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Sample records for zns nanoparticles capped

  1. Optical Properties of Synthesized Nanoparticles ZnS Using Methacrylic Acid as the Capping Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazerdeylami, Somayeh; Saievar Iranizad, Esmaiel; Molaei, Mehdi

    Optical analysis (UV-vis spectroscopy) of solution of ZnS nanoparticles prepared at room temperature by a chemical capping method using methacrylic acid (MAA) capping agent at concentration of 0.05, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.17 molar is investigated. The spectroscopy results indicate increasing of band gap of ZnS through increasing concentration of the methacrylic acid as capping agent in the solution. According to the relation of Effective Mass Approximation, it is concluded that the size of nanoparticles decreased with the increasing concentration of the capping agent in the tested solutions. The size of the particles is found to be in 1.77-2.05 nm range.

  2. Polymerizable-group capped ZnS nanoparticle for high refractive index inorganic-organic hydrogel contact lens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peili; Xu, Jinku; Zhang, Yongchun; Zhu, Weiyue; Cui, Yuezhi

    2018-09-01

    Refractive index (RI) is an important parameter for contact lens biomaterials. In this paper, a novel polymerizable-group capped ZnS nanoparticle (NP) was synthesized by chemical link between hydroxyl group on the surface of ZnS (ME-capped) and isocyanate group of polymerizable molecule of 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate. Then the ZnS NP copolymerized with monomer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) to prepare high refractive index hydrogel contact lens with high content of inorganic ZnS NP. Increasing polymerizable-group capped ZnS content in the hydrogels improved its RI value and mechanical properties, however decreased slightly its transmittance, equilibrium (ESR) and lysozyme deposition on the hydrogel surface. The ZnS-containing hydrogels possessed good cytocompatibility and in vivo biocompatibility in rabbit eyes, demonstrating a potential application as high RI ocular refractive correction biomaterial. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of thiol capping on the photoluminescence properties of L-cysteine-, mercaptoethanol- and mercaptopropionic acid-capped ZnS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, A; Dhoble, S J; Kher, R S

    2015-11-01

    Mercaptoethanol (ME), mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and L-cysteine (L-Cys) having -SH functional groups were used as surface passivating agents for the wet chemical synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles. The effect of the thiol group on the optical and photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnS nanoparticles was studied. L-Cysteine-capped ZnS nanoparticles showed the highest PL intensity among the studied capping agents, with a PL emission peak at 455 nm. The PL intensity was found to be dependent on the concentration of Zn(2+) and S(2-) precursors. The effect of buffer on the PL intensity of L-Cys-capped ZnS nanoparticles was also studied. UV/Vis spectra showed blue shifting of the absorption edge. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Investigations on structural and optical properties of starch capped ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by microwave irradiation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalithadevi, B.; Mohan Rao, K.; Ramananda, D.

    2018-05-01

    Following a green synthesis method, zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique using starch as capping agent. Microwave irradiation was used as heating source. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that nanopowders obtained were polycrystalline possessing ZnS simple cubic structure. Transmission electron microscopic studies indicated that starch limits the agglomeration by steric stabilization. Interaction between ZnS and starch was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as well as Raman scattering studies. Quantum size effects were observed in optical absorption studies while quenching of defect states on nanoparticles was improved with increase in starch addition as indicated by photoluminescence spectra.

  5. Preparation, properties and anticancer effects of mixed As4S4/ZnS nanoparticles capped by Poloxamer 407.

    PubMed

    Bujňáková, Z; Baláž, M; Zdurienčíková, M; Sedlák, J; Čaplovičová, M; Čaplovič, Ľ; Dutková, E; Zorkovská, A; Turianicová, E; Baláž, P; Shpotyuk, O; Andrejko, S

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic sulfide compounds have a long history of application in a traditional medicine. In recent years, realgar has been studied as a promising drug in cancer treatment. In this study, the arsenic sulfide (As 4 S 4 ) nanoparticles combined with zinc sulfide (ZnS) ones in different molar ratio have been prepared by a simple mechanochemical route in a planetary mill. The successful synthesis and structural properties were confirmed and followed via X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. The morphology of the particles was studied via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy methods and the presence of nanocrystallites was verified. For biological tests, the prepared As 4 S 4 /ZnS nanoparticles were further milled in a circulation mill in a water solution of Poloxamer 407 (0.5wt%), in order to cover the particles with this biocompatible copolymer and to obtain stable nanosuspensions with unimodal distribution. The average size of the particles in the nanosuspensions (~120nm) was determined by photon cross-correlation spectroscopy method. Stability of the nanosuspensions was determined via particle size distribution and zeta potential measurements, confirming no physico-chemical changes for several months. Interestingly, with the increasing amount of ZnS in the sample, the stability was improved. The anti-cancer effects were tested on two melanoma cell lines, A375 and Bowes, with promising results, confirming increased efficiency of the samples containing both As 4 S 4 and ZnS nanocrystals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural transformation and photoluminescence modification of AgInS2 nanoparticles induced by ZnS shell formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamanaka, Yasushi; Yukitoki, Daichi; Kuzuya, Toshihiro

    2015-09-01

    AgInS2 nanoparticles were capped by ZnS via a widely used procedure to fabricate core/shell nanoparticles with highly efficient luminescence. The nanoparticle structures were investigated by ultrahigh-resolution analytical electron microscopy. We found that Zn-Ag-In-S nanoparticles were created by ZnS capping at ˜480 K, which suggests that the luminescence enhancement reported for such core/shell nanoparticles is not caused by the passivation of surface defects by ZnS shells but by Zn doping. Quasi-core/shell nanoparticles could be obtained by ZnS capping without heating. However, their luminescence efficiency remained unchanged, indicating that surface passivation was ineffective when ZnS shells were formed at room temperature.

  7. Photoluminescence study of Mn doped ZnS nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, M. P.; Patel, Kamakshi; Gujarati, Vivek P.; Chaki, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    ZnS nanoparticles co-doped with different concentration (5,10,15%) of Mn were synthesized using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent under microwave irradiation. We confirmed doping of Mn in the host ZnS by EDAX whereas powder X-ray diffractogram showed the cubic zinc blende structure of all these samples. TEM images did showed agglomeration of particles and SAED pattern obtained indicated polycrystalline nature. From SAED pattern we calculated lattice parameter of the samples which have close resemblance from that obtained from XRD pattern. The band gap values of pure and doped ZnS nanoparticles were calculated from UV-Visible absorption spectra. ZnS itself is a luminescence material but when we dope it with transition metal ion such as Mn, Co, and Cu they exhibits strong and intense luminescence in the particular region. The photoluminescence spectra of pure ZnS nanoparticles showed an emission at 421 and 485nm which is blue emission which was originated from the defect sites of ZnS itself and also sulfur deficiency and when doped with Mn2+ an extra peak with high intensity was observed at 530nm which is nearly yellow-orange emission which isrelated to the presence of Mn in the host lattice.

  8. ZnO nanorods decorated with ZnS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Joicy, S.; Sivakumar, P.; Thangadurai, P., E-mail: thangaduraip.nst@pondiuni.edu.in

    In this study, ZnO nanorods (NRs) and ZnS nanoparticles decorated ZnO-NRs were prepared by a combination of hydrothermal and hydrolysis method. Structural and optical properties of the samples were studied by XRD, FE-SEM, UV-Vis DRS and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Microscopy analysis revealed that the diameter of ZnO-NRs was ∼500 nm and the length was ranging from a few hundred nm to several micrometers and their surface was decorated with ZnS nanoparticles. UV-Vis DRS showed the absorption of ZnS decorated ZnO-NRs was blue shifted with respect to pure ZnO-NRs which enhanced the separation of electron-hole pairs. PL spectrum of ZnS decorated ZnO-NRs showedmore » a decrease in intensity of UV and green emissions with the appearance of blue emission at 436 nm.« less

  9. Effect of Cr doping on structural and magnetic properties of ZnS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Virpal,; Singh, Jasvir; Sharma, Sandeep

    2016-05-23

    The structural, optical and magnetic properties of pure and Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles were studied at room temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the absence of any mixed phase and the cubic structure of ZnS in pure and Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles. Fourier transfer infrared spectra confirmed the Zn-S stretching bond at 664 cm{sup −1} of ZnS in all prepared nanoparticles. The UV-Visible absorption spectra showed blue shift which became even more pronounced in Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles. However, at relatively higher Cr concentrations a slower red shift was shown by the doped nanoparticles. This phenomenon is attributed to sp-d exchange interactionmore » that becomes prevalent at higher doping concentrations. Further, magnetic hysteresis measurements showed that Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature.« less

  10. Starch-assisted synthesis and optical properties of ZnS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Xiuying, E-mail: xiuyingt@yahoo.com; Wen, Jin; Wang, Shumei

    Highlights: • ZnS spherical nanostructure was prepared via starch-assisted method. • The crystalline lattice structure, morphologies, chemical and optical properties of ZnS nanoparticles. • The forming mechanism of ZnS nanoparticles. • ZnS spherical nano-structure can show blue emission at 460–500 nm. - Abstract: ZnS nanoparticles are fabricated via starch-assisted method. The effects of different starch amounts on structure and properties of samples are investigated, and the forming mechanism of ZnS nanoparticles is discussed. By X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis)more » spectroscopy and fluorescence (FL) spectrometer, their phases, crystalline lattice structure, morphologies, chemical and optical properties are characterized. The results show that ZnS has polycrystalline spherical structure with the mean diameter of 130 nm. Sample without starch reveals irregular aggregates with particle size distribution of 0.5–2 μm. The band gap value of ZnS is 3.97 eV. The chemical interaction exists between starch molecules and ZnS nanoparticles by hydrogen bonds. The stronger FL emission peaks of ZnS synthesized with starch, indicate a larger content of sulfur vacancies or defects than ZnS synthesized without starch.« less

  11. Observation of ZnS nanoparticles sputtered from ZnS films under 2 MeV Au irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiri, P. K.; Joseph, B.; Ghatak, J.; Lenka, H. P.; Sahu, G.; Acharya, B. S.; Mahapatra, D. P.

    2006-07-01

    ZnS nanoparticles have been observed on catcher foils due to 2 MeV Au ion irradiation of ZnS films thermally evaporated on Si(1 0 0) substrates. The structure and size distribution of nanoclusters collected were studied using transmission electron microscopy for irradiation fluences in the range of 1 × 10 11-1 × 10 15 ions cm -2. The nanoclusters were found to have a hexagonal wurtzite structure. Optical absorption measurements on similarly deposited ZnS on silica glass indicate the film to be also composed of hexagonal wurtzite ZnS. Based on this and available data we argue that the observed nanoparticles on the catcher foils are the results of shock waves induced emission of material chunks with the same atomic coordination as in the target.

  12. Interaction of insulin with colloidal ZnS quantum dots functionalized by various surface capping agents.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Ghader; Maghari, Ali; Farniya, Seyed Morteza Famil; Keihan, Amir Homayoun; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A

    2017-08-01

    Interaction of quantum dots (QDs) and proteins strongly influenced by the surface characteristics of the QDs at the protein-QD interface. For a precise control of these surface-related interactions, it is necessary to improve our understanding in this field. In this regard, in the present work, the interaction between the insulin and differently functionalized ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were studied. The ZnS QDs were functionalized with various functional groups of hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), amine (NH 2 ), and amino acid (COOH and NH 2 ). The effect of surface hydrophobicity was also studied by changing the alkyl-chain lengths of mercaptocarboxylic acid capping agents. The interaction between insulin and the ZnS QDs were investigated by fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and thermal aggregation techniques. The results reveal that among the studied QDs, mercaptosuccinic acid functionalized QDs has the strongest interaction (∆G ° =-51.50kJ/mol at 310K) with insulin, mercaptoethanol functionalized QDs destabilize insulin by increasing the beta-sheet contents, and only cysteine functionalized QDs improves the insulin stability by increasing the alpha-helix contents of the protein, and. Our results also indicate that by increasing the alkyl-chain length of capping agents, due to an increase in hydrophobicity of the QDs surface, the beta-sheet contents of insulin increase which results in the enhancement of insulin instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Photoluminescence study of ZnS and ZnS:Pb nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Virpal,, E-mail: virpalsharma.sharma@gmail.com; Hastir, Anita; Kaur, Jasmeet

    2015-05-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) study of pure and 5wt. % lead doped ZnS prepared by co-precipitation method was conducted at room temperature. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy. XRD patterns confirm cubic structure of ZnS and PbS in doped sample. The band gap energy value increased in case of Pb doped ZnS nanoparticles. The PL spectrum of pure ZnS was de-convoluted into two peaks centered at 399nm and 441nm which were attributed to defect states of ZnS. In doped sample, a shoulder peak at 389nm and a broad peak centered atmore » 505nm were observed. This broad green emission peak originated due to Pb activated ZnS states.« less

  14. Aqueous synthesis of L-cysteine and mercaptopropionic acid co-capped ZnS quantum dots with dual emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yingkun; Wang, Yongbo; Yang, Min; Liu, Enzhou; Hu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Xu; Fan, Jun

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, L-cysteine (L-cys) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) co-capped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with dual emissions have been successfully synthesized by a one-pot aqueous-phase synthesis method. The intensities of the dual emissions could be controlled by regulating the molar ratio of L-cys to MPA, and the fluorescence color also turned from blue to yellow accordingly. The relationship between the ligands and fluorescence was investigated and the results indicated that L-cys could cause two emissions and MPA improved the emission intensity. In addition, the L-cys-MPA co-capped ZnS QDs showed high photostability under UV irradiation. Therefore, the L-cys-MPA co-capped ZnS QDs, which show the dual emissions and tunable emission intensities, have great potentials for use in ratiometric fluorescence sensors and multicolor bioimaging.

  15. Facile production of ZnS quantum dot nanoparticles by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 2918.

    PubMed

    Sandana Mala, John Geraldine; Rose, Chellan

    2014-01-20

    Microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is a green route towards ecofriendly measures to overcome the toxicity and non-applicability of nanomaterials in clinical uses obtained by conventional physical and chemical approaches. Nanoparticles in the quantum regime have remarkable characteristics with excellent applicability in bioimaging. Yeasts have been commercially exploited for several industrial applications. ZnS nanoparticles as semiconductor quantum dots have mostly been synthesized by bacterial species. Here in, we have attempted to produce ZnS nanoparticles in quantum regime by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 2918 fungus and characterize its size and spectroscopic properties. Intracellular ZnS nanoparticles were produced by a facile procedure and freeze thaw extraction using 1mM zinc sulfate. The ZnS nanoparticles showed surface plasmon resonance band at 302.57nm. The ZnS nanoparticles were in low yield and in the size range of 30-40nm. Powder XRD analysis revealed that the nanoparticles were in the sphalerite phase. Photoluminescence spectra excited at 280nm and 325nm revealed quantum confinement effects. This suggests that yeasts have inherent sulfate metabolizing systems and are capable fungal sources to assimilate sulfate. Further insights are required to identify the transport/reducing processes that may have caused the synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles such as an oxidoreductase enzyme-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Microwave mediated synthesis of ZnS spherical nanoparticles for IR optical ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, D.; Wharton, T.; Devan, B.; Korenstein, R.; Tustison, R.; Komarneni, S.

    2011-06-01

    The existing material choice for long-wave infrared (LWIR) and semi-active laser domes is multispectral zinc sulfide (ZnS), made by chemical vapor deposition. An alternative route to make more erosion-resistant ZnS could be through hot pressing ZnS nanoparticles into small-grain material. We have attempted to produce ZnS nanoparticles both by microwave and microwave-hydrothermal methods. Microwave route produced ultrahigh purity, homogeneous, well dispersed, and uniformly spherical ZnS nanoparticles. Microwave-hydrothermal route produced equiaxed cubic-faceted nanoparticles. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns of ZnS shows the presence of broad reflections corresponding to the (1 1 1), (2 2 0), and (3 1 1) planes of the cubic crystalline ZnS material. The domain size of the particles estimated from the Debye-Scherrer formula for the main reflection (111) gives a value of 2.9 and 2.5 for the microwave and microwave-hydrothermal methods respectively.

  17. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures converted from ZnS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Prayas Chandra; Ghosh, Surajit; Srivastava, P.C., E-mail: pcsrivastava50@gmail.com

    Graphical abstract: The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. - Highlights: • Phase change of cubic ZnS to hexagonal ZnO via heat treatment. • Band gap was found to decrease with increasing calcinations temperature. • ZnO samples have higher magnetic moment than ZnS. • Blocking Temperature of the samples is well above room temperature. • Maximum negative%MR with saturation value ∼38% was found for sample calcined at 600° C. - Abstract: The present work concentrates on the synthesis of cubic ZnS and hexagonal ZnO semiconducting nanoparticle from same precursor via co-precipitation method.more » The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. From the analysis of influence of calcination temperature on the structural, optical and vibrational properties of the samples, an optimum temperature was found for the total conversion of ZnS nanoparticles to ZnO. Role of quantum confinement due to finite size is evident from the blue shift of the fundamental absorption in UV–vis spectra only in the ZnS nanoparticles. The semiconducting nature of the prepared samples is confirmed from the UV–vis, PL study and transport study. From the magnetic and transport studies, pure ZnO phase was found to be more prone to magnetic field.« less

  18. Fabrication of ZnS nanoparticle chains on a protein template

    PubMed Central

    Hulleman, J.; Kim, S. M.; Tumkur, T.; Rochet, J.-C.; Stach, E.; Stanciu, L.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we have exploited the properties of a fibrillar protein for the template synthesis of zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticle chains. The diameter of the ZnS nanoparticle chains was tuned in range of ~30 to ~165 nm by varying the process variables. The nanoparticle chains were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, UV–Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The effect of incubation temperature on the morphology of the nanoparticle chains was also studied. PMID:21804765

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Ce, Cu co-doped ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harish, G. S.; Sreedhara Reddy, P.

    2015-09-01

    Ce, Cu co-doped ZnS nanoparticles were prepared at room temperature using a chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X- ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) and high resolution Raman spectroscopic techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction studies showed that the diameter of the particles was around 2-3 nm. Broadened XRD peaks revealed the formation of nanoparticles with a face centered cubic (fcc) structure. DRS studies confirmed that the band gap increased with an increase in the dopant concentration. The Raman spectra of undoped and Ce, Cu ions co-doped ZnS nanoparticles showed longitudinal optical mode and transverse optical mode. Compared with the Raman modes (276 and 351 cm-1) of undoped ZnS nanoparticles, the Raman modes of Ce, Cu co- doped ZnS nanoparticles were slightly shifted towards lower frequency. PL spectra of the samples showed remarkable enhancement in the intensity upon doping.

  20. Influence of Structural Defects on Biomineralized ZnS Nanoparticle Dissolution: An In-Situ Electron Microscopy Study

    SciTech Connect

    Eskelsen, Jeremy R.; Xu, Jie; Chiu, Michelle Y.

    The dissolution of metal sulfides, such as ZnS, plays an important role in the fate of metal contaminants in the environment. Here we have examined the dissolution behavior of ZnS nanoparticles synthesized via several abiotic and biological pathways. Specifically, the biogenic ZnS nanoparticles were produced by an anaerobic, metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 in a Zn-amended, thiosulfate-containing growth medium, whereas the abiogenic ZnS nanoparticles were produced by mixing an aqueous Zn solution with either H 2S-rich gas or Na 2S solution. For biogenic synthesis, we prepared two types of samples, in the presence or absence of trace silver (Ag). Themore » size distribution, crystal structure, aggregation behavior, and internal defects of the synthesized ZnS nanoparticles were primarily examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The characterization results show that both the biogenic and abiogenic samples were dominantly composed of sphalerite. In the absence of Ag, the biogenic ZnS nanoparticles were significantly larger (i.e., ~10 nm) than the abiogenic ones (i.e., ~3–5 nm) and contained structural defects (e.g., twins and stacking faults). The presence of trace Ag showed a restraining effect on the particle size of the biogenic ZnS, resulting in quantum-dot-sized nanoparticles (i.e., ~3 nm). In situ dissolution experiments for the synthesized ZnS were conducted with a liquid-cell coupled to a transmission electron microscope (LCTEM), and the primary factors (i.e., the presence or absence structural defects) were evaluated for their effects on the dissolution behavior using the biogenic and abiogenic ZnS nanoparticle samples with the largest average particle size. Analysis of the dissolution results (i.e., change in particle radius with time) using the Kelvin equation shows that the defect-bearing biogenic ZnS nanoparticles (γ = 0.799 J/m 2) have a significantly

  1. Growth of MPS-capped ZnS quantum dots in self-assembled thin films: Influence of heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koç, Kenan; Tepehan, Fatma Zehra; Tepehan, Galip Gültekin

    2015-12-01

    The colloidal ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were prepared using 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) molecules. Sol-gel spin coating method was used to deposit the colloidal nanoparticles on a glass substrate. Several features of the MPS were made use to produce self assembled thin films of ZnS quantum dots in a SiO2 network. Produced films were heat treated in between 225 °C and 325 °C to investigate their growth kinetics. The result showed that their size changed approximately from 3 nm to 4 nm and the first excitation peak position changed from 4.6 eV to 4.1 eV in this temperature interval. The activation energy of the nanoparticles for the Ostwald ripening process was found to be 59 kJ/mol.

  2. Effect of Au irradiation energy on ejection of ZnS nanoparticles from ZnS film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiri, P. K.; Ghatak, J.; Joseph, B.; Lenka, H. P.; Sahu, G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Tripathi, A.; Kanjilal, D.; Mishra, N. C.

    2007-01-01

    ZnS films deposited on Si have been irradiated with Au ions at 35 keV, 2, and 100 MeV. Sputtered particles, collected on catcher foils during irradiation, were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. For the case of 35 keV Au irradiation, no nanoparticle (NP) could be observed on the catcher foil. However, NPs 2-7 nm in size, have been observed on the catcher foils for MeV irradiations at room temperature. For particle sizes ≥3 nm, the distributions could be fitted to power law decays with decay exponents varying between 2 and 3.5. At 2 MeV, after correction for cluster breakup effects, the decay exponent has been found to be close to 2, indicating shock waves induced ejection to be the dominant mechanism. The corrected decay exponent for the 100 MeV Au irradiation case has been found to be about 2.6. Coulomb explosion followed by thermal spike induced vaporization of ZnS seems to be the dominant mechanism regarding material removal at such high energy. In such a case the evaporated material can cool down going into the fragmentation region forming clusters.

  3. Enhancement of efficiency by embedding ZnS and Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles in P3HT:PCBM hybrid solid state solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Nunzi, Jean-Michel; Badshah, Amin; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) and Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrometer, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to find particle size while chemical composition of the synthesized materials was investigated by EDAX. UV-visible absorption spectrum of Mn-doped ZnS was slightly shifted to lower wavelength with respect to the un-doped zinc sulphide with decrease in the size of nanoparticles. Consequently, the band gap was tuned from 3.04 to 3.13 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) emission positioned at 597 nm was ascribed to 4T1 → 6A1 transition within the 3d shell of Mn2+. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the synthesized nanomaterials existed in cubic crystalline state. The effect of embedding un-doped and doped ZnS nanoparticles in the active layer and changing the ratio of PCBM ([6, 6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) to nanoparticles on the performance of hybrid solar cell was studied. The device with active layer consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), [6, 6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and un-doped ZnS nanoparticles combined in the ratio of (1:0.5:0.5) attained an efficiency of 2.42% which was found 71% higher than the reference device under the same conditions but not containing nanoparticles. Replacing ZnS nanoparticles with Mn-doped ZnS had a little effect on the enhancement of efficiency. The packing behavior and morphology of blend of nanoparticles with P3HT:PCBM were examined using atomic force microscope (AFM) and XRD. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  4. An experimental and theoretical investigation on the optical and photocatalytic properties of ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Porta, F. A.; Nogueira, A. E.; Gracia, Lourdes; Pereira, W. S.; Botelho, G.; Mulinari, T. A.; Andrés, Juan; Longo, E.

    2017-04-01

    From the viewpoints of materials chemistry and physical chemistry, crystal structure directly determines the electronic structure and furthermore their optical and photocatalytic properties. Zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) emission and high photocatalytic activity have been obtained by means of a microwave-assisted solvothermal (MAS) method using different precursors (i.e., zinc nitrate (ZN), zinc chloride (ZC), or zinc acetate (ZA)). The morphologies, optical properties, and electronic structures of the as-synthesized ZnS NPs were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherms for N2 adsorption/desorption processes, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), PL measurements and theoretical calculations. Density functional theory calculations were used to determine the geometries and electronic properties of bulk wurtzite (WZ) ZnS NPs and their (0001), (101 ̅0), (112 ̅0), (101 ̅1), and (101 ̅2) surfaces. The dependence of the PL emission behavior of ZnS NPs on the precursor was elucidated by examining the energy band structure and density of states. The method for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was used as a probe reaction to investigate the photocatalytic activity of the as-Synthesised ZnS NPs under UV light irradiation. The PL behavior as well as photocatalytic activities of ZnS NPs were attributed to specific features of the structural and electronic structures. Increased photocatalytic degradation was observed for samples synthesized using different precursors in the following order: ZAZnS NPs were also briefly discussed.

  5. Bias Voltage-Dependent Impedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Hydrothermally Synthesized ZnS Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Arka; Dhar, Joydeep; Sil, Sayantan; Jana, Rajkumar; Ray, Partha Pratim

    2018-04-01

    In this report, bias voltage-dependent dielectric and electron transport properties of ZnS nanoparticles were discussed. ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized by introducing a modified hydrothermal process. The powder XRD pattern indicates the phase purity, and field emission scanning electron microscope image demonstrates the morphology of the synthesized sample. The optical band gap energy (E g = 4.2 eV) from UV measurement explores semiconductor behavior of the synthesized material. The electrical properties were performed at room temperature using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique as a function of frequency (40 Hz-10 MHz) under different forward dc bias voltages (0-1 V). The CIS analysis demonstrates the contribution of bulk resistance in conduction mechanism and its dependency on forward dc bias voltages. The imaginary part of the impedance versus frequency curve exhibits the existence of relaxation peak which shifts with increasing dc forward bias voltages. The dc bias voltage-dependent ac and dc conductivity of the synthesized ZnS was studied on thin film structure. A possible hopping mechanism for electrical transport processes in the system was investigated. Finally, it is worth to mention that this analysis of bias voltage-dependent dielectric and transport properties of as-synthesized ZnS showed excellent properties for emerging energy applications.

  6. Synthesis, structural and optical properties of PVP coated transition metal doped ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, N. V.; Shaikh, I. A.; Rawal, K. G.; Shah, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of transition metal doped ZnS nanoparticles is investigated in the present study. The PVP coated ZnS nanoparticles doped with transition metals are synthesized by facile wet chemical co-precipitation method with the concentration of impurity 1%. The UV-Vis absorbance spectra have a peak at 324nm which shifts slightly to 321nm upon introduction of the impurity. The incorporation of the transition metal as dopant is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The particle size and the morphology are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The average size of synthesized nanoparticles is about 2.6nm. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of undoped and doped ZnS nanoparticles show a strong and sharp peak at 782nm and 781.6nm respectively. The intensity of the PL changes with the type of doping having maximum for manganese (Mn).

  7. Latex-mediated synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles: green synthesis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudlikar, Manish; Joglekar, Shreeram; Dhaygude, Mayur; Kodam, Kisan

    2012-05-01

    A low-cost, green synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles is reported using 0.3 % latex solution prepared from Jatropha curcas L. ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, UV-vis optical absorption and photoluminescence techniques. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was performed to find the role of cyclic peptides namely curcacycline A (an octapeptide), curcacycline B (a nonapeptide) and curcain (an enzyme) as a possible reducing and stabilizing agents present in the latex of J. curcas L. The average size of ZnS nanoparticles was found to be 10 nm. Latex of J. curcas L. itself acts as a source of sulphide (S-2) ions that are donated to Zn ions under present experimental conditions. Source of sulphide (S-2) ions is still unclear, but we speculate that cysteine or thiol residues present in enzyme curcain may be donating these sulphide (S-2) ions.

  8. Photoactivable caps for reactive metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ashish

    The synthesis and stabilization of reactive metal nanoparticles is often challenging under normal atmospheric conditions. This problem can be alleviated by capping and passivation. Our lab has focused on forming polymer coatings on the surface of reactive metal nanoparticles. We discovered a convenient and effective route for stabilization of aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs), which uses the nascent metal core as a polymerization initiator for various organic monomers. In our previous work, we used this method to passivate the Al NPs using variety of epoxides and copolymers of epoxides and alkenes. These products have demonstrated air stability for weeks to months with little to no degradation in the active Al content. Since our previously synthesized Al NP's were not beneficial for rapid and efficient thermodynamic access to the active Al core, our goal was find polymers that could easily be photochemically activated to enhance such access. Since poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has photodegrading properties, we used PMMA as a capping agent to passivate Al NPs. In this work, we present capping and stabilization of Al NPs with PMMA, and also with 1,2-epoxyhexane/ PMMA. In our previous work, we increased the stability of Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene by adding 1,13-tetradecadiene as a cross-linker. Here, we used the methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer as cross-linker for Al NP capped with 1,2-epoxy-9-decene. We have also used the MMA as capping agent. We use powder x-ray diffractametry (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravity analysis (TGA) to confirm the presence of elemental Al and ATR-FTIR to confirm the presence of polymers.

  9. In situ capping for size control of monochalcogenides (ZnS, CdS, and SnS) nanocrystals produced by anaerobic metal-reducing bacteria

    DOE PAGES

    Jang, Gyoung Gug; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; ...

    2015-07-24

    Metal monochalcogenide quantum dot nanocrystals of ZnS, CdS and SnS were prepared by anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria using in situ capping by oleic acid or oleylamine. Furthermore, the capping agent preferentially adsorbs on the surface of the nanocrystal, suppressing the growth process in the early stages, thus leading to production of nanocrystals with a diameter of less than 5 nm.

  10. Influence of Structural Defects on Biomineralized ZnS Nanoparticle Dissolution: An in-Situ Electron Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Eskelsen, Jeremy R; Xu, Jie; Chiu, Michelle; Moon, Ji-Won; Wilkins, Branford; Graham, David E; Gu, Baohua; Pierce, Eric M

    2018-02-06

    The dissolution of metal sulfides, such as ZnS, is an important biogeochemical process affecting fate and transport of trace metals in the environment. However, current studies of in situ dissolution of metal sulfides and the effects of structural defects on dissolution are lacking. Here we have examined the dissolution behavior of ZnS nanoparticles synthesized via several abiotic and biological pathways. Specifically, we have examined biogenic ZnS nanoparticles produced by an anaerobic, metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 in a Zn-amended, thiosulfate-containing growth medium in the presence or absence of silver (Ag), and abiogenic ZnS nanoparticles were produced by mixing an aqueous Zn solution with either H 2 S-rich gas or Na 2 S solution. The size distribution, crystal structure, aggregation behavior, and internal defects of the synthesized ZnS nanoparticles were examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The characterization results show that both the biogenic and abiogenic samples were dominantly composed of sphalerite. In the absence of Ag, the biogenic ZnS nanoparticles were significantly larger (i.e., ∼10 nm) than the abiogenic ones (i.e., ∼3-5 nm) and contained structural defects (e.g., twins and stacking faults). The presence of trace Ag showed a restraining effect on the particle size of the biogenic ZnS, resulting in quantum-dot-sized nanoparticles (i.e., ∼3 nm). In situ dissolution experiments for the synthesized ZnS were conducted with a liquid-cell TEM (LCTEM), and the primary factors (i.e., the presence or absence structural defects) were evaluated for their effects on the dissolution behavior using the biogenic and abiogenic ZnS nanoparticle samples with the largest average particle size. Analysis of the dissolution results (i.e., change in particle radius with time) using the Kelvin equation shows that the defect-bearing biogenic ZnS nanoparticles

  11. Effect of isovalent dopants on photodegradation ability of ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaparde, Rohini; Acharya, Smita

    2016-06-01

    Isovalent (Mn, Cd, Cu, Co)-doped-ZnS nanoparticles having size vary in between 2 to 5 nm are synthesized by co-precipitation route. Their photocatalytic activity for decoloration of Cango Red and Malachite Green dyes is tested in visible radiation under natural conditions. Structural and morphological features of the samples are investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and UVsbnd Vis spectrometer. Single phase zinc blende structure of as-synthesized undoped and doped-ZnS is confirmed by XRD and revealed by Rietveld fitting. SEM and TEM images show ultrafine nanoparticles having size in the range of 2 to 5 nm. UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibit blue shift in absorption edge of undoped and doped ZnS as compared to bulk counterpart. The photocatalytic activity as a function of dopant concentration and irradiation time is systematically studied. The rate of de-coloration of dyes is detected by UVsbnd Vis absorption spectroscopy and organic dye mineralization is confirmed by table of carbon (TOC) study. The photocatalytic activity of Mn-doped ZnS is highest amongst all dopants; however Co as a dopant is found to reduce photocatalytic activity than pure ZnS.

  12. Computational study of the absorption spectrum of defected ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michos, F. I.; Sigalas, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    Energy levels and absorption spectra of defected ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) were calculated with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time Dependent DFT. Several types of defects were examined such as vacancies and substitutions. NPs with S vacancies were found to have their absorption spectra moved to lower energies well inside the visible spectrum with significantly high oscillator strength. Also, NPs with substitution of S atoms with Cl, Br, or I showed significant absorption. In general, this type of defect moves the absorption spectra in lower energies, thus bringing the absorption edge into the visible spectrum, while the unperturbed NPs have absorption edges in the UV region. In addition, ZnS NPs are made from more abundant and less toxic elements than the more commonly used CdSe NPs. For that reason, they may find significant applications in solar cells and other photonic applications, as well as in biosensing applications as biomarkers.

  13. Optical and AFM study of electrostatically assembled films of CdS and ZnS colloid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryajaya; Nabok, A.; Davis, F.; Hassan, A.; Higson, S. P. J.; Evans-Freeman, J.

    2008-05-01

    CdS and ZnS semiconducting colloid nanoparticles coated with the organic shell, containing either SO 3- or NH 2+ groups, were prepared using the aqueous phase synthesis. The multilayer films of CdS (or ZnS) were deposited onto glass, quartz and silicon substrates using the technique of electrostatic self-assembly. The films produced were characterized with UV-vis spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. A substantial blue shift of the main absorption band with respect to the bulk materials was found for both CdS and ZnS films. The Efros equation in the effective mass approximation (EMA) theoretical model allowed the evaluation of the nanoparticle radius of 1.8 nm, which corresponds well to the ellipsometry results. AFM shows the formation of larger aggregates of nanoparticles on solid surfaces.

  14. Study of electrostatically self-assembled thin films of CdS and ZnS nanoparticle semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryajaya

    In this work, CdS and ZnS semiconducting colloid nanoparticles coated with organic shell, containing either SO[3-] or NH[2+] groups, were deposited as thin films using the technique of electrostatic self-assembly. The films produced were characterized with UV-vis spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry - for optical properties; atomic force microscopy (AFM) - for morphology study; mercury probe - for electrical characterisation; and photon counter - for electroluminescence study. UV-vis spectra show a substantial blue shift of the main absorption band of both CdS and ZnS, either in the form of solutions or films, with respect to the bulk materials. The calculation of nanoparticles' radii yields the value of about 1.8 nm for both CdS and ZnS.The fitting of standard ellipsometry data gave the thicknesses (d) of nanoparticle layers of around 5 nm for both CdS and ZnS which corresponds well to the size of particles evaluated from UV-vis spectral data if an additional thickness of the organic shell is taken into account. The values of refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) obtained were about 2.28 and 0.7 at 633 nm wavelength, for both CdS and ZnS.Using total internal reflection (TIRE), the process of alternative deposition of poly-allylamine hydrochloride (PAH) and CdS (or ZnS) layers could be monitored in-situ. The dynamic scan shows that the adsorption kinetic of the first layer of PAH or nanoparticles was slower than that of the next layer. The fitting of TIRE spectra gavethicknesses of about 7 nm and 12 nm for CdS and ZnS, respectively. It supports the suggestion of the formation of three-dimensional aggregates of semiconductor nanoparticles intercalated with polyelectrolyte.AFM images show the formation of large aggregates of nanoparticles, about 40-50 nm, for the films deposited from original colloid solutions, while smaller aggregates, about 12-20 nm, were obtained if the colloid solutions were diluted.Current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance

  15. Effect of Mo and Ti doping concentration on the structural and optical properties of ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, Hina; Ali, Rai Nauman; Zhu, Xingqun; Xiang, Bin

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report the effect of single phase Mo and Ti doping concentration on the structural and optical properties of the ZnS nanoparticles. The structural and optical properties of the as-synthesized samples have been examined by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible near infrared absorption spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. TEM characterizations reveal a variation in the doped ZnS nanoparticle size distribution by utilizing different dopants of Mo and Ti. In absorption spectra, a clear red shift of 14 nm is observed with increasing Mo concentration as compared to pure ZnS nanoparticles, while by increasing Ti doping concentration, blue shift of 14 nm is obtained. Moreover, it demonstrates that the value of energy band gap decreases from 4.03 eV to 3.89 eV in case of Mo doping. However, the value of energy band gap have shown a remarkable increase from 4.11 eV to 4.27 eV with increasing Ti doping concentration. Our results provide a new pathway to understand the effect of Mo and Ti doping concentrations on the structural and optical properties of ZnS nanoparticles as it could be the key to tune the properties for future optoelectronic devices.

  16. ZnS nanoparticles electrodeposited onto ITO electrode as a platform for fabrication of enzyme-based biosensors of glucose.

    PubMed

    Du, Jian; Yu, Xiuping; Wu, Ying; Di, Junwei

    2013-05-01

    The electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOD) and ZnS nanoparticles modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode were investigated. The ZnS nanoparticles were electrodeposited directly on the surface of ITO electrode. The enzyme was immobilized on ZnS/ITO electrode surface by sol-gel method to fabricate glucose biosensor. GOD could electrocatalyze the reduction of dissolved oxygen, which resulted in a great increase of the reduction peak current. The reduction peak current decreased linearly with the addition of glucose, which could be used for glucose detection. Moreover, ZnS nanoparticles deposited on ITO electrode surface showed good photocurrent response under illumination. A photoelectrochemical biosensor for the detection of glucose was also developed by monitoring the decreases in the cathodic peak photocurrent. The results indicated that ZnS nanoparticles deposited on ITO substrate were a good candidate material for the immobilization of enzyme in glucose biosensor construction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Capping agents in nanoparticle synthesis: Surfactant and solvent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Shivani; Sachdeva, M.; Bhasin, K. K.

    2018-05-01

    The preparation of nanomaterials by organometallic precursors require a capping agent, which primarily acts as stabilizing agent and provide colloidal stability along with preventing agglomeration and stopping uncontrolled growth. Final morphology of nanocrystal largely depends on the type of capping agent which is adsorbed on the surface of nanocrystal. Thus capping agents are the keys to obtain the small-sized nanoparticles and are very frequently used in colloidal synthesis of nanoparticles to avoid its overgrowth.

  18. Electrocatalytic activity of ZnS nanoparticles in direct ethanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredol, Michael; Kaczmarek, Michał; Wiemhöfer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-06-01

    Low temperature fuel cells consuming ethanol without reformation would be a major step toward the use of renewable energy sources from biomass. However, the necessary electrodes and electrocatalysts still are far from being perfect and suffer from various poisoning and deactivation processes. This work describes investigations on systems using carbon/ZnS-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation in complete membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). MEAs were built on Nafion membranes with active masses prepared from ZnS nanoparticles and Vulcan carbon support. Under operation, acetic acid and acetaldehyde were identified and quantified as soluble oxidation products, whereas the amount of CO2 generated could not be quantified directly. Overall conversion efficiencies of up to 25% were estimated from cells operated over prolonged time. From polarization curves, interrupt experiments and analysis of reaction products, mass transport problems (concentration polarization) and breakthrough losses were found to be the main deficiencies of the ethanol oxidation electrodes fabricated so far.

  19. Electrical properties of a novel 1,3-bis-(p-iminobenzoic acid) indane Langmuir-Blodgett films containing ZnS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sari, H; Uzunoglu, T; Capan, R; Serin, N; Serin, T; Tarimci, C; Hassan, A K; Namli, H; Turhan, O

    2007-08-01

    ZnS nanoparticles have been formed in a newly synthesized 1,3-bis-(p-iminobenzoic acid) indane (IBI) by exposing Zn2+ doped multilayered Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film to H2S gas after the growth. The formation of ZnS nanoparticles in the LB film structure was verified by measuring UV-Visible absorption spectra. DC electrical measurements were carried out for thin films of IBI prepared in a metal/LB films/metal sandwich structure with and without ZnS nanoparticles. It was observed that ZnS nanoparticles in the LB films cause a blue-shift in the absorption spectra as well as a decrease in both capacitance and conductivity values. By analysing I-V curves and assuming a Schottky conduction mechanism the barrier height was found to be about 1.13 eV and 1.21 eV for IBI LB films without and with ZnS nanoparticles, respectively. It is thought that the presence of ZnS nanoparticles influences the barrier height at the metal-organic film interface and causes a change in electrical conduction properties of LB films.

  20. Optical properties and toxicity of undoped and Mn-doped ZnS semiconductor nanoparticles synthesized through the aqueous route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labiadh, Houcine; Sellami, Badreddine; Khazri, Abdelhafidh; Saidani, Wiem; Khemais, Said

    2017-02-01

    Undoped and Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized at 95 °C in basic aqueous solution using the nucleation-doping strategy. Various samples of the Mn:ZnS NPs with 5, 10 and 20% of Mn dopant have been prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, high resolution electron microscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. When increasing the concentration of manganese Mn, the photoluminescence intensity gradually decreases. The PL spectra of the Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles at room temperature exhibit both, the 450 nm blue defect-related emission and the 592 nm orange Mn2+ emission. It is vital to obtain NPs that meet the application requirements, however their environmental toxicity needs to be investigated. In this study, the induction of oxidative stress within the digestive gland of the Ruditapes decussatus organism (clam) is described. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels have been determined in the digestive gland after exposure to 100 μg/L of ZnS, ZnS:Mn (5%), ZnS:Mn (10%) and ZnS:Mn (20%). The nanomaterials studied exhibit different responses in the digestive gland. Undoped Mn-ZnS has no effect on the markers considered, showing the limited interaction between this nanoparticle and the cells of the test organisms. In contrast, Mn-doped ZnS increases the activities of SOD and CAT and the level of MDA species, although this toxicity is highly dependent on the chemical properties of the material. These findings provide ideas for future considerations of ZnS nanoparticles, as well as information on the interaction between these materials and an aquatic environment. These data are the first evidence available of the formation of ZnS NPs using aqueous method and are an indication of the importance of knowing the biological target of the NPs when testing their potential impact on environmental model organisms.

  1. Calixarene capped ZnS quantum dots as an optical nanoprobe for detection and determination of menadione.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Kuldeep V; Joshi, Bhoomika K; Pandya, Alok; Sutariya, Pinkesh G; Menon, Shobhana K

    2012-10-21

    In this communication we report a p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene coated ZnS quantum dots "cup type" highly stable optical probe for the detection and determination of menadione (VK(3)) with high sensitivity and selectivity. The detection of VK(3) depends on supramolecular host-guest chemistry.

  2. Synthesis and photoluminescent and nonlinear optical properties of manganese doped ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazerdeylami, Somayeh; Saievar-Iranizad, Esmaiel; Dehghani, Zahra; Molaei, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    In this work we synthesized ZnS:Mn 2+ nanoparticles by chemical method using PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) as a capping agent in aqueous solution. The structure and optical properties of the resultant product were characterized using UV-vis optical spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and z-scan techniques. UV-vis spectra for all samples showed an excitonic peak at around 292 nm, indicating that concentration of Mn 2+ ions does not alter the band gap of nanoparticles. XRD patterns showed that the ZnS:Mn 2+ nanoparticles have zinc blende structure with the average crystalline sizes of about 2 nm. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of ZnS:Mn 2+ exhibited an orange-red emission at 594 nm due to the 4T 1- 6A 1 transition in Mn 2+. The PL intensity increased with increase in the Mn 2+ ion concentration. The second-order nonlinear optical properties of nanoparticles were studied using a continuous-wave (CW) He-Ne laser by z-scan technique. The nonlinear refractive indices of nanoparticles were in the order of 10 -8 cm 2/W with negative sign and the nonlinear absorption indices of these nanoparticles were obtained to be about 10 -3 cm/W with positive sign.

  3. Using fluorescence measurement of zinc ions liberated from ZnS nanoparticle labels in bioassay for Escherichia coli O157:H7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, Chad L.; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Pai, Chi-Yun

    2011-10-01

    In this study, an alternative approach using ZnS nanoparticle biolabels as fluorescence signal transducers is reported for the immunoassay of E. coli O157:H7 in tap water samples. Instead of measuring the fluorescence of ZnS nanoparticles in the assay, the fluorescence signal is generated through the binding of zinc ions released from nanoparticle labels with zinc-ion sensitive fluorescence indicator Fluozin-3. In the assay, ZnS nanoparticles around 50 nm in diameter were synthesized, bioconjugated, and applied for the detection of E. coli O157:H7. The assay shows a detection range over two orders of magnitude and a detection limit around 1000 colony-forming units (cfu) of E. coli O157:H7.

  4. Ultrasonic assisted synthesis of adenosine triphosphate capped manganese-doped ZnS quantum dots for selective room temperature phosphorescence detection of arginine and methylated arginine in urine based on supramolecular Mg(2+)-adenosine triphosphate-arginine ternary system.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hu-Bo; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2012-08-15

    An ultrasonic assisted approach was developed for rapid synthesis of highly water soluble phosphorescent adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs. The prepared ATP-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs allow selective phosphorescent detection of arginine and methylated arginine based on the specific recognition nature of supramolecular Mg(2+)-ATP-arginine ternary system in combination with the phosphorescence property of Mn-doped ZnS QDs. The developed QD based probe gives excellent selectivity and reproducibility (1.7% relative standard deviation for 11 replicate detections of 10 μM arginine) and low detection limit (3 s, 0.23 μM), and favors biological applications due to the effective elimination of interference from scattering light and autofluorescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis, Surface Modification and Optical Properties of Thioglycolic Acid-Capped ZnS Quantum Dots for Starch Recognition at Ultralow Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, Mahnoush; Tavakkoli Yaraki, Mohammad; Ahmadieh, Mahnaz; Mogharei, Azadeh; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-11-01

    In this research, water-soluble thioglycolic acid-capped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by the chemical precipitation method. The prepared QDs are characterized using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Results revealed that ZnS QDs have a 2.73 nm crystallite size, cubic zinc blende structure, and spherical morphology with a diameter less than 10 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is performed to determine the presence of low concentrations of starch. Four emission peaks are observed at 348 nm, 387 nm, 422 nm, and 486 nm and their intensities are quenched by increasing concentration of starch. PL intensity variations in the studied concentrations range (0-100 ppm) are best described by a Michaelis-Menten model. The Michaelis constant ( K m) for immobilized α-amylase in this system is about 101.07 ppm. This implies a great tendency for the enzyme to hydrolyze the starch as substrate. Finally, the limit of detection is found to be about 6.64 ppm.

  6. Antimicrobial and anticancer efficacy of antineoplastic agent capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, V; Grace, A Nirmala; Alagar, M; Hamerton, I

    2010-04-01

    Synthesis of thioguanine (TG)-capped Au nanoparticles (Au@TG) and their enhanced in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer efficacy against Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Hep2 cancer cell (Human epidermiod cell) have been reported. The nature of binding between 6-TG and the gold nanoparticles via complexation is investigated using ultraviolet-visible spectrum, cyclic voltammetry, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The present experimental studies suggests that Au@TG are more potential than TG towards antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Hence, gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as effective carriers for anticancer drug.

  7. Thermal and optical characterization of biologically synthesized ZnS nanoparticles synthesized from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus: A colorimetric probe in metal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddandarao, Priyanka; Balakrishnan, Raj Mohan

    2017-03-01

    Nanostructured semiconductor materials are of great importance for several technological applications due to their optical and thermal properties. The design and fabrication of metal sulfide nanoparticles with tunable properties for advanced applications have drawn a great deal of attention in the field of nanotechnology. ZnS is a potential II-IV group material which is used in hetero-junction solar cells, light emitting diodes, optoelectronic devices, electro luminescent devices and photovoltaic cells. Due to their multiple applications, there is a need to elucidate their thermal and optical properties. In the present study, thermal and optical properties of biologically synthesized ZnS nanoparticles are determined in detail with Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Derivative Thermogravimetric Analysis (DTG), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS), Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy. The results reveal that ZnS NPs exhibit a very strong quantum confinement with a significant increase in their optical band gap energy. These biologically synthesized ZnS NPs contain protein residues that can selectively bind with metal ions in aqueous solutions and can exhibit an aggregation-induced color change. This phenomenon is utilized to quantitatively measure the metal concentrations of Cu2 + and Mn2 + in this study. Further the stability of nanoparticles for the metal sensing process is accessed by UV-Vis spectrometer, zeta potential and cyclic voltammeter. The selectivity and sensitivity of ZnS NPs indicate its potential use as a sensor for metal detection in the ecosystem.

  8. Visible Light-Induced Degradation of Methylene Blue in the Presence of Photocatalytic ZnS and CdS Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Nayereh; Saion, Elias; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Erfani, Maryam; Abedini, Alam; Bahmanrokh, Ghazaleh; Navasery, Manizheh; Vaziri, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    ZnS and CdS nanoparticles were prepared by a simple microwave irradiation method under mild conditions. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TEM and EDX. The results indicated that high purity of nanosized ZnS and CdS was successfully obtained with cubic and hexagonal crystalline structures, respectively. The band gap energies of ZnS and CdS nanoparticles were estimated using UV-visible absorption spectra to be about 4.22 and 2.64 eV, respectively. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was carried out using physical mixtures of ZnS and CdS nanoparticles under a 500-W halogen lamp of visible light irradiation. The residual concentration of methylene blue solution was monitored using UV-visible absorption spectrometry. From the study of the variation in composition of ZnS:CdS, a composition of 1:4 (by weight) was found to be very efficient for degradation of methylene blue. In this case the degradation efficiency of the photocatalyst nanoparticles after 6 h irradiation time was about 73% with a reaction rate of 3.61 × 10−3 min−1. Higher degradation efficiency and reaction rate were achieved by increasing the amount of photocatalyst and initial pH of the solution. PMID:23202896

  9. Synthesis and influence of ultrasonic treatment on luminescence of Mn incorporated ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadis, A.-I.; Muresan, L. E.; Perhaita, I.; Munteanu, V.; Karabulut, Y.; Garcia Guinea, J.; Canimoglu, A.; Ayvacikli, M.; Can, N.

