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Sample records for zno wurtzite structure

  1. Local Structures Around Co Atoms in Wurtzite ZnO Nano-Composites Probed by Fluorescence XAFS

    SciT

    Shi Tongfei; National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029; Liu Wenhan

    2007-02-02

    The local structures around Co ions in the Zn1-xCoxO nano-composites prepared by the sol-gel method have been investigated by fluorescence X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique. The results indicate that for dilute Co-doped ZnO (x=0.02, 0.05), the Co2+ ions are incorporated into the ZnO lattice, and are located at the position of the substitutional Zn2+ ions. As the Co content increases to 0.10 or higher, only part of the Co ions enter the lattice of the wurtzite and the others exist in the form of a Co3O4 phase whose content increases with the doped Co concentration. In the substitutional Zn0.98Co0.02Omore » sample, the bond length of the first shell RCo-O and the second shell RCo-Zn is smaller than the second shell Zn-Zn distance in ZnO by about 0.01{approx}0.02 A. These results imply that only small local lattice deformation is induced by dilute Co2+ substituting into the Zn2+ sites.« less

  2. Unravelling the origin of the giant Zn deficiency in wurtzite type ZnO nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Adèle; Cario, Laurent; Rocquelfelte, Xavier; Deniard, Philippe; Gautron, Eric; Faulques, Eric; Das, Tilak; Cheviré, François; Tessier, Franck; Jobic, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Owing to its high technological importance for optoelectronics, zinc oxide received much attention. In particular, the role of defects on its physical properties has been extensively studied as well as their thermodynamical stability. In particular, a large concentration of Zn vacancies in ZnO bulk materials is so far considered highly unstable. Here we report that the thermal decomposition of zinc peroxide produces wurtzite-type ZnO nanoparticles with an extraordinary large amount of zinc vacancies (>15%). These Zn vacancies segregate at the surface of the nanoparticles, as confirmed by ab initio calculations, to form a pseudo core-shell structure made of a dense ZnO sphere coated by a Zn free oxo-hydroxide mono layer. In others terms, oxygen terminated surfaces are privileged over zinc-terminated surfaces for passivation reasons what accounts for the Zn off-stoichiometry observed in ultra-fine powdered samples. Such Zn-deficient Zn1-xO nanoparticles exhibit an unprecedented photoluminescence signature suggesting that the core-shell-like edifice drastically influences the electronic structure of ZnO. This nanostructuration could be at the origin of the recent stabilisation of p-type charge carriers in nitrogen-doped ZnO nanoparticles. PMID:26333510

  3. Absolute surface energy calculations of Wurtzite (0001)/(000-1): a study of ZnO and GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingzhao; Zhang, Yiou; Tse, Kinfai; Deng, Bei; Xu, Hu; Zhu, Junyi

    The accurate absolute surface energies of (0001)/(000-1) surfaces of wurtzite structures are crucial in determining the thin film growth mode of important energy materials. However, the surface energies still remain to be solved due to the intrinsic difficulty of calculating dangling bond energy of asymmetrically bonded surface atoms. We used a pseudo-hydrogen passivation method to estimate the dangling bond energy and calculate the polar surfaces of ZnO and GaN. The calculations were based on the pseudo chemical potentials obtained from a set of tetrahedral clusters or simple pseudo-molecules, using density functional theory approaches, for both GGA and HSE. And the surface energies of (0001)/(000-1) surfaces of wurtzite ZnO and GaN we obtained showed relatively high self-consistencies. A wedge structure calculation with a new bottom surface passivation scheme of group I and group VII elements was also proposed and performed to show converged absolute surface energy of wurtzite ZnO polar surfaces. Part of the computing resources was provided by the High Performance Cluster Computing Centre, Hong Kong Baptist University. This work was supported by the start-up funding and direct Grant with the Project code of 4053134 at CUHK.

  4. Atomistic Interface Dynamics in Sn-Catalyzed Growth of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende ZnO Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuangfeng; Hu, Shuaishuai; Zheng, He; Wei, Yanjie; Meng, Shuang; Sheng, Huaping; Liu, Huihui; Zhou, Siyuan; Zhao, Dongshan; Wang, Jianbo

    2018-06-11

    Unraveling the phase selection mechanisms of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) is critical for the applications in future advanced nanodevices. In this study, the atomistic vapor-solid-liquid growth processes of Sn-catalyzed wurtzite (WZ) and zinc blende (ZB) ZnO are directly revealed based on the in situ transmission electron microscopy. The growth kinetics of WZ and ZB crystal phases in ZnO appear markedly different in terms of the NW-droplet interface, whereas the nucleation site as determined by the contact angle ϕ between the seed particle and the NW is found to be crucial for tuning the NW structure through combined experimental and theoretical investigations. These results offer an atomic-scale view into the dynamic growth process of ZnO NW, which has implications for the phase-controllable synthesis of II-VI compounds and heterostructures with tunable band structures.

  5. Investigation of intrinsic defect magnetic properties in wurtzite ZnO materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. S.; Visotin, M. A.; Kholtobina, A. S.; Kuzubov, A. A.; Mikhaleva, N. S.; Hsu, Hua Shu

    2017-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the ferromagnetism induced by intrinsic defects inside wurtzite zinc oxide structures are performed using magnetic field-dependent circular dichroism (MCD-H), direct magnetization measurement (M-H) by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) as well as by generalized gradient density functional theory (GGA-DFT). To investigate localized magnetic moments of bulk material intrinsic defects - vacancies, interstitial atoms and Frenkel defects, various-size periodic supercells are calculated. It is shown that oxygen interstitial atoms (Oi) or zinc vacancies (Znv) generate magnetic moments of 1,98 и 1,26 μB respectively, however, the magnitudes are significantly reduced when the distance between defects increases. At the same time, the magnetic moments of oxygen Frenkel defects are large ( 1.5-1.8 μB) and do not depend on the distance between the defects. It is shown that the origin of the induced ferromagnetism in bulk ZnO is the extra spin density on the oxygen atoms nearest to the defect. Also dependence of the magnetization of ZnO (10 1 ̅ 0) and (0001) thin films on the positions of Oi and Znv in subsurface layers were investigated and it is shown that the magnetic moments of both defects are significantly different from the values inside bulk material. In order to check theoretical results regarding the defect induced ferromagnetism in ZnO, two thin films doped by carbon (C) and having Zn interstitials and oxygen vacancies were prepared and annealed in vacuum and air, respectively. According to the MCD-H and M-H measurements, the film, which was annealed in air, exhibits a ferromagnetic behavior, while the other does not. One can assume annealing of ZnO in vacuum should create oxygen vacancies or Zn interstitial atoms. At that annealing of the second C:ZnO film in air leads to essential magnetization, probably by annihilation of oxygen vacancies, formation of interstitial oxygen atoms or zinc vacancies

  6. Mechanism of polarization switching in wurtzite-structured zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konishi, Ayako; Ogawa, Takafumi; Fisher, Craig A. J.; Kuwabara, Akihide; Shimizu, Takao; Yasui, Shintaro; Itoh, Mitsuru; Moriwake, Hiroki

    2016-09-01

    The properties of a potentially new class of ferroelectric materials based on wurtzite-structured ZnO thin films are examined using the first-principles calculations. Theoretical P-E hysteresis loops were calculated using the fixed-D method for both unstrained and (biaxially) strained single crystals. Ferroelectric polarization switching in ZnO (S.G. P63mc) is shown to occur via an intermediate non-polar structure with centrosymmetric P63/mmc symmetry by displacement of cations relative to anions in the long-axis direction. The calculated coercive electric field (Ec) for polarization switching was estimated to be 7.2 MV/cm for defect-free monocrystalline ZnO. During switching, the short- and long-axis lattice parameters expand and contract, respectively. The large structural distortion required for switching may explain why ferroelectricity in this compound has not been reported experimentally for pure ZnO. Applying an epitaxial tensile strain parallel to the basal plane is shown to be effective in lowering Ec during polarization, with a 5% biaxial expansion resulting in a decrease of Ec to 3.5 MV/cm. Comparison with calculated values for conventional ferroelectric materials suggests that the ferroelectric polarization switching of wurtzite-structured ZnO may be achievable by preparing high-quality ZnO thin films with suitable strain levels and low defect concentrations.

  7. Mechanism of polarization switching in wurtzite-structured zinc oxide thin films

    SciT

    Konishi, Ayako; Ogawa, Takafumi; Fisher, Craig A. J.

    2016-09-05

    The properties of a potentially new class of ferroelectric materials based on wurtzite-structured ZnO thin films are examined using the first-principles calculations. Theoretical P-E hysteresis loops were calculated using the fixed-D method for both unstrained and (biaxially) strained single crystals. Ferroelectric polarization switching in ZnO (S.G. P6{sub 3}mc) is shown to occur via an intermediate non-polar structure with centrosymmetric P6{sub 3}/mmc symmetry by displacement of cations relative to anions in the long-axis direction. The calculated coercive electric field (E{sub c}) for polarization switching was estimated to be 7.2 MV/cm for defect-free monocrystalline ZnO. During switching, the short- and long-axis latticemore » parameters expand and contract, respectively. The large structural distortion required for switching may explain why ferroelectricity in this compound has not been reported experimentally for pure ZnO. Applying an epitaxial tensile strain parallel to the basal plane is shown to be effective in lowering E{sub c} during polarization, with a 5% biaxial expansion resulting in a decrease of E{sub c} to 3.5 MV/cm. Comparison with calculated values for conventional ferroelectric materials suggests that the ferroelectric polarization switching of wurtzite-structured ZnO may be achievable by preparing high-quality ZnO thin films with suitable strain levels and low defect concentrations.« less

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of ZnO wurtzite phase under high and low pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chergui, Y.; Aouaroun, T.; Hadley, M. J.; Belkada, R.; Chemam, R.; Mekki, D. E.

    2017-11-01

    Isothermal and isobaric ensembles behaviours of ZnO wurtzite phase have been investigated, by parallel molecular dynamics method and using Buckingham potential, which contains long-range Coulomb, repulsive exponential, and attractive dispersion terms. To conduct our calculations, we have used dl_poly 4 software, under which the method is implemented. We have examined the influence of the temperature and pressure on molar volume in the ranges of 300-3000 K and 0-200 GPa. Isothermal-isobaric relationships, fluctuations, standard error, equilibrium time, molar volume and its variation versus time are predicted and analyzed. Our results are close to available experimental data and theoretical results.

  9. Interacting quasi-band theory for electronic states in compound semiconductor alloys: Wurtzite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishi, Ayaka; Oda, Masato; Shinozuka, Yuzo

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on the electronic states of compound semiconductor alloys of wurtzite structure calculated by the recently proposed interacting quasi-band (IQB) theory combined with empirical sp3 tight-binding models. Solving derived quasi-Hamiltonian 24 × 24 matrix that is characterized by the crystal parameters of the constituents facilitates the calculation of the conduction and valence bands of wurtzite alloys for arbitrary concentrations under a unified scheme. The theory is applied to III-V and II-VI wurtzite alloys: cation-substituted Al1- x Ga x N and Ga1- x In x N and anion-substituted CdS1- x Se x and ZnO1- x S x . The obtained results agree well with the experimental data, and are discussed in terms of mutual mixing between the quasi-localized states (QLS) and quasi-average bands (QAB): the latter bands are approximately given by the virtual crystal approximation (VCA). The changes in the valence and conduction bands, and the origin of the band gap bowing are discussed on the basis of mixing character.

  10. The electronic structures of AlN and InN wurtzite nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wen; Li, Dong-Xiao

    2017-07-01

    We derive the relations between the analogous seven Luttinger-Kohn parameters and six Rashba-Sheka-Pikus parameters for wurtzite semiconductors, which can be used to investigate the electronic structures of some wurtzite semiconductors such as AlN and InN materials, including their low-dimensional structures. As an example, the electronic structures of AlN and InN nanowires are calculated by using the derived relations and six-band effective-mass k · p theory. Interestingly, it is found that the ground hole state of AlN nanowires is always a pure S state whether the radius R is small (1 nm) or large (6 nm), and the ground hole state only contains | Z 〉 Bloch orbital component. Therefore, AlN nanowires is the ideal low-dimensional material for the production of purely linearly polarized π light, unlike ZnO nanowires, which emits plane-polarized σ light. However, the ground hole state of InN nanowires can be tuned from a pure S state to a mixed P state when the radius R is larger than 2.6 nm, which will make the polarized properties of the lowest optical transition changes from linearly polarized π light to plane-polarized σ light. Meanwhile, the valence band structures of InN nanowires will present strong band-crossings when the radius R increases to 6 nm, and through the detail analysis of possible transitions of InN nanowires at the Γ point, we find some of the neighbor optical transitions are almost degenerate, because the spin-orbit splitting energy of InN material is only 0.001 eV. Therefore, it is concluded that the electronic structures and optical properties of InN nanowires present great differences with that of AlN nanowires.

  11. Theoretical prediction of low-density hexagonal ZnO hollow structures

    SciT

    Tuoc, Vu Ngoc, E-mail: tuoc.vungoc@hust.edu.vn; Huan, Tran Doan; Thao, Nguyen Thi

    2016-10-14

    Along with wurtzite and zinc blende, zinc oxide (ZnO) has been found in a large number of polymorphs with substantially different properties and, hence, applications. Therefore, predicting and synthesizing new classes of ZnO polymorphs are of great significance and have been gaining considerable interest. Herein, we perform a density functional theory based tight-binding study, predicting several new series of ZnO hollow structures using the bottom-up approach. The geometry of the building blocks allows for obtaining a variety of hexagonal, low-density nanoporous, and flexible ZnO hollow structures. Their stability is discussed by means of the free energy computed within the lattice-dynamicsmore » approach. Our calculations also indicate that all the reported hollow structures are wide band gap semiconductors in the same fashion with bulk ZnO. The electronic band structures of the ZnO hollow structures are finally examined in detail.« less

  12. Internal structure of multiphase zinc-blende wurtzite gallium nitride nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, B W; Ayres, V M; Crimp, M A; McElroy, K

    2008-10-08

    In this paper, the internal structure of novel multiphase gallium nitride nanowires in which multiple zinc-blende and wurtzite crystalline domains grow simultaneously along the entire length of the nanowire is investigated. Orientation relationships within the multiphase nanowires are identified using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of nanowire cross-sections fabricated with a focused ion beam system. A coherent interface between the zinc-blende and wurtzite phases is identified. A mechanism for catalyst-free vapor-solid multiphase nanowire nucleation and growth is proposed.

  13. The effect of cation doping on the morphology, optical and structural properties of highly oriented wurtzite ZnO-nanorod arrays grown by a hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, A.; Guo, P.; Shen, S.; Bianucci, P.

    2017-10-01

    Undoped and C-doped (C: Mg2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Cr3+) ZnO nanorods were synthesized by a hydrothermal method at temperatures as low as 60 °C. The effect of doping on the morphology of the ZnO nanorods was visualized by taking their cross section and top SEM images. The results show that the size of nanorods was increased in both height and diameter by cation doping. The crystallinity change of the ZnO nanorods due to each doping element was thoroughly investigated by an x-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns show that the wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO nanorods was maintained after cation addition. The optical Raman-active modes of undoped and cation-doped nanorods were measured with a micro-Raman setup at room temperature. The surface chemistry of samples was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Finally, the effect of each cation dopant on band-gap shift of the ZnO nanorods was investigated by a photoluminescence setup at room temperature. Although the amount of dopants (Mg2+, Ni2+, and Co2+) was smaller than the amount of Mn2+, Cu2+, and Cr3+ in the nanorods, their effect on the band structure of the ZnO nanorods was profound. The highest band-gap shift was achieved for a Co-doped sample, and the best crystal orientation was for Mn-doped ZnO nanorods. Our results can be used as a comprehensive reference for engineering of the morphological, structural and optical properties of cation-doped ZnO nanorods by using a low-temperature synthesis as an economical mass-production approach.

  14. Influence of hydrogen on the structure and stability of ultra-thin ZnO on metal substrates

    SciT

    Bieniek, Bjoern; Hofmann, Oliver T.; Institut für Festkörperphysik, TU Graz, 8010 Graz

    2015-03-30

    We investigate the atomic and electronic structure of ultra-thin ZnO films (1 to 4 layers) on the (111) surfaces of Ag, Cu, Pd, Pt, Ni, and Rh by means of density-functional theory. The ZnO monolayer is found to adopt an α-BN structure on the metal substrates with coincidence structures in good agreement with experiment. Thicker ZnO layers change into a wurtzite structure. The films exhibit a strong corrugation, which can be smoothed by hydrogen (H) adsorption. An H over-layer with 50% coverage is formed at chemical potentials that range from low to ultra-high vacuum H{sub 2} pressures. For the Agmore » substrate, both α-BN and wurtzite ZnO films are accessible in this pressure range, while for Cu, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ni wurtzite films are favored. The surface structure and the density of states of these H passivated ZnO thin films agree well with those of the bulk ZnO(0001{sup ¯})-2×1-H surface.« less

  15. Structural studies and band gap tuning of Cr doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciT

    Srinet, Gunjan, E-mail: gunjansrinet@gmail.com; Kumar, Ravindra, E-mail: gunjansrinet@gmail.com; Sajal, Vivek, E-mail: gunjansrinet@gmail.com

    2014-04-24

    Structural and optical properties of Cr doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by the thermal decomposition method are presented. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the substitution of Cr on Zn sites without changing the wurtzite structure of ZnO. Modified form of W-H equations was used to calculate various physical parameters and their variation with Cr doping is discussed. Significant red shift was observed in band gap, i.e., a band gap tuning is achieved by Cr doping which could eventually be useful for optoelectronic applications.

  16. Electronic structure, magnetic and structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciT

    Kumar, Shalendra, E-mail: shailuphy@gmail.com; Vats, Prashant; Gautam, S.

    Highlights: • XRD, and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Ni L{sub 3,2} edge NEXAFS spectra infer that Ni ions are in +2 valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Ni doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We report structural, magnetic and electronic structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by auto-combustion method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), near edge X-ray absorption finemore » structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and dc magnetization measurements. The XRD and HR-TEM results indicate that Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite lattice and exclude the presence of secondary phase. NEXAFS measurements performed at Ni L{sub 3,2}-edges indicates that Ni ions are in +2 valence state and exclude the presence of Ni metal clusters. O K-edge NEXAFS spectra indicate an increase in oxygen vacancies with Ni-doping, while Zn L{sub 3,2}-edge show the absence of Zn-vacancies. The magnetization measurements performed at room temperature shows that pure and Ni doped ZnO exhibits ferromagnetic behavior.« less

  17. Characterization of structural and electrical properties of ZnO tetrapods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yu-Dong; Mai, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    ZnO tetrapods were synthesized by a typical thermal vapor-solid deposition method in a horizontal tube furnace. Structural characterization was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and select-area electron diffraction (SAED), which shows the presence of zinc blende nucleus in the center of tetrapods while the four branches taking hexagonal wurtzite structure. The electrical transport property of ZnO tetrapods was investigated through an in-situ nanoprobe system. The three branches of a tetrapod serve as source, drain, and "gate", respectively; while the fourth branch pointing upward works as the force trigger by vertically applying external force downward. The conductivity of each branch of ZnO-tetrapods increases 3-4 times under pressure. In such situation, the electrical current through the branches of ZnO tetrapods can be tuned by external force, and therefore a simple force sensor based on ZnO tetrapods has been demonstrated for the first time.

  18. The epitaxial growth of wurtzite ZnO films on LiNbO 3 (0 0 0 1) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Liu, Z. G.; Liu, H.; Wang, X. S.; Zhu, T.; Liu, J. M.

    2000-12-01

    ZnO epitaxial films were deposited on LiNbO 3 (0 0 0 1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The smaller lattice misfit (-8.5%) between ZnO along <1 0 1¯ 0>- direction and LiNbO 3 (0 0 0 1) along <1 1 2¯ 0>- direction, as compared with that in the case of normally used sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates, favored the epitaxial growth of ZnO films. The transmittance spectra of ZnO films deposited in vacuum after annealed in pure oxygen show a sharp absorption edge at 375.6 nm (E g=3.31 eV) .

  19. Wurtzite Spin-Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gaofeng; Faria Junior, Paulo E.; Sipahi, Guilherme M.; Zutic, Igor

    Lasers in which spin-polarized carriers are injected provide paths to different practical room temperature spintronic devices, not limited to magnetoresistive effects. While theoretical studies of such spin-lasers have focused on zinc-blende semiconductors as their active regions, the first electrically injected carriers at room temperature were recently demonstrated in GaN-based wurtzite semiconductors, recognized also for the key role as highly-efficient light emitting diodes. By focusing on a wurtzite quantum well-based spin-laser, we use accurate electronic structure calculations to develop a microscopic description for its lasing properties. We discuss important differences between wurtzite and zinc-blende spin-lasers.

  20. Single crystalline wurtzite ZnO/zinc blende ZnS coaxial heterojunctions and hollow zinc blende ZnS nanotubes: synthesis, structural characterization and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xing; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Fan, Hua; Xie, Zai-lai; Wang, Lei; Klein-Hoffmann, Achim; Girgsdies, Frank; Lee, Chun-Sing; Meng, Xiang-Min

    2014-08-07

    Synthesis of ZnO/ZnS heterostructures under thermodynamic conditions generally results in the wurtzite (WZ) structure of the ZnS component because its WZ phase is thermodynamically more stable than its zinc blende (ZB) phase. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of ZnO/ZnS coaxial nanocables composed of single crystalline ZB structured ZnS epitaxially grown on WZ ZnO via a two-step thermal evaporation method. The deposition temperature is believed to play a crucial role in determining the crystalline phase of ZnS. Through a systematic structural analysis, the ZnO core and the ZnS shell are found to have an orientation relationship of (0002)ZnO(WZ)//(002)ZnS(ZB) and [01-10]ZnO(WZ)//[2-20]ZnS(ZB). Observation of the coaxial nanocables in cross-section reveals the formation of voids between the ZnO core and the ZnS shell during the coating process, which is probably associated with the nanoscale Kirkendall effect known to result in porosity. Furthermore, by immersing the ZnO/ZnS nanocable heterojunctions in an acetic acid solution to etch away the inner ZnO cores, single crystalline ZnS nanotubes orientated along the [001] direction of the ZB structure were also achieved for the first time. Finally, optical properties of the hollow ZnS tubes were investigated and discussed in detail. We believe that our study could provide some insights into the controlled fabrication of one dimensional (1D) semiconductors with desired morphology, structure and composition at the nanoscale, and the synthesized WZ ZnO/ZB ZnS nanocables as well as ZB ZnS nanotubes could be ideal candidates for the study of optoelectronics based on II-VI semiconductors.

  1. Structural, magnetic and electronic structure properties of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciT

    Kumar, Shalendra, E-mail: shailuphy@gmail.com; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773; Song, T.K., E-mail: tksong@changwon.ac.kr

    Highlights: • XRD and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. • XMCD and dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Co L{sub 3,2} NEXAFS spectra infer that Co ions are in 2+ valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Co doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We reported structural, magnetic and electronic structure studies of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. Doping of Co ions in ZnO host matrix has been studied and confirmed using various methods; such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanningmore » electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersed X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, magnetic hysteresis loop measurements and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). From the XRD and HR-TEM results, it is observed that Co doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite structure and exclude the possibility of secondary phase formation. FE-SEM and TEM micrographs show that pure and Co doped nanoparticles are nearly spherical in shape. O K edge NEXAFS spectra indicate that O vacancies increase with Co doping. The Co L{sub 3,2} edge NEXAFS spectra revealed that Co ions are in 2+ valence state. DC magnetization hysteresis loops and XMCD results clearly showed the intrinsic origin of temperature ferromagnetism in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles.« less

  2. Impact of Substrate Types on Structure and Emission of ZnO Nanocrystalline Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballardo Rodriguez, I. Ch.; El Filali, B.; Díaz Cano, A. I.; Torchynska, T. V.

    2018-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films were simultaneously synthesized by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method on p-type Si (100), silicon carbide polytype [6H-SiC (0001)], porous 6H-SiC and amorphous glass substrates with the aim of studying the impact of substrate types on the structure and emission of ZnO nanocrystalline films. Porous silicon carbide (P-SiC) was prepared by the electrochemical anodization method at a constant potential of 20 V and etching time of 12 min. ZnO films grown on the SiC and P-SiC substrates are characterized by a wurtzite crystal structure with preferential growth along the (002) direction and with grain sizes of 90-180 and 70-160 nm, respectively. ZnO films grown on the Si substrate have just some small irregular hexagonal islands. The amorphous glass substrate did not promote the formation of any regular crystal forms. The obtained x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) results have shown that the better ZnO film crystallinity and high PL intensity of near-band edge emissions were achieved in the films grown on the porous SiC and SiC substrates. The preferential growth and crystalline nature of ZnO films on the SiC substrate have been discussed from the point of view of the lattice parameter compatibility between ZnO and SiC crystals.

  3. Structural, Optical, and Vibrational Properties of ZnO Microrods Deposited on Silicon Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahlouh, Bashar I.; Ikhmayies, Shadia J.; Juwhari, Hassan K.

    2018-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) microrod films deposited by spray pyrolysis on silicon substrate at 350 ± 5°C have been studied and evaluated, and compared with thin films deposited by electron beam to confirm the identity of the studied samples. The films were characterized using different techniques. The microrod structure was studied and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed successful deposition of ZnO thin films with the expected wurtzite structure. Reflectance data showed a substantial drop across the whole studied wavelength range. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the studied samples showed a peak at ˜ 360 nm, representing a signature of ZnO. The shift in the PL peak position is due to defects and other species present in the films, as confirmed by FTIR and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results.

  4. Effect of Cu-Dopant on the Structural, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryanto, D.; Kurniawan, C.; Subhan, A.; Sudiro, T.; Sebayang, P.; Ginting, M.; Siregar, S. M. K.; Nasruddin, M. N.

    2017-05-01

    Zn1- x Cu x O (x = 0, 2, 3, and 4 at.%) was synthesized by using solid-state reaction technique. The ZnO and CuO powders were mixed and then milled by using high-speed shaker mill. The influence of Cu dopants on the structure, magnetic, and electrical properties was investigated by using XRD, VSM, and I-V and C-V measurements. The XRD analysis showed that the Zn1- x Cu x O had hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline. The diffraction intensity decreased and the peak position shifted directly to a higher 2θ angle with increasing the dopant concentration. Furthermore, the lattice parameters decreased when the ZnO was doped with x = 0.04, which indicated that the crystal structure changed. The increase of Cu dopants was believed to affect the magnetic and electrical properties of ZnO.

  5. Electronic and structural characteristics of zinc-blende wurtzite biphasic homostructure GaN nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Ayres, Virginia M.; Petkov, Mihail P.; ...

    2007-04-07

    Here, we report a new biphasic crystalline wurtzite/zinc-blende homostructure in gallium nitride nanowires. Cathodoluminescence was used to quantitatively measure the wurtzite and zinc-blende band gaps. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to identify distinct wurtzite and zinc-blende crystalline phases within single nanowires through the use of selected area electron diffraction, electron dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and fast Fourier transform techniques. A mechanism for growth is identified.

  6. Electronic and structural characteristics of zinc-blende wurtzite biphasic homostructure GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Benjamin W; Ayres, Virginia M; Petkov, Mihail P; Halpern, Joshua B; He, Maoqi; Baczewski, Andrew D; McElroy, Kaylee; Crimp, Martin A; Zhang, Jiaming; Shaw, Harry C

    2007-05-01

    We report a new biphasic crystalline wurtzite/zinc-blende homostructure in gallium nitride nanowires. Cathodoluminescence was used to quantitatively measure the wurtzite and zinc-blende band gaps. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to identify distinct wurtzite and zinc-blende crystalline phases within single nanowires through the use of selected area electron diffraction, electron dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and fast Fourier transform techniques. A mechanism for growth is identified.

  7. Study of defects and vacancies in structural properties of Mn, co-doped oxides: ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Harish; Kaushik, A.; Alvi, P. A.; Dalela, B.; Dalela, S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper deals with the Structural properties on Mn, Co doped oxides ZnO samples using XRD, Positron Annihilation Lifetime (PAL) Spectra and Raman Spectra. The Mn, Co doped ZnO samples crystallize in a wurtzite structure without any impurity phases in XRD Spectra. The defect state of these samples has been investigated by using positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy technique in which all the relevant lifetime parameters are measured for all the spectra. The results are explained in the direction of doping concentration in these samples in terms of defects structure on Zn lattice site VZn and oxygen defects Vo.

  8. Synthesis of highly efficient antibacterial agent Ag doped ZnO nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical properties

    SciT

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed, E-mail: javed.saggu@iiu.edu.pk; Ismail, Muhammad

    Here, synthesis, structural, morphological, Raman, optical properties and antibacterial activity of undoped and Ag doped ZnO nanorods by chemical co-precipitation technique have been reported. Structural analysis has revealed that Ag doping cannot deteriorate the structure of ZnO and wurtzite phase is maintained. Lattice constants are found to be decreased with the Ag doping. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy also confirm the X-ray diffraction results. Scanning electron microscopy results have demonstrated the formation of ZnO nanorods with average diameter and length of 96 nm and 700 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results suggest that the Ag doping enhances the number of defects inmore » ZnO crystal. It has been found from optical study that Ag doping results in positional shift of band edge absorption peak. This is attributed to the successful incorporation of Ag dopant into ZnO host matrix. The antibacterial activity of prepared nanorods has been determined by two different methods and compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. Ag doped ZnO nanorods exhibit excellent antibacterial activity as compared to that of undoped ZnO nanorods. This excellent antibacterial activity may be attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies and Zn{sup 2+} interstitial defects. Our preliminary findings suggest that Ag doped ZnO nanorods can be used externally to control the spreading of infections related with tested bacterial strains.« less

  9. Identification of F impurities in F-doped ZnO by synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na-Phattalung, Sutassana; Limpijumnong, Sukit; Min, Chul-Hee; Cho, Deok-Yong; Lee, Seung-Ran; Char, Kookrin; Yu, Jaejun

    2018-04-01

    Synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements of F K-edge in conjunction with first-principles calculations are used to identify the local structure of the fluorine (F) atom in F-doped ZnO. The ZnO film was grown by pulsed laser deposition with an Nd:YAG laser, and an oxyfluoridation method was used to introduce F ions into the ZnO films. The measured XANES spectrum of the sample was compared against the first-principles XANES calculations based on various models for local atomic structures surrounding F atoms. The observed spectral features are attributed to ZnF2 and FO defects in wurtzite bulk ZnO.

  10. Enhanced Structural and Luminescent Properties of Carbon-Assisted ZnO Nanorod Arrays on (100) Si Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Im Taek; Cho, Hak Dong; Lee, Sejoon; Roshchupkin, Dmitry V.

    2018-02-01

    We have fabricated as-grown ZnO nanorods (NRs) and carbon-assisted NR arrays on semi-insulating (100)-oriented Si substrates. We compared the structural and luminescent properties of them. High-resolution transmission microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray revealed that the as-grown ZnO NRs and carbon-assisted ZnO NRs were single crystals with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, and grew with a c-axis orientation perpendicular to the Si substrate. These measurements show that the carbon-assisted ZnO NRs were better synthesized vertically on an Si substrate compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs. Photoluminescence measurements showed that luminescence intensity of the carbon-assisted ZnO NRs was enhanced compared to the as-grown ZnO NRs. The enhanced luminescence intensity of the carbon-assisted ZnO demonstrates the possible improvement in the performance of photovoltaic nanodevices based on ZnO-like materials. This method can be applied to the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO NRs used widely in optoelectronic devices.

  11. All-wurtzite ZnO/ZnSe hetero-nanohelix: formation, mechanics and luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Luwei; Ye, Zhizhen; He, Haiping

    2015-04-01

    A unique all-wurtzite ZnO/ZnSe hetero-nanohelix is formed via growing wurtzite ZnSe nanoteeth on ZnO nanobelts through a one step thermal evaporation method. The microstructure and growth mechanism of the hetero-nanohelix are investigated in detail. The formation of metastable wurtzite ZnSe is attributed to the wurtzite ZnO template. Mechanical forces, thermal expansion and polar plane in hexagonal crystals are suggested to contribute to the bending of the nanohelix. A boomerang-like structural block is proposed to assemble the zigzag ZnO nanobelts. The incorporation of Se into ZnO results in a strong orange emission. The heterostructure of the ZnO/ZnSe nanohelix is confirmed by elemental mapping and luminescence imaging. The fabrication of such a hetero-nanohelix may provide insights into the growth mechanism of the rich family of ZnO-based nanostructures.A unique all-wurtzite ZnO/ZnSe hetero-nanohelix is formed via growing wurtzite ZnSe nanoteeth on ZnO nanobelts through a one step thermal evaporation method. The microstructure and growth mechanism of the hetero-nanohelix are investigated in detail. The formation of metastable wurtzite ZnSe is attributed to the wurtzite ZnO template. Mechanical forces, thermal expansion and polar plane in hexagonal crystals are suggested to contribute to the bending of the nanohelix. A boomerang-like structural block is proposed to assemble the zigzag ZnO nanobelts. The incorporation of Se into ZnO results in a strong orange emission. The heterostructure of the ZnO/ZnSe nanohelix is confirmed by elemental mapping and luminescence imaging. The fabrication of such a hetero-nanohelix may provide insights into the growth mechanism of the rich family of ZnO-based nanostructures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: HRTEM image, EDS elemental mapping, XRD data, and calculation of bending mechanics. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00567a

  12. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized via template free approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajal, Priyanka; D, Pooja; Jaggi, Neena

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report a novel method for synthesis of semiconducting ZnO nanorods using Zinc acetate dehydrate precursor in a methanol—de-ionized (1:5) mixture via template free approach. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of as synthesized nanorods revealed hexagonal symmetry of rods, whereas x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for structure and phase has shown high crystallinity with wurtzite crystal structure. The structural characterization by FT-IR analysis revealed presence of various groups on as synthesized ZnO nanorods, whereas the UV-Vis analysis has shown a blue shift in the absorption spectra as compared to bulk ZnO due to quantum confinement of charge carriers. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study has also been performed revealing a good degree of phosphorescence in the ZnO nanorods. Further, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that as synthesized nanorods by present method are highly stable at high temperature (1000 °C). This study provides an alternative, less expensive and a very simple method for the fabrication of ZnO nanorods in abundance, which can be further used for various sensing applications, in particular, gas sensing.

  13. Effect of Er3+ doping on structural, morphological and photocatalytical properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhouche, S.; Bensouici, F.; Toubane, M.; Azizi, A.; Otmani, A.; Chebout, K.; Kezzoula, F.; Tala-Ighil, R.; Bououdina, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this research work, structure, microstructure, optical and photocatalytic properties of undoped and Erbium doped nanostructured ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel dip-coating are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the deposited films crystallize within the hexagonal wurtzite-type structure with a preferential growth orientation along (002) plane. Morphological observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal important influence of Er concentration; displaying homogeneous and dense aspect for undoped to 0.3% then grid-like morphology for 0.4 and 0.5%. UV/vis/NIR transmittance spectroscopy spectra display a transmittance over 70%, and small variation in the energy gap energy 3.263–3.278 eV. Wettability test of ZnO thin films surface ranges from hydrophilic aspect for pure ZnO to hydrophobic one for Er doped ZnO, and the contact angle is found to increase from 58.7° for pure ZnO up to 98.4° for 0.4% Er doped ZnO. The photocatalytic activity measurements evaluated using the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation demonstrate that undoped ZnO film shows higher photocatalytic activity compared to Er doped ZnO films, which may be attributed to the deterioration of films’crystallinity resulting in lower transmittance.

  14. Synthesis, structural and optical properties of silver nanoparticles uniformly decorated ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke-Xin; Wen, Xing; Yao, Cheng-Bao; Li, Jin; Zhang, Meng; Li, Qiang-Hua; Sun, Wen-Jun; Wu, Jia-Da

    2018-04-01

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles decorated Zinc oxide (A-ZnO) nanowires have been successfully synthesized by two-step chemical vapour deposition and magnetron sputtering method. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed their hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM images indicated the Ag nanoparticles are distributed uniformly on the surface of A-ZnO nanowires. By extending the sputtering time, the atomic percent of Ag increased gradually. Moreover, the photoluminescence results demonstrated two major emission peaks for the A-ZnO nanowires. Where, the visible emission peaks were stronger than those of unmodified ZnO nanowires. These studies promise their potential applications in multifunctional optical devices.

  15. Structural characteristics of a non-polar ZnS layer on a ZnO buffer layer formed on a sapphire substrate by mist chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, Koshi; Inaba, Katsuhiko; Yatabe, Zenji; Nakamura, Yusui

    2018-06-01

    ZnS is attractive as a material for low-cost light-emitting diodes. In this study, a non-polar ZnS layer was epitaxially grown on a sapphire substrate by inserting a ZnO buffer layer between ZnS and sapphire. The ZnS and ZnO layers were grown by a mist chemical vapor deposition system with a simple setup operated under atmospheric pressure. The sample was characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction measurements including 2θ/ω scans, rocking curves, and reciprocal space mapping. The results showed that an m-plane wurtzite ZnS layer grew epitaxially on an m-plane wurtzite ZnO buffer layer formed on the m-plane sapphire substrate to provide a ZnS/ZnO/sapphire structure.

  16. Effect of cobalt doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    SciT

    Singh, J.; Chanda, A., E-mail: anupamamatsc@gmail.com; Gupta, S.

    Cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles of uniform sizes were prepared by a chemical method using ZnCl{sub 2} and NaOH as the source materials. The formation of Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies. The optical properties of obtained products were examined using room temperature UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy. SAED of cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles shows homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles with hexagonal structure. The HRTEM image of the Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles reveals a clear lattice spacing of 0.52 nm corresponding to the interplanar spacing of wurtzite ZnO (002) plane.more » The absorption band at 857 cm{sup −1} in FTIR spectra confirmed the tetrahedral coordination of Zn and a shift of absorption peak to shorter wavelength region and decrease in absorbance with Co doping.is observed in UV-Visible spectra.« less

  17. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of pure and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Undre, Pallavi G.; Birajdar, Shankar D.; Kathare, R. V.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2018-05-01

    In this work pure and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been prepared by sol-gel method. Influence of nickel doping on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of prepared nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Pulse field magnetic hysteresis loop. X-ray diffraction pattern shows the formation of a single phase with hexagonal wurtzite structure of both pure and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The lattice parameters `an' and `c' of Ni-doped ZnO is slightly less than that of pure ZnO nanoparticles. The crystalline size of prepared nanoparticles is found to be in 29 and 31 nm range. SEM technique used to examine the surface morphology of samples, SEM image confirms the nanocrystalline nature of present samples. From the pulse field hysteresis loop technique pure and Ni-doped ZnO nanoparticles show diamagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature respectively.

  18. Influence of amines as surfactant on the optical, thermal, and structural properties of nanostructured ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehgal, Preeti; Narula, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation method using triethanolamine (TEA) and hexamine (HA) as capping agents, and their effects on the optical, thermal, and morphological properties were analyzed. We have also analyzed the role of solvents on the aforementioned properties of ZnO nanoparticles. The optical properties of capped zinc oxide nanoparticles were investigated by UV-visible and fluorescent techniques. The HA@ZnO and TEA@ZnO that showed blueshift in comparison with ZnO without surfactant revealed the role of surfactant in reducing the trap sites by forming defect-free nanoparticles. TG-DTA curves indicated that optimum annealing temperature for ZnO nanoparticles was in the range of 360-469 °C depending upon the surfactant and solvent; no weight loss was observed above 469 °C. Synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had pure wurtzite structure as elucidated by X-ray diffraction studies (XRD). Scanning electron microscope revealed that the ZnO synthesized in isopropyl alcohol had spherical morphology, whereas ZnO nanoparticles synthesized in methanol had agglomerate sheet-like structure. The average size of the nanocrystal was estimated around 85-169 nm for ZnO.

  19. Internal structure of acceptor-bound excitons in wide-band-gap wurtzite semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Bernard; Bigenwald, Pierre; Paskov, Plamen P.; Monemar, Bo

    2010-02-01

    We describe the internal structure of acceptor-bound excitons in wurtzite semiconductors. Our approach consists in first constructing, in the context of angular momentum algebra, the wave functions of the two-hole system that fulfill Pauli’s exclusion’s principle. Second, we construct the acceptor-bound exciton states by adding the electron states in a similar manner that two-hole states are constructed. We discuss the optical selection rules for the acceptor-bound exciton recombination. Finally, we compare our theory with experimental data for CdS and GaN. In the specific case of CdS for which much experimental information is available, we demonstrate that, compared with cubic semiconductors, the sign of the short-range hole-exchange interaction is reversed and more than one order of magnitude larger. The whole set of data is interpreted in the context of a large value of the short-range hole-exchange interaction Ξ0=3.4±0.2meV . This value dictates the splitting between the ground-state line I1 and the other transitions. The values we find for the electron-hole spin-exchange interaction and of the crystal-field splitting of the two-hole state are, respectively, -0.4±0.1 and 0.2±0.1meV . In the case of GaN, the experimental data for the acceptor-bound excitons in the case of Mg and Zn acceptors, show more than one bound-exciton line. We discuss a possible assignment of these states.

  20. Structural characterization of ZnO thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, M.; Čížek, J.; Kužel, R.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J.; Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.

    2012-06-01

    ZnO thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on three different substrates: sapphire (0 0 0 1), MgO (1 0 0) and fused silica (FS). The structure and morphology of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and defect studies were carried out using slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). Films deposited on all substrates studied in this work exhibit the wurtzite ZnO structure and are characterized by an average crystallite size of 20-100 nm. However, strong differences in the microstructure of films deposited on various substrates were found. The ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit local epitaxy, i.e. a well-defined relation between film crystallites and the substrate. Domains with different orientation relationships with the substrate were found in both films. On the other hand, the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits fibre texture with random lateral orientation of crystallites. Extremely high compressive in-plane stress of σ ˜ 14 GPa was determined in the film deposited on the MgO substrate, while the film deposited on sapphire is virtually stress-free, and the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits a tensile in-plane stress of σ ˜ 0.9 GPa. SPIS investigations revealed that the concentration of open-volume defects in the ZnO films is substantially higher than that in a bulk ZnO single crystal. Moreover, the ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit a significantly higher density of defects than the film deposited on the amorphous FS substrate.

  1. Effect of aluminium doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films by sol-gel method

    SciT

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Murugan, R.; Ravi, G., E-mail: raviganesa@rediffmail.com, E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com

    2015-06-24

    We systematically investigated the structural, morphological and optical properties of 0.05 mol % Al doped ZnO (Al:ZnO) thin films deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. The influences of Al doping in ZnO thin films are characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction study. ZnO and Al:ZnO thin films have showed hexagonal wurtzite structure without any secondary phase in c-axis (002) orientation. The SEM images also proved the hexagonal rod like morphologies for both films. All the films exhibited transmittance of 70-80% in the visible range up to 800 nm and cut-off wavelength observed at ∼390 nm corresponding to the fundamental absorption ofmore » ZnO. The band gap of the ZnO thin films slightly widened with the Al doping. The photoluminescence properties have been studied for Al: ZnO thin films and the results are presented in detail.« less

  2. Electronic structure, defect formation energy, and photovoltaic properties of wurtzite-derived CuGaO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, H.; Sato, K.; Kakeshita, T.

    2018-04-01

    Wurtzite-derived CuGaO2 (β-CuGaO2) is a recently synthesized oxide and expected as a candidate material for photovoltaic solar cells. In this paper, we propose computational material design concerning β-CuGaO2 based on the first-principles calculations. We perform hybrid calculations by using the VASP code. It is predicted that β-CuGaO2 has a direct bandgap (Eg = 1.56 eV), which is nearly optimal for high efficiency solar cells. The calculated formation energy of Cu vacancy (VCu) is very small and can be negative depending on the Fermi level. This result reasonably explains the observed p-type conduction in this material. As for the n-type doping, Cd doping could be suitable; however, VCu formation needs to be repressed in order to realize n-type β-CuGaO2. It is also shown that halogen impurities are not suitable for n-type β-CuGaO2 because of their large formation energy. Band alignment between β-CuGaO2 and ZnO is predicted to be type-II, leading to a suggestion of photovoltaic device based on the heterojunction.

  3. Excitation Dependent Phosphorous Property and New Model of the Structured Green Luminescence in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Honggang; Su, Zhicheng; Tang, Fei; Wang, Mingzheng; Chen, Guangde; Wang, Jian; Xu, Shijie

    2017-02-01

    The copper induced green luminescence (GL) with two sets of fine structures in ZnO crystal has been found for several decades (i.e., R. Dingle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 579 (1969)), but the physical origin of the doublet still remains as an open question up to now. In this paper, we provide new insight into the mechanism of the structured GL band in terms of new experimental findings and theoretical calculations. It is found, for the first time, that the GL signal exhibits persistent afterglow for tens of minutes after the switch-off of below-band-gap excitation light but it cannot occur under above-band-gap excitation. Such a phosphorous property may be interpreted as de-trapping and feeding of electrons from a shallow trapping level via the conduction band to the Cu-related luminescence centers where the Cu3+ ion is proposed to work as the final state of the GL emission. From first-principles calculation, such a Cu3+ ion in wurtzite ZnO prefers a high spin 3d8 state with two non-degenerated half-filled orbitals due to the Jahn-Teller effect, probably leading to the double structures in photoluminescence spectrum. Therefore, this model gives a comprehensively new understanding on the mechanism of the structured GL band in ZnO.

  4. Low-temperature growth of aligned ZnO nanorods: effect of annealing gases on the structural and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Umar, Ahmad; Hahn, Yoon-Bong; Al-Hajry, A; Abaker, M

    2014-06-01

    Aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on ZnO/Si substrate via simple aqueous solution process at low-temperature of - 65 degrees C by using zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). The detailed morphological and structural properties measured by FESEM, XRD, EDS and TEM confirmed that the as-grown nanorods are vertically aligned, well-crystalline possessing wurtzite hexagonal phase and grown along the [0001] direction. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the grown nanorods exhibited a strong and broad green emission and small ultraviolet emission. The as-prepared ZnO nanorods were post-annealed in nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) environments and further characterized in terms of their morphological, structural and optical properties. After annealing the nanorods exhibit well-crystallinity and wurtzite hexagonal phase. Moreover, by annealing the PL spectra show the enhancement in the UV emission and suppression in the green emission. The presented results demonstrate that simply by post-annealing process, the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures can be controlled.

  5. Structural, morphological, optical and biological properties of pure ZnO and agar/zinc oxide nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Magesh, G; Bhoopathi, G; Nithya, N; Arun, A P; Ranjith Kumar, E

    2018-05-26

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by in situ chemical precipitation method in the presence of Agar biopolymer. The influence of Agar concentrations on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO have been investigated. The XRD pattern of Pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites indicates the hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO. The crystallite size of pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites was found to be in the range of 35.5 to 19.73 nm. Pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites showed nanospheroid and nanopaddy shaped morphology from FESEM studies. The interplanar distance observed from the HRTEM image confirms the plane of the prepared material. The elemental composition of the samples were characterized by EDX. The optical properties of Pure ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites were characterized by UV, FTIR and PL. The band gap of Agar/ZnO nanocomposites were varied with the Agar concentration. Oxygen vacancy induced photoluminescence of ZnO are observed and its intensity is found to be increased linearly with the Agar concentration. The antibacterial activity of ZnO and Agar/ZnO nanocomposites was evaluated by disc diffusion method against Gram-positive (B.subtilis) and Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa) bacteria. The cytotoxicity of Agar/ZnO nanocomposites was studied against Normal (L929) and Breast cancer cell line (MB231). The result of this investigation reveals that the Agar/ZnO nanocomposites deliver a dose dependent toxicity in normal and cancer cell line. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Structural, spectroscopic and anti-microbial inspection of PEG capped ZnO nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshram, J. V.; Koli, V. B.; Kumbhar, S. G.; Borde, L. C.; Phadatare, M. R.; Pawar, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have a wide range of biomedical applications. Present study demonstrates the new methodology in sol-gel technology for synthesizing Polyethylene glycol (PEG) capped ZnO NPs and its size effect on anti-microbial activity. The reaction time was increased from 1 h to 5 h for the synthesis of ZnO NPs at 130 °C. The size of PEG capped ZnO NPs is increased from 10 to 84 nm by increasing the reaction upto 5 h. The x-ray diffraction studies and transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals the phase purity and hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with uniform PEG capping on the surface of ZnO NPs. UV–visible spectroscopy exhibits the peak at 366 nm which is attributed to ZnO NPs. No adverse effect is observed in case of absorbance spectroscopy. Further, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis depicts the adsorption of PEG molecules on the ZnO NPs surface. The anti-microbial activities for both Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria were studied by optical density (OD) mesurement. The remarkable anti-microbial activity was observed for PEG capped ZnO NPs synthesized at 1 h reaction time showing higher activity in comparison with that synthesized from 2 h to 5 h reaction time. The microbial growth was found to be inhibited after 10 h OD measurement for both the bacteria. The anti-microbial activity may be attributed to the generation of ROS and H2O2. However, these generated species plays a vital role in inhibition of microbial growth. Hence, PEG capped ZnO NPs has promising biomedical applications.

  7. Structural, chemical and optical evaluation of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by an aqueous solution method

    SciT

    Iribarren, A., E-mail: augusto@imre.oc.uh.cu; Hernández-Rodríguez, E.; Maqueira, L.

    Highlights: • Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis. • Substitutional or interstitial Cu into ZnO lead specific structural, chemical, and optical changes. • Incorporation efficiency of Cu atoms in ZnO as a function of the Cu concentration in the precursor dissolution. - Abstract: In this work a study of ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis in aqueous media was carried out. Structural analysis gave the dominant presence of wurtzite ZnO phase forming a solid solution Zn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O. For high Cu doping CuO phase is also present. For low Cu concentration the lattice shrinks due tomore » Cu atoms substitute Zn atoms. For high Cu concentration the lattice enlarges due to predominance of interstitial Cu. From elemental analysis we determined and analyzed the incorporation efficiency of Cu atoms in Zn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O as a function of the Cu concentration in the precursor dissolution. Combining structural and chemical results we described the Cu/Zn precursor concentrations r{sub w} in which the solid solution of Cu in ZnO is predominant. In the region located at r{sub w} ≈ 0.2–0.3 it is no longer valid. For Cu/Zn precursor concentration r{sub w} > 0.3 interstitial Cu dominates, and some amount of copper oxide appears. As the Cu concentration increases, the effective size of nanoparticles decreases. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles were carried out and analyzed.« less

  8. Local structure analysis of diluted magnetic semiconductor Co and Al co-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciT

    Hyodo, K.; Morimoto, S.; Yamazaki, T.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Co and Al ions co-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Zn(Al, Co)O NPs) were prepared by our original chemical preparation method. The obtained samples prepared by this method, were encapsulated in amorphous SiO{sub 2}. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed Zn(Al, Co)O NPs had a single-phase nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure. These particle sizes could be controlled to be approximately 30 nm. We investigate the effect that the increase in the carrier has on the magnetization by doping Al to Co-doped ZnO NPs. The local structures were qualitatively analyzed using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements.

  9. Influence of Fe doping on the structural, optical and acetone sensing properties of sprayed ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Prajapati, C.S.; Kushwaha, Ajay; Sahay, P.P., E-mail: dr_ppsahay@rediffmail.com

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: All the films are found to be polycrystalline ZnO possessing hexagonal wurtzite structure. The intensities of all the peaks are diminished strongly in the Fe-doped films, indicating their lower crystallinity as compared to the undoped ZnO film. The average crystallite size decreases from 35.21 nm (undoped sample) to 15.43 nm (1 at% Fe-doped sample). - Highlights: • Fe-doped ZnO films show smaller crystallinity with crystallite size: 15–26 nm. • Optical band gap in ZnO films decreases on Fe doping. • Fe-doped films exhibit the normal dispersion for the wavelength range 450–600 nm. • PL spectra of the Fe-dopedmore » films show quenching of the broad green-orange emission. • Acetone response of the Fe-doped films increases considerably at 300 °C. - Abstract: The ZnO thin films (undoped and Fe-doped) deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique have been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that all the films possess hexagonal wurtzite structure of zinc oxide having crystallite sizes in the range 15–36 nm. On 1 at% Fe doping, the surface roughness of the film increases which favors the adsorption of atmospheric oxygen on the film surface and thereby increase in the gas response. Optical studies reveal that the band gap decreases due to creation of some defect energy states below the conduction band edge, arising out of the lattice disorder in the doped films. The refractive index of the films decreases on Fe doping and follows the Cauchy relation of normal dispersion. Among all the films examined, the 1 at% Fe-doped film exhibits the maximum response (∼72%) at 300 °C for 100 ppm concentration of acetone in air.« less

  10. Controlling of ZnO nanostructures by solute concentration and its effect on growth, structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Yogendra; Rana, Amit Kumar; Bhojane, Prateek; Pusty, Manojit; Bagwe, Vivas; Sen, Somaditya; Shirage, Parasharam M.

    2015-10-01

    ZnO nanostructured films were prepared by a chemical bath deposition method on glass substrates without any assistance of either microwave or high pressure autoclaves. The effect of solute concentration on the pure wurtzite ZnO nanostructure morphologies is studied. The control of the solute concentration helps to control the nanostructure to form nano-needles, and -rods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed highly c-axis oriented thin films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms the modification of the nanostructure dependent on the concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the single crystalline electron diffraction pattern, indicating high quality nano-material. UV-vis results show the variation in the band gap from 3.20 eV to 3.14 eV with increasing concentration as the nanostructures change from needle- to rod-like. Photoluminescence (PL) data indicate the existence of defects in the nanomaterials emitting light in the yellow-green region, with broad UV and visible spectra. A sharp and strong peak is observed at ˜438 cm-1 by Raman spectroscopy, assigned to the {{{{E}}}2}{{high}} optical mode of ZnO, the characteristic peak for the highly-crystalline wurtzite hexagonal phase. The solute concentration significantly affects the formation of defect states in the nanostructured films, and as a result, it alters the structural and optical properties. Current-voltage characteristics alter with the measurement environment, indicating potential sensor applications.

  11. Structural and plasmonic properties of noble metal doped ZnO nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Trilok K.; Swart, H. C.; Kroon, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    Noble metal doped ZnO has been synthesized by the combustion method and the effect of different metals (Ag, Au, Pd) on the structural, morphological, optical, photoluminescence and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties has been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the ZnO had a hexagonal wurtzite structure and the crystallite sizes were affected by the doping. The formation of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectra. The LSPR of the metallic NPs was predicted using Mie theory calculations. The absorption spectra were calculated using the Kubelka-Munk function and the optical bandgap varied from 3.06 to 3.18 eV for the different doping materials. The experimental results suggest that the origin of enhanced emission was due to direct interaction between the laser photons and the noble material NPs which in turn leads to photoemission transfer of electrons from the noble metals NPs to the conduction band of ZnO.

  12. Structural and photoluminescence properties of Ce, Dy, Er-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciT

    Jayachandraiah, C.; Kumar, K. Siva; Krishnaiah, G., E-mail: ginnerik@gmail.com

    2015-06-24

    Undoped ZnO and rare earth elements (Ce, Dy and Er with 2 at. %) doped nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical co-precipitation method at 90°C with Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as capping agent. The structural, morphological, compositional and photoluminescence studies were performed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), FTIR spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) respectively. XRD results revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with average particle size around 18 nm - 14 nm and are compatible with TEM results. EDS confirm the incorporation of Ce, Dy and Er elements into the host ZnO matrix and is validated by FTIR analysis. PLmore » studies showed a broad intensive emission peak at 558 nm in all the samples. The intensity for Er- doped ZnO found maximum with additional Er shoulder peaks at 516nm and 538 nm. No Ce, Dy emission centers were found in spectra.« less

  13. Effect of Co doping on the structural and dielectric properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    SciT

    Ram, Mast, E-mail: Mastram1999@yahoo.com; Bala, Kanchan; Sharma, Hakikat

    This paper reports on the synthesis of Co doped Zn{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O (x= 0.0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.05) nanoparticles by solution combustion method using urea as a fuel. The Structural and dielectric properties of the samples were studied. Crystallite sizes were obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns whose values decreased with increase in Co concentration. The XRD study reveals that Co{sup 2+} ions substitute the Zn{sup 2+} ion without changing the wurtzite structure of pristine ZnO up to Co concentrations of 5%. The dielectric constants, dielectric loss (tanδ) and ac conductivity (σ{sub ac}) were studied as the function ofmore » frequency and composition, which have been explained by Maxwell-Wagner type interfacial polarization and discussed Koops phenomenological theory.« less

  14. Structure and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO prepared by the sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huilian; Yang, Jinghai; Zhang, Yongjun; Yang, Lili; Wei, Maobin; Ding, Xue

    2009-04-08

    Zn(0.97)Fe(0.03)O nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis revealed that the samples had pure ZnO wurtzite structure and Fe ions were well incorporated into the ZnO crystal lattice. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that both Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) existed in Zn(0.97)Fe(0.03)O. The result of x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) further testified that Fe ions took the place of Zn sites in our samples. Magnetic measurements indicated that Zn(0.97)Fe(0.03)O was ferromagnetic at room temperature.

  15. Structural, morphological and optical studies of ripple-structured ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navin, Kumar; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2015-11-01

    Ripple-structured ZnO thin films were prepared on Si (100) substrate by sol-gel spin-coating method with different heating rates during preheating process and finally sintered at 500 °C for 2 h in ambient condition. The structural, morphological and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the nanostructured films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and PL spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed that films have hexagonal wurtzite structure and texture coefficient increases along (002) plane with preheating rate. The faster heating rate produced higher crystallization and larger average crystallite size. The AFM and SEM images indicate that all the films have uniformly distributed ripple structure with skeletal branches. The number of ripples increases, while the rms roughness, amplitude and correlation length of the ripple structure decrease with preheating rates. The PL spectra show the presence of different defects in the structure. The ultraviolet emission improved with the heating rate which indicates its better crystallinity.

  16. Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} wurtzite crystal: Structural, optoelectronic, elastic, and piezoelectric properties

    SciT

    Pedesseau, L., E-mail: laurent.pedesseau@insa-rennes.fr, E-mail: jacky.even@insa-rennes.fr; Even, J., E-mail: laurent.pedesseau@insa-rennes.fr, E-mail: jacky.even@insa-rennes.fr; Durand, O.

    New experimental results supported by theoretical analyses are proposed for aluminum silicon carbide (Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4}). A state of the art implementation of the density functional theory is used to analyze the experimental crystal structure, the Born charges, the elastic properties, and the piezoelectric properties. The Born charge tensor is correlated to the local bonding environment for each atom. The electronic band structure is computed including self-consistent many-body corrections. Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} material properties are compared to other wide band gap wurtzite materials. From a comparison between an ellipsometry study of the optical properties and theoretical results, we conclude thatmore » the Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} material has indirect and direct band gap energies of about 2.5 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively.« less

  17. Comparative study of Ni and Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles: Structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Shaveta; Thakur, Samita; Sharma, Jyoti; Kumar, Sanjay

    2018-05-01

    Nanoparticles of undoped and doped (0.1 M Ni2+ and Cu2+) ZnO are synthesized using chemical precipitation method. The crystallite size, morphology, chemical bonding and optical properties of as prepared nanoparticles are determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV-visible spectra. XRD analysis shows that the prepared samples are single phase and have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystallite size of the doped and undoped nanoparticles is determined using Scherrer method. The crystallite size is found to be increased with concentration of nickel and copper. All stretching and vibrational bands are observed at their specific positions through FTIR. The increase in band gap can be attributed to the different chemical nature of dopant and host cation.

  18. Optical study of the band structure of wurtzite GaP nanowires

    SciT

    Assali, S., E-mail: simone.assali@polymtl.ca; Greil, J.; Zardo, I.

    2016-07-28

    We investigated the optical properties of wurtzite (WZ) GaP nanowires by performing photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL measurements in the temperature range from 4 K to 300 K, together with atom probe tomography to identify residual impurities in the nanowires. At low temperature, the WZ GaP luminescence shows donor-acceptor pair emission at 2.115 eV and 2.088 eV, and Burstein-Moss band-filling continuum between 2.180 and 2.253 eV, resulting in a direct band gap above 2.170 eV. Sharp exciton α-β-γ lines are observed at 2.140–2.164–2.252 eV, respectively, showing clear differences in lifetime, presence of phonon replicas, and temperature-dependence. The excitonic nature of those peaks is critically discussed, leading tomore » a direct band gap of ∼2.190 eV and to a resonant state associated with the γ-line ∼80 meV above the Γ{sub 8C} conduction band edge.« less

  19. Investigation on structural and electrical properties of Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion method

    SciT

    Ram, Mast, E-mail: mastram1999@yahoo.com; Bala, Kanchan; Sharma, Hakikat

    In the present study, nanoparticles of Fe doped zinc oxide (ZnO) [Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O where x=0.0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.05] were prepared by cost effective solution combustion method. The powder X-ray diffractometry confirms the formation of single phase wurtzite structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the micrsostructure of Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The DC electrical conductivity was found to increase with temperature and measurement was carried out in the temperature range of 300-473K. DC electrical conductivity increases with temperature and decreases with Fe doping concentration.

  20. Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Cd Doped ZnO Thin Films by Reactive dc Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. Guru Sampath; Obulapathi, L.; Sarmash, T. Sofi; Rani, D. Jhansi; Maddaiah, M.; Rao, T. Subba; Asokan, K.

    2015-04-01

    Thin films of cadmium (Cd) (0 wt.%, 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 10 wt.%) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) have been deposited on a glass substrate by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The synthesized films are characterized by glancing angle x-ray diffraction (GAXRD), UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, four probe resistivity measurement, Hall measurement system, field emission-scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis by x-rays. A systematic study has been made on the structure, electrical and optical properties of Cd doped ZnO thin films as a function of Cd concentration (0 wt.%, 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 10 wt.%). All these films have a hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure with (0 0 2) orientation without any Cd related phase from the GAXRD patterns. The grain size was increased and maximum appears at 4 wt.% Cd concentration. The electrical resistivity of the films decreased with the Cd doping and minimum resistivity was observed at 4 wt.% Cd concentration. UV-Vis-NIR studies showed that the optical band gap of ZnO (3.37 eV) was reduced to 3.10 eV which is at 4 wt.% Cd concentration.

  1. Influences of Co doping on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed Khan, M. A.; Wasi Khan, M.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Alsalhi, M. S.; Aldwayyan, A. S.

    2010-07-01

    Pure and Co-doped ZnO nanostructured samples have been synthesized by a chemical route. We have studied the structural and optical properties of the samples by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), field-emission transmission electron microscope (FETEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The XRD patterns show that all the samples are hexagonal wurtzite structures. Changes in crystallite size due to mechanical activation were also determined from X-ray measurements. These results were correlated with changes in particle size followed by SEM and TEM. The average crystallite sizes obtained from XRD were between 20 to 25 nm. The TEM images showed the average particle size of undoped ZnO nanostructure was about 20 nm whereas the smallest average grain size at 3% Co was about 15 nm. Optical parameters such as absorption coefficient ( α), energy band gap ( E g ), the refractive index ( n), and dielectric constants ( σ) have been determined using different methods.

  2. Low temperature synthesis of hexagonal ZnO nanorods and their hydrogen sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq; Faiz, M.; Tabet, N.; Alam, Mir Waqas

    2011-08-01

    The growth of hexagonal ZnO nanorods was demonstrated by low temperature chemical synthesis approach. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a wurtzite hexagonal structure of the ZnO nanorods. The optical properties were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometer at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed high purity of the ZnO nanorods. The hydrogen sensor made of the ZnO nanorods showed reversible response. The hydrogen gas tests were carried out in presence of ambient air and the influence of operation temperature on the hydrogen gas sensing property of ZnO nanorods was also investigated.

  3. Role of nickel doping on structural, optical, magnetic properties and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    SciT

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Murugan, R.; Palanisamy, S.

    Highlights: • The XRD analyses revealed that the synthesizes nickel doped ZnO (Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O, x = 0.0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09) nanostructures have hexagonal wurtzite structure. • The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the broad emission was composed of different bands due to zinc and oxygen vacancies. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the Ni incorporation in ZnO lattice as Ni{sup 2+} ions. • Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed due to the oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials are the main reasons for ferromagnetism in Ni doped ZnO NPs. - Abstract: Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. Themore » crystallite sizes of the synthesized samples found to decrease from 38 to 26 nm with increase in nickel concentration. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of Zn−O stretching bands at 577, 573, 569 and 565 cm{sup −1} in the respective ZnO NPs. Optical absorption spectra revealed the red shifted and estimated band gap is found to decrease with increase of Ni doping concentration. The PL spectra of all the samples exhibited a broad emission at 390 nm in the visible range. The carriers (donors) bounded on the Ni sites were observed from the micro Raman spectroscopic studies. Pure and Ni doped ZnO NPs showed significant changes in the M–H loop, especially the diamagnetic behavior changed into ferromagnetic nature for Ni doped samples. The antiferromagnetic super-exchange interactions between Ni{sup 2+} ions is increased in higher Ni doped ZnO NPs and also their antibacterial activity has been studied.« less

  4. Effect of Pressure on the Stability and Electronic Structure of ZnO0.5S0.5 and ZnO0.5Se0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manotum, R.; Klinkla, R.; Phaisangittisakul, N.; Pinsook, U.; Bovornratanaraks, T.

    2017-12-01

    Structures and high-pressure phase transitions in ZnO0.5S0.5 and ZnO0.5Se0.5 have been investigated using density functional theory calculations. The previously proposed structures of ZnO0.5S0.5 and ZnO0.5Se0.5 which are chalcopyrite ( I\\bar{4}2d ), rocksalt ( Fm3m ), wurtzite ( P63 mc ) and CuAu-I ( P\\bar{4}m2 ) have been fully investigated. Stabilities of these materials have been systematically studied up to 40 GPa using various approaches. We have confirmed the stability of the chalcopyrite structure up to 30 GPa for which the CuAu-I structure has been previously proposed. However, our calculation revealed that CuAu-I is not a stable structure under 32 GPa and 33 GPa for both ZnO0.5S0.5 and ZnO0.5Se0.5, respectively, which could explain the failure in several attempts to fabricate these materials under such conditions. We have also examined the pressure-dependence of the bandgap and electronic structure up to 30 GPa. We can conclude from our PDOS analysis that the applied pressure does not change the atomic state characters of electronic states near the top of valence and the bottom of conduction bands, but mainly modifies the dominant Zn-3d atomic state of the deep Bloch state at -1 eV below Fermi level.

