai, Suo; Su, Chen; Chen, Xiaobo; Qin, Yong

    2015-01-28

    Ultrafine organic nanowire arrays (ONWAs) with a controlled direction were successfully fabricated by a novel one-step Faraday cage assisted plasma etching method. The mechanism of formation of nanowire arrays is proposed; the obliquity and aspect ratio can be accurately controlled from approximately 0° to 90° via adjusting the angle of the sample and the etching time, respectively. In addition, the ONWAs were further utilized to improve the output of the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). Compared with the output of TENG composed of vertical ONWAs, the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current and inductive charges were improved by 73%, 150% and 98%, respectively. This research provides a convenient and practical method to fabricate ONWAs with various obliquities on different materials, which can be used for energy harvesting.

  9. Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanowire arrays with a large lattice constant for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chenxi; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2009-10-26

    In this paper, we use the transfer matrix method to calculate the optical absorptance of vertically-aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays. For fixed filling ratio, significant optical absorption enhancement occurs when the lattice constant is increased from 100 nm to 600 nm. The enhancement arises from an increase in field concentration within the nanowire as well as excitation of guided resonance modes. We quantify the absorption enhancement in terms of ultimate efficiency. Results show that an optimized SiNW array with lattice constant of 600 nm and wire diameter of 540 nm has a 72.4% higher ultimate efficiency than a Si thin film of equal thickness. The enhancement effect can be maintained over a large range of incidence angles.

  10. Enhanced Structural and Luminescent Properties of Carbon-Assisted ZnO Nanorod Arrays on (100) Si Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Im Taek; Cho, Hak Dong; Lee, Sejoon; Roshchupkin, Dmitry V.

    2018-02-01

    We have fabricated as-grown ZnO nanorods (NRs) and carbon-assisted NR arrays on semi-insulating (100)-oriented Si substrates. We compared the structural and luminescent properties of them. High-resolution transmission microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray revealed that the as-grown ZnO NRs and carbon-assisted ZnO NRs were single crystals with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, and grew with a c-axis orientation perpendicular to the Si substrate. These measurements show that the carbon-assisted ZnO NRs were better synthesized vertically on an Si substrate compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs. Photoluminescence measurements showed that luminescence intensity of the carbon-assisted ZnO NRs was enhanced compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs. The enhanced luminescence intensity of the carbon-assisted ZnO demonstrates the possible improvement in the performance of photovoltaic nanodevices based on ZnO-like materials. This method can be applied to the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO NRs used widely in optoelectronic devices.

  11. Ultrahigh Density Array of Vertically Aligned Small-molecular Organic Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Starko-Bowes, Ryan; Pramanik, Sandipan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years π-conjugated organic semiconductors have emerged as the active material in a number of diverse applications including large-area, low-cost displays, photovoltaics, printable and flexible electronics and organic spin valves. Organics allow (a) low-cost, low-temperature processing and (b) molecular-level design of electronic, optical and spin transport characteristics. Such features are not readily available for mainstream inorganic semiconductors, which have enabled organics to carve a niche in the silicon-dominated electronics market. The first generation of organic-based devices has focused on thin film geometries, grown by physical vapor deposition or solution processing. However, it has been realized that organic nanostructures can be used to enhance performance of above-mentioned applications and significant effort has been invested in exploring methods for organic nanostructure fabrication. A particularly interesting class of organic nanostructures is the one in which vertically oriented organic nanowires, nanorods or nanotubes are organized in a well-regimented, high-density array. Such structures are highly versatile and are ideal morphological architectures for various applications such as chemical sensors, split-dipole nanoantennas, photovoltaic devices with radially heterostructured "core-shell" nanowires, and memory devices with a cross-point geometry. Such architecture is generally realized by a template-directed approach. In the past this method has been used to grow metal and inorganic semiconductor nanowire arrays. More recently π-conjugated polymer nanowires have been grown within nanoporous templates. However, these approaches have had limited success in growing nanowires of technologically important π-conjugated small molecular weight organics, such as tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3), rubrene and methanofullerenes, which are commonly used in diverse areas including organic displays, photovoltaics, thin film transistors

  12. Ultrahigh density array of vertically aligned small-molecular organic nanowires on arbitrary substrates.

    PubMed

    Starko-Bowes, Ryan; Pramanik, Sandipan

    2013-06-18

    In recent years π-conjugated organic semiconductors have emerged as the active material in a number of diverse applications including large-area, low-cost displays, photovoltaics, printable and flexible electronics and organic spin valves. Organics allow (a) low-cost, low-temperature processing and (b) molecular-level design of electronic, optical and spin transport characteristics. Such features are not readily available for mainstream inorganic semiconductors, which have enabled organics to carve a niche in the silicon-dominated electronics market. The first generation of organic-based devices has focused on thin film geometries, grown by physical vapor deposition or solution processing. However, it has been realized that organic nanostructures can be used to enhance performance of above-mentioned applications and significant effort has been invested in exploring methods for organic nanostructure fabrication. A particularly interesting class of organic nanostructures is the one in which vertically oriented organic nanowires, nanorods or nanotubes are organized in a well-regimented, high-density array. Such structures are highly versatile and are ideal morphological architectures for various applications such as chemical sensors, split-dipole nanoantennas, photovoltaic devices with radially heterostructured "core-shell" nanowires, and memory devices with a cross-point geometry. Such architecture is generally realized by a template-directed approach. In the past this method has been used to grow metal and inorganic semiconductor nanowire arrays. More recently π-conjugated polymer nanowires have been grown within nanoporous templates. However, these approaches have had limited success in growing nanowires of technologically important π-conjugated small molecular weight organics, such as tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3), rubrene and methanofullerenes, which are commonly used in diverse areas including organic displays, photovoltaics, thin film transistors

  13. Fabrication of ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array films as electrodes for a high performance lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, M C; Yang, L W; Qi, X; Li, Jun; Zhong, J X

    2010-12-01

    Highly ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array films are fabricated as electrodes for a high performance lithium ion battery via depositing Ni on electroless-etched Si nanowires and subsequently annealing. The structures and morphologies of as-prepared films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. When the potential window versus lithium was controlled, the coated NiO can be selected to be electrochemically active to store and release Li+ ions, while highly conductive crystalline Si cores function as nothing more than a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway. The hybrid nanowire array films exhibit superior cyclic stability and reversible capacity compared to that of NiO nanostructured films. Owing to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowire array films will be promising anode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Controlling the growth and field emission properties of silicide nanowire arrays by direct silicification of Ni foil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihong; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Yang, Deren

    2008-09-17

    Nickel silicide nanowire arrays have been achieved by the decomposition of SiH(4) on Ni foil at 650 °C. It is indicated that the nickel silicide nanowires consist of roots with diameter of about 100-200 nm and tips with diameter of about 10-50 nm. A Ni diffusion controlled mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of the nickel silicide nanowires. Field emission measurement shows that the turn-on field of the nickel silicide nanowire arrays is low, at about 3.7 V µm(-1), and the field enhancement factor is as high as 4280, so the arrays have promising applications as emitters.

  15. Enhanced photoelectric performance in self-powered UV detectors based on ZnO nanowires with plasmonic Au nanoparticles scattered electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yiyu; Ye, Zhizhen; Lu, Bin; Dai, Wei; Pan, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on a fluorine-doped tin-oxide-coated glass substrate by a hydrothermal method. Au nanoparticles were well dispersed in the mixed solution of ethanol and deionized water. A simple self-powered ultraviolet detector based on solid-liquid heterojunction was fabricated, utilizing ZnO NWs as active photoanode and such prepared mixed solution as electrolyte. The introduction of Au nanoparticles results in considerable improvements in the responsivity and sensitivity of the device compared with the one using deionized water as electrolyte, which is attributed to the enhanced light harvesting by Au nanoparticles.

  16. Energy penetration into arrays of aligned nanowires irradiated with relativistic intensities: Scaling to terabar pressures

    DOE PAGES

    Bargsten, Clayton; Hollinger, Reed; Capeluto, Maria Gabriela; ...

    2017-01-11

    Ultrahigh-energy density (UHED) matter, characterized by energy densities >1 × 10 8 J cm –3 and pressures greater than a gigabar, is encountered in the center of stars and inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world’s largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultrahigh contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto targets composed of aligned nanowire arrays. We report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high-aspect-ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration. By monitoring the x-ray emission from buried Co tracer segments in Ni nanowire arrays irradiated atmore » an intensity of 4 × 10 19 W cm –2, we demonstrate energy penetration depths of several micrometers, leading to UHED plasmas of that size. As a result, relativistic three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, validated by these measurements, predict that irradiation of nanostructures at intensities of >1 × 10 22 W cm –2 will lead to a virtually unexplored extreme UHED plasma regime characterized by energy densities in excess of 8 × 10 10 J cm –3, equivalent to a pressure of 0.35 Tbar.« less

  17. Plasma nitriding induced growth of Pt-nanowire arrays as high performance electrocatalysts for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Shangfeng; Lin, Kaijie; Malladi, Sairam K.; Lu, Yaxiang; Sun, Shuhui; Xu, Qiang; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert; Dong, Hanshan

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an innovative approach, combing a novel active screen plasma (ASP) technique with green chemical synthesis, for a direct fabrication of uniform Pt nanowire arrays on large-area supports. The ASP treatment enables in-situ N-doping and surface modification to the support surface, significantly promoting the uniform growth of tiny Pt nuclei which directs the growth of ultrathin single-crystal Pt nanowire (2.5-3 nm in diameter) arrays, forming a three-dimensional (3D) nano-architecture. Pt nanowire arrays in-situ grown on the large-area gas diffusion layer (GDL) (5 cm2) can be directly used as the catalyst electrode in fuel cells. The unique design brings in an extremely thin electrocatalyst layer, facilitating the charge transfer and mass transfer properties, leading to over two times higher power density than the conventional Pt nanoparticle catalyst electrode in real fuel cell environment. Due to the similar challenges faced with other nanostructures and the high availability of ASP for other material surfaces, this work will provide valuable insights and guidance towards the development of other new nano-architectures for various practical applications.

  18. Synchrotron emission from nanowire array targets irradiated by ultraintense laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, B.; d’Humières, E.; Gremillet, L.

    2018-07-01

    We present a numerical study, based on two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, of the synchrotron emission induced during the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses of intensities I = 1021–1023 W cm‑2 with nanowire arrays. Through an extensive parametric scan on the target parameters, we identify and characterize several dominant radiation mechanisms, mainly depending on the transparency or opacity of the plasma produced by the wire expansion. At I = 1022 W m‑2, the emission of high-energy (>10 keV) photons attains a maximum conversion efficiency of ∼10% for 36–50 nm wire widths and 1 μm interspacing. This maximum radiation yield is found to be similar to that achieved in a uniform plasma of same average (sub-solid) density, but nanowire arrays provide efficient radiation sources over a broader parameter range. Moreover, we examine the variations of the photon spectra with the laser intensity and the wire material, and we demonstrate that the radiation efficiency can be further enhanced by adding a plasma mirror at the backside of the nanowire array. Finally, we briefly consider the influence of a finite laser focal spot and oblique incidence angle.

  19. Energy penetration into arrays of aligned nanowires irradiated with relativistic intensities: Scaling to terabar pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Bargsten, Clayton; Hollinger, Reed; Capeluto, Maria Gabriela

    Ultrahigh-energy density (UHED) matter, characterized by energy densities >1 × 10 8 J cm –3 and pressures greater than a gigabar, is encountered in the center of stars and inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world’s largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultrahigh contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto targets composed of aligned nanowire arrays. We report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high-aspect-ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration. By monitoring the x-ray emission from buried Co tracer segments in Ni nanowire arrays irradiated atmore » an intensity of 4 × 10 19 W cm –2, we demonstrate energy penetration depths of several micrometers, leading to UHED plasmas of that size. As a result, relativistic three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, validated by these measurements, predict that irradiation of nanostructures at intensities of >1 × 10 22 W cm –2 will lead to a virtually unexplored extreme UHED plasma regime characterized by energy densities in excess of 8 × 10 10 J cm –3, equivalent to a pressure of 0.35 Tbar.« less

  20. Energy Penetration into Arrays of Aligned Nanowires Irradiated with Relativistic Intensities: Scaling to Terabar Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Bargsten, Clayton; Hollinger, Reed; Capeluto, Maria Gabriela

    Ultra-high-energy-density (UHED) matter, characterized by energy densities > 1 x 10 8 J cm -3 and pressures greater than a gigabar, is encountered in the center of stars and in inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world’s largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultra-high contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto targets composed of aligned nanowire arrays. Here we report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high aspect ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration. By monitoring the x-ray emission from buried Co tracer segments in Nimore » nanowire arrays irradiated at an intensity of 4 x 10 19 W cm -2, we demonstrate energy penetration depths of several μm, leading to UHED plasmas of that size. Relativistic 3D particle-in-cell-simulations, validated by these measurements, predict that irradiation of nanostructures at intensities of > 1 x 10 22 W cm -2 will lead to a virtually unexplored extreme UHED plasma regime characterized by energy densities in excess of 8 x 10 10 J cm -3, equivalent to a pressure of 0.35 Tbar.« less

  1. Energy penetration into arrays of aligned nanowires irradiated with relativistic intensities: Scaling to terabar pressures.

    PubMed

    Bargsten, Clayton; Hollinger, Reed; Capeluto, Maria Gabriela; Kaymak, Vural; Pukhov, Alexander; Wang, Shoujun; Rockwood, Alex; Wang, Yong; Keiss, David; Tommasini, Riccardo; London, Richard; Park, Jaebum; Busquet, Michel; Klapisch, Marcel; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav N; Rocca, Jorge J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrahigh-energy density (UHED) matter, characterized by energy densities >1 × 10 8 J cm -3 and pressures greater than a gigabar, is encountered in the center of stars and inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world's largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultrahigh contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto targets composed of aligned nanowire arrays. We report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high-aspect-ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration. By monitoring the x-ray emission from buried Co tracer segments in Ni nanowire arrays irradiated at an intensity of 4 × 10 19 W cm -2 , we demonstrate energy penetration depths of several micrometers, leading to UHED plasmas of that size. Relativistic three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, validated by these measurements, predict that irradiation of nanostructures at intensities of >1 × 10 22 W cm -2 will lead to a virtually unexplored extreme UHED plasma regime characterized by energy densities in excess of 8 × 10 10 J cm -3 , equivalent to a pressure of 0.35 Tbar.

  2. Energy Density in Aligned Nanowire Arrays Irradiated with Relativistic Intensities: Path to Terabar Pressure Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, J.; Bargsten, C.; Hollinger, R.; Shylaptsev, V.; Wang, S.; Rockwood, A.; Wang, Y.; Keiss, D.; Capeluto, M.; Kaymak, V.; Pukhov, A.; Tommasini, R.; London, R.; Park, J.

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-high-energy-density (UHED) plasmas, characterized by energy densities >1 x 108 J cm-3 and pressures greater than a gigabar are encountered in the center of stars and in inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world's largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultra-high contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto aligned nanowire array targets. Here we report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high aspect ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration. By monitoring the x-ray emission from buried Co tracer segments in Ni nanowire arrays irradiated at an intensity of 4 x 1019 W cm-2, we demonstrate energy penetration depths of several μm, leading to UHED plasmas of that size. Relativistic 3D particle-in-cell-simulations validated by these measurements predict that irradiation of nanostructures at increased intensity will lead to a virtually unexplored extreme UHED plasma regime characterized by energy densities in excess of 8 x 1010 J cm-3, equivalent to a pressure of 0.35 Tbar. This work was supported by the Fusion Energy Program, Office of Science of the U.S Department of Energy, and by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  3. Energy penetration into arrays of aligned nanowires irradiated with relativistic intensities: Scaling to terabar pressures

    PubMed Central

    Bargsten, Clayton; Hollinger, Reed; Capeluto, Maria Gabriela; Kaymak, Vural; Pukhov, Alexander; Wang, Shoujun; Rockwood, Alex; Wang, Yong; Keiss, David; Tommasini, Riccardo; London, Richard; Park, Jaebum; Busquet, Michel; Klapisch, Marcel; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav N.; Rocca, Jorge J.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrahigh-energy density (UHED) matter, characterized by energy densities >1 × 108 J cm−3 and pressures greater than a gigabar, is encountered in the center of stars and inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world’s largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultrahigh contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto targets composed of aligned nanowire arrays. We report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high-aspect-ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration. By monitoring the x-ray emission from buried Co tracer segments in Ni nanowire arrays irradiated at an intensity of 4 × 1019 W cm−2, we demonstrate energy penetration depths of several micrometers, leading to UHED plasmas of that size. Relativistic three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, validated by these measurements, predict that irradiation of nanostructures at intensities of >1 × 1022 W cm−2 will lead to a virtually unexplored extreme UHED plasma regime characterized by energy densities in excess of 8 × 1010 J cm−3, equivalent to a pressure of 0.35 Tbar. PMID:28097218

  4. Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators based on a transferred ZnO nanorod/Si micro-pillar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Park, Il-Kyu

    2017-03-01

    Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) based on a composite of ZnO nanorods (NRs) and an array of Si micro-pillars (MPs) are demonstrated by a transfer process. The flexible composite structure was fabricated by hydrothermal growth of ZnO NRs on an electrochemically etched Si MP array with various lengths followed by mechanically delaminating the Si MP arrays from the Si substrate after embedding them in a polydimethylsiloxane matrix. Because the Si MP arrays act as a supporter to connect the ZnO NRs electrically and mechanically, verified by capacitance measurement, the output voltage from the flexible PNGs increased systematically with the increased density ZnO NRs depending on the length of the Si MPs. The flexible PNGs showed 3.2 times higher output voltage with a small change in current with increasing Si MP length from 5 to 20 μm. The enhancement of the output voltage is due to the increased number of series-connected ZnO NRs and the beneficial effect of a ZnO NR/Si MP heterojunction on reducing free charge screening effects. The flexible PNGs can be attached on fingers as a wearable electrical power source or motion sensor.

  5. Process Development of Gallium Nitride Phosphide Core-Shell Nanowire Array Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Chen

    Dilute Nitride GaNP is a promising materials for opto-electronic applications due to its band gap tunability. The efficiency of GaNxP1-x /GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire solar cell (NWSC) is expected to reach as high as 44% by 1% N and 9% N in the core and shell, respectively. By developing such high efficiency NWSCs on silicon substrate, a further reduction of the cost of solar photovoltaic can be further reduced to 61$/MWh, which is competitive to levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of fossil fuels. Therefore, a suitable NWSC structure and fabrication process need to be developed to achieve this promising NWSC. This thesis is devoted to the study on the development of fabrication process of GaNxP 1-x/GaNyP1-y core-shell Nanowire solar cell. The thesis is divided into two major parts. In the first parts, previously grown GaP/GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire samples are used to develop the fabrication process of Gallium Nitride Phosphide nanowire solar cell. The design for nanowire arrays, passivation layer, polymeric filler spacer, transparent col- lecting layer and metal contact are discussed and fabricated. The property of these NWSCs are also characterized to point out the future development of Gal- lium Nitride Phosphide NWSC. In the second part, a nano-hole template made by nanosphere lithography is studied for selective area growth of nanowires to improve the structure of core-shell NWSC. The fabrication process of nano-hole templates and the results are presented. To have a consistent features of nano-hole tem- plate, the Taguchi Method is used to optimize the fabrication process of nano-hole templates.

  6. Electrodeposition of ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO substrate with tunable orientation and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Jehl, Z; Rousset, J; Donsanti, F; Renou, G; Naghavi, N; Lincot, D

    2010-10-01

    The electrodeposition of ZnO nanorods on ZnO:Al films with different orientations is reported. The influence of the total charge exchanged during electrodeposition on the nanorod's geometry (length, diameter, aspect ratio and surface density) and the optical transmission properties of the nanorod arrays is studied on a [0001]-oriented ZnO:Al substrate. The nanorods are highly vertically oriented along the c axis, following the lattice matching with the substrate. The growth on a [1010] and [1120] ZnO:Al-oriented substrate with c axis parallel to the substrate leads to a systematic deviation angle of 55 degrees from the perpendicular direction. This finding has been explained by the occurrence of a minority orientation with the [1011] planes parallel to the surface, with a preferential growth on corresponding [0001] termination. Substrate crystalline orientation is thereby found to be a major parameter in finely tuning the orientation of the nanorod array. This new approach allows us to optimize the light scattering properties of the films.

  7. Effect of growth time to the properties of Al-doped ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Saidi, S. A.; Yusoff, M. M.; Mohamed, R.; Sin, N. D. Md; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Aluminum (Al)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod array films were successfully deposited at different growth time on zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer coated glass substrate using sol-gel immersion method. The morphology images of the films showed that the thicknesses of the films were increased parallel with the increment of growth period. The surface topology of the films displayed an increment of roughness as the growth period increased. Optical properties of the samples exposed that the percentage of transmittances reduced at higher growth time. Besides, the Urbach energy of the films slightly increased as the immersion time increased. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement indicated that the resistance increased as the immersion time increased owing to the appearance of intrinsic layer on top of the nanorods.

  8. Chemical growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on textured nanoparticle nanoribbons and its second-harmonic generation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Zhou; Wang, Xian; Liu, Jian; Yan, Shanshan; Ding, Yanyan; Wang, Zhengzhou; Hu, Yuan

    2006-07-01

    On the basis of the highly oriented ZnO nanoparticle nanoribbons as the growth seed layer (GSL) and solution growth technique, we have synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod arrays with high density over a large area and multi-teeth brush nanostructure, respectively, according to the density degree of the arrangement of nanoparticle nanoribbons GSL on the glass substrate. This controllable and convenient technique opens the possibility of creating nanostructured film for industrial fabrication and may represent a facile way to get similar structures of other compounds by using highly oriented GSL to promote the vertical arrays growth. The growth mechanism of the formation of the ordered nanorod arrays is also discussed. The second-order nonlinear optical coefficient d31 of the vertical ZnO nanorod arrays measured by the Maker fringes technique is 11.3 times as large as that of d36 KH 2PO 4 (KDP).

  9. Temperature-dependent structure and phase variation of nickel silicide nanowire arrays prepared by in situ silicidation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hailong; She, Guangwei, E-mail: shegw@mail.ipc.ac.cn; Mu, Lixuan

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlight: ► Nickel silicides nanowire arrays prepared by a simple in situ silicidation method. ► Phases of nickel silicides could be varied by tuning the reaction temperature. ► A growth model was proposed for the nickel silicides nanowires. ► Diffusion rates of Ni and Si play a critical role for the phase variation. -- Abstract: In this paper, we report an in situ silicidizing method to prepare nickel silicide nanowire arrays with varied structures and phases. The in situ reaction (silicidation) between Si and NiCl{sub 2} led to conversion of Si nanowires to nickel silicide nanowires.more » Structures and phases of the obtained nickel silicides could be varied by changing the reaction temperature. At a relatively lower temperature of 700 °C, the products are Si/NiSi core/shell nanowires or NiSi nanowires, depending on the concentration of NiCl{sub 2} solution. At a higher temperature (800 °C and 900 °C), other phases of the nickel silicides, including Ni{sub 2}Si, Ni{sub 31}Si{sub 12}, and NiSi{sub 2}, were obtained. It is proposed that the different diffusion rates of Ni and Si atoms at different temperatures played a critical role in the formation of nickel silicide nanowires with different phases.« less

  10. Glucose biosensor based on functionalized ZnO nanowire/graphite films dispersed on a Pt electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallay, P.; Tosi, E.; Madrid, R.; Tirado, M.; Comedi, D.

    2016-10-01

    We present a glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanowire self-sustained films grown on compacted graphite flakes by the vapor transport method. Nanowire/graphite films were fragmented in water, filtered to form a colloidal suspension, subsequently functionalized with glucose oxidase and finally transferred to a metal electrode (Pt). The obtained devices were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrochemical responses of the devices were determined in buffer solutions with successive glucose aggregates using a tripolar electrode system. The nanostructured biosensors showed excellent analytical performance, with linear response to glucose concentrations, high sensitivity of up to ≈17 μA cm-2 mM-1 in the 0.03-1.52 mM glucose concentration range, relatively low Michaelis-Menten constant, excellent reproducibility and a fast response. The detection limits are more than an order of magnitude lower than those achievable in commercial biosensors for glucose control, which is promising for the development of glucose monitoring methods that do not require blood extraction from potentially diabetic patients. The strong detection enhancements provided by the functionalized nanostructures are much larger than the electrode surface-area increase and are discussed in terms of the physical and chemical mechanisms involved in the detection and transduction processes.

  11. Stability Enhancement of Silver Nanowire Networks with Conformal ZnO Coatings Deposited by Atmospheric Pressure Spatial Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Khan, Afzal; Nguyen, Viet Huong; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Aghazadehchors, Sara; Jiménez, Carmen; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy; Bellet, Daniel

    2018-06-06

    Silver nanowire (AgNW) networks offer excellent electrical and optical properties and have emerged as one of the most attractive alternatives to transparent conductive oxides to be used in flexible optoelectronic applications. However, AgNW networks still suffer from chemical, thermal, and electrical instabilities, which in some cases can hinder their efficient integration as transparent electrodes in devices such as solar cells, transparent heaters, touch screens, and organic light emitting diodes. We have used atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition (AP-SALD) to fabricate hybrid transparent electrode materials in which the AgNW network is protected by a conformal thin layer of zinc oxide. The choice of AP-SALD allows us to maintain the low-cost and scalable processing of AgNW-based transparent electrodes. The effects of the ZnO coating thickness on the physical properties of AgNW networks are presented. The composite electrodes show a drastic enhancement of both thermal and electrical stabilities. We found that bare AgNWs were stable only up to 300 °C when subjected to thermal ramps, whereas the ZnO coating improved the stability up to 500 °C. Similarly, ZnO-coated AgNWs exhibited an increase of 100% in electrical stability with respect to bare networks, withstanding up to 18 V. A simple physical model shows that the origin of the stability improvement is the result of hindered silver atomic diffusion thanks to the presence of the thin oxide layer and the quality of the interfaces of hybrid electrodes. The effects of ZnO coating on both the network adhesion and optical transparency are also discussed. Finally, we show that the AP-SALD ZnO-coated AgNW networks can be effectively used as very stable transparent heaters.