    2017-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) doping of ZnS phosphors was achieved by precipitation method using different ultrasound (US) maturation times. The structural and luminescence properties of the samples were carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence (CL). The real amount of manganese incorporated in ZnS lattice was calculated based on ICP-OES results. According with XRD patterns, the phase structure of ZnS:Mn samples is cubic. EDS spectra reveal deviations of the Mn dopant concentration from the target composition. Both 300 K PL and CL emission spectra of the Mn doped ZnS phosphors display intense orange emission at 590 and 600 nm, respectively, which is characteristic emission of Mn ion corresponding to a 4T1→6A1 transition. Both PL and CL spectra confirmed manganese is substitutionally incorporated into the ZnS host as Mn2+. However, it is suggested that the origin of broad blue emission around 400 nm appeared in CL is due to the radiative recombination at deep level defect states in the ZnS. The ultrasound treatment at first enhances the luminescent intensity by ∼3 times in comparison with samples prepared by classical way. This study gives rise to an optimization guideline, which is extremely demanded for the development of new luminescent materials.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of Mn doped ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashad, M. M.; Rayan, D. A.; El-Barawy, K.

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystallite Mn doped Zn1-XS (X = 0 to 0.4) powders have been synthesized through a hydrothermal route. The effect of the hydrothermal temperature and Mn2+ ions substitution on the crystal structure, crystallite size, microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated using (XRD), (SEM) and (VSM). The results revealed that wurtzite zinc sulfide phase was formed using thiourea as a sulfur source at temperature 150- 200oC for 24 h. The crystallite size was (7.9-15.1 nm) was obtained at the same conditions. The doping of Mn2+ ions decreased the crystallite size of the formed ZnS wurtzite phase was in the range between 7.9 and 3.8 nm. SEM micrographs showed that the produced ZnS and Mn doped ZnS particles were appeared as spherical shape. The magnetic properties were improved by substitution of Mn2+ ions up to 0.2.

  11. Oxide and hydrogen capped ultrasmall blue luminescent Si nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belomoin, Gennadiy; Therrien, Joel; Nayfeh, Munir

    2000-08-01

    We dispersed electrochemical etched silicon into a colloid of ultrasmall ultrabright Si nanoparticles. Direct imaging using transmission electron microscopy shows particles of ˜1 nm in diameter, and infrared and electron photospectroscopy show that they are passivated with hydrogen. Under 350 nm excitation, the luminescence is dominated by an extremely strong blue band at 390 nm. We replace hydrogen by a high-quality ultrathin surface oxide cap by self-limiting oxidation in H2O2. Upon capping, the excitation efficiency drops, but only by a factor of 2, to an efficiency still two-fold larger than that of fluorescein. Although of slightly lower brightness, capped Si particles have superior biocompatability, an important property for biosensing applications.

  12. Interfacial Self-Assembly of Polyelectrolyte-Capped Gold Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Honghu; Nayak, Srikanth; Wang, Wenjie

    Here, we report on pH- and salt-responsive assembly of nanoparticles capped with polyelectrolytes at vapor–liquid interfaces. Two types of alkylthiol-terminated poly(acrylic acid) (PAAs, varying in length) are synthesized and used to functionalize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mimic similar assembly effects of single-stranded DNA-capped AuNPs using synthetic polyelectrolytes. Using surface-sensitive X-ray scattering techniques, including grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR), we demonstrate that PAA-AuNPs spontaneously migrate to the vapor–liquid interfaces and form Gibbs monolayers by decreasing the pH of the suspension. The Gibbs monoalyers show chainlike structures of monoparticle thickness. The pH-induced self-assembly is attributed to themore » protonation of carboxyl groups and to hydrogen bonding between the neighboring PAA-AuNPs. In addition, we show that adding MgCl 2 to PAA-AuNP suspensions also induces adsorption at the interface and that the high affinity between magnesium ions and carboxyl groups leads to two- and three-dimensional clusters that yield partial surface coverage and poorer ordering of NPs at the interface. We also examine the assembly of PAA-AuNPs in the presence of a positively charged Langmuir monolayer that promotes the attraction of the negatively charged capped NPs by electrostatic forces. Our results show that synthetic polyelectrolyte-functionalized nanoparticles exhibit interfacial self-assembly behavior similar to that of DNA-functionalized nanoparticles, providing a pathway for nanoparticle assembly in general.« less

  13. Interfacial Self-Assembly of Polyelectrolyte-Capped Gold Nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Honghu; Nayak, Srikanth; Wang, Wenjie; ...

    2017-10-06

    Here, we report on pH- and salt-responsive assembly of nanoparticles capped with polyelectrolytes at vapor–liquid interfaces. Two types of alkylthiol-terminated poly(acrylic acid) (PAAs, varying in length) are synthesized and used to functionalize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mimic similar assembly effects of single-stranded DNA-capped AuNPs using synthetic polyelectrolytes. Using surface-sensitive X-ray scattering techniques, including grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR), we demonstrate that PAA-AuNPs spontaneously migrate to the vapor–liquid interfaces and form Gibbs monolayers by decreasing the pH of the suspension. The Gibbs monoalyers show chainlike structures of monoparticle thickness. The pH-induced self-assembly is attributed to themore » protonation of carboxyl groups and to hydrogen bonding between the neighboring PAA-AuNPs. In addition, we show that adding MgCl 2 to PAA-AuNP suspensions also induces adsorption at the interface and that the high affinity between magnesium ions and carboxyl groups leads to two- and three-dimensional clusters that yield partial surface coverage and poorer ordering of NPs at the interface. We also examine the assembly of PAA-AuNPs in the presence of a positively charged Langmuir monolayer that promotes the attraction of the negatively charged capped NPs by electrostatic forces. Our results show that synthetic polyelectrolyte-functionalized nanoparticles exhibit interfacial self-assembly behavior similar to that of DNA-functionalized nanoparticles, providing a pathway for nanoparticle assembly in general.« less

  14. Synthesis and photocatalytic studies of ZnS nanoparticles from heteroleptic complex of Zn(II) 1-cyano-1-carboethoxy-2,-2-ethylenedithiolato diisopropylthiourea and its adducts with N-donor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuntokun, Jejenija; Ajibade, Peter A.; Onwudiwe, Damian C.

    2016-12-01

    Zinc complexes of the type [Zn(diptu)2(ced)] (1), [Zn(diptu)2(ced)py] (2), [Zn(diptu)2(ced)bpy] (3), and [Zn(diptu)2(ced)phen] (4), (where (diptu)2(ced) = 1-cyano-1-carboethoxyethylene-2,2-dithiolato-κS,S‧-bis(N,N-diisopropyllthiourea), py = pyridine, bpy = 2, 2‧ bipyridine and phen = 1, 10 phenanthroline have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. The parent complex (1) was formulated as four coordinate species, which gave rise to 5 coordinate complex in (2) and six coordinate compounds in (3) and (4), with the dithiolate acting as bidentate chelating ligand. The complexes were used as single-source precursors for the synthesis of HDA-capped ZnS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles gave different morphologies with sizes in the range of 1.92-4.72 nm as observed from the TEM analysis and supported by XRD. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed that all the ZnS nanoparticles are blue shifted, with respect to the bulk, which confirmed quantum confinement. The photoluminescence spectra showed narrow and broad emission peaks around 290 and 360 nm which are ascribed to spontaneous emission peaks from band to band transition and surface states respectively. Photocatalytic activities of all the nanoparticles were investigated with methylene blue (MB) acting as the organic dye, and the UV-vis spectral revealed a gradual decrease in absorption peak that confirmed the degradation of the MB.

  15. Magnetic properties of TOAB-capped CuO nanoparticles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehra, M.; Punnoose, A.; Mahamuni, S.

    2002-03-01

    Synthesis of CuO nanoparticles (NP) capped with TOAB (tetraoctylammonium bromide) and their structural properties were reported recently [1]. Here we report on the magnetic properties of the TOAB-capped CuO-NP of size 4, 6 and 10 nm and compare these properties with those of uncapped CuO-NP in the size range of 6.6-37 nm described in the above abstract [2] and in a recent publication [3]. Temperature (5 K 350 K) and magnetic field (up to 55 kOe) variations of magnetization M, coercivity H_c, exchange bias He (field-cooled in 55 kOe) and the Neel temperature TN (where He goes to zero) were measured. The TOAB-capped NP have higher magnitudes of Ms (the weak ferromagnetic component of M) and lower He values, confirming the 1/Ms variation of He observed in uncapped CuO-NP for size < 16 nm. The reasons for the larger Ms in the capped vs. uncapped CuO-NP are now under investigation. TN decreases with the decrease in the particle size, as also observed for the uncapped CuO-NP. Supported in part by U.S. DOE (contract DE-FC26-99FT40540). [1]. K. Borgohain et al, Phys. Rev. B61, 11093 (2000). [2]. A. Punnoose and M. S. Seehra, preceding abstract. [3]. Punnoose, Magnone, Seehra & Bonevich, Phys. Rev. B64, 174420 (2001).

  16. Visible light photocatalytic H2-production activity of wide band gap ZnS nanoparticles based on the photosensitization of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Faze; Zheng, Maojun; Zhu, Changqing; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Wen; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2015-08-01

    Visible light photocatalytic H2 production from water splitting is considered an attractive way to solve the increasing global energy crisis in modern life. In this study, a series of zinc sulfide nanoparticles and graphene (GR) sheet composites were synthesized by a two-step hydrothermal method, which used zinc chloride, sodium sulfide, and graphite oxide (GO) as the starting materials. The as-prepared ZnS-GR showed highly efficient visible light photocatalytic activity in hydrogen generation. The morphology and structure of the composites obtained by transmission electron microscope and x-ray diffraction exhibited a small crystallite size and a good interfacial contact between the ZnS nanoparticles and the two-dimensional (2D) GR sheet, which were beneficial for the photocatalysis. When the content of the GR in the catalyst was 0.1%, the ZG0.1 sample exhibited the highest H2-production rate of 7.42 μmol h-1 g-1, eight times more than the pure ZnS sample. This high visible-light photocatalytic H2 production activity is attributed to the photosensitization of GR. Irradiated by visible light, the electrons photogenerated from GR transfer to the conduction band of ZnS to participate in the photocatalytic process. This study presents the visible-light photocatalytic activity of wide bandgap ZnS and its application in H2 evolution.

  17. Visible light photocatalytic H2-production activity of wide band gap ZnS nanoparticles based on the photosensitization of grapheme.

    PubMed

    Wang, Faze; Zheng, Maojun; Zhu, Changqing; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Wen; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2015-08-28

    Visible light photocatalytic H(2) production from water splitting is considered an attractive way to solve the increasing global energy crisis in modern life. In this study, a series of zinc sulfide nanoparticles and graphene (GR) sheet composites were synthesized by a two-step hydrothermal method, which used zinc chloride, sodium sulfide, and graphite oxide (GO) as the starting materials. The as-prepared ZnS-GR showed highly efficient visible light photocatalytic activity in hydrogen generation. The morphology and structure of the composites obtained by transmission electron microscope and x-ray diffraction exhibited a small crystallite size and a good interfacial contact between the ZnS nanoparticles and the two-dimensional (2D) GR sheet,which were beneficial for the photocatalysis. When the content of the GR in the catalyst was 0.1%, the ZG0.1 sample exhibited the highest H(2)-production rate of 7.42 μmol h(−1) g(−1), eight times more than the pure ZnS sample. This high visible-light photocatalytic H(2) production activity is attributed to the photosensitization of GR. Irradiated by visible light, the electrons photogenerated from GR transfer to the conduction band of ZnS to participate in the photocatalytic process. This study presents the visible-light photocatalytic activity of wide bandgap ZnS and its application in H(2) evolution.

  18. ZnS, CdS and HgS nanoparticles via alkyl-phenyl dithiocarbamate complexes as single source precursors.

    PubMed

    Onwudiwe, Damian C; Ajibade, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles obtained by the thermolysis of certain group 12 metal complexes as precursors is reported. Thermogravimetric analysis of the single source precursors showed sharp decomposition leading to their respective metal sulfides. The structural and optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the prepared ZnS nanoparticles have a cubic sphalerite structure; the CdS indicates a hexagonal phase and the HgS show the presence of metacinnabar phase. The TEM image demonstrates that the ZnS nanoparticles are dot-shaped, the CdS and the HgS clearly showed a rice and spherical morphology respectively. The UV-Vis spectra exhibited a blue-shift with respect to that of the bulk samples which is attributed to the quantum size effect. The band gap of the samples have been calculated from absorption spectra and werefound to be about 4.33 eV (286 nm), 2.91 eV (426 nm) and 4.27 eV (290 nm) for the ZnS, CdS and HgS samples respectively.

  19. ZnS, CdS and HgS Nanoparticles via Alkyl-Phenyl Dithiocarbamate Complexes as Single Source Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles obtained by the thermolysis of certain group 12 metal complexes as precursors is reported. Thermogravimetric analysis of the single source precursors showed sharp decomposition leading to their respective metal sulfides. The structural and optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the prepared ZnS nanoparticles have a cubic sphalerite structure; the CdS indicates a hexagonal phase and the HgS show the presence of metacinnabar phase. The TEM image demonstrates that the ZnS nanoparticles are dot-shaped, the CdS and the HgS clearly showed a rice and spherical morphology respectively. The UV-Vis spectra exhibited a blue-shift with respect to that of the bulk samples which is attributed to the quantum size effect. The band gap of the samples have been calculated from absorption spectra and werefound to be about 4.33 eV (286 nm), 2.91 eV (426 nm) and 4.27 eV (290 nm) for the ZnS, CdS and HgS samples respectively. PMID:22016607

  20. Interactions between citrate-capped gold nanoparticles and polymersomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohan; Lopez, Anand; Liu, Yibo; Wang, Feng; Liu, Juewen

    2018-06-01

    Polymersomes are vesicles formed by self-assembled amphiphilic block copolymers. Polymersomes generally have better stability than liposomes and they have been widely used in making drug delivery vehicles. In this work, the interaction between two types of polymersomes and citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was studied. The following two polymers: poly(2-methyloxazoline-b-dimethylsiloxane-b-2-methyloxazoline) (called P1) and poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) (called P2) were respectively used to form polymersomes. While P1 only formed spherical vesicle structures, worm-like structures were also observed with P2 as indicated by cryo-TEM. Both polymersomes adsorbed AuNPs leading to their subsequent aggregation. A lower polymersome concentration produced more obvious aggregation of AuNPs as judged from the color change. Capping AuNPs with glutathione inhibited adsorption of AuNPs. Considering the surface property of the polymers, the interaction with AuNPs was likely due to van der Waals forces. P1 polymersomes encapsulated calcein stably and AuNPs did not induce leakage. The P1/AuNP complex was more efficiently internalized by HeLa cells compared to free P1 polymersomes, further indicating a stable adsorption under cell culture conditions. In summary, this work indicates citrate-capped AuNPs form stable adsorption complexes with these polymersomes and their interactions have been explored.

  1. Insights into Comparative Antimicrobial Efficacies of Synthetic and Organic Agents: The Case of ZnS Nanoparticles and Zingiber officinale Rosc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obidi, O. F.; Nejo, A. O.; Ayeni, R. A.; Revaprasadu, N.

    2018-03-01

    The differences among the antimicrobial activities of synthetic nanoparticles (NPs), organic agents and conventional antibiotics against human pathogens are little known. We compared the antimicrobial activities of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes with ZnS NPs and tetracycline/nystatin using agar-diffusion techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet spectroscopy were used to characterize ZnS NPs. At 100 mg/ml, ethanol and ethyl acetate extract inhibited Acinetobacter baumannii, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterococcus faecium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans with zones of inhibition (ZOI) ranging between 0-42 mm and 0-39 mm, respectively. Candida albicans had a remarkable ZOI of 42 mm and 22 mm from ethanol and ZnS NPs compared with 20 mm from conventional nystatin. TEM and FTIR revealed spherically shaped polydispersed NPs with particle size of 12.5 nm and the role of banana peel extracts in ZnS NPs synthesis. Organic and synthetic NPs proved potential alternatives to conventional antimicrobial agents.

  2. Insights into Comparative Antimicrobial Efficacies of Synthetic and Organic Agents: The Case of ZnS Nanoparticles and Zingiber officinale Rosc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obidi, O. F.; Nejo, A. O.; Ayeni, R. A.; Revaprasadu, N.

    2018-06-01

    The differences among the antimicrobial activities of synthetic nanoparticles (NPs), organic agents and conventional antibiotics against human pathogens are little known. We compared the antimicrobial activities of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes with ZnS NPs and tetracycline/nystatin using agar-diffusion techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet spectroscopy were used to characterize ZnS NPs. At 100 mg/ml, ethanol and ethyl acetate extract inhibited Acinetobacter baumannii, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterococcus faecium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans with zones of inhibition (ZOI) ranging between 0-42 mm and 0-39 mm, respectively. Candida albicans had a remarkable ZOI of 42 mm and 22 mm from ethanol and ZnS NPs compared with 20 mm from conventional nystatin. TEM and FTIR revealed spherically shaped polydispersed NPs with particle size of 12.5 nm and the role of banana peel extracts in ZnS NPs synthesis. Organic and synthetic NPs proved potential alternatives to conventional antimicrobial agents.

  3. Simulation studies on structural and thermal properties of alkane thiol capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Devi, J Meena

    2017-06-01

    The structural and thermal properties of the passivated gold nanoparticles were explored employing molecular dynamics simulation for the different surface coverage densities of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of alkane thiol. The structural properties of the monolayer protected gold nanoparticles such us overall shape, organization and conformation of the capping alkane thiol chains were found to be influenced by the capping density. The structural order of the thiol capped gold nanoparticles enhances with the increase in the surface coverage density. The specific heat capacity of the alkane thiol capped gold nanoparticles was found to increase linearly with the thiol coverage density. This may be attributed to the enhancement in the lattice vibrational energy. The present simulation results suggest, that the structural and thermal properties of the alkane thiol capped gold nanoparticles may be modified by the suitable selection of the SAM coverage density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation synthesis and characterization of hyaluronan capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hien, Nguyen Quoc; Van Phu, Dang; Duy, Nguyen Ngoc; Quoc, Le Anh

    2012-06-20

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with diameter from 4 to 10nm, capping by hyaluronan (HA) were synthesized using a γ-irradiation method. The maximum absorption wavelengths at 517-525 nm of colloidal AuNPs/HA solutions were measured by UV-vis spectroscopy. The size and size distribution of AuNPs were determined from TEM images. The influence of various factors on the size of AuNPs particularly the concentration of Au3+ and HA, and dose rate were also investigated. Results indicated that higher dose rate and HA concentration favor smaller sizes of AuNPs whereas the size increases with Au3+ concentration. The colloidal AuNPs/HA solution was fairly stable more than 6 months under storage at ambient condition. The AuNPs stabilized by biocompatible HA with the size less than 10nm as prepared can potentially be applied in biomedicines and cosmetics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-assembly of cinnamic acid-capped gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Wei, Gang; Sun, Lanlan; Liu, Zhiguo; Song, Yonghai; Yang, Tao; Sun, Yujing; Guo, Cunlan; Li, Zhuang

    2006-06-01

    In this work, a new capping agent, cinnamic acid (CA) was used to synthesize Au nanoparticles (NPs) under ambient conditions. The size of the NPs can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of reductant (in our experiment sodium borohydride was used) or CA. The CA-stabilized Au NPs can self-assemble into 'nanowire-like' or 'pearl-necklace-like' nanostructures by adjusting the molar ratio of CA to HAuCl4 or by tuning the pH value of the Au colloidal solution. The process of Au NPs self-assembly was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results reveal that the induced dipole-dipole interaction is the driving force of Au NP linear assemblies.

  6. Enhancement of the Optoelectronic Properties of PEDOT: PSS-PbS Nanoparticles Composite Thin Films Through Nanoparticles' Capping Ligand Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gutiérrez, Diana F.; Hernández-Casillas, Laura P.; Sepúlveda-Guzmán, Selene; Vazquez-Rodriguez, Sofia; García-Gutiérrez, Domingo I.

    2018-02-01

    The influence of the capping ligand on nanoparticles' optical and electronic properties is a topic of great interest currently being investigated by several research groups in different countries. In the present study, PbS nanoparticles originally synthesized with oleic acid, myristic acid and hexanoic acid underwent a ligand exchange process to replace the original carboxylic acid for uc(l)-cysteine as the capping layer, and were thoroughly characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and its related techniques, such as energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning-transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared, Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Afterwards, these PbS nanoparticles were dispersed into a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix to fabricate a composite thin film which displayed the optical absorption properties of the PbS nanoparticles and the electrical transport properties of the PEDOT:PSS matrix, in order to evaluate the impact of the nanoparticles' capping ligand on the optoelectronic properties of the fabricated composite thin films. Composite thin films with PbS nanoparticles showing uc(l)-cysteine as the capping layer displayed clear photoresponse and a threefold increment in their conductivities compared to pristine PEDOT:PSS. The properties of PEDOT:PSS, known as a hole transport layer in most organic photovoltaic devices, were enhanced by adding PbS nanoparticles with different capping ligands, producing a promising composite material for optoelectronic applications by proper selection of the nanoparticles' capping layer.

  7. PVP capped CdS nanoparticles for UV-LED applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaram, H.; Selvakumar, D.; Jayavel, R., E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu

    Polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles are synthesized by wet chemical method. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) result indicates that the nanoparticles are crystallized in cubic phase. The optical properties are characterized by UV-Vis absorption. The morphology of CdS nanoparticles are studied using Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The thermal behavior of the as prepared nanoparticles has been examined by Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The optical absorption study of pvp capped CdS reveal a red shift confirms the UV-LED applications.

  8. Alkylamine capped metal nanoparticle "inks" for printable SERS substrates, electronics and broadband photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Manga, Kiran Kumar; Yu, Kuai; Ang, Priscilla Kailian; Cao, Hanh Duyen; Balapanuru, Janardhan; Loh, Kian Ping; Xu, Qing-Hua

    2011-05-01

    We report a facile and general method for the preparation of alkylamine capped metal (Au and Ag) nanoparticle "ink" with high solubility. Using these metal nanoparticle "inks", we have demonstrated their applications for large scale fabrication of highly efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates by a facile solution processing method. These SERS substrates can detect analytes down to a few nM. The flexible plastic SERS substrates have also been demonstrated. The annealing temperature dependent conductivity of the nanoparticle films indicated a transition temperature above which high conductivity was achieved. The transition temperature could be tailored to the plastic compatible temperatures by using proper alkylamine as the capping agent. The ultrafast electron relaxation studies of the nanoparticle films demonstrated that faster electron relaxation was observed at higher annealing temperatures due to stronger electronic coupling between the nanoparticles. The applications of these highly concentrated alkylamine capped metal nanoparticle inks for the printable electronics were demonstrated by printing the oleylamine capped gold nanoparticles ink as source and drain for the graphene field effect transistor. Furthermore, the broadband photoresponse properties of the Au and Ag nanoparticle films have been demonstrated by using visible and near-infrared lasers. These investigations demonstrate that these nanoparticle "inks" are promising for applications in printable SERS substrates, electronics, and broadband photoresponse devices. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  9. Removal of Protein Capping Enhances the Antibacterial Efficiency of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Navin; Bhargava, Arpit; Rathi, Mohit; Dilip, R. Venkataramana; Panwar, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    The present study demonstrates an economical and environmental affable approach for the synthesis of “protein-capped” silver nanoparticles in aqueous solvent system. A variety of standard techniques viz. UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were employed to characterize the shape, size and composition of nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be homogenous, spherical, mono-dispersed and covered with multi-layered protein shell. In order to prepare bare silver nanoparticles, the protein shell was removed from biogenic nanoparticles as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR and photoluminescence analysis. Subsequently, the antibacterial efficacy of protein-capped and bare silver nanoparticles was compared by bacterial growth rate and minimum inhibitory concentration assay. The results revealed that bare nanoparticles were more effective as compared to the protein-capped silver nanoparticles with varying antibacterial potential against the tested Gram positive and negative bacterial species. Mechanistic studies based on ROS generation and membrane damage suggested that protein-capped and bare silver nanoparticles demonstrate distinct mode of action. These findings were strengthened by the TEM imaging along with silver ion release measurements using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In conclusion, our results illustrate that presence of protein shell on silver nanoparticles can decrease their bactericidal effects. These findings open new avenues for surface modifications of nanoparticles to modulate and enhance their functional properties. PMID:26226385

  10. Synthesis of water soluble glycine capped silver nanoparticles and their surface selective interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Agasti, Nityananda, E-mail: nnagasti@gmail.com; Singh, Vinay K.; Kaushik, N.K.

    Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles at ambient reaction conditions. • Glycine as stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles. • Surface selective interaction of glycine with silver nanoparticles. • Glycine concentration influences crystalinity and optical property of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles has been an area of significant interest because of their wide range of applications. In the present study, we have successfully synthesized water soluble silver nanoparticles assisted by small amino acid glycine. The method is primarily based on reduction of AgNO{sub 3} with NaBH{sub 4} in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in themore » presence of glycine. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used for characterization of resulting silver nanoparticles demonstrated that, glycine is an effective capping agent to stabilize silver nanoparticles. Surface selective interaction of glycine on (1 1 1) face of silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The optical property and crystalline behavior of silver nanoparticles were found to be sensitive to concentration of glycine. X–ray diffraction studies ascertained the phase specific interaction of glycine on silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were of diameter 60 nm. We thus demonstrated an efficient synthetic method for synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles capped by amino acid under mild reaction conditions with excellent reproducibility.« less

  11. Solid state synthesis of starch-capped silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hebeish, A; Shaheen, Th I; El-Naggar, Mehrez E

    2016-06-01

    The present research addresses the establishment of a technique which is solely devoted to environmentally friendly one-pot green synthesis of dry highly stable powdered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using starch as both reductant and stabilizing agent in the presence of sodium hydroxide. It is believed that the sodium hydroxide can improve the reduction potential of starch. Thus when the alkali treated starch is submitted to addition of silver nitrate (AgNO3), the alkali treated starch induces the well-established dual role of starch; reduction of silver ions (Ag(+)) to AgNPs and capping the as-formed AgNPs to prevent them from further growth and agglomeration. Beside assessment of AgNPs formation, structural and morphological characteristics of AgNPs are investigated by making use of UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Research outputs signify (a) the absorbance around 410-420nm in the UV-vis spectra of AgNPs appears most, probably owing to the presence of nanosized silver particles and the intensity of this peak increases by increasing AgNO3 concentration; (b) that highly stable AgNPs with well-dispersed particle are successfully prepared using the present research-based innovation; (c) that the size of AgNPs does not exceed 30nm with sphere-like morphology even at the highest Ag(+) concentration employed during synthesis operation; (d) that the XRD and FT-IR confirm the successful preparation of pure AgNPs without noticeable impurities; (d) and that the one-pot synthesis of powdered AgNPs in large scale is clean and easily operated and easily transportation which may be applied as per demands of industries such as textile and painting industry. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of cysteine capped CuS nanoparticles with tyrosine

    SciTech Connect

    Prasanth, S.; Raj, D. Rithesh; Kumar, T. V. Vineesh

    2015-06-24

    Biocompatible cysteine coated CuS nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple aqueous solution method. Hexagonal phase of the samples were confirmed from X-ray diffraction and particle size found to be 9 nm. The possible interaction between the bioactive cysteine capped CuS nanoparticles and tyrosine were investigated using spectroscopic techniques such as UV-Visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is observed that the luminescence intensity of tyrosine molecule enhanced by the addition CuS nanoparticles.

  13. Structural, optical, and photoluminescence characterization of electron beam evaporated ZnS/CdSe nanoparticles thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S. H.; Ali, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Structural, optical, and photoluminescence investigations of ZnS capped with CdSe films prepared by electron beam evaporation are presented. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the ZnS/CdSe nanoparticles films contain cubic cadmium selenide and hexagonal zinc sulfide crystals and the ZnS grain sizes increased with increasing ZnS thickness. The refractive index was evaluated in terms of envelope method, which has been suggested by Swanepoel in the transparent region. The refractive index values were found to increase with increasing ZnS thickness. However, the optical band gap and the extinction coefficient were decreased with increasing ZnS thickness. Photoluminescence (PL) investigations revealed the presence of two broad emission bands. The ZnS thickness significantly influenced the PL intensities.

  14. Silver nanoparticles-enhanced time-resolved fluorescence sensor for VEGF(165) based on Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dong; Li, Wei; Wen, Hong-Mei; Yu, Sheng; Miao, Zhao-Yi; Kang, An; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-12-15

    A silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-enhanced time-resolved fluorescence (TR-FL) sensor based on long-lived fluorescent Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) is developed for the sensitive detection of vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF165), a predominant cancer biomarker in cancer angiogenesis. The aptamers bond with the Mn-doped ZnS QDs and the BHQ-2 quencher-labelling strands hybridized in duplex are coupled with streptavidin (SA)-functionalized AgNPs to form the AgNPs-enhanced TR-FL sensor, showing lower fluorescence intensity in the duplex state due to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the Mn-doped ZnS QDs and quenchers. Upon the addition of VEGF165, the BHQ-2 quencher-labelling strands of the duplex are displaced, leading to the disruption of the FRET. As a result, the fluorescence of the Mn-doped QDs within the proximity of the AgNPs is recovered. The FL signal can be measured free of the interference of short-lived background by setting appropriate delay time and gate time, which offers a signal with high signal-to-noise ratio in photoluminescent biodetection. Compared with the bare TR-FL sensor, the AgNPs-based TR-FL sensor showed a huge improvement in fluorescence based on metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) effect, and the sensitivity increased 11-fold with the detection limit of 0.08 nM. In addition, the sensor provided a wide range of linear detection from 0.1 nM to 16 nM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulmozhi, K. T.; Mythili, N.

    2013-12-01

    Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  16. Extracellular biosynthesis of monodispersed gold nanoparticles by a SAM capping route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Li; Lin, Zhonghua; Gu, Pingying; Zhou, Jianzhang; Yao, Bingxing; Chen, Guoliang; Fu, Jinkun

    2009-02-01

    Monodispersed gold nanoparticles capped with a self-assembled monolayer of dodecanethiol were biosynthesized extracellularly by an efficient, simple, and environmental friendly procedure, which involved the use of Bacillus megatherium D01 as the reducing agent and the use of dodecanethiol as the capping ligand at 26 °C. The kinetics of gold nanoparticle formation was followed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. It was shown that reaction time was an important parameter in controlling the morphology of gold nanoparticles. The effect of thiol on the shape, size, and dispersity of gold nanoparticles was also studied. The results showed that the presence of thiol during the biosynthesis could induce the formation of small size gold nanoparticles (<2.5 nm), hold the shape of spherical nanoparticles, and promote the monodispersity of nanoparticles. Through the modulation of reaction time and the use of thiol, monodispersed spherical gold nanoparticles capped with thiol of 1.9 ± 0.8 nm size were formed by using Bacillus megatherium D01.

  17. Effect of capping agents: Structural, optical and biological properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, Rabia; Usman, Muhammad; Tabassum, Saira; Zia, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Different biological activities of capped and uncapped ZnO nanoparticles were investigated, and the effects of potential capping agents on these biological activities were studied. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and capped by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) using a simple chemical method of co-precipitation. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-vis spectroscopy confirmed the crystallinity, size, functional group, and band gap of synthesized nanoparticles. Reduction in size occurred from 34 nm to 26 nm due to surfactant. Results of all biological activities indicated significantly higher values in capped as compared to uncapped nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Escherichia coli (ATCC15224), and Acetobacter was obtained. This activity was more prominent against Gram-positive bacteria, and ZnO-PVP nanoparticles elucidated highest antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition 17 mm) against Gram-positive, Bacillus subtilis species. Antioxidant activities including total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power and %age inhibition of DPPH, and antidiabetic activity against α-amylase enzyme found to be exhibited highest by ZnO-PEG nanoparticles.

  18. Transport of bare and capped zinc oxide nanoparticles is dependent on porous medium composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlanda-Witek, H.; Ngwenya, B. T.; Butler, I. B.

    2014-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are one of the most frequently used nanoparticles in industry and hence are likely to be introduced to the groundwater environment. The mobility of these nanoparticles in different aquifer materials has not been assessed. While some studies have been published on the transport of ZnO nanoparticles in individual porous media, these studies do not generally account for varying porous medium composition both within and between aquifers. As a first step towards understanding the impact of this variability, this paper compares the transport of bare ZnO nanoparticles (bZnO-NPs) and capped ZnO nanoparticles, coated with tri-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (cZnO-NPs), in saturated columns packed with glass beads, fine grained sand and fine grained calcite, at near-neutral pH and groundwater salinity levels. With the exception of cZnO-NPs in sand columns, ZnO nanoparticles are highly immobile in all three types of studied porous media, with most retention taking place near the column inlet. Results are in general agreement with DLVO theory, and the deviation in experiments with cZnO-NPs flowing through columns packed with sand is linked to variability in zeta potential of the capped nanoparticles and sand grains. Therefore, differences in surface charge of nanoparticles and porous media are demonstrated to be key drivers in nanoparticle transport.

  19. Photo-sensitization of ZnS nanoparticles with renowned ruthenium dyes N3, N719 and Z907 for application in solid state dye sensitized solar cells: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Nosheen, Erum; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Hussain, Hazrat; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a comprehensive relative report on the grafting of ZnS with renowned ruthenium ((Ru) dyes i.e. N3, N719 and Z907) and gives insight into their charge transfer interaction and sensitization mechanism for boosting solar cell efficiency. Influence of dye concentration on cell performance is also reported here. ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by a simple coprecipitation method with an average particle size of 15±2nm were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Elemental dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), tunneling electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. UV-Vis, photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirms the successful grafting of these dyes over ZnS nanoparticles surface. Low-energy metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transition (MLCT) bands of dyes are mainly affected on grafting over the nanoparticle surface. Moreover their current voltage (I-V) results confirm the efficiency enhancement in ZnS solid state dye sensitized solar cells (SSDSSCs) owing to effective sensitization of this material with Ru dyes and helps in finding the optimum dye concentration for nanoparticles sensitization. Highest rise in overall solar cell efficiency i.e. 64% of the reference device has been observed for 0.3mM N719-ZnS sample owing to increased open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). Experimental and proposed results were found in good agreement with each other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High potential of Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles with different dopant concentrations as novel MRI contrast agents: synthesis and in vitro relaxivity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanbin, Tania; Gaceur, Meriem; Gros-Dagnac, Hélène; Benderbous, Soraya; Merah, Souad Ammar

    2015-06-01

    Over several decades, metal-doped quantum dots (QDs) with core-shell structure have been studied as dual probes: fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes (Dixit et al., Mater Lett 63(30):2669-2671, 2009). However, metal-doped nanoparticles, in which the majority of metal ions are close to the surface, can affect their efficacy as MRI contrast agents (CAs). In this context, herein the high potential of synthesized Mn-doped ZnS QDs via polyol method as imaging probe is demonstrated. The mean diameters of QDs were measured via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical and magnetic properties of MnZnS nanoparticles were characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy and super quanducting interference devices magnetometer and electron paramagnetic resonance system, respectively. T1- and T2-weighted images of nanoparticles in aqueous solution were acquired from spin-echo sequences at 3 T. From TEM images and XRD spectra of the prepared nanoparticles, it is observed that the average diameter of particles does not significantly change with Mn dopant content ( 1.6-1.9 nm). All three samples exhibit broad blue emission under UV light excitation. According to the MRI studies, MnZnS nanoparticles generate strong T1 contrast enhancement (bright T1-weighted images) at the low concentration (<0.1 mM). The MnZnS nanoparticles exhibit the high longitudinal ( r 1) relaxivity that increases from 20.34 to 75.5 mM-1 s-1 with the Mn dopant contents varying between 10 and 30 %. Strong signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high r 1 with {r2 }/{r_{1 }} ≈ 1 can demonstrate the high potential of the synthesized Mn:ZnS nanoparticles, which can serve as an effective T1 CA.

  1. Adsorption kinetics of alkanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles at the hexane-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdous, Sultana; Ioannidis, Marios A.; Henneke, Dale

    2011-12-01

    The pendant drop technique was used to characterize the adsorption behavior of n-dodecane-1-thiol and n-hexane-1-thiol-capped gold nanoparticles at the hexane-water interface. The adsorption process was studied by analyzing the dynamic interfacial tension versus nanoparticle concentration, both at early times and at later stages (i.e., immediately after the interface between the fluids is made and once equilibrium has been established). A series of gold colloids were made using nanoparticles ranging in size from 1.60 to 2.85 nm dissolved in hexane for the interfacial tension analysis. Following free diffusion of nanoparticles from the bulk hexane phase, adsorption leads to ordering and rearrangement of the nanoparticles at the interface and formation of a dense monolayer. With increasing interfacial coverage, the diffusion-controlled adsorption for the nanoparticles at the interface was found to change to an interaction-controlled assembly and the presence of an adsorption barrier was experimentally verified. At the same bulk concentration, different sizes of n-dodecane-1-thiol nanoparticles showed different absorption behavior at the interface, in agreement with the findings of Kutuzov et al. (Phys Chem Chem Phys 9:6351-6358, 2007). The experiments additionally demonstrated the important role played by the capping agent. At the same concentration, gold nanoparticles stabilized by n-hexane-1-thiol exhibited greater surface activity than gold nanoparticles of the same size stabilized by n-dodecane-1-thiol. These findings contribute to the design of useful supra-colloidal structures by the self-assembly of alkane-thiol-capped gold nanoparticles at liquid-liquid interfaces.

  2. Uncaria gambir Roxb. mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using diethanolamine as capping agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labanni, A.; Zulhadjri; Handayani, D.; Arief, S.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of silver nanoparticles preparation has been developed increasingly due to the wide application in various areas and field, such as medicine, energy, catalysis, and electronic. An environmental-friendly method is needed to fabricate biocompatible silver nanoparticles without producing hazardous materials to the environment. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles by green synthesis method, using leaf extract of gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb.) as bioreducing agent and aqueous diethanolamine (DEA) solution as capping agents. The AgNO3/DEA molar ratio was varied to investigate the effect of DEA concentration to the properties of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles was indicated by colour changes to yellowish brown and confirmed by result of UV-Vis spectrophotometer analysis which shown absorption band at 400 to 410 nm. The absorbance was increased to the reaction time of 24 hours, and was decrease by the increasing of DEA concentration in reaction. TEM analysis showed that prepared silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with diameter of 3,5 - 45,5 nm. The diameter of DEA capped silver nanoparticles was 13 nm, smaller than uncapped silver nanoparticles which was 26 nm It exhibited good stability to time reaction of one month which was potential to be developed in some fields.

  3. Drastic nickel ion removal from aqueous solution by curcumin-capped Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, S.; Pagano, R.; Valli, L.; Giancane, G.

    2014-08-01

    A completely green synthesis protocol has been adopted to obtain silver nanoaggregates capped by the natural compound (1E, 6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-diene), also known as curcumin. The synthesis has been monitored by infrared, Raman, visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. Characterization confirms that curcumin reduces and caps the nanoparticles, and such a procedure allows its solubility in water and drastically increases curcumin stability. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/curcumin complex has been dispersed in a water solution containing a known nickel ion concentration. After three days, a grey precipitate is observed and nickel concentration in the solution is reduced by about 70%.A completely green synthesis protocol has been adopted to obtain silver nanoaggregates capped by the natural compound (1E, 6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-diene), also known as curcumin. The synthesis has been monitored by infrared, Raman, visible and fluorescence spectroscopies. Characterization confirms that curcumin reduces and caps the nanoparticles, and such a procedure allows its solubility in water and drastically increases curcumin stability. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/curcumin complex has been dispersed in a water solution containing a known nickel ion concentration. After three days, a grey precipitate is observed and nickel concentration in the solution is reduced by about 70%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02583k

  4. Keratin capped silver nanoparticles - synthesis and characterization of a nanomaterial with desirable handling properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were produced with keratin stabilizer and the NPs exhibited unimodal Gaussian distribution with average diameter of 3.5nm +/- 0.7 nm. The molecular mass of keratin stabilizer was 6-8 kDa. The mass of keratin capped NPs was >250 kDa to indicate the formation of crosslinked...

  5. Anionic 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid capped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimšíková, Michaela; Antalík, Marián; Kaňuchová, Mária; Škvarla, Jiří

    2013-10-01

    The anionic zinc oxide nanoparticles have been prepared at room temperature by a precipitation method using ZnCl2 and NaOH and surface modification with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for definition of morphology and size of prepared nanoparticles which was proved by measurements of particle size distribution using Zetasizer. Successful coating with MUA as surfactant was acknowledged by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The isoelectric point (IEP) of ZnO-MUA nanoparticles was obtained by measurements of zeta potential and FT-IR dependence on pH; the obtained value was approximately 3.58. The value of exchanged protons was 2.88 which indicates a positive binding cooperativity of modified nanoparticles.

  6. Capped Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for the Selective and Sensitive Detection of Cyanide.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Sameh El; Licchelli, Maurizio; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Sancenón, Félix

    2017-10-18

    The development of easy and affordable methods for the detection of cyanide is of great significance due to the high toxicity of this anion and the potential risks associated with its pollution. Herein, optical detection of cyanide in water has been achieved by using a hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterial. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles were loaded with [Ru(bipy) 3 ] 2+ , functionalized with macrocyclic nickel(II) complex subunits, and capped with a sterically hindering anion (hexametaphosphate). Cyanide selectively induces demetallation of nickel(II) complexes and the removal of capping anions from the silica surface, allowing the release of the dye and the consequent increase in fluorescence intensity. The response of the capped nanoparticles in aqueous solution is highly selective and sensitive towards cyanide with a limit of detection of 2 μm. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Assessing the Role of Capping Molecules in Controlling Aggregative Growth of Gold Nanoparticles in Heated Solution.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Han-Wen; Schadt, Mark J; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2016-01-01

    This report describes findings of an investigation of the role of capping molecules in the size growth in the aggregative growth of pre-formed small-sized gold nanoparticles capped with alkanethiolate monolayers toward monodispersed larger sizes. The size controllability depends on the thiolate chain length and concentration in the thermal solution. The size evolution in solution at different concentrations of alkanethiols is analyzed in relation to adsorption isotherms and cohesive energy. The size dependence on thiolate chain length is also analyzed by considering the cohesive energy of the capping molecules, revealing the importance of cohesive energy in the capping structure. Theoretical and experimental comparisons of the surface plasmonic resonance optical properties have also provided new insights into the mechanism, thus enabling the exploitation of size-dependent nanoscale properties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Robust Synthesis of Ciprofloxacin-Capped Metallic Nanoparticles and Their Urease Inhibitory Assay.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Qayum, Mughal; Khan, Ajmal; Farooq, Umar; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ali, Rashid

    2016-03-25

    The fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin (cip) has been used to cap metallic (silver and gold) nanoparticles by a robust one pot synthetic method under optimized conditions, using NaBH₄ as a mild reducing agent. Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) showed constancy against variations in pH, table salt (NaCl) solution, and heat. Capping with metal ions (Ag/Au-cip) has significant implications for the solubility, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fluoroquinolone molecules. The metallic nanoparticles were characterized by several techniques such as ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) methods. The nanoparticles synthesized using silver and gold were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray tests in order to show their metallic composition. The NH moiety of the piperazine group capped the Ag/Au surfaces, as revealed by spectroscopic studies. The synthesized nanoparticles were also assessed for urease inhibition potential. Fascinatingly, both Ag-cip and Au-cip NPs exhibited significant urease enzyme inhibitory potential, with IC50 = 1.181 ± 0.02 µg/mL and 52.55 ± 2.3 µg/mL, compared to ciprofloxacin (IC50 = 82.95 ± 1.62 µg/mL). MNPs also exhibited significant antibacterial activity against selected bacterial strains.

  9. Surface molecularly imprinted polymer capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as a phosphorescent nanosensor for detecting patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wengang; Han, Yong; Chen, Xiumei; Luo, Xueli; Wang, Jianlong; Yue, Tianli; Li, Zhonghong

    2017-10-01

    A Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) based nanosensor for selective phosphorescent determination of patulin (PAT) was synthesized with 6-hydroxynicotinic acid (6-HNA) as dummy template via a surface molecular imprinting sol-gel process. FTIR and XRD indicated the successful graft of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) onto crystal QDs. Binding tests revealed that the MIP-QDs presented higher selectivity, adsorption capacity and mass transfer rate than non-imprinted polymers, demonstrating a specific recognition for PAT among competitive mycotoxins and its analogues with the imprinting factor of 2.02. The MIP-QDs could recognize PAT in a linear range of 0.43-6.50μmolL -1 with a detection limit of 0.32μmolL -1 and a correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.9945. Recoveries of 102.9-127.2% with relative standard deviations <4.95% were achieved in apple juice samples which were in good agreement with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (P>0.05). The results indicated a simple phosphorescent nanosensor for PAT detection in complex matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Catalytic Properties of Unsupported Palladium Nanoparticle Surfaces Capped with Small Organic Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Gavia, Diego J.

    2015-01-01

    This Minireview summarizes a variety of intriguing catalytic studies accomplished by employing unsupported, either solubilized or freely mobilized, and small organic ligand-capped palladium nanoparticles as catalysts. Small organic ligands are gaining more attention as nanoparticle stabilizers and alternates to larger organic supports, such as polymers and dendrimers, owing to their tremendous potential for a well-defined system with spatial control in surrounding environments of reactive surfaces. The nanoparticle catalysts are grouped depending on the type of surface stabilizers with reactive head groups, which include thiolate, phosphine, amine, and alkyl azide. Applications for the reactions such as hydrogenation, alkene isomerization, oxidation, and carbon-carbon cross coupling reactions are extensively discussed. The systems defined as “ligandless” Pd nanoparticle catalysts and solvent (e.g. ionic liquid)-stabilized Pd nanoparticle catalysts are not discussed in this review. PMID:25937846

  11. Rapid synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using tryptone as a reducing and capping agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sourabh M.; Sequeira, Marilyn P.; Muthurajana, Harries; D'Souza, Jacinta S.

    2018-02-01

    Due to its eco-friendliness, recent times have seen an immense interest in the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. We present here, a protocol for the rapid and cheap synthesis of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) using 1 mg/ml tryptone (trypsinized casein) as a reducing and capping agent. These nanoparticles are spherical, 10 nm in diameter and relatively monodispersed. The atoms of these NPs are arranged in face-centered cubic fashion. Further, when tested for their cytotoxic property against HeLa and VERO cell lines, gold nanoparticles were more lethal than silver nanoparticles, with a more or less similar trend observed against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. On the other hand, the NPs were least cytotoxic against a unicellular alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii implying their eco-friendly property.

  12. Capsaicin-capped silver nanoparticles: its kinetics, characterization and biocompatibility assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amruthraj, Nagoth Joseph; Preetam Raj, John Poonga; Lebel, Antoine

    2015-04-01

    Capsaicin was used as a bio-reductant for the reduction of silver nitrate to form silver nanoparticles. The formation of the silver nanoparticles was initially confirmed by color change and Tyndall effect of light scattering. It was characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR and TEM. Hemagglutination (H) test and H-inhibition assay were performed in the presence of AgNPs-capsaicin conjugates. The silver colloid solution after complete reduction turned into pale gray color. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) was observed at 450 nm. Time taken for complete bio-reduction of silver nitrate and capping was found to be 16 hours. The amount of capsaicin required to reduce 20 ml of 1 mM silver nitrate solution was found to be 40 μg approximately. The FTIR results confirmed the capping of capsaicin on the silver metal. The particle size was within the range of 20-30 nm. The hemagglutination and H-inhibition test was negative for all the blood groups. The capsaicin-capped silver nanoparticles were compatible with blood cells in hemagglutination test implying biocompatibility as future therapeutic drug.

  13. Synthesis of a novel glucose capped gold nanoparticle as a better theranostic candidate

    PubMed Central

    Suvarna, Saritha; Das, Ujjal; KC, Sunil; Mishra, Snehasis; Sudarshan, Mathummal; Saha, Krishna Das; Dey, Sanjit; Chakraborty, Anindita; Narayana, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are predominantly used in diagnostics, therapeutics and biomedical applications. The present study has been designed to synthesize differently capped gold nanoparticles (AuNps) by a simple, one-step, room temperature procedure and to evaluate the potential of these AuNps for biomedical applications. The AuNps are capped with glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) and citrate using different reducing agents. This is the first report of synthesis of 2DG-AuNp by the simple room temperature method. The synthesized gold nanoparticles are characterized with UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) study of the synthesized AuNps shows increase in Raman signals up to 50 times using 2DG. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiozol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay has been performed using all the three differently capped AuNps in different cell lines to assess cytotoxcity if any, of the nanoparticles. The study shows that 2DG-AuNps is a better candidate for theranostic application. PMID:28582426

  14. Green synthesis of silk sericin-capped silver nanoparticles and their potent anti-bacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Bang, Nipaporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a `green chemistry' approach was introduced to synthesize silk sericin (SS)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under an alkaline condition (pH 11) using SS as a reducing and stabilizing agent instead of toxic chemicals. The SS-capped AgNPs were successfully synthesized at various concentrations of SS and AgNO3, but the yields were different. A higher yield of SS-capped AgNPs was obtained when the concentrations of SS and AgNO3 were increased. The SS-capped AgNPs showed a round shape and uniform size with diameter at around 48 to 117 nm. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy result proved that the carboxylate groups obtained from alkaline degradation of SS would be a reducing agent for the generation of AgNPs while COO- and NH2 + groups stabilized the AgNPs and prevented their precipitation or aggregation. Furthermore, the SS-capped AgNPs showed potent anti-bacterial activity against various gram-positive bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.008 mM) and gram-negative bacteria (MIC ranging from 0.001 to 0.004 mM). Therefore, the SS-capped AgNPs would be a safe candidate for anti-bacterial applications.

