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Sample records for zno single crystalline

  1. Formation of quasi-single crystalline porous ZnO nanostructures with a single large cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seungho; Kim, Semi; Jung, Dae-Won; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2011-09-01

    We report a method for synthesizing quasi-single crystalline porous ZnO nanostructures containing a single large cavity. The microwave-assisted route consists of a short (about 2 min) temperature ramping stage (from room temperature to 120 °C) and a stage in which the temperature is maintained at 120 °C for 2 h. The structures produced by this route were 200-480 nm in diameter. The morphological yields of this method were very high. The temperature- and time-dependent evolution of the synthesized powders and the effects of an additive, vitamin C, were studied. Spherical amorphous/polycrystalline structures (70-170 nm in diameter), which appeared transitorily, may play a key role in the formation of the single crystalline porous hollow ZnO nanostructures. Studies and characterization of the nanostructures suggested a possible mechanism for formation of the quasi-single crystalline porous ZnO nanostructures with an interior space.We report a method for synthesizing quasi-single crystalline porous ZnO nanostructures containing a single large cavity. The microwave-assisted route consists of a short (about 2 min) temperature ramping stage (from room temperature to 120 °C) and a stage in which the temperature is maintained at 120 °C for 2 h. The structures produced by this route were 200-480 nm in diameter. The morphological yields of this method were very high. The temperature- and time-dependent evolution of the synthesized powders and the effects of an additive, vitamin C, were studied. Spherical amorphous/polycrystalline structures (70-170 nm in diameter), which appeared transitorily, may play a key role in the formation of the single crystalline porous hollow ZnO nanostructures. Studies and characterization of the nanostructures suggested a possible mechanism for formation of the quasi-single crystalline porous ZnO nanostructures with an interior space. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images and the corresponding SAED image of a ZnO

  2. Positron annihilation lifetime and photoluminescence studies on single crystalline ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Ray, S. K.; Bhowmick, D.; Sanyal, D.

    2011-04-01

    The room temperature positron annihilation lifetime for single crystalline ZnO has been measured as 164 ± 1 ps. The single component lifetime value is very close to but higher than the theoretically predicted value of ~ 154 ps. Photoluminescence study (at 10 K) indicates the presence of hydrogen and other defects, mainly acceptor related, in the crystal. Defects related to a lower open volume than zinc vacancies, presumably a complex with two hydrogen atoms, are the major trapping sites in the sample. The bulk positron lifetime in ZnO is expected to be a little less than 164 ps.

  3. Positron annihilation lifetime and photoluminescence studies on single crystalline ZnO.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Ray, S K; Bhowmick, D; Sanyal, D

    2011-04-20

    The room temperature positron annihilation lifetime for single crystalline ZnO has been measured as 164 ± 1 ps. The single component lifetime value is very close to but higher than the theoretically predicted value of ~154 ps. Photoluminescence study (at 10 K) indicates the presence of hydrogen and other defects, mainly acceptor related, in the crystal. Defects related to a lower open volume than zinc vacancies, presumably a complex with two hydrogen atoms, are the major trapping sites in the sample. The bulk positron lifetime in ZnO is expected to be a little less than 164 ps.

  4. Synthesis of Single Crystalline ZnO Nanoparticles by Salt-Assisted Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panatarani, Camellia; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2003-04-01

    LiNO3 was used as a shield in the preparation of single crystalline ZnO particles by a spray pyrolysis process in order to prevent agglomeration and enhance the crystallinity of the ZnO. LiNO3 was added to a precursor solution of zinc acetate dihydrate prior to its atomization by means of an ultrasonic transducer. Agglomerate-free particles having a mean particle size of 26 nm were successfully obtained after washing the product. X-ray diffractometry, field-emission scanning electron micrograph and transmission electron micrograph data indicate that the size and morphology of ZnO were strongly influenced by the operating temperature used and the residence time of the particle in the reactor.

  5. Single-crystalline twinned ZnO nanoleaf structure via a facile hydrothermal process.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jijun; Lil, Xiaomin; Gao, Xiangdong; Gan, Xiaoyan; He, Weizhen; Kim, Hyung-Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2011-03-01

    A single-crystalline twinned ZnO nanostructure with a 2-dimensional leaf-like morphology (nanoleaves) was synthesized using a facile hydrothermal strategy. The ZnO nanoleaves had 2-fold symmetric branches, which were identified by the existence of an inversion domain boundary (IDB) along the [2110] growth direction of the ribbon-like stems with both side surfaces of the stems terminated with a chemically active Zn-(0001) plane. A proposed growth mechanism suggested that the formation of IDB and the leaf-like shape are related to the dissolution of seed particles on the substrate surfaces and an OH- shielding effect in solution, respectively. Optical measurements revealed visible emission, suggesting the possession of defects in the as-grown and annealed ZnO nanoleaves. In addition, various ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by simply controlling the fabrication conditions.

  6. Constructing MnO{sub 2}/single crystalline ZnO nanorod hybrids with enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activity

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Weiwei; Liu, Tiangui, E-mail: tianguiliu@gmail.com; Cao, Shiyi

    In order to improve the photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanorods, ZnO nanorods decorated with MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles (MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids) were prepared by using microwave assisted coprecipitation method under the influence of hydrogen peroxide, and the structure, photocatalytic activity and antibacterial property of the products were studied. Experimental results indicated that MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are decorated on the surface of single crystalline ZnO nanorods. Moreover, the resultant MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids have been proven to possess good photocatalytic and antibacterial activity, which their degradated efficiency for Rhodamin B (RhB) is twice as the pure ZnO nanorods. Enhancementmore » for photocatalytic and antibacterial activity is mainly attributed to the low band gap energy and excellent electrochemical properties of MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: The MnO{sub 2}/single crystalline ZnO nanorods hybrids, which MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are loaded on the surface of ZnO nanorods, were prepared by the step-by-step precipitation method under the assistance of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. Display Omitted - Highlights: • MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids were prepared by the step-by-step assembly method. • Single crystalline ZnO nanorods can be decorated by MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids possess good photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. • MnO{sub 2} can improve the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods under visible light.« less

  7. Trimethylamine Sensors Based on Au-Modified Hierarchical Porous Single-Crystalline ZnO Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanli; Zheng, Hanxiong; Sun, Yufeng; Li, Minqiang; Liu, Jinhuai

    2017-06-22

    It is of great significance for dynamic monitoring of foods in storage or during the transportation process through on-line detecting trimethylamine (TMA). Here, TMA were sensitively detected by Au-modified hierarchical porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets (HPSCZNs)-based sensors. The HPSCZNs were synthesized through a one-pot wet-chemical method followed by an annealing treatment. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) was used to modify the surface of the HPSCZNs, and then the PEI-modified samples were mixed with Au nanoparticles (NPs) sol solution. Electrostatic interactions drive Au nanoparticles loading onto the surface of the HPSCZNs. The Au-modified HPSCZNs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), respectively. The results show that Au-modified HPSCZNs-based sensors exhibit a high response to TMA. The linear range is from 10 to 300 ppb; while the detection limit is 10 ppb, which is the lowest value to our knowledge.

  8. Trimethylamine Sensors Based on Au-Modified Hierarchical Porous Single-Crystalline ZnO Nanosheets

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hanxiong; Sun, Yufeng; Li, Minqiang; Liu, Jinhuai

    2017-01-01

    It is of great significance for dynamic monitoring of foods in storage or during the transportation process through on-line detecting trimethylamine (TMA). Here, TMA were sensitively detected by Au-modified hierarchical porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets (HPSCZNs)-based sensors. The HPSCZNs were synthesized through a one-pot wet-chemical method followed by an annealing treatment. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) was used to modify the surface of the HPSCZNs, and then the PEI-modified samples were mixed with Au nanoparticles (NPs) sol solution. Electrostatic interactions drive Au nanoparticles loading onto the surface of the HPSCZNs. The Au-modified HPSCZNs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), respectively. The results show that Au-modified HPSCZNs-based sensors exhibit a high response to TMA. The linear range is from 10 to 300 ppb; while the detection limit is 10 ppb, which is the lowest value to our knowledge. PMID:28640226

  9. Porous and single-crystalline ZnO nanobelts: fabrication with annealing precursor nanobelts, and gas-sensing and optoelectronic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiao-Bo; Li, Yi-Xiang; Su, Yao; Guo, Zheng; Gu, Cui-Ping; Huang, Jia-Rui; Meng, Fan-Li; Huang, Xing-Jiu; Li, Min-Qiang; Liu, Jin-Huai

    2016-09-01

    Porous and single-crystalline ZnO nanobelts have been prepared through annealing precursors of ZnSe · 0.5N2H4 well-defined and smooth nanobelts, which have been synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. The composition and morphology evolutions with the calcination temperatures have been investigated in detail for as-prepared precursor nanobelts, suggesting that they can be easily transformed into ZnO nanobelts by preserving their initial morphology via calcination in air. In contrast, the obtained ZnO nanobelts are densely porous, owing to the thermal decomposition and oxidization of the precursor nanobelts. More importantly, the achieved porous ZnO nanobelts are single-crystalline, different from previously reported ones. Motivated by the intrinsic properties of the porous structure and good electronic transporting ability of single crystals, their gas-sensing performance has been further explored. It is demonstrated that porous ZnO single-crystalline nanobelts exhibit high response and repeatability toward volatile organic compounds, such as ethanol and acetone, with a short response/recovery time. Furthermore, their optoelectronic behaviors indicate that they can be promisingly employed to fabricate photoelectrochemical sensors.

  10. P-type single-crystalline ZnO films obtained by (N,O) dual implantation through dynamic annealing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Huang, Jingyun; Chen, Shanshan; Pan, Xinhua; Chen, Lingxiang; Ye, Zhizhen

    2016-12-01

    Single-crystalline ZnO films were grown on a-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy technique. The films have been implanted with fixed fluence of 120 keV N and 130 keV O ions at 460 °C. Hall measurements show that the dually-implanted single-crystalline ZnO films exhibit p-type characteristics with hole concentration in the range of 2.1 × 1018-1.1 × 1019 cm-3, hole mobilities between 1.6 and 1.9 cm2 V-1 s-1, and resistivities in the range of 0.353-1.555 Ω cm. The ZnO films exhibit (002) (c-plane) orientation as identified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. It is confirmed that N ions were effectively implanted by SIMS results. Raman spectra, polarized Raman spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results reflect that the concentration of oxygen vacancies is reduced, which is attributed to O ion implantation. It is concluded that N and O implantation and dynamic annealing play a critical role in forming p-type single-crystalline ZnO films.

  11. Single crystalline ZnO radial homojunction light-emitting diodes fabricated by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jinkyoung; Ahmed, Towfiq; Tang, Wei

    ZnO radial p–n junction architecture has the potential for forward-leap of light-emitting diode (LED) technology in terms of higher efficacy and economical production. Here, we report on ZnO radial p–n junction-based light emitting diodes prepared by full metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) with hydrogen-assisted p-type doping approach. The p-type ZnO(P) thin films were prepared by MOCVD with the precursors of dimethylzinc, tert-butanol, and tertiarybutylphosphine. Controlling the precursor flow for dopant results in the systematic change of doping concentration, Hall mobility, and electrical conductivity. Moreover, the approach of hydrogen-assisted phosphorous doping in ZnO expands the understanding of doping behaviour in ZnO.more » Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence of ZnO radial p–n junction was demonstrated through a combination of position-controlled nano/microwire and crystalline p-type ZnO(P) radial shell growth on the wires. Lastly, the reported research opens a pathway of realisation of production-compatible ZnO p–n junction LEDs.« less

  12. Single crystalline ZnO radial homojunction light-emitting diodes fabricated by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jinkyoung; Ahmed, Towfiq; Tang, Wei; ...

    2017-09-05

    ZnO radial p–n junction architecture has the potential for forward-leap of light-emitting diode (LED) technology in terms of higher efficacy and economical production. Here, we report on ZnO radial p–n junction-based light emitting diodes prepared by full metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) with hydrogen-assisted p-type doping approach. The p-type ZnO(P) thin films were prepared by MOCVD with the precursors of dimethylzinc, tert-butanol, and tertiarybutylphosphine. Controlling the precursor flow for dopant results in the systematic change of doping concentration, Hall mobility, and electrical conductivity. Moreover, the approach of hydrogen-assisted phosphorous doping in ZnO expands the understanding of doping behaviour in ZnO.more » Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence of ZnO radial p–n junction was demonstrated through a combination of position-controlled nano/microwire and crystalline p-type ZnO(P) radial shell growth on the wires. Lastly, the reported research opens a pathway of realisation of production-compatible ZnO p–n junction LEDs.« less

  13. P-type single-crystalline ZnO films obtained by (Na,N) dual implantation through dynamic annealing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Huang, Jingyun; Chen, Shanshan; Pan, Xinhua; Chen, Lingxiang; Ye, Zhizhen

    2018-02-01

    Single-crystalline ZnO films were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy technique on c-plane sapphire substrates. The films have been implanted with fixed fluence of 130 keV Na and 90 keV N ions at 460 °C. It is observed that dually-implanted single crystalline ZnO films exhibit p-type characteristics with hole concentration in the range of 1.24 × 1016-1.34 × 1017 cm-3, hole mobilities between 0.65 and 8.37 cm2 V-1 s-1, and resistivities in the range of 53.3-80.7 Ω cm by Hall-effect measurements. There are no other secondary phase appearing, with (0 0 2) (c-plane) orientation after ion implantation as identified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. It is obtained that Na and N ions were successfully implanted and activated as acceptors measured by XPS and SIMS results. Also compared to other similar studies, lower amount of Na and N ions make p-type characteristics excellent as others deposited by traditional techniques. It is concluded that Na and N ion implantation and dynamic annealing are essential in forming p-type single-crystalline ZnO films.

  14. Improvement of electroluminescence performance by integration of ZnO nanowires and single-crystalline films on ZnO/GaN heterojunction

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yuantao, E-mail: zhangyt@jlu.edu.cn; Cui, Xijun

    2014-03-31

    Heterojunction light-emitting diodes based on n-ZnO nanowires/ZnO single-crystalline films/p-GaN structure have been demonstrated for an improved electroluminescence performance. A highly efficient ultraviolet emission was observed under forward bias. Compared with conventional n-ZnO/p-GaN structure, high internal quantum efficiency and light extraction efficiency were simultaneously considered in the proposed diode. In addition, the diode can work continuously for ∼10 h with only a slight degradation in harsh environments, indicating its good reliability and application prospect in the future. This route opens possibilities for the development of advanced nanoscale devices in which the advantages of ZnO single-crystalline films and nanostructures can be integrated together.

  15. Magnetotransport of single crystalline YSb

    DOE PAGES

    Ghimire, N. J.; Botana, A. S.; Phelan, D.; ...

    2016-05-10

    Here, we report magnetic field dependent transport measurements on a single crystal of cubic YSb together with first principles calculations of its electronic structure. The transverse magnetoresistance does not saturate up to 9 T and attains a value of 75 000% at 1.8 K. The Hall coefficient is electron-like at high temperature, changes sign to hole-like between 110 and 50 K, and again becomes electron-like below 50 K. First principles calculations show that YSb is a compensated semimetal with a qualitatively similar electronic structure to that of isostructural LaSb and LaBi, but with larger Fermi surface volume. The measured electron carrier density and Hall mobility calculated at 1.8 K, based on a single band approximation, aremore » $$6.5\\times {{10}^{20}}$$ cm –3 and $$6.2\\times {{10}^{4}}$$ cm 2 Vs –1, respectively. These values are comparable with those reported for LaBi and LaSb. Like LaBi and LaSb, YSb undergoes a magnetic field-induced metal-insulator-like transition below a characteristic temperature T m, with resistivity saturation below 13 K. Thickness dependent electrical resistance measurements show a deviation of the resistance behavior from that expected for a normal metal; however, they do not unambiguously establish surface conduction as the mechanism for the resistivity plateau.« less

  16. Single-crystalline aluminum film for ultraviolet plasmonic nanolasers

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Bo-Tsun; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Wu, Yen-Mo; Chung, Yi-Cheng; Hsueh, Wei-Jen; Lin, Shih-Wei; Lu, Tien-Chang; Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Sheng-Di

    2016-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the development of plasmonic devices in the past decade. Plasmonic nanolasers, which display interesting properties, have come to play an important role in biomedicine, chemical sensors, information technology, and optical integrated circuits. However, nanoscale plasmonic devices, particularly those operating in the ultraviolet regime, are extremely sensitive to the metal and interface quality. Thus, these factors have a significant bearing on the development of ultraviolet plasmonic devices. Here, by addressing these material-related issues, we demonstrate a low-threshold, high-characteristic-temperature metal-oxide-semiconductor ZnO nanolaser that operates at room temperature. The template for the ZnO nanowires consists of a flat single-crystalline Al film grown by molecular beam epitaxy and an ultrasmooth Al2O3 spacer layer synthesized by atomic layer deposition. By effectively reducing the surface plasmon scattering and metal intrinsic absorption losses, the high-quality metal film and the sharp interfaces formed between the layers boost the device performance. This work should pave the way for the use of ultraviolet plasmonic nanolasers and related devices in a wider range of applications. PMID:26814581

  17. Organozinc Precursor-Derived Crystalline ZnO Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Their Spectroscopic Properties.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yucang; Wicker, Susanne; Wang, Xiao; Erichsen, Egil Severin; Fu, Feng

    2018-01-04

    Crystalline ZnO -ROH and ZnO -OR (R = Me, Et, i Pr, n Bu) nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully synthesized by the thermal decomposition of in-situ-formed organozinc complexes Zn(OR)₂ deriving from the reaction of Zn[N(SiMe₃)₂]₂ with ROH and of the freshly prepared Zn(OR)₂ under an identical condition, respectively. With increasing carbon chain length of alkyl alcohol, the thermal decomposition temperature and dispersibility of in-situ-formed intermediate zinc alkoxides in oleylamine markedly influenced the particle sizes of ZnO -ROH and its shape (sphere, plate-like aggregations), while a strong diffraction peak-broadening effect is observed with decreasing particle size. For ZnO -OR NPs, different particle sizes and various morphologies (hollow sphere or cuboid-like rod, solid sphere) are also observed. As a comparison, the calcination of the fresh-prepared Zn(OR)₂ generated ZnO -R NPs possessing the particle sizes of 5.4~34.1 nm. All crystalline ZnO nanoparticles are characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, electron microscopy and solid-state ¹H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The size effect caused by confinement of electrons' movement and the defect centres caused by unpaired electrons on oxygen vacancies or ionized impurity heteroatoms in the crystal lattices are monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescent (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. Based on the types of defects determined by EPR signals and correspondingly defect-induced probably appeared PL peak position compared to actual obtained PL spectra, we find that it is difficult to establish a direct relationship between defect types and PL peak position, revealing the complication of the formation of defect types and photoluminescence properties.

  18. Zn nanoparticle formation in FIB irradiated single crystal ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pea, M.; Barucca, G.; Notargiacomo, A.; Di Gaspare, L.; Mussi, V.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the formation of Zn nanoparticles induced by Ga+ focused ion beam on single crystal ZnO. The irradiated materials have been studied as a function of the ion dose by means of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, evidencing the presence of Zn nanoparticles with size of the order of 5-30 nm. The nanoparticles are found to be embedded in a shallow amorphous ZnO matrix few tens of nanometers thick. Results reveal that ion beam induced Zn clustering occurs producing crystalline particles with the same hexagonal lattice and orientation of the substrate, and could explain the alteration of optical and electrical properties found for FIB fabricated and processed ZnO based devices.

  19. Near band edge emission characteristics of sputtered nano-crystalline ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited on unheated glass substrate under different sputtering gas mixtures (Ar+O2) have been investigated using X-ray diffraction and photo luminescence spectroscopy. Earlier reported studies on ZnO films prepared by different techniques exhibit either a sharp/broad near band edge (NBE) emission peak depending on the crystalline quality of the film. In the present study zinc oxide films, grown on unheated substrates, are seen to possess a preferred (002) orientation with a microstructure consisting of clustered nano-sized crystallites. The splitting in the near band edge emission (NBE) into three characteristic peaks is attributed to quantum confinement effect, and is observed specifically under an excitation of 270 nm. Deep level emission (DLE) in the range 400 to 700 nm is not observed indicating absence of deep level radiative defects.

  20. Photoluminescence and photoconductivity studies on amorphous and crystalline ZnO thin films obtained by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde-Aguilar, G.; Manríquez Zepeda, J. L.

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous and crystalline ZnO thin films were obtained by the sol-gel process. A precursor solution of ZnO was synthesized by using zinc acetate dehydrate as inorganic precursor at room temperature. The films were spin-coated on silicon and glass wafers and gelled in humid air. The films were calcined at 450 °C for 15 min to produce ZnO nanocrystals with a wurtzite structure. Crystalline ZnO film exhibits an absorption band located at 359 nm (3.4 eV). Photoconductivity technique was used to determine the charge transport mechanism on both kinds of films. Experimental data were fitted with straight lines at darkness and under illumination at 355 and 633 nm wavelengths. This indicates an ohmic behavior. The photovoltaic and photoconductivity parameters were determined from the current density versus the applied electrical field results.

  1. Investigation and characterization of ZnO single crystal microtubes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Naser, Qusay A.H.; Zhou, Jian, E-mail: jianzhou@whut.edu.cn; Liu, Guizhen

    2016-04-15

    Morphological, structural, and optical characterization of microwave synthesized ZnO single crystal microtubes were investigated in this work. The structure and morphology of the ZnO microtubes are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), single crystal diffraction (SCD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveal that the as-synthesized ZnO microtube has a highly regular hexagonal cross section and smooth surfaces with an average length of 650–700 μm, an average outer diameter of 50 μm and wall thickness of 1–3 μm, possessing a single crystal wurtzite hexagonal structure. Optical properties of ZnOmore » single crystal microtubes were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption techniques. Room-temperature PL spectrum of the microtube reveal a strong UV emission peak at around 375.89 nm and broad and a weak visible emission with a main peak identified at 577 nm, which was assigned to the nearest band-edge emission and the deep-level emission, respectively. The band gap energy of ZnO microtube was found to be 3.27 eV. - Highlights: • ZnO microtube length of 650–700 μm, diameter of 50 μm, wall thickness of 1–3 μm • ZnO microtube possesses a single crystal wurtzite hexagonal structure. • The crystal system is hexahedral oriented along a-axis with indices of (100). • A strong and sharp UV emission at 375.89 nm (3.29 eV) • One prominent absorption band around 378.88 nm (3.27 eV)« less

  2. Ultraviolet electroluminescence from hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film.

    PubMed

    Tetsuyama, Norihiro; Fusazaki, Koshi; Mizokami, Yasuaki; Shimogaki, Tetsuya; Higashihata, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Daisuke; Okada, Tatsuo

    2014-04-21

    We report ultraviolet electroluminescence from a hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film. ZnO microspheres, which have high crystalline quality, have been synthesized by ablating a ZnO sintered target. It was found that synthesized ZnO microspheres had a high-optical property and exhibit the laser action in the whispering gallery mode under pulsed optical pumping. A hetero p-n junction was formed between the single ZnO microsphere/ p-GaN thin film, and a good rectifying property with a turn-on voltage of approximately 6 V was observed in I-V characteristic across the junction. Ultraviolet and visible electroluminescence were observed under forward bias.

  3. Thin-film transistor fabricated in single-crystalline transparent oxide semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kenji; Ohta, Hiromichi; Ueda, Kazushige; Kamiya, Toshio; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2003-05-23

    We report the fabrication of transparent field-effect transistors using a single-crystalline thin-film transparent oxide semiconductor, InGaO3(ZnO)5, as an electron channel and amorphous hafnium oxide as a gate insulator. The device exhibits an on-to-off current ratio of approximately 106 and a field-effect mobility of approximately 80 square centimeters per volt per second at room temperature, with operation insensitive to visible light irradiation. The result provides a step toward the realization of transparent electronics for next-generation optoelectronics.

  4. Synthesis of high crystallinity ZnO nanowire array on polymer substrate and flexible fiber-based sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinmei; Wu, Weiwei; Bai, Suo; Qin, Yong

    2011-11-01

    Well aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays are grown on Kevlar fiber and Kapton film via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. These NWs have better crystallinity than those synthesized through the low-temperature hydrothermal method. The average length and diameter of ZnO NWs grown on Kevlar fiber can be controlled from 0.5 to 2.76 μm and 30 to 300 nm, respectively. A flexible ultraviolet (UV) sensor based on Kevlar fiber/ZnO NWs hybrid structure is made to detect UV illumination quantificationally.

  5. Large-scale fabrication of single crystalline tin nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bin; Yang, Dachi; Liang, Minghui; Zhi, Linjie

    2010-09-01

    Large-scale single crystalline tin nanowire arrays with preferred lattice orientation along the [100] direction were fabricated in porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes by the electrodeposition method using copper nanorod as a second electrode.Large-scale single crystalline tin nanowire arrays with preferred lattice orientation along the [100] direction were fabricated in porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes by the electrodeposition method using copper nanorod as a second electrode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and the information for single crystalline copper nanorods. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00206b

  6. Single Molecule Study of Cellulase Hydrolysis of Crystalline Cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.-S.; Luo, Y.; Baker, J. O.

    This report seeks to elucidate the role of cellobiohydrolase-I (CBH I) in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. A single-molecule approach uses various imaging techniques to investigate the surface structure of crystalline cellulose and changes made in the structure by CBH I.

  7. Large-scale fabrication of single crystalline tin nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Yang, Dachi; Liang, Minghui; Zhi, Linjie

    2010-09-01

    Large-scale single crystalline tin nanowire arrays with preferred lattice orientation along the [100] direction were fabricated in porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes by the electrodeposition method using copper nanorod as a second electrode.

  8. Organozinc Precursor-Derived Crystalline ZnO Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Their Spectroscopic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wicker, Susanne; Wang, Xiao; Erichsen, Egil Severin; Fu, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Crystalline ZnO-ROH and ZnO-OR (R = Me, Et, iPr, nBu) nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully synthesized by the thermal decomposition of in-situ-formed organozinc complexes Zn(OR)2 deriving from the reaction of Zn[N(SiMe3)2]2 with ROH and of the freshly prepared Zn(OR)2 under an identical condition, respectively. With increasing carbon chain length of alkyl alcohol, the thermal decomposition temperature and dispersibility of in-situ-formed intermediate zinc alkoxides in oleylamine markedly influenced the particle sizes of ZnO-ROH and its shape (sphere, plate-like aggregations), while a strong diffraction peak-broadening effect is observed with decreasing particle size. For ZnO-OR NPs, different particle sizes and various morphologies (hollow sphere or cuboid-like rod, solid sphere) are also observed. As a comparison, the calcination of the fresh-prepared Zn(OR)2 generated ZnO-R NPs possessing the particle sizes of 5.4~34.1 nm. All crystalline ZnO nanoparticles are characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, electron microscopy and solid-state 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The size effect caused by confinement of electrons’ movement and the defect centres caused by unpaired electrons on oxygen vacancies or ionized impurity heteroatoms in the crystal lattices are monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescent (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. Based on the types of defects determined by EPR signals and correspondingly defect-induced probably appeared PL peak position compared to actual obtained PL spectra, we find that it is difficult to establish a direct relationship between defect types and PL peak position, revealing the complication of the formation of defect types and photoluminescence properties. PMID:29300343

  9. Single-crystalline dendritic bimetallic and multimetallic nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Cai, Zhao; Feng, Guang; Jiang, Yingying; Jin, Chuanhong; Luo, Jun; Sun, Xiaoming

    2015-12-01

    Developing facial synthetic routes for fabrication of multimetallic nanocatalysts with open porous morphology, tunable composition and tailored crystalline structure is a big challenge for fabrication of low-cost electrocatalysts. Here we report on the synthesis of single-crystalline dendritic bimetallic and multimetallic nanocubes via a solvothermal co-reduction method. These cubes show highly porous, complex 3D inner connections but single-crystalline structure. Tuning the reduction kinetics of metal precursors and introducing galvanic reaction at the active sites during growth were believed to be the keys for the formation of such unique nanostructure. Electro-catalytic oxygen reduction (ORR) and methanol oxidation (MOR) on these catalysts showed dramatic enhancements for both cathodic and anodic electrocatalysis in fuel cells, which were attributed to their unique morphology and crystalline structure, as well as synergetic effect of the multi-metallic components. This work uncovers the formation mechanism of such complex single-crystalline dendritic multimetallic nanocrystals and offers a promising synthetic strategy for geometric and crystalline control of multimetallic nanocrystals with tailored physical and chemical properties, which will benefit the development of clean energy.

  10. The crystalline structure of copper phthalocyanine films on ZnO(1100).

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Amy C; Dotzler, Christian J; Din, Salahud; Heutz, Sandrine; Toney, Michael F; Ryan, Mary P

    2012-09-05

    The structure of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin films (5-100 nm) deposited on single-crystal ZnO(1100) substrates by organic molecular beam deposition was determined from grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction reciprocal space maps. The crystal structure was identified as the metastable polymorph α-CuPc, but the molecular stacking was found to vary depending on the film thickness: for thin films, a herringbone arrangement was observed, whereas for films thicker than 10 nm, coexistence of both the herringbone and brickstone arrangements was found. We propose a modified structure for the herringbone phase with a larger monoclinic β angle, which leads to intrastack Cu-Cu distances closer to those in the brickstone phase. This structural basis enables an understanding of the functional properties (e.g., light absorption and charge transport) of (opto)electronic devices fabricated from CuPc/ZnO hybrid systems.

  11. Single-crystalline graphene radio-frequency nanoswitches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Cui, Tianhong

    2015-07-01

    Growth of monolayer single-crystalline graphene (SCG) using the low-pressure chemical vapor deposition method is reported. Graphene’s superb quality and single-crystalline nature were characterized and verified by Raman microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and carrier mobility measurement. Radio-frequency (RF) nanoelectromechanical switches based on coplanar waveguide double-clamped SCG membrane were achieved, and the superb properties of SCG enable the switches to operate at a pull-in voltage as low as 1 V, with switch time in the nanosecond regime. Owing to their single-crystalline nature, the switches’ lifetime (>5000 times) is much longer than that of polycrystalline graphene ones reported. The RF devices exhibit good isolation (-30 dB at 40 GHz (Ka band)), which can be further improved by SCG’s conductivity variation due to actuation voltage.

  12. Single-crystalline monolayer and multilayer graphene nano switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Jing, Gaoshan; Zhang, Bo; Sando, Shota; Cui, Tianhong

    2014-03-01

    Growth of monolayer, bi-layer, and tri-layer single-crystalline graphene (SCG) using chemical vapor deposition method is reported. SCG's mechanical properties and single-crystalline nature were characterized and verified by atomic force microscope and Raman spectroscopy. Electro-mechanical switches based on mono- and bi-layer SCG were fabricated, and the superb properties of SCG enable the switches to operate at pull-in voltage as low as 1 V, and high switching speed about 100 ns. These devices exhibit lifetime without a breakdown of over 5000 cycles, far more durable than any other graphene nanoelectromechanical system switches reported.

  13. Single-crystalline monolayer and multilayer graphene nano switches

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Peng; Cui, Tianhong, E-mail: tcui@me.umn.edu; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455

    2014-03-17

    Growth of monolayer, bi-layer, and tri-layer single-crystalline graphene (SCG) using chemical vapor deposition method is reported. SCG's mechanical properties and single-crystalline nature were characterized and verified by atomic force microscope and Raman spectroscopy. Electro-mechanical switches based on mono- and bi-layer SCG were fabricated, and the superb properties of SCG enable the switches to operate at pull-in voltage as low as 1 V, and high switching speed about 100 ns. These devices exhibit lifetime without a breakdown of over 5000 cycles, far more durable than any other graphene nanoelectromechanical system switches reported.

  14. Growth Of Single Crystalline Copper Nanowhiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, Matthias; Richter, Gunther

    2010-11-24

    Nanowhiskers are defect free single crystals with high aspect ratios and as result exhibit superior physical, e.g. mechanical properties. This paper sheds light on the kinetics of copper nanowhisker growth and thickening. Whisker growth was provoked by covering silicon wafers with a thin carbon film and subsequently coating them with copper by molecular beam epitaxy. The whiskers grown were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the length and diameter were measured as a function of the amount of copper deposited. The experiments show that nanowhisker growth follows Ruth and Hirth's growth model. A fit of the model parameters to themore » acquired data shows that adsorption of atoms on the substrate and on the whisker surface, with subsequent surface diffusion to the whisker tip, delivers by far the greatest portion of material for whisker growth. Additionally, the experiments demonstrate that the crystallographic orientation of the substrate surface greatly influences the growth rate in the early stage of whisker growth.« less

  15. Nanometre-thick single-crystalline nanosheets grown at the water-air interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Seo, Jung-Hun; Luo, Guangfu; Starr, Matthew B.; Li, Zhaodong; Geng, Dalong; Yin, Xin; Wang, Shaoyang; Fraser, Douglas G.; Morgan, Dane; Ma, Zhenqiang; Wang, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    To date, the preparation of free-standing 2D nanomaterials has been largely limited to the exfoliation of van der Waals solids. The lack of a robust mechanism for the bottom-up synthesis of 2D nanomaterials from non-layered materials has become an obstacle to further explore the physical properties and advanced applications of 2D nanomaterials. Here we demonstrate that surfactant monolayers can serve as soft templates guiding the nucleation and growth of 2D nanomaterials in large area beyond the limitation of van der Waals solids. One- to 2-nm-thick, single-crystalline free-standing ZnO nanosheets with sizes up to tens of micrometres are synthesized at the water-air interface. In this process, the packing density of surfactant monolayers adapts to the sub-phase metal ions and guides the epitaxial growth of nanosheets. It is thus named adaptive ionic layer epitaxy (AILE). The electronic properties of ZnO nanosheets and AILE of other materials are also investigated.

  16. Single-walled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Partha P.; Gilshteyn, Evgenia; Jiang, Hua; Timmermans, Marina; Kaskela, Antti; Tolochko, Oleg V.; Kurochkin, Alexey V.; Karppinen, Maarit; Nisula, Mikko; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Nasibulin, Albert G.

    2016-12-01

    The possibility of ZnO deposition on the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the help of an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was successfully demonstrated. The utilization of pristine SWCNTs as a support resulted in a non-uniform deposition of ZnO in the form of nanoparticles. To achieve uniform ZnO coating, the SWCNTs first needed to be functionalized by treating the samples in a controlled ozone atmosphere. The uniformly ZnO coated SWCNTs were used to fabricate UV sensing devices. An UV irradiation of the ZnO coated samples turned them from hydrophobic to hydrophilic behaviour. Furthermore, thin films of the ZnO coated SWCNTs allowed us switch p-type field effect transistors made of pristine SWCNTs to have ambipolar characteristics.

  17. Single-walled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Pal, Partha P; Gilshteyn, Evgenia; Jiang, Hua; Timmermans, Marina; Kaskela, Antti; Tolochko, Oleg V; Karppinen, Maarit; Nisula, Mikko; Kauppinen, Esko I; Nasibulin, Albert G

    2016-12-02

    The possibility of ZnO deposition on the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the help of an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was successfully demonstrated. The utilization of pristine SWCNTs as a support resulted in a non-uniform deposition of ZnO in the form of nanoparticles. To achieve uniform ZnO coating, the SWCNTs first needed to be functionalized by treating the samples in a controlled ozone atmosphere. The uniformly ZnO coated SWCNTs were used to fabricate UV sensing devices. An UV irradiation of the ZnO coated samples turned them from hydrophobic to hydrophilic behaviour. Furthermore, thin films of the ZnO coated SWCNTs allowed us switch p-type field effect transistors made of pristine SWCNTs to have ambipolar characteristics.

  18. A single crystalline porphyrinic titanium metal–organic framework

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Shuai; Liu, Tian -Fu; Feng, Dawei; ...

    2015-04-28

    We successfully assembled the photocatalytic titanium-oxo cluster and photosensitizing porphyrinic linker into a metal–organic framework (MOF), namely PCN-22. A preformed titanium-oxo carboxylate cluster is adopted as the starting material to judiciously control the MOF growth process to afford single crystals. This synthetic method is useful to obtain highly crystalline titanium MOFs, which has been a daunting challenge in this field. Moreover, PCN-22 demonstrated permanent porosity and photocatalytic activities toward alcohol oxidation.

  19. Single-crystalline germanium nanomembrane photodetectors on foreign nanocavities

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Zhenyang; Song, Haomin; Kim, Munho; ...

    2017-07-07

    Miniaturization of optoelectronic devices offers tremendous performance gain. As the volume of photoactive material decreases, optoelectronic performance improves, including the operation speed, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the internal quantum efficiency. Over the past decades, researchers have managed to reduce the volume of photoactive materials in solar cells and photodetectors by orders of magnitude. However, two issues arise when one continues to thin down the photoactive layers to the nanometer scale (for example, <50 nm). First, light-matter interaction becomes weak, resulting in incomplete photon absorption and low quantum efficiency. Second, it is difficult to obtain ultrathin materials with single-crystalline quality. Wemore » introduce a method to overcome these two challenges simultaneously. It uses conventional bulk semiconductor wafers, such as Si, Ge, and GaAs, to realize single-crystalline films on foreign substrates that are designed for enhanced light-matter interaction. We use a high-yield and high-throughput method to demonstrate nanometer-thin photodetectors with significantly enhanced light absorption based on nanocavity interference mechanism. As a result, these single-crystalline nanomembrane photodetectors also exhibit unique optoelectronic properties, such as the strong field effect and spectral selectivity.« less

  20. STM, SECPM, AFM and Electrochemistry on Single Crystalline Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wolfschmidt, Holger; Baier, Claudia; Gsell, Stefan; Fischer, Martin; Schreck, Matthias; Stimming, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques have had a great impact on research fields of surface science and nanotechnology during the last decades. They are used to investigate surfaces with scanning ranges between several 100 μm down to atomic resolution. Depending on experimental conditions, and the interaction forces between probe and sample, different SPM techniques allow mapping of different surface properties. In this work, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in air and under electrochemical conditions (EC-STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air and scanning electrochemical potential microscopy (SECPM) under electrochemical conditions, were used to study different single crystalline surfaces in electrochemistry. Especially SECPM offers potentially new insights into the solid-liquid interface by providing the possibility to image the potential distribution of the surface, with a resolution that is comparable to STM. In electrocatalysis, nanostructured catalysts supported on different electrode materials often show behavior different from their bulk electrodes. This was experimentally and theoretically shown for several combinations and recently on Pt on Au(111) towards fuel cell relevant reactions. For these investigations single crystals often provide accurate and well defined reference and support systems. We will show heteroepitaxially grown Ru, Ir and Rh single crystalline surface films and bulk Au single crystals with different orientations under electrochemical conditions. Image studies from all three different SPM methods will be presented and compared to electrochemical data obtained by cyclic voltammetry in acidic media. The quality of the single crystalline supports will be verified by the SPM images and the cyclic voltammograms. Furthermore, an outlook will be presented on how such supports can be used in electrocatalytic studies. PMID:28883327

  1. Single-Crystal Material on Non-Single-Crystalline Substrate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    point frit or solder glass can be deposited on a surface and bonded to a second surface using pressure and temperature. A sodium silicate material...interface. A metal or silicide at the bonding interface may be advantageous fQr electrical current conduction across the interface. 10 Applications...substrate, or a silicide or metal to aid bonding and vertical electrical current conduction. In some cases, it is difficult to polish the non- single

  2. Planar-integrated single-crystalline perovskite photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Adinolfi, Valerio; Comin, Riccardo; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Yuan, Mingjian; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid perovskites are promising semiconductors for optoelectronic applications. However, they suffer from morphological disorder that limits their optoelectronic properties and, ultimately, device performance. Recently, perovskite single crystals have been shown to overcome this problem and exhibit impressive improvements: low trap density, low intrinsic carrier concentration, high mobility, and long diffusion length that outperform perovskite-based thin films. These characteristics make the material ideal for realizing photodetection that is simultaneously fast and sensitive; unfortunately, these macroscopic single crystals cannot be grown on a planar substrate, curtailing their potential for optoelectronic integration. Here we produce large-area planar-integrated films made up of large perovskite single crystals. These crystalline films exhibit mobility and diffusion length comparable with those of single crystals. Using this technique, we produced a high-performance light detector showing high gain (above 104 electrons per photon) and high gain-bandwidth product (above 108 Hz) relative to other perovskite-based optical sensors. PMID:26548941

  3. A single molecule study of cellulase hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-San; Luo, Yonghua; Baker, John O.; Zeng, Yining; Himmel, Michael E.; Smith, Steve; Ding, Shi-You

    2010-02-01

    Cellobiohydrolase-I (CBH I), a processive exoglucanase secreted by Trichoderma reesei, is one of the key enzyme components in a commercial cellulase mixture currently used for processing biomass to biofuels. CBH I contains a family 7 glycoside hydrolase catalytic module, a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), and a highlyglycosylated linker peptide. It has been proposed that the CBH I cellulase initiates the hydrolysis from the reducing end of one cellulose chain and successively cleaves alternate β-1,4-glycosidic bonds to release cellobiose as its principal end product. The role each module of CBH I plays in the processive hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose has yet to be convincingly elucidated. In this report, we use a single-molecule approach that combines optical (Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence microscopy, or TIRF-M) and non-optical (Atomic Force Microscopy, or AFM) imaging techniques to analyze the molecular motion of CBM tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP), and to investigate the surface structure of crystalline cellulose and changes made in the structure by CBM and CBH I. The preliminary results have revealed a confined nanometer-scale movement of the TrCBM1-GFP bound to cellulose, and decreases in cellulose crystal size as well as increases in surface roughness during CBH I hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose.

  4. Subsurface damage in some single crystalline optical materials.

    PubMed

    Randi, Joseph A; Lambropoulos, John C; Jacobs, Stephen D

    2005-04-20

    We present a nondestructive method for estimating the depth of subsurface damage (SSD) in some single crystalline optical materials (silicon, lithium niobate, calcium fluoride, magnesium fluoride, and sapphire); the method is established by correlating surface microroughness measurements, specifically, the peak-to-valley (p-v) microroughness, to the depth of SSD found by a novel destructive method. Previous methods for directly determining the depth of SSD may be insufficient when applied to single crystals that are very soft or very hard. Our novel destructive technique uses magnetorheological finishing to polish spots onto a ground surface. We find that p-v surface microroughness, appropriately scaled, gives an upper bound to SSD. Our data suggest that SSD in the single crystalline optical materials included in our study (deterministically microground, lapped, and sawed) is always less than 1.4 times the p-v surface microroughness found by white-light interferometry. We also discuss another way of estimating SSD based on the abrasive size used.

  5. Single and couple doping ZnO nanocrystals characterized by positron techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasang, Tenzin; Namratha, Keerthiraj; Guagliardo, Paul; Byrappa, Kullaiah; Ranganathaiah, Chikkakuntappa; Samarin, S.; Williams, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals have been synthesized using a mild hydrothermal process using low temperatures and pressures with the advantages of free growth catalyst, low cost and alternative technology. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) spectroscopic methods have been used to investigate the roles of single- and co-dopants and native defects of the ZnO nanocrystals controlled by the synthesis process. It is shown that single Ag1+ and Pd2+ dopants occupy interstitial sites of the ZnO lattice and single Ru3+ doping replaces Zn vacancies substitutionally with a significant effect on the CDB momentum ratio curves when compared using ZnO as the reference spectrum. The co-doping of the ZnO lattice with (Sn4+ + Co2+) shows similar CDB ratios as Ru3+ single-doping. Also co-doping with (Ag1+ + Pd2+) or (Ag1+ + W6+) shows significant decreases in the band gap energy up to about 12.6% compared to single doping. The momentum ratio curves, referenced to undoped ZnO, indicate dopants in interstitial and substitutional sites. The presence of transition metal ions interstitially will trap electrons which resist the recombination of electrons and in turn affect the conductivity of the material.

  6. Atomically flat single-crystalline gold nanostructures for plasmonic nanocircuitry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jer-Shing; Callegari, Victor; Geisler, Peter; Brüning, Christoph; Kern, Johannes; Prangsma, Jord C; Wu, Xiaofei; Feichtner, Thorsten; Ziegler, Johannes; Weinmann, Pia; Kamp, Martin; Forchel, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Sennhauser, Urs; Hecht, Bert

    2010-01-01

    Deep subwavelength integration of high-definition plasmonic nanostructures is of key importance in the development of future optical nanocircuitry for high-speed communication, quantum computation and lab-on-a-chip applications. To date, the experimental realization of proposed extended plasmonic networks consisting of multiple functional elements remains challenging, mainly because of the multi-crystallinity of commonly used thermally evaporated gold layers. This can produce structural imperfections in individual circuit elements that drastically reduce the yield of functional integrated nanocircuits. In this paper we demonstrate the use of large (>100 μm(2)) but thin (<80 nm) chemically grown single-crystalline gold flakes that, after immobilization, serve as an ideal basis for focused ion beam milling and other top-down nanofabrication techniques on any desired substrate. Using this methodology we obtain high-definition ultrasmooth gold nanostructures with superior optical properties and reproducible nano-sized features over micrometre-length scales. Our approach provides a possible solution to overcome the current fabrication bottleneck and realize high-definition plasmonic nanocircuitry.

  7. Method for forming single phase, single crystalline 2122 BCSCO superconductor thin films by liquid phase epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Raghvendra K. (Inventor); Raina, Kanwal (Inventor); Solayappan, Narayanan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A substantially single phase, single crystalline, highly epitaxial film of Bi.sub.2 CaSr.sub.2 Cu.sub.2 O.sub.8 superconductor which has a T.sub.c (zero resistance) of 83 K is provided on a lattice-matched substrate with no intergrowth. This film is produced by a Liquid Phase Epitaxy method which includes the steps of forming a dilute supercooled molten solution of a single phase superconducting mixture of oxides of Bi, Ca, Sr, and Cu having an atomic ratio of about 2:1:2:2 in a nonreactive flux such as KCl, introducing the substrate, e.g., NdGaO.sub.3, into the molten solution at 850.degree. C., cooling the solution from 850.degree. C. to 830.degree. C. to grow the film and rapidly cooling the substrate to room temperature to maintain the desired single phase, single crystalline film structure.

  8. Single crystalline wurtzite ZnO/zinc blende ZnS coaxial heterojunctions and hollow zinc blende ZnS nanotubes: synthesis, structural characterization and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xing; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Fan, Hua; Xie, Zai-lai; Wang, Lei; Klein-Hoffmann, Achim; Girgsdies, Frank; Lee, Chun-Sing; Meng, Xiang-Min

    2014-08-07

    Synthesis of ZnO/ZnS heterostructures under thermodynamic conditions generally results in the wurtzite (WZ) structure of the ZnS component because its WZ phase is thermodynamically more stable than its zinc blende (ZB) phase. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of ZnO/ZnS coaxial nanocables composed of single crystalline ZB structured ZnS epitaxially grown on WZ ZnO via a two-step thermal evaporation method. The deposition temperature is believed to play a crucial role in determining the crystalline phase of ZnS. Through a systematic structural analysis, the ZnO core and the ZnS shell are found to have an orientation relationship of (0002)ZnO(WZ)//(002)ZnS(ZB) and [01-10]ZnO(WZ)//[2-20]ZnS(ZB). Observation of the coaxial nanocables in cross-section reveals the formation of voids between the ZnO core and the ZnS shell during the coating process, which is probably associated with the nanoscale Kirkendall effect known to result in porosity. Furthermore, by immersing the ZnO/ZnS nanocable heterojunctions in an acetic acid solution to etch away the inner ZnO cores, single crystalline ZnS nanotubes orientated along the [001] direction of the ZB structure were also achieved for the first time. Finally, optical properties of the hollow ZnS tubes were investigated and discussed in detail. We believe that our study could provide some insights into the controlled fabrication of one dimensional (1D) semiconductors with desired morphology, structure and composition at the nanoscale, and the synthesized WZ ZnO/ZB ZnS nanocables as well as ZB ZnS nanotubes could be ideal candidates for the study of optoelectronics based on II-VI semiconductors.

  9. ZnO nanoflowers with single crystal structure towards enhanced gas sensing and photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Chen, Hsueh-Shih; Matras-Postolek, Katarzyna; Yang, Ping

    2015-11-11

    In this paper, ZnO nanoflowers (NFs) were fabricated by thermal decomposition in an organic solvent and their application in gas sensors and photocatalysis was investigated. These single crystal ZnO NFs, which were observed for the first time, with an average size of ∼60 nm and were grown along the {100} facet. It was suggested that oleylamine used in the synthesis inhibited the growth and agglomeration of ZnO through the coordination of the oleylamine N atoms. The NFs exhibited excellent selectivity to acetone with a concentration of 25 ppm at 300 °C because they had a high specific surface area that provided more active sites and the surface adsorbed oxygen species for interaction with acetone. In addition, the ZnO NFs showed enhanced gas sensing response which was also ascribed to abundant oxygen vacancies at the junctions between petals of the NFs. Furthermore, ZnO-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were fabricated by loading the ZnO NFs on the surface of the stratiform RGO sheet. In the photodegradation of rhodamine B tests, the composite revealed an enhanced photocatalytic performance compared with ZnO NFs under UV light irradiation.

  10. Single crystalline thin films as a novel class of electrocatalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Snyder, Joshua; Markovic, Nenad; Stamenkovic, Vojislav

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous use of single crystal metal electrodes has garnered invaluable insight into the relationship between surface atomic structure and functional electrochemical properties. But, the sensitivity of their electrochemical response to surface orientation and the amount of precious metal required can limit their use. We present here a generally applicable procedure for producing thin metal films with a large proportion of atomically flat (111) terraces without the use of an epitaxial template. Thermal annealing in a controlled atmosphere induces long-range ordering of magnetron sputtered thin metal films deposited on an amorphous substrate. The ordering transition in these thin metal filmsmore » yields characteristic (111) electrochemical signatures with minimal amount of material and provides an adequate replacement for oriented bulk single crystals. Our procedure can be generalized towards a novel class of practical multimetallic thin film based electrocatalysts with tunable near-surface compositional profile and morphology. Annealing of atomically corrugated sputtered thin film Pt-alloy catalysts yields an atomically smooth structure with highly crystalline, (111)-like ordered and Pt segregated surface that displays superior functional properties, bridging the gap between extended/bulk surfaces and nanoscale systems.« less

  11. Photoelectrochemical Stability and Alteration Products of n-Type Single-Crystal ZnO Photoanodes

    DOE PAGES

    Paulauskas, I. E.; Jellison, G. E.; Boatner, L. A.; ...

    2011-01-01

    The photoelectrochemical stability and surface-alteration characteristics of doped and undoped n-type ZnO single-crystal photoanode electrodes were investigated. The single-crystal ZnO photoanode properties were analyzed using current-voltage measurements plus spectral and time-dependent quantum-yield methods. These measurements revealed a distinct anodic peak and an accompanying cathodic surface degradation process at negative potentials. The features of this peak depended on time and the NaOH concentration in the electrolyte, but were independent of the presence of electrode illumination. Current measurements performed at the peak indicate that charging and discharging effects are apparently taking place at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. This result is consistent with themore » significant reactive degradation that takes place on the ZnO single crystal photoanode surface and that ultimately leads to the reduction of the ZnO surface to Zn metal. The resulting Zn-metal reaction products create unusual, dendrite-like, surface alteration structural features that were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. ZnO doping methods were found to be effective in increasing the n-type character of the crystals. Higher doping levels result in smaller depletion widths and lower quantum yields, since the minority carrier diffusion lengths are very short in these materials.« less

  12. Single Mode ZnO Whispering-Gallery Submicron Cavity and Graphene Improved Lasing Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Jitao; Lin, Yi; Lu, Junfeng; Xu, Chunxiang; Wang, Yueyue; Shi, Zengliang; Dai, Jun

    2015-07-28

    Single-mode ultraviolet (UV) laser of ZnO is still in challenge so far, although it has been paid great attention along the past decades. In this work, single-mode lasing resonance was realized in a submicron-sized ZnO rod based on serially varying the dimension of the whispering-gallery mode (WGM) cavities. The lasing performance, such as the lasing quality factor (Q) and the lasing intensity, was remarkably improved by facilely covering monolayer graphene on the ZnO submicron-rod. The mode structure evolution from multimodes to single-mode was investigated systematically based on the total internal-wall reflection of the ZnO microcavities. Graphene-induced optical field confinement and lasing emission enhancement were revealed, indicating an energy coupling between graphene SP and ZnO exciton emission. This result demonstrated the response of graphene in the UV wavelength region and extended its potential applications besides many previous reports on the multifunctional graphene/semiconductor hybrid materials and devices in advanced electronics and optoelectronics areas.

  13. Unveiling the Formation Pathway of Single Crystalline Porous Silicon Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xing; Qu, Yongquan; Lin, Yung-Chen; Liao, Lei; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    Porous silicon nanowire is emerging as an interesting material system due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, electronic, and optical properties. To fully understand their formation mechanism is of great importance for controlling the fundamental physical properties and enabling potential applications. Here we present a systematic study to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the formation of porous silicon nanowires in a two-step silver-assisted electroless chemical etching method. It is shown that silicon nanowire arrays with various porosities can be prepared by varying multiple experimental parameters such as the resistivity of the starting silicon wafer, the concentration of oxidant (H2O2) and the amount of silver catalyst. Our study shows a consistent trend that the porosity increases with the increasing wafer conductivity (dopant concentration) and oxidant (H2O2) concentration. We further demonstrate that silver ions, formed by the oxidation of silver, can diffuse upwards and re-nucleate on the sidewalls of nanowires to initiate new etching pathways to produce porous structure. The elucidation of this fundamental formation mechanism opens a rational pathway to the production of wafer-scale single crystalline porous silicon nanowires with tunable surface areas ranging from 370 m2·g−1 to 30 m2·g−1, and can enable exciting opportunities in catalysis, energy harvesting, conversion, storage, as well as biomedical imaging and therapy. PMID:21244020

  14. Development of novel UV emitting single crystalline film scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu; Gorbenko, V.; Savchyn, V.; Voznyak, T.; Nikl, M.; Mares, J. A.; Martin, T.; Douissard, P.-A.

    2011-04-01

    The work is dedicated to development of new types of UV -emitting scintillators based on single crystalline films (SCF) of aluminimum perovskites and garnets grown by the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method. The development of the following three types of UV SCF scintillators is considered in this work: i) Ce-doped SCF of Y-Lu-Al-perovskites with Ce3+ emission in the 360-370 nm range with a decay time of 16-17 ns; ii) Pr-doped SCF of Y-Lu-Al garnets with Pr3+ emission in the 300-400 nm range with a decay time of 13-17 ns; iii) La3+ and Sc3+ doped SCF of Y-Lu-Al-garnets, emitting in the 290-400 nm range due to formation of the LaY,Lu, ScY,Lu and ScAl centers with decay time of 250-575 ns. The results of testing the several novel UV-emitting SCFs scintillators for visualization of X-ray images at ESFR are presented. It is shown that the UV emission of the LuAG:Sc, LuAG:La and LuAG:Pr SCFs is efficient enough for conversion of X-ray to the UV light and that these scintillators can be used for improvement of the resolution of imaging detectors in synchrotron radiation applications.

  15. Ion beam modification of single crystalline BiVO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Elke; Bischoff, Marie; Schmidt, Emanuel; Schrempel, F.; Ellmer, Klaus; Kanis, Michael; van de Krol, Roel

    2017-10-01

    A single crystalline BiVO4 sample was investigated. Angular resolved Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (arRBS) was performed as a function of two orthogonal angles perpendicular to the surface. The crystal planes appearing in the angular charts are compared with the crystal structure of monoclinic BiVO4. By this comparison the crystal axis being almost normal to the surface was identified to be 〈0 0 1〉. These measurements support the control of orientation and quality of the grown BiVO4 crystal. Additionally it is found that during prolonged analysis the He ions produce a considerable amount of damage. As the nuclear energy loss of the He ions is negligibly low within the corresponding depth region, the damage is mainly caused by the electronic energy loss of the ions. For studying radiation resistance and damage formation, the BiVO4 single crystal was implanted with 200 keV Ar ions. The damage production in the Bi sublattice was analysed by RBS applying 1.8 MeV He ions in channelling configuration. The damage profiles determined from the channelling RBS spectra can be well represented by the electronic energy loss of the implanted Ar ions. From this it is concluded that, in agreement with the finding mentioned above, this energy mainly triggers damage formation in ion irradiated BiVO4. The energy for producing one displaced Bi atom as seen by RBS decreases with increasing damage concentration and varies between 33 and 3.4 eV.

  16. Mesoporous single-crystal ZnO nanobelts: supported preparation and patterning.

    PubMed

    Nasi, Lucia; Calestani, Davide; Fabbri, Filippo; Ferro, Patrizia; Besagni, Tullo; Fedeli, Paolo; Licci, Francesca; Mosca, Roberto

    2013-02-07

    We demonstrate that highly porous ZnO nanobelts can be prepared by thermally decomposing ZnS(en)(0.5) hybrid nanobelts (NBs) synthesized through a solvothermal route using Zn layers deposited on alumina substrates as both the Zn substrate and source. Hybrid decomposition by thermal annealing at 400 °C gives porous ZnS NBs that are transformed by further annealing at 600 °C into wurtzite single crystal ZnO nanobelts with an axial direction of [0001]. The evolution of the morphological and structural transformation ZnS(en)(0.5)→ ZnS → ZnO is investigated at the nanoscale by transmission and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Control of the ZnO NB distributions by patterning the Zn metallization on alumina is achieved as a consequence of the parent hybrid NB patterned growth. The presence of NBs on alumina in a ∼100 μm wide region between Zn stripes allows us to fabricate two contact devices where contact pads are electrically connected through a porous ZnO NB entanglement. Such devices are suitable for employment in photodetectors as well as in gas and humidity sensors.

  17. Origin of the defects-induced ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Peng; Xie, Zheng; Li, Zhengcao; Wang, Weipeng; Zhang, Zhengjun; Li, Zhuoxin; Cheng, Guodong; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Baoyi; Cao, Xingzhong

    2013-02-01

    We clarified, in this Letter, that in un-doped ZnO single crystals after thermal annealing in flowing argon, the defects-induced room-temperature ferromagnetism was originated from the surface defects and specifically, from singly occupied oxygen vacancies denoted as F+, by the optical and electrical properties measurements as well as positron annihilation analysis. In addition, a positive linear relationship was observed between the ferromagnetism and the F+ concentration, which is in support with the above clarification.

  18. High-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Sn-doped ZnO single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, E. Senthil; Mohammadbeigi, F.; Boatner, Lynn A.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Here, Group IV donors in ZnO are poorly understood, despite evidence that they are effective n-dopants. We present high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy studies of unintentionally doped and Sn doped ZnO single crystals grown by the chemical vapor transport method. Doped samples showed greatly increased emission from the I10 bound exciton transition which was recently proven to be related to the incorporation of Sn impurities based on radio-isotope studies. PL linewidths are exceptionally sharp for these samples, enabling clear identification of several donor species. Temperature dependent PL measurements of the I10 line emission energy and intensity dependence reveal a behavior similar tomore » other shallow donors in ZnO. Ionized donor bound exciton and two electron satellite transitions of the I10 transition are unambiguously identified and yield a donor binding energy of 71 meV. In contrast to recent reports of Ge-related donors in ZnO, the spectroscopic binding energy for the Sn-related donor bound exciton follows a linear relationship with donor binding energy (Haynes rule), confirming the shallow nature of this defect center, which we attribute to a SnZn double donor compensated by an unknown single acceptor.« less

  19. Synthesis of uniformly distributed single- and double-sided zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocombs

    SciTech Connect

    Altintas Yildirim, Ozlem; Liu, Yuzi; Petford-Long, Amanda K.

    Uniformly distributed single- and double-sided zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomb structures have been prepared by a vapor-liquid-solid technique from a mixture of ZnO nanoparticles and graphene nanoplatelets. The ZnO seed nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple precipitation method. The structure of the ZnO nanocombs could easily be controlled by tuning the carrier-gas flow rate during growth. Higher flow rate resulted in the formation of uniformly-distributed single-sided comb structures with nanonail-shaped teeth, as a result of the self-catalysis effect of the catalytically active Zn-terminated polar (0001) surface. Lower gas flow rate was favorable for production of double-sided comb structures with the twomore » sets of teeth at an angle of similar to 110 degrees to each other along the comb ribbon, which was attributed to the formation of a bicrystal nanocomb ribbon. Lastly, the formation of such a double-sided structure with nanonail-shaped teeth has not previously been reported.« less

  20. Synthesis of uniformly distributed single- and double-sided zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocombs

    DOE PAGES

    Altintas Yildirim, Ozlem; Liu, Yuzi; Petford-Long, Amanda K.

    2015-08-21

    Uniformly distributed single- and double-sided zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomb structures have been prepared by a vapor-liquid-solid technique from a mixture of ZnO nanoparticles and graphene nanoplatelets. The ZnO seed nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple precipitation method. The structure of the ZnO nanocombs could easily be controlled by tuning the carrier-gas flow rate during growth. Higher flow rate resulted in the formation of uniformly-distributed single-sided comb structures with nanonail-shaped teeth, as a result of the self-catalysis effect of the catalytically active Zn-terminated polar (0001) surface. Lower gas flow rate was favorable for production of double-sided comb structures with the twomore » sets of teeth at an angle of similar to 110 degrees to each other along the comb ribbon, which was attributed to the formation of a bicrystal nanocomb ribbon. Lastly, the formation of such a double-sided structure with nanonail-shaped teeth has not previously been reported.« less

  1. Nonequilibrium Synthesis of Highly Porous Single-Crystalline Oxide Nanostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Dongkyu; Gao, Xiang; Fan, Lisha; ...

    2017-01-20

    A novel synthesis route to the formation of vertically aligned single–crystalline oxide nanostructures is found by precisely controlling the nonequilibrium pulsed laser deposition process. Here, the columnar nanostructures with deep crevices offering a large surface area are generated owing to the diffusion limited geometric shadowing effect.

  2. Solution-grown organic single-crystalline p-n junctions with ambipolar charge transport.

    PubMed

    Fan, Congcheng; Zoombelt, Arjan P; Jiang, Hao; Fu, Weifei; Wu, Jiake; Yuan, Wentao; Wang, Yong; Li, Hanying; Chen, Hongzheng; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-10-25

    Organic single-crystalline p-n junctions are grown from mixed solutions. First, C60 crystals (n-type) form and, subsequently, C8-BTBT crystals (p-type) nucleate heterogeneously on the C60 crystals. Both crystals continue to grow simultaneously into single-crystalline p-n junctions that exhibit ambipolar charge transport characteristics. This work provides a platform to study organic single-crystalline p-n junctions. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays: Dependence of morphology and alignment on growth conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Azzez, Shrook A., E-mail: shurouq44@yahoo.com; Hassan, Z.; Alimanesh, M.

    Highly oriented zinc oxide nanorod were successfully grown on seeded p-type silicon substrate by hydrothermal methode. The morphology and the crystallinty of ZnO c-axis (002) arrays were systematically studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The effect of seed layer pre-annealing on nanorods properties was explained according to the nucleation site of ZnO nanoparticles on silicon substrate. In addition, the variation of the equal molarity of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamine concentrations in the reaction vessel play a crucial role related to the ZnO nanorods.

  4. Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic investigation on a H+ irradiated ZnO single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sanyal, D.; Bhowmick, D.; Dechoudhury, S.; Chakrabarti, A.; Rakshit, Tamita; Ray, S. K.

    2012-08-01

    Low temperature photoluminescence and room temperature positron annihilation spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the defects incorporated by 6 MeV H+ ions in a hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystal. Prior to irradiation, the emission from donor bound excitons is at 3.378 eV (10 K). The irradiation creates an intense and narrow emission at 3.368 eV (10 K). The intensity of this peak is nearly four times that of the dominant near band edge peak of the pristine crystal. The characteristic features of the 3.368 eV emission indicate its origin as a ‘hydrogen at oxygen vacancy’ type defect. The positron annihilation lifetime measurement reveals a single component lifetime spectrum for both the unirradiated (164 ± 1 ps) and irradiated crystal (175 ± 1 ps). It reflects the fact that the positron lifetime and intensity of the new irradiation driven defect species are a little higher compared to those in the unirradiated crystal. However, the estimated defect concentration, even considering the high dynamic defect annihilation rate in ZnO, comes out to be ˜4 × 1017 cm-3 (using SRIM software). This is a very high defect concentration compared to the defect sensitivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy. A probable reason is the partial filling of the incorporated vacancies (positron traps), which in ZnO are zinc vacancies. The positron lifetime of ˜175 ps (in irradiated ZnO) is consistent with recent theoretical calculations for partially hydrogen-filled zinc vacancies in ZnO. Passivation of oxygen vacancies by hydrogen is also reflected in the photoluminescence results. A possible reason for such vacancy filling (at both Zn and O sites) due to irradiation has also been discussed.