  5. Deposition of undoped and Al doped ZnO thin films using RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, optical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvathy Venu, M.; Shrisha B., V.; Balakrishna, K. M.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2017-05-01

    Undoped ZnO and Al doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass and p-Si(100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature using homemade targets. ZnO target containing 5 at% of Al2O3 as doping source was used for the growth of Al doped ZnO thin films. XRD revealed that the films have hexagonal wurtzite structure with high crystallinity. Morphology and chemical composition of the films have been indicated by FESEM and EDAX studies. A blue shift of the band gap energy and higher optical transmittance has been observed in the case of Al doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) thin films with respect to the ZnO thin films. The as deposited films on p-Si were used to fabricate n-ZnO/p-Si(100) and n-ZnO:Al/p-Si(100) heterojunction diodes and their room temperature current-voltage characteristics were studied.

  6. Hydrodynamic fabrication of structurally gradient ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Min; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2016-02-26

    We studied a new approach where structurally gradient nanostructures were fabricated by means of hydrodynamics. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized in a drag-driven rotational flow in a controlled manner. The structural characteristics of nanorods such as orientation and diameter were determined by momentum and mass transfer at the substrate surface. The nucleation of ZnO was induced by shear stress which plays a key role in determining the orientation of ZnO nanorods. The nucleation and growth of such nanostructures were modeled theoretically and analyzed numerically to understand the underlying physics of the fabrication of nanostructures controlled by hydrodynamics. The findings demonstrated that the precise control of momentum and mass transfer enabled the formation of ZnO nanorods with a structural gradient in diameter and orientation.

  7. Hierarchical structures of ZnO spherical particles synthesized solvothermally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Noriko; Haneda, Hajime

    2011-12-01

    We review the solvothermal synthesis, using a mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water as the solvent, of zinc oxide (ZnO) particles having spherical and flower-like shapes and hierarchical nanostructures. The preparation conditions of the ZnO particles and the microscopic characterization of the morphology are summarized. We found the following three effects of the ratio of EG to water on the formation of hierarchical structures: (i) EG restricts the growth of ZnO microcrystals, (ii) EG promotes the self-assembly of small crystallites into spheroidal particles and (iii) the high water content of EG results in hollow spheres.

  8. Triple-twin domains in Mg doped GaN wurtzite nanowires: structural and electronic properties of this zinc-blende-like stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbiol, Jordi; Estradé, Sònia; Prades, Joan D.; Cirera, Albert; Furtmayr, Florian; Stark, Christoph; Laufer, Andreas; Stutzmann, Martin; Eickhoff, Martin; Gass, Mhairi H.; Bleloch, Andrew L.; Peiró, Francesca; Morante, Joan R.

    2009-04-01

    We report on the effect of Mg doping on the properties of GaN nanowires grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The most significant feature is the presence of triple-twin domains, the density of which increases with increasing Mg concentration. The resulting high concentration of misplaced atoms gives rise to local changes in the crystal structure equivalent to the insertion of three non-relaxed zinc-blende (ZB) atomic cells, which result in quantum wells along the wurtzite (WZ) nanowire growth axis. High resolution electron energy loss spectra were obtained exactly on the twinned (zinc-blende) and wurtzite planes. These atomically resolved measurements, which allow us to identify modifications in the local density of states, revealed changes in the band to band electronic transition energy from 3.4 eV for wurtzite to 3.2 eV in the twinned lattice regions. These results are in good agreement with specific ab initio atomistic simulations and demonstrate that the redshift observed in previous photoluminescence analyses is directly related to the presence of these zinc-blende domains, opening up new possibilities for band-structure engineering.

  9. Effect of Fe incorporation on the optical behavior of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel derived spin coating techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakkesh, R. Ajay; Malathi, R.; Balakumar, S.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, Fe doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films were fabricated on the glass substrate by sol-gel derived spin coating technique. X-ray Diffraction studies revealed that the obtained pure and Fe doped ZnO thin films were in the wurtzite and spinel phase respectively. The three well defined Raman lines at 432, 543 and 1091 cm-1 also confirmed the lattice structure of the ZnO thin film has wurtzite symmetry. While doping Fe atoms in the ZnO, there was a significant change in the phase from wurtzite to spinel structure; owing to Fe (III) ions being incorporated into the lattice through substitution of Zn (II) ions. Room temperature PL spectra showed that the role of defect mediated red emissions at 612 nm was due to radial recombination of a photogenerated hole with an electron that belongs to the Fe atoms, which were discussed in detail.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Anilkumar, T. S., E-mail: anil24march@gmail.com; Girija, M. L., E-mail: girija.ml.grt1@gmail.com; Venkatesh, J., E-mail: phph9502@yahoo.com

    2016-05-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) Thin films were deposited on glass substrate using Spin coating method. Zinc acetate dehydrate, Carbinol and Mono-ethanolamine were used as the precursor, solvent and stabilizer respectively to prepare ZnO Thin-films. The molar ratio of Monoethanolamine to Zinc acetate was maintained as approximately 1. The thickness of the films was determined by Interference technique. The optical properties of the films were studied by UV Vis-Spectrophotometer. From transmittance and absorbance curve, the energy band gap of ZnO is found out. Electrical Conductivity measurements of ZnO are carried out by two probe method and Activation energy for the electrical conductivitymore » of ZnO are found out. The crystal structure and orientation of the films were analyzed by XRD. The XRD patterns show that the ZnO films are polycrystalline with wurtzite hexagonal structure.« less

  11. Structure of β-AgGaO{sub 2}; ternary I–III–VI{sub 2} oxide semiconductor with a wurtzite-derived structure

    SciT

    Nagatani, Hiraku; Suzuki, Issei; Kita, Masao

    2015-02-15

    The structure of the wurtzite-derived β-AgGaO{sub 2} was refined by Rietveld analysis of high-resolution powder diffraction data obtained using synchrotron X-ray radiation. The space group of the crystal is Pna2{sub 1} with lattice parameters of a{sub 0}=5.56175 Å, b{sub 0}=7.14749 Å, and c{sub 0}=5.46875 Å. The deviation of O–Ag–O and M–O–M bond angles from the regular tetrahedral angle of 109.5° was very large at ∼8° and ∼11°, respectively. The electronic structure of β-AgGaO{sub 2} is discussed based on its structure, and the indirect band gap of β-AgGaO{sub 2} was related to significant tetrahedral distortion. Although β-AgGaO{sub 2} decomposes into metallicmore » silver and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a high temperature in any atmosphere, β-AgGaO{sub 2} is stable up to 690 °C under an O{sub 2} atmosphere. No direct transformation from the wurtzite-derived phase to a delafossite phase occurs in β-AgGaO{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of β-AgGaO{sub 2} was refined by Rietveld analysis. AgO{sub 4} and O(Ag,Ga){sub 4} tetrahedra are significantly distorted from ideal tetrahedron. - Highlights: • Orthorhombic β-AgGaO{sub 2} with a wurtzite-derived β-NaFeO{sub 2} structure was synthesized. • Its structure was refined by Rietveld analysis of high-resolution XRD data. • Silver and oxygen tetrahedra are significantly distorted from an ideal tetrahedron. • The extent of this tetrahedral distortion is related to the band gap nature. • β-AgGaO{sub 2} is a metastable phase but is stable up to 690 °C in an O{sub 2} atmosphere.« less

  12. Preparation, characterization and properties of ZnO nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiaolian; Zhang, Xiaoming; Chen, Ruxue; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Ji; Wang, Xiaomin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, using the hydrothermal synthesis method, NaOH, Zn(NO3)2, anhydrous ethanol, deionized water as raw material to prepare ZnO nanomaterial, and by X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) on the synthesis of nano materials, surface morphology and phase luminescence characterization. The results show that the nano materials synthesized for single-phase ZnO, belonging to the six wurtzite structure; material surface shaped, arranged evenly distributed, and were the top six party structure; ZnO nano materials synthesized with strong emission spectra, emission peak is located at 394nm.

  13. Tuning effect of polysaccharide Chitosan on structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magesh, G.; Bhoopathi, G.; Nithya, N.; Arun, A. P.; Ranjith Kumar, E.

    2018-05-01

    Chitosan/ZnO nanocomposites was synthesized by in-situ chemical precipitation method. The effect of polysaccharide Chitosan concentration (0.1 g, 0.5 g, 1 g and 3 g) was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), UV-visible (UV), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL). XRD pattern confirms the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the Chitosan/ZnO nanocomposites. The structural morphology and the elemental composition of the samples were analysed by FESEM and EDX respectively. From TEM analysis, it is observed that the particles in spindle shape morphology with average particle size ranges 10-20 nm. UV-Vis analysis reveals that the Chitosan concentration affect the absorption band edge and shift towards lower wavelength. The oxygen vacancy induced photoluminescence of ZnO nanoparticles was observed and its intensity decreases by tuning the Chitosan concentration.

  14. Effect of sintering on optical, structural and photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Vishwas, M; Narasimha Rao, K; Arjuna Gowda, K V; Chakradhar, R P S

    2010-09-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates via sol-gel technique using zinc acetate dihydrate as precursor by spin coating of the sol at 2000 rpm. Effects of annealing temperature on optical, structural and photo luminescence properties of the deposited ZnO films have been investigated. The phase transition from amorphous to polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure was observed at an annealing temperature of 400 degrees C. An average transmittance of 87% in the visible region has been obtained at room temperature. The optical transmittance has slightly increased with increase of annealing temperature. The band gap energy was estimated by Tauc's method and found to be 3.22 eV at room temperature. The optical band gap energy has decreased with increasing annealing temperature. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity increased with annealing temperature up to 200 degrees C and decreased at 300 degrees C. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Insights into the effect of iron and cobalt doping on the structure of nanosized ZnO.

    PubMed

    Giuli, Gabriele; Trapananti, Angela; Mueller, Franziska; Bresser, Dominic; d'Acapito, Francesco; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-10-05

    Here we report an in-depth structural characterization of transition metal-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles that have recently been used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. Structural refinement of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data allowed the determination of small though reproducible changes in the unit cell dimensions of four ZnO samples (wurtzite structure) prepared with different dopants or different synthesis conditions. Moreover, large variations of the full width at half-maximum of the XRD reflections indicate that the crystallinity of the samples decreases in the order ZnO, Zn0.9Co0.1O, Zn0.9Fe0.1O/C, and Zn0.9Fe0.1O (the crystallite sizes as determined by Williamson-Hall plots are 42, 29, 15, and 13 nm, respectively). X-ray absorption spectroscopy data indicate that Co is divalent, whereas Fe is purely trivalent in Zn0.9Fe0.1O and 95% trivalent (Fe(3+)/(Fe(3+) + Fe(2+)) ratio = 0.95) in Zn0.9Fe0.1O/C. The aliovalent substitution of Fe(3+) for Zn(2+) implies the formation of local defects around Fe(3+) such as cationic vacancies or interstitial oxygen for charge balance. The EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) data, besides providing local Fe-O and Co-O bond distances, are consistent with a large amount of charge-compensating defects. The Co-doped sample displays similar EXAFS features to those of pure ZnO, suggesting the absence of a large concentration of defects as found in the Fe-doped samples. These results are of substantial importance for understanding and elucidating the modified electrochemical lithiation mechanism by introducing transition metal dopants into the ZnO structure for the application as lithium-ion anode material.

  16. Nanoporous structures on ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gür, Emre; Kılıç, Bayram; Coşkun, C.; Tüzemen, S.; Bayrakçeken, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Porous structures were formed on ZnO thin films which were grown by an electrochemical deposition (ECD) method. The growth processes were carried out in a solution of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) zinc perchlorate, Zn(ClO 4) 2, at 120 ∘C on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. Optical and structural characterizations of electrochemically grown ZnO thin films have shown that the films possess high (0002) c-axis orientation, high nucleation, high intensity and low FWHM of UV emission at the band edge region and a sharp UV absorption edge. Nanoporous structures were formed via self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of hexanethiol (C 6SH) and dodecanethiol (C 12SH). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements showed that while a nanoporous structure (pore radius 20 nm) is formed on the ZnO thin films by hexanathiol solution, a macroporous structure (pore radius 360 nm) is formed by dodecanethiol solution. No significant variation is observed in X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements on the ZnO thin films after pore formation. However, photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed that green emission is observed as the dominant emission for the macroporous structures, while no variation is observed for the thin film nanoporous ZnO sample.

  17. Experimental study on structural, optoelectronic and room temperature sensing performance of Nickel doped ZnO based ethanol sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudha, M.; Radha, S.; Kirubaveni, S.; Kiruthika, R.; Govindaraj, R.; Santhosh, N.

    2018-04-01

    Nano crystalline undoped (1Z) Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and 5, 10 and 15 Wt. % (1ZN, 2ZN and 3ZN) of Nickel doped ZnO based sensors were fabricated using the hydrothermal approach on Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis proved the hexagonal Wurtzite structure of ZnO. Parametric variations in terms of dislocation density, bond length, lattice parameters and micro strain with respect to dopant concentration were analysed. The prominent variations in the crystallite size, optical band gap and Photoluminescence peak ratio of devices fabricated was observed. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images showed a change in diameter and density of the nanorods. The effect of the operating temperature, concentration of ethanol and the different doping levels of sensitivity, response and recovery time were investigated. It was inferred that 376% of sensitivity with a very quick response and recovery time of <5 s and 10 s respectively at 150 °C of 3ZN sensor has better performance compared to other three sensors. Also 3ZN sensor showed improved sensitivity of 114%, even at room temperature with response and recovery time of 35 s and 45 s respectively.

  18. Structure, morphology and optical properties of undoped and MN-doped ZnO(1-x)Sx nano-powders prepared by precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejene, F. B.; Onani, M. O.; Koao, L. F.; Wako, A. H.; Motloung, S. V.; Yihunie, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    The undoped and Mn-doped ZnO(1-x)Sx nano-powders were successfully synthesized by precipitation method without using any capping agent. Its structure, morphology, elemental analysis, optical and luminescence properties were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV-vis spectroscopy (UV) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). A typical SEM image of the un-doped ZnO(1-x)Sx nanoparticles exhibit flake like structures that changes to nearly spherical particles with Mn-doping. The XRD of undoped and Mn doped ZnO(1-x)Sx pattern reveals the formation of a product indexed to the hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnS. The nanopowders have crystallite sizes estimated from XRD measurements were in the range of 10-20 nm. All the samples showed absorption maximum of ZnO(1-x)Sx at 271 nm and high transmittance in UV and visible region, respectively. The undoped ZnO(1-x)Sx nanoparticles show strong room-temperature photoluminescence with four emission bands centering at 338 nm, 384 nm, 448 nm and 705 nm that may originate to the impurity of ZnO(1-x)Sx, existence of oxide related defects. The calculated bandgap of the nanocrystalline ZnO(1-x)Sx showed a blue-shift with respect to the Mn-doping. The PL spectra of the Mn-doped samples exhibit a strong orange emission at around 594 nm attributed to the 4T1-6A1 transition of the Mn2+ ions.

  19. Wurtzite spin lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria Junior, Paulo E.; Xu, Gaofeng; Chen, Yang-Fang; Sipahi, Guilherme M.; Žutić, Igor

    2017-03-01

    Semiconductor lasers are strongly altered by adding spin-polarized carriers. Such spin lasers could overcome many limitations of their conventional (spin-unpolarized) counterparts. While the vast majority of experiments in spin lasers employed zinc-blende semiconductors, the room-temperature electrical manipulation was first demonstrated in wurtzite GaN-based lasers. However, the underlying theoretical description of wurtzite spin lasers is still missing. To address this situation, focusing on (In,Ga)N-based wurtzite quantum wells, we develop a theoretical framework in which the calculated microscopic spin-dependent gain is combined with a simple rate equation model. A small spin-orbit coupling in these wurtzites supports simultaneous spin polarizations of electrons and holes, providing unexplored opportunities to control spin lasers. For example, the gain asymmetry, as one of the key figures of merit related to spin amplification, can change the sign by simply increasing the carrier density. The lasing threshold reduction has a nonmonotonic dependence on electron-spin polarization, even for a nonvanishing hole spin polarization.

  20. Synthesis Structural and Optical Properties Of (Co, Al) co-doped ZnO Nano Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swapna, P.; Venkatramana Reddy, S.

    2018-02-01

    We prepared (Co, Al) co-doped ZnO nanostructures using the method chemical co-precipitation successfully, at room temperature using PEG (Poly ethylene glycol) as stabilizing agent. Samples are prepared with different concentrations by keeping aluminium at 5 mol percent constant and varying the concentration of cobalt from 1 to 5 mol percent. After the preparation all the samples are carefully subjected to characterizations such as XRD, SEM with EDS, TEM, PL and UV-VIS-NIR. XRD pattern shows that all the samples possess hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure having no secondary phases pertaining to Al or cobalt, which shows successful dissolution of the dopents. TEM results shows the accurate size of particles and is confirmed the XRD data. SEM images of all the samples shows that particles are in nearly spherical shape, EDS spectrum reveals that incorporation of cobalt and aluminum in host lattice. PL spectrum shows that all the samples containing two prominent peaks centered at 420 nm and 446 nm. UV-VIS-NIR spectra has shown three absorptions peaks in the range of wavelength 550 nm to 700 nm, which are ascribed as typical d-d transitions of cobalt ions.

  1. Effects of Na Doping on Structural, Optical, and Electronic Properties of ZnO Thin Films Fabricated by Sol-Gel Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Heliang; Yao, Zhen; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Xinqiang; Yu, Zhichao

    2018-04-01

    Undoped and Na-doped ZnO thin films were fabricated by sol-gel technique on quartz glass substrates and annealed at 500°C for 1 h. The structural properties of the films were characterized using x-ray diffraction analysis, which revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with no peaks corresponding to Na2O or other Na phases being found. Surface morphology observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the crystallite size and topographical properties of the ZnO films were influenced by the Na doping concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectra revealed presence of Na+ in ZnO regime. The transmittance spectra indicated that the average transmittance of Na-doped ZnO film was above 80% in the visible range, superior to that of the undoped film. There was a blue-shift in the ultraviolet absorption edge with increase of the Na content. Photoluminescence spectra illustrated two peaks, corresponding to ultraviolet near-band-edge and visible emission.

  2. Effects of lattice parameters on piezoelectric constants in wurtzite materials: A theoretical study using first-principles and statistical-learning methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momida, Hiroyoshi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2018-04-01

    Longitudinal piezoelectric constant (e 33) values of wurtzite materials, which are listed in a structure database, are calculated and analyzed by using first-principles and statistical learning methods. It is theoretically shown that wurtzite materials with high e 33 generally have small lattice constant ratios (c/a) almost independent of constituent elements, and approximately expressed as e 33 ∝ c/a - (c/a)0 with ideal lattice constant ratio (c/a)0. This relation also holds for highly-piezoelectric ternary materials such as Sc x Al1- x N. We conducted a search for high-piezoelectric wurtzite materials by identifying materials with smaller c/a values. It is proposed that the piezoelectricity of ZnO can be significantly enhanced by substitutions of Zn with Ca.

  3. Synthesis, structural and optical properties of ZnO spindle/reduced graphene oxide composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, S.; Pudukudy, M.; Sohila, S.; Harish, S.; Navaneethan, M.; Navaneethan, D.; Ramesh, R.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, spindle-shaped ZnO and reduced graphene oxide sheets were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method and then ZnO/r-GO composite was prepared by a direct solution mixing method. Various characterization results confirmed the interior and surface decoration of spindle-shaped ZnO on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. The phase formation, crystalline structure, morphology, surface states and optical properties were characterized using Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of the hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure of ZnO with high crystalline quality. The band gap of the ZnO/r-GO composite was found to be low (3.03eV) compared to the band gap of spindle shaped ZnO (3.13 eV), as calculated from optical studies. The spindle-like morphology of the single crystalline ZnO was clearly shown in the electron microscopic images. The chemical bonding and surface states of the samples were studied using XPS measurement. Moreover, a possible growth mechanism for the ZnO spindle was proposed. The catalytic activity of the as-synthesized samples was evaluated for the photodegradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. Among the synthesized samples, the ZnO/r-GO composite showed higher degradation efficiency of 93% and successfully reused for four consecutive run without any activity loss.

  4. Growth of catalyst-free high-quality ZnO nanowires by thermal evaporation under air ambient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanowires have been successfully fabricated on Si substrate by simple thermal evaporation of Zn powder under air ambient without any catalyst. Morphology and structure analyses indicated that ZnO nanowires had high purity and perfect crystallinity. The diameter of ZnO nanowires was 40 to 100 nm, and the length was about several tens of micrometers. The prepared ZnO nanowires exhibited a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. The growth of the ZnO nanostructure was explained by the vapor-solid mechanism. The simplicity, low cost and fewer necessary apparatuses of the process would suit the high-throughput fabrication of ZnO nanowires. The ZnO nanowires fabricated on Si substrate are compatible with state-of-the-art semiconductor industry. They are expected to have potential applications in functional nanodevices. PMID:22502639

  5. Variation of crystal structure and optical properties of wurtzite-type oxide semiconductor alloys of β-Cu(Ga,Al)O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Hiraku; Mizuno, Yuki; Suzuki, Issei; Kita, Masao; Ohashi, Naoki; Omata, Takahisa

    2017-06-01

    Band-gap engineering of β-CuGaO2 was demonstrated by the alloying of gallium with aluminum, that is, Cu(Ga1-xAlx)O2. The ternary wurtzite β-NaFeO2-type alloys were obtained in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.7, and γ-LiAlO2-type phase appeared in the range 0.7 ≤ x ≤ 1. The energy band gap of wurtzite β-CuGaO2 was controlled in the range between 1.47 and 2.09 eV. A direct band gap for x < 0.6 and indirect band gap for x ≥ 0.6 were proposed based on the structural distortion in the β-NaFeO2-type phase and density functional theory (DFT) calculation of β-CuAlO2. The DFT calculation also indicated that the γ-LiAlO2-type phases appeared in 0.7 ≤ x ≤ 1 are also indirect-gap semiconductors.

  6. Effects of different compositions from magnetic and nonmagnetic dopants on structural and electrical properties of ZnO nanoparticles-based varistor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendi, Rabab Khalid

    2018-03-01

    In the current study, 20 nm zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were used to manufacture high-density ZnO discs doped with Mn and Sn via the conventional ceramic processing method, and their properties were characterized. Results show that the dopants were found to have significant effects on the ZnO varistors, especially on the shape and size of grains, which are significantly different for both dopants. The strong solid-state reaction in the varistor from the 20 nm ZnO powder during the sintering process may be attributed to the high surface area of the 20 nm ZnO nanoparticles. Although Mn and Sn do not affect the well-known peaks related to the wurtzite structure of ZnO ceramics, a few of the additional peaks could be formed at high doping content (≥2.0) due to the formation of other unknown phases during the sintering process. Both additives also significantly affect the electrical properties of the varistor, with a marked changed in the breakdown voltage from 415 V to 460 V for Sn and from 400 V to 950 V for Mn. Interestingly, the electrical behaviors of the varistors, such as breakdown voltage, nonlinear coefficient, and barrier height, are higher for Mn- than Sn-doping samples, and the opposite behaviors hold for hardness, leakage currents, and electrical conductivities. Results show that the magnetic moment and valence state of the two additive dopants are responsible for all demonstrated differences in the electrical characteristics between the two dopants.

  7. Structural Stability and Defect Energetics of ZnO from Diffusion Quantum Monte Carlo

    DOE PAGES

    Santana Palacio, Juan A.; Krogel, Jaron T.; Kim, Jeongnim; ...

    2015-04-28

    We have applied the many-body ab-initio diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) method to study Zn and ZnO crystals under pressure, and the energetics of the oxygen vacancy, zinc interstitial and hydrogen impurities in ZnO. We show that DMC is an accurate and practical method that can be used to characterize multiple properties of materials that are challenging for density functional theory approximations. DMC agrees with experimental measurements to within 0.3 eV, including the band-gap of ZnO, the ionization potential of O and Zn, and the atomization energy of O2, ZnO dimer, and wurtzite ZnO. DMC predicts the oxygen vacancy asmore » a deep donor with a formation energy of 5.0(2) eV under O-rich conditions and thermodynamic transition levels located between 1.8 and 2.5 eV from the valence band maximum. Our DMC results indicate that the concentration of zinc interstitial and hydrogen impurities in ZnO should be low under n-type, and Zn- and H-rich conditions because these defects have formation energies above 1.4 eV under these conditions. Comparison of DMC and hybrid functionals shows that these DFT approximations can be parameterized to yield a general correct qualitative description of ZnO. However, the formation energy of defects in ZnO evaluated with DMC and hybrid functionals can differ by more than 0.5 eV.« less

  8. Structural, electrical and optical properties of Al-Sn codoped ZnO transparent conducting layer deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedia, A.; Bedia, F. Z.; Aillerie, M.; Maloufi, N.

    2017-11-01

    Low cost Al-Sn codoped ZnO (ATZO) Transparent Conductive Oxide films were deposited by spray pyrolysis on glass substrate. The influence of Al-Sn codoping on the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films was studied by comparing the same properties obtained in undoped ZnO, Al doped ZnO (AZO) and Sn doped ZnO (TZO) thin films. The so-obtained films crystallized in hexagonal wurtzite structure. The morphology and structural defects have been investigated by both High resolution Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Raman spectroscopy at 532 nm excitation source. In the visible region, the undoped and doped films show an average transmittance of the order of 85%, while for ATZO thin film, it is of the order of 72%, which points out a degradation of the optical properties due to the co-doping. The optical band gap of ATZO thin film achieves 3.31eV and this shift, compared to the referred samples is attributed to the Burstein-Moss (BM) and band gap narrowing (BGN) opposite effects which is due to the increase of the carrier concentration in degenerate semiconductors. Within all the samples, the ATZO thin film exhibits the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.56 × 10-3 Ωcm with a Hall mobility equal to 2.13 cm2 V-1s-1, and the highest carrier concentration of 6.41 × 1020 cm-3. The performance of ATZO transparent conductive oxide film are determined by its figure of merit (φTC), found equal to 1.69 10-4 Ω-1, which is a suitable value for potentially high-performance solar cell applications.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalysis enhancement of Eu2O3-ZnO mixed oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, W. S.; Abu-Dief, Ahmed M.

    2018-05-01

    Pure ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and mixed Eu2O3 and ZnO NPs with different Eu2O3 ratios (5%, 10%, and 15%) were synthesized by a precipitation method under optimum conditions. The synthesized samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The as-synthesized ZnO NPs exhibit high phase purity and a highly crystalline wurtzite ZnO structure. The mixed Eu2O3 and ZnO NPs exhibit a Eu2O3 zinc blend phase in addition to the wurtzite phase of pure ZnO, confirming the high purity and good crystallinity of the as-synthesized samples. The high-purity formation of ZnO and Eu2O3 phases was confirmed by FTIR and Raman spectra. Microstructural analysis by SEM and TEM confirmed the sphere-like morphology with different particle sizes (29-40 nm) of the as-synthesized samples. The photocatalytic activities of pure ZnO NPs and mixed Eu2O3 and ZnO NPs for the degradation of methylene blue were evaluated under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The results show that Eu2O3 plays an important role in the enhancement of the photocatalytic properties of ZnO NPs. We found that mixed 5% Eu2O3 and ZnO NPs exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity (degradation efficiency of 96.5% after 180 min of UV irradiation) as compared with pure ZnO NPs (degradation efficiency of 80.3% after 180 min of UV irradiation). The increased photocatalytic activity of the optimum mixed Eu2O3 and ZnO NPs is due to the high crystallinity, high surface area with small particle size, and narrow energy gap.

  10. Elemental, morphological, structural, optical, and magnetic properties of erbium doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poornaprakash, B.; Chalapathi, U.; Purusottam Reddy, B.; Prabhakar Vattikuti, S. V.; Siva Pratap Reddy, M.; Park, Si-Hyun

    2018-03-01

    The sensible tuning of the structural, optical, and magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with suitable doping can enhance their applicability in diverse fields. In this study, we synthesized ZnO NPs with Er (0-4 at%) doping and their elemental, structural, optical, and magnetic properties were studied. Both field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies of the suspensions consist of hexagonal shaped NPs. All the prepared NPs exhibited hexagonal phase as demonstrated by powder x-ray diffraction studies. A blue shift was observed in the Er doped ZnO NPs compared to pure ZnO, indicating the increased optical bandgap. Vibrating sample magnetometer studies exhibited the pure ZnO NPs was typical diamagnetic feature whereas all the Er doped ZnO NPs were paramagnetic feature at 300 K. This is the first paramagnetic report on Er doped ZnO NPs.

  11. The optoelectronic properties and role of Cu concentration on the structural and electrical properties of Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omri, K.; Bettaibi, A.; Khirouni, K.; El Mir, L.

    2018-05-01

    In the current study, we synthesized a Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) nanoparticles material using a sol-gel method with different doping concentrations of Cu (0, 2, 3 and 4 at.%). The control of the Cu concentration on structural, electrical and optical properties of CZO nanoparticles was investigated in detail. The XRD analysis of the CZO nanoparticles reveals the formation of ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure for all samples which confirm the incorporation of Cu2+ ions into the ZnO lattice by substitution. Furthermore, CZO nanoparticles showed a small red shift of absorption band with the incorporation of Cu from 0 to 4 at.%; i.e. a decreased band gap value from 3.34 eV to 3.27 eV with increasing of Cu doping content. The frequency dispersion of the electric conductivity were studied using the Jonscher universal power law, according to relation σ(ω) = σDC + A ωs(T). Alternative current conductivity increases with increasing Cu content in spite of the decrease the activation energy with copper loading. It was found that the conductivity reached its maximum value for critical Cu concentration of 3 at.%. The frequency relaxation phenomenon was also investigated and all results were discussed in term of the copper doping concentration.

  12. Effect of Co doping concentration on structural properties and optical parameters of Co-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel dip-coating method.

    PubMed

    Nam, Giwoong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Kim, Byunggu; Lee, Dong-Yul; Kim, Jong Su; Leem, Jae-Young

    2014-11-01

    The structural and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by a sol-gel dip-coating method were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films were grown with a c-axis preferred orientation. The position of the (002) peak was almost the same in all samples, irrespective of the Co concentration. It is thus clear that Co doping had little effect on the position of the (002) peak. To confirm that Co2+ was substituted for Zn2+ in the wurtzite structure, optical measurements were conducted at room temperature by a UV-visible spectrometer. Three absorption peaks are apparent in the Co-doped ZnO thin films that do not appear for the undoped ZnO thin film. As the Co concentration was increased, absorption related to characteristic Co2+ transitions increased because three absorption band intensities and the area underneath the absorption wells between 500 and 700 nm increased with increasing Co concentration. The optical band gap and static dielectric constant decreased and the Urbach energy and extinction coefficient increased with increasing Co concentration.

  13. Fabrication of Flower-like ZnO Micro/Nanostructures for Photodegradation of Pre-treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Sze-Mun; Wong, Kok-Ann; Sin, Jin-Chung

    2018-01-01

    Flower-like ZnO micro/nanostructures were fabricated by a simple and surfactant-free reflux method. X-ray diffraction findings showed that the prepared ZnO product was highly crystallite with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The band gap energy of ZnO sample was measured to be 3.18 eV via an optical reflectance spectrum. The flower-like morphological features of ZnO micro/nanostructures were witnessed through field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Such micro/nanoparticles could be used in the photodegradation of pre-treated palm oil mil effluent (POME) under UV irradiation.

  14. Structural studies of ZnO nanostructures by varying the deposition parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, S. H. A.; Sahdan, M. Z.; Ichimura, M.; Supee, A.; Rahim, S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film on the growth of ZnO nanorods (NRs) was investigated. The structures of ZnO NRs were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method in aqueous solution of N2O6Zn.6H2O and C6H12N4 at 90°C of deposition temperature. One of the ZnO NRs samples was deposited on a ZnO seed layer coated on a glass substrate to investigate the properties of ZnO NRs without receiving effect of other materials. Next, for diode application, the ZnO NRs was deposited on tin monosulfide (SnS) coated on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate (SnS/ITO). The next, the ZnO structural properties were studied from surface morphology, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) spectra, and chemical composition by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), XRD and energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The growth of ZnO NRs on ZnO seed layer was investigated by ZnO seed layer condition while the growth of ZnO NRs on SnS/ITO was investigated by deposition time and deposition temperature parameters. From FESEM images, aligned ZnO NRs were obtained, and the diameters of ZnO NRs were 0.024-3.94 µm. The SnS thin film was affected by the diameter of ZnO NRs which are the ZnO NRs grow on SnS thin films has a larger diameter compared to ZnO NRs grow on ZnO seed layer. Besides that, all of ZnO peaks observed from XRD corresponding to the wurzite structure and preferentially oriented along the c-axis. In addition, EDX shows a high composition of zinc (Zn) and oxygen (O) signals, which indicated that the NRs are indeed made up of Zn and O.

  15. Room temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal reaction

    SciT

    Iwan, S., E-mail: iwan-sugihartono@unj.ac.id; Prodi Ilmu Material, Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok; Fauzia, Vivi

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were fabricated by a hydrothermal reaction on silicon (Si) substrate at 95 °C for 6 hours. The ZnO seed layer was fabricated by depositing ZnO thin films on Si substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolisis (USP). The annealing effects on crystal structure and optical properties of ZnO nanorods were investigated. The post-annealing treatment was performed at 800 °C with different environments. The annealed of ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) in order to analyze crystal structure and optical properties, respectively. The results show the orientations of [002], [101], [102], and [103] diffractionmore » peaks were observed and hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO nanorods were vertically grown on Si substrates. The room temperature PL spectra show ultra-violet (UV) and visible emissions. The annealed of ZnO nanorods in vacuum condition (3.8 × 10{sup −3} Torr) has dominant UV emission. Meanwhile, non-annealed of ZnO nanorods has dominant visible emission. It was expected that the annealed of ZnO in vacuum condition suppresses the existence of native defects in ZnO nanorods.« less

  16. Hydrothermal temperature effect on crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity of ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhafina, Wan Almaz; Salleh, Hasiah; Daud, Mohd Zalani; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ghazali, Salmah Mohd

    2017-09-01

    ZnO is an wide direct band gap semiconductor and possess rich family of nanostructures which turned to be a key role in the nanotechnology field of applications. Hydrothermal method was proven to be simple, robust and low cost among the reported methods to synthesize ZnO nanostructures. In this work, the properties of ZnO nanostructures were altered by varying temperatures of hydrothermal process. The changes in term of morphological, crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity were investigated. A drastic change of ZnO nanostructures morphology and decreases of 002 diffraction peak were observed as the hydrothermal temperature increased. The band gap of samples decreased as the size of ZnO nanostructure increased, whereas the electrical conductivity had no influence on the band gap value but more on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures instead.

  17. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer.

    PubMed

    Khun, Kimleang; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees A; Willander, Magnus

    2013-09-30

    In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices.

  18. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Khun, Kimleang; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; AlSalhi, Mohamad S.; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees A.; Willander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices. PMID:28788336

  19. Fabrication of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric for wearable device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandiyarasan, V.; Suhasini, S.; Archana, J.; Navaneethan, M.; Majumdar, Abhijit; Hayakawa, Y.; Ikeda, H.

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric (CF) s a flexible material for an application of wearable thermoelectric (TE) power generator which requires super-hydrophobicity, UV protection, and high TE efficiency. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the formed ZnO nanostructures have a mixture of nanorods and nanosheets and are uniformly coated on the CF. XRD pattern and Raman spectra revealed that the ZnO nanostructure has a wurtzite structure. Contact angle measurements showed that the ZnO-nanostructures-coated CF possessed a high super hydrophobic nature with an angle of 132.5°. ZnO nanocomposite/CF sample exhibited an excellent UV protection factor 183.84. Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power factor of the ZnO nanostructures on cotton fabric were evaluated to be 28 μV/K, 0.04 Ω-cm, and 22 μW/m K2, respectively.

  20. Flexible cellulose and ZnO hybrid nanocomposite and its UV sensing characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Seongcheol; Kim, Hyun Chan; Ko, Hyun-U.; Zhai, Lindong; Kim, Jung Woong; Kim, Jaehwan

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and UV sensing characteristics of a cellulose and ZnO hybrid nanocomposite (CEZOHN) prepared by exploiting the synergetic effects of ZnO functionality and the renewability of cellulose. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown well on a flexible cellulose film by direct ZnO seeding and hydrothermal growing processes. The ZnO nanorods have the wurtzite structure and an aspect ratio of 9 11. Photoresponse of the prepared CEZOHN was evaluated by measuring photocurrent under UV illumination. CEZOHN shows bi-directional, linear and fast photoresponse as a function of UV intensity. Electrode materials, light sources, repeatability, durability and flexibility of the prepared CEZOHN were tested and the photocurrent generation mechanism is discussed. The silver nanowire coating used for electrodes on CEZOHN is compatible with a transparent UV sensor. The prepared CEZOHN is flexible, transparent and biocompatible, and hence can be used for flexible and wearable UV sensors.

  1. Flexible cellulose and ZnO hybrid nanocomposite and its UV sensing characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Seongcheol; Kim, Hyun Chan; Ko, Hyun-U; Zhai, Lindong; Kim, Jung Woong; Kim, Jaehwan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper reports the synthesis and UV sensing characteristics of a cellulose and ZnO hybrid nanocomposite (CEZOHN) prepared by exploiting the synergetic effects of ZnO functionality and the renewability of cellulose. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown well on a flexible cellulose film by direct ZnO seeding and hydrothermal growing processes. The ZnO nanorods have the wurtzite structure and an aspect ratio of 9 ~ 11. Photoresponse of the prepared CEZOHN was evaluated by measuring photocurrent under UV illumination. CEZOHN shows bi-directional, linear and fast photoresponse as a function of UV intensity. Electrode materials, light sources, repeatability, durability and flexibility of the prepared CEZOHN were tested and the photocurrent generation mechanism is discussed. The silver nanowire coating used for electrodes on CEZOHN is compatible with a transparent UV sensor. The prepared CEZOHN is flexible, transparent and biocompatible, and hence can be used for flexible and wearable UV sensors. PMID:28740560

  2. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Eriksson, Martin; AlSalhi, Mohammad; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees; Willander, Magnus

    2013-08-19

    Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c -axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

  3. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Eriksson, Martin; AlSalhi, Mohammad; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees; Willander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c-axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role. PMID:28811454

  4. Structural and rectifying junction properties of self-assembled ZnO nanoparticles in polystyrene diblock copolymers on (1 0 0)Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. A.; Iliadis, A. A.; Martinez-Miranda, L. J.; Lee, U.

    2006-06-01

    The structural and electronic transport properties of self-assembled ZnO nanoparticles in polystyrene-acrylic acid, [PS] m/[PAA] n, diblock copolymer on p-type (1 0 0)Si substrates are reported for the first time. Four different block repeat unit ratios ( m/ n) of 159/63, 139/17,106/17, and 106/4, were examined in order to correlate the physical parameters (size, density) of the nanoparticles with the copolymer block lengths m and n. We established that the self-assembled ZnO nanoparticle average size increased linearly with minority block length n, while the average density decreased exponentially with majority block length m. Average size varied from 20 nm to 250 nm and average density from 3.5 × 10 7 cm -2 to 1 × 10 10 cm -2, depending on copolymer parameters. X-ray diffraction studies showed the particles to have a wurtzite crystal structure with the (1 0 0) being the dominant orientation. Room temperature current-voltage characteristics measured for an Al/ZnO-nanocomposite/Si structure exhibited rectifying junction properties and indicated the formation of Al/ZnO-nanocomposite Schottky type junction with a barrier height of 0.7 V.

  5. Effect of Sn doping on structural, mechanical, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanoarrays prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Manish Baboo; Sharma, Akash; Malaidurai, M.; Thangavel, R.

    2018-05-01

    Undoped and Sn doped Zinc oxide nanorods were prepared by two step process: initially growth of seed layers by sol-gel spin coating technique and then zinc oxide nanorods by hydrothermal process using the precursors zinc nitrate hexahydrate, hexamine and tin chloride. The effects on the electrical, optical, mechanical and structural properties for various Sn concentrations were studied. The crystalline phase determination from X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that Sn doped ZnO nanorods have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The variations of stress and strain with different doping concentration of Sn in ZnO nanorods were studied. The doping effect on electrical properties and optical bandgap is estimated by current voltage characteristics and absorbance spectra respectively. The surface morphology was studied with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), which shows that the formation of hexagonal nanorods arrays with increasing Sn concentration. The calculated value of Young's modulus of elasticity (Y) for all the samples remains same. These results can be used in optoelectronic devices.

  6. In vitro antibacterial activity of ZnO and Nd doped ZnO nanoparticles against ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Abdulrahman Syedahamed Haja; Karthikeyan, Chandrasekaran; Ahamed, Abdulazees Parveez; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Ravi, Ganasan

    2016-04-01

    Pure ZnO and Neodymium (Nd) doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles retained the wurtzite hexagonal structure. From FESEM studies, ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs showed nanorod and nanoflower like morphology respectively. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the Zn-O stretching bands at 422 and 451 cm-1 for ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs respectively. From the UV-VIS spectroscopic measurement, the excitonic peaks were found around 373 nm and 380 nm for the respective samples. The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the broad emission was composed of ten different bands due to zinc vacancies, oxygen vacancies and surface defects. The antibacterial studies performed against extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that the Nd doped ZnO NPs possessed a greater antibacterial effect than the pure ZnO NPs. From confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analysis, the apoptotic nature of the cells was confirmed by the cell shrinkage, disorganization of cell wall and cell membrane and dead cell of the bacteria. SEM analysis revealed the existence of bacterial loss of viability due to an impairment of cell membrane integrity, which was highly consistent with the damage of cell walls.

  7. In vitro antibacterial activity of ZnO and Nd doped ZnO nanoparticles against ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Abdulrahman Syedahamed Haja; Karthikeyan, Chandrasekaran; Ahamed, Abdulazees Parveez; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Ravi, Ganasan

    2016-01-01

    Pure ZnO and Neodymium (Nd) doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles retained the wurtzite hexagonal structure. From FESEM studies, ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs showed nanorod and nanoflower like morphology respectively. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the Zn-O stretching bands at 422 and 451 cm−1 for ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs respectively. From the UV-VIS spectroscopic measurement, the excitonic peaks were found around 373 nm and 380 nm for the respective samples. The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the broad emission was composed of ten different bands due to zinc vacancies, oxygen vacancies and surface defects. The antibacterial studies performed against extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that the Nd doped ZnO NPs possessed a greater antibacterial effect than the pure ZnO NPs. From confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analysis, the apoptotic nature of the cells was confirmed by the cell shrinkage, disorganization of cell wall and cell membrane and dead cell of the bacteria. SEM analysis revealed the existence of bacterial loss of viability due to an impairment of cell membrane integrity, which was highly consistent with the damage of cell walls. PMID:27071382

  8. Dynamic defect annealing in wurtzite MgZnO implanted with Ar ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarov, A. Yu.; Wendler, E.; Du, X. L.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.; Svensson, B. G.

    2015-09-01

    Successful implementation of ion beams for modification of ternary ZnO-based oxides requires understanding and control of radiation-induced defects. Here, we study structural disorder in wurtzite ZnO and MgxZn1-xO (x ⩽ 0.3) samples implanted at room and 15 K temperatures with Ar ions in a wide fluence range (5 × 1012-3 × 1016 cm-2). The samples were characterized by Rutherford backscattering/channeling spectrometry performed in-situ without changing the sample temperature. The results show that all the samples exhibit high radiation resistance and cannot be rendered amorphous even for high ion fluences. Increasing the Mg content leads to some damage enhancement near the surface region; however, irrespective of the Mg content, the fluence dependence of bulk damage in the samples displays the so-called IV-stage evolution with a reverse temperature effect for high ion fluences.

  9. Structural, Optical, and Photocatalytic Properties of Quasi-One-Dimensional Nanocrystalline ZnO, ZnOC:nC Composites, and C-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaeva, E. V.; Gyrdasova, O. I.; Krasilnikov, V. N.; Melkozerova, M. A.; Baklanova, I. V.; Buldakova, L. Yu.

    Various thermolysis rotes of zinc glicolate complexes are considered for the synthesis of quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured aggregates ZnO and Zn-O-C used as photocatalysts. Structural features of quasi-one-dimensional aggregates Zn-O-C and ZnO are investigated in detail. Transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy methods demonstrate that the aggregates Zn-O-C have either composite structure (ZnO crystallites in amorphous carbon matrix) or a C-doped ZnO single-phase structure depending on heat treatment conditions, and that all the aggregates exhibit as a rule a tubular morphology, a nanocrystalline structure with a high specific surface area, and a high concentration of singly charged oxygen vacancies. The mechanism of the nanocrystalline structure formation is discussed and the effect of thermolysis condition on the formation of the textured structure of aggregates is investigated. The results of examination of the photocatalytic and optical absorption properties of the synthesized aggregates are presented. The photocatalytic activity for the hydroquinone oxidation reaction under ultraviolet and visible light increases in the series: the reference ZnO powder, quasi-one-dimensional ZnO, quasi-one-dimensional aggregates C-doped ZnO, and this tendency correlates with the reduction of the optical gap width. As a result of our studies, we have arrived at an important conclusion that thermal treatment of ZnO:nC composites allows a C-doped ZnO with high catalytic activity. This increasing photoactivity of C-doped ZnO aggregates is attributed to the optimal specific surface area and electron-energy spectrum restructuring to be produced owing to the presence of singly charged oxygen vacancies and carbon dissolved in the ZnO lattice.

  10. Evolution of Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown on Vacuum Annealed Seed Crystallites

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fasihullah; Ajmal, Hafiz Muhammad Salman; Huda, Noor Ul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sam-Dong

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the ambient condition for the as-coated seed layer (SL) annealing at 350 °C is varied from air or nitrogen to vacuum to examine the evolution of structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods (NRs). The NR crystals of high surface density (~240 rods/μm2) and aspect ratio (~20.3) show greatly enhanced (002) degree of orientation and crystalline quality, when grown on the SLs annealed in vacuum, compared to those annealed in air or nitrogen ambient. This is due to the vacuum-annealed SL crystals of a highly preferred orientation toward (002) and large grain sizes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also reveals that the highest O/Zn atomic ratio of 0.89 is obtained in the case of vacuum-annealed SL crystals, which is due to the effective desorption of hydroxyl groups and other contaminants adsorbed on the surface formed during aqueous solution-based growth process. Near band edge emission (ultra violet range of 360–400 nm) of the vacuum-annealed SLs is also enhanced by 44% and 33% as compared to those annealed in air and nitrogen ambient, respectively, in photoluminescence with significant suppression of visible light emission associated with deep level transition. Due to this improvement of SL optical crystalline quality, the NR crystals grown on the vacuum-annealed SLs produce ~3 times higher ultra violet emission intensity than the other samples. In summary, it is shown that the ZnO NRs preferentially grow along the wurtzite c-axis direction, thereby producing the high crystalline quality of nanostructures when they grow on the vacuum-annealed SLs of high crystalline quality with minimized impurities and excellent preferred orientation. The ZnO nanostructures of high crystalline quality achieved in this study can be utilized for a wide range of potential device applications such as laser diodes, light-emitting diodes, piezoelectric transducers and generators, gas sensors, and ultraviolet detectors. PMID:29373523

  11. The structural properties of flower-like ZnO nanostructures on porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eswar, Kevin Alvin; Suhaimi, Mohd Husairi Fadzillah; Guliling, Muliyadi; Mohamad, Maryam; Khusaimi, Zuraida; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, Saifollah

    2018-05-01

    The flower-like zinc oxide (ZnO) were successfully synthesized on porous silicon (PSi) via hydrothermal method. The characteristic of ZnO nanostructures was investigated using field emission scanning microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (X-Ray). The FESEM images show the flower-like ZnO nanostructures composed ZnO nanoparticles. The X-ray diffraction shows that strong intensity of (100), (002) and (101) peaks. The structural analysis revealed that the peaks angles were shifted due to the stress or imperfection of the crystalline of ZnO nanostructures. The crystalline sizes in range of 42.60 to 54.09 nm were produced.

  12. Effect of K-doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Linhua; Li, Xiangyin; Yuan, Jun

    2008-09-01

    In this work, K-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by a sol-gel method on Si(111) and glass substrates. The effect of different K-doping concentrations on structural and optical properties of the ZnO thin films was studied. The results showed that the 1 at.% K-doped ZnO thin film had the best crystallization quality and the strongest ultraviolet emission ability. When the concentration of K was above 1 at.%, the crystallization quality and ultraviolet emission ability dropped. For the K-doped ZnO thin films, there was not only ultraviolet emission, but also a blue emission signal in their photoluminescent spectra. The blue emission might be connected with K impurity or/and the intrinsic defects (Zn interstitial and Zn vacancy) of the ZnO thin films.

  13. Effect of Eu3+ doping on the structural, morphological and luminescence properties ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoditha, U.; Balakrishna, K. M.; Sarojini, B. K.; Narayana, B.; Kumara, K.

    2018-05-01

    Pure and Eu3+ ions (1, 3, 5 atomic wt%) doped ZnO nanostructures are synthesized by a surfactant assisted hydrothermal method. The effect of doping concentrations on structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures is studied. The XRD analysis shows good crystallinity and the phase purity of the ZnO nanostructures. A shift in the standard Zn-O stretching mode after Eu3+ doping is observed in the FTIR spectra. The images of FESEM demonstrate the morphological variations from hexagonal nanorods to nanoflowers on varying the dopant concentrations. Substitution of Eu3+ ions into Zn2+ sites is confirmed by EDX analysis. The dominance of particle shape over the UV-Visible absorption properties of the prepared samples is noticed. The photoluminescence (PL) emission of undoped and doped ZnO nanostructures show dominant near band edge emission (NBE) in the UV region and minor defect induced deep level emissions in the visible region.

  14. Effects of (Ce, Cu) Co-doping on the Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Aerogels Synthesized in Supercritical Ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouadi, D.; Slimi, O.; Hammiche, L.; Chelouche, A.; Touam, T.

    2018-03-01

    Undoped, Ce-doped, Cu-doped and (Ce,Cu ) co-doped ZnO aerogels were synthesized by sol-gel process in supercritical conditions of ethanol. [Cu]/[Zn] and [Ce]/[Zn] atomic ratios were fixed at 0.02 (2%). The aerogels were investigated without any additional treatments by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). XRD results revealed that all the samples are well crystallized in hexagonal wurtzite structure. EDS measurements showed that highly pure aerogels are prepared. SEM analysis indicated that the morphology of the samples is dependent on Cu and Ce dopants. From UV-visible spectroscopy analyses, it was shown that the absorption and the band gap of the aerogels are strongly affected by Ce and Cu dopants. FTIR spectra demonstrated that co-doping induces a shift of Zn-O bond vibration band toward low wavenumbers. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra put into evidence that the visible emission intensity is influenced by Ce and Cu doping. In particular, the co-doping leads to the appearance of a blue emission band at 443 nm.

  15. Study of ZnO and Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles by sol-gel process

    SciT

    Ansari, Mohd Meenhaz, E-mail: meenhazphysics@gmail.com; Arshad, Mohd; Tripathi, Pushpendra

    Nano-crystalline undoped and Mg doped ZnO (Mg-ZnO) nanoparticles with compositional formula Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O (x=0,1,3,5,7,10 and 12 %) were synthesized using sol-gel process. The XRD diffraction peaks match with the pattern of the standard hexagonal structure of ZnO that reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure in all samples. SEM images demonstrates clearly the formation of spherical ZnO nanoparticles, and change of the morphology of the nanoparticles with the concentration of the magnesium, which is in close agreement with that estimated by Scherer formula based on the XRD pattern. To investigate the doping effect on optical properties, the UV–VIS absorptionmore » spectra was obtained and the band gap of the samples calculated.« less

  16. Investigation and characterization of ZnO single crystal microtubes

    SciT

    Al-Naser, Qusay A.H.; Zhou, Jian, E-mail: jianzhou@whut.edu.cn; Liu, Guizhen

    2016-04-15

    Morphological, structural, and optical characterization of microwave synthesized ZnO single crystal microtubes were investigated in this work. The structure and morphology of the ZnO microtubes are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), single crystal diffraction (SCD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveal that the as-synthesized ZnO microtube has a highly regular hexagonal cross section and smooth surfaces with an average length of 650–700 μm, an average outer diameter of 50 μm and wall thickness of 1–3 μm, possessing a single crystal wurtzite hexagonal structure. Optical properties of ZnOmore » single crystal microtubes were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption techniques. Room-temperature PL spectrum of the microtube reveal a strong UV emission peak at around 375.89 nm and broad and a weak visible emission with a main peak identified at 577 nm, which was assigned to the nearest band-edge emission and the deep-level emission, respectively. The band gap energy of ZnO microtube was found to be 3.27 eV. - Highlights: • ZnO microtube length of 650–700 μm, diameter of 50 μm, wall thickness of 1–3 μm • ZnO microtube possesses a single crystal wurtzite hexagonal structure. • The crystal system is hexahedral oriented along a-axis with indices of (100). • A strong and sharp UV emission at 375.89 nm (3.29 eV) • One prominent absorption band around 378.88 nm (3.27 eV)« less

  17. Hydrothermal Growth of ZnO Nanowires on UV-Nanoimprinted Polymer Structures.

    PubMed

    Park, Sooyeon; Moore, Sean A; Lee, Jaejong; Song, In-Hyouk; Farshchian, Bahador; Kim, Namwon

    2018-05-01

    Integration of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires on miniaturized polymer structures can broaden its application in multi-functional polymer devices by taking advantages of unique physical properties of ZnO nanowires and recent development of polymer microstructures in analytical systems. In this paper, we demonstrate the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires on polymer microstructures fabricated by UV nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) using a polyurethane acrylate (PUA). Since PUA is a siloxane-urethane-acrylate compound containing the alpha-hydroxyl ketone, UV-cured PUA include carboxyl groups, which inhibit and suppress the nucleation and growth of ZnO nanowires on polymer structures. The presence of carboxyl groups in UV-cured PUA was substantiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a Ag thin film was deposited on the nanoimprinted polymer structures to limit their inhibitive influence on the growth of ZnO nanowires. Furthermore, the naturally oxidized Ag layer (Ag2O) reduced crystalline lattice mismatches at the interface between ZnO-Ag during the seed annealing process. The ZnO nanowires grown on the Ag-deposited PUA microstructures were found to have comparable morphological characteristics with ZnO nanowires grown on a Si wafer.

  18. Facile one-step synthesis of magnesium-doped ZnO nanoparticles: optical properties and their device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ji-Young; Lim, Sang-Chul; Ahn, Seong Deok; Lee, Sang Seok; Cho, Kyoung-Ik; Bon Koo, Jae; Choi, Rino; Hasan, Musarrat

    2013-07-01

    In this study, magnesium-doped (Mg-doped) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a sonochemical process under mild conditions. The x-ray diffraction pattern indicated that the Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles maintain a wurtzite structure without impurities. We observed a blue-shift of the bandgap of the Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles as the Mg-doping ratio increased. We also fabricated thin-film transistor (TFT) devices with the doped-ZnO nanoparticles. Devices using Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles as a channel layer showed insensibility to white-light irradiation compared with undoped ZnO TFTs.

  19. Direct Heteroepitaxial Growth of ZnO over GaN Crystal in Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Takahiro; Ito, Akihiro; Nagao, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Nobuyasu; Fujii, Eiji; Tsujimura, Ayumu

    2013-04-01

    We report on the structural and electrical properties of ZnO films grown on surface-treated GaN/Al2O3 substrates by chemical bath deposition. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the ZnO films had a single-crystalline wurtzite structure with c-axis orientation. The ZnO film exhibited n-type conduction with a carrier concentration of 6.9 ×1018 cm-3, an electron mobility of 41 cm2/(V.s), and a resistivity of 2.2 ×10-2 Ω.cm. A low specific contact resistivity of 4.3 ×10-3 Ω.cm2 was obtained at the ZnO/n-GaN interface. Additionally, the ZnO film exhibited high transparency in the visible and infrared region.

  20. Understanding lattice defects to influence ferromagnetic order of ZnO nanoparticles by Ni, Cu, Ce ions

    SciT

    Verma, Kuldeep Chand, E-mail: dkuldeep.physics@gmail.com; Kotnala, R.K., E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com

    Future spintronics technologies based on diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) will rely heavily on a sound understanding of the microscopic origins of ferromagnetism in such materials. It remains unclear, however, whether the ferromagnetism in DMS is intrinsic - a precondition for spintronics - or due to dopant clustering. For this, we include a simultaneous doping from transition metal (Ni, Cu) and rare earth (Ce) ions in ZnO nanoparticles that increase the antiferromagnetic ordering to achieve high-T{sub c} ferromagnetism. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns indicate that the dopant ions in ZnO had a wurtzite structure and the dopants, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+},more » Ce{sup 3+} ions, are highly influenced the lattice constants to induce lattice defects. The Ni, Cu, Ce ions in ZnO have nanoparticles formation than nanorods was observed in pure sample. FTIR involve some organic groups to induce lattice defects and the metal-oxygen bonding of Zn, Ni, Cu, Ce and O atoms to confirm wurtzite structure. Raman analysis evaluates the crystalline quality, structural disorder and defects in ZnO lattice with doping. Photoluminescence spectra have strong near-band-edge emission and visible emission bands responsible for defects due to oxygen vacancies. The energy band gap is calculated using Tauc relation. Room temperature ferromagnetism has been described due to bound magnetic polarons formation with Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 3+} ions in ZnO via oxygen vacancies. The zero field and field cooling SQUID measurement confirm the strength of antiferromagnetism in ZnO. The field cooling magnetization is studied by Curie-Weiss law that include antiferromagnetic interactions up to low temperature. The XPS spectra have involve +3/+4 oxidation states of Ce ions to influence the observed ferromagnetism. - Graphical abstract: The lattice defects/vacancies attributed by Ni and Ce ions in the wurtzite ZnO structure are responsible in high T{sub c} -ferromagnetism due to long

  1. Electronic structure of gadolinium complexes in ZnO in the GW approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, A. L.; Frauenheim, Th.

    2018-04-01

    The role of intrinsic defects has been investigated to determine binding energies and the electronic structure of Gd complexes in ZnO. We use density-functional theory and the GW method to show that the presence of vacancies and interstitials affect the electronic structure of Gd doped ZnO. However, the strong localization of the Gd-f and d states suggest that carrier mediated ferromagnetism in this material may be difficult to achieve.

  2. ZnO nanoparticles obtained by ball milling technique: Structural, micro-structure, optical and photo-catalytic properties

    SciT

    Balamurugan, S., E-mail: scandium.chemistry@gmail.com; Joy, Josny; Godwin, M. Anto

    The ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by ball milling of commercial grade ZnO powder at 250 rpm for 20 h and studied their structural, micro-structure, optical and photo-catalytic properties. Due to ball milling significant decrease in lattice parameters and average crystalline size is noticed for the as-milled ZnO nano powder. The HRSEM images of the as-milled powder consist of agglomerated fine spherical nanoparticles in the range of ~10-20 nm. The room temperature PL spectrum of as-milled ZnO nano powder excited under 320 nm reveals two emission bands at ~406 nm (violet emission) and ~639 nm (green emission). Interestingly about 98 % of photo degradation of methylene (MB)more » by the ZnO catalyst is achieved at 100 minutes of solar light irradiation.« less

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamgadge, Y. S.; Gedam, P. P.; Ganorkar, R. P.; Mahure, M. A.; Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present synthesis of L-valine assisted surface modification of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using chemical precipitation method. Samples were calcined at 500oC for 2h. Uncalcined and calcined samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Ni doped ZnO NPs with average particle size of 8 nm have been successfully obtained using L-valine as surface modifying agent. Increase in the particle size was observed after the calcination. XRD and TEM studies confirmed the purity, surface morphology and hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO NPs. UV-vis spectroscopy indicated the blue shift of excitons absorption wavelength and surface modification by L-valine.

  4. Theoretical investigation on thermodynamic properties of ZnO1-x Te x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Debing; Li, Mingkai; Luo, Minghai; Zhu, Jiakun; Yang, Hui; Huang, Zhongbing; Ahuja, Rajeev; He, Yunbin

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the formation energy, phase diagram (with/without phonon contribution) and the relationship between bond stiffness and bond length for wurtzite (WZ) and zincblende (ZB) structures of ZnO1-x Te x (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  1) alloys have been investigated by combining first-principles calculations and cluster expansion method. The formation energy of ZnO1-x Te x alloys is very high in both structures, which means that it is difficult for ZnO and ZnTe to form stable ternary alloys ZnO1-x Te x . In the phase diagrams, both structures do not have stable phase of ternary alloys and ZnO1-x Te x ternary alloys can only exist in the form of metastable phase. These results indicate that ZnO and ZnTe easily form solid solubility gap when they form alloys. After considering vibrational free energy, we found the solubility of Te in ZnO and O in ZnTe was increased and the vibrational entropy improved the solubility furthermore. The phonon contribution is not ignorable to improve solid solubility. The phonon density of states was analyzed for ZnO1-x Te x alloys and the contribution from vibrational entropy was discussed.

  5. Vertical growth of ZnO nanorods on ZnO seeded FTO substrate for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) were electrochemically grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) and ZnO seeded FTO substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, Raman spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO grown on a seeded FTO substrate has a high crystallinity, crystal quality and less atomic defects. Felid emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images display a high growth density of NRs grown on seeded FTO substrate compared to NRs grown on FTO substrate. The efficiency of the DSSCs based on NRs grown on FTO and seeded FTO substrates is 0.85 and 1.52 %, respectively. UV-Vis absorption spectra and electrochemical impedance spectra depict that the NRs grown on seeded FTO photoanode have higher dye absorption and charge recombination resistance than that of the NRs grown on FTO substrate.

  6. Influence Al doped ZnO nanostructure on structural and optical properties

    SciT

    Ramelan, Ari Handono, E-mail: aramelan@mipa.uns.ac.id; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti; Chasanah, Uswatul

    2016-04-19

    The preparation of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films prepared by the spin-coating method was reported. Preparation of AZO was conducted by annealing treatment at a temperature of 700°C. While the spin-coating process of AZO thin films were done at 2000 and 3000 rpm respectively. The structural properties of ZnO were determined by X- ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. ZnOnanostructure was formed after annealed at atemperature of 400°C.The morphology of ZnO was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed the irregular morphology about 30-50µm in size. Al doped on ZnO influenced the optical properties of those material. Increasing Al contain on ZnO causemore » of shifting to the lower wavelength. The optical properties of the ZnO as well as AZO films showed that higher reflectance on the ultraviolet region so those materials were used as anti-reflecting agent.Al addition significantly enhance the optical transparency and induce the blue-shift in optical bandgap of ZnO films.« less

  7. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures converted from ZnS nanoparticles

    SciT

    Patel, Prayas Chandra; Ghosh, Surajit; Srivastava, P.C., E-mail: pcsrivastava50@gmail.com

    Graphical abstract: The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. - Highlights: • Phase change of cubic ZnS to hexagonal ZnO via heat treatment. • Band gap was found to decrease with increasing calcinations temperature. • ZnO samples have higher magnetic moment than ZnS. • Blocking Temperature of the samples is well above room temperature. • Maximum negative%MR with saturation value ∼38% was found for sample calcined at 600° C. - Abstract: The present work concentrates on the synthesis of cubic ZnS and hexagonal ZnO semiconducting nanoparticle from same precursor via co-precipitation method.more » The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. From the analysis of influence of calcination temperature on the structural, optical and vibrational properties of the samples, an optimum temperature was found for the total conversion of ZnS nanoparticles to ZnO. Role of quantum confinement due to finite size is evident from the blue shift of the fundamental absorption in UV–vis spectra only in the ZnS nanoparticles. The semiconducting nature of the prepared samples is confirmed from the UV–vis, PL study and transport study. From the magnetic and transport studies, pure ZnO phase was found to be more prone to magnetic field.« less

  8. Electrical and structural properties of ZnO synthesized via infiltration of lithographically defined polymer templates

    SciT

    Nam, Chang-Yong, E-mail: cynam@bnl.gov; Stein, Aaron; Kisslinger, Kim

    We investigate the electrical and structural properties of infiltration-synthesized ZnO. In-plane ZnO nanowire arrays with prescribed positional registrations are generated by infiltrating diethlyzinc and water vapor into lithographically defined SU-8 polymer templates and removing organic matrix by oxygen plasma ashing. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that homogeneously amorphous as-infiltrated polymer templates transform into highly nanocrystalline ZnO upon removal of organic matrix. Field-effect transistor device measurements show that the synthesized ZnO after thermal annealing displays a typical n-type behavior, ∼10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} carrier density, and ∼0.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} electron mobility, reflecting highly nanocrystalline internal structure. The results demonstrate themore » potential application of infiltration synthesis in fabricating metal oxide electronic devices.« less

  9. Electrical and structural properties of ZnO synthesized via infiltration of lithographically defined polymer templates

    SciT

    Chang-Yong Nam; Stein, Aaron; Kisslinger, Kim

    We investigate the electrical and structural properties of infiltration-synthesized ZnO. In-plane ZnO nanowire arrays with prescribed positional registrations are generated by infiltrating diethlyzinc and water vapor into lithographically defined SU-8 polymer templates and removing organic matrix by oxygen plasma ashing. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that homogeneously amorphous as-infiltrated polymer templates transform into highly nanocrystalline ZnO upon removal of organic matrix. Field-effect transistor device measurements show that the synthesized ZnO after thermal annealing displays a typical n-type behavior, ~1019 cm -3 carrier density, and ~0.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 electron mobility, reflecting highly nanocrystalline internal structure. The results demonstratemore » the potential application of infiltration synthesis in fabricating metal oxide electronic devices.« less

  10. Electrical and structural properties of ZnO synthesized via infiltration of lithographically defined polymer templates

    DOE PAGES

    Chang-Yong Nam; Stein, Aaron; Kisslinger, Kim; ...