  15. Synthesis and enhanced humidity detection response of nanoscale Au-particle-decorated ZnS spheres

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We successfully prepared Au-nanoparticle-decorated ZnS (ZnS-Au) spheres by sputtering Au ultrathin films on surfaces of hydrothermally synthesized ZnS spheres and subsequently postannealed the samples in a high-vacuum atmosphere. The Au nanoparticles were distributed on ZnS surfaces without substantial aggregation. The Au nanoparticle diameter range was 5 to 10 nm. Structural information showed that the surface of the annealed ZnS-Au spheres became more irregular and rough. A humidity sensor constructed using the Au-nanoparticle-decorated ZnS spheres demonstrated a substantially improved response to the cyclic change in humidity from 11% relative humidity (RH) to 33% to 95% RH at room temperature. The improved response was associated with the enhanced efficiency of water molecule adsorption onto the surfaces of the ZnS because of the surface modification of the ZnS spheres through noble-metal nanoparticle decoration. PMID:25520595

  16. Towards single crystalline, highly monodisperse and catalytically active gold nanoparticles capped with probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum derived lipase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Nagarjuna, Ravikiran; Ray Dutta, Jayati; Ganesan, Ramakrishnan

    2018-03-01

    Owing to the eco-friendly nature of biomolecules, there lies a huge interest in exploring them as capping agents for nanoparticles to achieve stability and biocompatibility. Lipase extracted from the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum is utilized for the first time to study its efficacy in capping gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in the room temperature synthesis using HAuCl4. The synthesized lipase-capped GNPs are characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, HR-TEM, DLS and zeta potential measurements. Importantly, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies with HR-TEM have revealed the effect of lipase capping in tuning the polycrystallinity of the GNPs. The lipase-capped GNPs are explored for their catalytic efficiency towards an environmentally and industrially important conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. Exploiting the amine functional groups in the protein, the recoverability and reusability of the GNPs have been demonstrated through immobilization over amine-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

  17. Programmable Self-assembly of Hydrocarbon-capped Nanoparticles: Role of Chain Conformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltmann, Curt; Horst, Nathan; Travesset, Alex

    Nanoparticle superlattices (NPS), i.e. crystalline arrangements of nanoparticles, are materials with fascinating structures, which in many cases are not possible to attain from simple atoms or molecules. They also span a wide range of possible applications such as metamaterials, new energy sources, catalysis, and many others. In this talk, we present a theoretical and computational description of the self-assembly of nanoparticles with hydrocarbons as capping ligands. Usually, these systems have been described with hard sphere packing models. In this talk, we show that the conformations of the hydrocarbon chains play a fundamental role in determining the equilibrium phases, including and especially in binary systems. The work of CW was supported by a DOE-SULI internship from May-December 2016, and by NSF, DMR-CMMT 1606336 CDS&E: Design Principles for Ordering Nanoparticles into Super-crystals after January 1st.

  18. Two New Fluorogenic Aptasensors Based on Capped Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles to Detect Ochratoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Ribes, Àngela; Santiago‐Felipe, Sara; Bernardos, Andrea; Marcos, M. Dolores; Pardo, Teresa; Sancenón, Félix; Aznar, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aptamers have been used as recognition elements for several molecules due to their great affinity and selectivity. Additionally, mesoporous nanomaterials have demonstrated great potential in sensing applications. Based on these concepts, we report herein the use of two aptamer‐capped mesoporous silica materials for the selective detection of ochratoxin A (OTA). A specific aptamer for OTA was used to block the pores of rhodamine B‐loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Two solids were prepared in which the aptamer capped the porous scaffolds by using a covalent or electrostatic approach. Whereas the prepared materials remained capped in water, dye delivery was selectively observed in the presence of OTA. The protocol showed excellent analytical performance in terms of sensitivity (limit of detection: 0.5–0.05 nm), reproducibility, and selectivity. Moreover, the aptasensors were tested for OTA detection in commercial foodstuff matrices, which demonstrated their potential applicability in real samples. PMID:29046860

  19. Hydroxy propyl cellulose capped silver nanoparticles produced by simple dialysis process

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, L.; Balakrishnan, A.; Sanosh, K.P.

    2010-08-15

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles ({approx}6 nm) were synthesized using a novel dialysis process. Silver nitrate was used as a starting precursor, ethylene glycol as solvent and hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC) introduced as a capping agent. Different batches of reaction mixtures were prepared with different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}). After the reduction and aging, these solutions were subjected to ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UVS). Optimized solution, containing 250 mg AgNO{sub 3} revealed strong plasmon resonance peak at {approx}410 nm in the spectrum indicating good colloidal state of Ag nanoparticles in the diluted solution. The optimized solution was subjected to dialysis processmore » to remove any unreacted solvent. UVS of the optimized solution after dialysis showed the plasmon resonance peak shifting to {approx}440 nm indicating the reduction of Ag ions into zero-valent Ag. This solution was dried at 80 {sup o}C and the resultant HPC capped Ag (HPC/Ag) nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for their particle size and morphology. The particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of these nanoparticles showed skewed distribution plot with particle size ranging from 3 to 18 nm. The nanoparticles were characterized for phase composition using X-ray diffractrometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).« less

  20. Production of putrescine-capped stable silver nanoparticle: its characterization and antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Saswati; Gupta, Bhaskar; Gupta, Kamala; Chaudhuri, Mahua Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Integration of biology with nanotechnology is now becoming attention-grabbing area of research. The antimicrobial potency of silver has been eminent from antiquity. Due to the recent desire for the enhancement of antibacterial efficacy of silver, various synthesis methods of silver in their nano dimensions are being practiced using a range of capping material. The present work highlights a facile biomimetic approach for production of silver nanoparticle being capped and stabilized by putrescine, possessing a diameter of 10-25 ± 1.5 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles have been analyzed spectrally and analytically. Morphological studies are carried out by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and crystallinity by selected area electron diffraction patterns. Moreover, the elemental composition of the capped nanoparticles was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. A comparative study (zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration) regarding the interactions and antibacterial potentiality of the capped silver nanoparticles with respect to the bare ones reveal the efficiency of the capped one over the bare one. The bacterial kinetic study was executed to monitor the interference of nanoparticles with bacterial growth rate. The results also highlight the efficacy of putrescine-capped silver nanoparticles as effective growth inhibitors against multi-drug resistant human pathogenic bacterial strains, which may, thus, potentially be applicable as an effective antibacterial control system to fight diseases.

  1. Size Selective Green Synthesis of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles: Enhanced Antibacterial Efficacy of Resveratrol Capped Silver Sol.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shashi P; Roy, Mainak; Mukherjee, Poulomi; Das, Laboni; Neogy, Suman; Srivastava, Dinesh; Adhikari, Soumyakanti

    2016-03-01

    In view of potential biomedical application of the noble metal nanoparticles, we report a size controlled yet simple and green synthesis of resveratrol stabilized silver and gold nanoparticles having low polydispersity of size. Here, resveratrol plays two simultaneous roles, reducing the metal ions and providing efficient capping of the small nanoparticles. This gives rise to specific size of silver and gold nanoparticles at specific ratios of metal to resveratrol. The particles have been characterized by XRD and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticle sols are stable for months. The UV Visible absorption spectra of the silver sol show the plasmon peak of spherical nanoparticles, presence of which is further reflected in the TEM images. Size of the silver particles obtained is in between 11 to 21 nm depending on the ratio of resveratrol to metal ion used. Resveratrol capped silver nanoparticles exhibit high antibacterial activity against Gram negative wild type E coli BW (25113). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nano-silver against the bacterium has been estimated to be 6.48 μg/ml, which is significantly lower than that reported in some earlier as well as recent publications. Reaction of gold ions with resveratrol, on the other hand, produces gold nanoparticles of sizes varying from 7 to 29 nm at different ratios of resveratrol to the metal ions. Particles with higher size and aspect ratio are formed at lower concentration of the capping agent whereas particles with very small size and pseudo-spherical morphology are formed at higher capping concentration. Difference in the formation kinetics of silver and gold nanoparticles has been attributed to the different growth mechanisms in the two cases. Possible modes of anchorage of resveratrol to silver nanoparticles have been investigated using surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERS) which shows that the silver nanoparticles are capped by resveratrol molecule primarily through O

  2. Highly-sensitive aptasensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer between l-cysteine capped ZnS quantum dots and graphene oxide sheets for the determination of edifenphos fungicide.

    PubMed

    Arvand, Majid; Mirroshandel, Aazam A

    2017-10-15

    With the advantages of excellent optical properties and biocompatibility, single-strand DNA-functionalized quantum dots have been widely applied in biosensing and bioimaging. A new aptasensor with easy operation, high sensitivity, and high selectivity was developed by immobilizing the aptamer on water soluble l-cysteine capped ZnS quantum dots (QDs). Graphene oxide (GO) sheets are mixed with the aptamer-QDs. Consequently, the aptamer-conjugated QDs bind to the GO sheets to form a GO/aptamer-QDs ensemble. This aptasensor enables the energy transfer based on a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the QDs to the GO sheets, quenching the fluorescence of QDs. The GO/aptamer-QDs ensemble assay acts as a "turn-on'' fluorescent sensor for edifenphos (EDI) detection. When GO was replaced by EDI, the fluorescence of QDs was restored and its intensity was proportional to the EDI concentration. This GO-based aptasensor under the optimum conditions exhibited excellent analytical performance for EDI determination, ranging from 5×10 -4 to 6×10 -3 mg L -1 with the detection limit of 1.3×10 -4 mgL -1 . Furthermore, the designed aptasensor exhibited excellent selectivity toward EDI compared to other pesticides and herbicides with similar structures such as diazinon, heptachlor, endrin, dieldrin, butachlor and chlordane. Good reproducibility and precision (RSD =3.9%, n =10) of the assay indicates the high potential of the aptasensor for quantitative trace analysis of EDI. Moreover, the results demonstrate the applicability of the aptasensor for monitoring EDI fungicide in spiked real samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optical properties of hydrothermally synthesized TGA-capped CdS nanoparticles: controlling crystalline size and phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli Banizi, Zoha; Seifi, Majid

    2017-10-01

    TGA-capped CdS nanoparticles were obtained in the presence of thioglycolic acid (TGA) as capping agent via a facile hydrothermal method at relatively low temperature and over a short duration. As-synthesized TGA-capped CdS nanoparticles were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The products had spherical shapes, although their crystalline size and phase was dependent on temperature and time of the reaction. Photoluminescence spectra showed that the fluorescence intensity decreased when increasing the reaction time and temperature.

  4. Interactions between natural organic matter and gold nanoparticles stabilized with different organic capping agents.

    PubMed

    Stankus, Dylan P; Lohse, Samuel E; Hutchison, James E; Nason, Jeffrey A

    2011-04-15

    The adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM) to the surfaces of natural colloids and engineered nanoparticles is known to strongly influence, and in some cases control, their surface properties and aggregation behavior. As a result, the understanding of nanoparticle fate, transport, and toxicity in natural systems must include a fundamental framework for predicting such behavior. Using a suite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with different capping agents, the impact of surface functionality, presence of natural organic matter, and aqueous chemical composition (pH, ionic strength, and background electrolytes) on the surface charge and colloidal stability of each AuNP type was investigated. Capping agents used in this study were as follows: anionic (citrate and tannic acid), neutral (2,2,2-[mercaptoethoxy(ethoxy)]ethanol and polyvinylpyrrolidone), and cationic (mercaptopentyl(trimethylammonium)). Each AuNP type appeared to adsorb Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) as evidenced by measurable decreases in zeta potential in the presence of 5 mg C L(-1) SRHA. It was found that 5 mg C L(-1) SRHA provided a stabilizing effect at low ionic strength and in the presence of only monovalent ions while elevated concentrations of divalent cations lead to enhanced aggregation. The colloidal stability of the NPs in the absence of NOM is a function of capping agent, pH, ionic strength, and electrolyte valence. In the presence of NOM at the conditions examined in this study, the capping agent is a less important determinant of stability, and the adsorption of NOM is a controlling factor.

  5. Monitoring the Stimulated Uncapping Process of Gold-Capped Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Augspurger, Ashley E.; Sun, Xiaoxing; Trewyn, Brian G.; ...

    2018-02-05

    To establish a new method for tracking the interaction of nanoparticles with chemical cleaving agents, we exploited the optical effects caused by attaching 5-10 nm gold nanoparticles with molecular linkers to large mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN). At low levels of gold loading onto MSN, the optical spectra resemble colloidal suspensions of gold. As the gold is removed, by cleaving agents, the MSN revert to the optical spectra typical of bare silica. Time-lapse images of gold-capped MSN stationed in microchannels reveal that the rate of gold release is dependent on the concentration of the cleaving agent. Finally, the uncapping process wasmore » also monitored successfully for MSN endocytosed by A549 cancer cells, which produce the cleaving agent glutathione. These experiments demonstrate that the optical properties of MSN can be used to directly monitor cleaving kinetics, even in complex cellular settings.« less

  6. Monitoring the Stimulated Uncapping Process of Gold-Capped Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, Ashley E; Sun, Xiaoxing; Trewyn, Brian G; Fang, Ning; Stender, Anthony S

    2018-03-06

    To establish a new method for tracking the interaction of nanoparticles with chemical cleaving agents, we exploited the optical effects caused by attaching 5-10 nm gold nanoparticles with molecular linkers to large mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN). At low levels of gold loading onto MSN, the optical spectra resemble colloidal suspensions of gold. As the gold is removed, by cleaving agents, the MSN revert to the optical spectra typical of bare silica. Time-lapse images of gold-capped MSN stationed in microchannels reveal that the rate of gold release is dependent on the concentration of the cleaving agent. The uncapping process was also monitored successfully for MSN endocytosed by A549 cancer cells, which produce the cleaving agent glutathione. These experiments demonstrate that the optical properties of MSN can be used to directly monitor cleaving kinetics, even in complex cellular settings.

  7. Monitoring the Stimulated Uncapping Process of Gold-Capped Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Augspurger, Ashley E.; Sun, Xiaoxing; Trewyn, Brian G.

    To establish a new method for tracking the interaction of nanoparticles with chemical cleaving agents, we exploited the optical effects caused by attaching 5-10 nm gold nanoparticles with molecular linkers to large mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN). At low levels of gold loading onto MSN, the optical spectra resemble colloidal suspensions of gold. As the gold is removed, by cleaving agents, the MSN revert to the optical spectra typical of bare silica. Time-lapse images of gold-capped MSN stationed in microchannels reveal that the rate of gold release is dependent on the concentration of the cleaving agent. Finally, the uncapping process wasmore » also monitored successfully for MSN endocytosed by A549 cancer cells, which produce the cleaving agent glutathione. These experiments demonstrate that the optical properties of MSN can be used to directly monitor cleaving kinetics, even in complex cellular settings.« less

  8. The toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Movafeghi, Ali; Nazari, Fatemeh; Vafaei, Fatemeh; Dadpour, Mohammad Reza; Hanifehpour, Younes; Joo, Sang Woo

    2014-12-01

    Plants play an important role in the fate of nanoparticles in the environment through their uptake, bioaccumulation, and transfer to trophic chains. However, the impacts of nanoparticles on plants as essential components of all ecosystems are not well documented. In the present study, the toxic effects of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles on Spirodela polyrrhiza as an aquatic higher plant species were studied. l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their characteristics were determined by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and FT-IR techniques. The diameter of majority of synthesized nanoparticles was about 15-20 nm. Subsequently, the uptake of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles by the plant species was confirmed using epifluorescence microscopy. The activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase as antioxidant enzymes was assayed and the relative frond number was calculated in the presence of different concentrations of l-Cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles. The obtained results revealed the toxic effects of the synthesized nanoparticles on S. polyrrhiza, leading to growth reduction and significant changes in antioxidant enzymes' activity.

  9. The bipyridine adducts of N-phenyldithiocarbamato complexes of Zn(II) and Cd(II); synthesis, spectral, thermal decomposition studies and use as precursors for ZnS and CdS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Strydom, Christien A.

    2015-01-01

    Bipyridine adducts of N-phenyldithiocarbamato complexes, [ML12L2] (M = Cd(II), Zn(II); L1 = N-phenyldithiocarbamate, L2 = 2,2‧ bipyridine), have been synthesized and characterised. The decomposition of these complexes to metal sulphides has been investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The complexes were used as single-source precursors to synthesize MS (M = Zn, Cd) nanoparticles (NPs) passivated by hexadecyl amine (HDA). The growth of the nanoparticles was carried out at two different temperatures: 180 and 220 °C, and the optical and structural properties of the nanoparticles were studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), transmission emission microscopy (TEM) and powdered X-ray diffraction (p-XRD). Nanoparticles, whose average diameters are 2.90 and 3.54 nm for ZnS, and 8.96 and 9.76 nm for CdS grown at 180 and 220 °C respectively, were obtained.

  10. Characterization of citrate capped gold nanoparticle-quercetin complex: Experimental and quantum chemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rajat; Panigrahi, Swati; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2013-08-01

    Quercetin and several other bioflavonoids possess antioxidant property. These biomolecules can reduce the diabetic complications, but metabolize very easily in the body. Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of a flavonoid may further increase its efficacy. Gold nanoparticle is used by different groups as vehicle for drug delivery, as it is least toxic to human body. Prior to search for the enhanced efficacy, the gold nanoparticle-flavonoid complex should be prepared and well characterized. In this article, we report the interaction of gold nanoparticle with quercetin. The interaction is confirmed by different biophysical techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Circular Dichroism (CD), Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and cross checked by quantum chemical calculations. These studies indicate that gold clusters are covered by citrate groups, which are hydrogen bonded to the quercetin molecules in the complex. We have also provided evidences how capping is important in stabilizing the gold nanoparticle and further enhances its interaction with other molecules, such as drugs. Our finding also suggests that gold nanoparticle-quercetin complex can pass through the membranes of human red blood cells.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of arsenic-doped cysteine-capped thoria-based nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, F. J.; Díez, M. T.; Aller, A. J.

    2013-09-01

    Thoria materials have been largely used in the nuclear industry. Nonetheless, fluorescent thoria-based nanoparticles provide additional properties to be applied in other fields. Thoria-based nanoparticles, with and without arsenic and cysteine, were prepared in 1,2-ethanediol aqueous solutions by a simple precipitation procedure. The synthesized thoria-based nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (ED-XRS), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The presence of arsenic and cysteine, as well as the use of a thermal treatment facilitated fluorescence emission of the thoria-based nanoparticles. Arsenic-doped and cysteine-capped thoria-based nanoparticles prepared in 2.5 M 1,2-ethanediol solutions and treated at 348 K showed small crystallite sizes and strong fluorescence. However, thoria nanoparticles subjected to a thermal treatment at 873 K also produced strong fluorescence with a very narrow size distribution and much smaller crystallite sizes, 5 nm being the average size as shown by XRD and TEM. The XRD data indicated that, even after doping of arsenic in the crystal lattice of ThO2, the samples treated at 873 K were phase pure with the fluorite cubic structure. The Raman and FT-IR spectra shown the most characteristics vibrational peaks of cysteine together with other peaks related to the bonds of this molecule to thoria and arsenic when present.

  12. Agglomeration behavior of lipid-capped gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Kirillova, Maria A.; Esimbekova, Elena N.; Zharkov, Sergey M.; Kratasyuk, Valentina A.

    2018-04-01

    The current investigation deciphers aggregation pattern of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and lipid-treated AuNPs when subjected to aqueous sodium chloride solution with increasing ionic strengths (100-400 nM). AuNPs were synthesized using 0.29 mM chloroauric acid and by varying the concentrations of trisodium citrate (AuNP1 1.55 mM, AuNP2 3.1 mM) and silver nitrate (AuNP3 5.3 μM, AuNP4 10.6 μM) with characteristic LSPR peaks in the range of 525-533 nm. TEM analysis revealed AuNPs to be predominantly faceted nanocrystals with the average size of AuNP1 to be 35 ± 5 nm, AuNP2 15 ± 5 nm, AuNP3 30 ± 5 nm, and AuNP4 30 ± 5 nm and the zeta-average for AuNPs were calculated to be 31.23, 63.80, 26.08, and 28 nm respectively. Induced aggregation was observed within 10 s in all synthesized AuNPs while lipid-treated AuNP2 (AuNP2-L) was found to withstand ionic interferences at all concentration levels. However, lipid-treated AuNPs synthesized using silver nitrate and 1.55 mM trisodium citrate (AuNP3, AuNP4) showed much lower stability. The zeta potential values of lipid-treated AuNPs (AuNP1-L-1 x/200, - 17.93 ± 1.02 mV; AuNP2-L-1 x/200, - 21.63 ± 0.70; AuNP3-L-1 x/200, - 14.54 ± 0.90; AuNP3-L-1 x/200 - 13.77 ± 0.83) justified these observations. To summarize, AuNP1 and AuNP2 treated with lipid mixture 1 equals or above 1 x/200 or 1 x/1000 respectively showed strong resistance against ionic interferences (up to 400 mM NaCl). Use of lipid mixture 1 for obtaining highly stable AuNPs also provided functional arms of various lengths which can be used for covalent coupling. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Solvent-assisted in situ synthesis of cysteamine-capped silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, José M.; Ríos de la Rosa, Julio M.; Sayagués, María J.; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A.; Merkling, Patrick J.; Zaderenko, Ana P.

    2018-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles offer a huge potential for biomedical applications owing to their exceptional properties and small size. Specifically, cysteamine-capped silver nanoparticles could form the basis for new anticancer therapies combining the cytotoxic effect of the silver core with the inherent antitumor activity of cysteamine, which inhibit cancer cell proliferation and suppress invasion and metastasis. In addition, the capability of the cysteamine coating monolayer to couple a variety of active principles and targeting (bio)molecules of interest proves key to the tailoring of this platform in order to exploit the pathophysiology of specific tumor types. Nevertheless, the chain length and conformational flexibility of cysteamine, together with its ability to attach to the surface of silver nanoparticles via both the thiol and the amine group, have made the in situ synthesis of these particles an especially challenging task. Herein we report a solvent-assisted in situ synthesis method that solves this problem. The obtained nanoparticles have been fully characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction measurement, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy nanoanalysis, and dynamic light scattering measurement. Our synthesis method achieves extremely high yield and surface coating ratio, and colloidal stability over a wide range of pH values including physiological pH. Additionally, we have demonstrated that cysteamine-capped nanoparticles obtained by this method can be conjugated to an antibody for active targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of a wide variety of tumors, and induce cell death in human squamous carcinoma cells. We believe this method can be readily extended to combinations of noble

  14. Facile method to synthesize dopamine-capped mixed ferrite nanoparticles and their peroxidase-like activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumtaz, Shazia; Wang, Li-Sheng; Abdullah, Muhammad; Zajif Hussain, Syed; Iqbal, Zafar; Rotello, Vincent M.; Hussain, Irshad

    2017-03-01

    A facile single-step strategy to prepare stable and water-dispersible dopamine-functionalized ultra-small mixed ferrite nanoparticles MFe2O4-DOPA (where M is a bivalent metal atom i.e. Fe, Co Cu, Mn and Ni) at room temperature is described. The nanoparticles formed have narrow size distribution as indicated by their characterization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. The surface chemistry of these nanoparticles was probed by FTIR spectroscopy indicating their successful capping with dopamine ligands, which was further confirmed using zetapotential measurements and thermogravimetric analysis. The comparative horseradish peroxidase (HRP)—like activity of these cationic mixed ferrites nanoparticles was studied at pH 4.6 using a negatively-charged 2, 2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) as a chromogenic substrate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. A time-dependent relative peroxidase-like activity follows the following order CoFe2O4-DOPA  >  MnFe2O4-DOPA  >  CuFe2O4-DOPA  >  NiFe2O4-DOPA  >  Fe3O4-DOPA. This diversity in HRP-like activity may be attributed to the different redox properties of ferrite nanoparticles when doped with M (Fe, Co Cu, Mn and Ni).

  15. Preparation and Properties of Nanoparticles of Calcium Phosphates With Various Ca/P Ratios.

    PubMed

    Sun, Limin; Chow, Laurence C; Frukhtbeyn, Stanislav A; Bonevich, John E

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at preparing and studying the properties of nanoparticles of calcium phosphate (nCaP) with Ca/P ratios ranging from 1.0 to 1.67 using a spray-drying technique. Micro-structural analyses suggested that the nCaPs with Ca/P ratios of 1.67 to 1.33 were nano-sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) containing varying amounts of acid phosphate and carbonate. The nCaP with Ca/P ratio of 1 contained only nano-sized low crystalline dicalcium phosphate (DCP). BET measurements of the nCaPs showed specific surface areas of (12 ± 2 to 50 ± 1) m(2)/g, corresponding to estimated equivalent spherical diameters of (38 to 172) nm. However, dynamic light scattering measurements revealed much larger particles of (380 ± 49 to 768 ± 111) nm, owing to agglomeration of the smaller primary nano particles as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermodynamic solubility measurements showed that the nCaPs with Ca/P ratio of 1.33 - 1.67 all have similar solubility behavior. The materials were more soluble than the crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) at pH greater than about 4.7, and more soluble than β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and DCP at pH above 5.5. Their solubility approached that of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) at about pH 7. These nCaPs, which cannot be readily prepared by other currently available methods for nanoparticle preparation, have potential biomedical applications.

  16. Preparation and Properties of Nanoparticles of Calcium Phosphates With Various Ca/P Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Limin; Chow, Laurence C.; Frukhtbeyn, Stanislav A.; Bonevich, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at preparing and studying the properties of nanoparticles of calcium phosphate (nCaP) with Ca/P ratios ranging from 1.0 to 1.67 using a spray-drying technique. Micro-structural analyses suggested that the nCaPs with Ca/P ratios of 1.67 to 1.33 were nano-sized amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) containing varying amounts of acid phosphate and carbonate. The nCaP with Ca/P ratio of 1 contained only nano-sized low crystalline dicalcium phosphate (DCP). BET measurements of the nCaPs showed specific surface areas of (12 ± 2 to 50 ± 1) m2/g, corresponding to estimated equivalent spherical diameters of (38 to 172) nm. However, dynamic light scattering measurements revealed much larger particles of (380 ± 49 to 768 ± 111) nm, owing to agglomeration of the smaller primary nano particles as revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermodynamic solubility measurements showed that the nCaPs with Ca/P ratio of 1.33 – 1.67 all have similar solubility behavior. The materials were more soluble than the crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) at pH greater than about 4.7, and more soluble than β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and DCP at pH above 5.5. Their solubility approached that of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) at about pH 7. These nCaPs, which cannot be readily prepared by other currently available methods for nanoparticle preparation, have potential biomedical applications. PMID:21037948

  17. One-step large scale gas phase synthesis of Mn2 + doped ZnS nanoparticles in reducing flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassiou, E. K.; Grass, R. N.; Stark, W. J.

    2010-05-01

    Metal sulfide nanoparticles have attracted considerable interest because of their unique semiconducting and electronic properties. In order to prepare these fascinating materials at an industrial scale, however, solvent-free, dry processes would be most advantageous. In the present work, we demonstrate how traditional oxide nanoparticle synthesis in flames can be extended to sulfides if we apply a careful control on flame gas composition and sulfur content. The ultra-fast (<1 ms) gas phase kinetics at elevated temperatures allow direct sulfidization of metals in flames (\\mathrm {MO}_{x} \\Rightarrow \\mathrm {MS}_{x} ). As a representative example, we prepared air-stable Mn2 + doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles. Post-sintering of the initially polycrystalline nanopowder resulted in a material of high crystallinity and improved photoluminescence. An analysis of the thermodynamics, gas composition, and kinetics in these reducing flames indicates that the here-presented extension of flame synthesis provides access to a broad range of metal sulfide nanoparticles and offers an alternative to non-oxide phosphor preparation.

  18. TOPO-capped silver selenide nanoparticles and their incorporation into polymer nanofibers using electrospinning technique

    SciTech Connect

    More, D.S.; Moloto, M.J., E-mail: makwenam@vut.ac.za; Moloto, N.

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles produced spherical particles with sizes 12 nm (180 °C) and 27 nm (200 °C). • Higher temperature produced increased particle size (∼75 nm) and changed in shape. • Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles (0.2–0.6%) added into PVP (35–45%) to yield reduced fiber beading. • Polymer nanofibers electrospun at 11–20 kV produced fiber diameters of 425–461 nm. • Optical properties in the fibers were observed due to the Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles loaded. - Abstract: Electrospinning is the most common technique for fabricating polymer fibers as well as nanoparticles embedded polymer fibers. Silver selenide nanoparticles were synthesized using tri-n-octylphosphinemore » (TOP) as solvent and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as capping environment. Silver selenide was prepared by reacting silver nitrate and selenium with tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) to form TOP–Ag and TOP–Se solutions. Both absorption and emission spectra signify the formation of nanoparticles as well as the TEM which revealed spherical particles with an average particle size of 22 nm. The polymer, PVP used was prepared at concentrations ranging from (35 to 45 wt%) and the TOPO-capped silver selenide nanoparticles (0.2 and 0.6 wt%) were incorporated into them and electrospun by varying the voltage from 11 to 20 kV. The SEM images of the Ag{sub 2}Se/PVP composite fibers revealed the fibers of diameters with average values of 425 and 461 nm. The X-ray diffraction results show peaks which were identified due to α-Ag{sub 2}Se body centered cubic compound. The sharp peak observed for all the samples at 2θ = 44.5 suggest the presence of Ag in the face centered cubic which can be attributed to higher concentration of silver nitrate used with molar ratio of selenium to silver and the abundance of silver in the silver selenide crystal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy were used to

  19. Wound healing applications of sericin/chitosan-capped silver nanoparticles incorporated hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Verma, Jyoti; Kanoujia, Jovita; Parashar, Poonam; Tripathi, Chandra Bhusan; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2017-02-01

    Microbial contamination in wounds leading to severe sepsis can be treated by silver-based antiseptics. However, frequent application of silver-based antiseptics, staining of skin, burning, and irritation at application site resulted to poor patient compliances. Thus, we formulated sericin- and chitosan-capped silver nanoparticle (S/C-SNP)-loaded hydrogel for accelerated wound healing and antimicrobial properties. The wound healing property of sericin, antibacterial nature of chitosan and silver, and mucoadhesive property of carbopol were utilized in development of novel wound dressing hydrogel to investigate the combined effect of these materials for effective treatment of wounds. The chemical reduction method was successfully employed for the synthesis of SNPs using sericin and chitosan as a capping/reducing agent. The SNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optimized SNPs were further used for preparation of carbopol hydrogel (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 % w/v). The prepared hydrogels were characterized for pH, viscosity, and texture analysis. The antimicrobial activity and wound healing activity of the optimized hydrogel (S/C-SNPs G-1) demonstrated higher bactericidal activity and wound closure, as supported by results of histopathology. Hydrogel containing capped SNPs has application in wound healing treatment.

  20. ZnO nanoparticles and their acarbose-capped nanohybrids as inhibitors for human salivary amylase.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Firdoz; Kumar, Anil

    2017-04-01

    The authors report a controlled synthesis of biocompatible ZnO and acarbose-capped nanohybrids, and examined the inhibition activities of these nanosystems with human salivary α -amylase (HSA) activity. XRD measurements reveal ZnO present in wurtzite phase with hexagonal structure. The average size of ZnO particles for the two studied nanosystems was estimated to lie between 10 to 12 nm using Scherrer equation. These particles depict the onset of absorption at about 320 nm and the band-gap emission at about 370 nm, which are fairly blue shifted as compared with the bulk ZnO and have been understood due to the size quantisation effect. The inhibitory action of thioglycerol capped ZnO nanoparticles (SP1) and acarbose drug (used for diabetes type II) capped ZnO (SP2) for HSA was observed to 61 and72%, respectively. The inhibition activity of the SP1 alone was found to be very similar to that of acarbose and the coating of these particles with drug (SP2) demonstrated an enhancement in inhibition activity of the enzyme by about 30%. From the inhibition studies, it is confirmed that these nanosystems showed better inhibition activity at physiological temperature and pH. These nanosystems are projected to have potential applications in diabetes type II control.

  1. Direct colorimetric detection of unamplified pathogen DNA by dextrin-capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baetsen-Young, Amy M; Vasher, Matthew; Matta, Leann L; Colgan, Phil; Alocilja, Evangelyn C; Day, Brad

    2018-03-15

    The interaction between gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and nucleic acids has facilitated a variety of diagnostic applications, with further diversification of synthesis match bio-applications while reducing biotoxicity. However, DNA interactions with unique surface capping agents have not been fully defined. Using dextrin-capped AuNPs (d-AuNPs), we have developed a novel unamplified genomic DNA (gDNA) nanosensor, exploiting dispersion and aggregation characteristics of d-AuNPs, in the presence of gDNA, for sequence-specific detection. We demonstrate that d-AuNPs are stable in a five-fold greater salt concentration than citrate-capped AuNPs and the d-AuNPs were stabilized by single stranded DNA probe (ssDNAp). However, in the elevated salt concentrations of the DNA detection assay, the target reactions were surprisingly further stabilized by the formation of a ssDNAp-target gDNA complex. The results presented herein lead us to propose a mechanism whereby genomic ssDNA secondary structure formation during ssDNAp-to-target gDNA binding enables d-AuNP stabilization in elevated ionic environments. Using the assay described herein, we were successful in detecting as little as 2.94 fM of pathogen DNA, and using crude extractions of a pathogen matrix, as few as 18 spores/µL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ion Transport across Biological Membranes by Carborane-Capped Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Carborane-capped gold nanoparticles (Au/carborane NPs, 2–3 nm) can act as artificial ion transporters across biological membranes. The particles themselves are large hydrophobic anions that have the ability to disperse in aqueous media and to partition over both sides of a phospholipid bilayer membrane. Their presence therefore causes a membrane potential that is determined by the relative concentrations of particles on each side of the membrane according to the Nernst equation. The particles tend to adsorb to both sides of the membrane and can flip across if changes in membrane potential require their repartitioning. Such changes can be made either with a potentiostat in an electrochemical cell or by competition with another partitioning ion, for example, potassium in the presence of its specific transporter valinomycin. Carborane-capped gold nanoparticles have a ligand shell full of voids, which stem from the packing of near spherical ligands on a near spherical metal core. These voids are normally filled with sodium or potassium ions, and the charge is overcompensated by excess electrons in the metal core. The anionic particles are therefore able to take up and release a certain payload of cations and to adjust their net charge accordingly. It is demonstrated by potential-dependent fluorescence spectroscopy that polarized phospholipid membranes of vesicles can be depolarized by ion transport mediated by the particles. It is also shown that the particles act as alkali-ion-specific transporters across free-standing membranes under potentiostatic control. Magnesium ions are not transported. PMID:29161496

  3. Ion Transport across Biological Membranes by Carborane-Capped Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Grzelczak, Marcin P; Danks, Stephen P; Klipp, Robert C; Belic, Domagoj; Zaulet, Adnana; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Bradley, Dan F; Tsukuda, Tatsuya; Viñas, Clara; Teixidor, Francesc; Abramson, Jonathan J; Brust, Mathias

    2017-12-26

    Carborane-capped gold nanoparticles (Au/carborane NPs, 2-3 nm) can act as artificial ion transporters across biological membranes. The particles themselves are large hydrophobic anions that have the ability to disperse in aqueous media and to partition over both sides of a phospholipid bilayer membrane. Their presence therefore causes a membrane potential that is determined by the relative concentrations of particles on each side of the membrane according to the Nernst equation. The particles tend to adsorb to both sides of the membrane and can flip across if changes in membrane potential require their repartitioning. Such changes can be made either with a potentiostat in an electrochemical cell or by competition with another partitioning ion, for example, potassium in the presence of its specific transporter valinomycin. Carborane-capped gold nanoparticles have a ligand shell full of voids, which stem from the packing of near spherical ligands on a near spherical metal core. These voids are normally filled with sodium or potassium ions, and the charge is overcompensated by excess electrons in the metal core. The anionic particles are therefore able to take up and release a certain payload of cations and to adjust their net charge accordingly. It is demonstrated by potential-dependent fluorescence spectroscopy that polarized phospholipid membranes of vesicles can be depolarized by ion transport mediated by the particles. It is also shown that the particles act as alkali-ion-specific transporters across free-standing membranes under potentiostatic control. Magnesium ions are not transported.

  4. Chondroitin sulfate-capped super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential carriers of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Neha; Anwar, Mohammed; Asfer, Mohammed; Mehdi, Syed Hassan; Rizvi, Mohammed Moshahid Alam; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2016-10-20

    Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS), a glycosaminoglycan, was used to prepare CS-capped super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, which were further employed for loading a water-soluble chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX). CS-capped SPIONs have potential biomedical application in cancer targeting. The optimized formulation had a hydrodynamic size of 91.2±0.8nm (PDI; 0.228±0.004) and zeta potential of -49.1±1.66mV. DOX was loaded onto the formulation up to 2% (w/w) by physical interaction with CS. TEM showed nano-sized particles having a core-shell structure. XRD confirmed crystal phase of iron oxide. FT-IR conceived the interaction of iron oxide with CS as bidentate chelation and also confirmed DOX loading. Vibration sample magnetometry confirmed super-paramagnetic nature of nanoparticles, with saturation magnetization of 0.238emug(-1). In vitro release profile at pH 7.4 showed that 96.67% of DOX was released within 24h (first order kinetics). MTT assay in MCF7 cells showed significantly higher (p<0.0001) cytotoxicity for DOX in SPIONs than DOX solution (IC50 values 6.294±0.4169 and 11.316±0.1102μgmL(-1), respectively). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Green synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-capped silver nanoparticles: characterization and surface modification.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuang-ming; Hung, Yao-wen; Chen, Cheng-cheung; Liu, Cheng-che; Young, Jenn-jong

    2014-09-22

    A one-step route for the green synthesis of highly stable and nanosized silver metal particles with narrow distribution is reported. In this environmentally friendly synthetic method, silver nitrate was used as silver precursor and biocompatible chondroitin sulfate (ChS) was used as both reducing agent and stabilizing agent. The reaction was carried out in a stirring aqueous medium at the room temperature without any assisted by microwave, autoclave, laser irradiation, γ-ray irradiation or UV irradiation. The transparent colorless solution was converted to the characteristics light red then deep red-brown color as the reaction proceeds, indicating the formation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The Ag NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), photon correlation spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results demonstrated that the obtained metallic nanoparticles were Ag NPs capped with ChS. In this report, dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used as a routinely analytical tool for measuring size and distribution in a liquid environment. The effects of the reaction time, reaction temperature, concentration and the weight ratio of ChS/Ag+ on the particle size and zeta potential were investigated. The TEM image clearly shows the morphology of the well-dispersed ChS-capped Ag NPs are spherical in shape, and the average size (<20 nm) is much smaller than the Z-average value (76.7 nm) measured by DLS. Meanwhile, the ChS-capped Ag NPs coated with N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl] chitosan chloride (HTCC) were prepared by an ionic gelation method and the surface charge of Ag NPs was switched from negative to positive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasensitive optical detection of trinitrotoluene by ethylenediamine-capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dongyue; Liu, Honglin; Qian, Kai; Zhou, Xia; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2012-09-26

    This study found that 1,2-ethylenediamine (EDA) as a primary amine could be modified onto the surface of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), and the EDA-capped Au NPs were successfully used as an ultrasensitive optical probe for TNT detection. The strong donor-acceptor (D-A) interactions between EDA and trinitrotoluene (TNT) at the Au NP/solution interface induced significant aggregation of the EDA-capped Au NPs, and enabled to easily realize the direct colorimetric detection of ultratrace TNT. The results showed that such a color change was readily seen by the naked eye, and the colorimetric detection could be down to 400 pM level of TNT with excellent discrimination against other nitro compounds. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy was used to examine the TNT-induced changes in local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of EDA-capped Au NPs, and a new LSPR band at ca. 630 nm arose along with the addition of TNT, which produced a detection limit of TNT down to ca. 40 pM. Furthermore, dynamic light scattering measurements evidenced the ultratrace TNT-induced small changes in the size of the EDA-capped Au NPs, and realized the quick and accurate detection of TNT in 0.4 pM level. These results demonstrated the ultrahigh sensitivity of this optical probe for TNT detection. Moreover, this optical probe is sample, stable, low-cost, and these excellent properties make it quite promising for infield and rapid detection of TNT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrocatalytic effect of polyvinyl pyrrolidone capped platinum nanoparticles electrodeposited on platinum electrode for ammonia oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayedwa, Noluthando; Matinise, Nolubabalo; Mongwaketsi, Nametso; Maaza, Malik

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study structural and kinetic parameters as well as the mechanism of platinum nanoparticles (PtNP) reduced with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and capped with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). The nanoparticles were supported on Pt electrode for ammonia oxidation in fuel cell application. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to study structural composition and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was used for morphological study of the nanoalloy. The electrocatalysts were studied in alkaline solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). CV showed that the ammonia oxidation over potential for PtNP was -431 mV and with exchange current density of 1.726 × 10-4 A. EIS showed that the charge transfer resistance (Rct) of PtNP was the lowest (Rct = 1.943 × 106 Ω) compared to that of bare Pt working electrode (2.0604 × 106 Ω), indicating that the Pt nanoparticles have good conductivity and played an important role in accelerating the transfer of electrons.

  8. Synthesis, characterization of dihydrolipoic acid capped gold nanoparticles, and functionalization by the electroluminescent luminol.

    PubMed

    Roux, Stéphane; Garcia, Bruno; Bridot, Jean-Luc; Salomé, Murielle; Marquette, Christophe; Lemelle, Laurence; Gillet, Phillipe; Blum, Loïc; Perriat, Pascal; Tillement, Olivier

    2005-03-15

    The use of gold nanoparticles as biological probes requires the improvement of colloidal stability. Dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), a dithiol obtained by the reduction of thioctic acid, appears therefore very attractive for the stabilization and the further functionalization of gold nanoparticles because DHLA is characterized by a carboxylic acid group and two thiol functions. The ionizable carboxylic acid groups ensure, for pH > or = 8, the water solubility of DHLA-capped gold (Au@DHLA) nanoparticles, prepared by the Brust protocol, and the stability of the resulting colloid by electrostatic repulsions. Moreover almost all DHLA, adsorbed onto gold, adopts a conformation allowing their immobilization by both sulfur ends. It is proved by sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy, which appears as an appropriate tool for determining the chemical form of sulfur atoms present in the organic monolayer. Such a grafting renders the DHLA monolayers more resistant to displacement by dithiothreitol than mercaptoundecanoic acid monolayers. The presence of DHLA on gold particles allows their functionalization by the electroluminescent luminol through amine coupling reactions assisted by 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide. As a luminol-functionalized particle is nine times as bright as a single luminol molecule, the use of the particles as a biological probe with a lower threshold of detection is envisaged.

  9. {sup 6}LiF oleic acid capped nanoparticles entrapment in siloxanes for thermal neutron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Carturan, S., E-mail: sara.carturan@lnl.infn.it; Maggioni, G., E-mail: Gianluigi.maggioni@lnl.infn.it; INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro

    2016-07-07

    The good light output of siloxane based scintillators as displayed under γ-rays and α particles has been exploited here to obtain clear and reliable response toward thermal neutrons. Sensitization towards thermal neutrons has been pursued by adding {sup 6}LiF, in form of nanoparticles. Aiming at the enhancement of compatibility between the inorganic nanoparticles and the low polarity, siloxane based surrounding medium, oleic acid-capped {sup 6}LiF nanoparticles have been synthesized by thermal decomposition of Li trifluoroacetate. Thin pellets siloxane scintillator maintained their optical transmittance up to weight load of 2% of {sup 6}Li. Thin samples with increasing {sup 6}Li concentration andmore » thicker ones with fixed {sup 6}Li amount have been prepared and tested with several sources (α, γ-rays, moderated neutrons). Light output as high as 80% of EJ212 under α irradiation was measured with thin samples, and negligible changes have been observed as a result of {sup 6}LiF addition. In case of thick samples, severe light loss has been observed, as induced by opacity. Nevertheless, thermal neutrons detection has been assessed and the data have been compared with GS20, based on Li glass, taken as a reference material.« less

  10. Stability and electrostatics of mercaptoundecanoic acid-capped gold nanoparticles with varying counterion size.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Timo; Ahonen, Päivi; Johans, Christoffer; Kontturi, Kyösti

    2006-10-13

    The solubility of charged nanoparticles is critically dependent on pH. However, the concentration range available with bases such as NaOH is quite narrow, since the particles precipitate due to compression of the electric double layer when the ionic strength is increased. The stability of mercaptoundecanoic acid-capped Au nanoparticles is studied at a set pH using the hydroxide as base and different cations of various sizes. The counterions used are sodium (Na(+)), tetramethylammonium (TMA(+)), tetraethylammonium (TEA(+)), and tetrabutylammonium (TBA(+)). The particles precipitate in the 70-90 mM range with Na(+) as the counterion, but with quaternary ammonium hydroxides the particles are stable even in concentrations exceeding 1 M. The change in solubility is linked to a strongly adsorbed layer on the surface of the ligand shell of the nanoparticles. The increased concentration range obtained with TEAOH is further used to facilitate thiol exchange which occurs at a greater extent than would be achieved in NaOH solution.

  11. Catalytic efficiency of macrocyclic-capped gold nanoparticles: cucurbit[n]urils versus cyclodextrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Pozo, María; Blanco, Elías; Hernández, Pedro; Casas, José A.; Quintana, Carmen

    2018-05-01

    In this work, different macrocyclic systems, belonging to cucurbit[n]urils and cyclodextrins families, were employed as stabilizers of gold nanoparticles and their performance as catalysts in the reduction reaction of the toxic 4-nitrophenol to produce the valuable 4-aminophenol, was evaluated. To this goal, six nanosystems were prepared and compared under identical experimental conditions. The influence that (i) differences in shape, (ii) nature of chemical groups constituting the receptor entrances and (iii) differences in the portal sizes of those stabilizing agents have in the activity of these nanoparticles as catalysts in a nitro compound reduction reaction is evaluated and discussed. The TEM characterization of the nanocatalysts prepared is included. From these data, nanoparticles ranging from 3.7-10.7 nm in diameter, depending on the stabilizer employed, were obtained. The evaluation of kinetic rate constants normalized respect to gold concentration and catalyst surface for each system is included and discussed. In addition, the stability of the different nanocatalyst depending on the capping agent employed is also evaluated. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Antifungal activity of wide band gap Thioglycolic acid capped ZnS:Mn semiconductor nanoparticles against some pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Isam M; Ali, Iftikhar M; Dheeb, Batol Imran; Abas, Qayes A; Asmeit Ramizy; Eisa, M H; Aljameel, A I

    2017-04-01

    The manganese doped zinc sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized by simple aqueous chemical reaction of manganese chloride, zinc acetate and thioacitamide in aqueous solution. Thioglycolic acid is used as capping agent for controlling the nanoparticle size. The main advantage of the ZnS:Mn nanoparticles of diameter ~2.73nm is that the sample is prepared by using non-toxic precursors in a cost effective and eco-friendly way. The structural, morphological and chemical composition of the nanoparticles have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The nanosize of the prepared nanoparticles was elucidated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). FTIR result ensures that Thioglycolic acid is well bonded on the surface of ZnS:Mn NPs. The antifungal effects of Thioglycolic acid capped ZnS:Mn nanoparticles exhibited a potent antifungal activity against tested fungal strains, so deserving further investigation for clinical applications. The antifungal property of manganese doped zinc sulphide nanoparticles is attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species due to the interaction of nanoparticles with water. Additionally, the presence of Zn and S in the zone of inhibition area leads to perturbation of fungi cell membranes resulting in growth inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Esterase- and pH-responsive poly(β-amino ester)-capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Isurika R; Ferris, Daniel P; Frasconi, Marco; Malin, Dmitry; Strekalova, Elena; Yilmaz, M Deniz; Ambrogio, Michael W; Algaradah, Mohammed M; Hong, Michael P; Chen, Xinqi; Nassar, Majed S; Botros, Youssry Y; Cryns, Vincent L; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2015-04-28

    Gating of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with the stimuli-responsive poly(β-amino ester) has been achieved. This hybrid nanocarrier releases doxorubicin (DOX) under acidic conditions or in the presence of porcine liver esterase. The DOX loaded poly(β-amino ester)-capped MSNs reduce cell viability when tested on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.

  14. Controlling the size and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles by capping with SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, K. Sowri, E-mail: sowribabuk@gmail.com; Reddy, A. Ramachandra; Reddy, K. Venugopal

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Small and uniform sized ZnO nanoparticles were obtained with SiO{sub 2} coating. • ZnO and ZnO–SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite exhibited excitation wavelength dependent PL. • Maximum UV emission intensity was obtained with 353 nm excitation wavelength. • Excitation processes in SiO{sub 2} were also contributed to the UV intensity. • It was found that oxygen vacancies and interstitials enhanced with SiO{sub 2} coating. - Abstract: The size and shape of the ZnO nanoparticles synthesized through sol–gel method were controlled by capping with SiO{sub 2}. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and Highmore » Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM) results demonstrated that the particle growth of the ZnO nanoparticles has been restricted to 5 nm with SiO{sub 2} capping. As a result, the absorption spectra of ZnO nanoparticles capped with SiO{sub 2} got blue shifted (toward lower wavelength side) due to strong quantum confinement effects. BET (Brunauer–Emmet–Teller) surface area pore size analyzer results showed that surface area of samples increased monotonously with increase of SiO{sub 2} concentration. It was observed that the absorption spectra of ZnO capped with SiO{sub 2} broadened with increase of SiO{sub 2} concentration. Absorption and photoluminescence excitation results (PLE) confirmed that this broadening is due to the absorption of non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC) of SiO{sub 2}. These results also indicated that ZnO nanoparticles capped with SiO{sub 2} are insensitive to Raman scattering. Maximum UV emission intensity was achieved with 353 nm excitation wavelength compared to 320 nm in ZnO as well as in SiO{sub 2} capped ZnO nanoparticles. Furthermore, there is an enhancement in the intensities of emission peaks related to oxygen vacancies and interstitials with SiO{sub 2} capping. The enhancement in the UV intensity is attributed to the surface

  15. Photocatalytic activity of silver oxide capped Ag nanoparticles constructed by air plasma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yingcui; Wu, Qingmeng; Li, Huanhuan; Zhang, Bing; Yan, Rong; Chen, Junling; Sun, Mengtao

    2018-04-01

    We construct a kind of structure of silver oxide capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by cost-efficient air plasma irradiation, and study its visible-light driven photocatalytic activity (PA). By controlling the oxidization time, the relationship between the intensity of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and the PA is well established. The PA reaches the maximum when the LSPR of AgNPs is nearly completely damped (according to absorption spectra); however, under this condition, the LSPR still works, confirmed with the high efficient selective transformation of p-Aminothiophenol (PATP) to p, p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) under visible light. The mechanism of the LSPR damping induced PA improvement is discussed. We not only provide a cost-efficient approach to construct a LSPR strong damping structure but also promote the understanding of LSPR strong damping and its relationship with photocatalysis.