  5. Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic investigation on a H(+) irradiated ZnO single crystal.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sanyal, D; Bhowmick, D; Dechoudhury, S; Chakrabarti, A; Rakshit, Tamita; Ray, S K

    2012-08-15

    Low temperature photoluminescence and room temperature positron annihilation spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the defects incorporated by 6 MeV H(+) ions in a hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystal. Prior to irradiation, the emission from donor bound excitons is at 3.378 eV (10 K). The irradiation creates an intense and narrow emission at 3.368 eV (10 K). The intensity of this peak is nearly four times that of the dominant near band edge peak of the pristine crystal. The characteristic features of the 3.368 eV emission indicate its origin as a 'hydrogen at oxygen vacancy' type defect. The positron annihilation lifetime measurement reveals a single component lifetime spectrum for both the unirradiated (164 ± 1 ps) and irradiated crystal (175 ± 1 ps). It reflects the fact that the positron lifetime and intensity of the new irradiation driven defect species are a little higher compared to those in the unirradiated crystal. However, the estimated defect concentration, even considering the high dynamic defect annihilation rate in ZnO, comes out to be ∼4 × 10(17) cm(-3) (using SRIM software). This is a very high defect concentration compared to the defect sensitivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy. A probable reason is the partial filling of the incorporated vacancies (positron traps), which in ZnO are zinc vacancies. The positron lifetime of ∼175 ps (in irradiated ZnO) is consistent with recent theoretical calculations for partially hydrogen-filled zinc vacancies in ZnO. Passivation of oxygen vacancies by hydrogen is also reflected in the photoluminescence results. A possible reason for such vacancy filling (at both Zn and O sites) due to irradiation has also been discussed.

  6. Optical Field Confinement Enhanced Single ZnO Microrod UV Photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ming; Xu, Chun-Xiang; Qin, Fei-Fei; Gowri Manohari, Arumugam; Lu, Jun-Feng; Zhu, Qiu-Xiang

    2017-07-01

    ZnO microrods are synthesized using the vapor phase transport method, and the magnetron sputtering is used to decorate the Al nanoparticles (NPs) on a single ZnO microrod. The micro-PL and I-V responses are measured before and after the decoration of Al NPs. The FDTD stimulation is also carried out to demonstrate the optical field distribution around the decoration of Al NPs on the surface of a ZnO microrod. Due to an implementation of Al NPs, the ZnO microrod exhibits an improved photoresponse behavior. In addition, Al NPs induced localized surface plasmons (LSPs) as well as improved optical field confinement can be ascribed to an enhancement of ultraviolet (UV) response. This research provides a method for improving the responsivity of photodetectors. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 61475035 and 61275054, the Science and Technology Support Program of Jiangsu Province under Grant No BE2016177, and the Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology.

  7. Origins of low resistivity in Al ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2011-06-01

    The origins of low resistivity in Al ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals are studied by combining Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), photoluminescence (PL), and Van der Pauw methods. The Al-ion implantation (peak concentration: 2.6 × 1020cm-3) into ZnO is performed using a multiple-step energy. The resistivity decreases from ˜104 Ω cm for un-implanted ZnO to 1.4 × 10-1 Ω cm for as-implanted, and reaches 6.0 × 10-4 Ω cm for samples annealed at 1000 °C. RBS and NRA measurements for as-implanted ZnO suggest the existence of the lattice displacement of Zn (Zni) and O (Oi), respectively. After annealing at 1000 °C, the Zni related defects remain and the Oi related defects disappear. The origin of the low resistivity in the as-implanted sample is attributed to the Zni (˜30 meV [Look et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2552 (1999)]). In contrast, the origin of the low resistivity in the sample annealed at 1000 °C is assigned to both of the Zni related defects and the electrically activated Al donor. A new PL emission appears at around 3.32 eV after annealing at 1000 °C, suggesting electrically activated Al donors.

  8. Hydrogen-related complexes in Li-diffused ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corolewski, Caleb D.; Parmar, Narendra S.; Lynn, Kelvin G.; McCluskey, Matthew D.

    2016-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor and a potential candidate for next generation white solid state lighting applications. In this work, hydrogen-related complexes in lithium diffused ZnO single crystals were studied. In addition to the well-known Li-OH complex, several other hydrogen defects were observed. When a mixture of Li2O and ZnO is used as the dopant source, zinc vacancies are suppressed and the bulk Li concentration is very high (>1019 cm-3). In that case, the predominant hydrogen complex has a vibrational frequency of 3677 cm-1, attributed to surface O-H species. When Li2CO3 is used, a structured blue luminescence band and O-H mode at 3327 cm-1 are observed at 10 K. These observations, along with positron annihilation measurements, suggest a zinc vacancy-hydrogen complex, with an acceptor level ˜0.3 eV above the valence-band maximum. This relatively shallow acceptor could be beneficial for p-type ZnO.

  9. Neutron monochromators of BeO, MgO and ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Bashter, I. I.; Morcos, H. N.; El-Mesiry, M. S.; Mansy, M. S.

    2014-05-01

    The monochromatic features of BeO, MgO and ZnO single crystals are discussed in terms of orientation, mosaic spread, and thickness within the wavelength band from 0.05 up to 0.5 nm. A computer program MONO, written in “FORTRAN”, has been developed to carry out the required calculations. Calculation shows that a 5 mm thick MgO single crystal cut along its (2 0 0) plane having mosaic spread of 0.5° FWHM has the optimum parameters when it is used as a neutron monochromator. Moreover, at wavelengths shorter than 0.24 nm the reflected monochromatic neutrons are almost free from the higher order ones. The same features are seen with BeO (0 0 2) with less reflectivity than that of the former. Also, ZnO cut along its (0 0 2) plane is preferred over the others only at wavelengths longer than 0.20 nm. When the selected monochromatic wavelength is longer than 0.24 nm, the neutron intensities of higher orders from a thermal reactor flux are higher than those of the first-order one. For a cold reactor flux, the first order of BeO and MgO single crystals is free from the higher orders up to 0.4 nm, and ZnO at wavelengths up to 0.5 nm.

  10. Detection of quantum well induced single degenerate-transition-dipoles in ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Siddharth; Ghosh, Moumita; Seibt, Michael; Rao, G Mohan

    2016-02-07

    Quantifying and characterising atomic defects in nanocrystals is difficult and low-throughput using the existing methods such as high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In this article, using a defocused wide-field optical imaging technique, we demonstrate that a single ultrahigh-piezoelectric ZnO nanorod contains a single defect site. We model the observed dipole-emission patterns from optical imaging with a multi-dimensional dipole and find that the experimentally observed dipole pattern and model-calculated patterns are in excellent agreement. This agreement suggests the presence of vertically oriented degenerate-transition-dipoles in vertically aligned ZnO nanorods. The HRTEM of the ZnO nanorod shows the presence of a stacking fault, which generates a localised quantum well induced degenerate-transition-dipole. Finally, we elucidate that defocused wide-field imaging can be widely used to characterise defects in nanomaterials to answer many difficult questions concerning the performance of low-dimensional devices, such as in energy harvesting, advanced metal-oxide-semiconductor storage, and nanoelectromechanical and nanophotonic devices.

  11. Characterisation of irradiation-induced defects in ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, I.; Cizek, J.; Lukac, F.; Melikhova, O.; Valenta, J.; Havranek, V.; Anwand, W.; Skuratov, V. A.; Strukova, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) combined with optical methods was employed for characterisation of defects in the hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals irradiated by 167 MeV Xe26+ ions to fluences ranged from 3×1012 to 1×1014 cm-2. The positron lifetime (LT), Doppler broadening as well as slow-positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) techniques were involved. The ab-initio theoretical calculations were utilised for interpretation of LT results. The optical transmission and photoluminescence measurements were conducted, too. The virgin ZnO crystal exhibited a single component LT spectrum with a lifetime of 182 ps which is attributed to saturated positron trapping in Zn vacancies associated with hydrogen atoms unintentionally introduced into the crystal during the crystal growth. The Xe ion irradiated ZnO crystals have shown an additional component with a longer lifetime of ≈ 360 ps which comes from irradiation-induced larger defects equivalent in size to clusters of ≈10 to 12 vacancies. The concentrations of these clusters were estimated on the basis of combined LT and SPIS data. The PAS data were correlated with irradiation induced changes seen in the optical spectroscopy experiments.

  12. Abnormal temperature dependence of conductance of single Cd-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. H.; Wan, Q.; Wang, Y. G.; Wang, T. H.

    2005-06-01

    Positive temperature coefficient of resistance is observed on single Cd-doped ZnO nanowires. The current along the nanowire increases linearly with the bias and saturates at large biases. The conductance is greatly enhanced either by ultraviolet illumination or infrared illumination. However, the conductance decreases with increasing temperature, in contrast to the reported temperature behavior either for ZnO nanostructures or for CdO nanoneedles. The increase of the conductance under illumination is related to surface effect and the decrease with increasing temperature to bulk effect. These results show that Cd doping does not change surface effect but affects bulk effect. Such a bulk effect could be used to realize on-chip temperature-independent varistors.

  13. Single ZnO nanowire-PZT optothermal field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chun-Yi; Lu, Meng-Lin; Chen, Ju-Ying; Chen, Yung-Ting; Chen, Yang-Fang; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2012-09-07

    A new type of pyroelectric field effect transistor based on a composite consisting of single zinc oxide nanowire and lead zirconate titanate (ZnO NW-PZT) has been developed. Under infrared (IR) laser illumination, the transconductance of the ZnO NW can be modulated by optothermal gating. The drain current can be increased or decreased by IR illumination depending on the polarization orientation of the Pb(Zr(0.3)Ti(0.7))O(3) (PZT) substrate. Furthermore, by combining the photocurrent behavior in the UV range and the optothermal gating effect in the IR range, the wide spectrum of response of current by light offers a variety of opportunities for nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  14. The sensitivity of gas sensor based on single ZnO nanowire modulated by helium ion radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, L.; Lu, H. B.; Li, J. C.

    2007-10-22

    In this letter, we present a gas sensor using a single ZnO nanowire as a sensing unit. This ZnO nanowire-based sensor has quick and high sensitive response to H{sub 2}S in air at room temperature. It has also been found that the gas sensitivity of the ZnO nanowires could be modulated and enhanced by He{sup +} implantation at an appropriate dose. A possible explanation is given based on the modulation model of the depletion layer.

  15. Acoustically driven degradation in single crystalline silicon solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olikh, O. Ya.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of ultrasound on current-voltage characteristics of crystalline silicon solar sell was investigated experimentally. The transverse and longitudinal acoustic waves were used over a temperature range of 290-340 K. It was found that the ultrasound loading leads to the reversible decrease in the photogenerated current, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, carrier lifetime, and shunt resistance as well as the increase in the ideality factor. The experimental results were described by using the models of coupled defect level recombination, Shockley-Read-Hall recombination, and dislocation-induced impedance. The contribution of the boron-oxygen related defects, iron-boron pairs, and oxide precipitates to both the carrier recombination and acousto-defect interaction was discussed. The experimentally observed phenomena are associated with the increase in the distance between coupled defects as well as the extension of the carrier capture coefficient of complex point defects and dislocations.

  16. Effect of growth parameters on crystallinity and properties of ZnO films grown by plasma assisted MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losurdo, M.; Giangregorio, M. M.; Sacchetti, A.; Capezzuto, P.; Bruno, G.; Malandrino, G.; Fragalà, I. L.

    2007-07-01

    Thin films of ZnO have been grown by plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (PA-MOCVD) using a 13.56 MHz O 2 plasma and the Zn(TTA)•tmed (HTTA=2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone, TMED=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylendiamine) precursor. The effects of growth parameters such as the plasma activation, the substrate, the surface temperature, and the ratio of fluxes of precursors on the structure, morphology, and optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films have been studied. Under a very low plasma power of 20 W, c-axis oriented hexagonal ZnO thin films are grown on hexagonal sapphire (0001), cubic Si(001) and amorphous quartz substrates. The substrate temperature mainly controls grain size.

  17. Cd-doped ZnO nano crystalline thin films prepared at 723K by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joishy, Sumanth; Rajendra B., V.

    2018-04-01

    Ternary Zn1-xCdxO(x=0.10, 0.40, 0.70 at.%) thin films of 0.025M precursor concentration have been successfully deposited on preheated (723K) glass substrates using spray pyrolysis route. The structure, morphology and optical properties of deposited films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. X-ray diffraction study shows that the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature. 10% Cd doped ZnO film belongs to the hexagonal wurtzite system and 70% Cd doped ZnO film belongs to the cubic system, although mixed phases were formed for 40% Cd doped ZnO film. The optical transmittance spectra has shown red shift with increasing cadmium content. Optical energy band gap has been reduced with cadmium dopant.

  18. "Silicon millefeuille": From a silicon wafer to multiple thin crystalline films in a single step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, David; Trifonov, Trifon; Garín, Moisés; Alcubilla, Ramon

    2013-04-01

    During the last years, many techniques have been developed to obtain thin crystalline films from commercial silicon ingots. Large market applications are foreseen in the photovoltaic field, where important cost reductions are predicted, and also in advanced microelectronics technologies as three-dimensional integration, system on foil, or silicon interposers [Dross et al., Prog. Photovoltaics 20, 770-784 (2012); R. Brendel, Thin Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany 2003); J. N. Burghartz, Ultra-Thin Chip Technology and Applications (Springer Science + Business Media, NY, USA, 2010)]. Existing methods produce "one at a time" silicon layers, once one thin film is obtained, the complete process is repeated to obtain the next layer. Here, we describe a technology that, from a single crystalline silicon wafer, produces a large number of crystalline films with controlled thickness in a single technological step.

  19. Positioning and joining of organic single-crystalline wires

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuchen; Feng, Jiangang; Jiang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Xuedong; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Organic single-crystal, one-dimensional materials can effectively carry charges and/or excitons due to their highly ordered molecule packing, minimized defects and eliminated grain boundaries. Controlling the alignment/position of organic single-crystal one-dimensional architectures would allow on-demand photon/electron transport, which is a prerequisite in waveguides and other optoelectronic applications. Here we report a guided physical vapour transport technique to control the growth, alignment and positioning of organic single-crystal wires with the guidance of pillar-structured substrates. Submicrometre-wide, hundreds of micrometres long, highly aligned, organic single-crystal wire arrays are generated. Furthermore, these organic single-crystal wires can be joined within controlled angles by varying the pillar geometries. Owing to the controllable growth of organic single-crystal one-dimensional architectures, we can present proof-of-principle demonstrations utilizing joined wires to allow optical waveguide through small radii of curvature (internal angles of ~90–120°). Our methodology may open a route to control the growth of organic single-crystal one-dimensional materials with potential applications in optoelectronics. PMID:25814032

  20. Hydrogen-related complexes in Li-diffused ZnO single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Corolewski, Caleb D.; Parmar, Narendra S.; Lynn, Kelvin G.; ...

    2016-07-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor and a potential candidate for next generation white solid state lighting applications. In this work, hydrogen-related complexes in lithium diffused ZnO single crystals were studied. In addition to the well-known Li-OH complex, several other hydrogen defects were observed. When a mixture of Li 2O and ZnO is used as the dopant source, zinc vacancies are suppressed and the bulk Li concentration is very high (>10 19 cm -3). In that case, the predominant hydrogen complex has a vibrational frequency of 3677 cm -1, attributed to surface O-H species. When Li 2COmore » 3 is used, a structured blue luminescence band and O-H mode at 3327 cm -1 are observed at 10K. These observations, along with positron annihilation measurements, suggest a zinc vacancy–hydrogen complex, with an acceptor level 0.3 eV above the valence-band maximum. In conclusion, this relatively shallow acceptor could be beneficial for p-type ZnO.« less

  1. Defect studies of ZnO single crystals electrochemically doped with hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čížek, J.; Žaludová, N.; Vlach, M.; Daniš, S.; Kuriplach, J.; Procházka, I.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Grambole, D.; Skorupa, W.; Gemma, R.; Kirchheim, R.; Pundt, A.

    2008-03-01

    Various defect studies of hydrothermally grown (0001) oriented ZnO crystals electrochemically doped with hydrogen are presented. The hydrogen content in the crystals is determined by nuclear reaction analysis and it is found that already 0.3at.% H exists in chemically bound form in the virgin ZnO crystals. A single positron lifetime of 182ps is detected in the virgin crystals and attributed to saturated positron trapping at Zn vacancies surrounded by hydrogen atoms. It is demonstrated that a very high amount of hydrogen (up to ˜30at.%) can be introduced into the crystals by electrochemical doping. More than half of this amount is chemically bound, i.e., incorporated into the ZnO crystal lattice. This drastic increase of the hydrogen concentration is of marginal impact on the measured positron lifetime, whereas a contribution of positrons annihilated by electrons belonging to O-H bonds formed in the hydrogen doped crystal is found in coincidence Doppler broadening spectra. The formation of hexagonal shape pyramids on the surface of the hydrogen doped crystals by optical microscopy is observed and discussed.

  2. Single crystalline hollow metal-organic frameworks: a metal-organic polyhedron single crystal as a sacrificial template.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyehyun; Oh, Minhak; Kim, Dongwook; Park, Jeongin; Seong, Junmo; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Lah, Myoung Soo

    2015-02-28

    Single crystalline hollow metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with cavity dimensions on the order of several micrometers and hundreds of micrometers were prepared using a metal-organic polyhedron single crystal as a sacrificial hard template. The hollow nature of the MOF crystal was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy of the crystal sliced using a focused ion beam.

  3. Advanced fabrication of single-crystalline silver nanopillar on SiO{sub 2} substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Tomohiro, E-mail: tomohiro-mori@wakayama-kg.jp, E-mail: kenzo@eng.kagawa-u.ac.jp; Industrial Technology Center of Wakayama Prefecture, Ogura 60, Wakayama 649-6261; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-25

    Nanoscale crystallographic textures have received very little attention in research on surface plasmons using metallic nanostructures. A single-crystalline metallic nanostructure with a controlled crystallographic texture is expected to reduce optical losses. We elucidated the grain growth mechanism in silver thin films deposited on a highly transparent SiO{sub 2} substrate by electron backscatter diffraction methods with nanoscale resolution. At higher substrate temperatures, the grain growth was facilitated but the preferred orientation was not achieved. Moreover, we fabricated a single-crystalline silver nanopillar in a (111)-oriented large growing grain, which was controlled by varying the substrate temperature during film deposition by focused ion-beammore » milling. Furthermore, the light intensity of the scattering spectrum was measured for a single-crystalline silver nanopillar (undersurface diameter: 200 nm) for which surface plasmon resonance was observed. The single-crystalline silver nanopillar exhibits a stronger and sharper spectrum than the polycrystalline silver nanopillar. These results can be applied to the direct fabrication of a single-crystalline silver nanopillar using only physical processing.« less

  4. Formation and characterization of preferred oriented perovskite thin films on single-crystalline substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lung-Chien; Chen, Cheng-Chiang; Hsiung Chang, Sheng; Lee, Kuan-Lin; Tseng, Zong-Liang; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2018-06-01

    Three single-crystalline (Al2O3, GaN/Al2O3 and InAs) substrates are used to assist the formation of crystallographically preferred oriented CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) thin films. The estimation of the lattice mismatch at the MAPbI3/substrate interface and water-droplet contact angle experiments indicate that the formation of a preferred oriented MAPbI3 thin film is induced by the single-crystalline substrate and is insensitive to the surface wettibility of the substrate. Moreover, the experimental results suggest that the lattice mismatch at the MAPbI3/single-crystalline semiconductor interface can strongly influence the photovoltaic performance of tandem solar cells.

  5. Spatially resolved surface-related exciton polariton dynamics in a single ZnO tetrapod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fangfang; Sun, Liaoxin; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Hailong

    2018-02-01

    The band-edge emission lifetime in a single ZnO tetrapod is studied by using the time-resolved confocal micro-photoluminescence (TR- μPL) spectroscopic technique at room temperature. By performing μPL and TR- μPL mapping along the tapered arm of tetrapod, we observe whispering gallery mode (WGM) polaritons and find that the predominant radiative lifetime of exciton polaritons decreases linearly with increasing the surface-to-volume ratio of the sample. This behavior is ascribed to the surface electric field induced enhancement of the radiative decay rate of the exciton-like polaritons coupling with LO phonons.

  6. Halide-oxide carbon vapor transport of ZnO: Novel approach for unseeded growth of single crystals with controllable growth direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colibaba, G. V.

    2018-05-01

    The thermodynamic analysis of using HCl + CO gas mixture as a chemical vapor transport agent (TA) for ZnO single crystal growth in closed ampoules, including 11 chemical species, is carried out for wide temperature and loaded TA pressure ranges. The advantages of HCl + CO TA for faster and more stable growth are shown theoretically in comparison with HCl, HCl + H2 and CO. The influence of the growth temperature, of the TA density, of the HCl/CO ratio, and of the undercooling on the ZnO mass transport rate was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The HCl/CO ratios favorable for the growth of m planes and (0001)Zn surface were found. It was shown that HCl + CO TA provides: (i) a rather high growth rate (up to 1.5 mm per day); (ii) a decrease of wall adhesion effect and an etch pit density down to 103 cm-2; (iii) a minimization of growth nucleus quantity down to 1; (iv) stable unseeded growth of the high crystalline quality large single crystals with a controllable preferred growth direction. The characterization by the photoluminescence spectra, the transmission spectra and the electrical properties are analyzed.

  7. Preparation and single molecule structure of electroactive polysilane end-grafted on a crystalline silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Kazuaki; Ebata, Keisuke

    2000-12-01

    Electrically active polysilanes of poly(methylphenylsilane) (PMPS) and poly[bis(p-n-butylphenyl)silane] (PBPS), which are, respectively, known as a good hole transporting material and a near-ultraviolet electroluminescent material, are end-grafted directly on a crystalline silicon surface. The single polysilane molecules are clearly distinguished one from the other on the surface by means of atomic force microscopy observations. End-grafted single molecules of PMPS are observed as dots while end-grafted PBPS appear as worms extending for more than 100 nm on the crystalline silicon surface.

  8. Initial Growth of Single-Crystalline Nanowires: From 3D Nucleation to 2D Growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xh; Li, Gh; Sun, Gz; Dou, Xc; Li, L; Zheng, Lx

    2010-04-17

    The initial growth stage of the single-crystalline Sb and Co nanowires with preferential orientation was studied, which were synthesized in porous anodic alumina membranes by the pulsed electrodeposition technique. It was revealed that the initial growth of the nanowires is a three-dimensional nucleation process, and then gradually transforms to two-dimensional growth via progressive nucleation mechanism, which resulting in a structure transition from polycrystalline to single crystalline. The competition among the nuclei inside the nanoscaled-confined channel and the growth kinetics is responsible for the structure transition of the initial grown nanowires.

  9. Single-crystalline cubic structured InP nanosprings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, G. Z.; Bando, Y.; Zhi, C. Y.; Yuan, X. L.; Sekiguchi, T.; Golberg, D.

    2006-06-01

    Cubic structured nanosprings, InP nanosprings, have been synthesized via a simple thermochemical process using InP and ZnS as the source materials. Each InP nanospring is formed by rolling up a single InP nanobelt with the growth direction along the ⟨111⟩ orientation. The formation of these novel nanostructures is mainly attributed to the minimization of the electrostatic energy due to the polar charges on the ±(002) side surfaces of cubic InP. Cathodoluminescence properties were also studied, which reveal that the InP nanosprings have three emission bands centered at ˜736, ˜920, and ˜980nm.

  10. Single-crystalline chromium silicide nanowires and their physical properties.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Han-Fu; Tsai, Ping-Chen; Lu, Kuo-Chang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, chromium disilicide nanowires were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes on Si (100) substrates with hydrous chromium chloride (CrCl3 · 6H2O) as precursors. Processing parameters, including the temperature of Si (100) substrates and precursors, the gas flow rate, the heating time, and the different flow gas of reactions were varied and studied; additionally, the physical properties of the chromium disilicide nanowires were measured. It was found that single-crystal CrSi2 nanowires with a unique morphology were grown at 700°C, while single-crystal Cr5Si3 nanowires were grown at 750°C in reducing gas atmosphere. The crystal structure and growth direction were identified, and the growth mechanism was proposed as well. This study with magnetism, photoluminescence, and field emission measurements demonstrates that CrSi2 nanowires are attractive choices for future applications in magnetic storage, photovoltaic, and field emitters.

  11. Low-Temperature and Rapid Growth of Large Single-Crystalline Graphene with Ethane.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Lin, Li; Sun, Luzhao; Zhang, Jincan; Rui, Dingran; Li, Jiayu; Wang, Mingzhan; Tan, Congwei; Kang, Ning; Wei, Di; Xu, H Q; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-01-01

    Future applications of graphene rely highly on the production of large-area high-quality graphene, especially large single-crystalline graphene, due to the reduction of defects caused by grain boundaries. However, current large single-crystalline graphene growing methodologies are suffering from low growth rate and as a result, industrial graphene production is always confronted by high energy consumption, which is primarily caused by high growth temperature and long growth time. Herein, a new growth condition achieved via ethane being the carbon feedstock to achieve low-temperature yet rapid growth of large single-crystalline graphene is reported. Ethane condition gives a growth rate about four times faster than methane, achieving about 420 µm min -1 for the growth of sub-centimeter graphene single crystals at temperature about 1000 °C. In addition, the temperature threshold to obtain graphene using ethane can be reduced to 750 °C, lower than the general growth temperature threshold (about 1000 °C) with methane on copper foil. Meanwhile ethane always keeps higher graphene growth rate than methane under the same growth temperature. This study demonstrates that ethane is indeed a potential carbon source for efficient growth of large single-crystalline graphene, thus paves the way for graphene in high-end electronical and optoelectronical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Epitaxial layers of 2122 BCSCO superconductor thin films having single crystalline structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Raghvendra K. (Inventor); Raina, Kanwal K. (Inventor); Solayappan, Narayanan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A substantially single phase, single crystalline, highly epitaxial film of Bi.sub.2 CaSr.sub.2 Cu.sub.2 O.sub.8 superconductor which has a T.sub.c (zero resistance) of 83K is provided on a lattice-matched substrate with no intergrowth. This film is produced by a Liquid Phase Epitaxy method which includes the steps of forming a dilute supercooled molten solution of a single phase superconducting mixture of oxides of Bi, Ca, Sr, and Cu having an atomic ratio of about 2:1:2:2 in a nonreactive flux such as KCl, introducing the substrate, e.g., NdGaO.sub.3, into the molten solution at 850.degree. C., cooling the solution from 850.degree. C. to 830.degree. C. to grow the film and rapidly cooling the substrate to room temperature to maintain the desired single phase, single crystalline film structure.

  13. Laser writing of single-crystalline gold substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Astha; Sharma, Geeta; Ranjan, Neeraj; Mittholiya, Kshitij; Bhatnagar, Anuj; Singh, B. P.; Mathur, Deepak; Vasa, Parinda

    2017-07-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, a powerful contemporary tool for studying low-concentration analytes via surface plasmon induced enhancement of local electric field, is of utility in biochemistry, material science, threat detection, and environmental studies. We have developed a simple, fast, scalable, and relatively low-cost optical method of fabricating and characterizing large-area, reusable and broadband SERS substrates with long storage lifetime. We use tightly focused, intense infra-red laser pulses to write gratings on single-crystalline, Au (1 1 1) gold films on mica which act as SERS substrates. Our single-crystalline SERS substrates compare favourably, in terms of surface quality and roughness, to those fabricated in poly-crystalline Au films. Tests show that our SERS substrates have the potential of detecting urea and 1,10-phenantroline adulterants in milk and water, respectively, at 0.01 ppm (or lower) concentrations.

  14. Synthesis of Large-grain, Single-crystalline Monolayer and AB-stacking Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Luyao; Lin, Yung-Chen; Zhang, Yi; Chang, Han-Wen; Yeh, Wen-Cheng; Zhou, Chongwu; USC Nanotechnology Research Laboratory Team

    2013-03-01

    We report the growth of large-grain, single-crystalline monolayer and AB-stacking bilayer graphene by the combination of ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition and low pressure chemical vapor deposition. The shape of the monolayer graphene was modified to be either hexagons or flowers under different growth conditions. The size of the bilayer graphene region was enlarged under ambient pressure growth conditions with low methane concentration. Raman spectra and selected area electron diffraction of individual graphene grain indicated that the each graphene grain is single-crystalline. With electron beam lithography patterned PMMA seeds, graphene nucleation can be controlled and graphene monolayer and bilayer arrays were synthesized on copper foil. Electron backscatter diffraction study revealed that the graphene morphology had little correlation with the crystalline orientation of underlying copper substrate. Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

  15. Superconductivity in single crystalline YPd2Ge2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajewski, G.; Wiśniewski, P.; Hackemer, A.; Pikul, A. P.; Kaczorowski, D.

    2018-05-01

    Single crystals of the YPd2Ge2 compound, crystallizing in the body-centered tetragonal ThCr2Si2-type structure, were studied by means of low-temperature magnetization, specific heat and electrical resistivity measurements. The zero-field data confirmed bulk and intrinsic superconductivity of the compound with the critical temperature 1.14 K, while the experiments performed in magnetic fields revealed a non-trivial character of the superconducting state. In particular, low and close to each other critical fields μ0Hc1 and μ0Hc2 (of about 20-30 mT) and field-induced first-order phase transition occurring only in the field parallel to the ab plane suggest possible cross-over from the type-I to type-II/1 superconductivity. Moreover, YPd2Ge2 exhibits robust surface superconductivity with the critical field μ0Hc3 about 20 times larger than μ0Hc1 and μ0Hc2.

  16. Deformation compatibility in a single crystalline Ni superalloy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tiantian; Dunne, Fionn P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Deformation in materials is often complex and requires rigorous understanding to predict engineering component lifetime. Experimental understanding of deformation requires utilization of advanced characterization techniques, such as high spatial resolution digital image correlation (HR-DIC) and high angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD), combined with clear interpretation of their results to understand how a material has deformed. In this study, we use HR-DIC and HR-EBSD to explore the mechanical behaviour of a single-crystal nickel alloy and to highlight opportunities to understand the complete deformations state in materials. Coupling of HR-DIC and HR-EBSD enables us to precisely focus on the extent which we can access the deformation gradient, F, in its entirety and uncouple contributions from elastic deformation gradients, slip and rigid body rotations. Our results show a clear demonstration of the capabilities of these techniques, found within our experimental toolbox, to underpin fundamental mechanistic studies of deformation in polycrystalline materials and the role of microstructure. PMID:26997901

  17. Polycrystalline ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanorod arrays with variable dopant content via a template based synthesis from Zn(II) and Mn(II) Schiff base type single source molecular precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchanka, Mikhail; Hoffmann, Rudolf C.; Burghaus, Olaf; Corzilius, Björn; Cherkashinin, Gennady; Schneider, Jörg J.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and full characterisation of pure and Mn-doped polycrystalline zinc oxide nanorods with tailored dopant content are obtained via a single source molecular precursor approach using two Schiff base type coordination compounds is reported. The infiltration of precursor solutions into the cylindrical pores of a polycarbonate template and their thermal conversion into a ceramic green body followed by dissolution of the template gives the desired ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO nanomaterial as compact rods. The ZnO nanorods have a mean diameter between 170 and 180 nm or 60-70 nm, depending on the template pore size employed, comprising a length of 5-6 μm. These nanorods are composed of individual sub-5 nm ZnO nanocrystals. Exact doping of these hierarchically structured ZnO nanorods was achieved by introducing Mn(II) into the ZnO host lattice with the precursor complex Diaquo-bis[2-(meth-oxyimino)-propanoato]manganese, which allows to tailor the exact Mn(II) doping content of the ZnO rods. Investigation of the Mn-doped ZnO samples by XRD, TEM, XPS, PL and EPR, reveals that manganese occurs exclusively in its oxidation state + II and is distributed within the volume as well as on the surface of the ZnO host.

  18. Lattice-Matched Semiconductor Layers on Single Crystalline Sapphire Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang; King, Glen; Park, Yeonjoon

    2009-01-01

    SiGe is an important semiconductor alloy for high-speed field effect transistors (FETs), high-temperature thermoelectric devices, photovoltaic solar cells, and photon detectors. The growth of SiGe layer is difficult because SiGe alloys have different lattice constants from those of the common Si wafers, which leads to a high density of defects, including dislocations, micro-twins, cracks, and delaminations. This innovation utilizes newly developed rhombohedral epitaxy of cubic semiconductors on trigonal substrates in order to solve the lattice mismatch problem of SiGe by using trigonal single crystals like sapphire (Al2O3) as substrate to give a unique growth-orientation to the SiGe layer, which is automatically controlled at the interface upon sapphire (0001). This technology is different from previous silicon on insulator (SOI) or SGOI (SiGe on insulator) technologies that use amorphous SiO2 as the growth plane. A cubic semiconductor crystal is a special case of a rhombohedron with the inter-planar angle, alpha = 90 deg. With a mathematical transformation, all rhombohedrons can be described by trigonal crystal lattice structures. Therefore, all cubic lattice constants and crystal planes (hkl) s can be transformed into those of trigonal crystal parameters. These unique alignments enable a new opportunity of perfect lattice matching conditions, which can eliminate misfit dislocations. Previously, these atomic alignments were thought to be impossible or very difficult. With the invention of a new x-ray diffraction measurement method here, growth of cubic semiconductors on trigonal crystals became possible. This epitaxy and lattice-matching condition can be applied not only to SiGe (111)/sapphire (0001) substrate relations, but also to other crystal structures and other materials, including similar crystal structures which have pointgroup rotational symmetries by 120 because the cubic (111) direction has 120 rotational symmetry. The use of slightly miscut (less than

  19. Strong visible and near infrared photoluminescence from ZnO nanorods/nanowires grown on single layer graphene studied using sub-band gap excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biroju, Ravi K.; Giri, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Fabrication and optoelectronic applications of graphene based hybrid 2D-1D semiconductor nanostructures have gained tremendous research interest in recent times. Herein, we present a systematic study on the origin and evolution of strong broad band visible and near infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) from vertical ZnO nanorods (NRs) and nanowires (NWs) grown on single layer graphene using both above band gap and sub-band gap optical excitations. High resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies are carried out to reveal the morphology and crystalline quality of as-grown and annealed ZnO NRs/NWs on graphene. Room temperature PL studies reveal that besides the UV and visible PL bands, a new near-infrared (NIR) PL emission band appears in the range between 815 nm and 886 nm (1.40-1.52 eV). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed excess oxygen content and unreacted metallic Zn in the as-grown ZnO nanostructures, owing to the low temperature growth by a physical vapor deposition method. Post-growth annealing at 700 °C in the Ar gas ambient results in the enhanced intensity of both visible and NIR PL bands. On the other hand, subsequent high vacuum annealing at 700 °C results in a drastic reduction in the visible PL band and complete suppression of the NIR PL band. PL decay dynamics of green emission in Ar annealed samples show tri-exponential decay on the nanosecond timescale including a very slow decay component (time constant ˜604.5 ns). Based on these results, the NIR PL band comprising two peaks centered at ˜820 nm and ˜860 nm is tentatively assigned to neutral and negatively charged oxygen interstitial (Oi) defects in ZnO, detected experimentally for the first time. The evidence for oxygen induced trap states on the ZnO NW surface is further substantiated by the slow photocurrent response of graphene-ZnO NRs/NWs. These results are important for tunable light emission, photodetection, and other cutting edge

  20. 3D Dewetting for Crystal Patterning: Toward Regular Single-Crystalline Belt Arrays and Their Functionality.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuchen; Feng, Jiangang; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei

    2016-03-16

    Arrays of unidirectional dewetting behaviors can be generated by using 3D-wettability-difference micropillars, yielding highly ordered organic single-crystalline belt arrays. These patterned organic belts show an improved mobility record and can be used as flexible pressure sensors with high sensitivity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Effect of sputtering power on crystallinity, intrinsic defects, and optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO transparent conducting thin films for optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu Min; Li, Jung Yu; Chen, Nai Yun; Chen, Chih Yu; Han, Tai Chun; Yu, Chin Chung

    2017-02-01

    The crystallinity and intrinsic defects of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films have a high impact on their optical and electrical properties and therefore on the performance of devices incorporating such films, including flat panel displays, electro-optical devices, and solar cells. The optical and electrical properties of TCO films can be modified by tailoring their deposition parameters, which makes proper understanding of these parameters crucial. Magnetron sputtering is the most adaptable method for preparing TCO films used in industrial applications. In this study, we investigate the direct and inter-property correlation effects of sputtering power (PW) on the crystallinity, intrinsic defects, and optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) TCO films. All of the films were preferentially c-axis-oriented with a wurtzite structure and had an average transmittance of over 80% in the visible wavelength region. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed significantly increased AZO film grain sizes for PW ≥ 150 W, which may lead to increased conductivity, carrier concentration, and optical band gaps but decreased carrier mobility and in-plane compressive stress in AZO films. Photoluminescence results showed that, with increasing PW, the near band edge emission gradually dominates the defect-related emissions in which zinc interstitial (Zni), oxygen vacancy (VO), and oxygen interstitial (Oi) are possibly responsible for emissions at 3.08, 2.8, and 2.0 eV, respectively. The presence of Zni- and Oi-related emissions at PW ≥ 150 W indicates a slight increase in the presence of Al atoms substituted at Zn sites (AlZn). The presence of Oi at PW ≥ 150 W was also confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results. These results clearly show that the crystallinity and intrinsic-defect type of AZO films, which dominate their optical and electrical properties, may be controlled by PW. This understanding may facilitate the development of TCO

  2. Heteroepitaxial growth of tin-doped indium oxide films on single crystalline yttria stabilized zirconia substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, Masayuki; Yagami, Teruyuki; Takaki, Satoru; Shigesato, Yuzo

    1994-05-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film was achieved for the first time by using single crystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as substrates. The epitaxial relationship between ITO film and YSZ substrate was ITO[100]∥YSZ[100]. By comparing the electrical properties of this epitaxial ITO film with that of a randomly oriented polycrystalline ITO film grown on a glass substrate, neither the large angle grain boundaries nor the crystalline orientation were revealed to be dominant in determining the carrier mobility in ITO films.

  3. Impact of helium pressure in arc plasma synthesis on crystallinity of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Atsushi; Takeda, Keigo; Ohta, Takayuki; Ito, Masafumi; Hiramatsu, Mineo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Suzuki, Tomoko; Inoue, Sakae; Ando, Yoshinori; Hori, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were synthesized with a high growth rate by an arc plasma method employing the electrodes made from a Ni–Y mixture catalyst. In a previous study, it was reported that the monitoring of high-crystallinity SWNT growth enabled the evaluation of the results of the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) of C2, Ni, and Y. Here, the impact of helium pressure of arc plasma on the high crystallinity of SWNTs was determined by considering the high intensity ratios of catalytic metals over C2 emissions at low helium pressures in the arc plasma.

  4. Superconducting and charge density wave transition in single crystalline LaPt2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ritu; Dhar, S. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Rajeev, K. P.; Hossain, Z.

    2017-06-01

    We present results of our comprehensive studies on single crystalline LaPt2Si2. Pronounced anomaly in electrical resistivity and heat capacity confirms the bulk nature of superconductivity (SC) and charge density wave (CDW) transition in the single crystals. While the charge density wave transition temperature is lower, the superconducting transition temperature is higher in single crystal compared to the polycrystalline sample. This result confirms the competing nature of CDW and SC. Another important finding is the anomalous temperature dependence of upper critical field H C2(T). We also report the anisotropy in the transport and magnetic measurements of the single crystal.

  5. Crystallinity of the epitaxial heterojunction of C60 on single crystal pentacene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Ryohei; Mizuno, Yuta; Hosokai, Takuya; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Ishii, Hisao; Nakayama, Yasuo

    2017-06-01

    The structure of pn heterojunctions is an important subject in the field of organic semiconductor devices. In this work, the crystallinity of an epitaxial pn heterojunction of C60 on single crystal pentacene is investigated by non-contact mode atomic force microscopy and high-resolution grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. Analysis shows that the C60 molecules assemble into grains consisting of single crystallites on the pentacene single crystal surface. The in-plane mean crystallite size exceeds 0.1 μm, which is at least five time larger than the size of crystallites deposited onto polycrystalline pentacene thin films grown on SiO2. The results indicate that improvement in the crystal quality of the underlying molecular substrate leads to drastic promotion of the crystallinity at the organic semiconductor heterojunction.

  6. GAGG:ce single crystalline films: New perspective scintillators for electron detection in SEM.

    PubMed

    Bok, Jan; Lalinský, Ondřej; Hanuš, Martin; Onderišinová, Zuzana; Kelar, Jakub; Kučera, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Single crystal scintillators are frequently used for electron detection in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We report gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG:Ce) single crystalline films as a new perspective scintillators for the SEM. For the first time, the epitaxial garnet films were used in a practical application: the GAGG:Ce scintillator was incorporated into a SEM scintillation electron detector and it showed improved image quality. In order to prove the GAGG:Ce quality accurately, the scintillation properties were examined using electron beam excitation and compared with frequently used scintillators in the SEM. The results demonstrate excellent emission efficiency of the GAGG:Ce single crystalline films together with their very fast scintillation decay useful for demanding SEM applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Low temperature thermoelectric properties of p-type doped single-crystalline SnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Si; Hui, Si; Peng, Kunling; Bailey, Trevor P.; Liu, Wei; Yan, Yonggao; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Tang, Xinfeng; Uher, Ctirad

    2018-04-01

    SnSe single crystals have been widely studied lately as a result of their record high ZT and controversial low thermal conductivity. Much research has focused on the high-temperature properties of single crystals and polycrystalline SnSe, but few studies were carried out on the low-temperature properties of doped single-crystalline SnSe. To study the mechanism of the charge carrier and phonon scattering, and to eliminate the ambiguity of the high temperature thermal conductivity measurement, we performed low temperature transport characterization of Na-doped and Ag-doped single-crystalline SnSe by a longitudinal steady-state technique. The electronic transport property measurements suggest that Na is a more efficient p-type dopant in SnSe than Ag. In the thermal conductivity data, we observe pronounced dielectric peak around 10 K with magnitude dependent on the doping level. In the p-type doped samples, we found that our room temperature lattice thermal conductivities (>1.74 W m-1 K-1) are in general higher than those previously reported. Based on these findings, our study implies that the lattice thermal conductivity values of doped and pure single-crystalline SnSe were underestimated.

  8. Enhancement of two photon absorption with Ni doping in the dilute magnetic semiconductor ZnO crystalline nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra; Arjunan, M.S.

    2015-12-07

    In this letter, we have investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of high-quality Ni doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in wurtzite lattice, prepared by the wet chemical method. In our experiments, we found that the two photon absorption coefficient (β) increases by as much as 14 times, i.e., 7.6 ± 0.4 to 112 ± 6 cm/GW, when the Ni doping is increased from 0% to 10%. The substantial enhancement in β is discussed in terms of the bandgap scaling and Ni doping. Furthermore, we also show that the optical bandgap measured by UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies, continuously redshift with increasing Ni doping concentration.more » We envision that the strong nonlinear optical properties together with their dilute magnetic effects, they form an important class of materials for potential applications in magneto-optical and integrated optical chips.« less

  9. Enhancement of two photon absorption with Ni doping in the dilute magnetic semiconductor ZnO crystalline nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Amit Kumar; J, Aneesh; Kumar, Yogendra; M. S, Arjunan; Adarsh, K. V.; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M.

    2015-12-01

    In this letter, we have investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of high-quality Ni doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in wurtzite lattice, prepared by the wet chemical method. In our experiments, we found that the two photon absorption coefficient (β) increases by as much as 14 times, i.e., 7.6 ± 0.4 to 112 ± 6 cm/GW, when the Ni doping is increased from 0% to 10%. The substantial enhancement in β is discussed in terms of the bandgap scaling and Ni doping. Furthermore, we also show that the optical bandgap measured by UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies, continuously redshift with increasing Ni doping concentration. We envision that the strong nonlinear optical properties together with their dilute magnetic effects, they form an important class of materials for potential applications in magneto-optical and integrated optical chips.

  10. Effects of Chromium Dopant on Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of ZnO Nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, S.; Safa, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2017-07-01

    Structural and optical properties of bare ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods have been investigated. Encapsulated ZnO nanorods were grown using a simple two-stage method in which ZnO nanorods were first grown on a glass substrate directly from a hydrothermal bath, then encapsulated with a thin layer of Cr-doped ZnO by dip coating. Comparative study of x-ray diffraction patterns showed that Cr was successfully incorporated into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods. Moreover, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed presence of Cr in this sample. It was observed that the thickness of the shell layer around the core of the ZnO nanorods was at least about 20 nm. Transmission electron microscopy of bare ZnO nanorods revealed single-crystalline structure. Based on optical results, both the encapsulation process and addition of Cr dopant decreased the optical bandgap of the samples. Indeed, the optical bandgap values of Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and bare ZnO nanorods were 2.89 eV, 3.15 eV, and 3.34 eV, respectively. The ultraviolet (UV) parameters demonstrated that incorporation of Cr dopant into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods considerably facilitated formation and transportation of photogenerated carriers, optimizing their performance as a practical UV detector. As a result, the photocurrent of the Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods was the highest (0.6 mA), compared with ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods and bare ZnO nanorods (0.21 mA and 0.06 mA, respectively).

  11. Single Crystalline Film of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Atomic Monolayer by Controlling Nucleation Seeds and Domains

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qinke; Park, Ji-Hoon; Park, Sangwoo; Jung, Seong Jun; Suh, Hwansoo; Park, Noejung; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda; Lee, Sungjoo; Lee, Young Hee; Song, Young Jae

    2015-01-01

    A monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) film with controllable domain morphology and domain size (varying from less than 1 μm to more than 100 μm) with uniform crystalline orientation was successfully synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The key for this extremely large single crystalline domain size of a h-BN monolayer is a decrease in the density of nucleation seeds by increasing the hydrogen gas flow during the h-BN growth. Moreover, the well-defined shape of h-BN flakes can be selectively grown by controlling Cu-annealing time under argon atmosphere prior to h-BN growth, which provides the h-BN shape varies in triangular, trapezoidal, hexagonal and complex shapes. The uniform crystalline orientation of h-BN from different nucleation seeds can be easily confirmed by polarized optical microscopy (POM) with a liquid crystal coating. Furthermore, seamlessly merged h-BN flakes without structural domain boundaries were evidence by a selective hydrogen etching after a full coverage of a h-BN film was achieved. This seamless large-area and atomic monolayer of single crystalline h-BN film can offer as an ideal and practical template of graphene-based devices or alternative two-dimensional materials for industrial applications with scalability. PMID:26537788

  12. Single Crystalline Film of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Atomic Monolayer by Controlling Nucleation Seeds and Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qinke; Park, Ji-Hoon; Park, Sangwoo; Jung, Seong Jun; Suh, Hwansoo; Park, Noejung; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda; Lee, Sungjoo; Lee, Young Hee; Song, Young Jae

    2015-11-01

    A monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) film with controllable domain morphology and domain size (varying from less than 1 μm to more than 100 μm) with uniform crystalline orientation was successfully synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The key for this extremely large single crystalline domain size of a h-BN monolayer is a decrease in the density of nucleation seeds by increasing the hydrogen gas flow during the h-BN growth. Moreover, the well-defined shape of h-BN flakes can be selectively grown by controlling Cu-annealing time under argon atmosphere prior to h-BN growth, which provides the h-BN shape varies in triangular, trapezoidal, hexagonal and complex shapes. The uniform crystalline orientation of h-BN from different nucleation seeds can be easily confirmed by polarized optical microscopy (POM) with a liquid crystal coating. Furthermore, seamlessly merged h-BN flakes without structural domain boundaries were evidence by a selective hydrogen etching after a full coverage of a h-BN film was achieved. This seamless large-area and atomic monolayer of single crystalline h-BN film can offer as an ideal and practical template of graphene-based devices or alternative two-dimensional materials for industrial applications with scalability.

  13. Preparation of a Non-Polar ZnO Film on a Single-Crystal NdGaO3 Substrate by the RF Sputtering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwaba, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Sakuma, M.; Abe, T.; Imai, Y.; Kawasaki, K.; Nakagawa, A.; Niikura, I.; Kashiwaba, Y.; Osada, H.

    2018-04-01

    Preparation of non-polar ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) films on single-crystal NdGaO3 (NGO) (001) substrates was successfully achieved by the radio frequency (RF) sputtering method. Orientation, deposition rate, and surface roughness of ZnO films strongly depend on the working pressure. Characteristics of ZnO films deposited on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates were compared with those of ZnO films deposited on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates. An x-ray diffraction peak of the ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) plane was observed on ZnO films deposited on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates under working pressure of less than 0.5 Pa. On the other hand, uniaxially oriented ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) films on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates were observed under working pressure of 0.1 Pa. The mechanism by which the diffraction angle of the ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) plane on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was shifted is discussed on the basis of anisotropic stress of lattice mismatch. The deposition rate of ZnO films decreased with an increase in working pressure, and the deposition rate on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was larger than that on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates. Root mean square (RMS) roughness of ZnO films increased with an increase in working pressure, and RMS roughness of ZnO films on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was smaller than that of ZnO films on single-crystal sapphire ( 01\\overline{1} 2 ) substrates even though the film thickness on single-crystal NGO (001) substrates was greater than that on sapphire substrates. It is thought that a single-crystal NGO (001) substrate is useful for deposition of non-polar ZnO ( 11\\overline{2} 0 ) films.

  14. Direct observation of vast off-stoichiometric defects in single crystalline SnSe

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Di; Wu, Lijun; He, Dongsheng

    Single crystalline tin selenide (SnSe) recently emerged as a very promising thermoelectric material for waste heat harvesting and thermoelectric cooling, due to its record high figure of merit ZT in mediate temperature range. The most striking feature of SnSe lies in its extremely low lattice thermal conductivity as ascribed to the anisotropic and highly distorted Sn-Se bonds as well as the giant bond anharmonicity by previous studies, yet no theoretical models so far can give a quantitative explanation to such low a lattice thermal conductivity. Here, we presented direct observation of an astonishingly vast number of off-stoichiometric Sn vacancies andmore » Se interstitials, using sophisticated aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope; and credited the previously reported ultralow thermal conductivity of the SnSe single crystalline samples partly to their off-stoichiometric feature. In order to further validate the conclusion, we also synthesized stoichiometric SnSe single crystalline samples, and illustrated that the lattice thermal conductivity is deed much higher as compared with the off-stoichiometric single crystals. Finally, the scattering efficiency of individual point defect on heat-carrying phonons was then discussed in the state-of-art Debye-Callaway model.« less

  15. Direct observation of vast off-stoichiometric defects in single crystalline SnSe

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Di; Wu, Lijun; He, Dongsheng; ...

    2017-04-06

    Single crystalline tin selenide (SnSe) recently emerged as a very promising thermoelectric material for waste heat harvesting and thermoelectric cooling, due to its record high figure of merit ZT in mediate temperature range. The most striking feature of SnSe lies in its extremely low lattice thermal conductivity as ascribed to the anisotropic and highly distorted Sn-Se bonds as well as the giant bond anharmonicity by previous studies, yet no theoretical models so far can give a quantitative explanation to such low a lattice thermal conductivity. Here, we presented direct observation of an astonishingly vast number of off-stoichiometric Sn vacancies andmore » Se interstitials, using sophisticated aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope; and credited the previously reported ultralow thermal conductivity of the SnSe single crystalline samples partly to their off-stoichiometric feature. In order to further validate the conclusion, we also synthesized stoichiometric SnSe single crystalline samples, and illustrated that the lattice thermal conductivity is deed much higher as compared with the off-stoichiometric single crystals. Finally, the scattering efficiency of individual point defect on heat-carrying phonons was then discussed in the state-of-art Debye-Callaway model.« less

  16. Challenges and opportunities of ZnO-related single crystalline heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kozuka, Y.; Tsukazaki, A.; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency

    2014-03-15

    Recent technological advancement in ZnO heterostructures has expanded the possibility of device functionalities to various kinds of applications. In order to extract novel device functionalities in the heterostructures, one needs to fabricate high quality films and interfaces with minimal impurities, defects, and disorder. With employing molecular-beam epitaxy and single crystal ZnO substrates, the density of residual impurities and defects can be drastically reduced and the optical and electrical properties have been dramatically improved for the ZnO films and heterostructures with Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O. Here, we overview such recent technological advancement from various aspects of application. Towards optoelectronic devices such asmore » a light emitter and a photodetector in an ultraviolet region, the development of p-type ZnO and the fabrication of excellent Schottky contact, respectively, have been subjected to intensive studies for years. For the former, the fine tuning of the growth conditions to make Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O as intrinsic as possible has opened the possibilities of making p-type Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O through NH{sub 3} doping method. For the latter, conducting and transparent polymer films spin-coated on Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O was shown to give almost ideal Schottky junctions. The wavelength-selective detection can be realized with varying the Mg content. From the viewpoint of electronic devices, two-dimensional electrons confined at the Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O/ZnO interfaces are promising candidate for quantum devices because of high electron mobility and strong electron-electron correlation effect. These wonderful features and tremendous opportunities in ZnO-based heterostructures make this system unique and promising in oxide electronics and will lead to new quantum functionalities in optoelectronic devices and electronic applications with lower energy consumption and high performance.« less

  17. Synthesis and characterization of single-phase Mn-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Dutta, S.; Banerjee, A.; Jana, D.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Sarkar, A.

    2009-05-01

    Different samples of Zn 1-xMn xO series have been prepared using conventional solid-state sintering method. We identified up to what extent doping will enable us to synthesize single-phase polycrystalline Mn-doped ZnO sample, which is one of the prerequisites for dilute magnetic semiconductor, and we have analyzed its some other physical aspects. In synthesizing the samples, proportion of Mn varies from 1 to 5 at%. However, the milling time varied (6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h) only for 2 at% Mn-doped samples while for other samples (1, 3, 4 and 5 at% Mn doped) the milling time has been fixed to 96 h. Room-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) data reveal that all of the prepared samples up to 3 at% of Mn doping exhibit wurtzite-type structure, and no segregation of Mn and/or its oxides has been found. The 4 at% Mn-doped samples show a weak peak of ZnMn 2O 4 apart from the other usual peaks of ZnO and the intensity of this impurity peak has been further increased for 5 at% of Mn doping. So beyond 3 at% doping, single-phase behavior is destroyed. Band gap for all the 2 at% Mn-doped samples has been estimated to be between 3.21 and 3.19 eV and the reason for this low band gap values has been explained through the grain boundary trapping model. The room-temperature resistivity measurement shows an increase of resistivity up to 48 h of milling and with further milling it saturates. The defect state of these samples has been investigated using the positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy technique. Here all the relevant lifetime parameters of positron i.e. free annihilation ( τ1) at defect site ( τ2) and average ( τav) increases with milling time.

  18. Influence of ZnO doping on the properties of single domain YBCO bulks fabricated by RE+011 TSIG process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. M.; Yuan, X. C.; Guo, Y. X.

    2017-10-01

    Single domain YBCO bulk superconductors with different additions of ZnO have been successfully fabricated by RE+011 TSIG process with a new solid phase of [(100-x)(Y2O3 + 1.2BaCuO2)+xZnO] and a new liquid phase of (Y2O3+6CuO+10BaCuO2). The effects of ZnO additions on the growth morphology, microstructure, critical temperature (Tc), the levitation force and trapped field of the YBCO bulks have been investigated. It is found that within the range of ZnO additions x=0-1.0 wt.%, all the samples are of the typical characteristic of single-domain YBCO bulk; the Tc of the samples decreases from 92 K to 80 K when the ZnO addition x increases from x=0 wt.% to x=1.0 wt.%; the levitation force and trapped field of the samples firstly increase and then decrease with increase of ZnO additions after going through a maximum, which is closely related with the ZnO addition and the resulting flux pinning force caused by lattice distortion due to the substitution of Zn2+ for Cu2+ site in the YBCO crystal; the largest levitation force 36.8 N (77 K, 0.5 T) and trapped field 0.416 T (77 K, 0.5 T) of the samples are obtained when x=0.1 wt.%, respectively. This result is significantly important and helpful for us to improve the properties of YBCO bulk superconductors.

  19. Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters for controlling the growth of organic single-crystalline nanopillars in photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Diao, Ying; Lee, Hyunbok; Mirabito, Timothy J; Johnson, Richard W; Puodziukynaite, Egle; John, Jacob; Carter, Kenneth R; Emrick, Todd; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Briseno, Alejandro L

    2014-10-08

    The most efficient architecture for achieving high donor/acceptor interfacial area in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) would employ arrays of vertically interdigitated p- and n- type semiconductor nanopillars (NPs). Such morphology could have an advantage in bulk heterojunction systems; however, precise control of the dimension morphology in a crystalline, interpenetrating architecture has not yet been realized. Here we present a simple, yet facile, crystallization technique for the growth of vertically oriented NPs utilizing a modified thermal evaporation technique that hinges on a fast deposition rate, short substrate-source distance, and ballistic mass transport. A broad range of organic semiconductor materials is beneficial from the technique to generate NP geometries. Moreover, this technique can also be generalized to various substrates, namely, graphene, PEDOT-PSS, ZnO, CuI, MoO3, and MoS2. The advantage of the NP architecture over the conventional thin film counterpart is demonstrated with an increase of power conversion efficiency of 32% in photovoltaics. This technique will advance the knowledge of organic semiconductor crystallization and create opportunities for the fabrication and processing of NPs for applications that include solar cells, charge storage devices, sensors, and vertical transistors.

  20. Molecular beam epitaxy of single-crystalline aluminum film for low threshold ultraviolet plasmonic nanolasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuanglong; Sheng, Bowen; Wang, Xinqiang; Dong, Dashan; Wang, Ping; Chen, Zhaoying; Wang, Tao; Rong, Xin; Li, Duo; Yang, Liuyun; Liu, Shangfeng; Li, Mo; Zhang, Jian; Ge, Weikun; Shi, Kebin; Tong, Yuzhen; Shen, Bo

    2018-06-01

    High-quality single-crystalline aluminum films have been grown on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The x-ray diffraction rocking curve of the (111) plane of the Al film shows a full width at half maximum of 564 arc sec for the sample grown at 100 °C, where the surface is atomically flat with a root-mean-square roughness of 0.40 nm in a scanned area of 3 × 3 μm2. By using such a high-quality Al film, we have demonstrated a room temperature ultraviolet surface-plasmon-polariton nanolaser at a wavelength of 360 nm with a threshold as low as ˜0.2 MW/cm2, which provides a powerful evidence for potential application of the single-crystalline Al film in plasmonic devices.

  1. Gram-scale synthesis of single-crystalline graphene quantum dots with superior optical properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Yanli; Xu, Tao; Liao, Haobo; Yao, Chenjie; Liu, Yuan; Li, Zhen; Chen, Zhiwen; Pan, Dengyu; Sun, Litao; Wu, Minghong

    2014-10-28

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have various alluring properties and potential applications, but their large-scale applications are limited by current synthetic methods that commonly produce GQDs in small amounts. Moreover, GQDs usually exhibit polycrystalline or highly defective structures and thus poor optical properties. Here we report the gram-scale synthesis of single-crystalline GQDs by a facile molecular fusion route under mild and green hydrothermal conditions. The synthesis involves the nitration of pyrene followed by hydrothermal treatment in alkaline aqueous solutions, where alkaline species play a crucial role in tuning their size, functionalization and optical properties. The single-crystalline GQDs are bestowed with excellent optical properties such as bright excitonic fluorescence, strong excitonic absorption bands extending to the visible region, large molar extinction coefficients and long-term photostability. These high-quality GQDs can find a large array of novel applications in bioimaging, biosensing, light emitting diodes, solar cells, hydrogen production, fuel cells and supercapacitors.

  2. Graphene-silicon layered structures on single-crystalline Ir(111) thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Que, Yande D.; Tao, Jing; Zhang, Yong; ...

    2015-01-20

    Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal crystals, such as Ru,⁽¹⁻³⁾ Ir,⁽⁴⁻⁶⁾ and Ni,⁽⁷⁾ provides large-area, uniform graphene layers with controllable defect density, which is crucial for practical applications in future devices. To decrease the high cost of single-crystalline metal bulks, single-crystalline metal films are strongly suggested as the substrates for epitaxial growth large-scale high-quality graphene.⁽⁸⁻¹⁰⁾ Moreover, in order to weaken the interactions of graphene with its metal host, which may result in a suppression of the intrinsic properties of graphene,⁽¹¹ ¹²⁾ the method of element intercalation of semiconductors at the interface between an epitaxial graphene layer and a transitionmore » metal substrate has been successfully realized.⁽¹³⁻¹⁶⁾« less

  3. Nonvolatile MoS2 field effect transistors directly gated by single crystalline epitaxial ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhongyuan; Serrao, Claudy; Khan, Asif Islam; You, Long; Wong, Justin C.; Ye, Yu; Zhu, Hanyu; Zhang, Xiang; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate non-volatile, n-type, back-gated, MoS2 transistors, placed directly on an epitaxial grown, single crystalline, PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 (PZT) ferroelectric. The transistors show decent ON current (19 μA/μm), high on-off ratio (107), and a subthreshold swing of (SS ˜ 92 mV/dec) with a 100 nm thick PZT layer as the back gate oxide. Importantly, the ferroelectric polarization can directly control the channel charge, showing a clear anti-clockwise hysteresis. We have self-consistently confirmed the switching of the ferroelectric and corresponding change in channel current from a direct time-dependent measurement. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain transistor operation directly on polar surfaces, and therefore, it should be possible to integrate 2D electronics with single crystalline functional oxides.

  4. Surface-micromachined 2D optical scanners with optically flat single-crystalline silicon micromirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, John G.; Patterson, Pamela R.; Wu, Ming C.

    2001-05-01

    We have developed a novel wafer-scale single-crystalline silicon micromirror bonding process to fabricate optically flat micromirrors on polysilicon surface-micromachined 2D scanners. The electrostatically actuated 2D scanner has a mirror area of 450 micrometers x 450 micrometers and an optical scan angle of +/- +/-7.5 degree(s). Compared to micromirrors made with a standard polysilicon surface-micromachining process, the radius of curvature of the micromirror has been improved by 1 50 times from 1.8 cm to 265 cm, with surface roughness < 10 nm. Besides, single-crystalline honeycomb micromirrors derived from silicon on insulator (SOI) have been developed to reduce the mass of the bonded mirror.

  5. Single crystalline Ge(1-x)Mn(x) nanowires as building blocks for nanoelectronics.

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, Machteld I; Petkov, Nikolay; Morris, Michael A; Kazakova, Olga; Han, Xinhai; Wang, Kang L; Jacob, Ajey P; Holmes, Justin D

    2009-01-01

    Magnetically doped Si and Ge nanowires have potential application in future nanowire spin-based devices. Here, we report a supercritical fluid method for producing single crystalline Mn-doped Ge nanowires with a Mn-doping concentration of between 0.5-1.0 atomic % that display ferromagnetism above 300 K and a superior performance with respect to the hole mobility of around 340 cm(2)/Vs, demonstrating the potential of using these nanowires as building blocks for electronic devices.

  6. Room temperature synthesis and optical properties of small diameter (5 nm) ZnO nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seungho; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2010-10-01

    We report a simple wet-chemical synthesis of ∼5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays at room temperature (20 °C) and normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm) and their optical properties. They were single crystalline in nature, and grew in the [001] direction. These small diameter ZnO nanorod arrays can also be synthesized at 0 °C. Control experiments were also conducted. On the basis of the results, we propose a mechanism for the spontaneous growth of the small diameter ZnO structures. The optical properties of the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays synthesized using this method were probed by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. A clear blue-shift, relative to the absorption band from 50 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays, was attributed to the quantum confinement effects caused by the small nanocrystal size in the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorods.

  7. Identification of Zn-vacancy-hydrogen complexes in ZnO single crystals: A challenge to positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Grambole, D.; Grenzer, J.; Skorupa, W.; Čížek, J.; Kuriplach, J.; Procházka, I.; Ling, C. C.; So, C. K.; Schulz, D.; Klimm, D.

    2009-03-01

    A systematic study of various, nominally undoped ZnO single crystals, either hydrothermally grown (HTG) or melt grown (MG), has been performed. The crystal quality has been assessed by x-ray diffraction, and a comprehensive estimation of the detailed impurity and hydrogen contents by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and nuclear reaction analysis, respectively, has been made also. High precision positron lifetime experiments show that a single positron lifetime is observed in all crystals investigated, which clusters at 180-182 ps and 165-167 ps for HTG and MG crystals, respectively. Furthermore, hydrogen is detected in all crystals in a bound state with a high concentration (at least 0.3at.% ), whereas the concentrations of other impurities are very small. From ab initio calculations it is suggested that the existence of Zn-vacancy-hydrogen complexes is the most natural explanation for the given experimental facts at present. Furthermore, the distribution of H at a metal/ZnO interface of a MG crystal, and the H content of a HTG crystal upon annealing and time afterward has been monitored, as this is most probably related to the properties of electrical contacts made at ZnO and the instability in p -type conductivity observed at ZnO nanorods in literature. All experimental findings and presented theoretical considerations support the conclusion that various types of Zn-vacancy-hydrogen complexes exist in ZnO and need to be taken into account in future studies, especially for HTG materials.

  8. Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.B.

    1997-01-07

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  9. Single-crystalline nanogap electrodes: enhancing the nanowire-breakdown process with a gaseous environment.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hiroshi; Sumiya, Touru; Furuta, Shigeo; Ueki, Ryuichi; Miyazawa, Yosuke; Nishijima, Takuya; Fujita, Jun-ichi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Naitoh, Yasuhisa

    2012-10-24

    A method for fabricating single-crystalline nanogaps on Si substrates was developed. Polycrystalline Pt nanowires on Si substrates were broken down by current flow under various gaseous environments. The crystal structure of the nanogap electrode was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Nanogap electrodes sandwiched between Pt-large-crystal-grains were obtained by the breakdown of the wire in an O(2) or H(2) atmosphere. These nanogap electrodes show intense spots in the electron diffraction pattern. The diffraction pattern corresponds to Pt (111), indicating that single-crystal grains are grown by the electrical wire breakdown process in an O(2) or H(2) atmosphere. The Pt wires that have (111)-texture and coherent boundaries can be considered ideal as interconnectors for single molecular electronics. The simple method for fabrication of a single-crystalline nanogap is one of the first steps toward standard nanogap electrodes for single molecular instruments and opens the door to future research on physical phenomena in nanospaces.