    2015-11-17

    We investigate the electrical and structural properties of infiltration-synthesized ZnO. In-plane ZnO nanowire arrays with prescribed positional registrations are generated by infiltrating diethlyzinc and water vapor into lithographically defined SU-8 polymer templates and removing organic matrix by oxygen plasma ashing. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that homogeneously amorphous as-infiltrated polymer templates transform into highly nanocrystalline ZnO upon removal of organic matrix. Field-effect transistor device measurements show that the synthesized ZnO after thermal annealing displays a typical n-type behavior, ~1019 cm -3 carrier density, and ~0.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 electron mobility, reflecting highly nanocrystalline internal structure. The results demonstratemore » the potential application of infiltration synthesis in fabricating metal oxide electronic devices.« less

  11. Induced structural defects in Ti-doped ZnO and its two-photon-excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Julca, Milton A.; Rivera, Ivonnemary; Santillan Mercado, Jaime; Sierra, Heidy; Perales-Pérez, Oscar

    2016-03-01

    ZnO is a well-known luminescent material that reacts with light to generate free radicals enabling its use in cancer treatment by Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). Unfortunately, up to know, the photo-excitation of ZnO-based materials' requires excitation with ultraviolet light, which limits their biomedical applications. In this regard, this work investigates the effect of Ti species incorporation into the lattice of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with the aim of improving the corresponding optical properties and enabling the two-photoexcitation with 690nm-light (near infrared light). A modified polyol-based route was used to synthesize pure and Ti-doped (9% at.) ZnO NPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of ZnO-wurtzite whereas Scanning Electron Microscopy confirmed the formation of monodispersed 100-nm NPs. Raman Spectroscopy measurements evidenced the presence of zinc interstitials (Zni) and oxygen vacancies (VO) in the host oxide strcuture. Asynthesized NPs were excited using the technique of two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPFM). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra generated from the analysis of TPFM images revealed a high emission peak presence in the green region (555 nm) that was assigned to VO. Also, a weak but noticeable band at 420 nm was detected, which is attributed to electron transition from the shallow donor level of Zni to the valence band. These PL transitions will favor triplet states formation necessary to yield cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, the presence of the PL peaks confirmed the Ti-ZnO NPs capacity to be excited by 690-nm light, thus, opening new possibilities for this NPs to be used in lightinduced bio-medical applications.

  12. ZnO nanofiber (NFs) growth from ZnO nanowires (NWs) by controlling growth temperature on flexible Teflon substrate by CBD technique for UV photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, O. F.; Halim, M. M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Qaeed, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, ZnO nanofibers (ZnO NFs) were successfully grown for the first time on Teflon substrates using CBD technique. The well-aligned ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) were transformed to ZnO nanofibers (NFs) by varying growth temperature and growth time. The high intensity and distinct growth orientation of peaks observed in the XRD spectra of the NFs indicate high crystal quality. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed high density of small diameter sized and long ZnO nanofibers (NFs) that are distributed in random directions. Raman analyses revealed a high E2 (high) peak at 436 nm, which indicates the wurtzite structure of ZnO. A flexible ZnO nanofiber (NFs)-based metal-semiconductor-metal UV detector was fabricated and analyzed for photo response and sensitivity under low power illumination (375 nm, 1.5 mW/cm2). The results showed a sensitivity of 4045% which can be considered a relatively high response and baseline recovery for UV detection.

  13. Synthesis of ZnO Photocatalysts Using Various Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chengli; Zhu, Jinmiao; Li, Hongying; Zheng, Bin; Wei, Yanxin

    2017-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured materials have received significant attention because of their unique physicochemical and electronic properties. In particular, the functional properties of ZnO are owed to its morphology and defect structure. ZnO particles were successfully synthesized by chemical precipitation. CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), BS-12 (dodecyl dimethyl betaine) and graphene oxide (GO) were selected as templates to induce the formation of ZnO, respectively. By varying the amount of surfactant added during the synthesis process, the structural properties and the crystalline phase of the synthesized nanospheres were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry (UV‒Vis). Simultaneously, photo catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was carried out under natural sunlight irradiation while ZnO or ZnO/GO particles were used as catalyst. GO is prone to induce formation of wurtzite hexagonal phase of ZnO. Compared with CTAB and BS-12, ZnO/GO composites had a remarkably photocatalytic degradation.

  14. Surface-emitting stimulated emission in high-quality ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Q.; Suemune, Ikuo; Kumano, H.; Wang, J.; Huang, S. H.

    2004-10-01

    High-quality ZnO thin films were grown by plasma-enhanced molecular-beam epitaxy on sapphire substrates. Three excitonic transitions associated with the valence bands A, B, and C were clearly revealed in the reflectance spectrum measured at 33K. This result indicates that the ZnO thin films have the wurtzite crystalline structure. The emission spectra were measured with backscattering geometry at room temperature. When the excitation exceeded a certain value, linewidth narrowing, nonlinear rise of emission intensity, and the shortening of the carrier lifetime were clearly observed and these demonstrate the onset of stimulated emission. Together with the ZnO thickness dependence, we conclude that the observation of a stimulated emission in a direction perpendicular to the film surface is predominantly due to scattering of the in-plane stimulated emission by slightly remaining surface undulations in the ZnO films.

  15. Water-repellent coatings prepared by modification of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Dinesh Kumar, V.

    Superhydrophobic coatings with a static water contact angle (WCA) > 150° were prepared by modifying ZnO nanoparticles with stearic acid (ZnO@SA). ZnO nanoparticles of size ˜14 nm were prepared by solution combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies reveal that as prepared ZnO has hexagonal wurtzite structure whereas the modified coatings convert to zinc stearate. Field emission scanning electron micrographs (FE-SEM) show the dual morphology of the coatings exhibiting both particles and flakes. The flakes are highly fluffy in nature with voids and nanopores. Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectrum shows the stearate ion co-ordinates with Zn2+ in the bidentate form. The surface properties such as surface free energy (γp) and work of adhesion (W) of the unmodified and modified ZnO coatings have been evaluated. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy reveals that surface defects play a major role in the wetting behavior.

  16. The Synthesis of Photocatalyst Material ZnO using the Simple Sonication Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faradis, R.; Azizah, E. N.; Marella, S. D.; Aini, N.; Prasetyo, A.

    2018-03-01

    ZnO is well known as photocatalyst material therefore potentially to applied in many purposes. The particle size of photocatalyst material influenced the catalytic activities. In this research, ZnO was synthesized using the simple sonication method to obtain the the smaller particle with sonication time variation respectively: 30, 60, 160, 360 minute. X-ray diffraction data showed that the synthesized material have wurtzite structure with space group P63 mc. The synthesized ZnO with 30 minutes sonication time produced the smallest particle size and have the lowest band gap energy (2.79 eV). The photocatalytic test at methylene blue also showed that the optimum activity was gained from ZnO which synthesized at 30 minute sonication time (degradation percentage of metylene blue is 77.93%).

  17. The SL-assisted synthesis of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Ting-Ting; Guo, Yuan-Ru; Pan, Qing-Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Hierarchical ZnO nanoparticle-bar, nanomesh-lamina, and quasi-nanosphere structures have been successfully synthesized by the precipitation method with assistance of sodium lignosulphonate (SL). It is shown that the obtained ZnO nanomaterials are well crystallized and possess hexagonal wurtzite structure after calcination. Morphologies of ZnO with particle sizes ranging from 50 to 200 nm can be fabricated by tuning the SL amount in our synthetic route. Plenty of pores have been observed both in nanoparticle-bar and nanomesh-lamina ZnO. This may provide scaffold microenvironments to enhance their photocatalytic activity. It is evident that the synthesized ZnO exhibits good photocatalytic activity of degrading methylene blue, even under a very low-power UV illumination, which allows for the treatment of wastewater containing organic pollutants in an effective way. Among our synthesized nanomaterials, the nanomesh-lamina ZnO has the highest photodegradation efficiency, achieving nearly 100 % degradation only within 1.5 h (UV irradiation power of 12 W). As these ZnO nanomaterials are simply synthesized using SL which is a pulp industry by-product and their intrinsic hierarchical nanostructures show outstanding photocatalytic behavior, we expect the present controllable, environment-friendly, and cost-effective approach to be applied in the synthesis of small-sized ZnO materials.

  18. Structure and morphology of magnetron sputter deposited ultrathin ZnO films on confined polymeric template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajaib; Schipmann, Susanne; Mathur, Aakash; Pal, Dipayan; Sengupta, Amartya; Klemradt, Uwe; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-08-01

    The structure and morphology of ultra-thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films with different film thicknesses on confined polymer template were studied through X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Using magnetron sputter deposition technique ZnO thin films with different film thicknesses (<10 nm) were grown on confined polystyrene with ∼2Rg film thickness, where Rg ∼ 20 nm (Rg is the unperturbed radius of gyration of polystyrene, defined by Rg = 0.272 √M0, and M0 is the molecular weight of polystyrene). The detailed internal structure, along the surface/interfaces and the growth direction of the system were explored in this study, which provides insight into the growth procedure of ZnO on confined polymer and reveals that a thin layer of ZnO, with very low surface and interface roughness, can be grown by DC magnetron sputtering technique, with approximately full coverage (with bulk like electron density) even in nm order of thickness, in 2-7 nm range on confined polymer template, without disturbing the structure of the underneath template. The resulting ZnO-polystyrene hybrid systems show strong ZnO near band edge (NBE) and deep-level (DLE) emissions in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra, where the contribution of DLE gets relatively stronger with decreasing ZnO film thickness, indicating a significant enhancement of surface defects because of the greater surface to volume ratio in thinner films.

  19. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Kunj, Saurabh, E-mail: saurabhkunj22@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-23

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O{sub 2}/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  20. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O2/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  1. Optical and structural properties of individual Co-doped ZnO microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomys, O. F.; Strelchuk, V. V.; Rarata, S. V.; Hayn, R.; Savoyant, A.; Giovannelli, F.; Delorme, F.; Tkach, V.

    2018-06-01

    The Co-doped ZnO microwires (MWs) were grown using the optical furnace method. We used Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and optical absorption spectroscopy to systematic investigation of the optical and structural properties of Co-doped ZnO MWs. The SEM analysis reveals that Co-doped ZnO MWs has hexagonal facets and cavity inside. The EDS results confirmed the presence and non-uniform distribution of Co impurities in the samples. Co doping of ZnO MWs leads to the decreased intensity, drastically broadening and high-energy shift of the NBE PL band. The red emission band at 1.85 eV originates from 2E(2G) → 4A2 (4F) intra-3d-transition of Co2+ in the ZnO lattice has been observed. The intense structured absorption bands within the near infrared ranges 3800-4800 and 5500-9000 cm-1 are caused by electronic spin-allowed transitions 4T2(F) ← 4A2(F) and 4T1(F) ← 4A2(F) of the tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ (3 d7) ions substituting Zn2+ ions in Co-doped ZnO MWs. Micro-Raman studies of Co doped ZnO MWs show doping/disorder induced additional modes as compared to the undoped sample. The resonant enhancement of the additional local Co-related A1-symmetry Raman mode is observed in the parallel polarization geometry y(z , z) ybar . For the Co doped ZnO MWs, the enhancement of the additional Co-related local vibration mode with an increase in the excitation photon energy is also observed in the Raman spectra.

  2. Photoelectrocatalytic activity of a hydrothermally grown branched Zno nanorod-array electrode for paracetamol degradation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin Jung; Liao, Shu-Jun; Kao, Li-Cheng; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2015-06-30

    Hierarchical branched ZnO nanorod (B-ZnR) arrays as an electrode for efficient photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using a solution route. The morphologic and structural studies show the ZnO trunks are single-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite ZnO with a [0001] growth direction and are densely covered by c-axis-oriented ZnO branches. The obvious enhancement in photocurrent response of the B-ZnR electrode was obtained than that in the ZnO nanoparticle (ZnO NP) electrode. For the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol in 20 h, the conversion fraction of the drug increased from 32% over ZnO NP electrode to 62% over B-ZnR arrays with about 3-fold increase in initial reaction rate. The light intensity-dependent photoelectrocatalytic experiment indicated that the superior performance over the B-ZnR electrode was mainly ascribed to the increased specific surface area without significantly sacrificing the charge transport and pollutant diffusion efficiencies. Two aromatic intermediate compounds were observed and eventually converted into harmless carboxylic acids and ammonia. Hierarchical tree-like ZnO arrays can be considered effective alternatives to improve photoelectro degradation rates without the need for expensive additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electron paramagnetic resonance in Cu-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheit, R.; Acosta-Humánez, F.; Almanza, O.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Zn1-xCuxO, x = 3%), with a calcination temperature of 500∘C were synthesized using the sol-gel method. The particles were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at X-band, measurement in a temperature range from 90 K to room temperature. AAS confirmed a good correspondence between the experimental doping concentration and the theoretical value. XRD reveals the presence of ZnO phase in hexagonal wurtzite structure and a nanoparticle size for the samples synthesized. EPR spectroscopy shows the presence of point defects in both samples with g-values of g = 1.959 for shallow donors and g = 2.004 for ionized vacancies. It is important when these materials are required have been used as catalysts, as suggested that it is not necessary prepare them at higher temperature. A simulation of the Cu EPR signal using an anisotropic spin Hamiltonian was performed and showed good coincidence with the experimental spectra. It was shown that Cu2+ ions enter interstitial octahedral sites of orthorhombic symmetry in the wurtzite crystal structure. Temperature dependence of the EPR linewidth and signal intensity shows a paramagnetic behavior of the sample in the measurement range. A Néel temperature TN = 78 ± 19 K was determined.

  4. Single and multi-layered core-shell structures based on ZnO nanorods obtained by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciT

    Sáenz-Trevizo, A.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.

    2015-07-15

    Core–shell nanorod structures were prepared by a sequential synthesis using an aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. Several samples consisting of ZnO nanorods were initially grown over TiO{sub 2} film-coated borosilicate glass substrates, following the synthesis conditions reported elsewhere. Later on, a uniform layer consisting of individual Al, Ni, Ti or Fe oxides was grown onto ZnO nanorod samples forming the so-called single MO{sub x}/ZnO nanorod core–shell structures, where MO{sub x} was the metal oxide shell. Additionally, a three-layer core–shell sample was developed by growing Fe, Ti and Fe oxides alternately, onto the ZnO nanorods. The microstructure of the core–shellmore » materials was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was employed to corroborate the formation of different metal oxides. X-ray diffraction outcomes for single core–shell structures showed solely the presence of ZnO as wurtzite and TiO{sub 2} as anatase. For the multi-layered shell sample, the existence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as hematite was also detected. Morphological observations suggested the existence of an outer material grown onto the nanorods and further microstructural analysis by HR-STEM confirmed the development of core–shell structures in all cases. These studies also showed that the individual Al, Fe, Ni and Ti oxide layers are amorphous; an observation that matched with X-ray diffraction analysis where no apparent extra oxides were detected. For the multi-layered sample, the development of a shell consisting of three different oxide layers onto the nanorods was found. Overall results showed that no alteration in the primary ZnO core was produced during the growth of the shells, indicating that the deposition technique used herein was and it is suitable for the synthesis of homogeneous and complex nanomaterials high in quality and purity. In

  5. Ab Initio Study of Structural and Electronic Properties of (ZnO) n "Magical" Nanoclusters n = (34, 60)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovhyra, Rostyslav; Popovych, Dmytro; Bovgyra, Oleg; Serednytski, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Density functional theory studies of the structural and electronic properties of nanoclusters (ZnO) n ( n = 34, 60) in different geometric configurations were conducted. For each cluster, an optimization (relaxation) of structure geometry was performed, and the basic properties of the band structure were investigated. It was established that for the (ZnO)34 nanoclusters, the most stable are fullerene-like hollow structures that satisfy the rule of six isolated quadrangles. For the (ZnO)60 nanoclusters, different types of isomers, including hollow structures and sodalite-like structures composed from (ZnO)12 nanoclusters, were investigated. It was determined that the most energetically favorable structure was sodalite-type structure composed of seven (ZnO)12 clusters with common quadrangle edges.

  6. Stability and band offsets between c-plane ZnO semiconductor and LaAlO3 gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianli; Chen, Xinfeng; Wu, Shuyin; Tang, Gang; Zhang, Junting; Stampfl, C.

    2018-03-01

    Wurtzite-perovskite heterostructures composed of a high dielectric constant oxide and a wide bandgap semiconductor envision promising applications in field-effect transistors. In the present paper, the structural and electronic properties of LaAlO3/ZnO heterojunctions are investigated by first-principles calculations. We study the initial adsorption of La, Al, and oxygen atoms on ZnO (0001) and (000 1 ¯ ) surfaces and find that La atoms may occupy interstitial sites during the growth of stoichiometric ZnO (0001). The band gap of the stoichiometric ZnO (0001) surface is smaller than that of the stoichiometric ZnO (000 1 ¯ ) surface. The surface formation energy indicates that La or Al atoms may substitute Zn atoms at the nonstoichiometric ZnO (0001) surface. The atomic charges, electronic density of states, and band offsets are analyzed for the optimized LaAlO3/ZnO heterojunctions. There is a band gap for the LaAlO3/ZnO (000 1 ¯ ) heterostructures, and the largest variation in charge occurs at the surface or interface. Our results suggest that the Al-terminated LaAlO3/ZnO (000 1 ¯ ) interfaces are suitable for the design of metal oxide semiconductor devices because the valence and conduction band offsets are both larger than 1 eV and the interface does not produce any in-gap states.

  7. Direct Band Gap Wurtzite Gallium Phosphide Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The main challenge for light-emitting diodes is to increase the efficiency in the green part of the spectrum. Gallium phosphide (GaP) with the normal cubic crystal structure has an indirect band gap, which severely limits the green emission efficiency. Band structure calculations have predicted a direct band gap for wurtzite GaP. Here, we report the fabrication of GaP nanowires with pure hexagonal crystal structure and demonstrate the direct nature of the band gap. We observe strong photoluminescence at a wavelength of 594 nm with short lifetime, typical for a direct band gap. Furthermore, by incorporation of aluminum or arsenic in the GaP nanowires, the emitted wavelength is tuned across an important range of the visible light spectrum (555–690 nm). This approach of crystal structure engineering enables new pathways to tailor materials properties enhancing the functionality. PMID:23464761

  8. Machine learning properties of binary wurtzite superlattices

    DOE PAGES

    Pilania, G.; Liu, X. -Y.

    2018-01-12

    The burgeoning paradigm of high-throughput computations and materials informatics brings new opportunities in terms of targeted materials design and discovery. The discovery process can be significantly accelerated and streamlined if one can learn effectively from available knowledge and past data to predict materials properties efficiently. Indeed, a very active area in materials science research is to develop machine learning based methods that can deliver automated and cross-validated predictive models using either already available materials data or new data generated in a targeted manner. In the present paper, we show that fast and accurate predictions of a wide range of propertiesmore » of binary wurtzite superlattices, formed by a diverse set of chemistries, can be made by employing state-of-the-art statistical learning methods trained on quantum mechanical computations in combination with a judiciously chosen numerical representation to encode materials’ similarity. These surrogate learning models then allow for efficient screening of vast chemical spaces by providing instant predictions of the targeted properties. Moreover, the models can be systematically improved in an adaptive manner, incorporate properties computed at different levels of fidelities and are naturally amenable to inverse materials design strategies. Finally, while the learning approach to make predictions for a wide range of properties (including structural, elastic and electronic properties) is demonstrated here for a specific example set containing more than 1200 binary wurtzite superlattices, the adopted framework is equally applicable to other classes of materials as well.« less

  9. Machine learning properties of binary wurtzite superlattices

    SciT

    Pilania, G.; Liu, X. -Y.

    The burgeoning paradigm of high-throughput computations and materials informatics brings new opportunities in terms of targeted materials design and discovery. The discovery process can be significantly accelerated and streamlined if one can learn effectively from available knowledge and past data to predict materials properties efficiently. Indeed, a very active area in materials science research is to develop machine learning based methods that can deliver automated and cross-validated predictive models using either already available materials data or new data generated in a targeted manner. In the present paper, we show that fast and accurate predictions of a wide range of propertiesmore » of binary wurtzite superlattices, formed by a diverse set of chemistries, can be made by employing state-of-the-art statistical learning methods trained on quantum mechanical computations in combination with a judiciously chosen numerical representation to encode materials’ similarity. These surrogate learning models then allow for efficient screening of vast chemical spaces by providing instant predictions of the targeted properties. Moreover, the models can be systematically improved in an adaptive manner, incorporate properties computed at different levels of fidelities and are naturally amenable to inverse materials design strategies. Finally, while the learning approach to make predictions for a wide range of properties (including structural, elastic and electronic properties) is demonstrated here for a specific example set containing more than 1200 binary wurtzite superlattices, the adopted framework is equally applicable to other classes of materials as well.« less

  10. Effect of deposition parameters on the structural properties of ZnO nanopowders prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Caglar, Yasemin; Gorgun, Kamuran; Aksoy, Seval

    2015-03-05

    ZnO nanopowders were synthesized via microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at different deposition (microwave irradiation) times and pH values. The effects of pH and deposition (microwave irradiation) time on the crystalline structure and orientation of the ZnO nanopowders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. XRD observations showed that the crystalline quality of ZnO nanopowders increased with increasing pH value. The crystallite size and texture coefficient values of ZnO nanopowders were calculated. The structural quality of ZnO nanopowder was improved by deposition parameters. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology of the ZnO nanopowders. Microwave irradiation time and pH value showed a significant effect on the surface morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Concentration specific and tunable photoresponse of bismuth vanadate functionalized hexagonal ZnO nanocrystals based photoanodes for photoelectrochemical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sonal; Ruhela, Aakansha; Rani, Sanju; Khanuja, Manika; Sharma, Rishabh

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, dual layer BiVO4/ZnO photoanode is instigated for photo-electrochemical (PEC) water splitting applications. Two different photocatalytic layers ZnO and BiVO4, reduces charge carrier recombination and charge transfer resistance at photoanode/electrolyte junction. The concentration-specific, tunable and without 'spike and overshoot' features, photocurrent density response is originated by varying BiVO4 concentration in the BiVO4/ZnO photoanode. The crystal structure of ZnO (hexagonal wurtzite structure) and BiVO4 (monoclinic scheelite structure) is confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. The band gap of BiVO4/ZnO was estimated to be ca. 2.42 eV through Kubler-Munk function F(R∞) using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Electrochemical behavior of samples was analyzed with photocurrent measurements, electrochemical impedance, Mott-Schottky plots, bulk separation efficiency and surface transfer efficiency. The maximum photocurrent density of BiVO4/ZnO photoanode was found to be 2.3 times higher than pristine ZnO sample.0.038 M BiVO4/ZnO exhibited the highest separation efficiency of 72% and surface transfer efficiency of 64.7% at +1.23 V vs. RHE. Mott-Schottky study revealed the maximum charge carrier density in the same sample.

  12. SHI irradiation effect on pure and Mn doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawal, H. A.; Raskar, N. D.; Dole, B. N.

    2017-05-01

    Investigated the structural, surface, electrical and modifications induced by Swift Heavy Ions (SHI) irradiation on pure and Mn substituted ZnO thin films were observed. Thin films of Zn1-xMnxO (x = 0.00, 0.04) were synthesized using the dip coating technique. All thin films irradiated by Li3+ swift heavy ions with fluence 5 × 1013 ions/cm2. The XRD peak reveals that all the samples exhibit wurtzite structures. Surface morphology of samples was investigated by SEM, it was observed that pristine samples of ZnO thin film shows spherical shape but for 4 % Mn substituted ZnO thin film with 5 × 1013 ions/cm2 fluence, it reveals that big grain spherical morphology like structure respectively. I-V characteristics were recorded in the voltage range -5 to 5 V. All curves were passed through origin and nearly linear exhibit ohmic in nature for the films.

  13. Spectroscopic and fiber optic ethanol sensing properties Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Noel, J L; Udayabhaskar, R; Renganathan, B; Muthu Mariappan, S; Sastikumar, D; Karthikeyan, B

    2014-11-11

    We report the structural, optical and gas sensing properties of prepared pure and Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles through solgel method at moderate temperature. Structural studies are carried out by X-ray diffraction method confirms hexagonal wurtzite structure and doping induced changes in lattice parameters is observed. Optical absorption spectral studies shows red shift in the absorption peak corresponds to band-gap from 3.42 eV to 3.05 eV and broad absorption in the visible range after Gd doping is observed. Scanning electron microscopic studies shows increase in particle size where the particle diameters increase from few nm to micrometers after Gd doping. The clad modified ethanol fiber-optic sensor studies for ethanol sensing exhibits best sensitivity for the 3% Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles and the sensitivity get lowered incase of higher percentage of Gd doped ZnO sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. One-Step Synthesis of Monodisperse In-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing Ling; Yang, Ye Feng; He, Hai Ping; Chen, Dong Dong; Ye, Zhi Zhen; Jin, Yi Zheng

    2010-05-01

    A method for the synthesis of high quality indium-doped zinc oxide (In-doped ZnO) nanocrystals was developed using a one-step ester elimination reaction based on alcoholysis of metal carboxylate salts. The resulting nearly monodisperse nanocrystals are well-crystallized with typically crystal structure identical to that of wurtzite type of ZnO. Structural, optical, and elemental analyses on the products indicate the incorporation of indium into the host ZnO lattices. The individual nanocrystals with cubic structures were observed in the 5% In-ZnO reaction, due to the relatively high reactivity of indium precursors. Our study would provide further insights for the growth of doped oxide nanocrystals, and deepen the understanding of doping process in colloidal nanocrystal syntheses.

  15. Effect of Ce doping on structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of ZnO nano-structures.

    PubMed

    Selvam, N Clament Sagaya; Vijaya, J Judith; Kennedy, L John

    2014-03-01

    A novel self-assembled pure and Ce doped ZnO nano-particles (NPs) were successfully synthesized by a simple low temperature co-precipitation method. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the prepared photocatalysts shows a novel morphology, high crystallinity, uniform size distribution, and more defects. Photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of nonylphenol, a potent endocrine disrupting chemical in aqueous medium was investigated. Higher amount of oxygen defects exhibits enhanced PCD of nonylphenol. In addition, the influence of the Ce contents on the structure, morphology, absorption, emission and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were investigated systematically. The relative PCD efficiency of pure ZnO, Ce-doped ZnO NPs and commercial TiO2 (Degussa P-25) have also been discussed.

  16. Quinary wurtzite Zn-Ga-Ge-N-O solid solutions and their photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yinghao; Wu, Fangfang; Sun, Xiaoqin; Chen, Hongmei; Lv, Meilin; Ni, Shuang; Liu, Gang; Xu, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Wurtzite solid solutions between GaN and ZnO highlight an intriguing paradigm for water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen using solar energy. However, large composition discrepancy often occurs inside the compound owing to the volatile nature of Zn, thereby prescribing rigorous terms on synthetic conditions. Here we demonstrate the merits of constituting quinary Zn-Ga-Ge-N-O solid solutions by introducing Ge into the wurtzite framework. The presence of Ge not only mitigates the vaporization of Zn but also strongly promotes particle crystallization. Synthetic details for these quinary compounds were systematically explored and their photocatalytic properties were thoroughly investigated. Proper starting molar ratios of Zn/Ga/Ge are of primary importance for single phase formation, high particle crystallinity and good photocatalytic performance. Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen and oxygen production from water were achieved for these quinary solid solutions which is strongly correlated with Ge content in the structure. Apparent quantum efficiency for optimized sample approaches 1.01% for hydrogen production and 1.14% for oxygen production. Theoretical calculation reveals the critical role of Zn for the band gap reduction in these solid solutions and their superior photocatalytic acitivity can be understood by the preservation of Zn in the structure as well as a good crystallinity after introducing Ge. PMID:26755070

  17. Quinary wurtzite Zn-Ga-Ge-N-O solid solutions and their photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yinghao; Wu, Fangfang; Sun, Xiaoqin; Chen, Hongmei; Lv, Meilin; Ni, Shuang; Liu, Gang; Xu, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-12

    Wurtzite solid solutions between GaN and ZnO highlight an intriguing paradigm for water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen using solar energy. However, large composition discrepancy often occurs inside the compound owing to the volatile nature of Zn, thereby prescribing rigorous terms on synthetic conditions. Here we demonstrate the merits of constituting quinary Zn-Ga-Ge-N-O solid solutions by introducing Ge into the wurtzite framework. The presence of Ge not only mitigates the vaporization of Zn but also strongly promotes particle crystallization. Synthetic details for these quinary compounds were systematically explored and their photocatalytic properties were thoroughly investigated. Proper starting molar ratios of Zn/Ga/Ge are of primary importance for single phase formation, high particle crystallinity and good photocatalytic performance. Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen and oxygen production from water were achieved for these quinary solid solutions which is strongly correlated with Ge content in the structure. Apparent quantum efficiency for optimized sample approaches 1.01% for hydrogen production and 1.14% for oxygen production. Theoretical calculation reveals the critical role of Zn for the band gap reduction in these solid solutions and their superior photocatalytic acitivity can be understood by the preservation of Zn in the structure as well as a good crystallinity after introducing Ge.

  18. Quinary wurtzite Zn-Ga-Ge-N-O solid solutions and their photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yinghao; Wu, Fangfang; Sun, Xiaoqin; Chen, Hongmei; Lv, Meilin; Ni, Shuang; Liu, Gang; Xu, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Wurtzite solid solutions between GaN and ZnO highlight an intriguing paradigm for water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen using solar energy. However, large composition discrepancy often occurs inside the compound owing to the volatile nature of Zn, thereby prescribing rigorous terms on synthetic conditions. Here we demonstrate the merits of constituting quinary Zn-Ga-Ge-N-O solid solutions by introducing Ge into the wurtzite framework. The presence of Ge not only mitigates the vaporization of Zn but also strongly promotes particle crystallization. Synthetic details for these quinary compounds were systematically explored and their photocatalytic properties were thoroughly investigated. Proper starting molar ratios of Zn/Ga/Ge are of primary importance for single phase formation, high particle crystallinity and good photocatalytic performance. Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen and oxygen production from water were achieved for these quinary solid solutions which is strongly correlated with Ge content in the structure. Apparent quantum efficiency for optimized sample approaches 1.01% for hydrogen production and 1.14% for oxygen production. Theoretical calculation reveals the critical role of Zn for the band gap reduction in these solid solutions and their superior photocatalytic acitivity can be understood by the preservation of Zn in the structure as well as a good crystallinity after introducing Ge.

  19. The magnetic and adsorption properties of ZnO1-xSx nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiyun; Liu, Guixian; Cao, Yanqiang; Chen, Jing; Shen, Kai; Kumar, Ashwini; Xu, Mingxiang; Li, Qi; Xu, Qingyu

    2017-10-11

    Sulfur is easy to be incorporated into ZnO nanoparticles by the solution-combustion method. Herein, the magnetic and adsorption properties of a series of ZnO 1-x S x (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2) nanoparticles were systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the as-prepared ZnO 1-x S x nanoparticles have the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO with a low sulfur content that gradually transforms into the zinc blende structure of ZnS when the x value is greater than 0.1. PL spectra show several bands due to different transitions, which have been explained by the recombination of free excitons or defect-induced transitions. The introduction of sulfur not only modifies the bandgap of ZnO, but also impacts the concentration of Zn vacancies. The as-prepared ZnO shows weak room-temperature ferromagnetism, and the incorporation of sulfur improves the ferromagnetism owing to the increased concentration of Zn vacancies, which may be stabilized by the doped sulfur ions. The adsorption capability of ZnO 1-x S x nanoparticles has been significantly improved, and the process can be well described by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and the Freundlich isotherm model. The mechanism has been confirmed to be due to the active sulfate groups existing in zinc oxysulfide nanoparticles.

  20. Efficient room temperature hydrogen sensor based on UV-activated ZnO nano-network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, Rahul; Rajamani, Saravanan; Ranwa, Sapana; Fanetti, Mattia; Valant, Matjaz; Kumar, Mahesh

    2017-09-01

    Room temperature hydrogen sensors were fabricated from Au embedded ZnO nano-networks using a 30 mW GaN ultraviolet LED. The Au-decorated ZnO nano-networks were deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate by a chemical vapour deposition process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum analysis revealed a hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and presence of Au. The ZnO nanoparticles were interconnected, forming nano-network structures. Au nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on ZnO surfaces, as confirmed by FESEM imaging. Interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) were fabricated on the ZnO nano-networks using optical lithography. Sensor performances were measured with and without UV illumination, at room temperate, with concentrations of hydrogen varying from 5 ppm to 1%. The sensor response was found to be ˜21.5% under UV illumination and 0% without UV at room temperature for low hydrogen concentration of 5 ppm. The UV-photoactivated mode enhanced the adsorption of photo-induced O- and O2- ions, and the d-band electron transition from the Au nanoparticles to ZnO—which increased the chemisorbed reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. The sensor response was also measured at 150 °C (without UV illumination) and found to be ˜18% at 5 ppm. Energy efficient low cost hydrogen sensors can be designed and fabricated with the combination of GaN UV LEDs and ZnO nanostructures.

  1. Evolution of crystal structure during the initial stages of ZnO atomic layer deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Boichot, R.; Tian, L.; Richard, M. -I.; ...

    2016-01-05

    In this study, a complementary suite of in situ synchrotron X-ray techniques is used to investigate both structural and chemical evolution during ZnO growth by atomic layer deposition. Focusing on the first 10 cycles of growth, we observe that the structure formed during the coalescence stage largely determines the overall microstructure of the film. Furthermore, by comparing ZnO growth on silicon with a native oxide with that on Al 2O 3(001), we find that even with lattice-mismatched substrates and low deposition temperatures, the crystalline texture of the films depend strongly on the nature of the interfacial bonds.

  2. Photoluminescence and photoconductivity studies on amorphous and crystalline ZnO thin films obtained by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde-Aguilar, G.; Manríquez Zepeda, J. L.

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous and crystalline ZnO thin films were obtained by the sol-gel process. A precursor solution of ZnO was synthesized by using zinc acetate dehydrate as inorganic precursor at room temperature. The films were spin-coated on silicon and glass wafers and gelled in humid air. The films were calcined at 450 °C for 15 min to produce ZnO nanocrystals with a wurtzite structure. Crystalline ZnO film exhibits an absorption band located at 359 nm (3.4 eV). Photoconductivity technique was used to determine the charge transport mechanism on both kinds of films. Experimental data were fitted with straight lines at darkness and under illumination at 355 and 633 nm wavelengths. This indicates an ohmic behavior. The photovoltaic and photoconductivity parameters were determined from the current density versus the applied electrical field results.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of novel transparent conducting oxide N-CNT doped ZnO for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyounes, Anas; Abbas, Naseem; Hammi, Maryama; Ziat, Younes; Slassi, Amine; Zahra, Nida

    2018-02-01

    The present research reports on the electrical and optical properties of N-CNT doped with ZnO, which is considered as wurtzite transparent and conducting oxide semiconductor structure. The thin films of N-doped carbon nanotubes/ZnO were prepared using sol-gel method, then we carried out investigations in optical and electrical point of view to extract their usefulness in photovoltaic applications. For this purpose, ZnO films were doped by several ratios of carbon nanotubes and N-doped carbon nanotubes. The electrical studies were performed over these two kinds of doped ZnO films, the electrical conductivity has found to be more important for ZnO films filled with N-CNTs. This finding is pretty explained by the electronic conduction hold by nitrogen as charge carriers within carbon nanotubes.

  4. Electrochemical route to the synthesis of ZnO microstructures: its nestlike structure and holding of Ag particles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A simple and facile electrochemical route was developed for the shape-selective synthesis of large-scaled series of ZnO microstructures, including petal, flower, sphere, nest and clew aggregates of ZnO laminas at room temperature. This route is based on sodium citrate-directed crystallization. In the system, sodium citrate can greatly promote ZnO to nucleate and directly grow by selectively capping the specific ZnO facets because of its excellent adsorption ability. The morphology of ZnO is tuned by readily adjusting the concentration of sodium citrate and the electrodeposition time. Among the series structures, the remarkable ZnO nestlike structure can be used as a container to hold not only the interlaced ZnO laminas but also Ag nanoparticles in the center. The special heterostructures of nestlike ZnO holding Ag nanoparticles were found to display the superior properties on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering. This work has signified an important methodology to produce a wide assortment of desired microstructures of ZnO. PACS 81 Materials science 81.07.-b nanoscale materials and structures Fabrication Characterization 81.15.-z Methods of deposition of films Coatings Film growth and epitaxy. PMID:23414592

  5. Magnetically addressable fluorescent Fe3O4/ZnO nanocomposites: Structural, optical and magnetization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychowdhury, A.; Pati, S. P.; Mishra, A. K.; Kumar, S.; Das, D.

    2013-06-01

    Fe3O4/ZnO nanocomposites (NCs) are prepared by a wet chemical route. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies confirm the coexistence of Fe3O4 and ZnO phases in the NCs. The UV-vis absorption spectra show a red shift of the absorption peak with increase in Fe3O4 content indicating a modification of the band structure of ZnO in the NCs. Photoluminescence emission spectra of the NCs display strong excitonic emission in the UV region along with weak emission bands in the visible range caused by electronic transitions involving defect-related energy levels in the band gap of ZnO. Positron annihilation lifetimes indicate that cation vacancies in the ZnO structure are the strong traps for positrons and the overall defect concentration in the NCs decreases with increase in Fe3O4 content. Dc magnetization measurements reveal an anomalous temperature dependence of the coercivity of the NCs that is argued to be due to the anomalous variation of magnetocrystalline anisotropy at lower temperature. The irreversibility observed in the temperature dependent ZFC-FC magnetization points to the presence of a spin-glass phase in the NCs.

  6. Structural and optical characterization of ZnO nanowires grown on alumina by thermal evaporation method.

    PubMed

    Mute, A; Peres, M; Peiris, T C; Lourenço, A C; Jensen, Lars R; Monteiro, T

    2010-04-01

    Zinc oxide nanowires have been grown on alumina substrate by thermal evaporation of zinc nanopowder in the presence of oxygen flow. The growth was performed under ambient pressure and without the use of foreign catalyst. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation showed that the as-grown sample consists of bulk ZnO crystal on the substrate surface with nanowires growing from this base. Growth mechanism of the observed morphology is suggested to be governed by the change of zinc vapour supersaturation during the growth process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement was used to identify the crystalline phase of the nanowires. Optical properties of the nanowires were investigated using Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). The appearance of dominant, Raman active E2 (high) phonon mode in the Raman spectrum has confirmed the wurtzite hexagonal phase of the nanowires. With above bandgap excitation the low temperature PL recombination is dominated by donor bound exciton luminescence at -3.37 eV with a narrow full width at half maximum. Free exciton emission is also seen at low temperature and can be observed up to room temperature. The optical data indicates that the grown nanowires have high optical quality.

  7. Structural, optical and field emission properties of urchin-shaped ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Al-Heniti, Saleh; Umar, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    In this work, well-crystallized urchin-shaped ZnO structures were synthesized on silicon substrate by simple non-catalytic thermal evaporation process by using metallic zinc powder in the presence of oxygen as source materials for zinc and oxygen, respectively. The synthesized ZnO structures were characterized in detail in terms of their morphological, structural, optical and field emission properties. The detailed morphological investigations revealed that the synthesized structures possess urchin-shape and grown in high-density over the substrate surface. The detailed structural and optical characterizations revealed that the synthesized urchin-shaped ZnO structures are well-crystallized and exhibiting good optical properties. The field emission analysis for urchin-shaped ZnO structures exhibits a turn-on field of 4.6 V/microm. The emission current density reached to 0.056 mA/cm2 at an applied electrical field of 6.4 V/microm and shows no saturation. The calculated field enhancement factor 'beta', from the F-N plot, was found to be approximately 2.2 x 10(3).

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Molybdenum Doped ZnO Thin Films by SILAR Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, R.; Sakthivelu, A.; Pradhabhan, D.

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) deposition method. The effect of Mo dopant concentration of 5, 6.6 and 10 mol% on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of n-type Mo doped ZnO films was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the Mo doped ZnO thin films were polycrystalline with wurtzite structure. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) studies shows that the surface morphology of the films changes with Mo doping. A blue shift of the optical band gap was observed in the optical studies. Effect of Mo dopant concentration on electrical conductivity was studied and it shows comparatively high electrical conductivity at 10 mol% of Mo doping concentration.

  9. Electrochemical route to the synthesis of ZnO microstructures: its nestlike structure and holding of Ag particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ling; Zhang, Ruixue; Fan, Louzhen

    2013-02-01

    A simple and facile electrochemical route was developed for the shape-selective synthesis of large-scaled series of ZnO microstructures, including petal, flower, sphere, nest and clew aggregates of ZnO laminas at room temperature. This route is based on sodium citrate-directed crystallization. In the system, sodium citrate can greatly promote ZnO to nucleate and directly grow by selectively capping the specific ZnO facets because of its excellent adsorption ability. The morphology of ZnO is tuned by readily adjusting the concentration of sodium citrate and the electrodeposition time. Among the series structures, the remarkable ZnO nestlike structure can be used as a container to hold not only the interlaced ZnO laminas but also Ag nanoparticles in the center. The special heterostructures of nestlike ZnO holding Ag nanoparticles were found to display the superior properties on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering. This work has signified an important methodology to produce a wide assortment of desired microstructures of ZnO.

  10. Young's Modulus of Wurtzite and Zinc Blende InP Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dunaevskiy, Mikhail; Geydt, Pavel; Lähderanta, Erkki; Alekseev, Prokhor; Haggrén, Tuomas; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Jiang, Hua; Lipsanen, Harri

    2017-06-14

    The Young's modulus of thin conical InP nanowires with either wurtzite or mixed "zinc blende/wurtzite" structures was measured. It has been shown that the value of Young's modulus obtained for wurtzite InP nanowires (E [0001] = 130 ± 30 GPa) was similar to the theoretically predicted value for the wurtzite InP material (E [0001] = 120 ± 10 GPa). The Young's modulus of mixed "zinc blende/wurtzite" InP nanowires (E [111] = 65 ± 10 GPa) appeared to be 40% less than the theoretically predicted value for the zinc blende InP material (E [111] = 110 GPa). An advanced method for measuring the Young's modulus of thin and flexible nanostructures is proposed. It consists of measuring the flexibility (the inverse of stiffness) profiles 1/k(x) by the scanning probe microscopy with precise control of loading force in nanonewton range followed by simulations.

  11. Annealing temperature dependent reversible wettability switching of micro/nano structured ZnO superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velayi, Elmira; Norouzbeigi, Reza

    2018-05-01

    Superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces with reversibly tunable wettability were fabricated on stainless steel meshes via a facile chemical bath deposition method just by regulating the micro/nano structured ZnO needles without using chemical post modifications. The obtained surfaces can be easily and reversibly switched between superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic characteristics by altering the annealing temperatures. As-prepared sample exhibited long-term superhydrophobic properties with a water contact angle (WCA) of 163.8° ± 1.8° and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of 1.1° ± 0.8°. The SEM, XRD, XPS and Raman analyses were employed to characterize the morphological features and surface chemistry of the prepared samples. SEM images showed the formation of ZnO micro/nanoneedles with a diameter of ∼90 nm on the substrate. The superhydrophobic ZnO surface was switched to highly hydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic properties with an oil contact angle (OCA) of about 172.5° after being annealed at 400 °C in air for 30 min and restored to superhydrophobic state again by altering the annealing temperature to 150 °C. Mechanical durability of the ZnO superhydrophobic surface was tested by an abrasion test. Results confirmed that the prepared surface exhibited an excellent robustness after 20 abrasion cycles under the pressure of 4.7 kPa.

  12. Thermoelectric properties of rocksalt ZnO from first-principles calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Alvarado, Andrew; Attapattu, Jeevake; Zhang, Yi; ...

    2015-10-22

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) undergoes a pressure-induced structural transition from its normal ambient-pressure wurtzite (WZ) phase to a rocksalt (RS) phase around 10 GPa. A recent experiment shows that the high-pressure RS ZnO phase can be recovered and stabilized at ambient conditions, which raises exciting prospects of expanding the range of properties of ZnO. For a fundamental understanding of the RS ZnO phase, we have performed first-principles calculations to determine its electronic, phonon, and thermodynamic properties at high (20 GPa) and ambient (0 GPa) pressure. Furthermore, we have calculated its electrical and thermal transport properties, which allow an evaluation of itsmore » thermoelectric figure of merit ZT at different temperature and doping levels. Our calculations show that the ambient-pressure RS ZnO phase can reach ZT values of 0.25 to 0.3 under both n-type and p-type doping in a large temperature range of 400 K to 800 K, which is considerably lower than the temperature range of 1400 K to 1600 K where WZ ZnO reaches similar ZT values. Lastly, these results establish RS ZnO as a promising material for thermoelectric devices designed to operate at temperatures desirable for many heat recovery applications.« less

  13. Superhydrophobic Surface Based on a Coral-Like Hierarchical Structure of ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Xia, Jun; Lei, Wei; Wang, Baoping

    2010-01-01

    Background Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces has attracted much interest in the past decade. The fabrication methods that have been studied are chemical vapour deposition, the sol-gel method, etching technique, electrochemical deposition, the layer-by-layer deposition, and so on. Simple and inexpensive methods for manufacturing environmentally stable superhydrophobic surfaces have also been proposed lately. However, work referring to the influence of special structures on the wettability, such as hierarchical ZnO nanostructures, is rare. Methodology This study presents a simple and reproducible method to fabricate a superhydrophobic surface with micro-scale roughness based on zinc oxide (ZnO) hierarchical structure, which is grown by the hydrothermal method with an alkaline aqueous solution. Coral-like structures of ZnO were fabricated on a glass substrate with a micro-scale roughness, while the antennas of the coral formed the nano-scale roughness. The fresh ZnO films exhibited excellent superhydrophilicity (the apparent contact angle for water droplet was about 0°), while the ability to be wet could be changed to superhydrophobicity after spin-coating Teflon (the apparent contact angle greater than 168°). The procedure reported here can be applied to substrates consisting of other materials and having various shapes. Results The new process is convenient and environmentally friendly compared to conventional methods. Furthermore, the hierarchical structure generates the extraordinary solid/gas/liquid three-phase contact interface, which is the essential characteristic for a superhydrophobic surface. PMID:21209931

  14. Study of cobalt effect on structural and optical properties of Dy doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2018-05-01

    The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of Co doping on structural and optical properties of Dy doped ZnO nanoparticles. We have prepared pure Zinc oxide, Dy (1%) doped ZnO and Dy (1%) doped ZnO co-doped with Co(2%) with the help of simple sol-gel combustion method. The structural analysis carried out using X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD) indicates substitution of Dy and Co at Zn site of ZnO crystal structure and hexagonal crystal structure without any secondary phase formation in all the samples. The surface morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Absorption study indicates that Dy doping causes a small shift in band edge, while Co co-doping results significant change is absorption edge as well as introduce defect level absorption in the visible region. The band gap of samples decreases due to Dy and Co doping, which can be attributed to defect level formation below the conduction band in the system.

  15. Influence of Co doping on combined photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandan, M.; Dinesh, S.; Krishnakumar, N.; Balamurugan, K.

    2016-11-01

    The present work aims to investigate the structural, optical, photocatalyst and antibacterial properties of bare and cobalt doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with different concentrations Zn1-x Co x O (x = 0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09) synthesized by co-precipitation method. The XRD patterns confirmed that all samples of cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures revealed the formation of single phase having hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite size in the range of 31-41 nm. Further, the decreasing trend in lattice parameters and grain sizes were also seen with increasing doping concentrations which confirms the incorporation of Co ions into the ZnO lattice. This result was further supported by the FT-IR data. HR-TEM images demonstrated the distinct hexagonal like morphology with small agglomeration. The UV-visible absorption spectra exhibits red shift with increase in Co doping concentration in ZnO while corresponding bandgap energy of cobalt doped ZnO NPs decreased with increased Co doping concentration. PL spectra showed a weak UV and visible emission band which may be ascribed to the reduction in oxygen vacancy and defects by cobalt doping. XPS and EDX spectral results confirm the composition and the purity of Co doped ZnO NPs. Furthermore, the Co doped ZnO NPs were found to exhibit lesser photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl green dye under UV light illumination in comparison with the bare ZnO NPs. Moreover, anti-bacterial studies reveals that the Co doped ZnO NPs possess more antibacterial effect against gram positive Basillus subtills and gram negative Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial strains than the bare ZnO NPs.

  16. Synthesis of stable ZnO nanocolloids with enhanced optical limiting properties via simple solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramya, M.; Nideep, T. K.; Vijesh, K. R.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Kailasnath, M.

    2018-07-01

    In present work, we report the synthesis of stable ZnO nanocolloids through a simple solution method which exhibit enhanced optical limiting threshold. The influences of reaction temperature on the crystal structure as well as linear and nonlinear optical properties of prepared ZnO nanoparticles were carried out. The XRD and Raman analysis reveal that the prepared ZnO nanoparticles retain the hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. HRTEM analysis confirms the effect of reaction temperature, solvent effect on crystallinity as well as nanostructure of ZnO nanoparticles. It has been found that crystallinity and average diameter increase with reaction temperature where ethylene glycol act as both solvent and growth inhibiter. EDS spectra shows formation of pure ZnO nanoparticles. The direct energy band gap of the nanoparticles increases with decrease in particle size due to quantum confinement effect. The third order nonlinear optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles were investigated by z scan technique using a frequency doubled Nd-YAG nanosecond laser at 532 nm wavelength. The z-scan result reveals that the prepared ZnO nanoparticles exhibit self - defocusing nonlinearity. The two photon absorption coefficient and third - order nonlinear optical susceptibility increases with increasing particle size. The third-order susceptibility of the ZnO nanoparticles is found to be in the order of 10-10 esu, which is at least three order magnitude greater than the bulk ZnO. The optical limiting threshold of the nanoparticles varies in the range of 54 to 17 MW/cm2. The results suggest that ZnO nanoparticles considered as a promising candidates for the future photonic devices.

  17. On the possibility of room temperature ferromagnetism on chunk-shape BaSnO3/ZnO core/shell nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamanickam, N.; Jayakumar, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    2018-04-01

    Core/shell BaSnO3/ZnO (BS-ZO) nanostructures were prepared by oxalate precipitation method and wet-chemical method. BaSnO3 (BSO) cubic perovskite structure and ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystallite sizes is 23 nm, 29 nm and 27 nm for BSO, ZnO and BS-ZO, respectively. Chunk-shape and cuboids morphology observed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The magnetic properties were studied by VSM for bare and core-shell nano systems and the room temperature ferromagnetism observed for core-shell nanostructures. The BSO/ZnO shows enhanced coercivity and saturated magnetization as compared with BSO and ZnO nanostructures.

  18. Direct Growth of Feather-Like ZnO Structures by a Facile Solution Technique for Photo-Detecting Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yurong; Liu, Xingbing; Cai, Fangmin; Liu, Hairui

    2017-08-01

    The feather-like hierarchical zinc oxide (ZnO) was synthesized via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction without any seed layer or metal catalyst. A possible growth mechanism is proposed to explain the forming process of ZnO feather-like structures. Meanwhile, the photo-electronic performances of the feather-like ZnO have been investigated with the UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, I-V and I-tmeasurements. The results indicate that feather-like ZnO hierarchical structures have good anti-reflection and excellent photo-sensitivity. All results suggest that the direct growth processing of novel feather-like ZnO is envisaged to have promising application in the field of photo-detector devices.

  19. ZnO nanoparticles based fiber optic gas sensor

    SciT

    Narasimman, S.; Sivacoumar, R.; Alex, Z. C.

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by simple aqueous chemical route method. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The sensitivity of the nanoparticles was studied for different gases like acetone, ammonia and ethanol in terms of variation in spectral light intensity. The XRD and SEM analysis confirms the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure with the grain size of 11.2 nm. The small cladding region of the optical fiber was replaced with the synthesized nanoparticles. The light spectrum was recorded for different gas concentrations. The synthesized nanoparticles showed high sensitivity towards ammonia in lowmore » ppm level and acetone in high ppm level.« less

  20. Synthesis and magnetic properties of Zr doped ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Gao, Daqiang; Yang, Guijin; Zhang, Jinlin; Shi, Zhenhua; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhu, Zhonghua; Xue, Desheng

    2011-11-10

    Zr doped ZnO nanoparticles are prepared by the sol-gel method with post-annealing. X-ray diffraction results show that all samples are the typical hexagonal wurtzite structure without any other new phase, as well as the Zr atoms have successfully entered into the ZnO lattices instead of forming other lattices. Magnetic measurements indicate that all the doping samples show room temperature ferromagnetism and the pure ZnO is paramagneism. The results of Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate that there are a lot of oxygen vacancies in the samples by doping element of Zr. It is considered that the observed ferromagnetism is related to the doping induced oxygen vacancies.

  1. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciT

    Singh, Jaspal, E-mail: jaspal0314@gmail.com; Vashihth, A.; Gill, Pritampal Singh

    Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O (x = 0, 0,10) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that the synthesized nanoparticles possess wurtzite phase having hexagonal structure. Morphological analysis was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which depicts the spherical morphology of ZnO nanoparticles. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed the presence of Mg in ZnO nanoparticles. Electron spin resonance (ESR) signal was found to be decreasing with increasing of Mg-doping concentration. The room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in undoped and Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The increase of Mg-doping concentration resulted in decrease of saturation magnetization value which could bemore » attributed to decrease of oxygen vacancies present in host nanoparticles.« less

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanowires with various diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyhani, A.; Gholizadeh, A.; vahedi, V.; Khanlary, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation are studied on the morphology and structural properties of ZnO nanowire with various diameters. The ZnO nanowires are grown using Zn thin films at various initial thicknesses including 125, 250 and 500 nm in air ambient. The results illustrate dramatic effects of Gamma-irradiation on the deformation of ZnO nanowires. Thus, radiation induce ripple ZnO surfaces instead ZnO nanowires. Gamma-irradiation has also been effective on the optical and crystalline properties of the nanowires. X-ray diffraction attests that size of the ZnO nano-structures has changed and (l00) crystalline direction related to Zn metal has been created after irradiation. UV-Visible spectra display two areas for transmittance of irradiated ZnO nanowires, one in the Visible-light and the other in IR sub-region. In the Visible-light area, the layer gets thicker from 125 to 500 nm; the difference between the layer transmittance spectra is reduced before and after gamma irradiation. In the IR-light region, with increasing of ZnO initial thickness, the difference between the layer transmittance spectra is increased before and after gamma irradiation. The photoluminescence spectroscopy displays that intensity of green-yellow band improves in compared to near-band-edge emission due to formation of Zn metal and oxygen vacancies after gamma irradiation.

  3. Tuning the optical properties of ZnO nanorods by variation of precursor concentration through hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Lakshmi; Kar, Asit Kumar

    2018-05-01

    ZnO nanorods with varying precursor concentration have been successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The effect of the precursor concentration on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the resulting nanorods was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The crystalline structural characterization demonstrated that the synthesized materials crystallize in pure ZnO wurtzite structure without any other secondary phase. SEM micrographs demonstrate nanorod type features in all the samples. In addition, they show that increase of precursor concentration changes the length and diameter of nanorods. The UV-Vis studies show a strong absorption band in UV region at 373 nm attributed to the band-edge absorption of wurtzite hexagonal ZnO, blue shifted relative to its bulk form (380 nm). The PL spectra of obtained nanorods excited at 360 nm present broad visible emission. Moreover, as the visible region (from 510 to 550 nm) is concerned, it is speculated that the increase of the precursor concentration affects strongly the kind of interstitial defects (Oi, Zni and Vo) formed in ZnO nanorods. The luminescence intensity decreases with the increase of precursor concentration.

  4. ZnO layers prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messaoudi, C.; Abd-Lefdil, S.; Sayah, D.; Cadene, M.

    1998-02-01

    Highly transparent undoped and indium doped ZnO thin films have been grown on glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis process. Conditions of preparation have been optimized to get good quality and reproducible films with required properties. Polycrystalline films with an hexagonal Wurtzite-type structure were easily obtained under the optimum spraying conditions. Both of samples have shown high transmission coefficient in the visible and infrared wavelength range with sharp absorption edge around 380 nm which closely corresponds to the intrinsic band-gap of ZnO (3.2 eV). Orientation and crystallites size were remarkably modified by deposition temperature and indium doping. Des couches minces de ZnO, hautement transparentes, non dopées et dopées à l'indium ont été élaborées sur un substrat en verre par le procédé de pulvérisation chimique réactive spray. Les conditions de préparation ont été optimisées pour l'obtention de couches reproductibles, de bonne qualité et ayant les propriétés requises. Des films polycristallins, présentant une structure hexagonale de type Wurtzite, ont été aisément obtenus dans les conditions optimales de pulvérisation. Tous les échantillons ont présenté un coefficient de transmission élevé dans le domaine du visible et du proche infrarouge, avec une absorption brutale au voisinage de 380 nm, correspondant au gap optique du ZnO (3,2 eV). L'orientation et la taille des cristallites ont été remarquablement modifiées par la température du dépôt et par le dopage à l'indium.

  5. Thermal-induced structural and optical investigations of Agsbnd ZnO nanocomposite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. K.; Singhal, R.

    2018-07-01

    In the present paper, we have successfully synthesized Agsbnd ZnO nanocomposite thin films by RF-magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature. Systematic investigations of thermal-induced structural and optical modifications in Agsbnd ZnO thin films have been observed and described. The Agsbnd ZnO thin films were annealed at three different temperatures of 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C in vacuum to prevent the oxidation of Ag. The presence and formation of Ag nanoparticles were estimated by transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the structural information about the crystalline quality of ZnO. The crystallinity as well as the crystallite size of the films have been found to be improved with annealing temperatures. The estimated crystallite size was ∼15.8 nm for as-deposited film and 19.0 nm for the film at a higher temperature. The chemical composition and structural analysis of as-deposited film were carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A very sharp absorption band appeared at ∼540 nm for Ag NPs that is associated with the surface plasmon resonance band of Ag. A noticeable red shift of about ∼12 nm has been recorded for films annealed at 500 °C. Atomic force microscopy has been utilized to examine the surface morphology of the as-deposited and annealed films. The grain size was found to be increase with increasing annealing temperature, while no significant changes were observed in the roughness of Agsbnd ZnO thin films. Raman spectroscopy revealed lattice defects and disordering in the films after the thermal annealing.

  6. Surfactant-assisted growth and optical properties of ZnO hexagonal bilayer disk-like microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Wang, L. L.; Zhu, L. P.; Wang, L. J.; Liao, G. H.

    2018-01-01

    ZnO hexagonal bilayer disk-like microstructures are successfully fabricated using a simple solvothermal method assisted with surfactant. The structure and morphology were investigated by XRD, SEM, and EDS. XRD result indicated that the as-obtained samples were well-crystallized wurtzite hexagonal ZnO structure. SEM images showed that the ZnO hexagonal bilayer disk-like assembles consist of two uniform and smooth disks with an average edge length of 6 μm and thickness of ˜4 μm. UV-vis spectrum reveals that ZnO sampls show an appreciable red shift and the band gap energy of the obtained ZnO samples were about 3.15 eV. A very strong UV emission at the ultraviolet (UV) region was observed in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the as-prepared ZnO samples tested at room-temperature. A possible growth process of the ZnO hexagonal bilayer disk-like microstructures was schematically illustrated.

  7. Tartaric acid assisted hydrothermal synthesis of different flower-like ZnO hierarchical architectures with tunable optical and oxygen vacancy-induced photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingzhi; Li, Yangyang; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Min; Fei, Xiaoyan; Duo, Shuwang; Chen, Ying; Pan, Jian; Wang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Different flower-like ZnO hierarchical architectures were prepared by tartaric acid assisted hydrothermal synthesis, especially four flower-like ZnO nanostructures were obtained simultaneously under the same reaction condition. The cauliflower-like ZnO is assembled by spherical shaped nanoparticles, and the chrysanthemum-like and other flower-like ZnO nanostructures are assembled by hexagonal rods/prisms with from planar to semi-pyramid, and to pyramid tips. TA acts as a capping agent and structure-directing agent during the synthesis. All ZnO possess the hexagonal wurtzite structure. The PL spectra can be tuned by changing TA concentration. XRD, PL and Raman spectra confirmed that oxygen vacancies mainly come from the ZnO surface. The flower-like samples of 1:4.5 and 1:3 with the largest aspect ratios have highest photocatalytic performance. They decompose 85% MB within 60 min. Combining PL Gaussian fitting with K, the higher content of oxygen vacancy is, the higher photocatalytic activity is. The enhanced photocatalytic performance is mainly induced by oxygen vacancy of ZnO. The possible formation mechanism, growth and change process of flower-like ZnO were proposed.

  8. Studies on visible light photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating method.

    PubMed

    Poongodi, G; Anandan, P; Kumar, R Mohan; Jayavel, R

    2015-09-05

    Nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that the thin films were well crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDAX and XPS revealed that Co was doped into ZnO structure. FESEM images revealed that the films possess granular morphology without any crack and confirm that Co doping decreases the grain size. UV-Vis transmission spectra show that the substitution of Co in ZnO leads to band gap narrowing. The Co doped ZnO films were found to exhibit improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light in comparison with the undoped ZnO film. The decrease in grain size and extending light absorption towards the visible region by Co doping in ZnO film contribute equally to the improved photocatalytic activity. The bactericidal efficiency of Co doped ZnO films were investigated against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The optical density (OD) measurement showed better bactericidal activity at higher level of Co doping in ZnO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simple chemical synthesis of novel ZnO nanostructures: Role of counter ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudukudy, Manoj; Yaakob, Zahira

    2014-04-01

    This article reports the synthesis, characterisation and photocatalytic activity of novel ZnO nanostructures prepared via the thermal decomposition of hydrozincite. Hydrozincites were obtained by the conventional precipitation route using different zinc salts such as acetate, nitrate, chloride and sulphate. The effect of counter ions (CH3COO-, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) on the structural, textural, morphological and optical properties was investigated. Various characterisations depicted the active role of counter ions in the properties of ZnO. Hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO with fine crystalline size was obvious from the XRD results, irrespective of the counter ions. Electron microscopic images indicated the role of counter ions in the surface and internal morphology of ZnO nanomaterials. Special coral like agglomerated morphology of elongated particles with high porosity was observed for the ZnO prepared from acetate precursor. Spherical, elongated and irregular shaped bigger lumps of ZnO nanoparticles with various novel morphologies were resulted for the sulphate, nitrate and chloride precursors respectively. Highly ordered porous micro disc like morphology was noted for the ZnO samples prepared from the sulphate and nitrate salts. Photoluminescence spectra showed the characteristic blue and green emission bands, depicting the presence of large crystal defects and high oxygen vacancies in the samples. Photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared ZnO catalysts was examined by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. Degradation results indicated their substantial activity with respect to the counter ions. ZnO prepared from the acetate precursor showed highest photoactivity due to its high surface area, special morphology and high oxygen vacancies.

  10. Morphology-controllable of Sn doped ZnO nanorods prepared by spray pyrolysis for transparent electrode application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, M. Shahul; Princice, J. Joseph; Babu, N. Ramesh; Zahirullah, S. Syed; Deshmukh, Sampat G.; Arunachalam, A.

    2018-05-01

    Transparent conductive Sn doped ZnO nanorods have been deposited at various doping level by spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrate. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of these films have been investigated with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer respectively. XRD patterns revealed a successful high quality growth of single crystal ZnO nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite structure having (002) preferred orientation. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the prepared films exposed the uniform distribution of Sn doped ZnO nanorod shaped grains. All these films were highly transparent in the visible region with average transmittance of 90%.

  11. Structural, optical, and LED characteristics of ZnO and Al doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, K. M.; Bhat, Shreesha; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    ZnO (pristine) and Al doped ZnO (AZO) films were prepared using sol-gel spin coating method. The XRD analysis showed the enhanced compressive stress in AZO film. The presence of extended states below the conduction band edge in AZO accounts for the redshift in optical bandgap. The PL spectra of AZO showed significant blue emission due to the carrier recombination from defect states. The TRPL curves showed the dominant DAP recombination in ZnO film, whereas defect related recombination in Al doped ZnO film. Color parameters viz: the dominant wavelength, color coordinates (x,y), color purity, luminous efficiency and correlated color temperature (CCT) of ZnO and AZO films are calculated using 1931 (CIE) diagram. Further, a strong blue emission with color purity more than 96% is observed in both the films. The enhanced blue emission in AZO significantly increased the luminous efficiency (22.8%) compared to ZnO film (10.8%). The prepared films may be used as blue phosphors in white light generation.

  12. Electronic structure, optical and magnetic studies of PLD-grown (Mn, P)-doped ZnO nanocolumns at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, The-Long; Ho, T. A.; Dang, N. T.; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Dao, Van-Duong

    2017-07-01

    We prepared well-aligned Zn1-x Mn x O:yP nanocolumns (x  =  0-0.02, and y  =  0 and 1 mol%) on SiO2/Si(0 0 1) substrates by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and then investigated their electronic structure and optical and magnetic properties at room temperature. The analyses of x-ray photoelectron and x-ray absorption fine structure spectra revealed Mn2+ and/or P ions existing in nanocolumns, where Mn2+ ions are situated in the Zn2+ site of the ZnO-wurtzite structure. Although the incorporation of Mn2+ and/or P ions did not form secondary phases, as confirmed by x-ray and electron diffraction patterns, more lattice defects were created, and consequently changed the band-gap energy as well as the electron-phonon interactions in the nanocolumns. Magnetization versus magnetic-field measurements revealed that all the samples exhibited FM order. In particular, the (Mn, P) co-doping with x  =  0.02 and y  =  1 remarkably enhanced the magnetic moment up to 2.92 µ B/Mn. Based on the results obtained from analyzing the electronic structures, UV-Vis absorption and resonant Raman scattering spectra, and theoretical calculations, we believe that the enhancement of the FM order in (Mn, P)-doped ZnO nanocolumns is due to exchange interactions taking place between vacancy-mediated Mn2+ ions.

  13. Investigation of the structural, optical and piezoelectric properties of ALD ZnO films on PEN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoev, B. S.; Aleksandrova, M.; Terziyska, P.; Tzvetkov, P.; Kovacheva, D.; Kolev, G.; Mehandzhiev, V.; Denishev, K.; Dimitrov, D.

    2018-03-01

    We present the results of studies on the structural, optical and piezoelectric properties of ZnO thin films deposited by ALD on flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates. Changes were observed in the optical transmission and crystal structures as the deposition temperature was varied. The electromechanical behavior, dielectric losses and voltage generated from ZnO flexible devices were investigated and discussed, in order to estimate their suitability for potential application as microgenerators activated by human motion.

  14. ZnO nanomaterials based surface acoustic wave ethanol gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Li, X; Liu, J H; He, Y N; Yu, L M; Liu, W H

    2012-08-01

    ZnO nanomaterials based surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensor has been investigated in ethanol environment at room temperature. The ZnO nanomaterials have been prepared through thermal evaporation of high-purity zinc powder. The as-prepared ZnO nanomaterials have been characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results indicate that the obtained ZnO nanomaterials, including many types of nanostructures such as nanobelts, nanorods, nanowires as well as nanosheets, are wurtzite with hexagonal structure and well-crystallized. The SAW sensor coated with the nanostructured ZnO materials has been tested in ethanol gas of various concentrations at room temperature. A network analyzer is used to monitor the change of the insertion loss of the SAW sensor when exposed to ethanol gas. The insertion loss of the SAW sensor varies significantly with the change of ethanol concentration. The experimental results manifest that the ZnO nanomaterials based SAW ethanol gas sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity and good short-term reproducibility at room temperature.