  12. Peptide Modified ZnO Nanoparticles as Gas Sensors Array for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    PubMed Central

    Mascini, Marcello; Gaggiotti, Sara; Della Pelle, Flavio; Di Natale, Corrado; Qakala, Sinazo; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Pittia, Paola; Compagnone, Dario

    2018-01-01

    In this work a peptide based gas sensor array based of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) has been realized. Four different pentapeptides molecularly modeled for alcohols and esters having cysteine as a common spacer have been immobilized onto ZnONPs. ZnONPs have been morphologically and spectroscopically characterized. Modified nanoparticles have been then deposited onto quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) and used as gas sensors with nitrogen as carrier gas. Analysis of the pure compounds modeled demonstrated a nice fitting of modeling with real data. The peptide based ZnONPs had very low sensitivity to water, compared to previously studied AuNPs peptide based gas sensors allowing the use of the array on samples with high water content. Real samples of fruit juices have been assayed; stability of the signal, good repeatability, and discrimination ability of the array was achieved. PMID:29713626

  13. Peptide Modified ZnO Nanoparticles as Gas Sensors Array for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs).

    PubMed

    Mascini, Marcello; Gaggiotti, Sara; Della Pelle, Flavio; Di Natale, Corrado; Qakala, Sinazo; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Pittia, Paola; Compagnone, Dario

    2018-01-01

    In this work a peptide based gas sensor array based of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) has been realized. Four different pentapeptides molecularly modeled for alcohols and esters having cysteine as a common spacer have been immobilized onto ZnONPs. ZnONPs have been morphologically and spectroscopically characterized. Modified nanoparticles have been then deposited onto quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) and used as gas sensors with nitrogen as carrier gas. Analysis of the pure compounds modeled demonstrated a nice fitting of modeling with real data. The peptide based ZnONPs had very low sensitivity to water, compared to previously studied AuNPs peptide based gas sensors allowing the use of the array on samples with high water content. Real samples of fruit juices have been assayed; stability of the signal, good repeatability, and discrimination ability of the array was achieved.

  14. Peptide modified ZnO nanoparticles as gas sensors array for volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascini, Marcello; Gaggiotti, Sara; Della Pelle, Flavio; Di Natale, Corrado; Qakala, Sinazo; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Pittia, Paola; Compagnone, Dario

    2018-04-01

    In this work a peptide based gas sensor array based of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) has been realized. Four different pentapeptides molecularly modelled for alcohols and esters having cysteine as a common spacer have been immobilized onto ZnONPs. ZnONPs have been morphologically and spectroscopically characterized. Modified nanoparticles have been then deposited onto quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) and used as gas sensors with nitrogen as carrier gas. Analysis of the pure compounds modelled demonstrated a nice fitting of modelling with real data. The peptide based ZnONPs had very low sensitivity to water, compared to previously studied AuNPs peptide based gas sensors allowing the use of the array on samples with high water content. Real samples of fruit juices have been assayed; stability of the signal, good repeatability and discrimination ability of the array was achieved.

  15. Electrodeposition of Rhodium Nanowires Arrays and Their Morphology-Dependent Hydrogen Evolution Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liqiu; Liu, Lichun; Wang, Hongdan; Shen, Hongxia; Cheng, Qiong; Yan, Chao; Park, Sungho

    2017-01-01

    This work reports on the electrodeposition of rhodium (Rh) nanowires with a controlled surface morphology synthesized using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Vertically aligned Rh nanowires with a smooth and coarse morphology were successfully deposited by adjusting the electrode potential and the concentration of precursor ions and by involving a complexing reagent in the electrolyte solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were used to follow the morphological evolution of Rh nanowires. As a heterogeneous electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER), the coarse Rh nanowire array exhibited an enhanced catalytic performance respect to smooth ones due to the larger surface area to mass ratio and the higher density of catalytically active defects, as evidenced by voltammetric measurements and TEM. Results suggest that the morphology of metallic nanomaterials could be readily engineered by electrodeposition. The controlled electrodeposition offers great potential for the development of an effective synthesis tool for heterogeneous catalysts with a superior performance for wide applications. PMID:28467375

  16. Micromagnetic simulation and the angular dependence of coercivity and remanence for array of polycrystalline nickel nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, G. P.; Holanda, J.; Guerra, Y.; Silva, D. B. O.; Farias, B. V. M.; Padrón-Hernández, E.

    2017-02-01

    We present here our experimental results for the preparation and characterization of nanowires of nickel and the analysis of the angular dependence of coercivity and remanence using experimental data and micromagnetic simulation. The fabrication was made by using aluminum oxide membranes as templates and deposited nickel by an electrochemical route. The magnetic measurements showed that coercivity and remanence are dependent of the angle of application of the external magnetic field. Our results are different than that expected for the coherent, vortex and transversal modes of the reversion for the magnetic moments. According to the transmission electron microscopy analysis we can see that our nanowires have not a perfect cylindrical format. That is why we have used the ellipsoids chain model for better understanding the real structure of wires and its relation with the magnetic behavior. In order to generate theoretical results for this configuration we have made micromagnetic simulation using Nmag code. Our numerical results for the realistic distances are in correspondence with the magnetic measurements and we can see that there are contradictions if we assume the transverse reversal mode. Then, we can conclude that structure of nanowires should be taken into account to understand the discrepancies reported in the literature for the reversion mechanism in arrays of nickel nanowires.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays: Dependence of morphology and alignment on growth conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Azzez, Shrook A., E-mail: shurouq44@yahoo.com; Hassan, Z.; Alimanesh, M.

    Highly oriented zinc oxide nanorod were successfully grown on seeded p-type silicon substrate by hydrothermal methode. The morphology and the crystallinty of ZnO c-axis (002) arrays were systematically studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The effect of seed layer pre-annealing on nanorods properties was explained according to the nucleation site of ZnO nanoparticles on silicon substrate. In addition, the variation of the equal molarity of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamine concentrations in the reaction vessel play a crucial role related to the ZnO nanorods.

  18. Low-Cost and High-Productivity Three-Dimensional Nanocapacitors Based on Stand-Up ZnO Nanowires for Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lei; Liu, Qi-Xuan; Zhu, Bao; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Lu, Hong-Liang; Jiang, Anquan; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-12-01

    Highly powered electrostatic capacitors based on nanostructures with a high aspect ratio are becoming critical for advanced energy storage technology because of their high burst power and energy storage capability. We report the fabrication process and the electrical characteristics of high capacitance density capacitors with three-dimensional solid-state nanocapacitors based on a ZnO nanowire template. Stand-up ZnO nanowires are grown face down on p-type Si substrates coated with a ZnO seed layer using a hydrothermal method. Stacks of AlZnO/Al2O3/AlZnO are then deposited sequentially on the ZnO nanowires using atomic layer deposition. The fabricated capacitor has a high capacitance density up to 92 fF/μm(2) at 1 kHz (around ten times that of the planar capacitor without nanowires) and an extremely low leakage current density of 3.4 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) at 2 V for a 5-nm Al2O3 dielectric. Additionally, the charge-discharge characteristics of the capacitor were investigated, indicating that the resistance-capacitance time constants were 550 ns for both the charging and discharging processes and the time constant was not dependent on the voltage. This reflects good power characteristics of the fabricated capacitors. Therefore, the current work provides an exciting strategy to fabricate low-cost and easily processable, high capacitance density capacitors for energy storage.

  19. High-gain subnanowatt power consumption hybrid complementary logic inverter with WSe2 nanosheet and ZnO nanowire transistors on glass.

    PubMed

    Shokouh, Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Pezeshki, Atiye; Ali Raza, Syed Raza; Lee, Hee Sung; Min, Sung-Wook; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Shin, Jae Min; Im, Seongil

    2015-01-07

    A 1D-2D hybrid complementary logic inverter comprising of ZnO nanowire and WSe2 nanosheet field-effect transistors (FETs) is fabricated on glass, which shows excellent static and dynamic electrical performances with a voltage gain of ≈60, sub-nanowatt power consumption, and at least 1 kHz inverting speed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Misfit-guided self-organization of anti-correlated Ge quantum dot arrays on Si nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soonshin; Chen, Zack C.Y.; Kim, Ji-Hun; Xiang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Misfit-strain guided growth of periodic quantum dot (QD) arrays in planar thin film epitaxy has been a popular nanostructure fabrication method. Engineering misfit-guided QD growth on a nanoscale substrate such as the small curvature surface of a nanowire represents a new approach to self-organized nanostructure preparation. Perhaps more profoundly, the periodic stress underlying each QD and the resulting modulation of electro-optical properties inside the nanowire backbone promise to provide a new platform for novel mechano-electronic, thermoelectronic, and optoelectronic devices. Herein, we report a first experimental demonstration of self-organized and self-limited growth of coherent, periodic Ge QDs on a one dimensional Si nanowire substrate. Systematic characterizations reveal several distinctively different modes of Ge QD ordering on the Si nanowire substrate depending on the core diameter. In particular, Ge QD arrays on Si nanowires of around 20 nm diameter predominantly exhibit an anti-correlated pattern whose wavelength agrees with theoretical predictions. The correlated pattern can be attributed to propagation and correlation of misfit strain across the diameter of the thin nanowire substrate. The QD array growth is self-limited as the wavelength of the QDs remains unchanged even after prolonged Ge deposition. Furthermore, we demonstrate a direct kinetic transformation from a uniform Ge shell layer to discrete QD arrays by a post-growth annealing process. PMID:22889063

  1. Novel Gas Sensor Based on ZnO Nanorod Circular Arrays for C2H5OH Gas Detection.

    PubMed

    Jianjiao, Zhang; Hongyan, Yue; Erjun, Guo; Shaolin, Zhang; Liping, Wang; Chunyu, Zhang; Xin, Gao; Jing, Chang; Hong, Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Novel side-heating gas sensor based on ZnO nanorod circular arrays was firstly fabricated by hydrothermal treatment assisted with a kind of simple dip-coating technique. The structure and morphologies of ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), respectively. XRD result indicates that the obtained ZnO nanorods have good crystalline with the hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM result indicates that ZnO nanorod arrays are vertically growth on the surface of ceramic tube of side-heating sensor with controlled diameter and length, narrow size distribution and high orientation. The gas sensing properties of ZnO nanorod circular arrays are also evaluated. Comparative to the sensor based on scattered ZnO nanorods responding to 25 ppm H2, CO, C6H5CH3 and C2H5OH gas, respectively, the sensing values of high orientation gas sensor are generally increased by 5%. This novel sensor has good application promising for the fabrication of cost effective and high performance gas sensors.

  2. Catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires on ITO seed/glass by thermal evaporation method: Effects of ITO seed layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Alsultany, Forat H., E-mail: foratusm@gmail.com; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hassan, Z.

    A seed/catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanowires (ZnO-NWs) on a glass substrate were successfully fabricated using thermal evaporation technique. These nanowires were grown on ITO seed layers of different thicknesses of 25 and 75 nm, which were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Prior to synthesized ITO nanowires, the sputtered ITO seeds were annealed using the continuous wave (CW) CO2 laser at 450 °C in air for 15 min. The effect of seed layer thickness on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of ZnO-NWs were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM),more » and UV-Vis spectrophotometer.« less

  3. Increased short circuit current in organic photovoltaic using high-surface area electrode based on ZnO nanowires decorated with CdTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Aga, R S; Gunther, D; Ueda, A; Pan, Z; Collins, W E; Mu, R; Singer, K D

    2009-11-18

    A photosensitized high-surface area transparent electrode has been employed to increase the short circuit current of a photovoltaic device with a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the active layer. This is achieved by directly growing ZnO nanowires on indium tin oxide (ITO) film via a physical vapor method. The nanowire surface is then decorated with CdTe quantum dots by pulsed electron-beam deposition (PED). The nanowires alone provided a 20-fold increase in the short circuit current under visible light illumination. This was further increased by a factor of approximately 1.5 by the photosensitization effect of CdTe, which has an optical absorption of up to 820 nm.

  4. Near-Field Imaging of Free Carriers in ZnO Nanowires with a Scanning Probe Tip Made of Heavily Doped Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakat, Emilie; Giliberti, Valeria; Bollani, Monica; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Pea, Marialilia; Finazzi, Marco; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Melli, Mauro; Sassolini, Simone; Cabrini, Stefano; Biagioni, Paolo; Ortolani, Michele; Baldassarre, Leonetta

    2017-11-01

    A novel scanning probe tip made of heavily doped semiconductor is fabricated and used instead of standard gold-coated tips in infrared scattering-type near-field microscopy. Midinfrared near-field microscopy experiments are conducted on ZnO nanowires with a lateral resolution better than 100 nm, using tips made of heavily electron-doped germanium with a plasma frequency in the midinfrared (plasma wavelength of 9.5 μ m ). Nanowires embedded in a dielectric matrix are imaged at two wavelengths, 11.3 and 8.0 μ m , above and below the plasma wavelength of the tips. An opposite sign of the imaging contrasts between the nanowire and the dielectric matrix is observed at the two infrared wavelengths, indicating a clear role of the free-electron plasma in the heavily doped germanium tip in building the imaging contrast. Electromagnetic simulations with a multispherical dipole model accounting for the finite size of the tip are well consistent with the experiments. By comparison of the simulated and measured imaging contrasts, an estimate for the local free-carrier density in the investigated ZnO nanowires in the low 1019 cm-3 range is retrieved. The results are benchmarked against the scattering intensity and phase maps obtained on the same sample with a gold-coated probe tip in pseudoheterodyne detection mode.

  5. Growth of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays and Their Application for Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhaolin; Yao, Juncai

    2017-11-01

    We have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs) on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates by a facile chemical bath deposition method. We used field-emission scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy to study the morphology, crystalline structure and optical absorption of the fabricated ZNRAs, respectively. The results showed that ZnO nanorods stood almost perpendicularly on the substrate, were about 30-50 nm in diameter and 800-900 nm in length, and were wurtzite-structured (hexagonal) ZnO. In addition, well-aligned ZNRAs exhibited a weak absorption in the visible region and had an optical band gap value of 3.28 eV. Furthermore, a hybrid ZNRAs/polymer photovoltaic device was made, under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination (light intensity, ˜100 mW/cm2), and the device showed an open circuit voltage ( V oc) of 0.32 V, a short circuit current density ( J sc) of 7.67 mA/cm2, and a fill factor ( FF) of 0.37, yielding an overall power conversion efficiency of 0.91%. Also, the exciton dissociation and transportation processes of charge carriers in the device under illumination were explained according to its current density-voltage ( J- V) curve and the energy level diagram.

  6. PDMS-based triboelectric and transparent nanogenerators with ZnO nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Nagaraju, Goli; Lee, Soo Hyun; Yu, Jae Su

    2014-05-14

    Vertically-grown ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET), as a top electrode of nanogenerators, were investigated for the antireflective property as well as an efficient contact surface in bare polydimethysiloxane (PDMS)-based triboelectric nanogenerators. Compared to conventional ITO-coated PET (i.e., ITO/PET), the ZnO NRAs considerably suppressed the reflectance from 20 to 9.7% at wavelengths of 300-1100 nm, creating a highly transparent top electrode, as demonstrated by theoretical analysis. Also, the interval time between the peaks of generated output voltage under external pushing forces was significantly decreased from 1.84 to 0.19 s because the reduced contact area of the PDMS by discrete surfaces of the ZnO NRAs on ITO/PET causes a rapid sequence for triboelectric charge generation process including rubbing and separating. Therefore, the use of this top electrode enabled to operate the transparent PDMS-based triboelectric nanogenerator at high frequency of external pushing force. Under different external forces of 0.3-10 kgf, the output voltage and current were also characterized.

  7. Polyaniline nanowire arrays aligned on nitrogen-doped carbon fabric for high-performance flexible supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pingping; Li, Yingzhi; Yu, Xinyi; Zhao, Xin; Wu, Lihao; Zhang, Qinghua

    2013-09-24

    A combination of vertical polyaniline (PANI) nanowire arrays and nitrogen plasma etched carbon fiber cloths (eCFC) was fabricated to create 3D nanostructured PANI/eCFC composites. The small size of the highly ordered PANI nanowires can greatly reduce the scale of the diffusion length, allowing for the improved utilization of electrode materials. A two-electrode flexible supercapacitor based on PANI/eCFC demonstrates a high specific capacitance (1035 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1)), good rate capability (88% capacity retention at 8 A g(-1)), and long-term cycle life (10% capacity loss after 5000 cycles). The lightweight, low-cost, flexible composites are promising candidates for use in energy storage device applications.

  8. Combined flame and electrodeposition synthesis of energetic coaxial tungsten-oxide/aluminum nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhizhong; Al-Sharab, Jafar F; Kear, Bernard H; Tse, Stephen D

    2013-09-11

    A nanostructured thermite composite comprising an array of tungsten-oxide (WO2.9) nanowires (diameters of 20-50 nm and lengths of >10 μm) coated with single-crystal aluminum (thickness of ~16 nm) has been fabricated. The method involves combined flame synthesis of tungsten-oxide nanowires and ionic-liquid electrodeposition of aluminum. The geometry not only presents an avenue to tailor heat-release characteristics due to anisotropic arrangement of fuel and oxidizer but also eliminates or minimizes the presence of an interfacial Al2O3 passivation layer. Upon ignition, the energetic nanocomposite exhibits strong exothermicity, thereby being useful for fundamental study of aluminothermic reactions as well as enhancing combustion characteristics.

  9. A high efficiency dual-junction solar cell implemented as a nanowire array.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuqing; Witzigmann, Bernd

    2013-01-14

    In this work, we present an innovative design of a dual-junction nanowire array solar cell. Using a dual-diameter nanowire structure, the solar spectrum is separated and absorbed in the core wire and the shell wire with respect to the wavelength. This solar cell provides high optical absorptivity over the entire spectrum due to an electromagnetic concentration effect. Microscopic simulations were performed in a three-dimensional setup, and the optical properties of the structure were evaluated by solving Maxwell's equations. The Shockley-Queisser method was employed to calculate the current-voltage relationship of the dual-junction structure. Proper design of the geometrical and material parameters leads to an efficiency of 39.1%.

  10. Copper Antimonide Nanowire Array Lithium Ion Anodes Stabilized by Electrolyte Additives.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Everett D; Prieto, Amy L

    2016-11-09

    Nanowires of electrochemically active electrode materials for lithium ion batteries represent a unique system that allows for intensive investigations of surface phenomena. In particular, highly ordered nanowire arrays produced by electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates can lead to new insights into a material's electrochemical performance by providing a high-surface-area electrode with negligible volume expansion induced pulverization. Here we show that for the Li-Cu x Sb ternary system, stabilizing the surface chemistry is the most critical factor for promoting long electrode life. The resulting solid electrolyte interphase is analyzed using a mix of electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and lithium ion battery half-cell testing to provide a better understanding of the importance of electrolyte composition on this multicomponent alloy anode material.

  11. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-08

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (R air/R gas = 12.8) compared to that (R air/R gas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors.

  12. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (Rair/Rgas = 12.8) compared to that (Rair/Rgas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors. PMID:26743814

  13. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (Rair/Rgas = 12.8) compared to that (Rair/Rgas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors.

  14. Optimization of GaAs Nanowire Pin Junction Array Solar Cells by Using AlGaAs/GaAs Heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jinnan; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-04-25

    We optimized the performance of GaAs nanowire pin junction array solar cells by introducing AlGaAs/GaAs heterejunctions. AlGaAs is used for the p type top segment for axial junctions and the p type outer shell for radial junctions. The AlGaAs not only serves as passivation layers for GaAs nanowires but also confines the optical generation in the active regions, reducing the recombination loss in heavily doped regions and the minority carrier recombination at the top contact. The results show that the conversion efficiency of GaAs nanowires can be greatly enhanced by using AlGaAs for the p segment instead of GaAs. A maximum efficiency enhancement of 8.42% has been achieved in this study. And for axial nanowire, by using AlGaAs for the top p segment, a relatively long top segment can be employed without degenerating device performance, which could facilitate the fabrication and contacting of nanowire array solar cells. While for radial nanowires, AlGaAs/GaAs nanowires show better tolerance to p-shell thickness and surface condition.

  15. Vertically p-n-junctioned GaN nano-wire array diode fabricated on Si(111) using MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Hee; Kissinger, Suthan; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays on (111) silicon substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method .The nanowires were grown by a newly developed two-step growth process. The diameter of as-grown nanowires ranges from 300-400 nm with a density of 6-7 × 107 cm-2. The p- and n-type doping of the nanowires is achieved with Mg and Si dopant species. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates that the nanowires are relatively defect-free. The room-temperature photoluminescence emission with a strong peak at 370 nm indicates that the n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays have potential application in light-emitting nanodevices. The cathodoluminscence (CL) spectrum clearly shows a distinct optical transition of GaN nanodiodes. The nano-n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg diodes were further completed using a sputter coating approach to deposit Au/Ni metal contacts. The polysilazane filler has been etched by a wet chemical etching process. The n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire diode was fabricated for different Mg source flow rates. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements reveal excellent rectifying properties with an obvious turn-on voltage at 1.6 V for a Mg flow rate of 5 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute).

  16. Optimization of GaAs Nanowire Pin Junction Array Solar Cells by Using AlGaAs/GaAs Heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jinnan; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-04-01

    We optimized the performance of GaAs nanowire pin junction array solar cells by introducing AlGaAs/GaAs heterejunctions. AlGaAs is used for the p type top segment for axial junctions and the p type outer shell for radial junctions. The AlGaAs not only serves as passivation layers for GaAs nanowires but also confines the optical generation in the active regions, reducing the recombination loss in heavily doped regions and the minority carrier recombination at the top contact. The results show that the conversion efficiency of GaAs nanowires can be greatly enhanced by using AlGaAs for the p segment instead of GaAs. A maximum efficiency enhancement of 8.42% has been achieved in this study. And for axial nanowire, by using AlGaAs for the top p segment, a relatively long top segment can be employed without degenerating device performance, which could facilitate the fabrication and contacting of nanowire array solar cells. While for radial nanowires, AlGaAs/GaAs nanowires show better tolerance to p-shell thickness and surface condition.

  17. Seesaw-like polarized transmission behavior of silver nanowire arrays aligned by off-center spin-coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Lu; Chen, Hui; Yang, Zhong-Jian; Yuan, Yongbo; Huang, Han; Yang, Bingchu; Gao, Yongli; Zhou, Conghua

    2018-05-01

    Straight silver nanowires were synthesized by accelerated oxidization and then aligned into ordered arrays by off-center spin-coating. Seesaw-like behavior was observed in the polarized transmission spectra of the arrays. With the increment of polarization angle (θP, defined as the angle between axis of nanowires and direction of electric field of light), transmission changed repeatedly with a period of 180°, but it moved to opposite directions between the two regions separated by supporting points locating at 494 nm. The behavior is ascribed to the competition between the extinction behaviors of the two modes of surface plasma polaritons on silver nanowires. One is the longitudinal mode which is excited by long wavelengths and tuned by function of cos2( θ p ) and the other is the transverse mode that is excited by short wavelengths and tuned by function of sin2( θ p ). Simulation was performed based on the finite-difference time domain method. The effect of the nanowire diameter and length (aspect ratio) on the position of the supporting point was studied. As nanowire width increased from 20 nm to 350 nm, the supporting point moved from 400 to 500 nm. While it changed slightly when the nanowire length increased from 3 μm to infinitely long (width fixed at 260 nm). In current study, the position of the supporting point is mainly determined by the nanowire width.

  18. Vertically p-n-junctioned GaN nano-wire array diode fabricated on Si(111) using MOCVD.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Hee; Kissinger, Suthan; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-04-07

    We demonstrate the fabrication of n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays on (111) silicon substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method .The nanowires were grown by a newly developed two-step growth process. The diameter of as-grown nanowires ranges from 300-400 nm with a density of 6-7 × 10(7) cm(-2). The p- and n-type doping of the nanowires is achieved with Mg and Si dopant species. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates that the nanowires are relatively defect-free. The room-temperature photoluminescence emission with a strong peak at 370 nm indicates that the n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire arrays have potential application in light-emitting nanodevices. The cathodoluminscence (CL) spectrum clearly shows a distinct optical transition of GaN nanodiodes. The nano-n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg diodes were further completed using a sputter coating approach to deposit Au/Ni metal contacts. The polysilazane filler has been etched by a wet chemical etching process. The n-GaN:Si/p-GaN:Mg nanowire diode was fabricated for different Mg source flow rates. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements reveal excellent rectifying properties with an obvious turn-on voltage at 1.6 V for a Mg flow rate of 5 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute).

  19. A Novel Bimetallic NiMo Carbide Nanowire Array for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lixia; Wang, Jianying; Teng, Xue; Liu, Yangyang; He, Xiaoming; Chen, Zuofeng

    2018-06-12

    Design and fabrication of noble metal-free hydrogen evolution electrocatalysts with high activity is significant to future renewable energy systems. In this work, self-supported NiMo carbide nanowires have been developed on carbon cloth (Ni3Mo3C@NPC NWs/CC; NPC is N,P-doped carbon) through an electropolymerization-assisted procedure. During the synthesis process, NiMoO4 nanowires were first grown on CC through a hydrothermal reaction which is free of any polymer binder like Nafion. The as-prepared NiMoO4 NWs/CC was then coated by a layer of polypyrole (PPy) by electropolymerization that serves as carbon source for the subsequent conversion to Ni3Mo3C@NPC NWs/CC by carbothermal reduction. The experimental results indicate that the judicious choices of the amount of coated PPy and the pyrolysis temperature are essential for obtaining pure phase and nanowire array structure of Ni3Mo3C@NPC NWs/CC. Benefitting from the pure phase of bimetallic carbide, the unique architecture of nanowire array and the self-supported merit, the optimized Ni3Mo3C@NPC NWs/CC electrode exhibits excellent HER performance in both acidic and alkaline media. It requires low overpotentials of 161 mV and 215 mV to afford a high current density of 100 mA cm-2 toward the HER in acidic and alkaline media, respectively, and the catalytic activity is maintained for at least 48 h, which makes it among the best HER electrocatalysts based on metallic carbides yet reported. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: The effect of substrate on magnetic properties of Co/Cu multilayer nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Liu, Qing-Fang; Han, Xiang-Hua; Xue, De-Sheng

    2009-08-01

    Ordered Co/Cu multilayer nanowire arrays have been fabricated into anodic aluminium oxide templates with Ag and Cu substrate by direct current electrodeposition. This paper studies the morphology, structure and magnetic properties by transmission electron microscopy, selective area electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometer. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that both as-deposited nanowire arrays films exhibit face-centred cubic structure. Magnetic measurements indicate that the easy magnetization direction of Co/Cu multilayer nanowire arrays films on Ag substrate is perpendicular to the long axis of nanowire, whereas the easy magnetization direction of the sample with Cu substrate is parallel to the long axis of nanowire. The change of easy magnetization direction attributed to different substrates, and the magnetic properties of the nanowire arrays are discussed.