  10. Nanometer Scale Confined Growth of Single-Crystalline Gold Nanowires via Photocatalytic Reduction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seonhee; Bae, Changdeuck; Shin, Hyunjung

    2018-06-20

    Single-crystalline gold nanowires (Au NWs) are directly synthesized by the photocatalytic reduction of an aqueous HAuCl 4 solution inside high-aspect-ratio TiO 2 nanotubes (NTs). Crystalline TiO 2 (anatase) NTs are prepared by the template-assisted atomic layer deposition technique with a subsequent annealing. Under the irradiation of ultraviolet light, photoexcited electrons are formed on the surfaces of TiO 2 NTs and could reduce Au ions to create nuclei without using any surfactant, reducing agent, and/or seed. Once nucleation occurred, high-aspect-ratio Au NWs are grown inside the TiO 2 NTs in a diffusion-controlled manner. As the solution pH increased, the nucleation/growth rate decreased and twin-free (or not observed), single-crystalline Au NWs are formed. At a pH above 6, the nucleation/growth rates increased and Au nanoparticles are observed both inside and outside of the TiO 2 NTs. The confined nanoscale geometries of the interior of the TiO 2 NTs are found to play a key role in the controlled diffusion of Au species and in determining the crystal morphology of the resulting Au NWs.

  11. Controlling bottom-up rapid growth of single crystalline gallium nitride nanowires on silicon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ko-Li; Chou, Yi; Su, Chang-Chou; Yang, Chih-Chaing; Lee, Wei-I; Chou, Yi-Chia

    2017-12-20

    We report single crystalline gallium nitride nanowire growth from Ni and Ni-Au catalysts on silicon using hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The growth takes place rapidly; efficiency in time is higher than the conventional nanowire growth in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and thin film growth in molecular beam epitaxy. The effects of V/III ratio and carrier gas flow on growth are discussed regarding surface polarity and sticking coefficient of molecules. The nanowires of gallium nitride exhibit excellent crystallinity with smooth and straight morphology and uniform orientation. The growth mechanism follows self-assembly from both catalysts, where Au acts as a protection from etching during growth enabling the growth of ultra-long nanowires. The photoluminescence of such nanowires are adjustable by tuning the growth parameters to achieve blue emission. The practical range of parameters for mass production of such high crystal quality and uniformity of nanowires is suggested.

  12. Controlling the crystalline three-dimensional order in bulk materials by single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    López-Andarias, Javier; López, Juan Luis; Atienza, Carmen; Brunetti, Fulvio G; Romero-Nieto, Carlos; Guldi, Dirk M; Martín, Nazario

    2014-04-29

    The construction of ordered single-wall carbon nanotube soft-materials at the nanoscale is currently an important challenge in science. Here we use single-wall carbon nanotubes as a tool to gain control over the crystalline ordering of three-dimensional bulk materials composed of suitably functionalized molecular building blocks. We prepare p-type nanofibres from tripeptide and pentapeptide-containing small molecules, which are covalently connected to both carboxylic and electron-donating 9,10-di(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-9,10-dihydroanthracene termini. Adding small amounts of single-wall carbon nanotubes to the so-prepared p-nanofibres together with the externally controlled self assembly by charge screening by means of Ca(2+) results in new and stable single-wall carbon nanotube-based supramolecular gels featuring remarkably long-range internal order.

  13. Angle-dependent photodegradation over ZnO nanowire arrays on flexible paper substrates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we grew zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays on paper substrates using a two-step growth strategy. In the first step, we formed single-crystalline ZnO nanoparticles of uniform size distribution (ca. 4 nm) as seeds for the hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanowire arrays. After spin-coating of these seeds onto paper, we grew ZnO nanowire arrays conformally on these substrates. The crystal structure of a ZnO nanowire revealed that the nanowires were single-crystalline and had grown along the c axis. Further visualization through annular bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that the hydrothermally grown ZnO nanowires possessed Zn polarity. From photocatalytic activity measurements of the ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays on paper substrate, we extracted rate constants of 0.415, 0.244, 0.195, and 0.08 s-1 for the degradation of methylene blue at incident angles of 0°, 30°, 60°, and 75°, respectively; that is, the photocatalytic activity of these ZnO nanowire arrays was related to the cosine of the incident angle of the UV light. Accordingly, these materials have promising applications in the design of sterilization systems and light-harvesting devices. PMID:25593556

  14. Direct growth of single-crystalline III–V semiconductors on amorphous substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Kevin; Kapadia, Rehan; Harker, Audrey; ...

    2016-01-27

    The III–V compound semiconductors exhibit superb electronic and optoelectronic properties. Traditionally, closely lattice-matched epitaxial substrates have been required for the growth of high-quality single-crystal III–V thin films and patterned microstructures. To remove this materials constraint, here we introduce a growth mode that enables direct writing of single-crystalline III–V’s on amorphous substrates, thus further expanding their utility for various applications. The process utilizes templated liquid-phase crystal growth that results in user-tunable, patterned micro and nanostructures of single-crystalline III–V’s of up to tens of micrometres in lateral dimensions. InP is chosen as a model material system owing to its technological importance. Themore » patterned InP single crystals are configured as high-performance transistors and photodetectors directly on amorphous SiO 2 growth substrates, with performance matching state-of-the-art epitaxially grown devices. In conclusion, the work presents an important advance towards universal integration of III–V’s on application-specific substrates by direct growth.« less

  15. Direct growth of single-crystalline III–V semiconductors on amorphous substrates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kevin; Kapadia, Rehan; Harker, Audrey; Desai, Sujay; Seuk Kang, Jeong; Chuang, Steven; Tosun, Mahmut; Sutter-Fella, Carolin M.; Tsang, Michael; Zeng, Yuping; Kiriya, Daisuke; Hazra, Jubin; Madhvapathy, Surabhi Rao; Hettick, Mark; Chen, Yu-Ze; Mastandrea, James; Amani, Matin; Cabrini, Stefano; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Ager III, Joel W.; Chrzan, Daryl C.; Javey, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The III–V compound semiconductors exhibit superb electronic and optoelectronic properties. Traditionally, closely lattice-matched epitaxial substrates have been required for the growth of high-quality single-crystal III–V thin films and patterned microstructures. To remove this materials constraint, here we introduce a growth mode that enables direct writing of single-crystalline III–V's on amorphous substrates, thus further expanding their utility for various applications. The process utilizes templated liquid-phase crystal growth that results in user-tunable, patterned micro and nanostructures of single-crystalline III–V's of up to tens of micrometres in lateral dimensions. InP is chosen as a model material system owing to its technological importance. The patterned InP single crystals are configured as high-performance transistors and photodetectors directly on amorphous SiO2 growth substrates, with performance matching state-of-the-art epitaxially grown devices. The work presents an important advance towards universal integration of III–V's on application-specific substrates by direct growth. PMID:26813257

  16. Growing vertical ZnO nanorod arrays within graphite: efficient isolation of large size and high quality single-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ling; E, Yifeng; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe

    2013-07-18

    We report a unique strategy for efficiently exfoliating large size and high quality single-layer graphene directly from graphite into DMF dispersions by growing ZnO nanorod arrays between the graphene layers in graphite.

  17. Characterization of planar pn heterojunction diodes constructed with Cu2O nanoparticle films and single ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Kiyeol; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we fabricate planar pn heterojunction diodes composed of Cu2O nanoparticle (NP) films and single ZnO nanowires (NWs) on SiO2 (300 nm)/Si substrates and investigate their characteristics in the dark and under the illumination of white light and 325 nm wavelength light. The diode at bias voltages of +/- 1 V shows rectification ratios of 10 (in the dark) and 34 (under the illumination of white light). On the other hand, the diode exposed to the 325 nm wavelength light exhibits Ohmic characteristics which are associated with efficient photocurrent generation in both the Cu2O NP film and the single ZnO NW.

  18. Realizing a facile and environmental-friendly fabrication of high-performance multi-crystalline silicon solar cells by employing ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 passivation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Long; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Hao; Ji, Xin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, the multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells dominate the photovoltaic industry. However, the current acid etching method on mc-Si surface used by firms can hardly suppress the average reflectance value below 25% in the visible light spectrum. Meanwhile, the nitric acid and the hydrofluoric contained in the etching solution is both environmental unfriendly and highly toxic to human. Here, a mc-Si solar cell based on ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 spacer layer is demonstrated. The eco-friendly fabrication is realized by low temperature atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 layer as well as ZnO seed layer. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures are prepared by nontoxic and low cost hydro-thermal growth process. Results show that the best passivation quality of the n+ -type mc-Si surface can be achieved by balancing the Si dangling bond saturation level and the negative charge concentration in the Al2O3 film. Moreover, the average reflectance on cell surface can be suppressed to 8.2% in 400-900 nm range by controlling the thickness of ZnO seed layer. With these two combined refinements, a maximum solar cell efficiency of 15.8% is obtained eventually. This work offer a facile way to realize the environmental friendly fabrication of high performance mc-Si solar cells.

  19. Realizing a facile and environmental-friendly fabrication of high-performance multi-crystalline silicon solar cells by employing ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 passivation layer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Long; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Hao; Ji, Xin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells dominate the photovoltaic industry. However, the current acid etching method on mc-Si surface used by firms can hardly suppress the average reflectance value below 25% in the visible light spectrum. Meanwhile, the nitric acid and the hydrofluoric contained in the etching solution is both environmental unfriendly and highly toxic to human. Here, a mc-Si solar cell based on ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 spacer layer is demonstrated. The eco-friendly fabrication is realized by low temperature atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 layer as well as ZnO seed layer. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures are prepared by nontoxic and low cost hydro-thermal growth process. Results show that the best passivation quality of the n+ -type mc-Si surface can be achieved by balancing the Si dangling bond saturation level and the negative charge concentration in the Al2O3 film. Moreover, the average reflectance on cell surface can be suppressed to 8.2% in 400–900 nm range by controlling the thickness of ZnO seed layer. With these two combined refinements, a maximum solar cell efficiency of 15.8% is obtained eventually. This work offer a facile way to realize the environmental friendly fabrication of high performance mc-Si solar cells. PMID:27924911

  20. Electrochemical preparation of single-crystalline Cr 2O 3 from molten salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hideki; Nishida, Kenji; Imai, Motoharu; Kitazawa, Hideaki

    2004-06-01

    Single crystals of Cr 2O 3 have been grown by means of electrolysis on a 1:100 stoichiometric mixture of CrO 3 and cesium molybdate, Cs 2MoO 4, fused at 1000°C in an ambient atmosphere. Potentiometric measurements on the molten salts have shown the existence of a critical voltage of -320 mV below which hexagonal platelets-shaped single-crystalline Cr 2O 3 is grown on the surface of the working electrode. Coulometry measurements have revealed that the Cr ions are at their highest oxidation state of Cr +6 in the molten electrolyte, which suggests that the electric reduction of Cr +6 to Cr +3 drives the single-crystal growth of Cr 2O 3.

  1. A metamorphic inorganic framework that can be switched between eight single-crystalline states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Caihong; Cameron, Jamie M.; Gabb, David; Boyd, Thomas; Winter, Ross S.; Vilà-Nadal, Laia; Mitchell, Scott G.; Glatzel, Stefan; Breternitz, Joachim; Gregory, Duncan H.; Long, De-Liang; MacDonell, Andrew; Cronin, Leroy

    2017-02-01

    The design of highly flexible framework materials requires organic linkers, whereas inorganic materials are more robust but inflexible. Here, by using linkable inorganic rings made up of tungsten oxide (P8W48O184) building blocks, we synthesized an inorganic single crystal material that can undergo at least eight different crystal-to-crystal transformations, with gigantic crystal volume contraction and expansion changes ranging from -2,170 to +1,720 Å3 with no reduction in crystallinity. Not only does this material undergo the largest single crystal-to-single crystal volume transformation thus far reported (to the best of our knowledge), the system also shows conformational flexibility while maintaining robustness over several cycles in the reversible uptake and release of guest molecules switching the crystal between different metamorphic states. This material combines the robustness of inorganic materials with the flexibility of organic frameworks, thereby challenging the notion that flexible materials with robustness are mutually exclusive.

  2. Crystalline perfection and optical studies of L-Histidinium dihydrogen phosphate orthophosphoric acid (LHDP) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ittyachan, Reena; Arunkumar, A.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2015-10-01

    Single crystals of L-Histidinium dihydrogenphosphate orthophosphoric acid (LHDP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The HRXRD rocking curve measurements revealed the crystalline perfection of grown crystal and the absence of structural grain boundaries. The lower optical cut-off wavelength for this crystal was observed at 240 nm. The third order nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) and susceptibility (χ(3)) were calculated by Z-scan studies using Nd: YAG laser as a source. The single shot laser damage threshold of grown crystal was measured to be 6.286 GW/cm2 using Nd: YAG laser.

  3. Selective Nanoscale Mass Transport across Atomically Thin Single Crystalline Graphene Membranes.

    PubMed

    Kidambi, Piran R; Boutilier, Michael S H; Wang, Luda; Jang, Doojoon; Kim, Jeehwan; Karnik, Rohit

    2017-05-01

    Atomically thin single crystals, without grain boundaries and associated defect clusters, represent ideal systems to study and understand intrinsic defects in materials, but probing them collectively over large area remains nontrivial. In this study, the authors probe nanoscale mass transport across large-area (≈0.2 cm 2 ) single-crystalline graphene membranes. A novel, polymer-free picture frame assisted technique, coupled with a stress-inducing nickel layer is used to transfer single crystalline graphene grown on silicon carbide substrates to flexible polycarbonate track etched supports with well-defined cylindrical ≈200 nm pores. Diffusion-driven flow shows selective transport of ≈0.66 nm hydrated K + and Cl - ions over ≈1 nm sized small molecules, indicating the presence of selective sub-nanometer to nanometer sized defects. This work presents a framework to test the barrier properties and intrinsic quality of atomically thin materials at the sub-nanometer to nanometer scale over technologically relevant large areas, and suggests the potential use of intrinsic defects in atomically thin materials for molecular separations or desalting. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Single-Crystalline SrRuO 3 Nanomembranes: A Platform for Flexible Oxide Electronics

    DOE PAGES

    Paskiewicz, Deborah M.; Sichel-Tissot, Rebecca; Karapetrova, Evguenia; ...

    2016-12-11

    The field of oxide electronics has benefited from the wide spectrum of functionalities available to the ABO 3 perovskites, and researchers are now employing defect engineering in single crystalline heterostructures to tailor properties. However, bulk oxide single crystals are not conducive to many types of applications, particularly those requiring mechanical flexibility. Here, we demonstrate the realization of an all-oxide, single-crystalline nanomembrane heterostructure. With a surface-to-volume ratio of 2 × 10 7 , the nanomembranes are fully flexible and can be readily transferred to other materials for handling purposes or for new materials integration schemes. Using in situ synchrotron X-ray scattering,more » we find that the nanomembranes can bond to other host substrates near room temperature and demonstrate coupling between surface reactivity and electromechanical properties in ferroelectric nanomembrane systems. Finally, the synthesis technique described here represents a significant advancement in materials integration and provides a new platform for the development of flexible oxide electronics.« less

  5. Wafer-size free-standing single-crystalline graphene device arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Jing, Gaoshan; Zhang, Bo; Sando, Shota; Cui, Tianhong

    2014-08-01

    We report an approach of wafer-scale addressable single-crystalline graphene (SCG) arrays growth by using pre-patterned seeds to control the nucleation. The growth mechanism and superb properties of SCG were studied. Large array of free-standing SCG devices were realized. Characterization of SCG as nano switches shows excellent performance with life time (>22 000 times) two orders longer than that of other graphene nano switches reported so far. This work not only shows the possibility of producing wafer-scale high quality SCG device arrays but also explores the superb performance of SCG as nano devices.

  6. Morphology and magnetic flux distribution in superparamagnetic, single-crystalline Fe3O4 nanoparticle rings.

    PubMed

    Takeno, Yumu; Murakami, Yasukazu; Sato, Takeshi; Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Park, Hyun Soon; Shindo, Daisuke; Ferguson, R Matthew; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2014-11-03

    This study reports on the correlation between crystal orientation and magnetic flux distribution of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles in the form of self-assembled rings. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the nanoparticles were single-crystalline, highly monodispersed, (25 nm average diameter), and showed no appreciable lattice imperfections such as twins or stacking faults. Electron holography studies of these superparamagnetic nanoparticle rings indicated significant fluctuations in the magnetic flux lines, consistent with variations in the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the nanoparticles. The observations provide useful information for a deeper understanding of the micromagnetics of ultrasmall nanoparticles, where the magnetic dipolar interaction competes with the magnetic anisotropy.

  7. Dissolution chemistry and biocompatibility of single-crystalline silicon nanomembranes and associated materials for transient electronics.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Suk-Won; Park, Gayoung; Edwards, Chris; Corbin, Elise A; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Cheng, Huanyu; Song, Jun-Kyul; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Yu, Sooyoun; Ng, Joanne; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Jiyoung; Yee, Cassian; Bhaduri, Basanta; Su, Yewang; Omennetto, Fiorenzo G; Huang, Yonggang; Bashir, Rashid; Goddard, Lynford; Popescu, Gabriel; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Rogers, John A

    2014-06-24

    Single-crystalline silicon nanomembranes (Si NMs) represent a critically important class of material for high-performance forms of electronics that are capable of complete, controlled dissolution when immersed in water and/or biofluids, sometimes referred to as a type of "transient" electronics. The results reported here include the kinetics of hydrolysis of Si NMs in biofluids and various aqueous solutions through a range of relevant pH values, ionic concentrations and temperatures, and dependence on dopant types and concentrations. In vitro and in vivo investigations of Si NMs and other transient electronic materials demonstrate biocompatibility and bioresorption, thereby suggesting potential for envisioned applications in active, biodegradable electronic implants.

  8. Non-oxidic nanoscale composites: single-crystalline titanium carbide nanocubes in hierarchical porous carbon monoliths.

    PubMed

    Sonnenburg, Kirstin; Smarsly, Bernd M; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2009-05-07

    We report the preparation of nanoscale carbon-titanium carbide composites with carbide contents of up to 80 wt%. The synthesis yields single-crystalline TiC nanocubes 20-30 nm in diameter embedded in a hierarchical porous carbon matrix. These composites were generated in the form of cylindrical monoliths but can be produced in various shapes using modern sol-gel and nanocasting methods in conjunction with carbothermal reduction. The monolithic material is characterized by a combination of microscopy, diffraction and physisorption. Overall, the results presented in this work represent a concrete design template for the synthesis of non-oxidic nanoscale composites with high surface areas.

  9. Magnetic anisotropy engineering: Single-crystalline Fe films on ion eroded ripple surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Liedke, M. O.; Koerner, M.; Lenz, K.

    We present a method to preselect the direction of an induced in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) in thin single-crystalline Fe films on MgO(001). Ion beam irradiation is used to modulate the MgO(001) surface with periodic ripples on the nanoscale. The ripple direction determines the orientation of the UMA, whereas the intrinsic cubic anisotropy of the Fe film is not affected. Thus, it is possible to superimpose an in-plane UMA with a precision of a few degrees - a level of control not reported so far that can be relevant for example in spintronics.

  10. Soft-template synthesis of single-crystalline CdS dendrites.

    PubMed

    Niu, Haixia; Yang, Qing; Tang, Kaibin; Xie, Yi; Zhu, Yongchun

    2006-01-01

    The single-crystalline CdS dendrites have been fabricated from the reaction of CdCl2 and thiourea at 180 degrees C, in which glycine was employed as a soft template. The obtained products were explored by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electronic diffraction. The optical properties of CdS dendrites have been investigated by ultraviolet and visible light (UV-vis) and photoluminescence techniques. The investigations indicated that the dendrites were grown due to the anisotropic properties enhanced by the use of Glycine in the route.

  11. Rapid Growth of Large Single-Crystalline Graphene via Second Passivation and Multistage Carbon Supply.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Sun, Luzhao; Zhang, Jincan; Sun, Jingyu; Koh, Ai Leen; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2016-06-01

    A second passivation and a multistage carbon-source supply (CSS) allow a 50-fold enhancement of the growth rate of large single-crystalline graphene with a record growth rate of 101 μm min(-1) , almost 10 times higher than for pure copper. To this end the CSS is tailored at separate stages of graphene growth on copper foil, combined with an effective suppression of new spontaneous nucleation via second passivation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. MeV ion-induced movement of lattice disorder in single crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, P.; Akhtar, J.; Russell, F. M.

    2000-08-01

    We provide experimental evidence for the transport of atomic disorder over large distances, in device grade single-crystalline silicon, following irradiation with 200 MeV silver ions. Pile-up of lattice defects or disorder is effected at predetermined locations, spatially separated from the irradiation site. These are revealed by STM scans with atomic resolution, of an intermediate region, spanning from irradiated to shadowed parts of the crystal surface. The experimental results are consistent with transport of disorder through breather-like intrinsic localised excitations.

  13. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Co-deposition Using Pulsed Laser Deposition for ZnO and Radio Frequency Sputtering for Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyun Wook; Son, Jong Yeog

    2018-05-01

    Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) thin films were fabricated on single-crystalline (0001) Al2O3 substrates by co-deposition using pulsed laser deposition for ZnO and radio frequency sputtering for Cu. CZO thin films with 0-20% molar concentrations are obtained by adjusting the deposition rates of ZnO and Cu. The CZO thin films exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism, and CZO with 5% Cu molar concentration has maximum remanent magnetization, which is consistent with theoretical results.

  14. Hexagonal and prismatic nanowalled ZnO microboxes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fenghua; Lin, Wenjiao; Wu, Mingmei; Xu, Ningsheng; Yang, Xianfeng; Tian, Z Ryan; Su, Qiang

    2006-04-17

    We hereby report hydrothermal syntheses of new microstructures of semiconducting ZnO. Single-crystalline prismatic ZnO microboxes formed by nanowalls and hexagonal hollow microdisks closed by plates with micron-sized inorganic fullerene-like structures have been made in a base-free medium through a one-step hydrothermal synthesis with the help of n-butanol (NB). Structures and morphologies of the products were confirmed by results from powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. NB has been found to play a crucial role in the growth of these hollow structures. It is indicated that these hollow ZnO crystals were grown from redissolution of interiors. These ZnO microboxes exhibit a band emission in the visible range, implying the possession of a high content of defects.

  15. Deep levels due to hydrogen in ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Narendra; Weber, Marc; Lynn, Kelvin

    2009-05-01

    Hydrogen impurities and oxygen vacancies are involved in the ˜0.7 eV shift of the optical absorption edge of ZnO. Deuterium causes a smaller shift. Titanium metal is used to bind hydrogen as it diffuses out of ZnO. Positron annihilation spectroscopy coupled with other techniques point to the presence of oxygen vacancies. Removing hydrogen followed by annealing in oxygen reduces the carrier concentration.

  16. Competition between second harmonic generation and two-photon-induced luminescence in single, double and multiple ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun; Zeng, Jian-Hua; Lan, Sheng; Wan, Xia; Tie, Shao-Long

    2013-04-22

    The nonlinear optical properties of single, double and multiple ZnO nanorods (NRs) were investigated by using a focused femtosecond (fs) laser beam. The excitation wavelength of the fs laser was intentionally chosen to be 754 nm at which the energy of two photons is slightly larger than that of the exciton ground state but smaller than the bandgap energy of ZnO. Second harmonic generation (SHG) or/and two-photon-induced luminescence (TPL) were observed and their dependences on excitation density were examined. For single ZnO NRs, only SHG was observed even at the highest excitation density we used in the experiments. The situation was changed when the joint point of two ZnO NRs perpendicular to each other was excited. In this case, TPL could be detected at low excitation densities and it increased rapidly with increasing excitation density. At the highest excitation density of ~15 MW/cm(2), the intensity of the TPL became comparable to that of the SHG. For an ensemble of ZnO NRs packed closely, a rapid increase of TPL with a slope of more than 7.0 and a gradual saturation of SHG with a slope of ~0.34 were found at high excitation densities. Consequently, the nonlinear response spectrum was eventually dominated by the TPL at high excitation densities and the SHG appeared to be very weak. We interpret this phenomenon by considering both the difference in electric field distribution and the effect of heat accumulation. It is suggested that the electric field enhancement in double and multiple NRs plays a crucial role in determining the nonlinear response of the NRs. In addition, the reduction in the bandgap energy induced by the heat accumulation effect also leads to the significant change in nonlinear response. This explanation is supported by the calculation of the electric field distribution using the discrete dipole approximation method and the simulation of temperature rise in different ZnO NRs based on the finite element method.

  17. Single-Crystalline Ultrathin Co 3O 4 Nanosheets with Massive Vacancy Defects for Enhanced Electrocatalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Zhao; Bi, Yongmin; Hu, Enyuan; ...

    2017-09-18

    The role of vacancy defects is demonstrated to be positive in various energy-related processes. However, introducing vacancy defects into single-crystalline nanostructures with given facets and studying their defect effect on electrocatalytic properties remains a great challenge. Here this paper deliberately introduces oxygen defects into single-crystalline ultrathin Co 3O 4 nanosheets with O-terminated {111} facets by mild solvothermal reduction using ethylene glycol under alkaline condition. As-prepared defect-rich Co 3O 4 nanosheets show a low overpotential of 220 mV with a small Tafel slope of 49.1 mV dec -1 for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which is among the best Co-based OERmore » catalysts to date and even more active than the state-of-the-art IrO 2 catalyst. Such vacancy defects are formed by balancing with reducing environments under solvothermal conditions, but are surprisingly stable even after 1000 cycles of scanning under OER working conditions. Density functional theory plus U calculation attributes the enhanced performance to the oxygen vacancies and consequently exposed second-layered Co metal sites, which leads to the lowered OER activation energy of 2.26 eV and improved electrical conductivity. Finally, this mild solvothermal reduction concept opens a new door for the understanding and future designing of advanced defect-based electrocatalysts.« less

  18. Probing the low thermal conductivity of single-crystalline porous Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunshan; Lina Yang Collaboration; Lingyu Kong Collaboration; Baowen Li Collaboration; John T L Thong Collaboration; Kedar Hippalgaonkar Collaboration

    Pore-like structures provide a novel way to reduce the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires, compared to both smooth-surface VLS nanowires and rough EE nanowires. Because of enhanced phonon scattering with interface and decrease in phonon transport path, the porous nanostructures show reduction in thermal conductance by few orders of magnitude. It proves to be extremely challenging to evaluate porosity accurately in an experimental manner and further understand its effect on thermal transport. In this study, we use the newly developed electron-beam based micro-electrothermal device technique to study the porosity dependent thermal conductivity of mesoporous silicon nanowires that have single-crystalline scaffolding. Based on the Casino simulation, the power absorbed by the nanowire, coming from the loss of travelling electron energy, has a linear relationship with it cross section. The relationship has been verified experimentally as well. Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to theoretically predict the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires with a specific value of porosity. These single-crystalline porous silicon nanowires show extremely low thermal conductivity, even below the amorphous limit. These structures together with our experimental techniques provide a particularly intriguing platform to understand the phonon transport in nanoscale and aid the performance improvement in future nanowires-based devices.

  19. Single-Crystalline Ultrathin Co 3O 4 Nanosheets with Massive Vacancy Defects for Enhanced Electrocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Zhao; Bi, Yongmin; Hu, Enyuan

    The role of vacancy defects is demonstrated to be positive in various energy-related processes. However, introducing vacancy defects into single-crystalline nanostructures with given facets and studying their defect effect on electrocatalytic properties remains a great challenge. Here this paper deliberately introduces oxygen defects into single-crystalline ultrathin Co 3O 4 nanosheets with O-terminated {111} facets by mild solvothermal reduction using ethylene glycol under alkaline condition. As-prepared defect-rich Co 3O 4 nanosheets show a low overpotential of 220 mV with a small Tafel slope of 49.1 mV dec -1 for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which is among the best Co-based OERmore » catalysts to date and even more active than the state-of-the-art IrO 2 catalyst. Such vacancy defects are formed by balancing with reducing environments under solvothermal conditions, but are surprisingly stable even after 1000 cycles of scanning under OER working conditions. Density functional theory plus U calculation attributes the enhanced performance to the oxygen vacancies and consequently exposed second-layered Co metal sites, which leads to the lowered OER activation energy of 2.26 eV and improved electrical conductivity. Finally, this mild solvothermal reduction concept opens a new door for the understanding and future designing of advanced defect-based electrocatalysts.« less

  20. Interdiffusion and stress development in single-crystalline Pd/Ag bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Noah, Martin A., E-mail: m.noah@is.mpg.de; Flötotto, David; Wang, Zumin

    Interdiffusion and stress evolution in single-crystalline Pd/single-crystalline Ag thin films were investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy sputter-depth profiling and in-situ X-ray diffraction, respectively. The concentration-dependent chemical diffusion coefficient, as well as the impurity diffusion coefficient of Ag in Pd could be determined in the low temperature range of 356 °C–455 °C. As a consequence of the similarity of the strong concentration-dependences of the intrinsic diffusion coefficients, the chemical diffusion coefficient varies only over three orders of magnitude over the whole composition range, despite the large difference of six orders of magnitude of the self-diffusion coefficients of Ag in Ag and Pd inmore » Pd. It is shown that the Darken-Manning treatment should be adopted for interpretation of the experimental data; the Nernst-Planck treatment yielded physically unreasonable results. Apart from the development of compressive thermal stress, the development of stress in both sublayers separately could be ascribed to compositional stress (tensile in the Ag sublayer and compressive in the Pd sublayer) and dominant relaxation processes, especially in the Ag sublayer. The effect of these internal stresses on the values determined for the diffusion coefficients is shown to be negligible.« less

  1. Characterization of single-crystalline Al films grown on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuin, A. W.; Alkemade, P. F. A.; Verbruggen, A. H.; Steinfort, A. J.; Zandbergen, H.; Radelaar, S.

    1996-10-01

    Single-crystalline Al films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a (7 × 7) reconstructed Si(111) surface at 50°C. The 100 nm thick Al films were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron diffraction and microscopy, SIMS, and RBS in combination with ion channeling. The orientational relationship found was Al(111) t' | Si(111) and Al[11¯0] t'| Si[11¯0]. The film is single-crystalline over the entire 4″ Si wafer. TED and TEM showed that the lattice mismatch of 25.3% at room temperature is accommodated at the interface by alignment of every three Si atoms to four Al atoms. Annealing of the film at 400°C for 30 min led to a reduction of defects in the film and an increase at the interface. Furthermore, it increased the Si concentration in the Al film slightly. We regard this deposition method as the most appropriate one among the various techniques for epitaxial growth of Al on Si explored so far.

  2. The Nature of Metastable AA’ Graphite: Low Dimensional Nano- and Single-Crystalline Forms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Kap; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Hembram, K. P. S. S.; Kim, Yong-Il; Min, Bong-Ki; Park, Yeseul; Lee, Jeon-Kook; Moon, Dong Ju; Lee, Wooyoung; Lee, Sang-Gil; John, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Over the history of carbon, it is generally acknowledged that Bernal AB stacking of the sp2 carbon layers is the unique crystalline form of graphite. The universal graphite structure is synthesized at 2,600~3,000 °C and exhibits a micro-polycrystalline feature. In this paper, we provide evidence for a metastable form of graphite with an AA’ structure. The non-Bernal AA’ allotrope of graphite is synthesized by the thermal- and plasma-treatment of graphene nanopowders at ~1,500 °C. The formation of AA’ bilayer graphene nuclei facilitates the preferred texture growth and results in single-crystal AA’ graphite in the form of nanoribbons (1D) or microplates (2D) of a few nm in thickness. Kinetically controlled AA’ graphite exhibits unique nano- and single-crystalline feature and shows quasi-linear behavior near the K-point of the electronic band structure resulting in anomalous optical and acoustic phonon behavior. PMID:28000780

  3. Ultraviolet/blue light-emitting diodes based on single horizontal ZnO microrod/GaN heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Du, Chia-Fong; Lee, Chen-Hui; Cheng, Chao-Tsung; Lin, Kai-Hsiang; Sheu, Jin-Kong; Hsu, Hsu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    We report electroluminescence (EL) from single horizontal ZnO microrod (MR) and p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes under forward and reverse bias. EL spectra were composed of two blue emissions centered at 431 and 490 nm under forward biases, but were dominated by a ultraviolet (UV) emission located at 380 nm from n-ZnO MR under high reverse biases. Light-output-current characteristic of the UV emission reveals that the rate of radiative recombination is faster than that of the nonradiative recombination. Highly efficient ZnO excitonic recombination at reverse bias is caused by electrons tunneling from deep-level states near the n-ZnO/p-GaN interface to the conduction band in n-ZnO.

  4. Ultraviolet/blue light-emitting diodes based on single horizontal ZnO microrod/GaN heterojunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report electroluminescence (EL) from single horizontal ZnO microrod (MR) and p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes under forward and reverse bias. EL spectra were composed of two blue emissions centered at 431 and 490 nm under forward biases, but were dominated by a ultraviolet (UV) emission located at 380 nm from n-ZnO MR under high reverse biases. Light-output-current characteristic of the UV emission reveals that the rate of radiative recombination is faster than that of the nonradiative recombination. Highly efficient ZnO excitonic recombination at reverse bias is caused by electrons tunneling from deep-level states near the n-ZnO/p-GaN interface to the conduction band in n-ZnO. PMID:25232299

  5. Single-crystalline δ-Ni2Si nanowires with excellent physical properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the synthesis of single-crystalline nickel silicide nanowires (NWs) via chemical vapor deposition method using NiCl2·6H2O as a single-source precursor. Various morphologies of δ-Ni2Si NWs were successfully acquired by controlling the growth conditions. The growth mechanism of the δ-Ni2Si NWs was thoroughly discussed and identified with microscopy studies. Field emission measurements show a low turn-on field (4.12 V/μm), and magnetic property measurements show a classic ferromagnetic characteristic, which demonstrates promising potential applications for field emitters, magnetic storage, and biological cell separation. PMID:23782805

  6. Laser Cladding for Crack Repair of CMSX-4 Single-Crystalline Turbine Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottwinkel, Boris; Nölke, Christian; Kaierle, Stefan; Wesling, Volker

    2017-03-01

    The increase of the lifetime of modern single crystalline (SX) turbine blades is of high economic priority. The currently available repair methods using polycrystalline cladding of the damaged area do not address the issue of monocrystallinity and are restricted to few areas of the blade. The tip area of the blade is most prone to damage and undergoes the most wear, erosion and cracking during its lifetime. To repair such defects, the common procedure is to remove the whole tip with the damaged area and rebuild it by applying a polycrystalline solidification of the material. The repair of small cracks is conducted in the same way. To reduce repair cost, the investigation of a manufacturing process to repair these cracked areas while maintaining single-crystal solidification is of high interest as this does not diminish material properties and thereby its lifetime. To establish this single-crystal solidification, the realization of a directed temperature gradient is needed. The initial scope of this work is the computational prediction of the temperature field that arises and its verification during the process. The laser cladding process of CMSX-4 substrates was simulated and the necessary parameters calculated. These parameters were then applied to notched substrates and their microstructures analyzed. Starting with a simulation of the temperature field using ANSYS®, a process to repair parts of single crystalline nickel-based alloys was developed. It could be shown that damages to the tip area and cracks can be repaired by establishing a specific temperature gradient during the repair process in order to control the solidification process.

  7. Ionic displacement induced ferroelectricity in multiferroic Cr doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Jeetendra Kumar; Ali, Nasir; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-05-01

    Cr doped ZnO thin film was grown on quartz substrate using RF magnetron sputtering. Room temperature magnetic and ferroelectric properties of Cr doped ZnO were investigated. It is shown that ZnO becomes ferromagnetic upon Cr doping. It is considered that breaking of centrosymmetry due strain developed by doping of Cr should be responsible for the ferroelectricity. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), which shows that the films possess crystalline structure with preferred orientation along the (002) crystal plane and there is no extra peak due to Cr i.e. single phase.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of single-crystalline zinc tin oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jen-Bin; Wu, Po-Feng; Lin, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Ting; Lee, Hsuan-Wei; Kao, Chia-Tze; Liao, Wei-Hsiang; Young, San-Lin

    2014-05-01

    Crystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO; zinc oxide with heavy tin doping of 33 at.%) nanowires were first synthesized using the electrodeposition and heat treatment method based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, which has an average diameter of about 60 nm. According to the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results, the synthesized ZTO nanowires are highly ordered and have high wire packing densities. The length of ZTO nanowires is about 4 μm, and the aspect ratio is around 67. ZTO nanowires with a Zn/(Zn + Sn) atomic ratio of 0.67 (approximately 2/3) were observed from an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns demonstrated that the ZTO nanowire is hexagonal single-crystalline. The study of ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) absorption showed that the ZTO nanowire is a wide-band semiconductor with a band gap energy of 3.7 eV.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of single-crystalline zinc tin oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jen-Bin; Wu, Po-Feng; Lin, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Ting; Lee, Hsuan-Wei; Kao, Chia-Tze; Liao, Wei-Hsiang; Young, San-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO; zinc oxide with heavy tin doping of 33 at.%) nanowires were first synthesized using the electrodeposition and heat treatment method based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, which has an average diameter of about 60 nm. According to the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results, the synthesized ZTO nanowires are highly ordered and have high wire packing densities. The length of ZTO nanowires is about 4 μm, and the aspect ratio is around 67. ZTO nanowires with a Zn/(Zn + Sn) atomic ratio of 0.67 (approximately 2/3) were observed from an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns demonstrated that the ZTO nanowire is hexagonal single-crystalline. The study of ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) absorption showed that the ZTO nanowire is a wide-band semiconductor with a band gap energy of 3.7 eV.

  10. Reusability of contaminated seed crystal for cast quasi-single crystalline silicon ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zaoyang; Liu, Lijun; Zhou, Genshu

    2015-04-01

    Reusing seed crystal is beneficial for reducing the production costs for cast quasi-single crystalline (QSC) silicon ingots. We numerically investigate the reusability of seed crystal in the casting processes with quartz crucible and silicon feedstock of different purities. The reused seed crystal is recycled from the standard QSC ingot and has been highly contaminated by iron impurity. Transient simulations of iron transport are carried out and special attention is paid to the diffusion and distribution characteristics of iron impurity at the ingot bottom. The heights of the bottom iron contaminated region are compared for silicon ingots grown from normal and recycled seed crystals. The results show that the purity of quartz crucible can influence the reusability of seed crystal more significantly than that of the feedstock. The recycled seed crystal with high iron concentration can be reused for casting processes with standard crucible, whereas it is not recommended for reusing for processes with pure crucible.

  11. Luminescent properties of Tm3-xLuxAl5O12:Ce single crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, T.; Suchocki, A.; Zhydachevskyy, Ya.; Fabisiak, K.; Paprocki, K.; Bilski, P.; Twardak, A.; Fedorov, A.

    2017-07-01

    The work devoted to the investigation of a new luminescent and scintillation material based on the single crystalline films (SCFs) of Tm3-xLuxAG:Ce garnet; x = 0-1.5, grown by LPE method from PbO based flux. The best scintillation properties are achieved for SCFs of Tm1.5Lu1.5Al5O12:Ce composition. We have found that direct Tm → Ce and backside Ce → Tm energy transfer processes are observed in Tm1.5Lu1.5Al5O12:Ce. Due to elimination of traps in the 300-450 °C range, the relatively fast scintillation decay is realized in highly doped Tm1.5Lu1.5Al5O12:Ce SCFs. For this reason, Tm doping can be considered as a suitable way for improvement of the scintillation efficiency in other Ce3+ doped garnet compounds.

  12. Luminescent properties of Al2O3:Ce single crystalline films under synchrotron radiation excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Zorenko, T.; Gorbenko, V.; Savchyn, V.; Voznyak, T.; Fabisiak, K.; Zhusupkalieva, G.; Fedorov, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper is dedicated to study the luminescent and scintillation properties of the Al2O3:Ce single crystalline films (SCF) grown by LPE method onto saphire substrates from PbO based flux. The structural quality of SCF samples was investigated by XRD method. For characterization of luminescent properties of Al2O3:Ce SCFs the cathodoluminescence spectra, scintillation light yield (LY) and decay kinetics under excitation by α-particles of Pu239 source were used. We have found that the scintillation LY of Al2O3:Ce SCF samples is relatively large and can reach up to 50% of the value realized in the reference YAG:Ce SCF. Using the synchrotron radiation excitation in the 3.7-25 eV range at 10 K we have also determined the basic parameters of the Ce3+ luminescence in Al2O3 host.

  13. Laser ablation of single-crystalline silicon by radiation of pulsed frequency-selective fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, V. P.; Skvortsov, A. M.; Huynh, C. T.; Petrov, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the process of destruction of the surface of a single-crystalline silicon wafer scanned by the beam of a pulsed ytterbium-doped fiber laser radiation with a wavelength of λ = 1062 nm. It is established that the laser ablation can proceed without melting of silicon and the formation of a plasma plume. Under certain parameters of the process (radiation power, beam scan velocity, and beam overlap density), pronounced oxidation of silicon microparticles with the formation of a characteristic loose layer of fine powdered silicon dioxide has been observed for the first time. The range of lasing and beam scanning regimes in which the growth of SiO2 layer takes place is determined.

  14. Single-crystalline self-branched anatase titania nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenquan; Yang, Huang; Wu, Fei; Fu, Jianxun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Weiguang

    2017-03-01

    The morphology of the anatase titania plays an important role in improving the photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, single-crystalline self-branched anatase TiO2 nanowires have been synthesized by hydrothermal method using TBAH and CTAB as morphology controlling agents. The obtained self-branched TiO2 nanowires dominated by a large percentage of (010) facets. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (6.37%) of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the self-branched TiO2 nanowires shows a significant improvement (26.6%) compared to that of P25 TiO2 (5.03%). The enhanced performance of the self-branched TiO2 nanowires-based DSSC is due to heir large percent of exposed (010) facets which have strong dye adsorption capacity and effective charge transport of the self-branched 1D nanostructures.

  15. Direct monolithic integration of vertical single crystalline octahedral molecular sieve nanowires on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrian; Oro-Sole, Judith; Gazquez, Jaume

    2013-12-13

    We developed an original strategy to produce vertical epitaxial single crystalline manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS) nanowires with tunable pore sizes and compositions on silicon substrates by using a chemical solution deposition approach. The nanowire growth mechanism involves the use of track-etched nanoporous polymer templates combined with the controlled growth of quartz thin films at the silicon surface, which allowed OMS nanowires to stabilize and crystallize. α-quartz thin films were obtained after thermal activated crystallization of the native amorphous silica surface layer assisted by Sr 2+- or Ba 2+-mediated heterogeneous catalysis in the air at 800 °C. These α-quartzmore » thin films work as a selective template for the epitaxial growth of randomly oriented vertical OMS nanowires. Furthermore, the combination of soft chemistry and epitaxial growth opens new opportunities for the effective integration of novel technological functional tunneled complex oxides nanomaterials on Si substrates.« less

  16. Dynamic Impact of Electrode Materials on Interface of Single-Crystalline Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Tisdale, Jeremy T.; Muckley, Eric; Ahmadi, Mahshid

    One of the current challenges in methylammonium lead halide (MAPbX 3) perovskite application research is understanding contact formation and interfacial phenomena for highly efficient and stable device performance. For semiconductors, development of contact formation is inseparable from device performance and stability. Single–crystalline MAPbX3 has become of great interest for perovskite devices in photodetectors, light–emitting diodes, and more recently in high–energy radiation detection. Deeper research is required to understand interfacial interactions in single–crystalline MAPbX 3. This article focuses on the dynamic impact of electrode metal (Au and Cr) on methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr 3) single crystals. It is studied how chargemore » transport properties of single crystal MAPbBr 3 can be tuned via electrode material selection at the metal/MAPbBr 3 interface to improve device performance with proper contact formation. The ability to create an ohmic–like or nonohmic contact by switching the electrode metal from Cr to Au, respectively, is demonstrated. It is observed that the interfacial charge transfer resistance (recombination resistance) of the Cr/MAPbBr 3 interface is 1.79 × 10 9 Ω, compared to 1.32 × 10 7 Ω for the Au/MAPbBr 3. Cr contacts can reduce hysteretic behavior by reducing interfacial recombination and interfacial polarization. Furthermore, these studies provide insight to metal/MAPbX 3 interfacial interactions toward device engineering for hole transport layer–free MAPbX 3 device structures.« less

  17. Dynamic Impact of Electrode Materials on Interface of Single-Crystalline Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite

    DOE PAGES

    Tisdale, Jeremy T.; Muckley, Eric; Ahmadi, Mahshid; ...

    2018-06-19

    One of the current challenges in methylammonium lead halide (MAPbX 3) perovskite application research is understanding contact formation and interfacial phenomena for highly efficient and stable device performance. For semiconductors, development of contact formation is inseparable from device performance and stability. Single–crystalline MAPbX3 has become of great interest for perovskite devices in photodetectors, light–emitting diodes, and more recently in high–energy radiation detection. Deeper research is required to understand interfacial interactions in single–crystalline MAPbX 3. This article focuses on the dynamic impact of electrode metal (Au and Cr) on methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr 3) single crystals. It is studied how chargemore » transport properties of single crystal MAPbBr 3 can be tuned via electrode material selection at the metal/MAPbBr 3 interface to improve device performance with proper contact formation. The ability to create an ohmic–like or nonohmic contact by switching the electrode metal from Cr to Au, respectively, is demonstrated. It is observed that the interfacial charge transfer resistance (recombination resistance) of the Cr/MAPbBr 3 interface is 1.79 × 10 9 Ω, compared to 1.32 × 10 7 Ω for the Au/MAPbBr 3. Cr contacts can reduce hysteretic behavior by reducing interfacial recombination and interfacial polarization. Furthermore, these studies provide insight to metal/MAPbX 3 interfacial interactions toward device engineering for hole transport layer–free MAPbX 3 device structures.« less

  18. Formation of Isolated Zn Vacancies in ZnO Single Crystals by Absorption of Ultraviolet Radiation: A Combined Study Using Positron Annihilation, Photoluminescence, and Mass Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Enamul H.; Weber, Marc H.; McCluskey, Matthew D.

    2013-07-01

    Positron annihilation spectra reveal isolated zinc vacancy (VZn) creation in single-crystal ZnO exposed to 193-nm radiation at 100mJ/cm2 fluence. The appearance of a photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.18 eV in irradiated ZnO is attributed to an electronic transition from the VZn acceptor level at ˜100meV to the conduction band. The observed VZn density profile and hyperthermal Zn+ ion emission support zinc vacancy-interstitial Frenkel pair creation by exciting a wide 6.34 eV Zn-O antibonding state at 193-nm photon—a novel photoelectronic process for controlled VZn creation in ZnO.

  19. Formation of isolated Zn vacancies in ZnO single crystals by absorption of ultraviolet radiation: a combined study using positron annihilation, photoluminescence, and mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Enamul H; Weber, Marc H; McCluskey, Matthew D

    2013-07-05

    Positron annihilation spectra reveal isolated zinc vacancy (V(Zn)) creation in single-crystal ZnO exposed to 193-nm radiation at 100 mJ/cm(2) fluence. The appearance of a photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.18 eV in irradiated ZnO is attributed to an electronic transition from the V(Zn) acceptor level at ~100 meV to the conduction band. The observed V(Zn) density profile and hyperthermal Zn(+) ion emission support zinc vacancy-interstitial Frenkel pair creation by exciting a wide 6.34 eV Zn-O antibonding state at 193-nm photon-a novel photoelectronic process for controlled V(Zn) creation in ZnO.

  20. Optical and Magnetic Resonance Studies of Na-Diffused ZnO Bulk Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, E. R.; Garces, N. Y.; Parmar, N. S.; Lynn, K. G.

    2013-03-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) at 24 GHz were performed on bulk ZnO crystals after diffusion of Na impurities that were explored as an alternate doping source for p-type conductivity. PL at 2K revealed strong bandedge excitonic recombination at 3.361 eV and a broad ``orange'' PL band at 2.17 eV with FWHM of ~0.5 eV. This ``orange'' emission is very similar to that reported previously[1] from thermoluminescence measurements of intentionally Na-doped bulk ZnO and, thus, strongly suggests the incorporation and activation of the Na-diffused impurities. ODMR performed on this ``orange'' PL revealed two signals. The first was a sharp feature with g-value of ~1.96 and is a well-known ``fingerprint'' of shallow donors in ZnO. The second signal consisted of a pair of lines with an intensity ratio of ~3:1 and with g-tensors (g∥,g⊥ ~2.008-2.029) very similar to ESR signals attributed previously[2] to holes bound to Na impurities located at the axial and non-axial Zn host lattice sites in Na-doped ZnO. Thus, the ``orange'' PL can be tentatively assigned to radiative recombination between residual shallow donors and deep Na-related hole traps.

  1. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy on single-crystalline and ceramic CaCu3Ti4O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohns, S.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Ebbinghaus, S. G.; Loidl, A.

    2007-07-01

    The authors present dielectric measurements of the colossal dielectric constant material CaCu3Ti4O12 extending up to 1.3GHz also covering so far only rarely investigated single-crystalline samples. Special emphasis is put on the second relaxation reported in several works on polycrystals, which the authors detect also in single crystals. For polycrystalline samples, the authors provide a recipe to achieve values of the dielectric constant as high as in single crystals.

  2. Luminescent and scintillation properties of Lu3Al5O12:Sc single crystal and single crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Y.; Gorbenko, V.; Voznyak, T.; Savchyn, V.; Nizhankovskiy, S.; Dan'ko, A.; Puzikov, V.; Laguta, V.; Mares, J. A.; Nikl, M.; Nejezchleb, K.; Batentschuk, M.; Winnacker, A.

    2012-10-01

    The work is dedicated to growth by the liquid phase epitaxy method and study of the luminescence and scintillation properties of Sc3+ doped single crystalline films (SCF) of Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG) garnet. The scintillation properties of SCF are compared with single crystal (SC) analogues grown by the Horizontal Direct Crystallization and Czochralski methods. We consider the dependence of intensity of the Sc3+ emission in LuAG host on the activator concentration and influence of flux contamination on the light yield (LY) of the Sc3+ luminescence in LuAG:Sc SCF with respect to their SC counterparts and the reference YAP:Ce scintillator. From the NMR investigations of LuAG:Sc SCF we confirm the substitution by Sc3+ ions both the octahedral and dodecahedral positions of LuAG host and formation of the ScAl and ScLu related emission centers, respectively. We also show that the luminescence spectrum in the UV range and decay kinetics of LuAG:Sc SCF can be effectively tuned by changing the scandium content.

  3. Growth and luminescent properties of Ce and Eu doped Cesium Hafnium Iodide single crystalline scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Shohei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yamaji, Akihiro; Pejchal, Jan; Král, Robert; Ohashi, Yuji; Kamada, Kei; Yokota, Yuui; Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-06-01

    In order to obtain new scintillators with high light output and high effective atomic number (Zeff), we performed anion-substitution for Cs2HfCl6 (CHC) scintillator, and then, we succeeded in growing Cs2HfI6 (CHI) single crystalline scintillator. It had Zeff of 58, which is the same as that of CHC, and had high light output of ∼70,000 photons/MeV with 700 nm emission. However, its scintillation decay time of ∼2.5 μs was slow for practical use as gamma-ray monitor. In this study, we performed Ce3+/Eu2+ doping to Hf4+ site to improve decay time of CHI, introducing the fast 5d-4f luminescence. Ce:CHI and Eu:CHI single crystals were finally obtained by the vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger method. The luminescence spectra of the Ce:CHI and Eu:CHI were very similar to that of the non-doped CHI, which would mean that no 5d-4f luminescence of Ce3+/Eu2+ was observed. The measured light output and decay time of Ce:CHI were ∼48,000 photon/MeV and 2.3 ± 0.1 μs, respectively. As for Eu:CHI, light output and decay time were ∼69,000 photon/MeV and 2.8 ± 0.1 μs, respectively.

  4. Conductive Polymer Synthesis with Single-Crystallinity via a Novel Plasma Polymerization Technique for Gas Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Choon-Sang; Kim, Dong Ha; Shin, Bhum Jae; Kim, Do Yeob; Lee, Hyung-Kun; Tae, Heung-Sik

    2016-09-30

    This study proposes a new nanostructured conductive polymer synthesis method that can grow the single-crystalline high-density plasma-polymerized nanoparticle structures by enhancing the sufficient nucleation and fragmentation of the pyrrole monomer using a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results show that the plasma-polymerized pyrrole (pPPy) nanoparticles have a fast deposition rate of 0.93 µm·min -1 under a room-temperature process and have single-crystalline characteristics with porous properties. In addition, the single-crystalline high-density pPPy nanoparticle structures were successfully synthesized on the glass, plastic, and interdigitated gas sensor electrode substrates using a novel plasma polymerization technique at room temperature. To check the suitability of the active layer for the fabrication of electrochemical toxic gas sensors, the resistance variations of the pPPy nanoparticles grown on the interdigitated gas sensor electrodes were examined by doping with iodine. As a result, the proposed APPJ device could obtain the high-density and ultra-fast single-crystalline pPPy thin films for various gas sensor applications. This work will contribute to the design of highly sensitive gas sensors adopting the novel plasma-polymerized conductive polymer as new active layer.

  5. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Čížek, J., E-mail: jakub.cizek@mff.cuni.cz; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.

    2015-06-22

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies.more » This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration.« less

  6. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čížek, J.; Valenta, J.; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.; Procházka, I.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.

    2015-06-01

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies. This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration.

  7. Impact of growth rate on graphene lattice-defect formation within a single crystalline domain.

    PubMed

    Chin, Hao-Ting; Lee, Jian-Jhang; Hofmann, Mario; Hsieh, Ya-Ping

    2018-03-06

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is promising for the large scale production of graphene and other two-dimensional materials. Optimization of the CVD process for enhancing their quality is a focus of ongoing effort and significant progress has been made in decreasing the defectiveness associated with grain boundaries and nucleation spots. However, little is known about the quality and origin of structural defects in the outgrowing lattice which are present even in single-crystalline material and represent the limit of current optimization efforts. We here investigate the formation kinetics of such defects by controlling graphene's growth rate over a wide range using nanoscale confinements. Statistical analysis of Raman spectroscopic results shows a clear trend between growth rate and defectiveness that is in quantitative agreement with a model where defects are healed preferentially at the growth front. Our results suggest that low growth rates are required to avoid the freezing of lattice defects and form high quality material. This conclusion is confirmed by a fourfold enhancement in graphene's carrier mobility upon optimization of the growth rate.

  8. Fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions with a single-crystalline LiF tunnel barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Narayananellore, Sai; Doko, Naoki; Matsuo, Norihiro; Saito, Hidekazu; Yuasa, Shinji

    2018-04-01

    We fabricated Fe/LiF/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgO(001) substrate, where LiF is an insulating tunnel barrier with the same crystal structure as MgO (rock-salt type). Crystallographical studies such as transmission electron microscopy and nanobeam electron diffraction observations revealed that the LiF tunnel barrier is single-crystalline and has a LiF(001)[100] ∥ bottom Fe(001)[110] crystal orientation, which is constructed in the same manner as MgO(001) on Fe(001). Also, the in-plane lattice mismatch between the LiF tunnel barrier and the Fe bottom electrode was estimated to be small (about 0.5%). Despite such advantages for the tunnel barrier of the MTJ, the observed tunnel magnetoresistance (MR) ratio was low (˜6% at 20 K) and showed a significant decrease with increasing temperature (˜1% at room temperature). The results imply that indirect tunneling and/or thermally excited carriers in the LiF tunnel barrier, in which the current basically is not spin-polarized, play a major role in electrical transport in the MTJ.

  9. Direct Evidence of Exciton-Exciton Annihilation in Single-Crystalline Organic Metal Halide Nanotube Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying-Zhong; Lin, Haoran; Du, Mao-Hua; Doughty, Benjamin; Ma, Biwu

    2018-05-03

    Excitons in low-dimensional organic-inorganic metal halide hybrid structures are commonly thought to undergo rapid self-trapping following creation due to strong quantum confinement and exciton-phonon interaction. Here we report an experimental study probing the dynamics of these self-trapped excitons in the single-crystalline bulk assemblies of 1D organic metal halide nanotubes, (C 6 H 13 N 4 ) 3 Pb 2 Br 7 . Through time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements at different excitation intensities, we observed a marked variation in the PL decay behavior that is manifested by an accelerated decay rate with increasing excitation fluence. Our results offer direct evidence of the occurrence of an exciton-exciton annihilation process, a nonlinear relaxation phenomenon that takes place only when some of the self-trapped excitons become mobile and can approach either each other or those trapped excitons. We further identify a fast and dominant PL decay component with a lifetime of ∼2 ns with a nearly invariant relative area for all acquired PL kinetics, suggesting that this rapid relaxation process is intrinsic.

  10. van der Waals epitaxial ZnTe thin film on single-crystalline graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xin; Chen, Zhizhong; Wang, Yiping; Lu, Zonghuan; Shi, Jian; Washington, Morris; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2018-01-01

    Graphene template has long been promoted as a promising host to support van der Waals flexible electronics. However, van der Waals epitaxial growth of conventional semiconductors in planar thin film form on transferred graphene sheets is challenging because the nucleation rate of film species on graphene is significantly low due to the passive surface of graphene. In this work, we demonstrate the epitaxy of zinc-blende ZnTe thin film on single-crystalline graphene supported by an amorphous glass substrate. Given the amorphous nature and no obvious remote epitaxy effect of the glass substrate, this study clearly proves the van der Waals epitaxy of a 3D semiconductor thin film on graphene. X-ray pole figure analysis reveals the existence of two ZnTe epitaxial orientational domains on graphene, a strong X-ray intensity observed from the ZnTe [ 1 ¯ 1 ¯ 2] ǁ graphene [10] orientation domain, and a weaker intensity from the ZnTe [ 1 ¯ 1 ¯ 2] ǁ graphene [11] orientation domain. Furthermore, this study systematically investigates the optoelectronic properties of this epitaxial ZnTe film on graphene using temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, and fabrication and characterization of a ZnTe-graphene photodetector. The research suggests an effective approach towards graphene-templated flexible electronics.

  11. Nanowire decorated, ultra-thin, single crystalline silicon for photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Aurang, Pantea; Turan, Rasit; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2017-10-06

    Reducing silicon (Si) wafer thickness in the photovoltaic industry has always been demanded for lowering the overall cost. Further benefits such as short collection lengths and improved open circuit voltages can also be achieved by Si thickness reduction. However, the problem with thin films is poor light absorption. One way to decrease optical losses in photovoltaic devices is to minimize the front side reflection. This approach can be applied to front contacted ultra-thin crystalline Si solar cells to increase the light absorption. In this work, homojunction solar cells were fabricated using ultra-thin and flexible single crystal Si wafers. A metal assisted chemical etching method was used for the nanowire (NW) texturization of ultra-thin Si wafers to compensate weak light absorption. A relative improvement of 56% in the reflectivity was observed for ultra-thin Si wafers with the thickness of 20 ± 0.2 μm upon NW texturization. NW length and top contact optimization resulted in a relative enhancement of 23% ± 5% in photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

  12. Composition engineering of single crystalline films based on the multicomponent garnet compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yuriy; Gorbenko, Vitalii; Zorenko, Tetiana; Paprocki, Kazimierz; Bilski, Paweł; Twardak, Anna; Voznyak, Taras; Sidletskiy, Oleg; Gerasimov, Yaroslav; Gryniov, Boris; Fedorov, Alexandr

    2016-11-01

    The paper demonstrates our last achievement in development of the novel scintillating screens based on single crystalline films (SCF) of Ce doped multicomponent garnets using the Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) method. We report in this work the optimized content and excellent scintillation properties of SCF of Lu3-xGdxAl5-yGayO12, Lu3-xTbxAl5-yGayO12 and TbxGdxAl5-yGayO12 garnet compounds grown by the LPE method from PbOsbnd B2O3 based melt-solution onto Gd3Al2.5Ga2.5O12 and YAG substrates. We also show that the Tb1.5Gd1.5Al2.5Ga2.5O12:Ce SCF possess the highest light yield (LY) in comparison with all ever grown garnet SCF scintillators. Namely, the LY of these SCF exceeds by 3.8 and 1.85 times the LY values of the best samples of YAG:Ce and LuAG:Ce SCF scintillators, respectively. The SCF samples of the mentioned compounds show low thermoluminescence in the above room temperature range and relatively fast scintillation decay time t1/e in the 180-200 ns range.

  13. Scintillating Screens Based on the Single Crystalline Films of Multicomponent Garnets: New Achievements and Possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yuriy; Gorbenko, Vitalii; Zorenko, Tetiana; Paprocki, Kazimierz; Nikl, Martin; Mares, Jiri A.; Bilski, Pawel; Twardak, Anna; Sidletskiy, Oleg; Gerasymov, Iaroslav; Grinyov, Boris; Fedorov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    The paper is dedicated to development of the novel scintillating screens based on single crystalline films (SCF) of Ce doped Lu3 - xTbxAl5 - yGayO12 multicomponent garnets at x = 2 - 3 and y = 0 - 2.5 onto Y3Al5O12 (YAG) and Gd3Al2.5Ga2.5O12 (GAGG) substrates using the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method. We report the optimized content and high scintillation figure of merit of SCF of these garnets grown by the LPE method with using PbO based flux. Namely, the Tb3Al2.5Ga2.5O12:Ce SCFs possess the highest values of light yield (LY) compared to all earlier investigated SCF samples, with their LY exceeding by 2.35 and 1.15 times the LY values for YAG:Ce and LuAG:Ce SCF scintillators, respectively. The SCFs of the mentioned compounds show very lower thermoluminescence in the above room temperature range and relatively fast scintillation decay.

  14. Fabrications and application of single crystalline GaN for high-performance deep UV photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Velazquez, R.; Rivera, M.; Feng, P., E-mail: p.feng@upr.edu

    2016-08-15

    High-quality single crystalline Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor has been synthesized using molecule beam epitaxy (MBE) technique for development of high-performance deep ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. Thickness of the films was estimated by using surface profile meter and scanning electron microscope. Electronic states and elemental composition of the films were obtained using Raman scattering spectroscopy. The orientation, crystal structure and phase purity of the films were examined using a Siemens x-ray diffractometer radiation. The surface microstructure was studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two types of metal pairs: Al-Al, Al-Cu or Cu-Cu were used for interdigital electrodes on GaN filmmore » in order to examine the Schottky properties of the GaN based photodetector. The characterizations of the fabricated prototype include the stability, responsivity, response and recovery times. Typical time dependent photoresponsivity by switching different UV light source on and off five times for each 240 seconds at a bias of 2V, respectively, have been obtained. The detector appears to be highly sensitive to various UV wavelengths of light with very stable baseline and repeatability. The obtained photoresponsivity was up to 354 mA/W at the bias 2V. Higher photoresponsivity could be obtained if higher bias was applied but it would unavoidably result in a higher dark current. Thermal effect on the fabricated GaN based prototype was discussed.« less

  15. Fabrication of 20.19% Efficient Single-Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell with Inverted Pyramid Microstructure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyang; Chen, Lingzhi; Zhu, Yingjie; Guan, Zisheng

    2018-04-03

    This paper reports inverted pyramid microstructure-based single-crystalline silicon (sc-Si) solar cell with a conversion efficiency up to 20.19% in standard size of 156.75 × 156.75 mm 2 . The inverted pyramid microstructures were fabricated jointly by metal-assisted chemical etching process (MACE) with ultra-low concentration of silver ions and optimized alkaline anisotropic texturing process. And the inverted pyramid sizes were controlled by changing the parameters in both MACE and alkaline anisotropic texturing. Regarding passivation efficiency, the textured sc-Si with normal reflectivity of 9.2% and inverted pyramid size of 1 μm was used to fabricate solar cells. The best batch of solar cells showed a 0.19% higher of conversion efficiency and a 0.22 mA cm -2 improvement in short-circuit current density, and the excellent photoelectric property surpasses that of the same structure solar cell reported before. This technology shows great potential to be an alternative for large-scale production of high efficient sc-Si solar cells in the future.

  16. An Ultrathin Single Crystalline Relaxor Ferroelectric Integrated on a High Mobility Semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Reza M; Xiao, Zhiyong; Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar; Grimley, Everett D; Bowden, Mark; Ong, Phuong-Vu; Chambers, Scott A; Lebeau, James M; Hong, Xia; Sushko, Peter V; Ngai, Joseph H

    2017-10-11

    The epitaxial growth of multifunctional oxides on semiconductors has opened a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor device technologies. In particular, the integration of gate materials that enable nonvolatile or hysteretic functionality in field-effect transistors could lead to device technologies that consume less power or allow for novel modalities in computing. Here we present electrical characterization of ultrathin single crystalline SrZr x Ti 1-x O 3 (x = 0.7) films epitaxially grown on a high mobility semiconductor, Ge. Epitaxial films of SrZr x Ti 1-x O 3 exhibit relaxor behavior, characterized by a hysteretic polarization that can modulate the surface potential of Ge. We find that gate layers as thin as 5 nm corresponding to an equivalent-oxide thickness of just 1.0 nm exhibit a ∼2 V hysteretic window in the capacitance-voltage characteristics. The development of hysteretic metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with nanoscale gate thicknesses opens new vistas for nanoelectronic devices.