  15. ZnO nanoparticles and their acarbose-capped nanohybrids as inhibitors for human salivary amylase.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Firdoz; Kumar, Anil

    2017-04-01

    The authors report a controlled synthesis of biocompatible ZnO and acarbose-capped nanohybrids, and examined the inhibition activities of these nanosystems with human salivary α -amylase (HSA) activity. XRD measurements reveal ZnO present in wurtzite phase with hexagonal structure. The average size of ZnO particles for the two studied nanosystems was estimated to lie between 10 to 12 nm using Scherrer equation. These particles depict the onset of absorption at about 320 nm and the band-gap emission at about 370 nm, which are fairly blue shifted as compared with the bulk ZnO and have been understood due to the size quantisation effect. The inhibitory action of thioglycerol capped ZnO nanoparticles (SP1) and acarbose drug (used for diabetes type II) capped ZnO (SP2) for HSA was observed to 61 and72%, respectively. The inhibition activity of the SP1 alone was found to be very similar to that of acarbose and the coating of these particles with drug (SP2) demonstrated an enhancement in inhibition activity of the enzyme by about 30%. From the inhibition studies, it is confirmed that these nanosystems showed better inhibition activity at physiological temperature and pH. These nanosystems are projected to have potential applications in diabetes type II control.

  16. The fundamental surface science of wurtzite gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermudez, V. M.

    2017-09-01

    A review is presented that covers the experimental and theoretical literature relating to the preparation, electronic structure and chemical and physical properties of the surfaces of the wurtzite form of GaN. The discussion includes the adsorption of various chemical elements and of inorganic, organometallic and organic species. The focus is on work that contributes to a microscopic, atomistic understanding of GaN surfaces and interfaces, and the review concludes with an assessment of possible future directions.

  17. Analysis of stability improvement in ZnO thin film transistor with dual-gate structure under negative bias stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Ho-Jin; Kim, Young-Su; Jeong, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Yu-Mi; Yang, Seung-dong; Lee, Hi-Deok; Lee, Ga-Won

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated dual-gate zinc oxide thin film transistors (ZnO TFTs) without additional processes and analyzed their stability characteristics under a negative gate bias stress (NBS) by comparison with conventional bottom-gate structures. The dual-gate device shows superior electrical parameters, such as subthreshold swing (SS) and on/off current ratio. NBS of VGS = -20 V with VDS = 0 was applied, resulting in a negative threshold voltage (Vth) shift. After applying stress for 1000 s, the Vth shift is 0.60 V in a dual-gate ZnO TFT, while the Vth shift is 2.52 V in a bottom-gate ZnO TFT. The stress immunity of the dual-gate device is caused by the change in field distribution in the ZnO channel by adding another gate as the technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation shows. Additionally, in flicker noise analysis, a lower noise level with a different mechanism is observed in the dual-gate structure. This can be explained by the top side of the ZnO film having a larger crystal and fewer grain boundaries than the bottom side, which is revealed by the enhanced SS and XRD results. Therefore, the improved stability of the dual-gate ZnO TFT is greatly related to the E-field cancellation effect and crystal quality of the ZnO film.

  18. Eradication of Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria by Ni Doped ZnO Nanorods: Structural, Raman and optical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed; Ismail, Muhammad; Mansoor, Qaisar; Mahmood, Arshad; Ahmad, Amaar

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, ZnO nanorods doped with varying amounts of Ni have been prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique. Structural investigations provide the evidence that Ni is successfully doped into ZnO host matrix without having any secondary phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal the formation of rodlike structure of undoped ZnO with average length and diameter of 1 μm and 80 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results show that the E1LO phonons mode band shifts to the higher values with Ni doping, which is attributed to large amount of crystal defects. Ni doping is also found to greatly influence the optical properties of ZnO nanorods. The influence of Ni doping on antibacterial characteristics of ZnO nanorods have been studied by measuring the growth curves of Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteria in the presence of prepared nanorods. ZnO nanorods antibacterial potency is found to increase remarkably with Ni doping against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa microbials, which might possibly be due to the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, it is observed that Ni doped ZnO nanorods completely eradicates these multi-drug resistant bacteria.

  19. Long exciton lifetimes in stacking-fault-free wurtzite GaAs nanowires

    SciT

    Furthmeier, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.furthmeier@ur.de; Dirnberger, Florian; Hubmann, Joachim

    We present a combined photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy study of single GaAs nanowires. Each wire was characterized both in microscopy and spectroscopy, allowing a direct correlation of the optical and the structural properties. By tuning the growth parameters, the nanowire crystal structure is optimized from a highly mixed zincblende–wurtzite structure to pure wurtzite. We find the latter one to be stacking-fault-free over nanowire lengths up to 4.1 μm. We observe the emission of purely wurtzite nanowires to occur only with polarization directions perpendicular to the wurtzite c{sup ^}-axis, as expected from the hexagonal unit cell symmetry. The free exciton recombinationmore » energy in the wurtzite structure is 1.518 eV at 5 K with a narrow linewidth of 4 meV. Most notably, these pure wurtzite nanowires display long carrier recombination lifetimes of up to 11.2 ns, exceeding reported lifetimes in bulk GaAs and state-of-the-art 2D GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures.« less

  20. Structural and optical properties of Na-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcan, D.; Gungor, A.; Arda, L.

    2018-06-01

    Zn1-xNaxO (x = 0.0-0.05) solutions have been synthesized by the sol-gel technique using Zinc acetate dihydrate and Sodium acetate which were dissolved into solvent and chelating agent. Na-doped ZnO nanoparticles were obtained from solutions to find phase and crystal structure. Na-doped ZnO films have been deposited onto glass substrate by using sol-gel dip coating system. The effects of dopant concentration on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of Na-doped ZnO thin films deposited on glass substrate are investigated. Characterization of Zn1-xNaxO nanoparticles and thin films are examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA)/thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffractometer (XRD). Optical properties of Zn1-xNaxO thin films were obtained by using PG Instruments UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer in 190-1100 nm range. The structure, morphology, and optical properties of thin films are presented.

  1. Structural enhancement of ZnO on SiO2 for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, Marcel; Meier, Cedrik

    2013-07-01

    Multi-layer thin films are often the basis of photonic devices. Zinc oxide (ZnO) with its excellent optoelectronic properties can serve as a high quality emitter in structures like microdisks or photonic crystals. Here, we present a detailed study on the enhancement of the structural properties of low-temperature MBE grown ZnO on silica (SiO2). By thermal annealing a grain coalescence of the initially polycrystalline layer leads to an enhancement of the electronic structure, indicated by a blue shift of the photoluminescence (PL) signal maximum. Oxygen atmosphere during the annealing process prevents the creation of intrinsic defects by out-diffusion. Pre-annealing deposited SiO2 capping layers instead obstruct the recrystallization and lead to less intense emission. While thin capping layers partially detach from the ZnO film at high temperatures and cause higher surface roughness and the weakest emission, thicker layers remain smoother and exhibit a significantly stronger photoluminescence.

  2. Effect of Co doping on the structural, optical and magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hays, J; Reddy, K M; Graces, N Y; Engelhard, M H; Shutthanandan, V; Luo, M; Xu, C; Giles, N C; Wang, C; Thevuthasan, S; Punnoose, A

    2007-07-04

    We report the results of a detailed investigation of sol-gel-synthesized nanoscale Zn(1-x)Co(x)O powders processed at 350 °C with 0≤x≤0.12 to understand how the structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of ZnO are modified by Co doping, in addition to searching for the theoretically predicted ferromagnetism. With x increasing to 0.03, both lattice parameters a and c of the hexagonal ZnO decreased, suggesting substitutional doping of Co at the tetrahedral Zn(2+) sites. For x>0.03, these trends reversed and the lattice showed a gradual expansion as x approached 0.12, probably due to additional interstitial incorporation of Co. Raman spectroscopy measurements showed a rapid change in the ZnO peak positions for x>0.03, suggesting significant disorder and changes in the ZnO structure, in support of additional interstitial Co doping possibility. Combined x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy showed clear evidence for tetrahedrally coordinated high-spin Co(2+) ions occupying the lattice sites of ZnO host system, which became saturated for x>0.03. Magnetic measurements showed a paramagnetic behaviour in Zn(1-x)Co(x)O with increasing antiferromagnetic interactions as x increased to 0.10. Surprisingly, a weak ferromagnetic behaviour was observed for the sample with x = 0.12 with a characteristic hysteresis loop showing a coercivity H(c)∼350 Oe, 25% remanence M(r), a low saturation magnetization M(s)∼0.04 emu g(-1) and with a Curie temperature T(c)∼540 K. The XPS data collected from Zn(1-x)Co(x)O samples showed a gradual increase in the oxygen concentration, changing the oxygen-deficient undoped ZnO to an excess oxygen state for x = 0.12. This indicates that such high Co concentrations and appropriate oxygen stoichiometry may be needed to achieve adequate ferromagnetic exchange coupling between the incorporated Co(2+) ions.

  3. Fe-tannic acid complex dye as photo sensitizer for different morphological ZnO based DSSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakar, Soner; Özacar, Mahmut

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we have synthesized different morphological ZnO nanostructures via microwave hydrothermal methods at low temperature within a short time. We described different morphologies of ZnO at different Zn(NO3)2/KOH mole ratio. The ZnO nanostructures were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. All ZnO structures have hexagonal wurtzite type structures. The FESEM images showed various morphologies of ZnO such as plate, rod and nanoparticles. Dye sensitized solar cells have been assembled by these different morphological structures photo electrode and tannic acid or Fe-tannic acid complex dye as sensitizer. We have achieved at maximum efficiencies of photovoltaic cells prepared with ZnO plate in all dye systems. The conversion efficiencies of dye sensitized solar cells are 0.37% and 1.00% with tannic acid and Fe-tannic acid complex dye, respectively.

  4. Biosynthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Imperata cylindrica L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, I. S.; Yulizar, Y.

    2017-04-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were biosynthesized.The growth was observed by a sol-gel method. ZnO were successfully formed through the reaction of zinc nitrate tetrahydrate Zn(NO3)2.4H2O precursor with aqueous leaf extract of Imperata cylindrica L (ICL). The structural and optical properties of ZnO were investigated. The as-synthesized products were characterized by UV-Visible (UV-Vis), UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). UV-Vis absorption data showed hydrolysis and characteristic of absorption peak at 300 nm of Zn(OH)2. UV-DRS confirmed that ZnO NPs has the indirect band gap at 3.13 eV. FTIR spectrum revealed the functional groups and indicated the presence of protein as the capping and stabilizing agent on the ZnO surface. Powder XRD studies indicated the formation of pure wurtzite hexagonal structure with particle size of 11.9 nm. The detailed morphological and structural characterizations revealed that the synthesized products were hexagonal nanochip.

  5. Effect of copper doping on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidani, T.; Zaabat, M.; Aida, M. S.; Boudine, B.

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, we prepared undoped and copper doped ZnO thin films by the sol-gel dip coating method on glass substrates from zinc acetate dissolved in a solution of ethanol. The objective of our work is to study the effect of Cu doping with different concentrations on structural, morphological, optical properties and photocatalytic activity of ZnO thin films. For this purpose, we have used XRD to study the structural properties, and AFM to determine the morphology of the surface of the ZnO thin films. The optical properties and the photocatalytic degradation of the films were examined by UV-visibles spectrophotometer. The Tauc method was used to estimate the optical band gap. The XRD spectra indicated that the films have an hexagonal wurtzite structure, which gradually deteriorated with increasing Cu concentration. The results showed that the incorporation of Cu decreases the crystallite size. The AFM study showed that an increase of the concentration of Cu causes the decrease of the surface roughness, which passes from 20.2 for Un-doped ZnO to 12.16 nm for doped ZnO 5 wt% Cu. Optical measurements have shown that all the deposited films show good optical transmittance (77%-92%) in the visible region and increases the optical gap with increasing Cu concentration. The presence of copper from 1% to 5 wt% in the ZnO thin films is found to decelerate the photocatalytic process.

  6. Cd-doped ZnO nano crystalline thin films prepared at 723K by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joishy, Sumanth; Rajendra B., V.

    2018-04-01

    Ternary Zn1-xCdxO(x=0.10, 0.40, 0.70 at.%) thin films of 0.025M precursor concentration have been successfully deposited on preheated (723K) glass substrates using spray pyrolysis route. The structure, morphology and optical properties of deposited films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. X-ray diffraction study shows that the prepared films are polycrystalline in nature. 10% Cd doped ZnO film belongs to the hexagonal wurtzite system and 70% Cd doped ZnO film belongs to the cubic system, although mixed phases were formed for 40% Cd doped ZnO film. The optical transmittance spectra has shown red shift with increasing cadmium content. Optical energy band gap has been reduced with cadmium dopant.

  7. Effect of copper and nickel doping on the optical and structural properties of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muǧlu, G. Merhan; Sarıtaş, S.; ćakıcı, T.; Şakar, B.; Yıldırım, M.

    2017-02-01

    The present study is focused on the Cu doped ZnO and Ni doped ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films. ZnO:Cu and ZnO:Ni thin films were grown by Chemically Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method on glass substrates. Optical analysis of the films was done spectral absorption and transmittance measurements by UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer technique. The structure, morphology, topology and elemental analysis of ZnO:Cu and ZnO:Ni dilute magnetic thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, respectively. Also The magnetic properties of the ZnO:Ni thin film was investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) method. VSM measurements of ZnO:Ni thin film showed that the ferromagnetic behavior.

  8. Interface magnetism and electronic structure: ZnO(0001)/Co3O4 (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupchak, I. M.; Serpak, N. F.; Shkrebtii, A.; Hayn, R.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of spinel Co3O4 (111) surfaces and their interfaces with ZnO(0001) using density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation with the on-site Coulomb repulsion term. Two possible forms of spinel surface, containing Co2 + or Co3 + ions and terminated with either cobalt or oxygen ions, were considered, as well as their interface with zinc oxide. Our calculations demonstrate that Co3 + ions attain nonzero magnetic moments at the surface and interface, in contrast to the bulk, where they are not magnetic, leading to the ferromagnetic ordering. Since heavily Co doped ZnO samples can contain a Co3O4 secondary phase, such magnetic ordering at the interface might explain the origin of the magnetism in such diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  9. Effect of 50 MeV Li3 + irradiation on structural and electrical properties of Mn-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, S. K.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, Aritra; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Sarkar, A.; Kumar, Ravi

    2011-05-01

    The present work aims to study the effect of ion irradiation on structural and electrical properties and their correlation with the defects in the Zn1 - xMnxO-type system. Zn1 - xMnxO (x = 0.02, 0.04) samples have been synthesized by the solid-state reaction method and have been irradiated with 50 MeV Li3 + ions. The concomitant changes have been probed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-dependent electrical resistivity and positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy. The XRD result shows a single-phase wurtzite structure for Zn0.98Mn0.02O, whereas for the Zn0.96Mn0.04O sample an impurity phase has been found, apart from the usual peaks of ZnO. Ion irradiation removes this impurity peak. The grain size of the samples is found to be uniform. For Zn0.98Mn0.02O, the observed sharp decrease in room temperature resistivity (ρRT) with irradiation is consistent with the lowering of the full width at half maximum of the XRD peaks. However, for Zn0.96Mn0.04O, ρRT decreases for the initial fluence but increases for a further increase in fluence. All the irradiated Zn0.98Mn0.02O samples show a metal-semiconductor transition in temperature-dependent resistivity measurements at low temperature. But all the irradiated Zn0.96Mn0.04O samples show a semiconducting nature in the whole range of temperatures. Results of room temperature resistivity, XRD and PAL measurements are consistent with each other.

  10. Effect of 50 MeV Li3+ irradiation on structural and electrical properties of Mn-doped ZnO.

    PubMed

    Neogi, S K; Chattopadhyay, S; Banerjee, Aritra; Bandyopadhyay, S; Sarkar, A; Kumar, Ravi

    2011-05-25

    The present work aims to study the effect of ion irradiation on structural and electrical properties and their correlation with the defects in the Zn(1 - x)Mn(x)O-type system. Zn(1 - x)Mn(x)O (x = 0.02, 0.04) samples have been synthesized by the solid-state reaction method and have been irradiated with 50 MeV Li(3+) ions. The concomitant changes have been probed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-dependent electrical resistivity and positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy. The XRD result shows a single-phase wurtzite structure for Zn(0.98)Mn(0.02)O, whereas for the Zn(0.96)Mn(0.04)O sample an impurity phase has been found, apart from the usual peaks of ZnO. Ion irradiation removes this impurity peak. The grain size of the samples is found to be uniform. For Zn(0.98)Mn(0.02)O, the observed sharp decrease in room temperature resistivity (ρ(RT)) with irradiation is consistent with the lowering of the full width at half maximum of the XRD peaks. However, for Zn(0.96)Mn(0.04)O, ρ(RT) decreases for the initial fluence but increases for a further increase in fluence. All the irradiated Zn(0.98)Mn(0.02)O samples show a metal-semiconductor transition in temperature-dependent resistivity measurements at low temperature. But all the irradiated Zn(0.96)Mn(0.04)O samples show a semiconducting nature in the whole range of temperatures. Results of room temperature resistivity, XRD and PAL measurements are consistent with each other.

  11. Electronic structure of stoichiometric and reduced ZnO from periodic relativistic all electron hybrid density functional calculations using numeric atom-centered orbitals.

    PubMed

    Viñes, Francesc; Illas, Francesc

    2017-03-30

    The atomic and electronic structure of stoichiometric and reduced ZnO wurtzite has been studied using a periodic relativistic all electron hybrid density functional (PBE0) approach and numeric atom-centered orbital basis set with quality equivalent to aug-cc-pVDZ. To assess the importance of relativistic effects, calculations were carried out without and with explicit inclusion of relativistic effects through the zero order regular approximation. The calculated band gap is ∼0.2 eV smaller than experiment, close to previous PBE0 results including relativistic calculation through the pseudopotential and ∼0.25 eV smaller than equivalent nonrelativistic all electron PBE0 calculations indicating possible sources of error in nonrelativistic all electron density functional calculations for systems containing elements with relatively high atomic number. The oxygen vacancy formation energy converges rather fast with the supercell size, the predicted value agrees with previously hybrid density functional calculations and analysis of the electronic structure evidences the presence of localized electrons at the vacancy site with a concomitant well localized peak in the density of states ∼0.5 eV above the top of the valence band and a significant relaxation of the Zn atoms near to the oxygen vacancy. Finally, present work shows that accurate results can be obtained in systems involving large supercells containing up to ∼450 atoms using a numeric atomic-centered orbital basis set within a full all electron description including scalar relativistic effects at an affordable cost. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hierarchically structured nanowires on and nanosticks in ZnO microtubes

    PubMed Central

    Rivaldo-Gómez, C. M.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Zúñiga, A.; Carbonari, A. W.; Souza, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    We report both coaxial core-shell structured microwires and ZnO microtubes with growth of nanosticks in the inner and nanowires on the outer surface as a novel hierarchical micro/nanoarchitecture. First, a core-shell structure is obtained—the core is formed by metallic Zn and the semiconducting shell is comprised by a thin oxide layer covered with a high density of nanowires. Such Zn/ZnO core-shell array showed magnetoresistance effect. It is suggested that magnetic moments in the nanostructured shell superimposes to the external magnetic field enhancing the MR effect. Second, microtubes decorated with nanowires on the external surface are obtained. In an intermediate stage, a hierarchical morphology comprised of discrete nanosticks in the inner surface of the microtube has been found. Hyperfine interaction measurements disclosed the presence of confined metallic Zn regions at the interface between linked ZnO grains forming a chain and a ZnO thicker layer. Surprisingly, the metallic clusters form highly textured thin flat regions oriented parallel to the surface of the microtube as revealed by the electrical field gradient direction. The driving force to grow the internal nanosticks has been ascribed to stress-induced migration of Zn ions due to compressive stress caused by the presence of these confined regions. PMID:26456527

  13. Effects of silver impurity on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of ZnO nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    1, 3, and 5 wt.% silver-doped ZnO (SZO) nanowires (NWs) are grown by hot-walled pulsed laser deposition. After silver-doping process, SZO NWs show some change behaviors, including structural, electrical, and optical properties. In case of structural property, the primary growth plane of SZO NWs is switched from (002) to (103) plane, and the electrical properties of SZO NWs are variously measured to be about 4.26 × 106, 1.34 × 106, and 3.04 × 105 Ω for 1, 3, and 5 SZO NWs, respectively. In other words, the electrical properties of SZO NWs depend on different Ag ratios resulting in controlling the carrier concentration. Finally, the optical properties of SZO NWs are investigated to confirm p-type semiconductor by observing the exciton bound to a neutral acceptor (A0X). Also, Ag presence in ZnO NWs is directly detected by both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. These results imply that Ag doping facilitates the possibility of changing the properties in ZnO NWs by the atomic substitution of Ag with Zn in the lattice. PMID:21985620

  14. Synthesis of ZnO thin film by sol-gel spin coating technique for H2S gas sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimbalkar, Amol R.; Patil, Maruti G.

    2017-12-01

    In this present work, zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film synthesized by a simple sol-gel spin coating technique. The structural, morphology, compositional, microstructural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of the film were studied by using XRD, FESEM, EDS, XPS, HRTEM, Raman, FTIR and UV-vis techniques. The ZnO thin film shows hexagonal wurtzite structure with a porous structured morphology. Gas sensing performance of synthesized ZnO thin film was tested initially for H2S gas at different operating temperatures as well as concentrations. The maximum gas response is achieved towards H2S gas at 300 °C operating temperature, at 100 ppm gas concentration as compared to other gases like CH3OH, Cl2, NH3, LPG, CH3COCH3, and C2H5OH with a good stability.

  15. A detailed study on Sn4+ doped ZnO for enhanced photocatalytic degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beura, Rosalin; Pachaiappan, R.; Thangadurai, P.

    2018-03-01

    The samples of Sn4+ doped (1, 5, 10, 15, 20 & 30%) ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. Structural analysis by XRD and Raman spectroscopy showed the hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO and the formation of a secondary phase Zn2SnO4 beyond 10% doping of Sn4+. Microstructural analysis by TEM also confirmed the wurtzite ZnO with rod as well as particle like structure. Presence of various functional groups (sbnd OH, sbnd CH, Znsbnd O) were confirmed by FTIR. Optical properties were studied by UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence emission spectroscopies and lifetime measurement. Band gap of the undoped and Sn4+ doped ZnO were analyzed by Tauc plot and it was observed that the band gap of the materials had slightly decreased from 3.2 to 3.16 eV and again increased to 3.23 eV with respect to the increase in the doping concentration from 1 to 30%. A significant change was also noticed in the photoluminescence emission properties of ZnO i.e. increase in the intensity of NBE emission and decrease in DLE, on subject to Sn4+ doping. Average PL lifetime had increased from 29.45 ns for ZnO to 30.62 ns upon 1% Sn ion doping in ZnO. Electrical properties studied by solid state impedance spectroscopy showed that the conductivity had increased by one order of magnitude (from 7.48×10-8 to 2.21×10-7 S/cm) on Sn4+ doping. Photocatalytic experiments were performed on methyl orange (MO) as a model industrial dye under UV light irradiation for different irradiation times. The optimum Sn4+ content in order to achieve highest photocatalytic activity was found to be 1% Sn 4+ doping. The enhancement was achieved due to a decrease in the band gap favoring the generation of electron-hole pairs and the enhanced PL life time that delays the recombination of these charge carrier formation. The third reason was that the increased electrical conductivity that indicated the faster charge transfer in this material to enhance the photocatalytic activity. The Sn

  16. Novel Gas Sensor Based on ZnO Nanorod Circular Arrays for C2H5OH Gas Detection.

    PubMed

    Jianjiao, Zhang; Hongyan, Yue; Erjun, Guo; Shaolin, Zhang; Liping, Wang; Chunyu, Zhang; Xin, Gao; Jing, Chang; Hong, Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Novel side-heating gas sensor based on ZnO nanorod circular arrays was firstly fabricated by hydrothermal treatment assisted with a kind of simple dip-coating technique. The structure and morphologies of ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), respectively. XRD result indicates that the obtained ZnO nanorods have good crystalline with the hexagonal wurtzite structure. SEM result indicates that ZnO nanorod arrays are vertically growth on the surface of ceramic tube of side-heating sensor with controlled diameter and length, narrow size distribution and high orientation. The gas sensing properties of ZnO nanorod circular arrays are also evaluated. Comparative to the sensor based on scattered ZnO nanorods responding to 25 ppm H2, CO, C6H5CH3 and C2H5OH gas, respectively, the sensing values of high orientation gas sensor are generally increased by 5%. This novel sensor has good application promising for the fabrication of cost effective and high performance gas sensors.

  17. Delocalization of π electrons and trapping action of ZnO nanoparticles in PPY matrix for hybrid solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajinder; Choudhary, Ram Bilash; Kandulna, Rohit

    2018-03-01

    Polypyrrole (PPY)-Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanocomposites with varying concentration of ZnO (1:1-1:4) were prepared via in-situ polymerization technique by using pyrrole monomer in the presence of ammonium persulphate (APS) as oxidant. Globular morphology of PPY and sheet like structure of ZnO was examined using FESEM and EDAX. FTIR showed the presence of vibration modes in fingerprint region (1500 cm-1-500 cm-1) for metal oxides confirming the presence and interaction of ZnO with the polymer matrix in nanocomposites. Amorphous nature of PPY and hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO was confirmed using XRD with average crystallite size within 20 nm-30 nm. PANI-ZnO (1:1) exhibited blue shift in comparison to PPY (neat) and optimized optical band gap ∼ 1.81 eV. The effect of carrier concentration was investigated using electrochemical analyzer and maximum current was recorded for PANI-ZnO (1:1). The highest conductance was calculated for PANI-ZnO (1:1) ∼ 7.3242 × 10-3 S using current -voltage characteristics. Thermal stability was found to be increasing with the increase in ZnO concentration PANI-ZnO nanocomposite.

  18. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    SciT

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z{sub 1}) and nanograins by SILAR (Z{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. Themore » X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10{sup 2} Ω cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10{sup 5} Ω cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method.« less

  19. A study of the effects of aligned vertically growth time on ZnO nanorods deposited for the first time on Teflon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, O. F.; Halim, M. M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Oglat, Ammar A.; Abuelsamen, A. A.; Bououdina, M.; Qaeed, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, ZnO nanorods (NRs) were well deposited on Teflon substrates (PTFE) via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at low temperature. The consequences of growth time (1 h-4 h) on the structural and optical properties of the aligned ZnO (NRs) were investigated through X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and photoluminescence (PL) analyses. The results show that the ZnO (NRs) were preferred to grew aligned along the c-axis as hexagonal wurtzite structure as proved by the sharp and strong ZnO (002) peaks of the ZnO (NRs). Irrespective of the growth continuation, FESEM photos confirmed that the ZnO nanorods arrays were fit to be aligned along the c-axis and perpendicular to (PTFE) substrates. The ZnO nanorods that exhibited the sharper stand most intense PL peaks among the sample were grown for 3hs as demonstrated by PL spectra. The device further showed a sensitivity of 4068 to low-power (1.25 mW/cm2) 375 nm light pulses without an external bias. The measurements of photoresponse demonstrated the highly reproducible characteristics of the fabricated UV detector with rapid response and baseline recovery times of 48.05 ms. Thus, this work introduced a simple, low-cost method of fabricating rapid-response, and highly photosensitive UV detectors with zero power consumption on Teflon substrates.

  20. Nanoscale calibration of n-type ZnO staircase structures by scanning capacitance microscopy

    SciT

    Wang, L., E-mail: lin.wang@insa-lyon.fr; Laurent, J.; Brémond, G.

    2015-11-09

    Cross-sectional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) was performed on n-type ZnO multi-layer structures homoepitaxially grown by molecular beam epitaxy method. Highly contrasted SCM signals were obtained between the ZnO layers with different Ga densities. Through comparison with dopant depth profiles from secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurement, it is demonstrated that SCM is able to distinguish carrier concentrations at all levels of the samples (from 2 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} to 3 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}). The good agreement of the results from the two techniques indicates that SCM can be a useful tool for two dimensional carrier profiling at nanoscale for ZnO nanostructure development. Asmore » an example, residual carrier concentration inside the non-intentionally doped buffer layer was estimated to be around 2 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3} through calibration analysis.« less

  1. Characteristics of surface acoustic waves in (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, ShuYi; Xu, Jing; Xie, YingCai; Lan, XiaoDong

    2018-02-01

    (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structure is promising for high frequency acoustic wave devices. The propagation characteristics of SAWs, including the Rayleigh waves along [0001] direction and Love waves along [1ī00] direction, are investigated by using 3 dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM). The phase velocity ( v p), electromechanical coupling coefficient ( k 2), temperature coefficient of frequency ( TCF) and reflection coefficient ( r) of Rayleigh wave and Love wave devices are theoretically analyzed. Furthermore, the influences of ZnO films with different crystal orientation on SAW properties are also investigated. The results show that the 1st Rayleigh wave has an exceedingly large k 2 of 4.95% in (90°, 90°, 0°) (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate associated with a phase velocity of 5300 m/s; and the 0th Love wave in (0°, 90°, 0°) (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate has a maximum k 2 of 3.86% associated with a phase velocity of 3400 m/s. And (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structures can be used to design temperature-compensated and wide-band SAW devices. All of the results indicate that the performances of SAW devices can be optimized by suitably selecting ZnO films with different thickness and crystal orientations deposited on R-sapphire substrates.

  2. Thermal Conductivity of Wurtzite Zinc-Oxide from First-Principles Lattice Dynamics - a Comparative Study with Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xufei; Lee, Jonghoon; Varshney, Vikas; Wohlwend, Jennifer L.; Roy, Ajit K.; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-03-01

    Wurtzite Zinc-Oxide (w-ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconductor that holds promise in power electronics applications, where heat dissipation is of critical importance. However, large discrepancies exist in the literature on the thermal conductivity of w-ZnO. In this paper, we determine the thermal conductivity of w-ZnO using first-principles lattice dynamics and compare it to that of wurtzite Gallium-Nitride (w-GaN) - another important wide bandgap semiconductor with the same crystal structure and similar atomic masses as w-ZnO. However, the thermal conductivity values show large differences (400 W/mK of w-GaN vs. 50 W/mK of w-ZnO at room temperature). It is found that the much lower thermal conductivity of ZnO originates from the smaller phonon group velocities, larger three-phonon scattering phase space and larger anharmonicity. Compared to w-GaN, w-ZnO has a smaller frequency gap in phonon dispersion, which is responsible for the stronger anharmonic phonon scattering, and the weaker interatomic bonds in w-ZnO leads to smaller phonon group velocities. The thermal conductivity of w-ZnO also shows strong size effect with nano-sized grains or structures. The results from this work help identify the cause of large discrepancies in w-ZnO thermal conductivity and will provide in-depth understanding of phonon dynamics for the design of w-ZnO-based electronics.

  3. Thermal Conductivity of Wurtzite Zinc-Oxide from First-Principles Lattice Dynamics – a Comparative Study with Gallium Nitride

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xufei; Lee, Jonghoon; Varshney, Vikas; Wohlwend, Jennifer L.; Roy, Ajit K.; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-01-01

    Wurtzite Zinc-Oxide (w-ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconductor that holds promise in power electronics applications, where heat dissipation is of critical importance. However, large discrepancies exist in the literature on the thermal conductivity of w-ZnO. In this paper, we determine the thermal conductivity of w-ZnO using first-principles lattice dynamics and compare it to that of wurtzite Gallium-Nitride (w-GaN) – another important wide bandgap semiconductor with the same crystal structure and similar atomic masses as w-ZnO. However, the thermal conductivity values show large differences (400 W/mK of w-GaN vs. 50 W/mK of w-ZnO at room temperature). It is found that the much lower thermal conductivity of ZnO originates from the smaller phonon group velocities, larger three-phonon scattering phase space and larger anharmonicity. Compared to w-GaN, w-ZnO has a smaller frequency gap in phonon dispersion, which is responsible for the stronger anharmonic phonon scattering, and the weaker interatomic bonds in w-ZnO leads to smaller phonon group velocities. The thermal conductivity of w-ZnO also shows strong size effect with nano-sized grains or structures. The results from this work help identify the cause of large discrepancies in w-ZnO thermal conductivity and will provide in-depth understanding of phonon dynamics for the design of w-ZnO-based electronics. PMID:26928396

  4. Doping induced c-axis oriented growth of transparent ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, Bhaumik V.; Joshi, U. S.

    2018-04-01

    c-Axis oriented In doped ZnO (IZO) transparent conducting thin films were optimized on glass substrate using sol gel spin coating method. The Indium content in ZnO was varied systematically and the structural parameters were studied. Along with the crystallographic properties, the optoelectronic and electrical properties of IZO thin films were investigated in detail. The IZO thin films revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure. It was found that In doping in ZnO promotes the c-axis oriented growth of the thin films deposited on amorphous substrate. The particle size of the IZO films were increase as doping content increases from 2% to 5%. The 2% In doped ZnO film show electrical resistivity of 0.11 Ω cm, which is far better than the reported value for ZnO thin film. Better than 75% average optical transmission was estimated in the wavelength range from 400-800 nm. Systematic variartions in the electron concentration and band gap was observed with increasing In doping. Note worthy finding is that, with suitable amount of In doping improves not only transparency and conductivity but also improves the preferred orientation of the oxide thin film.

  5. EGCG assisted green synthesis of ZnO nanopowders: Photodegradative, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, D.; Udayabhanu; Nethravathi, P. C.; Lingaraju, K.; Rajanaika, H.; Sharma, S. C.; Nagabhushana, H.

    2015-02-01

    Zinc oxide nanopowders were synthesized by solution combustion method using Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) a tea catechin as fuel. The structure and morphology of the product was characterized by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, photoluminescence and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The nanopowders (Nps) were subjected to photocatalytic and biological activities such as antimicrobial and antioxidant studies. PXRD patterns demonstrate that the formed product belongs to hexagonal wurtzite system. SEM images show that the particles are agglomerated to form sponge like structure and the average crystallite sizes were found to be ∼10-20 nm. PL spectra exhibit broad and strong peak at 590 nm due to the Zn-vacancies, and O-vacancies. The prepared ZnO Nps exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of malachite green (MG) and methylene blue (MB) indicating that the ZnO NPs are potential photocatalytic semiconductor materials. ZnO NPs exhibit significant bactericidal activity against Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using the agar well diffusion method. Furthermore, the ZnO nano powders show good antioxidant activity by potentially scavenging DPPH radicals. The study successfully demonstrates synthesis of ZnO NPs by simple ecofriendly route employing EGCG as fuel that exhibit superior photodegradative, antibacterial and antioxidant activities.

  6. Nanoparticle Self-Assembled Grain Like Curcumin Conjugated ZnO: Curcumin Conjugation Enhances Removal of Perylene, Fluoranthene, and Chrysene by ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Moussawi, Rasha N.; Patra, Digambara

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin conjugated ZnO, referred as Zn(cur)O, nanostructures have been successfully synthesized, these sub-micro grain-like structures are actually self-assemblies of individual needle-shaped nanoparticles. The nanostructures as synthesized possess the wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO and exhibit very good crystalline quality. FT-Raman and TGA analysis establish that Zn(cur)O is different from curcumin anchored ZnO (ZnO@cur), which is prepared by physically adsorbing curcumin on ZnO surfaces. Chemically Zn(cur)O is more stable than ZnO@cur. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates Zn(cur)O have more impurities compared to ZnO@cur. The solid-state photoluminescence of Zn(cur)O has been investigated, which demonstrates that increase of curcumin concentration in Zn(cur)O suppresses visible emission of ZnO prepared through the same method, this implies filling ZnO defects by curcumin. However, at excitation wavelength 425 nm the emission is dominated by fluorescence from curcumin. The study reveals that Zn(cur)O can remove to a far extent high concentrations of perylene, fluoranthene, and chrysene faster than ZnO. The removal depends on the extent of curcumin conjugation and is found to be faster for PAHs having smaller number of aromatic rings, particularly, it is exceptional for fluoranthene with 93% removal after 10 minutes in the present conditions. The high rate of removal is related to photo-degradation and a mechanism has been proposed. PMID:27080002

  7. Hydrothermal process assists undoped and Cr-doped semiconducting ZnO nanorods: Frontier of dielectric property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Tanumoy; Saha, Papiya; Patra, Nesla; Das, Sukhen; Sutradhar, Soumyaditya

    2018-05-01

    The influence of the hydrothermal synthesis route on the grain morphology and thereby the modulation of dielectric response of undoped and Cr3+ ion doped semiconducting ZnO nanoparticles is investigated in this report. The X-ray diffraction study reveals that all the samples are in a polycrystalline single phase of a hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study reveals the rod like structure of all the samples. The formation of synthesis route dependent morphology and the morphology dependent physical property of all the samples are the characteristic features of the present work and to date it has not been considered as the specific tool of dielectric property modulation by anyone else. The ultraviolet-visible measurement signifies the superior control over the charge density of the host semiconducting material due to the presence of Cr3+ ions in the structure of ZnO. In the photoluminescence measurement, no significant peak has been observed in the visible region. The frequency and temperature dependent dielectric constants of all the samples were investigated. The consequences of the dielectric measurement suggest that the hydrothermal synthesis route influences the growth mechanism of the semiconducting nanoparticles mostly towards the rod like structure and the doping element influences the charge density, nature of defects, and the defect densities inside the structure of ZnO nanomaterials. All these factors together make the semiconducting ZnO nanomaterials more effective for tailor made applications in magneto-dielectric devices.

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of ZnO Nano-Clips by the Polyol-Mediated Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei; Li, Ai-Dong; Kong, Ji-Zhou; Gong, You-Pin; Zhao, Chao; Tang, Yue-Feng; Wu, Di

    2018-02-01

    ZnO nano-clips with better monodispersion were prepared successfully using zinc acetate hydrate (Zn(OAc)2·nH2O) as Zn source and ethylene glycol (EG) as solvent by a simple solution-based route-polyol process. The effect of solution concentration on the formation of ZnO nano-clips has been investigated deeply. We first prove that the 0.01 M Zn(OAc)2·nH2O can react with EG without added water or alkaline, producing ZnO nano-clips with polycrystalline wurtzite structure at 170 °C. As-synthesized ZnO nano-clips contain a lot of aggregated nanocrystals ( 5 to 15 nm) with high specific surface area of 88 m2/g. The shapes of ZnO nano-clips basically keep constant with improved crystallinity after annealing at 400-600 °C. The lower solution concentration and slight amount of H2O play a decisive role in ZnO nano-clip formation. When the solution concentration is ≤ 0.0125 M, the complexing and polymerization reactions between Zn(OAc)2·nH2O and EG predominate, mainly elaborating ZnO nano-clips. When the solution concentration is ≥ 0.015 M, the alcoholysis and polycondensation reactions of Zn(OAc)2·nH2O and EG become dominant, leading to ZnO particle formation with spherical and elliptical shapes. The possible growth mechanism based on a competition between complexing and alcoholysis of Zn(OAc)2·nH2O and EG has been proposed.

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of ZnO Nano-Clips by the Polyol-Mediated Process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Li, Ai-Dong; Kong, Ji-Zhou; Gong, You-Pin; Zhao, Chao; Tang, Yue-Feng; Wu, Di

    2018-02-09

    ZnO nano-clips with better monodispersion were prepared successfully using zinc acetate hydrate (Zn(OAc) 2 ·nH 2 O) as Zn source and ethylene glycol (EG) as solvent by a simple solution-based route-polyol process. The effect of solution concentration on the formation of ZnO nano-clips has been investigated deeply. We first prove that the 0.01 M Zn(OAc) 2 ·nH 2 O can react with EG without added water or alkaline, producing ZnO nano-clips with polycrystalline wurtzite structure at 170 °C. As-synthesized ZnO nano-clips contain a lot of aggregated nanocrystals (~ 5 to 15 nm) with high specific surface area of 88 m 2 /g. The shapes of ZnO nano-clips basically keep constant with improved crystallinity after annealing at 400-600 °C. The lower solution concentration and slight amount of H 2 O play a decisive role in ZnO nano-clip formation. When the solution concentration is ≤ 0.0125 M, the complexing and polymerization reactions between Zn(OAc) 2 ·nH 2 O and EG predominate, mainly elaborating ZnO nano-clips. When the solution concentration is ≥ 0.015 M, the alcoholysis and polycondensation reactions of Zn(OAc) 2 ·nH 2 O and EG become dominant, leading to ZnO particle formation with spherical and elliptical shapes. The possible growth mechanism based on a competition between complexing and alcoholysis of Zn(OAc) 2 ·nH 2 O and EG has been proposed.

  10. Annealing effect on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO bilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. I.; Imran, S.; Shahnawaz; Saleem, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif

    2018-03-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO (TZ) thin films has been observed. Bilayer thin films of TiO2/ZnO are deposited on FTO glass substrate by spray pyrolysis method. After deposition, these films are annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K. XRD shows that TiO2 is present in anatase phase only and ZnO is present in hexagonal phase. No other phases of TiO2 and ZnO are present. Also, there is no evidence of other compounds like Zn-Ti etc. It also shows that the average grain size of TiO2/ZnO films is increased by increasing annealing temperature. AFM (Atomic force microscope) showed that the average roughness of TiO2/ZnO films is decreased at temperature 573-723 K and then increased at 873 K. The calculated average sheet resistivity of thin films annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K is 152.28 × 102, 75.29 × 102 and 63.34 × 102 ohm-m respectively. This decrease in sheet resistivity might be due to the increment of electron concentration with increasing thickness and the temperature of thin films.

  11. Efficacy of saccharides bio-template on structural, morphological, optical and antibacterial property of ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhanalakshmi, A; Palanimurugan, A; Natarajan, B

    2018-09-01

    Mono, di and polysaccharides of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), sucrose (C 12 H 24 O 12 ) and starch (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) n bio-template ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) has prepared by chemical precipitation method. Saccharides bio-template ZnO (SBts-ZnO) NPs were efficiently prepared for their structural and optical properties were examined by using XRD, FE-SEM, AFM, FTIR, UV and PL techniques. All the samples are polycrystalline nature with a preferential orientation depending on the (1 0 1) plane. The reduction of crystalline size by utilizing glucose, sucrose and starch bio-template of ZnO NPs. FE-SEM images revealed that the spherical and nano-rods like morphologies for ZnO and SBts-ZnO NPs respectively. AFM recorded images shows spherical features that confirmed and also the morphological changes were noticed with the addition of polymers. Interaction of bio-templated saccharides (glucose G 1 , sucrose S 2 & starch S n ) molecules was proved by FTIR study. Optical absorbance and emission behaviours were investigated using UV-Vis and photoluminescence techniques. The antibacterial study revealed that SBts-ZnO have excellent antibacterial effect than ZnO. The S n -ZnO sample has potent antibacterial activity against the Proteus vulgaris followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Aqueous chemical growth of free standing vertical ZnO nanoprisms, nanorods and nanodiskettes with improved texture co-efficient and tunable size uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, S. D. Gopal; Ravi, G.; Athimoolam, A.; Mahalingam, T.; Kulandainathan, M. Anbu

    2011-12-01

    Tuning the morphology, size and aspect ratio of free standing ZnO nanostructured arrays by a simple hydrothermal method is reported. Pre-coated ZnO seed layers of two different thicknesses (≈350 nm or 550 nm) were used as substrates to grow ZnO nanostructures for the study. Various parameters such as chemical ambience, pH of the solution, strength of the Zn2+ atoms and thickness of seed bed are varied to analyze their effects on the resultant ZnO nanostructures. Vertically oriented hexagonal nanorods, multi-angular nanorods, hexagonal diskette and popcorn-like nanostructures are obtained by altering the experimental parameters. All the produced nanostructures were analysed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis and found to be grown in the (002) orientation of wurtzite ZnO. The texture co-efficient of ZnO layer was improved by combining a thick seed layer with higher cationic strength. Surface morphological studies reveal various nanostructures such as nanorods, diskettes and popcorn-like structures based on various preparation conditions. The optical property of the closest packed nanorods array was recorded by UV-VIS spectrometry, and the band gap value simulated from the results reflect the near characteristic band gap of ZnO. The surface roughness profile taken from the Atomic Force Microscopy reveals a roughness of less than 320 nm.

  13. AuNPs Hybrid Black ZnO Nanorods Made by a Sol-Gel Method for Highly Sensitive Humidity Sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Min; Lin, Cunchong; Zhang, Jun

    2018-01-13

    A highly sensitive self-powered humidity sensor has been realized from AuNPs hybrid black zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods prepared through a sol-gel method. XRD pattern reveals that both ZnO and ZnO/AuNPs exhibit a wurtzite structure. ZnO/AuNPs nanorods grow in a vertical alignment, which possesses high uniformity and forms dense arrays with a smaller diameter than that of ZnO nanoparticles. All ZnO/AuNPs and pure black ZnO show lower band gap energy than the typically reported 3.34 eV of pure ZnO. Furthermore, the band gap of ZnO/AuNPs nanocomposites is effectively influenced by the amount of AuNPs. The humidity sensing tests clearly prove that all the ZnO/AuNPs humidity sensors exhibit much higher response than that of ZnO sensors, and the sensitivity of such ZnO/AuNPs nanorods (6 mL AuNPs) display a change three orders higher than that of pure ZnO with relative humidity (RH) ranging from 11% to 95% at room temperature. The response and recovery time of the ZnO/AuNPs are 5.6 s and 32.4 s, respectively. This study of the construction of semiconductor/noble metal sensors provides a rational way to control the morphology of semiconductor nanomaterials and to design a humidity sensor with high performance.

  14. Structure and Properties of Al and Ga- Doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temizer, Namik Kemal

    Recently there is tremendous interest in Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) research due to the unlimited and exciting application areas. Current research is mostly focused on finding alternative low cost and sustainable materials in order to replace indium tin oxide (ITO), which caused serious concern due to the increasing cost of indium and chemical stability issues of ITO. The primary aim of this research is to develop alternative TCO materials with superior properties in order to increase the efficiency in optoelectronic applications, as well as to study the properties of these materials to fully characterize them. We have grown Al and Ga-doped ZnO films with an optimized composition under different deposition conditions in order to understand the effect of processing parameters on the film properties. We report a detailed investigation on the structure-property correlations in Ga and Al codoped ZnO films on c-sapphire substrates where the thin film microstructure varies from nanocrystalline to single crystal. We have achieved highly epitaxial films with very high optical transmittance (close to 90%) and low resistivity (˜110muO-cm) values. The films grown in an ambient oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) of 50 mTorr and at growth temperatures from room temperature to 600°C showed semiconducting behavior, whereas samples grown at a Po2 of 1 mTorr showed metallic nature. The most striking feature is the occurrence of resistivity minima at relatively high temperatures around 110 K in films deposited at high temperatures. The structure-property correlations reveal that point defects play an important role in modifying the structural, optical, electrical and magnetic properties and such changes in physical properties are controlled predominantly by the defect content. To gain a better understanding of the conduction processes in doped ZnO thin films, we have studied the temperature variation of resistivity of some selected samples that showed some interesting behavior

  15. Low-temperature growth of ZnO nanoparticles: photocatalyst and acetone sensor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sher Bahadar; Faisal, M; Rahman, Mohammed M; Jamal, Aslam

    2011-08-15

    Well-crystalline ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in large-quantity via simple hydrothermal process using the aqueous mixtures of zinc chloride and ammonium hydroxide. The detailed structural properties were examined using X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) which revealed that the synthesized NPs are well-crystalline and possessing wurtzite hexagonal phase. The NPs are almost spherical shape with the average diameters of ∼ 50 ± 10 nm. The quality and composition of the synthesized NPs were obtained using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron dispersed spectroscopy (EDS) which confirmed that the obtained NPs are pure ZnO and made with almost 1:1 stoichiometry of zinc and oxygen, respectively. The optical properties of ZnO NPs were investigated by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Synthesized ZnO NPs were extensively applied as a photocatalyst for the degradation of acridine orange (AO) and as a chemi-sensor for the electrochemical sensing of acetone in liquid phase. Almost complete degradation of AO has taken place after 80 min of irradiation time. The fabricated acetone sensor based on ZnO NPs exhibits good sensitivity (∼ 0.14065 μA cm(-2) mM(-1)) with lower detection limit (0.068 ± 0.01 mM) in short response time (10s). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mesoporous single-crystal ZnO nanobelts: supported preparation and patterning.

    PubMed

    Nasi, Lucia; Calestani, Davide; Fabbri, Filippo; Ferro, Patrizia; Besagni, Tullo; Fedeli, Paolo; Licci, Francesca; Mosca, Roberto

    2013-02-07

    We demonstrate that highly porous ZnO nanobelts can be prepared by thermally decomposing ZnS(en)(0.5) hybrid nanobelts (NBs) synthesized through a solvothermal route using Zn layers deposited on alumina substrates as both the Zn substrate and source. Hybrid decomposition by thermal annealing at 400 °C gives porous ZnS NBs that are transformed by further annealing at 600 °C into wurtzite single crystal ZnO nanobelts with an axial direction of [0001]. The evolution of the morphological and structural transformation ZnS(en)(0.5)→ ZnS → ZnO is investigated at the nanoscale by transmission and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Control of the ZnO NB distributions by patterning the Zn metallization on alumina is achieved as a consequence of the parent hybrid NB patterned growth. The presence of NBs on alumina in a ∼100 μm wide region between Zn stripes allows us to fabricate two contact devices where contact pads are electrically connected through a porous ZnO NB entanglement. Such devices are suitable for employment in photodetectors as well as in gas and humidity sensors.

  17. Blue emitting ZnO nanostructures grown through cellulose bio-templates.

    PubMed

    Oudhia, Anjali; Sharma, Savita; Kulkarni, Pragya; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a green and cost-effective recipe for the synthesis of blue-emitting ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using cellulose bio-templates. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract prepared in different solvents were used as biological templates to produce nanostructures of wurtzite ZnO with a particle size ~12-36 nm. A cellulose-driven capping mechanism is used to describe the morphology of ZnO NPs. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) studies showed that solvents affect the growth process and the capping mechanism of bio-template severely. Structural changes in ZnO NPs were evident with variation in pH, dielectric constants (DC) and boiling points (BP) of solvents. Furthermore, an energy band model is proposed to explain the origin of the blue emission in the as-obtained ZnO NPs. PL excitation studies and the theoretical enthalpy values of individual defects were used to establish the association between the interstitial-zinc-related defect levels and the blue emission. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Characterization of ZnO nanoparticles grown in presence of Folic acid template

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background ZnO nanoparticles (grown in the template of folic acid) are biologically useful, luminescent material. It can be used for multifunctional purposes, e.g., as biosensor, bioimaging, targeted drug delivery and as growth promoting medicine. Methods Sol–gel chemical method was used to develop the uniform ZnO nanoparticles, in a folic acid template at room temperature and pH ~ 7.5. Agglomeration of the particles was prevented due to surface charge density of folic acid in the medium. ZnO nanoparticle was further characterized by different physical methods. Results Nanocrystalline, wurtzite ZnO particles thus prepared show interesting structural as well as band gap properties due to capping with folic acid. Conclusions A rapid, easy and chemical preparative method for the growth of ZnO nanoparticles with important surface physical properties is discussed. Emphatically, after capping with folic acid, its photoluminescence properties are in the visible region. Therefore, the same can be used for monitoring local environmental properties of biosystems. PMID:22788841

  19. Positron annihilation spectroscopy: Applications to Si, ZnO, and multilayer semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, J. P.; Rohatgi, A.; Dewald, A. B.; Frost, R. L.; Pang, S. K.

    1989-11-01

    The potential of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) for defect characterization at the atomic scale in semiconductors is demonstrated for Si, ZnO, and multilayer structures, such as an AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell. The types of defects discussed include: i) vacancy complexes, oxygen impurities and dopants, ii) the influence of cooling rates on spatial non-uniformities in defects, and iii) characterization of buried interfaces. In sev-eral instances, the results of the PAS investigations are correlated with data from other established semiconductor characterization techniques.

  20. Oxygen vacancy induced by La and Fe into ZnO nanoparticles to modify ferromagnetic ordering

    SciT

    Verma, Kuldeep Chand, E-mail: kuldeep0309@yahoo.co.in; Kotnala, R.K., E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com

    We reported long-range ferromagnetic interactions in La doped Zn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05}O nanoparticles that mediated through lattice defects or vacancies. Zn{sub 0.92}Fe{sub 0.05}La{sub 0.03}O (ZFLaO53) nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol–gel process. X-ray fluorescence spectrum of ZFLaO53 detects the weight percentage of Zn, Fe, La and O. X-ray diffraction shows the hexagonal Wurtzite ZnO phase. The Rietveld refinement has been used to calculate the lattice parameters and the position of Zn, Fe, La and O atoms in the Wurtzite unit cell. The average size of ZFLaO53 nanoparticles is 99 nm. The agglomeration type product due to OH ions with La resultsmore » into ZnO nanoparticles than nanorods that found in pure ZnO and Zn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05}O sample. The effect of doping concentration to induce Wurtzite ZnO structure and lattice defects has been analyzed by Raman active vibrational modes. Photoluminescence spectra show an abnormal emission in both UV and visible region, and a blue shift at near band edge is formed with doping. The room temperature magnetic measurement result into weak ferromagnetism but pure ZnO is diamagnetic. However, the temperature dependent magnetic measurement using zero-field and field cooling at dc magnetizing field 500 Oe induces long-range ferromagnetic ordering. It results into antiferromagnetic Neel temperature of ZFLaO53 at around 42 K. The magnetic hysteresis is also measured at 200, 100, 50 and 10 K measurement that indicate enhancement in ferromagnetism at low temperature. Overall, the La doping into Zn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05}O results into enhanced antiferromagnetic interaction as well as lattice defects/vacancies. The role of the oxygen vacancy as the dominant defects in doped ZnO must form Bound magnetic polarons has been described. - Graphical abstract: The long-range ferromagnetic order in Zn{sub 0.92}Fe{sub 0.05}La{sub 0.03}O nanoparticles at low temperature measurements involves oxygen vacancy as the medium of magnetic

  1. Theoretical analysis of the structural phase transformation in the ZnO under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Saligram; Jain, Arvind; Nagarch, R. K.; Shah, S.; Kaurav, Netram

    2018-05-01

    We report a phenomenological model based calculation of pressure-induced structural phase transition and elastic properties of ZnO compound. Gibb's free energy is obtained as a function of pressure by applying an effective inter ionic interaction potential, which includes the long range Coulomb, van der Waals (vdW) interaction and the short-range repulsive interaction upto second-neighbor ions within the Hafemeister and Flygare approach. From the present study, we predict a structural phase transition from ZnS structure (B3) to NaCl structure (B1) at 8.5 GPa. The estimated value of the phase transition pressure (Pt) and the magnitude of the discontinuity in volume at the transition pressure are consistent as compared to the reported data. The variations of elastic constants with pressure follow a systematic trend identical to that observed in others compounds of ZnS type structure family.

  2. Low-temperature synthesis of rose-like ZnO nanostructures using surfactin and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A Satyanarayana; Kuo, Yi-Hao; Atla, Shashi B; Chen, Chien-Yen; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Shih, Ruey-Chyuan; Chang, Young-Fo; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Chen, How-Ji

    2011-06-01

    Rose-like ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by the precipitation method using a biosurfactant (surfactin) as a templating-agent stabilizer. The concentration of surfactin in the precursor solution significantly influenced the thickness and density of the petals in the rose-like structures, and all samples were of a wurtzite phase. The thickness of the petal was found to decrease with increasing surfactin concentration. The average thickness of the petals was found to be between 10 and 13 nm. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using rose-like ZnO nanostuctures was investigated, and the morphology, density and thickness of the ZnO petals were found to influence the photodegradation activity. The samples with loosely-spread petals, or plate-like ZnO structures, brought about the strongest photodegradation in comparison with the dense rose-like structures. The greater activity of the loose-petal structures was correlated with their higher absorption in the UV region in comparison with the other samples. The ZnO samples prepared using low surfactin concentrations had higher rate constant values, i.e., 9.1 x 10(-3) min(-1), which revealed that the photodegradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation progressed by a pseudo first-order kinetic reaction.

  3. Simulation of Young’s moduli for hexagonal ZnO [0 0 0 1]-oriented nanowires: first principles and molecular mechanical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandura, Andrei V.; Evarestov, Robert A.; Lukyanov, Sergey I.; Piskunov, Sergei; Zhukovskii, Yuri F.

    2017-08-01

    Morphologically reproducible wurtzite-structured zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) can be synthesized by different methods. Since ZnO NWs have been found to possess piezoelectricity, a comprehensive study of their mechanical properties, e.g. deformations caused by external compression or stretching, is one of the actual tasks of this paper. We have calculated wurtzite-structured [0 0 0 1]-oriented ZnO NWs whose diameters have been varied within 1-5 nm and 1-20 nm ranges when using either ab initio (hybrid DFT-LCAO) or force-field (molecular mechanical) methods, respectively (the minimum diameter d NW of experimentally synthesized NWs has been estimated on average to be ~20 nm). When using both chosen calculation approaches, the values of Young’s moduli determined for the mentioned ranges of NW diameters have been found to be qualitatively compatible (168-169 GPa for 5 nm NW thickness), whereas results of molecular mechanical simulations on Y NW for 20 nm-thick NWs (160-162 GPa) have been qualitatively comparable with those experimentally measured along the [0 0 0 1] direction of NW loading. In all the cases, a gradual increase of the NW diameter has resulted in an asymptotic decrease of Young’s modulus consequently approaching that (Y b) of wurtzite-structured ZnO bulk along its [0 0 0 1] axis. The novelty of this study is that we combine the computation methods of quantum chemistry and molecular mechanics, while the majority of previous studies with the same aim have focused on the application of different classical molecular dynamical methods.

  4. Structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties of co-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, E. R.; El-Hagary, M.; Moustafa, El Sayed; Hassan, H. Shokry; Ismail, Yasser A. M.; Emam-Ismail, M.; Ali, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Different compositions of Co-doped zinc oxide [(Zn(1- x)Co x O) ( x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10)] thin films were evaporated onto highly clean glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique using a modified source. The structural properties investigated by X-ray diffraction revealed hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-type structure. The crystallite size of the films was found to decrease with increasing Co content. The optical characterization of the films has been carried out using spectral transmittance and reflectance obtained in the wavelength range from 300 to 2500 nm. The refractive index has been found to increase with increasing Co content. It was further found that optical energy gap decreases from 3.28 to 3.03 eV with increasing Co content from x = 0 to x = 0.10, respectively. The dispersion of refractive index has been analyzed in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico (WDD) single-oscillator model. The oscillator parameters, the single-oscillator energy ( E o), the dispersion energy ( E d), and the static refractive index ( n 0), were determined. The nonlinear refractive index of the Zn(1- x)Co x O thin films was calculated and revealed well correlation with the linear refractive index and WDD parameters which in turn depend on the density and molar volume of the system.

  5. Surface structure, optoelectronic properties and charge transport in ZnO nanocrystal/MDMO-PPV multilayer films.

    PubMed

    Lian, Qing; Chen, Mu; Mokhtar, Muhamad Z; Wu, Shanglin; Zhu, Mingning; Whittaker, Eric; O'Brien, Paul; Saunders, Brian R

    2018-05-07

    Blends of semiconducting nanocrystals and conjugated polymers continue to attract major research interest because of their potential applications in optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, photodetectors and light-emitting diodes. In this study we investigate the surface structure, morphological and optoelectronic properties of multilayer films constructed from ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) and poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV). The effects of layer number and ZnO concentration (C ZnO ) used on the multilayer film properties are investigated. An optimised solvent blend enabled well-controlled layers to be sequentially spin coated and the construction of multilayer films containing six ZnO NC (Z) and MDMO-PPV (M) layers (denoted as (ZM) 6 ). Contact angle data showed a strong dependence on C ZnO and indicated distinct differences in the coverage of MDMO-PPV by the ZnO NCs. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that the MDMO-PPV absorption increased linearly with the number of layers in the films and demonstrates highly tuneable light absorption. Photoluminescence spectra showed reversible quenching as well as a surprising red-shift of the MDMO-PPV emission peak. Solar cells were constructed to probe vertical photo-generated charge transport. The measurements showed that (ZM) 6 devices prepared using C ZnO = 14.0 mg mL -1 had a remarkably high open circuit voltage of ∼800 mV. The device power conversion efficiency was similar to that of a control bilayer device prepared using a much thicker MDMO-PPV layer. The results of this study provide insight into the structure-optoelectronic property relationships of new semiconducting multilayer films which should also apply to other semiconducting NC/polymer combinations.

  6. Structural and spectral properties of undoped and tungsten doped Zn3(PO4)2ZnO nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyavathi, K.; Subba Rao, M.; Nagabhaskararao, Y.; Cole, Sandhya

    2018-01-01

    Pure and tungsten doped Zn3(PO4)2ZnO nanopowders (NPs) are prepared using sol-gel method. It has the longest track record of used in dentistry. It is used for cementation of inlays, crowns and orthodontic appliances. The systematic investigations like X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscope, Transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Optical absorption, Photoluminescence (PL) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopic techniques are carried out for the prepared NPs. XRD pattern reveals that the prepared samples are in crystalline nature in which Zn3(PO4)2 corresponding to monoclinic phase and ZnO corresponding to hexagonal wurtzite phase, the average crystallite size of prepared nanopowders is in the range of 20-30 nm. The lattice strain, lattice cell parameters, unit cell volume and dislocation density of the prepared NPs are also calculated. The morphology of the prepared NPs is analyzed with SEM and TEM images. The distribution of Zn, P, O and W species in the prepared samples are identified by the chemical composition mapping through EDX. IR spectra of prepared samples exhibit the characteristic sharp absorption band peaks. The sharp absorption bands observed in the region 1200-900 cm-1 are due to complex stretching of characteristic PO43- groups. The absorption spectra exhibit a broad band around 696 nm is recognized due to 2B2g → 2B1g (dxy → dx2- y2) transition of tungsten ions. The PL spectra exhibit four emission peaks in the visible region indicating the quantum-confinement-induced photoluminescence. The CIE chromaticity diagram suggests that the prepared NPs have good color purity. The EPR spectra indicate that the W5+ ions occupy octahedral site symmetry in the host lattice.

  7. Composite structure of ZnO films coated with reduced graphene oxide: structural, electrical and electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, Weiqiang; Hu, Yuehui; Chen, Yichuan; Hu, Keyan; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Wenjun; Tong, Fan; Lao, Zixuan

    2018-02-01

    ZnO films coated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO-ZnO) were prepared by a simple chemical approach. The graphene oxide (GO) films transferred onto ZnO films by spin coating were reduced to RGO films by two steps (exposed to hydrazine vapor for 12 h and annealed at 600 °C). The crystal structures, electrical and photoluminescence properties of RGO-ZnO films on quartz substrates were systematically studied. The SEM images illustrated that RGO layers have successfully been coated on the ZnO films very tightly. The PL properties of RGO-ZnO were studied. PL spectra show two sharp peaks at 390 nm and a broad visible emission around 490 nm. The resistivity of RGO-ZnO films was measured by a Hall measurement system, RGO as nanofiller considerably decrease the resistivity of ZnO films. An electrode was fabricated, using RGO-ZnO films deposited on Si substrate as active materials, for super capacitor application. By comparison of different results, we conclude that the RGO-ZnO composite material couples possess the properties of super capacitor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61464005, 51562015), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (Nos. 20143ACB21004, 20151BAB212008, 20171BAB216015), the Jiangxi Province Foreign Cooperation Projects, China (No. 20151BDH80031), the Leader Training Object Project of Major Disciplines Academic and Technical of Jiangxi Province (No. 20123BCB22002), and the Key Technology R & D Program of the Jiangxi Provine of Science and Technology (No. 20171BBE50053).

  8. Perovskite solar cells based on nanocolumnar plasma-deposited ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F Javier; López-Santos, Maria C; Guillén, Elena; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R; Ahmad, Shahzada

    2014-04-14

    ZnO thin films having a nanocolumnar microstructure are grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 423 K on pre-treated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The films consist of c-axis-oriented wurtzite ZnO nanocolumns with well-defined microstructure and crystallinity. By sensitizing CH3NH3PbI3 on these photoanodes a power conversion of 4.8% is obtained for solid-state solar cells. Poly(triarylamine) is found to be less effective when used as the hole-transport material, compared to 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD), while the higher annealing temperature of the perovskite leads to a better infiltration in the nanocolumnar structure and an enhancement of the cell efficiency. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. ZnO nanowires: Synthesis and charge transfer mechanism in the detection of ammonia vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nancy Anna Anasthasiya, A.; Ramya, S.; Rai, P. K.; Jeyaprakash, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    ZnO nanowires with hexagonal wurtzite structure were grown on the glass substrate using Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. Both experimental and theoretical studies demonstrated that NH3 chemisorbed and transferred the charge to the surface of the nanowire via its nitrogen site to the zinc site of ZnO nanowires, leading to the detection of NH3 vapour. The adsorbed ammonia dissociated into NH2 and H due to steric repulsion, and then into N2 and H2 gas. The formation of the N2 gas during the desorption process confirmed by observing peak at 14 and 28 m/z in the GC-MS spectrum.

  10. The crystalline structure of copper phthalocyanine films on ZnO(1100).

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Amy C; Dotzler, Christian J; Din, Salahud; Heutz, Sandrine; Toney, Michael F; Ryan, Mary P

    2012-09-05

    The structure of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin films (5-100 nm) deposited on single-crystal ZnO(1100) substrates by organic molecular beam deposition was determined from grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction reciprocal space maps. The crystal structure was identified as the metastable polymorph α-CuPc, but the molecular stacking was found to vary depending on the film thickness: for thin films, a herringbone arrangement was observed, whereas for films thicker than 10 nm, coexistence of both the herringbone and brickstone arrangements was found. We propose a modified structure for the herringbone phase with a larger monoclinic β angle, which leads to intrastack Cu-Cu distances closer to those in the brickstone phase. This structural basis enables an understanding of the functional properties (e.g., light absorption and charge transport) of (opto)electronic devices fabricated from CuPc/ZnO hybrid systems.