  1. Structure and properties of nanostructured ZnO arrays and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kopach, V. R.; Klepikova, K. S.; Klochko, N. P., E-mail: klochko-np@mail.ru

    We investigate the structure, surface morphology, and optical properties of nanostructured ZnO arrays fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition, Ag nanoparticles precipitated from colloidal solutions, and a ZnO/Ag nanocomposite based on them. The electronic and electrical parameters of the ZnO arrays and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites are analyzed by studying the I–V and C–V characteristics. Optimal modes for fabricating the ZnO/Ag heterostructures with the high stability and sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation as promising materials for use in photodetectors, gas sensors, and photocatalysts are determined.

  2. High-performance optical projection controllable ZnO nanorod arrays for microweighing sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; Jiang, Shulan; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Bingjun; Chen, Duoli; Yang, Weiqing; Qian, Linmao

    2018-03-08

    Optical microweighing sensors are an essential component of micro-force measurements in physical, chemical, and biological detection fields, although, their limited detection range (less than 15°) severely hinders their wide application. Such a limitation is mainly attributed to the essential restrictions of traditional light reflection and optical waveguide modes. Here, we report a high-performance optical microweighing sensor based on the synergistic effects of both a new optical projection mode and a ZnO nanorod array sensor. Ascribed to the unique configuration design of this sensing method, this optical microweighing sensor has a wide detection range (more than 80°) and a high sensitivity of 90 nA deg -1 , which is much larger than that of conventional microcantilever-based optical microweighing sensors. Furthermore, the location of the UV light source can be adjusted within a few millimeters, meaning that the microweighing sensor does not need repetitive optical calibration. More importantly, for low height and small incident angles of the UV light source, we can obtain highly sensitive microweighing properties on account of the highly sensitive ZnO nanorod array-based UV sensor. Therefore, this kind of large detection range, non-contact, and non-destructive microweighing sensor has potential applications in air quality monitoring and chemical and biological detection.

  3. Polyaniline nanowire array encapsulated in titania nanotubes as a superior electrode for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Keyu; Li, Jie; Lai, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhi'an; Liu, Yexiang; Zhang, Guoge; Huang, Haitao

    2011-05-01

    Conducting polymer with 1D nanostructure exhibits excellent electrochemical performances but a poor cyclability that limits its use in supercapacitors. In this work, a novel composite electrode made of polyaniline nanowire-titania nanotube array was synthesized via a simple and inexpensive electrochemical route by electropolymerizing aniline onto an anodized titania nanotube array. The specific capacitance was as high as 732 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, which remained at 543 F g-1 when the current density was increased by 20 times. 74% of the maximum energy density (36.6 Wh kg-1) was maintained even at a high power density of 6000 W kg-1. An excellent long cycle life of the electrode was observed with a retention of ~86% of the initial specific capacitance after 2000 cycles. The good electrochemical performance was attributed to the unique microstructure of the electrode with disordered PANI nanowire arrays encapsulated inside the TiO2 nanotubes, providing high surface area, fast diffusion path for ions and long-term cycle stability. Such a nanocomposite electrode is attractive for supercapacitor applications.

  4. Polyaniline nanowire array encapsulated in titania nanotubes as a superior electrode for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Keyu; Li, Jie; Lai, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhi'an; Liu, Yexiang; Zhang, Guoge; Huang, Haitao

    2011-05-01

    Conducting polymer with 1D nanostructure exhibits excellent electrochemical performances but a poor cyclability that limits its use in supercapacitors. In this work, a novel composite electrode made of polyaniline nanowire-titania nanotube array was synthesized via a simple and inexpensive electrochemical route by electropolymerizing aniline onto an anodized titania nanotube array. The specific capacitance was as high as 732 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1), which remained at 543 F g(-1) when the current density was increased by 20 times. 74% of the maximum energy density (36.6 Wh kg(-1)) was maintained even at a high power density of 6000 W kg(-1). An excellent long cycle life of the electrode was observed with a retention of ∼86% of the initial specific capacitance after 2000 cycles. The good electrochemical performance was attributed to the unique microstructure of the electrode with disordered PANI nanowire arrays encapsulated inside the TiO(2) nanotubes, providing high surface area, fast diffusion path for ions and long-term cycle stability. Such a nanocomposite electrode is attractive for supercapacitor applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  5. Fabrication of arrayed Si nanowire-based nano-floating gate memory devices on flexible plastics.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Changjoon; Jeon, Youngin; Yun, Junggwon; Kim, Sangsig

    2012-01-01

    Arrayed Si nanowire (NW)-based nano-floating gate memory (NFGM) devices with Pt nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in Al2O3 gate layers are successfully constructed on flexible plastics by top-down approaches. Ten arrayed Si NW-based NFGM devices are positioned on the first level. Cross-linked poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) layers are spin-coated on them as isolation layers between the first and second level, and another ten devices are stacked on the cross-linked PVP isolation layers. The electrical characteristics of the representative Si NW-based NFGM devices on the first and second levels exhibit threshold voltage shifts, indicating the trapping and detrapping of electrons in their NPs nodes. They have an average threshold voltage shift of 2.5 V with good retention times of more than 5 x 10(4) s. Moreover, most of the devices successfully retain their electrical characteristics after about one thousand bending cycles. These well-arrayed and stacked Si NW-based NFGM devices demonstrate the potential of nanowire-based devices for large-scale integration.

  6. Hierarchical Mesoporous Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt Ternary Oxide Nanowire Arrays on Nickel Foam as High-Performance Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun; Cai, Junjie; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Ying; Shen, Pei Kang; Zhang, Kaili

    2015-12-09

    Nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous Zn-Ni-Co ternary oxide (ZNCO) nanowire arrays are synthesized by a simple two-step approach including a hydrothermal method and subsequent calcination process and directly utilized for supercapacitive investigation for the first time. The nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous ZNCO nanowire arrays possess an ultrahigh specific capacitance value of 2481.8 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and excellent rate capability of about 91.9% capacitance retention at 5 A g(-1). More importantly, an asymmetric supercapacitor with a high energy density (35.6 Wh kg(-1)) and remarkable cycle stability performance (94% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles) is assembled successfully by employing the ZNCO electrode as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode. The remarkable electrochemical behaviors demonstrate that the nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous ZNCO nanowire array electrodes are highly desirable for application as advanced supercapacitor electrodes.

  7. Smart integration of silicon nanowire arrays in all-silicon thermoelectric micro-nanogenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Luis; Santos, Jose-Domingo; Roncaglia, Alberto; Narducci, Dario; Calaza, Carlos; Salleras, Marc; Donmez, Inci; Tarancon, Albert; Morata, Alex; Gadea, Gerard; Belsito, Luca; Zulian, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Micro and nanotechnologies are called to play a key role in the fabrication of small and low cost sensors with excellent performance enabling new continuous monitoring scenarios and distributed intelligence paradigms (Internet of Things, Trillion Sensors). Harvesting devices providing energy autonomy to those large numbers of microsensors will be essential. In those scenarios where waste heat sources are present, thermoelectricity will be the obvious choice. However, miniaturization of state of the art thermoelectric modules is not easy with the current technologies used for their fabrication. Micro and nanotechnologies offer an interesting alternative considering that silicon in nanowire form is a material with a promising thermoelectric figure of merit. This paper presents two approaches for the integration of large numbers of silicon nanowires in a cost-effective and practical way using only micromachining and thin-film processes compatible with silicon technologies. Both approaches lead to automated physical and electrical integration of medium-high density stacked arrays of crystalline or polycrystalline silicon nanowires with arbitrary length (tens to hundreds microns) and diameters below 100 nm.

  8. Tungsten oxide@polypyrrole core-shell nanowire arrays as novel negative electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengmei; Zhan, Xueying; Cheng, Zhongzhou; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Qisheng; Xu, Kai; Safdar, Muhammad; He, Jun

    2015-02-11

    Among active pseudocapacitive materials, polypyrrole (PPy) is a promising electrode material in electrochemical capacitors. PPy-based materials research has thus far focused on its electrochemical performance as a positive electrode rather than as a negative electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). Here high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors are designed with tungsten oxide@PPy (WO3 @PPy) core-shell nanowire arrays and Co(OH)2 nanowires grown on carbon fibers. The WO3 @PPy core-shell nanowire electrode exhibits a high capacitance (253 mF/cm2) in negative potentials (-1.0-0.0 V). The ASCs packaged with CF-Co(OH)2 as a positive electrode and CF-WO3 @PPy as a negative electrode display a high volumetric capacitance up to 2.865 F/cm3 based on volume of the device, an energy density of 1.02 mWh/cm3 , and very good stability performance. These findings promote the application of PPy-based nanostructures as advanced negative electrodes for ASCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Waveguide modes in sparse III-V nanowire arrays for ultra-broadband tunable perfect absorbers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountaine, Katherine T.; Cheng, Wen-Hui; Bukowsky, Colton R.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-09-01

    Design of perfect absorbers and emitters has been a primary focus of the metamaterials community owing to their potential to enhance device efficiency and sensitivity in energy harvesting and sensing applications, specifically photovoltaics, thermal emission control, bolometers and photodetectors, to name a few. While reports of perfect absorbers/emitters for a specific frequency, wavevector, and polarization are ubiquitous, a broadband and polarization- and angle-insensitive perfect absorber remains a particular challenge. In this work, we report on directed optical design and fabrication of sparse III-V nanowire arrays as broadband, polarization- and angle-insensitive perfect absorbers and emitters. Specifically, we target response in the UV-Vis-NIR and NIR-SWIR-MWIR via two material systems, InP (Eg=1.34 eV) and InSb (Eg=0.17 eV), respectively. Herein, we present results on InP and InSb nanowire array broadband absorbers, supported by experiment, simulation and analytic theory. Electromagnetic simulations indicate that, with directed optical design, tapered nanowire arrays and multi-radii nanowire arrays with 5% fill fraction can achieve greater than 95% broadband absorption (λInP=400-900nm, λInSb=1.5-5.5µm), due to efficient excitation and interband transition-mediated attenuation of the HE11 waveguide mode. Experimentally-fabricated InP nanowire arrays embedded in PDMS achieved broadband, polarization- and angle-insensitive 90-95% absorption, limited primarily by reflection off the PDMS interface. Addition of a thin, planar VO2 layer above a sparse InSb nanowire array enables active thermal tunability in the infrared, effecting a 50% modulation, from 87% (insulating VO2) to 43% (metallic VO2) average absorption. These concepts and results along with photovoltaic and other optical and optoelectronic device applications will be discussed.

  10. From immobilized cells to motile cells on a bed-of-nails: effects of vertical nanowire array density on cell behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Henrik; Li, Zhen; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Oredsson, Stina; Prinz, Christelle N.

    2015-01-01

    The field of vertical nanowire array-based applications in cell biology is growing rapidly and an increasing number of applications are being explored. These applications almost invariably rely on the physical properties of the nanowire arrays, creating a need for a better understanding of how their physical properties affect cell behaviour. Here, we investigate the effects of nanowire density on cell migration, division and morphology for murine fibroblasts. Our results show that few nanowires are sufficient to immobilize cells, while a high nanowire spatial density enables a ”bed-of-nails” regime, where cells reside on top of the nanowires and are fully motile. The presence of nanowires decreases the cell proliferation rate, even in the “bed-of-nails” regime. We show that the cell morphology strongly depends on the nanowire density. Cells cultured on low (0.1 μm−2) and medium (1 μm−2) density substrates exhibit an increased number of multi-nucleated cells and micronuclei. These were not observed in cells cultured on high nanowire density substrates (4 μm−2). The results offer important guidelines to minimize cell-function perturbations on nanowire arrays. Moreover, these findings offer the possibility to tune cell proliferation and migration independently by adjusting the nanowire density, which may have applications in drug testing. PMID:26691936

  11. Magnetic interactions and reversal mechanisms in Co nanowire and nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proenca, M. P.; Sousa, C. T.; Escrig, J.; Ventura, J.; Vazquez, M.; Araujo, J. P.

    2013-03-01

    Ordered hexagonal arrays of Co nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs), with diameters between 40 and 65 nm, were prepared by potentiostatic electrodeposition into suitably modified nanoporous alumina templates. The geometrical parameters of the NW/NT arrays were tuned by the pore etching process and deposition conditions. The magnetic interactions between NWs/NTs with different diameters were studied using first-order reversal curves (FORCs). From a quantitative analysis of the FORC measurements, we are able to obtain the profiles of the magnetic interactions and the coercive field distributions. In both NW and NT arrays, the magnetic interactions were found to increase with the diameter of the NWs/NTs, exhibiting higher values for NW arrays. A comparative study of the magnetization reversal processes was also performed by analyzing the angular dependence of the coercivity and correlating the experimental data with theoretical calculations based on a simple analytical model. The magnetization in the NW arrays is found to reverse by the nucleation and propagation of a transverse-like domain wall; on the other hand, for the NT arrays a non-monotonic behavior occurs above a diameter of ˜50 nm, revealing a transition between the vortex and transverse reversal modes.

  12. Plasmon-enhanced Electrically Light-emitting from ZnO Nanorod Arrays/p-GaN Heterostructure Devices.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junfeng; Shi, Zengliang; Wang, Yueyue; Lin, Yi; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Tian, Zhengshan; Dai, Jun; Wang, Shufeng; Xu, Chunxiang

    2016-05-16

    Effective and bright light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) have attracted broad interests in fundamental research and industrial application, especially on short wavelength LEDs. In this paper, a well aligned ZnO nanorod arrays grown on the p-GaN substrate to form a heterostructured light-emitting diode and Al nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated to improve the electroluminescence performance. More than 30-folds enhancement of the electroluminescence intensity was obtained compared with the device without Al NPs decoration. The investigation on the stable and transient photoluminescence spectraof the ZnO nanorod arrays before and after Al NPs decoration demonstrated that the metal surface plasmon resonance coupling with excitons of ZnO leads to the enhancement of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Our results provide aneffective approach to design novel optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and plasmonic nanolasers.

  13. Plasmon-enhanced Electrically Light-emitting from ZnO Nanorod Arrays/p-GaN Heterostructure Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Junfeng; Shi, Zengliang; Wang, Yueyue; Lin, Yi; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Tian, Zhengshan; Dai, Jun; Wang, Shufeng; Xu, Chunxiang

    2016-01-01

    Effective and bright light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) have attracted broad interests in fundamental research and industrial application, especially on short wavelength LEDs. In this paper, a well aligned ZnO nanorod arrays grown on the p-GaN substrate to form a heterostructured light-emitting diode and Al nanoparticles (NPs) were decorated to improve the electroluminescence performance. More than 30-folds enhancement of the electroluminescence intensity was obtained compared with the device without Al NPs decoration. The investigation on the stable and transient photoluminescence spectraof the ZnO nanorod arrays before and after Al NPs decoration demonstrated that the metal surface plasmon resonance coupling with excitons of ZnO leads to the enhancement of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). Our results provide aneffective approach to design novel optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and plasmonic nanolasers. PMID:27181337

  14. Enhanced photoelectrochemical property of ZnO nanorods array synthesized on reduced graphene oxide for self-powered biosensing application.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhuo; Gu, Yousong; Yan, Xiaoqin; Bai, Zhiming; Liu, Yichong; Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Xueji; Zhang, Yue

    2015-02-15

    We have realized the direct synthesis of ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) array on reduced graphene layer (rGO), and demonstrated the enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) property of the rGO/ZnO based photoanode under UV irradiation compared with the pristine ZnO NRs array. The introduction of the rGO layer resulted in a favorable energy band structure for electron migration, which finally led to the efficient photoinduced charge separation. Such nanostructure was subsequently employed for self-powered PEC biosensing of glutathione in the condition of 0 V bias, with a linear range from 10 to 200 µM, a detection limit of 2.17 µM, as well as excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability. The results indicated the rGO/ZnO nanostructure is a competitive candidate in the PEC biosensing field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerner, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Wuensch, S.; Charaev, I.; Boes, F.; Zwick, T.; Siegel, M.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate a 16-pixel array of microwave-current driven superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with an integrated and scalable frequency-division multiplexing architecture, which reduces the required number of bias and readout lines to a single microwave feed line. The electrical behavior of the photon-sensitive nanowires, embedded in a resonant circuit, as well as the optical performance and timing jitter of the single detectors is discussed. Besides the single pixel measurements, we also demonstrate the operation of a 16-pixel array with a temporal, spatial, and photon-number resolution.

  16. Fabrication of Si/ZnS radial nanowire heterojunction arrays for white light emitting devices on Si substrates.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Ajit K; Sinha, Arun Kumar; Manna, Santanu; Ray, Samit K

    2014-09-10

    Well-separated Si/ZnS radial nanowire heterojunction-based light-emitting devices have been fabricated on large-area substrates by depositing n-ZnS film on p-type nanoporous Si nanowire templates. Vertically oriented porous Si nanowires on p-Si substrates have been grown by metal-assisted chemical etching catalyzed using Au nanoparticles. Isolated Si nanowires with needle-shaped arrays have been made by KOH treatment before ZnS deposition. Electrically driven efficient white light emission from radial heterojunction arrays has been achieved under a low forward bias condition. The observed white light emission is attributed to blue and green emission from the defect-related radiative transition of ZnS and Si/ZnS interface, respectively, while the red arises from the porous surface of the Si nanowire core. The observed white light emission from the Si/ZnS nanowire heterojunction could open up the new possibility to integrate Si-based optical sources on a large scale.

  17. Facile Synthesis of Vanadium-Doped Ni3S2 Nanowire Arrays as Active Electrocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuanju; Yang, Mingyang; Chai, Jianwei; Tang, Zhe; Shao, Mengmeng; Kwok, Chi Tat; Yang, Ming; Wang, Zhenyu; Chua, Daniel; Wang, Shijie; Lu, Zhouguang; Pan, Hui

    2017-02-22

    Ni 3 S 2 nanowire arrays doped with vanadium(V) are directly grown on nickel foam by a facile one-step hydrothermal method. It is found that the doping can promote the formation of Ni 3 S 2 nanowires at a low temperature. The doped nanowires show excellent electrocatalytic performance toward hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), and outperform pure Ni 3 S 2 and other Ni 3 S 2 -based compounds. The stability test shows that the performance of V-doped Ni 3 S 2 nanowires is improved and stabilized after thousands of linear sweep voltammetry test. The onset potential of V-doped Ni 3 S 2 nanowire can be as low as 39 mV, which is comparable to platinum. The nanowire has an overpotential of 68 mV at 10 mA cm -2 , a relatively low Tafel slope of 112 mV dec -1 , good stability and high Faradaic efficiency. First-principles calculations show that the V-doping in Ni 3 S 2 extremely enhances the free carrier density near the Fermi level, resulting in much improved catalytic activities. We expect that the doping can be an effective way to enhance the catalytic performance of metal disulfides in hydrogen evolution reaction and V-doped Ni 3 S 2 nanowire is one of the most promising electrocatalysts for hydrogen production.

  18. A patterned ZnO nanorod array/gas sensor fabricated by mechanoelectrospinning-assisted selective growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomei; Sun, Fazhe; Huang, Yongan; Duan, Yongqing; Yin, Zhouping

    2015-02-21

    Micropatterned ZnO nanorod arrays were fabricated by the mechanoelectrospinning-assisted direct-writing process and the hydrothermal growth process, and utilized as gas sensors that exhibited excellent Ohmic behavior and sensitivity response to oxidizing gas NO2 at low concentrations (1-100 ppm).

  19. Synthesis and Characteristics of Large-Area and High-Filling CdS Nanowire Arrays in AAO Template.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiao-Yi; Hou, Jun-Wei; Gao, Zhi-Xian; Liu, Hong-Fei

    2018-05-01

    CdS nanowires arrays were successfully synthesized by a simple solvothermal process using AAO as templates. The phase structures, morphologies, and optical properties of the products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that the nanowires were composed of hexagonal structure CdS nanoparticles and the average diameters is about 60-70 nm. A strong green emission with a maximum around 505 nm was observed from the synthesized CdS nanowires at room temperature, which was attributed to near-band-edge emission. A 3D self-seed nucleation coalescent process was proposed for the formation of CdS nanowires structures. The present synthetic route is expected to be applied to the synthesis of other II-VI groups or other group's 1D semiconducting materials.

  20. Bringing order to the world of nanowire devices by phase shift lithography.

    PubMed

    Subannajui, Kittitat; Güder, Firat; Zacharias, Margit

    2011-09-14

    Semiconductor nanowire devices have several properties which match future requirements of scaling down the size of electronics. In typical microelectronics production, a number of microstructures are aligned precisely on top of each other during the fabrication process. In the case of nanowires, this mandatory condition is still hard to achieve. A technological breakthrough is needed to accurately place nanowires at any specific position and then form devices in mass production. In this article, an upscalable process combining conventional micromachining with phase shift lithography will be demonstrated as a suitable tool for nanowire device technology. Vertical Si and ZnO nanowires are demonstrated on very large (several cm(2)) areas. We demonstrate how the nanowire positions can be controlled, and the resulting nanowires are used for device fabrication. As an example Si/ZnO heterojunction diode arrays are fabricated. The electrical characterization of the produced devices has also been performed to confirm the functionality of the fabricated diodes.

  1. ZnO nanowire-based light-emitting diodes with tunable emission from near-UV to blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Viana, Bruno; le Bahers, T.

    2013-03-01

    Nanowires (NWs)-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have drawn large interest due to many advantages compared to thin film based devices. We have successfully prepared epitaxial n-ZnO(NW)/p-GaN heterojunctions using low temperature soft electrochemical techniques. The structures have been used in LED devices and exhibited highly interesting performances. Moreover, the bandgap of ZnO has been tuned by Cu or Cd doping at controlled atomic concentration. A result was the controlled shift of the LED emission in the visible spectral wavelength region. Using DFT computing calculations, we have also shown that the bandgap narrowing has two different origins for Zn1-xCdxO (ZnO:Cd) and ZnO:Cu. In the first case, it is due to the crystal lattice expansion, whereas in the second case Cu-3d donor and Cu-3d combined to O-2p acceptor bands appear in the bandgap which broadnesses increase with the dopant concentration. This leads to the bandgap reduction.

  2. Controllable Synthesis of Copper Oxide/Carbon Core/Shell Nanowire Arrays and Their Application for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Jiye; Chen, Minghua; Xia, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    Rational design/fabrication of integrated porous metal oxide arrays is critical for the construction of advanced electrochemical devices. Herein, we report self-supported CuO/C core/shell nanowire arrays prepared by the combination of electro-deposition and chemical vapor deposition methods. CuO/C nanowires with diameters of ~400 nm grow quasi-vertically to the substrates forming three-dimensional arrays architecture. A thin carbon shell is uniformly coated on the CuO nanowire cores. As an anode of lithium ion batteries, the resultant CuO/C nanowire arrays are demonstrated to have high specific capacity (672 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 C) and good cycle stability (425 mAh·g−1 at 1 C up to 150 cycles). The core/shell arrays structure plays positive roles in the enhancement of Li ion storage due to fast ion/electron transfer path, good strain accommodation and sufficient contact between electrolyte and active materials. PMID:28347084

  3. Optoelectrical modeling of solar cells based on c-Si/a-Si:H nanowire array: focus on the electrical transport in between the nanowires.

    PubMed

    Levtchenko, Alexandra; Le Gall, Sylvain; Lachaume, Raphaël; Michallon, Jérôme; Collin, Stéphane; Alvarez, José; Djebbour, Zakaria; Kleider, Jean-Paul

    2018-06-22

    By coupling optical and electrical modeling, we have investigated the photovoltaic performances of p-i-n radial nanowires array based on crystalline p-type silicon (c-Si) core/hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) shell. By varying either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or back contact work function we can separate and highlight the contribution to the cell's performance of the nanowires themselves (the radial cell) from the interspace between the nanowires (the planar cell). We show that the build-in potential (V bi ) in the radial and planar cells strongly depends on the doping of c-Si core and the work function of the back contact respectively. Consequently, the solar cell's performance is degraded if either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or/and the work function of the back contact is too low. By inserting a thin (p) a-Si:H layer between both core/absorber and back contact/absorber, the performance of the solar cell can be improved by partly fixing the V bi at both interfaces due to strong electrostatic screening effect. Depositing such a buffer layer playing the role of an electrostatic screen for charge carriers is a suggested way of enhancing the performance of solar cells based on radial p-i-n or n-i-p nanowire array.

  4. Optoelectrical modeling of solar cells based on c-Si/a-Si:H nanowire array: focus on the electrical transport in between the nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levtchenko, Alexandra; Le Gall, Sylvain; Lachaume, Raphaël; Michallon, Jérôme; Collin, Stéphane; Alvarez, José; Djebbour, Zakaria; Kleider, Jean-Paul

    2018-06-01

    By coupling optical and electrical modeling, we have investigated the photovoltaic performances of p-i-n radial nanowires array based on crystalline p-type silicon (c-Si) core/hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) shell. By varying either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or back contact work function we can separate and highlight the contribution to the cell’s performance of the nanowires themselves (the radial cell) from the interspace between the nanowires (the planar cell). We show that the build-in potential (V bi) in the radial and planar cells strongly depends on the doping of c-Si core and the work function of the back contact respectively. Consequently, the solar cell’s performance is degraded if either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or/and the work function of the back contact is too low. By inserting a thin (p) a-Si:H layer between both core/absorber and back contact/absorber, the performance of the solar cell can be improved by partly fixing the V bi at both interfaces due to strong electrostatic screening effect. Depositing such a buffer layer playing the role of an electrostatic screen for charge carriers is a suggested way of enhancing the performance of solar cells based on radial p-i-n or n-i-p nanowire array.

  5. Hexagonal Nanopyramidal Prisms of Nearly Intrinsic InN on Patterned GaN Nanowire Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Golam Sarwar, A. T. M.; Leung, Benjamin; Wang, George T.