  17. Direct Evidence of Exciton–Exciton Annihilation in Single-Crystalline Organic Metal Halide Nanotube Assemblies

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Ying -Zhong; Lin, Haoran; Du, Mao -Hua; ...

    2018-04-11

    Excitons in low-dimensional organic–inorganic metal halide hybrid structures are commonly thought to undergo rapid self-trapping following creation due to strong quantum confinement and exciton–phonon interaction. Here we report an experimental study probing the dynamics of these self-trapped excitons in the single-crystalline bulk assemblies of 1D organic metal halide nanotubes, (C 6H 13N 4) 3Pb 2Br 7. Through time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements at different excitation intensities, we observed a marked variation in the PL decay behavior that is manifested by an accelerated decay rate with increasing excitation fluence. Our results offer direct evidence of the occurrence of an exciton–exciton annihilation process,more » a nonlinear relaxation phenomenon that takes place only when some of the self-trapped excitons become mobile and can approach either each other or those trapped excitons. As a result, we further identify a fast and dominant PL decay component with a lifetime of ~2 ns with a nearly invariant relative area for all acquired PL kinetics, suggesting that this rapid relaxation process is intrinsic.« less

  18. Determination of the spin Hall angle in single-crystalline Pt films from spin pumping experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Sascha; Mihalceanu, Laura; Schweizer, Matthias R.; Lang, Philipp; Heinz, Björn; Geilen, Moritz; Brächer, Thomas; Pirro, Philipp; Meyer, Thomas; Conca, Andres; Karfaridis, Dimitrios; Vourlias, George; Kehagias, Thomas; Hillebrands, Burkard; Papaioannou, Evangelos Th

    2018-05-01

    We report on the determination of the spin Hall angle in ultra-clean, defect-reduced epitaxial Pt films. By applying vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy to a series of single crystalline Fe (12 nm) /Pt (t Pt) bilayers we determine the real part of the spin mixing conductance (4.4 ± 0.2) × 1019 m‑2 and reveal a very small spin diffusion length in the epitaxial Pt (1.1 ± 0.1) nm film. We investigate the spin pumping and ISHE in a stripe microstucture excited by a microwave coplanar waveguide antenna. By using their different angular dependencies, we distinguish between spin rectification effects and the inverse spin Hall effect. The relatively large value of the spin Hall angle (5.7 ± 1.4)% shows that ultra-clean e-beam evaporated non-magnetic materials can also have a comparable spin-to-charge current conversion efficiency as sputtered high resistivity layers.

  19. Direct Evidence of Exciton–Exciton Annihilation in Single-Crystalline Organic Metal Halide Nanotube Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ying -Zhong; Lin, Haoran; Du, Mao -Hua

    Excitons in low-dimensional organic–inorganic metal halide hybrid structures are commonly thought to undergo rapid self-trapping following creation due to strong quantum confinement and exciton–phonon interaction. Here we report an experimental study probing the dynamics of these self-trapped excitons in the single-crystalline bulk assemblies of 1D organic metal halide nanotubes, (C 6H 13N 4) 3Pb 2Br 7. Through time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements at different excitation intensities, we observed a marked variation in the PL decay behavior that is manifested by an accelerated decay rate with increasing excitation fluence. Our results offer direct evidence of the occurrence of an exciton–exciton annihilation process,more » a nonlinear relaxation phenomenon that takes place only when some of the self-trapped excitons become mobile and can approach either each other or those trapped excitons. As a result, we further identify a fast and dominant PL decay component with a lifetime of ~2 ns with a nearly invariant relative area for all acquired PL kinetics, suggesting that this rapid relaxation process is intrinsic.« less

  20. SQUID-detected FMR: Resonance in single crystalline and polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, J. M.; Stamenov, P.

    2018-04-01

    Here two new techniques for the detection of broadband (100 MHz-20 GHz) ferromagnetic resonance (FMR)/ferrimagnetic resonance in single and poly-crystalline materials, which rely on SQUID-based gradiometry detection of small changes in the magnetisation, are developed. In the first method, small changes in the along-the-applied-field projection of the coupled magnetic moment (Δmz) are detected as the material is driven into resonance. Absolute measurement of the longitudinal component of the magnetisation and the resonance induced lowering of this moment makes estimation of the precession cone angle accessible, which is typically difficult to extract using conventional cavity or stripline based detection methods. The second method invokes the change in Δmz with the resonance-induced thermal heating (d/mz d T ). Magnetisation dynamics in bulk Y3Fe5O12 are observed over a broad range of experimental temperatures (4 K-400 K) and fields (10-500 mT). The inhomogeneous microwave excitation allows for the observation of higher magnetostatic modes and the convenient tracking of very broad resonances. The two SQUID-detection techniques when combined with conventional broadband vector network analyser-FMR, low-frequency magnetic susceptibility, and DC magnetometry, all easily realised, essentially concurrently, using the same module, greatly expand the amount of static and dynamic information accessible.

  1. Current-direction dependence of the transport properties in single-crystalline face-centered-cubic cobalt films

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, X.; Liang, J. H.; Chen, B. L.

    2015-07-28

    Face-centered-cubic cobalt films are epitaxially grown on insulating LaAlO{sub 3}(001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Transport measurements are conducted in different current directions relative to the crystal axes. We find that the temperature dependent anisotropic magnetoresistance ratio strongly depends on the current direction. However, the anomalous Hall effect shows isotropic behavior independent of the current direction. Our results demonstrate the interplay between the current direction and the crystalline lattice in single-crystalline ferromagnetic films. A phenomenological analysis is presented to interpret the experimental data.

  2. Topotactical growth of thick perovskite oxynitride layers by nitridation of single crystalline oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbinghaus, Stefan G.; Aguiar, Rosiana; Weidenkaff, Anke; Gsell, Stefan; Reller, Armin

    2008-06-01

    Thick films of the perovskite-related oxynitrides LaTiO 2N, NdTiO 2N, SrNbO 2N and SrTaO 2N were synthesised by nitridation of single crystals of the corresponding oxides with general composition ABO 3.5. The oxide crystals were obtained by optical floating zone growth. They correspond to n = 4 member of the A nB nO 3 n+2 family of layered perovskites and were reacted at temperatures between 900 °C and 1050 °C to form the oxynitrides. Electron probe microanalysis proved the presence of nitrogen in a surface layer of a few micrometer thickness. Cross-section SEM revealed additional thin stripes of oxynitride within the bulk of the crystals, indicating that nitrogen is incorporated preferably parallel to the perovskite-type layers, which in turn are connected in a zipper-type mechanism. The formation of the desired perovskite-type oxynitrides was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Pole figure measurements proved an epitaxial orientation ABO 2N (110)[001] ‖ ABO 3.5 (001)[100]. The mosaicity of the oxynitrides both in polar and azimuthal direction was very small (<2°) indicating a nearly single crystalline quality of the surface layer. The nitridation of the crystals results in a dramatic change in colour. Optical spectroscopy revealed shifts of the absorption edge by more than 200 nm to longer wavelengths with respect to the parent oxides, corresponding to a reduction of the band gap energies by 1.4-1.8 eV.

  3. Photoelectrocatalytic activity of a hydrothermally grown branched Zno nanorod-array electrode for paracetamol degradation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin Jung; Liao, Shu-Jun; Kao, Li-Cheng; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2015-06-30

    Hierarchical branched ZnO nanorod (B-ZnR) arrays as an electrode for efficient photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using a solution route. The morphologic and structural studies show the ZnO trunks are single-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite ZnO with a [0001] growth direction and are densely covered by c-axis-oriented ZnO branches. The obvious enhancement in photocurrent response of the B-ZnR electrode was obtained than that in the ZnO nanoparticle (ZnO NP) electrode. For the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol in 20 h, the conversion fraction of the drug increased from 32% over ZnO NP electrode to 62% over B-ZnR arrays with about 3-fold increase in initial reaction rate. The light intensity-dependent photoelectrocatalytic experiment indicated that the superior performance over the B-ZnR electrode was mainly ascribed to the increased specific surface area without significantly sacrificing the charge transport and pollutant diffusion efficiencies. Two aromatic intermediate compounds were observed and eventually converted into harmless carboxylic acids and ammonia. Hierarchical tree-like ZnO arrays can be considered effective alternatives to improve photoelectro degradation rates without the need for expensive additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Single Zno Nanowire-Based Biofet Sensors for Ultrasensitive, Label-Free and Real-Time Detection of Uric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pei; Liu, Xi; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Lei, Yang; Zhao, Yanguang

    2012-08-01

    Qualitative and quantitative detection of biological and chemical species is crucial in many areas, ranging from clinical diagnosis to homeland security. Due to the advantages of ultrahigh sensitivity, label-free, fast readout and easy fabrication over the traditional detection systems, semiconductor nanowire based electronic devices have emerged as a potential platform. In this paper, we fabricated a single ZnO nanowire-based bioFET sensor for the detection of low and high concentration uric acid solution at the same time. The addition of uric acid with the concentrations from 1 pM to 0.5 mM resulted in the electrical conductance changes of up to 227 nS, and the response time turns out to be in the order of millisecond. The ZnO NW biosensor could easily detect as low as 1 pM of the uric acid with 14.7 nS of conductance increase, which implied that the sensitivity of the biosensor can be below the 1pM concentration.

  5. Thermophysical and Mechanical Properties of Advanced Single Crystalline Co-base Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz, N.; Zenk, C. H.; Cherukuri, R.; Kalfhaus, T.; Weiser, M.; Makineni, S. K.; Betzing, C.; Lenz, M.; Gault, B.; Fries, S. G.; Schreuer, J.; Vaßen, R.; Virtanen, S.; Raabe, D.; Spiecker, E.; Neumeier, S.; Göken, M.

    2018-05-01

    A set of advanced single crystalline γ' strengthened Co-base superalloys with at least nine alloying elements (Co, Ni, Al, W, Ti, Ta, Cr, Si, Hf, Re) has been developed and investigated. The objective was to generate multinary Co-base superalloys with significantly improved properties compared to the original Co-Al-W-based alloys. All alloys show the typical γ/γ' two-phase microstructure. A γ' solvus temperature up to 1174 °C and γ' volume fractions between 40 and 60 pct at 1050 °C could be achieved, which is significantly higher compared to most other Co-Al-W-based superalloys. However, higher contents of Ti, Ta, and the addition of Re decrease the long-term stability. Atom probe tomography revealed that Re does not partition to the γ phase as strongly as in Ni-base superalloys. Compression creep properties were investigated at 1050 °C and 125 MPa in <001> direction. The creep resistance is close to that of first generation Ni-base superalloys. The creep mechanisms of the Re-containing alloy was further investigated and it was found that the deformation is located preferentially in the γ channels although some precipitates are sheared during early stages of creep. The addition of Re did not improve the mechanical properties and is therefore not considered as a crucial element in the design of future Co-base superalloys for high temperature applications. Thermodynamic calculations describe well how the alloying elements influence the transformation temperatures although there is still an offset in the actual values. Furthermore, a full set of elastic constants of one of the multinary alloys is presented, showing increased elastic stiffness leading to a higher Young's modulus for the investigated alloy, compared to conventional Ni-base superalloys. The oxidation resistance is significantly improved compared to the ternary Co-Al-W compound. A complete thermal barrier coating system was applied successfully.

  6. SiO2/ZnO Composite Hollow Sub-Micron Fibers: Fabrication from Facile Single Capillary Electrospinning and Their Photoluminescence Properties.

    PubMed

    Song, Guanying; Li, Zhenjiang; Li, Kaihua; Zhang, Lina; Meng, Alan

    2017-02-24

    In this work, SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers were fabricated by a facile single capillary electrospinning technique followed by calcination, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ZnO nanoparticles as raw materials. The characterization results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra indicated that the asprepared composite hollow fibers consisted of amorphous SiO2 and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO. The products revealed uniform tubular structure with outer diameters of 400-500 nm and wall thickness of 50-60 nm. The gases generated and the directional escaped mechanism was proposed to illustrate the formation of SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers. Furthermore, a broad blue emission band was observed in the photoluminescence (PL) of SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers, exhibiting great potential applications as blue light-emitting candidate materials.

  7. Electrochemically assisted localized etching of ZnO single crystals in water using a catalytically active Pt-coated atomic force microscopy probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kota; Sasano, Junji; Nagai, Moeto

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a nanofabrication technique based on the electrochemically assisted chemical dissolution of zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystals in water at room temperature using a catalytically active Pt-coated atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. Fabricated grooves featured depths and widths of several tens and several hundreds of nanometers, respectively. The material removal rate of ZnO was dramatically improved by controlling the formation of hydrogen ions (H+) on the surface of the catalytic Pt-coated probe via oxidation of H2O molecules; this reaction can be enhanced by applying a cathodic potential to an additional Pt-wire working electrode in a three-electrode configuration. Consequently, ZnO can be dissolved chemically in water as a soluble Zn2+ species via a reaction with H+ species present in high concentrations in the immediate vicinity of the AFM tip apex.

  8. Nuclear reaction analysis of Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals: The evaluation of the displacement in oxygen lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2014-08-01

    The displacement of oxygen lattices in Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals is studied by nuclear reaction analysis (NAR), photoluminescence (PL), and Van der Pauw methods. The Ge ion-implantation (net concentration: 2.6 × 1020 cm-3) into ZnO is performed using a multiple-step energy. The high resistivity of ∼103 Ω cm in un-implanted samples remarkably decreased to ∼10-2 Ω cm after implanting Ge-ion and annealing subsequently. NRA measurements of as-implanted and annealed samples suggest the existence of the lattice displacement of O atoms acting as acceptor defects. As O related defects still remain after annealing, these defects are not attributed to the origin of the low resistivity in 800 and 1000 °C annealed ZnO.

  9. Origins of low resistivity and Ge donor level in Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.

    2013-12-04

    The energy level of Ge in Ge-ion implanted ZnO single crystals is studied by Hall-effect and photoluminescence (PL) methods. The variations in resistivity from ∼10{sup 3} Ωcm for un-implanted samples to ∼10{sup −2} Ωcm for as-implanted ones are observed. The resistivity is further decreased to ∼10{sup −3} Ωcm by annealing. The origins of the low resistivity are attributed to both the zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}) related defects and the electrical activated Ge donor. An activation energy of Ge donors estimated from the temperature dependence of carrier concentration is 102 meV. In PL studies, the new peak at 372 nm (3.33more » eV) related to the Ge donor is observed in 1000 °C annealed samples.« less

  10. Anisotropic thermodynamic and transport properties of single-crystalline CaKFe 4 As 4

    DOE PAGES

    Meier, W. R.; Kong, T.; Kaluarachchi, U. S.; ...

    2016-08-01

    We grew single-crystalline, single-phase CaKFe 4As 4 out of a high-temperature, quaternary melt. Temperature-dependent measurements of x-ray diffraction, anisotropic electrical resistivity, elastoresistivity, thermoelectric power, Hall effect, magnetization, and specific heat, combined with field-dependent measurements of electrical resistivity and field and pressure-dependent measurements of magnetization indicate that CaKFe 4As 4 is an ordered, stoichiometric, Fe-based superconductor with a superconducting critical temperature, T c=35.0±0.2 K. Other than superconductivity, there is no indication of any other phase transition for 1.8K≤T≤300 K. All of these thermodynamic and transport data reveal striking similarities to those found for optimally or slightly overdoped (Ba 1-xKx)Fe 2As 2, suggesting that stoichiometric CaKFe 4As 4 is intrinsically close to what is referred to as “optimal-doped” on a generalized, Fe-based superconductor, phase diagram. Furthermore, the anisotropic superconducting upper critical field, H c2(T), of CaKFe 4As 4 was determined up to 630 kOe. The anisotropy parameter γ(T)=Hmore » $$⊥\\atop{c2}$$/H$$∥\\atop{c2}$$, for H applied perpendicular and parallel to the c axis, decreases from ≃2.5 at T c to ≃1.5 at 25 K, which can be explained by interplay of paramagnetic pair breaking and orbital effects. The slopes of dH$$∥\\atop{c2}$$/dT≃-44 kOe/K and dH$$⊥\\atop{c2}$$/dT≃-109 kOe/K at T c yield an electron mass anisotropy of m ⊥/m ∥≃1/6 and short Ginzburg-Landau coherence lengths ξ ∥(0)≃5.8Å and ξ ⊥(0)≃14.3Å. Finally, the value of H$$⊥\\atop{c2}$$(0) can be extrapolated to ≃920 kOe, well above the BCS paramagnetic limit.« less

  11. Synthesis and temperature dependent Raman studies of large crystalline faces topological GeBi4Te7 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal, Priyanath; Bera, G.; Turpu, G. R.; Srivastava, Sunil K.; Das, Pradip

    2018-05-01

    We present a study of structural and vibrational properties of topological insulator GeBi4Te7. Modified Bridgeman technique is employed to synthesize the single crystal with relatively large crystalline faces. Sharp (0 0 l) reflection confirms the high crystallinity of the single crystal. We have performed temperature dependent Raman measurement for both parallel and perpendicular to crystallographic c axis geometry. In parallel configuration we have observed seven Raman modes whereas in perpendicular geometry only four of these are identified. Appearance and disappearance of Raman modes having different intensities for parallel and perpendicular to c measurement attribute to the mode polarization. Progressive blue shift is observed with lowering temperature, reflects the increase in internal stress.

  12. Kinetically controlled fabrication of single-crystalline TiO 2 nanobrush architectures with high energy {001} facets

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Lisha; Gao, Xiang; Lee, Dongkyu; ...

    2017-03-01

    Here, this study demonstrates that precise control of nonequilibrium growth conditions during pulsed laser deposition (PLD) can be exploited to produce single-crystalline anatase TiO 2 nanobrush architectures with large surface areas terminated with high energy {001} facets. The data indicate that the key to nanobrush formation is controlling the atomic surface transport processes to balance defect aggregation and surface-smoothing processes. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy data reveal that defect-mediated aggregation is the key to TiO 2 nanobrush formation. The large concentration of defects present at the intersection of domain boundaries promotes aggregation of PLD growth species, resulting in the growthmore » of the single-crystalline nanobrush architecture. This study proposes a model for the relationship between defect creation and growth mode in nonequilibrium environments, which enables application of this growth method to novel nanostructure design in a broad range of materials.« less

  13. pH-triggered conduction of amine-functionalized single ZnO wire integrated on a customized nanogap electronic platform

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The electrical conductance response of single ZnO microwire functionalized with amine-groups was tested upon an acid pH variation of a solution environment after integration on a customized gold electrode array chip. ZnO microwires were easily synthesized by hydrothermal route and chemically functionalized with aminopropyl groups. Single wires were deposited from the solution and then oriented through dielectrophoresis across eight nanogap gold electrodes on a platform single chip. Therefore, eight functionalized ZnO microwire-gold junctions were formed at the same time, and being integrated on an ad hoc electronic platform, they were ready for testing without any further treatment. Experimental and simulation studies confirmed the high pH-responsive behavior of the amine-modified ZnO-gold junctions, obtaining in a simple and reproducible way a ready-to-use device for pH detection in the acidic range. We also compared this performance to bare ZnO wires on the same electronic platform, showing the superiority in pH response of the amine-functionalized material. PMID:24484615

  14. Direct Heteroepitaxial Growth of ZnO over GaN Crystal in Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Takahiro; Ito, Akihiro; Nagao, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Nobuyasu; Fujii, Eiji; Tsujimura, Ayumu

    2013-04-01

    We report on the structural and electrical properties of ZnO films grown on surface-treated GaN/Al2O3 substrates by chemical bath deposition. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the ZnO films had a single-crystalline wurtzite structure with c-axis orientation. The ZnO film exhibited n-type conduction with a carrier concentration of 6.9 ×1018 cm-3, an electron mobility of 41 cm2/(V.s), and a resistivity of 2.2 ×10-2 Ω.cm. A low specific contact resistivity of 4.3 ×10-3 Ω.cm2 was obtained at the ZnO/n-GaN interface. Additionally, the ZnO film exhibited high transparency in the visible and infrared region.

  15. Ab initio study of single-crystalline and polycrystalline elastic properties of Mg-substituted calcite crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L-F; Friák, M; Lymperakis, L; Titrian, H; Aydin, U; Janus, A M; Fabritius, H-O; Ziegler, A; Nikolov, S; Hemzalová, P; Raabe, D; Neugebauer, J

    2013-04-01

    We employ ab initio calculations and investigate the single-crystalline elastic properties of (Ca,Mg)CO3 crystals covering the whole range of concentrations from pure calcite CaCO3 to pure magnesite MgCO3. Studying different distributions of Ca and Mg atoms within 30-atom supercells, our theoretical results show that the energetically most favorable configurations are characterized by elastic constants that nearly monotonously increase with the Mg content. Based on the first principles-derived single-crystalline elastic anisotropy, the integral elastic response of (Ca,Mg)CO3 polycrystals is determined employing a mean-field self-consistent homogenization method. As in case of single-crystalline elastic properties, the computed polycrystalline elastic parameters sensitively depend on the chemical composition and show a significant stiffening impact of Mg atoms on calcite crystals in agreement with the experimental findings. Our analysis also shows that it is not advantageous to use a higher-scale two-phase mix of stoichiometric calcite and magnesite instead of substituting Ca atoms by Mg ones on the atomic scale. Such two-phase composites are not significantly thermodynamically favorable and do not provide any strong additional stiffening effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Manipulating Ion Migration for Highly Stable Light-Emitting Diodes with Single-Crystalline Organometal Halide Perovskite Microplatelets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingming; Shan, Xin; Geske, Thomas; Li, Junqiang; Yu, Zhibin

    2017-06-27

    Ion migration has been commonly observed as a detrimental phenomenon in organometal halide perovskite semiconductors, causing the measurement hysteresis in solar cells and ultrashort operation lifetimes in light-emitting diodes. In this work, ion migration is utilized for the formation of a p-i-n junction at ambient temperature in single-crystalline organometal halide perovskites. The junction is subsequently stabilized by quenching the ionic movement at a low temperature. Such a strategy of manipulating the ion migration has led to efficient single-crystalline light-emitting diodes that emit 2.3 eV photons starting at 1.8 V and sustain a continuous operation for 54 h at ∼5000 cd m -2 without degradation of brightness. In addition, a whispering-gallery-mode cavity and exciton-exciton interaction in the perovskite microplatelets have both been observed that can be potentially useful for achieving electrically driven laser diodes based on single-crystalline organometal halide perovskite semiconductors.

  17. Approaching the alloy limit of thermal conductivity in single-crystalline Si-based thermoelectric nanocomposites: A molecular dynamics investigation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ruiqiang; Huang, Baoling

    2015-01-01

    Single-crystalline Si-based nanocomposites have become promising candidates for thermoelectric applications due to their prominent merits. Reducing the thermal conductivity κ without deteriorating the electrical properties is the key to improve their performance. Through non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we show that κ of single-crystalline Si-based nanocomposites can be reduced to the alloy limit by embedding various nanoinclusions of similar lattice constants but different lattice orientations or space symmetries with respect to the matrix. The surprisingly low κ is mainly due to the large acoustic phonon density of states mismatch caused by the destruction of lattice periodicity at the interfaces between the nanoinclusions and matrix, which leads to the substantial reduction of phonon group velocity and relaxation time, as well as the enhancement of phonon localization. The resulting κ is also temperature-insensitive due to the dominance of boundary scattering. The increase in thermal resistance induced by lattice structure mismatch mainly comes from the nanoinclusions and the channels between them and is caused by the enhanced boundary scattering at the interfaces parallel to the heat flux. Approaching the alloy limit of κ with potentially improved electrical properties by fillers will remarkably improve ZT of single-crystalline Si-based nanocomposites and extend their application. PMID:25851401

  18. Atomic-Level Sculpting of Crystalline Oxides: Toward Bulk Nanofabrication with Single Atomic Plane Precision.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Stephen; He, Qian; Lupini, Andrew R; Leonard, Donovan N; Oxley, Mark P; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Unocic, Raymond R; Tselev, Alexander; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Sumpter, Bobby G; Pennycook, Stephen J; Kalinin, Sergei V; Borisevich, Albina Y

    2015-11-25

    The atomic-level sculpting of 3D crystalline oxide nanostructures from metastable amorphous films in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is demonstrated. Strontium titanate nanostructures grow epitaxially from the crystalline substrate following the beam path. This method can be used for fabricating crystalline structures as small as 1-2 nm and the process can be observed in situ with atomic resolution. The fabrication of arbitrary shape structures via control of the position and scan speed of the electron beam is further demonstrated. Combined with broad availability of the atomic resolved electron microscopy platforms, these observations suggest the feasibility of large scale implementation of bulk atomic-level fabrication as a new enabling tool of nanoscience and technology, providing a bottom-up, atomic-level complement to 3D printing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Atomic-Level Sculpting of Crystalline Oxides: Toward Bulk Nanofabrication with Single Atomic Plane Precision

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, Stephen; He, Qian; Lupini, Andrew R.

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate atomic-level sculpting of 3D crystalline oxide nanostructures from metastable amorphous layer in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Strontium titanate nanostructures grow epitaxially from the crystalline substrate following the beam path. This method can be used for fabricating crystalline structures as small as 1-2 nm and the process can be observed in situ with atomic resolution. We further demonstrate fabrication of arbitrary shape structures via control of the position and scan speed of the electron beam. Combined with broad availability of the atomic resolved electron microscopy platforms, these observations suggest the feasibility of large scale implementation of bulkmore » atomic-level fabrication as a new enabling tool of nanoscience and technology, providing a bottom-up, atomic-level complement to 3D printing.« less

  20. Growth of single crystalline delafossite LaCuO2 by the travelling-solvent floating zone method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, A.; Büchner, B.; Wurmehl, S.; Hess, C.

    2014-09-01

    Single crystals of LaCuO2 have been grown for the first time using the travelling-solvent floating zone method. The crystal was grown in an Ar-atmosphere by reduction of La2Cu2O5, which was used as the feed rod composition for the growth. The grown crystal has been characterized with regard to phase purity and single crystallinity using powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Laue diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Modulation-doped growth of mosaic graphene with single-crystalline p–n junctions for efficient photocurrent generation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kai; Wu, Di; Peng, Hailin; Jin, Li; Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe; Liu, Zhongfan

    2012-01-01

    Device applications of graphene such as ultrafast transistors and photodetectors benefit from the combination of both high-quality p- and n-doped components prepared in a large-scale manner with spatial control and seamless connection. Here we develop a well-controlled chemical vapour deposition process for direct growth of mosaic graphene. Mosaic graphene is produced in large-area monolayers with spatially modulated, stable and uniform doping, and shows considerably high room temperature carrier mobility of ~5,000 cm2 V−1 s−1 in intrinsic portion and ~2,500 cm2 V−1 s−1 in nitrogen-doped portion. The unchanged crystalline registry during modulation doping indicates the single-crystalline nature of p–n junctions. Efficient hot carrier-assisted photocurrent was generated by laser excitation at the junction under ambient conditions. This study provides a facile avenue for large-scale synthesis of single-crystalline graphene p–n junctions, allowing for batch fabrication and integration of high-efficiency optoelectronic and electronic devices within the atomically thin film. PMID:23232410

  2. Comparative study of textured and epitaxial ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Y. R.; Zhu, S.; Wrobel, J. M.; Jeong, H. M.; Miceli, P. F.; White, H. W.

    2000-06-01

    ZnO films were synthesized by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on GaAs and α-Al 2O 3 substrates. The properties of ZnO films on GaAs and α-Al 2O 3 have been investigated to determine the differences between epitaxial and textured ZnO films. ZnO films on GaAs show very strong emission features associated with exciton transitions as do ZnO films on α-Al 2O 3, while the crystalline structural qualities for ZnO films on α-Al 2O 3 are much better than those for ZnO films on GaAs. The properties of ZnO films are studied by comparing highly oriented, textured ZnO films on GaAs with epitaxial ZnO films on α-Al 2O 3 synthesized along the c-axis.

  3. Crystalline perfection, optical and piezoelectric properties of a novel semi-organic single crystal: Zinc guanidinium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandhini, S.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Guanidinium Sulfate (ZGuS), a semi-organic single crystal, was synthesized using slow evaporation solution growth technique. It is a non-centrosymmetric crystal with space group I4 ¯2d . The crystalline nature of the crystal and the strain were determined using powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was revealed using HR-XRD analysis. The UV-vis-NIR transmittance spectrum depicts 60% transparency with lower-cut off wavelength of 210 nm. The emission spectrum of the crystal was determined using photoluminescence study. Piezoelectricity was confirmed by determining the piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33). These findings shows that the title compound can be employed for photonic and transducer applications.

  4. Preparation of "Cauliflower-Like" ZnO Micron-Sized Particles.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Tamar; Grinblat, Judith; Margel, Shlomo

    2013-11-14

    Porous polydivinyl benzene (PDVB) microspheres of narrow size distribution were formed by a single-step swelling process of template uniform polystyrene microspheres with divinyl benzene (DVB), followed by polymerization of the DVB within the swollen template microspheres. The PDVB porous particles were then formed by dissolution of the template polystyrene polymer. Unique "cauliflower-like" ZnO microparticles were prepared by the entrapping of the ZnO precursor ZnCl₂ in the PDVB porous microspheres under vacuum, followed by calcination of the obtained ZnCl₂-PDVB microspheres in an air atmosphere. The morphology, crystallinity and fluorescence properties of those ZnO microparticles were characterized. This "cauliflower-like" shape ZnO particles is in contrast to a previous study demonstrated the preparation of spherical shaped porous ZnO and C-ZnO microparticles by a similar method, using zinc acetate (ZnAc) as a precursor. Two diverted synthesis mechanisms for those two different ZnO microparticles structures are proposed, based on studies of the distribution of each of the ZnO precursors within the PDVB microspheres.

  5. Gallium ion-assisted room temperature synthesis of small-diameter ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seungho; Kim, Semi; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2011-09-15

    We report a method for synthesizing small-diameter ZnO nanorods at room temperature (20 °C), under normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm), and using a relatively short reaction time (1 h) by adding gallium salts to the reaction solution. The ZnO nanorods were, on average, 92 nm in length and 9 nm in diameter and were single crystalline in nature. Quantitative analyses revealed that gallium atoms were not incorporated into the synthesized nanocrystals. On the basis of the experimental results, we propose a mechanism for the formation of small-diameter ZnO nanorods in the presence of gallium ions. The optical properties were probed by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The absorption band of the small-diameter ZnO nanorods was blue-shifted relative to the absorption band of the ~230 nm diameter ZnO nanorods (control samples). Control experiments demonstrated that the absence of metal ion-containing precipitants (except ZnO) at room temperature is essential, and that the ZnO nanorod diameter distributions were narrow for the stirred reaction solution and broad when prepared without stirring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Two-dimensional vanadium-doped ZnO nanosheet-based flexible direct current nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Keun Young; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2013-10-22

    Here, we report the synthesis of lead-free single-crystalline two-dimensional (2D) vanadium(V)-doped ZnO nanosheets (NSs) and their application for high-performance flexible direct current (DC) power piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs). The vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) converted to NS networks by V doping. Piezoresponse force microscopy studies reveal that vertical V-doped ZnO NS exhibit typical ferroelectricity with clear phase loops, butterfly, and well-defined hysteresis loops with a piezoelectric charge coefficient of up to 4 pm/V, even in 2D nanostructures. From pristine ZnO NR-based NGs, alternating current (AC)-type output current was observed, while from V-doped ZnO NS-based NGs, a DC-type output current density of up to 1.0 μAcm(-2) was surprisingly obtained under the same vertical compressive force. The growth mechanism, ferroelectric behavior, charge inverted phenomena, and high piezoelectric output performance observed from the V-doped ZnO NS are discussed in terms of the formation of an ionic layer of [V(OH)4(-)], permanent electric dipole, and the doping-induced resistive behavior of ZnO NS.

  7. ZnO Functionalization of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes for Methane Sensing at Single Parts Per Million Concentration Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a novel atomic layer deposition (ALD) based ZnO functionalization of surface pre-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for highly sensitive methane chemoresistive sensors. The temperature optimization of the ALD process leads to enhanced ZnO nanopart...

  8. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of pure and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Undre, Pallavi G.; Birajdar, Shankar D.; Kathare, R. V.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2018-05-01

    In this work pure and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared by sol-gel method. Influence of nickel doping on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of prepared nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Pulse field magnetic hysteresis loop. X-ray diffraction pattern shows the formation of a single phase with hexagonal wurtzite structure of both pure and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The lattice parameters `an' and `c' of Ni-doped ZnO is slightly less than that of pure ZnO nanoparticles. The crystalline size of prepared nanoparticles is found to be in 29 and 31 nm range. SEM technique used to examine the surface morphology of samples, SEM image confirms the nanocrystalline nature of present samples. From the pulse field hysteresis loop technique pure and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles show diamagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature respectively.

  9. Electronic structure of clean and Ag-covered single-crystalline Bi2Sr2CuO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, P. A. P.; Shen, Z.-X.; Wells, B. O.; Mitzi, D. B.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W. E.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1989-11-01

    Photoemission studies of single-crystalline samples of Bi2Sr2CuO6 show clear resemblance to the corresponding data for single crystals of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. In particular, a sharp Fermi-level cutoff, giving evidence of metallic conductivity at room temperature, as well as single-component O 1s emission and Cu 2p satellites with a strength amounting to about 50% of that of the main Cu 2p line, are observed. An analysis of the relative core-level photoemission intensities shows that the preferential cleavage plane of single-crystalline Bi2Sr2CuO6 is between adjacent Bi-O layers. Deposition of Ag adatoms causes only weak reaction with the Bi and O ions of the Bi2Sr2CuO6 substrate, while the Cu states rapidly react with the Ag adatoms, as monitored by a continuous reduction of the Cu 2p satellite intensity as the Ag overlayer becomes thicker.

  10. Highly mesoporous single-crystalline zeolite beta synthesized using a nonsurfactant cationic polymer as a dual-function template.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jie; Zhu, Yihan; Zhu, Liangkui; Rigutto, Marcello; van der Made, Alexander; Yang, Chengguang; Pan, Shuxiang; Wang, Liang; Zhu, Longfeng; Jin, Yinying; Sun, Qi; Wu, Qinming; Meng, Xiangju; Zhang, Daliang; Han, Yu; Li, Jixue; Chu, Yueying; Zheng, Anmin; Qiu, Shilun; Zheng, Xiaoming; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2014-02-12

    Mesoporous zeolites are useful solid catalysts for conversion of bulky molecules because they offer fast mass transfer along with size and shape selectivity. We report here the successful synthesis of mesoporous aluminosilicate zeolite Beta from a commercial cationic polymer that acts as a dual-function template to generate zeolitic micropores and mesopores simultaneously. This is the first demonstration of a single nonsurfactant polymer acting as such a template. Using high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography, we discovered that the resulting material (Beta-MS) has abundant and highly interconnected mesopores. More importantly, we demonstrated using a three-dimensional electron diffraction technique that each Beta-MS particle is a single crystal, whereas most previously reported mesoporous zeolites are comprised of nanosized zeolitic grains with random orientations. The use of nonsurfactant templates is essential to gaining single-crystalline mesoporous zeolites. The single-crystalline nature endows Beta-MS with better hydrothermal stability compared with surfactant-derived mesoporous zeolite Beta. Beta-MS also exhibited remarkably higher catalytic activity than did conventional zeolite Beta in acid-catalyzed reactions involving large molecules.

  11. Effect of increased crystallinity of single-walled carbon nanotubes used as field emitters on their electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoi, Norihiro

    2015-12-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) synthesized by arc discharge are expected to exhibit good field emission (FE) properties at a low driving voltage. We used a coating containing homogeneously dispersed highly crystalline SWCNTs produced by a high-temperature annealing process to fabricate an FE device by a wet-coating process at a low cost. Using the coating, we succeeded in reducing the power consumption of field emitters for planar lighting devices. SWCNTs synthesized by arc discharge have crystal defects in the carbon network, which are considered to induce inelastic electron tunneling that deteriorates the electrical conductivity of the SWCNTs. In this study, the blocking of the transport of electrons in SWCNTs with crystal defects is simulated using an inelastic electron tunneling model. We succeeded in clarifying the mechanism underlying the electrical conductivity of SWCNTs by controlling their crystallinity. In addition, it was confirmed that field emitters using highly crystalline SWCNTs can lead to new applications operating with low power consumption and new devices that may change our daily lives in the future.

  12. Effect of increased crystallinity of single-walled carbon nanotubes used as field emitters on their electrical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoi, Norihiro, E-mail: shimoi@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-12-07

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) synthesized by arc discharge are expected to exhibit good field emission (FE) properties at a low driving voltage. We used a coating containing homogeneously dispersed highly crystalline SWCNTs produced by a high-temperature annealing process to fabricate an FE device by a wet-coating process at a low cost. Using the coating, we succeeded in reducing the power consumption of field emitters for planar lighting devices. SWCNTs synthesized by arc discharge have crystal defects in the carbon network, which are considered to induce inelastic electron tunneling that deteriorates the electrical conductivity of the SWCNTs. In this study, themore » blocking of the transport of electrons in SWCNTs with crystal defects is simulated using an inelastic electron tunneling model. We succeeded in clarifying the mechanism underlying the electrical conductivity of SWCNTs by controlling their crystallinity. In addition, it was confirmed that field emitters using highly crystalline SWCNTs can lead to new applications operating with low power consumption and new devices that may change our daily lives in the future.« less

  13. Nanocomposite Phosphor Consisting of CaI2:Eu2+ Single Nanocrystals Embedded in Crystalline SiO2.

    PubMed

    Daicho, Hisayoshi; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Shinomiya, Yu; Nakano, Akitoshi; Sawa, Hiroshi; Yamada, Wataru; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo

    2017-11-29

    High luminescence efficiency is obtained in halide- and chalcogenide-based phosphors, but they are impractical because of their poor chemical durability. Here we report a halide-based nanocomposite phosphor with excellent luminescence efficiency and sufficient durability for practical use. Our approach was to disperse luminescent single nanocrystals of CaI 2 :Eu 2+ in a chemically stable, translucent crystalline SiO 2 matrix. Using this approach, we successfully prepared a nanocomposite phosphor by means of self-organization through a simple solid-state reaction. Single nanocrystals of 6H polytype (thr notation) CaI 2 :Eu 2+ with diameters of about 50 nm could be generated not only in a SiO 2 amorphous powder but also in a SiO 2 glass plate. The nanocomposite phosphor formed upon solidification of molten CaI 2 left behind in the crystalline SiO 2 that formed from the amorphous SiO 2 under the influence of a CaI 2 flux effect. The resulting nanocomposite phosphor emitted brilliant blue luminescence with an internal quantum efficiency up to 98% upon 407 nm violet excitation. We used cathodoluminescence microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns to confirm that the blue luminescence was generated only by the CaI 2 :Eu 2+ single nanocrystals. The phosphor was chemically durable because the luminescence sites were embedded in the crystalline SiO 2 matrix. The phosphor is suitable for use in near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. The concept for this nanocomposite phosphor can be expected to be effective for improvements in the practicality of poorly durable materials such as halides and chalcogenides.

  14. Synthesis and magnetic properties of single-crystalline Na2-xMn8O16 nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of single-crystalline hollandite-type manganese oxides Na2-xMn8O16 nanorods by a simple molten salt method is reported for the first time. The nanorods were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The magnetic measurements indicated that the nanorods showed spin glass behavior and exchange bias effect at low temperatures. The low-temperature magnetic behaviors can be explained by the uncompensated spins on the surface of the nanorods. PMID:21711626

  15. Freestanding ultrathin single-crystalline SiC substrate by MeV H ion-slicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Qi; Huang, Kai; You, Tiangui; Yi, Ailun; Lin, Jiajie; Zhang, Shibin; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Wenjie; Ou, Xin; Wang, Xi

    2018-05-01

    SiC is a widely used wide-bandgap semiconductor, and the freestanding ultrathin single-crystalline SiC substrate provides the material platform for advanced devices. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of a freestanding ultrathin single-crystalline SiC substrate with a thickness of 22 μm by ion slicing using 1.6 MeV H ion implantation. The ion-slicing process performed in the MeV energy range was compared to the conventional case using low-energy H ion implantation in the keV energy range. The blistering behavior of the implanted SiC surface layer depends on both the implantation temperature and the annealing temperature. Due to the different straggling parameter for two implant energies, the distribution of implantation-induced damage is significantly different. The impact of implantation temperature on the high-energy and low-energy slicing was opposite, and the ion-slicing SiC in the MeV range initiates at a much higher temperature.

  16. Intrinsic spin and momentum relaxation in organic single-crystalline semiconductors probed by ESR and Hall measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurumi, Junto; Häusermann, Roger; Watanabe, Shun; Mitsui, Chikahiko; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Takeya, Jun

    Spin and charge momentum relaxation mechanism has been argued among organic semiconductors with various methods, devices, and materials. However, little is known in organic single-crystalline semiconductors because it has been hard to obtain an ideal organic crystal with an excellent crystallinity and controllability required for accurate measurements. By using more than 1-inch sized single crystals which are fabricated via contentious edge-casting method developed by our group, we have successfully demonstrated a simultaneous determination of spin and momentum relaxation time for gate-induced charges of 3,11-didecyldinaphtho[2,3- d:2',3'- d']benzo[1,2- b:4,5- b']dithiophene, by combining electron spin resonance (ESR) and Hall effect measurements. The obtained temperature dependences of spin and momentum relaxation times are in good agreement in terms of power law with a factor of approximately -2. It is concluded that Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism can be dominant at room temperature regime (200 - 300 K). Probing characteristic time scales such as spin-lattice, spin-spin, and momentum relaxation times, demonstrated in the present work, would be a powerful tool to elucidate fundamental spin and charge transport mechanisms. We acknowledge the New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization (NEDO) for financial support.

  17. Scalable ferroelectric MOS capacitors comprised of single crystalline SrZrxTi1-xO3 on Ge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Reza; Xiao, Z.-Y.; Ahmadi-Majlan, K.; Grimley, E.; Ong, P. V.; Lebeau, J. M.; Chambers, S. A.; Hong, X.; Sushko, P.; Ngai, J. H.

    The epitaxial growth of multifunctional oxides on semiconductors has opened a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor device technologies. In particular, ferroelectric materials integrated on semiconductors could lead to field-effect devices that require very little power to operate, or that possess both logic and memory functionalities. The development of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors in which the polarization of a ferroelectric gate is coupled to the surface potential of a semiconducting channel is essential in order to realize such field-effect devices. Here we demonstrate that scalable, ferroelectric MOS capacitors can be realized using single crystalline SrZrxTi1-xO3 (x = 0.7) that has been epitaxially grown on Ge. Single crystalline SrZrxTi1-xO3 exhibits characteristics that are ideal for a ferroelectric gate material, namely, a type-I band offset with respect to Ge, large coercive fields and polarization that can be enhanced with electric field. The latter characteristic stems from the relaxor nature of SrZrxTi1-xO3. These properties enable MOS capacitors with 5 nm thick SrZrxTi1-xO3 layers to exhibit a nearly 2 V wide hysteretic window in the capacitance-voltage characteristics. The realization of ferroelectric MOS capacitors with technologically relevant gate thicknesses opens the pathway to practical field effect devices. NSF DMR 1508530.

  18. Single-crystalline MFe(2)O(4) nanotubes/nanorings synthesized by thermal transformation process for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hai-Ming; Yi, Jia-Bao; Yang, Yi; Kho, Kiang-Wei; Tan, Hui-Ru; Shen, Ze-Xiang; Ding, Jun; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Olivo, Malini Carolene; Feng, Yuan-Ping

    2009-09-22

    We report a general thermal transformation approach to synthesize single-crystalline magnetic transition metal oxides nanotubes/nanorings including magnetite Fe(3)O(4), maghematite gamma-Fe(2)O(3), and ferrites MFe(2)O(4) (M = Co, Mn, Ni, Cu) using hematite alpha-Fe(2)O(3) nanotubes/nanorings template. While the straightforward reduction or reduction-oxides process was employed to produce Fe(3)O(4) and gamma-Fe(2)O(3), the alpha-Fe(2)O(3)/M(OH)(2) core/shell nanostructure was used as precursor to prepare MFe(2)O(4) nanotubes via MFe(2)O(4-x) (0 < x < 1) intermediate. The transformed ferrites nanocrystals retain the hollow structure and single-crystalline nature of the original templates. However, the crystallographic orientation-relationships of cubic spinel ferrites and trigonal hematite show strong correlation with their morpologies. The hollow-structured MFe(2)O(4) nanocrystals with tunable size, shape, and composition have exhibited unique magnetic properties. Moreover, they have been demonstrated as a highly effective peroxidase mimic catalysts for laboratory immunoassays or as a universal nanocapsules hybridized with luminescent QDs for magnetic separation and optical probe of lung cancer cells, suggesting that these biocompatible magnetic nanotubes/nanorings have great potential in biomedicine and biomagnetic applications.

  19. Single Crystalline Co3O4 Nanocrystals Exposed with Different Crystal Planes for Li-O2 Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dawei; Dou, Shixue; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Single crystalline Co3O4 nanocrystals exposed with different crystal planes were synthesised, including cubic Co3O4 nanocrystals enclosed by {100} crystal planes, pseudo octahedral Co3O4 enclosed by {100} and {110} crystal planes, Co3O4 nanosheets exposed by {110} crystal planes, hexagonal Co3O4 nanoplatelets exposed with {111} crystal planes, and Co3O4 nanolaminar exposed with {112} crystal planes. Well single crystalline features of these Co3O4 nanocrystals were confirmed by FESEM and HRTEM analyses. The electrochemical performance for Li-O2 batteries shows that Co3O4 nanocrystals can significantly reduce the discharge-charge over-potential via the effect on the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). From the comparison on their catalytic performances, we found that the essential factor to promote the oxygen evolution reactions is the surface crystal planes of Co3O4 nanocrystals, namely, crystal planes-dependent process. The correlation between different Co3O4 crystal planes and their effect on reducing charge-discharge over-potential was established: {100} < {110} < {112} < {111}. PMID:25169737

  20. Single crystalline Co3O4 nanocrystals exposed with different crystal planes for Li-O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Su, Dawei; Dou, Shixue; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-08-29

    Single crystalline Co3O4 nanocrystals exposed with different crystal planes were synthesised, including cubic Co3O4 nanocrystals enclosed by {100} crystal planes, pseudo octahedral Co3O4 enclosed by {100} and {110} crystal planes, Co3O4 nanosheets exposed by {110} crystal planes, hexagonal Co3O4 nanoplatelets exposed with {111} crystal planes, and Co3O4 nanolaminar exposed with {112} crystal planes. Well single crystalline features of these Co3O4 nanocrystals were confirmed by FESEM and HRTEM analyses. The electrochemical performance for Li-O2 batteries shows that Co3O4 nanocrystals can significantly reduce the discharge-charge over-potential via the effect on the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). From the comparison on their catalytic performances, we found that the essential factor to promote the oxygen evolution reactions is the surface crystal planes of Co3O4 nanocrystals, namely, crystal planes-dependent process. The correlation between different Co3O4 crystal planes and their effect on reducing charge-discharge over-potential was established: {100} < {110} < {112} < {111}.

  1. Doping effect on SILAR synthesized crystalline nanostructured Cu-doped ZnO thin films grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaygude, H. D.; Shinde, S. K.; Velhal, Ninad B.; Takale, M. V.; Fulari, V. J.

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, a novel chemical route is used to synthesize the undoped and Cu-doped ZnO thin films in aqueous solution by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The synthesized thin films are characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX), contact angle goniometer and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. XRD study shows that the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal crystal structure. The change in morphology for different doping is observed in the studies of FE-SEM. EDAX spectrum shows that the thin films consist of zinc, copper and oxygen elements. Contact angle goniometer is used to measure the contact angle between a liquid and a solid interface and after detection, the nature of the films is initiated from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. The optical band gap energy for direct allowed transition ranging between 1.60-2.91 eV is observed.

  2. Luminescence and scintillation properties of liquid phase epitaxy grown Y2SiO5:Ce single crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wantong, Kriangkrai; Yawai, Nattasuda; Chewpraditkul, Weerapong; Kucera, Miroslav; Hanus, Martin; Nikl, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Luminescence and scintillation properties of Y2SiO5:Ce single crystalline film (YSO:Ce-LPE) grown by the liquid phase epitaxy technique are investigated and compared to the bulk Czochralski-grown YSO:Ce single crystal (YSO:Ce-SC). The light yield (LY) and energy resolution are measured using an R6231 photomultiplier under excitation with α - and γ- rays. At 662 keV γ- rays, the LY value of 12,410 ph/MeV obtained for YSO:Ce -LPE is lower than that of 20,150 ph/MeV for YSO:Ce -SC whereas the comparable LY value and energy resolution are obtained under excitation with 5.5 MeV α- rays. The ratio of LY under excitation with α- and γ- rays (α/γ ratio) is determined. Dependence of LY on an amplifier shaping time (0.5-12 μs) is also measured.

  3. Plasma-enhanced pulsed-laser deposition of single-crystalline M o2C ultrathin superconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Huichao; Chan, Cheuk Ho; Chan, Ngai Yui; Chen, Xin Xin; Dai, Ji-Yan

    2017-08-01

    Transition-metal carbides (TMCs) possess many intriguing properties and inspiring application potentials, and recently the study of a two-dimensional form of TMCs has attracted great attention. Herein, we report successful fabrication of continuous M o2C ultrathin single-crystalline films at 700 ∘C with an approach of plasma-enhanced pulsed-laser deposition. By sophisticated structural analyses, the M o2C films are characterized as single crystal with a rarely reported face-centered cubic structure. In further electrical transport measurements, superconductivity observed in the M o2C films demonstrates a typical two-dimensional feature, which is consistent with Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions. Besides, large upper critical magnetic fields are discovered in this system. Our work offers an approach to grow large-area and high-quality TMCs at relatively low temperatures. This study may stimulate more related investigations on the synthesis, characterizations, and applications of two-dimensional TMCs.

  4. A Nanoindentation Study of the Plastic Deformation and Fracture Mechanisms in Single-Crystalline CaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frawley, Keara G.; Bakst, Ian; Sypek, John T.; Vijayan, Sriram; Weinberger, Christopher R.; Canfield, Paul C.; Aindow, Mark; Lee, Seok-Woo

    2018-04-01

    The plastic deformation and fracture mechanisms in single-crystalline CaFe2As2 has been studied using nanoindentation and density functional theory simulations. CaFe2As2 single crystals were grown in a Sn-flux, resulting in homogeneous and nearly defect-free crystals. Nanoindentation along the [001] direction produces strain bursts, radial cracking, and lateral cracking. Ideal cleavage simulations along the [001] and [100] directions using density functional theory calculations revealed that cleavage along the [001] direction requires a much lower stress than cleavage along the [100] direction. This strong anisotropy of cleavage strength implies that CaFe2As2 has an atomic-scale layered structure, which typically exhibits lateral cracking during nanoindentation. This special layered structure results from weak atomic bonding between the (001) Ca and Fe2As2 layers.

  5. A Nanoindentation Study of the Plastic Deformation and Fracture Mechanisms in Single-Crystalline CaFe 2As 2

    DOE PAGES

    Frawley, Keara G.; Bakst, Ian; Sypek, John T.; ...

    2018-04-10

    In this paper, the plastic deformation and fracture mechanisms in single-crystalline CaFe 2As 2 has been studied using nanoindentation and density functional theory simulations. CaFe 2As 2 single crystals were grown in a Sn-flux, resulting in homogeneous and nearly defect-free crystals. Nanoindentation along the [001] direction produces strain bursts, radial cracking, and lateral cracking. Ideal cleavage simulations along the [001] and [100] directions using density functional theory calculations revealed that cleavage along the [001] direction requires a much lower stress than cleavage along the [100] direction. This strong anisotropy of cleavage strength implies that CaFe 2As 2 has an atomic-scalemore » layered structure, which typically exhibits lateral cracking during nanoindentation. This special layered structure results from weak atomic bonding between the (001) Ca and Fe 2As 2 layers.« less

  6. A Nanoindentation Study of the Plastic Deformation and Fracture Mechanisms in Single-Crystalline CaFe 2As 2

    SciTech Connect

    Frawley, Keara G.; Bakst, Ian; Sypek, John T.

    In this paper, the plastic deformation and fracture mechanisms in single-crystalline CaFe 2As 2 has been studied using nanoindentation and density functional theory simulations. CaFe 2As 2 single crystals were grown in a Sn-flux, resulting in homogeneous and nearly defect-free crystals. Nanoindentation along the [001] direction produces strain bursts, radial cracking, and lateral cracking. Ideal cleavage simulations along the [001] and [100] directions using density functional theory calculations revealed that cleavage along the [001] direction requires a much lower stress than cleavage along the [100] direction. This strong anisotropy of cleavage strength implies that CaFe 2As 2 has an atomic-scalemore » layered structure, which typically exhibits lateral cracking during nanoindentation. This special layered structure results from weak atomic bonding between the (001) Ca and Fe 2As 2 layers.« less

  7. A highly crystalline single Au wire network as a high temperature transparent heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. D. M.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2014-05-01

    A transparent conductor which can generate high temperatures finds important applications in optoelectronics. In this article, a wire network made of Au on quartz is shown to serve as an effective high temperature transparent heater. The heater has been fabricated by depositing Au onto a cracked sacrificial template. The highly interconnected Au wire network thus formed exhibited a transmittance of ~87% in a wide spectral range with a sheet resistance of 5.4 Ω □-1. By passing current through the network, it could be joule heated to ~600 °C within a few seconds. The extraordinary thermal performance and stability owe much to the seamless junctions present in the wire network. Furthermore, the wire network gets self-annealed through joule heating as seen from its increased crystallinity. Interestingly, both transmittance and sheet resistance improved following annealing to 92% and 3.2 Ω □-1, respectively. A transparent conductor which can generate high temperatures finds important applications in optoelectronics. In this article, a wire network made of Au on quartz is shown to serve as an effective high temperature transparent heater. The heater has been fabricated by depositing Au onto a cracked sacrificial template. The highly interconnected Au wire network thus formed exhibited a transmittance of ~87% in a wide spectral range with a sheet resistance of 5.4 Ω □-1. By passing current through the network, it could be joule heated to ~600 °C within a few seconds. The extraordinary thermal performance and stability owe much to the seamless junctions present in the wire network. Furthermore, the wire network gets self-annealed through joule heating as seen from its increased crystallinity. Interestingly, both transmittance and sheet resistance improved following annealing to 92% and 3.2 Ω □-1, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optical micrographs, EDAX, XRD, SEM and TEM images of Au metal wires. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00869c

  8. Comparison of the structural properties of Zn-face and O-face single crystal homoepitaxial ZnO epilayers grown by RF-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schifano, R.; Riise, H. N.; Domagala, J. Z.; Azarov, A. Yu.; Ratajczak, R.; Monakhov, E. V.; Venkatachalapathy, V.; Vines, L.; Chan, K. S.; Wong-Leung, J.; Svensson, B. G.

    2017-01-01

    Homoepitaxial ZnO growth is demonstrated from conventional RF-sputtering at 400 °C on both Zn and O polar faces of hydrothermally grown ZnO substrates. A minimum yield for the Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrum, χmin, equal to ˜3% and ˜12% and a full width at half maximum of the 00.2 diffraction peak rocking curve of (70 ± 10) arc sec and (1400 ± 100) arc sec have been found for samples grown on the Zn and O face, respectively. The structural characteristics of the film deposited on the Zn face are comparable with those of epilayers grown by more complex techniques like molecular beam epitaxy. In contrast, the film simultaneously deposited on the O-face exhibits an inferior crystalline structure ˜0.7% strained in the c-direction and a higher atomic number contrast compared with the substrate, as revealed by high angle annular dark field imaging measurements. These differences between the Zn- and O-face films are discussed in detail and associated with the different growth mechanisms prevailing on the two surfaces.

  9. Single crystalline silicene consist of various superstructures using a flexible ultrathin Ag(111) template on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Chang; Lu, Yi-Hung; Su, Tai-Lung; Lin, Wen-Chin; Fu, Tsu-Yi

    2018-07-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we studied the formation of silicene on an ultrathin Ag(111) film with a thickness of 6–12 monolayers, which was prepared on a Si(111) substrate. A low-energy electron diffraction pattern with an oval spot indicated that the ultrathin Ag(111) film is more disordered than the single-crystal Ag(111). After Si epitaxy growth, we still measured the classical 4 × 4, √13 × √13, and 2√3 × 2√3 silicene superstructures, which are the same as the silicene superstructure on single-crystal Ag(111). Growing silicene on a single-crystal Ag(111) bulk usually results in the formation of a defect boundary due to the inconsistent orientation of various superstructures. By comparing the angles and boundary conditions between various silicene superstructures on the ultrathin film and single-crystal Ag(111), we discovered that a consistent orientation of various superstructures without obvious boundary defects formed on the ultrathin Ag(111) film. The results indicated single crystalline silicene formation, which was attributed to the domain rotation and lateral shift of the disordered ultrathin Ag(111) film.

  10. Microstructure and pinning properties of hexagonal-disc shaped single crystalline MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C. U.; Kim, J. Y.; Chowdhury, P.; Kim, Kijoon H.; Lee, Sung-Ik; Koh, D. S.; Tamura, N.; Caldwell, W. A.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-11-01

    We synthesized hexagonal-disc-shaped MgB2 single crystals under high-pressure conditions and analyzed the microstructure and pinning properties. The lattice constants and the Laue pattern of the crystals from x-ray micro-diffraction showed the crystal symmetry of MgB2. A thorough crystallographic mapping within a single crystal showed that the edge and c axis of hexagonal-disc shape exactly matched the [101¯0] and the [0001] directions of the MgB2 phase. Thus, these well-shaped single crystals may be the best candidates for studying the direction dependences of the physical properties. The magnetization curve and the magnetic hysteresis curve for these single crystals showed the existence of a wide reversible region and weak pinning properties, which supported our single crystals being very clean.

  11. Giant crystal-electric-field effect and complex magnetic behavior in single-crystalline CeRh3Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikul, A. P.; Kaczorowski, D.; Gajek, Z.; Stȩpień-Damm, J.; Ślebarski, A.; Werwiński, M.; Szajek, A.

    2010-05-01

    Single-crystalline CeRh3Si2 was investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, electrical resistivity, and specific-heat measurements carried out in wide temperature and magnetic field ranges. Moreover, the electronic structure of the compound was studied at room temperature by cerium core-level x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The physical properties were analyzed in terms of crystalline electric field and compared with results of ab initio band-structure calculations performed within the density-functional theory approach. The compound was found to crystallize in the orthorhombic unit cell of the ErRh3Si2 type (space group Imma No.74, Pearson symbol: oI24 ) with the lattice parameters a=7.1330(14)Å , b=9.7340(19)Å , and c=5.6040(11)Å . Analysis of the magnetic and XPS data revealed the presence of well-localized magnetic moments of trivalent cerium ions. All the physical properties were found to be highly anisotropic over the whole temperature range studied and influenced by exceptionally strong crystalline electric field with the overall splitting of the 4f1 ground multiplet exceeding 5700 K. Antiferromagnetic order of the cerium magnetic moments at TN=4.70(1)K and their subsequent spin rearrangement at Tt=4.48(1)K manifest themselves as distinct anomalies in the temperature characteristic of all the physical properties investigated and exhibit complex evolution in an external magnetic field. A tentative magnetic B-T phase diagram, constructed for B parallel to the b axis being the easy magnetization direction, shows very complex magnetic behavior of CeRh3Si2 , similar to that recently reported for an isostructural compound CeIr3Si2 . The electronic band-structure calculations corroborated the antiferromagnetic ordering of the cerium magnetic moments and well-reproduced the experimental XPS valence-band spectrum.

  12. Structural characterization of ZnO thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, M.; Čížek, J.; Kužel, R.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J.; Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.

    2012-06-01

    ZnO thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on three different substrates: sapphire (0 0 0 1), MgO (1 0 0) and fused silica (FS). The structure and morphology of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and defect studies were carried out using slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). Films deposited on all substrates studied in this work exhibit the wurtzite ZnO structure and are characterized by an average crystallite size of 20-100 nm. However, strong differences in the microstructure of films deposited on various substrates were found. The ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit local epitaxy, i.e. a well-defined relation between film crystallites and the substrate. Domains with different orientation relationships with the substrate were found in both films. On the other hand, the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits fibre texture with random lateral orientation of crystallites. Extremely high compressive in-plane stress of σ ˜ 14 GPa was determined in the film deposited on the MgO substrate, while the film deposited on sapphire is virtually stress-free, and the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits a tensile in-plane stress of σ ˜ 0.9 GPa. SPIS investigations revealed that the concentration of open-volume defects in the ZnO films is substantially higher than that in a bulk ZnO single crystal. Moreover, the ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit a significantly higher density of defects than the film deposited on the amorphous FS substrate.

  13. Piezoelectric and semiconducting coupled power generating process of a single ZnO belt/wire. A technology for harvesting electricity from the environment.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinhui; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental observation of piezoelectric generation from a single ZnO wire/belt for illustrating a fundamental process of converting mechanical energy into electricity at nanoscale. By deflecting a wire/belt using a conductive atomic force microscope tip in contact mode, the energy is first created by the deflection force and stored by piezoelectric potential, and later converts into piezoelectric energy. The mechanism of the generator is a result of coupled semiconducting and piezoelectric properties of ZnO. A piezoelectric effect is required to create electric potential of ionic charges from elastic deformation; semiconducting property is necessary to separate and maintain the charges and then release the potential via the rectifying behavior of the Schottky barrier at the metal-ZnO interface, which serves as a switch in the entire process. The good conductivity of ZnO is rather unique because it makes the current flow possible. This paper demonstrates a principle for harvesting energy from the environment. The technology has the potential of converting mechanical movement energy (such as body movement, muscle stretching, blood pressure), vibration energy (such as acoustic/ultrasonic wave), and hydraulic energy (such as flow of body fluid, blood flow, contraction of blood vessels) into electric energy that may be sufficient for self-powering nanodevices and nanosystems in applications such as in situ, real-time, and implantable biosensing, biomedical monitoring, and biodetection.

  14. Direct writing of continuous and discontinuous sub-wavelength periodic surface structures on single-crystalline silicon using femtosecond laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kuladeep, Rajamudili; Sahoo, Chakradhar; Narayana Rao, Desai, E-mail: dnrsp@uohyd.ernet.in, E-mail: dnr-laserlab@yahoo.com

    Laser-induced ripples or uniform arrays of continuous near sub-wavelength or discontinuous deep sub-wavelength structures are formed on single-crystalline silicon (Si) by femtosecond (fs) laser direct writing technique. Laser irradiation was performed on Si wafers at normal incidence in air and by immersing them in dimethyl sulfoxide using linearly polarized Ti:sapphire fs laser pulses of ∼110 fs pulse duration and ∼800 nm wavelength. Morphology studies of laser written surfaces reveal that sub-wavelength features are oriented perpendicular to laser polarization, while their morphology and spatial periodicity depend on the surrounding dielectric medium. The formation mechanism of the sub-wavelength features is explained by interferencemore » of incident laser with surface plasmon polaritons. This work proves the feasibility of fs laser direct writing technique for the fabrication of sub-wavelength features, which could help in fabrication of advanced electro-optic devices.« less

  15. Structural and electrical properties of single crystalline SrZrO 3 epitaxially grown on Ge (001)

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Z. H.; Ahmadi-Majlan, K.; Grimley, E. D.

    We present structural and electrical characterization of SrZrO3 that has been epitaxially grown on Ge(001) by oxide molecular beam epitaxy. Single crystalline SrZrO3 can be nucleated on Ge via deposition at low temperatures followed by annealing at 550 ºC in ultra-high vacuum. Photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal that SrZrO3 exhibits a type-I band arrangement with respect to Ge, with conduction and valence band offsets of 1.4 eV and 3.65 eV, respectively. As a standalone film, SrZrO3 exhibits several characteristics that are ideal for applications as a gate dielectric on Ge. We find that 4 nm thick films exhibit low leakage currentmore » densities, and a dielectric constant of κ ~ 25 that corresponds to an equivalent oxide thickness of 0.70 nm.« less

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of ultralong and single-crystalline Cd(OH)2 nanowires using alkali salts as mineralizers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bo; Zhuo, Linhai; Ge, Jiechao; Niu, Jinye; Shi, Zhiqiang

    2005-04-18

    Ultralong and single-crystalline Cd(OH)(2) nanowires were fabricated by a hydrothermal method using alkali salts as mineralizers. The morphology and size of the final products strongly depend on the effects of the alkali salts (e.g., KCl, KNO(3), and K(2)SO(4) or NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)). When the salt is absent, only nanoparticles are observed in TEM images of the products. The 1D nanostructure growth method presented herein offers an excellent tool for the design of other advanced materials with anisotropic properties. In addition, the Cd(OH)(2) nanowires might act as a template or precursor that is potentially converted into 1D cadmium oxide through dehydration or into 1D nanostructures of other functional materials (e.g., CdS, CdSe).

  17. Straight single-crystalline germanium nanowires and their patterns grown on sol gel prepared gold/silica substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zheng Wei; Dai, Sheng; Lowndes, Douglas H.