  11. Template-free hydrothermal synthesis of beaded nanochain bundles of ZnO and their application as photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballal, Reshma; Shinde, Manish; Waghadkar, Yogesh; Arbuj, Sudhir; Rane, Sunit; Chauhan, Ratna

    2018-02-01

    ZnO shows promising candidature as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) due to its high bulk electron mobility and easily tailorable geometrical structures. The objective of this study is to facilitate the development of highly porous hierarchical ZnO for enhanced power conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) due to its greater dye adsorption. This study investigated the influence of reaction temperatures of 120 °C (sample Z-1) and 180 °C (sample Z-2) in hydrothermal synthesis on structural, morphological and optical properties of resultant ZnO nanostructures and their performance as photoanode material in DSSCs. The synthesized beaded nanochain bundles of ZnO, with multilayered and highly ordered texture, have diameters of several micrometers. Structural and morphological analysis shows that the ZnO beaded nanochain-like architectures possess wurtzite crystalline nature. These morphological improvements (beaded nanochains) of ZnO were found to exhibit higher dye loading and conversion efficiency due to increase in the surface area while reducing charge recombination. The maximum conversion efficiency was obtained with Z-1 and Z-2 is 2.95 and 3.56% with photocurrent of 7.73 and 9.24 mA/cm2, respectively. The obtained results pertaining to the DSSC performance studies were corroborated by the impedance spectroscopy data.

  12. Influence of reaction time and synthesis temperature on the physical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasly, H. S.; El-Sadek, M. S. Abd; Henini, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Influence of synthesis temperature and reaction time on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the hydrothermal method was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, and UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. The XRD pattern and HR-TEM images confirmed the presence of crystalline hexagonal wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles with average crystallite size in the range 30-40 nm. Their energy gap determined by fluorescence was found to depend on the synthesis temperature and reaction time with values in the range 2.90-3.78 eV. Thermal analysis, thermogravimetric and the differential scanning calorimetry were used to study the thermal reactions and weight loss with heat of the prepared ZnO nanoparticles.

  13. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Effect of polyacrylamide on morphology and electromagnetic properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; You, Tian-Gui; Zhao, Wu; Yun, Jiang-Ni; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2009-10-01

    Through hydrothermal process, the chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles are prepared with zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) used as main resources under the different concentrations of surfactant polyacrylamide (PAM). The microstructure, morphology and the electromagnetic properties of the as-prepared products are characterized by high-resolution transmissïon electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM) and microwave vector network analyzer, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the as-prepared products are ZnO single crystalline with hexagona wurtzite structure, that the values of slenderness ratio Ld are different in different PAM concentrations, and that the good magnetic loss property is found in the ZnO products, and the average magnetic loss tangent tan δu increases with PAM concentration increasing, while the dielectric loss tangent tan δe decreases.

  14. Lowest-energy cage structures of medium-sized ( ZnO )n clusters with n = 15 - 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lingli; Sai, Linwei; Zhao, Jijun; Qiu, Ruifeng

    2015-01-01

    Fullerene-like cage structures of medium-sized ( ZnO )n clusters with n = 15 - 24 were generated by spiral algorithm and optimized using density functional theory calculations. Most of these lowest-energy cage structures contain only four-membered and six-membered rings, whereas eight-membered rings were found in the lowest-energy cages of ( ZnO )n (n = 19, 20, 23, 24). Our best cage configurations either reproduce or prevail the previously reported ones. The size-dependent electronic properties were also discussed.

  15. Structure and thermoelectric properties of Al-doped ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidization under high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiying; Peng, Sunjuan; Ma, Jun; Li, Guojian; Qin, Xuesi; Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    This paper studies the effects of high magnetic field (HMF) on the structure, optical and thermoelectric properties of the doped ZnO thin films. The results show that both Al dopant and application of HMF can affect the crystal structure, surface morphology, elemental distribution and so on. The particles of the thin films become small and regular by doping Al. The ZnO films oxidized from the Au/Zn bilayer have needle structure. The ZnO films oxidized from the Au/Zn-Al bilayer transform to spherical from hexagonal due to the application of HMF. The transmittance decreases with doping Al because of the opaque of Al element and decreases with the application of HMF due to the dense structure obtained under HMF. Electrical resistivity (ρ) of the ZnO films without Al decreases with increasing measurement temperature (T) and is about 1.5 × 10-3 Ω·m at 210 °C. However, the ρ of the Al-doped ZnO films is less than 10-5 Ω·m. The Seebeck coefficient (S) of the films oxidized from the Au/Zn-Al films reduces with increasing T. The S values oxidized under 0 T and 12 T conditions are 2.439 μV/K and -3.415 μV/K at 210 °C, respectively. Power factor reaches the maximum value (3.198 × 10-4 W/m·K2) at 210 °C for the film oxidized under 12 T condition. These results indicate that the Al dopant and the application of HMF can be used to control structure and thermoelectric properties of doped ZnO films.

  16. Au functionalized ZnO rose-like hierarchical structures and their enhanced NO2 sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingange, K.; Swart, H. C.; Mhlongo, G. H.

    2018-04-01

    Herein, we present ZnO rose-like hierarchical nanostructures employed as support to Au nanoparticles to produce Au functionalized three dimensional (3D) ZnO hierarchical nanostructures (Au/ZnO) for NO2 detection using a microwave-assisted method. Comparative analysis of NO2 sensing performance between the pristine ZnO and Au/ZnO rose-like structures at 300 °C revealed improved NO2 response and rapid response-recovery times with Au incorporation owing to a combination of high surface accessibility induced by hierarchical nanostructure design and catalytic activity of the small Au nanoparticles. Structural and optical analyses acquired from X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and photoluminescence spectroscopy were also performed.

  17. Structure and optical properties of ZnO with silver nanoparticles

    SciT

    Lyadov, N. M., E-mail: nik061287@mail.ru; Gumarov, A. I.; Kashapov, R. N.

    Textured nanocrystalline ZnO thin films are synthesized by ion beam assisted deposition. According to X-ray diffraction data, the crystallite size is ∼25 nm. Thin (∼15 nm) ZnO layers containing Ag nanoparticles are formed in a thin surface region of the films by the implantation of Ag ions with an energy of 30 keV and a dose in the range (0.25–1) × 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2}. The structure and optical properties of the layers are studied. Histograms of the size distribution of Ag nanoparticles are obtained. The average size of the Ag nanoparticles varies from 0.5 to 1.5–2 nm depending onmore » the Ag-ion implantation dose. The optical transmittance of the samples in the visible and ultraviolet regions increases, as the implantation dose is increased. The spectra of the absorption coefficient of the implanted films are calculated in the context of the (absorbing film)/(transparent substrate) model. It is found that the main changes in the optical-density spectra occur in the region of ∼380 nm, in which the major contribution to absorption is made by Ag nanoparticles smaller than 0.75 nm in diameter. In this spectral region, absorption gradually decreases, as the Ag-ion irradiation dose is increased. This is attributed to an increase in the average size of the Ag nanoparticles. It is established that the broad surface-plasmon-resonance absorption bands typical of nanocomposite ZnO films with Ag nanoparticles synthesized by ion implantation are defined by the fact that the size of the nanoparticles formed does not exceed 1.5–2 nm.« less

  18. Annealing Temperature Dependent Structural and Optical Properties of RF Sputtered ZnO Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shashikant; Varma, Tarun; Asokan, K; Periasamy, C; Boolchandani, Dharmendar

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown over Si 100 and glass substrates using RF sputtering technique. Annealing temperature has been varied from 300 °C to 600 °C in steps of 100, and different microstructural parameters such as grain size, dislocation density, lattice constant, stress and strain have been evaluated. The structural and surface morphological characterization has been done using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). XRD analysis reveals that the peak intensity of 002 crystallographic orientation increases with increased annealing temperature. Optical characterization of deposited films have been done using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectrometer. An increase in optical bandgap of deposited ZnO thin films with increasing annealing temperature has been observed. The average optical transmittance was found to be more than 85% for all deposited films. Photoluminiscense spectra (PL) suggest that the crystalline quality of deposited film has increased at higher annealing temperature.

  19. Effect of copper doping sol-gel ZnO thin films: physical properties and sensitivity to ethanol vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukaous, Chahra; Benhaoua, Boubaker; Telia, Azzedine; Ghanem, Salah

    2017-10-01

    In the present paper, the effect of copper doping ZnO thin films, deposited using a sol-gel dip-coating technique, on the structural, optical and ethanol vapor-sensing properties, was investigated. The range of the doping content is 0 wt. %-5 wt. % Cu/Zn and the films’ properties were studied using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The obtained results indicated that undoped and copper-doped zinc oxide thin films have polycrystalline wurtzite structure with (1 0 1) preferred orientation. All samples have a smooth and dense structure free of pinholes. A decrease in the band gap with Cu concentration in the ZnO network was observed. The influence of the dopant on ethanol vapor-sensing properties shows an increase in the film sensitivity to the ethanol vapor within the Cu concentration.

  20. Growth parameter dependent structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures on Si substrate by a two-zone thermal CVD.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Kwan; Yu, Jae Su

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the effect of growth parameters on the structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures (NSs) grown on Au-coated Si substrate by a two-zone thermal chemical vapor deposition. The morphologies of ZnO NSs were controlled by various growth parameters, such as growth temperature, O2 flow rate, and working pressure, for different thicknesses of Au layer. The nanorod-like ZnO NSs were formed at 915 degrees C and the growth of two-dimensional structures, i.e., nanosheets, was enhanced with the increase of growth temperature up to 965 degrees C. It was found that the low working pressure contributed to improvement in vertical alignment and uniformity of ZnO NSs. The Zn/O atomic % ratio, which plays a key role in the growth mechanism of ZnO NSs, was changed by the growth parameters. The Zn/O atomic % ratio was increased with increasing the growth temperature, while it was decreased with increasing the working pressure. Under proper O2 flow rate, the ZnO nanorods with good crystallinity were fabricated with a Zn/O atomic % ratio of -0.9. For various growth parameters, the photoluminescence emission was slightly shifted with the ultraviolet emission related to the near band edge transition.

  1. Eosin-Y sensitized core-shell TiO2-ZnO nano-structured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, V S; Palai, Akshaya K; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2018-06-01

    In the current investigation, TiO 2 and TiO 2 -ZnO (core-shell) spherical nanoparticles were synthesized by simple combined hydrolysis and refluxing method. A TiO 2 core nanomaterial on the shell material of ZnO was synthesized by utilizing variable ratios of ZnO. The structural characterization of TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles were done by XRD analysis. The spherical structured morphology of the TiO 2 -ZnO has been confirmed through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The UV-visible spectra of TiO 2 -ZnO nanostructures were also compared with the pristine TiO 2 to investigate the shift of wavelength. The TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles at the interface efficiently collect the photogenarated electrons from ZnO and also ZnO act a barrier for reduced charge recombination of electrolyte and dye-nanoparticles interface. This combination improved the light absorption which induced the charge transfer ability and dye loading capacity of core-shell nanoparticles. An enhancement in the short circuit current (J sc ) from 1.67 mA/cm 2 to 2.1 mA/cm 2 has been observed for TiO 2 -ZnObased photoanode (with platinum free counter electrode), promises an improvement in the energy conversion efficiency by 57% in comparison with that of the DSSCs based on the pristine TiO 2 . Henceforth, TiO 2 -ZnO photoelectrode in ZnO will effectively act as barrier at the interface of TiO 2 -ZnO and TiO 2 , ensuring the potential for DSSC application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures on ZnO seed layer for DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.; Thangamuthu, R.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition of vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were prepared on ZnO seeded fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate in the solutions consisting of different concentrations of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). The electrochemical, structural, morphological, vibrational and optical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, respectively. CV curves confirm that metallic zinc phase is not deposited as the HMTA concentration is about 9 mM in a deposition solution. XRD patterns of the as-prepared films show that the increasing HMTA concentrations from 0 mM to 9 mM not only increase the formation of zinc hydrate chloride (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) but also decrease and finally disappear the metallic Zn deposition. After the as-prepared films annealed at 450 ° C, the crystalline phases of Zn and Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O are completely converted to ZnO hexagonal wurtzite phase with high intense growth (002) plane orientation. SEM images support that the vertical growth of ZnO nanostructures (nanorods and petals) with a few flowers is found to be in the cordillera structure as the films are deposited in the solutions consisting of 3 mM, 6 mM and 9 mM HMTA respectively. Raman and PL spectra confirm that the ZnO film deposited in the solution consisting of 9 mM HMTA has a higher crystalline nature with lesser atomic defects and is also higher c-axis growth than that of other films deposited in the solutions consisting of 0 mM, 3 mM and 6 mM, respectively. UV-vis absorbance spectra corroborate that the ZnO film deposited in the solution consisting of 9 mM HMTA shows a high dye absorbance as compared with other films. The efficiency of DSSCs based on ZnO photoanodes deposited in the solutions consisting of 0 mM and 9 mM HMTA was 1.79 and 3.75%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra revealed that DSSC based on ZnO photoanode

  3. Hydrothermal-electrochemical growth of heterogeneous ZnO: Co films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Ceren; Unal, Ugur

    2017-10-01

    This study demonstrates the preparation of heterogeneous ZnO: Co nanostructures via hydrothermal-electrochemical deposition at 130 °C and -1.1 V (vs Ag/AgCl (satd)) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-H2O mixture. Under the stated conditions, ZnO: Co nanostructures grow preferentially along (002) direction. Strength of directional growth progressively increases with the increasing concentration of Co(II) in the deposition bath. Films are composed of hexagonal Wurtzite ZnO, metallic cobalt, and mixed cobalt oxide on the surface and cobalt(II) oxide in deeper levels. Increasing the Co(II) concentration in the deposition bath results in different morphological features as well as phase separation. Platelets, sponge-like structures, cobalt-rich spheres, microislands of cobalt-rich spheres which are interconnected by ZnO network can be synthesized by adjusting [Co(II)]: [Zn(II)] ratio. Growth mechanisms giving rise to these particular structures, surface morphology, crystal structure, phase purity, chemical binding characteristics, and optical properties of the deposits are discussed in detail.

  4. Branched ZnO wire structures for water collection inspired by cacti.

    PubMed

    Heng, Xin; Xiang, Mingming; Lu, Zhihui; Luo, Cheng

    2014-06-11

    In this work, motivated by an approach used in a cactus to collect fog, we have developed an artificial water-collection structure. This structure includes a large ZnO wire and an array of small ZnO wires that are branched on the large wire. All these wires have conical shapes, whose diameters gradually increase from the tip to the root of a wire. Accordingly, a water drop that is condensed on the tip of each wire is driven to the root by a capillary force induced by this diameter gradient. The lengths of stem and branched wires in the synthesized structures are in the orders of 1 mm and 100 μm, respectively. These dimensions are, respectively, comparable to and larger than their counterparts in the case of a cactus. Two groups of tests were conducted at relative humidity of 100% to compare the amounts of water collected by artificial and cactus structures within specific time durations of 2 and 35 s, respectively. The amount of water collected by either type of structures was in the order of 0.01 μL. However, on average, what has been collected by the artificial structures was 1.4-5.0 times more than that harvested by the cactus ones. We further examined the mechanism that a cactus used to absorb a collected water drop into its stem. On the basis of the gained understanding, we developed a setup to successfully collect about 6 μL of water within 30 min.

  5. Preparation, structural and luminescent properties of nanocrystalline ZnO films doped Ag by close space sublimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomchenko, Viktoriya; Mazin, Mikhail; Sopinskyy, Mykola; Lytvyn, Oksana; Dan'ko, Viktor; Piryatinskii, Yurii; Demydiuk, Pavlo

    2018-05-01

    The simple way for silver doping of ZnO films is presented. The ZnO films were prepared by reactive rf-magnetron sputtering on silicon and sapphire substrates. Ag doping is carried out by sublimation of the Ag source located at close space at atmospheric pressure in air. Then the ZnO and ZnO-Ag films were annealed in wet media. The microstructure and optical properties of the films were compared and studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL). XRD results indicated that all the ZnO films have a polycrystalline hexagonal structure and a preferred orientation with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The annealing and Ag doping promote increasing grain's sizes and modification of grain size distribution. The effect of substrate temperature, substrate type, Ag doping and post-growth annealing of the films was studied by PL spectroscopy. The effect of Ag doping was obvious and identical for all the films, namely the wide visible bands of PL spectra are suppressed by Ag doping. The intensity of ultraviolet band increased 15 times as compared to their reference films on sapphire substrate. The ultraviolet/visible emission ratio was 20. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) for a 380 nm band was 14 nm, which is comparable with that of epitaxial ZnO. The data implies the high quality of ZnO-Ag films. Possible mechanisms to enhance UV emission are discussed.

  6. A simple and transparent well-aligned ZnO nanowire array ultraviolet photodetector with high responsivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lei; Ding, Hesheng; Yuan, Zhaolin; Huang, Wendeng; Shuai, Chunjiang; Xiong, Zhaoxin; Deng, Jianping; Lv, Tengbo

    2018-06-01

    Well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays were grown on an interdigital patterned fluorine tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate by a facile chemical bath deposition at low temperature. Morphology, crystalline structure, and optical properties of the ZnO nanowire arrays were analyzed in detail. The results revealed that the ZnO nanowires had wurtzite structure, typically ∼40-60 nm in diameter, and ∼700-800 nm in length, a great number of highly uniform and dense nanowires grew vertically on the substrate to form the well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays, which had very high optical transmission (>86%) in the visible light region. In addition, the performance of ZnO nanowire arrays ultraviolet (UV) photodetector was systematically examined. The photosensitivity (S), responsivity (R), response and decay time of the photodetector were 703 at +0.2 V, 113 A/W at +5 V, 23 s and 73 s respectively. Also, the photoresponse mechanism of the UV photodetector was illuminated in terms of the oxygen adsorption-photodesorption process.

  7. Comparative study on the physical properties of transition metal-doped (Co, Ni, Fe, and Mn) ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azab, A. A.; Ateia, Ebtesam E.; Esmail, S. A.

    2018-07-01

    Nano-crystalline of TM-doped ZnO with general formula Zn0.97TM0.03O (TM: Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) was prepared using sol-gel method. The dependence of crystal structure, morphology, and optical and magnetic properties on the type of transition metals was investigated. The XRD investigation of pure and TM-doped ZnO nanoparticles samples confirms the formation of single-phase hexagonal wurtzite structure. The estimated crystallite sizes are found in the range of 17 and 38 nm for the doped and pure samples, respectively. The obtained data suggest that the dopant type plays a vital role in the physical properties of the investigated samples. The optical band-gap energy Eg has been calculated from near infrared (NIR) and visible (VIS) reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function. Minimum value of 2.398 eV and maximum one of 3.29 eV were obtained for Manganese-doped ZnO and pure ZnO, respectively. The analysis of XRD and VSM of the samples confirms that the observed room-temperature (RT) ferromagnetism can be attributed to an intrinsic property of doped material sample and not due to formation of any secondary phase. The magnetic results show that Mn is the most effective dopant for producing ferromagnetism in nanoparticles of ZnO.

  8. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of Schottky diodes based on CBD deposited ZnO:Cu nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwankemwa, Benard S.; Legodi, Matshisa J.; Mlambo, Mbuso; Nel, Jackie M.; Diale, Mmantsae

    2017-07-01

    Undoped and copper doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have been synthesized by a simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at a temperature of 90 °C. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the synthesized ZnO nanorods were found to be dependent on the Cu doping percentage. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed strong diffraction peaks of hexagonal wurtzite of ZnO, and no impurity phases from metallic zinc or copper. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed changes in diameter and shape of nanorods, where by those doped with 2 at.% and 3 at.% aggregated and became compact. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicates high quality, single crystalline wurtzite structure ZnO and intensities of bright spots varied with copper doping concentration. UV-visible absorption peaks of ZnO red shifted with increasing copper doping concentration. Raman studies demonstrated among others, strong and sharp E2 (low) and E2 (high) optical phonon peaks confirming crystal structure of ZnO. Current-voltage measurements based on the gold/ZnO nanorods/ITO showed good rectifying behavior of the Schottky diode. The predicted Schottky barrier height of 0.60 eV was obtained which is not far from the theoretical Schottky-Mott value of 0.80 eV.

  9. Structure and properties of nanostructured ZnO arrays and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition

    SciT

    Kopach, V. R.; Klepikova, K. S.; Klochko, N. P., E-mail: klochko-np@mail.ru

    We investigate the structure, surface morphology, and optical properties of nanostructured ZnO arrays fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition, Ag nanoparticles precipitated from colloidal solutions, and a ZnO/Ag nanocomposite based on them. The electronic and electrical parameters of the ZnO arrays and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites are analyzed by studying the I–V and C–V characteristics. Optimal modes for fabricating the ZnO/Ag heterostructures with the high stability and sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation as promising materials for use in photodetectors, gas sensors, and photocatalysts are determined.

  10. Falling Leaves Inspired ZnO Nanorods-Nanoslices Hierarchical Structure for Implant Surface Modification with Two Stage Releasing Features.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hang; Miao, Xinxin; Ye, Jing; Wu, Tianlong; Deng, Zhongbo; Li, Chen; Jia, Jingyu; Cheng, Xigao; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-04-19

    Inspired from falling leaves, ZnO nanorods-nanoslices hierarchical structure (NHS) was constructed to modify the surfaces of two widely used implant materials: titanium (Ti) and tantalum (Ta), respectively. By which means, two-stage release of antibacterial active substances were realized to address the clinical importance of long-term broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. At early stages (within 48 h), the NHS exhibited a rapid releasing to kill the bacteria around the implant immediately. At a second stage (over 2 weeks), the NHS exhibited a slow releasing to realize long-term inhibition. The excellent antibacterial activity of ZnO NHS was confirmed once again by animal test in vivo. According to the subsequent experiments, the ZnO NHS coating exhibited the great advantage of high efficiency, low toxicity, and long-term durability, which could be a feasible manner to prevent the abuse of antibiotics on implant-related surgery.

  11. Effects of substrate on the structure and orientation of ZnO thin film grown by rf-magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Liu, H. F.; Chua, S. J.; Hu, G. X.

    2007-10-15

    X-ray diffractions, Nomarski microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence have been used to study the effects of substrate on the structure and orientation of ZnO thin films grown by rf-magnetron sputtering. GaAs(001), GaAs(111), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0002) (c-plane), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1102) (r-plane) wafers have been selected as substrates in this study. X-ray diffractions reveal that the ZnO film grown on GaAs(001) substrate is purely textured with a high c-axis orientation while that grown on GaAs(111) substrate is a single ZnO(0002) crystal; a polycrystalline structure with a large-single-crystal area of ZnO(0002) is obtained on a c-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate whilemore » a ZnO(1120) single crystal is formed on an r-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. There is absence of significant difference between the photoluminescence spectra collected from ZnO/GaAs(001), ZnO/GaAs(111), and ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0002), while the photoluminescence from ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1102) shows a reduced intensity together with an increased linewidth, which is, likely, due to the increased incorporation of native defects during the growth of ZnO(1120)« less

  12. Unit cell parameters of wurtzite InP nanowires determined by x-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Kriegner, D; Wintersberger, E; Kawaguchi, K; Wallentin, J; Borgström, M T; Stangl, J

    2011-10-21

    High resolution x-ray diffraction is used to study the structural properties of the wurtzite polytype of InP nanowires. Wurtzite InP nanowires are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy using S-doping. From the evaluation of the Bragg peak position we determine the lattice parameters of the wurtzite InP nanowires. The unit cell dimensions are found to differ from the ones expected from geometric conversion of the cubic bulk InP lattice constant. The atomic distances along the c direction are increased whereas the atomic spacing in the a direction is reduced in comparison to the corresponding distances in the zinc-blende phase. Using core/shell nanowires with a thin core and thick nominally intrinsic shells we are able to determine the lattice parameters of wurtzite InP with a negligible influence of the S-doping due to the much larger volume in the shell. The determined material properties will enable the ab initio calculation of electronic and optical properties of wurtzite InP nanowires.

  13. Microstructure, electronic structure and optical properties of combustion synthesized Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinatha, N.; Nair, K. G. M.; Angadi, Basavaraj

    2015-10-01

    We report on the microstructure, electronic structure and optical properties of nanocrystalline Zn1-xCoxO (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) particles prepared by solution combustion technique using L-Valine as fuel. The detailed structural and micro-structural studies were carried out by XRD, HRTEM and TEM-SAED respectively, which confirms the formation of single phased, nano-sized particles. The electronic structure was determined through NEXAFS and atomic multiplet calculations/simulations performed for various symmetries and valence states of 'Co' to determine the valance state, symmetry and crystal field splitting. The correlations between the experimental NEXAFS spectra and atomic multiplet simulations, confirms that, 'Co' present is in the 2+ valence state and substituted at the 'Zn' site in tetrahedral symmetry with crystal field splitting, 10Dq =-0.6 eV. The optical properties and 'Co' induced defect formation of as-synthesized materials were examined by using diffuse reflectance and Photoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. Red-shift of band gap energy (Eg) was observed in Zn1-xCoxO samples due to Co (0.58 Å) substitution at Zn (0.60 Å) site of the host ZnO. Also, in PL spectra, a prominent pre-edge peak corresponds to ultraviolet (UV) emission around 360-370 nm was observed with Co concentration along with near band edge emission (NBE) of the wide band gap ZnO and all samples show emission in the blue region.

  14. The structural, electronic and optical properties of Nd doped ZnO using first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Jian-Min; Chen, Guo-Xiang; Wu, Hua; Yang, Xu

    2018-04-01

    The density functional theory calculations using general gradient approximation (GGA) applying Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) as correlation functional have been systematically performed to research the formation energy, the electronic structures, band structures, total and partial DOS, and optical properties of Nd doping ZnO with the content from 6.25% to 12.5%. The formation energies are negative for both models, which show that two structures are energetically stable. Nd doping ZnO crystal is found to be a direct band gap semiconductor and Fermi level shifts upward into conduction band, which show the properties of n-type semiconductor. Band structures are more compact after Nd doping ZnO, implying that Nd doping induces the strong interaction between different atoms. Nd doping ZnO crystal presents occupied states at near Fermi level, which mainly comes from the Nd 4f orbital. The calculated optical properties imply that Nd doping causes a red-shift of absorption peaks, and enhances the absorption of the visible light.

  15. Cu-doped ZnO nanorod arrays: the effects of copper precursor and concentration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cu-doped ZnO nanorods have been grown at 90°C for 90 min onto a quartz substrate pre-coated with a ZnO seed layer using a hydrothermal method. The influence of copper (Cu) precursor and concentration on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of ZnO nanorods was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the nanorods grown are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure grown along the c-axis. The lattice strain is found to be compressive for all samples, where a minimum compressive strain of −0.114% was obtained when 1 at.% Cu was added from Cu(NO3)2. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate morphologies and the diameters of the grown nanorods. The morphological properties of the Cu-doped ZnO nanorods were influenced significantly by the presence of Cu impurities. Near-band edge (NBE) and a broad blue-green emission bands at around 378 and 545 nm, respectively, were observed in the photoluminescence spectra for all samples. The transmittance characteristics showed a slight increase in the visible range, where the total transmittance increased from approximately 80% for the nanorods doped with Cu(CH3COO)2 to approximately 90% for the nanorods that were doped with Cu(NO3)2. PMID:24855460

  16. Highly sensitive NO2 sensor using brush-coated ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Lalit; Dwivedi, R.; Mishra, V. N.

    2017-10-01

    This work reports the sensing properties of a ZnO nanoparticle (NP) based gas sensor. A sol-gel method was used for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, and a brush coating technique for applying these in a thick film over the gold electrode. The structural properties of the ZnO film so developed have been studied using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), revealing a hexagonal wurtzite structure having particle size of ~25 to ~110 nm and roughness of ~136.303 nm. The sensitivity of the sensor to NO2, H2, CO, ethanol and propanol gases in the temperature range from 150 to 350 °C has been tested. Among all these gases, sensitivity to NO2 was found to be highest, at around fifty times greater than the next highest sensitivity, for ethanol gas. The sensor’s response to NO2 gas has been measured at ~945.12%/ppt (parts per thousand), with fast response time and recovery time at operating temperature 280 °C. The obtained result has been discussed with the help of surface and subsurface adsorption and desorption of NO2 molecules at the available trap sites (oxygen ions) on the ZnO nanoparticle surface. This sensor also exhibits excellent repeatability.

  17. Highly textured and transparent RF sputtered Eu2O3 doped ZnO films

    PubMed Central

    Sreedharan, Remadevi Sreeja; Ganesan, Vedachalaiyer; Sudarsanakumar, Chellappan Pillai; Bhavsar, Kaushalkumar; Prabhu, Radhakrishna; Mahadevan Pillai, Vellara Pappukutty Pillai

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide, direct band gap II-VI oxide semiconductor. ZnO has large exciton binding energy at room temperature, and it is a good host material for obtaining visible and infrared emission of various rare-earth ions. Methods Europium oxide (Eu2O3) doped ZnO films are prepared on quartz substrate using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering with doping concentrations 0, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 wt%. The films are annealed in air at a temperature of 773 K for 2 hours. The annealed films are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Results XRD patterns show that the films are highly c-axis oriented exhibiting hexagonalwurtzite structure of ZnO. Particle size calculations using Debye-Scherrer formula show that average crystalline size is in the range 15–22 nm showing the nanostructured nature of the films. The observation of low- and high-frequency E2 modes in the Raman spectra supports the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO in the films. The surface morphology of the Eu2O3 doped films presents dense distribution of grains. The films show good transparency in the visible region. The band gaps of the films are evaluated using Tauc plot model. Optical constants such as refractive index, dielectric constant, loss factor, and so on are calculated using the transmittance data. The PL spectra show both UV and visible emissions. Conclusion Highly textured, transparent, luminescent Eu2O3 doped ZnO films have been synthesized using RF magnetron sputtering. The good optical and structural properties and intense luminescence in the ultraviolet and visible regions from the films suggest their suitability for optoelectronic applications. PMID:25765728

  18. Gas-sensing performances of Cd-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by a surfactant-mediated method for n-butanol gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rongjun; Li, Kejin; Wang, Zhezhe; Xing, Xinxin; Wang, Yude

    2018-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles with the different Cd doping contents were prepared by with a surfactant-mediated method in this paper. The effects of Cd doping on the gas sensing properties of the ZnO nanoparticles were studied. The morphology and microstructure of as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), respectively. The results reveal that all the products are the high crystalline hexagonal wurtzite ZnO crystal structure. The gas-sensing characteristics of the Cd doped ZnO nanoparticles for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. At its optimal operation temperature of 300 °C, the sensing properties of the Cd doped ZnO nanoparticles for n-butanol gas exhibit a high-performance gas sensing performances including high gas response, good selectivity, response/recovery time, and repeatability as well as stability. Especially, its response reaches 130 for 100 ppm n-butanol of ZnO nanoparticles with 2.5% Cd doping. Those values demonstrate the potential of using as-prepared Cd doped ZnO nanoparticles for n-butanol gas detection, making them to be promising candidates for practical detectors to n-butanol gas. Apart from these, the mechanism related to the advanced properties was also investigated and presented.

  19. Emission and Structure-Varying ZnO and Carbon Nanocrystal Composite in Mechanical Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torchynska, T.; Perez Millan, B.; Polupan, G.; Kakazey, M.

    2018-03-01

    Morphology, photoluminescence (PL), and Raman scattering spectra have been investigated for mixtures of ZnO+0.1%C nanocrystals (NCs) at different stages of mechanical processing (MP). The transformation of graphite into graphene monolayers covering the ZnO NC surface is revealed for the first MP stage. The interaction with oxygen has been detected in the second MP stage which leads to the dissolution of oxygen interstitials in the ZnO NCs and to the formation of graphene (graphite) oxides. Increasing the concentration of the oxygen interstitials in ZnO NCs also enhances the intensity stimulation of the orange PL band (2.18eV). Simultaneously, the PL band peaking at 2.82-2.90 eV is detected in the PL spectra of the ZnO+0.1%C NC mixture after MP for 9-90 min. Then, the variation of the ZnO NC shape, agglomeration of ZnO NCs, modification of ZnO defects and decreasing PL intensity have been detected after prolonged MP for 390 min. It is expected that short stages of MP can be useful for ZnO NC surface covering by graphene layers or graphene (graphite) oxides.

  20. Synthesis of nano-sized ZnO particles by co-precipitation method with variation of heating time

    SciT

    Purwaningsih, S. Y., E-mail: sriyanisaputri@gmail.com; Pratapa, S.; Triwikantoro

    Zinc oxide powders have been synthesized by a co-precipitation method at low temperature (85 °C), using zinc acetate dihydrate, ammonia, hydrochloric acid solutions as the reactants. A number of process parameters such as reaction temperature, solution basicity or pH and heating time are the main factors affecting the morphology and physical properties of the ZnO nanostructures. In this work the effect of heating time on the morphology and particles size were studied. The as-synthesized ZnO powders were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The samples were also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Rietveld refinementmore » of XRD data confirms that ZnO crystallizes in the hexagonal wurtzite structure with high degree of purity and the (101) plane predominant. The XRD results show that the average crystallite sizes were about 66, 27 and 12 nm for 3, 4 and 5 h of heating times, respectively. The XRD analysis indicated that a fraction of nano-sized ZnO powders were in the form of aggregates, which was also verified by TEM image. The TEM photograph demonstrated that the nano-sized ZnO particles were a pseudo-spherical shape.« less

  1. Nano-sized ZnO powders prepared by co-precipitation method with various pH

    SciT

    Purwaningsih, S. Y., E-mail: sriyanisaputri@gmail.com; Pratapa, S.; Triwikantoro,

    2016-04-19

    In this work, nano-sized ZnO powders have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method with Zn(CH3COOH)2.2H2O, HCl, and NH3.H2O as raw materials in various pH ranging from 8 to 10. The purity, microstructure, chemical group analysis, morphology of the prepared ZnO powders were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Rietveld refinement of XRD data showed that ZnO crystallizes in the wurtzite structure with high purity. The obtained powders were nano-sized particles with the average crystallite size about 17.9 ± 2.1 nm synthesized with pH of 9.5, atmore » 85°C, and stirring time of 6 h. The SEM results have visualied the morphology of ZnO nanoparticles with spherical-like shape. The effect of processing conditions on morphology of ZnO was also discussed.« less

  2. Electrical and optical properties of p-type codoped ZnO thin films prepared by spin coating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Trilok Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Swart, H. C.; Purohit, L. P.

    2016-03-01

    Undoped, doped and codoped ZnO thin films were synthesized on glass substrates using a spin coating technique. Zinc acetate dihydrate, ammonium acetate and aluminum nitrate were used as precursor for zinc, nitrogen and aluminum, respectively. X-ray diffraction shows that the thin films have a hexagonal wurtzite structure for the undoped, doped and co-doped ZnO. The transmittance of the films was above 80% and the band gap of the film varied from 3.20 eV to 3.24 eV for undoped and doped ZnO. An energy band diagram to describe the photoluminescence from the thin films was also constructed. This diagram includes the various defect levels and possible quasi-Fermi levels. A minimum resistivity of 0.0834 Ω-cm was obtained for the N and Al codoped ZnO thin films with p-type carrier conductivity. These ZnO films can be used as a window layer in solar cells and in UV lasers.

  3. Facile in situ synthesis of wurtzite ZnS/ZnO core/shell heterostructure with highly efficient visible-light photocatalytic activity and photostability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jian-Hua; Huang, Wei-Qing; Hu, Yong-sheng; Zeng, Fan; Huang, Qin-Yi; Zhou, Bing-Xin; Pan, Anlian; Li, Kai; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2018-02-01

    High photocatalytic activity and photostability are the pursuit of the goal for designing promising photocatalysts. Herein, using ZnO to encapsulate ZnS nanoparticles is proposed as an effective strategy to enhance photocatalytic activity and anti-photocorrosion. The ZnS/ZnO core/shell heterostructures are obtained via an annealing treatment of ZnS nanoparticles produced by a facile wet chemical approach. Due to its small size, the nascent cubic sphalerite ZnS (s-ZnS) converts into a hexagonal wurtzite ZnS (w-ZnS)/ZnO core/shell structure after annealing treatment. In situ oxidation leads to increasing ZnO, simultaneously decreasing the w-ZnS content in the resultant w-ZnS/ZnO with thermal annealing time. The w-ZnS/ZnO core/shell heterostructures show high photocatalytic activity, demonstrated by the photodegradation rate of methylene blue being up to ten-fold and seven-fold higher than that of s-ZnS under UV and visible light irradiation, respectively, and the high capability of degrading rhodamine B. The enhanced photocatalytic activity may be attributed to the large specific surface and improved charge carrier separation at the core/shell interface. Moreover, it displays high photostability owing to the protection of the ZnO shell, greatly inhibiting the photocorrosion of ZnS. This facile in situ oxidation is effective and easily scalable, providing opportunities for developing novel core/shell structure photocatalysts with high activity and photostability.

  4. Enhanced stimulated emission in ZnO thin films using microdisk top-down structuring

    SciT

    Nomenyo, K.; Kostcheev, S.; Lérondel, G.

    2014-05-05

    Microdisks were fabricated in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films using a top-down approach combining electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. These microdisk structured thin films exhibit a stimulated surface emission between 3 and 7 times higher than that from a reference film depending on the excitation power density. Emission peak narrowing, reduction in lasing threshold and blue-shifting of the emission wavelength were observed along with enhancement in the emitted intensity. Results indicate that this enhancement is due to an increase in the internal quantum efficiency combined with an amplification of the stimulated emission. An analysis in terms of waveguidingmore » is presented in order to explain these effects. These results demonstrate that very significant gains in emission can be obtained through conventional microstructuration without the need for more onerous top-down nanostructuration techniques.« less

  5. Resonant tunneling diodes based on ZnO for quantum cascade structures (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkov, Borislav; Schwarz, Benedikt; Harrer, Andreas; Ristanic, Daniela; Schrenk, Werner; Hugues, Maxime; Chauveau, Jean-Michel; Strasser, Gottfried

    2017-02-01

    The terahertz (THz) spectral range (lambda 30µm - 300µm) is also known as the "THz-gap" because of the lack of compact semiconductor devices. Various real-world applications would strongly benefit from such sources like trace-gas spectroscopy or security-screening. A crucial step is the operation of THz-emitting lasers at room temperature. But this seems out of reach with current devices, of which GaAs-based quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) seem to be the most promising ones. They are limited by the parasitic, non-optical LO-phonon transitions (36meV in GaAs), being on the same order as the thermal energy at room temperature (kT = 26meV). This can be solved by using larger LO-phonon materials like ZnO (E_LO = 72meV). But to master the fabrication of ZnO-based QC structures, a high quality epitaxial growth is crucial followed by a well-controlled fabrication process including ZnO/ZnMgO etching. We use devices grown on m-plane ZnO-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. They are patterned by reactive ion etching in a CH4-based chemistry (CH4:H2:Ar/30:3:3 sccm) into 50μm to 150μm square mesas. Resonant tunneling diode structures are investigated in this geometry and are presented including different barrier- and well-configurations. We extract contact resistances of 8e-5 Omega cm^2 for un-annealed Ti/Au contacts and an electron mobility of above 130cm^2/Vs, both in good agreement with literature. Proving that resonant electron tunneling can be achieved in ZnO is one of the crucial building blocks of a QCL. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 665107.

  6. Metastable growth of pure wurtzite InGaAs microstructures.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Lu, Fanglu; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2014-08-13

    III-V compound semiconductors can exist in two major crystal phases, namely, zincblende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ). While ZB is thermodynamically favorable in conventional III-V epitaxy, the pure WZ phase can be stable in nanowires with diameters smaller than certain critical values. However, thin nanowires are more vulnerable to surface recombination, and this can ultimately limit their performances as practical devices. In this work, we study a metastable growth mechanism that can yield purely WZ-phased InGaAs microstructures on silicon. InGaAs nucleates as sharp nanoneedles and expand along both axial and radial directions simultaneously in a core-shell fashion. While the base can scale from tens of nanometers to over a micron, the tip can remain sharp over the entire growth. The sharpness maintains a high local surface-to-volume ratio, favoring hexagonal lattice to grow axially. These unique features lead to the formation of microsized pure WZ InGaAs structures on silicon. To verify that the WZ microstructures are truly metastable, we demonstrate, for the first time, the in situ transformation from WZ to the energy-favorable ZB phase inside a transmission electron microscope. This unconventional core-shell growth mechanism can potentially be applied to other III-V materials systems, enabling the effective utilization of the extraordinary properties of the metastable wurtzite crystals.

  7. Investigations of rapid thermal annealing induced structural evolution of ZnO: Ge nanocomposite thin films via GISAXS

    SciT

    Ceylan, Abdullah, E-mail: aceylanabd@yahoo.com; Ozcan, Yusuf; Orujalipoor, Ilghar

    2016-06-07

    In this work, we present in depth structural investigations of nanocomposite ZnO: Ge thin films by utilizing a state of the art grazing incidence small angle x-ray spectroscopy (GISAXS) technique. The samples have been deposited by sequential r.f. and d.c. sputtering of ZnO and Ge thin film layers, respectively, on single crystal Si(100) substrates. Transformation of Ge layers into Ge nanoparticles (Ge-np) has been initiated by ex-situ rapid thermal annealing of asprepared thin film samples at 600 °C for 30, 60, and 90 s under forming gas atmosphere. A special attention has been paid on the effects of reactive and nonreactivemore » growth of ZnO layers on the structural evolution of Ge-np. GISAXS analyses have been performed via cylindrical and spherical form factor calculations for different nanostructure types. Variations of the size, shape, and distributions of both ZnO and Ge nanostructures have been determined. It has been realized that GISAXS results are not only remarkably consistent with the electron microscopy observations but also provide additional information on the large scale size and shape distribution of the nanostructured components.« less

  8. Empirical optimization of DFT  +  U and HSE for the band structure of ZnO.

    PubMed

    Bashyal, Keshab; Pyles, Christopher K; Afroosheh, Sajjad; Lamichhane, Aneer; Zayak, Alexey T

    2018-02-14

    ZnO is a well-known wide band gap semiconductor with promising potential for applications in optoelectronics, transparent electronics, and spintronics. Computational simulations based on the density functional theory (DFT) play an important role in the research of ZnO, but the standard functionals, like Perdew-Burke-Erzenhof, result in largely underestimated values of the band gap and the binding energies of the Zn 3d electrons. Methods like DFT  +  U and hybrid functionals are meant to remedy the weaknesses of plain DFT. However, both methods are not parameter-free. Direct comparison with experimental data is the best way to optimize the computational parameters. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) is commonly considered as a benchmark for the computed electronic densities of states. In this work, both DFT  +  U and HSE methods were parametrized to fit almost exactly the binding energies of electrons in ZnO obtained by XPS. The optimized parameterizations of DFT  +  U and HSE lead to significantly worse results in reproducing the ion-clamped static dielectric tensor, compared to standard high-level calculations, including GW, which in turn yield a perfect match for the dielectric tensor. The failure of our XPS-based optimization reveals the fact that XPS does not report the ground state electronic structure for ZnO and should not be used for benchmarking ground state electronic structure calculations.

  9. Empirical optimization of DFT  +  U and HSE for the band structure of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashyal, Keshab; Pyles, Christopher K.; Afroosheh, Sajjad; Lamichhane, Aneer; Zayak, Alexey T.

    2018-02-01

    ZnO is a well-known wide band gap semiconductor with promising potential for applications in optoelectronics, transparent electronics, and spintronics. Computational simulations based on the density functional theory (DFT) play an important role in the research of ZnO, but the standard functionals, like Perdew-Burke-Erzenhof, result in largely underestimated values of the band gap and the binding energies of the Zn3d electrons. Methods like DFT  +  U and hybrid functionals are meant to remedy the weaknesses of plain DFT. However, both methods are not parameter-free. Direct comparison with experimental data is the best way to optimize the computational parameters. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) is commonly considered as a benchmark for the computed electronic densities of states. In this work, both DFT  +  U and HSE methods were parametrized to fit almost exactly the binding energies of electrons in ZnO obtained by XPS. The optimized parameterizations of DFT  +  U and HSE lead to significantly worse results in reproducing the ion-clamped static dielectric tensor, compared to standard high-level calculations, including GW, which in turn yield a perfect match for the dielectric tensor. The failure of our XPS-based optimization reveals the fact that XPS does not report the ground state electronic structure for ZnO and should not be used for benchmarking ground state electronic structure calculations.

  10. A hetero-homogeneous investigation of chemical bath deposited Ga-doped ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhsha, Amir Hosein; Abdizadeh, Hossein; Pourshaban, Erfan; Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures of zinc oxide (ZnO) have been in the center of attention, mostly for electronic applications due to their distinctive properties such as high electron mobility (100 cm2V-1s-1) and crystallinity. Thanks to its high density of vacancies and interstitial sites, wurtzite lattice of ZnO is a suitable host for gallium (Ga) as a dopant element. Herein, ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) are synthesized by a low-temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD) method with various concentrations of gallium nitrate hydrate as a dopant precursor. Structural and morphological analyses confirm that optimum properties of gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) are obtained at 1% (Ga to Zn molar ratio). Owing to the replacement of smaller Ga3+ ions with Zn2+ ions in the GZO structure, a slight shift of (002) peak to higher angles could be observed in XRD pattern of GZO NRAs. The scanning electron microscope images demonstrate a proliferation in the ZnO NRAs length from 650 nm for undoped ZnO (UZO) to 1200 nm for GZO-1%. However, increasing the dopant concentration above 2.5% results in formation of homogeneous zinc gallium oxide in the bulk solution, which is a sign of inefficient process of doping in GZO NRAs. Furthermore, photoluminescence spectroscopy is used to characterize the band-gap variation of the samples, which demonstrates a small red-shift in the UV emission peak and a decrease in visible emission peak intensity with introducing Ga in ZnO lattice. Lower resistivity for GZO-1% (1.1 MΩ) sample compared to UZO (1.4 MΩ) is recorded, which is compelling evidence for the presence of Ga3+ in ZnO lattice. The results suggest that incorporating Ga into ZnO lattice using CBD method is an easy and effective technique to improve the electrical properties of ZnO NRAs that is an essential factor for a broad range of devices.

  11. A potentiometric biosensor for the detection of notch 3 using functionalized ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ibupoto, Z H; Khun, K; Liu, X; Willander, M

    2014-09-01

    The notch signalling plays a vital and radical role for the activity of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, for the first time a particular biosensor is developed for the detection of notch 3. ZnO nanorods were fabricated on the gold coated glass substrate by hydrothermal method and afterwards were decorated with the gold nanoparticles by electrodepositing technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has shown the perpendicular to the substrate growth pattern of ZnO nanorods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed the c-axis oriented growth direction with wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO nanorods. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques have shown the presence of Zn, O and Au atoms in the prepared functional material. Furthermore, the anti-notch 3 was physically adsorbed on the gold nanoparticles functionalized ZnO nanorods. The developed potentiometric immunosensor has shown response to the wide range of notch 3 molecules. The detected range included 1.00 x 10(-5)-1.50 x 10(0 ) μg/mL with a sensitivity of 23.15 ± 0.31 mV/decade. The analytical parameters including reproducibility, stability, and selectivity were also investigated and the observed results indicate the acceptable performance of the notch 3 biosensor. Moreover, the proposed notch 3 biosensor exhibited a fast response time of 10 s.

  12. Preparation, characterization and electroluminescence studies of ZnO nanorods for optoelectronic device applications

    SciT

    Singh, Anju, E-mail: singh-nk24@yahoo.com; Vishwakarma, H. L., E-mail: horilal5@yahoo.com

    2015-07-31

    In this work, ZnO nanorods were achieved by a simple chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) at room temperature. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) result indicates that the synthesized undoped ZnO nanorods have wurtzite hexagonal structure without any impurities. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods were (101). XRD analysis revealed that the nanorods having the crystallite size 49 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image confirmed the size and shape of these nanorods. The diameter of nanorods has been found that 1.52 µm to 1.61 µm and the lengthmore » of about 4.89 µm. It has also been found that at room temperature Ultra Violet Visible (UV-VIS) absorption band is around 355 nm (blue shifted as compared to bulk). Electroluminescence (EL) studies show that emission of light is possible at very small threshold voltage and increases rapidly with increasing applied voltage. It is seen that smaller ZnO nanoparticles give higher electroluminescence brightness starting at lower threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.« less

  13. Ethanol gas sensor based upon ZnO nanoparticles prepared by different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Sonik; Verma, Neha; Bedi, R. K.

    Nowadays, applications of nanosized materials have been an important issue in basic and applied sciences. In this investigation, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared by two different techniques (simple heat treatment, thermal evaporation-two zone furnaces). In order to control shape and size - ZnO nanoparticles prepared from heat treatment were used as a source for thermal evaporation method by using two zone split furnace by varying zone temperature (Zone 1-800 °C and Zone 2-400 °C). For both techniques 0.17 M of Zn acetate dihydrate is used as main precursor and film is deposited on glass substrate. Synthesized ZnO were characterized for XRD, FESEM, FTIR and UV-Vis spectrophotometer and LCR meter. XRD revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferential orientation along (1 0 1) plane. FESEM observed that grain size in the range of range of ∼50 ± 5 nm. FTIR spectra showed that the peaks between 400 and 500 cm-1 for ZnO stretching modes. Optical properties has been studied and found that the observed band gap lies in the range of 3.32-3.36 eV. The higher value of capacitance is observed at lower frequency. Gas sensing properties showed the higher response in case of thermal evaporation as compared to simple heat treatment at an operating temperature of 250 °C.

  14. Synthesis and annealing study of RF sputtered ZnO thin film

    SciT

    Singh, Shushant Kumar, E-mail: singhshushant86@gmail.com; Sharma, Himanshu; Singhal, R.

    2016-05-23

    In this paper, we have investigated the annealing effect on optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films, synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering. ZnO thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates simultaneously at a substrate temperature of 300 °C using Argon gas in sputtering chamber. Thickness of as deposited ZnO thin film was found to be ~155 nm, calculated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). These films were annealed at 400 °C and 500 °C temperature in the continuous flow of oxygen gas for 1 hour in tube furnace. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structuremore » of ZnO thin film along the c-axis (002) orientation. Transmittance of thin films was increased with increasing the annealing temperature estimated by UV-visible transmission spectroscopy. Quality and texture of the thin films were improved with annealing temperature, estimated by Raman spectroscopy.« less

  15. Preparation and characterization of undoped and cobalt doped ZnO for antimicrobial use.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Angelica Oprea; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Ghitulica, Cristina Daniela; Voicu, Georgeta; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Popa, Marcela; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2016-08-30

    The objective of this study was to carry out the synthesis by sol-gel method of undoped and cobalt doped ZnO, with different cobalt concentrations (0.5-5mol%), using as stabilizer monoethanolamine (MEA) in a molar ratio ZnO:MEA=1:2. The dry gel was thermally treated at 500°C/5h, respectively at 1100°C/30min. All the thermal treated samples were of wurtzite type with an hexagonal structure. The doping with Co(2+) induced change of lattice parameters and of crystallite size, proving the successful interleaving of Co(2+) into the ZnO lattice. From the morphological point of view, the thermal treatment at 1100°C/30min led to a higher degree of compactness of the ZnO granules. At 500°C/5h there were formed polyhedral or spherical nanometric particles (25-50nm) which have been agglomerated into aggregates with sizes over 1μm. From the biological point of view, the quantitative analyses of antimicrobial activity have shown that the ZnO doped with cobalt has inhibited the ability of the Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacterial strains to colonize the inert substrate and therefore, can be used in the design of new antimicrobial strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pressure Induced Phase Transition and Electronic Properties of 1d ZnO Nanocrystal: AN AB INITIO Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Anurag; Tyagi, Neha

    2012-10-01

    We have analyzed the one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanocrystals in its wurtzite (B4); zinc-blende (B3) and rocksalt (B1) type phases, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The energetic stability of nanocrystal has been analyzed using Revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (revPBE) type parameterized GGA potential. The B3 type phase is most stable amongst other phases of nanocrystals. The computation of ground state properties for all the phases of ZnO nanocrystals finds that the bulk modulus are smaller than their bulk counterpart, in turn softening the material at reduced dimensions. The electronic band structure analysis confirms the semiconducting nature of B4 type phase whereas other two are metallic.

  17. Room temperature ferromagnetism and luminescent behavior of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by coprecipitation method

    SciT

    Arora, Deepawali; Mahajan, Aman; Kaur, Parvinder

    2016-05-23

    The samples of Zn{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}O (x= 0.00 and 0.05) were prepared using coprecipitation method and annealed at different temperatures. The effect of Ni ion substitution on the structural and optical properties has been studied using X-ray Diffraction, UV-Visible, Photoluminescence and Magnetic measurements. XRD measurements demonstrate that all the prepared samples are wurtzite polycrystalline single phase in nature, ruling out the presence of any secondary phase formation. Ultraviolet visible measurements showed a decrease in band gap with the increase in annealing temperature and doping concentration. The PL data shows the red shift in all the samples and luminescence quenching withmore » Ni doping. Compared to undoped ZnO, Ni doped ZnO showed room temperature ferromagnetism.« less

  18. Methanol synthesis on ZnO(0001{sup ¯}). IV. Reaction mechanisms and electronic structure

    SciT

    Frenzel, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.frenzel@theochem.rub.de; Marx, Dominik

    2014-09-28

    Methanol synthesis from CO and H{sub 2} over ZnO, which requires high temperatures and high pressures giving rise to a complex interplay of physical and chemical processes over this heterogeneous catalyst surface, is investigated using ab initio simulations. The redox properties of the surrounding gas phase are known to directly impact on the catalyst properties and thus, set the overall catalytic reactivity of this easily reducible oxide material. In Paper III of our series [J. Kiss, J. Frenzel, N. N. Nair, B. Meyer, and D. Marx, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064710 (2011)] we have qualitatively shown that for the partiallymore » hydroxylated and defective ZnO(0001{sup ¯}) surface there exists an intricate network of surface chemical reactions. In the present study, we employ advanced molecular dynamics techniques to resolve in detail this reaction network in terms of elementary steps on the defective surface, which is in stepwise equilibrium with the gas phase. The two individual reduction steps were investigated by ab initio metadynamics sampling of free energy landscapes in three-dimensional reaction subspaces. By also sampling adsorption and desorption processes and thus molecular species that are in the gas phase but close to the surface, our approach successfully generated several alternative pathways of methanol synthesis. The obtained results suggest an Eley-Rideal mechanism for both reduction steps, thus involving “near-surface” molecules from the gas phase, to give methanol preferentially over a strongly reduced catalyst surface, while important side reactions are of Langmuir-Hinshelwood type. Catalyst re-reduction by H{sub 2} stemming from the gas phase is a crucial process after each reduction step in order to maintain the catalyst's activity toward methanol formation and to close the catalytic cycle in some reaction channels. Furthermore, the role of oxygen vacancies, side reactions, and spectator species is investigated and mechanistic details are

  19. Optical Properties of Wurtzite Semiconductors Studied Using Cathodoluminescence Imaging and Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juday, Reid

    The work contained in this dissertation is focused on the optical properties of direct band gap semiconductors which crystallize in a wurtzite structure: more specifically, the III-nitrides and ZnO. By using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, many of their properties have been investigated, including band gaps, defect energy levels, carrier lifetimes, strain states, exciton binding energies, and effects of electron irradiation on luminescence. Part of this work is focused on p-type Mg-doped GaN and InGaN. These materials are extremely important for the fabrication of visible light emitting diodes and diode lasers and their complex nature is currently not entirely understood. The luminescence of Mg-doped GaN films has been correlated with electrical and structural measurements in order to understand the behavior of hydrogen in the material. Deeply-bound excitons emitting near 3.37 and 3.42 eV are observed in films with a significant hydrogen concentration during cathodoluminescence at liquid helium temperatures. These radiative transitions are unstable during electron irradiation. Our observations suggest a hydrogen-related nature, as opposed to a previous assignment of stacking fault luminescence. The intensity of the 3.37 eV transition can be correlated with the electrical activation of the Mg acceptors. Next, the acceptor energy level of Mg in InGaN is shown to decrease significantly with an increase in the indium composition. This also corresponds to a decrease in the resistivity of these films. In addition, the hole concentration in multiple quantum well light emitting diode structures is much more uniform in the active region when Mg-doped InGaN (instead of Mg-doped GaN) is used. These results will help improve the efficiency of light emitting diodes, especially in the green/yellow color range. Also, the improved hole transport may prove to be important for the development of photovoltaic devices. Cathodoluminescence studies have also been performed on

  20. Self-Assembled ZnO Nanosheet-Based Spherical Structure as Photoanode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameri, Mohsen; Raoufi, Meysam; Zamani-Meymian, M.-R.; Samavat, Feridoun; Fathollahi, M.-R.; Mohajerani, Ezeddin

    2018-03-01

    High surface area and enhanced light scattering of ZnO nanosheet aggregates have made them a promising active layer candidate material for fabrication of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells. Here, we propose a facile preparation method of such ZnO nanosheet structures, and in order to verify their applicability as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells, we employ morphological, optical, structural and electrical measurements. The results reveal the high surface area available for dye molecules for enhancing adsorption, high light scattering and competitive power conversion efficiencies compared to the works in literature. Finally, the device is optimized with respect to the photoanode thickness. The favorable features shown here can extend the application of the structure to other types of sensitization-based perovskite and quantum dot solar cells.

  1. Low-cost synthesis of pure ZnO nanowalls showing three-fold symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scuderi, Mario; Strano, Vincenzina; Spinella, Corrado; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Mirabella, Salvo

    2018-04-01

    ZnO nanowalls (NWLs) represent a non-toxic, Earth abundant, high surface-to-volume ratio, semiconducting nanostructure which has already showed potential applications in biosensing, environmental monitoring and energy. Low-cost synthesis of these nanostructures is extremely appealing for large scale upgrading of laboratory results, and its implementation has to be tested at the nanoscale, at least in terms of chemical purity and crystallographic orientation. Here, we have produced pure and texturized ZnO NWLs by using chemical bath deposition (CBD) synthesis followed by a thermal treatment at 300 °C. We examined the NWL formation process and the new obtained structure at the nanoscale, by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy in combination with x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. We have shown that only after annealing at 300 °C in nitrogen does the as-grown material, composed of a mixture of Zn compounds NWLs, show its peculiar crystal arrangement. The resulting ZnO sheets are in fact made by ZnO wurtzite domains (4-5 nm) that show a particular kind of texturization; indeed, they are aligned with their own c-axis always perpendicular to the sheets forming the wall and rotated (around the c-axis) by multiples of 20° from each other. The presented data show that low-cost CBD, followed by an annealing process, gives pure ZnO with a peculiarly ordered nanostructure that shows three-fold symmetry. Such evidence at the nanoscale will have significant implications for realizing sensing or catalyst devices based on ZnO NWLs.

  2. Structure of (Ga2O3)2(ZnO)13 and a unified description of the homologous series (Ga2O3)2(ZnO)(2n + 1).

    PubMed

    Michiue, Yuichi; Kimizuka, Noboru; Kanke, Yasushi; Mori, Takao

    2012-06-01

    The structure of (Ga(2)O(3))(2)(ZnO)(13) has been determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. In the monoclinic structure of the space group C2/m with cell parameters a = 19.66 (4), b = 3.2487 (5), c = 27.31 (2) Å, and β = 105.9 (1)°, a unit cell is constructed by combining the halves of the unit cell of Ga(2)O(3)(ZnO)(6) and Ga(2)O(3)(ZnO)(7) in the homologous series Ga(2)O(3)(ZnO)(m). The homologous series (Ga(2)O(3))(2)(ZnO)(2n + 1) is derived and a unified description for structures in the series is presented using the (3+1)-dimensional superspace formalism. The phases are treated as compositely modulated structures consisting of two subsystems. One is constructed by metal ions and another is by O ions. In the (3 + 1)-dimensional model, displacive modulations of ions are described by the asymmetric zigzag function with large amplitudes, which was replaced by a combination of the sawtooth function in refinements. Similarities and differences between the two homologous series (Ga(2)O(3))(2)(ZnO)(2n + 1) and Ga(2)O(3)(ZnO)(m) are clarified in (3 + 1)-dimensional superspace. The validity of the (3 + 1)-dimensional model is confirmed by the refinements of (Ga(2)O(3))(2)(ZnO)(13), while a few complex phenomena in the real structure are taken into account by modifying the model.

  3. Cytotoxicity evaluation of ZnO-eugenol (ZOE) using different ZnO structure on human gingival fibroblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Ann, Ling Chuo; Sirelkhatim, Amna

    2017-07-01

    Application of ZnO is widely used in many industries, such as in optoelectronic devices, automotive, textile, cosmetics, medical and dentistry. In this study, emphasis was given on ZnO-eugenol (ZOE) that has been used in dental restoration. ZOE contained 80% ZnO and 20% eugenol. ZOE exhibited selective toxicity that could kill bacteria but safe on human cells. The safety of ZOE on humans is critically important. Two types of ZnO with different morphology, namely ZnO-A and ZnO-K were used to make ZOE (ZOE-A and ZOE-K) and the cytotoxicity level on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cell line were evaluated. Both ZnO were characterized for its morphology and structural using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD), respectively. The cytotoxicity level was evaluated using CCK-8 assay where the percentage of viable cells after 72 h were observed. The result showed ZnO-A, containing mostly rod-like shape with a crystallite size of 37.5 nm, had a higher percentage of viable cells after 72 h. Sample ZnO-K, containing irregular shape morphology with bigger crystallite size of 42.2 nm, had a lower percentage of viable cells after 72 h. The HGF cell line was treated with extract dilution of ZOE-A and ZOE-K at 5, 10 and 15%, respectively. At 15% of extracts dilution, 97.3% of the HGF cells survived (for ZOE-A) while the survival percentage of ZOE-K was only 88.1%. This fact was probably due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio of ZnO-A that gave better interlocking bond in ZOE-A. This interlocking bond can prevent the ZnO and eugenol elements leaching out from the ZOE matrix thereby decrease in cytotoxicity effects on HGF.

  4. The transformation of ZnO submicron dumbbells into perfect hexagonal tubular structures using CBD: a post treatment route.

    PubMed

    Borade, P; Joshi, K U; Gokarna, A; Lerondel, G; Jejurikar, S M

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of dumbbell-shaped ZnO structures and their subsequent transformation into perfect hexagonal tubes by the extended chemical bath deposition (CBD) method, retaining all advantages such as reproducibility, simplicity, quickness and economical aspect. Well-dispersed sub-micron-sized dumbbell-shaped ZnO structures were synthesized on a SiO2/Si substrate by the CBD method. As an extension of the CBD process the synthesized ZnO dumbbells were exposed to the evaporate coming out of the chemical bath for a few minutes (simply by adjusting the height of the deposit so that it remained just above the solution) to convert them into hexagonal tubes via the dissolution process. The possible dissolution mechanism responsible for the observed conversion is discussed. The optical properties (photo-luminescence) recorded at low temperature on both the structures showed an intense, sharp excitonic peak located at ∼370 nm. The improved intensity and low FWHM of the UV peak observed in the hexagonal tubular structures assures high optical quality, and hence can be used for optoelectronic applications.

  5. Electrodeposition and characterization of ZnO thin films using sodium thiosulfate as an additive for photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahal, Hassiba; Kihal, Rafiaa; Affoune, Abed Mohamed; Ghers, Mokhtar; Djazi, Faycal

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide thin films have been grown by electrodeposition technique onto Cu and ITO-coated glass substrates from an aqueous zinc nitrate solution with addition of sodium thiosulfate at 90 °C. The effects of sodium thiosulfate on the electrochemical deposition of ZnO were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. Deposited films were obtained at -0.60 V vs. SCE and characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, optical, photoelectrochemical and electrical measurements. Thickness of the deposited film was measured to be 357 nm. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the synthesized ZnO has a pure hexagonal wurtzite structure with a marked preferential orientation along (002) plane. FTIR results confirmed the presence of ZnO films at peak 558 cm-1. SEM images showed uniform, compact morphology without any cracks and films composed of large flower-like ZnO agglomerates with star-shape. Optical properties of ZnO reveal a high optical transmission (> 80 % ) and high absorption coefficient (α > {10}5 {{cm}}-1) in visible region. The optical energy band gap was found to be 3.28 eV. Photoelectrochemical measurements indicated that the ZnO films had n-type semiconductor conduction. Electrical properties of ZnO films showed a low electrical resistivity of 6.54 {{Ω }}\\cdot {cm}, carrier concentration of -1.3× {10}17 {{cm}}-3 and mobility of 7.35 cm2 V-1 s-1. Project supported by the Algerian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Algeria (No. J0101520090018).

  6. Ti-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared at Different Ambient Conditions: Electronic Structures and Magnetic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Uruga, Tomoya; Tanida, Hajime; Qi, Dongchen; Rusydi, Andrivo; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study on Ti-doped ZnO thin films using X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Ti K edge XAFS spectra were measured to study the electronic and chemical properties of Ti ions in the thin films grown under different ambient atmospheres. A strong dependence of Ti speciation, composition, and local structures upon the ambient conditions was observed. The XAFS results suggest a major tetrahedral coordination and a 4+ valence state. The sample grown in a mixture of 80% Ar and 20% O2 shows a portion of precipitates with higher coordination. A large distortion was observed by the Ti substitution in the ZnO lattice. Interestingly, the film prepared in 80% Ar, 20% O2 shows the largest saturation magnetic moment of 0.827 ± 0.013 µB/Ti.

  7. Bi-layer channel structure-based oxide thin-film transistors consisting of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO with different Al compositions and stacking sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Woon; Yun, Myeong Gu; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Kim, So Hee; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2015-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)-based bi-layers, consisting of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layers grown by atomic layer deposition, were utilized as the channels of oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). Thin AZO layers (5 nm) with different Al compositions (5 and 14 at. %) were deposited on top of and beneath the ZnO layers in a bi-layer channel structure. All of the bi-layer channel TFTs that included the AZO layers showed enhanced stability (Δ V Th ≤ 3.2 V) under a positive bias stress compared to the ZnO single-layer channel TFT (Δ V Th = 4.0 V). However, the AZO/ZnO bi-layer channel TFTs with an AZO interlayer between the gate dielectric and the ZnO showed a degraded field effect mobility (0.3 cm2/V·s for 5 at. % and 1.8 cm2/V·s for 14 at. %) compared to the ZnO single-layer channel TFT (5.5 cm2/V·s) due to increased scattering caused by Al-related impurities near the gate dielectric/channel interface. In contrast, the ZnO/AZO bi-layer channel TFTs with an AZO layer on top of the ZnO layer exhibited an improved field effect mobility (7.8 cm2/V·s for 14 at. %) and better stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Single-crystalline twinned ZnO nanoleaf structure via a facile hydrothermal process.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jijun; Lil, Xiaomin; Gao, Xiangdong; Gan, Xiaoyan; He, Weizhen; Kim, Hyung-Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2011-03-01

    A single-crystalline twinned ZnO nanostructure with a 2-dimensional leaf-like morphology (nanoleaves) was synthesized using a facile hydrothermal strategy. The ZnO nanoleaves had 2-fold symmetric branches, which were identified by the existence of an inversion domain boundary (IDB) along the [2110] growth direction of the ribbon-like stems with both side surfaces of the stems terminated with a chemically active Zn-(0001) plane. A proposed growth mechanism suggested that the formation of IDB and the leaf-like shape are related to the dissolution of seed particles on the substrate surfaces and an OH- shielding effect in solution, respectively. Optical measurements revealed visible emission, suggesting the possession of defects in the as-grown and annealed ZnO nanoleaves. In addition, various ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by simply controlling the fabrication conditions.