    By using multiple growth steps that separate the nucleation and growth processes, we show that nearly intrinsic InN single nanocrystals of high optical quality can be formed on patterned GaN nanowire arrays by molecular beam epitaxy. The InN nanostructures form into well-defined hexagonal prisms with pyramidal tops. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) is carried out at low temperature (LT: 28.2 K) and room temperature (RT: 285 K) to gauge the relative material quality of the InN nanostructures. Nanopyramidal prisms grown using a three-step growth method are found to show superior quantum efficiency. In conclusion, excitation and temperature dependent μ-PL demonstrates the very highmore » quality and nearly intrinsic nature of the ordered InN nanostructure arrays.« less

  6. Hexagonal Nanopyramidal Prisms of Nearly Intrinsic InN on Patterned GaN Nanowire Arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Golam Sarwar, A. T. M.; Leung, Benjamin; Wang, George T.; ...

    2018-01-04

    By using multiple growth steps that separate the nucleation and growth processes, we show that nearly intrinsic InN single nanocrystals of high optical quality can be formed on patterned GaN nanowire arrays by molecular beam epitaxy. The InN nanostructures form into well-defined hexagonal prisms with pyramidal tops. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) is carried out at low temperature (LT: 28.2 K) and room temperature (RT: 285 K) to gauge the relative material quality of the InN nanostructures. Nanopyramidal prisms grown using a three-step growth method are found to show superior quantum efficiency. In conclusion, excitation and temperature dependent μ-PL demonstrates the very highmore » quality and nearly intrinsic nature of the ordered InN nanostructure arrays.« less

  7. Hierarchical Nanocomposites of Polyaniline Nanowire Arrays on Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets for Supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Ye, Yinjian; Lu, Xingping; Wen, Zhubiao; Li, Zhuang; Hou, Haoqing; Song, Yonghai

    2013-01-01

    Here we reported a novel route to synthesize a hierarchical nanocomposite (PANI-frGO) of polyaniline (PANI) nanowire arrays covalently bonded on reduced graphene oxide (rGO). In this strategy, nitrophenyl groups were initially grafted on rGO via C-C bond, and then reduced to aminophenyl to act as anchor sites for the growth of PANI arrays on rGO. The functionalized process was confirmed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical properties of the PANI-frGO as supercapacitor materials were investigated. The PANI-frGO nanocomposites showed high capacitance of 590 F g−1 at 0.1 A g−1, and had no loss of capacitance after 200 cycles at 2 A g−1. The improved electrochemical performance suggests promising application of the PANI-frGO nanocomposites in high-performance supercapacitors. PMID:24356535

  8. Hierarchical Nanocomposites of Polyaniline Nanowire Arrays on Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets for Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Ye, Yinjian; Lu, Xingping; Wen, Zhubiao; Li, Zhuang; Hou, Haoqing; Song, Yonghai

    2013-12-01

    Here we reported a novel route to synthesize a hierarchical nanocomposite (PANI-frGO) of polyaniline (PANI) nanowire arrays covalently bonded on reduced graphene oxide (rGO). In this strategy, nitrophenyl groups were initially grafted on rGO via C-C bond, and then reduced to aminophenyl to act as anchor sites for the growth of PANI arrays on rGO. The functionalized process was confirmed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical properties of the PANI-frGO as supercapacitor materials were investigated. The PANI-frGO nanocomposites showed high capacitance of 590 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1, and had no loss of capacitance after 200 cycles at 2 A g-1. The improved electrochemical performance suggests promising application of the PANI-frGO nanocomposites in high-performance supercapacitors.

  9. Hierarchical nanocomposites of polyaniline nanowire arrays on reduced graphene oxide sheets for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Ye, Yinjian; Lu, Xingping; Wen, Zhubiao; Li, Zhuang; Hou, Haoqing; Song, Yonghai

    2013-12-20

    Here we reported a novel route to synthesize a hierarchical nanocomposite (PANI-frGO) of polyaniline (PANI) nanowire arrays covalently bonded on reduced graphene oxide (rGO). In this strategy, nitrophenyl groups were initially grafted on rGO via C-C bond, and then reduced to aminophenyl to act as anchor sites for the growth of PANI arrays on rGO. The functionalized process was confirmed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical properties of the PANI-frGO as supercapacitor materials were investigated. The PANI-frGO nanocomposites showed high capacitance of 590 F g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1), and had no loss of capacitance after 200 cycles at 2 A g(-1). The improved electrochemical performance suggests promising application of the PANI-frGO nanocomposites in high-performance supercapacitors.

  10. Rapid Synthesis of Thin and Long Mo17O47 Nanowire-Arrays in an Oxygen Deficient Flame

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Patrick; Cai, Lili; Zhou, Lite; Zhao, Chenqi; Rao, Pratap M.

    2016-01-01

    Mo17O47 nanowire-arrays are promising active materials and electrically-conductive supports for batteries and other devices. While high surface area resulting from long, thin, densely packed nanowires generally leads to improved performance in a wide variety of applications, the Mo17O47 nanowire-arrays synthesized previously by electrically-heated chemical vapor deposition under vacuum conditions were relatively thick and short. Here, we demonstrate a method to grow significantly thinner and longer, densely packed, high-purity Mo17O47 nanowire-arrays with diameters of 20–60 nm and lengths of 4–6 μm on metal foil substrates using rapid atmospheric flame vapor deposition without any chamber or walls. The atmospheric pressure and 1000 °C evaporation temperature resulted in smaller diameters, longer lengths and order-of-magnitude faster growth rate than previously demonstrated. As explained by kinetic and thermodynamic calculations, the selective synthesis of high-purity Mo17O47 nanowires is achieved due to low oxygen partial pressure in the flame products as a result of the high ratio of fuel to oxidizer supplied to the flame, which enables the correct ratio of MoO2 and MoO3 vapor concentrations for the growth of Mo17O47. This flame synthesis method is therefore a promising route for the growth of composition-controlled one-dimensional metal oxide nanomaterials for many applications. PMID:27271194

  11. Unique X-ray emission characteristics from volumetrically heated nanowire array plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, J. J.; Bargsten, C.; Hollinger, R.; Shlyaptsev, V.; Pukhov, A.; Kaymak, V.; Capeluto, G.; Keiss, D.; Townsend, A.; Rockwood, A.; Wang, Y.; Wang, S.

    2015-11-01

    Highly anisotropic emission of hard X-ray radiation (h ν >10 keV) is observed when arrays of ordered nanowires (50 nm diameter wires of Au or Ni) are volumetrically heated by normal incidence irradiation with high contrast 50-60 fs laser pulses of relativistic intensity. The annular emission is in contrast with angular distribution of softer X-rays (h ν >1 KeV) from these targets and with the X-ray radiation emitted by polished flat targets, both of which are nearly isotropic. Model computations that make use the electron energy distribution computed by particle-in-cell simulations show that the unexpected annular distribution of the hard x-rays is the result of bremsstrahlung from fast electrons. Volumetric heating of Au nanowire arrays irradiated with an intensity of 2 x 10 19 W cm-2 is measured to convert laser energy into h ν>1KeV photons with a record efficiency of >8 percent into 2 π, creating a bright picosecond X-ray source for applications. Work supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Science of the U.S Department of Energy, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. A.P was supported by DFG project TR18.

  12. Flexible ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO-SnO2 heterojunction nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Zheng; Yang, Xiaoli; Chen, Haoran; Liang, Zhongzhu

    2018-02-01

    A ZnO-SnO2 nanowires (NWs) array, as a metal oxide semiconductor, was successfully synthesized by a near-field electrospinning method for the applications as high performance ultraviolet photodetectors. Ultraviolet photodetectors based on a single nanowire exhibited excellent photoresponse properties to 300 nm ultraviolet light illumination including ultrahigh I on/I off ratios (up to 103), good stability and reproducibility because of the separation between photo-generated electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the NWs array shows an enhanced photosensing performance. Flexible photodetectors on the PI substrates with similar tendency properties were also fabricated. In addition, under various bending curvatures and cycles, the as-fabricated flexible photodetectors revealed mechanical flexibility and good stable electrical properties, showing that they have the potential for applications in future flexible photoelectron devices. Project supported by the National Science Foundation of China (No. 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Polarization-tuned Dynamic Color Filters Incorporating a Dielectric-loaded Aluminum Nanowire Array

    PubMed Central

    Raj Shrestha, Vivek; Lee, Sang-Shin; Kim, Eun-Soo; Choi, Duk-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured spectral filters enabling dynamic color-tuning are saliently attractive for implementing ultra-compact color displays and imaging devices. Realization of polarization-induced dynamic color-tuning via one-dimensional periodic nanostructures is highly challenging due to the absence of plasmonic resonances for transverse-electric polarization. Here we demonstrate highly efficient dynamic subtractive color filters incorporating a dielectric-loaded aluminum nanowire array, providing a continuum of customized color according to the incident polarization. Dynamic color filtering was realized relying on selective suppression in transmission spectra via plasmonic resonance at a metal-dielectric interface and guided-mode resonance for a metal-clad dielectric waveguide, each occurring at their characteristic wavelengths for transverse-magnetic and electric polarizations, respectively. A broad palette of colors, including cyan, magenta, and yellow, has been attained with high transmission beyond 80%, by tailoring the period of the nanowire array and the incident polarization. Thanks to low cost, high durability, and mass producibility of the aluminum adopted for the proposed devices, they are anticipated to be diversely applied to color displays, holographic imaging, information encoding, and anti-counterfeiting. PMID:26211625

  14. Highly sensitive refractive index sensor based on a TiO2 nanowire array.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu-Shun; Xiang, Dong; Chang, Zhi-Min; Shi, Jian-Guo; Ma, Yao-Hong; Cai, Lei; Feng, Dong; Dong, Wen-Fei

    2017-03-01

    We propose a novel, highly sensitive refractive index (RI) sensor by means of combining the Kretschmann prism with a TiO2 nanowire array and do not use a metallic layer in the Kretschmann configuration. Its RI sensing performance was investigated through measuring different concentrations of sodium chloride solution. Experimental results showed that, with increasing RI of liquid, the resonant wavelength in the reflectance spectrum redshifted gradually in the visible light range. There was a very good linear relationship between resonant wavelength and RI in the range of 1.3330 to 1.3546. More importantly, in contrast to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, the interferometric sensors showed higher sensitivity to the external RI. In the case of the transverse magnetic mode, the RI sensitivity is up to 320,700.93 a.u./RIU (refractive index unit) by expression of light intensity, which is 9.55 times that of the SPR sensor. As for the transverse electric mode, it achieves 4371.76 nm/RIU by expression of the resonant wavelength, which is increased by a factor of 1.4 in comparison with the SPR sensor. Moreover, the experimental results have favorable repeatability. A TiO2 nanowire array sensor has also other advantages, such as easy manufacturing, low cost, and in situ determination, etc. To our knowledge, this fact is reported for the first time. It has great potential applications in the field of biological and chemical sensing.

  15. Lithography-free fabrication of silicon nanowire and nanohole arrays by metal-assisted chemical etching

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrated a novel, simple, and low-cost method to fabricate silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays and silicon nanohole (SiNH) arrays based on thin silver (Ag) film dewetting process combined with metal-assisted chemical etching. Ag mesh with holes and semispherical Ag nanoparticles can be prepared by simple thermal annealing of Ag thin film on a silicon substrate. Both the diameter and the distribution of mesh holes as well as the nanoparticles can be manipulated by the film thickness and the annealing temperature. The silicon underneath Ag coverage was etched off with the catalysis of metal in an aqueous solution containing HF and an oxidant, which form silicon nanostructures (either SiNW or SiNH arrays). The morphologies of the corresponding etched SiNW and SiNH arrays matched well with that of Ag holes and nanoparticles. This novel method allows lithography-free fabrication of the SiNW and SiNH arrays with control of the size and distribution. PMID:23557325

  16. Optical design of GaN nanowire arrays for photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnerl, Julia; Hudeczek, Richard; Stutzmann, Martin

    2018-05-01

    GaN nanowire (NW) arrays are interesting candidates for photocatalytic applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio and their waveguide character. The integration of GaN NW arrays on GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs), serving as a platform for electrically driven NW-based photocatalytic devices, enables an efficient coupling of the light from the planar LED to the GaN NWs. Here, we present a numerical study of the influence of the NW geometries, i.e., the NW diameter, length, and period, and the illumination wavelength on the transmission of GaN NW arrays on transparent substrates. A detailed numerical analysis reveals that the transmission characteristics for large periods are determined by the waveguide character of the single NW, whereas for dense GaN NW arrays inter-wire coupling and diffraction effects originating from the periodic arrangement of the GaN NWs dominate the transmission. The numerically simulated results are confirmed by experimental transmission measurements. We also investigate the influence of a dielectric NW shell and of the surrounding medium on the transmission characteristics of a GaN NW array.

  17. Graphene quantum dots modified silicon nanowire array for ultrasensitive detection in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T. Y.; Duan, C. Y.; Zhu, Y. X.; Chen, Y. F.; Wang, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Si nanostructure-based gas detectors have attracted much attention due to their huge surface areas, relatively high carrier mobility, maneuverability for surface functionalization and compatibility to modern electronic industry. However, the unstable surface of Si, especially for the nanostructures in a corrosive atmosphere, hinders their sensitivity and reproducibility when used for detection in the gas phase. In this study, we proposed a novel strategy to fabricate a Si-based gas detector by using the vertically aligned Si nanowire (SiNW) array as a skeleton and platform, and decorated chemically inert graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to protect the SiNWs from oxidation and promote the carriers’ interaction with the analytes. The radial core-shell structures of the GQDs/SiNW array were then assembled into a resistor-based gas detection system and evaluated by using nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as the model analyte. Compared to the bare SiNW array, our novel sensor exhibited ultrahigh sensitivity for detecting trace amounts of NO2 with the concentration as low as 10 ppm in room temperature and an immensely reduced recovery time, which is of significant importance for their practical application. Meanwhile, strikingly, reproducibility and stability could also be achieved by showing no sensitivity decline after storing the GQDs/SiNW array in air for two weeks. Our results demonstrate that protecting the surface of the SiNW array with chemically inert GQDs is a feasible strategy to realize ultrasensitive detection in the gas phase.

  18. Significant enhancement of yellow-green light emission of ZnO nanorod arrays using Ag island films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chin-An; Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Chen, Cheng-Ying; He-Hau, Jr.

    2011-03-01

    Surface plasmon (SP) mediated emission from ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs)/Ag/Si structures has been investigated. The ratio of visible emission to UV emission can be increased by over 30 times via coupling with SP without deterioration of the crystal quality. The fact that the effect of SP crucially depends on the size of Ag island films provides the feasibility to significantly enhance the yellow-green emission of the ZnO nanostructures without sacrificing the crystallinity of ZnO.Surface plasmon (SP) mediated emission from ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs)/Ag/Si structures has been investigated. The ratio of visible emission to UV emission can be increased by over 30 times via coupling with SP without deterioration of the crystal quality. The fact that the effect of SP crucially depends on the size of Ag island films provides the feasibility to significantly enhance the yellow-green emission of the ZnO nanostructures without sacrificing the crystallinity of ZnO. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00732c

  19. Preparation and photovoltaic properties of perovskite solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Tian; Li, Zhaosong; Feng, Bingjie; Li, Siqian; Duan, Jinxia; Ye, Cong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    A careful control of ZnO nanorod arrays with various densities and thickness were achieved by hydrothermal method. An obvious increase in the ZnO nanorod density is observed as the concentrations of zinc acetate dropped as expected through the surface SEM images. On the other hand, samples with and without TiO2 compact layer were also studied and results had been analyzed to seek for an optimized substrate structure for light absorbing layer and increase the efficiency. What's more, a deep research for the drying temperature for perovskite layer was also conducted. As a result, SEM images discribe a promising surface appearance of perovskite layer which is finely attached onto the nanorod structure. Final power conversion efficiency (PCE) of FTO/ZnO seed layer/ZnO nanorods/perovskite/spiro-OMe-TAD/Au electrode photovoltaic device reached ∼9.15% together with open-circuit voltage of 957 mV, short-circuit current density of 17.8 mA/cm2 and fill factor of 0.537.

  20. Enhanced performance of ZnO microballoon arrays for a triboelectric nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Deng, Weili; Zhang, Binbin; Jin, Long; Chen, Yueqi; Chu, Wenjun; Zhang, Haitao; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), harvesting energy from the environment as a sustainable power source, have attracted great attention. Currently, many reports focus on the effect of surface modification on the electrical output performance of the TENG. In this work, we have fabricated vertically grown ZnO microballoon (ZnOMB) arrays on top of pyramid-featured PDMS patterned film, contacted with PTFE film to construct the TENG. The electrical output performances of the designed TENG are presented under external forces with different frequencies. The corresponding output open-circuit voltage with ZnOMBs could reach about 57 V the current density about 59 mA m -2 at 100 Hz, which was about 2.3 times higher than without any ZnO. The global maximum of the instantaneous peak power could reach 1.1 W m -2 when the external load resistance was about 2 MΩ. Furthermore, the electrical output of the fabricated device could light 30 commercial LED bulbs without any rectifier circuits or energy-storage elements. This clearly suggests that this kind of surface modification can dramatically enhance the output performance of the TENG. Moreover, the design of TENG demonstrated here can be applied to various energy harvesting applications.

  1. Enhanced performance of ZnO microballoon arrays for a triboelectric nanogenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Weili; Zhang, Binbin; Jin, Long; Chen, Yueqi; Chu, Wenjun; Zhang, Haitao; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Weiqing

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), harvesting energy from the environment as a sustainable power source, have attracted great attention. Currently, many reports focus on the effect of surface modification on the electrical output performance of the TENG. In this work, we have fabricated vertically grown ZnO microballoon (ZnOMB) arrays on top of pyramid-featured PDMS patterned film, contacted with PTFE film to construct the TENG. The electrical output performances of the designed TENG are presented under external forces with different frequencies. The corresponding output open-circuit voltage with ZnOMBs could reach about 57 V the current density about 59 mA m-2 at 100 Hz, which was about 2.3 times higher than without any ZnO. The global maximum of the instantaneous peak power could reach 1.1 W m-2 when the external load resistance was about 2 MΩ. Furthermore, the electrical output of the fabricated device could light 30 commercial LED bulbs without any rectifier circuits or energy-storage elements. This clearly suggests that this kind of surface modification can dramatically enhance the output performance of the TENG. Moreover, the design of TENG demonstrated here can be applied to various energy harvesting applications.

  2. High yield of self-catalyzed GaAs nanowire arrays grown on silicon via gallium droplet positioning.

    PubMed

    Plissard, S; Larrieu, G; Wallart, X; Caroff, P

    2011-07-08

    We report and detail a method to achieve growth of vertical self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires directly on Si(111) with a near-perfect vertical yield, using electron-beam-defined arrays of holes in a dielectric layer and molecular beam epitaxy. In our conditions, GaAs nanowires are grown along a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, using in situ self-forming Ga droplets. The focus of this paper is to understand the role of the substrate preparation and of the pre-growth conditioning. Without changing temperature or the V/III ratio, the yield of vertical nanowires is increased incrementally up to 95%. The possibility to achieve very dense arrays, with center-to-center inter-wire distances less than 100 nm, is demonstrated.

  3. ZnO nanosheet arrays constructed on weaved titanium wire for CdS-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ordered ZnO nanosheet arrays were grown on weaved titanium wires by a low-temperature hydrothermal method. CdS nanoparticles were deposited onto the ZnO nanosheet arrays using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method to make a photoanode. Nanoparticle-sensitized solar cells were assembled using these CdS/ZnO nanostructured photoanodes, and their photovoltaic performance was studied systematically. The best light-to-electricity conversion efficiency was obtained to be 2.17% under 100 mW/cm2 illumination, and a remarkable short-circuit photocurrent density of approximately 20.1 mA/cm2 was recorded, which could attribute to the relatively direct pathways for transportation of electrons provided by ZnO nanosheet arrays as well as the direct contact between ZnO and weaved titanium wires. These results indicate that CdS/ZnO nanostructures on weaved titanium wires would open a novel possibility for applications of low-cost solar cells. PMID:24618047

  4. Hierarchically Structured Co3O4@Pt@MnO2 Nanowire Arrays for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hui; Zhu, Dongdong; Luo, Zhentao; Yu, Yue; Shi, Xiaoqin; Yuan, Guoliang; Xie, Jianping

    2013-10-01

    Here we proposed a novel architectural design of a ternary MnO2-based electrode - a hierarchical Co3O4@Pt@MnO2 core-shell-shell structure, where the complemental features of the three key components (a well-defined Co3O4 nanowire array on the conductive Ti substrate, an ultrathin layer of small Pt nanoparticles, and a thin layer of MnO2 nanoflakes) are strategically combined into a single entity to synergize and construct a high-performance electrode for supercapacitors. Owing to the high conductivity of the well-defined Co3O4 nanowire arrays, in which the conductivity was further enhanced by a thin metal (Pt) coating layer, in combination with the large surface area provided by the small MnO2 nanoflakes, the as-fabricated Co3O4@Pt@MnO2 nanowire arrays have exhibited high specific capacitances, good rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. The architectural design demonstrated in this study provides a new approach to fabricate high-performance MnO2-based nanowire arrays for constructing next-generation supercapacitors.

  5. Heterogeneous NiCo2O4@polypyrrole core/sheath nanowire arrays on Ni foam for high performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Li, Minchan; Lv, Fucong; Yang, Mingyang; Tao, Pengpeng; Tang, Yougen; Liu, Hongtao; Lu, Zhouguang

    2015-10-01

    A novel heterogeneous NiCo2O4@PPy core/sheath nanowire arrays are directly grown on Ni foam involving three facile steps, hydrothermal synthesis and calcination of NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays and subsequent in-situ oxidative polymerization of polypyrrole (PPy). When investigated as binder- and conductive additive-free electrodes for supercapacitors (SCs) in 6 M KOH, the NiCo2O4@PPy core/sheath nanowire arrays exhibit high areal capacitance of 3.49 F cm-2 at a discharge current density of 5 mA cm-2, which is almost 1.5 times as much as the pristine NiCo2O4 (2.30 F cm-2). More importantly, it can remain 3.31 F cm-2 (94.8% retention) after 5000 cycles. The as-obtained electrode also displays excellent rate capability, whose areal capacitance can still remain 2.79 F cm-2 while the discharge current density is increased to 50 mA cm-2. The remarkable electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the unique heterogeneous core/sheath nanowire-array architectures.

  6. Volumetric Heating of Ultra-High Energy Density Relativistic Plasmas by Ultrafast Laser Irradiation of Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargsten, Clayton; Hollinger, Reed; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Pukhov, Alexander; Keiss, David; Townsend, Amanda; Wang, Yong; Wang, Shoujun; Prieto, Amy; Rocca, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    We have demonstrated the volumetric heating of near-solid density plasmas to keV temperatures by ultra-high contrast femtosecond laser irradiation of arrays of vertically aligned nanowires with an average density up to 30% solid density. X-ray spectra show that irradiation of Ni and Au nanowire arrays with laser pulses of relativistic intensities ionizes plasma volumes several micrometers in depth to the He-like and Co-like (Au 52 +) stages respectively. The penetration depth of the heat into the nanowire array was measured monitoring He-like Co lines from irradiated arrays in which the nanowires are composed of a Co segment buried under a selected length of Ni. The measurement shows the ionization reaches He-like Co for depth of up to 5 μm within the target. This volumetric plasma heating approach creates a new laboratory plasma regime in which extreme plasma parameters can be accessed with table-top lasers. Scaling to higher laser intensities promises to create plasmas with temperatures and pressures approaching those in the center of the sun. Work supported by the U.S Department of Energy, Fusion Energy Sciences and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency grant HDTRA-1-10-1-0079. A.P was supported by of DFG-funded project TR18.

  7. Hierarchically Structured Co3O4@Pt@MnO2 Nanowire Arrays for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hui; Zhu, Dongdong; Luo, Zhentao; Yu, Yue; Shi, Xiaoqin; Yuan, Guoliang; Xie, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Here we proposed a novel architectural design of a ternary MnO2-based electrode – a hierarchical Co3O4@Pt@MnO2 core-shell-shell structure, where the complemental features of the three key components (a well-defined Co3O4 nanowire array on the conductive Ti substrate, an ultrathin layer of small Pt nanoparticles, and a thin layer of MnO2 nanoflakes) are strategically combined into a single entity to synergize and construct a high-performance electrode for supercapacitors. Owing to the high conductivity of the well-defined Co3O4 nanowire arrays, in which the conductivity was further enhanced by a thin metal (Pt) coating layer, in combination with the large surface area provided by the small MnO2 nanoflakes, the as-fabricated Co3O4@Pt@MnO2 nanowire arrays have exhibited high specific capacitances, good rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. The architectural design demonstrated in this study provides a new approach to fabricate high-performance MnO2–based nanowire arrays for constructing next-generation supercapacitors. PMID:24132040

  8. High performance non-volatile ferroelectric copolymer memory based on a ZnO nanowire transistor fabricated on a transparent substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedic, Stanko; Tea Chun, Young; Hong, Woong-Ki; Chu, Daping; Welland, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A high performance ferroelectric non-volatile memory device based on a top-gate ZnO nanowire (NW) transistor fabricated on a glass substrate is demonstrated. The ZnO NW channel was spin-coated with a poly (vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) layer acting as a top-gate dielectric without buffer layer. Electrical conductance modulation and memory hysteresis are achieved by a gate electric field induced reversible electrical polarization switching of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin film. Furthermore, the fabricated device exhibits a memory window of ˜16.5 V, a high drain current on/off ratio of ˜105, a gate leakage current below ˜300 pA, and excellent retention characteristics for over 104 s.

  9. Measuring and Modeling the Growth Dynamics of Self-Catalyzed GaP Nanowire Arrays.

    PubMed

    Oehler, Fabrice; Cattoni, Andrea; Scaccabarozzi, Andrea; Patriarche, Gilles; Glas, Frank; Harmand, Jean-Christophe

    2018-02-14

    The bottom-up fabrication of regular nanowire (NW) arrays on a masked substrate is technologically relevant, but the growth dynamic is rather complex due to the superposition of severe shadowing effects that vary with array pitch, NW diameter, NW height, and growth duration. By inserting GaAsP marker layers at a regular time interval during the growth of a self-catalyzed GaP NW array, we are able to retrieve precisely the time evolution of the diameter and height of a single NW. We then propose a simple numerical scheme which fully computes shadowing effects at play in infinite arrays of NWs. By confronting the simulated and experimental results, we infer that re-emission of Ga from the mask is necessary to sustain the NW growth while Ga migration on the mask must be negligible. When compared to random cosine or random uniform re-emission from the mask, the simple case of specular reflection on the mask gives the most accurate account of the Ga balance during the growth.