    2005-04-01

    Straight single-crystalline Ge nanowires with a uniform diameter distribution of 50-80 nm and lengths up to tens of micrometers were grown in a high yield on sol-gel prepared gold/silica substrates by using Ge powder as the Ge source. Detailed electron microscopy analyses show that the nanowires grow through a vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism with gold nanoparticles located at the nanowire tips. By using transmission electron microscope grids as the shadow mask, the sol-gel technique can be readily adapted to prepare patterned film-like gold/silica substrates, so that regular micropatterns of Ge nanowires were obtained, which could facilitate the integration of Ge nanowires for characterization and devices.

  18. Single-Crystalline, Nanoporous Gallium Nitride Films With Fine Tuning of Pore Size for Stem Cell Engineering.

    PubMed

    Han, Lin; Zhou, Jing; Sun, Yubing; Zhang, Yu; Han, Jung; Fu, Jianping; Fan, Rong

    2014-11-01

    Single-crystalline nanoporous gallium nitride (GaN) thin films were fabricated with the pore size readily tunable in 20-100 nm. Uniform adhesion and spreading of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded on these thin films peak on the surface with pore size of 30 nm. Substantial cell elongation emerges as pore size increases to ∼80 nm. The osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs occurs preferentially on the films with 30 nm sized nanopores, which is correlated with the optimum condition for cell spreading, which suggests that adhesion, spreading, and stem cell differentiation are interlinked and might be coregulated by nanotopography.

  19. Vapor-phase hydrothermal transformation of HTiOF3 intermediates into {001} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Porun; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Haimin; An, Taicheng; Yang, Huagui; Tang, Zhiyong; Cai, Weiping; Zhao, Huijun

    2012-12-07

    For the first time, a facile, one-pot hydrofluoric acid vapor-phase hydrothermal (HF-VPH) method is demonstrated to directly grow single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) nanosheets with 98.2% of exposed {001} faceted surfaces on the Ti substrate via a distinctive two-stage formation mechanism. The first stage produces a new intermediate crystal (orthorhombic HTiOF(3) ) that is transformed into anatase TiO(2) nanosheets during the second stage. The findings reveal that the HF-VPH reaction environment is unique and differs remarkably from that of liquid-phase hydrothermal processes. The uniqueness of the HF-VPH conditions can be readily used to effectively control the nanostructure growth. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Positive temperature variation of the bandgap energy in the single-crystalline chalcopyrite semiconductor AgInS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, Shunji, E-mail: ozaki@el.gunma-u.ac.jp; Horikoshi, Yoshimichi

    2014-02-07

    Optical absorption spectra have been measured on the single-crystalline chalcopyrite semiconductor AgInS{sub 2} using polarized light at T = 10–300 K. The bandgap energy E{sub g} of AgInS{sub 2} shows unusual temperature dependence at low temperatures. The resultant temperature coefficient ∂E{sub g}/∂T is found to be positive at T < 130 K and negative above 130 K. This result has been successfully explained by considering the effects of thermal expansion and electron–phonon interaction. The free-exciton emission of photoluminescence spectra also indicates positive temperature dependence of the peak energies at low temperatures. The exciton binding energy of AgInS{sub 2} is determined to be 26.4 meV.

  1. Magneto-crystalline anisotropy of NdFe0.9Mn0.1O3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalik, Marián; Mihalik, Matúš; Zentková, Mária; Uhlířová, Klára; Kratochvílová, Marie; Roupcová, Pavla

    2018-05-01

    Our present study on oriented single crystal revealed huge magneto-crystalline anisotropy with respect to principal crystallographic axes, even several magnetic transitions were observed below TN = 748 K (c-axis) at 700 K (a-axis) as well 657 K (b-axis). The spin reorientation of magnetic moment takes place in very narrow temperature range between 135 K and 125 K and is attributed to vanishing of ferromagnetic component aligned along b-axis. Measurements of magnetic isotherms trace the development of ferromagnetic component and revealed the intermediate temperature range between 120 K and 20 K which is characterised by zero ferromagnetic components in any principal crystal direction. The ferromagnetic component develops consecutive at low temperature below 20 K along a-axis. Our study indicates completely different magnetic structure of NdFe0.9Mn0.1O3 below 135 K in comparison with NdFeO3.

  2. Mechanical properties and structure evolution of single-crystalline silicon irradiated by 1 MeV Au+ and Cu+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Wei; Zhu, Fei; Ling, Yunhan; Liu, Kezhao; Hu, Yin; Pan, Qifa; Chen, Limin; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2018-05-01

    Mechanical and structural evolutions of single-crystalline silicon irradiated by a series of doses 1 MeV Au+ ions and Cu+ ions are characterized by Surface laser-acoustic wave spectroscopy by (LA wave), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channeling (RBS/C) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The behavior of implanted Au+ and Cu+ ions was also simulated by using Stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM) software package, respectively. It is demonstrated that LA wave and RBS could be applied for accurate evaluation of the TEM observed amorphous layer's thickness. The modified mechanical properties depend on the species and the dose of implantation. For 1 MeV Au+ ions, the threshold dose of completely amorphous is 5 × 1014 atoms/cm2, while the one for Cu+ ions is 5 × 1015 atoms/cm2. Upon completely amorphous, the young's modulus and layer density decreased significantly while saturated with the dose increasing sequentially.

  3. Morphology evolution of single-crystalline hematite nanocrystals: magnetically recoverable nanocatalysts for enhanced facet-driven photoredox activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Astam K.; Kundu, Sudipta K.; Bhaumik, Asim; Kim, Dukjoon

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a new green chemical approach for the shape-controlled synthesis of single-crystalline hematite nanocrystals in aqueous medium. FESEM, HRTEM and SAED techniques were used to determine the morphology and crystallographic orientations of each nanocrystal and its exposed facets. PXRD and HRTEM techniques revealed that the nanocrystals are single crystalline in nature; twins and stacking faults were not detected in these nanocrystals. The structural, vibrational, and electronic spectra of these nanocrystals were highly dependent on their shape. Different shaped hematite nanocrystals with distinct crystallographic planes have been synthesized under similar reaction conditions, which can be desired as a model for the purpose of properties comparison with the nanocrystals prepared under different reaction conditions. Here we investigated the photocatalytic performance of these different shaped-nanocrystals for methyl orange degradation in the presence of white light (λ > 420 nm). In this study, we found that the density of surface Fe3+ ions in particular facets was the key factor for the photocatalytic activity and was higher on the bitruncated-dodecahedron shape nanocrystals by coexposed {104}, {100} and {001} facets, attributing to higher catalytic activity. The catalytic activity of different exposed facet nanocrystals were as follows: {104} + {100} + {001} (bitruncated-dodecahedron) > {101} + {001} (bitruncated-octahedron) > {001} + {110} (nanorods) > {012} (nanocuboid) which provided the direct evidence of exposed facet-driven photocatalytic activity. The nanocrystals were easily recoverable using an external magnet and reused at least six times without significant loss of its catalytic activity.We have developed a new green chemical approach for the shape-controlled synthesis of single-crystalline hematite nanocrystals in aqueous medium. FESEM, HRTEM and SAED techniques were used to determine the morphology and crystallographic orientations of

  4. Influence of crystal orientation and ion bombardment on the nitrogen diffusivity in single-crystalline austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Martinavicius, A.; Abrasonis, G.; Moeller, W.

    2011-10-01

    The nitrogen diffusivity in single-crystalline AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel (ASS) during ion nitriding has been investigated at different crystal orientations ((001), (110), (111)) under variations of ion flux (0.3-0.7 mA cm{sup -2}), ion energy (0.5-1.2 keV), and temperature (370-430 deg. C). The nitrogen depth profiles obtained from nuclear reaction analysis are in excellent agreement with fits using the model of diffusion under the influence of traps, from which diffusion coefficients were extracted. At fixed ion energy and flux, the diffusivity varies by a factor up to 2.5 at different crystal orientations. At (100) orientation, it increases linearly with increasingmore » ion flux or energy. The findings are discussed on the basis of atomistic mechanisms of interstitial diffusion, potential lattice distortions, local decomposition, and ion-induced lattice vibrational excitations.« less

  5. Thin single-crystalline Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 ternary nanosheets synthesized by a solvothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Wu, Rong; Li, Jin; Sun, Yanfei

    2016-01-01

    Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 ternary nanosheets have been successfully synthesized through a facile solvothermal technique using diethylenetriamine as solvent, where x can vary from 0 to 1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate that the as-synthesized Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 samples are nanosheets with rhombohedral structure, and the thickness of the nanosheets can be as thin as several nanometers. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) reveal that the nanosheets are single crystalline with a rhombohedral structure. Energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and XRD analysis by Vegard's law confirm that the ternary Bi2(Te1-xSex)3 nanosheets have been obtained here. The growth of the nanosheets is discussed based on an amine-based molecular template mechanism that has been employed to synthesize some other metal chalcogenides.

  6. Single-crystalline LiFePO4 nanosheets for high-rate Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Peng, Lele; Liu, Borui; Yu, Guihua

    2014-05-14

    The lithiation/delithiation in LiFePO4 is highly anisotropic with lithium-ion diffusion being mainly confined to channels along the b-axis. Controlling the orientation of LiFePO4 crystals therefore plays an important role for efficient mass transport within this material. We report here the preparation of single crystalline LiFePO4 nanosheets with a large percentage of highly oriented {010} facets, which provide the highest pore density for lithium-ion insertion/extraction. The LiFePO4 nanosheets show a high specific capacity at low charge/discharge rates and retain significant capacities at high C-rates, which may benefit the development of lithium batteries with both favorable energy and power density.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of histidine-functionalized single-crystalline gold nanoparticles and their pH-dependent UV absorption characteristic.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguo; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie; Meng, Ronghua; Guo, Songling; Xing, Zhimin; Tan, Shengnan

    2010-03-01

    L-Histidine capped single-crystalline gold nanoparticles have been synthesized by a hydrothermal process under a basic condition at temperature between 65 and 150 degrees C. The produced gold nanoparticles were spherical with average diameter of 11.5+/-2.9nm. The synthesized gold colloidal solution was very stable and can be stored at room temperature for more than 6 months. The color of the colloidal solution can change from wine red to mauve, purple and blue during the acidifying process. This color changing phenomenon is attributed to the aggregation of gold nanoparticles resulted from hydrogen bond formation between the histidines adsorbed on the gold nanoparticles surfaces. This hydrothermal synthetic method is expected to be used for synthesizing some other amino acid functionalized gold nanomaterials.

  8. In situ TEM observation of heterogeneous phase transition of a constrained single-crystalline Ag2Te nanowire.

    PubMed

    In, Juneho; Yoo, Youngdong; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Seo, Kwanyong; Kim, Hyunju; Ihee, Hyotchel; Oh, Sang Ho; Kim, Bongsoo

    2010-11-10

    Laterally epitaxial single crystalline Ag2Te nanowires (NWs) are synthesized on sapphire substrates by the vapor transport method. We observed the phase transitions of these Ag2Te NWs via in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after covering them with Pt layers. The constrained NW shows phase transition from monoclinic to a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure near the interfaces, which is ascribed to the thermal stress caused by differences in the thermal expansion coefficients. Furthermore, we observed the nucleation and growth of bcc phase penetrating into the face-centered cubic matrix at 200 °C by high-resolution TEM in real time. Our results would provide valuable insight into how compressive stresses imposed by overlayers affect behaviors of nanodevices.

  9. Structural and electrical properties of single crystalline SrZrO3 epitaxially grown on Ge (001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Z. H.; Ahmadi-Majlan, K.; Grimley, E. D.; Du, Y.; Bowden, M.; Moghadam, R.; LeBeau, J. M.; Chambers, S. A.; Ngai, J. H.

    2017-08-01

    We present structural and electrical characterization of SrZrO3 that has been epitaxially grown on Ge(001) by oxide molecular beam epitaxy. Single crystalline SrZrO3 can be nucleated on Ge via deposition at low temperatures followed by annealing at 550 °C in ultra-high vacuum. Photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal that SrZrO3 exhibits a type-I band arrangement with respect to Ge, with conduction and valence band offsets of 1.4 eV and 3.66 eV, respectively. Capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements on 4 nm thick films reveal low leakage current densities and an unpinned Fermi level at the interface that allows modulation of the surface potential of Ge. Ultra-thin films of epitaxial SrZrO3 can thus be explored as a potential gate dielectric for Ge.

  10. Analysis of current-driven oscillatory dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on crystalline conducting substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Kumar, Ashish; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2018-03-01

    We report results of a systematic study on the complex oscillatory current-driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on crystalline substrate surfaces and the dependence of this driven dynamical behavior on important physical parameters, including island size, substrate surface orientation, and direction of externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on a nonlinear model of driven island edge morphological evolution that accounts for curvature-driven edge diffusion, edge electromigration, and edge diffusional anisotropy. Using a linear theory of island edge morphological stability, we calculate a critical island size at which the island's equilibrium edge shape becomes unstable, which sets a lower bound for the onset of time-periodic oscillatory dynamical response. Using direct dynamical simulations, we study the edge morphological dynamics of current-driven single-layer islands at larger-than-critical size, and determine the actual island size at which the migrating islands undergo a transition from steady to time-periodic asymptotic states through a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. At the highest symmetry of diffusional anisotropy examined, on {111} surfaces of face-centered cubic crystalline substrates, we find that more complex stable oscillatory states can be reached through period-doubling bifurcation at island sizes larger than those at the Hopf points. We characterize in detail the island morphology and dynamical response at the stable time-periodic asymptotic states, determine the range of stability of these oscillatory states terminated by island breakup, and explain the morphological features of the stable oscillating islands on the basis of linear stability theory.

  11. Fabrication of tensile-strained single-crystalline GeSn on transparent substrate by nucleation-controlled liquid-phase crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Hiroshi; Amamoto, Takashi; Koyama, Masahiro; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2017-01-01

    We developed a method of forming single-crystalline germanium-tin (GeSn) alloy on transparent substrates that is based on liquid-phase crystallization. By controlling and designing nucleation during the melting growth process, a highly tensile-strained single-crystalline GeSn layer was grown on a quartz substrate without using any crystal-seeds or catalysts. The peak field-effect hole mobility of 423 cm2/V s was obtained for a top-gate single-crystalline GeSn MOSFET on a quartz substrate with a Sn content of 2.6%, indicating excellent crystal quality and mobility enhancement due to Sn incorporation and tensile strain.

  12. HNO₃-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Fan-Cheng; Chiu, Chun-Ya; Su, Chung-Yi; Huang, Jer-Shing; Perng, Tsong-Pyng; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2014-07-23

    We developed a HNO3-assisted polyol reduction method to synthesize ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates routinely. The edge length of the synthesized Ag microplates reaches 50 μm, and their top facets are (111). The mechanism for dramatically enlarging single-crystalline Ag structure stems from a series of competitive anisotropic growths, primarily governed by carefully tuning the adsorption of Ag(0) by ethylene glycol and the desorption of Ag(0) by a cyanide ion on Ag(100). Finally, we measured the propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons along the air/Ag interface under 534 nm laser excitation. Our single-crystalline Ag microplate exhibited a propagation length (11.22 μm) considerably greater than that of the conventional E-gun deposited Ag thin film (5.27 μm).

  13. Single and multi-layered core-shell structures based on ZnO nanorods obtained by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sáenz-Trevizo, A.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.

    2015-07-15

    Core–shell nanorod structures were prepared by a sequential synthesis using an aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. Several samples consisting of ZnO nanorods were initially grown over TiO{sub 2} film-coated borosilicate glass substrates, following the synthesis conditions reported elsewhere. Later on, a uniform layer consisting of individual Al, Ni, Ti or Fe oxides was grown onto ZnO nanorod samples forming the so-called single MO{sub x}/ZnO nanorod core–shell structures, where MO{sub x} was the metal oxide shell. Additionally, a three-layer core–shell sample was developed by growing Fe, Ti and Fe oxides alternately, onto the ZnO nanorods. The microstructure of the core–shellmore » materials was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was employed to corroborate the formation of different metal oxides. X-ray diffraction outcomes for single core–shell structures showed solely the presence of ZnO as wurtzite and TiO{sub 2} as anatase. For the multi-layered shell sample, the existence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as hematite was also detected. Morphological observations suggested the existence of an outer material grown onto the nanorods and further microstructural analysis by HR-STEM confirmed the development of core–shell structures in all cases. These studies also showed that the individual Al, Fe, Ni and Ti oxide layers are amorphous; an observation that matched with X-ray diffraction analysis where no apparent extra oxides were detected. For the multi-layered sample, the development of a shell consisting of three different oxide layers onto the nanorods was found. Overall results showed that no alteration in the primary ZnO core was produced during the growth of the shells, indicating that the deposition technique used herein was and it is suitable for the synthesis of homogeneous and complex nanomaterials high in quality and purity. In

  14. Directed self-assembly of liquid crystalline blue-phases into ideal single-crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-González, Jose A.; Li, Xiao; Sadati, Monirosadat; Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Rui; Nealey, Paul F.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2017-06-01

    Chiral nematic liquid crystals are known to form blue phases--liquid states of matter that exhibit ordered cubic arrangements of topological defects. Blue-phase specimens, however, are generally polycrystalline, consisting of randomly oriented domains that limit their performance in applications. A strategy that relies on nano-patterned substrates is presented here for preparation of stable, macroscopic single-crystal blue-phase materials. Different template designs are conceived to exert control over different planes of the blue-phase lattice orientation with respect to the underlying substrate. Experiments are then used to demonstrate that it is indeed possible to create stable single-crystal blue-phase domains with the desired orientation over large regions. These results provide a potential avenue to fully exploit the electro-optical properties of blue phases, which have been hindered by the existence of grain boundaries.

  15. Directed Self-Assembly of Liquid Crystalline Blue-Phases into Ideal Single-Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose A.; Li, Xiao; Sadati, Monirosadat

    Chiral nematic liquid crystals are known to form blue phases—liquid states of matter that exhibit ordered cubic arrangements of topological defects. Blue-phase specimens, however, are generally polycrystalline, consisting of randomly oriented domains that limit their performance in applications. A strategy that relies on nano-patterned substrates is presented here for preparation of stable, macroscopic single-crystal blue-phase materials. Different template designs are conceived to exert control over different planes of the blue-phase lattice orientation with respect to the underlying substrate. Experiments are then used to demonstrate that it is indeed possible to create stable single-crystal blue-phase domains with the desired orientation overmore » large regions. Lastly, these results provide a potential avenue to fully exploit the electro-optical properties of blue phases, which have been hindered by the existence of grain boundaries.« less

  16. Growth of single-crystalline cobalt silicide nanowires and their field emission property.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chi-Ming; Hsu, Han-Fu; Lu, Kuo-Chang

    2013-07-03

    In this work, cobalt silicide nanowires were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition processes on Si (100) substrates with anhydrous cobalt chloride (CoCl2) as precursors. Processing parameters, including the temperature of Si (100) substrates, the gas flow rate, and the pressure of reactions were varied and studied; additionally, the physical properties of the cobalt silicide nanowires were measured. It was found that single-crystal CoSi nanowires were grown at 850°C ~ 880°C and at a lower gas flow rate, while single-crystal Co2Si nanowires were grown at 880°C ~ 900°C. The crystal structure and growth direction were identified, and the growth mechanism was proposed as well. This study with field emission measurements demonstrates that CoSi nanowires are attractive choices for future applications in field emitters.

  17. Growth of single-crystalline cobalt silicide nanowires and their field emission property

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, cobalt silicide nanowires were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition processes on Si (100) substrates with anhydrous cobalt chloride (CoCl2) as precursors. Processing parameters, including the temperature of Si (100) substrates, the gas flow rate, and the pressure of reactions were varied and studied; additionally, the physical properties of the cobalt silicide nanowires were measured. It was found that single-crystal CoSi nanowires were grown at 850°C ~ 880°C and at a lower gas flow rate, while single-crystal Co2Si nanowires were grown at 880°C ~ 900°C. The crystal structure and growth direction were identified, and the growth mechanism was proposed as well. This study with field emission measurements demonstrates that CoSi nanowires are attractive choices for future applications in field emitters. PMID:23819795

  18. Directed Self-Assembly of Liquid Crystalline Blue-Phases into Ideal Single-Crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose A.; Li, Xiao; Sadati, Monirosadat; ...

    2017-06-16

    Chiral nematic liquid crystals are known to form blue phases—liquid states of matter that exhibit ordered cubic arrangements of topological defects. Blue-phase specimens, however, are generally polycrystalline, consisting of randomly oriented domains that limit their performance in applications. A strategy that relies on nano-patterned substrates is presented here for preparation of stable, macroscopic single-crystal blue-phase materials. Different template designs are conceived to exert control over different planes of the blue-phase lattice orientation with respect to the underlying substrate. Experiments are then used to demonstrate that it is indeed possible to create stable single-crystal blue-phase domains with the desired orientation overmore » large regions. Lastly, these results provide a potential avenue to fully exploit the electro-optical properties of blue phases, which have been hindered by the existence of grain boundaries.« less

  19. Electronic structure of single crystalline Bi 2(Sr,Ca,La) 3Cu 2O 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, P. A. P.; Shen, Z.-X.; Dessau, D. S.; Wells, B. O.; Borg, A.; Mitzi, D. B.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W. E.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1989-12-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission experiments on single crystals of Bi 2(Sr,Ca,La) 3Cu 2O 8 are reported. The data show a dispersionless behaviour of the valence band states as a function of the perpendicular component of the wave vector (along the c-axis), while as a function of the parallel component (in the a-b plane) clear dispersion occurs. Furthermore, polarization-dependent excitations reveal information on the symmetry of the unoccupied states.

  20. Numerical investigation of the single scattering albedo of radiant energy passing through polydisperse crystalline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shefer, O. V.; Shefer, V. A.; Sinyukova, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Studies of the role of atmospheric formations and cosmic dust clouds in the transmission of radiation is one of the most uncertain and difficult problems in astrophysics and climatology. One of the main tasks of practical astrophysics is the interpretation of the results of observations of space objects. There is a necessity of describing the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the environment. In this paper, applying the numerical methods, we study the optical characteristics of polydisperse media consisting of randomly oriented and preferentially oriented crystals, taking into account the distribution function of particle sizes. Particles of spherical shape and ensembles preferentially oriented plate crystals are considered as models. Mie theory and method of physical optics are used to calculate the scattering characteristics. Numerical study of the effects of extinction, scattering and absorption on the single scattering albedo of radiation allowed us to establish the basic patterns of the passage of radiant energy through a translucent medium. At the visible range of wavelengths, both for small and large particles, the single scattering albedo is almost equal to 1. The spectral course of this optical performance is mainly determined by the refractive index of the particles. Features of wave dependence of single scattering albedo are associated with microphysical parameters of the environment, which are more pronounced when the attenuation of the radiation is determined mainly by the scattering. Higher values of the absorption index and optical thickness of the crystal reduce the value of the single scattering albedo, smoothing the features of its spectral course. Values of the absorption index of substance, as value of the order of 0.1, do not lead to a decrease of the single scattering albedo as it is less than 0.5. This allows us to conclude that we should not neglect the microphysical characteristics of the crystals even by strong absorption of radiant

  1. Probing the magnetic ground state of single crystalline Ce3TiSb5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matin, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Thamizhavel, A.; Dhar, S. K.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P.

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the report of superconductivity in R3TiSb5 (R  =  La and Ce) and possibly Nd3TiSb5 at  ∼4 K, we grew single crystals of La3TiSb5 and Ce3TiSb5 by the high-temperature solution method using Sn as a flux. While in both compounds we observed a superconducting transition at 3.7 K for resistivity and low-field magnetization, our data conclusively show that it arose from residual Sn flux present in the single crystals. In particular, the heat capacity data do not present any of the anomalies expected from a bulk superconducting transition. The anisotropic magnetic properties of Ce3TiSb5, crystallizing in a hexagonal P63/mcm structure, were studied in detail. We find that the Ce ions in Ce3TiSb5 form a Kondo lattice and exhibited antiferromagnetic ordering at 5.5 K with a reduced moment and a moderately normalized Sommerfeld coefficient of 598 mJ/mol K2. The characteristic single-ion Kondo energy scale was found to be  ∼8 K. The magnetization data were subjected to a crystal electric field (CEF) analysis. The experimentally observed Schottky peak in the 4f-electron heat capacity of Ce3TiSb5 was reproduced fairly well by the energy levels derived from the CEF analysis.

  2. Robust, transformable, and crystalline single-node organometallic networks constructed from ditopic m-terphenyl isocyanides

    DOE PAGES

    Agnew, Douglas W.; Gembicky, Milan; Moore, Curtis E.; ...

    2016-11-01

    Here, the preparation of 3D and 2D Cu(I) coordination networks using ditopic m-terphenyl isocyanides is described. The incorporation of sterically encumbering substituents enables the controlled, solid-state preparation of Cu(I) tris-isocyanide nodes with a labile solvent ligand in a manner mirroring solution-phase chemistry of monomeric complexes. The protection afforded by the m-terphenyl groups is also shown to engender significant stability towards heat as well as acidic or basic conditions, resulting in robust single-metal-node networks that can transition from 3D to 2D extended structures.

  3. Superconductivity in single crystalline ThBe13 and LuBe13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlířová, Klára; Miura, Naoyuki; Tkáč, Vladimír; Prokleška, Jan; Chrobak, Maciej; Tarnawski, Zbigniew; Hidaka, Hiroyki; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Sechovský, Vladimír; Amitsuka, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Single crystals of ThBe13 and LuBe13 have been prepared using aluminum flux method. The crystals structure of both compounds was confirmed to be cubic of the NaZn13-type with the lattice parameters a = 10.183(6) Å and a = 10.395(3) Å for LuBe13 and ThBe13, respectively. The low temperature measurements of electrical resistance and ac susceptibility have revealed a BCS-type of superconductivity in ThBe13 below Tc = 125 mK. LuBe13 has been found to be superconducting below Tc = 630 mK.

  4. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of monodisperse single-crystalline silver nanoplates and gold nanorings.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-Ping; Xu, Shu; Zhu, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2004-09-20

    A simple sonochemical route was developed for the crystal growth of uniform silver nanoplates and ringlike gold nanocrystals in a N,N-dimethylformamide solution. The platelike structures were generated from the selective growth on different crystal planes in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and the ultrasonic-assisted Ostwald ripening processes. The silver nanoplates in solution served as the templates for the synthesis of ringlike gold crystals via a displacement reaction. Both the silver nanoplates and gold nanorings were highly oriented single crystals with (111) planes as the basal planes. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  5. Use of frit-disc crucibles for routine and exploratory solution growth of single crystalline samples

    DOE PAGES

    Canfield, Paul C.; Kong, Tai; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; ...

    2016-01-05

    Solution growth of single crystals from high temperature solutions often involves the separation of residual solution from the grown crystals. For many growths of intermetallic compounds, this separation has historically been achieved with the use of plugs of silica wool. Whereas this is generally efficient in a mechanical sense, it leads to a significant contamination of the decanted liquid with silica fibres. In this paper, we present a simple design for frit-disc alumina crucible sets that has made their use in the growth single crystals from high temperature solutions both simple and affordable. An alumina frit-disc allows for the cleanmore » separation of the residual liquid from the solid phase. This allows for the reuse of the decanted liquid, either for further growth of the same phase, or for subsequent growth of other, related phases. In this article, we provide examples of the growth of isotopically substituted TbCd 6 and icosahedral i-RCd quasicrystals, as well as the separation of (i) the closely related Bi 2Rh 3S 2 and Bi 2Rh 3.5S 2 phases and (ii) and PrZn 11 and PrZn 17.« less

  6. Intermediate stages of electrochemical oxidation of single-crystalline platinum revealed by in situ Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Fan; Kooyman, Patricia J.; Koper, Marc T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the atomistic details of how platinum surfaces are oxidized under electrochemical conditions is of importance for many electrochemical devices such as fuel cells and electrolysers. Here we use in situ shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to identify the intermediate stages of the electrochemical oxidation of Pt(111) and Pt(100) single crystals in perchloric acid. Density functional theory calculations were carried out to assist in assigning the experimental Raman bands by simulating the vibrational frequencies of possible intermediates and products. The perchlorate anion is suggested to interact with hydroxyl phase formed on the surface. Peroxo-like and superoxo-like two-dimensional (2D) surface oxides and amorphous 3D α-PtO2 are sequentially formed during the anodic polarization. Our measurements elucidate the process of the electrochemical oxidation of platinum single crystals by providing evidence for the structure-sensitive formation of a 2D platinum-(su)peroxide phase. These results may contribute towards a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of degradation of platinum electrocatalysts. PMID:27514695

  7. Defect Engineering by Codoping in KCaI3 :Eu2 + Single-Crystalline Scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuntao; Li, Qi; Jones, Steven; Dun, Chaochao; Hu, Sheng; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Lindsey, Adam C.; Stand, Luis; Loyd, Matthew; Koschan, Merry; Auxier, John; Hall, Howard L.; Melcher, Charles L.

    2017-09-01

    Eu2 + -doped alkali or alkali earth iodide scintillators with energy resolutions ≤3 % at 662 keV promise the excellent discrimination ability for radioactive isotopes required for homeland-security and nuclear-nonproliferation applications. To extend their applications to x-ray imaging, such as computed tomography scans, the intense afterglow which delays the response time of such materials is an obstacle that needs to be overcome. However, a clear understanding of the origin of the afterglow and feasible solutions is still lacking. In this work, we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the physical insights of codoping-based defect engineering which can reduce the afterglow effectively in KCaI3:Eu2 + single-crystal scintillators. We illustrate that Sc3 + codoping greatly suppresses the afterglow, whereas Y3 + , Gd3 + , or La3 + codoping enhances the afterglow. Meanwhile, a light yield of 57 000 photons / MeV and an energy resolution of 3.4% at 662 keV can be maintained with the appropriate concentration of Sc3 + codoping, which makes the material promising for medical-imaging applications. Through our thermoluminescence techniques and density-functional-theory calculations, we are able to identify the defect structures and understand the mechanism by which codoping affects the scintillation performance of KCaI3:Eu2 + crystals. The proposed defect-engineering strategy is further validated by achieving afterglow suppression in Mg2 + codoped KCaI3:Eu2 + single crystals.

  8. Investigation on the formation process of single-crystalline GaO x barrier in Fe/GaO x /MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, N. S.; Doko, N.; Matsuo, N.; Saito, H.; Yuasa, S.

    2017-11-01

    We have grown Fe(0 0 1)/GaO x (0 0 1)/MgO(0 0 1)/Fe(0 0 1) magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with or without in situ annealing after the deposition of GaO x layer and performed structural characterizations by focusing on the formation process of the single-crystalline GaO x . It was found that, even without the in situ annealing, the as-grown GaO x grown on the MgO was mostly single-crystalline except near the surface region (amorphous). The crystallization temperature of the amorphous region was reduced from 500 °C down to 250 °C by depositing the Fe upper electrode (poly-crystalline). It was clarified that the crystallization of the amorphous region near the Fe/GaO x interface caused the realignments of the crystal grains in the poly-crystalline Fe upper electrode, and, as a result, the fully epitaxial Fe/GaO x /MgO/Fe structure is eventually formed. All the MTJs showed high tunneling magnetoresistance ratios (about 100%) at room temperature, which was almost independent of the formation temperature of the single-crystalline GaO x .

  9. Optical study of phase transitions in single-crystalline RuP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. Y.; Shi, Y. G.; Zheng, P.; Wang, L.; Dong, T.; Wang, N. L.

    2015-03-01

    RuP single crystals of MnP-type orthorhombic structure were synthesized by the Sn flux method. Temperature-dependent x-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the compound experiences two structural phase transitions, which are further confirmed by enormous anomalies shown in temperature-dependent resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. Particularly, the resistivity drops monotonically upon temperature cooling below the second transition, indicating that the material shows metallic behavior, in sharp contrast with the insulating ground state of polycrystalline samples. Optical conductivity measurements were also performed in order to unravel the mechanism of these two transitions. The measurement revealed a sudden reconstruction of band structure over a broad energy scale and a significant removal of conducting carriers below the first phase transition, while a charge-density-wave-like energy gap opens below the second phase transition.

  10. Spin and lattice structures of single-crystalline SrFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Ratcliff, W., II; Lynn, J. W.; Chen, G. F.; Luo, J. L.; Wang, N. L.; Hu, Jiangping; Dai, Pengcheng

    2008-10-01

    We use neutron scattering to study the spin and lattice structure of single-crystal SrFe2As2 , the parent compound of the FeAs-based superconductor (Sr,K)Fe2As2 . We find that SrFe2As2 exhibits an abrupt structural phase transition at 220 K, where the structure changes from tetragonal with lattice parameters c>a=b to orthorhombic with c>a>b . At almost the same temperature, Fe spins develop a collinear antiferromagnetic structure along the orthorhombic a axis with spin direction parallel to this a axis. These results are consistent with earlier work on the RFeAsO ( R=rare earth) families of materials and on BaFe2As2 , and therefore suggest that static antiferromagnetic order is ubiquitous for the parent compounds of these FeAs-based high-transition temperature superconductors.

  11. A study of the physical properties of single crystalline Fe 5B 2P

    DOE PAGES

    Lamichhane, Tej N.; Taufour, Valentin; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; ...

    2015-10-24

    Single crystals of Fe 5B 2P were grown by self-flux growth technique. Structural and electrical and magnetic anisotropic properties are studied. The Curie temperature of Fe5B2P is determined to be 655 ± 2 K. The saturation magnetization is determined to be 1.72μ B/Fe at 2 K. The temperature variation of the anisotropy constant K 1 is determined for the first time, reaching ~0.50MJ/m 3 at 2 K, and it is comparable to that of hard ferrites. The saturation magnetization is found to be larger than the hard ferrites. In conclusion, the first principle calculations of saturation magnetization and anisotropy constantmore » are found to be consistent with the experimental results.« less

  12. Defect evolution in single crystalline tungsten following low temperature and low dose neutron irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Xunxiang; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Fukuda, Makoto; ...

    2016-01-01

    The tungsten plasma-facing components of fusion reactors will experience an extreme environment including high temperature, intense particle fluxes of gas atoms, high-energy neutron irradiation, and significant cyclic stress loading. Irradiation-induced defect accumulation resulting in severe thermo-mechanical property degradation is expected. For this reason, and because of the lack of relevant fusion neutron sources, the fundamentals of tungsten radiation damage must be understood through coordinated mixed-spectrum fission reactor irradiation experiments and modeling. In this study, high-purity (110) single-crystal tungsten was examined by positron annihilation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy following low-temperature (~90 °C) and low-dose (0.006 and 0.03 dpa) mixed-spectrum neutronmore » irradiation and subsequent isochronal annealing at 400, 500, 650, 800, 1000, 1150, and 1300 °C. The results provide insights into microstructural and defect evolution, thus identifying the mechanisms of different annealing behavior. Following 1 h annealing, ex situ characterization of vacancy defects using positron lifetime spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening was performed. The vacancy cluster size distributions indicated intense vacancy clustering at 400 °C with significant damage recovery around 1000 °C. Coincidence Doppler broadening measurements confirm the trend of the vacancy defect evolution, and the S–W plots indicate that only a single type of vacancy cluster is present. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy observations at selected annealing conditions provide supplemental information on dislocation loop populations and visible void formation. This microstructural information is consistent with the measured irradiation-induced hardening at each annealing stage. This provides insight into tungsten hardening and embrittlement due to irradiation-induced matrix defects.« less

  13. Perovskite Solar Cells with Near 100% Internal Quantum Efficiency Based on Large Single Crystalline Grains and Vertical Bulk Heterojunctions

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; ...

    2015-07-09

    Grain boundaries (GBs) as defects in the crystal lattice detrimentally impact the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polycrystalline solar cells, particularly in recently emerging hybrid perovskites where non-radiative recombination processes lead to significant carrier losses. Here, the beneficial effects of activated vertical GBs are demonstrated by first growing large, vertically-oriented methylammonium lead tri-iodide (CH 3NH 3PbI 3) single-crystalline grains. We show that infiltration of p-type doped 2 -7,7 -tetrakis(N,Ndi-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) into CH 3NH 3PbI 3 films along the GBs creates space charge regions to suppress non-radiative recombination and enhance carrier collection efficiency. Solar cells with such activated GBs yielded averagemore » PCE of 16.3 ± 0.9%, which are among the best solution-processed perovskite devices. As an important alternative to growing ideal CH 3NH 3PbI 3 single crystal films, which is difficult to achieve for such fast-crystallizing perovskites, activating GBs paves a way to design a new type of bulk heterojunction hybrid perovskite photovoltaics toward theoretical maximum PCE.« less

  14. Direct Observation of Defect Range and Evolution in Ion-Irradiated Single Crystalline Ni and Ni Binary Alloys.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenyang; Jin, Ke; Béland, Laurent K; Zhang, Feifei; Yang, Taini; Qiao, Liang; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin; Christen, Hans M; Stoller, Roger E; Wang, Lumin

    2016-02-01

    Energetic ions have been widely used to evaluate the irradiation tolerance of structural materials for nuclear power applications and to modify material properties. It is important to understand the defect production, annihilation and migration mechanisms during and after collision cascades. In this study, single crystalline pure nickel metal and single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys of 50%Ni50%Co (NiCo) and 50%Ni50%Fe (NiFe) without apparent preexisting defect sinks were employed to study defect dynamics under ion irradiation. Both cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy characterization (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling (RBS-C) spectra show that the range of radiation-induced defect clusters far exceed the theoretically predicted depth in all materials after high-dose irradiation. Defects in nickel migrate faster than in NiCo and NiFe. Both vacancy-type stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) and interstitial loops coexist in the same region, which is consistent with molecular dynamics simulations. Kinetic activation relaxation technique (k-ART) simulations for nickel showed that small vacancy clusters, such as di-vacancies and tri-vacancies, created by collision cascades are highly mobile, even at room temperature. The slower migration of defects in the alloy along with more localized energy dissipation of the displacement cascade may lead to enhanced radiation tolerance.

  15. Direct Observation of Defect Range and Evolution in Ion-Irradiated Single Crystalline Ni and Ni Binary Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chenyang; Jin, Ke; Béland, Laurent K.; Zhang, Feifei; Yang, Taini; Qiao, Liang; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin; Christen, Hans M.; Stoller, Roger E.; Wang, Lumin

    2016-01-01

    Energetic ions have been widely used to evaluate the irradiation tolerance of structural materials for nuclear power applications and to modify material properties. It is important to understand the defect production, annihilation and migration mechanisms during and after collision cascades. In this study, single crystalline pure nickel metal and single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys of 50%Ni50%Co (NiCo) and 50%Ni50%Fe (NiFe) without apparent preexisting defect sinks were employed to study defect dynamics under ion irradiation. Both cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy characterization (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling (RBS-C) spectra show that the range of radiation-induced defect clusters far exceed the theoretically predicted depth in all materials after high-dose irradiation. Defects in nickel migrate faster than in NiCo and NiFe. Both vacancy-type stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) and interstitial loops coexist in the same region, which is consistent with molecular dynamics simulations. Kinetic activation relaxation technique (k-ART) simulations for nickel showed that small vacancy clusters, such as di-vacancies and tri-vacancies, created by collision cascades are highly mobile, even at room temperature. The slower migration of defects in the alloy along with more localized energy dissipation of the displacement cascade may lead to enhanced radiation tolerance. PMID:26829570

  16. Toward a Role of Light Absorption in Initiation Chemistry of Shocked HMX single Crystals and Crystalline High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaksin, Igor; Rodrigues, L.

    2013-06-01

    Question which mechanism is driving radiation-induced reactions, thermal or athermal becomes a subject of conflicting discussions. Major challenge of this work is to identify at micro- (sub-granular), meso- (grain level) and macro-scale roles of these two mechanisms in triggering initiation chemistry in HMX-based HEs. Four acceptor-patterns were tested at 20 GPa input pressure: single HMX crystal-in-water, HMX/water-slurry, PBX(HMX/HTPB) & inert PBX-simulant (HMX-particles replaced by crystalline sucrose). Scenario of reaction onset-localizations-dissipation was spatially resolved using Multi-Channel Optical Analyzer MCOA-UC (96 channels, 100um-spatial accuracy, 0.2ns-timeresolution, 450-850 nm-spectral range) through real-time panoramic recording emitted reaction light and shock field in standard optic monitor. Experiments reveal a dual nature of initiation chemistry: athermal and thermal. Single-crystal tests disclose origination of photo-induced reactions downstream of emitting reaction spot due to intensified radiation absorption in surface micro-defects. Polycrystalline samples reveal cyclic reproducibility of radiation-induced thermal precursors in which radiation absorption causes thermal expansion/phase-changes of HMX-grains resulting in oscillating detonation. Work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under the ONR and ONR Global Grants N00014-12-1-0477 and N62909-12-1-7131 with Drs. Cliff Bedford and Shawn Thorne Program Managers.

  17. Complex Pattern Formation from Current-Driven Dynamics of Single-Layer Homoepitaxial Islands on Crystalline Conducting Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-07-01

    We report a systematic study of complex pattern formation resulting from the driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on surfaces of face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline conducting substrates under the action of an externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on an experimentally validated nonlinear model of mass transport via island edge atomic diffusion, which also accounts for edge diffusional anisotropy. We analyze the morphological stability and simulate the field-driven evolution of rounded islands for an electric field oriented along the fast edge diffusion direction. For larger-than-critical island sizes on {110 } and {100 } fcc substrates, we show that multiple necking instabilities generate complex island patterns, including not-simply-connected void-containing islands mediated by sequences of breakup and coalescence events and distributed symmetrically with respect to the electric field direction. We analyze the dependence of the formed patterns on the original island size and on the duration of application of the external field. Starting from a single large rounded island, we characterize the evolution of the number of daughter islands and their average size and uniformity. The evolution of the average island size follows a universal power-law scaling relation, and the evolution of the total edge length of the islands in the complex pattern follows Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetics. Our study makes a strong case for the use of electric fields, as precisely controlled macroscopic forcing, toward surface patterning involving complex nanoscale features.

  18. Unusually high critical current of clean P-doped BaFe2As2 single crystalline thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, F.; Tarantini, C.; Grinenko, V.; Hänisch, J.; Jaroszynski, J.; Reich, E.; Mori, Y.; Sakagami, A.; Kawaguchi, T.; Engelmann, J.; Schultz, L.; Holzapfel, B.; Ikuta, H.; Hühne, R.; Iida, K.

    2015-02-01

    Microstructurally clean, isovalently P-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba-122) single crystalline thin films have been prepared on MgO (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. These films show a superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of over 30 K although P content is around 0.22, which is lower than the optimal one for single crystals (i.e., 0.33). The enhanced Tc at this doping level is attributed to the in-plane tensile strain. The strained film shows high transport self-field critical current densities (Jc) of over 6 MA/cm2 at 4.2 K, which are among the highest for Fe based superconductors (FeSCs). In-field Jc exceeds 0.1 MA/cm2 at μ 0 H = 35 T for H ‖ a b and μ 0 H = 18 T for H ‖ c at 4.2 K, respectively, in spite of moderate upper critical fields compared to other FeSCs with similar Tc. Structural investigations reveal no defects or misoriented grains pointing to strong pinning centers. We relate this unexpected high Jc to a strong enhancement of the vortex core energy at optimal Tc, driven by in-plane strain and doping. These unusually high Jc make P-doped Ba-122 very favorable for high-field magnet applications.

  19. Direct Observation of Defect Range and Evolution in Ion-Irradiated Single Crystalline Ni and Ni Binary Alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Chenyang; Jin, Ke; Béland, Laurent K.; ...

    2016-02-01

    We report that energetic ions have been widely used to evaluate the irradiation tolerance of structural materials for nuclear power applications and to modify material properties. It is important to understand the defect production, annihilation and migration mechanisms during and after collision cascades. In this study, single crystalline pure nickel metal and single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys of 50%Ni50%Co (NiCo) and 50%Ni50%Fe (NiFe) without apparent preexisting defect sinks were employed to study defect dynamics under ion irradiation. Both cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy characterization (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling (RBS-C) spectra show that the range of radiation-induced defect clusters farmore » exceed the theoretically predicted depth in all materials after high-dose irradiation. Defects in nickel migrate faster than in NiCo and NiFe. Both vacancy-type stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) and interstitial loops coexist in the same region, which is consistent with molecular dynamics simulations. Kinetic activation relaxation technique (k-ART) simulations for nickel showed that small vacancy clusters, such as di-vacancies and tri-vacancies, created by collision cascades are highly mobile, even at room temperature. The slower migration of defects in the alloy along with more localized energy dissipation of the displacement cascade may lead to enhanced radiation tolerance.« less

  20. Complex Pattern Formation from Current-Driven Dynamics of Single-Layer Epitaxial Islands on Crystalline Conducting Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    We report a systematic study of complex pattern formation resulting from the driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on face-centered cubic (FCC) crystalline conducting substrate surfaces under the action of an externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on an experimentally validated nonlinear model of mass transport via island edge atomic diffusion, which also accounts for edge diffusional anisotropy. We analyze the morphological stability and simulate the field-driven evolution of rounded islands for an electric field oriented along the fast diffusion direction. For larger than critical island sizes on {110} and {100} FCC substrates, we show that multiple necking instabilities generate complex island patterns, including void-containing islands, mediated by sequences of breakup and coalescence events and distributed symmetrically with respect to the electric field direction. We analyze the dependence of the formed patterns on the original island size and on the duration of application of the external field. Starting from a single large rounded island, we characterize the evolution of the number of daughter islands and their average size and uniformity. The analysis reveals that the pattern formation kinetics follows a universal scaling relation. Division of Materials Sciences & Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy (Award No.: DE-FG02-07ER46407).

  1. Generation and the role of dislocations in single-crystalline phase-change In 2 Se 3 nanowires under electrical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Mafi, Elham; Tao, Xin; Zhu, Wenguang

    2016-07-08

    Using single crystalline In2Se3 nanowires as a platform, we have studied the RESET switching (from low to high electrical resistance) in this phase-change material under electric pulses. Particularly, we correlated the atomic-scale structural evolutions with local electrical resistance variations, by performing transmission electron microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy on the same nanowires. By coupling the experimental results with density functional theory calculations, we show that the immobile dislocations generated via vacancy condensations are responsible for the RESET switching and that the material maintains the single crystallinity during the process. This new mechanism is fundamentally different from the crystalline-amorphous transition,more » which is commonly understood as the underlying process for the RESET switching in similar phase-change materials.« less

  2. Single and combined effects of aluminum (Al2O3) and zinc (ZnO) oxide nanoparticles in a freshwater fish, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Benavides, María; Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Coelho, Pedro; Lodeiro, Carlos; Diniz, Mário S

    2016-12-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) worldwide has raised some concerns about their impact on the environment. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, singly or combined, in a freshwater fish (Carassius auratus). The fish were exposed for 7, 14, and 21 days to different concentrations of NPs (10 μg Al 2 O 3 .L -1 , 10 μg ZnO.L -1 , 10 μg Al 2 O 3 .L -1 plus 10 μg ZnO.L -1 , 100 μg Al 2 O 3 .L -1 , 100 μg ZnO.L -1 , and 100 μg Al 2 O 3 .L -1 plus 100 μg ZnO.L -1 ). At the end of each exposure period, antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase), lipid peroxidation, and histopathology were assessed in the gills and livers of C. auratus. The results show an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gills and livers of fish, especially after 14 days of exposure to single and combined NPs, followed by a reduction at 21 days. An increase in glutathione S-transferase (GST) was observed in gills after 7 days for all tested NP concentrations (single and combined); while in livers, a significant increase was determined after 14 days of exposure to 100 μg.L -1 of both single ZnO and Al 2 O 3 NPs. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) significantly increased in gills after 7 days of exposure to 100 μg.L -1 Al 2 O 3 NPs (single or combined). In livers, LPO increased significantly after 7 days of exposure to all tested concentrations of both single ZnO and Al 2 O 3 (except for 10 μg Al 2 O 3 .L -1 ), and after 14 days of exposure to ZnO (10 and 100 μg.L -1 ) and Al 2 O 3 (100 μg.L -1 ) . The results from histological observations suggest that exposure to metal oxide NPs affected both livers and gills, presenting alterations such as gill hyperplasia and liver degeneration. However, the most pronounced effects were found in gills. In general, this study shows that the tested NPs, single or combined, are capable of causing sub-lethal effects

  3. Spin-Wave Excitations Evidencing the Kitaev Interaction in Single Crystalline α -RuCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Kejing; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Wei; Dong, Zhao-Yang; Ren, Xiao; Bao, Song; Li, Shichao; Ma, Zhen; Gan, Yuan; Zhang, Youtian; Park, J. T.; Deng, Guochu; Danilkin, S.; Yu, Shun-Li; Li, Jian-Xin; Wen, Jinsheng

    2017-03-01

    Kitaev interactions underlying a quantum spin liquid have long been sought, but experimental data from which their strengths can be determined directly, are still lacking. Here, by carrying out inelastic neutron scattering measurements on high-quality single crystals of α -RuCl3 , we observe spin-wave spectra with a gap of ˜2 meV around the M point of the two-dimensional Brillouin zone. We derive an effective-spin model in the strong-coupling limit based on energy bands obtained from first-principles calculations, and find that the anisotropic Kitaev interaction K term and the isotropic antiferromagnetic off-diagonal exchange interaction Γ term are significantly larger than the Heisenberg exchange coupling J term. Our experimental data can be well fit using an effective-spin model with K =-6.8 meV and Γ =9.5 meV . These results demonstrate explicitly that Kitaev physics is realized in real materials.

  4. Nodeless multiband superconductivity in stoichiometric single-crystalline CaKFe 4 As 4

    DOE PAGES

    Cho, Kyuil; Fente, A.; Teknowijoyo, S.; ...

    2017-03-08

    Measurements of the London penetration depth Δλ(T) and tunneling conductance in single crystals of the recently discovered stoichiometric iron-based superconductor CaKFe 4As 4 (CaK1144) show nodeless, two-effective-gap superconductivity with a larger gap of about 6–10 meV and a smaller gap of about 1–4 meV. Having a critical temperature T c,onset ≈ 35.8 K, this material behaves similar to slightly overdoped (Ba 1–xK x)Fe 2As 2 (e.g., x = 0.54,T c ≈ 34 K), a known multigap s ± superconductor. Here, we conclude that the superconducting behavior of stoichiometric CaK1144 demonstrates that two-gap s± superconductivity is an essential property of high-temperaturemore » superconductivity in iron-based superconductors, independent of the degree of substitutional disorder.« less

  5. Magnetic moment in single crystalline BaFe2-xZnxAs2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yanfeng; Wang, Xia; Li, Jun; Yamaura, Kazunari; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji

    2012-02-01

    Nature of the magnetism for iron-based superconductors (FeSCs) has been actively studied since the discovery of this new family of compounds in 2008, largely owing to its significance for interpreting the paring mechanism. The approach through impurity substitution to shed light into this issue is always one of major ways. The substitution shows distinct responses to species of impurities, where partially replacement of Fe in parent FeSCs with a variety of d-metals like Co, Ni Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt generally results in superconductivity, while recent progress in Zn doped FeSCs gives rather contrary result, where Zn severely degenerates the TC. Herein we show the magnetic and electrical studies on BaFe2-xZnxAs2 single crystals. Nonmagnetic Zn doping progressively suppresses the SDW without resulting in superconductivity, while it alternatively develops the spin-glass state, possibly suggestive of local magnetic moment around the Fe sites induced by Zn. The characterizations by X-ray diffraction, magnetic and electrical transport properties, specific heat capacity, and Hall coefficient have been done and the results will be discussed in detail.

  6. Strongly correlated electron behavior in single crystalline U2Os3Al9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Das, Pranab Kumar; Kulkarni, Ruta; Thamizhavel, A.; Dhar, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    We report the magnetic properties of a single crystal of a new compound U2Os3Al9 which crystallizes in the well known Y2Co3Ga9 type orthorhombic structure with space group Cmcm. The susceptibility of U2Os3Al9 shows a peak at 7 K typical of antiferromagnetic ordering. The susceptibility in the paramagnetic state is anisotropic, the easy axis of magnetization lying in the ab-plane of the orthorhombic crystal lattice. The magnetization at 2 K, measured up to a maximum field of 160 kOe, shows a metamagnetic transition near 118 kOe when the field is aligned along [010] in addition to a small metamagnetic transition near 25 kOe. The bulk antiferromagnetic ordering of the uranium ions at TN = 7 K is confirmed by a peak in the heat capacity with ΔC nearly 7 J/U.mol K. An extrapolation of the heat capacity data from the paramagnetic regime to T = 0 gives an enhanced electronic specific heat coefficient of 120 mJ/U.mol K2. The electrical resistivity of U2Os3Al9 shows a negative temperature coefficient between 300 and TN which is a signature of spin fluctuations in a narrow band or a Kondo type of interaction. The data thus suggest the presence of strong electron correlations in this compound.

  7. Construction of single-crystalline supramolecular networks of perchlorinated hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yanfang; Li, Geng; Lu, Jianchen; Lin, Xiao; Tan, Yuanzhi; Feng, Xinliang; Du, Shixuan; Müllen, Klaus; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2015-03-01

    The self-assembly of the perchlorinated hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (PCHBC) molecules on Au(111) has been studied by a low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) combining with density functional theory based first principle calculations. Highly ordered supramolecular networks with single domains limited by the terraces are formed on Au(111) substrate. High resolution images of the PCHBC molecules, confirmed by first principle simulations, are obtained. It reveals the close-packed arrangement of the PCHBC molecules on Au(111). The calculated charge distribution of PCHBC molecules shows the existence of attractive halogen-halogen interaction between neighboring molecules. Compared with the disordered adsorption of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene on Au(111), we conclude that the formation of attractive ClCl interactions between neighbors is the key factor to form the highly ordered, close-packed networks. Due to the steric hindrance resulted from the peripheral chlorine atoms, the PCHBC molecule is contorted and forms the doubly concave conformation, which is different from the hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene with a planar structure. By using this supramolecular network as a template, we deposited C60 molecules on it at room temperature with low coverage. The STM images taken at low temperature show that the C60 molecules are mono-dispersed on the networks and adsorb on top of the PCHBC molecules, forming a typical concave-convex host-guest system.

  8. Magnetic order induces symmetry breaking in the single-crystalline orthorhombic CuMnAs semimetal

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanouilidou, Eve; Cao, Huibo; Tang, Peizhe

    2017-12-04

    Recently, orthorhombic CuMnAs has been proposed to be a magnetic material where topological fermions exist around the Fermi level. Here we report the magnetic structure of the orthorhombic Cu 0.95MnAs and Cu 0.98Mn 0.96As single crystals. While Cu 0.95MnAs is a commensurate antiferromagnet below 360 K with a propagation vector of k = 0,Cu 0.98Mn 0.96As undergoes a second-order paramagnetic to incommensurate antiferromagnetic phase transition at 320 K with k = (0.1,0,0), followed by a second-order incommensurate to commensurate antiferromagnetic phase transition at 230 K. In the commensurate antiferromagnetic state, the Mn spins order parallel to the crystallographic b axismore » but antiparallel to their nearest neighbors, with the spin orientation along the b axis. This magnetic order breaks S 2z, the two-fold rotational symmetry around the c axis, resulting in finite band gaps at the crossing point and the disappearance of the massless topological fermions. Furthermore, our first-principles calculations suggest that orthorhombic CuMnAs can still host spin-polarized surface states and signature induced by nontrivial topology, which makes it a promising candidate for antiferromagnetic spintronics.« less

  9. Synthesis and Photoluminescence of Single-Crystalline Fe(III)-Doped CdS Nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Muhammad Arshad; Zou, Bingsuo; Majid, A; Alharbil, Thamer; Saeed, M A; Abdullah, Ali; Javed, Qurat-ul-ain

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis and optical properties of Fe(III) doped CdS nanobelts (NBs) via simple Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique to explore their potential in nano-optics. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis manifested the presence of Fe(III) ions in the NBs subsequently confirmed by the peak shifting to lower phonon energies as recorded by Raman spectra and shorter lifetime in ns. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum investigations of the single Fe(III)-doped CdS NBs depicted an additional PL peak centered at 573 nm (orange emission) in addition to the bandedge(BE) emission. The redshift and decrease in the BE intensity of the PL peaks, as compared to the bulk CdS, confirmed the quenching of spectra upon Fe doping. The synthesis and orange emission for Fe-doped CdS NBs have been observed for the first time and point out their potential in nanoscale devices.

  10. Electronic, magnetic, transport, and thermal properties of single-crystalline UF e2A l10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troć, R.; Samsel-Czekała, M.; Talik, E.; Wawryk, R.; Gajek, Z.; Pasturel, M.

    2015-09-01

    The valence and core-level x-ray photoemission spectra (XPS), performed on an UF e2A l10 single crystal, were measured using the Al Kα radiation. The results of valence XPS show practically two separate regions of spectral intensity, one just at the Fermi level (EF) and the other one being a wide content with its maximum at about 0.8 eV below EF. These give rise to two electronic configurations of the 5 f states in the studied aluminide, itinerant and localized ones, i.e., their dual character. In such a situation the corresponding valence spectra, calculated within the local density approximation (LDA), well explain the former configuration, being responsible for a metallic behavior of the studied compound. Moreover, this behavior is confirmed clearly also by our results of magnetotransport measurements. On the other hand, the obtained magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and thermoelectric power data support very well the local character of the 5 f2 -electron configuration of the U4 + ion in UF e2A l10 having the orthorhombic and cage-type crystal structure. Based on that configuration, the magnetic and thermal characteristics of the compound were modeled by the effective crystal field (CF) potential in the intermediate coupling scheme using initial parameters obtained by the angular overlap model (AOM). The obtained final CF parameters yielded the CF level scheme, composed of only singlets, proper for orthorhombic symmetry. Such a set of singlets reproduces in a satisfactory way both the strongly anisotropic temperature variations of the magnetic susceptibility, measured along the three main crystallographic directions, as well as the Schottky anomaly, evaluated using specific heat results of isomorphic ThF e2A l10 as a phonon reference. Also, the strongly anisotropic behavior of the Seebeck coefficient and its low temperature maxima observed for the compound studied here have been explained roughly by the CF effect.

  11. Evaluation of the acoustoelectric effect in the thickness direction of c-plane ZnO single crystals by Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Shota; Yanagitani, Takahiko; Takayanagi, Shinji; Ichihashi, Hayato; Shibagaki, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Hiromichi; Matsukawa, Mami

    2017-06-01

    Longitudinal wave velocity dispersion in ZnO single crystals, owing to the acoustoelectric effect, has been investigated by Brillouin scattering. The resistivity dependence of the longitudinal wave velocity in a c-plane ZnO single crystal was theoretically estimated and experimentally investigated. Velocity dispersion owing to the acoustoelectric effect was observed in the range 0.007-10 Ωm. The observed velocity dispersion shows a similar tendency to the theoretical estimation and gives the piezoelectric stiffened and unstiffened wave velocities. However, the measured dispersion curve shows a characteristic shift from the theoretical curve. One possible reason is the carrier mobility in the sample, which could be lower than the reported value. The measurement data gave the piezoelectric stiffened and unstiffened longitudinal wave velocities, from which the electromechanical coupling coefficient k33 was determined. The value of k33 is in good agreement with reported values. This method is promising for noncontact evaluation of electromechanical coupling. In particular, it could be for evaluation of the unknown piezoelectricity in the thickness direction of semiconductive materials and film resonators.

  12. Predicting the optimal process window for the coating of single-crystalline organic films with mobilities exceeding 7 cm2/Vs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janneck, Robby; Vercesi, Federico; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan; Rolin, Cedric

    2016-09-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) based on single crystalline thin films of organic semiconductors have seen considerable development in the recent years. The most successful method for the fabrication of single crystalline films are solution-based meniscus guided coating techniques such as dip-coating, solution shearing or zone casting. These upscalable methods enable rapid and efficient film formation without additional processing steps. The single-crystalline film quality is strongly dependent on solvent choice, substrate temperature and coating speed. So far, however, process optimization has been conducted by trial and error methods, involving, for example, the variation of coating speeds over several orders of magnitude. Through a systematic study of solvent phase change dynamics in the meniscus region, we develop a theoretical framework that links the optimal coating speed to the solvent choice and the substrate temperature. In this way, we can accurately predict an optimal processing window, enabling fast process optimization. Our approach is verified through systematic OTFT fabrication based on films grown with different semiconductors, solvents and substrate temperatures. The use of best predicted coating speeds delivers state of the art devices. In the case of C8BTBT, OTFTs show well-behaved characteristics with mobilities up to 7 cm2/Vs and onset voltages close to 0 V. Our approach also explains well optimal recipes published in the literature. This route considerably accelerates parameter screening for all meniscus guided coating techniques and unveils the physics of single crystalline film formation.

  13. Development of scintillating screens based on the single crystalline films of Ce doped (Gd,Y)3(Al,Ga,Sc)5O12 multi-component garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yuriy; Gorbenko, Vitaliy; Savchyn, Volodymyr; Zorenko, Tanya; Fedorov, Alexander; Sidletskiy, Oleg

    2014-09-01

    The paper is dedicated to development of scintillators based on single crystalline films of Ce doped (Gd,Y)3(Al,Ga,Sc)5O12 multi-component garnets onto Gd3Ga5O12 substrates using the liquid phase epitaxy method.

  14. Detachment of CVD-grown graphene from single crystalline Ni films by a pure gas phase reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Patrick; Henß, Ann-Kathrin; Weinl, Michael; Diehl, Leo; Keefer, Daniel; Lippmann, Judith; Schulz, Anne; Kraus, Jürgen; Schreck, Matthias; Wintterlin, Joost

    2016-11-01

    Despite great previous efforts there is still a high need for a simple, clean, and upscalable method for detaching epitaxial graphene from the metal support on which it was grown. We present a method based on a pure gas phase reaction that is free of solvents and polymer supports and avoids mechanical transfer steps. The graphene was grown on 150 nm thick, single crystalline Ni(111) films on Si(111) wafers with YSZ buffer layers. Its quality was monitored by using low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. The gas phase etching uses a chemical transport reaction, the so-called Mond process, based on the formation of gaseous nickel tetracarbonyl in 1 bar of CO at 75 °C and by adding small amounts of sulfide catalysts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the detached graphene. It was found that the method successfully removes the nickel from underneath the graphene layer, so that the graphene lies on the insulating oxide buffer layer. Small residual particles of nickel sulfide and cracks in the obtained graphene layer were identified. The defect concentrations were comparable to graphene samples obtained by wet chemical etching and by the bubbling transfer.

  15. Giant Peak Voltage of Thermopower Waves Driven by the Chemical Potential Gradient of Single-Crystalline Bi2 Te3.

    PubMed

    Singh, Swati; Mun, Hyeona; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Sung Wng; Baik, Seunghyun

    2017-09-01

    The self-propagating exothermic chemical reaction with transient thermovoltage, known as the thermopower wave, has received considerable attention recently. A greater peak voltage and specific power are still demanded, and materials with greater Seebeck coefficients have been previously investigated. However, this study employs an alternative mechanism of transient chemical potential gradient providing an unprecedentedly high peak voltage (maximum: 8 V; average: 2.3 V) and volume-specific power (maximum: 0.11 W mm -3 ; average: 0.04 W mm -3 ) using n-type single-crystalline Bi 2 Te 3 substrates. A mixture of nitrocellulose and sodium azide is used as a fuel, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a significant downshift in Fermi energy (≈5.09 eV) of the substrate by p-doping of the fuel. The induced electrical potential by thermopower waves has two distinct sources: the Seebeck effect and the transient chemical potential gradient. Surprisingly, the Seebeck effect contribution is less than 2.5% (≈201 mV) of the maximum peak voltage. The right combination of substrate, fuel doping, and anisotropic substrate geometry results in an order of magnitude greater transient chemical potential gradient (≈5.09 eV) upon rapid removal of fuel by exothermic chemical reaction propagation. The role of fuel doping and chemical potential gradient can be viewed as a key mechanism for enhanced heat to electric conversion performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Temperature dependent exchange bias training effect in single-crystalline BiFeO{sub 3}/Co bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    He, M. C.; You, B.; Tu, H. Q.

    2015-05-07

    Single-crystalline BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO)/Co bilayers were prepared by combined pulsed laser deposition and magnetron sputtering on (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. Exchange bias (EB) and accompanying training effect have been studied as a function of temperature (T) between 5 K and 300 K. A non-monotonic exchange field variation with sharp increase below 100 K has been observed. In the meanwhile, strong training effect was recorded when T < 100 K and it weakens monotonically with increasing T up to 300 K. These temperature dependent EB and training effect may be caused by the uncompensated spins in both the interfacial spin-glass (SG) phase at low temperature and the antiferromagneticmore » BFO layer at higher temperature. The low temperature EB training results can be well fitted by a modified Binek's model considering asymmetric changes of the pinning SG spins at the descending and the ascending branches.« less

  17. Aminosilane multilayer formed on a single-crystalline diamond surface with controlled nanoscopic hardness and bioactivity by a wet process.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Yosuke; Hatakeyama, Akiko; Shimamoto, Nobuo

    2009-01-06

    Diamond could be an excellent support for nanodevices utilizing biomolecules if it is covered with a polymer layer immobilizing a variety of biomolecules. We report a wet method to form a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) multilayer with a controlled hardness, roughness, and capacity for immobilizing protein. The method is feasible in typical biochemical laboratories where biomolecules are prepared. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the surface geometries and nanoscopic hardness of the multilayers on an oxygen-terminated single-crystalline diamond surface depended on the dielectric constant of the solvent; the smaller the constant, the harder the layer. The hard multilayers had holes and APTES aggregates on the surfaces, while less hard ones had homogeneous surfaces with rare holes and little aggregates. The secondary deposition of APTES in a solvent with a large dielectric constant on a hard multilayer removed the holes, and further treatment of the multilayer in acidic ethanol solution diminished the aggregates. Such a surface can immobilize streptavidin with enough specificity against nonspecific adsorption using a combination of polyethylene glycol reagents. The results of a scratching test and nanoindentation test with AFM provided consistent results, suggesting some universality of the scratching test independent of the tip structure of the cantilever. The mechanism of formation of multilayers on the diamond surface and their binding to it is discussed.