  9. Large-scale uniform ZnO tetrapods on catalyst free glass substrate by thermal evaporation method

    SciT

    Alsultany, Forat H., E-mail: foratusm@gmail.com; Hassan, Z.; Ahmed, Naser M.

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Investigate the growth of ZnO-Ts on glass substrate by thermal evaporation method. • Glass substrate without any catalyst or a seed layer. • The morphology was controlled by adjusting the temperature of the material and the substrate. • Glass substrate was placed vertically in the quartz tube. - Abstract: Here, we report for the first time the catalyst-free growth of large-scale uniform shape and size ZnO tetrapods on a glass substrate via thermal evaporation method. Three-dimensional networks of ZnO tetrapods have needle–wire junctions, an average leg length of 2.1–2.6 μm, and a diameter of 35–240 nm. The morphologymore » and structure of ZnO tetrapods were investigated by controlling the preparation temperature of each of the Zn powder and the glass substrate under O{sub 2} and Ar gases. Studies were carried out on ZnO tetrapods using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis spectrophotometer, and a photoluminescence. The results showed that the sample grow in the hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferentially oriented along (002) direction, good crystallinity and high transmittance. The band gap value is about 3.27 eV. Photoluminescence spectrum exhibits a very sharp peak at 378 nm and a weak broad green emission.« less

  10. Effect of Temperature and Growth Time on Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods by Simplified Hydrothermal Technique for Photoelectrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    Mohd Fudzi, Laimy; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Lim, Hong Ngee; Chang, Sook-Keng; Holi, Araa Mebdir; Sarif Mohd Ali, Mahanim

    2018-04-29

    Despite its large band gap, ZnO has wide applicability in many fields ranging from gas sensors to solar cells. ZnO was chosen over other materials because of its large exciton binding energy (60 meV) and its stability to high-energy radiation. In this study, ZnO nanorods were deposited on ITO glass via a simple dip coating followed by a hydrothermal growth. The morphological, structural and compositional characteristics of the prepared films were analyzed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Photoelectrochemical conversion efficiencies were evaluated via photocurrent measurements under calibrated halogen lamp illumination. Thin film prepared at 120 °C for 4 h of hydrothermal treatment possessed a hexagonal wurtzite structure with the crystallite size of 19.2 nm. The average diameter of the ZnO nanorods was 37.7 nm and the thickness was found to be 2680.2 nm. According to FESEM images, as the hydrothermal growth temperature increases, the nanorod diameter become smaller. Moreover, the thickness of the nanorods increase with the growth time. Therefore, the sample prepared at 120 °C for 4 h displayed an impressive photoresponse by achieving high current density of 0.1944 mA/cm².

  11. Synergistic effect of indium and gallium co-doping on the properties of RF sputtered ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaheera, M.; Girija, K. G.; Kaur, Manmeet; Geetha, V.; Debnath, A. K.; Karri, Malvika; Thota, Manoj Kumar; Vatsa, R. K.; Muthe, K. P.; Gadkari, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    ZnO thin films were synthesized using RF magnetron sputtering, with simultaneous incorporation of Indium (In) and Gallium (Ga). The structural, optical, chemical composition and surface morphology of the pure and co-doped (IGZO) thin films were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. XRD revealed that these films were oriented along c-axis with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The (002) diffraction peak in the co-doped sample was observed at 33.76° with a slight shift towards lower 2θ values as compared to pure ZnO. The surface morphology of the two thin films was observed to differ. For pure ZnO films, round grains were observed and for IGZO thin films round as well as rod type grains were observed. All thin films synthesized show excellent optical properties with more than 90% transmission in the visible region and band gap of the films is observed to decrease with co-doping. The co doping of In and Ga is therefore expected to provide a broad range optical and physical properties of ZnO thin films for a variety of optoelectronic applications.

  12. Effect of growth time on Ti-doped ZnO nanorods prepared by low-temperature chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidier, Shaker A.; Hashim, M. R.; Al-Diabat, Ahmad M.; Bououdina, M.

    2017-04-01

    Ti-doped ZnO nanorod arrays were grown onto Si substrate using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 93 °C. To investigate the effect of time deposition on the morphological, and structural properties, four Ti-doped ZnO samples were prepared at various deposition periods of time (2, 3.5, 5, and 6.5 h). FESEM images displayed high-quality and uniform nanorods with a mean length strongly dependent upon deposition time; i.e. it increases for prolonged growth time. Additionally, EFTEM images reveal a strong erosion on the lateral side for the sample prepared for 6.5 h as compared to 5 h. This might be attributed to the dissolution reaction of ZnO with for prolonged growth time. XRD analysis confirms the formation of a hexagonal wurtzite-type structure for all samples with a preferred growth orientation along the c-axis direction. The (100) peak intensity was enhanced and then quenched, which might be the result of an erosion on the lateral side of nanorods as seen in EFTEM. This study confirms the important role of growth time on the morphological features of Ti-doped ZnO nanorods prepared using CBD. Increase the growth time causes an erosion in lateral side -(100) direction XRD- and enhances the axial direction -(002), XRD.

  13. ZnO nanoflowers with single crystal structure towards enhanced gas sensing and photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Chen, Hsueh-Shih; Matras-Postolek, Katarzyna; Yang, Ping

    2015-11-11

    In this paper, ZnO nanoflowers (NFs) were fabricated by thermal decomposition in an organic solvent and their application in gas sensors and photocatalysis was investigated. These single crystal ZnO NFs, which were observed for the first time, with an average size of ∼60 nm and were grown along the {100} facet. It was suggested that oleylamine used in the synthesis inhibited the growth and agglomeration of ZnO through the coordination of the oleylamine N atoms. The NFs exhibited excellent selectivity to acetone with a concentration of 25 ppm at 300 °C because they had a high specific surface area that provided more active sites and the surface adsorbed oxygen species for interaction with acetone. In addition, the ZnO NFs showed enhanced gas sensing response which was also ascribed to abundant oxygen vacancies at the junctions between petals of the NFs. Furthermore, ZnO-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were fabricated by loading the ZnO NFs on the surface of the stratiform RGO sheet. In the photodegradation of rhodamine B tests, the composite revealed an enhanced photocatalytic performance compared with ZnO NFs under UV light irradiation.

  14. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Co doped ZnO DMS nanoparticles by microwave irradiation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guruvammal, D.; Selvaraj, S.; Meenakshi Sundar, S.

    2018-04-01

    Microwave irradiation method is employed to synthesis of Zn1-xCoxO (x = 0.001-0.004) nanoparticles and investigate their structural, optical and magnetic properties using various characterization techniques. Structural studies reveal single phase hexagonal structure with average crystallite size 18-28 nm. FTIR study identifies the functional group present in the samples. The incorporation of Co2+ ions into the ZnO lattice is confirmed through XRD and UV-Vis studies. PL spectra exhibit a strong emission peak in UV region and a defect related visible emission peak in orange red region. These peaks are attributed to near band edge emission and the presence of oxygen related defects in the samples respectively. The blue shift observed in the UV emission peak shows an increase in the carrier concentration caused by the interstitial incorporation of ions into the ZnO lattice. The oxygen related defect is also confirmed through a peak obtained around g factor 1.9933 in ESR studies. Further, the number of spin contributing the ESR signal demonstrates the dependence of the strength of ferromagnetism on the concentration of oxygen ion vacancies. The VSM, ESR and PL measurements confirm the origin of RTFM of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles from the exchange interaction between the localized spin moments resulting from oxygen vacancies. The reason for the obtained super paramagnetic nature for x = 0.002 and x = 0.003 may be either due to some of nanoparticles or due to the weakly coupled Co ions in the Zn2+ site in the ZnO lattice. Further, the ferromagnetic behavior arises again for x = 0.004 due to the incorporation of Co2+ ions in the interstitial positions.

  15. Cytotoxicity of ZnO Nanoparticles Can Be Tailored by Modifying Their Surface Structure: A Green Chemistry Approach for Safer Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Punnoose, Alex; Dodge, Kelsey; Rasmussen, John W; Chess, Jordan; Wingett, Denise; Anders, Catherine

    2014-07-07

    ZnO nanoparticles (NP) are extensively used in numerous nanotechnology applications; however, they also happen to be one of the most toxic nanomaterials. This raises significant environmental and health concerns and calls for the need to develop new synthetic approaches to produce safer ZnO NP, while preserving their attractive optical, electronic, and structural properties. In this work, we demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of ZnO NP can be tailored by modifying their surface-bound chemical groups, while maintaining the core ZnO structure and related properties. Two equally sized (9.26 ± 0.11 nm) ZnO NP samples were synthesized from the same zinc acetate precursor using a forced hydrolysis process, and their surface chemical structures were modified by using different reaction solvents. X-ray diffraction and optical studies showed that the lattice parameters, optical properties, and band gap (3.44 eV) of the two ZnO NP samples were similar. However, FTIR spectroscopy showed significant differences in the surface structures and surface-bound chemical groups. This led to major differences in the zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, photocatalytic rate constant, and more importantly, their cytotoxic effects on Hut-78 cancer cells. The ZnO NP sample with the higher zeta potential and catalytic activity displayed a 1.5-fold stronger cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. These results suggest that by modifying the synthesis parameters/conditions and the surface chemical structures of the nanocrystals, their surface charge density, catalytic activity, and cytotoxicity can be tailored. This provides a green chemistry approach to produce safer ZnO NP.

  16. Cytotoxicity of ZnO Nanoparticles Can Be Tailored by Modifying Their Surface Structure: A Green Chemistry Approach for Safer Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NP) are extensively used in numerous nanotechnology applications; however, they also happen to be one of the most toxic nanomaterials. This raises significant environmental and health concerns and calls for the need to develop new synthetic approaches to produce safer ZnO NP, while preserving their attractive optical, electronic, and structural properties. In this work, we demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of ZnO NP can be tailored by modifying their surface-bound chemical groups, while maintaining the core ZnO structure and related properties. Two equally sized (9.26 ± 0.11 nm) ZnO NP samples were synthesized from the same zinc acetate precursor using a forced hydrolysis process, and their surface chemical structures were modified by using different reaction solvents. X-ray diffraction and optical studies showed that the lattice parameters, optical properties, and band gap (3.44 eV) of the two ZnO NP samples were similar. However, FTIR spectroscopy showed significant differences in the surface structures and surface-bound chemical groups. This led to major differences in the zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, photocatalytic rate constant, and more importantly, their cytotoxic effects on Hut-78 cancer cells. The ZnO NP sample with the higher zeta potential and catalytic activity displayed a 1.5-fold stronger cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. These results suggest that by modifying the synthesis parameters/conditions and the surface chemical structures of the nanocrystals, their surface charge density, catalytic activity, and cytotoxicity can be tailored. This provides a green chemistry approach to produce safer ZnO NP. PMID:25068096

  17. Efficient Green Emission from Wurtzite Al xIn1- xP Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, L; Kruijsse, M; Schefold, J D D; Belabbes, A; Verheijen, M A; Meuret, S; Koelling, S; Polman, A; Bechstedt, F; Haverkort, J E M; Bakkers, E P A M

    2018-06-13

    Direct band gap III-V semiconductors, emitting efficiently in the amber-green region of the visible spectrum, are still missing, causing loss in efficiency in light emitting diodes operating in this region, a phenomenon known as the "green gap". Novel geometries and crystal symmetries however show strong promise in overcoming this limit. Here we develop a novel material system, consisting of wurtzite Al x In 1- x P nanowires, which is predicted to have a direct band gap in the green region. The nanowires are grown with selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and show wurtzite crystal purity from transmission electron microscopy. We show strong light emission at room temperature between the near-infrared 875 nm (1.42 eV) and the "pure green" 555 nm (2.23 eV). We investigate the band structure of wurtzite Al x In 1- x P using time-resolved and temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements and compare the experimental results with density functional theory simulations, obtaining excellent agreement. Our work paves the way for high-efficiency green light emitting diodes based on wurtzite III-phosphide nanowires.

  18. Far field emission profile of pure wurtzite InP nanowires

    SciT

    Bulgarini, Gabriele, E-mail: g.bulgarini@tudelft.nl; Reimer, Michael E.; Zwiller, Val

    2014-11-10

    We report on the far field emission profile of pure wurtzite InP nanowires in comparison to InP nanowires with predominantly zincblende crystal structure. The emission profile is measured on individual nanowires using Fourier microscopy. The most intense photoluminescence of wurtzite nanowires is collected at small angles with respect to the nanowire growth axis. In contrast, zincblende nanowires present a minimum of the collected light intensity in the direction of the nanowire growth. Results are explained by the orientation of electric dipoles responsible for the photoluminescence, which is different from wurtzite to zincblende. Wurtzite nanowires have dipoles oriented perpendicular to themore » nanowire growth direction, whereas zincblende nanowires have dipoles oriented along the nanowire axis. This interpretation is confirmed by both numerical simulations and polarization dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy. Knowledge of the dipole orientation in nanostructures is crucial for developing a wide range of photonic devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells.« less

  19. Investigation on structural and optical properties of ZnO film prepared by simple wet chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholehah, Amalia; Mulyadi, Rendi; Haryono, Didied; Muttakin, Imamul; Rusbana, Tb Bahtiar; Mardiyanto

    2018-04-01

    ZnO thin layer has a broad potential application in electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this study, vertically align ZnO layers were deposited on ITO glass using wet chemistry method. The seed layers were prepared using electrodeposition technique at 3°C. The growing process was carried out using chemical bath deposition at 90°C. To improve the structural properties, two different hydrothermal treatment variations were applied separately. From the experiment, it is shown that the hydrothermal process using N2 gas has given the best result, with average diameter, crystallite size, and band-gap energy of 68.83 nm; 56.37 nm; and 3.16 eV, respectively.

  20. Synthesis and structural characterization of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles supported mesoporous silica SBA-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nahhal, Issa M.; Salem, Jamil K.; Selmane, Mohamed; Kodeh, Fawzi S.; Ebtihan, Heba A.

    2017-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were loaded into mesoporous silica SBA-15 by post-synthesis and direct methods. The structural properties were characterized using wide and small angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD & SXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2-adsorption desorption (BET). The WXRD showed that, the loaded zinc and copper oxides were present in crystalline forms (impregnation). The mesoporosity properties of SBA-15 silica were well maintained even after the introduction of metal oxide nanoparticles. BET analysis indicate that the impregnated and condensed ZnO and CuO supported SBA-15 nanocomposites have a lower surface area than that of its parent SBA-15.

  1. SiO2/ZnO Composite Hollow Sub-Micron Fibers: Fabrication from Facile Single Capillary Electrospinning and Their Photoluminescence Properties.

    PubMed

    Song, Guanying; Li, Zhenjiang; Li, Kaihua; Zhang, Lina; Meng, Alan

    2017-02-24

    In this work, SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers were fabricated by a facile single capillary electrospinning technique followed by calcination, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ZnO nanoparticles as raw materials. The characterization results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra indicated that the asprepared composite hollow fibers consisted of amorphous SiO2 and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO. The products revealed uniform tubular structure with outer diameters of 400-500 nm and wall thickness of 50-60 nm. The gases generated and the directional escaped mechanism was proposed to illustrate the formation of SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers. Furthermore, a broad blue emission band was observed in the photoluminescence (PL) of SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers, exhibiting great potential applications as blue light-emitting candidate materials.

  2. Biosynthesised ZnO : Dy3+ nanoparticles: Biodiesel properties and reusable catalyst for N-formylation of aromatic amines with formic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy Yadav, L. S.; Raghavendra, M.; Sudheer Kumar, K. H.; Dhananjaya, N.; Nagaraju, G.

    2018-04-01

    ZnO nanoparticles doped with trivalent dysprosium ions (Dy3+) were prepared through the green combustion technique using E. tirucalli plant latex as a fuel. The fundamental and optical properties of the samples are examined via the X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-visible analytical methods and morphology by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Rietveld refinement results show that the ZnO : Dy3+ were crystallized in the wurtzite hexagonal structure with space group P63mc (No. 186). The average particle size of ZnO : Dy3+ prepared with the different concentration of latex was found to be in the range 30-38nm, which is also confirmed by TEM analysis. A rapid and convenient method for the one-pot preparation of N-formamide derivatives aromatic amines and amino acid esters has been developed using Dy3+ doped ZnO as a catalytic agent. This method provides an efficient and much improved modification over reported protocols regarding yield, clean and work-up procedure milder reaction conditions. In this work, Pongamiapinnata oil was recycled for the preparation of biodiesel via Dy3+ doped ZnO as a catalytic agent.

  3. Enhancement of piezoelectric constants induced by cation-substitution and two-dimensional strain effects on ZnO predicted by density functional perturbation theory

    SciT

    Nakamura, Kaoru, E-mail: n-kaoru@criepi.denken.or.jp; Higuchi, Sadao; Ohnuma, Toshiharu

    2016-03-21

    Using density functional perturbation theory, we investigated the effect of various substitutional dopant elements and in-plane strain on the piezoelectric properties of ZnO. The piezoelectric stress constant e{sub 33} of doped ZnO was found to depend on the formal charge of the substitutional dopant. By decomposing the piezoelectric stress constant e{sub 33} into the individual atomic contributions, the change in the piezoelectric properties was found to originate from a change in the coupling between the atomic displacement and the strain. Furthermore, we found that in-plane tensile strain along the a axis, which is specific to the thin film, can enhancemore » the piezoelectric constant of ZnO. A phase transition from wurtzite to h-BN-type structure was found to occur with increasing in-plane tensile. The piezoelectric strain constant d{sub 33} was predicted to reach ∼200 pC/N for 2.78 at. % V-substituted ZnO at 5.5% in-plane strain, just before the phase transition. These theoretical results suggest that the piezoelectric constant of ZnO can be enhanced by controlling the in-plane strain via selection of the substrate material and dopant element.« less

  4. Study on electrical structure and magneto-optical properties of W-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Hou, Qingyu; Zhao, Chunwang; Xu, Zhenchao

    2018-04-01

    For W-doping amounts ranging from 0.0417 to 0.0833, experimental UV-visible absorption spectra blue shift and red shift results have been reported in the literatures. However, there is few literature reported research on magnetic mechanism. To solve this problem, this study investigates the disagreement about blue shift and red shift results and research on magnetic mechanism. The band structures, density of states, absorption spectra and magnetism have been investigated using first-principles planewave ultrasoft pseudopotential method based on the density functional theory. The calculated results showed that increased W-doping amounts first increase the volumes, and then reduce the volumes, decrease the formation energies, and stabilize the doped system. The band gaps become narrower and the absorption spectrum exhibits a significant red shift in UV and visible light emission. Moreover, the covalent bond vertical to c-axis strengthens, and the ionic bond parallel to c-axis weakens. Increased W-doping amounts decrease the magnetism of doped system. The magnetism of doped system originates from the electron exchange among W-5d, O-2p and Zn-3d orbitals of the W-doped ZnO. In W double-doped system, the ferromagnetic Curie temperature can be above room temperature when the doped system has a longer W-W distance.

  5. A facile arrested precipitation method for synthesis of pure wurtzite Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanocrystals using thiourea as a sulfur source

    SciT

    Li, Chunya; Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074; Ha, Enna

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: High-resolution TEM image of wurtzite Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanocrystals. Highlights: ► Wurtzite Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by arrested precipitation method. ► XRD, EDX, TEM demonstrate that the CZTS nanocrystals are purely wurtzite structure. ► The average diameter of the bulk CZTS products is found to be 10 ± 1.1 nm. ► The estimated direct bandgap energy is 1.56 eV for wurtzite CZTS nanocrystals. ► The electrical resistivity of the wurtzite CZTS nanocrystals is low. -- Abstract: A facile route for the synthesis of wurtzite Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) nanocrystals was developed by an arrested precipitation methodmore » at 240 °C under simple reaction conditions with diethanolamine as the solvent and thiourea as sulfur source. The structure and morphology of the CZTS nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Control experiments demonstrated that CZTS nanocrystals which are purely wurtzite structure are readily obtained. The average diameter of the bulk CZTS products is found to be 10 ± 1.1 nm. The estimated direct bandgap energy is 1.56 eV, which indicates that the CZTS nanocrystals produced by this method possess promising applications in photovoltaic devices.« less

  6. Photoactivity of N-doped ZnO nanoparticles in oxidative and reductive reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Jéssica A.; Nogueira, André E.; Gonçalves, Maria C. P.; Paris, Elaine C.; Ribeiro, Caue; Poirier, Gael Y.; Giraldi, Tania R.

    2018-03-01

    N-doped ZnO is a prospective material for photocatalytic reactions. However, only oxidative paths are well investigated in the literature. This paper describes a comparative study about ZnO and ZnO:N potential for oxidative and reductive reactions, probed by rhodamine B dye photodegradation and CO2 photoreduction. The materials were prepared by the polymeric precursor method, using urea as a nitrogen source, and different heat treatments were used to observe their effects on surface decontamination, crystallinity, particle sizes and shapes, and photocatalytic performance. ZnO and ZnO:N presented a wurtzite crystalline structure and nanometric-scale particles. Samples submitted to higher temperatures showed lower specific surface areas, but higher crystallinity and lower contents of species adsorbed on their surfaces. On the other hand, the photocatalysts annealed in shorter times presented smaller crystallite sizes and lower crystallinity. These factors influenced the photoactivity in both conditions, i.e., oxidation and reduction reactions, under the ultraviolet and visible light, indicating that structural factors influenced the adequate charge separation and consequent photocatalytic activity since the as-synthesized samples were versatile photocatalysts in both redox reactions.

  7. Growth of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays and Their Application for Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhaolin; Yao, Juncai

    2017-11-01

    We have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs) on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates by a facile chemical bath deposition method. We used field-emission scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy to study the morphology, crystalline structure and optical absorption of the fabricated ZNRAs, respectively. The results showed that ZnO nanorods stood almost perpendicularly on the substrate, were about 30-50 nm in diameter and 800-900 nm in length, and were wurtzite-structured (hexagonal) ZnO. In addition, well-aligned ZNRAs exhibited a weak absorption in the visible region and had an optical band gap value of 3.28 eV. Furthermore, a hybrid ZNRAs/polymer photovoltaic device was made, under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination (light intensity, ˜100 mW/cm2), and the device showed an open circuit voltage ( V oc) of 0.32 V, a short circuit current density ( J sc) of 7.67 mA/cm2, and a fill factor ( FF) of 0.37, yielding an overall power conversion efficiency of 0.91%. Also, the exciton dissociation and transportation processes of charge carriers in the device under illumination were explained according to its current density-voltage ( J- V) curve and the energy level diagram.

  8. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and optical performance of ZnO films tuned by Cr doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, M.; Akir, S.; Massoudi, I.; Litaiem, Y.; Gaidi, M.; Khirouni, K.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, pure and Cr-doped nanostructured Zinc oxide thin films were synthesized by simple and low cost co-precipitation and spin-coating method with Cr concentration varying between 0.5 and 5 at.%. Crystalline structure of the prepared films was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. XRD analysis indicated that the films were indexed as the hexagonal phase of wurtzite-type structure and demonstrated a decrease in the crystallite size with increasing Cr doping content. Cr doping revealed a significant effect on the optical measurements such as transmission and photoluminescence properties. The optical measurements indicated that Cr doping decreases the optical band gap and it has been shifted from 3.41 eV for pure ZnO film to 3.31 eV for 5 at.% Cr-doped one. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing characteristics of Cr-doped ZnO layers were investigated. Amongst all photo-anodes with different Cr dopant concentration, the 2 at.% Cr incorporated ZnO films exhibited fast response and higher photoconduction sensitivity.

  9. Nanocrystalline ZnO as a Visible Active Photocatalyst for the Degradation of Benzene-1,4-diol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Saranya; Sivasamy, A.

    We have synthesized nanocrystalline ZnO by a simple precipitation method. The prepared ZnO was found to be highly phase pure and nanocrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. UV-Visible-DRS spectroscopy showed the material to have bandgap energy of 3.22eV. HR-SEM image revealed the material to be made up of distinct hexagonal particles with a highly porous surface. AFM analysis was employed to confirm the high surface roughness and porosity of the material. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared ZnO was evaluated by the degradation of benzene-1,4-diol (hydroquinone), under visible light irradiation. Preliminary experiments showed the catalyst to be effective at neutral pH with an optimum catalyst dosage of 4g/L. Kinetic studies showed the degradation reaction to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. In the presence of commonly used industrial electrolytes, the catalyst exhibited a decrease in efficiency. Reusability studies showed the catalytic efficiency of ZnO to diminish marginally after the third cycle of reuse.

  10. A Surfactant-Free Synthesis Technique of Coral-Like Zno Hierarchical Structures for Photocatalytic Degradation of Resorcinol under UV Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Jin-Chung; Lam, Sze-Mun; Chin, Ying-Hui

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchical coral-like ZnO structures were successfully prepared by a surfactant-free wet chemical method. Various characterization tests were carried out to analyze the as-prepared ZnO samples. The coral-like ZnO was used to degrade resorcinol at three different solution pH values (pH 5.0, pH 8.0 and pH 11.0). It was observed that the resorcinol adsorption onto the ZnO was strongly dependent on the electrical charge properties of both photocatalyst and resorcinol. Photocatalytic degradation of resorcinol reached the highest at pH 11.0 due to high concentration of hydroxyl ions for hydroxyl radicals generation.

  11. Piezo-phototronic effect enhanced photo-detector based on ZnO nano-arrays/NiO structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingchang; Li, Peida; Gao, Ruixue; Lu, Xue; Li, Chengren; Lang, Yueyi; Zhang, Xiwen; Bian, Jiming

    2018-01-01

    A photo-detector with n-ZnO nano-arrays/p-NiO film structure was synthesized on flexible Ni foil substrate. In contrast to conventional detectors that detect only the photon energies greater than the band gap of working materials, the visible light with smaller photon energies (3.0 eV) than the band gap of both ZnO (3.3 eV) and NiO (3.7 eV) can be sensitively detected by this detector due to the spatially indirect type-II transition between ZnO nano-arrays and NiO film. The increase in output currents of the photo-detector with illumination density was observed at both forward and reverse bias, and it can be further enhanced by exerting external compressive strain along the c axis of ZnO nano-arrays by piezo-phototronic effect. A maximum enhancement of 1020% of the responsivity (R) was achieved under external compressive strain. The similar behaviors were demonstrated at four different excitation wavelengths (325, 365, 388 and 405 nm), providing compelling evidence that the responses performance of the photo-detector can be effectively enhanced using piezo-phototronic effect. Moreover, the piezo-phototronic effect enhanced performance can be well elucidated by the corresponding energy band diagram.

  12. Effect of ion beam irradiation on the structure of ZnO films deposited by a dc arc plasmatron.

    PubMed

    Penkov, Oleksiy V; Lee, Heon-Ju; Plaksin, Vadim Yu; Ko, Min Gook; Joa, Sang Beom; Yim, Chan Joo

    2008-02-01

    The deposition of polycrystalline ZnO film on a cold substrate was performed by using a plasmatron in rough vacuum condition. Low energy oxygen ion beam generated by a cold cathode ion source was introduced during the deposition process. The change of film property on the ion beam energy was checked. It is shown that irradiation by 200 eV ions improves crystalline structure of the film. Increasing of ion beam energy up to 400 eV leads to the degradation of a crystalline structure and decreases the deposition rate.

  13. Investigation on the path process of M doped ZnO (M = Gd, Mg) via the sol-gel method from dried gel to stable nanostructure powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharno; Soegijono, B.; Budiawanti, S.; Fadillah, L.

    2017-04-01

    Doping is one of the effective methods to modify the physical properties of ZnO material in order to extend its applications. An investigation on Zn1-xMxO (M = Gd, Mg and x = 0.00, 0.03) nanopowders that have been synthesized by sol-gel method and sintered at 600 °C for 2 hours was reported. The decomposition process of the dried gel system was investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and the nanopowders with different heating temperature were studied using FT-IR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the nanopowders after sintering at 600 °C was obtained using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The TGA curves of the samples showed the various weight loss regions corresponding to the removal of starting materials and no weight loss was observed in the temperature range of 300 to 800 °C which corresponded to the phase-crystallization step. The FTIR spectra showed that ZnO band was assigned to the stretching frequency at 669 cm-1 while Gd/Mg doped ZnO was at 668 cm-1 and 666 cm-1. From the XRD studies, the crystal structure of the samples indicated single phase ZnO crystalline and confirmed hexagonal wurtzite structure (space group of P63mc).

  14. The quasiparticle band structure of zincblende and rocksalt ZnO.

    PubMed

    Dixit, H; Saniz, R; Lamoen, D; Partoens, B

    2010-03-31

    We present the quasiparticle band structure of ZnO in its zincblende (ZB) and rocksalt (RS) phases at the Γ point, calculated within the GW approximation. The effect of the p-d hybridization on the quasiparticle corrections to the band gap is discussed. We compare three systems, ZB-ZnO which shows strong p-d hybridization and has a direct band gap, RS-ZnO which is also hybridized but includes inversion symmetry and therefore has an indirect band gap, and ZB-ZnS which shows a weaker hybridization due to a change of the chemical species from oxygen to sulfur. The quasiparticle corrections are calculated with different numbers of valence electrons in the Zn pseudopotential. We find that the Zn(20+) pseudopotential is essential for the adequate treatment of the exchange interaction in the self-energy. The calculated GW band gaps are 2.47 eV and 4.27 eV respectively, for the ZB and RS phases. The ZB-ZnO band gap is underestimated compared to the experimental value of 3.27 by ∼ 0.8 eV. The RS-ZnO band gap compares well with the experimental value of 4.5 eV. The underestimation for ZB-ZnO is correlated with the strong p-d hybridization. The GW band gap for ZnS is 3.57 eV, compared to the experimental value of 3.8 eV.

  15. Facile synthesis of highly uniform Mn/Co-codoped ZnO nanowires: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Huifeng; Huang, Yunhua; Zhang, Qi; Qiao, Yi; Gu, Yousong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yue

    2011-02-01

    In this article, Co/Mn-codoped ZnO nanowires (NWs) were successfully synthesized on a silicon substrate by the thermal evaporation method with Au catalyst. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicated that the Co/Mn-codoped ZnO NWs are a hexagonal wurtzite structure without a second phase, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the Co and Mn ions were introduced into the ZnO NWs with the content of ∼0.8 at% and ∼1.2 at%, respectively. Photoluminescence spectra and Raman spectra showed that the Co/Mn were doped into the NWs and resulted in the shift of the near-band-edge emission. Moreover, the novel Raman peak at 519.3 cm(-1) has suggested that the two kinds of cations via doping could affect the local polarizability. Compared with the undoped ZnO NW, the electrical measurement showed that the Co/Mn-codoping enhanced the conductivity by an order of magnitude due to the presence of Co, Mn cations. The electron mobility and carrier concentration of a fabricated field effect transistor (FET) device is 679 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) and 2×10(18) cm(-3), respectively. Furthermore, the M-H curve demonstrated that the Co/Mn-codoped ZnO NWs have obvious ferromagnetic characteristics at room temperature. Our study enhances the understanding of the novel performances of transition-metal codoped ZnO NWs and also provides a potential way to fabricate optoelectronic devices.

  16. Quantum dots coupled ZnO nanowire-array panels and their photocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yulong; Que, Wenxiu; Zhang, Jin; Zhong, Peng; Yuan, Yuan; Qiu, Xinku; Shen, Fengyu

    2013-02-01

    Fabrication and characterization of a heterojunction structured by CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels were presented. Firstly, ZnO nanowire-array panels were prepared by using a chemical bath deposition approach where wurtzite ZnO nanowires with a diameter of about 100 nm and 3 microm in length grew perpendicularly to glass substrate. Secondly, CdS quantum dots were deposited onto the surface of the ZnO nanowire-arrays by using successive ion layer absorption and reaction method, and the CdS shell/ZnO core heterojunction were thus obtained. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the morphological properties of the as-obtained CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels. X-ray diffraction was adopted to characterize the crystalline properties of the as-obtained CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels. Methyl orange was taken as a model compound to confirm the photocatalytic activities of the CdS shell/ZnO core heterojunction. Results indicate that CdS with narrow band gap not only acts as a visible-light sensitizer but also is responsible for an effective charge separation.

  17. Polarity in GaN and ZnO: Theory, measurement, growth, and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zúñiga-Pérez, Jesús; Consonni, Vincent; Lymperakis, Liverios; Kong, Xiang; Trampert, Achim; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio; Brandt, Oliver; Renevier, Hubert; Keller, Stacia; Hestroffer, Karine; Wagner, Markus R.; Reparaz, Juan Sebastián; Akyol, Fatih; Rajan, Siddharth; Rennesson, Stéphanie; Palacios, Tomás; Feuillet, Guy

    2016-12-01

    The polar nature of the wurtzite crystalline structure of GaN and ZnO results in the existence of a spontaneous electric polarization within these materials and their associated alloys (Ga,Al,In)N and (Zn,Mg,Cd)O. The polarity has also important consequences on the stability of the different crystallographic surfaces, and this becomes especially important when considering epitaxial growth. Furthermore, the internal polarization fields may adversely affect the properties of optoelectronic devices but is also used as a potential advantage for advanced electronic devices. In this article, polarity-related issues in GaN and ZnO are reviewed, going from theoretical considerations to electronic and optoelectronic devices, through thin film, and nanostructure growth. The necessary theoretical background is first introduced and the stability of the cation and anion polarity surfaces is discussed. For assessing the polarity, one has to make use of specific characterization methods, which are described in detail. Subsequently, the nucleation and growth mechanisms of thin films and nanostructures, including nanowires, are presented, reviewing the specific growth conditions that allow controlling the polarity of such objects. Eventually, the demonstrated and/or expected effects of polarity on the properties and performances of optoelectronic and electronic devices are reported. The present review is intended to yield an in-depth view of some of the hot topics related to polarity in GaN and ZnO, a fast growing subject over the last decade.

  18. Synthesis, self-assembly, and properties of Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Barick, K C; Bahadur, D

    2007-06-01

    We report here a novel process to prepare Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles by a soft chemical route at low temperature. The synthesis process is based on the hydrolysis of zinc acetate dihydrate and manganese acetate tetrahydrate heated under reflux to 160-175 degrees C using diethylene glycol as a solvent. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the Mn doped ZnO crystallizes in a wurtzite structure with crystal size of 15-25 nm. These nano size crystallites of Mn doped ZnO self-organize into polydisperse spheres in size ranging from 100-400 nm. Transmission Electron Microscopy image also shows that each sphere is made up of numerous nanocrystals of average diameter 15-25 nm. By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron spin resonance spectroscopy, we determined the valence state of Mn ions as 2+. These nanoparticles were found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature. Monodisperse porous spheres (approximately 250 nm) were obtained by size selective separation technique and then self-assembled in a closed pack periodic array through sedimentation with slow solvent evaporation, which gives strong opalescence in visible region.

  19. High temperature ferromagnetism in Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles: Milling time dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Bappaditya; Giri, P. K.; Sarkar, D.

    2014-04-01

    We report on the room temperature ferromagnetism (RT FM) in the Zn1-xNixO (x = 0, 0.03, and 0.05) nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by a ball milling technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the single crystalline ZnO wurtzite structure with presence of small intensity secondary phase related peak which disappear with increasing milling time for Ni doped samples. HRTEM lattice images show that the doped NPs are single crystalline with a dspacing of 2.44 Å. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis confirms the presence of Ni ions in the ZnO matrix. Magnetic measurement (RT) exhibits the hysteresis loop with saturation magnetization (Ms) of 1.6-2.56 (emu/g) and coercive field (Hc) of 296-322 Oe. M-T measurement shows a Curie temperature of the order of 325°C for 3% Ni doped sample. Micro -Raman studies show doping/disorder induced additional modes at ˜510, 547, 572 cm-1 in addition to 437 cm-1 peak of pure ZnO. UV-Vis absorption spectra illustrate band gap shift due to doping. Alteration of Ms value with the variation of doping concentration and milling time has been studied and discussed.

  20. Structure, magnetic, and electrical properties of Zn1-xMnxO material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebayang, P.; Hulu, S. F.; Nasruddin, Aryanto, D.; Kurniawan, C.; Subhan, A.; Sudiro, T.; Ginting, M.

    2017-07-01

    ZnO and MnO2 powder were synthesized using solid state reaction method to produce Zn1-xMnxO materials. Effect of dopant concentrations at the material of Zn1-xMnxO (x = 0.015, 0.02, 0.025) to the change of crystal structure, electrical and magnetic properties was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) result of the samples that were doped with Mn showed a hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structure. The addition of Mn dopant resulting the decrease of lattice parameters and peaks intensity. The significant increase of the peak intensity occurred at x = 0.02, which also indicated an increase in the crystal quality of ZnO. The change of the ZnO structure affected the electrical and magnetic properties of the samples.

  1. Chemical lift-off and direct wafer bonding of GaN/InGaN P-I-N structures grown on ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantzas, K.; Rogers, D. J.; Bove, P.; Sandana, V. E.; Teherani, F. H.; El Gmili, Y.; Molinari, M.; Patriarche, G.; Largeau, L.; Mauguin, O.; Suresh, S.; Voss, P. L.; Razeghi, M.; Ougazzaden, A.

    2016-02-01

    p-GaN/i-InGaN/n-GaN (PIN) structures were grown epitaxially on ZnO-buffered c-sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy using the industry standard ammonia precursor for nitrogen. Scanning electron microscopy revealed continuous layers with a smooth interface between GaN and ZnO and no evidence of ZnO back-etching. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy revealed a peak indium content of just under 5 at% in the active layers. The PIN structure was lifted off the sapphire by selectively etching away the ZnO buffer in an acid and then direct bonded onto a glass substrate. Detailed high resolution transmission electron microscoy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the structural quality of the PIN structures was preserved during the transfer process.

  2. AuNPs Hybrid Black ZnO Nanorods Made by a Sol-Gel Method for Highly Sensitive Humidity Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Lin, Cunchong; Zhang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    A highly sensitive self-powered humidity sensor has been realized from AuNPs hybrid black zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods prepared through a sol-gel method. XRD pattern reveals that both ZnO and ZnO/AuNPs exhibit a wurtzite structure. ZnO/AuNPs nanorods grow in a vertical alignment, which possesses high uniformity and forms dense arrays with a smaller diameter than that of ZnO nanoparticles. All ZnO/AuNPs and pure black ZnO show lower band gap energy than the typically reported 3.34 eV of pure ZnO. Furthermore, the band gap of ZnO/AuNPs nanocomposites is effectively influenced by the amount of AuNPs. The humidity sensing tests clearly prove that all the ZnO/AuNPs humidity sensors exhibit much higher response than that of ZnO sensors, and the sensitivity of such ZnO/AuNPs nanorods (6 mL AuNPs) display a change three orders higher than that of pure ZnO with relative humidity (RH) ranging from 11% to 95% at room temperature. The response and recovery time of the ZnO/AuNPs are 5.6 s and 32.4 s, respectively. This study of the construction of semiconductor/noble metal sensors provides a rational way to control the morphology of semiconductor nanomaterials and to design a humidity sensor with high performance. PMID:29342860

  3. Facile green fabrication of nanostructure ZnO plates, bullets, flower, prismatic tip, closed pine cone: Their antibacterial, antioxidant, photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Madan, H R; Sharma, S C; Udayabhanu; Suresh, D; Vidya, Y S; Nagabhushana, H; Rajanaik, H; Anantharaju, K S; Prashantha, S C; Sadananda Maiya, P

    2016-01-05

    Green synthesis of multifunctional Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) with a variety of morphologies were achieved by low temperature solution combustion route employing neem (Azadirachta indica) extract as fuel. The nanoparticles were characterized by PXRD, FTIR, XPS, Raman and UV-Visible spectroscopic studies. The Morphologies were studied by SEM and TEM analysis. The NPs were subjected for photoluminescence, photocatalytic, antibacterial and antioxidant activity studies. PXRD pattern confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the product. SEM images indicated the transformation of mushroom like hexagonal disks to bullets, buds, cones, bundles and closed pine cone structured NPs with increase in the concentration of neem extract in reaction mixture. The NPs exhibited prominent green emission due to the presence of intrinsic defect centers. The as-formed bullet shaped ZnO with 4ml of neem extract was found to decolorize Methylene blue (MB) under Sunlight and UV light irradiation. The antibacterial studies indicated that ZnO NPs of concentration 500, 750 and 1000μg resulted in significant antibacterial activity on Klebsiella aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus but not against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agar well diffusion method. Further, ZnO NPs exhibited significant antioxidant activity against scavenging DPPH free radicals. The current investigation demonstrated green engineering method for the synthesis of multifunctional ZnO NPs with interesting morphologies using neem extract. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of cellulosic chains of cotton in biosynthesis of ZnO nanorods producing multifunctional properties: Mechanism, characterizations and features.

    PubMed

    Aladpoosh, R; Montazer, M

    2015-08-01

    In situ synthesis of ZnO nanorods on cellulosic chains of cotton fabric was accomplished using natural plant source namely Keliab and zinc acetate. Hierarchical mechanism of nano ZnO generation and deposition on cellulosic chains of cotton fabric was discussed in details and several analytical techniques were used to characterize the formation of nano ZnO wurtzite structure. The morphology, crystal phase, and chemical structure of the fabric were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Further, interaction between ZnO and functional groups of cellulosic chains of cotton fabric was studied by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The influence of zinc acetate and Keliab solution on the self-cleaning activity of the treated cellulosic fabric was investigated with a central composite design based on surface response methodology. The treated fabrics showed self-cleaning activity toward methylene blue degradation under day light irradiation. The optimized treated sample showed high antibacterial efficiency against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with enhanced tensile strength and higher crease recovery angle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dimensional-Hybrid Structures of 2D Materials with ZnO Nanostructures via pH-Mediated Hydrothermal Growth for Flexible UV Photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Bum; Kim, Seong Ku; Lim, Yi Rang; Jeon, In Su; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lee, Sun Sook; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok

    2017-05-03

    Complementary combination of heterostructures is a crucial factor for the development of 2D materials-based optoelectronic devices. Herein, an appropriate solution for fabricating complementary dimensional-hybrid nanostructures comprising structurally tailored ZnO nanostructures and 2D materials such as graphene and MoS 2 is suggested. Structural features of ZnO nanostructures hydrothermally grown on graphene and MoS 2 are deliberately manipulated by adjusting the pH value of the growing solution, which will result in the formation of ZnO nanowires, nanostars, and nanoflowers. The detailed growth mechanism is further explored for the structurally tailored ZnO nanostructures on the 2D materials. Furthermore, a UV photodetector based on the dimensional-hybrid nanostructures is fabricated, which demonstrates their excellent photocurrent and mechanical durability. This can be understood by the existence of oxygen vacancies and oxygen-vacancies-induced band narrowing in the ZnO nanostructures, which is a decisive factor for determining their photoelectrical properties in the hybrid system.

  6. Molecular beam epitaxy-grown wurtzite MgS thin films for solar-blind ultra-violet detection

    SciT

    Lai, Y. H.; He, Q. L.; Department of Physics and William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, HKSAR, People's Republic of China

    2013-04-29

    Molecular beam epitaxy grown MgS on GaAs(111)B substrate was resulted in wurtzite phase, as demonstrated by detailed structural characterizations. Phenomenological arguments were used to account for why wurtzite phase is preferred over zincblende phase or its most stable rocksalt phase. Results of photoresponse and reflectance measurements performed on wurtzite MgS photodiodes suggest a direct bandgap at around 5.1 eV. Their response peaks at 245 nm with quantum efficiency of 9.9% and enjoys rejection of more than three orders at 320 nm and close to five orders at longer wavelengths, proving the photodiodes highly competitive in solar-blind ultraviolet detection.

  7. Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ying Tsang; Wu, Mong Kai; Li, Wei Chih; Kuan, Hon; Yang, Jer Ren; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Miin Jang

    2009-04-22

    This study demonstrates amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of the ultraviolet (UV) electroluminescence (EL) from ZnO at lambda~380 nm in the n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite/p- Al(0.12)Ga(0.88)N heterojunction light-emitting diode. A SiO(2) layer embedded with ZnO nanodots was prepared on the p-type Al(0.12)Ga(0.88)N using spin-on coating of SiO(2) nanoparticles followed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO. An n-type Al-doped ZnO layer was deposited upon the ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite layer also by the ALD technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals that the ZnO nanodots embedded in the SiO(2) matrix have diameters of 3-8 nm and the wurtzite crystal structure, which allows the transport of carriers through the thick ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite layer. The high quality of the n-ZnO layer was manifested by the well crystallized lattice image in the HRTEM picture and the low-threshold optically pumped stimulated emission. The low refractive index of the ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite layer results in the increase in the light extraction efficiency from n-ZnO and the internal optical feedback of UV EL into n-ZnO layer. Consequently, significant enhancement of the UV EL intensity and super-linear increase in the EL intensity, as well as the spectral narrowing, with injection current were observed owing to ASE in the n-ZnO layer.

  8. The effect of induced strains on photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by thermal evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, Yaser; Eshghi, Hosein

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by thermal evaporation process using metallic zinc powder in the presence of oxygen on p-Si (100) at different distances from the boat. The structural and optical characterizations have been carried out. The morphological study shows various shape nanostructures. XRD data indicate that all samples have a polycrystalline wurtzite hexagonal structure in such a way that the closer sample has a preferred orientation along (101) while the ones farther are grown along (002) direction. From the structural and optical data analysis, we found that the induced strains are the main parameter controlling the UV/green peaks ratios in the PL spectra of the studied samples.

  9. Multianalyte biosensor based on pH-sensitive ZnO electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor structures

    SciT

    Haur Kao, Chyuan; Chun Liu, Che; Ueng, Herng-Yih

    2014-05-14

    Multianalyte electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor (EIS) sensors with a ZnO sensing membrane annealed on silicon substrate for use in pH sensing were fabricated. Material analyses were conducted using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy to identify optimal treatment conditions. Sensing performance for various ions of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, urea, and glucose was also tested. Results indicate that an EIS sensor with a ZnO membrane annealed at 600 °C exhibited good performance with high sensitivity and a low drift rate compared with all other reported ZnO-based pH sensors. Furthermore, based on well-established pH sensing properties, pH-ion-sensitive field-effect transistor sensors have also been developed formore » use in detecting urea and glucose ions. ZnO-based EIS sensors show promise for future industrial biosensing applications.« less

  10. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowire Based Piezoelectric Generators and Related Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opoku, Charles; Dahiya, Abhishek Singh; Oshman, Christopher; Cayrel, Frederic; Poulin-Vittrant, Guylaine; Alquier, Daniel; Camara, Nicolas

    Using vertically grown hydrothermal ZnO nanowires, we demonstrate the assembly of fully functional piezoelectric energy harvesters on plastics substrates. A seedless hydrothermal process is employed for the growth of single crystalline vertically orientated ZnO NWs at around 100oC. Flexible NG are assembled using ∼7 μm thick PDMS polymer matrix on a 3x3cm substrate. A representative device with an active area of 4cm2 is characterised revealing average output voltage generation of ∼22mV (±1.2) and -32mV (±0.16) in the positive and negative cycles after 3-4mm periodic deflection at 20Hz. A power density of ∼288nW/cm3 is estimated for the device. It is envisaged that such energy scavengers may find potential applications targeting self-powered systems, sensors and on-body charging of electronics.

  11. Correlation of structural properties with energy transfer of Eu-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel process and magnetron reactive sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Julien; Brimont, Christelle; Gallart, Mathieu; Schmerber, Guy; Gilliot, Pierre; Ulhaq-Bouillet, Corinne; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Colis, Silviu; Becker, Claude; Slaoui, Abdelillah; Dinia, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the structural and optical properties of Eu-doped ZnO thin films made by sol-gel technique and magnetron reactive sputtering on Si (100) substrate. The films elaborated by sol-gel process are polycrystalline while the films made by sputtering show a strongly textured growth along the c-axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy analysis show that all samples are free of spurious phases. The presence of Eu2+ and Eu3+ into the ZnO matrix has been confirmed by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. This means that a small fraction of Europium substitutes Zn2+ as Eu2+ into the ZnO matrix; the rest of Eu being in the trivalent state. This is probably due to the formation of Eu2O3 oxide at the surface of ZnO particles. This is at the origin of the strong photoluminescence band observed at 2 eV, which is characteristic of the 5D0→7F2 Eu3+ transition. In addition the photoluminescence excitonic spectra showed efficient energy transfer from the ZnO matrix to the Eu3+ ion, which is qualitatively similar for both films although the sputtered films have a better structural quality compared to the sol-gel process grown films. PMID:20644657

  12. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods on Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers grown by hydrothermal method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Su; Kim, Do Yeob; Kim, Sung-O; Leem, Jae-Young

    2013-05-01

    ZnO nanorods were grown on the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers with different thickness by hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) were carried out to investigate the effects of the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layer thickness on the structural and the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods. The residual stress in the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers was depended on the thickness while the texture coefficient of the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers was not affected significantly. The smaller full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the ZnO (002) diffraction and near-band-edge emission (NBE) peak and the larger average grain size were observed from the ZnO nanorods grown on the Mg0.2Zn0.8O seed layers with 5 layers (thickness of 350 nm), which indicate the enhancement the structural and the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods.

  13. Contrastive Study on the Structure and the Ultraviolet Absorption Property of Multiple-Doped and Element-Doped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yunyun; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Zhenrong; Tian, Yanfeng; Zhou, Shandan

    Sb2O3- and CeO2-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The influence of Sb2O3 and CeO2 on the structure and ultraviolet (UV) absorption properties was studied by X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Results show that multiple doping of films had a prominent effect on the development of crystal grains and the UV absorption property. Ce and Sb exist in many forms in the ZnO film. The multiple-doped films also show enhanced UVA absorption, and the UV absorption peak widens and the absorption intensity increases. Sb plays a dominant role on the structure and UV absorption of ZnO thin films, which are enhanced by Ce.

  14. Structural and optical properties of indium-doped highly conductive ZnO bulk crystals grown by the hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Buguo; Claflin, Bruce; Look, David; Jiménez, Juan

    2018-02-01

    Indium-doped ZnO bulk crystals grown by the hydrothermal method are highly-conductive, with resistivity at 0.01 Ωcm at room temperature as revealed by Hall-effect measurement. In this paper we report on structural and optical properties of these crystals. The grown In:ZnO crystals have been studied by high resolution X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman scattering and low-temperature photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence. It was found that the c lattice parameter of the grown In:ZnO crystal expanded 0.06% with respect to the lithium-doped ZnO crystal seed, and the In-doped ZnO overgrew the seed crystal pseudomorphically but with high quality crystallinity; the X-ray rocking curves show the FWHM of the Zn face and O faces are only 0.05° and 0.1° ; and the indium concentration in the crystal reaches the solubility limit. Raman spectra show strain relaxation gradually from the regrowth interface as well as a weak spectral feature at 723 cm-1. The peak at 312 cm-1 noticed in hydrothermally grown In:ZnO nanostructures does not appear in our In-doped crystals, indicating that this peak may be associated with specific defects (e.g. surface related) of the nanostructures. Photoluminescence measurements show that an indium donor bound exciton peak I9 (In0X) is the dominant peak in the PL spectrum, located at 3.3586 eV on the zinc face and 3.3577 eV on the oxygen face. Both of them deviated from the consensus literature value of 3.3567 eV, probably due to strain in the crystal induced by impurities.

  15. Investigation on structure, electronic and magnetic properties of Cr doped (ZnO)12 clusters: First-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2018-05-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of (ZnO)12 clusters doped with Cr atoms have been investigated by using spin-polarized first-principles calculations. The exohedral a3 isomer is favorable than endohedral a2 isomer. The isomer a1 and a5 respectively have the narrowest and biggest gap between highest unoccupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) of 0.473 and 1.291 eV among these five monodoped isomers. The magnetic moment may be related to the local environment around the Cr atom that the a2 isomer whose total magnetic moment is 6 μB while the other monodoped isomers which all isomers have nearly total magnetic moments 4 μB . For Cr-doped (ZnO)12 on a1 or a3 isomer, the DOS of spin-up channel cross the Fermi level EF showing a finite magnitude near the Fermi level which might be useful for half metallic character. For the bidoped cases, the exohedral isomers are found to be most favorable. Including all bipoed isomers of substitutional, exohedral and endohedral bidoped clusters, the total magnetic moment of the ferromagnetic (antiferromagnetic) state is 8 (0) μB and the HOMO-LUMO gap of antiferromagnetic state is slightly larger than that of ferromagnetic state. The magnetic coupling between the Cr atoms in bidoped configurations is mainly governed by the competition between direct Cr and Cr atoms antiferromagnetic interaction and the ferromagnetic interaction between two Cr atoms via O atom due to strong p-d hybridization. Most importantly, we show that the exohedral bidoped (ZnO)12 clusters favor the ferromagnetic state, which may have the future applications in spin-dependent magneto-optical and magneto-electrical devices.

  16. Structure and optical properties of ZnO produced from microwave hydrothermal hydrolysis of tris(ethylenediamine)zinc nitrate complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Heiba, Zein K.; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.

    2015-01-01

    ZnO powders were synthesized using a solution microwave hydrothermal hydrolysis process and tris(ethylenediamine)zinc nitrate {[Zn(en)3](NO3)2} (en = ethylenediamine) as a precursor. Hydrolysis of the precursor complex at different pH produced zinc oxide with a diversity of well-defined morphologies. The effect of hydrolysis pH values on the structural and optical properties has been explored using XRD, SEM, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). At pH = 7.0, randomly dispersed rods were formed. Whereas flower-like morphologies were obtained by treating the complex precursor in water at pH = 10.0 and 12.0. The ZnO4 tetrahedrons are greatly affected by the pH value. The band gap decreased sharply with increasing the pH value from 7.0 to 10.0, then slightly decreased with further increasing the pH to 12.0. The relationship between band gap and both structure and surface defects of the samples is also discussed.

  17. Structural and optical properties of DC magnetron sputtered ZnO films on glass substrate and their modification by Ag ions implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.; Afzal, Naveed; Amjad, U.; Jabbar, S.; Hussain, T.; Hussnain, A.

    2017-07-01

    This work is focused on investigating the effects of deposition time and Ag ions implantation on structural and optical properties of ZnO film. The ZnO film was prepared on glass substrate by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of pure Zn target in reactive oxygen environment for 2 h, 3 h, 4 h and 5 h respectively. X-ray diffraction results revealed polycrystalline ZnO film whose crystallinity was improved with increase of the deposition time. The morphological features indicated agglomeration of smaller grains into larger ones by increasing the deposition time. The UV-vis spectroscopy analysis depicted a small decrease in the band gap of ZnO from 3.36 eV to 3.27 eV with increase of deposition time. The Ag ions implantation in ZnO films deposited for 5 h on glass was carried out by using Pelletron Accelerator at different ions fluences ranging from 1  ×  1011 ions cm-2 to 2  ×  1012 ions cm-2. XRD patterns of Ag ions implanted ZnO did not show significant change in crystallite size by increasing ions fluence from 1  ×  1011 ions cm-2 to 5  ×  1011 ions cm-2. However, with further increase of the ions fluence, the crystallite size was decreased. The band gap of Ag ions implanted ZnO indicated anomalous variations with increase of the ions fluence.

  18. Effect of Ni doping on structural and optical properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowder synthesized via low cost sono-chemical method

    SciT

    Singh, Budhendra, E-mail: bksingh@ua.pt; Kaushal, Ajay, E-mail: ajay.kaushal@ua.pt; Bdikin, Igor

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Pure and Ni doped ZnO nanopowders were synthesized by low cost sonochemical method. • The optical properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowders can be tuned by varying Ni content. • The results reveal the solubility limit of Ni into ZnO matrix as below 8%. - Abstract: Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowders with different Ni contents of x = 0.0, 0.04 and 0.08 were synthesized via cost effective sonochemical reaction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals pure wurtzite phase of prepared nanostructures with no additional impurity peaks. The morphology and dimensions of nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM).more » A sharp and strong peak for first order optical mode for wurtzite zinc oxide (ZnO) structure was observed at ∼438 cm{sup −1} in Raman spectra. The calculated optical band gap (E{sub g}) from UV–vis transmission data was found to decrease with increase in Ni content. The observed red shift in E{sub g} with increasing Ni content in ZnO nanopowders were in agreement with band gap behaviours found in their photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The synthesised ZnO nanopowders with controlled band gap on Ni doping reveals their potential for use in various electronic and optical device applications. The results were discussed in detail.« less

  19. Oriented Attachment Is a Major Control Mechanism To Form Nail-like Mn-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Samuel; Arora, Priyanka; Price, Paige; Dittmar, Jasper W; Das, Vijay Kumar; Pink, Maren; Stein, Barry; Morgan, David Gene; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Koczkur, Kallum M; Skrabalak, Sara E; Bronstein, Lyudmila M

    2017-12-26

    Here, we present a controlled synthesis of Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with predominantly nail-like shapes, whose formation occurs via tip-to-base-oriented attachment of initially formed nanopyramids, followed by leveling of sharp edges that lead to smooth single-crystalline "nails". This shape is prevalent in noncoordinating solvents such as octadecene and octadecane. Yet, the double bond in the former promotes oriented attachment. By contrast, Mn-doped ZnO NP synthesis in a weakly coordinating solvent, benzyl ether, results in dendritic structures because of random attachment of initial NPs. Mn-doped ZnO NPs possess a hexagonal wurtzite structure, and in the majority of cases, the NP surface is enriched with Mn, indicating a migration of Mn 2+ ions to the NP surface during the NP formation. When the NP formation is carried out without the addition of octadecyl alcohol, which serves as a surfactant and a reaction initiator, large, concave pyramid dimers are formed whose attachment takes place via basal planes. UV-vis and photoluminescence spectra of these NPs confirm the utility of controlling the NP shape to tune electro-optical properties.

  20. Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by auto-combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Khizar-ul; Irfan, M.; Masood, Muhammad; Saleem, Murtaza; Iqbal, Tahir; Ahmad, Ishaq; Khan, M. A.; Zaffar, M.; Irfan, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Zn1‑x Cr x O (x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.09) nanoparticles were synthesized, by an auto-combustion method. Structural, optical, and magnetic characteristics of Cr-doped ZnO samples calcined at 600 °C have been analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), UV–Vis spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD data confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of pure and Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The calculated values of grain size using Scherrer's formula are in the range of 30.7–9.2 nm. The morphology of nanopowders has been observed by FESEM, and EDS results confirmed a systematic increase of Cr content in the samples and clearly indicate with no impurity element. The band gaps, computed by UV–Vis spectroscopy, are in the range of 2.83–2.35 eV for different doping concentrations. By analyzing VSM data, significantly enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism is identified in Cr-doped ZnO samples. The value of magnetization is a 12 times increased of the value reported by Daunet al. (2010). Room temperature ferromagnetism of the nanoparticles is of vital prominence for spintronics applications. Project supported by the Office of Research, Innovation, and Commercialization (ORIC), MUST Mirpur (AJK).

  1. Pre and post annealed low cost ZnO nanorods on seeded substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, M. N.; Kamil, Wan Maryam Wan Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    We wish to report the photonic band gap (where light is confined) in low cost ZnO nanorods created by two-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method where the glass substrates were pre-treated with two different seeding thicknesses, 100 nm (sample a) and 150 nm (sample b), of ZnO using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Then the samples were annealed at 600°C for 1 hour in air before and after immersed into the chemical solution for CBD process. To observe the presence of photonic band gap on the sample, UV-Visible-NIR spectrophotometer was utilized and showed that sample a and sample b both achieved wide band gap between 240 nm and 380 nm, within the UV range for typical ZnO, however sample b provided a better light confinement that may be attributed by the difference in average nanorods size. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) of the samples revealed better oriented nanorods uniformly scattered across the surface when substrates were coated with 100 nm of seeding layer whilst the 150 nm seeding sample showed a poor distribution of nanorods probably due to defects in the sample. Finally, the crystal structure of the ZnO crystallite is revealed by employing X-ray diffraction and both samples showed polycrystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure that matched with JCPDS No. 36-1451. The 100 nm pre-seeded samples was recognized to have bigger average crystallite size, however sample b was suggested as having a higher crystalline quality. In conclusion, the sample b is recognized as a better candidate for future photonic applications due to its more apparent of photonic band gap and this may be contributed by more random distribution of the nanorods as observed in FESEM images as well as higher crystalline quality as suggested from XRD measurements.

  2. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Ni-DOPED ZnO Thin Films: Experimental and AB INITIO Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouchdi, M.; Salmani, E.; Hat, A. El; Hassanain, N.; Mzerd, A.

    Structural and magnetic properties of Zn1-xNixO thin films and diluted magnetic semiconductors have been investigated. This sample has been synthesized using a spray pyrolysis technique with a stoechiometric mixture of zinc acetate (C4H6O4Znṡ2H2O) and Nickel acetate (C4H6O4Niṡ 2H2O) on a heated glass substrate at 450∘C. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometry and Hall Effect measurements. These films of ZnO crystallized in the hexagonal Wurtzite structure. The optical study showed that the band-gap energy was increased, from 3.3eV to 3.5eV, with increasing the Ni concentration. The film resistivity was affected by Ni-doping, and the best resistivity value 1.15×10-2 (Ω cm) was obtained for the film doped with 2 at.% Ni. The electronic structure and optical properties of the Wurtzite structure Zn1-xNixO were obtained by first-principles calculations using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), as well as CPA confirm our results.

  3. Electrochemical growth of controlled tip shapes of ZnO nanorod arrays on silicon substrate and enhanced photoluminescence emission from nanopyramid arrays compared with flat-head nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimanesh, Mahmoud; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, Norzaini

    2017-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays (NRAs) with different morphologies such as; perfect hexagon flat-head, pyramidal, compact pencil, nail-shaped, and high-compact ZnO nanorod thin films, were successfully grown on silicon substrates. These NRAs were formed on substrates using a simple low-temperature electrochemical method without adding any catalyst or template via the precursors of zinc nitrate hexahydrate [Zn(NO3)2·6H2O] and hexamethylenetetramine [HMT; C6H12N4] with an equal molar concentration of 0.025 mol/l. The morphologies of the ZnO nanorods (NRs) could be controlled and transformed successfully in to other morphologies by changing the growth conditions, such as; growth temperature and applied current density. Detailed structural investigations reveal that the synthesized various NRs are single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase and preferentially grow along the c-axis direction. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra show that each spectrum consists of an ultraviolet (UV) band and a relative broad visible light emission and infrared emission peak. The enhanced light emission intensity at UV peak (∼375 nm) is observed significantly from ZnO nanopyramid (NP) arrays because of the conical shape of NP. The photoluminescence intensity of the UV peak from the NPs is found to be 1.5-17 times larger than those from the other various NRs.

  4. Citrus maxima (Pomelo) juice mediated eco-friendly synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles: Applications to photocatalytic, electrochemical sensor and antibacterial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavithra, N. S.; Lingaraju, K.; Raghu, G. K.; Nagaraju, G.

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Nps) have been successfully prepared through a simple, effective and low cost solution combustion method using Zn (NO3)2·6H2O as an oxidizer, chakkota (Common name = Pomelo) fruit juice as novel fuel. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the hexagonal wurtzite structure with average crystallite size of 22 nm. ZnO Nps were characterized with the aid of different spectroscopic techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Photoluminescence and UV-Visible spectroscopy. FTIR shows characteristic ZnO vibrational mode at 393 cm- 1. SEM images show that the particles are agglomerated. TEM image shows the size of the particles are about 10-20 nm. Further, in order to establish practical applicability of the synthesized ZnO Nps, photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye as a model system was studied in presence of UV (665 nm) light. In addition to this, the antibacterial activity was screen against 3 bacterial strains and electrochemical sensor performance towards the quantification of dopamine at nano molar concentrations was also explored.

  5. Pressure dependence of the refractive index in wurtzite and rocksalt indium nitride

    SciT

    Oliva, R.; MALTA-Consolider Team, Departament de Física Aplicada, ICMUV, Universitat de València, c/Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, València; Segura, A.

    2014-12-08

    We have performed high-pressure Fourier transform infrared reflectance measurements on a freestanding InN thin film to determine the refractive index of wurtzite InN and its high-pressure rocksalt phase as a function of hydrostatic pressure. From a fit to the experimental refractive-index curves including the effect of the high-energy optical gaps, phonons, free carriers, and the direct (fundamental) band-gap in the case of wurtzite InN, we obtain pressure coefficients for the low-frequency (electronic) dielectric constant ε{sub ∞}. Negative pressure coefficients of −8.8 × 10{sup −2 }GPa{sup −1} and −14.8 × 10{sup −2 }GPa{sup −1} are obtained for the wurtzite and rocksalt phases, respectively. The results are discussedmore » in terms of the electronic band structure and the compressibility of both phases.« less

  6. Ensemble modeling of very small ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Niederdraenk, Franziska; Seufert, Knud; Stahl, Andreas; Bhalerao-Panajkar, Rohini S; Marathe, Sonali; Kulkarni, Sulabha K; Neder, Reinhard B; Kumpf, Christian

    2011-01-14

    The detailed structural characterization of nanoparticles is a very important issue since it enables a precise understanding of their electronic, optical and magnetic properties. Here we introduce a new method for modeling the structure of very small particles by means of powder X-ray diffraction. Using thioglycerol-capped ZnO nanoparticles with a diameter of less than 3 nm as an example we demonstrate that our ensemble modeling method is superior to standard XRD methods like, e.g., Rietveld refinement. Besides fundamental properties (size, anisotropic shape and atomic structure) more sophisticated properties like imperfections in the lattice, a size distribution as well as strain and relaxation effects in the particles and-in particular-at their surface (surface relaxation effects) can be obtained. Ensemble properties, i.e., distributions of the particle size and other properties, can also be investigated which makes this method superior to imaging techniques like (high resolution) transmission electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy, in particular for very small nanoparticles. For the particles under study an excellent agreement of calculated and experimental X-ray diffraction patterns could be obtained with an ensemble of anisotropic polyhedral particles of three dominant sizes, wurtzite structure and a significant relaxation of Zn atoms close to the surface.