  10. Layer-by-layer-assembled quantum dot multilayer sensitizers: how the number of layers affects the photovoltaic properties of one-dimensional ZnO nanowire electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ho; Choi, Sukyung; Lim, Sang-Hoon; Rhee, Shi-Woo; Lee, Hyo Joong; Kim, Sungjee

    2014-01-13

    Layer cake: Multilayered CdSe quantum dot (QD) sensitizers are layer-by-layer assembled onto ZnO nanowires by making use of electrostatic interactions to study the effect of the layer number on the photovoltaic properties. The photovoltaic performance of QD-sensitized solar cells critically depends on this number as a result of the balance between light-harvesting efficiency and carrier-recombination probability. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Template-directed atomically precise self-organization of perfectly ordered parallel cerium silicide nanowire arrays on Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ie-Hong; Liao, Yung-Cheng; Tsai, Yung-Feng

    2013-11-05

    The perfectly ordered parallel arrays of periodic Ce silicide nanowires can self-organize with atomic precision on single-domain Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces. The growth evolution of self-ordered parallel Ce silicide nanowire arrays is investigated over a broad range of Ce coverages on single-domain Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Three different types of well-ordered parallel arrays, consisting of uniformly spaced and atomically identical Ce silicide nanowires, are self-organized through the heteroepitaxial growth of Ce silicides on a long-range grating-like 16 × 2 reconstruction at the deposition of various Ce coverages. Each atomically precise Ce silicide nanowire consists of a bundle of chains and rows with different atomic structures. The atomic-resolution dual-polarity STM images reveal that the interchain coupling leads to the formation of the registry-aligned chain bundles within individual Ce silicide nanowire. The nanowire width and the interchain coupling can be adjusted systematically by varying the Ce coverage on a Si(110) surface. This natural template-directed self-organization of perfectly regular parallel nanowire arrays allows for the precise control of the feature size and positions within ±0.2 nm over a large area. Thus, it is a promising route to produce parallel nanowire arrays in a straightforward, low-cost, high-throughput process.

  12. Template-directed atomically precise self-organization of perfectly ordered parallel cerium silicide nanowire arrays on Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The perfectly ordered parallel arrays of periodic Ce silicide nanowires can self-organize with atomic precision on single-domain Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces. The growth evolution of self-ordered parallel Ce silicide nanowire arrays is investigated over a broad range of Ce coverages on single-domain Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Three different types of well-ordered parallel arrays, consisting of uniformly spaced and atomically identical Ce silicide nanowires, are self-organized through the heteroepitaxial growth of Ce silicides on a long-range grating-like 16 × 2 reconstruction at the deposition of various Ce coverages. Each atomically precise Ce silicide nanowire consists of a bundle of chains and rows with different atomic structures. The atomic-resolution dual-polarity STM images reveal that the interchain coupling leads to the formation of the registry-aligned chain bundles within individual Ce silicide nanowire. The nanowire width and the interchain coupling can be adjusted systematically by varying the Ce coverage on a Si(110) surface. This natural template-directed self-organization of perfectly regular parallel nanowire arrays allows for the precise control of the feature size and positions within ±0.2 nm over a large area. Thus, it is a promising route to produce parallel nanowire arrays in a straightforward, low-cost, high-throughput process. PMID:24188092

  13. Highly effective field-effect mobility amorphous InGaZnO TFT mediated by directional silver nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hung-Chuan; Lai, Yi-Chun; Lai, Chih-Chung; Wu, Bing-Shu; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Yu, Peichen; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Tsai, Chuang-Chuang

    2015-01-14

    In this work, we demonstrate sputtered amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) with a record high effective field-effect mobility of 174 cm(2)/V s by incorporating silver nanowire (AgNW) arrays to channel electron transport. Compared to the reference counterpart without nanowires, the over 5-fold enhancement in the effective field-effect mobility exhibits clear dependence on the orientation as well as the surface coverage ratio of silver nanowires. Detailed material and device analyses reveal that during the room-temperature IGZO sputtering indium and oxygen diffuse into the nanowire matrix while the nanowire morphology and good contact between IGZO and nanowires are maintained. The unchanged morphology and good interfacial contact lead to high mobility and air-ambient-stable characteristics up to 3 months. Neither hysteresis nor degraded bias stress reliability is observed. The proposed AgNW-mediated a-IGZO TFTs are promising for development of large-scale, flexible, transparent electronics.

  14. Highly organised and dense vertical silicon nanowire arrays grown in porous alumina template on <100> silicon wafers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, nanoimprint lithography combined with standard anodization etching is used to make perfectly organised triangular arrays of vertical cylindrical alumina nanopores onto standard <100>−oriented silicon wafers. Both the pore diameter and the period of alumina porous array are well controlled and can be tuned: the periods vary from 80 to 460 nm, and the diameters vary from 15 nm to any required diameter. These porous thin layers are then successfully used as templates for the guided epitaxial growth of organised mono-crystalline silicon nanowire arrays in a chemical vapour deposition chamber. We report the densities of silicon nanowires up to 9 × 109 cm−2 organised in highly regular arrays with excellent diameter distribution. All process steps are demonstrated on surfaces up to 2 × 2 cm2. Specific emphasis was made to select techniques compatible with microelectronic fabrication standards, adaptable to large surface samples and with a reasonable cost. Achievements made in the quality of the porous alumina array, therefore on the silicon nanowire array, widen the number of potential applications for this technology, such as optical detectors or biological sensors. PMID:23773702

  15. Strikingly enhanced cooling performance for a micro-cooler using unique Cu nanowire array with high electrical conductivity and fast heat transfer behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ming; Wang, Xiuzhen; Hao, Yanming; Deng, Yuan

    2017-06-01

    It was found that phonons/electrons are less scattered along (1 1 1)-preferred Cu nanowires than in ordinary structure films and that the interface of Cu nanowires electrode and thermoelectric materials are more compatible. Here highly ordered, high-crystal-quality, high-density Cu nanowire array was successfully fabricated by a magnetron sputtering method. The Cu nanowire array was successfully incorporated using mask-assisted deposition technology as electrodes for thin-film thermoelectric coolers, which would greatly improve electrical/thermal transport and enhance performance of micro-coolers. The cooling performance of the micro-cooler with Cu nanowire array electrode is over 200% higher than that of the cooler with ordinary film electrode.

  16. A metallo-DNA nanowire with uninterrupted one-dimensional silver array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Jiro; Tada, Yoshinari; Dairaku, Takenori; Hattori, Yoshikazu; Saneyoshi, Hisao; Ono, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki

    2017-10-01

    The double-helix structure of DNA, in which complementary strands reversibly hybridize to each other, not only explains how genetic information is stored and replicated, but also has proved very attractive for the development of nanomaterials. The discovery of metal-mediated base pairs has prompted the generation of short metal-DNA hybrid duplexes by a bottom-up approach. Here we describe a metallo-DNA nanowire—whose structure was solved by high-resolution X-ray crystallography—that consists of dodecamer duplexes held together by four different metal-mediated base pairs (the previously observed C-Ag-C, as well as G-Ag-G, G-Ag-C and T-Ag-T) and linked to each other through G overhangs involved in interduplex G-Ag-G. The resulting hybrid nanowires are 2 nm wide with a length of the order of micrometres to millimetres, and hold the silver ions in uninterrupted one-dimensional arrays along the DNA helical axis. The hybrid nanowires are further assembled into three-dimensional lattices by interactions between adenine residues, fully bulged out of the double helix.

  17. Band gap enhancement of glancing angle deposited TiO2 nanowire array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnamuthu, P.; Mondal, A.; Singh, N. K.; Dhar, J. C.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Bhattacharya, Sekhar

    2012-09-01

    Vertically oriented TiO2 nanowire (NW) arrays were fabricated by glancing angle deposition technique. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy shows the formation of two different diameters ˜80 nm and ˜40 nm TiO2 NW for 120 and 460 rpm azimuthal rotation of the substrate. The x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering depicted the presence of rutile and anatase phase TiO2. The overall Raman scattering intensity decreased with nanowire diameter. The role of phonon confinement in anatase and rutile peaks has been discussed. The red (7.9 cm-1 of anatase Eg) and blue (7.4 cm-1 of rutile Eg, 7.8 cm-1 of rutile A1g) shifts of Raman frequencies were observed. UV-vis absorption measurements show the main band absorption at 3.42 eV, 3.48 eV, and ˜3.51 eV for thin film and NW prepared at 120 and 460 rpm, respectively. Three fold enhance photon absorption and intense light emission were observed for NW assembly. The photoluminescence emission from the NW assembly revealed blue shift in main band transition due to quantum confinement in NW structures.

  18. Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Micropatterned Nanowire Arrays for High-Efficiency Jumping Droplet Condensation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rongfu; Xu, Shanshan; Zhao, Dongliang; Lee, Yung-Cheng; Ma, Xuehu; Yang, Ronggui

    2017-12-27

    Self-propelled droplet jumping on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces is of interest for a variety of industrial applications including self-cleaning, water harvesting, power generation, and thermal management systems. However, the uncontrolled nucleation-induced Wenzel state of condensed droplets at large surface subcooling (high heat flux) leads to the formation of unwanted large pinned droplets, which results in the flooding phenomenon and greatly degrades the heat transfer performance. In this work, we present a novel strategy to manipulate droplet behaviors during the process from the droplet nucleation to growth and departure through a combination of spatially controlling initial nucleation for mobile droplets by closely spaced nanowires and promoting the spontaneous outward movement of droplets for rapid removal using micropatterned nanowire arrays. Through the optical visualization experiments and heat transfer tests, we demonstrate greatly improved condensation heat transfer characteristics on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface including the higher density of microdroplets, smaller droplet departure radius, 133% wider range of surface subcooling for droplet jumping, and 37% enhancement in critical heat flux for jumping droplet condensation, compared to the-state-of-art jumping droplet condensation on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces. The excellent water repellency of such hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces can be promising for many potential applications, such as anti-icing, antifogging, water desalination, and phase-change heat transfer.

  19. Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Micropatterned Nanowire Arrays for High-Efficiency Jumping Droplet Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Rongfu; Xu, Shanshan; Zhao, Dongliang

    Self-propelled droplet jumping on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces is of interest for a variety of industrial applications including self-cleaning, water harvesting, power generation, and thermal management systems. However, the uncontrolled nucleation-induced Wenzel state of condensed droplets at large surface subcooling (high heat flux) leads to the formation of unwanted large pinned droplets, which results in the flooding phenomenon and greatly degrades the heat transfer performance. In this work, we present a novel strategy to manipulate droplet behaviors during the process from the droplet nucleation to growth and departure through a combination of spatially controlling initial nucleation for mobile droplets by closelymore » spaced nanowires and promoting the spontaneous outward movement of droplets for rapid removal using micropatterned nanowire arrays. Through the optical visualization experiments and heat transfer tests, we demonstrate greatly improved condensation heat transfer characteristics on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface including the higher density of microdroplets, smaller droplet departure radius, 133% wider range of surface subcooling for droplet jumping, and 37% enhancement in critical heat flux for jumping droplet condensation, compared to the-state-of-art jumping droplet condensation on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces. The excellent water repellency of such hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces can be promising for many potential applications, such as anti-icing, antifogging, water desalination, and phase-change heat transfer.« less

  20. Manifestations of Surface States in the Longitudinal Magnetoresistance of an Array of Bi Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latyshev, Yu. I.; Frolov, A. V.; Volkov, V. A.; Wade, T.; Prudkoglyad, V. A.; Orlov, A. P.; Pudalov, V. M.; Konczykowski, M.

    2018-04-01

    The longitudinal magnetoresistance of the array of parallel-oriented bismuth nanowires each 100 nm in diameter grown by electrochemical deposition in nanopores of an Al2O3 membrane has been studied in magnetic fields up to 14 T and at temperatures down to 0.3 K. The resistance increases with the field and reaches a broad maximum in fields about 10 T. An anomalous increase in the resistance in weak fields is qualitatively consistent with the suppression of the antilocalization correction to the resistance, and the maximum is qualitatively associated with the classical size effect. Near the maximum at temperatures below 0.8 K, manifestations of reproducible magneto-oscillations of the resistance, which are periodic in field, have been detected. The period of these oscillations is close to a value corresponding to the passage of the flux quantum hc/ e through the section of a nanowire. The Fourier analysis also confirms that the oscillations are periodic. This result is similar to the manifestation the Aharonov-Bohm effect caused by conducting surface states of Dirac fermions occupying L-valleys of bismuth.

  1. Controllable Surface Reorganization Engineering on Cobalt Phosphide Nanowire Arrays for Efficient Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Cheng, Han; Lv, Haifeng; Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Linqi; Liu, Si; Wu, Xiaojun; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Developing highly efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts in alkaline media is considered significant and valuable for water splitting. Herein, it is demonstrated that surface reorganization engineering by oxygen plasma engraving on electocatalysts successfully realizes a dramatically enhanced alkaline HER activity. Taking CoP nanowire arrays grown on carbon cloth (denoted as CoP NWs/CC) as an example, the oxygen plasma engraving can trigger moderate CoO x species formation on the surface of the CoP NWs/CC, which is visually verified by the X-ray absorption fine structure, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) mapping. Benefiting from the moderate CoO x species formed on the surface, which can promote the water dissociation in alkaline HER, the surface reorganization of the CoP NWs/CC realizes almost fourfold enhanced alkaline HER activity and a 180 mV decreased overpotential at 100 mA cm -2 , compared with the pristine ones. More interestingly, this surface reorganization strategy by oxygen plasma engraving can also be effective to other electrocatalysts such as free-standing CoP, Co 4 N, O-CoSe 2 , and C-CoSe 2 nanowires, which verifies the universality of the strategy. This work thus opens up new avenues for designing alkaline HER electrocatalysts based on oxygen plasma engraving. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Micropatterned Nanowire Arrays for High-Efficiency Jumping Droplet Condensation

    DOE PAGES

    Wen, Rongfu; Xu, Shanshan; Zhao, Dongliang; ...

    2017-12-07

    Self-propelled droplet jumping on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces is of interest for a variety of industrial applications including self-cleaning, water harvesting, power generation, and thermal management systems. However, the uncontrolled nucleation-induced Wenzel state of condensed droplets at large surface subcooling (high heat flux) leads to the formation of unwanted large pinned droplets, which results in the flooding phenomenon and greatly degrades the heat transfer performance. In this work, we present a novel strategy to manipulate droplet behaviors during the process from the droplet nucleation to growth and departure through a combination of spatially controlling initial nucleation for mobile droplets by closelymore » spaced nanowires and promoting the spontaneous outward movement of droplets for rapid removal using micropatterned nanowire arrays. Through the optical visualization experiments and heat transfer tests, we demonstrate greatly improved condensation heat transfer characteristics on the hierarchical superhydrophobic surface including the higher density of microdroplets, smaller droplet departure radius, 133% wider range of surface subcooling for droplet jumping, and 37% enhancement in critical heat flux for jumping droplet condensation, compared to the-state-of-art jumping droplet condensation on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces. The excellent water repellency of such hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces can be promising for many potential applications, such as anti-icing, antifogging, water desalination, and phase-change heat transfer.« less

  3. Hybrid heterojunction solar cell based on organic-inorganic silicon nanowire array architecture.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaojuan; Sun, Baoquan; Liu, Dong; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-12-07

    Silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) on a planar silicon wafer can be fabricated by a simple metal-assisted wet chemical etching method. They can offer an excellent light harvesting capability through light scattering and trapping. In this work, we demonstrated that the organic-inorganic solar cell based on hybrid composites of conjugated molecules and SiNWs on a planar substrate yielded an excellent power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.70%. The high efficiency was ascribed to two aspects: one was the improvement of the light absorption by SiNWs structure on the planar components; the other was the enhancement of charge extraction efficiency, resulting from the novel top contact by forming a thin organic layer shell around the individual silicon nanowire. On the contrary, the sole planar junction solar cell only exhibited a PCE of 6.01%, due to the lower light trapping capability and the less hole extraction efficiency. It indicated that both the SiNWs structure and the thin organic layer top contact were critical to achieve a high performance organic/silicon solar cell. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Electrochemical growth of controlled tip shapes of ZnO nanorod arrays on silicon substrate and enhanced photoluminescence emission from nanopyramid arrays compared with flat-head nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimanesh, Mahmoud; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, Norzaini

    2017-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays (NRAs) with different morphologies such as; perfect hexagon flat-head, pyramidal, compact pencil, nail-shaped, and high-compact ZnO nanorod thin films, were successfully grown on silicon substrates. These NRAs were formed on substrates using a simple low-temperature electrochemical method without adding any catalyst or template via the precursors of zinc nitrate hexahydrate [Zn(NO3)2·6H2O] and hexamethylenetetramine [HMT; C6H12N4] with an equal molar concentration of 0.025 mol/l. The morphologies of the ZnO nanorods (NRs) could be controlled and transformed successfully in to other morphologies by changing the growth conditions, such as; growth temperature and applied current density. Detailed structural investigations reveal that the synthesized various NRs are single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase and preferentially grow along the c-axis direction. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra show that each spectrum consists of an ultraviolet (UV) band and a relative broad visible light emission and infrared emission peak. The enhanced light emission intensity at UV peak (∼375 nm) is observed significantly from ZnO nanopyramid (NP) arrays because of the conical shape of NP. The photoluminescence intensity of the UV peak from the NPs is found to be 1.5-17 times larger than those from the other various NRs.

  5. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod core-polypyrrole conducting polymer sheath and nanotube arrays for electrochemical supercapacitor energy storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite electrodes having three-dimensional (3-D) nanoscale architecture comprising of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array core-polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer sheath and the vertical PPy nanotube arrays have been investigated for supercapacitor energy storage. The electrodes in the ZnO nanorod core-PPy sheath structure are formed by preferential nucleation and deposition of PPy layer over hydrothermally synthesized vertical ZnO nanorod array by controlled pulsed current electropolymerization of pyrrole monomer under surfactant action. The vertical PPy nanotube arrays of different tube diameter are created by selective etching of the ZnO nanorod core in ammonia solution for different periods. Cyclic voltammetry studies show high areal-specific capacitance approximately 240 mF.cm-2 for open pore and approximately 180 mF.cm-2 for narrow 30-to-36-nm diameter PPy nanotube arrays attributed to intensive faradic processes arising from enhanced access of electrolyte ions through nanotube interior and exterior. Impedance spectroscopy studies show that capacitive response extends over larger frequency domain in electrodes with PPy nanotube structure. Simulation of Nyquist plots by electrical equivalent circuit modeling establishes that 3-D nanostructure is better represented by constant phase element which accounts for the inhomogeneous electrochemical redox processes. Charge-discharge studies at different current densities establish that kinetics of the redox process in PPy nanotube electrode is due to the limitation on electron transport rather than the diffusive process of electrolyte ions. The PPy nanotube electrodes show deep discharge capability with high coulomb efficiency and long-term charge-discharge cyclic studies show nondegrading performance of the specific areal capacitance tested for 5,000 cycles. PMID:25246867

  6. Growing vertical ZnO nanorod arrays within graphite: efficient isolation of large size and high quality single-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ling; E, Yifeng; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe

    2013-07-18

    We report a unique strategy for efficiently exfoliating large size and high quality single-layer graphene directly from graphite into DMF dispersions by growing ZnO nanorod arrays between the graphene layers in graphite.

  7. Ultrafine MnO2 Nanowire Arrays Grown on Carbon Fibers for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiyu; Qian, Feng; Song, Guosheng; Li, Wenyao; Wang, Linlin

    2016-10-01

    Large-area ultrafine MnO2 nanowire arrays (NWA) directly grew on a carbon fiber (CF, used as a substrate) by a simple electrochemical method, forming three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical heterostructures of a CF@MnO2 NWA composite. As an electrode for supercapacitors, the CF@MnO2 NWA composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performances including high specific capacitance (321.3 F g-1 at 1000 mA g-1) and good rate capability. Further, the overall capacitance retention is 99.7 % capacitance after 3000 cycles. These outstanding electrochemical performances attribute to a large number of transport channels for the penetration of electrolyte and the transportation of ions and electrons of electrodes. The as-prepared CF@MnO2 NWA composite may be a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  8. Construction of MoS2/Si nanowire array heterojunction for ultrahigh-sensitivity gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Lou, Zhenhua; Wang, Yuange; Xu, Tingting; Shi, Zhifeng; Xu, Junmin; Tian, Yongtao; Li, Xinjian

    2017-10-27

    Few-layer MoS 2 thin films were synthesized by a two-step thermal decomposition process. In addition, MoS 2 /Si nanowire array (SiNWA) heterojunctions exhibiting excellent gas sensing properties were constructed and investigated. Further analysis reveals that such MoS 2 /SiNWA heterojunction devices are highly sensitive to nitric oxide (NO) gas under reverse voltages at room temperature (RT). The gas sensor demonstrated a minimum detection limit of 10 ppb, which represents the lowest value obtained for MoS 2 -based sensors, as well as an ultrahigh response of 3518% (50 ppm NO, ∼50% RH), with good repeatability and selectivity of the MoS 2 /SiNWA heterojunction. The sensing mechanisms were also discussed. The performance of the MoS 2 /SiNWA heterojunction gas sensors is superior to previous results, revealing that they have great potential in applications relating to highly sensitive gas sensors.

  9. Structural and optical properties of glancing angle deposited TiO2 nanowires array.

    PubMed

    Chinnamuthu, P; Mondal, A; Singh, N K; Dhar, J C; Das, S K; Chattopadhyay, K K

    2012-08-01

    TiO2 nanowires (NWs) have been synthesized by glancing angle deposition technique using e-beam evaporator. The average length 490 nm and diameter 80 nm of NWs were examined by field emission-scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy emphasized that the NWs were widely dispersed at the top. X-ray diffraction has been carried out on the TiO2 thin film (TF) and NW array. A small blue shift of 0.03 eV was observed in Photoluminescence (PL) main band emission for TiO2 NW as compared to TiO2 TF. The high temperature annealing at 980 degrees C partially removed the oxygen vacancy from the sample, which was investigated by PL and optical absorption measurements.

  10. Ultrafine MnO2 Nanowire Arrays Grown on Carbon Fibers for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiyu; Qian, Feng; Song, Guosheng; Li, Wenyao; Wang, Linlin

    2016-12-01

    Large-area ultrafine MnO 2 nanowire arrays (NWA) directly grew on a carbon fiber (CF, used as a substrate) by a simple electrochemical method, forming three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical heterostructures of a CF@MnO 2 NWA composite. As an electrode for supercapacitors, the CF@MnO 2 NWA composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performances including high specific capacitance (321.3 F g -1 at 1000 mA g -1 ) and good rate capability. Further, the overall capacitance retention is ~99.7 % capacitance after 3000 cycles. These outstanding electrochemical performances attribute to a large number of transport channels for the penetration of electrolyte and the transportation of ions and electrons of electrodes. The as-prepared CF@MnO 2 NWA composite may be a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  11. Template-based synthesis and magnetic properties of Mn-Zn ferrite nanotube and nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Limin; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhong, Caifu; Li, Longtu

    2012-01-01

    Template-based electrophoretic deposition of Mn-Zn ferrite nanotubes (NTs) and nanowires (NWs) were achieved using anodic alumina oxide (AAO) membranes. The effect of electrophoretic current and deposition time on the morphology of the tubes was investigated. The samples show cubic spinel structure with no preferred orientation. Room-temperature magnetic properties of the Mn-Zn ferrite NT/NW arrays were studied. The magnetic easy axis parallels the NT/NW's channel axis attributing to the large shape anisotropy in this direction, especially for the NTs with a small wall thickness. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy and magnetostatic interactions were found dominant in the samples when applied field was perpendicular to the channel axis.

  12. Construction of MoS2/Si nanowire array heterojunction for ultrahigh-sensitivity gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Lou, Zhenhua; Wang, Yuange; Xu, Tingting; Shi, Zhifeng; Xu, Junmin; Tian, Yongtao; Li, Xinjian

    2017-10-01

    Few-layer MoS2 thin films were synthesized by a two-step thermal decomposition process. In addition, MoS2/Si nanowire array (SiNWA) heterojunctions exhibiting excellent gas sensing properties were constructed and investigated. Further analysis reveals that such MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction devices are highly sensitive to nitric oxide (NO) gas under reverse voltages at room temperature (RT). The gas sensor demonstrated a minimum detection limit of 10 ppb, which represents the lowest value obtained for MoS2-based sensors, as well as an ultrahigh response of 3518% (50 ppm NO, ˜50% RH), with good repeatability and selectivity of the MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction. The sensing mechanisms were also discussed. The performance of the MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction gas sensors is superior to previous results, revealing that they have great potential in applications relating to highly sensitive gas sensors.

  13. In situ fabrication of Ni-Co (oxy)hydroxide nanowire-supported nanoflake arrays and their application in supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Quan, Honglin; Li, Xiaoxin; He, Hai; Ye, Qinglan; Xu, Xuetang; Wang, Fan

    2016-09-29

    Three-dimensional (3D) hybrid nanostructured arrays grown on a flexible substrate have recently attracted great attention owing to their potential application as supercapacitor electrodes in portable and wearable electronic devices. Here, we report an in situ conversion of Ni-Co active electrode materials for the fabrication of high-performance electrodes. Ni-Co carbonate hydroxide nanowire arrays on carbon cloth were initially synthesized via a hydrothermal method, and they were gradually converted to Ni-Co (oxy)hydroxide nanowire-supported nanoflake arrays after soaking in an alkaline solution. The evolution of the supercapacitor performance of the soaked electrode was investigated in detail. The areal capacitance increases from 281 mF cm -2 at 1 mA cm -2 to 3710 and 3900 mF cm -2 after soaking for 36 h and 48 h, respectively. More interestingly, the electrode also shows an increased capacitance with charge/discharge cycles due to the long-time soaking in KOH solution, suggesting novel cycling durability. The enhancement in capacitive performance should be related to the formation of a unique nanowire-supported nanoflake array architecture, which controls the agglomeration of nanoflakes, making them fully activated. As a result, the facile in situ fabrication of the hybrid architectural design in this study provides a new approach to fabricate high-performance Ni/Co based hydroxide nanostructure arrays for next-generation energy storage devices.