  18. Controlled synthesis of organic single-crystalline nanowires via the synergy approach of the bottom-up/top-down processes.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Ming-Peng; Zhang, Ye-Xin; Li, Zhi-Zhou; Shi, Ying-Li; Wang, Xue-Dong; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2018-03-15

    The controlled fabrication of organic single-crystalline nanowires (OSCNWs) with a uniform diameter in the nanoscale via the bottom-up approach, which is just based on weak intermolecular interaction, is a great challenge. Herein, we utilize the synergy approach of the bottom-up and the top-down processes to fabricate OSCNWs with diameters of 120 ± 10 nm through stepwise evolution processes. Specifically, the evolution processes vary from the self-assembled organic micro-rods with a quadrangular pyramid-like end-structure bounded with {111}s and {11-1}s crystal planes to the "top-down" synthesized organic micro-rods with the flat cross-sectional {002}s plane, to the organic micro-tubes with a wall thickness of ∼115 nm, and finally to the organic nanowires. Notably, the anisotropic etching process caused by the protic solvent molecules (such as ethanol) is crucial for the evolution of the morphology throughout the whole top-down process. Therefore, our demonstration opens a new avenue for the controlled-fabrication of organic nanowires, and also contributes to the development of nanowire-based organic optoelectronics such as organic nanowire lasers.

  19. Experimental and theoretical studies of vibrational density of states in Fe3O4 single-crystalline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handke, B.; Kozłowski, A.; Parliński, K.; Przewoźnik, J.; Ślęzak, T.; Chumakov, A. I.; Niesen, L.; Kąkol, Z.; Korecki, J.

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents experimental and theoretical studies of lattice vibrations in a single-crystalline Fe3O4(001) thin film. The investigations were carried out in order to see how the lattice dynamics changes at the Verwey transition. Vibrational densities of states (DOS) were obtained from nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) of synchrotron radiation in the temperature range 25 to 296 K, while theoretical DOS were calculated ab initio within density functional theory. Experimental phonon density of states shows good agreement with calculated DOS, reproducing both the general features of main line groups as well as the groups’ structure. This is also in qualitative accord with heat capacity data, provided that experimental DOS is augmented with that calculated for oxygen atoms. We have observed a gradual change in the NIS raw data as well as the relevant DOS while lowering the temperature. In particular, the main peak in the energy region 15-25 meV shows increasing splitting on cooling. The Lamb-Mössbauer factor calculated in the course of DOS evaluation shows a pronounced drop in the vicinity of the Verwey transition that may be partly connected to the observed abrupt lowering of the count rate at approximately 7 meV for T

  20. Flexible surface acoustic wave strain sensor based on single crystalline LiNbO3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hongsheng; Dong, Shurong; Xuan, Weipeng; Farooq, Umar; Huang, Shuyi; Li, Menglu; Wu, Ting; Jin, Hao; Wang, Xiaozhi; Luo, Jikui

    2018-02-01

    A flexible surface acoustic wave (SAW) strain sensor in the frequency range of 162-325 MHz was developed based on a single crystalline LiNbO3 thin film with dual resonance modes, namely, the Rayleigh mode and the thickness shear mode (TSM). This SAW sensor could handle a wide strain range up to ±3500 μɛ owing to its excellent flexibility, which is nearly six times the detecting range of bulk piezoelectric substrate based SAW strain sensors. The sensor exhibited a high sensitivity of 193 Hz/ μɛ with a maximum hysteresis less than 1.5%. The temperature coefficients of frequency, for Rayleigh and TSM modes, were -85 and -59 ppm/ °C , respectively. No visible deterioration was observed after cyclic bending for hundreds of times, showing its desirable stability and reliability. By utilizing the dual modes, the strain sensor with a self-temperature calibrated capability can be achieved. The results demonstrate that the sensor is an excellent candidate for strain sensing.

  1. Energy dissipation channels affecting photoluminescence from resonantly excited Er{sup 3+} ions doped in epitaxial ZnO host films

    SciTech Connect

    Akazawa, Housei, E-mail: akazawa.housei@lab.ntt.co.jp; Shinojima, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-21

    We identified prerequisite conditions to obtain intense photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from Er{sup 3+} ions doped in ZnO host crystals. The epitaxial ZnO:Er films were grown on sapphire C-plane substrates by sputtering, and Er{sup 3+} ions were resonantly excited at a wavelength of 532 nm between energy levels of {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}. There is a threshold deposition temperature between 500 and 550 °C, above which epitaxial ZnO films become free of miss-oriented domains. In this case, Er{sup 3+} ions are outside ZnO crystallites, having the same c-axis lattice parameters as those of undoped ZnO crystals. The improved crystallinity wasmore » correlated with enhanced emissions peaking at 1538 nm. Further elevating the deposition temperature up to 650 °C generated cracks in ZnO crystals to relax the lattice mismatch strains, and the emission intensities from cracked regions were three times as large as those from smooth regions. These results can be consistently explained if we assume that emission-active Er{sup 3+} ions are those existing at grain boundaries and bonded to single-crystalline ZnO crystallites. In contrast, ZnO:Er films deposited on a ZnO buffer layer exhibited very weak emissions because of their degraded crystallinity when most Er{sup 3+} ions were accommodated into ZnO crystals. Optimizing the degree of oxidization of ZnO crystals is another important factor because reduced films suffer from non-radiative decay of excited states. The optimum Er content to obtain intense emissions was between 2 and 4 at. %. When 4 at. % was exceeded, the emission intensity was severely attenuated because of concentration quenching as well as the degradation in crystallinity. Precipitation of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals was clearly observed at 22 at. % for films deposited above 650 °C. Minimizing the number of defects and impurities in ZnO crystals prevents energy dissipation, thus exclusively utilizing the excitation energy to

  2. Single crystal growth, crystalline structure investigation and high-pressure behavior of impurity-free siderite (FeCO3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Wen; Yin, Yuan; Li, Zeming; Li, Rui; Li, Lin; He, Yu; Dong, Haini; Li, Zengsheng; Yan, Shuai; Zhai, Shuangmeng; Li, Heping

    2018-03-01

    Single crystals of impurity-free siderite were grown successfully using high-temperature-pressure annealing. The size of crystals ranged up to 100 µm, and they exhibited a rhomboid shape upon cleavage along the (101) plane. The composition of Fe0.9988±0.0011CO3 was quantified using electron probe analysis. Accurate crystalline structural data were investigated by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the unit cell dimensions obtained in the rhombohedral symmetry of the R\\bar {3}c space group were a = 4.6861(3) and c = 15.362(2), and the final R = 0.0499. Using in situ synchrotron XRD, the high-pressure behavior of impurity-free siderite was investigated up to 20 GPa at ambient temperature. The pressure-volume (P-V) EoS was fitted by a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation, and the isothermal bulk modulus was K 0 = 97.5(11) GPa for K 0' = 4. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy was performed at up to 30 GPa at ambient temperature, and the Raman bands shifted as the increase of pressure ({{d/ν _i}}{{{d}P}} ) was determined. In combination with the high-pressure Raman results and the bulk modulus K 0, the mode Grüneisen parameters of each vibration were calculated. Meanwhile, high-temperature Raman spectroscopy was carried out at up to 300 °C and the Raman band shift ({{d/ν _i}}{{{d}t}} ) was also quantified.

  3. Synthesis, structural and optical properties of ZnO spindle/reduced graphene oxide composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, S.; Pudukudy, M.; Sohila, S.; Harish, S.; Navaneethan, M.; Navaneethan, D.; Ramesh, R.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, spindle-shaped ZnO and reduced graphene oxide sheets were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method and then ZnO/r-GO composite was prepared by a direct solution mixing method. Various characterization results confirmed the interior and surface decoration of spindle-shaped ZnO on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. The phase formation, crystalline structure, morphology, surface states and optical properties were characterized using Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of the hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure of ZnO with high crystalline quality. The band gap of the ZnO/r-GO composite was found to be low (3.03eV) compared to the band gap of spindle shaped ZnO (3.13 eV), as calculated from optical studies. The spindle-like morphology of the single crystalline ZnO was clearly shown in the electron microscopic images. The chemical bonding and surface states of the samples were studied using XPS measurement. Moreover, a possible growth mechanism for the ZnO spindle was proposed. The catalytic activity of the as-synthesized samples was evaluated for the photodegradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. Among the synthesized samples, the ZnO/r-GO composite showed higher degradation efficiency of 93% and successfully reused for four consecutive run without any activity loss.

  4. Scintillating screens based on the LPE grown Tb3Al5O12:Ce single crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yuriy; Douissard, Paul-Antoine; Martin, Thierry; Riva, Federica; Gorbenko, Vitaliy; Zorenko, Tetiana; Paprocki, Kazimierz; Iskalieva, Aizhan; Witkiewicz, Sandra; Fedorov, Alexander; Bilski, Paweł; Twardak, Anna

    2017-03-01

    We report in this work the creation of new heavy and efficient Tb3Al5O12:Ce (TbAG:Ce) single crystalline film (SCF) scintillators, grown by LPE method from PbO-B2O3 based flux onto Y3Al5O12 (YAG) and Gd3Ga2.5Al2.5O12 (GAGG) substrates, for different optoelectronic applications. The luminescent and scintillation properties of the TbAG:Ce SCF screens, grown onto different types of substrates, are studied and compared with the properties of the Lu3Al5O12:Ce (LuAG:Ce) and YAG:Ce SCF counterparts. TbAG:Ce SCFs show very high scintillation light yield (LY) under α-particles excitation, which overcomes by 30% the LY of high-quality LuAG:Ce SCF samples. In comparison with YAG:Ce and LuAG:Ce SCFs, TbAG:Ce SCF screens show also significantly lower afterglow (up to 10-4 level at X-ray burst duration of 0.1 s), which is comparable with the afterglow level of the best samples of LSO:Ce, Tb SCFs typically being used now for microimaging. Together with a high light output of X-ray excited luminescence, such extremely low afterglow of TbAG:Ce SCF is a very good reason for future development of scintillating screens based on the mentioned garnet. We also introduce the possibility to create new types of ;film-substrate; hybrid scintillators using the LPE method for simultaneous registration of different components of ionizing radiation and microimaging based on the TbAG:Ce SCF and GAGG:Ce substrates.

  5. Well-Defined Nanostructured, Single-Crystalline TiO2 Electron Transport Layer for Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jongmin; Song, Seulki; Hörantner, Maximilian T; Snaith, Henry J; Park, Taiho

    2016-06-28

    An electron transporting layer (ETL) plays an important role in extracting electrons from a perovskite layer and blocking recombination between electrons in the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and holes in the perovskite layers, especially in planar perovskite solar cells. Dense TiO2 ETLs prepared by a solution-processed spin-coating method (S-TiO2) are mainly used in devices due to their ease of fabrication. Herein, we found that fatal morphological defects at the S-TiO2 interface due to a rough FTO surface, including an irregular film thickness, discontinuous areas, and poor physical contact between the S-TiO2 and the FTO layers, were inevitable and lowered the charge transport properties through the planar perovskite solar cells. The effects of the morphological defects were mitigated in this work using a TiO2 ETL produced from sputtering and anodization. This method produced a well-defined nanostructured TiO2 ETL with an excellent transmittance, single-crystalline properties, a uniform film thickness, a large effective area, and defect-free physical contact with a rough substrate that provided outstanding electron extraction and hole blocking in a planar perovskite solar cell. In planar perovskite devices, anodized TiO2 ETL (A-TiO2) increased the power conversion efficiency by 22% (from 12.5 to 15.2%), and the stabilized maximum power output efficiency increased by 44% (from 8.9 to 12.8%) compared with S-TiO2. This work highlights the importance of the ETL geometry for maximizing device performance and provides insights into achieving ideal ETL morphologies that remedy the drawbacks observed in conventional spin-coated ETLs.

  6. Photochemical Modification of Single Crystalline GaN Film Using n-Alkene with Different Carbon Chain Lengths as Biolinker.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Zhuang, Hao; Huang, Nan; Heuser, Steffen; Schlemper, Christoph; Zhai, Zhaofeng; Liu, Baodan; Staedler, Thorsten; Jiang, Xin

    2016-06-14

    As a potential material for biosensing applications, gallium nitride (GaN) films have attracted remarkable attention. In order to construct GaN biosensors, a corresponding immobilization of biolinkers is of great importance in order to render a surface bioactive. In this work, two kinds of n-alkenes with different carbon chain lengths, namely allylamine protected with trifluoroacetamide (TFAAA) and 10-aminodec-1-ene protected with trifluoroacetamide (TFAAD), were used to photochemically functionalize single crystalline GaN films. The successful linkage of both TFAAA and TFAAD to the GaN films is confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) measurement. With increased UV illumination time, the intensity of the secondary ions corresponding to the linker molecules initially increases and subsequently decreases in both cases. Based on the SIMS measurements, the maximum coverage of TFAAA is achieved after 14 h of UV illumination, while only 2 h is required in the case of TFAAD to reach the situation of a fully covered GaN surface. This finding leads to the conclusion that the reaction rate of TFAAD is significantly higher compared to TFAAA. Measurements by atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicate that the coverage of GaN films by a TFAAA layer leads to an increased surface roughness. The atomic terraces, which are clearly observable for the pristine GaN films, disappear once the surface is fully covered by a TFAAA layer. Such TFAAA layers will feature a homogeneous surface topography even for reaction times of 24 h. In contrast to this, TFAAD shows strong cross-polymerization on the surface, this is confirmed by optical microscopy. These results demonstrate that TFAAA is a more suitable candidate as biolinker in context of the GaN surfaces due to its improved controllability.

  7. Facile synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of single-crystalline nanohybrids for the removal of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervaiz, Erum; Liu, Honghong; Yang, Minghui

    2017-03-01

    This study focused on the synthesis of α-MoO3/rGO (rGO, reduced graphene oxide). One-dimensional nanohybrids under mild conditions and a low temperature wet chemical route produced highly pure single-crystalline orthorhombic α-MoO3 on GO sheets. Four nanohybrids, labeled as GMO-0, GMO-1, GMO-2 and GMO-3, were synthesized with different mass chargings of GO (0 mg, 40 mg, 60 mg and 100 mg, respectively). The photocatalytic performance for reduction of organic pollutants was analyzed. The presence of different amounts of GO in the prepared metal oxide hybrids altered the performance of the material as elaborated by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra and the resulting reduction of organic dyes depicted by photocatalytic experiments. GO as a support material and active co-catalyst decreased the band gap of α-MoO3 (2.82 eV) to lower values (2.51 eV), rendering the prepared hybrids usable for visible-light-induced photocatalysis. The large specific surface area (72 m2 g-1) of the mesoporous α-MoO3/rGO nanohybrid made it an efficient photocatalyst for the elimination of azo dyes. Very fast reduction (100%) of Rhodamine B was observed in a few minutes, while Congo Red was degraded by 76% in 10 min, leading to the formation of stable intermediates that were completely neutralized in 12-14 h under light irradiation. The amount of GO loaded in the samples was limited to a point to achieve better results. After that, increasing the amount of GO decreased the extent of degradation due to the presence of a higher electron acceptor. Photocatalytic experiments revealed the synergistic effect, high selectivity of the prepared nanohybrids and degradation of azo dyes. The kinetics of the degradation reaction were studied and found to follow a pseudo first-order reaction.

  8. Observation of defect-assisted enhanced visible whispering gallery modes in ytterbium-doped ZnO microsphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanum, Rizwana; Moirangthem, Rakesh S.; Das, Nayan Mani

    2017-06-01

    Smooth surfaced and crystalline undoped and ytterbium doped zinc oxide (ZnO) microspheres having an approximate size of 3-5 μm were synthesized by hydrothermal process. Out of these microspheres, a single microparticle was chosen and engaged as a whispering gallery wave microresonator. The defect induced luminescence from an individual ZnO microsphere was investigated with micro-photoluminescence measurement in the spectral range of 565 to 740 nm under the excitation of a green laser having a centered wavelength at 532 nm. The defects-related emissions from a single ZnO microsphere show optical resonance peaks so-called "whispering gallery modes" (WGMs) which are confirmed with the theoretical calculation. Further, ZnO microspheres were chemically doped with the different molar percentages of Ytterbium (Yb), and enhancement in their emission properties was investigated. Our experimental results show that ZnO microspheres with 0.5 mol. % doping of Yb gives the strongest optical emission and has highest Q-factor which can be employed in the development of WGM based optical biosensor or laser.

  9. Pure Single-Crystalline Na1.1V3O7.9 Nanobelts as Superior Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuang; Liu, Yong-Bing; Xu, Dan; Ma, De-Long; Wang, Sai; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Zhan-Yi; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2015-03-01

    Pure single-crystalline Na 1.1 V 3 O 7.9 nanobelts are successfully synthesized for the first time via a facile yet effective strategy. When used as cathode materials for Na-ion batteries, the novel nanobelts exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. Given the ease and effectiveness of the synthesis route as well as the very promising electrochemical performance, the results obtained may be extended to other next-generation cathode materials for Na-ion batteries.

  10. Single-Layer graphene growth on crystalline Ni(111) and Ni(110) and the fate of Carbon on crystalline Ni(100).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Paulo; Mafra, Daniela; Reina, Alfonso; Shin, Young Cheol; Kim, Ki Kang; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Kong, Jing

    The growth of large area single-layer graphene (1-LG) is studied using ambient pressure CVD on single crystal Ni(111), Ni(110) and Ni(100). By varying both the furnace temperature in the range of 700 - 1100oC and the gas flow through the growth chamber, a uniform growth of high-quality 1-LG is obtained for Ni(111) and Ni(110), but only multilayer graphene (M-LG) growth could be obtained for Ni(100). The experimental results are interpreted to obtain the optimum combination of temperature and gas flow, and the results reported in this manuscript are interpreted through different thermodynamic mechanisms, such as diffusion, segregation and adsorption, which dictate the formation of different carbon structures over the different crystallographic directions of Ni. Characterization with optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and optical transmission accordingly support the experimental findings. DOE Award Number DE-SC0001088, College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Alabama, NRF Award Number 2015R1C1A1A02037083 and NSF-DMR 1507806.

  11. Indium doped ZnO nano-powders prepared by RF thermal plasma treatment of In2O3 and ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mi-Yeon; Song, Min-Kyung; Seo, Jun-Ho; Kim, Min-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Indium doped ZnO nano-powders were synthesized by the RF thermal plasma treatment of In2O3 and ZnO. For this purpose, micron-sized ZnO powder was mixed with In2O3 powder at the In/Zn ratios of 0.0, 1.2, and 2.4 at. % by ball milling for 1 h, after which the mixtures were injected into RF thermal plasma generated at the plate power level of ˜140 kV A. As observed from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images of the RF plasma-treated powders, hexagonal prism-shaped nano-crystals were mainly obtained along with multi-pod type nano-particles, where the number of multi-pods decreased with increasing In/Zn ratios. In addition, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data for the as-treated nano-powders showed the diffraction peaks for the In2O3 present in the precursor mixture to disappear, while the crystalline peaks for the single phase of ZnO structure shifted toward lower Bragg angles. In the UV-vis absorption spectra of the as-treated powders, redshifts were also observed with increases of the In/Zn ratios. Together with the FE-SEM images and the XRD data, the redshifts were indicative of the doping process of ZnO with indium, which took place during the RF thermal plasma treatment of In2O3 and ZnO.

  12. γ-Irradiation assisted synthesis of graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution from interlamellar limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yunhao; Zhou, Baoming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei; Liu, Liangsen; Kuang, Liyun; Ma, Meijun; Fu, Hongjun

    2017-05-01

    This paper reported a method to fabricate graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs/GOS) with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution without surfactant or functional agent. We used imidazole silver nitrate as intercalation precursor into the layers of graphite oxide, and subsequently reduction and growth of interlamellar AgNPs were induced via γ-irradiation. The results illustrated that the synergism of interlamellar limitation of graphite oxide and fragmentation ability of γ-irradiation could prevent coalescent reaction of AgNPs with other oligomeric clusters, and the single crystalline and small-sized (below 13.9 nm) AgNPs were prepared. Moreover, the content and size of AgNPs exhibited parabolic distribution on GOS surface because the graphite oxide exfoliated to GOS from the edge to the central area of layers. In addition, complete exfoliation degree of GOS and large-sized AgNPs were obtained simultaneously under suitable silver ions concentration. Optimized composites exhibited outstanding surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties for crystal violet with enhancement factor of 1.3 × 106 and detection limit of 1.0 × 10-7 M, indicating that the AgNPs/GOS composites could be applied to trace detection of organic dyes molecules. Therefore, this study presented a strategy for developing GOS supported nanometal with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution based on γ-irradiation.

  13. High temperature ferromagnetism in Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles: Milling time dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Bappaditya; Giri, P. K.; Sarkar, D.

    2014-04-01

    We report on the room temperature ferromagnetism (RT FM) in the Zn1-xNixO (x = 0, 0.03, and 0.05) nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by a ball milling technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the single crystalline ZnO wurtzite structure with presence of small intensity secondary phase related peak which disappear with increasing milling time for Ni doped samples. HRTEM lattice images show that the doped NPs are single crystalline with a dspacing of 2.44 Å. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis confirms the presence of Ni ions in the ZnO matrix. Magnetic measurement (RT) exhibits the hysteresis loop with saturation magnetization (Ms) of 1.6-2.56 (emu/g) and coercive field (Hc) of 296-322 Oe. M-T measurement shows a Curie temperature of the order of 325°C for 3% Ni doped sample. Micro -Raman studies show doping/disorder induced additional modes at ˜510, 547, 572 cm-1 in addition to 437 cm-1 peak of pure ZnO. UV-Vis absorption spectra illustrate band gap shift due to doping. Alteration of Ms value with the variation of doping concentration and milling time has been studied and discussed.

  14. High-efficiency second harmonic generation from a single hybrid ZnO nanowire/Au plasmonic nano-oligomer.

    PubMed

    Grinblat, Gustavo; Rahmani, Mohsen; Cortés, Emiliano; Caldarola, Martín; Comedi, David; Maier, Stefan A; Bragas, Andrea V

    2014-11-12

    We introduce a plasmonic-semiconductor hybrid nanosystem, consisting of a ZnO nanowire coupled to a gold pentamer oligomer by crossing the hot-spot. It is demonstrated that the hybrid system exhibits a second harmonic (SH) conversion efficiency of ∼3 × 10(-5)%, which is among the highest values for a nanoscale object at optical frequencies reported so far. The SH intensity was found to be ∼1700 times larger than that from the same nanowire excited outside the hot-spot. Placing high nonlinear susceptibility materials precisely in plasmonic confined-field regions to enhance SH generation opens new perspectives for highly efficient light frequency up-conversion on the nanoscale.

  15. Ordered mesoporous crystalline gamma-Al2O3 with variable architecture and porosity from a single hard template.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhangxiong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Dan; Webley, Paul A; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, an efficient route is developed for controllable synthesis of ordered mesoporous alumina (OMA) materials with variable pore architectures and high mesoporosity, as well as crystalline framework. The route is based on the nanocasting pathway with bimodal mesoporous carbon as the hard template. In contrast to conventional reports, we first realize the possibility of creating two ordered mesopore architectures by using a single carbon hard template obtained from organic-organic self-assembly, which is also the first time such carbon materials are adopted to replicate ordered mesoporous materials. The mesopore architecture and surface property of the carbon template are rationally designed in order to obtain ordered alumina mesostructures. We found that the key factors rely on the unique bimodal mesopore architecture and surface functionalization of the carbon hard template. Namely, the bimodal mesopores (2.3 and 5.9 nm) and the surface functionalities make it possible to selectively load alumina into the small mesopores dominantly and/or with a layer of alumina coated on the inner surface of the large primary mesopores with different thicknesses until full loading is achieved. Thus, OMA materials with variable pore architectures (similar and reverse mesostructures relative to the carbon template) and controllable mesoporosity in a wide range are achieved. Meanwhile, in situ ammonia hydrolysis for conversion of the metal precursor to its hydroxide is helpful for easy crystallization (as low as approximately 500 degrees C). Well-crystallized alumina frameworks composed of gamma-Al(2)O(3) nanocrystals with sizes of 6-7 nm are obtained after burning out the carbon template at 600 degrees C, which is advantageous over soft-templated aluminas. The effects of synthesis factors are demonstrated and discussed relative to control experiments. Furthermore, our method is versatile enough to be used for general synthesis of other important but difficult

  16. Single-molecule Imaging Analysis of Binding, Processive Movement, and Dissociation of Cellobiohydrolase Trichoderma reesei Cel6A and Its Domains on Crystalline Cellulose*

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Akihiko; Tasaki, Tomoyuki; Ishiwata, Daiki; Yamamoto, Mayuko; Okuni, Yasuko; Visootsat, Akasit; Maximilien, Morice; Noji, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Taku; Samejima, Masahiro; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Iino, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei Cel6A (TrCel6A) is a cellobiohydrolase that hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose into cellobiose. Here we directly observed the reaction cycle (binding, surface movement, and dissociation) of single-molecule intact TrCel6A, isolated catalytic domain (CD), cellulose-binding module (CBM), and CBM and linker (CBM-linker) on crystalline cellulose Iα. The CBM-linker showed a binding rate constant almost half that of intact TrCel6A, whereas those of the CD and CBM were only one-tenth of intact TrCel6A. These results indicate that the glycosylated linker region largely contributes to initial binding on crystalline cellulose. After binding, all samples showed slow and fast dissociations, likely caused by the two different bound states due to the heterogeneity of cellulose surface. The CBM showed much higher specificity to the high affinity site than to the low affinity site, whereas the CD did not, suggesting that the CBM leads the CD to the hydrophobic surface of crystalline cellulose. On the cellulose surface, intact molecules showed slow processive movements (8.8 ± 5.5 nm/s) and fast diffusional movements (30–40 nm/s), whereas the CBM-Linker, CD, and a catalytically inactive full-length mutant showed only fast diffusional movements. These results suggest that both direct binding and surface diffusion contribute to searching of the hydrolysable point of cellulose chains. The duration time constant for the processive movement was 7.7 s, and processivity was estimated as 68 ± 42. Our results reveal the role of each domain in the elementary steps of the reaction cycle and provide the first direct evidence of the processive movement of TrCel6A on crystalline cellulose. PMID:27609516

  17. Electrical transport, electrothermal transport, and effective electron mass in single-crystalline In2O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preissler, Natalie; Bierwagen, Oliver; Ramu, Ashok T.; Speck, James S.

    2013-08-01

    A comprehensive study of the room-temperature electrical and electrothermal transport of single-crystalline indium oxide (In2O3) and indium tin oxide (ITO) films over a wide range of electron concentrations is reported. We measured the room-temperature Hall mobility μH and Seebeck coefficient S of unintentionally doped and Sn-doped high-quality, plasma-assisted molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown In2O3 for volume Hall electron concentrations nH from 7×1016 cm-3 (unintentionally doped) to 1×1021 cm-3 (highly Sn-doped, ITO). The resulting empirical S(nH) relation can be directly used in other In2O3 samples to estimate the volume electron concentration from simple Seebeck coefficient measurements. The mobility and Seebeck coefficient were modeled by a numerical solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. Ionized impurity scattering and polar optical phonon scattering were found to be the dominant scattering mechanisms. Acoustic phonon scattering was found to be negligible. Fitting the temperature-dependent mobility above room temperature of an In2O3 film with high mobility allowed us to find the effective Debye temperature (ΘD=700 K) and number of phonon modes (NOPML=1.33) that best describe the polar optical phonon scattering. The modeling also yielded the Hall scattering factor rH as a function of electron concentration, which is not negligible (rH≈1.4) at nondegenerate electron concentrations. Fitting the Hall-scattering-factor corrected concentration-dependent Seebeck coefficient S(n) for nondegenerate samples to the numerical solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and to widely used, simplified equations allowed us to extract an effective electron mass of m*=(0.30±0.03)me (with free electron mass me). The modeled mobility and Seebeck coefficient based on polar optical phonon and ionized impurity scattering describes the experimental results very accurately up to electron concentrations of 1019 cm-3, and qualitatively explains a mobility plateau or local

  18. Zero lattice mismatch and twin-free single crystalline ScN buffer layers for GaN growth on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lupina, L.; Zoellner, M. H.; Dietrich, B.

    2015-11-16

    We report the growth of thin ScN layers deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) substrates. Using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, we find that ScN films grown at 600 °C are single crystalline, twin-free with rock-salt crystal structure, and exhibit a direct optical band gap of 2.2 eV. A high degree of crystalline perfection and a very good lattice matching between ScN and GaN (misfit < 0.1%) makes the ScN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer system a very promising template for the growth of high quality GaN layers on silicon.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Single-Source Molecular Precursors to Binary Metal Sulphides: Bis(Diethyldithiocarbamato) M(II)Trialkylphosphine (M=Zn and Cd) Adducts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-06

    while the heterobimetallic species, 7, thermally decomposed to give00 crystalline ZnO.5S according to X-ray powder diffraction data. A. SUBJECT TERMS 15... heterobimetallic species, 7, thermally decomposed to give crystalline ZnO.5CdO.5S according to X-ray powder diffraction data. LaGOSSIOn "or OTIS RA&I VT-iC TAB EU...on the NMR timescale, and a single heterobimetallic species. Attempts to distinguish these possibilities are described later. The variable temperature

  20. Comparative study on the physical properties of transition metal-doped (Co, Ni, Fe, and Mn) ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azab, A. A.; Ateia, Ebtesam E.; Esmail, S. A.

    2018-07-01

    Nano-crystalline of TM-doped ZnO with general formula Zn0.97TM0.03O (TM: Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) was prepared using sol-gel method. The dependence of crystal structure, morphology, and optical and magnetic properties on the type of transition metals was investigated. The XRD investigation of pure and TM-doped ZnO nanoparticles samples confirms the formation of single-phase hexagonal wurtzite structure. The estimated crystallite sizes are found in the range of 17 and 38 nm for the doped and pure samples, respectively. The obtained data suggest that the dopant type plays a vital role in the physical properties of the investigated samples. The optical band-gap energy Eg has been calculated from near infrared (NIR) and visible (VIS) reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function. Minimum value of 2.398 eV and maximum one of 3.29 eV were obtained for Manganese-doped ZnO and pure ZnO, respectively. The analysis of XRD and VSM of the samples confirms that the observed room-temperature (RT) ferromagnetism can be attributed to an intrinsic property of doped material sample and not due to formation of any secondary phase. The magnetic results show that Mn is the most effective dopant for producing ferromagnetism in nanoparticles of ZnO.

  1. Single-crystalline BaTiO3 films grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Yuya; Takahashi, Kei S.; Tokura, Yoshinori; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2014-12-01

    Thin BaTiO3 films were grown on GdScO3 (110) substrates by metalorganic gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. Titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) was used as a volatile precursor that provides a wide growth window of the supplied TTIP/Ba ratio for automatic adjustment of the film composition. Within the growth window, compressively strained films can be grown with excellent crystalline quality, whereas films grown outside of the growth window are relaxed with inferior crystallinity. This growth method will provide a way to study the intrinsic properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 films and their heterostructures by precise control of the stoichiometry, structure, and purity.

  2. Optical reflectance of solution processed quasi-superlattice ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) channel materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Darragh; McCormack, Robert; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2017-04-01

    The angle-resolved reflectance of high crystalline quality, c-axis oriented ZnO and AZO single and periodic quasi-superlattice (QSL) spin-coated TFT channels materials are presented. The data is analysed using an adapted model to accurately determine the spectral region for optical thickness and corresponding reflectance. The optical thickness agrees very well with measured thickness of 1-20 layered QSL thin films determined by transmission electron microscopy if the reflectance from lowest interference order is used. Directional reflectance for single layers or homogeneous QSLs of ZnO and AZO channel materials exhibit a consistent degree of anti-reflection characteristics from 30 to 60° (~10-12% reflection) for thickness ranging from ~40 nm to 500 nm. The reflectance of AZO single layer thin films is  <10% from 30 to 75° at 514.5 nm, and  <6% at 632.8 nm from 30-60°. The data show that ZnO and AZO with granular or periodic substructure behave optically as dispersive, continuous thin films of similar thickness, and angle-resolved spectral mapping provides a design rule for transparency or refractive index determination as a function of film thickness, substructure (dispersion) and viewing angle.

  3. Influence of rare earth ions on microstructural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Riyajuddin, Sk., E-mail: riyaj5303@gmail.com; Ahmad, Shabbir; Faizan, M.

    2016-05-23

    Pure and 3% rare earth ions (Nd{sup 3+} & Gd{sup 3+}) doped ZnO samples were synthesized by sol-gel method, followed by annealing at temperature 450°C for 2hr. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD result confirmed single phase nature of all samples with crystalline structure. The average crystallite size of the doped samples found to be decreases as caculated using Debye-Scherrer’s formula. FTIR spectra indicate absorption band centered at 464 cm{sup −1} which is attributed to Zn-O lattice vibration. It confirms the formaton of compounds. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to study the optical properties and band gapmore » of the synthesised materials using Tauc’s relation.« less

  4. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowire Based Piezoelectric Generators and Related Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opoku, Charles; Dahiya, Abhishek Singh; Oshman, Christopher; Cayrel, Frederic; Poulin-Vittrant, Guylaine; Alquier, Daniel; Camara, Nicolas

    Using vertically grown hydrothermal ZnO nanowires, we demonstrate the assembly of fully functional piezoelectric energy harvesters on plastics substrates. A seedless hydrothermal process is employed for the growth of single crystalline vertically orientated ZnO NWs at around 100oC. Flexible NG are assembled using ∼7 μm thick PDMS polymer matrix on a 3x3cm substrate. A representative device with an active area of 4cm2 is characterised revealing average output voltage generation of ∼22mV (±1.2) and -32mV (±0.16) in the positive and negative cycles after 3-4mm periodic deflection at 20Hz. A power density of ∼288nW/cm3 is estimated for the device. It is envisaged that such energy scavengers may find potential applications targeting self-powered systems, sensors and on-body charging of electronics.

  5. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Effect of polyacrylamide on morphology and electromagnetic properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; You, Tian-Gui; Zhao, Wu; Yun, Jiang-Ni; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2009-10-01

    Through hydrothermal process, the chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles are prepared with zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) used as main resources under the different concentrations of surfactant polyacrylamide (PAM). The microstructure, morphology and the electromagnetic properties of the as-prepared products are characterized by high-resolution transmissïon electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM) and microwave vector network analyzer, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the as-prepared products are ZnO single crystalline with hexagona wurtzite structure, that the values of slenderness ratio Ld are different in different PAM concentrations, and that the good magnetic loss property is found in the ZnO products, and the average magnetic loss tangent tan δu increases with PAM concentration increasing, while the dielectric loss tangent tan δe decreases.

  6. Rapidly synthesized ZnO nanowires by ultraviolet decomposition process in ambient air for flexible photodetector.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jyh Ming; Chen, Yi-Ru; Lin, Yu-Hung

    2011-03-01

    We are the first group to use a simple direct ultraviolet light (UV, λ=365 nm, I=76 mW cm(-2)) in a decomposition process to fabricate ZnO nanowires on a flexible substrate using a zinc acetylacetonate hydrate precursor in ambient air. ZnO nanocrystal (or nanowire) production only requires three to ten minutes. A field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) image reveals a high aspect ratio of the ZnO nanowires, which are grown on a substrate with a diameter of ∼50-100 nm, and a length of up to several hundred microns. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images reveal that the nanowires consist of many single crystalline ZnO nanoparticles that grow along the c axis, which suggests an oriented attachment process. A potential application for flexible UV photodetectors was investigated using a UV lamp (λ=365 nm, I=2.34 mW cm(-2)). A significant ratio of photocurrent to dark current--around 11,300%--was achieved.

  7. Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods for efficient ultraviolet photodetection.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Shrabani; Basak, Durga

    2011-05-01

    Core-shell TiO(2)@ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been fabricated by a simple two step method: growth of ZnO NRs' array by an aqueous chemical technique and then coating of the NRs with a solution of titanium isopropoxide [Ti(OC(3)H(7))(4)] followed by a heating step to form the shell. The core-shell nanocomposites are composed of single-crystalline ZnO NRs, coated with a thin TiO(2) shell layer obtained by varying the number of coatings (one, three and five times). The ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity of the nanocomposite is largely quenched due to an efficient electron-hole separation reducing the band-to-band recombinations. The UV photoconductivity of the core-shell structure with three times TiO(2) coating has been largely enhanced due to photoelectron transfer between the core and the shell. The UV photosensitivity of the nanocomposite becomes four times larger while the photocurrent decay during steady UV illumination has been decreased almost by 7 times compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs indicating high efficiency of these core-shell structures as UV sensors. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  8. Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods for efficient ultraviolet photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Shrabani; Basak, Durga

    2011-05-01

    Core-shell TiO2@ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been fabricated by a simple two step method: growth of ZnO NRs' array by an aqueous chemical technique and then coating of the NRs with a solution of titanium isopropoxide [Ti(OC3H7)4] followed by a heating step to form the shell. The core-shell nanocomposites are composed of single-crystalline ZnO NRs, coated with a thin TiO2 shell layer obtained by varying the number of coatings (one, three and five times). The ultraviolet (UV) emission intensity of the nanocomposite is largely quenched due to an efficient electron-hole separation reducing the band-to-band recombinations. The UV photoconductivity of the core-shell structure with three times TiO2 coating has been largely enhanced due to photoelectron transfer between the core and the shell. The UV photosensitivity of the nanocomposite becomes four times larger while the photocurrent decay during steady UV illumination has been decreased almost by 7 times compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs indicating high efficiency of these core-shell structures as UV sensors.

  9. Crystalline Silica

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about crystalline silica (quartz dust), which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Crystalline silica is present in certain construction materials such as concrete, masonry, and brick and also in commercial products such as some cleansers, cosmetics, pet litter, talcum powder, caulk, and paint.

  10. Single-molecule Imaging Analysis of Elementary Reaction Steps of Trichoderma reesei Cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A) Hydrolyzing Crystalline Cellulose Iα and IIII*

    PubMed Central

    Shibafuji, Yusuke; Nakamura, Akihiko; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Sugimoto, Naohisa; Fukuda, Shingo; Watanabe, Hiroki; Samejima, Masahiro; Ando, Toshio; Noji, Hiroyuki; Koivula, Anu; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Iino, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I (TrCel7A) is a molecular motor that directly hydrolyzes crystalline celluloses into water-soluble cellobioses. It has recently drawn attention as a tool that could be used to convert cellulosic materials into biofuel. However, detailed mechanisms of action, including elementary reaction steps such as binding, processive hydrolysis, and dissociation, have not been thoroughly explored because of the inherent challenges associated with monitoring reactions occurring at the solid/liquid interface. The crystalline cellulose Iα and IIII were previously reported as substrates with different crystalline forms and different susceptibilities to hydrolysis by TrCel7A. In this study, we observed that different susceptibilities of cellulose Iα and IIII are highly dependent on enzyme concentration, and at nanomolar enzyme concentration, TrCel7A shows similar rates of hydrolysis against cellulose Iα and IIII. Using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy and high speed atomic force microscopy, we also determined kinetic constants of the elementary reaction steps for TrCel7A against cellulose Iα and IIII. These measurements were performed at picomolar enzyme concentration in which density of TrCel7A on crystalline cellulose was very low. Under this condition, TrCel7A displayed similar binding and dissociation rate constants for cellulose Iα and IIII and similar fractions of productive binding on cellulose Iα and IIII. Furthermore, once productively bound, TrCel7A processively hydrolyzes and moves along cellulose Iα and IIII with similar translational rates. With structural models of cellulose Iα and IIII, we propose that different susceptibilities at high TrCel7A concentration arise from surface properties of substrate, including ratio of hydrophobic surface and number of available lanes. PMID:24692563

  11. New CVD-based method for the growth of high-quality crystalline zinc oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Florian; Madel, Manfred; Reiser, Anton; Bauer, Sebastian; Thonke, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    High-quality zinc oxide (ZnO) layers were grown using a new chemical vapour deposition (CVD)-based low-cost growth method. The process is characterized by total simplicity, high growth rates, and cheap, less hazardous precursors. To produce elementary zinc vapour, methane (CH4) is used to reduce a ZnO powder. By re-oxidizing the zinc with pure oxygen, highly crystalline ZnO layers were grown on gallium nitride (GaN) layers and on sapphire substrates with an aluminum nitride (AlN) nucleation layer. Using simple CH4 as precursor has the big advantage of good controllability and the avoidance of highly toxic gases like nitrogen oxides. In photoluminescence (PL) measurements the samples show a strong near-band-edge emission and a sharp line width at 5 K. The good crystal quality has been confirmed in high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. This new growth method has great potential for industrial large-scale production of high-quality single crystal ZnO layers.

  12. Single crystalline CH 3NH 3PbI 3 self-grown on FTO/TiO 2 substrate for high efficiency perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jinjin; Kong, Guoli; Chen, Shulin

    In this work, we developed an innovative approach to self-grow single crystalline CH 3NH 3PbI 3 directly on polycrystalline FTO/TiO 2 substrate, with which n-i-p type of perovskite solar cells were fabricated. The single crystalline nature of CH 3NH 3PbI 3 has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and it is observed that they possess smaller optic band gap and longer carrier life time. Highly efficient charge extractions occur at the interface between electron collecting TiO 2 and photo-harvesting CH 3NH 3PbI 3, resulting in a maximum short-circuit current density of 24.40 mA/cm 2. Themore » champion cell possesses a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 8.78%, and there are still substantial room for further improvement, making it promising for the perovskite solar cell applications.« less

  13. Controlled Growth of Large-Area Aligned Single-Crystalline Organic Nanoribbon Arrays for Transistors and Light-Emitting Diodes Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Liang; Dai, Gaole; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Xiujuan; Jie, Jiansheng; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2017-10-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on organic micro-/nanocrystals have been widely reported with charge carrier mobility exceeding 1.0 cm2 V-1 s-1, demonstrating great potential for high-performance, low-cost organic electronic applications. However, fabrication of large-area organic micro-/nanocrystal arrays with consistent crystal growth direction has posed a significant technical challenge. Here, we describe a solution-processed dip-coating technique to grow large-area, aligned 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl) anthracene (BPEA) and 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-PEN) single-crystalline nanoribbon arrays. The method is scalable to a 5 × 10 cm2 wafer substrate, with around 60% of the wafer surface covered by aligned crystals. The quality of crystals can be easily controlled by tuning the dip-coating speed. Furthermore, OFETs based on well-aligned BPEA and TIPS-PEN single-crystalline nanoribbons were constructed. By optimizing channel lengths and using appropriate metallic electrodes, the BPEA and TIPS-PEN-based OFETs showed hole mobility exceeding 2.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 (average mobility 1.2 cm2 V-1 s-1) and 3.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 (average mobility 2.0 cm2 V-1 s-1), respectively. They both have a high on/off ratio ( I on/ I off) > 109. The performance can well satisfy the requirements for light-emitting diodes driving.

  14. Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of single crystalline 3C SiC structures based on a laser-induced defect-activation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yuanyuan; Zorman, Christian; Molian, Pal

    2003-09-01

    A femtosecond pulsed Ti:sapphire laser with a pulse width of 120 fs, a wavelength of 800 nm and a repetition rate of 1 kHz was employed for direct write patterning of single crystalline 3C-SiC thin films deposited on Si substrates. The ablation mechanism of SiC was investigated as a function of pulse energy. At high pulse energies (>1 µJ), ablation occurred via thermally dominated processes such as melting, boiling and vaporizing of single crystalline SiC. At low pulse energies, the ablation mechanism involved a defect-activation process that included the accumulation of defects, formation of nano-particles and vaporization of crystal boundaries, which contributed to well-defined and debris-free patterns in 3C-SiC thin films. The interactions between femtosecond laser pulses and the intrinsic lattice defects in epitaxially grown 3C-SiC films led to the generation of nano-particles. Micromechanical structures such as micromotor rotors and lateral resonators were patterned into 3C-SiC films using the defect-activation ablation mechanism.

  15. Single crystalline CH 3NH 3PbI 3 self-grown on FTO/TiO 2 substrate for high efficiency perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Jinjin; Kong, Guoli; Chen, Shulin; ...

    2017-08-21

    In this work, we developed an innovative approach to self-grow single crystalline CH 3NH 3PbI 3 directly on polycrystalline FTO/TiO 2 substrate, with which n-i-p type of perovskite solar cells were fabricated. The single crystalline nature of CH 3NH 3PbI 3 has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and it is observed that they possess smaller optic band gap and longer carrier life time. Highly efficient charge extractions occur at the interface between electron collecting TiO 2 and photo-harvesting CH 3NH 3PbI 3, resulting in a maximum short-circuit current density of 24.40 mA/cm 2. Themore » champion cell possesses a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 8.78%, and there are still substantial room for further improvement, making it promising for the perovskite solar cell applications.« less

  16. Preparation and Loading Process of Single Crystalline Samples into a Gas Environmental Cell Holder for In Situ Atomic Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopic Observation.

    PubMed

    Straubinger, Rainer; Beyer, Andreas; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-06-01

    A reproducible way to transfer a single crystalline sample into a gas environmental cell holder for in situ transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis is shown in this study. As in situ holders have only single-tilt capability, it is necessary to prepare the sample precisely along a specific zone axis. This can be achieved by a very accurate focused ion beam lift-out preparation. We show a step-by-step procedure to prepare the sample and transfer it into the gas environmental cell. The sample material is a GaP/Ga(NAsP)/GaP multi-quantum well structure on Si. Scanning TEM observations prove that it is possible to achieve atomic resolution at very high temperatures in a nitrogen environment of 100,000 Pa.

  17. [Crystalline retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Rasquin, F

    2007-01-01

    Crystalline retinopathy is characterized by intraretinal crystalline deposits that, according to their etiology, can be localized in the macular area or, indeed, be found in the entire retina. These deposits can be associated or not to visual loss and electrophysiological perturbations. Among the toxic drugs leading to this retinopathy are tamoxifen, canthaxanthine, methoxyflurane, talc and nitrofurantoin. A detailed description of tamoxifen and canthaxanthine toxicity is reported in this chapter.

  18. Epitaxial ZnO/LiNbO{sub 3}/ZnO stacked layer waveguide for application to thin-film Pockels sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Akazawa, Housei, E-mail: akazawa.housei@lab.ntt.co.jp; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    We produced slab waveguides consisting of a LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) core layer that was sandwiched with Al-doped ZnO cladding layers. The ZnO/LN/ZnO stacked layers were grown on sapphire C-planes by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering and were subjected to structural, electrical, and optical characterizations. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the ZnO and LN layers were epitaxial without containing misoriented crystallites. The presence of 60°-rotational variants of ZnO and LN crystalline domains were identified from X-ray pole figures. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images revealed a c-axis orientated columnar texture for LN crystals, which ensured operation as electro-optic sensors based on opticalmore » anisotropy along longitudinal and transversal directions. The interfacial roughness between the LN core and ZnO bottom layers as well as that between the ZnO top and the LN core layers was less than 20 nm, which agreed with surface images observed with atomic force microscopy. Outgrowth of triangular LN crystalline domains produced large roughness at the LN film surface. The RMS roughness of the LN film surface was twice that of the same structure grown on sapphire A-planes. Vertical optical transmittance of the stacked films was higher than 85% within the visible and infrared wavelength range. Following the approach adopted by Teng and Man [Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734 (1990)], ac Pockels coefficients of r{sub 33} = 24-28 pm/V were derived for c-axis oriented LN films grown on low-resistive Si substrates. Light propagation within a ZnO/LN/ZnO slab waveguide as well as within a ZnO single layer waveguide was confirmed. The birefringence of these waveguides was 0.11 for the former and 0.05 for the latter.« less

  19. Synthesis and anisotropic properties of single crystalline Ln{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15+x} (Ln=Gd, Tb)

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Gregory; Prestigiacomo, Joseph; Haldolaarachchige, Neel

    2016-04-15

    Single crystals of Ln{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15+x} (Ln=Gd, Tb) have been grown using the self-flux method under Ru-poor conditions. The structure of the Gd analog is found to be highly dependent on the synthesis method. Gd{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15.08} orders antiferromagnetically at 17.5 K. Tb{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15.05} enters an antiferromagnetic state at 16.6 K followed by a likely incommensurate-to-commensurate transition at 14.9 K for crystals oriented with H//ab. For crystals oriented with H//c, a broad maximum is observed in the temperature dependent M/H, indicative of a highly anisotropic magnetic system with the hard axis in the c-direction. The magnetizationmore » as a function of field and magnetoresistance along the ab-direction of Tb{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15.05} display a stepwise behavior and indicate strong crystalline electric field effects. - Graphical abstract: Single crystal, structure, and highly anisotropic magnetoresistance due to strong crystalline electric field effects of Tb{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15.05}. - Highlights: • Single crystals of Ln{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15+x} were grown for the first time via flux growth. • The structure of Gd{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15.09} differs from that of arc melted Gd{sub 2}Ru{sub 3.08}Al{sub 15}. • Tb{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15.05} exhibits highly anisotropic magnetic and transport properties. • The properties of Tb{sub 2}Ru{sub 3}Al{sub 15.05} arise due to crystalline electric field effects.« less

  20. Smoothing single-crystalline SiC surfaces by reactive ion etching using pure NF{sub 3} and NF{sub 3}/Ar mixture gas plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tasaka, Akimasa, E-mail: aki-tasaka-load@yahoo.co.jp; Kotaka, Yuki; Oda, Atsushi

    2014-09-01

    In pure NF{sub 3} plasma, the etching rates of four kinds of single-crystalline SiC wafer etched at NF{sub 3} pressure of 2 Pa were the highest and it decreased with an increase in NF{sub 3} pressure. On the other hand, they increased with an increase in radio frequency (RF) power and were the highest at RF power of 200 W. A smooth surface was obtained on the single-crystalline 4H-SiC after reactive ion etching at NF{sub 3}/Ar gas pressure of 2 Pa and addition of Ar to NF{sub 3} plasma increased the smoothness of SiC surface. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that the numbermore » of pillars decreased with an increase in the Ar-concentration in the NF{sub 3}/Ar mixture gas. The roughness factor (R{sub a}) values were decreased from 51.5 nm to 25.5 nm for the As-cut SiC, from 0.25 nm to 0.20 nm for the Epi-SiC, from 5.0 nm to 0.7 nm for the Si-face mirror-polished SiC, and from 0.20 nm to 0.16 nm for the C-face mirror-polished SiC by adding 60% Ar to the NF{sub 3} gas. Both the R{sub a} values of the Epi- and the C-face mirror-polished wafer surfaces etched using the NF{sub 3}/Ar (40:60) plasma were similar to that treated with mirror polishing, so-called the Catalyst-Referred Etching (CARE) method, with which the lowest roughness of surface was obtained among the chemical mirror polishing methods. Etching duration for smoothing the single-crystalline SiC surface using its treatment was one third of that with the CARE method.« less

  1. Synthesis, structural and electronic properties of monodispersed self-organized single crystalline nanobricks of isocubanite CuFe{sub 2}S{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubutin, Igor S., E-mail: lyubutinig@mail.ru; Lin, Chun-Rong, E-mail: crlin@mail.nptu.edu.tw; Starchikov, Sergey S.

    2015-01-15

    The nanoparticles with a pure cubic phase of isocubanite CuFe{sub 2}S{sub 3} are successfully synthesized for the first time. The particles are self-organized into the single crystalline nanocomposites with a shape of “bricks” which are well ordered in a certain anisotropic orientation. All bricks have nearly the same shape and dimensions and may be considered as monodispersed nanobricks. Magnetic measurements show paramagnetic behavior of the compound down to 4.2 K with the antiferromagnetic correlation between iron ions. An average magnetic moment is about 2.8–3.0 μ{sub B} per formula unit CuFe{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Mössbauer spectroscopy data reveal that the ferric ionsmore » in isocubanite are in the high-spin state (spin S=5/2) whereas the ferrous ions are in the intermediate-spin state (S=1). The Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} ions are distributed randomly over tetrahedral sites and the electron exchange between these ions is absent. This can explain nonmagnetic behavior of isocubanite. In the suggested method, the combined nanocomposites containing the magnetic chalcopyrite CuFeS{sub 2} and the nonmagnetic isocubanite CuFe{sub 2}S{sub 3} can be synthesized in a certain sequence. Such composites could be useful for the applied nanotechnology. - Graphical abstract: Self-organized single crystalline “nanobricks” of isocubanite CuFe{sub 2}S{sub 3} synthesized by a thermal pyrolysis method. - Highlights: • Self-organized single crystalline “nanobricks” of CuFe{sub 2}S{sub 3} were synthesized. • All bricks are nearly monodispersed and well-ordered in a certain anisotropic orientation. • XRD, HRTEM, magnetic measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used for characterization. • Nanobricks are paramagnetic down to 4.2 K with effective magnetic moment about 3.0 μ{sub B} per f.u. • Mössbauer spectroscopy data indicate different spin states of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions.« less

  2. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalysis enhancement of Eu2O3-ZnO mixed oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, W. S.; Abu-Dief, Ahmed M.

    2018-05-01

    Pure ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and mixed Eu2O3 and ZnO NPs with different Eu2O3 ratios (5%, 10%, and 15%) were synthesized by a precipitation method under optimum conditions. The synthesized samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The as-synthesized ZnO NPs exhibit high phase purity and a highly crystalline wurtzite ZnO structure. The mixed Eu2O3 and ZnO NPs exhibit a Eu2O3 zinc blend phase in addition to the wurtzite phase of pure ZnO, confirming the high purity and good crystallinity of the as-synthesized samples. The high-purity formation of ZnO and Eu2O3 phases was confirmed by FTIR and Raman spectra. Microstructural analysis by SEM and TEM confirmed the sphere-like morphology with different particle sizes (29-40 nm) of the as-synthesized samples. The photocatalytic activities of pure ZnO NPs and mixed Eu2O3 and ZnO NPs for the degradation of methylene blue were evaluated under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The results show that Eu2O3 plays an important role in the enhancement of the photocatalytic properties of ZnO NPs. We found that mixed 5% Eu2O3 and ZnO NPs exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity (degradation efficiency of 96.5% after 180 min of UV irradiation) as compared with pure ZnO NPs (degradation efficiency of 80.3% after 180 min of UV irradiation). The increased photocatalytic activity of the optimum mixed Eu2O3 and ZnO NPs is due to the high crystallinity, high surface area with small particle size, and narrow energy gap.

  3. Synthesis of highly conductive thin-walled Al-doped ZnO single-crystal microtubes by a solid state method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shuopeng; Wang, Yue; Wang, Qiang; Xing, Cheng; Yan, Yinzhou; Jiang, Yijian

    2018-06-01

    ZnO has attracted considerable attention in fundamental studies and practical applications for the past decade due to its outstanding performance in gas sensing, photocatalytic degradation, light harvesting, UV-light emitting/lasing, etc. The large-sized thin-walled ZnO (TW-ZnO) microtube with stable and rich VZn-related acceptors grown by optical vapor supersaturated precipitation (OVSP) is a novel multifunctional optoelectronic material. Unfortunately, the OVSP cannot achieve doping due to the vapor growth process. To obtain doped TW-ZnO microtubes, a solid state method is introduced in this work to achieve thin-walled Al-doping ZnO (TW-ZnO:Al) microtubes with high electrical conductivity. The morphology and microstructures of ZnO:Al microtubes are similar to undoped ones. The Al3+ ions are confirmed to substitute Zn2+ sites and Zn(0/-1) vacancies in the lattice of ZnO by EDS, XRD, Raman and temperature-dependent photoluminescence analyses. The Al dopant acting as a donor level offers massive free electrons to increase the carrier concentrations. The resistivity of the ZnO:Al microtube is reduced down to ∼10-3 Ω·cm, which is one order of magnitude lower than that of the undoped microtube. The present work provides a simple way to achieve doped ZnO tubular components for potential device applications in optoelectronics.

  4. Improved luminescence intensity and stability of thermal annealed ZnO incorporated Alq3 composite films.

    PubMed

    Cuba, M; Muralidharan, G

    2015-11-01

    The 30 wt% of ZnO (weight percentage of ZnO has been optimised) incorporated tris- (8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) has been synthesised and coated on to glass substrates using dip coating method. The structural and optical properties of the Alq3/ZnO composite film after thermal annealing from 50 to 300 °C insteps 50° has been studied and reported. XRD pattern reveals the presence of crystalline ZnO in all the annealed films. The films annealed above 150 °C reveal the presence of crystalline Alq3 along with crystalline ZnO. The FTIR spectra confirm the presence of hydroxyquinoline and ZnO vibration in all the annealed composite films. The composite films annealed above 150 °C show a partial sublimation and degradation of hydroxyquinoline compounds. The ZnO incorporated composite films (Alq3/ZnO) exhibit two emission peaks, one corresponding to ZnO at 487 nm and another at 513 nm due to Alq3. The films annealed at 200 °C exhibit maximum photoluminescence (PL) intensity than pristine film at 513 nm when excited at 390 nm.

  5. EFFECTS OF Au ON THE GROWTH OF ZnO NANOSTRUCTURES ON Si BY MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Chen; Fan, Lu Yang; Ping, He Hai; Wei, Wu Ke; Zhen, Ye Zhi

    2013-06-01

    The effects of Au on the growth of ZnO nanostructures on Si by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at a relatively low temperature (450°C) were investigated. The experimental results showed that Au nanoparticles played a critical role during the growth of the ZnO nanostructures and affected their morphology and optical properties. It was found that Au nanoparticles particularly affected the nucleation of ZnO nanostructures during the growth process and the Au-assisted growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructures should be ascribed to the vapor-solid (VS) mechanism. The formation of a nanoneedle may be attributed to a more reactive interface between Au and ZnO, which leads to more zinc gaseous species absorbed near the interface. Different nucleation sites on ZnO nuclei resulted in the disorder of ZnO nanoneedles. Moreover, the crystalline quality of nano-ZnO was improved due to the presence of Au, according to the smaller full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the low-temperature exciton emission. We confirmed that ZnO nanoneedles showed better crystalline quality than ZnO nanorods through the HRTEM images and the SAED patterns. The reason for the improvement of the crystalline quality of nano-ZnO may be due to the less lattice mismatch.

  6. Controllable dimension of ZnO nanowalls on GaN/c-Al2O3 substrate by vapor phase epitaxy method.

    PubMed

    Song, W Y; Shin, T I; Kang, S M; Kim, S W; Yang, J H; Park, M H; Yang, C W; Yoon, D H

    2008-09-01

    Vertically well-aligned ZnO nanowalls were successfully synthesized at 950-1050 degrees C. Ar gas was introduced into the furnace at a flow rate of 2000-2500 sccm. An Au thin film with a thickness of 3 nm was used as a catalyst. The ZnO nanowalls were successfully grown on the substrate and most of them had nearly the same thickness and were oriented perpendicular to the substrate. The morphology and chemical composition of the ZnO nanowalls were examined as a function of the growth conditions examined. It was found that the grown ZnO nanowalls have a single-crystalline hexagonal structure and preferred c-axis growth orientation based on the X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscope measurements. The room temperature photoluminescence showed a strong free-exciton emission band with negligible deep level emission, indicating the high optical property of our ZnO nanowall samples.

  7. DFT study of adsorption of picric acid molecule on the surface of single-walled ZnO nanotube; as potential new chemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanzadeh, Davood; Tabari, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the adsorption of picric acid (PA) molecule on the surface of (8,0) single-walled ZnO nanotube (ZnONT). The results show that the PA molecule can be chemisorbed on the surface of ZnONT with adsorption energies of -82.01 and -75.26 kJ/mol in gas and aqueous phase, respectively. Frontier molecular orbital analysis show that HOMO/LUMO gap of ZnONT reduces from 1.66 and 1.75 eV in the pristine nanotube to 0.83 and 0.72 eV in PA-adsorbed form in gas and aqueous phase, respectively. It suggests that the process can affect the electronic properties of the studied nanotube which would lead to its conductance change upon the adsorption of PA molecule. The modifying effect on the electrical conductance of ZnONT underlies the working mechanism of gas sensors for detecting the PA molecules. Analyses of the adsorption behavior of the electrically charged ZnONT toward PA molecule in the gas phase show that the PA molecule can be strongly adsorbed on the negatively charged ZnONT surface with significant adsorption energy (-135.1 kJ/mol). However, from the HOMO/LUMO gap changes, it can be concluded that the positive ZnONT might sensitively detect the PA molecule in comparison to the negative tube. These results can provide helpful information for experimental investigation to develop novel nanotube-based sensors.

  8. Single-step synthesis of crystalline h-BN quantum- and nanodots embedded in boron carbon nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsoso, Boitumelo J.; Ranganathan, Kamalakannan; Mutuma, Bridget K.; Lerotholi, Tsenolo; Jones, Glenn; Coville, Neil J.

    2017-03-01

    Herein we report on the synthesis and characterization of novel crystalline hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) quantum- and nanodots embedded in large-area boron carbon nitride (BCN) films. The films were grown on a Cu substrate by an atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition technique. Methane, ammonia, and boric acid were used as precursors for C, N and B to grow these few atomic layer thick uniform films. We observed that both the size of the h-BN quantum/nanodots and thickness of the BCN films were influenced by the vaporization temperature of boric acid as well as the H3BO3 (g) flux over the Cu substrate. These growth conditions were easily achieved by changing the position of the solid boric acid in the reactor with respect to the Cu substrate. Atomic force microscope (AFM) and TEM analyses show a variation in the h-BN dot size distribution, ranging from nanodots (˜224 nm) to quantum dots (˜11 nm) as the B-source is placed further away from the Cu foil. The distance between the B-source and the Cu foil gave an increase in the C atomic composition (42 at% C-65 at% C) and a decrease in both B and N contents (18 at% B and 14 at% N to 8 at% B and 7 at% N). UV-vis absorption spectra showed a higher band gap energy for the quantum dots (5.90 eV) in comparison with the nanodots (5.68 eV) due to a quantum confinement effect. The results indicated that the position of the B-source and its reaction with ammonia plays a significant role in controlling the nucleation of the h-BN quantum- and nanodots. The films are proposed to be used in solar cells. A mechanism to explain the growth of h-BN quantum/nanodots in BCN films is reported.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of a single intramuscular injection of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Sadar, Miranda J; Hawkins, Michelle G; Byrne, Barbara A; Cartoceti, Andrew N; Keel, Kevin; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Tell, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects at the injection site of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) following IM administration of 1 dose to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). 7 adult nonreleasable healthy red-tailed hawks. In a randomized crossover study, CCFA (10 or 20 mg/kg) was administered IM to each hawk and blood samples were obtained. After a 2-month washout period, administration was repeated with the opposite dose. Muscle biopsy specimens were collected from the injection site 10 days after each sample collection period. Pharmacokinetic data were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for various bacterial isolates were assessed. Mean peak plasma concentrations of ceftiofur-free acid equivalent were 6.8 and 15.1 μg/mL for the 10 and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively. Mean times to maximum plasma concentration were 6.4 and 6.7 hours, and mean terminal half-lives were 29 and 50 hours, respectively. Little to no muscle inflammation was identified. On the basis of a target MIC of 1 μg/mL and target plasma ceftiofur concentration of 4 μg/mL, dose administration frequencies for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms were estimated as every 36 and 45 hours for the 10 mg/kg dose and every 96 and 120 hours for the 20 mg/kg dose, respectively. Study results suggested that CCFA could be administered IM to red-tailed hawks at 10 or 20 mg/kg to treat infections with ceftiofur-susceptible bacteria. Administration resulted in little to no inflammation at the injection site. Additional studies are needed to evaluate effects of repeated CCFA administration.

  10. Crystalline Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsapatsis, Michael (Inventor); Lai, Zhiping (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    In certain aspects, the invention features methods for forming crystalline membranes (e.g., a membrane of a framework material, such as a zeolite) by inducing secondary growth in a layer of oriented seed crystals. The rate of growth of the seed crystals in the plane of the substrate is controlled to be comparable to the rate of growth out of the plane. As a result, a crystalline membrane can form a substantially continuous layer including grains of uniform crystallographic orientation that extend through the depth of the layer.

  11. Magnetic, thermal, and optical properties of single-crystalline CoTa2O6 and FeTa2O6 and their anisotropic magnetocaloric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, A. B.; Schye, A. T.; White, K. O.; Neumeier, J. J.

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic, thermal, and optical properties of single-crystalline CoTa2O6 and FeTa2O6 are reported. Optical dichroism was observed in CoTa2O6. Magnetic susceptibility χ(T) measurements reveal long-range antiferromagnetic order with Néel temperatures K and 8.11(5) K, respectively, and anisotropy in χ. The thermal expansion coefficients exhibit significant anisotropy and the influence of the magnetic ions and long-range order. A structural phase transition to orthorhombic occurs below T N for FeTa2O6. Magnetic field H lowers T N with its affect largest when H is directed along either [1 1 0] or [1  0], and smallest when directed along [0 0 1]. This leads to an anisotropic magnetocaloric effect that is investigated through measurements of the specific heat and magnetization in applied magnetic field.