  16. Liposomal flucytosine capped with gold nanoparticle formulations for improved ocular delivery

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Heba F; Ahmed, Sayed M; Omar, Mahmoud M

    2016-01-01

    Nanoliposomes have an organized architecture that provides versatile functions. In this study, liposomes were used as an ocular carrier for nanogold capped with flucytosine antifungal drug. Gold nanoparticles were used as a contrasting agent that provides tracking of the drug to the posterior segment of the eye for treating fungal intraocular endophthalmitis. The nanoliposomes were prepared with varying molar ratios of lecithin, cholesterol, Span 60, a positive charge inducer (stearylamine), and a negative charge inducer (dicetyl phosphate). Formulation F6 (phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, Span 60, and stearylamine at a molar ratio of 1:1:1:0.15) demonstrated the highest extent of drug released, which reached 7.043 mg/h. It had a zeta potential value of 42.5±2.12 mV and an average particle size approaching 135.1±12.0 nm. The ocular penetration of the selected nanoliposomes was evaluated in vivo using a computed tomography imaging technique. It was found that F6 had both the highest intraocular penetration depth (10.22±0.11 mm) as measured by the computed tomography and the highest antifungal efficacy when evaluated in vivo using 32 infected rabbits’ eyes. The results showed a strong correlation between the average intraocular penetration of the nanoparticles capped with flucytosine and the percentage of the eyes healed. After 4 weeks, all the infected eyes (n=8) were significantly healed (P<0.01) when treated with liposomal formulation F6. Overall, the nanoliposomes encapsulating flucytosine have been proven efficient in treating the infected rabbits’ eyes, which proves the efficiency of the nanoliposomes in delivering both the drug and the contrasting agent to the posterior segment of the eye. PMID:26834459

  17. Gold nanoparticles with different capping systems: an electronic and structural XAS analysis.

    PubMed

    López-Cartes, C; Rojas, T C; Litrán, R; Martínez-Martínez, D; de la Fuente, J M; Penadés, S; Fernández, A

    2005-05-12

    Gold nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared with three different capping systems: a tetralkylammonium salt, an alkanethiol, and a thiol-derivatized neoglycoconjugate. Also gold NPs supported on a porous TiO(2) substrate have been investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to determine the electronic behavior of the different capped/supported systems regarding the electron/hole density of d states. Surface and size effects, as well as the role of the microstructure, have been also studied through an exhaustive analysis of the EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) data. Very small gold NPs functionalized with thiol-derivatized molecules show an increase in d-hole density at the gold site due to Au-S charge transfer. This effect is overcoming size effects (which lead to a slightly increase of the d-electron density) for high S:Au atomic ratios and core-shell microstructures where an atomically abrupt Au-S interface likely does not exist. It has been also shown that thiol functionalization of very small gold NPs is introducing a strong distortion as compared to fcc order. To the contrary, electron transfer from reduced support oxides to gold NPs can produce a higher increase in d-electron density at the gold site, as compared to naked gold clusters.

  18. Size tunable elemental copper nanoparticles: extracellular synthesis by thermoanaerobic bacteria and capping molecules

    DOE PAGES

    Jang, Gyoung Gug; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Gresback, Ryan G.; ...

    2014-11-10

    Bimodal sized elemental copper (Cu) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from inexpensive oxidized copper salts by an extracellular metal-reduction process using anaerobic Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 bacteria in aqueous solution. The bacteria nucleate NPs outside of the cell, and they control the Cu2+ reduction rate to form uniform crystallites with an average diameter of 1.75 0.46 m after 3-day incubation. To control the size and enhance air stability of Cu NPs, the reaction mixtures were supplemented with nitrilotriacetic acid as a chelator, and the surfactant capping agents oleic acid, oleylamine, ascorbic acid, or L-cysteine. Time-dependent UV-visible absorption measurements and XPS studies indicatedmore » well-suspended, bimodal colloidal Cu NPs (70 150 and 5 10 nm) with extended air-stability up to 300 min and stable Cu NP films surfaces with 14% oxidation after 20 days. FTIR spectroscopy suggested that these capping agents were effectively adsorbed on the NP surface providing oxidation resistance in aqueous and dry conditions. Compared to previously reported Cu NP syntheses, this biological process substantially reduced the requirement for hazardous organic solvents and chemical reducing agents, while reducing the levels of Cu oxide impurities in the product. This process was highly reproducible and scalable from 0.01 to 1-L batches.« less

  19. Synthesis of Carbohydrate Capped Silicon Nanoparticles and their Reduced Cytotoxicity, In Vivo Toxicity, and Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Ahire, Jayshree H; Behray, Mehrnaz; Webster, Carl A; Wang, Qi; Sherwood, Victoria; Saengkrit, Nattika; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Woramongkolchai, Noppawan; Chao, Yimin

    2015-08-26

    The development of smart targeted nanoparticles (NPs) that can identify and deliver drugs at a sustained rate directly to cancer cells may provide better efficacy and lower toxicity for treating primary and advanced metastatic tumors. Obtaining knowledge of the diseases at the molecular level can facilitate the identification of biological targets. In particular, carbohydrate-mediated molecular recognitions using nano-vehicles are likely to increasingly affect cancer treatment methods, opening a new area in biomedical applications. Here, silicon NPs (SiNPs) capped with carbohydrates including galactose, glucose, mannose, and lactose are successfully synthesized from amine terminated SiNPs. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] analysis shows an extensive reduction in toxicity of SiNPs by functionalizing with carbohydrate moiety both in vitro and in vivo. Cellular uptake is investigated with flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscope. The results show the carbohydrate capped SiNPs can be internalized in the cells within 24 h of incubation, and can be taken up more readily by cancer cells than noncancerous cells. Moreover, these results reinforce the use of carbohydrates for the internalization of a variety of similar compounds into cancer cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Microbial glycolipoprotein-capped silver nanoparticles as emerging antibacterial agents against cholera.

    PubMed

    Gahlawat, Geeta; Shikha, Sristy; Chaddha, Baldev Singh; Chaudhuri, Saumya Ray; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Choudhury, Anirban Roy

    2016-02-01

    With the increased number of cholera outbreaks and emergence of multidrug resistance in Vibrio cholerae strains it has become necessary for the scientific community to devise and develop novel therapeutic approaches against cholera. Recent studies have indicated plausibility of therapeutic application of metal nano-materials. Among these, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a potential antimicrobial agent to combat infectious diseases. At present nanoparticles are mostly produced using physical or chemical techniques which are toxic and hazardous. Thus exploitation of microbial systems could be a green eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles having similar or even better antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility. Hence, it would be worth to explore the possibility of utilization of microbial silver nanoparticles and their conjugates as potential novel therapeutic agent against infectious diseases like cholera. The present study attempted utilization of Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae for the production of AgNPs and focused on investigating their role as antimicrobial agents against cholera. Later the exopolymer, purified from the culture supernatant, was used for the synthesis of spherical shaped AgNPs of around 10 nm size. Further the exopolymer was characterized as glycolipoprotein (GLP). Antibacterial activity of the novel GLP-AgNPs conjugate was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration, XTT reduction assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and growth curve analysis. SEM studies revealed that AgNPs treatment resulted in intracellular contents leakage and cell lysis. The potential of microbially synthesized nanoparticles, as novel therapeutic agents, is still relatively less explored. In fact, the present study first time demonstrated that a glycolipoprotein secreted by the O. rhizosphaerae strain can be exploited for production of AgNPs which can further be employed to treat infectious diseases. Although this type of polymer has

  1. The bipyridine adducts of N-phenyldithiocarbamato complexes of Zn(II) and Cd(II); synthesis, spectral, thermal decomposition studies and use as precursors for ZnS and CdS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Onwudiwe, Damian C; Strydom, Christien A

    2015-01-25

    Bipyridine adducts of N-phenyldithiocarbamato complexes, [ML(1)2L(2)] (M=Cd(II), Zn(II); L(1)=N-phenyldithiocarbamate, L(2)=2,2' bipyridine), have been synthesized and characterised. The decomposition of these complexes to metal sulphides has been investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The complexes were used as single-source precursors to synthesize MS (M=Zn, Cd) nanoparticles (NPs) passivated by hexadecyl amine (HDA). The growth of the nanoparticles was carried out at two different temperatures: 180 and 220 °C, and the optical and structural properties of the nanoparticles were studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), transmission emission microscopy (TEM) and powdered X-ray diffraction (p-XRD). Nanoparticles, whose average diameters are 2.90 and 3.54 nm for ZnS, and 8.96 and 9.76 nm for CdS grown at 180 and 220 °C respectively, were obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Highly selective visual monitoring of hazardous fluoride ion in aqueous media using thiobarbituric-capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Boken, Jyoti; Thatai, Sheenam; Khurana, Parul; Prasad, Surendra; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    The rapid, selective and sensitive measurement and monitoring of hazardous materials as analytes are the central themes in the development of any successful analytical technique. With this aim, we have synthesized the thiobarbituric-capped gold nanoparticles (TBA-capped Au NPs) involving chemical reduction of HAuCl4 using 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as a reducing and capping agent. The morphology of the TBA-capped Au NPs was confirmed using transmission electron microscope images. For the first time this article reports that the developed TAB-capped Au NPs displays selective, ultrafast and sensitive colorimetric detection of fluoride ion in aqueous samples. The detection of fluoride ion was confirmed by the disappearance of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band at 554 nm using UV-vis spectroscopy. The interaction of F(-) with TBA-capped Au NPs in aqueous solution has also been confirmed by Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. One of the most exciting accomplishments is the visual detection limit for fluoride ion has been found to be 10 mM at commonly acceptable water pH range 7-8. The whole detection procedure takes not more than 40s with excellent selectivity providing sample throughput of more than 60 per hour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Organic Capping Layers over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles upon Activity for Ethylene Hydrogenation and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu

    2009-03-24

    The influence of oleylamine (OA), trimethyl tetradecyl ammonium bromide (TTAB), and polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capping agents upon the catalytic properties of Pt/silica catalysts was evaluated. Pt nanoparticles that were 1.5 nm in size were synthesized by the same procedure (ethylene glycol reduction under basic conditions) with the various capping agents added afterward for stabilization. Before examining catalytic properties for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, the Pt NPs were deposited onto mesoporous silica (SBA-15) supports and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H{sub 2} chemisorption, and elemental analysis (ICP-MS). PVP- and TTAB-capped Pt yielded mass-normalized reaction rates that decreased with increasing pretreatmentmore » temperature, and this trend was attributed to the partial coverage of the Pt surface with decomposition products from the organic capping agent. Once normalized to the Pt surface area, similar intrinsic activities were obtained regardless of the pretreatment temperature, which indicated no influence on the nature of the active sites. Consequently, a chemical probe technique using intrinsic activity for ethylene hydrogenation was demonstrated as an acceptable method for estimating the metallic surface areas of Pt. Amine (OA) capping exhibited a detrimental influence on the catalytic properties as severe deactivation and low activity were observed for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, respectively. These results were consistent with amine groups being strong poisons for Pt surfaces, and revealed the need to consider the effects of capping agents on the catalytic properties.« less

  4. Acetate- and thiol-capped monodisperse ruthenium nanoparticles: XPS, XAS, and HRTEM studies.

    PubMed

    Chakroune, Nassira; Viau, Guillaume; Ammar, Souad; Poul, Laurence; Veautier, Delphine; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Mangeney, Claire; Villain, Françoise; Fiévet, Fernand

    2005-07-19

    Monodisperse ruthenium nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of RuCl3 in 1,2-propanediol. The mean particle size was controlled by appropriate choice of the reduction temperature and the acetate ion concentration. Colloidal solutions in toluene were obtained by coating the metal particles with dodecanethiol. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS for the Ru K-absorption edge) were performed on particles of two different diameters, 2 and 4 nm, and in different environments, polyol/acetate or thiol. For particles stored in polyol/acetate XPS studies revealed superficial oxidation limited to one monolayer and a surface coating containing mostly acetate ions. Analysis of the EXAFS spectra showed both oxygen and ruthenium atoms around the ruthenium atoms with a Ru-Ru coordination number N smaller than the bulk value, as expected for fine particles. In the case of 2 nm acetate-capped particles N is consistent with particles made up of a metallic core and an oxidized monolayer. For 2 nm thiol-coated particles, a Ru-S bond was evidenced by XPS and XAS. For the 4 nm particles XANES and XPS studies showed that most of the ruthenium atoms are in the zerovalent state. Nevertheless, in both cases, when capped with thiol, the Ru-Ru coordination number inferred from EXAFS is much smaller than for particles of the same size stored in polyol. This is attributed to a structural disorganization of the particles by thiol chemisorption. HRTEM studies confirm the marked dependence of the structural properties of the ruthenium particles on their chemical environment; they show the acetate-coated particles to be single crystals, whereas the thiol-coated particles appear to be polycrystalline.

  5. Glucose capped silver nanoparticles induce cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Elisa; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Carata, Elisabetta; Fimia, Gian Maria; Mura, Francesco; Rossi, Marco; Vergaro, Viviana; Ciccarella, Giuseppe; Corazzari, Marco; Dini, Luciana

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to determine the interaction (uptake and biological effects on cell viability and cell cycle progression) of glucose capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-G) on human epithelioid cervix carcinoma (HeLa) cells, in relation to amount, 2×10 3 or 2×10 4 NPs/cell, and exposure time, up to 48h. The spherical and well dispersed AgNPs (30±5nm) were obtained by using glucose as reducing agent in a green synthesis method that ensures to stabilize AgNPs avoiding cytotoxic soluble silver ions Ag + release. HeLa cells take up abundantly and rapidly AgNPs-G resulting toxic to cells in amount and incubation time dependent manner. HeLa cells were arrested at S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle and subG1 population increased when incubated with 2×10 4 AgNPs-G/cell. Mitotic index decreased accordingly. The dissolution experiments demonstrated that the observed effects were due only to AgNPs-G since glucose capping prevents Ag + release. The AgNPs-G influence on HeLa cells viability and cell cycle progression suggest that AgNPs-G, alone or in combination with chemotherapeutics, may be exploited for the development of novel antiproliferative treatment in cancer therapy. However, the possible influence of the cell cycle on cellular uptake of AgNPs-G and the mechanism of AgNPs entry in cells need further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wettability of Complex Fluids and Surfactant Capped Nanoparticle-Induced Quasi-Universal Wetting Behavior.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, A R; Dhar, Purbarun; Agnihotri, Prabhat K; Gedupudi, Sateesh; Das, Sarit Kumar

    2017-06-22

    Even though there are quite large studies on wettability of aqueous surfactants and a few studies on effects of nanoparticles on wettability of colloids, to the best of authors' knowledge, there is no study reported on the combined effect of surfactant and nanoparticles in altering the wettability. The present study, for the first time, reports an extensive experimental and theoretical study on the combined effect of surfactants and nanoparticles on the wettability of complex fluids such as nanocolloids on different substrates, ranging from hydrophilic with a predominantly polar surface energy component (silicon wafer and glass) to near hydrophobic range with a predominantly dispersive component of surface energy (aluminum and copper substrates). Systematically planned experiments are carried out to segregate the contributing effects of surfactants, particles, and combined particle and surfactants in modulating the wettability. The mechanisms and the governing parameters behind the interactions of nanocolloids alone and of surfactant capped nanocolloids with different surfaces are found to be grossly different. The article, for the first time, also analyzes the interplay of the nature of surfaces, surfactant and particle concentrations on contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of particle and surfactant impregnated colloidal suspensions. In the case of nanoparticle suspensions, the contact angle is observed to decrease for the hydrophobic system and increase for the hydrophilic systems considered. On the contrary, the combined particle and surfactant colloidal system shows a quasi-unique wetting behavior of decreasing contact angle with particle concentration on all substrates. Also interestingly, the combined particle surfactant system at all particle concentrations shows a wetting angle much lower than that of the only-surfactant case at the same surfactant concentration. Such counterintuitive observations have been explained based on the near

  7. N-Heterocyclic molecule-capped gold nanoparticles as effective antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yan; Chen, Wenwen; Jia, Yuexiao; Tian, Yue; Zhao, Yuyun; Long, Fei; Rui, Yukui; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that N-heterocyclic molecule-capped gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Optimized antibacterial activity can be achieved by using different initial molar ratios (1 : 1 and 10 : 1) of N-heterocyclic prodrugs and the precursor of Au NPs (HAuCl4). This work opens up new avenues for antibiotics based on Au NPs.We demonstrate that N-heterocyclic molecule-capped gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Optimized antibacterial activity can be achieved by using different initial molar ratios (1 : 1 and 10 : 1) of N-heterocyclic prodrugs and the precursor of Au NPs (HAuCl4). This work opens up new avenues for antibiotics based on Au NPs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03317b

  8. Iodine-131-labeled, transferrin-capped polypyrrole nanoparticles for tumor-targeted synergistic photothermal-radioisotope therapy.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuejiao; Liang, Chao; Feng, Liangzhu; Yang, Kai; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-08-22

    Combining different therapeutic functions within single tumor-targeted nanoscale delivery systems is promising to overcome the limitations of conventional cancer therapies. Herein, transferrin that recognizes transferrin receptors up-regulated on tumor cells is pre-labeled with iodine-131 ( 131 I) and then utilized as the stabilizer in the fabrication of polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles. The obtained transferrin-capped PPy@Tf- 131 I nanoparticles could be used for tumor-targeted radioisotope therapy (RIT) and photothermal therapy (PTT), by employing beta-emission from 131 I and the intrinsic high near-infrared (NIR) absorbance of PPy, respectively. Owing to the transferrin-mediated tumor targeting, PPy@Tf- 131 I nanoparticles exhibit obviously enhanced in vitro cancer cell binding and in vivo tumor uptake compared to its non-targeting counterpart. The combined RIT and PTT based on PPy@Tf- 131 I nanoparticles is then conducted, achieving a remarkable synergistic therapeutic effect. This work thus demonstrates a rather simple one-step approach to fabricate tumor-targeting nanoparticles based on protein-capped conjugated polymers, promising for combination cancer therapy with great efficacy and high safety.

  9. Fabrication of MPEG-b-PMAA capped YVO4:Eu nanoparticles with biocompatibility for cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Li, Xiao-Shuang; Hu, Jia; Guo, Miao; Liu, Wei-Jun; Feng, Yi-Mei; Xie, Jing-Ran; Du, Gui-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    A novel nanoparticle with multilayer core-shell architecture for cell imaging is designed and synthesized by coating a fluorescent YVO4:Eu core with a diblock copolymer, MPEG-b-PMAA. The synthesis of YVO4:Eu core, which further makes MPEG-b-PMAA-YVO4:Eu NPs adapt for cell imaging, is guided by the model determined upon the evaluation of pH and CEu%. The PMAA block attached tightly on the YVO4:Eu core forms the inner shell and the MPEG block forms the biocompatible outermost shell. Factors including reaction time, reaction temperature, CEu% and pH are optimized for the preparation of the YVO4:Eu NPs. A precise defined model is established according to analyzing the coefficients of pH and CEu% during the synthesis. The MPEG-b-PMAA-YVO4:Eu NPs, with an average diameter of 24 nm, have a tetragonal structure and demonstrate luminescence in the red region, which lies in a biological window (optical imaging). Significant enhancement in luminescence intensity by MPEG-b-PMAA-YVO4:Eu NPs formation is observed. The capping copolymer MPEG-b-PMAA improves the dispersibility of hydrophobic YVO4:Eu NPs in water, making the NPs stable under different conditions. In addition, the biocompatibility MPEG layer reduces the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles effectively. 95% cell viability can be achieved at the NPs concentration of 800 mgL(-1) after 24h of culture. Cellular uptake of the MPEG-b-PMAA-YVO4:Eu NPs is evaluated by cell imaging assay, indicating that the NPs can be taken up rapidly and largely by cancerous or non-cancerous cells through an endocytosis mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles using Anthocyanin as a Capping Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, N. L. W.; Yuliarto, B.; Iqbal, M.; Nugraha

    2017-05-01

    Zinc Oxide nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by utilizing anthocyanin as a capping agent by thermal decomposition of precursor route. The influence of the high and low concentrations of the anthocyanin to the shape and size of ZnO was investigated in this work. The anthocyanin was obtained from Indonesia black rice extract with methanol as a solvent. The crystallinity and morphology properties were characterized by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), respectively. XRD result showed that ZnO was formed with good crystallinity without any second phase and had a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. SEM result revealed that ZnO with a low concentration of anthocyanin has a spherical shape with a uniform size of about 16 nm while ZnO with a high concentration of anthocyanin has a rod-like shape. The size of spherical ZnO in this work is smaller than ZnO from the same method of synthesis without anthocyanin (~30 nm).

  11. Multifunctional polymer-capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for pH-responsive targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Niedermayer, Stefan; Weiss, Veronika; Herrmann, Annika; Schmidt, Alexandra; Datz, Stefan; Müller, Katharina; Wagner, Ernst; Bein, Thomas; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2015-05-07

    A highly stable modular platform, based on the sequential covalent attachment of different functionalities to the surface of core-shell mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for targeted drug delivery is presented. A reversible pH-responsive cap system based on covalently attached poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PVP) was developed as drug release mechanism. Our platform offers (i) tuneable interactions and release kinetics with the cargo drug in the mesopores based on chemically orthogonal core-shell design, (ii) an extremely robust and reversible closure and release mechanism based on endosomal acidification of the covalently attached PVP polymer block, (iii) high colloidal stability due to a covalently coupled PEG shell, and (iv) the ability to covalently attach a wide variety of dyes, targeting ligands and other functionalities at the outer periphery of the PEG shell. The functionality of the system was demonstrated in several cell studies, showing pH-triggered release in the endosome, light-triggered endosomal escape with an on-board photosensitizer, and efficient folic acid-based cell targeting.

  12. Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis and characterization of pvp-capped cds nanoparticles for the photocatalytic degradation of tartrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Darwish, Maher, E-mail: m-darwish@razi.tums.ac.ir; Mohammadi, Ali, E-mail: alimohammadi@tums.ac.ir; Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • PVP-stabilized CdS nanoparticles have been fabricated by a polyol-microwave method. • CdS nanoparticles were characterized and the size was approximately 48 ± 10 nm. • Catalytic activity of our nanoparticles was examined for tartrazine degradation. • Remarkable results were obtained under both UV and visible light irradiations. - Abstract: Polyvinylpyrrolidone capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a facile polyol method with ethylene glycol. Microwave irradiation and calcination were used to control the size and shape of nanoparticles. Characterization with scanning electron microscopy revealed a restricted nanoparticles growth comparing with the uncapped product, hexagonal phase andmore » 48 nm average particle size were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, and finally mechanism of passivation was suggested depending on Fourier transform infrared spectra. The efficiency of nanoparticles was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of tartrazine in aqueous solution under UVC and visible light irradiation. Complete degradation of the dye was observed after 90 min of UVC irradiation under optimized conditions. Kinetic of reaction fitted well to the pseudo-first-order kinetic and Langmuir–Hinshelwood models. Furthermore, 85% degradation of the dye in 9 h under visible light suggests that cadmium sulfide is a promising tool to work under visible light for environmental remediation.« less

  13. Deactivation of photocatalytically active ZnO nanoparticle and enhancement of its compatibility with organic compounds by surface-capping with organically modified silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhi; Zhang, Zhijun

    2011-02-01

    Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and dimethyldiethoxysilane (DEDMS) were used as co-precursors to prepare organically modified silica (ormosil) via sol-gel process. The resultant ormosil was adopted for surface-capping of ZnO nanoparticle, where methyl (organic functional group) and silica (inorganic component) were simultaneously introduced onto the surface of the nanoparticles for realizing dual surface-modification. The ormosil-capped ZnO nanoparticle showed strong hydrophobicity and good compatibility with organic phases, as well as effectively decreased photocatalytic activity and almost unchanged ultraviolet (UV)-shielding ability. More importantly, the comprehensive properties of ormosil-capped ZnO nanoparticle could be manipulated by adjusting the molar ratio of TEOS to DEDMS during sol-gel process. This should help to open a wider window to better utilizing the unique and highly attractive properties such as high UV-shielding ability and high-visible light transparency of ZnO nanoparticle in sunscreen cosmetics.

  14. Comparison of magnetic properties and high-temperature phase stability of phosphate- and oleic acid-capped iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumaran, T.; Pati, S. S.; Singh, L. H.; de Oliveira, A. C.; Garg, V. K.; Philip, John

    2018-03-01

    We study the influence of dynamic capping of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with phosphate and oleic acid, on their structure, magnetic properties and thermal stability of magnetic nanoparticles. It is observed that the phosphate coating on iron oxide lowers the dipole-dipole interaction significantly, as compared to oleic acid capping. The Mössbauer results show that the spin canting order of oxidized shell and the mean hyperfine field values follow the order Fe0 (uncoated) > FeOA (oleic acid capped) > FP1 (phosphate capped). The uncoated Fe3O4 nanoparticle is non-stoichiometric in nature due to oxidation, whereas FP1 and FeOA are of the correct stoichiometry. Mössbauer and photoacoustic spectroscopic studies on air-annealed phosphate-coated magnetite nanoparticles confirm that the magnetic iron oxide phase is preserved up to 833 K and a complete conversion of Fe3O4 into the non-magnetic hematite phase occurs at 1173 K. The iron oxide air annealed at 833 K is found to have a shell of orthorhombic α-Fe2O3 over the magnetite core. However, in oleic acid-coated nanoparticles, the magnetic to non-magnetic phase transformation commences at 623 K and the conversion was complete at 823 K. The photoacoustic spectra of the air-annealed phosphate-coated Fe3O4 particles showed a flipping of the absorption intensity between 500-700 nm and 800-1000 nm, due to the conversion of Fe3O4 to γ-Fe2O3 at 923 and γ-Fe2O3 to α-Fe2O3 at 1173 K, respectively. The γ-Fe2O3 showed an intense absorption peak above 750 nm, whereas the α-Fe2O3 showed a peak broadening in the wavelength range of 600-700 nm, in addition to the strong peaks at a wavelength above 750 nm. This study suggests that the photoacoustic spectroscopy can distinguish clearly the three polymorphs of iron oxide i.e., Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3. Our results confirm the ability of phosphate-capped iron oxide particles to retard the oxidation of Fe2+ contents during the crystal growth process.

  15. Octoxy capped Si nanoparticles synthesized by homogeneous reduction of SiCl4 with crown ether alkalide.

    PubMed

    Sletnes, M; Maria, J; Grande, T; Lindgren, M; Einarsrud, M-A

    2014-02-07

    Blue-green luminescent octoxy capped Si nanoparticles were synthesized via homogeneous reduction of SiCl4 with the crown ether alkalide K(+)(15-crown-5)2K(-) in tetrahydrofuran. The Si nanoparticles were characterized with respect to size, crystal structure, morphology, surface termination, optical properties and stability. Si diamond structure nanoparticles with narrow size distributions, and average diameters ranging from 3 to 7 nm were obtained. A finite-size effect on the lattice dimensions was observed, in the form of an expansion of the [220] lattice planes of smaller Si nanoparticles. The concentration of SiCl4 was found to be the most important parameter governing the particle size and size distribution. The octoxy capped particles were stable under an ambient atmosphere for at least one month, but exposure to water made them prone to oxidation. An average radiative recombination lifetime of 8.8 ns was measured for the blue-green luminescence. The luminescence appears to originate from surface defects, rather than from quantum confinement.

  16. Effect of capping agents on the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in human normal and cancer skin cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netchareonsirisuk, Ponsawan; Puthong, Songchan; Dubas, Stephan; Palaga, Tanapat; Komolpis, Kittinan

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most widely used nanomaterials in medical and consumer products. However, safety in the uses of AgNPs is still controversial. The toxicity of AgNPs toward various cell types has been reported to depend on the surface properties of the nanoparticles. In this study, the effect of AgNPs with the average size of 5-15 nm on the viability of the CCD-986SK human normal skin fibroblast cell line and A375 human malignant melanoma cell line was evaluated. Comparative toxicity studies, based on MTT assay, were performed by using either sodium alginate or poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt (PSSMA) as capping agent in the nanoparticle preparation. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that AgNO3 alone was highly toxic to both cell types while both alginate and PSSMA alone were not toxic. AgNPs capped with alginate were selectively toxic to the cancer cell line but not to the normal cell line while AgNPs capped with PSSMA were toxic to both cancer and normal cell lines. Judging from the 50 % inhibition concentration (IC50), it was found that the cancer cell line was more sensitive to AgNPs than the normal cell line. Study on the mode of cell death by annexin V and propidium iodide staining revealed that AgNPs induced more apoptotic cell death (84-90 %) than necrosis (8-12 %) in the skin cancer cell line. These results suggest that the toxicity of AgNPs depended on the type of capping agent and the type of cell line.

  17. A New Smart Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensor Based on pH-Responsive Polyacryloyl Hydrazine Capped Ag Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shuai; Ge, Fengyan; Zhou, Man; Cai, Zaisheng; Guang, Shanyi

    2017-08-01

    A novel pH-responsive Ag@polyacryloyl hydrazide (Ag@PAH) nanoparticle for the first time as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was prepared without reducing agent and end-capping reagent. Ag@PAH nanoparticles exhibited an excellent tunable detecting performance in the range from pH = 4 to pH = 9. This is explained that the swelling-shrinking behavior of responsive PAH can control the distance between Ag NPs and the target molecules under external pH stimuli, resulting in the tunable LSPR and further controlled SERS. Furthermore, Ag@PAH nanoparticles possessed an ultra-sensitive detecting ability and the detection limit of Rhodamine 6G reduced to 10-12 M. These advantages qualified Ag@PAH NP as a promising smart SERS substrate in the field of trace analysis and sensors.

  18. A New Smart Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensor Based on pH-Responsive Polyacryloyl Hydrazine Capped Ag Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuai; Ge, Fengyan; Zhou, Man; Cai, Zaisheng; Guang, Shanyi

    2017-08-14

    A novel pH-responsive Ag@polyacryloyl hydrazide (Ag@PAH) nanoparticle for the first time as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was prepared without reducing agent and end-capping reagent. Ag@PAH nanoparticles exhibited an excellent tunable detecting performance in the range from pH = 4 to pH = 9. This is explained that the swelling-shrinking behavior of responsive PAH can control the distance between Ag NPs and the target molecules under external pH stimuli, resulting in the tunable LSPR and further controlled SERS. Furthermore, Ag@PAH nanoparticles possessed an ultra-sensitive detecting ability and the detection limit of Rhodamine 6G reduced to 10 -12  M. These advantages qualified Ag@PAH NP as a promising smart SERS substrate in the field of trace analysis and sensors.

  19. Size-related cytotoxicological aspects of polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Buchtelova, Hana; Dostalova, Simona; Michalek, Petr; Krizkova, Sona; Strmiska, Vladislav; Kopel, Pavel; Hynek, David; Richtera, Lukas; Ridoskova, Andrea; Adam, Pavlina; Kynicky, Jindrich; Brtnicky, Martin; Heger, Zbynek; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-07-01

    The nanotechnological concept is based on size-dependent properties of particles in the 1-100 nm range. Nevertheless, the connection between their size and effect is still not clear. Thus, we focused on reductive colloidal synthesis, characterization and biological testing of Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) capped with biocompatible polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Synthesized PtNPs were of 3 different primary sizes (approx. ∼10; ∼14 and > 20 nm) and demonstrated exceptional haemocompatibility. In vitro treatment of three different types of malignant cells (prostate - LNCaP, breast - MDA-MB-231 and neuroblastoma - GI-ME-N) revealed that even marginal differences in PtNPs diameter resulted in changes in their cytotoxicity. The highest cytotoxicity was observed using the smallest PtNPs-10, where 24IC 50 was lower (3.1-6.2 μg/mL) than for cisplatin (8.1-19.8 μg/mL). In contrast to MDA-MB-231 and LNCaP cells, in GI-ME-N cells PtNPs caused noticeable changes in their cellular structure without influencing their viability. Post-exposure analyses revealed that PtNPs-29 and PtNPs-40 were capable of forming considerably higher amount of reactive oxygen species with consequent stimulation of expression of metallothionein (MT1/2 and MT3), at both mRNA and protein level. Overall, our pilot study demonstrates that in the nanoscaled world even the smallest differences can have crucial biological effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. pH-dependent immobilization of urease on glutathione-capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Garg, Seema; De, Arnab; Mozumdar, Subho

    2015-05-01

    Urease is a nickel-dependent metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. Although the enzyme serves a significant role in several detoxification and analytical processes, its usability is restricted due to high cost, availability in small amounts, instability, and a limited possibility of economic recovery from a reaction mixture. Hence, there is a need to develop an efficient, simple, and reliable immobilization strategy for the enzyme. In this study, the carboxyl terminated surface of glutathione-capped gold nanoparticles have been utilized as a solid support for the covalent attachment of urease. The immobilization has been carried out at different pH conditions so as to elucidate its effect on the immobilization efficiency and enzyme bioactivity. The binding of the enzyme has been quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed through techniques like ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, intrinsic steady state fluorescence, and circular dichorism. The bioactivity of the immobilized enzyme was investigated with respect to the native enzyme under different thermal conditions. Recyclability and shelf life studies of the immobilized enzyme have also been carried out. Results reveal that the immobilization is most effective at pH of 7.4 followed by that in an acidic medium and is least in alkaline environment. The immobilized enzyme also exhibits enhance activity in comparison to the native form at physiological temperature. The immobilized urease (on gold glutathione nanoconjugates surface) can be effectively employed for biosensor fabrication, immunoassays and as an in vivo diagnostic tool in the future. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Colorimetric detection of trivalent chromium in aqueous solution using tartrate-capped silver nanoparticles as probe.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunbo; Dong, Yangjun; Jiang, Xue; Zhu, Ningning

    2013-10-01

    This study describes a simple and highly selective method for the colorimetric detection of trivalent chromium (Cr3+) using tartrate-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as probe. The addition of tartrate to the initially prepared AgNPs gives tartrate-stabilized AgNPs ascribing to the electrostatic repulsion of the highly negatively charged tartrate ions covered on the surface of AgNPs. It is found that, in the presence of Cr3+ in aqueous solution, the aggregation of tartrate-stabilized AgNPs occurs. The color of AgNPs suspension changes from yellow to pink and the surface plasmon absorption band broadens and red shifts, which could be applied for the colorimetric detection of Cr3+ in aqueous solution. The utilization of tartrate-stabilized AgNPs as probe substantially increases the selectivity and sensitivity for colorimetric detection of Cr3+. Control experiments with the addition of over 14 other metal ions, such as Pb2+, Zn2+, Cr2O7(2-), Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Ba2+, Fe3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Sr+ do not result in a distinct change in the color or in the spectrum of the suspension, indicating that these metal ions do not interfere with the colorimetric detection of Cr3+. Under the conditions employed here, A502/A393 (ratio of absorption value at 502 nm to 393 nm) is linear with the concentration of Cr3+ within a concentration range from 0.1 to 1.17 microM with a detection limit of 0.06 microM. This study may offer a simple, rapid and sensitive approach to colorimetric detection of Cr3+ in aqueous solution.

  2. A new, simple, green, and one-pot four-component synthesis of bare and poly(α,γ, L-glutamic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Savanović, Igor; Uskoković, Vuk; Škapin, Srečo D.; Bračko, Ines; Jovanović, Uroš; Uskoković, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    A simple and green chemical method has been developed to synthesize stable bare and capped silver nanoparticles based on the reduction of silver ions by glucose and capping by poly(α,γ,L-glutamic acid) (PGA). The use of ammonia during synthesis was avoided. PGA has had a dual role in the synthesis and was used as a capping agent to make the silver nanoparticle more biocompatible and to protect the nanoparticles from agglomerating in the liquid medium. The synthesized PGA-capped silver nanoparticles in the size range 5–45 nm were stable over long periods of time, without signs of precipitation. Morphological examination has shown that the silver nanoparticles had a nearly spherical, multiply twinned structure. The effects of the reaction temperature and the reaction time during the synthesis were investigated too. The biocompatibility of the PGA-capped silver nano-particles is discussed in terms of in vitro toxicity with human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The samples were characterized by UV–Visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential measurements. PMID:24062597

  3. Functional PEG–PAMAM-Tetraphosphonate Capped NaLnF4 Nanoparticles and their Colloidal Stability in Phosphate Buffer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Developing surface coatings for NaLnF4 nanoparticles (NPs) that provide long-term stability in solutions containing competitive ions such as phosphate remains challenging. An amine-functional polyamidoamine tetraphosphonate (NH2-PAMAM-4P) as a multidentate ligand for these NPs has been synthesized and characterized as a ligand for the surface of NaGdF4 and NaTbF4 nanoparticles. A two-step ligand exchange protocol was developed for introduction of the NH2-PAMAM-4P ligand on oleate-capped NaLnF4 NPs. The NPs were first treated with methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-monophosphoric acid (Mn = 750) in tetrahydrofuran. The mPEG750-OPO3-capped NPs were stable colloidal solutions in water, where they could be ligand-exchanged with NH2-PAMAM-4P. The surface amine groups on the NPs were available for derivatization to attach methoxy-PEG (Mn = 2000) and biotin-terminated PEG (Mn = 2000) chains. The surface coverage of ligands on the NPs was examined by thermal gravimetric analysis, and by a HABA analysis for biotin-containing NPs. Colloidal stability of the NPs was examined by dynamic light scattering. NaGdF4 and NaTbF4 NPs capped with mPEG2000–PAMAM-4P showed colloidal stability in DI water and in phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 7.4). A direct comparison with NaTbF4 NPs capped with a mPEG2000-lysine-based tetradentate ligand that we reported previously (Langmuir2012, 28, 12861−1287022906305) showed that both ligands provided long-term stability in phosphate buffer, but that the lysine-based ligand provided better stability in phosphate-buffered saline. PMID:24898128

  4. Functional PEG-PAMAM-tetraphosphonate capped NaLnF₄ nanoparticles and their colloidal stability in phosphate buffer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangyao; Tong, Lemuel; Cao, Pengpeng; Nitz, Mark; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2014-06-17

    Developing surface coatings for NaLnF4 nanoparticles (NPs) that provide long-term stability in solutions containing competitive ions such as phosphate remains challenging. An amine-functional polyamidoamine tetraphosphonate (NH2-PAMAM-4P) as a multidentate ligand for these NPs has been synthesized and characterized as a ligand for the surface of NaGdF4 and NaTbF4 nanoparticles. A two-step ligand exchange protocol was developed for introduction of the NH2-PAMAM-4P ligand on oleate-capped NaLnF4 NPs. The NPs were first treated with methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-monophosphoric acid (M(n) = 750) in tetrahydrofuran. The mPEG750-OPO3-capped NPs were stable colloidal solutions in water, where they could be ligand-exchanged with NH2-PAMAM-4P. The surface amine groups on the NPs were available for derivatization to attach methoxy-PEG (M(n) = 2000) and biotin-terminated PEG (M(n) = 2000) chains. The surface coverage of ligands on the NPs was examined by thermal gravimetric analysis, and by a HABA analysis for biotin-containing NPs. Colloidal stability of the NPs was examined by dynamic light scattering. NaGdF4 and NaTbF4 NPs capped with mPEG2000-PAMAM-4P showed colloidal stability in DI water and in phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 7.4). A direct comparison with NaTbF4 NPs capped with a mPEG2000-lysine-based tetradentate ligand that we reported previously (Langmuir 2012, 28, 12861-12870) showed that both ligands provided long-term stability in phosphate buffer, but that the lysine-based ligand provided better stability in phosphate-buffered saline.

  5. Structural, spectroscopic and anti-microbial inspection of PEG capped ZnO nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshram, J. V.; Koli, V. B.; Kumbhar, S. G.; Borde, L. C.; Phadatare, M. R.; Pawar, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have a wide range of biomedical applications. Present study demonstrates the new methodology in sol-gel technology for synthesizing Polyethylene glycol (PEG) capped ZnO NPs and its size effect on anti-microbial activity. The reaction time was increased from 1 h to 5 h for the synthesis of ZnO NPs at 130 °C. The size of PEG capped ZnO NPs is increased from 10 to 84 nm by increasing the reaction upto 5 h. The x-ray diffraction studies and transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals the phase purity and hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with uniform PEG capping on the surface of ZnO NPs. UV–visible spectroscopy exhibits the peak at 366 nm which is attributed to ZnO NPs. No adverse effect is observed in case of absorbance spectroscopy. Further, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis depicts the adsorption of PEG molecules on the ZnO NPs surface. The anti-microbial activities for both Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria were studied by optical density (OD) mesurement. The remarkable anti-microbial activity was observed for PEG capped ZnO NPs synthesized at 1 h reaction time showing higher activity in comparison with that synthesized from 2 h to 5 h reaction time. The microbial growth was found to be inhibited after 10 h OD measurement for both the bacteria. The anti-microbial activity may be attributed to the generation of ROS and H2O2. However, these generated species plays a vital role in inhibition of microbial growth. Hence, PEG capped ZnO NPs has promising biomedical applications.

  6. Selective sensing of vapors of similar dielectric constants using peptide-capped gold nanoparticles on individual multivariable transducers.

    PubMed

    Nagraj, Nandini; Slocik, Joseph M; Phillips, David M; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R; Potyrailo, Radislav A

    2013-08-07

    Peptide-capped AYSSGAPPMPPF gold nanoparticles were demonstrated for highly selective chemical vapor sensing using individual multivariable inductor-capacitor-resistor (LCR) resonators. Their multivariable response was achieved by measuring their resonance impedance spectra followed by multivariate spectral analysis. Detection of model toxic vapors and chemical agent simulants, such as acetonitrile, dichloromethane and methyl salicylate, was performed. Dichloromethane (dielectric constant εr = 9.1) and methyl salicylate (εr = 9.0) were discriminated using a single sensor. These sensing materials coupled to multivariable transducers can provide numerous opportunities for tailoring the vapor response selectivity based on the diversity of the amino acid composition of the peptides, and by the modulation of the nature of peptide-nanoparticle interactions through designed combinations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids.

  7. Synthesis and biological studies of highly concentrated lisinopril-capped gold nanoparticles for CT tracking of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghann, William E.; Aras, Omer; Fleiter, Thorsten; Daniel, Marie-Christine

    2011-05-01

    For patients with a history of heart attack or stroke, the prevention of another cardiovascular or cerebrovascular event is crucial. The development of cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis has been associated with overexpression of tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Recently, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have shown great potential as X-ray computed tomography (CT) contrast agents. Since lisinopril is an ACE inhibitor, it has been used as coating on GNPs for targeted imaging of tissue ACE in prevention of fibrosis. Herein, lisinopril-capped gold nanoparticles (LIS-GNPs) were synthesized up to a concentration of 55 mgAu/mL. Their contrast was measured using CT and the results were compared to Omnipaque, a commonly used iodine-based contrast agent. The targeting ability of these LIS-GNPs was also assessed.

  8. Targeted in-vivo computed tomography (CT) imaging of tissue ACE using concentrated lisinopril-capped gold nanoparticle solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Marie-Christine; Aras, Omer; Smith, Mark F.; Nan, Anjan; Fleiter, Thorsten

    2010-04-01

    The development of cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis have been associated with overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Moreover, ACE inhibitors, such as lisinopril, have shown a benificial effect for patients diagnosed with heart failure or systemic hypertension. Thus targeted imaging of the ACE is of crucial importance for monitoring of the tissue ACE activity as well as the treatment efficacy in heart failure. In this respect, lisinopril-capped gold nanoparticles were prepared to provide a new type of probe for targeted molecular imaging of ACE by tuned K-edge computed tomography (CT) imaging. Concentrated solutions of these modified gold nanoparticles, with a diameter around 16 nm, showed high contrast in CT imaging. These new targeted imaging agents were thus used for in vivo imaging on rat models.

  9. Efficient pH Dependent Drug Delivery to Target Cancer Cells by Gold Nanoparticles Capped with Carboxymethyl Chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, Alle; Reddy, Gangapuram Bhagavanth; Venkatesham, Maragoni; Veerabhadram, Guttena; Kumar, Dudde Anil; Natarajan, Sumathi; Yang, Ming-Yeh; Hu, Anren; Singh, Surya S.

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) was immobilized on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) capped with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) for effective delivery to cancer cells. The carboxylic group of carboxymethyl chitosan interacts with the amino group of the doxorubicin (DOX) forming stable, non-covalent interactions on the surface of AuNPs. The carboxylic group ionizes at acidic pH, thereby releasing the drug effectively at acidic pH suitable to target cancer cells. The DOX loaded gold nanoparticles were effectively absorbed by cervical cancer cells compared to free DOX and their uptake was further increased at acidic conditions induced by nigericin, an ionophore that causes intracellular acidification. These results suggest that DOX loaded AuNPs with pH-triggered drug releasing properties is a novel nanotheraputic approach to overcome drug resistance in cancer. PMID:24821542

  10. A magnetic, reversible pH-responsive nanogated ensemble based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles-capped mesoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Gan, Qi; Lu, Xunyu; Yuan, Yuan; Qian, Jiangchao; Zhou, Huanjun; Lu, Xun; Shi, Jianlin; Liu, Changsheng

    2011-03-01

    Stimuli-sensitive mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs)-based hybrid "gate-like" ensembles capable of performing specific programmed release mode represent a new generation delivery system in recent years. In this paper, a magnetic and reversible pH-responsive, MSNs-based nanogated ensemble was fabricated by anchoring superparamagnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles on the pore outlet of MSNs via a reversible boronate esters linker. To achieve this, MSNs and Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were first synthesized and functionalized by polyalcohol derivative and boronic acid, respectively. The successful incorporation of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles onto the MSNs was confirmed by the results of XRD, TEM, XPS and N(2) adsorption-desorption method. The pH-driven "gate-like" effect was studied by in vitro release of an entrapped model dexamethasone from the pore voids into the bulk solution at different pH values. The results indicated that at pH 5-8, the pores of the MSNs were effectively capped with Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles and the drug release was strongly inhibited. While at pH 2-4, the hydrolysis of the boroester bond took place and thus resulted in a rapid release of the entrapped drug. And by alternately changing the pH from 3 to 7, these Fe(3)O(4) cap gate could be switched "on" and "off" and thereby released the entrapped drug in a pulsinate manner (in small portions). Additionally, this nanogated release system exhibited good magnetic property, high cell biocompatibility and cellular uptake for MC3T3-E1 cells. The present data suggest that it is possible to obtain simple and very effective pH-driven pulsinate release using these Fe(3)O(4)-capped-MSNs, and this new platform represents a promising candidate in the formulation of in vivo targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to low pH tissues, such as tumors and inflammatory sites. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of D-mannose capped silicon nanoparticles and their interactions with MCF-7 human breast cancerous cells.

    PubMed

    Ahire, Jayshree H; Chambrier, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja; Bao, Yongping; Chao, Yimin

    2013-08-14

    Silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) hold prominent interest in various aspects of biomedical applications. For this purpose, surface functionalization of the NPs is essential to stabilize them, target them to specific disease area, and allow them to selectively bind to the cells or the bio-molecules present on the surface of the cells. However, no such functionalization has been explored with Si nanoparticles. Carbohydrates play a critical role in cell recognition. Here, we report the first synthesis of silicon nanoparticles functionalized with carbohydrates. In this study, stable and brightly luminescent d-Mannose (Man) capped SiNPs have been synthesized from amine terminated SiNPs and d-mannopyranoside acid. The surface functionalization is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) studies. The mean diameter of the crystal core is 5.5 nm, as measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), while the hydrodynamic diameter obtained by dynamic light scattering (DLS) is 16 nm. The quantum yield (QY) of photoluminescence emission is found to be 11.5%, and the nanoparticles exhibit an exceptional stability over two weeks. The Man-capped SiNPs may prove to be valuable tools for further investigating glycobiological, biomedical, and material science fields. Experiments are carried out using Concanavalin A (ConA) as a target protein in order to prove the hypothesis. When Man functionalized SiNPs are treated with ConA, cross-linked aggregates are formed, as shown in TEM images as well as monitored by photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). Man functionalized SiNPs can target cancerous cells. Visualization imaging of SiNPs in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells shows the fluorescence is distributed throughout the cytoplasm of these cells.

  12. Melanoma-Targeted Chemothermotherapy and In Situ Peptide Immunotherapy through HSP Production by Using Melanogenesis Substrate, NPrCAP, and Magnetite Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jimbow, Kowichi; Ishii-Osai, Yasue; Ito, Shosuke; Tamura, Yasuaki; Ito, Akira; Yoneta, Akihiro; Kamiya, Takafumi; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Honda, Hiroyuki; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Murase, Katsutoshi; Nohara, Satoshi; Nakayama, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Takeo; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Exploitation of biological properties unique to cancer cells may provide a novel approach to overcome difficult challenges to the treatment of advanced melanoma. In order to develop melanoma-targeted chemothermoimmunotherapy, a melanogenesis substrate, N-propionyl-4-S-cysteaminylphenol (NPrCAP), sulfur-amine analogue of tyrosine, was conjugated with magnetite nanoparticles. NPrCAP was exploited from melanogenesis substrates, which are expected to be selectively incorporated into melanoma cells and produce highly reactive free radicals through reacting with tyrosinase, resulting in chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic effects by oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death. Magnetite nanoparticles were conjugated with NPrCAP to introduce thermotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic effects through nonapoptotic cell death and generation of heat shock protein (HSP) upon exposure to alternating magnetic field (AMF). During these therapeutic processes, NPrCAP was also expected to provide melanoma-targeted drug delivery system. PMID:23533767

  13. Eco-friendly synthesis of Solanum trilobatum extract-capped silver nanoparticles is compatible with good antimicrobial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Santheraleka; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Anbu, Periasamy; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Kasim, Farizul Hafiz; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2018-05-01

    This study focused on the evaluation of antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) after their green synthesis by means of a Solanum trilobatum bark extract. The obtained product with an intense surface plasmon resonance band at ∼442 nm with UV-visible spectroscopic analysis indicated the formation of AgNPs. The morphology of AgNPs was observed under transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy, displayed that the eco-friendly synthesized AgNPs have a spherical shape with an average size of ∼25 nm in diameter. X-ray powder diffraction and selected area electron diffraction analyses confirmed that the AgNPs are crystalline in nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the AgNPs capped with active ingredients of the bark extract. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed elemental composition of the AgNPs. The performance of S. trilobatum bark extract-capped AgNPs in terms of inhibition of microbial growth was studied by disc diffusion and well diffusion assays. Eco-friendly synthesized S. trilobatum extract-capped AgNPs were found to possess enhanced antimicrobial properties: growth inhibition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and of fungal species. These results demonstrated the potential applications of the indigenous medicinal plants to the field of nanotechnology.