  14. Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation by GaAs Nanowire Arrays Protected with Atomic Layer Deposited NiO x Electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Joy; Xu, Xiaoqing; Parameshwaran, Vijay; Baker, Jon; Bent, Stacey; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Clemens, Bruce

    2018-02-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production makes possible the direct conversion of solar energy into chemical fuel. In this work, PEC photoanodes consisting of GaAs nanowire (NW) arrays were fabricated, characterized, and then demonstrated for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Uniform and periodic GaAs nanowire arrays were grown on a heavily n-doped GaAs substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition selective area growth. The nanowire arrays were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in a non-aqueous electrochemical system using ferrocene/ferrocenium (Fc/Fc+) as a redox couple, and a maximum oxidation photocurrent of 11.1 mA/cm2 was measured. GaAs NW arrays with a 36 nm layer of nickel oxide (NiO x ) synthesized by atomic layer deposition were then used as photoanodes to drive the OER. In addition to acting as an electrocatalyst, the NiO x layer served to protect the GaAs NWs from oxidative corrosion. Using this strategy, GaAs NW photoanodes were successfully used for the oxygen evolution reaction. This is the first demonstration of GaAs NW arrays for effective OER, and the fabrication and protection strategy developed in this work can be extended to study any other nanostructured semiconductor materials systems for electrochemical solar energy conversion.

  15. ZnO nanopowder induced light scattering for improved visualization of emission sites in carbon nanotube films and arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meško, Marcel; Ou, Qiongrong; Matsuda, Takafumi; Ishikawa, Tomokazu; Veis, Martin; Antoš, Roman; Ogino, Akihisa; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2009-06-01

    We report on ZnO nanopowder induced light scattering for improved visualization of emission sites in carbon nanotube films and arrays. We observed a significant reduction of the internal multiple light scattering phenomena, which are characteristic for ZnO micropowders. The microsized grains of the commercially available ZnO:Zn (P 15) were reduced to the nanometre scale by pulsed laser ablation at an oxygen ambient pressure of 10 kPa. Our investigations show no crystalline change and no shift of the broad green emission peak at 500 nm for the ZnO nanopowder. For the application in field emission displays, we demonstrate the possibility of achieving cathodoluminescence with a fine pitch size of 100 µm of the patterned pixels without requiring additional electron beam focusing and without a black matrix. Moreover, the presented results show the feasibility of employing ZnO nanopowder as a detection material for the phosphorus screen method, which is able to localize emission sites of carbon nanotube films and arrays with an accuracy comparable to scanning anode field emission microscopy.

  16. Vertically aligned CdSe nanowire arrays for energy harvesting and piezotronic devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu Sheng; Wang, Kai; Han, Weihua; Rai, Satish Chandra; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Yong; Pan, Caofeng; Zhang, Fang; Zhou, Weilie; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-07-24

    We demonstrated the energy harvesting potential and piezotronic effect in vertically aligned CdSe nanowire (NW) arrays for the first time. The CdSe NW arrays were grown on a mica substrate by the vapor-liquid-solid process using a CdSe thin film as seed layer and platinum as catalyst. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy image and selected area electron diffraction pattern indicate that the CdSe NWs have a wurtzite structure and growth direction along (0001). Using conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM), an average output voltage of 30.7 mV and maximum of 137 mV were obtained. To investigate the effect of strain on electron transport, the current-voltage characteristics of the NWs were studied by positioning an AFM tip on top of an individual NW. By applying normal force/stress on the NW, the Schottky barrier between the Pt and CdSe was found to be elevated due to the piezotronic effect. With the change of strain of 0.12%, a current decreased from 84 to 17 pA at 2 V bias. This paper shows that the vertical CdSe NW array is a potential candidate for future piezo-phototronic devices.

  17. GaN nanowire arrays with nonpolar sidewalls for vertically integrated field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Feng; Yao, Shengbo; Römer, Friedhard; Witzigmann, Bernd; Schimpke, Tilman; Strassburg, Martin; Bakin, Andrey; Schumacher, Hans Werner; Peiner, Erwin; Suryo Wasisto, Hutomo; Waag, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Vertically aligned gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire (NW) arrays have attracted a lot of attention because of their potential for novel devices in the fields of optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. In this work, GaN NW arrays have been designed and fabricated by combining suitable nanomachining processes including dry and wet etching. After inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching, the GaN NWs are subsequently treated in wet chemical etching using AZ400K developer (i.e., with an activation energy of 0.69 ± 0.02 eV and a Cr mask) to form hexagonal and smooth a-plane sidewalls. Etching experiments using potassium hydroxide (KOH) water solution reveal that the sidewall orientation preference depends on etchant concentration. A model concerning surface bonding configuration on crystallography facets has been proposed to understand the anisotropic wet etching mechanism. Finally, NW array-based vertical field-effect transistors with wrap-gated structure have been fabricated. A device composed of 99 NWs exhibits enhancement mode operation with a threshold voltage of 1.5 V, a superior electrostatic control, and a high current output of >10 mA, which prevail potential applications in next-generation power switches and high-temperature digital circuits.

  18. GaN nanowire arrays with nonpolar sidewalls for vertically integrated field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feng; Yao, Shengbo; Römer, Friedhard; Witzigmann, Bernd; Schimpke, Tilman; Strassburg, Martin; Bakin, Andrey; Schumacher, Hans Werner; Peiner, Erwin; Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Waag, Andreas

    2017-03-03

    Vertically aligned gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire (NW) arrays have attracted a lot of attention because of their potential for novel devices in the fields of optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. In this work, GaN NW arrays have been designed and fabricated by combining suitable nanomachining processes including dry and wet etching. After inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching, the GaN NWs are subsequently treated in wet chemical etching using AZ400K developer (i.e., with an activation energy of 0.69 ± 0.02 eV and a Cr mask) to form hexagonal and smooth a-plane sidewalls. Etching experiments using potassium hydroxide (KOH) water solution reveal that the sidewall orientation preference depends on etchant concentration. A model concerning surface bonding configuration on crystallography facets has been proposed to understand the anisotropic wet etching mechanism. Finally, NW array-based vertical field-effect transistors with wrap-gated structure have been fabricated. A device composed of 99 NWs exhibits enhancement mode operation with a threshold voltage of 1.5 V, a superior electrostatic control, and a high current output of >10 mA, which prevail potential applications in next-generation power switches and high-temperature digital circuits.

  19. Design of coated standing nanowire array solar cell performing beyond the planar efficiency limits

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Yang; Ye, Qinghao; Shen, Wenzhong, E-mail: wzshen@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-05-28

    The single standing nanowire (SNW) solar cells have been proven to perform beyond the planar efficiency limits in both open-circuit voltage and internal quantum efficiency due to the built-in concentration and the shifting of the absorption front. However, the expandability of these nano-scale units to a macro-scale photovoltaic device remains unsolved. The main difficulty lies in the simultaneous preservation of an effective built-in concentration in each unit cell and a broadband high absorption capability of their array. Here, we have provided a detailed theoretical guideline for realizing a macro-scale solar cell that performs furthest beyond the planar limits. The keymore » lies in a complementary design between the light-trapping of the single SNWs and that of the photonic crystal slab formed by the array. By tuning the hybrid HE modes of the SNWs through the thickness of a coaxial dielectric coating, the optimized coated SNW array can sustain an absorption rate over 97.5% for a period as large as 425 nm, which, together with the inherited carrier extraction advantage, leads to a cell efficiency increment of 30% over the planar limit. This work has demonstrated the viability of a large-size solar cell that performs beyond the planar limits.« less

  20. Synthesis and characterization of barium silicide (BaSi2) nanowire arrays for potential solar applications.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Ankit; Samad, Leith; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song

    2015-11-07

    In order to utilize nanostructured materials for potential solar and other energy-harvesting applications, scalable synthetic techniques for these materials must be developed. Herein we use a vapor phase conversion approach to synthesize nanowire (NW) arrays of semiconducting barium silicide (BaSi2) in high yield for the first time for potential solar applications. Dense arrays of silicon NWs obtained by metal-assisted chemical etching were converted to single-crystalline BaSi2 NW arrays by reacting with Ba vapor at about 930 °C. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirm that the converted NWs are single-crystalline BaSi2. The optimal conversion reaction conditions allow the phase-pure synthesis of BaSi2 NWs that maintain the original NW morphology, and tuning the reaction parameters led to a controllable synthesis of BaSi2 films on silicon substrates. The optical bandgap and electrochemical measurements of these BaSi2 NWs reveal a bandgap and carrier concentrations comparable to previously reported values for BaSi2 thin films.

  1. ZnO nanofiber (NFs) growth from ZnO nanowires (NWs) by controlling growth temperature on flexible Teflon substrate by CBD technique for UV photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, O. F.; Halim, M. M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Qaeed, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, ZnO nanofibers (ZnO NFs) were successfully grown for the first time on Teflon substrates using CBD technique. The well-aligned ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) were transformed to ZnO nanofibers (NFs) by varying growth temperature and growth time. The high intensity and distinct growth orientation of peaks observed in the XRD spectra of the NFs indicate high crystal quality. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed high density of small diameter sized and long ZnO nanofibers (NFs) that are distributed in random directions. Raman analyses revealed a high E2 (high) peak at 436 nm, which indicates the wurtzite structure of ZnO. A flexible ZnO nanofiber (NFs)-based metal-semiconductor-metal UV detector was fabricated and analyzed for photo response and sensitivity under low power illumination (375 nm, 1.5 mW/cm2). The results showed a sensitivity of 4045% which can be considered a relatively high response and baseline recovery for UV detection.

  2. Crystal Orientation Controlled Photovoltaic Properties of Multilayer GaAs Nanowire Arrays.

    PubMed

    Han, Ning; Yang, Zai-Xing; Wang, Fengyun; Yip, SenPo; Li, Dapan; Hung, Tak Fu; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C

    2016-06-28

    In recent years, despite significant progress in the synthesis, characterization, and integration of various nanowire (NW) material systems, crystal orientation controlled NW growth as well as real-time assessment of their growth-structure-property relationships still presents one of the major challenges in deploying NWs for practical large-scale applications. In this study, we propose, design, and develop a multilayer NW printing scheme for the determination of crystal orientation controlled photovoltaic properties of parallel GaAs NW arrays. By tuning the catalyst thickness and nucleation and growth temperatures in the two-step chemical vapor deposition, crystalline GaAs NWs with uniform, pure ⟨110⟩ and ⟨111⟩ orientations and other mixture ratios can be successfully prepared. Employing lift-off resists, three-layer NW parallel arrays can be easily attained for X-ray diffraction in order to evaluate their growth orientation along with the fabrication of NW parallel array based Schottky photovoltaic devices for the subsequent performance assessment. Notably, the open-circuit voltage of purely ⟨111⟩-oriented NW arrayed cells is far higher than that of ⟨110⟩-oriented NW arrayed counterparts, which can be interpreted by the different surface Fermi level pinning that exists on various NW crystal surface planes due to the different As dangling bond densities. All this indicates the profound effect of NW crystal orientation on physical and chemical properties of GaAs NWs, suggesting the careful NW design considerations for achieving optimal photovoltaic performances. The approach presented here could also serve as a versatile and powerful platform for in situ characterization of other NW materials.

  3. A Two-Dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Nanowire Laser Array based on Ultrafast Light-Harvesting Quantum Wells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihua; Wu, Yishi; Liao, Qing; Zhang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Yanping; Gao, Qinggang; Liu, Peng; Li, Meili; Yao, Jiannian; Fu, Hongbing

    2018-06-25

    Miniaturized nanowire nanolasers of 3D perovskites feature a high gain coefficient; however, room-temperature optical gain and nanowire lasers from 2D layered perovskites have not been reported to date. A biomimetic approach is presented to construct an artificial ligh-harvesting system in mixed multiple quantum wells (QWs) of 2D-RPPs of (BA) 2 (FA) n-1 Pb n Br 3n+1 , achieving room-temperature ASE and nanowire (NW) lasing. Owing to the improvement of flexible and deformable characteristics provided by organic BA cation layers, high-density large-area NW laser arrays were fabricated with high photostability. Well-controlled dimensions and uniform geometries enabled 2D-RPPs NWs functioning as high-quality Fabry-Perot (FP) lasers with almost identical optical modes, high quality (Q) factor (ca. 1800), and similarly low lasing thresholds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. ZnO nanorod array polydimethylsiloxane composite solid phase micro-extraction fiber coating: fabrication and extraction capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Qingtang; Zhang, Zhuomin; Chen, Guonan

    2012-01-21

    ZnO nanorod array coating is a novel kind of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating which shows good extraction capability due to the nanostructure. To prepare the composite coating is a good way to improve the extraction capability. In this paper, the ZnO nanorod array polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite SPME fiber coating has been prepared and its extraction capability for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been studied by headspace sampling the typical volatile mixed standard solution of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX). Improved detection limit and good linear ranges have been achieved for this composite SPME fiber coating. Also, it is found that the composite SPME fiber coating shows good extraction selectivity to the VOCs with alkane radicals.

  5. Scalable continuous flow synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays in 3-D ceramic honeycomb substrates for low-temperature desulfurization

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Sibo; Wu, Yunchao; Miao, Ran; ...

    2017-07-26

    Scalable and cost-effective synthesis and assembly of technologically important nanostructures in three-dimensional (3D) substrates hold keys to bridge the demonstrated nanotechnologies in academia with industrially relevant scalable manufacturing. In this paper, using ZnO nanorod arrays as an example, a hydrothermal-based continuous flow synthesis (CFS) method is successfully used to integrate the nano-arrays in multi-channeled monolithic cordierite. Compared to the batch process, CFS enhances the average growth rate of nano-arrays by 125%, with the average length increasing from 2 μm to 4.5 μm within the same growth time of 4 hours. The precursor utilization efficiency of CFS is enhanced by 9more » times compared to that of batch process by preserving the majority of precursors in recyclable solution. Computational fluid dynamic simulation suggests a steady-state solution flow and mass transport inside the channels of honeycomb substrates, giving rise to steady and consecutive growth of ZnO nano-arrays with an average length of 10 μm in 12 h. The monolithic ZnO nano-array-integrated cordierite obtained through CFS shows enhanced low-temperature (200 °C) desulfurization capacity and recyclability in comparison to ZnO powder wash-coated cordierite. This can be attributed to exposed ZnO {101¯0} planes, better dispersion and stronger interactions between sorbent and reactant in the ZnO nanorod arrays, as well as the sintering-resistance of nano-array configurations during sulfidation–regeneration cycles. Finally, with the demonstrated scalable synthesis and desulfurization performance of ZnO nano-arrays, a promising, industrially relevant integration strategy is provided to fabricate metal oxide nano-array-based monolithic devices for various environmental and energy applications.« less

  6. Scalable continuous flow synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays in 3-D ceramic honeycomb substrates for low-temperature desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Sibo; Wu, Yunchao; Miao, Ran

    Scalable and cost-effective synthesis and assembly of technologically important nanostructures in three-dimensional (3D) substrates hold keys to bridge the demonstrated nanotechnologies in academia with industrially relevant scalable manufacturing. In this paper, using ZnO nanorod arrays as an example, a hydrothermal-based continuous flow synthesis (CFS) method is successfully used to integrate the nano-arrays in multi-channeled monolithic cordierite. Compared to the batch process, CFS enhances the average growth rate of nano-arrays by 125%, with the average length increasing from 2 μm to 4.5 μm within the same growth time of 4 hours. The precursor utilization efficiency of CFS is enhanced by 9more » times compared to that of batch process by preserving the majority of precursors in recyclable solution. Computational fluid dynamic simulation suggests a steady-state solution flow and mass transport inside the channels of honeycomb substrates, giving rise to steady and consecutive growth of ZnO nano-arrays with an average length of 10 μm in 12 h. The monolithic ZnO nano-array-integrated cordierite obtained through CFS shows enhanced low-temperature (200 °C) desulfurization capacity and recyclability in comparison to ZnO powder wash-coated cordierite. This can be attributed to exposed ZnO {101¯0} planes, better dispersion and stronger interactions between sorbent and reactant in the ZnO nanorod arrays, as well as the sintering-resistance of nano-array configurations during sulfidation–regeneration cycles. Finally, with the demonstrated scalable synthesis and desulfurization performance of ZnO nano-arrays, a promising, industrially relevant integration strategy is provided to fabricate metal oxide nano-array-based monolithic devices for various environmental and energy applications.« less

  7. Piezo-phototronic effect enhanced photo-detector based on ZnO nano-arrays/NiO structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingchang; Li, Peida; Gao, Ruixue; Lu, Xue; Li, Chengren; Lang, Yueyi; Zhang, Xiwen; Bian, Jiming

    2018-01-01

    A photo-detector with n-ZnO nano-arrays/p-NiO film structure was synthesized on flexible Ni foil substrate. In contrast to conventional detectors that detect only the photon energies greater than the band gap of working materials, the visible light with smaller photon energies (3.0 eV) than the band gap of both ZnO (3.3 eV) and NiO (3.7 eV) can be sensitively detected by this detector due to the spatially indirect type-II transition between ZnO nano-arrays and NiO film. The increase in output currents of the photo-detector with illumination density was observed at both forward and reverse bias, and it can be further enhanced by exerting external compressive strain along the c axis of ZnO nano-arrays by piezo-phototronic effect. A maximum enhancement of 1020% of the responsivity (R) was achieved under external compressive strain. The similar behaviors were demonstrated at four different excitation wavelengths (325, 365, 388 and 405 nm), providing compelling evidence that the responses performance of the photo-detector can be effectively enhanced using piezo-phototronic effect. Moreover, the piezo-phototronic effect enhanced performance can be well elucidated by the corresponding energy band diagram.

  8. Emission enhancement, light extraction and carrier dynamics in InGaAs/GaAs nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivisaari, Pyry; Chen, Yang; Anttu, Nicklas

    2018-03-01

    Nanowires (NWs) have the potential for a wide range of new optoelectronic applications. For example, light-emitting diodes that span over the whole visible spectrum are currently being developed from NWs to overcome the well known green gap problem. However, due to their small size, NW devices exhibit special properties that complicate their analysis, characterization, and further development. In this paper, we develop a full optoelectronic simulation tool for NW array light emitters accounting for carrier transport and wave-optical emission enhancement (EE), and we use the model to simulate InGaAs/GaAs NW array light emitters with different geometries and temperatures. Our results show that NW arrays emit light preferentially to certain angles depending on the NW diameter and temperature, encouraging temperature- and angle-resolved measurements of NW array light emission. On the other hand, based on our results both the EE and light extraction efficiency can easily change by at least a factor of two between room temperature and 77 K, complicating the characterization of NW light emitters if conventional methods are used. Finally, simulations accounting for surface recombination emphasize its major effect on the device performance. For example, a surface recombination velocity of 104 cm s-1 reported earlier for bare InGaAs surfaces results in internal quantum efficiencies less than 30% for small-diameter NWs even at the temperature of 30 K. This highlights that core-shell structures or high-quality passivation techniques are eventually needed to achieve efficient NW-based light emitters.

  9. Time-resolved photoluminescence characterization of GaAs nanowire arrays on native substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagytė, Vilgailė; Barrigón, Enrique; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xulu; Heurlin, Magnus; Otnes, Gaute; Anttu, Nicklas; Borgström, Magnus T.

    2017-12-01

    Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements of nanowires (NWs) are often carried out on broken-off NWs in order to avoid the ensemble effects as well as substrate contribution. However, the development of NW-array solar cells could benefit from non-destructive optical characterization to allow faster feedback and further device processing. With this work, we show that different NW array and substrate spectral behaviors with delay time and excitation power can be used to determine which part of the sample dominates the detected spectrum. Here, we evaluate TRPL characterization of dense periodic as-grown GaAs NW arrays on a p-type GaAs substrate, including a sample with uncapped GaAs NWs and several samples passivated with AlGaAs radial shell of varied composition and thickness. We observe a strong spectral overlap of substrate and NW signals and find that the NWs can absorb part of the substrate luminescence signal, thus resulting in a modified substrate signal. The level of absorption depends on the NW-array geometry, making a deconvolution of the NW signal very difficult. By studying TRPL of substrate-only and as-grown NWs at 770 and 400 nm excitation wavelengths, we find a difference in spectral behavior with delay time and excitation power that can be used to assess whether the signal is dominated by the NWs. We find that the NW signal dominates with 400 nm excitation wavelength, where we observe two different types of excitation power dependence for the NWs capped with high and low Al composition shells. Finally, from the excitation power dependence of the peak TRPL signal, we extract an estimate of background carrier concentration in the NWs.

  10. Surface plasmon aided high sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor using Au/NiAu multilayered nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lanfang; Zhu, Weiqi; Lu, Wenbo; Qin, Xiufang; Xu, Xiaohong

    2018-07-15

    A novel plasmon aided non-enzymatic glucose sensor was first constructed based on the unique half-rough Au/NiAu multilayered nanowire arrays. These multilayered and half-rough nanowires provide high chemical activity and large surface area for glucose oxidation in an alkaline solution. Under visible light irradiation, the surface plasmons originated from Au part enhance the electron transfer in the vertically aligned nanowires, leading to high sensitivity and wide detection range. The resulting sensor exhibits a wide glucose detection concentration range, low detection limit, and high sensitivity for plasmon aided non-enzymatic glucose sensor. Moreover, the detection sensitivity is enhanced by almost 2 folds compared to that in the dark, which significantly enhanced the performance of Au/NiAu multilayered nanowire arrays sensor. An excellent selectivity and acceptable stability were also achieved. These results indicate that surface plasmon aided nanostructures are promising new platforms for the construction of non-enzymatic glucose sensors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Three-Dimensional Porous Iron Vanadate Nanowire Arrays as a High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yunhe; Fang, Dong; Liu, Ruina; Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Hang; Li, Guangzhong; Luo, Zhiping; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Jie; Xu, Weilin; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2015-12-23

    Development of three-dimensional nanoarchitectures on current collectors has emerged as an effective strategy for enhancing rate capability and cycling stability of the electrodes. Herein, a new type of three-dimensional porous iron vanadate (Fe0.12V2O5) nanowire arrays on a Ti foil has been synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The as-prepared Fe0.12V2O5 nanowires are about 30 nm in diameter and several micrometers in length. The effect of reaction time on the resulting morphology is investigated and the mechanism for the nanowire formation is proposed. As an electrode material used in lithium-ion batteries, the unique configuration of the Fe0.12V2O5 nanowire arrays presents enhanced capacitance, satisfying rate capability and good cycling stability, as evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge-charge cycling. It delivers a high discharge capacity of 293 mAh·g(-1) at 2.0-3.6 V or 382.2 mAh·g(-1) at 1.0-4.0 V after 50 cycles at 30 mA·g(-1).

  12. Fabrication of CoFe2O4 ferrite nanowire arrays in porous silicon template and their local magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Zheng; Man-Gui, Han; Long-Jiang, Deng

    2016-02-01

    CoFe2O4 ferrite nanowire arrays are fabricated in porous silicon templates. The porous silicon templates are prepared via metal-assisted chemical etching with gold (Au) nanoparticles as the catalyst. Subsequently, CoFe2O4 ferrite nanowires are successfully synthesized into porous silicon templates by the sol-gel method. The magnetic hysteresis loop of nanowire array shows an isotropic feature of magnetic properties. The coercivity and squareness ratio (Mr/Ms) of ensemble nanowires are found to be 630 Oe (1 Oe, = 79.5775 A·m-1 and 0.4 respectively. However, the first-order reversal curve (FORC) is adopted to reveal the probability density function of local magnetostatic properties (i.e., interwire interaction field and coercivity). The FORC diagram shows an obvious distribution feature for interaction field and coercivity. The local coercivity with a value of about 1000 Oe is found to have the highest probability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61271039), the Scientific Projects of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 2015HH0016), and the Natural Science Foundations of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant Nos. LQ12E02001 and Y107255).

  13. A comprehensive biosensor integrated with a ZnO nanorod FET array for selective detection of glucose, cholesterol and urea.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Park, Jin-Ho; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2015-08-04

    We report a novel straightforward approach for simultaneous and highly-selective detection of multi-analytes (i.e. glucose, cholesterol and urea) using an integrated field-effect transistor (i-FET) array biosensor without any interference in each sensor response. Compared to analytically-measured data, performance of the ZnO nanorod based i-FET array biosensor is found to be highly reliable for rapid detection of multi-analytes in mice blood, and serum and blood samples of diabetic dogs.

  14. Structural, optical, and electrical properties of Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared via sonicated sol-gel immersion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Saidi, S. A.; Yusoff, M. M.; Mohamed, R.; Sin, N. D. Md; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Nickel (Ni)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod array films were synthesised using sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The FESEM images showed that the Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays possess hexagonal shape with average diameter about 120 nm and thickness about 1.10 µm. The Ni-doped ZnO nanorod arrays possess better transmittance properties with 3.27 eV of optical band gap energy and 40 meV of urbach energy. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement indicated that the conductivity of ZnO film slightly improved with Ni-doping. The doped film displayed good humidity sensing performance with sensitivity of 1.21.

  15. Detecting Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) at Room Temperature Using ZnSnO3/ZnO Nanowire Piezo-Nanogenerator as Self-Powered Gas Sensor.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yongming; Nie, Yuxin; Zhao, Yayu; Wang, Penglei; Xing, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Xue, Xinyu

    2015-05-20

    High sensitivity, selectivity, and reliability have been achieved from ZnSnO3/ZnO nanowire (NW) piezo-nanogenerator (NG) as self-powered gas sensor (SPGS) for detecting liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at room temperature (RT). After being exposed to 8000 ppm LPG, the output piezo-voltage of ZnSnO3/ZnO NW SPGS under compressive deformation is 0.089 V, much smaller than that in air ambience (0.533 V). The sensitivity of the SPGS against 8000 ppm LPG is up to 83.23, and the low limit of detection is 600 ppm. The SPGS has lower sensitivity against H2S, H2, ethanol, methanol and saturated water vapor than LPG, indicating good selectivity for detecting LPG. After two months, the decline of the sensing performance is less than 6%. Such piezo-LPG sensing at RT can be ascribed to the new piezo-surface coupling effect of ZnSnO3/ZnO nanocomposites. The practical application of the device driven by human motion has also been simply demonstrated. This work provides a novel approach to fabricate RT-LPG sensors and promotes the development of self-powered sensing system.