  12. A hierarchical nanostructure consisting of amorphous MnO 2, Mn 3O 4 nanocrystallites, and single-crystalline MnOOH nanowires for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chi-Chang; Hung, Ching-Yun; Chang, Kuo-Hsin; Yang, Yi-Lin

    In this communication, a porous hierarchical nanostructure consisting of amorphous MnO 2 (a-MnO 2), Mn 3O 4 nanocrystals, and single-crystalline MnOOH nanowires is designed for the supercapacitor application, which is prepared by a simple two-step electrochemical deposition process. Because of the gradual co-transformation of Mn 3O 4 nanocrystals and a-MnO 2 nanorods into an amorphous manganese oxide, the cycle stability of a-MnO 2 is obviously enhanced by adding Mn 3O 4. This unique ternary oxide nanocomposite with 100-cycle CV activation exhibits excellent capacitive performances, i.e., excellent reversibility, high specific capacitances (470 F g -1 in CaCl 2), high power property, and outstanding cycle stability. The highly porous microstructures of this composite before and after the 10,000-cycle CV test are examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  13. Enhanced ultraviolet photo-response in Dy doped ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Ranveer; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, a Dy doped ZnO thin film deposited by the spin coating method has been studied for its potential application in a ZnO based UV detector. The investigations on the structural property and surface morphology of the thin film ensure that the prepared samples are crystalline and exhibit a hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO. A small change in crystallite size has been observed due to Dy doping in ZnO. AFM analysis ascertains the grain growth and smooth surface of the thin films. The Dy doped ZnO thin film exhibits a significant enhancement in UV region absorption as compared to the pure ZnO thin film, which suggests that Dy doped ZnO can be used as a UV detector. Under UV irradiation of wavelength 325 nm, the photocurrent value of Dy doped ZnO is 105.54 μA at 4.5 V, which is 31 times greater than that of the un-doped ZnO thin film (3.39 μA). The calculated value of responsivity is found to increase significantly due to the incorporation of Dy in the ZnO lattice. The observed higher value of photocurrent and responsivity could be attributed to the substitution of Dy in the ZnO lattice, which enhances the conductivity, electron mobility, and defects in ZnO and benefits the UV sensing property.

  14. 1000 to 1200 K time-dependent compressive deformation of single-crystalline and polycrystalline B2 Ni-40Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Noebe, R. D.; Kumar, K. S.; Mannan, S. K.; Cullers, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    The 1000-K and 1200-K time-dependent deformation of 100-line-oriented and non-100-line-oriented single crystals of Ni-40Al (made by a modified Bridgman technique) was examined over a large range of strain rates (from 0.1 to 10 to the -7th per sec). The results were compared with those for polycrystalline Ni-40Al made by hot pressing XD synthesized powder. The results from measurements of slow-plastic-strain-rate properties of the two materials show that single crystals offer no strength advantage over polycrystalline material. Both forms were found to deform via a dislocation climb mechanism.

  15. Controlling of ZnO nanostructures by solute concentration and its effect on growth, structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Yogendra; Rana, Amit Kumar; Bhojane, Prateek; Pusty, Manojit; Bagwe, Vivas; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M.

    2015-10-01

    ZnO nanostructured films were prepared by a chemical bath deposition method on glass substrates without any assistance of either microwave or high pressure autoclaves. The effect of solute concentration on the pure wurtzite ZnO nanostructure morphologies is studied. The control of the solute concentration helps to control the nanostructure to form nano-needles, and -rods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed highly c-axis oriented thin films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms the modification of the nanostructure dependent on the concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the single crystalline electron diffraction pattern, indicating high quality nano-material. UV-vis results show the variation in the band gap from 3.20 eV to 3.14 eV with increasing concentration as the nanostructures change from needle- to rod-like. Photoluminescence (PL) data indicate the existence of defects in the nanomaterials emitting light in the yellow-green region, with broad UV and visible spectra. A sharp and strong peak is observed at ˜438 cm-1 by Raman spectroscopy, assigned to the {{{{E}}}2}{{high}} optical mode of ZnO, the characteristic peak for the highly-crystalline wurtzite hexagonal phase. The solute concentration significantly affects the formation of defect states in the nanostructured films, and as a result, it alters the structural and optical properties. Current-voltage characteristics alter with the measurement environment, indicating potential sensor applications.

  16. Complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhengrong R; Voigt, James A; Liu, Jun; McKenzie, Bonnie; McDermott, Matthew J; Rodriguez, Mark A; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang

    2003-12-01

    Extended and oriented nanostructures are desirable for many applications, but direct fabrication of complex nanostructures with controlled crystalline morphology, orientation and surface architectures remains a significant challenge. Here we report a low-temperature, environmentally benign, solution-based approach for the preparation of complex and oriented ZnO nanostructures, and the systematic modification of their crystal morphology. Using controlled seeded growth and citrate anions that selectively adsorb on ZnO basal planes as the structure-directing agent, we prepared large arrays of oriented ZnO nanorods with controlled aspect ratios, complex film morphologies made of oriented nanocolumns and nanoplates (remarkably similar to biomineral structures in red abalone shells) and complex bilayers showing in situ column-to-rod morphological transitions. The advantages of some of these ZnO structures for photocatalytic decompositions of volatile organic compounds were demonstrated. The novel ZnO nanostructures are expected to have great potential for sensing, catalysis, optical emission, piezoelectric transduction, and actuations.

  17. Colossal dielectric constants in single-crystalline and ceramic CaCu3Ti4O12 investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohns, S.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Ebbinghaus, S. G.; Loidl, A.

    2008-04-01

    In the present work, the authors report results of broadband dielectric spectroscopy on various samples of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO), also including single-crystalline material, which so far was only rarely investigated. The measurements extend up to 1.3 GHz, covering more than nine frequency decades. We address the question of the origin of the colossal dielectric constants and of the relaxational behavior in this material, including the second relaxation reported in several recent works. For this purpose, the dependence of the temperature- and frequency-dependent dielectric properties on different tempering and surface treatments of the samples and on ac-field amplitude is investigated. Broadband spectra of a single crystal are analyzed by an equivalent circuit description by assuming two highly resistive layers in series to the bulk. Good fits could be achieved, including the second relaxation, which also shows up in single crystals. The temperature- and frequency-dependent intrinsic conductivity of CCTO is consistent with the variable range hopping model. The second relaxation is sensitive to surface treatment and, in contrast to the main relaxation, is also strongly affected by the applied ac voltage. Concerning the origin of the two insulating layers, we discuss a completely surface-related mechanism by assuming the formation of a metal-insulator diode and a combination of surface and internal barriers.

  18. Predictive Model for the Meniscus-Guided Coating of High-Quality Organic Single-Crystalline Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Janneck, Robby; Vercesi, Federico; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan; Rolin, Cedric

    2016-09-01

    A model that describes solvent evaporation dynamics in meniscus-guided coating techniques is developed. In combination with a single fitting parameter, it is shown that this formula can accurately predict a processing window for various coating conditions. Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), fabricated by a zone-casting setup, indeed show the best performance at the predicted coating speeds with mobilities reaching 7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Impact of interfacial resistance switching on thermoelectric effect of Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystalline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peijian; Meng, Yang; Liu, Ziyu; Li, Dong; Su, Tao; Meng, Qingyu; Mao, Qi; Pan, Xinyu; Chen, Dongmin; Zhao, Hongwu

    2012-03-01

    The thermoelectric properties of the bistable resistance states in Nb doped SrTiO3 single crystal have been investigated. The Seebeck coefficients for both low and high resistance states change linearly with temperature. The three-terminals contrast measurement demonstrates that a large fraction of the voltage drop is applied at the tiny volume near the bottom interface between the electrode and the oxide bulk. Therefore, the metallic oxide bulk plays a dominant role in the temperature dependence of Seebeck coefficients. The thermoelectric properties of new resistance switching (RS) devices with minimized non-RS volume could be exploited for the RS mechanism and novel applications.

  20. Surface potential driven dissolution phenomena of [0 0 0 1]-oriented ZnO nanorods grown from ZnO and Pt seed layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Youngmi; Kim, Jung Hyeun

    2011-06-01

    Highly oriented ZnO nanorods are synthesized hydrothermally on ZnO and Pt seed layers, and they are dissolved in KOH solution. The rods grown on ZnO seed layer show uniform dissolution, but those grown on Pt seed layer are rod-selectively dissolved. The ZnO nanorods from both seed layers show the same crystalline structure through XRD and Raman spectrometer data. However, the surface potential analysis reveals big difference for ZnO and Pt seed cases. The surface potential distribution is very uniform for the ZnO seed case, but it is much fluctuated on the Pt seed case. It suggests that the rod-selective dissolution phenomena on Pt seed case are likely due to the surface energy difference.

  1. Synthesis, Structure, and Selective Gas Adsorption of a Single-Crystalline Zirconium Based Microporous Metal–Organic Framework

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Qining; Teat, Simon J.; ...

    2017-02-15

    Porous metal-organic framework (MOF) materials with high thermal and water stability are desirable for various adsorption based applications. Early transition metal based MOFs such as those built on zirconium metal have been well recognized for their excellent stability toward heat and/or moisture. However, the difficulty growing large single crystals makes their structural characterization challenging. Herein we report a porous Zr-MOF, [Zr 6O 4(OH) 4(cca) 6] (Zr-cca), which is assembled from zirconium and 4-carboxycinnamic acid (H 2cca) under solvothermal conditions. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the structure of Zr-cca is isoreticular to the prototype zirconium based MOF, UiO-66. Zr-ccamore » shows permanent porosity upon removal of solvent molecules initially residing inside the pores, with a BET surface area of 1178 m 2/g. As expected, it exhibits good thermal stability (stable up to 400 °C) and high resistance to acidity over a wide pH range. Evaluation of its gas adsorption performance on various hydrocarbons and fluorocarbons indicates that it preferentially adsorbs C 3 and C 4 hydrocarbons over C 2 analogues. At 30°C Zr-cca takes up more than 50 wt % of perfluorohexane and the adsorption-desorption process is fully recyclable. We have compared this material with UiO-66 and studied the underlying reasons for the difference in their adsorption performance toward perfluorohexane.« less

  2. Binding and Movement of Individual Cel7A Cellobiohydrolases on Crystalline Cellulose Surfaces Revealed by Single-molecule Fluorescence Imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaemyeong; Sethi, Anurag; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Han, Jason J.; Jeoh, Tina; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Goodwin, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The efficient catalytic conversion of biomass to bioenergy would meet a large portion of energy requirements in the near future. A crucial step in this process is the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose that is then converted into fuel such as ethanol by fermentation. Here we use single-molecule fluorescence imaging to directly monitor the movement of individual Cel7A cellobiohydrolases from Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) on the surface of insoluble cellulose fibrils to elucidate molecular level details of cellulase activity. The motion of multiple, individual TrCel7A cellobiohydrolases was simultaneously recorded with ∼15-nm spatial resolution. Time-resolved localization microscopy provides insights on the activity of TrCel7A on cellulose and informs on nonproductive binding and diffusion. We measured single-molecule residency time distributions of TrCel7A bound to cellulose both in the presence of and absence of cellobiose the major product and a potent inhibitor of Cel7A activity. Combining these results with a kinetic model of TrCel7A binding provides microscopic insight into interactions between TrCel7A and the cellulose substrate. PMID:23818525

  3. Structural and magnetic investigations of single-crystalline neodymium zirconate pyrochlore Nd2Zr2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatnean, M. Ciomaga; Lees, M. R.; Petrenko, O. A.; Keeble, D. S.; Balakrishnan, G.; Gutmann, M. J.; Klekovkina, V. V.; Malkin, B. Z.

    2015-05-01

    We report structural and magnetic properties studies of large high-quality single crystals of the frustrated magnet Nd2Zr2O7 . Powder x-ray diffraction analysis confirms that Nd2Zr2O7 adopts the pyrochlore structure. Room-temperature x-ray diffraction and time-of-flight neutron-scattering experiments show that the crystals are stoichiometric in composition with no measurable site disorder. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility shows no magnetic ordering at temperatures down to 0.5 K. Fits to the magnetic susceptibility data using a Curie-Weiss law reveal a ferromagnetic coupling between the Nd moments. Magnetization versus field measurements show a local Ising anisotropy along the <111 > axes of the Nd3 + ions in the ground state. Specific heat versus temperature measurements in zero applied magnetic field indicate the presence of a thermal anomaly below T ˜7 K, but no evidence of magnetic ordering is observed down to 0.5 K. The experimental temperature dependence of the single-crystal bulk dc susceptibility and isothermal magnetization are analyzed using crystal field theory and the crystal field parameters and exchange coupling constants determined.

  4. Nucleation Control for Large, Single Crystalline Domains of Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride via Si-Doped Fe Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scalable chemical vapor deposition of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) single crystals, with lateral dimensions of ∼0.3 mm, and of continuous h-BN monolayer films with large domain sizes (>25 μm) is demonstrated via an admixture of Si to Fe catalyst films. A simple thin-film Fe/SiO2/Si catalyst system is used to show that controlled Si diffusion into the Fe catalyst allows exclusive nucleation of monolayer h-BN with very low nucleation densities upon exposure to undiluted borazine. Our systematic in situ and ex situ characterization of this catalyst system establishes a basis for further rational catalyst design for compound 2D materials. PMID:25664483

  5. Large-scale synthesis and photoluminescence of single-crystalline β-Ga 2O 3 nanobelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Baoyou; Zhang, Lide; Meng, Guowen; Xie, Ting; Peng, Xinsheng; Lin, Yu

    2003-12-01

    Gallium oxide ( β-Ga 2O 3) nanobelts were synthesized on a large scale by a simple thermal evaporation method from a mixture of gallium (Ga) and silicon oxide (SiO 2) nanopowder at 850°C in argon atmosphere, which is 200-300°C less than that of thermal evaporation methods reported formerly. The nanobelts had a uniform single-crystal monoclinic structure with width ranging from 50 to 300 nm, thickness about 10-20 nm and lengths up to several tens or hundreds of micrometers. The growth of β-Ga 2O 3 nanobelts is controlled by vapor-solid crystal growth mechanism. Photoluminescence measurement shows that the nanobelts have one broad, strong blue emission and a UV emission.

  6. Van der Waals epitaxial growth of two-dimensional single-crystalline GaSe domains on graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xufan; Basile, Leonardo; Huang, Bing; ...

    2015-07-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures are a family of artificially-structured materials that promise tunable optoelectronic properties for devices with enhanced functionalities. Compared to stamping, direct epitaxy of vdW heterostructures is ideal for clean interlayer interfaces and scalable device fabrication. Here, we explore the synthesis and preferred orientations of 2D GaSe atomic layers on graphene (Gr) by vdW epitaxy. Guided by the wrinkles on graphene, GaSe nuclei form that share a predominant lattice orientation. Due to vdW epitaxial growth many nuclei grow as perfectly aligned crystals and coalesce to form large (tens of microns), single-crystal flakes. Through theoretical investigationsmore » of interlayer energetics, and measurements of preferred orientations by atomic-resolution STEM and electron diffraction, a 10.9 interlayer rotation of the GaSe lattice with respect to the underlying graphene is found to be the most energetically preferred vdW heterostructure with the largest binding energy and the longest-range ordering. These GaSe/Gr vdW heterostructures exhibit an enhanced Raman E 2 1g band of monolayer GaSe along with highly-quenched photoluminescence due to strong charge transfer. Despite the very large lattice mismatch of GaSe/Gr through vdW epitaxy, the predominant orientation control and convergent formation of large single-crystal flakes demonstrated here is promising for the scalable synthesis of large-area vdW heterostructures for the development of new optical and optoelectronic devices.« less

  7. Van der Waals epitaxial growth of two-dimensional single-crystalline GaSe domains on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xufan; Basile, Leonardo; Huang, Bing

    Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures are a family of artificially-structured materials that promise tunable optoelectronic properties for devices with enhanced functionalities. Compared to stamping, direct epitaxy of vdW heterostructures is ideal for clean interlayer interfaces and scalable device fabrication. Here, we explore the synthesis and preferred orientations of 2D GaSe atomic layers on graphene (Gr) by vdW epitaxy. Guided by the wrinkles on graphene, GaSe nuclei form that share a predominant lattice orientation. Due to vdW epitaxial growth many nuclei grow as perfectly aligned crystals and coalesce to form large (tens of microns), single-crystal flakes. Through theoretical investigationsmore » of interlayer energetics, and measurements of preferred orientations by atomic-resolution STEM and electron diffraction, a 10.9 interlayer rotation of the GaSe lattice with respect to the underlying graphene is found to be the most energetically preferred vdW heterostructure with the largest binding energy and the longest-range ordering. These GaSe/Gr vdW heterostructures exhibit an enhanced Raman E 2 1g band of monolayer GaSe along with highly-quenched photoluminescence due to strong charge transfer. Despite the very large lattice mismatch of GaSe/Gr through vdW epitaxy, the predominant orientation control and convergent formation of large single-crystal flakes demonstrated here is promising for the scalable synthesis of large-area vdW heterostructures for the development of new optical and optoelectronic devices.« less

  8. Electrical Transport Properties of Single-Crystalline β-Zn4Sb3 Prepared Through the Zn-Sn Mixed-Flux Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Deng, Shuping; Shen, Lanxian; Wang, Jinsong; Feng, Cheng; Deng, Shukang

    2017-03-01

    β-Zn4Sb3 is a promising p-type thermoelectric material for utilization in moderate temperatures. This study prepares a group of single-crystalline β-Zn4Sb3 samples using the Zn-Sn mixed-flux method based on the stoichiometric ratios of Zn4+ x Sb3Sn y . The effect of Zn-to-Sn proportion in the flux on the structure and electrical transport properties is investigated. All samples are strip-shaped single crystals of different sizes. The actual Zn content of the present samples is improved (>3.9) compared with that of the samples prepared through the Sn flux method. Larger lattice parameters are also obtained. The carrier concentration of all the samples is in the order of over 1019 cm-3. With increasing Sn rate in the flux, this carrier concentration decreases, whereas mobility is significantly enhanced. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficients of all the samples exhibit a behavior that of a degenerate semiconductor transport. Electrical conductivity initially increases and then decreases as the Sn ratio in the flux increases. The electrical conductivity of the x: y = 5:1 sample reaches 6.45 × 104 S m-1 at 300 K. Benefitting from the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, the flux proportion of the x: y = 7:1 sample finally achieves the highest power factor value of 1.4 × 10-3 W m-1 K-2 at 598 K.

  9. Electrical transport property, thermal stability and oxidation resistance of single crystalline β-Zn4Sb3 prepared using the Bi-Sn mixed-flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shuping; Li, Decong; Chen, Zhong; Tang, Yu; Shen, Lanxian; Deng, Shukang

    2017-12-01

    Single crystal samples β-Zn4Sb3 have been prepared by using Bi-Sn mixed-flux method. The obtained crystals exhibit p-type conduction behavior with carrier concentration varying from 4.40 × 1019 to 18.12 × 1019 cm-3 as carrier mobility changes from 25.8 to 61.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature. Electrical transport properties of the samples were optimized by Bi-Sn co-doped, which brought by Bi-Sn mixed-flux. And the maximal power factor of 1.45 × 10-3 W m-1 K-2 is achieved at 510 K for the sample with Bi flux content x = 0.5. Consequently, the oxidation resistance of the sample was determined by exploring the effects of heat treatment in air on electrical transport properties and thermal stability, which the single crystalline β-Zn4Sb3 still possess an excellent oxidation resistance and thermal stability after the heat treatment process.

  10. Growth and luminescent properties of Lu2SiO5 and Lu2SiO5:Ce single crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu; Nikl, M.; Gorbenko, V.; Mares, J. A.; Savchyn, V.; Voznyak, T.; Solsky, I.; Grynyov, B.; Sidletskiy, O.; Kurtsev, D.; Beitlerova, A.; Kucerkova, R.

    2010-11-01

    Single crystalline films (SCF) of Lu2SiO5 (LSO) and Lu2SiO5:Ce (LSO:Ce) silicates with thickness of 2.5-21 μm were crystallised by liquid phase epitaxy method onto undoped LSO substrates from melt-solution based on PbO-B2O3 flux. The luminescence and scintillation properties of LSO and LSO:Ce SCFs were compared with the properties of a reference LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals. The light yield (LY) of LSO and LSO:Ce SCF reaches up 30 % and 145 %, respectively, of that of a reference LSO:Ce crystal under excitation by α-particles of 241Am source (5.5 MeV). We found that the luminescence spectrum of LSO:Ce SCF is red-shifted with respect to the spectrum of a reference LSO:Ce crystal. Differences in luminescence properties of LSO:Ce SCF and single crystal are explained by the different distribution of Ce3+ over the Lu1 and Lu2 positions of LSO host and are also due to Pb2+ contamination in the former.

  11. Growth, crystalline perfection, spectral and optical characterization of a novel optical material: l-tryptophan p-nitrophenol trisolvate single crystal.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, N; Srividya, J; Mohana, J; Anbalagan, G

    2015-03-15

    l-tryptophan p-nitrophenol trisolvate (LTPN), an organic nonlinear optical material was synthesized using ethanol-water mixed solvent and the crystals were grown by a slow solvent evaporation method. The crystal structure and morphology were studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the LTPN crystal was analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. The molecular structure of the crystal was confirmed by observing the various characteristic functional groups of the material using vibrational spectroscopy. The cut-off wavelength, optical transmission, refractive index and band gap energy were determined using UV-visible data. The variation of refractive index with wavelength shows the normal behavior. The second harmonic generation of the crystal was confirmed and the efficiency was measured using Kurtz Perry powder method. Single and multiple shot methods were employed to measure surface laser damage of the crystal. The photoluminescence spectral study revealed that the emission may be associated with the radiative recombination of trapped electrons and holes. Microhardness measurements revealed that LTPN belongs to a soft material category. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gas-solid reactions of single crystals: A study of reactions of NH 3 and NO 2 with single crystalline organic substrates by infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Samantha L.; Almond, Matthew J.; Atkinson, Samantha D. M.; Hollins, Peter; Knowles, John P.

    2005-12-01

    Reaction of single crystals of benzoic and trans-cinnamic acids with 200 Torr pressure of ammonia gas in a sealed glass bulb at 20 °C generates the corresponding ammonium salts; there is no sign of any 1:2 adduct as has been reported previously for related systems. Isotopic substitution using ND 3 has been used to aid identification of the products. Adipic acid likewise reacts with NH 3 gas to form a product in which ammonium salts are formed at both carboxylic acid groups. Reaction of 0.5 Torr pressure of NO 2 gas with single crystals of 9-methylanthracene and 9-anthracenemethanol in a flow system generates nitrated products where the nitro group appears to be attached at the 10-position, i.e. the position trans to the methyl or methoxy substituent on the central ring. Isotopic substitution using 15NO 2 has been used to confirm the identity of the bands arising from the coordinated NO 2 group. The products formed when single crystals of hydantoin are reacted with NO 2 gas under similar conditions depend on the temperature of the reaction. At 20 °C, a nitrated product is formed, but at 65 °C this gives way to a product containing no nitro groups. The findings show the general applicability of infrared microspectroscopy to a study of gas-solid reactions of organic single crystals.

  13. Symmetry and defects in rhombohedral single-crystalline Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beanland, Richard; Thomas, Pam A.

    2014-05-01

    Recent work has indicated that the symmetry of the lead-free piezoelectric perovskite Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 can be changed from monoclinic to rhombohedral through the application of an electric field, which may have implications for the study and design of piezoelectric materials close to a morphotropic phase boundary. We have examined high-quality, single-crystal Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 using transmission electron microscopy and have used digital electron diffraction to observe the symmetry of defect-free regions of material on length scales of a few nanometers. This unequivocally demonstrates that the material is rhombohedral with space group R3c on this length scale. We find that a model that allows disordered displacements of Bi atoms from their nominal sites in the R3c symmetry, while retaining this symmetry on average, gives a very significant improvement in fit to simulations. We use conventional transmission electron microscopy to enumerate the different types of defects that are observed in other regions of the crystal and find a complex microstructure of antiphase boundaries, domain walls, and tetragonal platelets. Their interaction leads to the formation of very high densities of nanotwins. We show that these are expected to have a variable monoclinic Cc symmetry that is driven by the constraint of continuity of the crystal across a domain wall.

  14. Structure, magnetism, and transport of single-crystalline R NiSi3 (R = Y, Gd-Tm, Lu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes, Fabiana R.; Aristizábal-Giraldo, Deisy; Masunaga, Sueli H.; Costa, Fanny N.; Ferreira, Fabio F.; Takabatake, Toshiro; Mendonça-Ferreira, Leticie; Ribeiro, Raquel A.; Avila, Marcos A.

    2018-04-01

    We report on the physical properties of the intermetallic series R NiSi3 (R =Y , Gd-Tm, Lu). High quality single crystals with platelike morphology were grown using the Sn flux method. X-ray powder diffraction data show that this series crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cmmm, and Laue patterns indicate that the b axis remains perpendicular to the plane of the plates. Magnetization measurements show anisotropic antiferromagnetic ground states for R = Gd-Tm with Néel temperatures ranging from TN=2.6 K (TmNiSi3) up to 32.2 K (TbNiSi3), as well as metamagnetic transitions that in some cases appear together with hysteresis (TbNiSi3,DyNiSi3, and HoNiSi3). The easy axis changes from a axis to b axis on going from R = Gd-Ho to R = Er-Tm. All transitions from antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic states are clearly marked by sharp peaks in specific heat as well as in the derivative of resistivity measurements, which show metallic temperature dependence for all compounds and residual values in the range of 1 μ Ω cm . DyNiSi3 has two close phase transitions, while HoNiSi3 presents distinct critical temperatures for applied fields in the a or c directions (10.4 and 6.3 K, respectively), pointing to possible component-specific ordering of the local magnetic moments.

  15. Fire-through Ag contact formation for crystalline Si solar cells using single-step inkjet printing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Gang; Cho, Sung-Bin; Chung, Bo-Mook; Huh, Joo-Youl; Yoon, Sam S

    2012-04-01

    Inkjet-printed Ag metallization is a promising method of forming front-side contacts on Si solar cells due to its non-contact printing nature and fine grid resolution. However, conventional Ag inks are unable to punch through the SiN(x) anti-reflection coating (ARC) layer on emitter Si surfaces. In this study, a novel formulation of Ag ink is examined for the formation of fire-through contacts on a SiN(x)-coated Si substrate using the single-step printing of Ag ink, followed by rapid thermal annealing at 800 degrees C. In order to formulate Ag inks with fire-through contact formation capabilities, a liquid etching agent was first formulated by dissolving metal nitrates in an organic solvent and then mixing the resulting solution with a commercial Ag nanoparticle ink at various volume ratios. During the firing process, the dissolved metal nitrates decomposed into metal oxides and acted in a similar manner to the glass frit contained in Ag pastes for screen-printed Ag metallization. The newly formulated ink with a 1 wt% loading ratio of metal oxides to Ag formed finely distributed Ag crystallites on the Si substrate after firing at 800 degrees C for 1 min.

  16. The structural properties of flower-like ZnO nanostructures on porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eswar, Kevin Alvin; Suhaimi, Mohd Husairi Fadzillah; Guliling, Muliyadi; Mohamad, Maryam; Khusaimi, Zuraida; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, Saifollah

    2018-05-01

    The flower-like zinc oxide (ZnO) were successfully synthesized on porous silicon (PSi) via hydrothermal method. The characteristic of ZnO nanostructures was investigated using field emission scanning microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (X-Ray). The FESEM images show the flower-like ZnO nanostructures composed ZnO nanoparticles. The X-ray diffraction shows that strong intensity of (100), (002) and (101) peaks. The structural analysis revealed that the peaks angles were shifted due to the stress or imperfection of the crystalline of ZnO nanostructures. The crystalline sizes in range of 42.60 to 54.09 nm were produced.

  17. Possible mechanism for the onset of step-bunching instabilities during the epitaxy of single-species crystalline films

    SciTech Connect

    Cermelli, Paolo; Jabbour, Michel E.; Department of Mathematics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0027

    A thermodynamically consistent continuum theory for single-species, step-flow epitaxy that extends the classical Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF) framework is derived from basic considerations. In particular, an expression for the step chemical potential is obtained that contains two energetic contributions--one from the adjacent terraces in the form of the jump in the adatom grand canonical potential and the other from the monolayer of crystallized adatoms that underlies the upper terrace in the form of the nominal bulk chemical potential--thus generalizing the classical Gibbs-Thomson relation to the dynamic, dissipative setting of step-flow growth. The linear stability analysis of the resulting quasistatic free-boundary problem formore » an infinite train of equidistant rectilinear steps yields explicit--i.e., analytical--criteria for the onset of step bunching in terms of the basic physical and geometric parameters of the theory. It is found that, in contrast with the predictions of the classical BCF model, both in the absence as well as in the presence of desorption, a growth regime exists for which step bunching occurs, except possibly in the dilute limit where the train is always stable to step bunching. In the present framework, the onset of one-dimensional instabilities is directly attributed to the energetic influence on the migrating steps of the adjacent terraces. Hence the theory provides a ''minimalist'' alternative to existing theories of step bunching and should be relevant to, e.g., molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs where the equilibrium adatom density is shown by Tersoff, Johnson, and Orr [Phys. Rev. B 78, 282 (1997)] to be extremely high.« less

  18. High-speed thin-film transistors on single-crystalline, unstrained- and strained-silicon-based nanomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hao-Chih

    This research focuses on developing high-performance single-crystal Si-based nanomembranes and high-frequency thin-film transistors (TFTs) using these nanomembranes on flexible plastic substrates. Unstrained Si or SiGe nanomembranes with thickness of several tens to a couple of hundred nanometers are derived from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) or silicon-germanium-on-insulator (SGOI) and are subsequently transferred and integrated with flexible plastic host substrates via a one-step dry printing technique. Biaxial tensile-strained Si membranes that utilize elastic strain-sharing between Si and additionally grown SiGe thin films are also successfully integrated with plastic host substrates and exhibit predicted strain status and negligible density of dislocations. Biaxial tensile strain enhances electron mobility and lowers Schottky contact resistance. As a result, flexible TFTs built on the strained Si-membranes demonstrate much higher electron effective mobility and higher drive current than the unstrained counterpart. The dependence of drive current and transconductance on uniaxial tensile strain introducing by mechanical bending is also discussed. A novel combined "hot-and-cold" TFT fabrication process is developed specifically for realizing a wide spectrum of micro-electronics that can exhibit RF performance and can be integrated on low-temperature plastic substrate. The "hot" process that consists of ion implant and high-temperature annealing for desired doping type, profile, and concentration is realized on the bulk SOI/SGOI substrates followed by the "cold" process that includes room-temperature silicon-monoxide (SiO) deposition as gate dielectric layer to ensure the process compatibility with low-temperature, low-cost plastics. With these developments flexible Si-membrane n-type RF TFTs for analog applications and complementary TFTs for digital applications are demonstrated for the first time. RF TFTs with 1.5-mum channel length have demonstrated record-high f

  19. Effect of deposition parameters on the structural properties of ZnO nanopowders prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Caglar, Yasemin; Gorgun, Kamuran; Aksoy, Seval

    2015-03-05

    ZnO nanopowders were synthesized via microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at different deposition (microwave irradiation) times and pH values. The effects of pH and deposition (microwave irradiation) time on the crystalline structure and orientation of the ZnO nanopowders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. XRD observations showed that the crystalline quality of ZnO nanopowders increased with increasing pH value. The crystallite size and texture coefficient values of ZnO nanopowders were calculated. The structural quality of ZnO nanopowder was improved by deposition parameters. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the ZnO nanopowders. Microwave irradiation time and pH value showed a significant effect on the surface morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trioctylphosphine-assisted morphology control of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yun-Kun; Cho, GeonHee; Park, YoonSu; Oh, Soong Ju; Ha, Don-Hyung

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the morphological change in colloidal ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized with trioctylphosphine (TOP). The addition of TOP to the synthesis causes an evolution in the shape of ZnO NPs to tadpole-like particles from quasi-spherical particles at 300 °C. The total length of the tadpole-like ZnO NPs can be modified by controlling the molar ratio of TOP to oleylamine (OLAM). The tadpole-like particles are elongated as the concentration of TOP increased but decreased when the addition of TOP is excessive. These tadpole-like ZnO NPs transform to quasi-spherical NPs regardless of the amount of TOP at a reaction time of 3 h at 300 °C. At 200 °C, the effect of TOP on the ZnO NP synthesis differs from that at 300 °C. The ZnO NPs synthesized by controlling the molar ratios of surfactant ligands (TOP:OLAM = 2:100 and 70:100) at 200 °C share similar amorphous structures, while a crystalline ZnO phase is formed when the reaction time is 3 h. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that TOP influences the oxidation of ZnO and suggests that a combination of OLAM and TOP plays a role in controlling the shape of ZnO NPs. These results provide critical insights to the utilization of TOP for a shape controlling ligand in ZnO NPs and suggest a new route to design oxide NPs.

  1. Trioctylphosphine-assisted morphology control of ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun-Kun; Cho, GeonHee; Park, YoonSu; Oh, Soong Ju; Ha, Don-Hyung

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the morphological change in colloidal ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized with trioctylphosphine (TOP). The addition of TOP to the synthesis causes an evolution in the shape of ZnO NPs to tadpole-like particles from quasi-spherical particles at 300 °C. The total length of the tadpole-like ZnO NPs can be modified by controlling the molar ratio of TOP to oleylamine (OLAM). The tadpole-like particles are elongated as the concentration of TOP increased but decreased when the addition of TOP is excessive. These tadpole-like ZnO NPs transform to quasi-spherical NPs regardless of the amount of TOP at a reaction time of 3 h at 300 °C. At 200 °C, the effect of TOP on the ZnO NP synthesis differs from that at 300 °C. The ZnO NPs synthesized by controlling the molar ratios of surfactant ligands (TOP:OLAM = 2:100 and 70:100) at 200 °C share similar amorphous structures, while a crystalline ZnO phase is formed when the reaction time is 3 h. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that TOP influences the oxidation of ZnO and suggests that a combination of OLAM and TOP plays a role in controlling the shape of ZnO NPs. These results provide critical insights to the utilization of TOP for a shape controlling ligand in ZnO NPs and suggest a new route to design oxide NPs.

  2. Electrical properties of fluorine-doped ZnO nanowires formed by biased plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Yicong; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Zhipeng; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Doping is an effective method for tuning electrical properties of zinc oxide nanowires, which are used in nanoelectronic devices. Here, ZnO nanowires were prepared by a thermal oxidation method. Fluorine doping was achieved by a biased plasma treatment, with bias voltages of 100, 200, and 300 V. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the nanowires treated at bias voltages of 100 and 200 V featured low crystallinity. When the bias voltage was 300 V, the nanowires showed single crystalline structures. Photoluminescence measurements revealed that concentrations of oxygen and surface defects decreased at high bias voltage. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that the F content increased as the bias voltage was increased. The conductivity of the as-grown nanowires was less than 103 S/m; the conductivity of the treated nanowires ranged from 1 × 104-5 × 104, 1 × 104-1 × 105, and 1 × 103-2 × 104 S/m for bias voltage treatments at 100, 200, and 300 V, respectively. The conductivity improvements of nanowires formed at bias voltages of 100 and 200 V, were attributed to F-doping, defects and surface states. The conductivity of nanowires treated at 300 V was attributed to the presence of F ions. Thus, we provide a method of improving electrical properties of ZnO nanowires without altering their crystal structure.

  3. FT-mid-IR spectroscopic investigation of fiber maturity and crystallinity at single boll level and a comparison with XRD approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In previous study, we have reported the development of simple algorithms for determining fiber maturity and crystallinity from Fourier transform (FT) -mid-infrared (IR) measurement. Due to its micro-sampling feature, we were able to assess the fiber maturity and crystallinity at different portions o...

  4. Magnetic, thermal, and optical properties of single-crystalline CoTa2O6 and FeTa2O6 and their anisotropic magnetocaloric effect.

    PubMed

    Christian, A B; Schye, A T; White, K O; Neumeier, J J

    2018-05-16

    The magnetic, thermal, and optical properties of single-crystalline CoTa 2 O 6 and FeTa 2 O 6 are reported. Optical dichroism was observed in CoTa 2 O 6 . Magnetic susceptibility χ(T) measurements reveal long-range antiferromagnetic order with Néel temperatures [Formula: see text] K and 8.11(5) K, respectively, and anisotropy in χ. The thermal expansion coefficients exhibit significant anisotropy and the influence of the magnetic ions and long-range order. A structural phase transition to orthorhombic occurs below T N for FeTa 2 O 6 . Magnetic field H lowers T N with its affect largest when H is directed along either [1 1 0] or [1 [Formula: see text] 0], and smallest when directed along [0 0 1]. This leads to an anisotropic magnetocaloric effect that is investigated through measurements of the specific heat and magnetization in applied magnetic field.

  5. One-pot synthesis of CoNiO2 single-crystalline nanoparticles as high-performance electrode materials of asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Weimin; Gao, Yanping; Tian, Qingqing; Li, Dan; Zhang, Zhenhu; Guo, Jiaojiao; Qian, Xuefeng

    2015-09-01

    A facile one-pot solvothermal method has been developed to synthesize CoNiO2 single-crystalline nanoparticles. Crystal phase, morphology, crystal lattice, and composition of the obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, respectively. Results revealed that the as-synthesized CoNiO2 nanoparticles belong to cubic structure with narrow size-distribution (8-10 nm). Subsequently, new asymmetric supercapacitors were successfully assembled with CoNiO2 nanoparticles as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode. The electrochemical results show that asymmetric supercapacitors based on CoNiO2 nanoparticles possess excellent supercapacitor properties, i.e., a stable electrochemical window of 0-1.7 V, higher energy density of 24.0 Wh/kg at a power density of 415.4 W/kg, and excellent cycling stability (96.8 % capacitance retention after 5000 charge-discharge cycles). Meanwhile, both a light-emitting diode and a mini fan can be powered by two series connection asymmetric supercapacitors. These results imply that the present asymmetric supercapacitors based on CoNiO2 nanoparticles possess the promising potential application in the field of high-performance energy storage.

  6. A simplified fracture network model for studying the efficiency of a single well semi open loop heat exchanger in fractured crystalline rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Bernardie, Jérôme; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Bour, Olivier; Thierion, Charlotte; Ausseur, Jean-Yves; Lesuer, Hervé; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source particularly attractive due to associated low greenhouse gas emission rates. Crystalline rocks are in general considered of poor interest for geothermal applications at shallow depths (< 100m), because of the low permeability of the medium. In some cases, fractures may enhance permeability, but thermal energy storage at these shallow depths is still remaining very challenging because of the complexity of fractured media. The purpose of this study is to test the possibility of efficient thermal energy storage in shallow fractured rocks with a single well semi open loop heat exchanger (standing column well). For doing so, a simplified numerical model of fractured media is considered with few fractures. Here we present the different steps for building the model and for achieving the sensitivity analysis. First, an analytical and dimensional study on the equations has been achieved to highlight the main parameters that control the optimization of the system. In a second step, multiphysics software COMSOL was used to achieve numerical simulations in a very simplified model of fractured media. The objective was to test the efficiency of such a system to store and recover thermal energy depending on i) the few parameters controlling fracture network geometry (size and number of fractures) and ii) the frequency of cycles used to store and recover thermal energy. The results have then been compared to reference shallow geothermal systems already set up for porous media. Through this study, relationships between structure, heat exchanges and storage may be highlighted.

  7. Magnetic and Superconducting Properties in Single Crystalline Fe1+δTe1-xSex (x<0.50) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinhu Yang,; Mami Matsui,; Masatomo Kawa,; Hiroto Ohta,; Chishiro Michioka,; Chiheng Dong,; Hangdong Wang,; Huiqiu Yuan,; Minghu Fang,; Kazuyoshi Yoshimura,

    2010-07-01

    The spin-fluctuation effect in the Se-substituted single crystalline Fe1+δTe1-xSex (x = 0, 0.05, 0.12, 0.20, 0.30, 0.33, 0.45, and 0.48; 0≤δ≤ 0.12) and the polycrystalline Fe1.11Se has been studied by the measurements of the X-ray diffraction, the magnetic susceptibility under high magnetic fields and the electrical resistivity under magnetic fields up to 14 T. The samples with x = 0.05, 0.12, 0.20, 0.30, 0.33, 0.45, and 0.48 show superconducting transition temperatures in the ranger of 10-14 K. We obtained their intrinsic susceptibilities by the Honda-Owen method. A nearly linear-in-T behavior in magnetic susceptibility of Se-rich superconducting samples was observed, indicating the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations have a strong link with the superconductivity in this series. The upper critical field μ0Hc2orb for T\\to 0 was estimated to exceed the Pauli paramagnetic limit. The Kadowaki-Woods and Wilson ratios indicate that electrons are strongly correlated in this system. Furthermore, the superconducting coherence length and the electron mean free path were also discussed. These superconducting parameters indicate that the superconductivity in the Fe1+δTe1-xSex system is unconventional.

  8. Fabrication of single crystalline stripe in Si and Ge film on rolled flexible glass substrate by UV cw micro-chevron laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Wenchang

    2017-08-01

    Micro chevron laser beam annealing (μCLBA) of Si film and Ge film were introduced. Single crystal stripe with a dimension of several tens to hundreds μm in length and 3-8μm in width was formed in Si film or Ge film by scanning μCLBA over the film. Main boundaries in the c-Si stripe were Σ3 CSL twin boundary. Scanning speed of micro linear laser beam annealing (μLLBA) was varied from 0.05 m/s to 8m/s to investigate its influence to crystallinity. Even at 8m/s lateral growth taken place, however, crystal quality was better for slower lateral growth. Crystallization area per energy (APE) of μLLBA was evaluated and compared with other methods. It was found APE of μLLBA was larger than other method, especially for a display with low fill factor of TFT, APE can be several orders of magnitude larger.

  9. Meniscus-force-mediated layer transfer technique using single-crystalline silicon films with midair cavity: Application to fabrication of CMOS transistors on plastic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaike, Kohei; Akazawa, Muneki; Nakagawa, Akitoshi; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2015-04-01

    A novel low-temperature technique for transferring a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) layer with a midair cavity (supported by narrow SiO2 columns) by meniscus force has been proposed, and a single-crystalline Si (c-Si) film with a midair cavity formed in dog-bone shape was successfully transferred to a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate at its heatproof temperature or lower. By applying this proposed transfer technique, high-performance c-Si-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors were successfully fabricated on the PET substrate. The key processes are the thermal oxidation and subsequent hydrogen annealing of the SOI layer on the midair cavity. These processes ensure a good MOS interface, and the SiO2 layer works as a “blocking” layer that blocks contamination from PET. The fabricated n- and p-channel c-Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) on the PET substrate showed field-effect mobilities of 568 and 103 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively.

  10. The kinetics of the 2π+2π photodimerisation reactions of single-crystalline derivatives of trans-cinnamic acid: A study by infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Samantha L.; Almond, Matthew J.; Atkinson, Samantha D. M.; Drew, Michael G. B.; Hollins, Peter; Mortimore, Joanne L.; Tobin, Mark J.

    2006-04-01

    The kinetics of the photodimerisation reactions of the 2- and 4-β-halogeno-derivatives of trans-cinnamic acid (where the halogen is fluorine, chlorine or bromine) have been investigated by infrared microspectroscopy. It is found that none of the reactions proceed to 100% yield. This is in line with a reaction mechanism developed by Wernick and his co-workers that postulates the formation of isolated monomers within the solid, which cannot react. β-4-Bromo and β-4-chloro- trans-cinnamic acids show approximately first order kinetics, although in both cases the reaction accelerates somewhat as it proceeds. First order kinetics is explained in terms of a reaction between one excited- and one ground-state monomer molecule, while the acceleration of the reaction implies that it is promoted as defects are formed within the crystal. By contrast β-2-chloro- trans-cinnamic acid shows a strongly accelerating reaction which models closely to the contracting cube equation. β-2-Fluoro- and β-4-fluoro- trans-cinnamic acids show a close match to first order kinetics. The 4-fluoro-derivative, however, shows a reaction that proceeds via a structural intermediate. The difference in behaviour between the 2-fluoro- and 4-fluoro-derivative may be due to different C-H⋯F hydrogen bonds observed within these single-crystalline starting materials.

  11. Avalanche solar blind photodetectors based on single crystalline Mg0.47Zn0.53O thin film on Ga:ZnO substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Jingtao; Chen, Zuxin; Liu, Huiqiang; Ma, Xinzhou; Li, Qiuguo; Chu, Guang; Chu, Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Single crystalline wurtzite Mg0.47Zn0.53O films were grown on Ga:ZnO substrates by pulse laser deposition. The band gap of the films was measured to be 4.43 eV. Vertical devices were fabricated for solar blind photodetection, realizing a high responsivity of 2 A W‑1 at 278 nm and  ‑5 V bias as well as a rejection ratio (R 278 nm/R 350 nm) of over 6  ×  103. A cut-off wavelength of 286 nm and a response time of 77 ms were also achieved. Besides, the devices showed stable response without degeneration under repeating illumination. The high performance of this photodetector was analyzed and attributed to the avalanche effect from high quality Mg0.47Zn0.53O/Ga:ZnO heterojunction at reverse bias. The avalanche gain was calculated to be 14.5 at  ‑10 V.

  12. Nanoscale magneto-structural coupling in as-deposited and freestanding single-crystalline Fe7Pd3 ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films

    PubMed Central

    Landgraf, Anja; Jakob, Alexander M; Ma, Yanhong; Mayr, Stefan G

    2013-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are characterized by strong magneto-mechanical coupling occurring at the atomic scale causing large magnetically inducible strains at the macroscopic level. Employing combined atomic and magnetic force microscopy studies at variable temperature, we systematically explore the relation between the magnetic domain pattern and the underlying structure for as-deposited and freestanding single-crystalline Fe7Pd3 thin films across the martensite–austenite transition. We find experimental evidence that magnetic domain appearance is strongly affected by the presence and absence of nanotwinning. While the martensite–austenite transition upon temperature variation of as-deposited films is clearly reflected in topography by the presence and absence of a characteristic surface corrugation pattern, the magnetic domain pattern is hardly affected. These findings are discussed considering the impact of significant thermal stresses arising in the austenite phase. Freestanding martensitic films reveal a hierarchical structure of micro- and nanotwinning. The associated domain organization appears more complex, since the dominance of magnetic energy contributors alters within this length scale regime. PMID:27877596

  13. Electrospun single crystalline fork-like K2V8O21 as high-performance cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Pengfei; Zhu, Ting; Su, Qiong; Lin, Jiande; Cui, Rong; Cao, Xinxin; Wang, Yaping; Pan, Anqiang

    2018-06-01

    Single crystalline fork-like potassium vanadate (K2V8O21) has been successfully prepared through electrospinning combined with a subsequent annealing process. The as-obtained K2V8O21 forks show a unique layer-by-layer stacked structure with conductive carbon. When used as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared fork-like materials exhibit high specific discharge capacity and excellent cyclic stability. High specific discharge capacity of 200.2 mA h g-1 and 131.5 mA h g-1 can be delivered at the current densities of 50 mA g-1 and 500 mA g-1, respectively. Furthermore, the K2V8O21 electrodes exhibit excellent long-term cycling stability that maintain a capacity of 108.3 mA h g-1 after 300 cycles at 500 mA g-1 with a fading rate of only 0.054% per cycle, revealing their potential applications in next generation high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Magnetic and Mössbauer characterization of the magnetic properties of single-crystalline sub-micron sized Bi₂Fe₄O₉ cubes

    DOE PAGES

    Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Viescas, Arthur J.; ...

    2014-11-25

    Magnetic and Mössbauer characterization of single crystalline, sub-micron sized Bi₂Fe₄O₉ cubes has been performed using SQUID magnetometry and transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy in the temperature range of 4.2 K ≤ T ≤ 300 K. A broad magnetic phase transition from the paramagnetic to the anti-ferromagnetic state is observed below 250 K, with the Mössbauer spectra exhibiting a superposition of magnetic, collapsed and quadrupolar spectra in the transition region of 200 K < T < 245 K. Room temperature Mössbauer spectra obtained in transmission geometry are identical to those recorded in back-scattering geometry via conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, indicating the absence ofmore » strain at the surface. A small hysteresis loop is observed in SQUID measurements at 5 K, attributable to the presence of weak-ferromagnetism arising from the canting of Fe³⁺ ion sublattices in the antiferromagnetic matrix.« less

  15. Non-Destructive Study of Bulk Crystallinity and Elemental Composition of Natural Gold Single Crystal Samples by Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Rakovan, John; Shinohara, Takenao; Kockelmann, Winfried; Losko, Adrian S.; Vogel, Sven C.

    2017-01-01

    Energy-resolved neutron imaging enables non-destructive analyses of bulk structure and elemental composition, which can be resolved with high spatial resolution at bright pulsed spallation neutron sources due to recent developments and improvements of neutron counting detectors. This technique, suitable for many applications, is demonstrated here with a specific study of ~5–10 mm thick natural gold samples. Through the analysis of neutron absorption resonances the spatial distribution of palladium (with average elemental concentration of ~0.4 atom% and ~5 atom%) is mapped within the gold samples. At the same time, the analysis of coherent neutron scattering in the thermal and cold energy regimes reveals which samples have a single-crystalline bulk structure through the entire sample volume. A spatially resolved analysis is possible because neutron transmission spectra are measured simultaneously on each detector pixel in the epithermal, thermal and cold energy ranges. With a pixel size of 55 μm and a detector-area of 512 by 512 pixels, a total of 262,144 neutron transmission spectra are measured concurrently. The results of our experiments indicate that high resolution energy-resolved neutron imaging is a very attractive analytical technique in cases where other conventional non-destructive methods are ineffective due to sample opacity. PMID:28102285

  16. Growth of catalyst-free high-quality ZnO nanowires by thermal evaporation under air ambient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanowires have been successfully fabricated on Si substrate by simple thermal evaporation of Zn powder under air ambient without any catalyst. Morphology and structure analyses indicated that ZnO nanowires had high purity and perfect crystallinity. The diameter of ZnO nanowires was 40 to 100 nm, and the length was about several tens of micrometers. The prepared ZnO nanowires exhibited a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. The growth of the ZnO nanostructure was explained by the vapor-solid mechanism. The simplicity, low cost and fewer necessary apparatuses of the process would suit the high-throughput fabrication of ZnO nanowires. The ZnO nanowires fabricated on Si substrate are compatible with state-of-the-art semiconductor industry. They are expected to have potential applications in functional nanodevices. PMID:22502639

  17. Effect of precursor on epitaxially grown of ZnO thin film on p-GaN/sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate by hydrothermal technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, Trilochan; Ju, Jin-Woo; Kannan, V.

    2008-03-04

    Single crystalline ZnO thin film on p-GaN/sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate, using two different precursors by hydrothermal route at a temperature of 90 deg. C were successfully grown. The effect of starting precursor on crystalline nature, surface morphology and optical emission of the films were studied. ZnO thin films were grown in aqueous solution of zinc acetate and zinc nitrate. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all the thin films were single crystalline in nature and exhibited wurtzite symmetry and c-axis orientation. The thin films obtained with zinc nitrate had a more pitted rough surface morphology compared to the filmmore » grown in zinc acetate. However the thickness of the films remained unaffected by the nature of the starting precursor. Sharp luminescence peaks were observed from the thin films almost at identical energies but deep level emission was slightly prominent for the thin film grown in zinc nitrate.« less

  18. Development of nanostructured ZnO thin film via electrohydrodynamic atomization technique and its photoconductivity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Duraisamy, Navaneethan; Kwon, Ki Rin; Jo, Jeongdai; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2014-08-01

    This article presents the non-vacuum technique for the preparation of nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film on glass substrate through electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique. The detailed process parameters for achieving homogeneous ZnO thin films are clearly discussed. The crystallinity and surface morphology of ZnO thin film are investigated by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The result shows that the deposited ZnO thin film is oriented in the wurtzite phase with void free surface morphology. The surface roughness of deposited ZnO thin film is found to be ~17.8 nm. The optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films show the average transmittance is about 90% in the visible region and the energy band gap is found to be 3.17 eV. The surface chemistry and purity of deposited ZnO thin films are analyzed by fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, conforming the presence of Zn-O in the deposited thin films without any organic moiety. The photocurrent measurement of nanostructured ZnO thin film is examined in the presence of UV light illumination with wavelength of 365 nm. These results suggest that the deposited nanostructured ZnO thin film through EHDA technique possess promising applications in the near future.

  19. Investigation on the path process of M doped ZnO (M = Gd, Mg) via the sol-gel method from dried gel to stable nanostructure powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharno; Soegijono, B.; Budiawanti, S.; Fadillah, L.

    2017-04-01

    Doping is one of the effective methods to modify the physical properties of ZnO material in order to extend its applications. An investigation on Zn1-xMxO (M = Gd, Mg and x = 0.00, 0.03) nanopowders that have been synthesized by sol-gel method and sintered at 600 °C for 2 hours was reported. The decomposition process of the dried gel system was investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and the nanopowders with different heating temperature were studied using FT-IR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the nanopowders after sintering at 600 °C was obtained using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The TGA curves of the samples showed the various weight loss regions corresponding to the removal of starting materials and no weight loss was observed in the temperature range of 300 to 800 °C which corresponded to the phase-crystallization step. The FTIR spectra showed that ZnO band was assigned to the stretching frequency at 669 cm-1 while Gd/Mg doped ZnO was at 668 cm-1 and 666 cm-1. From the XRD studies, the crystal structure of the samples indicated single phase ZnO crystalline and confirmed hexagonal wurtzite structure (space group of P63mc).

  20. Electrochemical growth of controlled tip shapes of ZnO nanorod arrays on silicon substrate and enhanced photoluminescence emission from nanopyramid arrays compared with flat-head nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimanesh, Mahmoud; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, Norzaini

    2017-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays (NRAs) with different morphologies such as; perfect hexagon flat-head, pyramidal, compact pencil, nail-shaped, and high-compact ZnO nanorod thin films, were successfully grown on silicon substrates. These NRAs were formed on substrates using a simple low-temperature electrochemical method without adding any catalyst or template via the precursors of zinc nitrate hexahydrate [Zn(NO3)2·6H2O] and hexamethylenetetramine [HMT; C6H12N4] with an equal molar concentration of 0.025 mol/l. The morphologies of the ZnO nanorods (NRs) could be controlled and transformed successfully in to other morphologies by changing the growth conditions, such as; growth temperature and applied current density. Detailed structural investigations reveal that the synthesized various NRs are single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase and preferentially grow along the c-axis direction. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra show that each spectrum consists of an ultraviolet (UV) band and a relative broad visible light emission and infrared emission peak. The enhanced light emission intensity at UV peak (∼375 nm) is observed significantly from ZnO nanopyramid (NP) arrays because of the conical shape of NP. The photoluminescence intensity of the UV peak from the NPs is found to be 1.5-17 times larger than those from the other various NRs.

  1. In situ probing of doping- and stress-mediated phase transitions in a single-crystalline VO2 nanobeam by spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sung-Jin; Park, Jong Bae; Lee, Gaehang; Kim, Hae Jin; Lee, Jin-Bae; Bae, Tae-Sung; Han, Young-Kyu; Park, Tae Jung; Huh, Yun Suk; Hong, Woong-Ki

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate an experimental in situ observation of the temperature-dependent evolution of doping- and stress-mediated structural phase transitions in an individual single-crystalline VO2 nanobeam on a Au-coated substrate under exposure to hydrogen gas using spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy. The nucleation temperature of the rutile R structural phase in the VO2 nanobeam upon heating under hydrogen gas was lower than that under air. The spatial structural phase evolution behavior along the length of the VO2 nanobeam under hydrogen gas upon heating was much more inhomogeneous than that along the length of the same nanobeam under air. The triclinic T phase of the VO2 nanobeam upon heating under hydrogen gas transformed to the R phase and this R phase was stabilized even at room temperature in air after sample cooling. In particular, after the VO2 nanobeam with the R phase was annealed at approximately 250 °C in air, it exhibited the monoclinic M1 phase (not the T phase) at room temperature during heating and cooling cycles. These results were attributed to the interplay between hydrogen doping and stress associated with nanobeam-substrate interactions. Our study has important implications for engineering metal-insulator transition properties and developing functional devices based on VO2 nanostructures through doping and stress.We demonstrate an experimental in situ observation of the temperature-dependent evolution of doping- and stress-mediated structural phase transitions in an individual single-crystalline VO2 nanobeam on a Au-coated substrate under exposure to hydrogen gas using spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy. The nucleation temperature of the rutile R structural phase in the VO2 nanobeam upon heating under hydrogen gas was lower than that under air. The spatial structural phase evolution behavior along the length of the VO2 nanobeam under hydrogen gas upon heating was much more inhomogeneous than that along the length of the same nanobeam under

  2. Electrical properties of pseudo-single-crystalline Ge films grown by Au-induced layer exchange crystallization at 250 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, H.; Kudo, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamada, S.; Kanashima, T.; Tsunoda, I.; Nakashima, H.; Hamaya, K.

    2018-06-01

    We study the electrical properties of pseudo-single-crystalline Ge (PSC-Ge) films grown by a Au-induced layer exchange crystallization method at 250 °C. By inserting the SiNx layer between PSC-Ge and SiO2, we initiatively suppress the influence of the Ge/SiO2 interfacial defective layers, which have been reported in our previous works, on the electrical properties of the PSC-Ge layers. As a result, we can detect the influence of the ionized Au+ donors on the temperature-dependent hole concentration and Hall mobility. To further examine their electrical properties in detail, we also fabricate p-thin-film transistors (TFTs) with the PSC-Ge layer. Although the off-state leakage currents are suppressed by inserting the SiNx layer, the value of on/off ratio remains poor (<102). Even after the post-annealing at 400 °C for the TFTs, the on/off ratio is still poor (˜102) because of the gate-induced drain leakage current although a nominal field effect mobility is enhanced up to ˜25 cm2/V s. Considering these features, we conclude that the Au contaminations into the PSC-Ge layer can affect the electrical properties and device performances despite a low-growth temperature of 250 °C. To achieve further high-performance p-TFTs, we have to suppress the Au contaminations into PSC-Ge during the Au-induced crystallization growth.

  3. Growth and luminescent properties of Lu 2SiO 5:Ce and (Lu 1- xGd x) 2SiO 5:Ce single crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Savchyn, V.; Voznyak, T.; Grinyov, B.; Sidletskiy, O.; Kurtsev, D.; Fedorov, A.; Baumer, V.; Nikl, M.; Mares, J. A.; Beitlerova, A.; Prusa, P.; Kucera, M.

    2011-12-01

    Single crystalline films (SCF) of Lu 2SiO 5:Ce (LSO:Ce), (Lu 1- xGd x) 2SiO 5:Ce (LGSO:Ce) and LGSO:Ce,Tb orthosilicates with thickness of 2.5-21 μm were crystallized by liquid phase epitaxy method onto undoped LSO substrates from melt-solution based on PbO-B 2O 3 flux. The concentration of Gd was varied in the range of x=0.2-0.7 formula units (f.u.). In the case of LGSO:Ce SCF growth we do not use any additional doping for reducing the misfit between the SCF and substrate lattices. The luminescence and scintillation properties of LSO:Ce, LGSO:Ce and LGSO:Ce,Tb SCFs were mutually compared and confronted with the performance of reference LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals. With increasing Gd content the luminescence spectrum of LGSO:Ce SCF is gradually red-shifted with respect to that of LSO:Ce SCF. The LY of (Lu 1- xGd x)SO:Ce SCF becomes lower in comparison with that for LSO:Ce SC at increasing Gd content in the range of x=0.2-0.7 f.u. The peculiarities of luminescence properties of LSO:Ce and LGSO:Ce SCFs in comparison with crystal analogs are explained by the different distribution of Ce 3+ over Lu1 and Lu2 positions of LSO host and by the influence of Pb 2+ contamination coming from the flux used for the film growth.

  4. Fabrication and Performance Study on Individual Zno Nanowires Based Bioelectrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanguang; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Lin, Pei

    2012-08-01

    One-dimensional zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) have unique advantages for use in biosensors as follows: oxide stable surface, excellent biosafety, high specific surface area, high isoelectric point (IEP = 9.5). In this work, we have prepared a kind of electrochemical bioelectrode based on individual ZnO NWs. Here, ZnO NWs with high quality were successfully synthesized by CVD method, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence. Then the Raman spectra and electrical characterization demonstrated the adsorption of uricase on ZnO wires. At last, a series of electrochemical measurements were carried out by using an electrochemical workstation with a conventional three-electrode system to obtain the cyclic voltammetry characteristics of the bioelectrodes. The excellent performance of the fabricated bioelectrode implies the potential application for single ZnO nanowire to construct electrochemical biosensor for the detection of uric acid.

  5. Synthesis of ZnO Photocatalysts Using Various Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chengli; Zhu, Jinmiao; Li, Hongying; Zheng, Bin; Wei, Yanxin

    2017-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured materials have received significant attention because of their unique physicochemical and electronic properties. In particular, the functional properties of ZnO are owed to its morphology and defect structure. ZnO particles were successfully synthesized by chemical precipitation. CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), BS-12 (dodecyl dimethyl betaine) and graphene oxide (GO) were selected as templates to induce the formation of ZnO, respectively. By varying the amount of surfactant added during the synthesis process, the structural properties and the crystalline phase of the synthesized nanospheres were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry (UV‒Vis). Simultaneously, photo catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was carried out under natural sunlight irradiation while ZnO or ZnO/GO particles were used as catalyst. GO is prone to induce formation of wurtzite hexagonal phase of ZnO. Compared with CTAB and BS-12, ZnO/GO composites had a remarkably photocatalytic degradation.

  6. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by a green process and the investigation of their physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nethavhanani, T.; Diallo, A.; Madjoe, R.; Kotsedi, L.; Maaza, M.

    2018-05-01

    This contribution reports on the synthesis and the physical properties of ZnO nanoparticles prepared using a green chemistry process. Aspalathus Linearis's extract was used as an effective chelating agent. The whole reaction process for the ZnO nanoparticle was conducted at room temperature. The microstructural properties of ZnO was investigated using X-ray diffraction, furthermore Electron Dispersive X-rays Spectroscopy was employed as quantitative elemental analysis. From the Transmission Electron Microscopy results, the ZnO nanoparticles were found to be highly crystalline with an average diameter of 23.7 nm.

  7. Oriented Attachment Is a Major Control Mechanism To Form Nail-like Mn-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Samuel; Arora, Priyanka; Price, Paige; Dittmar, Jasper W; Das, Vijay Kumar; Pink, Maren; Stein, Barry; Morgan, David Gene; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Koczkur, Kallum M; Skrabalak, Sara E; Bronstein, Lyudmila M

    2017-12-26

    Here, we present a controlled synthesis of Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with predominantly nail-like shapes, whose formation occurs via tip-to-base-oriented attachment of initially formed nanopyramids, followed by leveling of sharp edges that lead to smooth single-crystalline "nails". This shape is prevalent in noncoordinating solvents such as octadecene and octadecane. Yet, the double bond in the former promotes oriented attachment. By contrast, Mn-doped ZnO NP synthesis in a weakly coordinating solvent, benzyl ether, results in dendritic structures because of random attachment of initial NPs. Mn-doped ZnO NPs possess a hexagonal wurtzite structure, and in the majority of cases, the NP surface is enriched with Mn, indicating a migration of Mn 2+ ions to the NP surface during the NP formation. When the NP formation is carried out without the addition of octadecyl alcohol, which serves as a surfactant and a reaction initiator, large, concave pyramid dimers are formed whose attachment takes place via basal planes. UV-vis and photoluminescence spectra of these NPs confirm the utility of controlling the NP shape to tune electro-optical properties.

  8. In situ TEM probing of crystallization form-dependent sodiation behavior in ZnO nanowires for sodium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Feng; Li, Zhengrui; Wu, Lijun; ...