  7. Characteristics of one-port surface acoustic wave resonator fabricated on ZnO/6H-SiC layered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Qian, Lirong; Fu, Sulei; Song, Cheng; Zeng, Fei; Pan, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Characteristics of one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators fabricated on ZnO/6H-SiC layered structure were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Phase velocities (V p), electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2), quality factors (Q), and temperature coefficients of frequency (TCF) of Rayleigh wave (0th mode) and first- and second-order Sezawa wave (1st and 2nd modes, respectively) for different piezoelectric film thickness-to-wavelength (h ZnO /λ) ratios were systematically studied. Results demonstrated that one-port SAW resonators fabricated on the ZnO/6H-SiC layered structure were promising for high-frequency SAW applications with moderate K 2 and TCF values. A high K 2 of 2.44% associated with a V p of 5182 m s‑1 and a TCF of  ‑41.8 ppm/°C was achieved at h ZnO /λ  =  0.41 in the 1st mode, while a large V p of 7210 m s‑1 with a K 2 of 0.19% and a TCF of  ‑36.4 ppm/°C was obtained for h ZnO /λ  =  0.31 in the 2nd mode. Besides, most of the parameters were reported for the first time and will be helpful for the future design and optimization of SAW devices fabricated on ZnO/6H-SiC layered structures.

  8. Effect of thermal annealing on the structure and magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by solid state reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Z. Q.; Wang, D. D.; Gong, J.; Cao, C. Y.; Tang, Z.; Huang, L. R.

    2010-11-01

    High purity Fe 2O 3/ZnO nanocomposites were annealed in air at different temperatures between 100 and 1200 °C to get Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The structure and grain size of the Fe 2O 3/ZnO nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction 2θ scans. Annealing induces an increase of the grain size from 25 to 195 nm and appearance of franklinite phase of ZnFe 2O 4. Positron annihilation measurements reveal large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of the Fe 2O 3/ZnO nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature. After annealing at temperatures higher than 1000 °C, the number of vacancies decreases to the lower detection limit of positrons. Room temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals using physical properties measurement system. The ferromagnetism remains after annealing up to 1000 °C, suggesting that it is not related with the interfacial defects.

  9. Effect of annealing on the structural and optical properties of heavily carbon-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Deng, Z. W.; Li, D. C.; Barbir, E.; Y Jiang, W.; Chen, M. X.; Kavanagh, K. L.; Mooney, P. M.; Watkins, S. P.

    2010-04-01

    ZnO films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) at low temperatures (~500 °C) exhibit very high levels of carbon incorporation in the range of up to several percent. Such large levels of carbon incorporation significantly affect the structural properties of the thin films resulting in broadening of symmetric (0 0 2) rocking curves as well as broadened (1 0 1) pole figures compared with films grown at high temperature. Annealing of the films under air ambient at temperatures between 800 and 1100 °C results in dramatic sharpening of symmetric (0 0 2) rocking curves, indicating improved crystal alignment along the c-axes. (1 0 1) pole figure scans also show significant sharpening in the azimuthal axis, indicating similar improvements in the in-plane crystal alignment perpendicular to the c-axis. Raman spectra for as-grown ZnO at 500 °C show strong D and G peaks at 1381 and 1578 cm-1 due to sp2 carbon clusters. Annealing at 1000 °C results in the elimination of these bands, indicating that post-growth annealing treatment is a useful method to reduce the concentration of sp2 carbon clusters.

  10. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties of Sol-Gel-Derived ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Mohd.; Sanger, Amit; Vilarinho, Paula M.; Singh, Arun

    2018-04-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate via sol-gel dip-coating technique then annealed at 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C for 1 h. Their optical, structural, and morphological properties were studied using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD diffraction revealed that the crystalline nature of the thin films increased with increasing annealing temperature. The c-axis orientation improved, and the grain size increased, as indicated by increased intensity of the (002) plane peak at 2θ = 34.42° corresponding to hexagonal ZnO crystal. The average crystallite size of the thin films ranged from 13 nm to 23 nm. Increasing the annealing temperature resulted in larger crystallite size and higher crystallinity with increased surface roughness. The grain size according to SEM analysis was in good agreement with the x-ray diffraction data. The optical bandgap of the thin films narrowed with increasing annealing temperature, lying in the range of 3.14 eV to 3.02 eV. The transmission of the thin films was as high as 94% within the visible region. The thickness of the thin films was 400 nm, as measured by ellipsometry, after annealing at the different temperatures of 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C.

  11. Thermal conductivity of wurtzite and zinc blende cubic phases of BeO from ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakkal, Linu; Szpunar, Barbara; Siripurapu, Ravi Kiran; Zuniga, Juan Carlos; Szpunar, Jerzy A.

    2017-03-01

    The structural, mechanical, thermal and thermodynamic properties of Beryllium oxide (BeO) in the zinc blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) form have been calculated using the density functional theory (DFT) in the general gradient approximation (GGA). The ground state structural and elastic properties of wurtzite BeO (w-BeO) is calculated using the new GGA ultrasoft pseudopotentials for solids (pbesol); the simulated results have shown excellent agreement with the experiments. The thermodynamic properties are studied using quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA), and the predicted properties agree well for the WZ phase for which the experimental data are available, while for ZB phase it remains to be validated with future experiments. Both Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) and Slack model were used to calculate the lattice thermal conductivity of wurtzite BeO (w-BeO). Furthermore, the thermal conductivity along the crystallographic 'a' and 'c' axis of wurtzite BeO is investigated using BTE. Our calculation of w-BeO agrees well with the available experimental measurements. Apart from these studies on w-BeO, we have also compared the mechanical, structural and phonon dispersions of z-BeO with previously reported theoretical studies. Additionally we report the volume thermal expansion and the heat capacity at constant pressure of z-BeO for the first time and the bulk thermal conductivity of zinc blende BeO (z-BeO) using BTE.

  12. In Situ X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy of ZnO Nanowire Growth During Chemical Bath Deposition

    SciT

    McPeak, Kevin M.; Becker, Matthew A.; Britton, Nathan G.

    2010-12-03

    Chemical bath deposition (CBD) offers a simple and inexpensive route to deposit semiconductor nanostructures, but lack of fundamental understanding and control of the underlying chemistry has limited its versatility. Here we report the first use of in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy during CBD, enabling detailed investigation of both reaction mechanisms and kinetics of ZnO nanowire growth from zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) precursors. Time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra were used to quantify Zn(II) speciation in both solution and solid phases. ZnO crystallizes directly from [Zn(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} without long-lived intermediates. Using ZnO nanowire deposition as an example,more » this study establishes in situ XANES spectroscopy as an excellent quantitative tool to understand CBD of nanomaterials.« less

  13. Hierarchical laser-induced periodic surface structures induced by femtosecond laser on the surface of a ZnO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaojun; Jiang, Lan; Han, Weina; Hu, Jie; Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Qingsong; Lu, Yongfeng

    2018-05-01

    We realize hierarchical laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) on the surface of a ZnO thin film in a single step by the irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses. The structures are characterized by the high-spatial-frequency LIPSSs (HSFLs) formed on the abnormal bumped low-spatial-frequency LIPSSs (LSFLs). Localized electric-field enhancement based on the initially formed LSFLs is proposed as a potential mechanism for the formation of HSFLs. The simulation results through the finite-difference time-domain method show good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the crucial role of the LSFLs in the formation of HSFLs is validated by an elaborate experimental design with preprocessed HSFLs.

  14. Acceptor-modulated optical enhancements and band-gap narrowing in ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ali; Jin, Yuhua; Irfan, Muhammad; Jiang, Yijian

    2018-03-01

    Fermi-Dirac distribution for doped semiconductors and Burstein-Moss effect have been correlated first time to figure out the conductivity type of ZnO. Hall Effect in the Van der Pauw configuration has been applied to reconcile our theoretical estimations which evince our assumption. Band-gap narrowing has been found in all p-type samples, whereas blue Burstein-Moss shift has been recorded in the n-type films. Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) analysis shows that both p-type and n-type films have almost same granular-like structure with minor change in average grain size (˜ 6 nm to 10 nm) and surface roughness rms value 3 nm for thickness ˜315 nm which points that grain size and surface roughness did not play any significant role in order to modulate the conductivity type of ZnO. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been employed to perform the structural, chemical and elemental analysis. Hexagonal wurtzite structure has been observed in all samples. The introduction of nitrogen reduces the crystallinity of host lattice. 97% transmittance in the visible range with 1.4 × 107 Ω-1cm-1 optical conductivity have been detected. High absorption value in the ultra-violet (UV) region reveals that NZOs thin films can be used to fabricate next-generation high-performance UV detectors.

  15. Zinc interstitial threshold in Al-doped ZnO film: Effect on microstructure and optoelectronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chetan C.; Panda, Emila

    2018-04-01

    In order to know the threshold quantity of the zinc interstitials that contributes to an increase in carrier concentration in the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films and their effect on the overall microstructure and optoelectronic properties of these films, in this work, Zn-rich-AZO and ZnO thin films are fabricated by adding excess zinc (from a zinc metallic target) during their deposition in RF magnetron sputtering and are then investigated using a wide range of experimental techniques. All these films are found to grow in a ZnO hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with strong (002) orientation of the crystallites, with no indication of Al2O3, metallic Zn, and Al. The excessively introduced zinc in these AZO and/or ZnO films is found to increase the shallow donor level defects (i.e., zinc interstitials and oxygen-related electronic defect states), which is found to significantly increase the carrier concentration in these films. Additionally, aluminum is seen to enhance the creation of these electronic defect states in these films, thereby contributing more to the overall carrier concentration of these films. However, carrier mobility is found to decrease when the carrier concentration values are higher than 4 × 1020 cm-3, because of the electron-electron scattering. Whereas the optical band gap of the ZnO films is found to increase with increasing carrier concentration because of the Burstein-Moss shift, these decrease for the AZO films due to the band gap narrowing effect caused by excess carrier concentration.

  16. Preparation, characterization of Sb-doped ZnO nanocrystals and their excellent solar light driven photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasser, Ramzi; Othmen, Walid Ben Haj; Elhouichet, Habib; Férid, Mokhtar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, undoped and antimony (Sb) doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared by a simple and economical sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the purity of the obtained phase and its high crystallinity. Raman analysis confirms the hexagonal Wurtzite ZnO structure. According to the diffuse reflectance results, the band gap was found to decrease up to 3% of Sb doping (ZSb3 sample). The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal that Sb ions occupied both Zn and interstitials sites. The successful substitution of antimony in ZnO lattice suggests the formation of the complex (SbZn-2 VZn) acceptor level above the valence band. Particularly for ZSb3 sample, the UV photoluminescence (PL) band presents an obvious red-shift attributed to the formation of this complex. Rhodamine B (RhB) was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of Sb-doped ZnO NCs under sunlight irradiation. It was found that oxygen vacancies play a major role in the photocatalytic process by trapping the excited electrons and inhibiting the radiative recombination. During the photocatalytic mechanism, the Sb doping, expressed through the apparition of the (SbZn-2 VZn) correspondent acceptor level, enhances the sunlight absorption within the ZnO band gap, which stimulates the generation of hydroxyl radicals and promotes the photocatalytics reaction rates. Such important contribution of the hydroxyl radicals was confirmed experimentally when using ethanol as scavenger in the photocatalytic reaction. The photodegradation experiments reveal that ZSb3 sample exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity among all the prepared samples and presents a good cycling stability and reusability. The influence of the initial pH in the photodegradation efficiency was also monitored and discussed.

  17. ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kun; Xie, Yiyang; Ma, Huali; Du, Yinxiao; Zeng, Fanguang; Ding, Pei; Gao, Zhiyuan; Xu, Chen; Sun, Jie

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, by virtue of one-dimensional ZnO nanorods and two-dimensional graphene film hybrid structures, both the enhanced current spreading and enhanced light extraction were realized at the same time. A 1 nm/1 nm Ni/Au layer was used as an interlayer between graphene and pGaN to form ohmic contact, which makes the device have a good forward conduction properties. Through the comparison of the two groups of making ZnO nanorods or not, it was found that the 30% light extraction efficiency of the device was improved by using the ZnO nanorods. By analysis key parameters of two groups such as the turn-on voltage, work voltage and reverse leakage current, it was proved that the method for preparing surface nano structure by hydrothermal method self-organization growth ZnO nanorods applied in GaN LEDs has no influence to device's electrical properties. The hybrid structure application in GaN LED, make an achievement of a good ohmic contact, no use of ITO and enhancement of light extraction at the same time, meanwhile it does not change the device structure, introduce additional process, worsen the electrical properties.

  18. Process for producing wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J.B.; Kingman, D.D.; Bianchini, G.M.

    1992-04-28

    Disclosed is a process for producing wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride comprising the steps of: [A] preparing an intimate mixture of powdered boron oxide, a powdered metal selected from the group consisting of magnesium or aluminum, and a powdered metal azide; [B] igniting the mixture and bringing it to a temperature at which self-sustaining combustion occurs; [C] shocking the mixture at the end of the combustion thereof with a high pressure wave, thereby forming as a reaction product, wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride and occluded metal oxide; and, optionally [D] removing the occluded metal oxide from the reaction product. Also disclosed are reaction products made by the process described.

  19. Process for producing wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J. Birch; Kingman, deceased, Donald D.; Bianchini, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for producing wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride comprising the steps of: [A] preparing an intimate mixture of powdered boron oxide, a powdered metal selected from the group consisting of magnesium or aluminum, and a powdered metal azide; [B] igniting the mixture and bringing it to a temperature at which self-sustaining combustion occurs; [C] shocking the mixture at the end of the combustion thereof with a high pressure wave, thereby forming as a reaction product, wurtzitic or cubic boron nitride and occluded metal oxide; and, optionally [D] removing the occluded metal oxide from the reaction product. Also disclosed are reaction products made by the process described.

  20. Improvement of antimony sulfide photo absorber performance by interface modification in Sb2S3-ZnO hybrid nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Asad; Hasanain, Syed Khurshid; Ali, Tahir; Sultan, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    Metal-oxide chalcogenide nanostructures as part of hybrid systems are very important for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. It is however known that the various interfaces within the hybrid structures play a crucial role in limiting the efficiency of these devices. Here we report on the improvement of Sb2S3 structure through modification of interface between Zn-oxide nanostructures and chalcogenides. ZnO nanorods were grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM analysis confirmed the single phase wurtzite structure and c-axis orientation of the ZnO nanorod arrays. Antimony tri-sulfide (Sb2S3) was deposited on ZnO nanords by CBD and subsequently annealed at 300 °C in argon environment for 30 min. XRD and the XPS analysis of ZnO-Sb2S3 system showed the dominant presence of Sb2O3 rather than Sb2S3. Since oxidation of Sb2S3 is understood to proceed mainly from the ZnO-Sb2S3 interface, a ZnS interlayer was introduced between ZnO nanorods and Sb2S3 by chemical route. The subsequent structural and optical properties of the ZnO-ZnS-Sb2S3 system are analyzed in detail. The introduction of sulfide interlayer prevents the oxidation of Sb2S3 which is evident from reduced oxide phase in Sb2S3. Significant improvement in the structural and optical properties of Sb2S3 are reported as compared to the parent ZnO-Sb2S3 system. This gain in the optical properties of hybrid ZnO-ZnS-Sb2S3 nanostructures is explained as being related to successful prevention of Sb2O3 formation at the Sb-ZnO interface and stabilization of the desired Sb2S3.

  1. Effect of Mg doping in the gas-sensing performance of RF-sputtered ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoth, E.; Gowrishankar, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2018-06-01

    Thin films of Mg-free and Mg-doped (3, 10 and 20 mol%) ZnO thin films have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering for gas-sensing application. Preferential orientation along (002) plane with hexagonal wurtzite structure has been observed in X-ray diffraction analysis. The conductivity, resistivity, and mobility of the deposited films have been measured by Hall effect measurement. The bandgap of the films has been calculated from the UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. It has been found that the bandgap was increased from 3.35 to 3.91 eV with Mg content in ZnO due to the radiative recombination of excitons. The change in morphology of the grown films has been investigated by scanning electron microscope. Gas-sensing measurements have been conducted for fabricated films. The sensor response, selectivity, and stability measurement were done for the fabricated films. Though better response was found towards ethanol, methanol, and ammonia for MZ2 (Mg at 10 mol%) film and maximum gas response was observed towards ammonia. The selectivity measurement reveals maximum sensitivity about 42% for ammonia. The low response time of 123 s and recovery time of 152 s towards ammonia were observed for MZ2 (Mg at 10 mol%). Stability of the Mg-doped ZnO thin film confirmed by the continuous sensing measurements for 4 months.

  2. Effect of capping agents: Structural, optical and biological properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, Rabia; Usman, Muhammad; Tabassum, Saira; Zia, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Different biological activities of capped and uncapped ZnO nanoparticles were investigated, and the effects of potential capping agents on these biological activities were studied. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and capped by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) using a simple chemical method of co-precipitation. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-vis spectroscopy confirmed the crystallinity, size, functional group, and band gap of synthesized nanoparticles. Reduction in size occurred from 34 nm to 26 nm due to surfactant. Results of all biological activities indicated significantly higher values in capped as compared to uncapped nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Escherichia coli (ATCC15224), and Acetobacter was obtained. This activity was more prominent against Gram-positive bacteria, and ZnO-PVP nanoparticles elucidated highest antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition 17 mm) against Gram-positive, Bacillus subtilis species. Antioxidant activities including total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power and %age inhibition of DPPH, and antidiabetic activity against α-amylase enzyme found to be exhibited highest by ZnO-PEG nanoparticles.

  3. Comparative study of textured and epitaxial ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Y. R.; Zhu, S.; Wrobel, J. M.; Jeong, H. M.; Miceli, P. F.; White, H. W.

    2000-06-01

    ZnO films were synthesized by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on GaAs and α-Al 2O 3 substrates. The properties of ZnO films on GaAs and α-Al 2O 3 have been investigated to determine the differences between epitaxial and textured ZnO films. ZnO films on GaAs show very strong emission features associated with exciton transitions as do ZnO films on α-Al 2O 3, while the crystalline structural qualities for ZnO films on α-Al 2O 3 are much better than those for ZnO films on GaAs. The properties of ZnO films are studied by comparing highly oriented, textured ZnO films on GaAs with epitaxial ZnO films on α-Al 2O 3 synthesized along the c-axis.

  4. Facile synthesis of core-shell Cu2O@ ZnO structure with enhanced photocatalytic H2 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Hui; Jiu, Bei-Bei; Gong, Fei-Long; Lu, Kuan; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Hao-Li; Chen, Jun-Li

    2018-05-01

    Core-shell Cu2O@ZnO composites were synthesized successfully based on a one-pot hydrothermal method in the presence of dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT) surfactant. The Cu2O can be converted to rough core-shell Cu2O@ZnO structure by adjusting the amount of zinc powder added. The as-synthesized Cu2O@ZnO composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and the amount of H2 generated using these composites was 4.5-fold more than that produced with Cu2O cubes. A possible photocatalytic mechanism for the Cu2O@ZnO composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity could be the separation by ZnO of the effective charge carriers.

  5. Influence of solution viscosity on hydrothermally grown ZnO thin films for DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.; Thangamuthu, R.; Surya, S.

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays (NWAs) were grown onto zinc oxide-titanium dioxide (ZnO-TiO2) seeded fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive substrate by hydrothermal technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns depict that ZnO thin films are preferentially oriented along the (002) plane with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Viscosity measurements reveal that viscosity of the solutions linearly increases as the concentrations of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) increase in the growth solution. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images show that the NWAs are vertically grown to seeded FTO substrate with hexagonal structure, and the growth of NWAs decreases as the concentration of the PVA increases. Stylus profilometer and atomic force microscopic (AFM) studies predict that the thickness and roughness of the films decrease with increasing the PVA concentrations. The NWAs prepared at 0.1% of PVA exhibits a lower transmittance and higher absorbance than that of the other films. The band gap of the optimized films prepared at 0.0 and 0.1% of PVA is found to be 3.270 and 3.268 eV, respectively. The photo to current conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on photoanodes prepared at 0.0 and 0.1% of PVA exhibits about 0.64 and 0.82%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra reveal that the DSSC based on photoanode prepared at 0.1% of PVA has the highest charge transfer recombination resistance.

  6. Growth and properties of electrodeposited transparent Al-doped ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baka, O.; Mentar, L.; Khelladi, M. R.; Azizi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanostructures were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO)- coated glass substrates by using electrodeposition. The effects of the doping concentration of Al on the morphological, microstructural, electrical and optical properties of the nanostructures were investigated. From the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observation, when the amount of Al was increased in the solution, the grains size was observed to decreases. The observed changes in the morphology indicate that Al acts as nucleation centers in the vacancy sites of ZnO and destroys the crystalline structure at high doping level. Effectively, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the undoped and the doped ZnO nanostructures has a polycrystalline nature and a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a (002) preferential orientation. The photoluminescence (PL) room-temperature measurements showed that the incorporation of Al in the Zn lattice can improve the intensity of ultraviolet (UV) emission, thus suggesting its greater prospects for use in UV optoelectronic devices.

  7. Synthesis of Zn1-xCdxO Nanoparticles by Co-Precipitation: Structural, Optical and Photodetection Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Anju Anna; Balakrishnan, L.; Meher, S. R.; Shambavi, K.; Alex, Z. C.

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with excellent photoresponse in ultra-violet (UV) regime. Tuning the bandgap of ZnO by alloying with cadmium can shift its absorption cutoff wavelength from UV to visible (Vis) region. Our work aims at synthesis of Zn1-xCdxO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method for the fabrication of photodetector. The properties of nanoparticles were analyzed using X-ray diffractometer, UV-Vis spectrometer, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. The incorporation of cadmium without altering the wurtzite structure resulted in the red shift in the absorption edge of ZnO. Further, the photoresponse characteristics of Zn1-xCdxO nanopowders were investigated by fabricating photodetectors. It has been found that with Cd alloying the photosensitivity was increased in the UVA-violet as well in the blue region.

  8. Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles Doped with Co, Ni and Mn and Synthesized at Low Temperature.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Jared M; Rankin, William M; Hammad, Talaat M; Salem, Jamil S; Chesnel, Karine; Harrison, Roger G

    2015-05-01

    Zinc oxide nanomaterials were synthesized with small amounts of magnetic ions to create dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), by using a low temperature sol-gel method. Conditions were controlled such that a range of amounts of Co, Ni and Mn were incorporated. The incorporation could be tracked by color changes in the powders to blue for Co, green for Ni and yellow for Mn. XRD measurements showed the ZnO has the wurtzite structure with crystallites 8-12 nm in diameter. Nanoparticles were observed by SEM and TEM and TEM showed that the lattice fringes of different nanoparticles align. Nanoparticle alignment was disrupted when high concentrations of metal dopants were incorporated. Magnetic measurements showed a change in behavior from diamagnetic to paramagnetic with increasing concentration of metal dopants.

  9. Development of nanostructured ZnO thin film via electrohydrodynamic atomization technique and its photoconductivity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Duraisamy, Navaneethan; Kwon, Ki Rin; Jo, Jeongdai; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2014-08-01

    This article presents the non-vacuum technique for the preparation of nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film on glass substrate through electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique. The detailed process parameters for achieving homogeneous ZnO thin films are clearly discussed. The crystallinity and surface morphology of ZnO thin film are investigated by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The result shows that the deposited ZnO thin film is oriented in the wurtzite phase with void free surface morphology. The surface roughness of deposited ZnO thin film is found to be ~17.8 nm. The optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films show the average transmittance is about 90% in the visible region and the energy band gap is found to be 3.17 eV. The surface chemistry and purity of deposited ZnO thin films are analyzed by fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, conforming the presence of Zn-O in the deposited thin films without any organic moiety. The photocurrent measurement of nanostructured ZnO thin film is examined in the presence of UV light illumination with wavelength of 365 nm. These results suggest that the deposited nanostructured ZnO thin film through EHDA technique possess promising applications in the near future.

  10. Structure evolution of zinc oxide thin films deposited by unbalance DC magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Aryanto, Didik, E-mail: didi027@lipi.go.id; Materials Research Group, Physics Department, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah; Marwoto, Putut

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are deposited on corning glass substrates using unbalanced DC magnetron sputtering. The effect of growth temperature on surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film is studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film are transformed against the increasing of growth temperature. The mean grain size of film and the surface roughness are inversely and directly proportional towards the growth temperature from room temperature to 300 °C, respectively. The smaller grain size and finer roughness of ZnO thin film are obtainedmore » at growth temperature of 400 °C. The result of AFM analysis is in good agreement with the result of XRD analysis. ZnO thin films deposited in a series of growth temperatures have hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structures and they exhibit transformations in the crystallographic orientation. The results in this study reveal that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film.« less

  11. Growth Method-Dependent and Defect Density-Oriented Structural, Optical, Conductive, and Physical Properties of Solution-Grown ZnO Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Lee, Ji Young; Shahid, Areej; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2017-09-10

    It is time for industry to pay a serious heed to the application and quality-dependent research on the most important solution growth methods for ZnO, namely, aqueous chemical growth (ACG) and microwave-assisted growth (MAG) methods. This study proffers a critical analysis on how the defect density and formation behavior of ZnO nanostructures (ZNSs) are growth method-dependent. Both antithetical and facile methods are exploited to control the ZnO defect density and the growth mechanism. In this context, the growth of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs), nanoflowers, and nanotubes (ZNTs) are considered. The aforementioned growth methods directly stimulate the nanostructure crystal growth and, depending upon the defect density, ZNSs show different trends in structural, optical, etching, and conductive properties. The defect density of MAG ZNRs is the least because of an ample amount of thermal energy catered by high-power microwaves to the atoms to grow on appropriate crystallographic planes, which is not the case in faulty convective ACG ZNSs. Defect-centric etching of ZNRs into ZNTs is also probed and methodological constraints are proposed. ZNS optical properties are different in the visible region, which are quite peculiar, but outstanding for ZNRs. Hall effect measurements illustrate incongruent conductive trends in both samples.

  12. Multiscale modeling of nanostructured ZnO based devices for optoelectronic applications: Dynamically-coupled structural fields, charge, and thermal transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Abdulmuin; Alqahtani, Saad; Nishat, Md Rezaul Karim; Ahmed, Shaikh; SIU Nanoelectronics Research Group Team

    Recently, hybrid ZnO nanostructures (such as ZnO deposited on ZnO-alloys, Si, GaN, polymer, conducting oxides, and organic compounds) have attracted much attention for their possible applications in optoelectronic devices (such as solar cells, light emitting and laser diodes), as well as in spintronics (such as spin-based memory, and logic). However, efficiency and performance of these hybrid ZnO devices strongly depend on an intricate interplay of complex, nonlinear, highly stochastic and dynamically-coupled structural fields, charge, and thermal transport processes at different length and time scales, which have not yet been fully assessed experimentally. In this work, we study the effects of these coupled processes on the electronic and optical emission properties in nanostructured ZnO devices. The multiscale computational framework employs the atomistic valence force-field molecular mechanics, models for linear and non-linear polarization, the 8-band sp3s* tight-binding models, and coupling to a TCAD toolkit to determine the terminal properties of the device. A series of numerical experiments are performed (by varying different nanoscale parameters such as size, geometry, crystal cut, composition, and electrostatics) that mainly aim to improve the efficiency of these devices. Supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation Grant No. 1102192.

  13. Growth mechanism and optical properties of aligned hexagonal ZnO nanoprisms synthesized by noncatalytic thermal evaporation.

    PubMed

    Umar, Ahmad; Karunagaran, B; Kim, S H; Suh, E-K; Hahn, Y B

    2008-05-19

    Vertically aligned perfectly hexagonal-shaped ZnO nanoprisms have been grown on a Si(100) substrate via a noncatalytic thermal evaporation process by using metallic zinc powder in the presence of oxygen gas. The as-grown nanoprisms consist of ultra smooth Zn-terminated (0001) facets bounded with the {0110} surfaces. The as-synthesized products are single-crystalline with the wurtzite hexagonal phase and grown along the [0001] direction, as confirmed from the detailed structural investigations. The presence of a sharp and strong nonpolar optical phonon high-E2 mode at 437 cm(-1) in the Raman scattering spectrum further confirms good crystallinity and wurtzite hexagonal phase for the as-grown products. The as-grown nanoprisms exhibit a strong near-band-edge emission with a very weak deep-level emission in the room-temperature and low-temperature photoluminescence measurements, confirming good optical properties for the deposited products. Moreover, systematic time-dependent experiments were also performed to determine the growth process of the grown vertically aligned nanoprisms.

  14. Mechanically controlling the reversible phase transformation from zinc blende to wurtzite in AlN

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Zhen; Yadav, Satyesh; Chen, Youxing; ...

    2017-04-10

    III–V and other binary octet semiconductors often take two phase forms—wurtzite (wz) and zinc blende (zb) crystal structures—with distinct functional performance at room temperature. Here, we investigate how to control the synthesized phase structure to either wz or zb phase by tuning the interfacial strain by taking AlN as a representative III–V compound. Furthermore, by applying in situ mechanical tests at atomic scale in a transmission electron microscope, we observed the reversible phase transformation from zb to wz, and characterized the transition path—the collective glide of Shockley partials on every two {111} planes of the zb AlN.

  15. Study of vibrational modes and specific heat of wurtzite phase of BN

    SciT

    Singh, Daljit, E-mail: daljit.jt@gmail.com; Sinha, M. M.

    2016-05-06

    In these days of nanotechnology the materials like BN is of utmost importance as in hexagonal phase it is among hardest materials. The phonon mode study of the materials is most important factor to find structural and thermodynamcal properties. To study the phonons de launey angular force (DAF) constant model is best suited as it involves many particle interactions. Therefore in this presentation we have studied the lattice dynamical properties and specific heat of BN in wurtzite phase using DAF model. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with existing results.

  16. Electron transport in zinc-blende wurtzite biphasic gallium nitride nanowires and GaNFETs

    DOE PAGES

    Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Ayres, Virginia M.; Stallcup, Richard E.; ...

    2007-10-19

    Two-point and four-point probe electrical measurements of a biphasic gallium nitride nanowire and current–voltage characteristics of a gallium nitride nanowire based field effect transistor are reported. The biphasic gallium nitride nanowires have a crystalline homostructure consisting of wurtzite and zinc-blende phases that grow simultaneously in the longitudinal direction. There is a sharp transition of one to a few atomic layers between each phase. Here, all measurements showed high current densities. Evidence of single-phase current transport in the biphasic nanowire structure is discussed.

  17. Synergistic effects of Mo and F doping on the quality factor of ZnO thin films prepared by a fully automated home-made nebulizer spray technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, K.; Dineshbabu, N.; Arun, T.; Manivasaham, A.; Sindhuja, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide films of undoped, Mo doped, Mo + F co-doped ZnO were deposited using a facile homemade nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. The effects of Mo and F doping on the structural, optical, electrical and surface morphological properties were investigated using XRD, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, I-V and Hall probe techniques, FESEM and AFM, and XPS, respectively. The XRD analysis confirms that all the films are well crystallized with hexagonal wurtzite structure. All the synthesized samples exhibit high transmittance (above 85%) in the visible region. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics show the ohmic conduction nature of the films. The Hall probe measurements show that the synergistic effects of Mo and F doping cause desirable improvements in the quality factor of the ZnO films. A minimum resistivity of 5.12 × 10-3 Ω cm with remarkably higher values of mobility and carrier concentration is achieved for Mo (2 at.%) + F (15 at.%) co-doped ZnO films. A considerable variation in the intensity of deep level emission caused by Mo and F doping is observed in the photoluminescence (PL) studies. The presence of the constituent elements in the samples is confirmed by XPS analysis.

  18. Preparation and characterization of nanorod-like TiO2 and ZnO films used for charge-transport buffer layers in P3HT based organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thao, Tran Thi; Long, Dang Dinh; Truong, Vo-Van; Dinh, Nguyen Nang

    2016-08-01

    With the aim of findingout the appropriate buffer layers for organic solar cells (OSC), TiO2 and ZnO on ITO/glass were prepared as nanorod-like thin films. The TiO2 films were crystallyzed in the anatase phase and the ZnO films, in the wurtzite structure. The nanorods in both the fims have a similar size of 15 to 20 nm in diameter and 30 to 50 nm in length. The nanorods have an orientation nearly perpendicular to the ITO-substrate surface. From UV-Vis data the bandgap of the TiO2 and ZnO films were determined tobe 3.26 eV and 3.42 eV, respectively. The laminar organic solar cells with added TiO2 and ZnO, namely ITO/TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al (TBD) and ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al (ZBD)were made for characterization of the energy conversion performance. As a result, comparing to TiO2,the nanorod-likeZnO filmwas found to be a much better buffer layer that made the fill factor improve from a value of 0.60 for TBD to 0.82 for ZBD, and consequently thePCE was enhanced from 0.84 for TBD to 1.17% for ZBD.

  19. Effect of concentration and irradiation on the optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeoye Victor, Babalola

    2017-12-01

    This study involves the preparation of ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis and to investigate the effect of concentration of the film and irradiation on ZnO thin film deposited by spray pyrolysis method deposited at 350 ± 5 °C. The precursor for zinc oxide was produced from zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO))2. The samples were annealed at 500 °C for 6 h and irradiated using 137Cs 90.998 mCi radiation. They were then characterised using ultra violet-visible spectrophotometry, X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) with Cu-Kα radiation to determine the structure of the film, Four-point probe for electrical properties and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) were used for the composition of the film. XRD diffraction peaks observed for 0.05 M ZnO were (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1) and (1 1 0) planes for the annealed and irradiated annealed ZnO films with no preferential orientation. The as-deposited films have low peaks belonging to (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1), (1 1 0) plane and other peaks such as (1 1 2), (2 0 0) and (2 0 1). The results are explained with regard to the irradiation damage introduced to the samples. The as-deposited, annealed and irradiated-annealed films are highly transparent in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average percent transmittance values of 85% and present a sharp ultraviolet cut-off at approximately 380 nm for the ZnO thin film.

  20. Effects of the ZnO layer on the structure and white light emission properties of a ZnS:Mn/GaN nanocomposite system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai-Feng; Hu, Bo

    2017-10-01

    ZnO films were inserted between the ZnS:Mn films and GaN substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The structure, morphology, and optical properties of the ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN nanocomposite systems have been investigated. X-ray diffraction results show that there are three diffraction peaks located at 28.4°, 34.4°, and 34.1°, which correspond to the β-ZnS(111), ZnO(002), and GaN(002) planes, respectively. Due to the insertion of ZnO films, the diffraction peak intensity of ZnS:Mn in ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN is stronger than that of ZnS:Mn in ZnS:Mn/GaN, and the full width at half-maximum is smaller. Though the transmittance of ZnS:Mn/ZnO films is slightly lower than that of ZnS:Mn films, the transmittance is still higher than 80%. Compared with ZnS:Mn/GaN, an ultraviolet (UV) emission at 387 nm (originated from the near-band emission of ZnO) and a green light emission at about 520 nm appeared in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN, in addition to the blue emission at 435 nm and the orange-red emission at 580 nm. The emission at 520 nm may be related to the deep-level emission from ZnO and the interface of ZnS:Mn/ZnO. The PL spectrum of ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN covers the visible region from the blue light to the red light (400-700 nm), and its color coordinate and color temperature are (0.3103,0.3063) and 6869 K, respectively, presenting strong white light emission.

  1. Physical, structural and spectroscopic investigations of Sm3+ doped ZnO mixed alkali borate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailaja, B.; Joyce Stella, R.; Thirumala Rao, G.; Jaya Raja, B.; Pushpa Manjari, V.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.

    2015-09-01

    Glass of 20ZnO-15 Li2O-15 Na2O-49.9 B2O3 doped with 0.1 mol% of Sm3+ (ZLNB) was prepared by the melt quenching technique. Physical properties were studied and analysed. The XRD studies confirm the amorphous nature of sample. The FT-IR spectral investigation discloses the BO3, BO4 groups, H and OH bonds. Optical absorption and emission spectra were recorded and characterized. Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to f ↔ f transitions to evaluate Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ωλ). The oscillator strengths and bonding parameters were determined from absorption spectra. The trend observed was Ω4 > Ω6 > Ω2. High value of Ω4 reveals higher rigidity and covalency around the Sm3+ ion. Low value of Ω2 implies ionic nature of ligands and site symmetry around Sm3+ ion. luminescence data and Judd-Ofelt parameters Ωλ (λ = 2, 4, and 6) were used to evaluate various radiative probabilities like spontaneous radiative emission probabilities (AR), radiative lifetime (τR) and branching ratios (βR) stimulated emission cross section (σe) and CIE colour coordinates were measured, CCT temperature evaluated and the values were used to ascertain potential laser transitions at the optimum mixed alkali effect observed for the glass sample prepared. The preparedness of the material as the efficient laser active material is examined.

  2. Characteristics of ZnO nanostructures synthesized by sonochemical reaction: Effects of continuous and pulse waves

    SciT

    Widiyastuti, W., E-mail: widi@chem-eng.its.ac.id; Machmudah, Siti; Kusdianto,

    Nanostructured ZnO was synthesized by a sonochemical reaction. Ultrasonic irradiation were set up in continuous, pulse in 3 seconds on and a second off (on:off=3:1), and pulse in 2 seconds on and a second off (on:off=2:1) wave modes for 1.5 hours. The characteristics of particles generated by these modes such as morphology, crystallinity, FTIR, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic activity to degrade methylene blue were compared. Zinc nitrate and ammonia water-based solutions were selected as chemicals without the addition of other surfactants. The morphology of the generated ZnO particles could be tuned from flower-like, needle- or hairy-like, and spherical structures by changingmore » the mode of ultrasonic irradiation from continuous, on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes, respectively. The generated particles indicated that a wurtzite structure of ZnO in a hexagonal phase was formed. The crystalline sizes of particles generated in continuous, on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes were 28, 27, 24 nm. A similar position of reduction peak of FTIR in all samples indicated that no differences in particles chemical bonding characteristics. Photoluminescence intensity was also decreased with changes the wave mode from continuous to pulse. Photocatalytic activity was also evaluated resulting in particles synthesized by continuous mode had the highest methylene blue degradation degree following by on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes.« less

  3. Characteristics of ZnO nanostructures synthesized by sonochemical reaction: Effects of continuous and pulse waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiyastuti, W.; Machmudah, Siti; Kusdianto, Nurtono, Tantular; Winardi, Sugeng

    2015-12-01

    Nanostructured ZnO was synthesized by a sonochemical reaction. Ultrasonic irradiation were set up in continuous, pulse in 3 seconds on and a second off (on:off=3:1), and pulse in 2 seconds on and a second off (on:off=2:1) wave modes for 1.5 hours. The characteristics of particles generated by these modes such as morphology, crystallinity, FTIR, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic activity to degrade methylene blue were compared. Zinc nitrate and ammonia water-based solutions were selected as chemicals without the addition of other surfactants. The morphology of the generated ZnO particles could be tuned from flower-like, needle- or hairy-like, and spherical structures by changing the mode of ultrasonic irradiation from continuous, on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes, respectively. The generated particles indicated that a wurtzite structure of ZnO in a hexagonal phase was formed. The crystalline sizes of particles generated in continuous, on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes were 28, 27, 24 nm. A similar position of reduction peak of FTIR in all samples indicated that no differences in particles chemical bonding characteristics. Photoluminescence intensity was also decreased with changes the wave mode from continuous to pulse. Photocatalytic activity was also evaluated resulting in particles synthesized by continuous mode had the highest methylene blue degradation degree following by on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes.

  4. Ferromagnetism in sphalerite and wurtzite CdS nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism is observed in undoped sphalerite and wurtzite CdS nanostructures which are synthesized by hydrothermal methods. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results indicate that the sphalerite CdS samples show a spherical-like shape and the wurtzite CdS ones show a flower-like shape, both of which are aggregated by lots of smaller particles. The impurity of the samples has been ruled out by the results of X-ray diffraction, selected-area electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Magnetization measurements indicate that all the samples exhibit room-temperature ferromagnetism and the saturation magnetization decreases with the increased crystal sizes, revealing that the observed ferromagnetism is defect-related, which is also confirmed by the post-annealing processes. This finding in CdS should be the focus of future electronic and spintronic devices. PMID:23294671

  5. Microstructural changes in CdSe-coated ZnO nanowires evaluated by in situ annealing in transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, Hasti; Winkler, Christopher R.; Taheri, Mitra L.; Baxter, Jason B.

    2012-07-01

    We report on the crystallite growth and phase change of electrodeposited CdSe coatings on ZnO nanowires during annealing. Both in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal that the nanocrystal size increases from ˜3 to ˜10 nm upon annealing at 350 °C for 1 h and then to more than 30 nm during another 1 h at 400 °C, exhibiting two distinct growth regimes. Nanocrystal growth occurs together with a structural change from zinc blende to wurtzite. The structural transition begins at 350 °C, which results in the formation of stacking faults. Increased crystallite size, comparable to the coating thickness, can improve charge separation in extremely thin absorber solar cells. We demonstrate a nearly two-fold improvement in power conversion efficiency upon annealing.

  6. Structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared using sol—gel dip coating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhenoufa, N.; Mahamdi, R.; Rechem, D.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, sol—gel dip-coating technique was used to elaborate ZnO pure and ZnO/Al films. The impact of Al-doped concentration on the structural, optical, surface morphological and electrical properties of the elaborated samples was investigated. It was found that better electrical and optical performances have been obtained for an Al concentration equal to 5%, where the ZnO thin films exhibit a resistivity value equal to 1.64104 Ω·cm. Moreover, highest transparency has been recorded for the same Al concentration value. The obtained results from this investigation make the developed thin film structure a potential candidate for high optoelectronic performance applications.

  7. Nanoscale size dependence parameters on lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires

    SciT

    Mamand, S.M., E-mail: soran.mamand@univsul.net; Omar, M.S.; Muhammad, A.J.

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of calculated lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A modified Callaway model is used to calculate lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct method is used to calculate phonon group velocity for these nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-Gruneisen parameter, surface roughness, and dislocations are successfully investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dislocation densities are decreases with the decrease of wires diameter. -- Abstract: A detailed calculation of lattice thermal conductivity of freestanding Wurtzite GaN nanowires with diameter ranging from 97 to 160 nm in the temperature range 2-300 K, was performed using a modified Callaway model.more » Both longitudinal and transverse modes are taken into account explicitly in the model. A method is used to calculate the Debye and phonon group velocities for different nanowire diameters from their related melting points. Effect of Gruneisen parameter, surface roughness, and dislocations as structure dependent parameters are successfully used to correlate the calculated values of lattice thermal conductivity to that of the experimentally measured curves. It was observed that Gruneisen parameter will decrease with decreasing nanowire diameters. Scattering of phonons is assumed to be by nanowire boundaries, imperfections, dislocations, electrons, and other phonons via both normal and Umklapp processes. Phonon confinement and size effects as well as the role of dislocation in limiting thermal conductivity are investigated. At high temperatures and for dislocation densities greater than 10{sup 14} m{sup -2} the lattice thermal conductivity would be limited by dislocation density, but for dislocation densities less than 10{sup 14} m{sup -2}, lattice thermal conductivity would be independent of that.« less

  8. Study of sputtered ZnO modified by Direct Laser Interference Patterning: Structural characterization and temperature simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parellada-Monreal, L.; Castro-Hurtado, I.; Martínez-Calderón, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Olaizola, S. M.; Gamarra, D.; Lozano, J.; Mandayo, G. G.

    2018-05-01

    ZnO thin film sputtered on alumina substrate is processed by Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP). The heat transfer equation has been simulated for interference patterns with a period of 730 nm and two different fluences (85 mJ/cm2 and 165 mJ/cm2). A thermal threshold of 900 K, where crystal modification occurs has been calculated, indicating a lateral and depth processing around 173 nm and 140 nm, respectively. The experimentally reproduced samples have been analyzed from the structural and composition point of view and compared to conventional thermal treatments at three different temperatures (600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C). Promising properties have been observed for the laser treated samples, such as low influence on the thin film/substrate interface, an improvement of the crystallographic structure, as well as a decrease of the oxygen content from O/Zn = 2.10 to 1.38 for the highest fluence, getting closer to the stoichiometry. The DLIP characteristics could be suitable for the replacement of annealing process in the case of substrates that cannot achieve high temperatures as most of flexible substrates.

  9. On the dependence of structural and ammonia gas sensing properties of ZnO thin films on Mg doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Saeideh; Khojier, Kaykhosrow

    2018-01-01

    Ammonia is one of the most hazardous substances and it is extremely toxic if inhaled above the moderate level. Therefore, the detection of the ammonia at low concentration levels and at room temperature is one of the most challenging tasks. Among different methods to this goal, metal oxide semiconductors (MOSs) based vapor or gas sensors are mostly preferred because of their fast and high response, and cost effectiveness. This research reports the effect of Mg doping on structural and ammonia gas sensing properties of zinc oxide thin films. The spray pyrolysis technique was employed to deposit undoped and Mg-doped ZnO thin films on glass substrates. Doping concentration was varied from 0.003 to 0.009 M in steps of 0.002 M. The crystalline structure of the samples was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis while a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to study the surface physical morphology of the samples. The sensitivity of the samples was investigated to ammonia gas with different concentrations in the range of 10 to 100 ppm at room temperature. The results reveal that the best sensitivity is attributed to the sample doped with 0.005 M Mg while an increase in Mg concentration results in a reduction in the sensitivity of the samples.

  10. Effect of in situ Al doping on structure and optical properties of ZnO nanowires grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souissi, H.; Jabri, S.; Souissi, A.; Lusson, A.; Galtier, P.; Meftah, A.; Sallet, V.; Oueslati, M.

    2018-01-01

    Al-doped ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on C-axis oriented sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using dimethylzinc-triethylamine (DMZn-TEN), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and TMAl as zinc, oxygen and aluminum doping sources respectively. The NWs morphology has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibit a strong excitonic transition bond that confirms the Al incorporation in the ZnO NWs. Raman results support PL conclusion by showing additional modes in Al-doped ZnO NWs at nearly 270, 510, 579 and 641 cm-1. The micro-Raman scattering analysis along a single Al-doped ZnO needle-like NW shows an increase of the Al concentration from the basis to the tip of the wire.

  11. Temperature dependence of the A, B, and C excitons in ZnO over 5-400 K: A modulated reflectivity study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoi, S.; Cardona, M.; Lauck, R.; Alawadhi, H.; Lu, X.; Grimsditch, M.; Ramdas, A. K.

    2005-03-01

    Optical properties of ZnO, a wide gap semiconductor with wurtzite structure, have generated renewed interest in the material in the context of opto-electronic phenomena and applications. The A, B, and C excitons of ZnO, arising from the combined effects of crystal field and spin-orbit splittings of the valence band, are investigated in the temperature range 5- 400 K, exploiting electro-, photo-, and wavelength-modulated reflectivity. The specimens studied have natural isotopic composition. The temperature dependence of the A, B, and C excitonic band gaps, fitted with a two harmonic oscillator modelootnotetextM. Cardona, Phys. Status. Solidi b 220, 5 (2000); R. Pä'ssler, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6235 (2001) following Manj'on et al.ootnotetextF. J. Manj'on et al., Solid State Commun. 128, 35 (2003), yields the magnitudes of the zero-point renormalizations 262 meV (A), 227 meV (B), and 249 meV (C), respectively. Isotopically controlled ZnO is currently being investigated to determine the isotopic mass dependence of the zero-point renormalizations.

  12. ZnO nanorods/ZnS·(1,6-hexanediamine)(0.5) hybrid nanoplates hierarchical heteroarchitecture with improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhengcui; Wu, Yaqin; Pei, Tonghui; Wang, Huan; Geng, Baoyou

    2014-03-07

    Novel hierarchical heteronanostructures of ZnO nanorods/ZnS·(HDA)0.5 (HDA = 1,6-hexanediamine) hybrid nanoplates on a zinc substrate are successfully synthesized on a large scale by combining hydrothermal growth (for ZnO nanorods) and liquid chemical conversion (for ZnS·(HDA)0.5 nanoplates) techniques. The formation of ZnS·(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates branches takes advantage of the preferential binding of 1,6-hexanediamine on specific facets of ZnS, which makes the thickening rate much lower than the lateral growth rate. The ZnS·(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates have a layered structure with 1,6-hexanediamine inserted into interlayers of wurtzite ZnS through the bonding of nitrogen. The number density and thickness of the secondary ZnS·(HDA)0.5 nanoplates can be conveniently engineered by variation of the sulfur source and straightforward adjustment of reactant concentrations such as 1,6-hexanediamine and the sulfur source. The fabricated ZnO/ZnS·(HDA)0.5 heteronanostructures show improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine compared with the primary ZnO nanorods. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, this approach could be similarly used to fabricate varieties of hybrid heterostructures made of materials with an intrinsic large lattice mismatch.

  13. Ultra-fast microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of long vertically aligned ZnO nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cell application.

    PubMed

    Mahpeykar, S M; Koohsorkhi, J; Ghafoori-Fard, H

    2012-04-27

    Long vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays were synthesized using an ultra-fast microwave-assisted hydrothermal process. Using this method, we were able to grow ZnO nanowire arrays at an average growth rate as high as 200 nm min(-1) for maximum microwave power level. This method does not suffer from the growth stoppage problem at long growth times that, according to our investigations, a normal microwave-assisted hydrothermal method suffers from. Longitudinal growth of the nanowire arrays was investigated as a function of microwave power level and growth time using cross-sectional FESEM images of the grown arrays. Effect of seed layer on the alignment of nanowires was also studied. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed c-axis orientation and single-phase wurtzite structure of the nanowires. J-V curves of the fabricated ZnO nanowire-based mercurochrome-sensitized solar cells indicated that the short-circuit current density is increased with increasing the length of the nanowire array. According to the UV-vis spectra of the dyes detached from the cells, these increments were mainly attributed to the enlarged internal surface area and therefore dye loading enhancement in the lengthened nanowire arrays.

  14. Spin-orbit coupling in GaN/AlGaN wurtzite quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteado, Poliana H.; Fu, J. Y.; Bernardes, Esmerindo; Egues, J. Carlos

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the spin-orbit coupling for electrons in wurtzite quantum wells with two subbands [1]. By folding down the 8x8 Kane model, accounting for the s-pz orbital mixing [2, 3] absent in zincblende structures, we derive an effective 2x2 Hamiltonian for the conduction electrons. In this derivation we consider the renormalization of the spinor component of the conduction band wave function, which is crucial to properly obtain the corresponding spin-orbit couplings. In addition to the Rashba-type term arising from the bulk inversion asymmetry of the wurtzite lattice, we obtain the usual linear in momentum Rashba term induced by the structural inversion asymmetry of the well and; interestingly, we also find a new Rashba-like contribution. The spin-orbit coupling parameters are obtained via a self-consistent calculation. For completeness, the Dresselhaus term is also included in our calculation. [4pt] [1] Rafael S. Calsaverini, Esmerindo Bernardes, J. Carlos Egues, and Daniel Loss, Phys. Rev. B 78, 155313 (2008). [0pt] [2] L. C. Lew Yan Voon, M. Willatzen, and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. B 53, 10703 (1996). [0pt] [3] J. Y. Fu and M. W. Wu, J. Appl. Phys 104, 093712 (2008).

  15. Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in electrodeposited Co-doped ZnO nanostructured thin films by controlling the oxygen vacancy defects

    SciT

    Simimol, A.; Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601; Anappara, Aji A.

    We report the growth of un-doped and cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures fabricated on FTO coated glass substrates using electrodeposition method. A detailed study on the effects of dopant concentration on morphology, structural, optical, and magnetic properties of the ZnO nanostructures has been carried out systematically by varying the Co concentration (c.{sub Co}) from 0.01 to 1 mM. For c.{sub Co }≤ 0.2 mM, h-wurtzite phase with no secondary phases of Co were present in the ZnO nanostructures. For c.{sub Co} ≤ 0.2 mM, the photoluminescence spectra exhibited a decrease in the intensity of ultraviolet emission as well as band-gap narrowing with an increase in dopantmore » concentration. All the doped samples displayed a broad emission in the visible range and its intensity increased with an increase in Co concentration. It was found that the defect centers such as oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials were the source of the visible emission. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed, Co was primarily in the divalent state, replacing the Zn ion inside the tetrahedral crystal site of ZnO without forming any cluster or secondary phases of Co. The un-doped ZnO nanorods exhibited diamagnetic behavior and it remained up to a c.{sub Co} of 0.05 mM, while for c.{sub Co }> 0.05 mM, the ZnO nanostructures exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The coercivity increased to 695 G for 0.2 mM Co-doped sample and then it decreased for c.{sub Co }> 0.2 mM. Our results illustrate that up to a threshold concentration of 0.2 mM, the strong ferromagnetism is due to the oxygen vacancy defects centers, which exist in the Co-doped ZnO nanostructures. The origin of strong ferromagnetism at room temperature in Co-doped ZnO nanostructures is attributed to the s-d exchange interaction between the localized spin moments resulting from the oxygen vacancies and d electrons of Co{sup 2+} ions. Our findings provide a new insight for

  16. One-dimensional ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Jayadevan, K P; Tseng, T Y

    2012-06-01

    The wide-gap semiconductor ZnO with nanostructures such as nanoparticle, nanorod, nanowire, nanobelt, nanotube has high potential for a variety of applications. This article reviews the fundamentals of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures, including processing, structure, property, application and their processing-microstructure-property correlation. Various fabrication methods of the ZnO nanostructures including vapor-liquid-solid process, vapor-solid growth, solution growth, solvothermal growth, template-assisted growth and self-assembly are introduced. The characterization and properties of the ZnO nanostructures are described. The possible applications of these nanostructures are also discussed.

  17. Interfacial effects in ZnO nanotubes/needle-structured graphitic diamond nanohybrid for detecting dissolved acetone at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, Deepa; Huang, Bohr-Ran; Saravanan, Adhimoorthy; Yeh, Chien-Jui; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Lin, I.-Nan

    2017-12-01

    A high-performance ZnO nanotubes (ZNTs)/needle-structured graphitic diamond (NGD) nanohybrid material was prepared and observed the electrochemical sensing properties of liquid acetone in water. Initially, we synthesized NGD film using bias-enhanced growth (BEG) process. Afterwards, a well-etched ZNTs were spatially grown on the NGD film using simple hydrothermal method, and utilized as sensing material for assemble an electrochemical sensor (via EGFET configuration) operating at room temperature. The systematic investigations depict the ultra-high sensing properties attained from ZNTs grown on NGD film. The NGD film mostly have needle or wire shaped diamond grains, which contributes extremely high electrical conductivity. Furthermore, needle shaped diamond grains cover with multi-layer graphitic material generates conduction channels for ZNTs and leads to enhance the oxygen residuals and species. The material stability and conductivity of NGD as well the defects exist with oxygen vacancies in ZNTs offers superior sensing properties. Thus, the interesting combination of these wide band gap semiconductor materials exhibit high sensor response (89 mV/mL), high stability and long-term reliability (tested after 60 days).

  18. Doping induced modifications in the electronic structure and magnetism of ZnO films: Valence band and conduction band studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katba, Savan; Jethva, Sadaf; Udeshi, Malay; Trivedi, Priyanka; Vagadia, Megha; Shukla, D. K.; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.; Kuberkar, D. G.

    2017-11-01

    The electronic structure of Pulsed Laser Deposited (PLD) ZnO, Zn0.95Fe0.05O (ZFO), Zn0.98Al0.02O (ZAO) and Zn0.93Fe0.05Al0.02O (ZFAO) films were investigated by Photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction and ϕ-scan measurements show epitaxial c-directional growth of the films. Temperature dependent magnetization and M-H loop measurements show the presence of room temperature magnetic ordering in all the films. Fittings of Fe 2p XPS and Fe L3,2 -edge XAS of ZFO and ZFAO films show the presence of Fe, in both, Fe+2 and Fe+3 states in tetrahedral symmetry. Valence band spectra in resonance mode show resonance photon energy at 56 eV showing the presence of Fe2+ state (∼2 eV) near the Fermi level. A significant effect of Fe and Al doping on the spectral shape of O K-edge XAS was observed. Results of the Spectroscopic studies reveal that, ferromagnetism in the films is due to the contribution of oxygen deficiency which increases the number of charge carriers that take part in the exchange interaction. Al co-doping with Fe (in ZFAO) results in the enhancement of saturation magnetization by increase in the carrier-mediated ferromagnetic exchange interaction.

  19. Photoelectrochemical detection of alpha-fetoprotein based on ZnO inverse opals structure electrodes modified by Ag2S nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yandong; Liu, Dali; Yang, Yudan; Xu, Ru; Zhang, Tianxiang; Sheng, Kuang; Song, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new photoelectrochemical biosensor based on Ag2S nanoparticles (NPs) modified macroporous ZnO inverse opals structure (IOs) was developed for sensitive and rapid detection of alpha fetal protein (AFP). Small size and uniformly dispersed Ag2S NPs were prepared using the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption And Reaction (SILAR) method, which were adsorbed on ZnO IOs surface and frame work as matrix for immobilization of AFP. The composite structure of ZnO/Ag2S expanded the scope of light absorption to long wavelength, which can make full use of the light energy. Meanwhile, an effective matching of energy levels between the conduction bands of Ag2S and ZnO are beneficial to the photo-generated electrons transfer. The biosensors based on FTO (fluorine-doped tinoxide) ZnO/Ag2S electrode showed enough sensitivity and a wide linear range from 0.05 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 8 pg/mL for the detection of AFP. It also exhibited high reproducibility, specificity and stability. The proposed method was potentially attractive for achieving excellent photoelectrochemical biosensor for detection of other proteins. PMID:27922086

  20. Experimental and theoretical investigations on magnetic behavior of (Al,Co) co-doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, O D; Achary, S N; Sudakar, C; Naik, R; Salunke, H G; Rao, Rekha; Peng, X; Ahuja, R; Tyagi, A K

    2010-08-01

    We present the structural and magnetic properties of Zn(0.95-x)Co(0.05)Al(x)O (x = 0.0 to 0.1) nanoparticles, synthesized by a novel sol-gel route followed by pyrolysis. Powder X-ray diffraction data confirms the formation of a single phase wurtzite type ZnO structure for all the compositions. The Zn(0.95)Co(0.05)O nanoparticles show diamagnetic behavior at room temperature. However, when Al is co-doped with Co with x = 0.0 to 0.10 in Zn(0.95-x)Co(0.05)Al(x)O, a systematic increase in ferromagnetic moment is observed up to x = 0.07 at 300 K. Above x = 0.07 (e.g. for x = 0.10) a drastic decrease in ferromagnetic nature is observed which is concomitant with the segregation of poorly crystalline Al rich ZnO phase as evidenced from TEM studies. Theoretical studies using density functional calculations on Zn(0.95-x)Co(0.05)Al(x)O suggest that the partial occupancy of S2 states leads to an increased double exchange interaction favoring the ferromagnetic ground states. Such ferromagnetic interactions are favorable beyond a threshold limit. At a high level doping of Al, the exchange splitting is reduced, which suppresses the ferromagnetic ordering.

  1. Sol–gel synthesized zinc oxide nanorods and their structural and optical investigation for optoelectronic application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with hexagonal wurtzite structures were synthesized using an easy and low-cost bottom-up hydrothermal growth technique. ZnO thin films were prepared with the use of four different solvents, namely, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and 2-methoxyethanol, and then used as seed layer templates for the subsequent growth of the ZnO NRs. The influences of the different solvents on the structural and optical properties were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The obtained X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the synthesized ZnO NRs were single crystals and exhibited a preferred orientation along the (002) plane. In addition, the calculated results from the specific models of the refractive index are consistent with the experimental data. The ZnO NRs that grew from the 2-methoxyethanol seeded layer exhibited the smallest grain size (39.18 nm), largest diffracted intensities on the (002) plane, and highest bandgap (3.21 eV). PMID:25221458

  2. Valence band offset of β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Qin, Zhixin; Fan, Shunfei; Li, Zhiwei; Shi, Kai; Zhu, Qinsheng; Zhang, Guoyi

    2012-10-10

    A sample of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure has been grown by dry thermal oxidation of GaN on a sapphire substrate. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the β-Ga2O3 layer was formed epitaxially on GaN. The valence band offset of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure is measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the valence band of the β-Ga2O3/GaN structure is 1.40 ± 0.08 eV.

  3. Valence band offset of β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A sample of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure has been grown by dry thermal oxidation of GaN on a sapphire substrate. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the β-Ga2O3 layer was formed epitaxially on GaN. The valence band offset of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure is measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the valence band of the β-Ga2O3/GaN structure is 1.40 ± 0.08 eV. PMID:23046910

  4. Simultaneous tuning of electric field intensity and structural properties of ZnO: Graphene nanostructures for FOSPR based nicotine sensor.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2017-05-15

    We report theoretical and experimental realization of a SPR based fiber optic nicotine sensor having coatings of silver and graphene doped ZnO nanostructure onto the unclad core of the optical fiber. The volume fraction (f) of graphene in ZnO was optimized using simulation of electric field intensity. Four types of graphene doped ZnO nanostructures viz. nanocomposites, nanoflowers, nanotubes and nanofibers were prepared using optimized value of f. The morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and UV-vis spectra of these nanostructures were studied. The peak PL intensity was found to be highest for ZnO: graphene nanofibers. The optimized value of f in ZnO: graphene nanofiber was reconfirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy. The experiments were performed on the fiber optic probe fabricated with Ag/ZnO: graphene layer and optimized parameters for in-situ detection of nicotine. The interaction of nicotine with ZnO: graphene nanostructures alters the dielectric function of ZnO: graphene nanostructure which is manifested in terms of shift in resonance wavelength. From the sensing signal, the performance parameters were measured including sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), stability, repeatability and selectivity. The real sample prepared using cigarette tobacco leaves and analyzed using the fabricated sensor makes it suitable for practical applications. The achieved values of LOD and LOQ are found to be unrivalled in comparison to the reported ones. The sensor possesses additional advantages such as, immunity to electromagnetic interference, low cost, capability of online monitoring, remote sensing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Polar Mixing Optical Phonon Spectra in Wurtzite GaN Cylindrical Quantum Dots: Quantum Size and Dielectric Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Liao, Jian-Shang

    2010-05-01

    The interface-optical-propagating (IO-PR) mixing phonon modes of a quasi-zero-dimensional (QoD) wurtzite cylindrical quantum dot (QD) structure are derived and studied by employing the macroscopic dielectric continuum model. The analytical phonon states of IO-PR mixing modes are given. It is found that there are two types of IO-PR mixing phonon modes, i.e. ρ-IO/z-PR mixing modes and the z-IO/ρ-PR mixing modes existing in QoD wurtzite QDs. And each IO-PR mixing modes also have symmetrical and antisymmetrical forms. Via a standard procedure of field quantization, the Fröhlich Hamiltonians of electron-(IO-PR) mixing phonons interaction are obtained. Numerical calculations on a wurtzite GaN cylindrical QD are performed. The results reveal that both the radial-direction size and the axial-direction size as well as the dielectric matrix have great influence on the dispersive frequencies of the IO-PR mixing phonon modes. The limiting features of dispersive curves of these phonon modes are discussed in depth. The phonon modes “reducing" behavior of wurtzite quantum confined systems has been observed obviously in the structures. Moreover, the degenerating behaviors of the IO-PR mixing phonon modes in wurtzite QoD QDs to the IO modes and PR modes in wurtzite Q2D QW and Q1D QWR systems are analyzed deeply from both of the viewpoints of physics and mathematics.

  6. The effect of operational parameters on the photocatalytic degradation of Congo red organic dye using ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure coated on glass by Doctor Blade method.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Rahmati, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-02-25

    Photocatalytic degradation of Congo red was investigated using ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure coated on glass by Doctor Blade method in aqueous solution under irradiation. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the morphological and structural characterization of ZnO-CdS core-shell nanostructures. XRD results showed diffractions of wurtzite zinc oxide core and wurtzite cadmium sulfide shell. FESEM results showed that nanoparticles are nearly hexagonal with an average diameter of about 50 nm. The effect of catalyst loading, UV-light irradiation time and solution pH on photocatalytic degradation of Congo red was studied and optimized values were obtained. Results showed that the employment of efficient photocatalyst and selection of optimal operational parameters may lead to complete decolorization of dye solutions. It was found that ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure is more favorable for the degradation of Congo red compare to pure ZnO or pure CdS due to lower electron hole recombination. The results showed that the photocatalytic degradation rate of Congo red is enhanced with increasing the content of ZnO up to ZnO(0.2 M)/CdS(0.075 M) which is reached 88.0% within 100 min irradiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Zincblende to Wurtzite phase shift of CdSe thin films prepared by electrochemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Rekha; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2018-04-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanostructured thin films have been deposited on conducting glass substrates by potentiostatic electrochemical deposition (ECD) technique. The effect of electrolyte bath pH on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdSe films has been investigated. Crystal structure of these films is characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy which reveal polycrystalline nature of CdSe films exhibiting phase shift from zincblende to wurtzite structure with increase in bath pH. Optical studies reveal that the CdSe thin films have good absorbance in visible spectral region and they possess direct optical band gap which increases from 1.68 to 1.97 eV with increase in bath pH. The results suggest CdSe is an efficient absorber material for next generation solar cells.

  8. Mechanisms of the Wurtzite to Rocksalt Transformation in CdSe Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünwald, Michael; Rabani, Eran; Dellago, Christoph

    2006-06-01

    We study the pressure-driven phase transition from the four-coordinate wurtzite to the six-coordinate rocksalt structure in CdSe nanocrystals with molecular dynamics computer simulations. With an ideal gas as the pressure medium, we apply hydrostatic pressure to spherical and faceted nanocrystals ranging in diameter from 25 to 62 Å. In spherical crystals, the main mechanism of the transformation involves the sliding of (100) planes, but depending on the specific surface structure we also observe a second mechanism proceeding through the flattening of (100) planes. In faceted crystals, the transition proceeds via a five-coordinated hexagonal structure, which is stabilized at intermediate pressures due to dominant surface energetics.

  9. Correct implementation of polarization constants in wurtzite materials and impact on III-nitrides

    DOE PAGES

    Dreyer, Cyrus E.; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.; ...