  14. Sodium hydroxide as pretreatment and fluorosurfactant-capped gold nanoparticles as sensor for the highly selective detection of cysteine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Pin; Huang, Chia-Chi; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2008-07-15

    A sensor for detecting cysteine (Cys) in a solution of fluorosurfactant (FSN)-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been developed. Under acidic conditions, FSN-capped AuNPs are aggregated in the presence of homocysteine (HCys) and Cys but not in the presence of cysteinylglycine, glutathione, and gamma-glutamycysteine. When adding NaOH to a solution of HCys, the five-membered ring transition state is formed through intramolecular hydrogen abstraction. By contrast, it is difficult for Cys to form a four-membered ring transition state after Cys has been pretreated with NaOH. As a result, the HCys-induced aggregation of the FSN-capped AuNPs is suppressed because the five-membered ring transition state exhibits relatively larger steric hindrance and has stronger interaction with the FSN molecules. Thus, we can discriminate between Cys and HCys on the basis of different aggregation kinetics. Under the optimum condition, the selectivity of the probe for Cys in aqueous solutions is remarkably high over the other aminthiols. Note that HCys and Cys have very similar structure and pK(a) value. We have validated the applicability of our method through the analyses of Cys in urine samples. It is believed that this approach has great potential for the detection of Cys in biological samples.

  15. Zeta potential and Raman studies of PVP capped Bi2S3 nanoparticles synthesized by polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarachand, Sathe, Vasant G.; Okram, Gunadhor S.

    2018-05-01

    Here we report the synthesis and characterisation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped Bi2S3 nanoparticles via one step catalyst-free polyol method. Raman spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis were performed on it. Rietveld refinement of powder XRD of PVP capped samples confirmed the formation of single phase orthorhombic Bi2S3 for all PVP capped samples. The presence of eight obvious Raman modes further confirmed the formation of stoichiometric Bi2S3. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies show a clear increase in hydrodynamic diameter for samples made with increasing PVP concentration. Particle size obtained from DLS and XRD (using Scherrer's formula) combine with change in full width half maxima of Raman modes collectively suggest overall improvement in crystallinity and quality of product on introducing PVP. In zeta potential (ζ) measurement, steric hindrance of carbon chains plays very crucial role and a systematic reduction of ζ value is observed for samples made with decreasing PVP concentration. An isoelectric point is obtained for sample made with low PVP (1g). Present results are likely to open a window for its medical and catalytic applications.

  16. Eco-friendly synthesis of gelatin-capped bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles for chemiluminescence detection of anticancer raloxifene hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Alarfaj, Nawal A; El-Tohamy, Maha F

    2016-09-01

    This study described the utility of green analytical chemistry in the synthesis of gelatin-capped silver, gold and bimetallic gold-silver nanoparticles (NPs). The preparation of nanoparticles was based on the reaction of silver nitrate or chlorauric acid with a 1.0 wt% aqueous gelatin solution at 50°C. The gelatin-capped silver, gold and bimetallic NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and were used to enhance a sensitive sequential injection chemiluminescence luminol-potassium ferricyanide system for determination of the anticancer drug raloxifene hydrochloride. The developed method is eco-friendly and sensitive for chemiluminescence detection of the selected drug in its bulk powder, pharmaceutical injections and biosamples. After optimizing the conditions, a linear relationship in the range of 1.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-1)  mol/L was obtained with a limit of detection of 5.0 × 10(-10)  mol/L and a limit of quantification of 1.0 × 10(-9)  mol/L. Statistical treatment and method validation were performed based on ICH guidelines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Antibacterial Efficacy of Polysaccharide Capped Silver Nanoparticles Is Not Compromised by AcrAB-TolC Efflux Pump

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Mitali; Kumar, Satish; Majhi, Rakesh K.; Goswami, Luna; Goswami, Chandan; Mohapatra, Harapriya

    2018-01-01

    Antibacterial therapy is of paramount importance in treatment of several acute and chronic infectious diseases caused by pathogens. Over the years extensive use and misuse of antimicrobial agents has led to emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensive drug resistant (XDR) pathogens. This drastic escalation in resistant phenotype has limited the efficacy of available therapeutic options. Thus, the need of the hour is to look for alternative therapeutic approaches to mitigate healthcare concerns caused due to MDR bacterial infections. Nanoparticles have gathered much attention as potential candidates for antibacterial therapy. Equipped with advantages of, wide spectrum bactericidal activity at very low dosage, inhibitor of biofilm formation and ease of permeability, nanoparticles have been considered as leading therapeutic candidates to curtail infections resulting from MDR bacteria. However, substrate non-specificity of efflux pumps, particularly those belonging to resistance nodulation division super family, have been reported to reduce efficacy of many potent antibacterial therapeutic drugs. Previously, we had reported antibacterial activity of polysaccharide-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) toward MDR bacteria. We showed that AgNPs inhibits biofilm formation and alters expression of cytoskeletal proteins FtsZ and FtsA, with minimal cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. In the present study, we report no reduction in antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles in presence of AcrAB-TolC efflux pump proteins. Antibacterial tests were performed according to CLSI macrobroth dilution method, which revealed that both silver nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity at very low concentrations. Further, immunoblotting results indicated that both the nanoparticles modulate the transporter AcrB protein expression. However, expression of the membrane fusion protein AcrA did show a significant increase after exposure to AgNPs. Our results indicate that both

  18. The stability of self-organized 1-nonanethiol-capped gold nanoparticle monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Xie, Si-shen; Yao, Jian-nian; Pang, Shi-jin; Gao, Hong-jun

    2001-08-01

    1-Nonanethiol-protected gold nanoparticles with the size of about 2 nm have been prepared by a wet chemical method through choosing a suitable ratio of Au:S (2.5:1). Size selective precipitation of nanoparticles has been used to narrow their size distribution, which facilitates the formation of an ordered nanoparticle close-packed structure. A Fourier transform infrared investigation provides the evidence of the encapsulation of Au nanoparticles by 1-nonanethiol while an ultraviolet-visible spectrum shows a broad absorption around 520 nm, corresponding to surface plasmon band of Au nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the samples demonstrates the metallic state of the gold (Au0) and the existence of sulfur (S). The data from x-ray powder diffraction measurements confirm that the gold nanoparticles have the same face-centred cubic crystalline structure as the bulk gold phase. Finally, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization indicates that the size of the monodisperse colloidal gold nanoparticles is about 2 nm and they can self-organize to form a two-dimensional hexagonal close-packed structure after evaporating a concentrated drop of nanoparticles-toluene solution on a carbon-coated TEM copper grid.

  19. Structural and optical properties of hydrazine hydrate capped cadmium sulphide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Rekha Garg; Rajaram, P.

    2018-05-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles have received considerable interest due to their size-dependent optical properties. CdS is an important semiconductor material widely used in low cost photovoltaic devices, light-emitting diodes and biological imaging. The nanoparticles of CdS were prepared by a simple chemical precipitation method in aqueous medium. The reaction was carried out at room temperature. The cadmium sulphide nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The lattice strain, crystallite size and dislocation density were calculated using the Williamson-Hall (W-H) method. The band gap was obtained from the UV-Visible spectra of CdS nanoparticles. The band gap of CdS nanoparticles is around 2.68 eV and the crystallite size is around 5.8 nm.

  20. Controlled release of lovastatin from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for direct pulp capping in rat teeth.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Pin; Tu, Han-Ping; Hsieh, Yu-Ping; Lee, Bor-Shiunn

    2017-01-01

    Statin at appropriate concentrations has been shown to induce odontoblastic differentiation, dentinogenesis, and angiogenesis. However, using a carrier to control statin release might reduce toxicity and enhance its therapeutic effects. The aim of this study was to prepare poly(d,l-lactide- co -glycolide acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles that contain lovastatin for application in direct pulp capping. The PLGA-lovastatin particle size was determined using dynamic light scattering measurements and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the release of lovastatin was quantified using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The cytotoxicity and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of PLGA-lovastatin nanoparticles on human dental pulp cells were investigated. Moreover, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, Western blot analysis, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to examine the osteogenesis gene and protein expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 (DMP1), and osteocalcin (OCN). Finally, PLGA-lovastatin nanoparticles and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) were compared as direct pulp capping materials in Wistar rat teeth. The results showed that the median diameter of PLGA-lovastatin nanoparticles was 174.8 nm and the cumulative lovastatin release was 92% at the 44th day. PLGA-lovastatin nanoparticles demonstrated considerably a lower cytotoxicity than free lovastatin at 5, 9, and 13 days of culture. For ALP activity, the ALP amount of PLGA-lovastatin (100 μg/mL) was significantly higher than that of the other groups for 9 and 13 days of culture. The real-time PCR assay, Western blot analysis, and ELISA assay showed that PLGA-lovastatin (100 μg/mL) induced the highest mRNA and protein expression of DSPP, DMP1, and OCN in pulp cells. Histological evaluation of the animal studies revealed that MTA was superior to the PLGA-lovastatin in stimulating the formation of tubular dentin in an observation period

  1. Influence of Capping Ligand and Synthesis Method on Structure and Morphology of Aqueous Phase Synthesized CuInSe2 Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Kumar, J.; Ananthakumar, S.; Moorthy Babu, S.

    2017-01-01

    A facile route to synthesize copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2) nanoparticles in aqueous medium was developed using mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) as capping agent. Two different mole ratios (5 and 10) of MAA were used to synthesize CuInSe2 nanoparticles at room temperature, as well as hydrothermal (high temperature) method. Powder x-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the nanoparticles exhibit chalcopyrite phase and the crystallinity increases with increasing the capping ratio. Raman analysis shows a strong band at 233 cm-1 due to the combination of B2 (E) modes. Broad absorption spectra were observed for the synthesized CuInSe2 nanoparticles. The effective surface capping by MAA on the nanoparticles surface was confirmed through attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. The thermal stability of the synthesized samples was analyzed through thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry. The change in morphology of the synthesized samples was analyzed through scanning electron microscope and it shows that the samples prepared at room temperature are spherical in shape, whereas hydrothermally synthesized samples were found to have nanorod- and nanoflake-like structures. Transmission electron microscope analysis further indicates larger grains for the hydrothermally prepared samples with 10 mol ratio of MAA. Comparative analyses were made for synthesizing CuInSe2 nanoparticles by two different methods to explore the role of ligand and influence of temperature.

  2. Preparation of lisinopril-capped gold nanoparticles for molecular imaging of angiotensin-converting enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Baeta, Cesar; Aras, Omer; Daniel, Marie-Christine

    2009-05-01

    Overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has been associated with the pathophysiology of cardiac and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, the prescription of ACE inhibitors, such as lisinopril, has shown a favorable effect on patient outcome for patients with heart failure or systemic hypertension. Thus targeted imaging of the ACE would be of crucial importance for monitoring tissue ACE activity as well as the treatment efficacy in heart failure. In this respect, lisinopril-coated gold nanoparticles were prepared to provide a new type of probe for targeted molecular imaging of ACE by tuned K-edge computed tomography (CT) imaging. The preparation involved non-modified lisinopril, using its primary amine group as the anchoring function on the gold nanoparticles surface. The stable lisinopril-coated gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their zeta potential was also measured in order to assess the charge density on the modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs).

  3. Ionic depletion at the crystalline Gibbs layer of PEG-capped gold nanoparticle brushes at aqueous surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Mallapragada, Surya

    In situ surface-sensitive x-ray diffraction and grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (GIXFS) methods are combined to determine the ionic distributions across the liquid/vapor interfaces of thiolated-polyethylene-glycol–capped gold nanoparticle (PEG-AuNP) solutions. Induced by the addition of salts (i.e., Cs 2SO 4) to PEG-AuNPs solutions, two-dimensional hexagonal lattices of PEG-AuNPs form spontaneously at the aqueous surfaces, as is demonstrated by x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. In conclusion, by taking advantage of element specificity with the GIXFS method, we find that the cation Cs + concentration at the crystalline film is significantly reduced in parts of the PEG-AuNP film comparedmore » with that in the bulk.« less

  4. The role of aqueous leaf extract of Tinospora crispa as reducing and capping agents for synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apriandanu, D. O. B.; Yulizar, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Environmentally friendly method for green synthesis of Au nanoparticles (AuNP) using aqueous leaf extract of Tinospora crispa (TLE) was reported. TLE has the ability for reducing and capping AuNP. Identification of active compounds in aqueous leaf extract was obtained by phytochemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The AuNP-TLE growth was characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The particle size and the distribution of AuNP were confirmed by particle size analyzer (PSA). AuNP-TLE formation was optimized by varying the extract concentration and time of the synthesis process. UV-Vis absorption spectrum of optimum AuNP formation displayed by the surface plasmon resonance at maximum wavelength of λmax 536 nm. The PSA result showed that AuNP has size distribution of 80.60 nm and stable up to 21 days. TEM images showed that the size of the AuNP is ± 25 nm.

  5. Effect of Co doping, capping agent and optical-structural studies of ZnO:Co2+ nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri Otaqsara, S. M.

    2011-08-01

    Co2+ doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using PEG as a capping agent were prepared by colloidal wet-chemical method. The structure, morphology and characteristics of as-prepared samples were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns studies revealed wurtzite crystal phase. STM-TEM micrographs show a spherical shape and nearly well distribution with an average particle size of ~15-20 nm. UV-VIS spectra show the presence of exciton peak at 349 nm which can be effectively tuned versus cobalt doping and PEG concentration. PL studies were done under the excitation of 347 nm, which exhibited a UV (~386 nm) and visible (blue-orange) emission peak because of free-exciton recombination and oxygen vacancy.

  6. Ionic depletion at the crystalline Gibbs layer of PEG-capped gold nanoparticle brushes at aqueous surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Mallapragada, Surya; Travesset, Alex; Vaknin, David

    2017-12-01

    In situ surface-sensitive x-ray diffraction and grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (GIXFS) methods are combined to determine the ionic distributions across the liquid/vapor interfaces of thiolated-polyethylene-glycol-capped gold nanoparticle (PEG-AuNP) solutions. Induced by the addition of salts (i.e., Cs2SO4 ) to PEG-AuNPs solutions, two-dimensional hexagonal lattices of PEG-AuNPs form spontaneously at the aqueous surfaces, as is demonstrated by x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. By taking advantage of element specificity with the GIXFS method, we find that the cation Cs+ concentration at the crystalline film is significantly reduced in parts of the PEG-AuNP film compared with that in the bulk.

  7. Localized-Surface-Plasmon Enhanced the 357 nm Forward Emission from ZnMgO Films Capped by Pt Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The Pt nanoparticles (NPs), which posses the wider tunable localized-surface-plasmon (LSP) energy varying from deep ultraviolet to visible region depending on their morphology, were prepared by annealing Pt thin films with different initial mass-thicknesses. A sixfold enhancement of the 357 nm forward emission of ZnMgO was observed after capping with Pt NPs, which is due to the resonance coupling between the LSP of Pt NPs and the band-gap emission of ZnMgO. The other factors affecting the ultraviolet emission of ZnMgO, such as emission from Pt itself and light multi-scattering at the interface, were also discussed. These results indicate that Pt NPs can be used to enhance the ultraviolet emission through the LSP coupling for various wide band-gap semiconductors. PMID:20596433

  8. Ionic depletion at the crystalline Gibbs layer of PEG-capped gold nanoparticle brushes at aqueous surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Mallapragada, Surya; ...

    2017-12-14

    In situ surface-sensitive x-ray diffraction and grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (GIXFS) methods are combined to determine the ionic distributions across the liquid/vapor interfaces of thiolated-polyethylene-glycol–capped gold nanoparticle (PEG-AuNP) solutions. Induced by the addition of salts (i.e., Cs 2SO 4) to PEG-AuNPs solutions, two-dimensional hexagonal lattices of PEG-AuNPs form spontaneously at the aqueous surfaces, as is demonstrated by x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. In conclusion, by taking advantage of element specificity with the GIXFS method, we find that the cation Cs + concentration at the crystalline film is significantly reduced in parts of the PEG-AuNP film comparedmore » with that in the bulk.« less

  9. Rapid visual detection of quaternary ammonium surfactants using citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) based on hydrophobic effect.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-Qing; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a rapid, sensitive and low-cost colorimetric method for detection of quaternary ammonium surfactants using citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was developed. The quaternary ammonium surfactants induce the aggregation of Ag NPs through the hydrophobic effect, which is a novel aggregation mechanism of Ag NPs. The addition of cationic surfactant results in color change of Ag NPs solution from yellow to red and finally to colorless, which is due to the broadening of the surface plasmon band. The color change was monitored using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The LOD of different cationic surfactants was in the range of 0.5-5 µM. More importantly, this detection method was successfully utilized to the disinfectant residual sample. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adsorption of doxorubicin on citrate-capped gold nanoparticles: insights into engineering potent chemotherapeutic delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Dennis; Cameron, Amanda; MacDonald, Bruce; Nganou, Collins; Scheller, Hope; Marsh, James; Beale, Stefanie; Lu, Mingsheng; Shan, Zhi; Kaliaperumal, Rajendran; Xu, Heping; Servos, Mark; Bennett, Craig; Macquarrie, Stephanie; Oakes, Ken D.; Mkandawire, Martin; Zhang, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Gold nanomaterials have received great interest for their use in cancer theranostic applications over the past two decades. Many gold nanoparticle-based drug delivery system designs rely on adsorbed ligands such as DNA or cleavable linkers to load therapeutic cargo. The heightened research interest was recently demonstrated in the simple design of nanoparticle-drug conjugates wherein drug molecules are directly adsorbed onto the as-synthesized nanoparticle surface. The potent chemotherapeutic, doxorubicin often serves as a model drug for gold nanoparticle-based delivery platforms; however, the specific interaction facilitating adsorption in this system remains understudied. Here, for the first time, we propose empirical and theoretical evidence suggestive of the main adsorption process where (1) hydrophobic forces drive doxorubicin towards the gold nanoparticle surface before (2) cation-π interactions and gold-carbonyl coordination between the drug molecule and the cations on AuNP surface facilitate DOX adsorption. In addition, biologically relevant compounds, such as serum albumin and glutathione, were shown to enhance desorption of loaded drug molecules from AuNP at physiologically relevant concentrations, providing insight into the drug release and in vivo stability of such drug conjugates.Gold nanomaterials have received great interest for their use in cancer theranostic applications over the past two decades. Many gold nanoparticle-based drug delivery system designs rely on adsorbed ligands such as DNA or cleavable linkers to load therapeutic cargo. The heightened research interest was recently demonstrated in the simple design of nanoparticle-drug conjugates wherein drug molecules are directly adsorbed onto the as-synthesized nanoparticle surface. The potent chemotherapeutic, doxorubicin often serves as a model drug for gold nanoparticle-based delivery platforms; however, the specific interaction facilitating adsorption in this system remains understudied

  11. Probing the Sulfur-Modified Capping Layer of Gold Nanoparticles Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) Effects.

    PubMed

    Prado, Adilson R; Souza, Danilo Oliveira de; Oliveira, Jairo P; Pereira, Rayssa H A; Guimarães, Marco C C; Nogueira, Breno V; Dixini, Pedro V; Ribeiro, Moisés R N; Pontes, Maria J

    2017-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) exhibit particular plasmonic properties when stimulated by visible light, which makes them a promising tool to many applications in sensor technology and biomedical applications, especially when associated to sulfur-based compounds. Sulfur species form a great variety of self-assembled structures that cap AuNP and this interaction rules the optical and plasmonic properties of the system. Here, we report the behavior of citrate-stabilized gold nanospheres in two distinct sulfur colloidal solutions, namely, thiocyanate and sulfide ionic solutions. Citrate-capped gold nanospheres were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In the presence of sulfur species, we have observed the formation of NP clusters and chain-like structures, giving rise to surface-enhanced effects. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) pointed to a modification in citrate vibrational modes, which suggests substitution of citrate by either thiocyanate or sulfide ions with distinct dynamics, as showed by in situ fluorescence. Moreover, we report the emergence of surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) effect, which corroborates SERS conclusions. Further, SEIRA shows a great potential as a tool for specification of sulfur compounds in colloidal solutions, which is particularly useful when dealing with sensor technology.

  12. Formation of ZnS nanostructures by a simple way of thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, H. J.; Xie, S. S.; Liu, D. F.; Yan, X. Q.; Zhou, Z. P.; Ci, L. J.; Wang, J. X.; Gao, Y.; Song, L.; Liu, L. F.; Zhou, W. Y.; Wang, G.

    2003-11-01

    The mass synthesis of ZnS nanobelts, nanowires, and nanoparticles has been achieved by a simple method of thermal evaporation of ZnS powders onto silicon substrates in the presence of Au catalyst. The temperature of the substrates and the concentration of ZnS vapor were the critical experimental parameters for the formation of different morphologies of ZnS nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy show that the diameters of as-prepared nanowires were 30-70 nm. The UV emission at 374 nm is probably related to the exciton emission, while the mechanism of blue emission at 443 nm is probably mainly due to the presence of various surface states.

  13. In vitro studies on radiosensitization effect of glucose capped gold nanoparticles in photon and ion irradiation of HeLa cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Harminder; Pujari, Geetanjali; Semwal, Manoj K.; Sarma, Asitikantha; Avasthi, Devesh Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles are of great interest due to their potential applications in diagnostics and therapeutics. In the present work, we synthesized glucose capped gold nanoparticle (Glu-AuNP) for internalization in the HeLa cell line (human cervix cancer cells). The capping of glucose on Au nanoparticle was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The Glu-AuNP did not show any toxicity to the HeLa cell. The γ-radiation and carbon ion irradiation of HeLa cell with and without Glu-AuNP were performed to evaluate radiosensitization effects. The study revealed a significant reduction in radiation dose for killing the HeLa cells with internalized Glu-AuNPs as compared to the HeLa cells without Glu-AuNP. The Glu-AuNP treatment resulted in enhancement of radiation effect as evident from increase in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for carbon ion irradiated HeLa cells.

  14. Green synthesis and characterization of size tunable silica-capped gold core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangoo, Nishima; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Wu, Jin-Song; Bhasin, Aman K. K.; Suri, C. R.; Bhasin, K. K.; Dravid, Vinayak

    2012-08-01

    Silica-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@SiO2) with controlled silica-shell thickness were prepared by a modified Stober's method using 10-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as seeds. The AuNPs were silica-coated with a sol-gel reaction using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as a silica source and ammonia as a catalyst. An increase in TEOS concentration resulted in an increase in shell thickness. The NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning near-field ultrasound holography and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The method required no surface modification and the synthesized core shell nanoparticles can be used for various types of biological applications.

  15. Green Synthesis and Characterization of SmVO4 Nanoparticles in the Presence of Carbohydrates As Capping Agents with Investigation of Visible-Light Photocatalytic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eghbali-Arani, Mohammad; Sobhani-Nasab, Ali; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Pourmasoud, Saeid

    2018-03-01

    SmVO4 nanoparticles were synthesized through a fast and simple procedure (green method). The effects of three parameters including temperature, type of capping agent, and concentration on the size and morphology behavior of SmVO4 nanoparticles were explored. The analysis of SmVO4 nanoparticles was performed through some techniques including, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometers. The study of photocatalytic behaviour of the SmVO4 nanoparticles in various conditions has been carried out. The impacts of different factors such as dosage, grain size, and kind of pollutant (methylene blue = MB and methyl orange = MO) on the photocatalytic property of SmVO4 nanoparticles were assessed. The photocatalytic activities of SmVO4 catalysts were studied for the degradation of dye under visible light (λ > 400 nm).

  16. Thiol-Capped Gold Nanoparticles Swell-Encapsulated into Polyurethane as Powerful Antibacterial Surfaces Under Dark and Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, Thomas J.; Wu, Ke; Sehmi, Sandeep K.; Noimark, Sacha; Peveler, William J.; du Toit, Hendrik; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Allan, Elaine; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Gavriilidis, Asterios; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2016-01-01

    A simple procedure to develop antibacterial surfaces using thiol-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is shown, which effectively kill bacteria under dark and light conditions. The effect of AuNP size and concentration on photo-activated antibacterial surfaces is reported and we show significant size effects, as well as bactericidal activity with crystal violet (CV) coated polyurethane. These materials have been proven to be powerful antibacterial surfaces against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. AuNPs of 2, 3 or 5 nm diameter were swell-encapsulated into PU before a coating of CV was applied (known as PU-AuNPs-CV). The antibacterial activity of PU-AuNPs-CV samples was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria under dark and light conditions. All light conditions in this study simulated a typical white-light hospital environment. This work demonstrates that the antibacterial activity of PU-AuNPs-CV samples and the synergistic enhancement of photoactivity of triarylmethane type dyes is highly dependent on nanoparticle size and concentration. The most powerful PU-AuNPs-CV antibacterial surfaces were achieved using 1.0 mg mL−1 swell encapsulation concentrations of 2 nm AuNPs. After two hours, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were reduced to below the detection limit (>4 log) under dark and light conditions. PMID:27982122

  17. Effect of poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid as a capping agent on morphology and oxidative stress-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Stevanović, Magdalena; Kovačević, Branimir; Petković, Jana; Filipič, Metka; Uskoković, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Highly stable dispersions of nanosized silver particles were synthesized using a straightforward, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method. Nontoxic glucose was utilized as a reducing agent and poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid (PGA), a naturally occurring anionic polymer, was used as a capping agent to protect the silver nanoparticles from agglomeration and render them biocompatible. Use of ammonia during synthesis was avoided. Our study clearly demonstrates how the concentration of the capping agent plays a major role in determining the dimensions, morphology, and stability, as well as toxicity of a silver colloidal solution. Hence, proper optimization is necessary to develop silver colloids of narrow size distribution. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential measurement. MTT assay results indicated good biocompatibility of the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles. Formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was measured spectrophotometrically using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate as a fluorescent probe, and it was shown that the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles did not induce intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22131829

  18. From oleic acid-capped iron oxide nanoparticles to polyethyleneimine-coated single-particle magnetofectins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Acuña, Melissa; Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena; Dobson, Jon; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Various inorganic nanoparticle designs have been developed and used as non-viral gene carriers. Magnetic gene carriers containing polyethyleneimine (PEI), a well-known transfection agent, have been shown to improve DNA transfection speed and efficiency in the presence of applied magnetic field gradients that promote particle-cell interactions. Here we report a method to prepare iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with PEI that: preserves the narrow size distribution of the nanoparticles, conserves magnetic properties throughout the process, and results in efficient transfection. We demonstrate the ability of the particles to electrostatically bind with DNA and transfect human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells by the use of an oscillating magnet array. Their transfection efficiency is similar to that of Lipofectamine 2000™, a commercial transfection reagent. PEI-coated particles were subjected to acidification, and acidification in the presence of salts, before DNA binding. Results show that although these pre-treatments did not affect the ability of particles to bind DNA they did significantly enhanced transfection efficiency. Finally, we show that these magnetofectins (PEI-MNP/DNA) complexes have no effect on the viability of cells at the concentrations used in the study. The systematic preparation of magnetic vectors with uniform physical and magnetic properties is critical to progressing this non-viral transfection technology.

  19. Highly selective colorimetric bacteria sensing based on protein-capped nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Suyan; Lin, Zhenyu; Zhou, Yaomin; Wang, Donggen; Yuan, Lijuan; Wei, Yihua; Dai, Tingcan; Luo, Linguang; Chen, Guonan

    2015-02-21

    A rapid and cost-effective colorimetric sensor has been developed for the detection of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis was selected as an example). The sensor was designed to rely on lysozyme-capped AuNPs with the advantages of effective amplification and high specificity. In the sensing system, lysozyme was able to bind strongly to Bacillus subtilis, which effectively induced a color change of the solution from light purple to purplish red. The lowest concentration of Bacillus subtilis detectable by the naked eye was 4.5 × 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU) mL(-1). Similar results were discernable from UV-Vis absorption measurements. A good specificity was observed through a statistical analysis method using the SPSS software (version 17.0). This simple colorimetric sensor may therefore be a rapid and specific method for a bacterial detection assay in complex samples.

  20. High-Temperature Magnetism as a Probe for Structural and Compositional Uniformity in Ligand-Capped Magnetite Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To investigate magnetostructural relationships in colloidal magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) at high temperature (300–900 K), we measured the temperature dependence of magnetization (M) of oleate-capped magnetite NPs ca. 20 nm in size. Magnetometry revealed an unusual irreversible high-temperature dependence of M for these NPs, with dip and loop features observed during heating–cooling cycles. Detailed characterizations of as-synthesized and annealed Fe3O4 NPs as well as reference ligand-free Fe3O4 NPs indicate that both types of features in M(T) are related to thermal decomposition of the capping ligands. The ligand decomposition upon the initial heating induces a reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and the associated dip in M, leading to more structurally and compositionally uniform magnetite NPs. Having lost the protective ligands, the NPs continually sinter during subsequent heating cycles, resulting in divergent M curves featuring loops. The increase in M with sintering proceeds not only through elimination of a magnetically dead layer on the particle surface, as a result of a decrease in specific surface area with increasing size, but also through an uncommonly invoked effect resulting from a significant change in Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio with heat treatment. The interpretation of irreversible features in M(T) indicates that reversible M(T) behavior, conversely, can be expected only for ligand-free, structurally and compositionally uniform magnetite NPs, suggesting a general applicability of high-temperature M(T) measurements as an analytical method for probing the structure and composition of magnetic nanomaterials. PMID:25506407

  1. Folic acid-capped PEGylated magnetic nanoparticles enter cancer cells mostly via clathrin-dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Allard-Vannier, Emilie; Hervé-Aubert, Katel; Kaaki, Karine; Blondy, Thibaut; Shebanova, Anastasia; Shaitan, Konstantin V; Ignatova, Anastasia A; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Feofanov, Alexey V; Chourpa, Igor

    2017-06-01

    This work is focused on mechanisms of uptake in cancer cells of rationally designed, covalently assembled nanoparticles, made of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), fluorophores (doxorubicin or Nile Blue), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and folic acid (FA), referred hereinafter as SFP-FA. SFP-FA were characterized by DLS, zetametry and fluorescence spectroscopy. The SFP-FA uptake in cancer cells was monitored using fluorescence-based methods like fluorescence-assisted cell sorting, CLSM with single-photon and two-photon excitation. The SFP-FA endocytosis was also analyzed with electron microscopy approaches: TEM, HAADF-STEM and EELS. The SFP-FA have zeta potential below -6mW and stable hydrodynamic diameter close to 100nm in aqueous suspensions of pH range from 5 to 8. They contain ca. 109 PEG-FA, 480 PEG-OCH 3 and 22-27 fluorophore molecules per SPION. The fluorophores protected under the PEG shell allows a reliable detection of intracellular NPs. SFP-FA readily enter into all the cancer cell lines studied and accumulate in lysosomes, mostly via clathrin-dependent endocytosis, whatever the FR status on the cells. The present study highlights the advantages of rational design of nanosystems as well as the possible involvement of direct molecular interactions of PEG and FA with cellular membranes, not limited to FA-FR recognition, in the mechanisms of their endocytosis. Composition, magnetic and optical properties of the SFP-FA as well their ability to enter cancer cells are promising for their applications in cancer theranosis. Combination of complementary analytical approaches is relevant to understand the nanoparticles behavior in suspension and in contact with cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A simple and facile synthesis of MPA capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS core/shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukanya, D.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2015-06-01

    II-VI semiconductor nanostructures, in particular, CdSe quantum dots have drawn a lot of attention because of their promising potential applications in biological tagging, photovoltaic, display devices etc. due to their excellent optical properties, high emission quantum yield, size dependent emission wavelength and high photostability. In this paper, we describe the synthesis and properties of mercaptopropionic acid capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS nanoparticles through a simple and efficient co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. The growth process, characterization and the optical absorption as a function of wavelength for the synthesized MPA capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS nanoparticles have been determined using X-ray diffraction study (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM).

  3. Evaluating the antimicrobial, apoptotic, and cancer cell gene delivery properties of protein-capped gold nanoparticles synthesized from the edible mycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma crassum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Arpita; Ray, Sarmishtha; Chowdhury, Supriyo; Sarkar, Arnab; Mandal, Deba Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Shamee; Kundu, Surekha

    2018-05-01

    Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles of distinct geometric shapes with highly functional protein coats without additional capping steps is rarely reported. This study describes green synthesis of protein-coated gold nanoparticles for the first time from the edible, mycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma crassum (Berk.) Sacc . The nanoparticles were of the size range 5-25 nm and of different shapes. Spectroscopic analysis showed red shift of the absorption maxima with longer reaction period during production and blue shift with increase in pH. These were characterized with spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, AFM, XRD, and DLS. The particle size could be altered by changing synthesis parameters. These had potent antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and multi-drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. These also had inhibitory effect on the growth kinetics of bacteria and germination of fungal spores. These showed apoptotic properties on eukaryotic cells when tested with comet assays. Moreover, the particles are capped with a natural 40 kDa protein which was utilized as attachment sites for genes to be delivered into sarcoma cancer cells. The present work also attempted at optimizing safe dosage of these nanoparticles using hemolysis assays, for application in therapy. Large-scale production of the nanoparticles in fermentors and other possible applications of the particles have been discussed.

  4. Facile and green synthesis of phytochemicals capped platinum nanoparticles and in vitro their superior antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Kamran; Nazir, Sadia; Ahmad, Aftab; Li, Baoshan; Khan, Arif Ullah; Khan, Zia Ul Haq; Khan, Faheem Ullah; Khan, Qudrat Ullah; Khan, Abrar; Rahman, Aziz Ur

    2017-01-01

    The increase in the severe infectious diseases and resistance of the majority of the bacterial pathogens to the available drug is a serious problem now a day. In order to overcome this problem it is necessary to develop new therapeutic agents which are non-toxic and more effective to inhibit these microbial pathogens. For this purpose the plant extract of highly active medicinal plant, Taraxacum laevigatum was used for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) to enhance its bio-activities. The surface plasmon resonance peak appeared at 283nm clearly represent the formation of PtNPs. The results illustrate that the bio-synthesized PtNPs were uniformly dispersed, small sized (2-7nm) and spherical in shape. The green synthesized PtNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, DLS and FTIR. These nanoparticles were tested against gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) and gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The bio-synthesized PtNPs were examined to be more effective against both of the bacteria. The results showed, that the zone of inhibition of PtNPs against P. aeruginosa was 15 (±0.5) mm and B. subtilis was 18 (±0.8) mm. The most significant outcome of this examination is that PtNPs exhibited strong antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis which have strong defensive system against several antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phospholipid Capped Mesoporous Nanoparticles for Targeted High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Adem; Chattaraj, Rajarshi; Blum, Nicholas T; Shi, Dennis; Kumar, Kaushlendra; Goodwin, Andrew P

    2017-09-01

    The mechanical effects of cavitation can be effective for therapy but difficult to control, thus potentially leading to off-target side effects in patients. While administration of ultrasound active agents such as fluorocarbon microbubbles and nanodroplets can locally enhance the effects of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), it has been challenging to prepare ultrasound active agents that are small and stable enough to accumulate in tumors and internalize into cancer cells. Here, this paper reports the synthesis of 100 nm nanoparticle ultrasound agents based on phospholipid-coated, mesoporous, hydrophobically functionalized silica nanoparticles that can internalize into cancer cells and remain acoustically active. The ultrasound agents produce bubbles when subjected to short HIFU pulses (≈6 µs) with peak negative pressure as low as ≈7 MPa and at particle concentrations down to 12.5 µg mL -1 (7 × 10 9 particles mL -1 ). Importantly, ultrasound agents are effectively uptaken by cancer cells without cytotoxic effects, but HIFU insonation causes destruction of the cells by the acoustically generated bubbles, as demonstrated by (2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and lactate dehydrogenase assays and flow cytometry. Finally, it is showed that the HIFU dose required to effectively eliminate cancer cells in the presence of ultrasound agents causes only a small temperature increase of ≈3.5 °C. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoungcheun; Duong, Cuong Ngoc; Cho, Jaegu; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Seo, Youngrok; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Yoon, Junheon

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT). Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain) were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100 nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200 μg/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200 μg/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50 μg/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms. PMID:23093839

  7. Boron-capped tris(glyoximato) cobalt clathrochelate as a precursor for the electrodeposition of nanoparticles catalyzing H2 evolution in water.

    PubMed

    Anxolabéhère-Mallart, Elodie; Costentin, Cyrille; Fournier, Maxime; Nowak, Sophie; Robert, Marc; Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2012-04-11

    Electrochemical investigation of a boron-capped tris(glyoximato)cobalt clathrochelate complex in the presence of acid reveals that the catalytic activity toward hydrogen evolution results from an electrodeposition of cobalt-containing nanoparticles on the electrode surface at a modest cathodic potential. The deposited particles act as remarkably active catalysts for H(2) production in water at pH 7. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  8. Organic Dye Degradation Under Solar Irradiation by Hydrothermally Synthesized ZnS Nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Dhrubajyoti; Chanu, T. Inakhunbi; Basnet, Parita; Chatterjee, Somenath

    2018-02-01

    The green synthesis of ZnS nanospheres using Citrus limetta (sweet lime) juice as a capping agent through a conventional hydrothermal method was studied. The particle size, morphology, chemical composition, band gap, and optical properties of the synthesized ZnS nanospheres were characterized using x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnS nanospheres was evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) under solar irradiation. Upon 150 min of solar irradiation, the extent of degradation was 94% and 77% for RhB and MO, respectively.

  9. Cervical Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español The Cervical Cap KidsHealth / For Teens / The Cervical Cap What's in ... Call the Doctor? Print What Is a Cervical Cap? A cervical cap is a small cup made ...

  10. Bactericidal effect of polyethyleneimine capped ZnO nanoparticles on multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria harboring genes of high-pathogenicity island.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Soumyananda; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Sarwar, Shamila; Singh, Prashantee; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2014-09-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) were synthesized by alcoholic route using zinc acetate as the precursor material and lithium hydroxide as hydrolyzing agent. Further ZnO-PEI NP (derivative of ZnO-NP) was made in aqueous medium using the capping agent polyethyleneimine (PEI). The nanoparticles were characterized by XRD measurements, TEM and other techniques; the weight % of coating shell in the polymer-capped particles was determined by TGA. ZnO-PEI NP is more soluble in water than the uncapped ZnO-NP, and forms a colloidal suspension in water. PEI-capped ZnO-NP exhibited better antibacterial activity when compared with that of uncapped ZnO-NP against a range of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (MAR) Gram-negative bacterial strains harboring genes of high-pathogenicity island. ZnO-NP effectively killed these microorganisms by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and damaging bacterial membrane. ZnO-PEI NP at LD50 dose in combination with tetracycline showed synergistic effect to inhibit tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli MREC33 growth by 80%. These results open up a new vista in therapeutics to use antibiotics (which have otherwise been rendered useless against MAR bacteria) in combination with minimized dosage of nanoparticles for the more effective control of MAR pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synergistic influence of polyoxometalate surface corona towards enhancing the antibacterial performance of tyrosine-capped Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Daima, Hemant K; Selvakannan, P R; Kandjani, Ahmad E; Shukla, Ravi; Bhargava, Suresh K; Bansal, Vipul

    2014-01-21

    We illustrate a new strategy to improve the antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by their surface modification with the surface corona of biologically active polyoxometalates (POMs). The stable POM surface corona was achieved by utilising zwitterionic tyrosine amino acid as a pH-switchable reducing and capping agent of AgNPs. The general applicability of this approach was demonstrated by developing surface coronas of phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) around AgNPs. Our investigations on Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli demonstrate that in conjugation with AgNPs, the surface corona of POMs enhances the physical damage to the bacterial cells due to synergistic antibacterial action of AgNPs and POMs, and the ability of tyrosine-reduced AgNPs (AgNPs(Y)) to act as an excellent carrier and stabiliser for the POMs. The further extension of this study towards Gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus albus showed a similar toxicity pattern, whereas these nanomaterials were found to be biocompatible for PC3 epithelial mammalian cells, suggesting the potential of these materials towards specific antimicrobial targeting for topical wound healing applications. The outcomes of this work show that facile tailorability of nanostructured surfaces may play a considerable role in controlling the biological activities of different nanomaterials.

  12. Mechanochemistry of Chitosan-Coated Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) Nanocrystals for Bio-imaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Bujňáková, Zdenka; Dutková, Erika; Kello, Martin; Mojžiš, Ján; Baláž, Matej; Baláž, Peter; Shpotyuk, Oleh

    2017-12-01

    The ZnS nanocrystals were prepared in chitosan solution (0.1 wt.%) using a wet ultra-fine milling. The obtained suspension was stable and reached high value of zeta potential (+57 mV). The changes in FTIR spectrum confirmed the successful surface coating of ZnS nanoparticles by chitosan. The prepared ZnS nanocrystals possessed interesting optical properties verified in vitro. Four cancer cells were selected (CaCo-2, HCT116, HeLa, and MCF-7), and after their treatment with the nanosuspension, the distribution of ZnS in the cells was studied using a fluorescence microscope. The particles were clearly seen; they passed through the cell membrane and accumulated in cytosol. The biological activity of the cells was not influenced by nanoparticles, they did not cause cell death, and only the granularity of cells was increased as a consequence of cellular uptake. These results confirm the potential of ZnS nanocrystals using in bio-imaging applications.

  13. Mechanochemistry of Chitosan-Coated Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) Nanocrystals for Bio-imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujňáková, Zdenka; Dutková, Erika; Kello, Martin; Mojžiš, Ján; Baláž, Matej; Baláž, Peter; Shpotyuk, Oleh

    2017-05-01

    The ZnS nanocrystals were prepared in chitosan solution (0.1 wt.%) using a wet ultra-fine milling. The obtained suspension was stable and reached high value of zeta potential (+57 mV). The changes in FTIR spectrum confirmed the successful surface coating of ZnS nanoparticles by chitosan. The prepared ZnS nanocrystals possessed interesting optical properties verified in vitro. Four cancer cells were selected (CaCo-2, HCT116, HeLa, and MCF-7), and after their treatment with the nanosuspension, the distribution of ZnS in the cells was studied using a fluorescence microscope. The particles were clearly seen; they passed through the cell membrane and accumulated in cytosol. The biological activity of the cells was not influenced by nanoparticles, they did not cause cell death, and only the granularity of cells was increased as a consequence of cellular uptake. These results confirm the potential of ZnS nanocrystals using in bio-imaging applications.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of thiol-capped CdTe nanoparticles and their optical properties.

    PubMed

    Bu, Hang-Beom; Kikunaga, Hayato; Shimura, Kunio; Takahasi, Kohji; Taniguchi, Taichi; Kim, DaeGwi

    2013-02-28

    Water soluble nanoparticles (NPs) with a high emission property were synthesized via hydrothermal routes. In this report, we chose thiol ligand N-acetyl-L-cysteine as the ideal stabilizer and have successfully employed it to synthesize readily size-controllable CdTe NPs in a reaction of only one step. Hydrothermal synthesis of CdTe NPs has been carried out in neutral or basic conditions so far. We found out that the pH value of precursor solutions plays an important role in the uniformity of the particle size. Actually, high quality CdTe NPs were synthesized under mild acidic conditions of pH 5. The resultant NPs indicated good visible light-emitting properties and stability. Further, the experimental results showed that the reaction temperature influenced significantly the growth rate and the maximum size of the NPs. The CdTe NPs with a high photoluminescence quantum yield (the highest value: 57%) and narrower half width at half maximum (the narrowest value: 33 nm) were attained in very short time, within 40 minutes, reaching diameters of 2.3 to 4.3 nm. The PL intensity was increased with an increase in the reaction time, reflecting the suppression of nonradiative recombination processes. Furthermore, the formation of CdTe/CdS core-shell structures was discussed from the viewpoint of PL dynamics and X-ray diffraction studies.

  15. Positively charged gold nanoparticles capped with folate quaternary chitosan: Synthesis, cytotoxicity, and uptake by cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hui-Ju; Young, Yen-An; Tsai, Tsung-Neng; Cheng, Kuang-Ming; Chen, Xin-An; Chen, Ying-Chuan; Chen, Cheng-Cheung; Young, Jenn-Jong; Hong, Po-da

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we synthesized various quaternary chitosan derivatives and used them to stabilize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). These chitosan derivatives comprised N-(2-hydroxy)propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC), folate-HTCC, galactosyl-HTCC, and their fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated derivatives. Various positively surface-charged AuNPs were prepared under alkaline conditions using glucose as a reducing agent in the presence of the HTCC derivatives (HTCCs). The effects of the concentration of NaOH, glucose, and HTCCs on the particles size, zeta potential, and stability were studied in detail. Cell cycle assays verify that none of the HTCCs or HTCCs-AuNPs was cytotoxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the folate HTCC-AuNPs were internalized in Caco-2, HepG2, and HeLa cancer cells to a significantly greater extent than AuNPs without folate. But, galactosyl HTCC-AuNPs only showed high cell uptake by HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Strongly hyperpolarized gas from parahydrogen by rational design of ligand-capped nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ramesh; Bouchard, Louis-S

    2012-01-01

    The production of hyperpolarized fluids in continuous mode would broaden substantially the range of applications in chemistry, materials science, and biomedicine. Here we show that the rational design of a heterogeneous catalyst based on a judicious choice of metal type, nanoparticle size and surface decoration with appropriate ligands leads to highly efficient pairwise addition of dihydrogen across an unsaturated bond. This is demonstrated in a parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) experiment by a 508-fold enhancement (±78) of a CH3 proton signal and a corresponding 1219-fold enhancement (±187) of a CH2 proton signal using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). In contrast, bulk metal catalyst does not show this effect due to randomization of reacting dihydrogen. Our approach results in the largest gas-phase NMR signal enhancement by PHIP known to date. Sensitivity-enhanced NMR with this technique could be used to image microfluidic reactions in-situ, to probe nonequilibrium thermodynamics or for the study of metabolic reactions. PMID:22355789

  17. Fast imaging of eccrine latent fingerprints with nontoxic Mn-doped ZnS QDs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaoying; Zhou, Ronghui; He, Wenwei; Wu, Lan; Wu, Peng; Hou, Xiandeng

    2014-04-01

    Fingerprints are unique characteristics of an individual, and their imaging and recognition is a top-priority task in forensic science. Fast LFP (latent fingerprint) acquirement can greatly help policemen in screening the potential criminal scenes and capturing fingerprint clues. Of the two major latent fingerprints (LFP), eccrine is expected to be more representative than sebaceous in LFP identification. Here we explored the heavy metal-free Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as a new imaging moiety for eccrine LFPs. To study the effects of different ligands on the LFP image quality, we prepared Mn-doped ZnS QDs with various surface-capping ligands using QDs synthesized in high-temperature organic media as starting material. The orange fluorescence emission from Mn-doped ZnS QDs clearly revealed the optical images of eccrine LFPs. Interestingly, N-acetyl-cysteine-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs could stain the eccrine LFPs in as fast as 5 s. Meanwhile, the levels 2 and 3 substructures of the fingerprints could also be simultaneously and clearly identified. While in the absence of QDs or without rubbing and stamping the finger onto foil, no fluorescent fingerprint images could be visualized. Besides fresh fingerprint, aged (5, 10, and 50 days), incomplete eccrine LFPs could also be successfully stained with N-acetyl-cysteine-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs, demonstrating the analytical potential of this method in real world applications. The method was also robust for imaging of eccrine LFPs on a series of nonporous surfaces, such as aluminum foil, compact discs, glass, and black plastic bags.

  18. Antibacterial activity of biochemically capped iron oxide nanoparticles: A view towards green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Rabia; Tahir, Kamran; Li, Baoshan; Ahmad, Aftab; R Siddiqui, Azka; Nazir, Sadia

    2017-05-01

    A green approach to fabricate nanoparticles has been evolved as a revolutionary discipline. Eco-compatible reaction set ups, use of non-toxic materials and production of highly active biological and photocatalytic products are few benefits of this greener approach. Here, we introduce a green method to synthesize Fe oxide NPs using Punica granatum peel extract. The formation of Fe oxide NPs was optimized using different concentrations of peel extract (20mL, 40mL and 60mL) to achieve small size and better morphology. The results indicate that the FeNPs, obtained using 40mL concentration of peel extract possess the smallest size. The morphology, size and crystallinity of NPs was confirmed by implementing various techniques i.e. UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction Spectroscopy. The bio-chemicals responsible for reduction and stabilization of FeNPs were confirmed by FT-IR analysis. The biogenic FeNPs were tested for their size dependent antibacterial activity. The biogenic FeNPs prepared in 40mL extract concentrations exhibited strongest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa i.e. 22 (±0.5) mm than FeNPs with 20mL and 60mL extract concentrations i.e. 18 (±0.4) mm and 14 (±0.3) mm respectively. The optimized FeNPs with 40mL peel extract are not only highly active for ROS generation but also show no hemolytic activity. Thus, FeNPs synthesized using the greener approach are found to have high antibacterial activity along with biocompatibility. This high antibacterial activity can be referred to small size and large surface area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluorosurfactant-capped gold nanoparticles-enhanced chemiluminescence from hydrogen peroxide-hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide-bicarbonate in presence of cobalt(II).