    2016-09-13

    Development of sodium-ion battery (SIB) electrode materials currently lags behind electrodes in commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, in the long term, development of SIB components is a valuable goal. Their similar, but not identical, chemistries require careful identification of the underlying sodiation mechanism in SIBs. Here in this study, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to explore quite different sodiation behaviors even in similar electrode materials through real-time visualization of microstructure and phase evolution. Upon electrochemical sodiation, single-crystalline ZnO nanowires (sc-ZNWs) are found to undergo a step-by-step electrochemical displacement reaction, forming crystalline NaZn 13 nanograins dispersed in a Namore » 2O matrix. This process is characterized by a slowly propagating reaction front and the formation of heterogeneous interfaces inside the ZNWs due to non-uniform sodiation amorphization. In contrast, poly-crystalline ZNWs (pc-ZNWs) exhibited an ultrafast sodiation process, which can partly be ascribed to the availability of unobstructed ionic transport pathways among ZnO nanograins. Thus the reaction front and heterogeneous interfaces disappear. The in situ TEM results, supported by calculation of the ion diffusion coefficient, provide breakthrough insights into the dependence of ion diffusion kinetics on crystallization form. This points toward a goal of optimizing the microstructure of electrode materials in order to develop high performance SIBs.« less

  9. Self-Anchored Catalyst Interface Enables Ordered Via Array Formation from Submicrometer to Millimeter Scale for Polycrystalline and Single-Crystalline Silicon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Dong; Kim, Munho; Kong, Lingyu; Mohseni, Parsian K; Ranganathan, Srikanth; Pachamuthu, Jayavel; Chim, Wai Kin; Chiam, Sing Yang; Coleman, James J; Li, Xiuling

    2018-03-14

    Defying text definitions of wet etching, metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch), a solution-based, damage-free semiconductor etching method, is directional, where the metal catalyst film sinks with the semiconductor etching front, producing 3D semiconductor structures that are complementary to the metal catalyst film pattern. The same recipe that works perfectly to produce ordered array of nanostructures for single-crystalline Si (c-Si) fails completely when applied to polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with the same doping type and level. Another long-standing challenge for MacEtch is the difficulty of uniformly etching across feature sizes larger than a few micrometers because of the nature of lateral etching. The issue of interface control between the catalyst and the semiconductor in both lateral and vertical directions over time and over distance needs to be systematically addressed. Here, we present a self-anchored catalyst (SAC) MacEtch method, where a nanoporous catalyst film is used to produce nanowires through the pinholes, which in turn physically anchor the catalyst film from detouring as it descends. The systematic vertical etch rate study as a function of porous catalyst diameter from 200 to 900 nm shows that the SAC-MacEtch not only confines the etching direction but also enhances the etch rate due to the increased liquid access path, significantly delaying the onset of the mass-transport-limited critical diameter compared to nonporous catalyst c-Si counterpart. With this enhanced mass transport approach, vias on multistacks of poly-Si/SiO 2 are also formed with excellent vertical registry through the polystack, even though they are separated by SiO 2 which is readily removed by HF alone with no anisotropy. In addition, 320 μm square through-Si-via (TSV) arrays in 550 μm thick c-Si are realized. The ability of SAC-MacEtch to etch through poly/oxide/poly stack as well as more than half millimeter thick silicon with excellent site specificity for a wide

  10. Room temperature growth of ZnO nanorods by hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateyama, Hiroki; Zhang, Qiyan; Ichikawa, Yo

    2018-05-01

    The effect of seed layer morphology on ZnO nanorod growth at room temperature was studied via hydrothermal synthesis on seed layers with different thicknesses and further annealed at different temperatures. The change in the thickness and annealing temperature enabled us to control over a diameter of ZnO nanorods which are attributed to the changing of crystallinity and roughness of the seed layers.

  11. ZnO nanowires for tunable near-UV/blue LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Viana, Bruno

    2012-02-01

    Nanowires (NWs)-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have drawn large interest due to many advantages compared to thin film based devices. Markedly improved performances are expected from nanostructured active layers for light emission. Nanowires can act as direct waveguides and favor light extraction without the use of lenses and reflectors. Moreover, the use of wires avoids the presence of grain boundaries and then the emission efficiency should be boosted by the absence of non-radiative recombinations at the joint defects. Electrochemical deposition technique was used for the preparation of ZnO-NWs based light emitters. Nanowires of high structural and optical quality have been epitaxially grown on p-GaN single crystalline films substrates. We have shown that the emission is directional with a wavelength that was tuned and red-shifted toward the visible region by doping with Cu in ZnO NWs.

  12. Ferromagnetic behaviour of ZnO: the role of grain boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Protasova, Svetlana G; Mazilkin, Andrei A; Goering, Eberhard; Schütz, Gisela; Straumal, Petr B; Baretzky, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to attain ferromagnetic properties in transparent semiconductor oxides such as ZnO is very promising for future spintronic applications. We demonstrate in this review that ferromagnetism is not an intrinsic property of the ZnO crystalline lattice but is that of ZnO/ZnO grain boundaries. If a ZnO polycrystal contains enough grain boundaries, it can transform into the ferromagnetic state even without doping with “magnetic atoms” such as Mn, Co, Fe or Ni. However, such doping facilitates the appearance of ferromagnetism in ZnO. It increases the saturation magnetisation and decreases the critical amount of grain boundaries needed for FM. A drastic increase of the total solubility of dopants in ZnO with decreasing grain size has been also observed. It is explained by the multilayer grain boundary segregation. PMID:28144542

  13. Effect of Eu3+ doping on the structural, morphological and luminescence properties ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoditha, U.; Balakrishna, K. M.; Sarojini, B. K.; Narayana, B.; Kumara, K.

    2018-05-01

    Pure and Eu3+ ions (1, 3, 5 atomic wt%) doped ZnO nanostructures are synthesized by a surfactant assisted hydrothermal method. The effect of doping concentrations on structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures is studied. The XRD analysis shows good crystallinity and the phase purity of the ZnO nanostructures. A shift in the standard Zn-O stretching mode after Eu3+ doping is observed in the FTIR spectra. The images of FESEM demonstrate the morphological variations from hexagonal nanorods to nanoflowers on varying the dopant concentrations. Substitution of Eu3+ ions into Zn2+ sites is confirmed by EDX analysis. The dominance of particle shape over the UV-Visible absorption properties of the prepared samples is noticed. The photoluminescence (PL) emission of undoped and doped ZnO nanostructures show dominant near band edge emission (NBE) in the UV region and minor defect induced deep level emissions in the visible region.

  14. Effect of Mg doping in ZnO buffer layer on ZnO thin film devices for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Pushpa; Chakrabarti, P.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been grown on p-silicon (Si) substrate using magnesium doped ZnO (Mg: ZnO) buffer layer by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering method. In this paper, we have optimized the concentration of Mg (0-5 atomic percent (at. %)) ZnO buffer layer to examine its effect on ZnO thin film based devices for electronic and optoelectronic applications. The crystalline nature, morphology and topography of the surface of the thin film have been characterized. The optical as well as electrical properties of the active ZnO film can be tailored by varying the concentration of Mg in the buffer layer. The crystallite size in the active ZnO thin film was found to increase with the Mg concentration in the buffer layer in the range of 0-3 at. % and subsequently decrease with increasing Mg atom concentration in the ZnO. The same was verified by the surface morphology and topography studies carried out with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic electron microscopy (AFM) respectively. The reflectance in the visible region was measured to be less than 80% and found to decrease with increase in Mg concentration from 0 to 3 at. % in the buffer region. The optical bandgap was initially found to increase from 3.02 eV to 3.74 eV by increasing the Mg content from 0 to 3 at. % but subsequently decreases and drops down to 3.43 eV for a concentration of 5 at. %. The study of an Au:Pd/ZnO Schottky diode reveals that for optimum doping of the buffer layer the device exhibits superior rectifying behavior. The barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratio, reverse saturation current and series resistance of the Schottky diode were extracted from the measured current voltage (I-V) characteristics.

  15. High-speed observation of ZnO microspherical crystals produced by laser ablation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Tasaki, Ryohei; Fujiwara, Yuki; Nagasaki, Fumiaki; Higashihata, Mitsuhiro; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Okada, Tatsuo

    2017-03-01

    ZnO nano/microstructures have attracted much attention as building blocks for optoelectronic devices because of their high crystalline quality and unique structures. We have succeeded in synthesizing ZnO microspherical crystals by a simple atmospheric laser ablation method, and demonstrated ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing from the spheres. In the microsphere synthesis process, molten droplets formed into spherical shapes by surface tension, and crystalized during ejection from the ablation spot. In this study, we observed the generation of ZnO microspheres by high-speed camera. Now we are trying to control and manipulate the microspheres using a vortex beam.

  16. Synthesis of stable ZnO nanocolloids with enhanced optical limiting properties via simple solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramya, M.; Nideep, T. K.; Vijesh, K. R.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Kailasnath, M.

    2018-07-01

    In present work, we report the synthesis of stable ZnO nanocolloids through a simple solution method which exhibit enhanced optical limiting threshold. The influences of reaction temperature on the crystal structure as well as linear and nonlinear optical properties of prepared ZnO nanoparticles were carried out. The XRD and Raman analysis reveal that the prepared ZnO nanoparticles retain the hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. HRTEM analysis confirms the effect of reaction temperature, solvent effect on crystallinity as well as nanostructure of ZnO nanoparticles. It has been found that crystallinity and average diameter increase with reaction temperature where ethylene glycol act as both solvent and growth inhibiter. EDS spectra shows formation of pure ZnO nanoparticles. The direct energy band gap of the nanoparticles increases with decrease in particle size due to quantum confinement effect. The third order nonlinear optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles were investigated by z scan technique using a frequency doubled Nd-YAG nanosecond laser at 532 nm wavelength. The z-scan result reveals that the prepared ZnO nanoparticles exhibit self - defocusing nonlinearity. The two photon absorption coefficient and third - order nonlinear optical susceptibility increases with increasing particle size. The third-order susceptibility of the ZnO nanoparticles is found to be in the order of 10-10 esu, which is at least three order magnitude greater than the bulk ZnO. The optical limiting threshold of the nanoparticles varies in the range of 54 to 17 MW/cm2. The results suggest that ZnO nanoparticles considered as a promising candidates for the future photonic devices.

  17. Impact of Substrate Types on Structure and Emission of ZnO Nanocrystalline Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballardo Rodriguez, I. Ch.; El Filali, B.; Díaz Cano, A. I.; Torchynska, T. V.

    2018-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films were simultaneously synthesized by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method on p-type Si (100), silicon carbide polytype [6H-SiC (0001)], porous 6H-SiC and amorphous glass substrates with the aim of studying the impact of substrate types on the structure and emission of ZnO nanocrystalline films. Porous silicon carbide (P-SiC) was prepared by the electrochemical anodization method at a constant potential of 20 V and etching time of 12 min. ZnO films grown on the SiC and P-SiC substrates are characterized by a wurtzite crystal structure with preferential growth along the (002) direction and with grain sizes of 90-180 and 70-160 nm, respectively. ZnO films grown on the Si substrate have just some small irregular hexagonal islands. The amorphous glass substrate did not promote the formation of any regular crystal forms. The obtained x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) results have shown that the better ZnO film crystallinity and high PL intensity of near-band edge emissions were achieved in the films grown on the porous SiC and SiC substrates. The preferential growth and crystalline nature of ZnO films on the SiC substrate have been discussed from the point of view of the lattice parameter compatibility between ZnO and SiC crystals.

  18. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures converted from ZnS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Prayas Chandra; Ghosh, Surajit; Srivastava, P.C., E-mail: pcsrivastava50@gmail.com

    Graphical abstract: The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. - Highlights: • Phase change of cubic ZnS to hexagonal ZnO via heat treatment. • Band gap was found to decrease with increasing calcinations temperature. • ZnO samples have higher magnetic moment than ZnS. • Blocking Temperature of the samples is well above room temperature. • Maximum negative%MR with saturation value ∼38% was found for sample calcined at 600° C. - Abstract: The present work concentrates on the synthesis of cubic ZnS and hexagonal ZnO semiconducting nanoparticle from same precursor via co-precipitation method.more » The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. From the analysis of influence of calcination temperature on the structural, optical and vibrational properties of the samples, an optimum temperature was found for the total conversion of ZnS nanoparticles to ZnO. Role of quantum confinement due to finite size is evident from the blue shift of the fundamental absorption in UV–vis spectra only in the ZnS nanoparticles. The semiconducting nature of the prepared samples is confirmed from the UV–vis, PL study and transport study. From the magnetic and transport studies, pure ZnO phase was found to be more prone to magnetic field.« less

  19. Preparation, characterization and properties of ZnO nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiaolian; Zhang, Xiaoming; Chen, Ruxue; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Ji; Wang, Xiaomin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, using the hydrothermal synthesis method, NaOH, Zn(NO3)2, anhydrous ethanol, deionized water as raw material to prepare ZnO nanomaterial, and by X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) on the synthesis of nano materials, surface morphology and phase luminescence characterization. The results show that the nano materials synthesized for single-phase ZnO, belonging to the six wurtzite structure; material surface shaped, arranged evenly distributed, and were the top six party structure; ZnO nano materials synthesized with strong emission spectra, emission peak is located at 394nm.

  20. Vertical growth of ZnO nanorods on ZnO seeded FTO substrate for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) were electrochemically grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) and ZnO seeded FTO substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, Raman spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO grown on a seeded FTO substrate has a high crystallinity, crystal quality and less atomic defects. Felid emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images display a high growth density of NRs grown on seeded FTO substrate compared to NRs grown on FTO substrate. The efficiency of the DSSCs based on NRs grown on FTO and seeded FTO substrates is 0.85 and 1.52 %, respectively. UV-Vis absorption spectra and electrochemical impedance spectra depict that the NRs grown on seeded FTO photoanode have higher dye absorption and charge recombination resistance than that of the NRs grown on FTO substrate.

  1. Study of ZnO and Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles by sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, Mohd Meenhaz, E-mail: meenhazphysics@gmail.com; Arshad, Mohd; Tripathi, Pushpendra

    Nano-crystalline undoped and Mg doped ZnO (Mg-ZnO) nanoparticles with compositional formula Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O (x=0,1,3,5,7,10 and 12 %) were synthesized using sol-gel process. The XRD diffraction peaks match with the pattern of the standard hexagonal structure of ZnO that reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure in all samples. SEM images demonstrates clearly the formation of spherical ZnO nanoparticles, and change of the morphology of the nanoparticles with the concentration of the magnesium, which is in close agreement with that estimated by Scherer formula based on the XRD pattern. To investigate the doping effect on optical properties, the UV–VIS absorptionmore » spectra was obtained and the band gap of the samples calculated.« less

  2. Effects of Palladium Loading on the Response of a Thick Film Flame-made ZnO Gas Sensor for Detection of Ethanol Vapor

    PubMed Central

    Liewhiran, Chaikarn; Phanichphant, Sukon

    2007-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles doped with 0-5 mol% Pd were successfully produced in a single step by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) using zinc naphthenate and palladium (II) acetylacetonate dissolved in toluene-acetonitrile (80:20 vol%) as precursors. The effect of Pd loading on the ethanol gas sensing performance of the ZnO nanoparticles and the crystalline sizes were investigated. The particle properties were analyzed by XRD, BET, AFM, SEM (EDS line scan mode), TEM, STEM, EDS, and CO-pulse chemisorption measurements. A trend of an increase in specific surface area of samples and a decrease in the dBET with increasing Pd concentrations was noted. ZnO nanoparticles were observed as particles presenting clear spheroidal, hexagonal and rod-like morphologies. The sizes of ZnO spheroidal and hexagonal particle crystallites were in the 10-20 nm range. ZnO nanorods were in the range of 10-20 nm in width and 20-50 nm in length. The size of Pd nanoparticles increased and Pd-dispersion% decreased with increasing Pd concentrations. The sensing films were produced by mixing the particles into an organic paste composed of terpineol and ethyl cellulose as a vehicle binder. The paste was doctor-bladed onto Al2O3 substrates interdigitated with Au electrodes. The film morphology was analyzed by SEM and EDS analyses. The gas sensing of ethanol (25-250 ppm) was studied in dry air at 400°C. The oxidation of ethanol on the sensing surface of the semiconductor was confirmed by MS. A well-dispersed of 1 mol%Pd/ZnO films showed the highest sensitivity and the fastest response time (within seconds).

  3. ZnO nanostructures as electron extraction layers for hybrid perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaidou, Katerina; Sarang, Som; Tung, Vincent; Lu, Jennifer; Ghosh, Sayantani

    Optimum interaction between light harvesting media and electron transport layers is critical for the efficient operation of photovoltaic devices. In this work, ZnO layers of different morphologies are implemented as electron extraction and transport layers for hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin films. These include nanowires, nanoparticles, and single crystalline film. Charge transfer at the ZnO/perovskite interface is investigated and compared through ultra-fast characterization techniques, including temperature and power dependent spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence. The nanowires cause an enhancement in perovskite emission, which may be attributed to increased scattering and grain boundary formation. However, the ZnO layers with decreasing surface roughness exhibit better electron extraction, as inferred from photoluminescence quenching, reduction in the number of bound excitons, and reduced exciton lifetime in CH3NH3PbI3 samples. This systematic study is expected to provide an understanding of the fundamental processes occurring at the ZnO-CH3NH3PbI3 interface and ultimately, provide guidelines for the ideal configuration of ZnO-based hybrid Perovskite devices. This research was supported by National Aeronautics and Space administration (NASA) Grant No: NNX15AQ01A.

  4. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  5. Visible electroluminescence from a ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Baratto, C; Kumar, R; Comini, E; Faglia, G; Sberveglieri, G

    2015-07-27

    In the current paper we apply catalyst assisted vapour phase growth technique to grow ZnO nanowires (ZnO nws) on p-GaN thin film obtaining EL emission in reverse bias regime. ZnO based LED represents a promising alternative to III-nitride LEDs, as in free devices: the potential is in near-UV emission and visible emission. For ZnO, the use of nanowires ensures good crystallinity of the ZnO, and improved light extraction from the interface when the nanowires are vertically aligned. We prepared ZnO nanowires in a tubular furnace on GaN templates and characterized the p-n ZnO nws/GaN heterojunction for LED applications. SEM microscopy was used to study the growth of nanowires and device preparation. Photoluminescence (PL) and Electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopies were used to characterize the heterojunction, showing that good quality of PL emission is observed from nanowires and visible emission from the junction can be obtained from the region near ZnO contact, starting from onset bias of 6V.

  6. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Hari S.; Chu, Shaoping; Reimus, Paul William

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  7. Oxygen vacancy-induced ferromagnetism in un-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Peng; Wang, Weipeng; Liu, Can; Hu, Yang; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Baoyi; Cao, Xingzhong

    2012-02-01

    ZnO films became ferromagnetic when defects were introduced by thermal-annealing in flowing argon. This ferromagnetism, as shown by the photoluminescence measurement and positron annihilation analysis, was induced by the singly occupied oxygen vacancy with a saturated magnetization dependent positively on the amount of this vacancy. This study clarified the origin of the ferromagnetism of un-doped ZnO thin films and provides possibly an alternative way to prepare ferromagnetic ZnO films.

  8. Synthesis, growth and characterization of ZnO microtubes using a traveling-wave mode microwave system

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Naser, Qusay A.H.; Zhou, Jian, E-mail: jianzhou@whut.edu.cn; Wang, Han

    Highlights: • ZnO microtubes were successfully synthesized within 15 min. • Introducing a design of a traveling-wave mode microwave system. • Growth temperature of ZnO microtubes becomes predominant between 1350 °C and 1400 °C. • ZnO microtube showed a strong ultraviolet and a weak and broad green emission. • ZnO microtube is composed only of ZnO with high crystallinity. - Abstract: Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) investigation reveals that zinc oxide (ZnO) microtubes have been successfully synthesized via a traveling-wave mode microwave system. These products are hexagonal tubular crystals with an average diameter of 60 μm and 250 μmmore » in length, having a well faceted end and side surfaces. The wall thickness of the ZnO tubes is about 3–5 μm. The influence of reaction temperature on the formation of crystalline ZnO hexagonal tubes is studied. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra have also been examined to explore the optical property which exhibits strong ultraviolet emission at 377.422 nm and a weak and broad green emission band at 587.548 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) show that the product is composed only of ZnO with high crystallinity. The presented synthesis method possesses several advantages, which would be significant to the deeper study and wide applications of ZnO tubes in the future.« less

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanowires with various diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyhani, A.; Gholizadeh, A.; vahedi, V.; Khanlary, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation are studied on the morphology and structural properties of ZnO nanowire with various diameters. The ZnO nanowires are grown using Zn thin films at various initial thicknesses including 125, 250 and 500 nm in air ambient. The results illustrate dramatic effects of Gamma-irradiation on the deformation of ZnO nanowires. Thus, radiation induce ripple ZnO surfaces instead ZnO nanowires. Gamma-irradiation has also been effective on the optical and crystalline properties of the nanowires. X-ray diffraction attests that size of the ZnO nano-structures has changed and (l00) crystalline direction related to Zn metal has been created after irradiation. UV-Visible spectra display two areas for transmittance of irradiated ZnO nanowires, one in the Visible-light and the other in IR sub-region. In the Visible-light area, the layer gets thicker from 125 to 500 nm; the difference between the layer transmittance spectra is reduced before and after gamma irradiation. In the IR-light region, with increasing of ZnO initial thickness, the difference between the layer transmittance spectra is increased before and after gamma irradiation. The photoluminescence spectroscopy displays that intensity of green-yellow band improves in compared to near-band-edge emission due to formation of Zn metal and oxygen vacancies after gamma irradiation.

  10. Single-crystalline oxide films of the Al2O3-Y2O3-R2O3 system as optical sensors of various types of ionizing radiation: significant advantages over volume analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yuri V.; Batenchuk, M.; Gorbenco, V.; Pashkovsky, M.

    1997-02-01

    This investigation is dedicated to studying of peculiarities of luminescent properties of the single crystalline films (SCF) of Al2O3-Y2O3-R2O3 oxide system with alpha-Al2O3 and garnet structure, which are used as various types of ionizing radiation luminescent detectors. These peculiarities define the number of nontrivial advantages over their volume analogues. It is shown that SCF are characterized by the low concentrations of vacancy type defects and substituent defects, and the high concentration of Pb ion as dopant. This allows us to substantially increase the spatial resolution and selectivity of cathodoluminophores on the base of these compounds.

  11. ZnO nanodisk based UV detectors with printed electrodes.

    PubMed

    Alenezi, Mohammad R; Alshammari, Abdullah S; Alzanki, Talal H; Jarowski, Peter; Henley, Simon John; Silva, S Ravi P

    2014-04-08

    The fabrication of highly functional materials for practical devices requires a deep understanding of the association between morphological and structural properties and applications. A controlled hydrothermal method to produce single crystal ZnO hexagonal nanodisks, nanorings, and nanoroses using a mixed solution of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) without the need of catalysts, substrates, or templates at low temperature (75 °C) is introduced. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet (UV) detectors were fabricated based on individual and multiple single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) hexagonal nanodisks. High quality single crystal individual nanodisk devices were fabricated with inkjet-printed silver electrodes. The detectors fabricated show record photoresponsivity (3300 A/W) and external quantum efficiency (1.2 × 10(4)), which we attribute to the absence of grain boundaries in the single crystal ZnO nanodisk and the polarity of its exposed surface.

  12. Electrochemical synthesis of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures on ZnO seed layer for DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.; Thangamuthu, R.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition of vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were prepared on ZnO seeded fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate in the solutions consisting of different concentrations of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). The electrochemical, structural, morphological, vibrational and optical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. CV curves confirm that metallic zinc phase is not deposited as the HMTA concentration is about 9 mM in a deposition solution. XRD patterns of the as-prepared films show that the increasing HMTA concentrations from 0 mM to 9 mM not only increase the formation of zinc hydrate chloride (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) but also decrease and finally disappear the metallic Zn deposition. After the as-prepared films annealed at 450 ° C, the crystalline phases of Zn and Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O are completely converted to ZnO hexagonal wurtzite phase with high intense growth (002) plane orientation. SEM images support that the vertical growth of ZnO nanostructures (nanorods and petals) with a few flowers is found to be in the cordillera structure as the films are deposited in the solutions consisting of 3 mM, 6 mM and 9 mM HMTA respectively. Raman and PL spectra confirm that the ZnO film deposited in the solution consisting of 9 mM HMTA has a higher crystalline nature with lesser atomic defects and is also higher c-axis growth than that of other films deposited in the solutions consisting of 0 mM, 3 mM and 6 mM, respectively. UV-vis absorbance spectra corroborate that the ZnO film deposited in the solution consisting of 9 mM HMTA shows a high dye absorbance as compared with other films. The efficiency of DSSCs based on ZnO photoanodes deposited in the solutions consisting of 0 mM and 9 mM HMTA was 1.79 and 3.75%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra revealed that DSSC based on ZnO photoanode

  13. Fabrication of GaN doped ZnO nanocrystallines by laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, N; Shin, B C; Bhuvana, K P; Elanchezhiyan, J; Balasubramanian, T

    2008-08-01

    Here, we present the fabrication of pure and GaN doped ZnO nanocrystallines on Si(111) substrates by KrF excimer laser. The targets for the ablation have been prepared by conventional ceramic method. The fabricated nanocrystallines have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and atomic force microscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the crystalline size of pure ZnO is 36 nm and it is 41 nm while doped with 0.8 mol% of GaN due to best stoichiometry between Zn and O. Photoluminescence studies reveal that intense deep level emissions have been observed for pure ZnO and it has been suppressed for the GaN doped ZnO structures. The images of atomic force microscope show that the rms surface roughness is 27 nm for pure ZnO and the morphology is improved with decrease in rms roughness, 18 nm with fine crystallines while doped with 1 mol% GaN. The improved structural, optical and morphological properties of ZnO nanocrystalline due to GaN dopant have been discussed in detail.

  14. Growth and characterization of single crystalline Zn0.8-xMg0.2AlxO films with UV band gap on GaN/Al2O3 template by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Sung; Lee, Byung-Teak

    2013-02-01

    Single crystalline Zn0.8-xMg0.2AlxO thin films were grown on a GaN/Al2O3 template. As the Al content is increased from 0 to 0.06, the optical band gap increased from 3.6 eV to 4.0 eV, growth rate decreased from 6 nm/min to 3 nm/min, and the surface roughness decreased from 17 nm to 0.8 nm. It was observed that interfacial layers were formed between the thin films and the substrates, identified as cubic MgAl2O4 in the case of ZnMgAlO/GaN and cubic MgO in the case of ZnMgO/GaN. It was proposed that the MgAl2O4 layer, with low lattice mismatch of ˜7% against the GaN substrate, acted as the buffer layer to correlate the film and the substrate, resulting in growth of the single crystalline thin films in the case of the ZnMgAlO/GaN system.

  15. High-Performance Flexible Single-Crystalline Silicon Nanomembrane Thin-Film Transistors with High- k Nb2O5-Bi2O3-MgO Ceramics as Gate Dielectric on a Plastic Substrate.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guoxuan; Zhang, Yibo; Lan, Kuibo; Li, Lingxia; Ma, Jianguo; Yu, Shihui

    2018-04-18

    A novel method of fabricating flexible thin-film transistor based on single-crystalline Si nanomembrane (SiNM) with high- k Nb 2 O 5 -Bi 2 O 3 -MgO (BMN) ceramic gate dielectric on a plastic substrate is demonstrated in this paper. SiNMs are successfully transferred to a flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate, which has been plated with indium-tin-oxide (ITO) conductive layer and high- k BMN ceramic gate dielectric layer by room-temperature magnetron sputtering. The BMN ceramic gate dielectric layer demonstrates as high as ∼109 dielectric constant, with only dozens of pA current leakage. The Si-BMN-ITO heterostructure has only ∼nA leakage current at the applied voltage of 3 V. The transistor is shown to work at a high current on/off ratio of above 10 4 , and the threshold voltage is ∼1.3 V, with over 200 cm 2 /(V s) effective channel electron mobility. Bending tests have been conducted and show that the flexible transistors have good tolerance on mechanical bending strains. These characteristics indicate that the flexible single-crystalline SiNM transistors with BMN ceramics as gate dielectric have great potential for applications in high-performance integrated flexible circuit.

  16. III-nitrides on oxygen- and zinc-face ZnO substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Burnham, Shawn; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Trybus, Elaissa; Doolittle, W. Alan; Losurdo, Maria; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni; Nemeth, Bill; Nause, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    The characteristics of III-nitrides grown on zinc- and oxygen-face ZnO by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern indicates formation of a cubic phase at the interface between III-nitride and both Zn- and O-face ZnO. The polarity indicates that Zn-face ZnO leads to a single polarity, while O-face ZnO forms mixed polarity of III-nitrides. Furthermore, by using a vicinal ZnO substrate, the terrace-step growth of GaN was realized with a reduction by two orders of magnitude in the dislocation-related etch pit density to ˜108cm-2, while a dislocation density of ˜1010cm-2 was obtained on the on-axis ZnO substrates.

  17. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  18. Photoexcited ZnO nanoparticles with controlled defects as a highly sensitive oxygen sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Taku; Ito, Tsuyohito, E-mail: tsuyohito@ppl.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Shimizu, Yoshiki

    Conductance of photoexcited ZnO nanoparticles with various defects has been investigated in oxygen. ZnO nanoparticles, which show strong photoluminescence peaks originating from interstitial zinc atom (Zn{sub i}) and singly charged oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}{sup +}), show oxygen-pressure-dependent conductance changes caused by photoexcitation. Herein, a model is proposed to simulate the conductance changes.

  19. Surface-emitting stimulated emission in high-quality ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Q.; Suemune, Ikuo; Kumano, H.; Wang, J.; Huang, S. H.

    2004-10-01

    High-quality ZnO thin films were grown by plasma-enhanced molecular-beam epitaxy on sapphire substrates. Three excitonic transitions associated with the valence bands A, B, and C were clearly revealed in the reflectance spectrum measured at 33K. This result indicates that the ZnO thin films have the wurtzite crystalline structure. The emission spectra were measured with backscattering geometry at room temperature. When the excitation exceeded a certain value, linewidth narrowing, nonlinear rise of emission intensity, and the shortening of the carrier lifetime were clearly observed and these demonstrate the onset of stimulated emission. Together with the ZnO thickness dependence, we conclude that the observation of a stimulated emission in a direction perpendicular to the film surface is predominantly due to scattering of the in-plane stimulated emission by slightly remaining surface undulations in the ZnO films.

  20. Growth of bulk ZnO crystals by self-selecting CVT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Long; Jiang, Tao; Xiao, TingTing; Chen, Jie; Peng, Liping; Wang, Xuemin; Yan, Dawei; Wu, Weidong

    2018-05-01

    Bulk ZnO crystals were grown by self-selecting CVT method using carbon as the transport agent. The crystal growth process took place on the top of the polycrystalline source material, and deep-red colored ZnO crystals of several millimeters were obtained. The as-grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS), Raman scattering (RS) spectroscopy, visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectrophotometer and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD results indicate good crystallinity of the ZnO crystal. The EDS analysis shows that the crystal has a stoichiometry ratio Zn: O = 52: 48. The results suggest the existence of native defects of oxygen vacancies (OV) in the as-grown ZnO samples, which is caused by the stoichiometry shift to Zn-rich.

  1. Self-Assembly of ZnO Nanoplatelets into Hierarchical Mesocrystals and Their Photocatalytic Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongqiang; Wang, Qinsheng; Liu, Zheng; Jin, Ling; Ou, Bingxian; Han, Pengju; Wang, Qun; Cheng, Xiaobao; Liu, Wenjun; Wen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Weifang

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a simple chemical procedure was developed for the preparation of mesocrystals consisiting of ZnO nanoplateletes. By simple mixing the aqueous solutions Zn(NO3)2, NaOH and ethanol at certain temperatures, the hierarchical mesocrystals with big at both ends but small in the middle were obtained. After being annealed in air at certain temperatures, the same structured ZnO mesocrystals were generated. The morphology, crystalline structure and chemical composition were characterized using SEM, XRD FT-IR and Raman. The photocatalytic properties of the ZnO mesocrystals were also investigated. It was illustrated that the ZnO mesocrystals show decent photocatalytic performance to the photodegradation of methyl blue.

  2. Investigation of photocalalytic activity of ZnO prepared by spray pyrolis with various precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourfaa, F.; Lamri Zeggar, M.; A, A.; Aida, M. S.; Attaf, N.

    2016-03-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysts such as ZnO has attracted much attention in recent years due to their various applications for the degradation of organic pollutants in water, air and in dye sensitized photovoltaic solar cell. In the present work, ZnO thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis by using different precursors namely: acetate, chloride and zinc nitrate in order to investigate their influence on ZnO photocatalytic activity. The films crystalline structure was studied by mean of X- ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and the films surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The films optical properties were studied by mean of UV-visible spectroscopy. The prepared films were tested for the degradation of the red reactive dye largely used in textile industry. As a result, we found that the zinc nitrate is the best precursor to prepare ZnO thin films suitable for a good photocatalytic activity.

  3. Correlation Between Optoelectronic and Positron Lifetime Properties in As-received and Plasma-treated ZnO Nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, R. M.; Paramo, J. A.; Quarles, C. A.; Strzhemechny, Y. M.

    2009-03-01

    We employed photoluminescence and positron lifetime measurements on a number of commercially available ZnO nanopowders. The experiments were performed before and after processing of these samples in remote N and O/He plasma. In all the nanopowders, the average lifetime component is substantially longer than in a single-crystalline sample, consistent with the model of grains with defect-rich surface and subsurface layers. However, the sample-to-sample differences in the quality of the powders, as detected by the photoluminescence spectroscopy, obscure observation of possible size effects. Compression of the powders into pellets yields reductions of the average positron lifetimes. Plasma-induced modifications are most visible in the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra of the smallest nanocrystals, indicative of a surface-specific nature of the chosen treatment procedure.

  4. ZnO nanoparticles obtained by ball milling technique: Structural, micro-structure, optical and photo-catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Balamurugan, S., E-mail: scandium.chemistry@gmail.com; Joy, Josny; Godwin, M. Anto

    The ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by ball milling of commercial grade ZnO powder at 250 rpm for 20 h and studied their structural, micro-structure, optical and photo-catalytic properties. Due to ball milling significant decrease in lattice parameters and average crystalline size is noticed for the as-milled ZnO nano powder. The HRSEM images of the as-milled powder consist of agglomerated fine spherical nanoparticles in the range of ~10-20 nm. The room temperature PL spectrum of as-milled ZnO nano powder excited under 320 nm reveals two emission bands at ~406 nm (violet emission) and ~639 nm (green emission). Interestingly about 98 % of photo degradation of methylene (MB)more » by the ZnO catalyst is achieved at 100 minutes of solar light irradiation.« less

  5. Soliton structure in crystalline acetanilide

    SciTech Connect

    Eilbeck, J.C.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Scott, A.C.

    1984-10-15

    The theory of self-trapping of amide I vibrational energy in crystalline acetanilide is studied in detail. A spectrum of stationary, self-trapped (soliton) solutions is determined and tested for dynamic stability. Only those solutions for which the amide I energy is concentrated near a single molecule were found to be stable. Exciton modes were found to be unstable to decay into solitons.

  6. Soliton structure in crystalline acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilbeck, J. C.; Lomdahl, P. S.; Scott, A. C.

    1984-10-01

    The theory of self-trapping of amide I vibrational energy in crystalline acetanilide is studied in detail. A spectrum of stationary, self-trapped (soliton) solutions is determined and tested for dynamic stability. Only those solutions for which the amide I energy is concentrated near a single molecule were found to be stable. Exciton modes were found to be unstable to decay into solitons.

  7. Hydrothermal Growth of ZnO Nanowires on UV-Nanoimprinted Polymer Structures.

    PubMed

    Park, Sooyeon; Moore, Sean A; Lee, Jaejong; Song, In-Hyouk; Farshchian, Bahador; Kim, Namwon

    2018-05-01

    Integration of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires on miniaturized polymer structures can broaden its application in multi-functional polymer devices by taking advantages of unique physical properties of ZnO nanowires and recent development of polymer microstructures in analytical systems. In this paper, we demonstrate the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires on polymer microstructures fabricated by UV nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) using a polyurethane acrylate (PUA). Since PUA is a siloxane-urethane-acrylate compound containing the alpha-hydroxyl ketone, UV-cured PUA include carboxyl groups, which inhibit and suppress the nucleation and growth of ZnO nanowires on polymer structures. The presence of carboxyl groups in UV-cured PUA was substantiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a Ag thin film was deposited on the nanoimprinted polymer structures to limit their inhibitive influence on the growth of ZnO nanowires. Furthermore, the naturally oxidized Ag layer (Ag2O) reduced crystalline lattice mismatches at the interface between ZnO-Ag during the seed annealing process. The ZnO nanowires grown on the Ag-deposited PUA microstructures were found to have comparable morphological characteristics with ZnO nanowires grown on a Si wafer.

  8. Inhibition of growth of S. epidermidis by hydrothermally synthesized ZnO nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abinaya, C.; Mayandi, J.; Osborne, J.; Frost, M.; Ekstrum, C.; Pearce, J. M.

    2017-07-01

    The antibacterial effect of zinc oxide (ZnO#1) as prepared and annealed (ZnO#2) at 400 °C, Cu doped ZnO (CuZnO), and Ag doped ZnO (AgZnO) nanoplates on Staphylococcus epidermidis was investigated for the inhibition and inactivation of cell growth. The results shows that pure ZnO and doped ZnO samples exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) as compared to tryptic soy broth (TSB). Also it is observed that S. epidermidis was extremely sensitive to treatment with ZnO nanoplates and it is clear that the effect is not purely depend on Cu/Ag. Phase identification of a crystalline material and unit cell dimensions were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provides information on sample’s surface topography and the EDX confirms the presence of Zn, O, Cu and Ag. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the elemental composition and electronic state of the elements that exist within the samples. These studies confirms the formation of nanoplates and the presence of Zn, O, Ag, Cu with the oxidation states  +2, -2, 0 and  +2 respectively. These results indicates promising antibacterial applications of these ZnO-based nanoparticles synthesized with low-cost hydrothermal methods.

  9. Structural, Optical, and Photocatalytic Properties of Quasi-One-Dimensional Nanocrystalline ZnO, ZnOC:nC Composites, and C-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaeva, E. V.; Gyrdasova, O. I.; Krasilnikov, V. N.; Melkozerova, M. A.; Baklanova, I. V.; Buldakova, L. Yu.

    Various thermolysis rotes of zinc glicolate complexes are considered for the synthesis of quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured aggregates ZnO and Zn-O-C used as photocatalysts. Structural features of quasi-one-dimensional aggregates Zn-O-C and ZnO are investigated in detail. Transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy methods demonstrate that the aggregates Zn-O-C have either composite structure (ZnO crystallites in amorphous carbon matrix) or a C-doped ZnO single-phase structure depending on heat treatment conditions, and that all the aggregates exhibit as a rule a tubular morphology, a nanocrystalline structure with a high specific surface area, and a high concentration of singly charged oxygen vacancies. The mechanism of the nanocrystalline structure formation is discussed and the effect of thermolysis condition on the formation of the textured structure of aggregates is investigated. The results of examination of the photocatalytic and optical absorption properties of the synthesized aggregates are presented. The photocatalytic activity for the hydroquinone oxidation reaction under ultraviolet and visible light increases in the series: the reference ZnO powder, quasi-one-dimensional ZnO, quasi-one-dimensional aggregates C-doped ZnO, and this tendency correlates with the reduction of the optical gap width. As a result of our studies, we have arrived at an important conclusion that thermal treatment of ZnO:nC composites allows a C-doped ZnO with high catalytic activity. This increasing photoactivity of C-doped ZnO aggregates is attributed to the optimal specific surface area and electron-energy spectrum restructuring to be produced owing to the presence of singly charged oxygen vacancies and carbon dissolved in the ZnO lattice.

  10. ZnO nanorods for electronic and photonic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Gyu-Chul; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Park, Won Il; Jung, Sug Woo; An, Sung Jin; Kim, H. J.; Kim, D. W.

    2005-11-01

    We report on catalyst-free growth of ZnO nanorods and their nano-scale electrical and optical device applications. Catalyst-free metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) enables fabrication of size-controlled high purity ZnO single crystal nanorods. Various high quality nanorod heterostructures and quantum structures based on ZnO nanorods were also prepared using the MOVPE method and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. From the photoluminescence spectra of ZnO/Zn 0.8Mg 0.2O nanorod multi-quantum-well structures, in particular, we observed a systematic blue-shift in their PL peak position due to quantum confinement effect of carriers in nanorod quantum structures. For ZnO/ZnMgO coaxial nanorod heterostructures, photoluminescence intensity was significantly increased presumably due to surface passivation and carrier confinement. In addition to the growth and characterizations of ZnO nanorods and their quantum structures, we fabricated nanoscale electronic devices based on ZnO nanorods. We report on fabrication and device characteristics of metal-oxidesemiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), Schottky diodes, and metal-semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) as examples of the nanodevices. In addition, electroluminescent devices were fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanorods grown p-type GaN substrates, exhibiting strong visible electroluminescence.

  11. Method of making selective crystalline silicon regions containing entrapped hydrogen by laser treatment

    DOEpatents

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1982-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystalline silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystalline silicon without out-gasing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semi-conductor devices such as single crystalline silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystalline silicon without hydrogen.

  12. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Hari S.; Chu, Shaoping; Dittrich, Timothy M.

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2015 and July 2016 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program. Los Alamos focused on two main activities during this period: Discrete fracture network (DFN) modeling to describe flow and radionuclide transport in complex fracture networks that are typical of crystalline rock environments, and a comprehensive interpretation of three different colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport experiments conducted in a fractured granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland betweenmore » 2002 and 2013. Chapter 1 presents the results of the DFN work and is divided into three main sections: (1) we show results of our recent study on the correlation between fracture size and fracture transmissivity (2) we present an analysis and visualization prototype using the concept of a flow topology graph for characterization of discrete fracture networks, and (3) we describe the Crystalline International work in support of the Swedish Task Force. Chapter 2 presents interpretation of the colloidfacilitated radionuclide transport experiments in the crystalline rock at the Grimsel Test Site.« less

  13. Single crystalline growth of a soluble organic semiconductor in a parallel aligned liquid crystal solvent using rubbing-treated polyimide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Tomoya; Shibata, Yosei; Takeda, Risa; Ishinabe, Takahiro; Fujikake, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    For directional control of organic single crystals, we propose a crystal growth method using liquid crystal as the solvent. In this study, we examined the formation of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) single crystals using a parallel aligned liquid crystal (LC) cell and rubbing-treated polyimide films in order to clarify the effects of LC alignment on anisotropic C8-BTBT crystal growth. Based on the results, we found that the crystal growth direction of C8-BTBT single crystals was related to the direction of the aligned LC molecules because of rubbing treatment. Moreover, by optical evaluation, we found that the C8-BTBT single crystals have a aligned molecular structure.

  14. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, N. S.; Lynn, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1-3.5) × 1017 cm-3. Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a NaZn level at ˜(220-270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4-5) orders of magnitude at room temperature.

  15. Investigations into the impact of various substrates and ZnO ultra thin seed layers prepared by atomic layer deposition on growth of ZnO nanowire array

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The impact of various substrates and zinc oxide (ZnO) ultra thin seed layers prepared by atomic layer deposition on the geometric morphology of subsequent ZnO nanowire arrays (NWs) fabricated by the hydrothermal method was investigated. The investigated substrates included B-doped ZnO films, indium tin oxide films, single crystal silicon (111), and glass sheets. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the geometry and aligment of the NWs were controlled by surface topography of the substrates and thickness of the ZnO seed layers, respectively. According to atomic force microscopy data, we suggest that the substrate, fluctuate amplitude and fluctuate frequency of roughness on ZnO seed layers have a great impact on the alignment of the resulting NWs, whereas the influence of the seed layers' texture was negligible. PMID:22759838

  16. Tailoring surface and photocatalytic properties of ZnO and nitrogen-doped ZnO nanostructures using microwave-assisted facile hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel, R.; Cedeño, V.; Ramos-Corona, A.; Gutiérrez, R.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Ares, O.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.; Quintana, P.

    2017-08-01

    Microwave hydrothermal synthesis, using an experimental 23 factorial design, was used to produce tunable ZnO nano- and microstructures, and their potential as photocatalysts was explored. Photocatalytic reactions were conducted in a microreactor batch system under UV and visible light irradiation, while monitoring methylene blue degradation, as a model system. The variables considered in the microwave reactor to produce ZnO nano- or microstructures, were time, NaOH concentration and synthesis temperature. It was found that, specific surface area and volume/surface area ratio were affected as a consequence of the synthesis conditions. In the second stage, the samples were plasma treated in a nitrogen atmosphere, with the purpose of introducing nitrogen into the ZnO crystalline structure. The central idea is to induce changes in the material structure as well as in its optical absorption, to make the plasma-treated material useful as photocatalyst in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Pristine ZnO and nitrogen-doped ZnO compounds were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface area (BET), XPS, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results show that the methodology presented in this work is effective in tailoring the specific surface area of the ZnO compounds and incorporation of nitrogen into their structure, factors which in turn, affect its photocatalytic behavior.

  17. Energy dispersions of single-crystalline Bi2.0Sr1.8Ca0.8La0.3Cu2.1O8+δ superconductors determined using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, P. A. P.; Shen, Z.-X.; Dessau, D. S.; Wells, B. O.; Mitzi, D. B.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W. E.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1989-09-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission studies of single-crystalline La-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu- 90-K superconductors (Bi2.0Sr1.8Ca0.8La0.3Cu2.1O8+δ) were performed utilizing synchrotron radiation covering the photon energy range 10-40 eV. The data conclusively reveal a dispersionless character of the valence-band states as a function of the wave-vector component parallel to the c axis, in agreement with the predictions of band calculations. Band effects are evident from both intensity modulations of the spectral features in the valence band and from energy dispersions as a function of the wave vector component lying in the basal a-b plane.

  18. Fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate by applying low-temperature layer transfer of a single-crystalline silicon layer by meniscus force

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaike, Kohei; Akazawa, Muneki; Nakamura, Shogo

    2013-12-02

    A low-temperature local-layer technique for transferring a single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) film by using a meniscus force was proposed, and an n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) was fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. It was demonstrated that it is possible to transfer and form c-Si films in the required shape at the required position on PET substrates at extremely low temperatures by utilizing a meniscus force. The proposed technique for layer transfer was applied for fabricating high-performance c-Si MOSFETs on a PET substrate. The fabricated MOSFET showed a high on/off ratio of more than 10{sup 8} and a high field-effect mobilitymore » of 609 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}.« less

  19. Thick crystalline films on foreign substrates

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Henry I.; Atwater, Harry A.; Geis, Michael W.

    1986-01-01

    To achieve a uniform texture, large crystalline grains or, in some cases, a single crystalline orientation in a thick (>1 .mu.m) film on a foreign substrate, the film is formed so as to be thin (<1 .mu.m) in a certain section. Zone-melting recrystallization is initiated in the thin section and then extended into the thick section. The method may employ planar constriction patterns of orientation filter patterns.

  20. Thick crystalline films on foreign substrates

    DOEpatents

    Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Geis, M.W.

    1986-03-18

    To achieve a uniform texture, large crystalline grains or, in some cases, a single crystalline orientation in a thick (>1 [mu]m) film on a foreign substrate, the film is formed so as to be thin (<1 [mu]m) in a certain section. Zone-melting recrystallization is initiated in the thin section and then extended into the thick section. The method may employ planar constriction patterns of orientation filter patterns. 2 figs.

  1. Stable p-i-n FAPbBr 3 devices with improved efficiency using sputtered ZnO as electron transport layer [Stable p-i-n FAPbBr 3 devices with improved efficiency using sputtered inorganic electron transport layer

    DOE PAGES

    Subbiah, Anand S.; Agarwal, Sumanshu; Mahuli, Neha; ...

    2017-02-10

    Here, radio-frequency magnetron sputtering is demonstrated as an effective tool to deposit highly crystalline thin zinc oxide (ZnO) layer directly on perovskite absorber as an electron transport layer (ETL). As an absorber, formamidinium lead tribromide (FAPbBr 3) is fabricated through a modified single-step solution process using hydrogen bromide (HBr) as an additive resulting in complete surface coverage and highly crystalline material. A planar p-i-n device architecture with spin-coated poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly-styrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) as hole transport material (HTM) and sputtered ZnO as ETL results in a short circuit current density of 9.5 mA cm -2 and an open circuit potential of 1.19more » V. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the underlying loss mechanisms. The use of phenyl C 60 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) interface layer between FAPbBr 3 and sputter-coated ZnO offers shielding from potential plasma-related interface damage. The modified interface results in a better device efficiency of 8.3% with an open circuit potential of 1.35 V. Such devices offer better stability under continuous illumination under ambient conditions in comparison with the conventional organic ETL (PCBM)-based devices.« less

  2. Stable p-i-n FAPbBr 3 devices with improved efficiency using sputtered ZnO as electron transport layer [Stable p-i-n FAPbBr 3 devices with improved efficiency using sputtered inorganic electron transport layer

    SciTech Connect

    Subbiah, Anand S.; Agarwal, Sumanshu; Mahuli, Neha

    Here, radio-frequency magnetron sputtering is demonstrated as an effective tool to deposit highly crystalline thin zinc oxide (ZnO) layer directly on perovskite absorber as an electron transport layer (ETL). As an absorber, formamidinium lead tribromide (FAPbBr 3) is fabricated through a modified single-step solution process using hydrogen bromide (HBr) as an additive resulting in complete surface coverage and highly crystalline material. A planar p-i-n device architecture with spin-coated poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly-styrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) as hole transport material (HTM) and sputtered ZnO as ETL results in a short circuit current density of 9.5 mA cm -2 and an open circuit potential of 1.19more » V. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the underlying loss mechanisms. The use of phenyl C 60 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) interface layer between FAPbBr 3 and sputter-coated ZnO offers shielding from potential plasma-related interface damage. The modified interface results in a better device efficiency of 8.3% with an open circuit potential of 1.35 V. Such devices offer better stability under continuous illumination under ambient conditions in comparison with the conventional organic ETL (PCBM)-based devices.« less

  3. Enhanced photoluminescence and field-emission behavior of vertically well aligned arrays of In-doped ZnO Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mashkoor; Sun, Hongyu; Zhu, Jing

    2011-04-01

    Vertically oriented well-aligned Indium doped ZnO nanowires (NWs) have been successfully synthesized on Au-coated Zn substrate by controlled thermal evaporation. The effect of indium dopant on the optical and field-emission properties of these well-aligned ZnO NWs is investigated. The doped NWs are found to be single crystals grown along the c-axis. The composition of the doped NWs is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photospectroscopy (XPS). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of doped NWs having a blue-shift in the UV region show a prominent tuning in the optical band gap, without any significant peak relating to intrinsic defects. The turn-on field of the field emission is found to be ∼2.4 V μm(-1) and an emission current density of 1.13 mA cm(-2) under the field of 5.9 V μm(-1). The field enhancement factor β is estimated to be 9490 ± 2, which is much higher than that of any previous report. Furthermore, the doped NWs exhibit good emission current stability with a variation of less than 5% during a 200 s under a field of 5.9 V μm(-1). The superior field emission properties are attributed to the good alignment, high aspect ratio, and better crystallinity of In-doped NWs. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Experimental and theoretical investigations on magnetic behavior of (Al,Co) co-doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, O D; Achary, S N; Sudakar, C; Naik, R; Salunke, H G; Rao, Rekha; Peng, X; Ahuja, R; Tyagi, A K

    2010-08-01

    We present the structural and magnetic properties of Zn(0.95-x)Co(0.05)Al(x)O (x = 0.0 to 0.1) nanoparticles, synthesized by a novel sol-gel route followed by pyrolysis. Powder X-ray diffraction data confirms the formation of a single phase wurtzite type ZnO structure for all the compositions. The Zn(0.95)Co(0.05)O nanoparticles show diamagnetic behavior at room temperature. However, when Al is co-doped with Co with x = 0.0 to 0.10 in Zn(0.95-x)Co(0.05)Al(x)O, a systematic increase in ferromagnetic moment is observed up to x = 0.07 at 300 K. Above x = 0.07 (e.g. for x = 0.10) a drastic decrease in ferromagnetic nature is observed which is concomitant with the segregation of poorly crystalline Al rich ZnO phase as evidenced from TEM studies. Theoretical studies using density functional calculations on Zn(0.95-x)Co(0.05)Al(x)O suggest that the partial occupancy of S2 states leads to an increased double exchange interaction favoring the ferromagnetic ground states. Such ferromagnetic interactions are favorable beyond a threshold limit. At a high level doping of Al, the exchange splitting is reduced, which suppresses the ferromagnetic ordering.

  5. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.; Mickelson, William; Worsley, Marcus A.; Woo, Leta

    2017-04-04

    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. In one aspect, a material comprises an aerogel comprising boron nitride. The boron nitride has an ordered crystalline structure. The ordered crystalline structure may include atomic layers of hexagonal boron nitride lying on top of one another, with atoms contained in a first layer being superimposed on atoms contained in a second layer.

  6. Simple chemical synthesis of novel ZnO nanostructures: Role of counter ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudukudy, Manoj; Yaakob, Zahira

    2014-04-01

    This article reports the synthesis, characterisation and photocatalytic activity of novel ZnO nanostructures prepared via the thermal decomposition of hydrozincite. Hydrozincites were obtained by the conventional precipitation route using different zinc salts such as acetate, nitrate, chloride and sulphate. The effect of counter ions (CH3COO-, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) on the structural, textural, morphological and optical properties was investigated. Various characterisations depicted the active role of counter ions in the properties of ZnO. Hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO with fine crystalline size was obvious from the XRD results, irrespective of the counter ions. Electron microscopic images indicated the role of counter ions in the surface and internal morphology of ZnO nanomaterials. Special coral like agglomerated morphology of elongated particles with high porosity was observed for the ZnO prepared from acetate precursor. Spherical, elongated and irregular shaped bigger lumps of ZnO nanoparticles with various novel morphologies were resulted for the sulphate, nitrate and chloride precursors respectively. Highly ordered porous micro disc like morphology was noted for the ZnO samples prepared from the sulphate and nitrate salts. Photoluminescence spectra showed the characteristic blue and green emission bands, depicting the presence of large crystal defects and high oxygen vacancies in the samples. Photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared ZnO catalysts was examined by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. Degradation results indicated their substantial activity with respect to the counter ions. ZnO prepared from the acetate precursor showed highest photoactivity due to its high surface area, special morphology and high oxygen vacancies.

  7. Dielectric behavior and transport properties of ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soosen Samuel, M.; Koshy, Jiji; Chandran, Anoop; George, K. C.

    2011-08-01

    Highly optical, good crystalline and randomly aligned ZnO nanorods were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The dielectric properties of ZnO nanorods were attributed to the interfacial polarization at low frequencies (below 10 kHz) and orientational polarization at higher frequencies. The observed ω( n-1) dependence of dielectric loss was discussed on the basis of the Universal model of dielectric response. Dielectric loss peak was composed of the Debye like loss peak at higher frequencies and interfacial loss peak at lower frequencies. Charge transport through the grain and grain boundary region was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. At higher temperatures the conductivity of the nanorod was mainly through the grain interior and the overall impedance was contributed by the grain boundary region. The activation energy of nanorod was calculated as 0.078 eV, which is slightly higher than the reported bulk value.

  8. Effect of Er3+ doping on structural, morphological and photocatalytical properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhouche, S.; Bensouici, F.; Toubane, M.; Azizi, A.; Otmani, A.; Chebout, K.; Kezzoula, F.; Tala-Ighil, R.; Bououdina, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this research work, structure, microstructure, optical and photocatalytic properties of undoped and Erbium doped nanostructured ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel dip-coating are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the deposited films crystallize within the hexagonal wurtzite-type structure with a preferential growth orientation along (002) plane. Morphological observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal important influence of Er concentration; displaying homogeneous and dense aspect for undoped to 0.3% then grid-like morphology for 0.4 and 0.5%. UV/vis/NIR transmittance spectroscopy spectra display a transmittance over 70%, and small variation in the energy gap energy 3.263–3.278 eV. Wettability test of ZnO thin films surface ranges from hydrophilic aspect for pure ZnO to hydrophobic one for Er doped ZnO, and the contact angle is found to increase from 58.7° for pure ZnO up to 98.4° for 0.4% Er doped ZnO. The photocatalytic activity measurements evaluated using the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation demonstrate that undoped ZnO film shows higher photocatalytic activity compared to Er doped ZnO films, which may be attributed to the deterioration of films’crystallinity resulting in lower transmittance.

  9. Colloidal ZnO and Zn(1-x)Co(x)O tetrapod nanocrystals with tunable arm lengths.

    PubMed

    Hodges, James M; Fenton, Julie L; Gray, Jennifer L; Schaak, Raymond E

    2015-10-28

    Tetrapod-shaped ZnO nanocrystals exhibit exceptional optoelectronic properties, including intense ultraviolet photoluminescence emission, that make them attractive for applications that include lasers, sensors, and photocatalysts. However, synthetic methods that produce ZnO tetrapods typically include high-temperature vapor-deposition approaches that do not readily achieve characteristic dimensions of less than 100 nm or colloidal methods that require added metal dopants, which modify the inherent properties of ZnO. Here, we report a robust, modified solution-phase synthetic protocol for generating colloidal ZnO tetrapods that does not require the use of metal dopants. The ZnO tetrapod arm lengths can be tuned from 10 to 25 nm by adjusting the amount of Zn reagent used in the reaction. Subsequent seeded-growth produced even larger colloidal ZnO tetrapods with 62 nm arms. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements confirm that the tetrapods are of high crystalline quality, and the ultraviolet PL emission wavelengths that are observed fall between those of previously reported metal-doped colloidal ZnO tetrapods, which exhibit dopant-induced red- or blue-shifts. Furthermore, the reaction strategy can be modified to produce cobalt-substituted ZnO, offering a chemical pathway to tetrapod-shaped Zn1-xCoxO nanocrystals.

  10. A feasible strategy to balance the crystallinity and specific surface area of metal oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. P.; Xu, X. N.; Liu, Y. T.; Xu, M.; Deng, S. H.; Chen, Y.; Yuan, H.; Yu, F.; Huang, Y.; Zhao, K.; Xu, S.; Xiong, G.

    2017-04-01

    Practical, efficient synthesis of metal oxide nanocrystals with good crystallinity and high specific surface area by a modified polymer-network gel method is demonstrated, taking ZnO nanocrystals as an example. A novel stepwise heat treatment yields significant improvement in crystal quality. Such nanophase materials can effectively degrade common organic dyes under solar radiation and can perform very well in photo-assisted detection of NO2 gas. Other typical metal oxide nanocrystals with good crystallinity and high specific surface area were also synthesized successfully under similar conditions. This work provides a general strategy for the synthesis of metal oxide nanocrystals, balancing the crystallinity and specific surface area.

  11. Low-temperature growth of ZnO nanoparticles: photocatalyst and acetone sensor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sher Bahadar; Faisal, M; Rahman, Mohammed M; Jamal, Aslam

    2011-08-15

    Well-crystalline ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in large-quantity via simple hydrothermal process using the aqueous mixtures of zinc chloride and ammonium hydroxide. The detailed structural properties were examined using X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) which revealed that the synthesized NPs are well-crystalline and possessing wurtzite hexagonal phase. The NPs are almost spherical shape with the average diameters of ∼ 50 ± 10 nm. The quality and composition of the synthesized NPs were obtained using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron dispersed spectroscopy (EDS) which confirmed that the obtained NPs are pure ZnO and made with almost 1:1 stoichiometry of zinc and oxygen, respectively. The optical properties of ZnO NPs were investigated by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Synthesized ZnO NPs were extensively applied as a photocatalyst for the degradation of acridine orange (AO) and as a chemi-sensor for the electrochemical sensing of acetone in liquid phase. Almost complete degradation of AO has taken place after 80 min of irradiation time. The fabricated acetone sensor based on ZnO NPs exhibits good sensitivity (∼ 0.14065 μA cm(-2) mM(-1)) with lower detection limit (0.068 ± 0.01 mM) in short response time (10s). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CdTe quantum-dot-modified ZnO nanowire heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi, Kanchana; Singh, R. S.; Singh, Ajaya Kumar; Aleksandrova, Mariya; Khenata, Rabah

    2018-03-01

    The effect of CdTe quantum-dot (QD) decoration on the photoluminescence (PL) behaviour of ZnO nanowire (NW) array is presented in the present work. Highly crystalline and vertically 40-50 nm diameter range and 1 µm in length aligned ZnO NWs are synthesized using low-cost method. The crystallinity and morphology of the NWs are studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction methods.Optical properties of the nanowires are studied using photo-response and PL spectroscopy. CdTe QDs are successfully synthesized on ZnO nanowire surface by dip-coating method. ZnO NWs are sensitized with CdTe QDs characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and PL spectroscopy. The highly quenched PL intensity indicates the charge transfer at interface between CdTe QDs and ZnO NWs and is due to the formation of type-II heterostructure between QDs and NWs. Photo-response behaviour of heterostructure of the film is also been incorporated in the present work.

  13. A crystalline anionic complex of scandium nitride endometallofullerene: experimental observation of single-bonded (Sc3N@Ih-C80−)2 dimers†

    PubMed Central

    Konarev, Dmitri V.; Zorina, Leokadiya V.; Khasanov, Salavat S.; Popov, Alexey A.; Otsuka, Akihiro; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Lyubovskaya, Rimma N.

    2017-01-01

    Reduction of scandium nitride clusterfullerene, Sc3N@Ih-C80, by sodium fluorenone ketyl in the presence of cryptand[2,2,2] allows the crystallization of the {cryptand[2,2,2](Na+)}2(Sc3N@Ih-C80−)2·2.5C6H4Cl2 (1) salt. The Sc3N@Ih-C80•− radical anions are dimerized to form single-bonded (Sc3N@Ih-C80−)2 dimers. PMID:27511304

  14. Surfactant-Free Aqueous Synthesis of Pure Single-Crystalline SnSe Nanosheet Clusters as Anode for High Energy- and Power-Density Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuang; Zhu, Yun-Hai; Li, Wang; Wang, Sai; Xu, Dan; Li, Lin; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2017-01-01

    SnSe with 3D hierarchical nanostructure composed of interconnected single-crystal SnSe nanosheets is synthesized via a fast and effective strategy. Unexpectedly, when used as the anode material for Na-ion batteries (NIBs), the SnSe exhibits a high capacity (738 mA h g -1 ), superior rate capability (40 A g -1 ), and high energy density in a full cell. These results provide the possibility of SnSe use as NIBs anodes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. First-order transition from a Kondo insulator to a ferromagnetic metal in single crystalline FeSi(1-x)Ge(x).

    PubMed

    Yeo, S; Nakatsuji, S; Bianchi, A D; Schlottmann, P; Fisk, Z; Balicas, L; Stampe, P A; Kennedy, R J

    2003-07-25

    The phase diagram of FeSi(1-x)Ge(x), obtained from magnetic, thermal, and transport measurements on single crystals, shows a discontinuous transition from Kondo insulator to ferromagnetic metal with x at a critical concentration, x(c) approximately 0.25. The gap of the insulating phase strongly decreases with x. The specific heat gamma coefficient appears to track the density of states of a Kondo insulator. The phase diagram is consistent with an insulator-metal transition induced by a reduction of the hybridization with x in conjunction with disorder on the Si/Ge ligand site.

  16. Photocatalytic properties of hierarchical ZnO flowers synthesized by a sucrose-assisted hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Wei; Wei, Bo; Xu, Lingling; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Hong; Liu, Jia

    2012-10-01

    In this work, hierarchical ZnO flowers were synthesized via a sucrose-assisted urea hydrothermal method. The thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) showed that sucrose acted as a complexing agent in the synthesis process and assisted combustion during annealing. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated using the degradation of organic dye methyl orange. The sucrose added ZnO flowers showed improved activity, which was mainly attributed to the better crystallinity as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The effect of sucrose amount on photocatalytic activity was also studied.

  17. Evolution of crystal structure during the initial stages of ZnO atomic layer deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Boichot, R.; Tian, L.; Richard, M. -I.; ...

    2016-01-05

    In this study, a complementary suite of in situ synchrotron X-ray techniques is used to investigate both structural and chemical evolution during ZnO growth by atomic layer deposition. Focusing on the first 10 cycles of growth, we observe that the structure formed during the coalescence stage largely determines the overall microstructure of the film. Furthermore, by comparing ZnO growth on silicon with a native oxide with that on Al 2O 3(001), we find that even with lattice-mismatched substrates and low deposition temperatures, the crystalline texture of the films depend strongly on the nature of the interfacial bonds.

  18. Reaction of Rb and oxygen overlayers with single-crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, P. A. P.; Shen, Z.-X.; Wells, B. O.; Dessau, D. S.; Mitzi, D. B.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W. E.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1989-02-01

    Single crystals of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ superconductors, in situ cleaved and modified by Rb and oxygen overlayers, have been studied using ultraviolet and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The core-level results show that Rb strongly reacts with the Bi and O states, while the Cu and Sr states are left unchanged. This observation strongly indicates that the Bi-O plane forms the surface layer. Subsequent exposure to oxygen results in new oxygen states at the surface as monitored by the O 1s core-level data. For both Rb and oxygen overlayers the valence-band spectra are severely altered. In particular, new valence-band states, presumably of oxygen character, are formed.

  19. Interaction of overlayers of Al and Rb with single-crystalline surfaces of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, P. A. P.; Wells, B. O.; Shen, Z.-X.; Dessau, D. S.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W. E.; Mitzi, D. B.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1990-03-01

    Photoemission results from Al and Rb interfaces with single crystals of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 high-temperature superconductors are reported. The Al and Rb adsorbates are found to react quite differently with the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 substrate. While adatoms of Rb significantly affect only the Bi and O atoms in the top atomic layer, the Al adsorbate profoundly disrupts the bonding character of the whole Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 material. For Al, the Bi and Cu states are strongly reduced, and the Sr and O states show evidence of oxidized components. In addition, Al causes a strong out-diffusion of oxygen from the bulk. The differences in the reactivity of Al and Rb are discussed in terms of the different mobility of the two atoms.

  20. A 1:2 crystalline complex of ApA:proflavine: a model for binding to single-stranded regions in RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Neidle, S; Taylor, G; Sanderson, M

    1978-01-01

    The structure of a 1"2 complex of adenylyl-(3',5')-adenosine phosphate and proflavine hemisulfate has been determined using the methods of x-ray crystallography. Since the ApA does not form a mini double helix, it may serve as a model for the interaction of planar molecules with single stranded nucleic acids. The dinucleotide adopts an extended conformation with the adenines in adjacent molecules forming base pairs. A most unusual feature of the molecule is that it does not obey the "rigid nucleotide" concept although none of the torsion angles occur in energetically unfavourable regions. This is most probably due to the strong interactions between the proflavine and the oligonucleotide. PMID:724521