  16. Enhanced photoemission from glancing angle deposited SiOx-TiO2 axial heterostructure nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, J. C.; Mondal, A.; Singh, N. K.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2013-05-01

    The glancing angle deposition technique has been employed to synthesize SiOx-TiO2 heterostructure nanowire (NW) arrays on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. A field emission gun scanning electron microscopic image shows that the average diameter of the NWs is ˜50 nm. Transmission electron microscopy images show the formation of heterostructure NWs, which consist of ˜180 nm SiOx and ˜210 nm long TiO2. The selected-area electron diffraction shows the amorphous nature of the synthesized NWs, which was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction method. The main band absorption edges at 3.5 eV were found for both the SiOx-TiO2 and TiO2 NW arrays on ITO coated glass plate from optical absorption measurement. Ti3+ defect related sub-band gap transition at 2.5 eV was observed for TiO2 NWs, whereas heterostructure NWs revealed the SiOx optical band gap related transition at ˜2.2 eV. Two fold improved photon absorption as well as five times photoluminescence emission enhancement were observed for the SiOx-TiO2 multilayer NWs compared to TiO2 NWs.

  17. Room-temperature synthesis of two-dimensional ultrathin gold nanowire parallel array with tunable spacing.

    PubMed

    Morita, Clara; Tanuma, Hiromitsu; Kawai, Chika; Ito, Yuki; Imura, Yoshiro; Kawai, Takeshi

    2013-02-05

    A series of long-chain amidoamine derivatives with different alkyl chain lengths (CnAA where n is 12, 14, 16, or 18) were synthesized and studied with regard to their ability to form organogels and to act as soft templates for the production of Au nanomaterials. These compounds were found to self-assemble into lamellar structures and exhibited gelation ability in some apolar solvents. The gelation concentration, gel-sol phase transition temperature, and lattice spacing of the lamellar structures in organic solvent all varied on the basis of the alkyl chain length of the particular CnAA compound employed. The potential for these molecules to function as templates was evaluated through the synthesis of Au nanowires (NWs) in their organogels. Ultrathin Au NWs were obtained from all CnAA/toluene gel systems, each within an optimal temperature range. Interestingly, in the case of C12AA and C14AA, it was possible to fabricate ultrathin Au NWs at room temperature. In addition, two-dimensional parallel arrays of ultrathin Au NWs were self-assembled onto TEM copper grids as a result of the drying of dispersion solutions of these NWs. The use of CnAA compounds with differing alkyl chain lengths enabled precise tuning of the distance between the Au NWs in these arrays.

  18. 3-D matrix template-assisted growth of oriented oxide nanowire arrays using glancing angle pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, N.; Mateo-Feliciano, D.; Ostoski, A.; Mukherjee, P.; Witanachchi, S.

    Nanosphere lithography is a combination of different methods to nanofabrication. In this work nanosphere lithography is used to study the growth of Zinc Oxide Nano-columns (ZnO NCs) on different diameter Silica Nanosphere (SNS) self-assembled templates. ZnO NCs are promising building blocks for many existing and emerging optical, electrical, and piezoelectric devices, specifically, the seeded growth of other oxide materials. Recently, reports have shown a ferroelectric phase of zinc stannate (ZnSnO3) and while lead zirconium titanate oxide (PZT) has been the main material of interest in ferroelectric and piezoelectric applications, the toxicity of lead has been of great concern. The possibility of developing lead free piezoelectric materials is of great interest in the ferroelectric community. Langmuir-Blodgett method was used to construct a self-assembled monolayer of SNSs on silicon substrates. Oriented ZnO NCs were grown on top of the spheres using the glancing angle pulsed laser deposition technique. Columns were formed in a spatially ordered closed-packed hexagonal configuration. Growth of ZnO NCs was studied as function of ambient Oxygen pressure with SNS size ranging from 250-1000 nm. Cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the template structure. Relative aspect ratios were studied and showed tunability of column dimensions with sphere size. XRD revealed ZnO NC arrays were c-axis oriented with hexagonal wurtzite structure.

  19. Broadband High Efficiency Fractal-Like and Diverse Geometry Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Zoubi, Omar H.

    Solar energy has many advantages over conventional sources of energy. It is abundant, clean and sustainable. One way to convert solar energy directly into electrical energy is by using the photovoltaic solar cells (PVSC). Despite PVSC are becoming economically competitive, they still have high cost and low light to electricity conversion efficiency. Therefore, increasing the efficiency and reducing the cost are key elements for producing economically more competitive PVSC that would have significant impact on energy market and saving environment. A significant percentage of the PVSC cost is due to the materials cost. For that, thin films PVSC have been proposed which offer the benefits of the low amount of material and fabrication costs. Regrettably, thin film PVSC show poor light to electricity conversion efficiency because of many factors especially the high optical losses. To enhance conversion efficiency, numerous techniques have been proposed to reduce the optical losses and to enhance the absorption of light in thin film PVSC. One promising technique is the nanowire (NW) arrays in general and the silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays in particular. The purpose of this research is to introduce vertically aligned SiNW arrays with enhanced and broadband absorption covering the entire solar spectrum while simultaneously reducing the amount of material used. To this end, we apply new concept for designing SiNW arrays based on employing diversity of physical dimensions, especially radial diversity within certain lattice configurations. In order to study the interaction of light with SiNW arrays and compute their optical properties, electromagnetic numerical modeling is used. A commercial numerical electromagnetic solver software package, high frequency structure simulation (HFSS), is utilized to model the SiNW arrays and to study their optical properties. We studied different geometries factors that affect the optical properties of SiNW arrays. Based on this study, we

  20. Nanowire array chips for molecular typing of rare trafficking leukocytes with application to neurodegenerative pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Minsuk; Kim, Dong-Joo; Lee, Mi-Ri; Wu, Yu; Han, Lin; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Fan, Rong

    2014-05-01

    Despite the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that restricts the entry of immune cells and mediators into the central nervous system (CNS), a small number of peripheral leukocytes can traverse the BBB and infiltrate into the CNS. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is one of the major routes through which trafficking leukocytes migrate into the CNS. Therefore, the number of leukocytes and their phenotypic compositions in the CSF may represent important sources to investigate immune-to-brain interactions or diagnose and monitor neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the paucity of trafficking leucocytes in the CSF, a technology capable of efficient isolation, enumeration, and molecular typing of these cells in the clinical settings has not been achieved. In this study, we report on a biofunctionalized silicon nanowire array chip for highly efficient capture and multiplexed phenotyping of rare trafficking leukocytes in small quantities (50 microliters) of clinical CSF specimens collected from neurodegenerative disease patients. The antibody coated 3D nanostructured materials exhibited vastly improved rare cell capture efficiency due to high-affinity binding and enhanced cell-substrate interactions. Moreover, our platform creates multiple cell capture interfaces, each of which can selectively isolate specific leukocyte phenotypes. A comparison with the traditional immunophenotyping using flow cytometry demonstrated that our novel silicon nanowire-based rare cell analysis platform can perform rapid detection and simultaneous molecular characterization of heterogeneous immune cells. Multiplexed molecular typing of rare leukocytes in CSF samples collected from Alzheimer's disease patients revealed the elevation of white blood cell counts and significant alterations in the distribution of major leukocyte phenotypes. Our technology represents a practical tool for potentially diagnosing and monitoring the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by allowing an effective

  1. Electrochemical properties of high-power supercapacitors using ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Fang; Qiu, Mengchun; Qi, Xiang; Yang, Liwen; Yin, Jinjie; Hao, Guolin; Feng, Xiang; Li, Jun; Zhong, Jianxin

    2011-08-01

    Highly ordered NiO coated Si nanowire arrays are fabricated as electrode materials for electrochemical supercapacitors (ES) via depositing Ni on electroless-etched Si nanowires and subsequently annealing. The electrochemical tests reveal that the constructed electrode has superior electrical conductibility and more active sites per unit area for chemical reaction processes, thereby possessing good cycle stability, high specific capacity, and low internal resistance. The specific capacity is up to 787.5 F g-1 at a discharge current of 2.5 mA and decreases slightly with 4.039% loss after 500 cycles, while the equivalent internal resistance is ˜3.067 Ω. Owing to its favorable electrochemical performance, this ordered hybrid array nanostructure is a promising electrode material in future commercial ES.

  2. Fabrication and optical property of metal nanowire arrays embedded in anodic porous alumina membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, Kouichi; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Sugawa, Kosuke; Aono, Takashige; Shirai, Yuma; Nishida, Tomohiko; Shingubara, Shoso

    2016-06-01

    Nanowires embedded in nanopores are potentially tough against surface scraping and agglomeration. In this study, we have fabricated Au and Ni nanowires embedded into anodic porous alumina (APA) and investigated their reflectance to study the effects of surface plasmon absorption properties and conversion from solar energy to thermal energy. Au nanowires embedded into APA show typical gold surface plasmon absorption at approximately 530 nm. On the other hand, Ni nanowires show quite a low reflectance under 600 nm. In the temperature elevation test, both Au and Ni nanowire samples present the same capability to warm up water. It means that Ni nanowires embedded into APA have almost the same photothermal activity as Au nanowires.

  3. Nanofabrication of Arrays of Silicon Field Emitters with Vertical Silicon Nanowire Current Limiters and Self-Aligned Gates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-19

    in a dielectric matrix. This paper explores the electronic device applications of dense arrays of silicon nanowires that are embedded in Nanotechnology ... Nanotechnology 27 (2016) 295302 (11pp) doi:10.1088/0957-4484/27/29/295302 Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative...compared 2 Nanotechnology 27 (2016) 295302 S A Guerrera and A I Akinwande to the device reported by Velasquez-Garcia et al, but it also reduces the

  4. A high performance three-phase enzyme electrode based on superhydrophobic mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays for glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenlong; Song, Zhiqian; Xiang, Qun; Jin, Jian; Feng, Xinjian

    2016-04-14

    We describe here a high performance oxygen-rich three-phase enzyme electrode based on superhydrophobic mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays for glucose detection. We demonstrate that its linear detection upper limit is 30 mM, more than 15 times higher than that can be obtained on the normal enzyme-electrode. Notably, the three-phase enzyme electrode output is insensitive to the significant oxygen level fluctuation in analyte solution.

  5. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jamond, N; Chrétien, P; Houzé, F; Lu, L; Largeau, L; Maugain, O; Travers, L; Harmand, J C; Glas, F; Lefeuvre, E; Tchernycheva, M; Gogneau, N

    2016-08-12

    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ∼12.7 mW cm(-3). This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters.

  6. Simulation of Young’s moduli for hexagonal ZnO [0 0 0 1]-oriented nanowires: first principles and molecular mechanical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandura, Andrei V.; Evarestov, Robert A.; Lukyanov, Sergey I.; Piskunov, Sergei; Zhukovskii, Yuri F.

    2017-08-01

    Morphologically reproducible wurtzite-structured zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) can be synthesized by different methods. Since ZnO NWs have been found to possess piezoelectricity, a comprehensive study of their mechanical properties, e.g. deformations caused by external compression or stretching, is one of the actual tasks of this paper. We have calculated wurtzite-structured [0 0 0 1]-oriented ZnO NWs whose diameters have been varied within 1-5 nm and 1-20 nm ranges when using either ab initio (hybrid DFT-LCAO) or force-field (molecular mechanical) methods, respectively (the minimum diameter d NW of experimentally synthesized NWs has been estimated on average to be ~20 nm). When using both chosen calculation approaches, the values of Young’s moduli determined for the mentioned ranges of NW diameters have been found to be qualitatively compatible (168-169 GPa for 5 nm NW thickness), whereas results of molecular mechanical simulations on Y NW for 20 nm-thick NWs (160-162 GPa) have been qualitatively comparable with those experimentally measured along the [0 0 0 1] direction of NW loading. In all the cases, a gradual increase of the NW diameter has resulted in an asymptotic decrease of Young’s modulus consequently approaching that (Y b) of wurtzite-structured ZnO bulk along its [0 0 0 1] axis. The novelty of this study is that we combine the computation methods of quantum chemistry and molecular mechanics, while the majority of previous studies with the same aim have focused on the application of different classical molecular dynamical methods.

  7. Large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chen; Zhu, Guang

    2014-09-09

    A generator includes a substrate, a first electrode layer, a dense plurality of vertically-aligned piezoelectric elongated nanostructures, an insulating layer and a second electrode layer. The substrate has a top surface and the first electrode layer is disposed on the top surface of the substrate. The dense plurality of vertically-aligned piezoelectric elongated nanostructures extends from the first electrode layer. Each of the nanostructures has a top end. The insulating layer is disposed on the top ends of the nanostructures. The second electrode layer is disposed on the non-conductive layer and is spaced apart from the nanostructures.

  8. Effect of Surface and Defect Chemistry on the Photocatalytic Properties of Intentionally Defect-Rich ZnO Nanorod Arrays.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Jan; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z; Schmidt, Michael; Povey, Ian M; Pemble, Martyn E

    2018-05-30

    Due to the abundance of intrinsic defects in zinc oxide (ZnO), the material properties are often governed by same. Knowledge of the defect chemistry has proven to be highly important, especially in terms of the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants. Given the fact that defect-free materials or structures exhibiting only one type of defect are extremely difficult to produce, it is necessary to evaluate what influence various defects may have when present together in the material. In this study, intentionally defect-rich ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays are grown using a simple low-temperature solution-based growth technique. Upon changing the defect chemistry using rapid thermal annealing (RTA) the material properties are carefully assessed and correlated to the resulting photocatalytic properties. Special focus is put on the investigation of these properties for samples showing strong orange photoluminescence (PL). It is shown that intense orange emitting NR arrays exhibit improved dye-degradation rates under UV-light irradiation. Furthermore, strong dye-adsorption has been observed for some samples. This behavior is found to stem from a graphitic surface structure (e.g., shell) formed during RTA in vacuum. Since orange-luminescent samples also exhibit an enhancement of the dye adsorption a possible interplay and synergy of these two defects is elucidated. Additionally, evidence is presented suggesting that in annealed ZnO NRs structural defects may be responsible for the often observed PL emission at 3.31 eV. However, a clear correlation with the photocatalytic properties could not be established for these defects. Building on the specific findings presented here, this study also presents some more general guidelines which, it is suggested, should be employed when assessing the photocatalytic properties of defect-rich ZnO.

  9. Controlled growth of c-axis oriented ZnO nanorod array films by electrodeposition method and characterization.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Andaç; Hür, Evrim; Ilican, Saliha; Caglar, Yasemin; Caglar, Mujdat

    2014-07-15

    ZnO nanorod array films were deposited from aqueous solution containing different concentrations (1×10(-2) M and 5×10(-3) M) Zn(NO3)2⋅6H2O and C6H12N4 and at different electrodeposition times (i.e., 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min and 180 min) using chronoamperometry method on p-Si substrate. Surface morphology and crystal structural properties of ZnO films were investigated by XRD and FESEM to select ZnO films which have optimum properties. The highest TC(hkl) value was observed in (002) plane for the film, which is deposited at 1×10(-2) M and 120 min. It is also observed that the highly oriented nanorods in this film are denser. Additionally, the conductivity type was determined by using Mott-Schottky which is electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method (EIS). On the other hand, to investigate the utility of obtained ZnO on p-Si (p-Si/n-ZnO) as supercapacitor electrode active material, the electrochemical storage properties of p-Si/ZnO was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and repeating chronopotentiometry methods. It is suggested from electrochemical tests results that p-Si/ZnO is a promising electrode materials for supercapacitor applications that required low voltage (<10 V). Rectifiying behavior was observed from the I-V characteristic of nanorod array n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diode. The n value, Io and the ϕb were found to be 5.48, 1.93×10(-8) A and 0.75 eV, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Thin Film Flexible Supercapacitor Based on Oblique Angle Deposited Ni/NiO Nanowire Arrays.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Shuyuan; Ma, Zhe; Song, Peishuai; Yang, Fuhua; Wang, Xiaodong

    2018-06-11

    With high power density, fast charging-discharging speed, and a long cycling life, supercapacitors are a kind of highly developed novel energy-storage device that has shown a growing performance and various unconventional shapes such as flexible, linear-type, stretchable, self-healing, etc. Here, we proposed a rational design of thin film, flexible micro-supercapacitors with in-plane interdigital electrodes, where the electrodes were fabricated using the oblique angle deposition technique to grow oblique Ni/NiO nanowire arrays directly on polyimide film. The obtained electrodes have a high specific surface area and good adhesion to the substrate compared with other in-plane micro-supercapacitors. Meanwhile, the as-fabricated micro-supercapacitors have good flexibility and satisfactory energy-storage performance, exhibiting a high specific capacity of 37.1 F/cm³, a high energy density of 5.14 mWh/cm³, a power density of up to 0.5 W/cm³, and good stability during charge-discharge cycles and repeated bending-recovery cycles, respectively. Our micro-supercapacitors can be used as ingenious energy storage devices for future portable and wearable electronic applications.

  11. Ultraviolet detection using TiO2 nanowire array with Ag Schottky contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnamuthu, P.; Dhar, J. C.; Mondal, A.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Singh, N. K.

    2012-04-01

    The glancing angle deposition technique has been employed to synthesize TiO2 nanowire (NW) arrays which have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission-scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Optical absorption measurements show the absorption edge at 3.42 eV and 3.48 eV for TiO2 thin film (TF) and NW, respectively. The blue shift in absorption band is attributed to quantum confinement in NW structures. Photoluminescence measurement revealed oxygen-defect-related emission at 425 nm (˜2.9 eV). Ag/TiO2 (NW) and Ag/TiO2 (TF) contacts exhibit Schottky behaviour, and a higher turn-on voltage (˜6.5 V) was observed for NW devices than that of TF devices (˜5.25 V) under dark condition. In addition, TiO2-NW-based devices show twofold improvement in photodetection efficiency in the UV region, compared with TiO2-TF-based devices.

  12. Disordered array of Au covered Silicon nanowires for SERS biosensing combined with electrochemical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertino, Annalisa; Mussi, Valentina; Maiolo, Luca

    2016-04-01

    We report on highly disordered array of Au coated silicon nanowires (Au/SiNWs) as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probe combined with electrochemical detection for biosensing applications. SiNWs, few microns long, were grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on common microscope slides and covered by Au evaporated film, 150 nm thick. The capability of the resulting composite structure to act as SERS biosensor was studied via the biotin-avidin interaction: the Raman signal obtained from this structure allowed to follow each surface modification step as well as to detect efficiently avidin molecules over a broad range of concentrations from micromolar down to the nanomolar values. The metallic coverage wrapping SiNWs was exploited also to obtain a dual detection of the same bioanalyte by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Indeed, the SERS signal and impedance modifications induced by the biomolecule perturbations on the metalized surface of the NWs were monitored on the very same three-electrode device with the Au/SiNWs acting as both working electrode and SERS probe.

  13. Oriented Polyaniline Nanowire Arrays Grown on Dendrimer (PAMAM) Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lin; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Mengjie; Li, Honglong; Xiao, Linghan; Li, Ming; Ao, Yuhui

    2018-04-19

    At present, PANI/MWNT composites have been paid more attention as promising electrode materials in supercapacitors. Yet some shortcomings still limit the widely application of PANI/MWNT electrolytes. In this work, in order to improve capacitance ability and long-term stability of electrode, a multi-amino dendrimer (PAMAM) had been covalently linked onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) as a bridge to facilitating covalent graft of polyaniline (PANI), affording P-MWNT/PANI electrode composites for supercapacitor. Surprisingly, ordered arrays of PANI nanowires on MWNT (setaria-like morphology) had been observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical properties of P-MWNT/PANI electrode had been characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge technique. The specific capacitance and long cycle life of P-MWNT-PANI electrode material were both much higher than MWNT/PANI. These interesting results indicate that multi-amino dendrimer, PAMAM, covalently linked on MWNT provides more reaction sites for in-situ polymerization of ordered PANI, which could efficiently shorten the ion diffusion length in electrolytes and lead to making fully use of conducting materials.

  14. Fluorinion transfer in silver-assisted chemical etching for silicon nanowires arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tianyu; Xu, Youlong; Zhang, Zhengwei; Mao, Shengchun

    2015-08-01

    Uniform silicon nanowires arrays (SiNWAs) were fabricated on unpolished rough silicon wafers through KOH pretreatment followed by silver-assisted chemical etching (SACE). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to investigate the function of silver (Ag) at atomic scale in the etching process. Among three adsorption sites of Ag atom on Si(1 0 0) surface, Ag(T4) above the fourth-layer surface Si atoms could transfer fluorinion (F-) to adjacent Si successfully due to its stronger electrostatic attraction force between Ag(T4) and F-, smaller azimuth angle of Fsbnd Ag(T4)sbnd Si, shorter bond length of Fsbnd Si compared with Fsbnd Ag. As F- was transferred to adjacent Si by Ag(T4) one by one, the Si got away from the wafer in the form of SiF4 when it bonded with enough F- while Ag(T4) was still attached onto the Si wafer ready for next transfer. Cyclic voltammetry tests confirmed that Ag can improve the etching rate by transferring F- to Si.

  15. Co3O4 nanowire@NiO nanosheet arrays for high performance asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lei; Dong, Yidi; Hu, Fang; Wu, Xiang; Umar, Ahmad

    2018-04-24

    Herein, we report a simple and facile sequential hydrothermal process for the synthesis of Co3O4 nanowire@NiO nanosheet arrays (CNAs). The as-synthesized CNAs were characterized in detail using various analytical techniques, which confirmed the high crystallinity, purity, and high-density growth of these nanomaterials. From an application point of view, the as-synthesized CNAs were directly used as supercapacitor electrodes, revealing a specific capacitance of up to 2018 mF cm-2 at a current density of 2 mA cm-2. Furthermore, a flexible asymmetric supercapacitor was fabricated using the as-synthesized CNAs as the anode and activated carbon as the cathode, which revealed a specific capacitance of 134.6 mF cm-2 at a current density of 2 mA cm-2. In addition, the supercapacitor showed excellent capacity retention of 73.5% after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 10 mA cm-2.

  16. Axially adjustable magnetic properties in arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires with variable segment sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi Tehrani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs) with variable segment sizes were fabricated into anodic aluminum oxide templates using a pulsed electrodeposition method in a single bath for designated potential pulse times. Increasing the pulse time between 0.125 and 2 s in the electrodeposition of Ni enabled the formation of segments with thicknesses ranging from 25 to 280 nm and 10-110 nm in 42 and 65 nm diameter NWs, respectively, leading to disk-shaped, rod-shaped and/or near wire-shaped geometries. Using hysteresis loop measurements at room temperature, the axial and perpendicular magnetic properties were investigated. Regardless of the segment geometry, the axial coercivity and squareness significantly increased with increasing Ni segment thickness, in agreement with a decrease in calculated demagnetizing factors along the NW length. On the contrary, the perpendicular magnetic properties were found to be independent of the pulse times, indicating a competition between the intrawire interactions and the shape demagnetizing field.

  17. Tailoring magnetic properties in arrays of pulse-electrodeposited Co nanowires: The role of Cu additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aim to report the role of Cu additive in arrays of pulse-electrodeposited Co nanowires (NWs) with diameters from 30 to 75 nm, embedded in porous aluminum oxide templates. This features the role of Cu additive in composition and crystalline characteristics as well as in the magnetic properties of Co NWs. Increasing the duration of off-time between pulses during the electrodeposition of Co NWs made it possible to increase the amount of Cu content, so that Co-rich CoCu NWs were obtained. The parallel coercivity and squareness values increased up to 1500 Oe and 0.8 for 30 nm diameter Co94Cu6 NWs, starting from 500 Oe and 0.3 for pure Co NWs. On the other hand, although there was a substantial difference between the crystalline characteristics of 75 nm diameter pure Co and CoCu NWs, no considerable change in their magnetic properties was observed using hysteresis loop measurements. In this respect, the first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis revealed strong inter-wire magnetostatic interactions for the CoCu NWs. Moreover, we studied the effect of thermal annealing, which resulted in an increase in the coercivity of CoCu NWs with different diameters up to 15%. As a result, the addition of small amount of Cu provides an alternative approach to tailoring the magnetic properties of Co NWs.

  18. Magnetic alloy nanowire arrays with different lengths: Insights into the crossover angle of magnetization reversal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanifar, S.; Alikhani, M.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2017-05-01

    Nanoscale magnetic alloy wires are being actively investigated, providing fundamental insights into tuning properties in magnetic data storage and processing technologies. However, previous studies give trivial information about the crossover angle of magnetization reversal process in alloy nanowires (NWs). Here, magnetic alloy NW arrays with different compositions, composed of Fe, Co and Ni have been electrochemically deposited into hard-anodic aluminum oxide templates with a pore diameter of approximately 150 nm. Under optimized conditions of alumina barrier layer and deposition bath concentrations, the resulting alloy NWs with aspect ratio and saturation magnetization (Ms) up to 550 and 1900 emu cm-3, respectively, are systematically investigated in terms of composition, crystalline structure and magnetic properties. Using angular dependence of coercivity extracted from hysteresis loops, the reversal processes are evaluated, indicating non-monotonic behavior. The crossover angle (θc) is found to depend on NW length and Ms. At a constant Ms, increasing NW length decreases θc, thereby decreasing the involvement of vortex mode during the magnetization reversal process. On the other hand, decreasing Ms decreases θc in large aspect ratio (>300) alloy NWs. Phenomenologically, it is newly found that increasing Ni content in the composition decreases θc. The angular first-order reversal curve (AFORC) measurements including the irreversibility of magnetization are also investigated to gain a more detailed insight into θc.

  19. Scalable Top-Down Approach Tailored by Interferometric Lithography to Achieve Large-Area Single-Mode GaN Nanowire Laser Arrays on Sapphire Substrate.

    PubMed

    Behzadirad, Mahmoud; Nami, Mohsen; Wostbrock, Neal; Zamani Kouhpanji, Mohammad Reza; Feezell, Daniel F; Brueck, Steven R J; Busani, Tito

    2018-03-27

    GaN nanowires are promising for optical and optoelectronic applications because of their waveguiding properties and large optical band gap. However, developing a precise, scalable, and cost-effective fabrication method with a high degree of controllability to obtain high-aspect-ratio nanowires with high optical properties and minimum crystal defects remains a challenge. Here, we present a scalable two-step top-down approach using interferometric lithography, for which parameters can be controlled precisely to achieve highly ordered arrays of nanowires with excellent quality and desired aspect ratios. The wet-etch mechanism is investigated, and the etch rates of m-planes {11̅00} (sidewalls) were measured to be 2.5 to 70 nm/h depending on the Si doping concentration. Using this method, uniform nanowire arrays were achieved over a large area (>10 5 μm 2 ) with an spect ratio as large as 50, a radius as small as 17 nm, and atomic-scale sidewall roughness (<1 nm). FDTD modeling demonstrated HE 11 is the dominant transverse mode in the nanowires with a radius of sub-100 nm, and single-mode lasing from vertical cavity nanowire arrays with different doping concentrations on a sapphire substrate was interestingly observed in photoluminescence measurements. High Q-factors of ∼1139-2443 were obtained in nanowire array lasers with a radius and length of 65 nm and 2 μm, respectively, corresponding to a line width of 0.32-0.15 nm (minimum threshold of 3.31 MW/cm 2 ). Our results show that fabrication of high-quality GaN nanowire arrays with adaptable aspect ratio and large-area uniformity is feasible through a top-down approach using interferometric lithography and is promising for fabrication of III-nitride-based nanophotonic devices (radial/axial) on the original substrate.