    PubMed

    Li, Jinge; Li, Qianqian; Lu, Chao; Zhao, Lixia; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2011-02-01

    Nonionic fluorosurfactant (FSN)-capped gold nanoparticles (GNPs) remain excellently stable at a wider pH range and high ionic strength, which is useful to investigate some CL systems involved in high salt and a strict pH range. In this study, we utilized FSN-capped GNPs of different sizes to distinguish the emitting species from H2O2-Co2+-NaOH and H2O2-Co2+-NaHCO3 systems. When the pH of FSN-capped gold colloidal solution was adjusted to 10.2 by dropwise addition of 0.05 M NaOH, the CL intensity of H2O2-Co2+-NaHCO3 system was enhanced 6-fold or 60-fold respectively in the presence of FSN-capped 14 nm or 69 nm GNPs with comparison to H2O2-Co2+-NaOH. The variation of CL spectra and UV-vis spectra, as well as the quenching effect of reactive oxygen species scavengers were studied in detail to understand the CL enhancement mechanisms of FSN-capped GNPs on the two systems. For H2O2-Co2+-NaOH system, the gold(I) complexes intermediate and singlet oxygen dimol species were proposed as the emitting species. The excited states of the carbon dioxide dimers and singlet oxygen dimol species were considered responsible for the light emission of H2O2-Co2+-NaHCO3 system. To our knowledge, this work is the first time to study the two CL systems simultaneously using nanoparticles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluorosurfactant-capped gold nanoparticles-enhanced chemiluminescence from hydrogen peroxide-hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide-bicarbonate in presence of cobalt(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinge; Li, Qianqian; Lu, Chao; Zhao, Lixia; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2011-02-01

    Nonionic fluorosurfactant (FSN)-capped gold nanoparticles (GNPs) remain excellently stable at a wider pH range and high ionic strength, which is useful to investigate some CL systems involved in high salt and a strict pH range. In this study, we utilized FSN-capped GNPs of different sizes to distinguish the emitting species from H 2O 2-Co 2+-NaOH and H 2O 2-Co 2+-NaHCO 3 systems. When the pH of FSN-capped gold colloidal solution was adjusted to 10.2 by dropwise addition of 0.05 M NaOH, the CL intensity of H 2O 2-Co 2+-NaHCO 3 system was enhanced 6-fold or 60-fold respectively in the presence of FSN-capped 14 nm or 69 nm GNPs with comparison to H 2O 2-Co 2+-NaOH. The variation of CL spectra and UV-vis spectra, as well as the quenching effect of reactive oxygen species scavengers were studied in detail to understand the CL enhancement mechanisms of FSN-capped GNPs on the two systems. For H 2O 2-Co 2+-NaOH system, the gold(I) complexes intermediate and singlet oxygen dimol species were proposed as the emitting species. The excited states of the carbon dioxide dimers and singlet oxygen dimol species were considered responsible for the light emission of H 2O 2-Co 2+-NaHCO 3 system. To our knowledge, this work is the first time to study the two CL systems simultaneously using nanoparticles.

  1. Fungus-Mediated Preferential Bioleaching of Waste Material Such as Fly - Ash as a Means of Producing Extracellular, Protein Capped, Fluorescent and Water Soluble Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shadab Ali; Uddin, Imran; Moeez, Sana; Ahmad, Absar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we for the first time show the ability of the mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the bioleaching of waste material such as Fly-ash for the extracellular production of highly crystalline and highly stable, protein capped, fluorescent and water soluble silica nanoparticles at ambient conditions. When the fungus Fusarium oxysporum is exposed to Fly-ash, it is capable of selectively leaching out silica nanoparticles of quasi-spherical morphology within 24 h of reaction. These silica nanoparticles have been completely characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX). PMID:25244567

  2. Synergistic influence of polyoxometalate surface corona towards enhancing the antibacterial performance of tyrosine-capped Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daima, Hemant K.; Selvakannan, P. R.; Kandjani, Ahmad E.; Shukla, Ravi; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Bansal, Vipul

    2013-12-01

    We illustrate a new strategy to improve the antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by their surface modification with the surface corona of biologically active polyoxometalates (POMs). The stable POM surface corona was achieved by utilising zwitterionic tyrosine amino acid as a pH-switchable reducing and capping agent of AgNPs. The general applicability of this approach was demonstrated by developing surface coronas of phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) around AgNPs. Our investigations on Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli demonstrate that in conjugation with AgNPs, the surface corona of POMs enhances the physical damage to the bacterial cells due to synergistic antibacterial action of AgNPs and POMs, and the ability of tyrosine-reduced AgNPs (AgNPsY) to act as an excellent carrier and stabiliser for the POMs. The further extension of this study towards Gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus albus showed a similar toxicity pattern, whereas these nanomaterials were found to be biocompatible for PC3 epithelial mammalian cells, suggesting the potential of these materials towards specific antimicrobial targeting for topical wound healing applications. The outcomes of this work show that facile tailorability of nanostructured surfaces may play a considerable role in controlling the biological activities of different nanomaterials.We illustrate a new strategy to improve the antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by their surface modification with the surface corona of biologically active polyoxometalates (POMs). The stable POM surface corona was achieved by utilising zwitterionic tyrosine amino acid as a pH-switchable reducing and capping agent of AgNPs. The general applicability of this approach was demonstrated by developing surface coronas of phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) around AgNPs. Our investigations on Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli demonstrate that in conjugation

  3. Highly efficient siRNA delivery from core-shell mesoporous silica nanoparticles with multifunctional polymer caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Karin; Müller, Katharina; Engelke, Hanna; Bräuchle, Christoph; Wagner, Ernst; Bein, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    A new general route for siRNA delivery is presented combining porous core-shell silica nanocarriers with a modularly designed multifunctional block copolymer. Specifically, the internal storage and release of siRNA from mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) with orthogonal core-shell surface chemistry was investigated as a function of pore-size, pore morphology, surface properties and pH. Very high siRNA loading capacities of up to 380 μg per mg MSN were obtained with charge-matched amino-functionalized mesoporous cores, and release profiles show up to 80% siRNA elution after 24 h. We demonstrate that adsorption and desorption of siRNA is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions, which allow for high loading capacities even in medium-sized mesopores with pore diameters down to 4 nm in a stellate pore morphology. The negatively charged MSN shell enabled the association with a block copolymer containing positively charged artificial amino acids and oleic acid blocks, which acts simultaneously as capping and endosomal release agent. The potential of this multifunctional delivery platform is demonstrated by highly effective cell transfection and siRNA delivery into KB-cells. A luciferase reporter gene knock-down of up to 80-90% was possible using extremely low cell exposures with only 2.5 μg MSN containing 0.5 μg siRNA per 100 μL well.A new general route for siRNA delivery is presented combining porous core-shell silica nanocarriers with a modularly designed multifunctional block copolymer. Specifically, the internal storage and release of siRNA from mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) with orthogonal core-shell surface chemistry was investigated as a function of pore-size, pore morphology, surface properties and pH. Very high siRNA loading capacities of up to 380 μg per mg MSN were obtained with charge-matched amino-functionalized mesoporous cores, and release profiles show up to 80% siRNA elution after 24 h. We demonstrate that adsorption and desorption of

  4. Gum arabic capped-silver nanoparticles inhibit biofilm formation by multi-drug resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Khan, Haris Manzoor; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Saquib, Quaiser; Musarrat, Javed

    2014-07-01

    Clinical isolates (n = 55) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were screened for the extended spectrum β-lactamases and metallo-β-lactamases activities and biofilm forming capability. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the antibiofilm efficacy of gum arabic capped-silver nanoparticles (GA-AgNPs) against the multi-drug resistant (MDR) biofilm forming P. aeruginosa. The GA-AgNPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy analysis. The isolates were screened for their biofilm forming ability, using the Congo red agar, tube method and tissue culture plate assays. The biofilm forming ability was further validated and its inhibition by GA-AgNPs was demonstrated by performing the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy. SEM analysis of GA-AgNPs treated bacteria revealed severely deformed and damaged cells. Double fluorescent staining with propidium iodide and concanavalin A-fluorescein isothiocyanate concurrently detected the bacterial cells and exopolysaccharides (EPS) matrix. The CLSM results exhibited the GA-AgNPs concentration dependent inhibition of bacterial growth and EPS matrix of the biofilm colonizers on the surface of plastic catheters. Treatment of catheters with GA-AgNPs at 50 µg ml(-1) has resulted in 95% inhibition of bacterial colonization. This study elucidated the significance of GA-AgNPs, as the next generation antimicrobials, in protection against the biofilm mediated infections caused by MDR P. aeruginosa. It is suggested that application of GA-AgNPs, as a surface coating material for dispensing antibacterial attributes to surgical implants and implements, could be a viable approach for controlling MDR pathogens after adequate validations in clinical settings. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Multispectroscopic and bioimaging approach for the interaction of rhodamine 6G capped gold nanoparticles with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Manjubaashini, N; Kesavan, Mookkandi Palsamy; Rajesh, Jegathalaprathaban; Daniel Thangadurai, T

    2018-06-01

    Binding interaction of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) with newly prepared rhodamine 6G-capped gold nanoparticles (Rh6G-Au NPs) under physiological conditions (pH 7.2) was investigated by a wide range of photophysical techniques. Rh6G-Au NPs caused the static quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA that resulted from the formation of ground-state complex between BSA and Rh6G-Au NPs. The binding constant from fluorescence quenching method (K a  = 1.04 × 10 4  L mol -1 ; LoD = 14.0 μM) is in accordance with apparent association constant (K app  = 1.14 × 10 1  M -1 ), which is obtained from absorption spectral studies. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency between the tryptophan (Trp) residue of BSA and fluorophore of Rh6G-Au NPs during the interaction was calculated to be 90%. The free energy change (ΔG = -23.07 kJ/mol) of BSA-Rh6G-Au NPs complex was calculated based on modified Stern-Volmer Plot. The time-resolved fluorescence analysis confirmed that quenching of BSA follows static mechanism through the formation of ground state complex. Furthermore, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence measurement, Raman spectral analysis and Circular Dichroism spectrum results corroborate the strong binding between Rh6G-Au NPs and BSA, which causes the conformational changes on BSA molecule. In addition, fluorescence imaging experiments of BSA in living human breast cancer (HeLa) cells was successfully demonstrated, which articulated the value of Rh6G-Au NPs practical applications in biological systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Picric acid capped silver nanoparticles as a probe for colorimetric sensing of creatinine in human blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Ankita K; Valand, Nikunj N; Solanki, Kalpesh B; Menon, Shobhana K

    2016-02-21

    Creatinine is the most important parameter to be determined in the diagnosis of renal, muscular and thyroid function. The most common method for the determination of creatinine is Jaffe's reaction, a routine practice for blood and urine analysis. However, in cases of icteric and haemolyzed blood samples, interference occurs during the estimation of creatinine by other constituents present in the blood like bilirubin, creatine, and urea, which lead to wrong diagnosis. To overcome such difficulty, we have developed a silver nanoparticle (Ag NPs) based sensor for the selective determination of creatinine. In this study, a new approach has been given to the traditional Jaffe's reaction, by coating Ag NPs with picric acid (PA) to form an assembly that can selectively detect creatinine. The Ag NPs based sensor proficiently and selectively recognizes creatinine due to the ability of picric acid to bind with it and form a complex. The nanoassembly and the interactions were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and ESI-MS, which demonstrated the binding affinity of creatinine with PA-capped Ag NPs. A linear correlation was obtained in the range of 0.01 μM-1 μM with an R(2) value of 0.9998 and a lower detection limit of 8.4 nM. The sensor was successfully applied to different types of blood and CSF samples for the determination of creatinine, and the results were compared to that of the Jaffe's method. With the advantages of high sensitivity, selectivity and low sample volume, this method is potentially suitable for the on-site monitoring of creatinine.

  7. Colorimetric detection of mercury(II) in a high-salinity solution using gold nanoparticles capped with 3-mercaptopropionate acid and adenosine monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cheng-Ju; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2008-11-04

    A new colorimetric sensor for sensing Hg2+ in a high-salinity solution has been developed using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorated with 3-mercaptopropionate acid (MPA) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Because of the high negative charge density of AMP on each AuNP surface, MPA/AMP-capped AuNPs are well dispersed in a high-salt solution. In contrast, the aggregation of MPA-capped AuNPs was induced by sodium ions, which shield the negative charges of the carboxylic groups of MPA. Through the coordination between the carboxylic group of MPA and Hg2+, the selectivity of MPA/AMP-capped AuNPs for Hg2+ in a high-salt solution is remarkably high over that of the other metals without the addition of a masking agent or a change in the temperature. We have carefully investigated the effect of the AMP concentration on the stability and sensitivity of MPA/AMP-capped AuNPs. Under optimum conditions, the lowest detectable concentration of Hg2+ using this probe was 500 nM on the basis of the measurement of the ratio of absorption at 620 nm to that at 520 nm. The sensitivity to Hg2+ can be further improved by modifying the MPA/AMP-capped AuNPs with highly fluorescent rhodamine 6G (R6G). By monitoring the fluorescence enhancement, the lowest detectable concentration of Hg2+ using R6G/MPA/AMP-capped AuNPs was 50 nM.

  8. Colorimetric assay of heparin in plasma based on the inhibition of oxidase-like activity of citrate-capped platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    You, Jyun-Guo; Liu, Yao-Wen; Lu, Chi-Yu; Tseng, Wei-Lung; Yu, Cheng-Ju

    2017-06-15

    We report citrate-capped platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) as oxidase mimetics for effectively catalyzing the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), dopamine, and methylene blue in the presence of O 2 . To confirm oxidase-like activity of citrate-capped Pt NPs, their activity toward oxygen reduction reaction was studied using cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode method. The results obtained showed that Pt NP NPs can catalyze the oxidation of organic substrates to the colored product and the reduction of oxygen to water through a four-electron exchange process. Because the aggregation of Pt NPs can inhibit their oxidase-like activity and protamine can recognize heparin, we prepared the protamine-modified Pt NPs through direct adsorption on the surface of citrate-capped Pt NPs. The electrostatic attraction between heparin and protamine-stabilized Pt NPs induced nanoparticle aggregation, inhibiting their catalytic activity. Therefore, the lowest detectable heparin concentrations through UV-vis absorption and by the naked eye were estimated to be 0.3 and 60nM, respectively. Moreover, the proposed system enabled the determination of the therapeutic heparin concentration in a single drop of blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Polysaccharide-capped silver Nanoparticles inhibit biofilm formation and eliminate multi-drug-resistant bacteria by disrupting bacterial cytoskeleton with reduced cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyasi, Sridhar; Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Satish; Mishra, Mitali; Ghosh, Arnab; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Satyam, Parlapalli Venkata; Mohapatra, Harapriya; Goswami, Chandan; Goswami, Luna

    2016-04-01

    Development of effective anti-microbial therapeutics has been hindered by the emergence of bacterial strains with multi-drug resistance and biofilm formation capabilities. In this article, we report an efficient green synthesis of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) by in situ reduction and capping with a semi-synthetic polysaccharide-based biopolymer (carboxymethyl tamarind polysaccharide). The CMT-capped AgNPs were characterized by UV, DLS, FE-SEM, EDX and HR-TEM. These AgNPs have average particle size of ~20-40 nm, and show long time stability, indicated by their unchanged SPR and Zeta-potential values. These AgNPs inhibit growth and biofilm formation of both Gram positive (B. subtilis) and Gram negative (E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial strains even at concentrations much lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of antibiotics, but show reduced or no cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. These AgNPs alter expression and positioning of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins FtsZ and FtsA. CMT-capped AgNPs can effectively block growth of several clinical isolates and MDR strains representing different genera and resistant towards multiple antibiotics belonging to different classes. We propose that the CMT-capped AgNPs can have potential bio-medical application against multi-drug-resistant microbes with minimal cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells.

  10. Sub-attomole oligonucleotide and p53 cDNA determinations via a high-resolution surface plasmon resonance combined with oligonucleotide-capped gold nanoparticle signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Li, Xin; Toledo, Freddy; Zurita-Lopez, Cecilia; Gutova, Margarita; Momand, Jamil; Zhou, Feimeng

    2006-07-15

    Oligonucleotide (ODN)-capped gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were used in a sandwich assay of ODN or polynucleotide by a flow injection surface plasmon resonance (SPR). A carboxylated dextran film was immobilized onto the SPR sensor surface to eliminate nonspecific adsorption of ODN-capped Au-NPs. The tandem use of signal amplification via the adlayer of the ODN-capped Au-NPs and the differential signal detection by the bicell detector on the SPR resulted in a remarkable DNA detection level. A 39-mer target at a quantity as low as 2.1 x 10(-20)mol, corresponding to 1.38 fM in a 15 microl solution, can be measured. To our knowledge, both the concentration and quantity detection levels are the lowest among all the gene analyses conducted with SPR to this point. The method is shown to be reproducible (relative standard deviation values <16%) and to possess high sequence specificity. It is also demonstrated to be viable for sequence-specific p53 cDNA analysis. The successful elimination of nonspecific adsorption of, and the signal amplification by, ODN-capped Au-NPs renders the SPR attractive for cases where the DNA concentration is extremely low and the sample availability is severely limited.

  11. Polysaccharide-capped silver Nanoparticles inhibit biofilm formation and eliminate multi-drug-resistant bacteria by disrupting bacterial cytoskeleton with reduced cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanyasi, Sridhar; Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Satish; Mishra, Mitali; Ghosh, Arnab; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Satyam, Parlapalli Venkata; Mohapatra, Harapriya; Goswami, Chandan; Goswami, Luna

    2016-01-01

    Development of effective anti-microbial therapeutics has been hindered by the emergence of bacterial strains with multi-drug resistance and biofilm formation capabilities. In this article, we report an efficient green synthesis of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) by in situ reduction and capping with a semi-synthetic polysaccharide-based biopolymer (carboxymethyl tamarind polysaccharide). The CMT-capped AgNPs were characterized by UV, DLS, FE-SEM, EDX and HR-TEM. These AgNPs have average particle size of ~20–40 nm, and show long time stability, indicated by their unchanged SPR and Zeta-potential values. These AgNPs inhibit growth and biofilm formation of both Gram positive (B. subtilis) and Gram negative (E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial strains even at concentrations much lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of antibiotics, but show reduced or no cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. These AgNPs alter expression and positioning of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins FtsZ and FtsA. CMT-capped AgNPs can effectively block growth of several clinical isolates and MDR strains representing different genera and resistant towards multiple antibiotics belonging to different classes. We propose that the CMT-capped AgNPs can have potential bio-medical application against multi-drug-resistant microbes with minimal cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells. PMID:27125749

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles using Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) as Capping Agent and Glutaraldehyde (GA) as Crosslinker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi Hutami Rahayu, Lale; Oktavia Wulandari, Ika; Herry Santjojo, Djoko; Sabarudin, Akhmad

    2018-01-01

    The use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinker for a synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles is able to reduce agglomeration of produced Fe3O4. Additionally, oxidation of Fe3O4 by air could be avoided. The synthesis is carried out in two steps: first step, magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were prepared by dissolving the FeCl3.6H2O and FeCl2.4H2O in alkaline media (NH3.H2O). The second step, magnetite nanoparticles were coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and glutaraldehyde (GA) to obtain Fe3O4-PVA-GA. The latter material was then characterized by FTIR to determine the typical functional groups of magnetite coated with PVA-GA. X-ray Diffraction analysis was used to determine structure and size of crystal as well as the percentage of magnetite produced. It was found that the produced nanoparticles have crystal sizes around 4-9 nm with the cubic crystal structure. The percentage of magnetite phase increases when the amount of glutaraldehyde increased. SEM-EDX was employed to assess the surface morphology and elemental composition of the resulted nanoparticles. The magnetic character of the magnetite and Fe3O4- PVA-GA were studied using Electron Spin Resonance.

  13. Superior magnetic properties of Ni ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by capping agent-free one-step coprecipitation route at different pH values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iranmanesh, P.; Tabatabai Yazdi, Sh.; Mehran, M.; Saeednia, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, well-dispersed nanoparticles of NiFe2O4 with diameters less than 10 nm and good crystallinity and excellent magnetic properties were synthesized via a simple one-step capping agent-free coprecipitation route from metal chlorides. The ammonia was used as the precipitating agent and also the solution basicity controller. The effect of pH value during the coprecipitation process was investigated by details through microstructural, optical and magnetic characterizations of the synthesized particles using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and UV-vis spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that the particle size, departure from the inverse spinel structure, the band gap value and the magnetization of Ni ferrite samples increase with pH value from 9 to 11 indicating the more pronounced surface effects in the smaller nanoparticles.

  14. Pseudo-bi-enzyme glucose sensor: ZnS hollow spheres and glucose oxidase concerted catalysis glucose.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Ying; Liu, Changhua; Wang, Jia; Cui, Xiaoyan; Nie, Ling

    2013-06-07

    This work creatively uses peroxidase-like ZnS hollow spheres (ZnS HSs) to cooperate with glucose oxidase (GOx) for glucose determinations. This approach is that the ZnS HSs electrocatalytically oxidate the enzymatically generated H2O2 to O2, and then the O2 circularly participates in the previous glucose oxidation by glucose oxidase. Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as electron transfer and enzyme immobilization matrices, respectively. The biosensor of glucose oxidase-carbon nanotubes-Au nanoparticles-ZnS hollow spheres-gold electrode (GOx-CNT-AuNPs-ZnS HSs-GE) exhibits a rapid response, a low detection limit (10 μM), a wide linear range (20 μM to 7 mM) as well as good anti-interference, long-term longevity and reproducibility.

  15. Green synthesis and antibacterial effects of aqueous colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles using camomile terpenoids as a combined reducing and capping agent.

    PubMed

    Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena; Kus-Liskiewicz, Małgorzata; Depciuch, Joanna; Sadik, Omowunmi

    2016-08-01

    Green synthesis method using camomile extract was applied to synthesize silver nanoparticles to tune their antibacterial properties merging the synergistic effect of camomile and Ag. Scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that camomile extract (CE) consisted of porous globular nanometer sized structures, which were a perfect support for Ag nanoparticles. The Ag nanoparticles synthesized with the camomile extract (AgNPs/CE) of 7 nm average sizes, were uniformly distributed on the CE support, contrary to the pure Ag nanoparticles synthesized with glucose (AgNPs/G), which were over 50 nm in diameter and strongly agglomerated. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy chemical analysis showed that camomile terpenoids act as a capping and reducing agent being adsorbed on the surface of AgNPs/CE enabling their reduction from Ag(+) and preventing them from agglomeration. Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy measurements confirmed these findings, as the spectra of AgNPs/CE, compared to pure CE, did not contain the 1109 cm(-1) band, corresponding to -C-O groups of terpenoids and the peaks at 280 and 320 nm, respectively. Antibacterial tests using four bacteria strains showed that the AgNPs/CE performed five times better compared to CE AgNPs/G samples, reducing totally all the bacteria in 2 h.

  16. Graphene Quantum Dots-Capped Magnetic Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as a Multifunctional Platform for Controlled Drug Delivery, Magnetic Hyperthermia, and Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xianxian; Niu, Xingxing; Ma, Kexin; Huang, Ping; Grothe, Julia; Kaskel, Stefan; Zhu, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    A multifunctional platform is reported for synergistic therapy with controlled drug release, magnetic hyperthermia, and photothermal therapy, which is composed of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as caps and local photothermal generators and magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSN) as drug carriers and magnetic thermoseeds. The structure, drug release behavior, magnetic hyperthermia capacity, photothermal effect, and synergistic therapeutic efficiency of the MMSN/GQDs nanoparticles are investigated. The results show that monodisperse MMSN/GQDs nanoparticles with the particle size of 100 nm can load doxorubicin (DOX) and trigger DOX release by low pH environment. Furthermore, the MMSN/GQDs nanoparticles can efficiently generate heat to the hyperthermia temperature under an alternating magnetic field or by near infrared irradiation. More importantly, breast cancer 4T1 cells as a model cellular system, the results indicate that compared with chemotherapy, magnetic hyperthermia or photothermal therapy alone, the combined chemo-magnetic hyperthermia therapy or chemo-photothermal therapy with the DOX-loaded MMSN/GQDs nanosystem exhibits a significant synergistic effect, resulting in a higher efficacy to kill cancer cells. Therefore, the MMSN/GQDs multifunctional platform has great potential in cancer therapy for enhancing the therapeutic efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Antimicrobial and cell viability measurement of bovine serum albumin capped silver nanoparticles (Ag/BSA) loaded collagen immobilized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) film.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Rotimi; Hawthrone, Samantha; Vails, Carmen; Gugssa, Ayele; Karim, Alamgir; Stubbs, John; Raghavan, Dharmaraj

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial infection of orthopedic devices has been a major concern in joint replacement procedures. Therefore, this study is aimed at formulating collagen immobilized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) film loaded with bovine serum albumin capped silver nanoparticles (Ag/BSA NPs) to inhibit bacterial growth while retaining/promoting osteoblast cells viability. The nanoparticles loaded collagen immobilized PHBV film was characterized for its composition by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. The extent of loading of Ag/BSA NPs on collagen immobilized PHBV film was found to depend on the chemistry of the functionalized PHBV film and the concentration of Ag/BSA NPs solution used for loading nanoparticles. Our results showed that more Ag/BSA NPs were loaded on higher molecular weight collagen immobilized PHEMA-g-PHBV film. Maximum loading of Ag/BSA NPs on collagen immobilized PHBV film was observed when 16ppm solution was used for adsorption studies. Colony forming unit and optical density measurements showed broad antimicrobial activity towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at significantly lower concentration i.e., 0.19 and 0.31μg/disc, compared to gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim while MTT assay showed that released nanoparticles from Ag/BSA NPs loaded collagen immobilized PHBV film has no impact on MCTC3-E1 cells viability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of capping and particle size on Raman laser-induced degradation of {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Varadwaj, K.S.K.; Panigrahi, M.K.; Ghose, J.

    2004-11-01

    Diol capped {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles are prepared from ferric nitrate by refluxing in 1,4-butanediol (9.5nm) and 1,5-pentanediol (15nm) and uncapped particles are prepared by refluxing in 1,2-propanediol followed by sintering the alkoxide formed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that all the samples have the spinel phase. Raman spectroscopy shows that the samples prepared in 1,4-butanediol and 1,5-pentanediol and 1,2-propanediol (sintered at 573 and 673K) are {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the 773K-sintered sample is Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Raman laser studies carried out at various laser powers show that all the samples undergo laser-induced degradation to {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} at higher lasermore » power. The capped samples are however, found more stable to degradation than the uncapped samples. The stability of {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample with large particle size (15.4nm) is more than the sample with small particle size (10.2nm). Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} having a particle size of 48nm is however less stable than the smaller {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles.« less

  19. Group 12 dithiocarbamate complexes: Synthesis, spectral studies and their use as precursors for metal sulfides nanoparticles and nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajibade, Peter A.; Ejelonu, Benjamin C.

    2013-09-01

    Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) dithiocarbamate complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-Vis, FTIR, 1H- and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The complexes were thermolysed at 180 °C and used as single molecule precursors for the synthesis of HDA capped ZnS, CdS and HgS nanoparticles and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposites. The optical and structural properties of the nanoparticles and nanocomposites were studied by UV-Vis, PL, XRD and SEM. The crystallites sizes of the nanoparticles varied between 3.03 and 23.45 nm. SEM and EDX analyses of the nanocomposites confirmed the presence of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix.

  20. Group 12 dithiocarbamate complexes: synthesis, spectral studies and their use as precursors for metal sulfides nanoparticles and nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Ajibade, Peter A; Ejelonu, Benjamin C

    2013-09-01

    Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) dithiocarbamate complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-Vis, FTIR, (1)H- and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The complexes were thermolysed at 180 °C and used as single molecule precursors for the synthesis of HDA capped ZnS, CdS and HgS nanoparticles and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposites. The optical and structural properties of the nanoparticles and nanocomposites were studied by UV-Vis, PL, XRD and SEM. The crystallites sizes of the nanoparticles varied between 3.03 and 23.45 nm. SEM and EDX analyses of the nanocomposites confirmed the presence of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects from Filtration, Capping Agents, and Presence/Absence of Food on the Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles to Daphnia Magna

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relatively little is known regarding the behavior and toxicity of nanoparticles in the environment. The objectives of the work presented here include establishing the toxicity of a variety of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to Daphnia magna neonates, assessing the applicability of ...

  2. Spectroscopic Study of the Thermal Degradation of PVP-capped Rh and Pt Nanoparticles in H2 and O2 Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Borodko, Yuri; Lee, Hyun Sook; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2009-09-15

    Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) capped platinum and rhodium nanoparticles (7-12 nm) have been studied with UV-VIS, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The absorption bands in the region 190-900 nm are shown to be sensitive to the electronic structure of surface Rh and Pt atoms as well as to the aggregation of the nanoparticles. In-situ FTIR-DRIFT spectroscopy of the thermal decay of PVP stabilized Rh and Pt nanoparticles in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} atmospheres in temperatures ranging from 30 C-350 C reveal that decomposition of PVP above 200 C, PVP transforms into a 'polyamidpolyene' - like material that is in turn converted intomore » a thin layer of amorphous carbon above 300 C. Adsorbed carbon monoxide was used as a probing molecule to monitor changes of electronic structure of surface Rh and Pt atoms and accessible surface area. The behavior of surface Rh and Pt atoms with ligated CO and amide groups of pyrrolidones resemble that of surface coordination compounds.« less

  3. Cradle Cap

    MedlinePlus

    Cradle cap Overview Cradle cap causes crusty or oily scaly patches on a baby's scalp. The condition isn't painful or itchy. But it can ... scales that aren't easy to remove. Cradle cap usually clears up on its own in a ...

  4. Dual stimuli-responsive nano-vehicles for controlled drug delivery: mesoporous silica nanoparticles end-capped with natural chitosan.

    PubMed

    Hakeem, Abdul; Duan, Ruixue; Zahid, Fouzia; Dong, Chao; Wang, Boya; Hong, Fan; Ou, Xiaowen; Jia, Yongmei; Lou, Xiaoding; Xia, Fan

    2014-11-11

    Herein, we report natural chitosan end-capped MCM-41 type MSNPs as novel, dual stimuli, responsive nano-vehicles for controlled anticancer drug delivery. The chitosan nanovalves tightly close the pores of the MSNPs to control premature cargo release under physiological conditions but respond to lysozyme and acidic media to release the trapped cargo.

  5. Ultrasound-induced capping of polystyrene on TiO2 nanoparticles by precipitation with compressed CO2 as antisolvent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianling; Liu, Zhimin; Han, Buxing; Li, Junchun; Li, Zhonghao; Yang, Guanying

    2005-06-01

    In this work, a route for the synthesis of inorganic/polymer core/shell composite nanoparticles was proposed, which can be called the antisolvent-ultrasound method. Compressed CO2 was used as antisolvent to precipitate the polymer from its solution dispersed with inorganic nanoparticles, during which ultrasonic irradiation was used to induce the coating of precipitated polymers on the surfaces of the inorganic nanoparticles. TiO2/polystyrene (PS) core/shell nanocomposites have been successfully prepared using this method. The transmission electronic micrographs (TEM) of the obtained nanocomposites show that the TiO2 nanoparticles are coated by the PS shells, of which the thickness can be tuned by the pressure of CO2. The phase structure, absorption properties, and thermal stability of the composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectra, and thermogravimetry, respectively. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) indicate the formation of a strong interaction between PS and TiO2 nanoparticles in the resultant products. This method has some potential advantages for applications and may be easily applied to the preparation of a range of inorganic/polymer core/shell composite nanoparticles.

  6. Modulatory effects of Zn2+ ions on the toxicity of citrate- and PVP-capped gold nanoparticles towards freshwater algae, Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Iswarya, V; Johnson, J B; Parashar, Abhinav; Pulimi, Mrudula; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-02-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are widely used for medical purposes, both in diagnostics as well as drug delivery, and hence are prone to release and distribution in the environment. Thus, we have explored the effects of GNPs with two distinct surface capping (citrate and PVP), and three different sizes (16, 27, and 37 nm) at 0.01-, 0.1-, and 1-mg L -1 concentrations on a predominant freshwater alga Scenedesmus obliquus in the sterile freshwater matrix. We have also investigated how an abundant metal ion from freshwater, i.e., Zn 2+ ions may modulate the effects of the selected GNPs (40 nm, citrate, and PVP capped). Preliminary toxicity results revealed that gold nanoparticles were highly toxic in comparison to zinc ions alone. A significant modulation in the toxicity of Zn ions was not noticed in the presence of GNPs. In contrast, zinc ions minimized the toxicity produced by GNPs (both CIT-37 and PVP-37), despite its individual toxicity. Approximately, about 42, 33, and 25% toxicity reduction was noted at 0.05-, 0.5-, and 5-mg L -1 Zn ions, respectively, for CIT-37 GNPs, while 31% (0.05 mg L -1 ), 24% (0.5 mg L -1 ), and 9% (5 mg L -1 ) of toxicity reduction were noted for PVP-37 GNPs. Maximum toxicity reduction was seen at 0.05 mg L -1 of Zn ions. Abbott modeling substantiated antagonistic effects offered by Zn 2+ ions on GNPs. Stability and sedimentation data revealed that the addition of zinc ions gradually induced the aggregation of NPs and in turn significantly reduced the toxicity of GNPs. Thus, the naturally existing ions like Zn 2+ have an ability to modulate the toxicity of GNPs in a real-world environment scenario.

  7. Stability of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles in exposure media and their effects on the development of embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwangsik; Tuttle, George; Sinche, Federico; Harper, Stace L.

    2014-01-01

    The stability of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the embryonic developmental toxicity were evaluated in the fish test water. Serious aggregation of AgNPs was observed in undiluted fish water (DM-100) in which high concentration of ionic salts exist. However, AgNPs were found to be stable for 7 days in DM-10, prepared by diluting the original fish water (DM-100) with deionized water to 10%. The normal physiology of zebrafish embryos were evaluated in DM-10 to see if DM-10 can be used as a control vehicle for the embryonic fish toxicity test. As results, DM-10 without AgNPs did not induce any significant adverse effects on embryonic development of zebrafish determined by mortality, hatching, malformations and heart rate. When embryonic toxicity of AgNPs was tested in both DM-10 and in DM-100, AgNPs showed higher toxicity in DM-10 than in DM-100. This means that the big-sized aggregates of AgNPs were low toxic compared to the nano-sized AgNPs. AgNPs induced delayed hatching, decreased heart rate, pericardial edema, and embryo death. Accumulation of AgNPs in the embryo bodies was also observed. Based on this study, citrate-capped AgNPs are not aggregated in DM-10 and it can be used as a control vehicle in the toxicity test of fish embryonic development. PMID:23325492

  8. Synthesis, characterization and toxicological evaluation of maltodextrin capped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in human cell lines and chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Semiconductor Quantum dots (QDs) have become quite popular thanks to their properties and wide use in biological and biomedical studies. However, these same properties entail new challenges in understanding, predicting, and managing potential adverse health effects following exposure. Cadmium and selenium, which are the major components of the majority of quantum dots, are known to be acutely and chronically toxic to cells and organisms. Protecting the core of nanoparticles can, to some degree, control the toxicity related to cadmium and selenium leakage. Results This study successfully synthesized and characterized maltodextrin coated cadmium sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles. The results show that CdS-MD nanoparticles are cytotoxic and embryotoxic. CdS-MD nanoparticles in low concentrations (4.92 and 6.56 nM) lightly increased the number of HepG2 cell. A reduction in MDA-MB-231 cells was observed with concentrations higher than 4.92 nM in a dose response manner, while Caco-2 cells showed an important increase starting at 1.64 nM. CdS-MD nanoparticles induced cell death by apoptosis and necrosis in MDA-MD-231 cells starting at 8.20 nM concentrations in a dose response manner. The exposure of these cells to 11.48-14.76 nM of CdS-MD nanoparticles induced ROS production. The analysis of cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 showed different effects. Low concentrations (1.64 nM) increased cell proliferation (6%) at 7 days (p < 0.05). However, higher concentrations (>4.92 nM) increased cell proliferation in a dose response manner (15-30%) at 7 days. Exposures of chicken embryos to CdS-MD nanoparticles resulted in a dose-dependent increase in anomalies that, starting at 9.84 nM, centered on the heart, central nervous system, placodes, neural tube and somites. No toxic alterations were observed with concentrations of < 3.28 nM, neither in cells nor chicken embryos. Conclusions Our results indicate that CdS-MD nanoparticles induce cell death and alter cell

  9. Using liquid and solid state NMR and photoluminescence to study the synthesis and solubility properties of amine capped silicon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, J R; Harley, S J; Carter, R S; Power, P P; Augustine, M P

    2007-08-01

    Water soluble silicon nanoparticles were prepared by the reaction of bromine terminated silicon nanoparticles with 3-(dimethylamino)propyl lithium and characterized with liquid and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. The surface site dependent 29Si chemical shifts and the nuclear spin relaxation rates from an assortment of 1H-29Si heteronuclear solid state NMR experiments for the amine coated reaction product are consistent with both the 1H and 13C liquid state NMR results and routine transmission electron microscopy, ultra-violet/visible, and Fourier transform infrared measurements. PL was used to demonstrate the pH dependent solubility properties of the amine passivated silicon nanoparticles.

  10. Identification of the formation of metal-vinylidene interfacial bonds of alkyne-capped platinum nanoparticles by isotopic labeling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peiguang; Chen, Limei; Deming, Christopher P; Bonny, Lewis W; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-10-07

    Stable platinum nanoparticles were prepared by the self-assembly of 1-dodecyne and dodec-1-deuteroyne onto bare platinum colloid surfaces. The nanoparticles exhibited consistent core size and optical properties. FTIR and NMR measurements confirmed the formation of Pt-vinylidene (Pt[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]CH-) interfacial linkages rather than Pt-acetylide (Pt-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-) and platinum-hydride (Pt-H) bonds.

  11. In situ growth of capping-free magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on liquid-phase exfoliated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoufis, T.; Syrgiannis, Z.; Akhtar, N.; Prato, M.; Katsaros, F.; Sideratou, Z.; Kouloumpis, A.; Gournis, D.; Rudolf, P.

    2015-05-01

    We report a facile approach for the in situ synthesis of very small iron oxide nanoparticles on the surface of high-quality graphene sheets. Our synthetic strategy involved the direct, liquid-phase exfoliation of highly crystalline graphite (avoiding any oxidation treatment) and the subsequent chemical functionalization of the graphene sheets via the well-established 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The resulting graphene derivatives were employed for the immobilization of the nanoparticle precursor (Fe cations) at the introduced organic groups by a modified wet-impregnation method, followed by interaction with acetic acid vapours. The final graphene-iron oxide hybrid material was achieved by heating (calcination) in an inert atmosphere. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron and atomic force microscopy, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy gave evidence for the formation of rather small (<12 nm), spherical, magnetite-rich nanoparticles which were evenly distributed on the surface of few-layer (<1.2 nm thick) graphene. Due to the presence of the iron oxide nanoparticles, the hybrid material showed a superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature.We report a facile approach for the in situ synthesis of very small iron oxide nanoparticles on the surface of high-quality graphene sheets. Our synthetic strategy involved the direct, liquid-phase exfoliation of highly crystalline graphite (avoiding any oxidation treatment) and the subsequent chemical functionalization of the graphene sheets via the well-established 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The resulting graphene derivatives were employed for the immobilization of the nanoparticle precursor (Fe cations) at the introduced organic groups by a modified wet-impregnation method, followed by interaction with acetic acid vapours. The final graphene-iron oxide hybrid material was achieved by heating (calcination) in an inert atmosphere. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, transmission

  12. ϵ-Polylysine-Capped Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as Carrier of the C9h Peptide to Induce Apoptosis in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Cristina; Domínguez-Berrocal, Leticia; Murguía, José R; Marcos, M Dolores; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Bravo, Jerónimo; Sancenón, Félix

    2018-02-06

    Apoptotic signaling pathways are altered in numerous pathologies such as cancer. In this scenario, caspase-9/PP2Acα interaction constitutes a key target with pharmacological interest to re-establish apoptosis in tumor cells. Very recently, a short peptide (C9h) known to disrupt caspase-9/PP2Acα interaction with subsequent apoptosis induction was described. Here, we prepared two sets of mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with safranin O (S2) or with C9h peptide (S4) and functionalized with ϵ-polylysine as capping unit. Aqueous suspensions of both nanoparticles showed negligible cargo release whereas in the presence of pronase, a marked delivery of safranin O or C9h was observed. Confocal microscopy studies carried out with HeLa cells indicated that both materials were internalized and were able to release their entrapped cargos. Besides, a marked decrease in HeLa cell viability (ca. 50 %) was observed when treated with C9h-loaded S4 nanoparticles. Moreover, S4 provides peptide protection from degradation additionally allowing for a dose reduction to observe an apoptotic effect when compared with C9h alone or in combination with a cell-penetrating peptide (i.e., Mut3DPT-C9h). Flow cytometry studies, by means of Annexin V-FITC staining, showed the activation of apoptotic pathways in HeLa as a consequence of S4 internalization, release of C9h peptide and disruption of caspase-9/PP2Acα interaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Development, optimization, and in vitro characterization of dasatinib-loaded PEG functionalized chitosan capped gold nanoparticles using Box-Behnken experimental design.

    PubMed

    Adena, Sandeep Kumar Reddy; Upadhyay, Mansi; Vardhan, Harsh; Mishra, Brahmeshwar

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research study was to develop, optimize, and characterize dasatinib loaded polyethylene glycol (PEG) stabilized chitosan capped gold nanoparticles (DSB-PEG-Ch-GNPs). Gold (III) chloride hydrate was reduced with chitosan and the resulting nanoparticles were coated with thiol-terminated PEG and loaded with dasatinib (DSB). Plackett-Burman design (PBD) followed by Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD) were employed to optimize the process parameters. Polynomial equations, contour, and 3D response surface plots were generated to relate the factors and responses. The optimized DSB-PEG-Ch-GNPs were characterized by FTIR, XRD, HR-SEM, EDX, TEM, SAED, AFM, DLS, and ZP. The results of the optimized DSB-PEG-Ch-GNPs showed particle size (PS) of 24.39 ± 1.82 nm, apparent drug content (ADC) of 72.06 ± 0.86%, and zeta potential (ZP) of -13.91 ± 1.21 mV. The responses observed and the predicted values of the optimized process were found to be close. The shape and surface morphology studies showed that the resulting DSB-PEG-Ch-GNPs were spherical and smooth. The stability and in vitro drug release studies confirmed that the optimized formulation was stable at different conditions of storage and exhibited a sustained drug release of the drug of up to 76% in 48 h and followed Korsmeyer-Peppas release kinetic model. A process for preparing gold nanoparticles using chitosan, anchoring PEG to the particle surface, and entrapping dasatinib in the chitosan-PEG surface corona was optimized.

  14. Glutathione-Capped Gold Nanoparticles-Based Photoacoustic Sensor for Label-Free Detection of Lead Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, R.; Liu, X.-J.; Ying, Y.

    2017-07-01

    The photoacoustic signal generated by laser-induced nanobubbles (PA-LINB) proved to be a sensitive tool to monitor the aggregation of gold nanoparticles. Here, a simple and label-free photoacoustic method for the rapid detection of Pb2+ in the aqueous phase was developed. Due to the high affinity of Pb2+ ions to glutathione, the presence of Pb2+ led to the aggregation of glutathione-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GSH-GNPs). Hence, by measuring the variation of the PA-LINB signal after the aggregation of GSH-GNPs, Pb2+ can be quantified. A low detection limit for Pb2+ (42 nM) and a wide linear working range ( 42-1000 nM) were achieved. Furthermore, the proposed method showed good selectivity against other metal ions.

  15. Transmission electron microscopy of unstained hybrid Au nanoparticles capped with PPAA (plasma-poly-allylamine): structure and electron irradiation effects.

    PubMed

    Gontard, Lionel C; Fernández, Asunción; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Kasama, Takeshi; Lozano-Pérez, Sergio; Lucas, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid (organic shell-inorganic core) nanoparticles have important applications in nanomedicine. Although the inorganic components of hybrid nanoparticles can be characterized readily using conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, the structural and chemical arrangement of the organic molecular components remains largely unknown. Here, we apply TEM to the physico-chemical characterization of Au nanoparticles that are coated with plasma-polymerized-allylamine, an organic compound with the formula C3H5NH2. We discuss the use of energy-filtered TEM in the low-energy-loss range as a contrast enhancement mechanism for imaging the organic shells of such particles. We also study electron-beam-induced crystallization and amorphization of the shells and the formation of graphitic-like layers that contain both C and N. The resistance of the samples to irradiation by high-energy electrons, which is relevant for optical tuning and for understanding the degree to which such hybrid nanostructures are stable in the presence of biomedical radiation, is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrical bistability in conductive hybrid composites of doped polyaniline nanofibers-gold nanoparticles capped with dodecane thiol.

    PubMed

    Borriello, A; Agoretti, P; Cassinese, A; D'Angelo, P; Mohanraj, G T; Sanguigno, L

    2009-11-01

    A novel electrical bistable hybrid nanocomposite based on doped Polyaniline nanofibers with 1-Dodecanethiol-protected Gold nanoparticle (PAni.AuDT), 3-4 nm in size, as the conductive component and polystyrene as polymer matrix was prepared. The structural morphology of the composite and the dispersion of nanoparticles inside it were evaluated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The thermal stability and the ratio Polyaniline/Gold nanoparticles in the composite were determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The electrical bistability of the PAni.AuDT-PS composite, the influence of the dispersion of the PAni.AuDT conductive network and the basic operation mechanism, have been assessed by measuring the electrical response of planar device architectures, also as a function of the environmental temperature (in the range 200 K < T < 360 K). The basic operation mechanism of the hybrid compound has been then correlated to the combined action of the thermally-induced scattering of charge carriers and the thermal contraction of the hosting polymeric matrix. Moreover, the right compromise between these two effects in terms of the most efficient bistability has been studied, founding the concentration of the conductive component which optimizes the device on-off ratio (I(on)/ I(off)).

  17. Citrate-capped silver nanoparticles as a probe for sensitive and selective colorimetric and spectrophotometric sensing of creatinine in human urine.

    PubMed

    Alula, Melisew Tadele; Karamchand, Leshern; Hendricks, Nicolette R; Blackburn, Jonathan M

    2018-05-12

    Urinary creatinine concentration is a critical physiological parameter that enables reliable assessment of patient renal function and diagnosis of a broad spectrum of diseases. In this study, a simple and inexpensive sensor comprising monodisperse, citrate-capped silver nanoparticles (cc-AgNPs) was developed, which enabled rapid, sensitive and selective quantitation of creatinine directly in unprocessed urine. The mechanism of this sensor entails the creatinine-mediated aggregation of the cc-AgNPs (within 1 min) under alkaline conditions (pH 12). This is attributed to the tautomerization of creatinine to its amino anionic species at alkaline pH, which cross-link the cc-AgNPs via hydrogen bond networks with the negatively charged citrate caps. Creatinine elicited visibly-discernable color changes of the cc-AgNPs colloids in a concentration-dependent manner up to 10 μM. UV-visible spectroscopic analyses of the cc-AgNPs revealed that creatinine elicited a concentration-dependent decrease in intensity of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band centered around 403 nm, with a concomitant increase in intensity of the red-shifted LSPR band at 670 nm. This observation denotes a creatinine-mediated increase in cc-AgNP particle size via aggregation, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The cc-AgNP sensor exhibited a linear correlation between the A 670 /A 403 extinction ratio and creatinine concentration range of 0-4.2 μM in aqueous solutions (R 2  = 0.996), and a low detection limit of 53.4 nM. Hence, the simplicity, short assay time, and high sensitivity and selectivity of our cc-AgNP sensor affirms its utility as a creatinine monitoring assay for low-resource, point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Porphyran-capped gold nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode: a simple and efficient electrochemical sensor for the sensitive determination of 5-fluorouracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Dhésmon; Calaça, Giselle Nathaly; Viana, Adriano Gonçalves; Pessôa, Christiana Andrade

    2018-01-01

    The application of carbon paste electrodes modified with porphyran-capped gold nanoparticles (CPE/AuNps-PFR) to detect an important anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is described. Gold nanoparticles (AuNps) were synthesized through a green one-pot route, by using porphyran (PFR) (a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from red seaweed) as reducing and stabilizing agent. The reaction temperature and the concentrations of AuCl4- and PFR for AuNps-PFR synthesis were optimized by using a 23 full factorial design with central point assayed in triplicate. The smallest particle size (128.7 nm, obtained by DLS) was achieved by employing a temperature of 70 °C and AuCl4- and PFR concentrations equal to 2.5 mmol L-1 and 0.25 mg mL-1, respectively. The AuNps-PFR nanocomposite was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, DLS, TEM, XRD and zeta potential, which proved that PFR was effective at reducing and capping the AuNps. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments showed that the nanocomposite could enhance the electrochemical performance of the electrodes, as a consequence of the high conductivity and large surface area presented by the AuNps. The CPE/AuNps-PFR was able to electrocatalyze the oxidation of 5-FU by CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A linear relationship between the DPV peak currents and 5-FU concentration was verified in the range from 29.9 to 234 μmol L-1 in 0.04 mol L-1 BR buffer solution pH 8.0. Detection and quantification limits were found to be 0.66 and 2.22 μmol L-1, respectively. Besides the good sensitivity, CPE/AuNps-PFR showed reproducibility and did not suffer significant interference from potentially electroative biological compounds. The good analytical performance of the modified electrode was confirmed for determining 5-FU in pharmaceutical formulations, with good percent recoveries (ranging from 96.6 to 101.4%) and an acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD = 2.80%).

  19. Cytotoxicity, intracellular localization and exocytosis of citrate capped and PEG functionalized gold nanoparticles in human hepatocyte and kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Vetten, Melissa A; Keter, Frankline K; Skepu, Amanda; Tshikhudo, Robert; Gulumian, Mary

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are nanomaterials that hold promise in drug delivery applications. In this study, the cytotoxicity, uptake, intracellular localization, and the exocytosis of citrate-stabilized (Cit-AuNP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified gold nanoparticles with the carboxyl (COOH) terminal functional group were assessed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) and the human caucasian hepatocytes carcinoma (Hep G2) cell systems, representing two major accumulation sites for AuNPs. The zeta (ζ)-potential measurements confirmed the negative surface charge of the AuNPs in water and in cell growth medium. The transmission electron microscopy confirmed the size and morphology of the AuNPs. Both types of AuNPs were shown to induce cytotoxic effects in cells. The Hep G2 cells were more sensitive cell type, with the COOH-PEG-AuNPs inducing the highest toxicity at higher concentrations. Dark field microscopy and TEM images revealed that the AuNPs were internalized in cells, mostly as agglomerates. TEM micrographs further revealed that the AuNPs were confined as agglomerates inside vesicle-like compartments, likely to be endosomal and lysosomal structures as well as in the cytosol, mostly as individual particles. The AuNPs were shown to remain in cellular compartments for up to 3 weeks, but thereafter, clearance of the gold nanoparticles from the cells by exocytosis was evident. The results presented in this study may therefore give an indication on the fate of AuNPs on long-term exposure to cells and may also assist in safety evaluation of AuNPs.