    2016-06-20

    Here, accurate values for polarization discontinuities between pyroelectric materials are critical for understanding and designing the electronic properties of heterostructures. For wurtzite materials, the zincblende structure has been used in the literature as a reference to determine the effective spontaneous polarization constants. We show that, because the zincblende structure has a nonzero formal polarization, this method results in a spurious contribution to the spontaneous polarization differences between materials. In addition, we address the correct choice of "improper" versus "proper" piezoelectric constants. For the technologically important III-nitride materials GaN, AlN, and InN, we determine polarization discontinuities using a consistent reference basedmore » on the layered hexagonal structure and the correct choice of piezoelectric constants, and discuss the results in light of available experimental data.« less

  10. A new type of glucose biosensor based on surface acoustic wave resonator using Mn-doped ZnO multilayer structure.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingting; Luo, Pingxiang; Xie, Min; Du, Ke; Zhao, Bixia; Pan, Feng; Fan, Ping; Zeng, Fei; Zhang, Dongping; Zheng, Zhuanghao; Liang, Guangxing

    2013-11-15

    This work reports a high-performance Mn-doped ZnO multilayer structure Love mode surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor for the detection of blood sugar. The biosensor was functionalized via immobilizing glucose oxidase onto a pH-sensitive polymer which was attached on Mn-doped ZnO biosensor. The fabricated SAW glucose biosensor is highly sensitive, accurate and fast with good anti-interference. The sensitivity of the SAW glucose biosensor is 7.184 MHz/mM and the accuracy is 6.96 × 10(-3)mM, which is sensitive and accurate enough for glucose monitoring. A good degree of reversibility and stability of the glucose sensor is also demonstrated, which keeps a constant differential frequency shift up to 32 days. Concerning the time response to human serum, the glucose sensor shows a value of 4.6 ± 0.4 min when increasing glucose concentrations and 7.1 ± 0.6 min when decreasing, which is less than 10 min and reach the fast response requirement for medical applications. The Mn-doped ZnO Love mode SAW biosensor can be fully integrated with CMOS Si chips and developed as a portable, passive and wireless real time detection system for blood sugar monitoring in human serum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Al-Impurity Type on Formation Energy, Crystal Structure, Electronic Structure, and Optical Properties of ZnO by Using Density Functional Theory and the Hubbard-U Method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsuan-Chung; Chen, Hsing-Hao; Zhu, Yu-Ren

    2016-08-01

    We systematically investigated the effects of Al-impurity type on the formation energy, crystal structure, charge density, electronic structure, and optical properties of ZnO by using density functional theory and the Hubbard-U method. Al-related defects, such as those caused by the substitution of Zn and O atoms by Al atoms (Al s(Zn) and Al s(O) , respectively) and the presence of an interstitial Al atom at the center of a tetrahedron (Al i(tet) ) or an octahedron (Al i(oct) ), and various Al concentrations were evaluated. The calculated formation energy follows the order E f (Al s(Zn) ) < E f (Al i(tet) ) < E f (Al i(oct) ) < E f (Al s(O) ). Electronic structure analysis showed that the Al s(Zn) , Al s(O) , Al i(tet) , and Al i(oct) models follow n -type conduction, and the optical band gaps are higher than that of pure ZnO. The calculated carrier concentrations of the Al s(O) and Al i(tet) /Al i(oct) models are higher than that of the Al s(Zn) model. However, according to the curvature of the band structure, the occurrence of interstitial Al atoms or the substitution of O atoms by Al atoms results in a high effective mass, possibly reducing the carrier mobility. The average transmittance levels in the visible light and ultraviolet (UV) regions of the Al s(Zn) model are higher than those of pure ZnO. However, the presence of an interstitial Al atom within the ZnO crystal reduces transmittance in the visible light region; Al s(O) substantially reduces the transmittance in the visible light and UV regions. In addition, the properties of ZnO doped with various Al s(Zn) concentrations were analyzed.

  12. The structural and optical properties of Y (Y  =  Al, B, Si and Ti)-doped ZnO nano thin films from the first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenshu; Hu, Huijun; Zhang, Caili; Li, Jianguo; Li, Yuping; Ling, Lixia; Han, Peide

    2017-12-01

    Based on the density functional theory, the structural stability and optical properties of undoped and Y (Y  =  Al, B, Si and Ti)-doped ZnO nano thin films are investigated. The good stability of the films based on the ZnO (0 0 0 1) can be obtained when the layer is larger than 12. Moreover, the dielectric function, refractive index, absorption, and reflectivity of doped ZnO nano thin films have been analyzed in detail. In the visible light range, the values of ZnO films from 12 to 24 layers are all smaller than those of the bulk. And with the augment of the layers, the values keep increasing. All the results signify that the nano film of 12 layers possesses the lowest reflectivity and weakest absorption. In addition, there is an evident impact of some doped element on the properties of nano films. The absorption and reflectivity of Ti, Si-doped ZnO nano thin films are higher than those of the clean films, while Al, B-doped are lower, especially B-doped. Moreover, the conductivity of the doped structure is better than that of the bulk. Thus, the B-doped ZnO nano thin films could be potential candidate materials of transparent conductive films.

  13. Synthesis of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films by electron beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondkar, V.; Rukade, D.; Bhattacharyya, V.

    2018-05-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films have potential for applications in variety of optoelectronic devices. In the present study, nanocrystalline thin films of ZnO are grown on fused silica substrate using electron beam (e-beam) evaporation technique. Phase identification is carried out using Glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic analysis is carried out to calculate energy band gap of the ZnO film. Surface morphology of the film is investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Highly quality nanocrystalline thin films of hexagonal wurtzite ZnO are synthesized using e-beam evaporation technique.

  14. Effect of an Electrochemically Oxidized ZnO Seed Layer on ZnO Nanorods Grown by using Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Woosung; Leem, Jae-Young

    2018-05-01

    ZnO nanorods were prepared on a Si substrate with and without a ZnO seed layer formed by electro-oxidation to investigate the effect of the seed layer on their growth. The ZnO nanorods grown on the ZnO seed layer had top surfaces that were flat whereas those grown without it had rough top surfaces, as observed in field-emission scanning electron microscopy images. In the Xray diffraction analysis, all ZnO nanorods showed preferential orientation with the (002) plane. In the case of ZnO nanorods prepared with a ZnO seed layer, the residual stress decreased, and the full width at half maximum of the ZnO (002) plane peak decreased. The photoluminescence spectra show a strong and narrow near-band-edge emission peak and high near-band-edge emission to deep-level emission peak ratio for the ZnO nanorods prepared with the seed layer. With respect to the photoresponse properties, the ZnO nanorods grown with the ZnO seed layer showed higher responsivity and faster rise/decay curves than those grown without it. Thus, the ZnO seed layer formed by electro-oxidation improves the structural, optical, and photoresponse properties of the ZnO nanorods formed on it. This method could serve as a new route for improving the properties of optoelectronic devices.

  15. Effect of doping on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructure ZnO films deposited onto a-Si:H/Si heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sali, S.; Boumaour, M.; Kermadi, S.; Keffous, A.; Kechouane, M.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the structural; optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films as the n-type semiconductor for silicon a-Si:H/Si heterojunction photodiodes. The ZnO film forms the front contact of the super-strata solar cell and has to exhibit good electrical (high conductivity) and optical (high transmittance) properties. In this paper we focused our attention on the influence of doping on device performance. The results show that the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed a preferred orientation of the crystallites along c-axis. SEM images show that all films display a granular, polycrystalline morphology and the ZnO:Al exhibits a better grain uniformity. The transmittance of the doped films was found to be higher when compared to undoped ZnO. A low resistivity of the order of 2.8 × 10-4 Ω cm is obtained for ZnO:Al using 0.4 M concentration of zinc acetate. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibit a blue band with two peaks centered at 442 nm (2.80 eV) and 490 nm (2.53 eV). It is noted that after doping the ZnO films a shift of the band by 22 nm (0.15 eV) is recorded and a high luminescence occurs when using Al as a dopant. Dark I-V curves of ZnO/a-Si:H/Si structure showed large difference, which means there is a kind of barrier to current flow between ZnO and a-Si:H layer. Doping films was applied and the turn-on voltages are around 0.6 V. Under reverse bias, the current of the ZnO/a-Si:H/Si heterojunction is larger than that of ZnO:Al/a-Si:H/Si. The improvement with ZnO:Al is attributed to a higher number of generated carriers in the nanostructure (due to the higher transmittance and a higher luminescence) that increases the probability of collisions.

  16. Influence of Different Aluminum Sources on the NH3 Gas-Sensing Properties of ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozutok, Fatma; Karaduman, Irmak; Demiri, Sani; Acar, Selim

    2018-02-01

    Herein we report Al-doped ZnO films (AZO) deposited on the ZnO seed layer by chemical bath deposition method. Al powder, Al oxide and Al chloride were used as sources for the deposition process and investigated for their different effects on the NH3 gas-sensing performance. The morphological and microstructural properties were investigated by employing x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy analysis and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The characterization studies showed that the AZO thin films are crystalline and exhibit a hexagonal wurtzite structure. Ammonia (NH3) gas-sensing measurements of AZO films were performed at different concentration levels and different operation temperatures from 50°C to 210°C. The sample based on powder-Al source showed a higher response, selectivity and short response/recovery time than the remaining samples. The powder Al sample exhibited 33% response to 10-ppm ammonia gas at 190°C, confirming a strong dependence on the dopant source type.

  17. Novel synthesis and structural analysis of zinc oxide nanoparticles for the non enzymatic glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Dayakar, T; Venkateswara Rao, K; Bikshalu, K; Rajendar, V; Park, Si-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    A non-enzymatic glucose biosensor was developed by utilizing the zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) synthesized by a novel green method using the leaf extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum. The structural, optical and morphological properties of ZnO NPs characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD analysis revealed that the ZnO NPs were crystalline and had a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystallite size measured by XRD was the same as that measured using SEM and TEM. The UV-vis absorption spectrum estimates the band gap of ZnO NPs present in the range of 2.82 to 3.45eV. The reduction and formation of ZnO NPs mainly due to the involvement of leaf extract bio-molecular compounds analyzed from the FTIR spectra. The SEM result confirms the morphology of the NPs responsible from the various concentration of leaf extract in the synthesis process. HRTEM analysis depicts the spherical structure of ZnO NPs. The synthesized NPs have the average size ranges from 10 to 20nm. The fabricated GCE/ZnO glucose sensor represents superior electro catalytic activity that has been observed for ZnO NPs with a reproducible sensitivity of 631.30μAmM -1 cm -2 , correlation coefficient of R=0.998, linear dynamic range from 1-8.6mM, low detection limit of 0.043μM (S/N=3) and response time<4s. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Value and Anisotropy of the Electron and Hole Mass in Pure Wurtzite InP Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, D; De Luca, M; Granados Del Águila, A; Gao, Q; Ambrosio, G; Capizzi, M; Tan, H H; Christianen, P C M; Jagadish, C; Polimeni, A

    2016-10-12

    The effective mass of electrons and holes in semiconductors is pivotal in determining the dynamics of carriers and their confinement energy in nanostructured materials. Surprisingly, this quantity is still unknown in wurtzite (WZ) nanowires (NWs) made of III-V compounds (e.g., GaAs, InAs, GaP, InP), where the WZ phase has no bulk counterpart. Here, we investigate the magneto-optical properties of InP WZ NWs grown by selective-area epitaxy that provides perfectly ordered NWs featuring high-crystalline quality. The combined analysis of the energy of free exciton states and impurity levels under magnetic field (B up to 29 T) allows us to disentangle the dynamics of oppositely charged carriers from the Coulomb interaction and thus to determine the values of the electron and hole effective mass. By application of B⃗ along different crystallographic directions, we also assess the dependence of the transport properties with respect to the NW growth axis (namely, the WZ ĉ axis). The effective mass of electrons along ĉ is m e ∥ = (0.078 ± 0.002) m 0 (m 0 is the electron mass in vacuum) and perpendicular to ĉ is m e ⊥ = (0.093 ± 0.001) m 0 , resulting in a 20% mass anisotropy. Holes exhibit a much larger (∼320%) and opposite mass anisotropy with their effective mass along and perpendicular to ĉ equal to m h ∥ = (0.81 ± 0.18) m 0 and m h ⊥ = (0.250 ± 0.016) m 0 , respectively. While no full consensus is found with current theoretical results on WZ InP, our findings show trends remarkably similar to the experimental data available in WZ bulk materials, such as InN, GaN, and ZnO.

  19. Fabrication and analysis of Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles from the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L; Zaitsev, S V; Jin, W; Kompch, A; Winterer, M; Acet, M; Bacher, G

    2009-04-01

    High quality Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles from the gas phase were prepared and investigated with respect to their structural, optical and magnetic properties. The extended x-ray absorption fine structure and the x-ray absorption near edge structure of the particles verify that after nanoparticle preparation Cr is incorporated as Cr3+ ) at least partially on sites with a 4-fold oxygen configuration, most likely on a Zn site, into the wurtzite lattice. Despite the fact that Cr is known to act as an efficient non-radiative loss centre for near band gap emission (NBE), a pronounced NBE is obtained up to room temperature even for a nominal Cr concentration of 10 at.%. Annealing at 1000 degrees C results in a significant improvement of the photoluminescence efficiency and a reduced PL linewidth down to 2.9 meV at low temperatures while the structural and magnetic data indicate the formation of ZnCr2O4 clusters.

  20. Structural, mechanical and optical investigations in the TeO2-rich part of the TeO2-GeO2-ZnO ternary glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghribi, N.; Dutreilh-Colas, M.; Duclère, J.-R.; Gouraud, F.; Chotard, T.; Karray, R.; Kabadou, A.; Thomas, P.

    2015-02-01

    Stable glasses are successfully synthesized in the TeO2-GeO2-ZnO system at 850 °C by the melt-quenching method and the glass forming domain is determined in the TeO2-rich part of the diagram. The thermal study, carried out using differential scanning calorimetry, reveals that the glass transition temperature, as well as the thermal stability, increases with the addition of ZnO or GeO2. Bulk glass samples are elaborated within two series of compositions, corresponding to fixed concentrations in GeO2 (respectively 5 or 10 mol. %), and to various contents in ZnO. Structural changes caused by the ZnO addition are discussed based on Raman spectroscopy data. A progressive but very moderate network depolymerization is shown with increasing amount of ZnO. However, two different regimes can be identified, depending on the ZnO content. It is believed that ZnO acts as a network modifier for compositions below 20 mol. %, and starts to participate as a glass network former over such concentration. It is well evidenced that GeO2 contributes to the increase in Young's modulus E, evaluated from ultrasonic echography measurements. In addition, this oxide favors the network reticulation detected by the decrease of the Poisson ratio and the increase of the fractal bond connectivity. However, the role of ZnO is more complicated and will be extensively discussed. The decrease in the atomic packing density Cg probably explains the global evolution of E as a function of ZnO content. The refractive indices and optical band gap energies are extracted from UV-Visible-NIR optical transmission data. For the studied glasses, it is found that the transmission threshold decreases with larger ZnO contents, reflecting the increase in the optical band gap value. Refractive index is finally seen to decrease as a function of both ZnO and GeO2 contents. Such variation is explained by the decrease of the molar electronic polarizability, and by the lower optical basicity values known for TeO3 entities

  1. Structural and electrical properties of sputter deposited ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammed Shameem P., V.; Mekala, Laxman; Kumar, M. Senthil

    2018-05-01

    The growth of zinc oxide thin films having different oxygen content was achieved at ambient temperature by reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique and their structural and electrical properties are studied. The structural studies show that the films are polycrystalline with a preferential orientation of the grains along the c-axis [002], which increases with increase in oxygen partial pressure. The grain size and the surface roughness of the zinc oxide films are found to decrease with increasing oxygen partial pressure. It is observed that the resistivity of the zinc oxide films can be tuned from semiconducting to insulating regime by varying the oxygen content.

  2. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Effect of Annealing Conditions on Properties of Sol-Gel Derived Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mei-Zhen; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Jing; Sun, Hui-Na

    2009-08-01

    Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films are prepared on normal glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating method. The effects of drying conditions, annealing temperature and cooling rate on the structural, electrical and optical properties of AZO films are investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the four-point probe method and UV-VIS spectrophotometry, respectively. The deposited films show a hexagonal wurtzite structure and high preferential c-axis orientation. As the drying temperature increases from 100°C to 300°C the resistivity of AZO films decreases dramatically. In contrast to the annealed films cooled in a furnace and in air, the resistivity of the annealed film which is cooled at -15°C is greatly reduced. Increasing the cooling rate dramatically increases the electrical conductivity of AZO films.

  3. REVIEW ARTICLE: Structure, microstructure and physical properties of ZnO based materials in various forms: bulk, thin film and nano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shubra; Thiyagarajan, P.; Mohan Kant, K.; Anita, D.; Thirupathiah, S.; Rama, N.; Tiwari, Brajesh; Kottaisamy, M.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2007-10-01

    ZnO is a unique material that offers about a dozen different application possibilities. In spite of the fact that the ZnO lattice is amenable to metal ion doping (3d and 4f), the physics of doping in ZnO is not completely understood. This paper presents a review of previous research works on ZnO and also highlights results of our research activities on ZnO. The review pertains to the work on Al and Mg doping for conductivity and band gap tuning in ZnO followed by a report on transition metal (TM) ion doped ZnO. This review also highlights the work on the transport and optical studies of TM ion doped ZnO, nanostructured growth (ZnO polycrystalline and thin films) by different methods and the formation of unique nano- and microstructures obtained by pulsed laser deposition and chemical methods. This is followed by results on ZnO encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles that show promising trends suitable for various applications. We have also reviewed the non-linear characteristic studies of ZnO based heterostructures followed by an analysis on the work carried out on ZnO based phosphors, which include mainly the nanocrystalline ZnO encapsulated SiO2, a new class of phosphor that is suitable for white light emission.

  4. Exploring excitonic signal in optical conductivity of ZnO through first-order electron-hole vertex correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoirunnisa, Humaira; Aziz Majidi, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    The emergence of exitonic signal in the optical response of a wide band-gap semiconductor has been a common knowledge in physics. There have been numerous experimental studies exploring the important role of excitons on influencing both the transport and optical properties of the materials. Despite the existence of much information on excitonic effects, there has not been much literature that explores detailed theoretical explanation on how the exitonic signal appears and how it evolves with temperature. Here, we propose a theoretical study on the optical conductivity of ZnO, a well-known wide band-gap semiconductor that we choose as a case study. ZnO has been known to exhibit excitonic states in its optical spectra in the energy range of ∼3.13-3.41 eV, with a high exciton binding energy of ∼60 meV. An experimental study on ZnO in 2014 revealed such a signal in its optical conductivity spectrum. We present a theoretical investigation on the appearance of excitonic signal in optical conductivity of ZnO. We model the wurtzite ZnO within an 8-band k.p approximation. We calculate the optical conductivity by incorporating the first-order vertex correction derived from the Feynman diagrams. Our calculation up to the first-order correction spectrum qualitatively confirms the existence of excitons in wurtzite ZnO.

  5. Hierarchical core-shell structure of ZnO nanorod@NiO/MoO₂ composite nanosheet arrays for high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sucheng; Zhang, Guanhua; Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Jian; Gong, Feilong; Li, Feng; Duan, Huigao

    2014-08-27

    A hierarchical core-shell structure of ZnO nanorod@NiO/MoO2 composite nanosheet arrays on nickel foam substrate for high-performance supercapacitors was constructed by a two-step solution-based method involving two hydrothermal processes followed by a calcination treatment. Compared to one composed of pure NiO/MoO2 composite nanosheets, the hierarchical core-shell structure electrode displays better pseudocapacitive behaviors in 2 M KOH, including high areal specific capacitance values of 1.18 F cm(-2) at 5 mA cm(-2) and 0.6 F cm(-2) at 30 mA cm(-2) as well as relatively good rate capability at high current densities. Furthermore, it also shows remarkable cycle stability, remaining at 91.7% of the initial value even after 4000 cycles at a current density of 10 mA cm(-2). The enhanced pseudocapacitive behaviors are mainly due to the unique hierarchical core-shell structure and the synergistic effect of combining ZnO nanorod arrays and NiO/MoO2 composite nanosheets. This novel hierarchical core-shell structure shows promise for use in next-generation supercapacitors.

  6. Correlation between reflectance and photoluminescent properties of al-rich ZnO nano-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Firoz; Baek, Seong-Ho; Ahmad, Nafis; Lee, Gun Hee; Seo, Tae Hoon; Suh, Eun-kyung; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Al rich zinc oxide nano-structured films were synthesized using spin coating sol-gel technique. The films were annealed in oxygen ambient in the temperature range of 200-700 °C. The structural, optical, and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the films were studied at various annealing temperatures using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence emission spectra measurement, and Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The optical band gap was found to decrease with the increase of the annealing temperature following the Gauss Amp function due to the confinement of the exciton. The PL peak intensity in the near band region (INBE) was found to increase with the increase of the annealing temperature up to 600 °C, then to decrease fast to a lower value for the annealing temperature of 700 °C due to crystalline quality. The Raman peak of E2 (low) was red shifted from 118 cm-1 to 126 cm-1 with the increase of the annealing temperature. The intensity of the second order phonon (TA+LO) at 674 cm-1 was found to decrease with the increase of the annealing temperature. The normalized values of the reflectance and the PL intensity in the NBE region were highest for the annealing temperature of 600 °C. A special correlation was found between the reflectance at λ = 1000 nm and the normalized PL intensity in the green region due to scattering due to presence of grains.

  7. Nanoparticles of wurtzite aluminum nitride from the nut shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadri, S. B.; Gorzkowski, E. P.; Rath, B. B.; Feng, C. R.; Amarasinghe, R.

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticles of aluminum nitride were produced from a thermal treatment of a mixture of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and shells of almond, cashew, coconuts, pistachio, and walnuts in a nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures in excess of 1450 °C. By selecting the appropriate ratios of each nut powder to Al2O3, it is shown that stoichiometric aluminum nitride can be produced by carbo-thermal reduction in nitrogen atmosphere. Using x-ray diffraction analysis, Raman scattering and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that aluminum nitride consists of pure wurtzite phase. Transmission electron microscopy showed the formation of nanoparticles and in some cases nanotubes of AlN.

  8. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of nano-structured Zinc(II)-based metal-organic frameworks as precursors for the synthesis of ZnO nano-structures.

    PubMed

    Bigdeli, Fahime; Ghasempour, Hosein; Azhdari Tehrani, Alireza; Morsali, Ali; Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    A 3D, porous Zn(II)-based metal-organic framework {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmn)]·(DMF) 1.5 } n (TMU-21), (4-bpmn=N,N'-Bis-pyridin-4-ylmethylene-naphtalene-1,5-diamine, H 2 oba=4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid)) with nano-rods morphology under ultrasonic irradiation at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure was prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Sonication time and concentration of initial reagents effects on the size and morphology of nano-structured MOFs were studied. Also {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmn)] (TMU-21) and {[Zn 2 (oba) 2 (4-bpmb)] (TMU-6), 4-bpmb=N,N'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(1-(pyridin-4-yl)methanimine) were easily prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. Nanostructures of Zinc(II) oxide were obtained by calcination of these compounds and their de-solvated analogue as activated MOFs, at 550°C under air atmosphere. As a result of that, different Nanostructures of Zinc(II) oxide were obtained. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FT-IR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Phase Relations in the In 2O 3-Al 2ZnO 4-ZnO System at 1350°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masaki; Kimizuka, Noboru; Mohri, Takahiko; Isobe, Mitsumasa

    1993-08-01

    Phase relations in the In 2O 3-Al 2ZnO 4-ZnO system at 1350°C are determined by a classical quenching method. This system consists of In 2O 3, Al 2ZnO 4, ZnO, and homologous phases InAlO 3(ZnO) m ( m = 2, 3, …) having solid solutions with LuFeO 3(ZnO) m-type crystal structures. These solid solution ranges are as follows: In 1+ x1Al 1- x1O 3(ZnO) 2 ( x1 = 0.70)-In 1+ x2Al 1- x2O 3(ZnO) 2 ( x2 = 0.316-0.320), In 2O 3(ZnO) 3-In 1+ xAl 1- xO 3(ZnO) 3 ( x = 0.230), In 2O 3(ZnO) 4-In 1+ xAl 1- xO 3(ZnO) 4 ( x = 0.15-0.16), In 2O 3(ZnO) 5-In 1+ xAl 1- xO 3(ZnO) 5 ( x = 0.116-0.130), In 2O 3(ZnO) 6-In 1+ xAl 1- xO 3(ZnO) 6 ( x = 0.000-0.111), In 2O 3(ZnO) 7-In 1+ xAl 1- xO 3(ZnO) 7 ( x = 0.08), In 2O 3(ZnO) 8-In 1+ xAl 1- xO 3(ZnO) 8 ( x: undetermined), and In 2O 3(ZnO) m-InAlO 3(ZnO) m ( m = 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19). The space groups of these homologous phases belong to R3¯ m for m = odd or P6 3/ mmc for m = even. Their crystal structures, In 1+ xAl 1- xO 3(ZnO) m (0 < x < 1), consist of three kinds of layers: an InO 1.5 layer, an (In xAl 1- xZn)O 2.5 layer, and ZnO layers. A comparison of the phase relations in the In 2O 3- M2ZnO 4-ZnO systems ( M = Fe, Ga, or Al) is made and their characteristic features are discussed in terms of the ionic radii and site preferences of the M cations.

  10. Synthesis and optical properties of Co2+-doped ZnO Network prepared by new precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtari, Fereshteh; Zorriasatein, Suzan; Farahmandjou, Majid; Elahi, Seyed Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    Pure ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and Co/ZnO alloy NPs were synthesized with different percentages of cobalt impurity (1%, 3%, 5%, and 25%) with new precursors through the coprecipitation method. The structural results of the XRD analysis indicated that the pure and impure samples have a wurtzite hexagonal structure such that with an elevation of Co impurity up to 1%, the size of the nanocrystals declines by up to 30 nm. Furthermore, the FESEM analysis results suggest the homogeneity of the NPs such that with increased cobalt impurity, its level declines. The TEM analysis results revealed that the NPs with 5% impurity have a mean size of 32 nm in spherical form. The FTIR optical analysis results suggest a very sharp absorption peak within the wavelength ranges of 434–448 cm‑1, belonging to the Zn-O vibration bond. In addition, the absorption peak developed at the wavelength of 3428 cm‑1 is related to the activation of the OH radicals, whose absorption value grows with the addition of an impurity, thereby, causing enhanced photocatalytic activity. The UV-DRS optical analysis indicated that the absorption wavelength grows with increased impurity, causing the development of redshift and a reduction of the energy band gap. In this regard, for the pure sample, the band gap value was 3.18 eV, while for the sample with 5% impurity, the band gap was obtained as 2.68 eV. The VSM magnetic analysis suggests ferromagnetic development in the impure sample, with a saturation magnetism of 16 memu g‑1 and a coercivity field of 342 G.

  11. Effect of temperature on NH3 sensing by ZnO: Mg thin film grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoth, E.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2018-04-01

    Undoped and Mg doped (at l0 mol %) ZnO thin films have been grown on glass substrates by using the RF magnetron sputtering. The structural properties of the fabricated thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and it was found hexagonal wurtzite phase and preferential orientation along (002) of both films. Green Band Emission peaks in the Photoluminescence spectra confirm the structural defects such as oxygen vacancies (Vo) in the films. Uniform distribution of spherical shape morphology of grains observed in the both films by FESEM. However, the growth of grains was found in the Mg doped thin film. The temperature dependent ammonia sensing is done by the indigenously made gas sensing setup. The gas response of the both films was increased as the temperature increases, attains maximum at 75° C and then decreases. Response and recovery time measurementswere donefor boththe films and it shows the fast response time and quick recovery for doped thin film compared to the pure ZnO thin film.

  12. Strain-Gated Field Effect Transistor of a MoS2-ZnO 2D-1D Hybrid Structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Libo; Xue, Fei; Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Xin; Wang, Longfei; Kou, Jinzong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-26

    Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is an exciting material due to its unique electrical, optical, and piezoelectric properties. Owing to an intrinsic band gap of 1.2-1.9 eV, monolayer or a-few-layer MoS2 is used for fabricating field effect transistors (FETs) with high electron mobility and on/off ratio. However, the traditional FETs are controlled by an externally supplied gate voltage, which may not be sensitive enough to directly interface with a mechanical stimulus for applications in electronic skin. Here we report a type of top-pressure/force-gated field effect transistors (PGFETs) based on a hybrid structure of a 2D MoS2 flake and 1D ZnO nanowire (NW) array. Once an external pressure is applied, the piezoelectric polarization charges created at the tips of ZnO NWs grown on MoS2 act as a gate voltage to tune/control the source-drain transport property in MoS2. At a 6.25 MPa applied stimulus on a packaged device, the source-drain current can be tuned for ∼25%, equivalent to the results of applying an extra -5 V back gate voltage. Another type of PGFET with a dielectric layer (Al2O3) sandwiched between MoS2 and ZnO also shows consistent results. A theoretical model is proposed to interpret the received data. This study sets the foundation for applying the 2D material-based FETs in the field of artificial intelligence.

  13. Comparison of the structural properties of Zn-face and O-face single crystal homoepitaxial ZnO epilayers grown by RF-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schifano, R.; Riise, H. N.; Domagala, J. Z.; Azarov, A. Yu.; Ratajczak, R.; Monakhov, E. V.; Venkatachalapathy, V.; Vines, L.; Chan, K. S.; Wong-Leung, J.; Svensson, B. G.

    2017-01-01

    Homoepitaxial ZnO growth is demonstrated from conventional RF-sputtering at 400 °C on both Zn and O polar faces of hydrothermally grown ZnO substrates. A minimum yield for the Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrum, χmin, equal to ˜3% and ˜12% and a full width at half maximum of the 00.2 diffraction peak rocking curve of (70 ± 10) arc sec and (1400 ± 100) arc sec have been found for samples grown on the Zn and O face, respectively. The structural characteristics of the film deposited on the Zn face are comparable with those of epilayers grown by more complex techniques like molecular beam epitaxy. In contrast, the film simultaneously deposited on the O-face exhibits an inferior crystalline structure ˜0.7% strained in the c-direction and a higher atomic number contrast compared with the substrate, as revealed by high angle annular dark field imaging measurements. These differences between the Zn- and O-face films are discussed in detail and associated with the different growth mechanisms prevailing on the two surfaces.

  14. Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikant, V.; Speck, J. S.; Clarke, D. R.

    1997-11-01

    Epitaxial films having a large lattice mismatch with their substrate invariably form a mosaic structure of slightly misoriented sub-grains. The mosaic structure is usually characterized by its x-ray rocking curve on a surface normal reflection but this is limited to the out-of-plane component unless off-axis or transmission experiments are performed. A method is presented by which the in-plane component of the mosaic misorientation can be determined from the rocking curves of substrate normal and off-axis reflections. Results are presented for two crystallographically distinct heteroepitaxial systems, ZnO, AlN, and GaN (wurtzite crystal structure) on c-plane sapphire and MgO (rock salt crystal structure) on (001) GaAs. The differences in the mosaic structure of these films are attributed to the crystallographic nature of their lattice dislocations.

  15. Structural and electrical properties of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method

    SciT

    Vlazan, P.; Ursu, D.H.; Irina-Moisescu, C.

    TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method in two stages: first stage is the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and second stage the obtained ZnO nanoparticles are encapsulated in TiO{sub 2}. The obtained ZnO, TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer, Emmett, Teller and resistance measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of both, TiO{sub 2} and ZnO phases in TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles. According to transmission electron microscopy images, ZnO nanoparticles have hexagonal shapes, TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a spherical shape, and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shellmore » nanoparticles present agglomerates and the shape of particles is not well defined. The activation energy of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about 101 meV. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of XRD, TEM and BET. • Electrical properties of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated. • The activation energy of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about E{sub a} = 101 meV.« less

  16. Growth and characterization of highly conducting Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardana, Sanjay K.; Singh, Anil; Srivastava, Sanjay K.; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2018-05-01

    A comparative study of undoped ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis has been carried out at various aqueous molar concentration of zinc acetate. The thin films deposited on glass shows the wurtzite phase of ZnO, confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The optical study shows the high transmittance over 80% in the visible regime. The band gap of AZO thin films shows a blue shift as compared to undoped ZnO, which has been attributed to Burstein-Moss shift. Heat treatment of these samples in vacuum showed the improved conductivity in compared to as-deposited thin films. The electric study shows the minimum resistivity of 8 x 10-3 Ω-cm and carrier concentration of 6.5 × 1019 /cm3 correspond to AZO thin films.

  17. Structure and Electric Conduction in Pulsed Laser-Deposited ZnO Thin Films Individually Doped with N, P, or Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, D. L.; Zhong, X. C.; Qiu, W. Q.; Zhang, H.; Liu, Z. W.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2018-03-01

    N-, P-, and Na-doped ZnO films with c-axis orientation were produced by pulsed laser deposition using N2O or O2 as the reaction gas. The effects of deposition temperature and deposition pressure on the lattice structure, morphology, and electric conduction have been investigated. High gas pressure leads to large-sized grains with large grain barriers, which cause a reduced mobility. P acts as an acceptor and the number of compensating defects in the P-doped film is reduced under high O2 pressure. Na also acts as an acceptor, and the effects of high temperature on Na-doped films are encouraging as the solubility of the dopant is high. However, high temperature may cause less incorporation of N and P in the film. In the present work, p-type conduction has not been obtained in N- and P-doped films despite a wide range of processing parameters employed. Na-doped films display an increasing trend towards p-type films at high temperatures and high O2 pressures. These results provide an insight on how these dopants behave in ZnO films and indicate that the careful selection of the deposition conditions is necessary in order to obtain p-type films by pulsed laser deposition.

  18. Studies of electronic structure of ZnO grain boundary and its proximity by using spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, H. C.; Dai, J. Y.; Du, G. T.

    2002-07-01

    The low electron energy loss and complex dielectric functions of an arbitrary grain boundary and its proximity in ZnO thin films have been studied by using the spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy. The critical point parameters have been determined by fitting the dielectric functions simultaneously with analytical line shape model. Gradual changes have been observed in the dielectric functions spectra. The critical points are found to redshift and then blueshift when the electron beam scanned across the grain boundary, which suggest the distinctive electronic structure not only of the grain boundary but also of the depletion region. In addition, comparison has been made between the experiment and the recent theoretical studies to account for the interband transitions that occur in the grain boundaries. Several features predicted by the theory are qualitatively found to be consistent with our results. The presence of dangling bonds instead of bond distortion is attributed to be the major cause of defects in the grain boundaries of ZnO.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of single-phase Mn-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Dutta, S.; Banerjee, A.; Jana, D.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Sarkar, A.

    2009-05-01

    Different samples of Zn 1-xMn xO series have been prepared using conventional solid-state sintering method. We identified up to what extent doping will enable us to synthesize single-phase polycrystalline Mn-doped ZnO sample, which is one of the prerequisites for dilute magnetic semiconductor, and we have analyzed its some other physical aspects. In synthesizing the samples, proportion of Mn varies from 1 to 5 at%. However, the milling time varied (6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h) only for 2 at% Mn-doped samples while for other samples (1, 3, 4 and 5 at% Mn doped) the milling time has been fixed to 96 h. Room-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) data reveal that all of the prepared samples up to 3 at% of Mn doping exhibit wurtzite-type structure, and no segregation of Mn and/or its oxides has been found. The 4 at% Mn-doped samples show a weak peak of ZnMn 2O 4 apart from the other usual peaks of ZnO and the intensity of this impurity peak has been further increased for 5 at% of Mn doping. So beyond 3 at% doping, single-phase behavior is destroyed. Band gap for all the 2 at% Mn-doped samples has been estimated to be between 3.21 and 3.19 eV and the reason for this low band gap values has been explained through the grain boundary trapping model. The room-temperature resistivity measurement shows an increase of resistivity up to 48 h of milling and with further milling it saturates. The defect state of these samples has been investigated using the positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy technique. Here all the relevant lifetime parameters of positron i.e. free annihilation ( τ1) at defect site ( τ2) and average ( τav) increases with milling time.

  20. A Highly-Sensitive Picric Acid Chemical Sensor Based on ZnO Nanopeanuts.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed A; Tiwari, Preeti; Al-Assiri, M S; Al-Salami, A E; Umar, Ahmad; Kumar, Rajesh; Kim, S H; Ansari, Z A; Baskoutas, S

    2017-07-13

    Herein, we report a facile synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical sensing application of ZnO nanopeanuts synthesized by a simple aqueous solution process and characterized by various techniques in order to confirm the compositional, morphological, structural, crystalline phase, and optical properties of the synthesized material. The detailed characterizations revealed that the synthesized material possesses a peanut-shaped morphology, dense growth, and a wurtzite hexagonal phase along with good crystal and optical properties. Further, to ascertain the useful properties of the synthesized ZnO nanopeanut as an excellent electron mediator, electrochemical sensors were fabricated based on the form of a screen printed electrode (SPE). Electrochemical and current-voltage characteristics were studied for the determination of picric acid sensing characteristics. The electrochemical sensor fabricated based on the SPE technique exhibited a reproducible and reliable sensitivity of ~1.2 μA/mM (9.23 μA·mM -1 ·cm -2 ), a lower limit of detection at 7.8 µM, a regression coefficient ( R ²) of 0.94, and good linearity over the 0.0078 mM to 10.0 mM concentration range. In addition, the sensor response was also tested using simple I-V techniques, wherein a sensitivity of 493.64 μA·mM -1 ·cm -2 , an experimental Limit of detection (LOD) of 0.125 mM, and a linear dynamic range (LDR) of 1.0 mM-5.0 mM were observed for the fabricated picric acid sensor.

  1. A Highly-Sensitive Picric Acid Chemical Sensor Based on ZnO Nanopeanuts

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed A.; Tiwari, Preeti; Al-Assiri, M. S.; Al-Salami, A. E.; Umar, Ahmad; Kumar, Rajesh; Kim, S. H.; Ansari, Z. A.; Baskoutas, S.

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we report a facile synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical sensing application of ZnO nanopeanuts synthesized by a simple aqueous solution process and characterized by various techniques in order to confirm the compositional, morphological, structural, crystalline phase, and optical properties of the synthesized material. The detailed characterizations revealed that the synthesized material possesses a peanut-shaped morphology, dense growth, and a wurtzite hexagonal phase along with good crystal and optical properties. Further, to ascertain the useful properties of the synthesized ZnO nanopeanut as an excellent electron mediator, electrochemical sensors were fabricated based on the form of a screen printed electrode (SPE). Electrochemical and current-voltage characteristics were studied for the determination of picric acid sensing characteristics. The electrochemical sensor fabricated based on the SPE technique exhibited a reproducible and reliable sensitivity of ~1.2 μA/mM (9.23 μA·mM−1·cm−2), a lower limit of detection at 7.8 µM, a regression coefficient (R2) of 0.94, and good linearity over the 0.0078 mM to 10.0 mM concentration range. In addition, the sensor response was also tested using simple I-V techniques, wherein a sensitivity of 493.64 μA·mM−1·cm−2, an experimental Limit of detection (LOD) of 0.125 mM, and a linear dynamic range (LDR) of 1.0 mM–5.0 mM were observed for the fabricated picric acid sensor. PMID:28773151

  2. Effects of Substrate and Post-Growth Treatments on the Microstructure and Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseman, Micah; Saadatkia, P.; Winarski, D. J.; Selim, F. A.; Leedy, K. D.; Tetlak, S.; Look, D. C.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition on silicon, quartz and sapphire substrates and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, conductivity mapping, Hall effect measurements and positron annihilation spectroscopy. XRD showed that the as-grown films are of single-phase ZnO wurtzite structure and do not contain any secondary or impurity phases. The type of substrate was found to affect the orientation and degree of crystallinity of the films but had no effect on the defect structure or the transport properties of the films. High conductivity of 10-3 Ω cm, electron mobility of 20 cm2/Vs and carrier density of 1020 cm-3 were measured in most films. Thermal treatments in various atmospheres induced a large effect on the thickness, structure and electrical properties of the films. Annealing in a Zn and nitrogen environment at 400°C for 1 h led to a 16% increase in the thickness of the film; this indicates that Zn extracts oxygen atoms from the matrix and forms new layers of ZnO. On the other hand, annealing in a hydrogen atmosphere led to the emergence of an Al2O3 peak in the XRD pattern, which implies that hydrogen and Al atoms compete to occupy Zn sites in the ZnO lattice. Only ambient air annealing had an effect on film defect density and electrical properties, generating reductions in conductivity and electron mobility. Depth-resolved measurements of positron annihilation spectroscopy revealed short positron diffusion lengths and high concentrations of defects in all as-grown films. However, these defects did not diminish the electrical conductivity in the films.

  3. A facile method for synthesis of well-coated ZnO@graphene core/shell structure by self-assembly of amine-functionalized ZnO and graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Song, Lixin; Zhang, Yuzhi; Wang, Panpan; Liu, Yangqiao; Wu, Lingnan; Zhang, Tao

    2016-06-01

    The core/shell structure was formed by GO self-assembled with amine-functionalized commercial ZnO (CZO) and preparative hexagonal ZnO (HZO), respectively. Graphene-coated CZO and HZO were obtained after being reduced in Ar at 500 °C. The mechanism of the coating procedure was investigated by measuring their respective zeta potential values. Our characterizations demonstrate that graphene on HZO has better quality and fewer layers. An obvious band gap decrease of ZnO was observed for coating with graphene. Photoluminescence spectra of ZnO@graphene core/shell composites display the fluorescence quenching property, which indicates its good application prospect in optoelectronics, photocatalytic and other fields.

  4. Internal stress and opto-electronic properties of ZnO thin films deposited by reactive sputtering in various oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuyaerts, Romain; Poncelet, Olivier; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Proost, Joris

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we propose ZnO thin films as a suitable material for piezoresistors in transparent and flexible electronics. ZnO thin films have been deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature at various oxygen partial pressures. All the films have a wurtzite structure with a strong (0002) texture measured by XRD and are almost stoichiometric as measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The effect of oxygen concentration on grain growth has been studied by in-situ multi-beam optical stress sensor, showing internal stress going from 350 MPa to -1.1 GPa. The transition between tensile and compressive stress corresponds to the transition between metallic and oxidized mode of reactive sputtering. This transition also induces a large variation in optical properties—from absorbent to transparent, and in the resistivity—from 4 × 10 - 2 Ω .cm to insulating. Finally, the piezoresistance of the thin film has been studied and showed a gauge factor (ΔR/R)/ɛ comprised between -5.8 and -8.5.

  5. Ferromagnetic mechanism of (Co, Cu)-codoped ZnO films with different Co concentrations investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Huan; Du, Xiaosong; Xu, Ming

    2016-05-01

    Cobalt/copper-codoped ZnO nanoparticles, synthesized with different Co concentrations by a sol-gel method using ethanol as solvent, were studied via XPS. Hexagonal wurtzite structure was found in all samples, with no evidence of any secondary phase. The average crystallite size of the samples was around 20-30 nm, altered significantly with increasing Co concentration. Copper ions and Cobalt ions are indeed substituted into the ZnO lattice at the Zn2+ site, as shown by XRD and XPS. Further studies showed dramatic changes of Cu valence from +2 to +1 as the Co concentration level exceeds 1%, accompanied by a blue-shift of the optical bandgap from 3.01 to 3.13 eV. Ferromagnetism of the Co-doped Zn0.95Cu0.05O thin films was observed and found to be tunable - a phenomenon associated with the valence state of the Cu ions and the existence of some defects like oxygen vacancies in the films.

  6. In-Doped ZnO Hexagonal Stepped Nanorods and Nanodisks as Potential Scaffold for Highly-Sensitive Phenyl Hydrazine Chemical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Umar, Ahmad; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kumar, Rajesh; Al-Assiri, Mohammad S; Al-Salami, A E; Ibrahim, Ahmed A; Baskoutas, Sotirios

    2017-11-21

    Herein, we report the growth of In-doped ZnO (IZO) nanomaterials, i.e., stepped hexagonal nanorods and nanodisks by the thermal evaporation process using metallic zinc and indium powders in the presence of oxygen. The as-grown IZO nanomaterials were investigated by several techniques in order to examine their morphological, structural, compositional and optical properties. The detailed investigations confirmed that the grown nanomaterials, i.e., nanorods and nanodisks possess well-crystallinity with wurtzite hexagonal phase and grown in high density. The room-temperature PL spectra exhibited a suppressed UV emissions with strong green emissions for both In-doped ZnO nanomaterials, i.e., nanorods and nanodisks. From an application point of view, the grown IZO nanomaterials were used as a potential scaffold to fabricate sensitive phenyl hydrazine chemical sensors based on the I-V technique. The observed sensitivities of the fabricated sensors based on IZO nanorods and nanodisks were 70.43 μA·mM -1 cm -2 and 130.18 μA·mM -1 cm -2 , respectively. For both the fabricated sensors, the experimental detection limit was 0.5 μM, while the linear range was 0.5 μM-5.0 mM. The observed results revealed that the simply grown IZO nanomaterials could efficiently be used to fabricate highly sensitive chemical sensors.

  7. S-induced modifications of the optoelectronic properties of ZnO mesoporous nanobelts

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Filippo; Nasi, Lucia; Fedeli, Paolo; Ferro, Patrizia; Salviati, Giancarlo; Mosca, Roberto; Calzolari, Arrigo; Catellani, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of ZnO porous nanobelts with high surface-to-volume ratio is envisaged to enhance the zinc oxide sensing and photocatalytic properties. Yet, controlled stoichiometry, doping and compensation of as-grown n-type behavior remain open problems for this compound. Here, we demonstrate the effect of residual sulfur atoms on the optical properties of ZnO highly porous, albeit purely wurtzite, nanobelts synthesized by solvothermal decomposition of ZnS hybrids. By means of combined cathodoluminescence analyses and density functional theory calculations, we attribute a feature appearing at 2.36 eV in the optical emission spectra to sulfur related intra-gap states. A comparison of different sulfur configurations in the ZnO matrix demonstrates the complex compensating effect on the electronic properties of the system induced by S-inclusion. PMID:27301986

  8. Structural and optical properties of magnetron sputtered MgxZn1-xO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gupte, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.

    2006-04-01

    MgxZn1-xO (MZO) thin films prepared by an rf magnetron sputtering technique are reported. The films were grown at room temperature and at relatively low rf power of 50 W. MZO thin films were found to possess preferred c-axis orientation and exhibited hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO up to a Mg concentration of 42 mol%. A small variation in the c-axis lattice parameter of around 0.3% was observed with increasing Mg composition, showing the complete solubility of Mg in ZnO. The band gap of the MZO films in the wurtzite phase varied linearly with the Mg concentration and a maximum band gap ~4.19 eV was achieved at x = 0.42. The refractive indices of the MgO films were found to decrease with increasing Mg content. The observed optical dispersion data are in agreement with the single oscillator model. A photoluminescence study revealed a blue shift in the near band edge emission peak with increasing Mg content in the MZO films. The results show the potential of MZO films in various opto-electronic applications.

  9. Praseodymium - A Competent Dopant for Luminescent Downshifting and Photocatalysis in ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Nripasree; Deepak, N. K.

    2018-05-01

    Highly transparent and conducting Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films doped with Praseodymium (Pr) were deposited on glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the polycrystallinity of the deposited films with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, whereas the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis confirmed the incorporation of Pr in the films. The optical energy gap decreased by Pr doping due to the merging of the conduction band with the impurity bands formed within the forbidden gap. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the Pr-doped film showed enhancement of visible emission, suggesting efficient luminescent downshifting. The photocatalytic activity of the Pr-doped films is higher than that of undoped films due to the effective suppression of the rapid recombination of the photo-generated electron-hole pairs. The impurity levels formed within the forbidden gap act as efficient luminescent centers and electron traps, which lead to luminescent downshifting and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  10. Thermal, optical and gas sensing properties of ZnO films prepared by different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Sonik; Verma, Neha; Aggarwal, Munish

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, for environmental protection, the use of portable gas sensor is essential to detect toxic gases. To control this problem of hazardous gases, metal oxide based sensors plays a vital role. In this recent study, Indium (2 at.wt.%) doped ZnO films has been prepared by sol gel spin coating and thermal evaporation techniques on glass substrates. To enhance the sensing properties, indium (In) was used as dopant and their annealing effect of temperature was observed. Thermal properties have shown the fruitful result that prepared films are useful for the fabrication of solar cell. Electrical properties revealed that capacitance and dielectric constant decreases with increase in frequency. X-ray Diffraction showed hexagonal wurtzite structure highly oriented along (1 0 1) plane. Field emission scanning electron microscope of these synthesis films prepared by different have shown the morphology as nanospheres having size of the order of 40-60 nm. 2.0 at.% of indium as modifier resulted in highest response and selectivity towards 5 ppm of NO2 gas at different operating temperature (50-200 °C). Highest sensitivity was obtained at operating temperature of 150 °C. Prepared films have quick response and recovery time in the range of 14-27 s and 67-63 s. The highest response and recovery time of gas sensor was explained by valence ion mechanism.

  11. Growth and photocatalytic properties of Sb-doped ZnO nanoneedles by hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaker, M.; Umar, Ahmad; Al-Sayari, S. A.; Dar, G. N.; Faisal, M.; Kim, S. H.; Hwang, S. W.

    2011-10-01

    This paper reports a facile hydrothermal synthesis of Sb-doped ZnO nanoneedles by using aqueous mixtures of zinc chloride, antimony (Sb) chloride, hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and ammonium hydroxide at low temperature of 110 °C. The morphological characterizations of as-synthesized nanoneedles were done by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) which reveals that the nanoneedles are grown in large-quantity and arranged in such a special manner that they made flower-like morphologies. The structural characterization of as-synthesized nanoneedles was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern which confirm the well-crystalline and wurtzite hexagonal phase of as-synthesized products. The compositional characterization of as-synthesized nanoneedles was characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), which verify that the synthesized nanoneedles are composed of zinc, Sb and oxygen. For application point of view, the synthesized nanoneedles were used as photocatalyst for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MBB) and it was found that it exhibit good photocatalytic properties towards the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

  12. Computational investigation of structural and electronic properties of aqueous interfaces of GaN, ZnO, and a GaN/ZnO alloy.

    PubMed

    Kharche, Neerav; Hybertsen, Mark S; Muckerman, James T

    2014-06-28

    The GaN/ZnO alloy functions as a visible-light photocatalyst for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. As a first step toward understanding the mechanism and energetics of water-splitting reactions, we investigate the microscopic structure of the aqueous interfaces of the GaN/ZnO alloy and compare them with the aqueous interfaces of pure GaN and ZnO. Specifically, we have studied the (101̄0) surface of GaN and ZnO and the (101̄0) and (12̄10) surfaces of the 1 : 1 GaN/ZnO alloy. The calculations are carried out using first-principles density functional theory based molecular dynamics (DFT-MD). The structure of water within a 3 Å distance from the semiconductor surface is significantly altered by the acid/base chemistry of the aqueous interface. Water adsorption on all surfaces is substantially dissociative such that the surface anions (N or O) act as bases accepting protons from dissociated water molecules while the corresponding hydroxide ions bond with surface cations (Ga or Zn). Additionally, the hard-wall interface presented by the semiconductor imparts ripples in the density of water. Beyond a 3 Å distance from the semiconductor surface, water exhibits a bulk-like hydrogen bond network and oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function. Taken together, these characteristics represent the resting (or "dark") state of the catalytic interface. The electronic structure analysis of the aqueous GaN/ZnO interface suggests that the photogenerated holes may get trapped on interface species other than the adsorbed OH(-) ions. This suggests additional dynamical steps in the water oxidation process.

  13. Mechanical, structural and thermal properties of Ag-Cu and ZnO reinforced polylactide nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jasim; Arfat, Yasir Ali; Castro-Aguirre, Edgar; Auras, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Plasticized polylactic acid (PLA) based nanocomposite films were prepared by incorporating polyethylene glycol (PEG) and two selected nanoparticles (NPs) [silver-copper (Ag-Cu) alloy (<100 nm) and zinc oxide (ZnO) (<50 and <100 nm)] through solvent casting method. Incorporation of Ag-Cu alloy into the PLA/PEG matrix increased the glass transition temperature (Tg) significantly. The crystallinity of the nanocomposites (NCs) was significantly influenced by NP incorporation as evidenced from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The PLA nanocomposite reinforced with NPs exhibited much higher tensile strength than that of PLA/PEG blend. Melt rheology of NCs exhibited a shear-thinning behavior. The mechanical property drastically reduced with a loading of NPs, which is associated with degradation of PLA. SEM micrographs exhibited that both Ag-Cu alloy and ZnO NPs were dispersed well in the PLA film matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of iodine dopant amount effects on dye-sensitized hierarchically structured ZnO solar cells

    SciT

    Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029; Ding, Haiyang

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The effect of I amount on the photovoltaic performance was investigated. • The enhancement in η of ZnO:I DSSCs was from 38% to 77% compared with ZnO DSSCs. • Appropriate I doping enhanced light harness and inhibited charge recombination. - Abstract: We prepare a series of iodine doped zinc oxide monodisperse aggregates (ZnO:I) with various iodine concentrations as the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to study iodine dopant amount-dependent photovoltaic performance. The iodine-doped DSSCs achieve overall conversion efficiency (η) of 3.6–4.6%. The enhancement in η of ZnO:I DSSCs is from 38% to 77% as compared to undopedmore » ZnO DSSCs. The significantly enhanced η of DSSCs is found to be correlated with iodine dopant amount. The optimum iodine dopant amount is determined to be 2.3 wt% by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the incident photon to current conversion efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data reveal a systematic correlation between photovoltaic properties and the iodine dopant amount. The enhancement of open-circuit potential of ZnO:I cells is arising from negative shift of their flat-band potential, as demonstrated by Mott–Schottky measurement.« less

  15. Mechanical, Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende GaN Crystals.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongbo; Luan, Xinghe; Feng, Chuang; Yang, Daoguo; Zhang, Guoqi

    2017-12-12

    For the limitation of experimental methods in crystal characterization, in this study, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Firstly, bulk moduli, shear moduli, elastic moduli and Poisson's ratios of the two GaN polycrystals were calculated using Voigt and Hill approximations, and the results show wurtzite GaN has larger shear and elastic moduli and exhibits more obvious brittleness. Moreover, both wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN monocrystals present obvious mechanical anisotropic behavior. For wurtzite GaN monocrystal, the maximum and minimum elastic moduli are located at orientations [001] and <111>, respectively, while they are in the orientations <111> and <100> for zinc-blende GaN monocrystal, respectively. Compared to the elastic modulus, the shear moduli of the two GaN monocrystals have completely opposite direction dependences. However, different from elastic and shear moduli, the bulk moduli of the two monocrystals are nearly isotropic, especially for the zinc-blende GaN. Besides, in the wurtzite GaN, Poisson's ratios at the planes containing [001] axis are anisotropic, and the maximum value is 0.31 which is located at the directions vertical to [001] axis. For zinc-blende GaN, Poisson's ratios at planes (100) and (111) are isotropic, while the Poisson's ratio at plane (110) exhibits dramatically anisotropic phenomenon. Additionally, the calculated Debye temperatures of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 641.8 and 620.2 K, respectively. At 300 K, the calculated heat capacities of wurtzite and zinc-blende are 33.6 and 33.5 J mol -1 K -1 , respectively. Finally, the band gap is located at the G point for the two crystals, and the band gaps of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 3.62 eV and 3.06 eV, respectively. At the G point, the lowest energy of conduction band in the wurtzite GaN is larger, resulting in a wider band

  16. Mechanical, Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende GaN Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Xinghe; Feng, Chuang; Yang, Daoguo; Zhang, Guoqi

    2017-01-01

    For the limitation of experimental methods in crystal characterization, in this study, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Firstly, bulk moduli, shear moduli, elastic moduli and Poisson’s ratios of the two GaN polycrystals were calculated using Voigt and Hill approximations, and the results show wurtzite GaN has larger shear and elastic moduli and exhibits more obvious brittleness. Moreover, both wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN monocrystals present obvious mechanical anisotropic behavior. For wurtzite GaN monocrystal, the maximum and minimum elastic moduli are located at orientations [001] and <111>, respectively, while they are in the orientations <111> and <100> for zinc-blende GaN monocrystal, respectively. Compared to the elastic modulus, the shear moduli of the two GaN monocrystals have completely opposite direction dependences. However, different from elastic and shear moduli, the bulk moduli of the two monocrystals are nearly isotropic, especially for the zinc-blende GaN. Besides, in the wurtzite GaN, Poisson’s ratios at the planes containing [001] axis are anisotropic, and the maximum value is 0.31 which is located at the directions vertical to [001] axis. For zinc-blende GaN, Poisson’s ratios at planes (100) and (111) are isotropic, while the Poisson’s ratio at plane (110) exhibits dramatically anisotropic phenomenon. Additionally, the calculated Debye temperatures of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 641.8 and 620.2 K, respectively. At 300 K, the calculated heat capacities of wurtzite and zinc-blende are 33.6 and 33.5 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. Finally, the band gap is located at the G point for the two crystals, and the band gaps of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 3.62 eV and 3.06 eV, respectively. At the G point, the lowest energy of conduction band in the wurtzite GaN is larger, resulting in a

  17. Structural and dielectric properties of Al x Zn1- x O ( x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Neha; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Varun

    2018-05-01

    The chemical precipitation method is followed for the synthesis of Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with varying doping concentrations (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 M). A single hexagonal crystalline phase of wurtzite structure has been confirmed for all the samples by X-ray diffraction. Crystalline size and microstrain of the un-doped and doped ZnO (NPs) is determined by the Williamson-Hall (W-H) analysis. The optical properties like band gap and Urbach energy are found out by the UV-visible spectroscopy. The functional bonds are detailed by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy. The dielectric properties have been shown by doped sample due to hopping mechanisms as compared to the undoped. The loss factor (tan δ) follows an inverse direction as correspond to frequency due to the presence of dielectric dispersion.

  18. Physicochemical properties of surface charge-modified ZnO nanoparticles with different particle sizes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Choi, Mun-Hyoung; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Paek, Seung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    In this study, four types of standardized ZnO nanoparticles were prepared for assessment of their potential biological risk. Powder-phased ZnO nanoparticles with different particle sizes (20 nm and 100 nm) were coated with citrate or L-serine to induce a negative or positive surface charge, respectively. The four types of coated ZnO nanoparticles were subjected to physicochemical evaluation according to the guidelines published by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. All four samples had a well crystallized Wurtzite phase, with particle sizes of ∼30 nm and ∼70 nm after coating with organic molecules. The coating agents were determined to have attached to the ZnO surfaces through either electrostatic interaction or partial coordination bonding. Electrokinetic measurements showed that the surface charges of the ZnO nanoparticles were successfully modified to be negative (about −40 mV) or positive (about +25 mV). Although all the four types of ZnO nanoparticles showed some agglomeration when suspended in water according to dynamic light scattering analysis, they had clearly distinguishable particle size and surface charge parameters and well defined physicochemical properties. PMID:25565825

  19. Carrier thermalization dynamics in single zincblende and wurtzite InP Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuda; Jackson, Howard E; Smith, Leigh M; Burgess, Tim; Paiman, Suriati; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2014-12-10

    Using transient Rayleigh scattering (TRS) measurements, we obtain photoexcited carrier thermalization dynamics for both zincblende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) InP single nanowires (NW) with picosecond resolution. A phenomenological fitting model based on direct band-to-band transition theory is developed to extract the electron-hole-plasma density and temperature as a function of time from TRS measurements of single nanowires, which have complex valence band structures. We find that the thermalization dynamics of hot carriers depends strongly on material (GaAs NW vs InP NW) and less strongly on crystal structure (ZB vs WZ). The thermalization dynamics of ZB and WZ InP NWs are similar. But a comparison of the thermalization dynamics in ZB and WZ InP NWs with ZB GaAs NWs reveals more than an order of magnitude slower relaxation for the InP NWs. We interpret these results as reflecting their distinctive phonon band structures that lead to different hot phonon effects. Knowledge of hot carrier thermalization dynamics is an essential component for effective incorporation of nanowire materials into electronic devices.

  20. Preparation, structural, photoluminescence and magnetic studies of Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles co-doped with Ni by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theyvaraju, D.; Muthukumaran, S.

    2015-11-01

    Zn0.96-xNi0.04CuxO nanoparticles have been synthesized by varying different Cu concentrations between 0% and 4% using simple sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the hexagonal structure of the prepared samples. The formation of secondary phases, CuO (111) and Zn (101) at higher Cu content is due un-reacted Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions present in the solution which reduces the interaction between precursor ions and surfaces of ZnO. Well agglomerated and rod-like structure noticed at Cu=4% greatly de-generate and enhanced the particle size. The nominal elemental composition of Zn, Cu, Ni and O was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Even though energy gap was increased (blue-shift) from Cu=0-2% by quantum size effect, the s-d and p-d exchange interactions between the band electrons of ZnO and localized d electrons of Cu and Ni led to decrease (red-shift) the energy gap at Cu=4%. Presence of Zn-Ni-Cu-O bond was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. Ultraviolet emission by band to band electronic transition and defect related blue emission were discussed by photoluminescence spectra. The observed optical properties concluded that the doping of Cu in the present system is useful to tune the emission wavelength and hence acting as the important candidates for the optoelectronic device applications. Ferromagnetic ordering of Cu=2% sample was enhanced by charge carrier concentration where as the antiferromagnetic interaction between neighboring Cu-Cu ions suppressed the ferromagnetism at higher doping concentrations of Cu.

  1. ZnO nanorods/ZnS.(1,6-hexanediamine)0.5 hybrid nanoplates hierarchical heteroarchitecture with improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhengcui; Wu, Yaqin; Pei, Tonghui; Wang, Huan; Geng, Baoyou

    2014-02-01

    Novel hierarchical heteronanostructures of ZnO nanorods/ZnS.(HDA)0.5 (HDA = 1,6-hexanediamine) hybrid nanoplates on a zinc substrate are successfully synthesized on a large scale by combining hydrothermal growth (for ZnO nanorods) and liquid chemical conversion (for ZnS.(HDA)0.5 nanoplates) techniques. The formation of ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates branches takes advantage of the preferential binding of 1,6-hexanediamine on specific facets of ZnS, which makes the thickening rate much lower than the lateral growth rate. The ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates have a layered structure with 1,6-hexanediamine inserted into interlayers of wurtzite ZnS through the bonding of nitrogen. The number density and thickness of the secondary ZnS.(HDA)0.5 nanoplates can be conveniently engineered by variation of the sulfur source and straightforward adjustment of reactant concentrations such as 1,6-hexanediamine and the sulfur source. The fabricated ZnO/ZnS.(HDA)0.5 heteronanostructures show improved electrochemical catalytic properties for hydrazine compared with the primary ZnO nanorods. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, this approach could be similarly used to fabricate varieties of hybrid heterostructures made of materials with an intrinsic large lattice mismatch.Novel hierarchical heteronanostructures of ZnO nanorods/ZnS.(HDA)0.5 (HDA = 1,6-hexanediamine) hybrid nanoplates on a zinc substrate are successfully synthesized on a large scale by combining hydrothermal growth (for ZnO nanorods) and liquid chemical conversion (for ZnS.(HDA)0.5 nanoplates) techniques. The formation of ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates branches takes advantage of the preferential binding of 1,6-hexanediamine on specific facets of ZnS, which makes the thickening rate much lower than the lateral growth rate. The ZnS.(HDA)0.5 hybrid nanoplates have a layered structure with 1,6-hexanediamine inserted into interlayers of wurtzite ZnS through the bonding of nitrogen. The number density and thickness of the

  2. Multifunctional transparent ZnO nanorod films.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Geunjae; Jung, Sungmook; Yong, Kijung

    2011-03-18

    Transparent ZnO nanorod (NR) films that exhibit extreme wetting states (either superhydrophilicity or superhydrophobicity through surface chemical modification), high transmittance, UV protection and antireflection have been prepared via the facile ammonia hydrothermal method. The periodic 1D ZnO NR arrays showed extreme wetting states as well as antireflection properties due to their unique surface structure and prevented the UVA region from penetrating the substrate due to the unique material property of ZnO. Because of the simple, time-efficient and low temperature preparation process, ZnO NR films with useful functionalities are promising for fabrication of highly light transmissive, antireflective, UV protective, antifogging and self-cleaning optical materials to be used for optical devices and photovoltaic energy devices.

  3. Substitutional and interstitial oxygen in wurtzite GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. F.

    2005-11-01

    Density-functional theory was used to compute energy-minimum configurations and formation energies of substitutional and interstitial oxygen (O) in wurtzite GaN. The results indicate that O substituted at a N site (ON) acts as a single donor with the ionized state (ON+1) being the most stable O state in p-type GaN. In n-type GaN, interstitial O (OI) is predicted to be a double acceptor and O substituted at a Ga site (OGa) is predicted to be a triple acceptor. The formation energies of these two species are comparable to that of ON in n-type GaN and, as such, they should form and compensate the ON donors. The extent of compensation was estimated for both Ga-rich and N-rich conditions with a total O concentration of 1017cm-3. Ga-rich conditions yielded negligible compensation and an ON concentration in excess of 9.9×1016cm-3. N-rich conditions yielded a 25% lower ON concentration, due to the increased stability of OI and OGa relative to ON, and moderate compensation. These findings are consistent with experimental results indicating that O acts as a donor in GaN(O). Complexes of ON with the Mg acceptor and OI with the Si donor were examined. Binding energies for charge-conserving reactions were ⩾0.5eV, indicating that these complexes can exist in equilibrium at room temperature. Complexes of ON with the Ga vacancy in n-type GaN were also examined and their binding energies were 1.2 and 1.4eV, indicating that appreciable concentrations can exist in equilibrium even at elevated temperatures.

  4. Polytype transition of N-face GaN:Mg from wurtzite to zinc-blende

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroy, E.; Hermann, M.; Sarigiannidou, E.; Andreev, T.; Holliger, P.; Monnoye, S.; Mank, H.; Daudin, B.; Eickhoff, M.

    2004-10-01

    We have investigated the polytype conversion of a GaN film from N-face wurtzite (2H) to zinc-blende (3C) structure due to Mg doping during growth by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. Structural analysis by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurement revealed alignment of the cubic phase with the [111] axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. The optical characteristics of GaN:Mg layers are shown to be very sensitive to the presence of the cubic polytype. For low Mg doping, photoluminescence is dominated by a phonon-replicated donor-acceptor pair at ˜3.25eV, related to the shallow Mg acceptor level, accompanied by a narrow excitonic emission. For high Mg doping, the photoluminescence spectra are also dominated by a line around 3.25eV, but this emission displays the behavior of excitonic luminescence from cubic GaN. A cubic-related donor-acceptor transition at ˜3.16eV is also observed, together with a broad blue band around 2.9eV, previously reported in heavily Mg-doped 3C-GaN(001).

  5. Photoluminescence study of as-grown vertically standing wurtzite InP nanowire ensembles.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Azhar; Beech, Jason P; Anttu, Nicklas; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Samuelson, Lars; Borgström, Magnus T; Yartsev, Arkady

    2013-03-22

    We demonstrate a method that enables the study of photoluminescence of as-grown nanowires on a native substrate by non-destructively suppressing the contribution of substrate photoluminescence. This is achieved by using polarized photo-excitation and photoluminescence and by making an appropriate choice of incident angle of both excitation beam and photoluminescence collection direction. Using TE-polarized excitation at a wavelength of 488 nm at an incident angle of ∼70° we suppress the InP substrate photoluminescence relative to that of the InP nanow