  20. Improvement of electroluminescence performance by integration of ZnO nanowires and single-crystalline films on ZnO/GaN heterojunction

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yuantao, E-mail: zhangyt@jlu.edu.cn; Cui, Xijun

    2014-03-31

    Heterojunction light-emitting diodes based on n-ZnO nanowires/ZnO single-crystalline films/p-GaN structure have been demonstrated for an improved electroluminescence performance. A highly efficient ultraviolet emission was observed under forward bias. Compared with conventional n-ZnO/p-GaN structure, high internal quantum efficiency and light extraction efficiency were simultaneously considered in the proposed diode. In addition, the diode can work continuously for ∼10 h with only a slight degradation in harsh environments, indicating its good reliability and application prospect in the future. This route opens possibilities for the development of advanced nanoscale devices in which the advantages of ZnO single-crystalline films and nanostructures can be integrated together.

  1. Microstructural changes in CdSe-coated ZnO nanowires evaluated by in situ annealing in transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, Hasti; Winkler, Christopher R.; Taheri, Mitra L.; Baxter, Jason B.

    2012-07-01

    We report on the crystallite growth and phase change of electrodeposited CdSe coatings on ZnO nanowires during annealing. Both in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal that the nanocrystal size increases from ˜3 to ˜10 nm upon annealing at 350 °C for 1 h and then to more than 30 nm during another 1 h at 400 °C, exhibiting two distinct growth regimes. Nanocrystal growth occurs together with a structural change from zinc blende to wurtzite. The structural transition begins at 350 °C, which results in the formation of stacking faults. Increased crystallite size, comparable to the coating thickness, can improve charge separation in extremely thin absorber solar cells. We demonstrate a nearly two-fold improvement in power conversion efficiency upon annealing.

  2. Laser desorption/ionization from nanostructured surfaces: nanowires, nanoparticle films and silicon microcolumn arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Luo, Guanghong; Diao, Jiajie; Chornoguz, Olesya; Reeves, Mark; Vertes, Akos

    2007-04-01

    Due to their optical properties and morphology, thin films formed of nanoparticles are potentially new platforms for soft laser desorption/ionization (SLDI) mass spectrometry. Thin films of gold nanoparticles (with 12±1 nm particle size) were prepared by evaporation-driven vertical colloidal deposition and used to analyze a series of directly deposited polypeptide samples. In this new SLDI method, the required laser fluence for ion detection was equal or less than what was needed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) but the resulting spectra were free of matrix interferences. A silicon microcolumn array-based substrate (a.k.a. black silicon) was developed as a new matrix-free laser desorption ionization surface. When low-resistivity silicon wafers were processed with a 22 ps pulse length 3×ω Nd:YAG laser in air, SF6 or water environment, regularly arranged conical spikes emerged. The radii of the spike tips varied with the processing environment, ranging from approximately 500 nm in water, to ~2 µm in SF6 gas and to ~5 µm in air. Peptide mass spectra directly induced by a nitrogen laser showed the formation of protonated ions of angiotensin I and II, substance P, bradykinin fragment 1-7, synthetic peptide, pro14-arg, and insulin from the processed silicon surfaces but not from the unprocessed areas. Threshold fluences for desorption/ionization were similar to those used in MALDI. Although compared to silicon nanowires the threshold laser pulse energy for ionization is significantly (~10×) higher, the ease of production and robustness of microcolumn arrays offer complementary benefits.

  3. Multi-angle ZnO microstructures grown on Ag nanorods array for plasmon-enhanced near-UV-blue light emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Bharathi Mohan, D.

    2017-10-01

    Metal enhanced ultraviolet light emission has been explored in ZnO/Ag hybrid structures prepared by hydrothermal growth of multi-angled ZnO nanorods on slanted Ag nanorods array fabricated by the thermal evaporation technique. Slanted Ag nanorods are realized to be the stacking of non-spherical Ag nanoparticles, resulting in asymmetric surface plasmon resonance spectra. The surface roughness of Ag nanorod array films significantly influences the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods, leading to the formation of multi-angled ZnO microflowers. ZnO/Ag hybrid structures facilitate the interfacial charge transfer from Ag to ZnO with the realization of negative shift in binding energy of Ag 3d orbitals by ˜0.8 eV. These high quality ZnO nanorods in ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures exhibit strong ultraviolet emission in the 383-396 nm region without broad deep level emission, which can be explained by a suitable band diagram. The metal enhanced photoluminescence is witnessed mainly due to interfacial charge transfer with its dependence on surface roughness of bottom layer Ag nanorods, number density of ZnO nanorods and diversity in the interfacial area between Ag and ZnO nanorods. The existence of strong ultraviolet light with minor blue light emission and appearance of CIE shade in strong violet-blue region by ZnO/Ag hybrid structures depict exciting possibilities towards near UV-blue light emitting devices.

  4. Multi-angle ZnO microstructures grown on Ag nanorods array for plasmon-enhanced near-UV-blue light emitter.

    PubMed

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Mohan, D Bharathi

    2017-10-13

    Metal enhanced ultraviolet light emission has been explored in ZnO/Ag hybrid structures prepared by hydrothermal growth of multi-angled ZnO nanorods on slanted Ag nanorods array fabricated by the thermal evaporation technique. Slanted Ag nanorods are realized to be the stacking of non-spherical Ag nanoparticles, resulting in asymmetric surface plasmon resonance spectra. The surface roughness of Ag nanorod array films significantly influences the growth mechanism of ZnO nanorods, leading to the formation of multi-angled ZnO microflowers. ZnO/Ag hybrid structures facilitate the interfacial charge transfer from Ag to ZnO with the realization of negative shift in binding energy of Ag 3d orbitals by ∼0.8 eV. These high quality ZnO nanorods in ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures exhibit strong ultraviolet emission in the 383-396 nm region without broad deep level emission, which can be explained by a suitable band diagram. The metal enhanced photoluminescence is witnessed mainly due to interfacial charge transfer with its dependence on surface roughness of bottom layer Ag nanorods, number density of ZnO nanorods and diversity in the interfacial area between Ag and ZnO nanorods. The existence of strong ultraviolet light with minor blue light emission and appearance of CIE shade in strong violet-blue region by ZnO/Ag hybrid structures depict exciting possibilities towards near UV-blue light emitting devices.

  5. Fabrication of needle-like ZnO nanorods arrays by a low-temperature seed-layer growth approach in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haimin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Huimin

    2007-11-01

    Uniform, large-scale, and well-aligned needle-like ZnO nanorods with good photoluminescence and photocatalysis properties on Zn substrates, have been successfully fabricated using a simple low-temperature seed-layer growth approach in solution (50 °C). The formation of ZnO seed-layer by the anodic oxidation technique (AOT) plays an important role in the subsequent growth of highly oriented ZnO nanorods arrays. Temperature also proved to be a significant factor in the growth of ZnO nanorods and had a great effect on their optical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicated that the needle-like ZnO nanorods were single crystal in nature and that they had grown up preferentially along the [0001] direction. The well-aligned ZnO nanorods arrays on Zn substrates exhibited strong UV emission at around 380 nm at room temperature. To investigate their potential as photocatalysts, degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous solution was carried out using photocatalytic processes, with comparison to direct photolysis. After 1 h, the degradation efficiencies of PCP by direct photolysis and photocatalytic processes achieved 57% and 76% under given experimental conditions, respectively. This improved degradation efficiency of PCP illustrates that ZnO nanorods arrays on Zn substrates have good photocatalytic activity. This simple low-temperature seed-layer growth approach in solution resulted in the development of an effective and low-cost fabrication process for high-quality ZnO nanorods arrays with good optical and photocatalytic properties that can be applicable in many fields such as photocatalysis, photovoltaic cells, luminescent sensors, and photoconductive sensors.

  6. Water- and humidity-enhanced UV detector by using p-type La-doped ZnO nanowires on flexible polyimide substrate.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Cheng-Liang; Li, Hsieh-Heng; Hsueh, Ting-Jen

    2013-11-13

    High-density La-doped ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown hydrothermally on flexible polyimide substrate. The length and diameter of the NWs were around 860 nm and 80-160 nm, respectively. All XRD peaks of the La-doped sample shift to a larger angle. The strong PL peak of the La-doped sample is 380 nm, which is close to the 3.3 eV ZnO bandgap. That PL dominated indicates that the La-doped sample has a great amount of oxygen vacancies. The lattice constants ~0.514 nm of the ZnO:La NW were smaller when measured by HR-TEM. The EDX spectrum determined that the La-doped sample contains approximately 1.27 at % La. The La-doped sample was found to be p-type by Hall Effect measurement. The dark current of the p-ZnO:La NWs decreased with increased relative humidity (RH), while the photocurrent of the p-ZnO:La nanowires increased with increased RH. The higher RH environment was improved that UV response performance. Based on the highest 98% RH, the photocurrent/dark current ratio was around 47.73. The UV response of water drops on the p-ZnO:La NWs was around 2 orders compared to 40% RH. In a water environment, the photocurrent/dark current ratio of p-ZnO:La NWs was 212.1, which is the maximum UV response.

  7. GaN Nanowire Arrays for Efficient Optical Read-Out and Optoelectronic Control of NV Centers in Diamond.

    PubMed

    Hetzl, Martin; Wierzbowski, Jakob; Hoffmann, Theresa; Kraut, Max; Zuerbig, Verena; Nebel, Christoph E; Müller, Kai; Finley, Jonathan J; Stutzmann, Martin

    2018-06-13

    Solid-state quantum emitters embedded in a semiconductor crystal environment are potentially scalable platforms for quantum optical networks operated at room temperature. Prominent representatives are nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond showing coherent entanglement and interference with each other. However, these emitters suffer from inefficient optical outcoupling from the diamond and from fluctuations of their charge state. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of regular n-type gallium nitride nanowire arrays on diamond as photonic waveguides to tailor the emission direction of surface-near NV centers and to electrically control their charge state in a p-i-n nanodiode. We show that the electrical excitation of single NV centers in such a diode can efficiently replace optical pumping. By the engineering of the array parameters, we find an optical read-out efficiency enhanced by a factor of 10 and predict a lateral NV-NV coupling 3 orders of magnitude stronger through evanescently coupled nanowire antennas compared to planar diamond not covered by nanowires, which opens up new possibilities for large-scale on-chip quantum-computing applications.

  8. Construction of high-capacitance 3D CoO@polypyrrole nanowire array electrode for aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cheng; Zhang, Yangwei; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping

    2013-05-08

    We have developed a supercapacitor electrode composed of well-aligned CoO nanowire array grown on 3D nickel foam with polypyrrole (PPy) uniformly immobilized onto or firmly anchored to each nanowire surface to boost the pseudocapacitive performance. The electrode architecture takes advantage of the high electrochemical activity from both the CoO and PPy, the high electronic conductivity of PPy, and the short ion diffusion pathway in ordered mesoporous nanowires. These merits together with the elegant synergy between CoO and PPy lead to a high specific capacitance of 2223 F g(-1) approaching the theoretical value, good rate capability, and cycling stability (99.8% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles). An aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor device with a maximum voltage of 1.8 V fabricated by using our hybrid array as the positive electrode and activated carbon film as the negative electrode has demonstrated high energy density (~43.5 Wh kg(-1)), high power density (~5500 W kg(-1) at 11.8 Wh kg(-1)) and outstanding cycleability (~20,000 times). After charging for only ~10 s, two such 4 cm(2) asymmetric supercapacitors connected in series can efficiently power 5 mm diameter red, yellow, and green round LED indicators (lasting for 1 h for red LED) and drive a mini 130 rotation-motor robustly.

  9. Renewable Lignosulfonate-Assisted Synthesis of Hierarchical Nanoflake-Array-Flower ZnO Nanomaterials in Mixed Solvents and Their Photocatalytic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Zuo, Hong-Fen; Guo, Yuan-Ru; Miao, Ting-Ting; Pan, Qing-Jiang

    2016-05-01

    With the assistance of sodium lignosulfonate, hierarchical nanoflake-array-flower nanostructure of ZnO has been fabricated by a facile precipitation method in mixed solvents. The sodium lignosulfonate amount used in our synthetic route is able to fine-tune ZnO morphology and an abundance of pores have been observed in the nanoflake-array-flower ZnO, which result in specific surface area reaching as high as 82.9 m2 · g-1. The synthesized ZnO exhibits superior photocatalytic activity even under low-power UV illumination (6 W). It is conjectured that both nanoflake-array structure and plenty of pores embedded in ZnO flakes may provide scaffold microenvironments to enhance photocatalytic activity. Additionally, this catalyst can be used repeatedly without a significant loss in photocatalytic activity. The low-cost, simple synthetic approach as well as high photocatalytic and recycling efficiency of our ZnO nanomaterials allows for application to treat wastewater containing organic pollutants in an effective way.

  10. Large-scale horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with controlled orientation, periodic distribution as building blocks for chip-in piezo-phototronic LEDs.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Li, Haiwen; Zhou, Lianqun; Zhao, Dongxu; Wu, Yihui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Chuanyu; Yao, Jia

    2015-01-27

    A novel method of fabricating large-scale horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with controlled orientation and periodic distribution via combing technology is introduced. Horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with uniform orientation and periodic distribution can be realized based on the conventional bottom-up method prepared vertically aligned ZnO microrod matrix via the combing method. When the combing parameters are changed, the orientation of horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays can be adjusted (θ = 90° or 45°) in a plane and a misalignment angle of the microrods (0.3° to 2.3°) with low-growth density can be obtained. To explore the potential applications based on the vertically and horizontally aligned ZnO microrods on p-GaN layer, piezo-phototronic devices such as heterojunction LEDs are built. Electroluminescence (EL) emission patterns can be adjusted for the vertically and horizontally aligned ZnO microrods/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs by applying forward bias. Moreover, the emission color from UV-blue to yellow-green can be tuned by investigating the piezoelectric properties of the materials. The EL emission mechanisms of the LEDs are discussed in terms of band diagrams of the heterojunctions and carrier recombination processes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. FIB-tomographic studies on chemical vapor deposition grown SnO2 nanowire arrays on TiO2 (001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haoyun; Liu, Yi; Wu, Hong; Xiong, Xiang; Pan, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Tin oxide nanowire arrays on titania (001) have been successfully fabricated by chemical vapor deposition of Sn(O t Bu)4 precursor. The morphologies and structures of ordered SnO2 nanowires (NWs) were analyzed by cross-sectional SEM, HR-TEM and AFM. An FIB-tomography technique was applied in order to reconstruct a 3D presentation of ordered SnO2 nanowires. The achieved 3D analysis showed the spatial orientation and angles of ordered SnO2 NWs can be obtained in a one-shot experiment, and the distribution of Au catalysts showed the competition between 1D and 2D growth. The SnO2 nanowire arrays can be potentially used as a diameter- and surface-dependent sensing unit for the detection of gas- and bio-molecules.

  12. Highly Transparent and UV-Resistant Superhydrophobic SiO2-Coated ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Highly transparent and UV-resistant superhydrophobic arrays of SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods are prepared in a sequence of low-temperature (<150 °C) steps on both glass and thin sheets of PET (2 × 2 in.2), and the superhydrophobic nanocomposite is shown to have minimal impact on solar cell device performance under AM1.5G illumination. Flexible plastics can serve as front cell and backing materials in the manufacture of flexible displays and solar cells. PMID:24495100

  13. Understanding and removing surface states limiting charge transport in TiO2 nanowire arrays for enhanced optoelectronic device performance.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xia; Chen, Liping; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Kai; Feng, Xinjian

    2016-03-01

    Charge transport within electrode materials plays a key role in determining the optoelectronic device performance. Aligned single-crystal TiO 2 nanowire arrays offer an ideal electron transport path and are expected to have higher electron mobility. Unfortunately, their transport is found not to be superior to that in nanoparticle films. Here we show that the low electron transport in rutile TiO 2 nanowires is mainly caused by surface traps in relatively deep energy levels, which cannot be removed by conventional approaches, such as oxygen annealing treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate an effective wet-chemistry approach to minimize these trap states, leading to over 20-fold enhancement in electron diffusion coefficient and 62% improvement in solar cell performance. On the basis of our results, the potential of TiO 2 NWs can be developed and well-utilized, which is significantly important for their practical applications.

  14. The influence of passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H coverage on silicon nanowire array solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays for radial p-n junction solar cells offer potential advantages of light trapping effects and quick charge collection. Nevertheless, lower open circuit voltages (Voc) lead to lower energy conversion efficiencies. In such cases, the performance of the solar cells depends critically on the quality of the SiNW interfaces. In this study, SiNW core-shell solar cells have been fabricated by growing crystalline silicon (c-Si) nanowires via the metal-assisted chemical etching method and by depositing hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) via the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The influence of deposition parameters on the coverage and, consequently, the passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H layers on SiNW solar cells have been analyzed. PMID:24059343

  15. Magnetization mechanisms in ordered arrays of polycrystalline Fe{sub 100−x}Co{sub x} nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Viqueira, M. S.; Bajales, N.; Urreta, S. E.

    2015-05-28

    Magnetization reversal processes and coercivity mechanisms in polycrystalline Fe{sub 100−x}Co{sub x} nanowire arrays, resulting from an AC electrodeposition process, are investigated. The array coercivity is described on the basis of polarization reversal mechanisms operating in individual wires, under the effect of inter-wire dipolar interactions described by a mean field approximation. For individual wires, a reversal mechanism involving the nucleation and further expansion of domain-wall like spin configuration is considered. The wires have a mean grain size larger than both the nanowire diameter and the exchange length, so localized and non-cooperative nucleation modes are considered. As the Co content increases, themore » alloy saturation polarization gradually decreases, but the coercive field and the relative remanence of the arrays increase, indicating that they are not controlled by the shape anisotropy in all the composition range. The coercive field dependence on the angle between the applied field and the wire long axis is not well described by reversal mechanisms involving nucleation and further displacement of neither vortex nor transverse ideal domain walls. On the contrary, the angular dependence of the coercive field observed at room temperature is well predicted by a model considering nucleation of inverse domains by localized curling, in regions smaller than the grain size, exhibiting quite small aspect ratios as compared to those of the entire nanowire. In arrays with higher Co contents, a transition from an initial (small angle) localized curling nucleation mechanism to another one, involving localized coherent rotation is observed at about π/4.« less

  16. Strong visible and near infrared photoluminescence from ZnO nanorods/nanowires grown on single layer graphene studied using sub-band gap excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biroju, Ravi K.; Giri, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Fabrication and optoelectronic applications of graphene based hybrid 2D-1D semiconductor nanostructures have gained tremendous research interest in recent times. Herein, we present a systematic study on the origin and evolution of strong broad band visible and near infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) from vertical ZnO nanorods (NRs) and nanowires (NWs) grown on single layer graphene using both above band gap and sub-band gap optical excitations. High resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies are carried out to reveal the morphology and crystalline quality of as-grown and annealed ZnO NRs/NWs on graphene. Room temperature PL studies reveal that besides the UV and visible PL bands, a new near-infrared (NIR) PL emission band appears in the range between 815 nm and 886 nm (1.40-1.52 eV). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed excess oxygen content and unreacted metallic Zn in the as-grown ZnO nanostructures, owing to the low temperature growth by a physical vapor deposition method. Post-growth annealing at 700 °C in the Ar gas ambient results in the enhanced intensity of both visible and NIR PL bands. On the other hand, subsequent high vacuum annealing at 700 °C results in a drastic reduction in the visible PL band and complete suppression of the NIR PL band. PL decay dynamics of green emission in Ar annealed samples show tri-exponential decay on the nanosecond timescale including a very slow decay component (time constant ˜604.5 ns). Based on these results, the NIR PL band comprising two peaks centered at ˜820 nm and ˜860 nm is tentatively assigned to neutral and negatively charged oxygen interstitial (Oi) defects in ZnO, detected experimentally for the first time. The evidence for oxygen induced trap states on the ZnO NW surface is further substantiated by the slow photocurrent response of graphene-ZnO NRs/NWs. These results are important for tunable light emission, photodetection, and other cutting edge

  17. In situ TEM probing of crystallization form-dependent sodiation behavior in ZnO nanowires for sodium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Feng; Li, Zhengrui; Wu, Lijun; ...

    2016-09-13

    Development of sodium-ion battery (SIB) electrode materials currently lags behind electrodes in commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, in the long term, development of SIB components is a valuable goal. Their similar, but not identical, chemistries require careful identification of the underlying sodiation mechanism in SIBs. Here in this study, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to explore quite different sodiation behaviors even in similar electrode materials through real-time visualization of microstructure and phase evolution. Upon electrochemical sodiation, single-crystalline ZnO nanowires (sc-ZNWs) are found to undergo a step-by-step electrochemical displacement reaction, forming crystalline NaZn 13 nanograins dispersed in a Namore » 2O matrix. This process is characterized by a slowly propagating reaction front and the formation of heterogeneous interfaces inside the ZNWs due to non-uniform sodiation amorphization. In contrast, poly-crystalline ZNWs (pc-ZNWs) exhibited an ultrafast sodiation process, which can partly be ascribed to the availability of unobstructed ionic transport pathways among ZnO nanograins. Thus the reaction front and heterogeneous interfaces disappear. The in situ TEM results, supported by calculation of the ion diffusion coefficient, provide breakthrough insights into the dependence of ion diffusion kinetics on crystallization form. This points toward a goal of optimizing the microstructure of electrode materials in order to develop high performance SIBs.« less

  18. Surface/Interface Carrier-Transport Modulation for Constructing Photon-Alternative Ultraviolet Detectors Based on Self-Bending-Assembled ZnO Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Zhou, Lianqun; Tang, Yuguo; Li, Lin; Zhang, Zhiqi; Yang, Hongbo; Ma, Hanbin; Nathan, Arokia; Zhao, Dongxu

    2017-09-13

    Surface/interface charge-carrier generation, diffusion, and recombination/transport modulation are especially important in the construction of photodetectors with high efficiency in the field of nanoscience. In the paper, a kind of ultraviolet (UV) detector is designed based on ZnO nanostructures considering photon-trapping, surface plasmonic resonance (SPR), piezophototronic effects, interface carrier-trapping/transport control, and collection. Through carefully optimized surface/interface carrier-transport modulation, a designed device with detectivity as high as 1.69 × 10 16 /1.71 × 10 16 cm·Hz 1/2 /W irradiating with 380 nm photons under ultralow bias of 0.2 V is realized by alternating nanoparticle/nanowire active layers, respectively, and the designed UV photodetectors show fast and slow recovery processes of 0.27 and 4.52 ms, respectively, which well-satisfy practical needs. Further, it is observed that UV photodetection could be performed within an alternative response by varying correlated key parameters, through efficient surface/interface carrier-transport modulation, spectrally resolved photoresponse of the detector revealing controlled detection in the UV region based on the ZnO nanomaterial, photodetection allowed or limited by varying the active layers, irradiation distance from one of the electrodes, standing states, or electric field. The detailed carrier generation, diffusion, and recombination/transport processes are well illustrated to explain charge-carrier dynamics contributing to the photoresponse behavior.

  19. Facile Synthesis of Ultrafine Hematite Nanowire Arrays in Mixed Water-Ethanol-Acetic Acid Solution for Enhanced Charge Transport and Separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Menglong; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Guo, Penghui; Su, Jinzhan; Guo, Liejin

    2018-04-18

    Nanostructure engineering is of great significance for semiconductor electrode to achieve high photoelectrochemical performance. Herein, we report a novel strategy to fabricate ultrafine hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanowire arrays in a mixed water-ethanol-acetic acid (WEA) solvent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on direct growth of ultrafine (∼10 nm) α-Fe 2 O 3 nanowire arrays on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates through solution-based fabrication process. The effect of WEA ratio on the morphology of nanowires has been systematically studied to understand the formation mechanism. Photoelectrochemical measurements were conducted on both Ti-treated α-Fe 2 O 3 nanowire and nanorod photoelectrodes. It reveals that α-Fe 2 O 3 nanowire electrode has higher photocurrent and charge separation efficiencies than nanorod electrode if the carrier concentration and space-charge carrier width are in the same order of magnitude. Normalized by electrochemically active surface area, the Ti-treated α-Fe 2 O 3 nanowire electrode obtains 6.4 times higher specific photocurrent density than nanorod electrode. This superiority of nanowires arises from the higher bulk and surface charge separation efficiencies, which could be partly attributed to reduced distance that holes must transfer to reach the semiconductor-liquid junction.

  20. Scalable Direct Writing of Lanthanide-Doped KMnF3 Perovskite Nanowires into Aligned Arrays with Polarized Up-Conversion Emission.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuo; Sun, Ling-Dong; Xue, Ying-Xian; Dong, Hao; Wu, Ke; Guo, Shi-Chen; Wu, Bo-Tao; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2018-05-09

    The use of one-dimensional nano- and microstructured semiconductor and lanthanide materials is attractive for polarized-light-emission studies. Up-conversion emission from single-nanorod or anisotropic nanoparticles with a degree of polarization has also been discussed. However, microscale arrays of nanoparticles, especially well-aligned one-dimensional nanostructures as well as their up-conversion polarization characterization, have not been investigated yet. Herein, we present a novel and facile paradigm for preparing highly aligned arrays of lanthanide-doped KMnF 3 (KMnF 3 :Ln) perovskite nanowires, which are good candidates for polarized up-conversion emission studies. These perovskite nanowires, with a width of 10 nm and length of a few micrometers, are formed through the oriented attachment of KMnF 3 :Ln nanocubes along the [001] direction. By the employment of KMnF 3 :Ln nanowire gel as nanoink, a direct-writing method is developed to obtain diverse types of aligned patterns from the nanoscale to the wafer scale. Up-conversion emissions from the highly aligned nanowire arrays are polarized along the array direction with a polarization degree up to 60%. Taking advantage of microscopic nanowire arrays, these polarized up-conversion emissions should offer potential applications in light or information transportation.