  20. High-purity nano particles ZnS production by a simple coupling reaction process of biological reduction and chemical precipitation mediated with EDTA.

    PubMed

    Xin, Baoping; Huang, Qun; Chen, Shi; Tang, Xuemei

    2008-01-01

    High-purity nanoparticles ZnS has been successfully synthesized using a simple coupling reaction process of biological reduction and chemical precipitation mediated with EDTA referred to as the CRBRCP-EDTA process. This research investigated the optimum conditions of the transformation of SO(4) (2-) into S(2-) by SRB, and the production of ZnS in the CRBRCP-EDTA process. The results showed that the molar ratio of Zn(2+) to EDTA = 1:1 was crucial for SRB growth and ZnS synthesis. At the ratio(n) (Zn2+)/n) (EDTA) = 1:1, lower Zn(2+) concentration enhanced both the growth of SRB and the reduction of SO(4) (2-), leading to higher ZnS production. Although increase in Na(2)SO(4) concentration resulted in decrease in both SRB growth and SO(4) (2-) reduction, it improved the S(2-) and ZnS production. Under the optimum conditions (0.05 mol L(-1) ZnCl(2), 0.05 mol L(-1) EDTA, and 0.1 mol L(-1) Na(2)SO(4)), the synthesized ZnS was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis showed that the obtained ZnS were high-purity and well-distributed solid spheres with diameters of about 15 nm for primary particles and around 400 nm for secondary particles. When polyacrylamide (PAM) was incorporated in the CRBRCP-EDTA process, the secondary particle's diameters were reduced to less than 100 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of produced ZnS centered at 396 nm, the spectrum with PAM added showed the gradual increase in absorption and stronger intensity in PL property. The present simple, low-cost, and safe method may be extended to prepare other metal-sulfide nanocomposites.

  1. Residual Cap

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-10

    This MOC image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions

  2. Cradle cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... on oily areas such as the scalp. The exact cause of cradle cap is not known. Doctors ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  3. Mimetic Ag nanoparticle/Zn-based MOF nanocomposite (AgNPs@ZnMOF) capped with molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective detection of patulin.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nafiseh; Khataee, Alireza; Habibi, Biuck; Hassanzadeh, Javad

    2018-03-01

    Here, Ag nanoparticle/flake-like Zn-based MOF nanocomposite (AgNPs@ZnMOF) with great peroxidase-like activity was applied as an efficient support for molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and successfully used for selective determination of patulin. AgNPs@ZnMOF was simply synthesized by creating Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) inside the nano-pores of flake-like (Zn)MOF. The high surface area of MOF remarkably improved the catalytic activity of Ag NPs which was assessed by fluorometric, colorimetric and electrochemical techniques. Furthermore, it was observed that patulin could strangely reduce the catalytic activity of AgNPs@ZnMOF, probably due to its electron capturing features. This outcome was the motivation to design an assay for patulin detection. In order to make a selective interaction with patulin molecules, MIP layer was created on the surface of AgNPs@ZnMOF by co-polymerization reaction of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) monomers wherein patulin was applied as template agent. Combination between the selective identifying feature of MIP and outstanding peroxidase-like activity of novel AgNPs@ZnMOF nanocomposite as well as the sensitive fluorescence detection system was led to the design of a reliable probe for patulin. The prepared MIP-capped AgNPs@ZnMOF catalyzed the H 2 O 2 -terephthalic acid reaction which produced a high florescent product. In the presence of patulin, the fluorescence intensity was decreased proportional to its concentration in the range of 0.1-10µmolL -1 with a detection limit of 0.06µmolL -1 . The proposed method was able to selectively measure patulin in a complex media without significant interfering effects from analogue compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and humidity sensing analysis of ZnS nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okur, Salih; Üzar, Neslihan; Tekgüzel, Nesli; Erol, Ayşe; Çetin Arıkan, M.

    2012-03-01

    ZnS nanowires synthesized by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method and humidity sensing properties of obtained ZnS nanowires were investigated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method and electrical measurements. The synthesized nanowires were exposed to relative humidity (RH) between 22% and 97% under controlled environment. Our experimental results show that ZnS nanowires have a great potential for humidity sensing applications in room temperature operations.

  5. Direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase and biosensing for glucose based on PDDA-capped gold nanoparticle modified graphene/multi-walled carbon nanotubes electrode.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanyan; Chen, Zuanguang; He, Sijing; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Xinchun; Yao, Meicun

    2014-02-15

    In this work, poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized graphene (G)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanocomposites were fabricated. Based on the electrostatic attraction, the G/MWCNTs hybrid material can be decorated with AuNPs uniformly and densely. The new hierarchical nanostructure can provide a larger surface area and a more favorable microenvironment for electron transfer. The AuNPs/G/MWCNTs nanocomposite was used as a novel immobilization platform for glucose oxidase (GOD). Direct electron transfer (DET) was achieved between GOD and the electrode. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to characterize the electrochemical biosensor. The glucose biosensor fabricated based on GOD electrode modified with AuNPs/G/MWCNTs demonstrated satisfactory analytical performance with high sensitivity (29.72mAM(-1)cm(-2)) and low limit of detection (4.8 µM). The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ΚS) and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of GOD were calculated to be 11.18s(-1) and 2.09 mM, respectively. With satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility, and stability, the nanostructure we proposed offered an alternative for electrode fabricating and glucose biosensing. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties of MFe2O4 (M=Co, Mg, Mn, Ni) nanoparticles using ricin oil as capping agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherca, Daniel; Pui, Aurel; Cornei, Nicoleta; Cojocariu, Alina; Nica, Valentin; Caltun, Ovidiu

    2012-11-01

    We focused on obtaining MFe2O4 nanoparticles using ricin oil solution as surfactant and on their structural characterization and magnetic properties. The annealed samples at 500 °C in air for 6 h were analyzed for the crystal phase identification by powder X-ray diffraction using CuKα radiation. The particle size, the chemical composition and the morphology of the calcinated powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. All sintered samples contain only one phase, which has a cubic structure with crystallite sizes of 12-21 nm. From the infrared spectra of all samples were observed two strong bands around 600 and 400 cm-1, which correspond to the intrinsic lattice vibrations of octahedral and tetrahedral sites of the spinel structure, respectively, and characteristic vibration for capping agent. The magnetic properties of fine powders were investigated at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The room temperature M-H hysteresis loops show ferromagnetic behavior of the calcined samples, with specific saturation magnetization (Ms) values ranging between 11 and 53 emu/g.

  7. Trimethyl chitosan-capped silver nanoparticles with positive surface charge: Their catalytic activity and antibacterial spectrum including multidrug-resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Chang, T Y; Chen, C C; Cheng, K M; Chin, C Y; Chen, Y H; Chen, X A; Sun, J R; Young, J J; Chiueh, T S

    2017-07-01

    We report a facile route for the green synthesis of trimethyl chitosan nitrate-capped silver nanoparticles (TMCN-AgNPs) with positive surface charge. In this synthesis, silver nitrate, glucose, and trimethyl chitosan nitrate (TMCN) were used as silver precursor, reducing agent, and stabilizer, respectively. The reaction was carried out in a stirred basic aqueous medium at room temperature without the use of energy-consuming or expensive equipment. We investigated the effects of the concentrations of NaOH, glucose, and TMCN on the particle size, zeta potential, and formation yield. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the TMCN-AgNPs was studied by the reduction of 4-nitrophenol using NaBH 4 as a reducing agent. We evaluated the antibacterial effects of the TMCN-AgNPs on Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus using the broth microdilution method. The results showed that both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were killed by the TMCN-AgNPs at very low concentration (<6.13μg/mL). Moreover, the TMCN-AgNPs also showed high antibacterial activity against clinically isolated multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was ≤12.25μg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Glycerol capped PbS/CdS core/shell nanoparticles at different molar ratio and its application in biosensors: An optical properties study

    SciTech Connect

    Das, D., E-mail: ddasphy014@gmail.com; Hussain, A. M. P.

    2016-05-06

    Glycerol capped PbS/CdS core/shell type nanoparticles fabricated with two different molar ratios are characterized for study of structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern exhibits cubic phased polycrystalline nanocrystals. The calculated grain sizes from Williamson-Hall plot were found to be around 6 nm with increased strain. HRTEM investigation confirms the formation of core/shell nanostructures and the sizes of the particles were found to be around 7 nm which is in good agreement with the results of the W-H plot. An increase of band gap with the decrease in precursor concentration is confirmed from the blue shift in the absorption spectramore » and also from Tauc plot. A clear blue shifted intense emission is observed in the photoluminescence spectra with decrease in particle size. Intense luminescence from the core/shell nanostructure may be applied in bio labelling and biosensors.« less

  9. A new approach for bisphenol A detection employing fluorosurfactant-capped gold nanoparticle-amplified chemiluminescence from cobalt(II) and peroxymonocarbonate.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Liu, Lin; Dong, Shichao; Lu, Chao

    2014-07-15

    In this work, we utilized the nonionic fluorosurfactant-capped gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a novel chemiluminescence (CL) probe for the determination of trace bisphenol A. Bisphenol A can induce a sharp decrease in CL intensity from the GNP-Co(2+)-peroxymonocarbonate (HCO4(-)) system. Under the selected experimental conditions, a linear relationship was obtained between the CL intensity and the logarithm of concentration of bisphenol A in the range of 0.05-50 μM (R(2) = 0.9936), and the detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for bisphenol A was 10 nM. The applicability of the proposed method has been validated by determining bisphenol A in real polycarbonate samples with satisfactory results. The recoveries for bisphenol A in spiked samples were found to be between 94.4% and 105.0%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 12 repeated measurements of 0.5 μM bisphenol A was 2.2%. The proposed method described herein was simple, selective and obviated the need of extensive sample pretreatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tuning stable and unstable aggregates of gallic acid capped gold nanoparticles using Mg2+ as coordinating agent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Young; Shinde, Surendra; Ghodake, Gajanan

    2017-05-15

    High reducibility of gallic acid allows synthesis of small sized monodisperse gold nanoparticles (GNPs) at ambient temperature (25°C). Mg 2+ rapidly interacts with the gallic acid ligands and suppresses the dispersion of GNPs therefore, causing a decrease in UV-vis absorbance intensity, and color change from red to blue. Thus, the colorimetric response of GNPs with Mg 2+ was investigated by observing temporal quenching of UV-vis absorbance and precise tuning of fractal growth of GNP aggregates. Moreover, Mg 2+ at concentrations as low as 200ppb can be detected using gallic acid ligand-mediated coordination chemistry which results quenching in UV-vis absorbance proportional to the exposure time. This gallic acid-based colorimetric sensor shown a great potential for the selective detection of pathologically important electrolyte Mg 2+ without any interference from other cations Ca 2+ and K + . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Eco-friendly biosynthesis, anticancer drug loading and cytotoxic effect of capped Ag-nanoparticles against breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, M.; Nasiri, N.; Ikram, M.; Nafees, M.; Qureshi, M. Z.; Ali, S.; Tricoli, A.

    2017-11-01

    The work aimed to prepare silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from silver nitrate and various concentrations of the seed extract ( Setaria verticillata) by a green synthetic route. The chemical and physical properties of the resulting Ag-NPs were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry. Anticancer activity of Ag-NPs (5-20 nm) had dose-dependent cytotoxic effect against breast cancer (MCF7-FLV) cells. The in vitro toxicity was studied on adult earthworms (Lumbricina) resulting in statistically significant ( P < 0.05) inhibition. The prepared NPs were loaded with hydrophilic anticancer drugs (ACD), doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DNR), for developing a novel drug delivery carrier having significant adsorption capacity and efficiency to remove the side effects of the medicines effective for leukemia chemotherapy.

  12. One-step colloidal synthesis of biocompatible water-soluble ZnS quantum dot/chitosan nanoconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanery, Fábio P.; Mansur, Alexandra AP; Mansur, Herman S.

    2013-12-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals with great prospective for use in biomedical and environmental applications. Nonetheless, eliminating the potential cytotoxicity of the QDs made with heavy metals is still a challenge facing the research community. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop a novel facile route for synthesising biocompatible QDs employing carbohydrate ligands in aqueous colloidal chemistry with optical properties tuned by pH. The synthesis of ZnS QDs capped by chitosan was performed using a single-step aqueous colloidal process at room temperature. The nanobioconjugates were extensively characterised by several techniques, and the results demonstrated that the average size of ZnS nanocrystals and their fluorescent properties were influenced by the pH during the synthesis. Hence, novel 'cadmium-free' biofunctionalised systems based on ZnS QDs capped by chitosan were successfully developed exhibiting luminescent activity that may be used in a large number of possible applications, such as probes in biology, medicine and pharmacy.

  13. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cradle Cap (Infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis) KidsHealth / For Parents / Cradle Cap ( ... many babies develop called cradle cap. About Cradle Cap Cradle cap is the common term for seborrheic ...

  14. Influence of the dopant concentration on structural, optical and photovoltaic properties of Cu-doped ZnS nanocrystals based bulk heterojunction hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Pathak, Dinesh; Wagner, Tomas; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) and Cu-doped ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized by the wet chemical method. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Scanning electron microscopy supplemented with EDAX was employed to observe the morphology and chemical composition of the un-doped and doped samples. A significant blue shift of the absorption band with respect to the un-doped zinc sulphide was sighted by increasing the Cu concentration in the doped sample with decreasing the size of nanoparticles. Consequently, the band gap was tuned from 3.13 to 3.49 eV due to quantum confinement. The green emission arises from the recombination between the shallow donor level (sulfur vacancy) and the t2 level of Cu2+. However, the fluorescence emission spectrum of the undoped ZnS nanoparticles was deconvoluted into two bands, which are centered at 419 and 468 nm. XRD analysis showed that the nanomaterials were in cubic crystalline state. XRD peaks show that there were no massive crystalline distortions in the crystal lattice when the Cu concentration (0.05-0.1 M) was increased in the ZnS lattice. However, in the case of Cu-doped samples (0.15-0.2 M), the XRD pattern showed an additional peak at 37° due to incomplete substitution occurring during the experimental reaction step. A comparative study of surfaces of undoped and Cu-doped ZnS nanoparticles were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The synthesized nanomaterial in combination with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was used in the fabrication of solar cells. The devices with ZnS nanoparticles showed an efficiency of 0.31%. The overall power conversion efficiency of the solar cells at 0.1 M Cu content in doped ZnS nanoparticles was found to be 1.6 times higher than the

  15. An amplified electrochemiluminescent aptasensor using Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites as a signal enhancement tag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Meng-Nan; Zhang, Xia; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal tag of Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites (AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs) was developed for thrombin (TB) aptasensor construction based on the peroxydisulfate/oxygen (S2O82-/O2) system. For signal tag fabrication, the C60 nanoparticles (C60NPs) were prepared and then coated with 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid (PTCA) by π-π stacking interactions. Afterwards, thiosemicarbazide (TSC) was linked with PTCA functionalized C60NPs via amidation for further assembling Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Finally, detection aptamer of thrombin (TBA 2) was labeled on the ECL signal amplification tag of AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs. Herein, TSC, with the active groups of -NH2 and -SH, was selected and introduced into the ECL S2O82-/O2 system for the first time, which could not only offer the active groups of -SH to absorb AuNPs for TBA 2 anchoring but also remarkably enhance the ECL signal of the S2O82-/O2 system by the formation of TSC-PTC/C60NPs for signal amplification. Meanwhile, the sensing interface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by AuNPs/graphene (AuNPs/GR) nanocomposites with the large specific surface area and the active sites, followed by immobilization of thiol-terminated thrombin capture aptamer (TBA 1). With the formation of the sandwich-type structure of TBA 1, TB, and TBA 2 signal probes, a desirable enhanced ECL signal was measured in the testing buffer of an S2O82-/O2 solution for detecting TB. The aptasensor exhibited a good linear relationship for TB detection in the range of 1 × 10-5-10 nM with a detection limit of 3.3 fM.A novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) signal tag of Au nanoparticles capped by 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-thiosemicarbazide functionalized C60 nanocomposites (AuNPs/TSC-PTC/C60NPs) was developed for thrombin (TB) aptasensor construction based on the peroxydisulfate/oxygen (S2O82-/O2) system. For signal

  16. In vivo antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles produced via a green chemistry synthesis using Acacia rigidula as a reducing and capping agent.

    PubMed

    Escárcega-González, Carlos Enrique; Garza-Cervantes, J A; Vázquez-Rodríguez, A; Montelongo-Peralta, Liliana Zulem; Treviño-González, M T; Díaz Barriga Castro, E; Saucedo-Salazar, E M; Chávez Morales, R M; Regalado Soto, D I; Treviño González, F M; Carrazco Rosales, J L; Cruz, Rocío Villalobos; Morones-Ramírez, José Rubén

    2018-01-01

    One of the main issues in the medical field and clinical practice is the development of novel and effective treatments against infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One avenue that has been approached to develop effective antimicrobials is the use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), since they have been found to exhibit an efficient and wide spectrum of antimicrobial properties. Among the main drawbacks of using Ag-NPs are their potential cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells and the latent environmental toxicity of their synthesis methods. Therefore, diverse green synthesis methods, which involve the use of environmentally friendly plant extracts as reductive and capping agents, have become attractive to synthesize Ag-NPs that exhibit antimicrobial effects against resistant bacteria at concentrations below toxicity thresholds for eukaryotic cells. In this study, we report a green one-pot synthesis method that uses Acacia rigidula extract as a reducing and capping agent, to produce Ag-NPs with applications as therapeutic agents to treat infections in vivo. The Ag-NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible, and Fourier transform infrared. We show that Ag-NPs are spherical with a narrow size distribution. The Ag-NPs show antimicrobial activities in vitro against Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and a clinical multidrug-resistant strain of P. aeruginosa ) and Gram-positive ( Bacillus subtilis ) bacteria. Moreover, antimicrobial effects of the Ag-NPs, against a resistant P. aeruginosa clinical strain, were tested in a murine skin infection model. The results demonstrate that the Ag-NPs reported in this work are capable of eradicating pathogenic resistant bacteria in an infection in vivo. In addition, skin, liver, and kidney damage profiles were monitored in the murine infection model, and the

  17. In vivo antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles produced via a green chemistry synthesis using Acacia rigidula as a reducing and capping agent

    PubMed Central

    Escárcega-González, Carlos Enrique; Garza-Cervantes, JA; Vázquez-Rodríguez, A; Montelongo-Peralta, Liliana Zulem; Treviño-González, MT; Díaz Barriga Castro, E; Saucedo-Salazar, EM; Chávez Morales, RM; Regalado Soto, DI; Treviño González, FM; Carrazco Rosales, JL; Cruz, Rocío Villalobos; Morones-Ramírez, José Rubén

    2018-01-01

    Introduction One of the main issues in the medical field and clinical practice is the development of novel and effective treatments against infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One avenue that has been approached to develop effective antimicrobials is the use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), since they have been found to exhibit an efficient and wide spectrum of antimicrobial properties. Among the main drawbacks of using Ag-NPs are their potential cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells and the latent environmental toxicity of their synthesis methods. Therefore, diverse green synthesis methods, which involve the use of environmentally friendly plant extracts as reductive and capping agents, have become attractive to synthesize Ag-NPs that exhibit antimicrobial effects against resistant bacteria at concentrations below toxicity thresholds for eukaryotic cells. Purpose In this study, we report a green one-pot synthesis method that uses Acacia rigidula extract as a reducing and capping agent, to produce Ag-NPs with applications as therapeutic agents to treat infections in vivo. Materials and methods The Ag-NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible, and Fourier transform infrared. Results We show that Ag-NPs are spherical with a narrow size distribution. The Ag-NPs show antimicrobial activities in vitro against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a clinical multidrug-resistant strain of P. aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. Moreover, antimicrobial effects of the Ag-NPs, against a resistant P. aeruginosa clinical strain, were tested in a murine skin infection model. The results demonstrate that the Ag-NPs reported in this work are capable of eradicating pathogenic resistant bacteria in an infection in vivo. In addition, skin, liver, and kidney damage profiles were

  18. Visual detection of copper(II) ions in blood samples by controlling the leaching of protein-capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yen-Fei; Deng, Ting-Wei; Chiu, Wei-Jane; Wei, Tsao-Yen; Roy, Prathik; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2012-04-21

    We have developed a simple, low-cost, paper-based probe for the selective colorimetric detection of copper ions (Cu(2+)) in aqueous solutions. The bovine serum albumin (BSA)-modified 13.3-nm Au nanoparticle (BSA-Au NP) probe was designed to detect Cu(2+) ions using lead ions (Pb(2+)) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) as leaching agents in a glycine-NaOH (pH 12.0) solution. In addition, a nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) was used to trap the BSA-Au NPs, leading to the preparation of a nanocomposite film consisting of a BSA-Au NP-decorated membrane (BSA-Au NPs/NCM). The BSA-Au NPs probe operates on the principle that Cu deposition on the surface of the BSA-Au NPs inhibits their leaching ability, which is accelerated by Pb(2+) ions in the presence of 2-ME. Under optimal solution conditions (5 mM glycine-NaOH (pH 12.0), Pb(2+) (50 μM), and 2-ME (1.0 M)), the Pb(2+)/2-ME-BSA-Au NPs/NCM enabled the detection of Cu(2+) at nanomolar concentrations in aqueous solutions by the naked eye with high selectivity (at least 100-fold over other metal ions). In addition, this cost-effective probe allowed for the rapid and simple determination of Cu(2+) ions in not only natural water samples but also in a complex biological sample (in this case, blood sample).

  19. Luminescent Processes Elucidated by Simple Experiments on ZnS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwankner, R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes some impurity-related optical properties of semiconductors, with special emphasis on the luminescence of zinc sulfide (ZnS). Presents and interprets five experiments using a ZnS screen, ultraviolet lamp, transparent Dewar liquid nitrogen, and a helium/neon gas base. Includes application of luminescence measurements to archaeology. (SK)

  20. Influence of Cd2+/S2- molar ratio and of different capping environments in the optical properties of CdS nanoparticles incorporated within a hybrid diureasil matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Luis F. F. F.; Silva, Carlos J. R.; Kanodarwala, Fehmida K.; Stride, John A.; Pereira, Mario R.; Gomes, Maria J. M.

    2014-09-01

    The incorporation of CdS nanoparticles (NPs), as prepared through colloidal methods using reverse micelles, within diureasil hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel matrices was investigated. Several experimental conditions, namely the influence of capping agent 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) or the use of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), were studied in order to assure the preservation of the original optical properties of colloidal CdS NPs after the incorporation of the NPs within the solid diureasil hybrid matrix. The diureasil matrix is based on a siliceous network cross linked through urea bonds to poly(oxyethylene)/poly(oxypropylene) (PEO/PPO) chains. The influence of the Cd2+/S2- molar ratio of the NPs in the stability and dispersion of the NPs within the diureasil matrix was also investigated. The obtained CdS doped hybrid matrix was characterized by absorption, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The stability of the CdS NPs within the hybrid matrix showed to be dependent on the Cd2+/S2- molar ratio used in the synthesis of the NPs. The use of MPTMS proved to be crucial in the preservation of the original optical properties of the colloidal CdS NPs after the incorporation of the NPs within the hybrid matrix. The effect of MPTMS was in turn influenced by the Cd2+/S2- molar ratio employed in the synthesis of the CdS NPs. The use of MPTMS was less effective when Cd2+/S2- molar ratio equal to 0.5 was used. In the absence of MPTMS or TEOS larger NPs size distribution and clustering of the CdS NPs were obtained after the transfer of the NPs into the hybrid matrix.

  1. Enhancing the Antibacterial Activity of Light-Activated Surfaces Containing Crystal Violet and ZnO Nanoparticles: Investigation of Nanoparticle Size, Capping Ligand, and Dopants.

    PubMed

    Sehmi, Sandeep K; Noimark, Sacha; Pike, Sebastian D; Bear, Joseph C; Peveler, William J; Williams, Charlotte K; Shaffer, Milo S P; Allan, Elaine; Parkin, Ivan P; MacRobert, Alexander J

    2016-09-30

    Healthcare-associated infections pose a serious risk for patients, staff, and visitors and are a severe burden on the National Health Service, costing at least £1 billion annually. Antimicrobial surfaces significantly contribute toward reducing the incidence of infections as they prevent bacterial adhesion and cause bacterial cell death. Using a simple, easily upscalable swell-encapsulation-shrink method, novel antimicrobial surfaces have been developed by incorporating metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and crystal violet (CV) dye into medical-grade polyurethane sheets. This study compares the bactericidal effects of polyurethane incorporating ZnO, Mg-doped ZnO, and MgO. All metal oxide NPs are well defined, with average diameters ranging from 2 to 18 nm. These materials demonstrate potent bactericidal activity when tested against clinically relevant bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus . Additionally, these composites are tested against an epidemic strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that is rife in hospitals throughout the UK. Furthermore, we have tested these materials using a low light intensity (∼500 lx), similar to that present in many clinical environments. The highest activity is achieved from polymer composites incorporating CV and ∼3 nm ZnO NPs, and the different performances of the metal oxides have been discussed.

  2. Enhancing the Antibacterial Activity of Light-Activated Surfaces Containing Crystal Violet and ZnO Nanoparticles: Investigation of Nanoparticle Size, Capping Ligand, and Dopants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections pose a serious risk for patients, staff, and visitors and are a severe burden on the National Health Service, costing at least £1 billion annually. Antimicrobial surfaces significantly contribute toward reducing the incidence of infections as they prevent bacterial adhesion and cause bacterial cell death. Using a simple, easily upscalable swell–encapsulation–shrink method, novel antimicrobial surfaces have been developed by incorporating metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and crystal violet (CV) dye into medical-grade polyurethane sheets. This study compares the bactericidal effects of polyurethane incorporating ZnO, Mg-doped ZnO, and MgO. All metal oxide NPs are well defined, with average diameters ranging from 2 to 18 nm. These materials demonstrate potent bactericidal activity when tested against clinically relevant bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, these composites are tested against an epidemic strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that is rife in hospitals throughout the UK. Furthermore, we have tested these materials using a low light intensity (∼500 lx), similar to that present in many clinical environments. The highest activity is achieved from polymer composites incorporating CV and ∼3 nm ZnO NPs, and the different performances of the metal oxides have been discussed. PMID:27840856

  3. Interactions of aqueous amino acids and proteins with the (110) surface of ZnS in molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, Grzegorz; Cieplak, Marek

    2014-03-07

    The growing usage of nanoparticles of zinc sulfide as quantum dots and biosensors calls for a theoretical assessment of interactions of ZnS with biomolecules. We employ the molecular-dynamics-based umbrella sampling method to determine potentials of mean force for 20 single amino acids near the ZnS (110) surface in aqueous solutions. We find that five amino acids do not bind at all and the binding energy of the remaining amino acids does not exceed 4.3 kJ/mol. Such energies are comparable to those found for ZnO (and to hydrogen bonds in proteins) but the nature of the specificity is different. Cysteine canmore » bind with ZnS in a covalent way, e.g., by forming the disulfide bond with S in the solid. If this effect is included within a model incorporating the Morse potential, then the potential well becomes much deeper—the binding energy is close to 98 kJ/mol. We then consider tryptophan cage, a protein of 20 residues, and characterize its events of adsorption to ZnS. We demonstrate the relevance of interactions between the amino acids in the selection of optimal adsorbed conformations and recognize the key role of cysteine in generation of lasting adsorption. We show that ZnS is more hydrophobic than ZnO and that the density profile of water is quite different than that forming near ZnO—it has only a minor articulation into layers. Furthermore, the first layer of water is disordered and mobile.« less

  4. A comparative analysis of green synthesis approach starch capped metal oxides (ZnO & CdO) nanoparticles and its bacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidhya, K.; Devarajan, V. P.; Viswanathan, C.; Nataraj, D.; Bhoopathi, G.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we have investigated the bacterial activity of starch capped ZnO & CdO NPs. The NPs were prepared through green technique under room temperature and then obtained samples were characterized by using XRD and PL techniques. XRD pattern confirms the crystal nature it shows hexagonal structure for ZnO NPs and monoclinic structure for CdO NPs and their average particle size is ±20 nm. Further, the optical properties of NPs were investigated using PL technique in which the starch capped ZnO NPs shows maximum emission at 440 nm whereas starch capped CdO NPs shows maximum emission at 545 nm. Finally, toxic test was performed with E.coli bacteria and their results were investigated. Hence, starch capped ZnO NPs induced less killing effect when compared with starch capped CdO NPs. Therefore, we conclude that the starch capped ZnO NPs may be less toxic to microorganisms when compared with starch capped CdO NPs. In addition, starch capped ZnO NPs is also suitable for anti-microbial activity.

  5. Labeling and in vivo visualization of transplanted adipose tissue-derived stem cells with safe cadmium-free aqueous ZnS coating of ZnS-AgInS2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogihara, Yusuke; Yukawa, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Tatsuya; Nishi, Hiroyasu; Onoshima, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    The facile synthesis of ZnS-AgInS2 (ZAIS) as cadmium-free QDs and their application, mainly in solar cells, has been reported by our groups. In the present study, we investigated the safety and the usefulness for labeling and in vivo imaging of a newly synthesized aqueous ZnS-coated ZAIS (ZnS-ZAIS) carboxylated nanoparticles (ZZC) to stem cells. ZZC shows the strong fluorescence in aqueous solutions such as PBS and cell culture medium, and a complex of ZZC and octa-arginine (R8) peptides (R8-ZZC) can achieve the highly efficient labeling of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs). The cytotoxicity of R8-ZZC to ASCs was found to be extremely low in comparison to that of CdSe-based QDs, and R8-ZZC was confirmed to have no influence on the proliferation rate or the differentiation ability of ASCs. Moreover, R8-ZZC was not found to induce the production of major inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, IL-6 and MCP-1) in ASCs. Transplanted R8-ZZC-labeled ASCs could be quantitatively detected in the lungs and liver mainly using an in vivo imaging system. In addition, high-speed multiphoton confocal laser microscopy revealed the presence of aggregates of transplanted ASCs at many sites in the lungs, whereas individual ASCs were found to have accumulated in the liver.

  6. Transparent nanocrystalline ZnO and ZnO:Al coatings obtained through ZnS sols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobkova, E. V.; Evstropiev, S. K.; Nikonorov, N. V.; Vasilyev, V. N.; Evstropyev, K. S.

    2017-11-01

    Thin and uniform ZnO and ZnO:Al coatings were prepared on glass surfaces by using film-forming colloidal solutions containing small ZnS nanoparticles and polyvinylpyrrolidone as a polymer stabilizer. Film-forming ZnS sols were synthesized in the mixed water-propanol-2 solutions by chemical reaction between zinc nitrate and sodium sulfide. The addition of modifying component such as Al(NO3)3 into the film-forming solutions allows one to obtain thin and uniform ZnO:Al coatings. An increase in the sodium sulfide content in film-forming solutions leads to the growth of light absorption in the UV. The evolution of a coating material at all technological stages from the ZnS sols up to the transparent ZnO and ZnO:Al2O3 coatings (the latter kind being denoted further, in accord with a common practice, by ZnO:Al) was studied using the optical spectroscopy, XRD analysis, DSC-TGA, and SEM methods. The chemical processes of decomposing salts and the polymer occur by heating the intermediate composite ZnS/polyvinylpyrrolidone coatings in the 280-500 °C temperature range. Experimental data show that the ZnO and ZnO:Al coatings prepared consist of the slightly elongated oxide nanoparticles. These coatings fully cover the glass surface and demonstrate a high transparency in the UV and visible.

  7. Interpreting the adsorption of serum albumin and lactoglobulin onto ZnS nanopaticles: effect of conformational rigidity of the proteins.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jiban; Saha, Bedabrata; Das, Gopal

    2014-02-15

    The work we have undertaken is to investigate the adsorption of two different proteins (BSA and BLG) having near same IEP and differing in their conformational flexibility, onto the surface of ZnS nanoparticles (ZnS NPs). BSA and BLG both have an IEP value around pH~5. BSA is more prone to conformational deformation and considered "soft" while BLG holds the conformational rigidity and considered as "hard" protein. To ascertain the differences in surface coverage and conformation of the protein onto ZnS surface (PZC ~ 3.7), we have evaluated the adsorption profile at pH 7, where the entire surface behaves negatively. An integrated approach was taken by incorporating zeta (ζ) potential, fluorescence and CD for analyzing the adsorption process. In both systems, an increase in protein surface coverage was observed with the increase in free protein concentration in the solution and ζ values approaching that of native protein at high surface coverage. An alteration in the tertiary structure was observed for both BSA and BLG. The CD spectra analysis reveals that the secondary structure of the BSA was more deviated from the native protein structure, accommodating the increased adsorption value. For BLG no such prominent structural alteration was observed. These findings help us to understand better, how adjustment of the protein adsorption amount can be achieved onto the surface of nanoparticles having like charges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through suppression of p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chia-Hui

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are highly invasive and have a higher rate of distant metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in EGF/EGFR-mediated malignant progression and metastasis of TNBCs. Various studies have revealed that treatment with gallic acid down-regulates MMP-9 expression in cancer cells, and that conjugation of phytochemical compounds with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) increases the anti-tumor activity of the phytochemical compounds. Thus, the effect of gallic acid-capped AuNPs (GA-AuNPs) on MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells was analyzed in the present study. The so-called green synthesis of AuNPs by means of gallic acid was performed at pHmore » 10, and the resulting GA-AuNPs had spherical shape with an average diameter of approximately 50 nm. GA-AuNPs notably suppressed migration and invasion of EGF-treated cells, and inhibited EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. GA-AuNPs abrogated EGF-induced Akt/p65 and ERK/c-Jun phosphorylation, leading to down-regulation of MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression in EGF-treated cells. Meanwhile, EGF-induced p300 stabilization was found to be involved in MMP-9 expression, whereas GA-AuNPs inhibited the EGF-promoted stability of the p300 protein. Although GA-AuNPs and gallic acid suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation via the same signaling pathway, the effective concentration of gallic acid was approximately 100-fold higher than that of GA-AuNPs for inhibition of MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated cells to a similar extent. Collectively, our data indicate that, in comparison with gallic acid, GA-AuNPs have a superior ability to inhibit EGF/EGFR-mediated MMP-9 expression in TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings also point to a way to improve the anti-tumor activity of gallic acid. - Highlights: • Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression. • EGF-induced MMP-9 expression via p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation. • Gallic

  9. Colloidal synthesis of monodispersed ZnS and CdS nanocrystals from novel zinc and cadmium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Mohammed, Aliyu D.; Strydom, Christien A.; Young, Desmond A.; Jordaan, Anine

    2014-06-01

    Monodispersed spherical and hexagonal shaped ZnS and CdS nanocrystals respectively, have been synthesized using novel heteroleptic complexes of xanthate (S2CObu) and dithiocarbamate (S2CNMePh). The nanocrystals were prepared via colloidal route and stabilized in hexadecylamine (HDA). The morphology of the as-prepared nanocrystals was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and powdered X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) analysis. An average diameter of 7.2 nm and 8.6 nm were obtained for the ZnS and CdS respectively. The optical properties of the nanoparticles studied by UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy showed a blue shift in the absorption spectra, and band edge emission respectively.

  10. Waning Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the outer edge of the south polar residual cap of Mars. During summer, the scarps that delineate the sides of the mesas, retreat (on average) by about 3 meters (10 feet) owing to the sublimation of solid carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 85.6oS, 349.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  11. Residual Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions. The variation in brightness across this scene is a function of several factors including, but not limited to, varying proportions of dust and solid carbon dioxide, undulating topography, and differences in the roughness of the slopes versus the flat surfaces.

    Location near: 86.7oS, 343.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  12. A novel metallogel based approach to synthesize (Mn, Cu) doped ZnS quantum dots and labeling of MCF-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bhowal, Soumya; Ghosh, Arijit; Chowdhuri, Srijita Paul; Mondal, Raju; Das, Benu Brata

    2018-05-08

    The present study aims to formulate a common synthetic strategy for preparing quantum dots (QDs) in a greener way by using combination of popular methods, viz. a colloidal method with suitable capping agent and low molecular weight gel based synthesis. Pyridine dicarboxylic acid (PDC) in presence of AlCl3 forms a stable metallogel, which serves as an excellent medium for selective ZnS QD synthesis. The aromatic pyridine moiety, well known for being a capping agent, indeed plays its part in the run up to QD synthesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a metallogel based doped ZnS QD synthesis. Altering the doping material and its composition changes the properties of the QDs, but herein we also tried to establish how these changes affect the gel morphology and stability of both gel and QDs. We further demonstrate, by using live cell confocal microscopy, the delivery of QDs Cu ZnS and MnZnS nanomaterials in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of human breast cancer cells (MCF7), implicating the use of metallogel based QDs for bio-imaging and bio-labeling.

  13. Protein-directed synthesis of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots: a dual-channel biosensor for two proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Zhao, Ting; Tian, Yunfei; Wu, Lan; Hou, Xiandeng

    2013-06-03

    Proteins typically have nanoscale dimensions and multiple binding sites with inorganic ions, which facilitates the templated synthesis of nanoparticles to yield nanoparticle-protein hybrids with tailored functionality, water solubility, and tunable frameworks with well-defined structure. In this work, we report a protein-templated synthesis of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) by exploring bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the template. The obtained Mn-doped ZnS QDs give phosphorescence emission centered at 590 nm, with a decay time of about 1.9 ms. A dual-channel sensing system for two different proteins was developed through integration of the optical responses (phosphorescence emission and resonant light scattering (RLS)) of Mn-doped ZnS QDs and recognition of them by surface BSA phosphorescent sensing of trypsin and RLS sensing of lysozyme. Trypsin can digest BSA and remove BSA from the surface of Mn-doped ZnS QDs, thus quenching the phosphorescence of QDs, whereas lysozyme can assemble with BSA to lead to aggregation of QDs and enhanced RLS intensity. The detection limits for trypsin and lysozyme were 40 and 3 nM, respectively. The selectivity of the respective channel for trypsin and lysozyme was evaluated with a series of other proteins. Unlike other protein sensors based on nanobioconjugates, the proposed dual-channel sensor employs only one type of QDs but can detect two different proteins. Further, we found the RLS of QDs can also be useful for studying the BSA-lysozyme binding stoichiometry, which has not been reported in the literature. These successful biosensor applications clearly demonstrate that BSA not only serves as a template for growth of Mn-doped ZnS QDs, but also impacts the QDs for selective recognition of analyte proteins. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Optical transmission larger than 1 (T>1) through ZnS -SiO2/AgOx/ZnS-SiO2 sandwiched thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jingsong; Xiao, Mufei

    2006-09-01

    Optical transmission through flat media should be smaller than 1. However, we have observed optical transmission up to T =1.18. The samples were ZnS -SiO2/AgOx/ZnS-SiO2 sandwiched thin films on glass substrate. The supertransmission could only be observed in the near field. We attribute the supertransmission to the lateral propagation relayed by the laser activated and decomposed Ag nanoparticles.

  15. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer between ZnSe ZnS quantum dots and bovine serum albumin in bioaffinity assays of anticancer drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Chang; Ding, Li; Zhong, Wenying

    2014-10-01

    In the current work, using ZnSe ZnS quantum dots (QDs) as representative nanoparticles, the affinities of seven anticancer drugs for bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The FRET efficiency of BSA-QD conjugates can reach as high as 24.87% by electrostatic interaction. The higher binding constant (3.63 × 107 L mol-1) and number of binding sites (1.75) between ZnSe ZnS QDs and BSA demonstrated that the QDs could easily associate to plasma proteins and enhance the transport efficacy of drugs. The magnitude of binding constants (103-106 L mol-1), in the presence of QDs, was between drugs-BSA and drugs-QDs in agreement with common affinities of drugs for serum albumins (104-106 L mol-1) in vivo. ZnSe ZnS QDs significantly increased the affinities for BSA of Vorinostat (SAHA), Docetaxel (DOC), Carmustine (BCNU), Doxorubicin (Dox) and 10-Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT). However, they slightly reduced the affinities of Vincristine (VCR) and Methotrexate (MTX) for BSA. The recent work will not only provide useful information for appropriately understanding the binding affinity and binding mechanism at the molecular level, but also illustrate the ZnSe ZnS QDs are perfect candidates for nanoscal drug delivery system (DDS).

  16. Characterization and in vitro studies on anticancer, antioxidant activity against colon cancer cell line of gold nanoparticles capped with Cassia tora SM leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Ezra Elumalai; John Poonga, Preetam Raj; Panicker, Shirly George

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized gold nanoparticles of an ethnobotanically and medicinally important plant species Cassia tora against colon cancer cells and to find its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In order to improve the bioavailability of C. tora, we synthesized gold nanoparticles through green synthesis, by simple mixing and stirring of C. tora leaf powder and tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution which gave a dispersion of gold nanoparticles conjugate with C. tora secondary metabolites (SMs) with characteristic surface plasmon resonance. It was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta sizer, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial activity was carried out for gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs, using well-diffusion method. The MTT assay for cell viability and markers such as catalase, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was predictable to confirm the cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties. The treatment of gold nanoparticles conjugated with C. tora SMs on Col320 cells showed reduction in the cell viability through MTT assay, and it also significantly suppressed the release of H2O2, LPO and NO production in a dose-dependent manner. C. tora SMs conjugate gold nanoparticles showed enhanced bioavailability, antioxidant and anticancer effect against colon cancer cell line (Col320).

  17. Effect of aluminum and yttrium doping on zinc sulphide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Swati, E-mail: sharma.swati1507@gmail.com; Kashyap, Jyoti; Kapoor, A.

    2016-05-06

    In this work, pristine and doped Zinc Sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles have been synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method. ZnS nanoparticles have been doped with Aluminium (Al) and Yttrium (Y) with doping concentration of 5wt% each. The structural and optical properties of the as prepared nanoparticles have been studied using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. Average grain size of 2-3nm is observed through the XRD analysis. Effect of doping on stress, strain and lattice constant of the nanoparticles has also been analyzed. Photoluminescence spectra of the as prepared nanoparticles is enhanced due to Al doping and quenched due to Ymore » doping. EDAX studies confirm the relative doping percentage to be 3.47 % and 3.94% by wt. for Al and Y doped nanoparticles respectively. Morphology of the nanoparticles studied using TEM and SEM indicates uniform distribution of spherical nanoparticles.« less

  18. Novel electrochemical biosensor based on PVP capped CoFe2O4@CdSe core-shell nanoparticles modified electrode for ultra-trace level determination of rifampicin by square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Mollarasouli, Fariba

    2017-06-15

    This work introduces a new electrochemical sensor based on polyvinyl pyrrolidone capped CoFe 2 O 4 @CdSe core-shell modified electrode for a rapid detection and highly sensitive determination of rifampicin (RIF) by square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The new PVP capped CoFe 2 O 4 @CdSe with core-shell nanostructure was synthesized by a facile synthesis method for the first time. PVP can act as a capping and etching agent for protection of the outer surface nanoparticles and formation of a mesoporous shell, respectively. Another important feature of this work is the choice of the ligand (1,10-phenanthroline) for precursor cadmium complex that works as a chelating agent in order to increase optical and electrical properties and stability of prepared nanomaterial. The nanoparticles have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, FT-IR, and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The PL spectroscopy study of CoFe 2 O 4 @CdSe has shown significant PL quenching by the formation of CoFe 2 O 4 core inside CdSe, this shows that CoFe 2 O 4 NPs are efficient electron acceptors with the CdSe. It is clearly observed that the biosensor can significantly enhance electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of RIF, under the optimal conditions. The novelty of this work arises from the new synthesis method for the core-shell of CoFe 2 O 4 @CdSe. Then, the novel electrochemical biosensor was fabricated for ultra-trace level determination of rifampicin with very low detection limit (4.55×10 -17 M) and a wide linear range from 1.0×10 -16 to 1.0×10 -7 M. The fabricated biosensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity, good reproducibility and stability. Therefore, it was successfully applied for the determination of ultra-trace RIF amounts in biological and pharmaceutical samples with

  19. Highly sensitive, colorimetric detection of mercury(II) in aqueous media by quaternary ammonium group-capped gold nanoparticles at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dingbin; Qu, Weisi; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Jiang, Xingyu

    2010-12-01

    We provide a highly sensitive and selective assay to detect Hg(2+) in aqueous solutions using gold nanoparticles modified with quaternary ammonium group-terminated thiols at room temperature. The mechanism is the abstraction of thiols by Hg(2+) that led to the aggregation of nanoparticles. With the assistance of solar light irradiation, the detection limit can be as low as 30 nM, which satisfies the guideline concentration of Hg(2+) in drinking water set by the WHO. In addition, the dynamic range of detection is wide (3 × 10(-8)-1 × 10(-2) M). This range, to our best knowledge, is the widest one that has been reported so far in gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based assays for Hg(2+).

  20. Glassy carbon electrodes sequentially modified by cysteamine-capped gold nanoparticles and poly(amidoamine) dendrimers generation 4.5 for detecting uric acid in human serum without ascorbic acid interference.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Segovia, A S; Banda-Alemán, J A; Gutiérrez-Granados, S; Rodríguez, A; Rodríguez, F J; Godínez, Luis A; Bustos, E; Manríquez, J

    2014-02-17

    Glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) were sequentially modified by cysteamine-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNp@cysteamine) and PAMAM dendrimers generation 4.5 bearing 128-COOH peripheral groups (GCE/AuNp@cysteamine/PAMAM), in order to explore their capabilities as electrochemical detectors of uric acid (UA) in human serum samples at pH 2. The results showed that concentrations of UA detected by cyclic voltammetry with GCE/AuNp@cysteamine/PAMAM were comparable (deviation <±10%; limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 1.7×10(-4) and 5.8×10(-4) mg dL(-1), respectively) to those concentrations obtained using the uricase-based enzymatic-colorimetric method. It was also observed that the presence of dendrimers in the GCE/AuNp@cysteamine/PAMAM system minimizes ascorbic acid (AA) interference during UA oxidation, thus improving the electrocatalytic activity of the gold nanoparticles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A green and facile preparation approach, licochalcone A capped on hollow gold nanoparticles, for improving the solubility and dissolution of anticancer natural product.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Wei; Wang, Li-Hong; Meng, Da-Li; Che, Xin

    2017-12-01

    This study described a valuable drug delivery system for poorly water-soluble anticancer naturalproduct, licochalcone A, isolated from Glycyrrhiza inflata , loaded on hollow gold nanoparticles by green method to improve solubility and dissolution and maintain its natural pharmacological property. Briefly, the formation of hollow gold nanoparticles involves three steps: preparing of silica nanospheres by Stober method, forming of a thick gold shell around the silica templates and etching of silica particles by HF solution. Hollow gold nanoparticles (HGNPs) and drug loaded hollow gold nanoparticles (L-HGNPs) displayed spherical structure and approximately 200nm in size observed by SEM, XRD, EDS and DSC analysis showed that HGNPs were gold hollow structure and crystalline form. The solubility in aqueous solution of licochalcone A was increased obviously to 488.9 μg/ml, compared with free drugs of 136.1 μg/ml. Another interesting finding is that near-infrared (NIR) irradiation increased the speed of solubility of licochalcone A in aqueous solutions, rather than quantity. In short, the method of nano-delivery system combined with poorly water-soluble drug to improve its solubility and dissolution is worth applying to other natural products in order to increase their opportunities in clinical applications.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of spherical silver nanoparticles prepared using a biocompatible macromolecular capping agent: evidence for induction of a greatly prolonged bacterial lag phase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have evaluated the antimicrobial properties of Ag-based nanoparticles (Np) using two solid platform-based bioassays and found that 10-20 uL of 0.3-3 uM keratin-based Nps (depending on the starting bacteria concentration = CI) completely inhibited the growth of an equivalent volume of ca. 1,000 to...

  3. Temperature Dependent Photoluminescence of CuInS2 with ZnS Capping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-11

    cadmium or zinc like cadmium selenide. The optical properties of core-type nanocrystals can be fine-tuned by changing the quantum dot size. Core...Physics Department To August 2011 University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana - Computational work involving the half-life of Fe60 - Data

  4. The cervical cap (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The cervical cap is a flexible rubber cup-like device that is filled with spermicide and self-inserted over the cervix ... left in place several hours after intercourse. The cap is a prescribed device fitted by a health ...

  5. Tunable Chiroptical Properties from the Plasmonic Band to Metal-Ligand Charge Transfer Band of the Cysteine Capped Molybdenum Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiwen; Cheng, Jiaji; Li, Jiagen; Zhu, Xi; He, TingChao; Chen, Rui; Tang, Zikang

    2018-06-25

    Understanding the interactions between a semiconducting nanocrystal surface and chiral anchoring molecules could resolve the mechanism of chirality induction in nanoscale and facilitate the rational design of chiral semiconducting materials for chiroptics. Herein, we present chiral molybdenum oxide nanoparticles in which chirality is transferred via a bio-to-nano approach. With facile controlling on the amount of chiral cysteine molecules under redox treatment, circular dichroism (CD) signals are generated in plasmon region and metal-ligand charge transfer band. The obtained enhanced CD signals with tunable line-shapes illustrate the possibility of using chiral molybdenum oxide nanoparticles as potentials for chiral semiconductor nanosensors, optoelectronics and photocatalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Room temperature synthesis of Mn2+ doped ZnS d-dots and observation of tunable dual emission: Effects of doping concentration, temperature, and ultraviolet light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kole, A. K.; Tiwary, C. S.; Kumbhakar, P.

    2013-03-01

    Mn2+ doped (0-50.0 molar %) ZnS d-dots have been synthesized in water medium by using an environment friendly low cost chemical technique. Tunable dual emission in UV and yellow-orange regions is achieved by tailoring the Mn2+ doping concentration in the host ZnS nanocrystal. The optimum doping concentration for achieving efficient photoluminescence (PL) emission is determined to be ˜1.10 (at. %) corresponding to 40.0 (molar %) of Mn2+ doping concentration used during synthesis. The mechanism of charge transfer from the host to the dopant leading to the intensity modulated tunable (594-610 nm) yellow-orange PL emission is straightforwardly understood as no capping agent is used. The temperature dependent PL emission measurements are carried out, viz., in 1.10 at. % Mn2+ doped sample and the experimental results are explained by using a theoretical PL emission model. It is found that the ratio of non-radiative to radiative recombination rates is temperature dependent and this phenomenon has not been reported, so far, in Mn2+ doped ZnS system. The colour tuning of the emitted light from the samples are evident from the calculated chromaticity coordinates. UV light irradiation for 150 min in 40.0 (molar %) Mn2+ doped sample shows an enhancement of 33% in PL emission intensity.

  7. Cradle Cap: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Cradle cap Treatment Cradle cap usually doesn't require medical treatment. It clears up on its own within a few months. In the meantime, wash ... tips can help you control and manage cradle cap. Gently rub your baby's scalp with your fingers ...

  8. The cervical cap.

    PubMed

    1988-10-07

    The US Food and Drug Administration has approved marketing of the Prentif cavity-rim cervical cap. This contraceptive device is being distributed in the US and Canada by Cervical Cap Ltd, Los Gatos, California. The Prentif cap is available in 4 sizes: 22, 25, 28, and 31 mm inside diameter, with a length of 1 1/4-1 1/2 inches. In a multicenter trial involving 522 diaphragm users and 581 cap users followed for 2 years, the cap was 82.6% effective and the diaphragm was 83.3% effective in preventing pregnancy. When pregnancies attributable to user failure were excluded, these rates were increased to 93.6% for the cap and 95.4% for the diaphragm. 4% of cap users compared with only 1.7% of diaphragm users in this study developed abnormal Pap smears after 3 months of use; in addition, a higher proportion of cap users became infected with Gardnerella vaginalis and Monilia. Theoretical hazards include toxic shock syndrome and endometriosis due to backflow of menstrual fluids. Cap users are advised to undergo a Pap test after 3 months of use and discontinue cap use if the results are abnormal. The cap should not be used during menstruation. Although the cap can be left in place for up to 48 hours, its position should be checked before and after each episode of intercourse. The cervical cap requires less spermicide than the diaphragm and is not as messy. In addition, it can be left in the vagina twice as long as the diaphragm, without additional spermicide. Since the cap is smaller than the diaphragm and does not cover the vaginal wall, some women find intercourse more pleasurable with this device.

  9. Rapid growth and photoluminescence properties of doped ZnS one-dimensional nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, R. F.; Feng, H. T.; Yan, D.; Chen, J. T.; Feng, J. J.; Liu, J. Z.; Yan, P. X.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper we report the synthesis of doped ZnS one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures by well-established technique of chemical vapor deposition using Zn and S powder as precursors. The ZnS 1D nanostructures were grown on the surface of Au particle-filled anodic aluminum oxide templates, catalyst-free graphite sheets and silicon substrates. ZnS 1D nanostructures with Mn, Cu and Fe as dopants were prepared via a rapid process of 15-20 min. The morphologies of ZnS nanostructures synthesized on different substrates and at different growth temperatures have distinct dissimilarities. The size of ZnS nanowires originated from the Au catalysts could be varied by altering the size of membrane nanopores as well as the embedded Au particles. Room-temperature photoluminescence measurements reveal strong blue, green and yellow-orange light emissions from the doped ZnS 1D nanostructures.

  10. Radioluminescence studies of colloidal oleate-capped β-Na(Gd,Lu)F4:Ln3+ nanoparticles (Ln = Ce, Eu, Tb).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Daniel R; Capobianco, John A; Seuntjens, Jan

    2018-04-26

    We report on the synthesis, characterization, and radioluminescence quantification of several new varieties of nanoparticles with the general composition β-NaLnF4, incorporating known luminescent activator/sensitizer pairs. Using Monte Carlo modeling to complement luminescence measurements, we have calculated the radioluminescence yields and intrinsic conversion efficiencies of colloidally-dispersed nanoparticles by comparison to an organic liquid scintillator. While five of the compositions had low to modest radioluminescence yields relative to bulk materials, colloidal β-Na(Lu0.65Gd0.2Tb0.15)F4 displayed a strong output of 39 460 photons per MeV absorbed, comparable to some of the best non-hygroscopic bulk crystal scintillators and X-ray phosphors such as Gd2O2S:Tb. Measurements of β-Na(Lu0.65Gd0.2Tb0.15)F4 powder samples revealed persistent luminescence as well as stable charge trapping, warranting further investigation.

  11. Preconcentration determination of arsenic species by sorption of As(V) on Amberlite IRA-410 coupled with fluorescence quenching of L-cysteine capped CdS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mohammad Saeid; Nazemi, Sahar

    2013-10-07

    A simple and accurate method for arsenic speciation analysis in natural and drinking water samples is described in which preconcentration of arsenic as As(V) was coupled with spectrofluorometric determination. The extracted As(V) species with a column containing Amberlite IRA-410 were subjected to L-cysteine capped CdS quantum dots (QDs) and the fluorescence quenching of the QDs due to reduction of As(V) by L-cysteine was considered as a signal relevant to As(V) concentration. The As(III) species were also determined after oxidation of As(III) ions to As(V) with H2O2 and measurement of the total arsenic content. In treatment with 400 mL portions of water samples containing 30 μg L(-1) As(V), the relative standard deviation was 2.8%. The detection limit of arsenic was also found to be 0.75 μg L(-1) (1 × 10(-8) M). The reliability of proposed method was confirmed using certified reference materials. The trace amounts of arsenic species were then determined in different water samples, satisfactorily.

  12. Optical properties of template synthesized nanowalled ZnS microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Chakarvarti, S. K.

    2007-12-01

    Electrodeposition is a versatile technique combining low processing cost with ambient conditions that can be used to prepare metallic, polymeric and semiconducting nano/micro structures. In the present work, track-etch membranes (TEMs) of makrofol (KG) have been used as templates for synthesis of ZnS nanowalled microtubules using electrodeposition technique. The morphology of the microtubules was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Size effects on the band gap of tubules have also been studied by UV-visible spectrophotometer.

  13. NaNO3/NaCl Oxidant and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Capped Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a Novel Green Route for AuNPs Detection in Electrochemical Biosensors.

    PubMed

    López-Marzo, Adaris M; Hoyos-de-la-Torre, Raquel; Baldrich, Eva

    2018-03-20

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been exploited as signal-producing tags in electrochemical biosensors. However, the electrochemical detection of AuNPs is currently performed using corrosive acid solutions, which may raise health and environmental concerns. Here, oxidant salts, and specifically the environmentally friendly and occupational safe NaNO 3 /NaCl mixture, have been evaluated for the first time as potential alternatives to the acid solutions traditionally used for AuNPs electrooxidation. In addition, a new strategy to improve the sensitivity of the biosensor through PEG-based ligand exchange to produce less compact and easier to oxidize AuNPs immunoconjugates is presented too. As we show, the electrochemical immunosensor using NaNO 3 /NaCl measurement solution for AuNPs electrooxidation and detection, coupled to the employment of PEG-capped nanoimmunoconjugates, produced results comparable to classical HCl detection. The procedure developed was next tested for human matrix metallopeptidase-9 (hMMP9) analysis, exhibiting a 0.18-23 ng/mL linear range, a detection limit of 0.06 ng/mL, and recoveries between 95 and 105% in spiked human plasma. These results show that the procedure developed is applicable to the analysis of protein biomarkers in blood plasma and could contribute to the development of more environmentally friendly AuNP-based electrochemical biosensors.

  14. Fluorescence analysis of 6-mercaptopurine with the use of a nano-composite consisting of BSA-capped Au nano-clusters and core-shell Fe3O4-SiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo; Wang, Yong; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2015-08-15

    A magnetic and fluorescent nano-composite was prepared. It comprised of a core of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs), a silica shell and satellitic Au nano-clusters (AuNCs) capped with bovine serum albumin (BSA). This nano-composite has many desirable properties, e.g. magnetism, red emission, high water solubility, and high resistance to photo-bleaching. On addition of the analyte, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) or indeed other similar thiols, AuNCs formed aggregates because the existing cross-links within the Fe3O4 NPs@SiO2 and AuNC structure were broken in favor of the gold-thiol bonds. On suitable irradiation of such aggregates, red fluorescence was emitted at 613 nm. It decreased significantly as a function of the added 6-MP concentration, and the quenching ratio (F0 - F) / F0 was related linearly to the concentration of 6-MP in the range of 0.01 to 0.5 μmol L(-1). The detection limit was 0.004 μmol L(-1) (S/N=3). The method was strongly selective for 6-MP in the presence of oxidants, phenols, heavy-metal ions, and especially bio-thiols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of optical properties and the photocatalytic activity of synthesized YbYO4 nanoparticles and YbVO4/NiWO4 nanocomposites by polymeric capping agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmasoud, Saeid; Sobhani-Nasab, Ali; Behpour, Mohsen; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Farhad

    2018-04-01

    YbVO4 nanoparticles YbVO4/NiWO4 nanocomposites were synthesized by simple and new method. The effect of various polymeric capping agents such as Tween 80, Tween 20 and PEG on the shape and size of YbVO4/NiWO4 nanocomposites were investigated. YbVO4/NiWO4 nanocomposites were analyzed through some techniques including, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetry differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission electron microscopy (FESEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This attempt is the first study on the photocatalytic performance of the YbVO4/NiWO4 nanocomposites in various conditions such as size of particles and kind of dyes (rhodamine B (Rh B), methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), and phenol red (Ph R)), under visible light.

  16. Nonlinear optical characterization of ZnS thin film synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G, Sreeja V.; V, Sabitha P.; Anila, E. I.; R, Reshmi; John, Manu Punnan; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2014-10-01

    ZnS thin film was prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction method and Z scan technique. XRD pattern showed that ZnS thin film has hexagonal structure with an average size of about 5.6nm. The nonlinear optical properties of ZnS thin film was studied by open aperture Z-Scan technique using Q-switched Nd-Yag Laser at 532nm. The Z-scan plot showed that the investigated ZnS thin film has saturable absorption behavior. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity were also estimated.

  17. Luminescence characteristics of impurities-activated ZnS nanocrystals prepared in microemulsion with hydrothermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. J.; Chua, S. J.; Liu, B.; Gan, L. M.; Chew, C. H.; Xu, G. Q.

    1998-07-01

    Cu-, Eu-, or Mn-doped ZnS nanocrystalline phosphors were prepared at room temperature using a chemical synthesis method. Transmission electron microscopy observation shows that the size of the ZnS clusters is in the 3-18 nm range. New luminescence characteristics such as strong and stable visible-light emissions with different colors were observed from the doped ZnS nanocrystals at room temperature. These results strongly suggest that impurities, especially transition metals and rare-earth metals-activated ZnS nanoclusters form a new class of luminescent materials.

  18. Method for removing strongly adsorbed surfactants and capping agents from metal to facilitate their catalytic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Adzic, Radoslav R.; Gong, Kuanping; Cai, Yun

    A method of synthesizing activated electrocatalyst, preferably having a morphology of a nanostructure, is disclosed. The method includes safely and efficiently removing surfactants and capping agents from the surface of the metal structures. With regard to metal nanoparticles, the method includes synthesis of nanoparticle(s) in polar or non-polar solution with surfactants or capping agents and subsequent activation by CO-adsorption-induced surfactant/capping agent desorption and electrochemical oxidation. The method produces activated macroparticle or nanoparticle electrocatalysts without damaging the surface of the electrocatalyst that includes breaking, increasing particle thickness or increasing the number of low coordination sites.

  19. Dual-Enzyme Characteristics of Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Capped Iridium Nanoparticles and Their Cellular Protective Effect against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage.

    PubMed

    Su, Hua; Liu, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Meng; Hu, Wei-Liang; Xue, Shan-Shan; Cao, Qian; Le, Xue-Yi; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2015-04-22

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilized iridium nanoparticles (PVP-IrNPs), synthesized by the facile alcoholic reduction method using abundantly available PVP as protecting agents, were first reported as enzyme mimics showing intrinsic catalase- and peroxidase-like activities. The preparation procedure was much easier and more importantly, kinetic studies found that the catalytic activity of PVP-IrNPs was comparable to previously reported platinum nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicated that PVP-IrNPs had the average size of approximately 1.5 nm and mainly consisted of Ir(0) chemical state. The mechanism of PVP-IrNPs' dual-enzyme activities was investigated using XPS, Electron spin resonance (ESR) and cytochrome C-based electron transfer methods. The catalase-like activity was related to the formation of oxidized species Ir(0)@IrO2 upon reaction with H2O2. The peroxidase-like activity originated from their ability acting as electron transfer mediators during the catalysis cycle, without the production of hydroxyl radicals. Interestingly, the protective effect of PVP-IrNPs against H2O2-induced cellular oxidative damage was investigated in an A549 lung cancer cell model and PVP-IrNPs displayed excellent biocompatibility and antioxidant activity. Upon pretreatment of cells with PVP-IrNPs, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in response to H2O2 was decreased and the cell viability increased. This work will facilitate studies on the mechanism and biomedical application of nanomaterials-based enzyme mimic.

  20. Graphene transforms wide band gap ZnS to a visible light photocatalyst. The new role of graphene as a macromolecular photosensitizer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhui; Zhang, Nan; Tang, Zi-Rong; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2012-11-27

    We report the assembly of nanosized ZnS particles on the 2D platform of a graphene oxide (GO) sheet by a facile two-step wet chemistry process, during which the reduced graphene oxide (RGO, also called GR) and the intimate interfacial contact between ZnS nanoparticles and the GR sheet are achieved simultaneously. The ZnS-GR nanocomposites exhibit visible light photoactivity toward aerobic selective oxidation of alcohols and epoxidation of alkenes under ambient conditions. In terms of structure-photoactivity correlation analysis, we for the first time propose a new photocatalytic mechanism where the role of GR in the ZnS-GR nanocomposites acts as an organic dye-like macromolecular "photosensitizer" for ZnS instead of an electron reservoir. This novel photocatalytic mechanism is distinctly different from all previous research on GR-semiconductor photocatalysts, for which GR is claimed to behave as an electron reservoir to capture/shuttle the electrons photogenerated from the semiconductor. This new concept of the reaction mechanism in graphene-semiconductor photocatalysts could provide a new train of thought on designing GR-based composite photocatalysts for targeting applications in solar energy conversion, promoting our in-depth thinking on the microscopic charge carrier transfer pathway connected to the interface between the GR and the semiconductor.

  1. The Crystal Structure of Micro- and Nanopowders of ZnS Studied by EPR of Mn2+ and XRD.

    PubMed

    Nosenko, Valentyna; Vorona, Igor; Grachev, Valentyn; Ishchenko, Stanislav; Baran, Nikolai; Becherikov, Yurii; Zhuk, Anton; Polishchuk, Yuliya; Kladko, Vasyl; Selishchev, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    The crystal structure of micro- and nanopowders of ZnS doped with different impurities was analyzed by the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of Mn 2+ and XRD methods. The powders of ZnS:Cu, ZnS:Mn, ZnS:Co, and ZnS:Eu with the particle sizes of 5-7 μm, 50-200 nm, 7-10 μm, and 5-7 nm, respectively, were studied. Manganese was incorporated in the crystal lattice of all the samples as uncontrolled impurity or by doping. The Mn 2+ ions were used as EPR structural probes. It is found that the ZnS:Cu has the cubic structure, the ZnS:Mn has the hexagonal structure with a rhombic distortion, the ZnS:Co is the mixture of the cubic and hexagonal phases in the ratio of 1:10, and the ZnS:Eu has the cubic structure and a distorted cubic structure with stacking defects in the ratio 3:1. The EPR technique is shown to be a powerful tool in the determination of the crystal structure for mixed-polytype ZnS powders and powders with small nanoparticles. It allows observation of the stacking defects, which is revealed in the XRD spectra.

  2. Single crystalline wurtzite ZnO/zinc blende ZnS coaxial heterojunctions and hollow zinc blende ZnS nanotubes: synthesis, structural characterization and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xing; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Fan, Hua; Xie, Zai-lai; Wang, Lei; Klein-Hoffmann, Achim; Girgsdies, Frank; Lee, Chun-Sing; Meng, Xiang-Min

    2014-08-07

    Synthesis of ZnO/ZnS heterostructures under thermodynamic conditions generally results in the wurtzite (WZ) structure of the ZnS component because its WZ phase is thermodynamically more stable than its zinc blende (ZB) phase. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of ZnO/ZnS coaxial nanocables composed of single crystalline ZB structured ZnS epitaxially grown on WZ ZnO via a two-step thermal evaporation method. The deposition temperature is believed to play a crucial role in determining the crystalline phase of ZnS. Through a systematic structural analysis, the ZnO core and the ZnS shell are found to have an orientation relationship of (0002)ZnO(WZ)//(002)ZnS(ZB) and [01-10]ZnO(WZ)//[2-20]ZnS(ZB). Observation of the coaxial nanocables in cross-section reveals the formation of voids between the ZnO core and the ZnS shell during the coating process, which is probably associated with the nanoscale Kirkendall effect known to result in porosity. Furthermore, by immersing the ZnO/ZnS nanocable heterojunctions in an acetic acid solution to etch away the inner ZnO cores, single crystalline ZnS nanotubes orientated along the [001] direction of the ZB structure were also achieved for the first time. Finally, optical properties of the hollow ZnS tubes were investigated and discussed in detail. We believe that our study could provide some insights into the controlled fabrication of one dimensional (1D) semiconductors with desired morphology, structure and composition at the nanoscale, and the synthesized WZ ZnO/ZB ZnS nanocables as well as ZB ZnS nanotubes could be ideal candidates for the study of optoelectronics based on II-VI semiconductors.

  3. New insight into the ZnO sulfidation reaction: mechanism and kinetics modeling of the ZnS outward growth.

    PubMed

    Neveux, Laure; Chiche, David; Pérez-Pellitero, Javier; Favergeon, Loïc; Gay, Anne-Sophie; Pijolat, Michèle

    2013-02-07

    Zinc oxide based materials are commonly used for the final desulfurization of synthesis gas in Fischer-Tropsch based XTL processes. Although the ZnO sulfidation reaction has been widely studied, little is known about the transformation at the crystal scale, its detailed mechanism and kinetics. A model ZnO material with well-determined characteristics (particle size and shape) has been synthesized to perform this study. Characterizations of sulfided samples (using XRD, TEM and electron diffraction) have shown the formation of oriented polycrystalline ZnS nanoparticles with a predominant hexagonal form (wurtzite phase). TEM observations also have evidenced an outward development of the ZnS phase, showing zinc and oxygen diffusion from the ZnO-ZnS internal interface to the surface of the ZnS particle. The kinetics of ZnO sulfidation by H(2)S has been investigated using isothermal and isobaric thermogravimetry. Kinetic tests have been performed that show that nucleation of ZnS is instantaneous compared to the growth process. A reaction mechanism composed of eight elementary steps has been proposed to account for these results, and various possible rate laws have been determined upon approximation of the rate-determining step. Thermogravimetry experiments performed in a wide range of H(2)S and H(2)O partial pressures have shown that the ZnO sulfidation reaction rate has a nonlinear variation with H(2)S partial pressure at the same time no significant influence of water vapor on reaction kinetics has been observed. From these observations, a mixed kinetics of external interface reaction with water desorption and oxygen diffusion has been determined to control the reaction kinetics and the proposed mechanism has been validated. However, the formation of voids at the ZnO-ZnS internal interface, characterized by TEM and electron tomography, strongly slows down the reaction rate. Therefore, the impact of the decreasing ZnO-ZnS internal interface on reaction kinetics has been

  4. Nucleation and characterization of hydroxyapatite on thioglycolic acid-capped reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles in simplified simulated body fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Zhaochun; Yu, Zhenwei; He, Zhenni; Yang, Shanshan; Jiang, Huiyi

    2014-01-01

    Herein hydroxyapatite (HA) has been synthesized by the nucleation on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles (rGO/AgNPs) chemisorbed with thioglycolic acid (TGA). The self-assembled monolayer of TGA formed on rGO/AgNPs was immersed in simplified simulated body fluid under gentle growth conditions, forming rGO/AgNPs/TGA/HA biocomposite. The phase structures and functional groups of biocomposite were analyzed by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Enhanced Raman spectrum of TGA on prepared rGO/AgNPs was obtained with excitation at 633 nm, showing that TGA was chemisorbed on AgNPs through S atom and TGA molecular plane exhibited a tilted orientation with respect to AgNPs. The morphologies of biocomposite were investigated by means of atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrum. Analysis shows that the AgNPs uniformly distributed on the rGO nanosheets with the size of about 15-20 nm and HA formation initiated through Ca2+-adsorption upon complexation with sbnd COO- groups of TGA on AgNPs. The results obtained indicated that the rGO/AgNPs/TGA/HA biocomposite may have immense potential application in bone tissue engineering fields for its outstanding and stable activities.

  5. Self-assembly and alignment of semiconductor nanoparticles on cellulose nanocrystals

    Treesearch

    Sonal Padalkar; Jeff R. Capadona; Stuart J. Rowan; Christoph Weder; Robert J. Moon; Lia A. Stanciu

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS), zinc sulfide (ZnS), and lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticle chains on cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) templates can be accomplished by the reaction of the precursor salts. The use of a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was critical for the synthesis of well-defined semiconductor nanoparticle chains on the...

  6. Structure and photoluminescence properties of ZnS films grown on porous Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cai-feng; Hu, Bo; Yi, Hou-hui; Li, Wei-bing

    2011-11-01

    ZnS films were deposited on porous silicon (PS) substrates with different porosities. With the increase of PS substrate porosity, the XRD diffraction peak intensity decreases and the surface morphology of the ZnS films becomes rougher. Voids appear in the films, due to the increased roughness of PS structure. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the samples before and after deposition of ZnS were measured to study the effect of substrate porosity on the luminescence properties of ZnS/PS composites. As-prepared PS substrates emit strong red light. The red PL peak of PS after deposition of ZnS shows an obvious blueshift. As PS substrate porosity increases, the trend of blueshift increases. A green emission at about 550 nm was also observed when the porosity of PS increased, which is ascribed to the defect-center luminescence of ZnS. The effect of annealing time on the structural and luminescence properties of ZnS/PS composites were also studied. With the increase of annealing time, the XRD diffraction peak intensity and the self-activated luminescence intensity of ZnS increase, and, the surface morphology of the ZnS films becomes smooth and compact. However, the red emission intensity of PS decreases, which was associated with a redshift. White light emission was obtained by combining the luminescence of ZnS with the luminescence of PS.

  7. Growth and characterization of high quality ZnS thin films by RF sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, C.; Rajiv, K.; Gupta, P.; Sinha, A. K.; Abhinandan, L.

    2012-06-01

    High optical quality ZnS films are deposited on glass and Si wafer by RF sputtering from pure ZnS target. Optical transmittance, reflectance, ellipsometry, FTIR and AFM measurements are carried out. Effect of substrate temperature and chamber baking for long duration on film properties have been studied. Roughness of the films as measured by AFM are low (1-2Å).

  8. Room-temperature phosphorescence chemosensor and Rayleigh scattering chemodosimeter dual-recognition probe for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene based on manganese-doped ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wen-Sheng; Sheng, Dong; Ge, Xin; Qiao, Jun-Qin; Lian, Hong-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Rayleigh scattering (RS) as an interference factor to detection sensitivity in ordinary fluorescence spectrometry is always avoided in spite of considerable efforts toward the development of RS-based resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) techniques. Here, combining advantages of quantum dots (QDs) including chemical modification of functional groups and the installation of recognition receptors at their surfaces with those of phosphorescence such as the avoidance of autofluorescence and scattering light, l-cys-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs have been synthesized and used for room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) to sense and for RS chemodosimetry to image ultratrace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in water. The l-cys-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs interdots aggregate with TNT species induced by the formation of Meisenheimer complexes (MHCs) through acid-base pairing interaction between l-cys and TNT, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interaction between l-cys intermolecules. Although the resultant MHCs may quench the fluorescence at 430 nm, interdots aggregation can greatly influence the light scattering property of the aqueous QDs system, and therefore, dominant RS enhancement at defect-related emission wavelength was observed under the excitation of violet light of Mn-doped ZnS QDs, which was applied in chemodosimetry to image TNT in water. Meanwhile, Mn-doped ZnS QDs also exhibited a highly selective response to the quenching of the (4)T(1)-(6)A(1) transition emission (RTP) and showed a very good linearity in the range of 0.0025-0.45 μM TNT with detection limit down to 0.8 nM and RSD of 2.3% (n = 5). The proposed methods are well-suited for detecting the ultratrace TNT and distinguishing different nitro compounds.

  9. A Post-synthetic Modification of II–VI Nanoparticles to Create Tb3+ and Eu3+ Luminophores

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Prasun; Sloan, Robin F.; Shade, Chad M.; Waldeck, David H.; Petoud, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel method for creating luminescent lanthanide-containing nanoparticles in which the lanthanide cations are sensitized by the semiconductor nanoparticle’s electronic excitation. In contrast to previous strategies, this new approach creates such materials by addition of external salt to a solution of fully formed nanoparticles. We demonstrate this post-synthetic modification for the lanthanide luminescence sensitization of two visible emitting lanthanides (Ln), Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions, through ZnS nanoparticles in which the cations were added post-synthetically as external Ln(NO3)3·xH2O salt to solutions of ZnS nanoparticles. The post-synthetically treated ZnS nanoparticle systems display Tb3+ and Eu3+ luminescence intensities that are comparable to those of doped Zn(Ln)S nanoparticles, which we reported previously (J. Phys. Chem. A, 2011, 115, 4031–4041). A comparison with the synthetically doped systems is used to contrast the spatial distribution of the lanthanide ions, bulk versus surface localized. The post-synthetic strategy described in this work is fundamentally different from the synthetic incorporation (doping) approach and offers a rapid and less synthetically demanding protocol for Tb3+:ZnS and Eu3+:ZnS luminophores, thereby facilitating their use in a broad range of applications. PMID:23997842

  10. Magnetic/NIR-responsive drug carrier, multicolor cell imaging, and enhanced photothermal therapy of gold capped magnetite-fluorescent carbon hybrid nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Cao, Guixin; Gai, Zheng

    In our paper reports a type of multifunctional hybrid nanoparticle (NP) composed of gold nanocrystals coated on and/or embedded in a magnetite-fluorescent porous carbon core-shell NP template (Fe 3O 4@PC-CDs-Au) for biomedical applications, including magnetic/NIR-responsive drug release, multicolor cell imaging, and enhanced photothermal therapy. The synthesis of the Fe 3O 4@PC-CDs-Au NPs firstly involves the preparation of core-shell template NPs with magnetite nanocrystals clustered in the cores and fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) embedded in a porous carbon shell, followed by an in situ reduction of silver ions (Ag +) loaded in the porous carbon shell and a subsequent replacement ofmore » Ag NPs with Au NPs through a galvanic replacement reaction using HAuCl 4 as a precursor. Moreover, the Fe 3O 4@PC-CDsAu NPs can enter the intracellular region and light up mouse melanoma B16F10 cells in multicolor mode. The porous carbon shell, anchored with hydrophilic hydroxyl/carboxyl groups, endows the Fe 3O 4@PC-CDs-Au NPs with excellent stability in the aqueous phase and a high loading capacity (719 mg g -1) for the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4@PC-CDs-Au NPs with a saturation magnetization of 23.26 emu g -1 produce localized heat under an alternating magnetic field, which triggers the release of the loaded drug. The combined photothermal effects of the Au nanocrystals and the CDs on/in the carbon shell can not only regulate the release rate of the loaded drug, but also efficiently kill tumor cells under NIR irradiation. Finally, in benefitting from their excellent optical properties, their magnetic field and NIR light-responsive drug release capabilities and their enhanced photothermal effect, such nanostructured Fe 3O 4@PC-CDs-Au hybrid NPs are very promising for simultaneous imaging diagnostics and high efficacy therapy.« less

  11. Magnetic/NIR-responsive drug carrier, multicolor cell imaging, and enhanced photothermal therapy of gold capped magnetite-fluorescent carbon hybrid nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hui; Cao, Guixin; Gai, Zheng; ...

    2015-03-25

    In our paper reports a type of multifunctional hybrid nanoparticle (NP) composed of gold nanocrystals coated on and/or embedded in a magnetite-fluorescent porous carbon core-shell NP template (Fe 3O 4@PC-CDs-Au) for biomedical applications, including magnetic/NIR-responsive drug release, multicolor cell imaging, and enhanced photothermal therapy. The synthesis of the Fe 3O 4@PC-CDs-Au NPs firstly involves the preparation of core-shell template NPs with magnetite nanocrystals clustered in the cores and fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) embedded in a porous carbon shell, followed by an in situ reduction of silver ions (Ag +) loaded in the porous carbon shell and a subsequent replacement ofmore » Ag NPs with Au NPs through a galvanic replacement reaction using HAuCl 4 as a precursor. Moreover, the Fe 3O 4@PC-CDsAu NPs can enter the intracellular region and light up mouse melanoma B16F10 cells in multicolor mode. The porous carbon shell, anchored with hydrophilic hydroxyl/carboxyl groups, endows the Fe 3O 4@PC-CDs-Au NPs with excellent stability in the aqueous phase and a high loading capacity (719 mg g -1) for the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4@PC-CDs-Au NPs with a saturation magnetization of 23.26 emu g -1 produce localized heat under an alternating magnetic field, which triggers the release of the loaded drug. The combined photothermal effects of the Au nanocrystals and the CDs on/in the carbon shell can not only regulate the release rate of the loaded drug, but also efficiently kill tumor cells under NIR irradiation. Finally, in benefitting from their excellent optical properties, their magnetic field and NIR light-responsive drug release capabilities and their enhanced photothermal effect, such nanostructured Fe 3O 4@PC-CDs-Au hybrid NPs are very promising for simultaneous imaging diagnostics and high efficacy therapy.« less

  12. nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanoclusters of ZnS Comprised on Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Liu, Xianjie; Willander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide cationic (CTAB) surfactant was used as template for the synthesis of nanoclusters of ZnS composed of nanowires, by hydrothermal method. The structural and morphological studies were performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The synthesized ZnS nanoclusters are composed of nanowires and high yield on the substrate was observed. The ZnS nanocrystalline consists of hexagonal phase and polycrystalline in nature. The chemical composition of ZnS nanoclusters composed of nanowires was studied by X-ray photo electron microscopy (XPS). This investigation has shown that the ZnS nanoclusters are composed of Zn and S atoms. PMID:28348350

  14. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanoclusters of ZnS Comprised on Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Liu, Xianjie; Willander, Magnus

    2013-09-09

    Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide cationic (CTAB) surfactant was used as template for the synthesis of nanoclusters of ZnS composed of nanowires, by hydrothermal method. The structural and morphological studies were performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The synthesized ZnS nanoclusters are composed of nanowires and high yield on the substrate was observed. The ZnS nanocrystalline consists of hexagonal phase and polycrystalline in nature. The chemical composition of ZnS nanoclusters composed of nanowires was studied by X-ray photo electron microscopy (XPS). This investigation has shown that the ZnS nanoclusters are composed of Zn and S atoms.

  15. Field emission and photoluminescence characteristics of ZnS nanowires via vapor phase growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yongqin; Wang, Mingwei; Chen, Xihong; Ni, Saili; Qiang, Weijing

    2007-05-01

    Large-area ZnS nanowires were synthesized through a vapor phase deposition method. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy results show that the products are composed of single crystalline ZnS nanowires with a cubic structure. The nanowires have sharp tips and are distributed uniformly on silicon substrates. The diameter of the bases is in the range of 320-530 nm and that of the tips is around 20-30 nm. The strong ultraviolet emission in the photoluminescence spectra also demonstrates that the ZnS nanowires are of high crystalline perfection. Field emission measurements reveal that the ZnS nanowires have a fairly low threshold field, which may be ascribed to their very sharp tips, rough surfaces and high crystal quality. The perfect field emission ability of the ZnS nanowires makes them a promising candidate for the fabrication of flexible cold cathodes.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: cap myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Cap myopathy Cap myopathy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Cap myopathy is a disorder that primarily affects skeletal ...

  17. Curved cap corrugated sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. C.; Bales, T. T.; Royster, D. M.; Jackson, L. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The report describes a structure for a strong, lightweight corrugated sheet. The sheet is planar or curved and includes a plurality of corrugation segments, each segment being comprised of a generally U-shaped corrugation with a part-cylindrical crown and cap strip, and straight side walls and with secondary corrugations oriented at right angles to said side walls. The cap strip is bonded to the crown and the longitudinal edge of said cap strip extends beyond edge at the intersection between said crown and said side walls. The high strength relative to weight of the structure makes it desirable for use in aircraft or spacecraft.

  18. Amine-capped ZnS-Mn2+ nanocrystals for fluorescence detection of trace TNT explosive.

    PubMed

    Tu, Renyong; Liu, Bianhua; Wang, Zhenyang; Gao, Daming; Wang, Feng; Fang, Qunling; Zhang, Zhongping

    2008-05-01

    Mn2+-doped ZnS nanocrystals with an amine-capping layer have been synthesized and used for the fluorescence detection of ultratrace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) by quenching the strong orange Mn2+ photoluminescence. The organic amine-capped nanocrystals can bind TNT species from solution and atmosphere by the acid-base pairing interaction between electron-rich amino ligands and electron-deficient aromatic rings. The resultant TNT anions bound onto the amino monolayer can efficiently quench the Mn2+ photoluminescence through the electron transfer from the conductive band of ZnS to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of TNT anions. The amino ligands provide an amplified response to the binding events of nitroaromatic compounds by the 2- to approximately 5-fold increase in quenching constants. Moreover, a large difference in quenching efficiency was observed for different types of nitroaromatic analytes, dependent on the affinity of nitro analytes to the amino monolayer and their electron-accepting abilities. The amine-capped nanocrystals can sensitively detect down to 1 nM TNT in solution or several parts-per-billion of TNT vapor in atmosphere. The ion-doped nanocrystal sensors reported here show a remarkable air/solution stability, high quantum yield, and strong analyte affinity and, therefore, are well-suited for detecting the ultratrace TNT and distinguishing different nitro compounds.

  19. Preparation of ZnS microdisks using chemical bath deposition and ZnS/p-Si heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Y. J.; Meen, T. H.; Ji, L. W.; Tsai, J. K.; Wu, Y. S.; Huang, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    The synthesis and heterojunction solar cell properties of ZnS microdisks prepared by the chemical bath deposition method were investigated. The ZnS deposited on the p-Si blanket substrate exhibits good coverage. The lower reflectance spectra were found as the thickness of the ZnS film increased. The optical absorption spectra of the 80 °C ZnS microdisk exhibited a band-gap energy of 3.4 eV and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the AZO/ZnS/p-Si heterojunction solar cell with a 300 nm thick ZnS film was η=2.72%.

  20. A Facile Hydrothermal Route for Synthesis of ZnS Hollow Spheres with Photocatalytic Degradation of Dyes Under Visible Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zh.; Wang, N.; Zhang, H.; Yang, X.

    2017-01-01

    A facile hydrothermal method was employed for the synthesis of ZnS hollow spheres by using thioglycolic acid (TGA) as a capping agent under hydrothermal condition. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). No diffraction peaks from other crystalline forms were detected, the synthesized ZnS hierarchical hollow spheres were relatively pure. The photocatalytic activities of as-synthesized samples were evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and rhodamine B (RhB) under the condition of visible-light irradiation. The higher the initial MO and RhB concentrations, the longer it takes to reach the same residual concentration, implying that the apparent rates of MO and RhB degradation decrease with increase in the initial MO and RhB concentration. The increase of photocatalyst dosage from 0.2 to 0.6 g/L results in a sharp increase of the photodegradation efficiency from 68.50 to 92.66% after 180 min of visible-light irradiation for MO degradation, and the increase of photocatalyst dosage from 0.2 to 0.4 g/L results in a distinct increase of the photodegradation efficiency from 65.72 to 90.85% after 180 min of visible-light irradiation for RhB. The elution of intermediates generated in the photocatalytic mineralization of MO and RhB resulted in an increase in total organic carbon (TOC) level, leading to the difference between TOC removal rate and MO and RhB decolorization rates.

  1. CENTRIFUGE END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

    1960-08-01

    An end cap for ultra-gas centrifuges is designed to impart or remove angular momentum to or from the gas and to bring the entering gas to the temperature of the gas inside the centrifuge. The end cap is provided with slots or fins for adjusting the temperature and the angular momentum of the entering gas to the temperature and momentum of the gas in the centrifuge and is constructed to introduce both the inner and the peripheral stream into the centrifuge.

  2. ROTOR END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1959-02-01

    An improved end cap is described for the cylindrical rotor or bowl of a high-speed centrifugal separator adapted to permit free and efficient continuous counter current flow of gas therethrough for isotope separation. The end cap design provides for securely mounting the same to the hollow central shaft and external wall of the centrifuge. Passageways are incorporated and so arranged as to provide for continuous counter current flow of the light and heavy portions of the gas fed to the centrifuge.

  3. Outstanding features of Cu-doped ZnS nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Wael Z.; Farghali, A. A.; Moneim, Ahmed; Imam, N. G.; El-Dek, S. I.

    2018-05-01

    ZnS and their Cu-doped nanoclusters (NCs) were synthesized successfully using the wet chemical route with different Cu content. The crystalline structure was investigated using x-ray powder diffraction which assured the single-phase formation in cubic symmetry. High-resolution transmission electron microscope indicated the microstructure of NCs with a size ranging from 2–4 nm. A butterfly hysteresis (M-H) loop was observed at room temperature with large values of coercivity for the Cu content of x = 0.05. Photoluminescence emission spectra were recorded from 500–615 nm for pure and Cu-doped ZnS NCs at a 350 nm excitation wavelength. The sample exhibited green fluorescence bands peaking at 535, 544, 552.5, 558.2, and 560.6 nm, which confirmed the characteristic feature of Zn2+ as luminescent centers in the lattice. The additional yellow and orange emissions are due to defect levels or/and impurity centers. The dielectric constant as well as the conductivity values increased with increasing Cu content.

  4. Liquid-Phase Epitaxial Growth of ZnS, ZnSe and Their Mixed Compounds Using Te as Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hiroshi; Aoki, Masaharu

    1981-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of ZnS, ZnSe and their mixed compounds were grown on ZnS substrates by the liquid-phase epitaxial growth (LPE) method using Te as the solvent. The open-tube slide-boat technique was used, and a suitable starting temperature for growth was found to be 850°C for ZnS and 700-800°C for ZnSe. The ZnS epitaxial layers grown on {111}A and {111}B oriented ZnS substrates were thin (˜1 μm) and smooth, had low, uniform Te concentrations (˜0.1 at.%) and were highly luminescent. The ZnSe epitaxial layers were relatively thick (10-30 μm) and had fairly high Te concentrations (a few at.%). Various mixed compound ZnS1-xSex were also grown on ZnS substrates.

  5. Influence of plasmon coupling on the photoluminescence of ZnS/Ag nanoparticles obtained by laser irradiation in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moos, Rafaela; Graff, Ismael L.; de Oliveira, Vinicius S.; Schreiner, Wido H.; Bezerra, Arandi G.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the photoluminescence, optical absorption and structural properties of ZnS submitted to laser irradiation in water and isopropyl alcohol. Nanoparticles were produced by irradiating micro-sized ZnS particles dispersed in both liquids, with and without the addition of Ag nanoparticles, taking advantage of the laser-assisted fragmentation effect. When ZnS microparticles are irradiated either in pure water or isopropyl alcohol a considerable size reduction is achieved (from micra to few nanometers). The photoluminescence of these nanoparticles mainly occurs in the UV, centered at 350 nm, and with smaller intensity in the visible, centered at 600 nm. Irradiation of ZnS microparticles dispersed in colloidal silver triggers a reaction between both materials, modifying its optical absorption and photoluminescent properties. After irradiation of ZnS in alcohol containing Ag nanoparticles, a giant increase of the UV photoluminescence is observed. Interestingly, when the irradiation is performed in aqueous Ag nanoparticles colloids, the photoluminescence suffers a red-shift towards the violet-blue. The data show that core-shell (Ag-ZnO) nanostructures are formed after irradiation and the visible emission likely originates from the ZnO shell grown around silver nanoparticles. The presence of Ag nanoparticles in the liquid medium promotes a stronger absorption of the laser beam during irradiation due to the coupling with the surface plasmon resonance, fostering intense reactions among ZnS, Ag nanoparticles, and the liquid medium. Our study shows that with a simple change of the liquid medium wherein the irradiation is conducted the photoluminescence can be tuned from UV to visible and core-shell nanostructures can be obtained.

  6. [Preparation and transmissivity of ZnS nanocolumn thin films with glancing angle deposition technology].

    PubMed

    Lu, Li-Fang; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Fu-Jun; Zhao, Su-Ling; Song, Dan-Dan; Li, Jun-Ming; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Xu-Rong

    2010-02-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnS thin films were fabricated by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technology in an electron beam evaporation system. Deposition was carried out in the custom vacuum chamber at a base pressure 3 x 10(-4) Pa, and the deposition rate was fixed at 0.2 nm x s(-1). ZnS films were deposited on pieces of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates when the oblique angle of the substrate relative to the incoming molecular flux was set to 0 degrees, 80 degrees and 85 degrees off the substrate normal respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that ZnS nanocrystalline films were formed on the substrates at different oblique angle, but the nanocolumn structure was only formed under the situation of alpha = 80 degrees and 85 degrees. The dynamics during the deposition process of the ZnS films at alpha = 0 degrees, 80 degrees and 85 degrees was analyzed. The transmitted spectra of ZnS thin films deposited on ITO substrates showed that the ZnS nanocolumn thin films could enhance the transmissivity in visible range. The ZnS nanocolumn could be used into electroluminescence device, and it would enhance the luminous efficiency of the device.

  7. Morphology and crystallinity of ZnS nanocolumns prepared by glancing angle deposition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lifang; Zhang, Fujun; Xu, Zheng; Zhao, Suling; Wang, Yongsheng

    2010-03-01

    ZnS films with different morphologies and nanometer structures were fabricated via high vacuum electron beam deposition by changing the oblique angle alpha between the incoming particle flux and the substrate normal. The morphology and crystallinity of ZnS nanocrystalline films prepared on the substrates at alpha = 0 degrees and 80 degrees were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction. These experimental results show that the ZnS nanocolumn structure was formed at the situation of alpha = 80 degrees. The incidence angle also strongly influenced the crystallinity of thin films. The most intensive diffraction peaks changed from (220) to (111) when the incidence angle was set to 0 degrees and 80 degrees. The dynamic growth process of ZnS films at alpha = 0 degrees and 80 degrees has been analyzed by shadow effect and atomic surface diffusion. The transmittance spectra of the ZnS thin films prepared at different oblique angles were measured, and the transmissivity of ZnS nanocolumn thin films was enhanced compared with ZnS thin films prepared by normal deposition in the visible light range.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of spin-coated ZnS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, M. Burhanuz; Chandel, Tarun; Dehury, Kshetramohan; Rajaram, P.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report synthesis of ZnS thin films using a sol-gel method. A unique aprotic solvent, dimethlysulphoxide (DMSO) has been used to obtain a homogeneous ZnS gel. Zinc acetate and thiourea were used as the precursor sources for Zn and S, respectively, to deposit nanocrystalline ZnS thin films. Optical, structural and morphological properties of the films were studied. Optical studies reveal high transmittance of the samples over the entire visible region. The energy band gap (Eg) for the ZnS thin films is found to be about 3.6 eV which matches with that of bulk ZnS. The interference fringes in transmissions spectrum show the high quality of synthesized samples. Strong photoluminescence peak in the UV region makes the films suitable for optoelectronic applications. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that sol-gel derived ZnS thin films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal structure. SEM studies confirmed that the ZnS films show smooth and uniform grains morphology having size in 20-25 nm range. The EDAX studies confirmed that the films are nearly stoichiometric.

  9. Phase transformation from cubic ZnS to hexagonal ZnO by thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, K.; Asghar, M.; Amin, N.; Ali, Adnan

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of phase transformation from ZnS to hexagonal ZnO by high-temperature thermal annealing. The ZnS thin films were grown on Si (001) substrate by thermal evaporation system using ZnS powder as source material. The grown films were annealed at different temperatures and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), four-point probe, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX). The results demonstrated that as-deposited ZnS film has mixed phases but high-temperature annealing leads to transition from ZnS to ZnO. The observed result can be explained as a two-step process: (1) high-energy O atoms replaced S atoms in lattice during annealing process, and (2) S atoms diffused into substrate and/or diffused out of the sample. The dissociation energy of ZnS calculated from the Arrhenius plot of 1000/T versus log (resistivity) was found to be 3.1 eV. PL spectra of as-grown sample exhibits a characteristic green emission at 2.4 eV of ZnS but annealed samples consist of band-to-band and defect emission of ZnO at 3.29 eV and 2.5 eV respectively. SEM and EDX measurements were additionally performed to strengthen the argument.

  10. The pure rotational spectrum of ZnS (X 1Σ +)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, L. N.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2009-10-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of ZnS (X 1Σ +) has been measured using direct-absorption millimeter/sub-millimeter techniques in the frequency range 372-471 GHz. This study is the first spectroscopic investigation of this molecule. Spectra originating in four zinc isotopologues ( 64ZnS, 66ZnS, 68ZnS, and 67ZnS) were recorded in natural abundance in the ground vibrational state, and data from the v = 1 state were also measured for the two most abundant zinc species. Spectroscopic constants have been subsequently determined, and equilibrium parameters have been estimated. The equilibrium bond length was calculated to be re ˜ 2.0464 Å, which agrees well with theoretical predictions. In contrast, the dissociation energy of DE ˜ 3.12 eV calculated for ZnS, assuming a Morse potential, was significantly higher than past experimental and theoretical estimates, suggesting diabatic interaction with other potentials that lower the effective dissociation energy. Although ZnS is isovalent with ZnO, there appear to be subtle differences in bonding between the two species, as suggested by their respective force constants and bond length trends in the 3d series.

  11. CAPS Simulation Environment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Douglas G.; Hoffman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The final design for an effective Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) will likely come after a number of competing designs have been simulated and evaluated. Because of the large number of design parameters involved in a system capable of detecting an object, accurately determining its orbit, and diverting the impact threat, a comprehensive simulation environment will be an extremely valuable tool for the CAPS designers. A successful simulation/design tool will aid the user in identifying the critical parameters in the system and eventually allow for automatic optimization of the design once the relationships of the key parameters are understood. A CAPS configuration will consist of space-based detectors whose purpose is to scan the celestial sphere in search of objects likely to make a close approach to Earth and to determine with the greatest possible accuracy the orbits of those objects. Other components of a CAPS configuration may include systems for modifying the orbits of approaching objects, either for the purpose of preventing a collision or for positioning the object into an orbit where it can be studied or used as a mineral resource. The Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) is a space-systems design, evaluation, and visualization software tool being leveraged to simulate these aspects of the CAPS study. The long-term goal of the SEE is to provide capabilities to allow the user to build and compare various CAPS designs by running end-to-end simulations that encompass the scanning phase, the orbit determination phase, and the orbit modification phase of a given scenario. Herein, a brief description of the expected simulation phases is provided, the current status and available features of the SEE software system is reported, and examples are shown of how the system is used to build and evaluate a CAPS detection design. Conclusions and the roadmap for future development of the SEE are also presented.

  12. Small GSH-Capped CuInS2 Quantum Dots: MPA-Assisted Aqueous Phase Transfer and Bioimaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chuanzhen; Bai, Zelong; Liu, Xiangyou; Zhang, Yijia; Zou, Bingsuo; Zhong, Haizheng

    2015-08-19

    An efficient ligand exchange strategy for aqueous phase transfer of hydrophobic CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots was developed by employing glutathione (GSH) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as the ligands. The whole process takes less than 20 min and can be scaled up to gram amount. The material characterizations show that the final aqueous soluble samples are solely capped with GSH on the surface. Importantly, these GSH-capped CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots have small size (hydrodynamic diameter <10 nm), moderate fluorescent properties (up to 34%) as well as high stability in aqueous solutions (stable for more than three months in 4 °C without any significant fluorescence quenching). Moreover, this ligand exchange strategy is also versatile for the aqueous phase transfer of other hydrophobic quantum dots, for instance, CuInSe2 and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. We further demonstrated that GSH-capped quantum dots could be suitable fluorescence markers to penetrate cell membrane and image the cells. In addition, the GSH-capped CuInS2 quantum dots also have potential use in other fields such as photocatalysis and quantum dots sensitized solar cells.

  13. SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS: White light photoluminescence from ZnS films on porous Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caifeng, Wang; Qingshan, Li; Bo, Hu; Weibing, Li

    2010-03-01

    ZnS films were deposited on porous Si (PS) substrates using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. White light emission is observed in photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and the white light is the combination of blue and green emission from ZnS and red emission from PS. The white PL spectra are broad, intense in a visible band ranging from 450 to 700 nm. The effects of the excitation wavelength, growth temperature of ZnS films, PS porosity and annealing temperature on the PL spectra of ZnS/PS were also investigated.

  14. Synthesis and Characteristics of ZnS Nanospheres for Heterojunction Photovoltaic Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Sheng-Hung; Hsiao, Yu-Jen; Fang, Te-Hua; Chou, Po-Hsun

    2015-06-01

    The synthesis of ZnS nanospheres produced using the microwave hydrothermal method was studied. The microstructure and surface and optical properties of ZnS nanospheres on glass were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The influence of deposition time on the transmission and photovoltaic performance was determined. The power conversion efficiency of an Al-doped ZnO/ZnS nanosphere/textured p-Si device improved from 0.93 to 1.77% when the thickness of the ZnS nanostructured film was changed from 75 to 150 nm.

  15. Gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles inhibit EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through suppression of p300 stabilization and NFκB/c-Jun activation in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chia-Hui; Chang, Long-Sen

    2016-11-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are highly invasive and have a higher rate of distant metastasis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in EGF/EGFR-mediated malignant progression and metastasis of TNBCs. Various studies have revealed that treatment with gallic acid down-regulates MMP-9 expression in cancer cells, and that conjugation of phytochemical compounds with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) increases the anti-tumor activity of the phytochemical compounds. Thus, the effect of gallic acid-capped AuNPs (GA-AuNPs) on MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells was analyzed in the present study. The so-called green synthesis of AuNPs by means of gallic acid was performed at pH10, and the resulting GA-AuNPs had spherical shape with an average diameter of approximately 50nm. GA-AuNPs notably suppressed migration and invasion of EGF-treated cells, and inhibited EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. GA-AuNPs abrogated EGF-induced Akt/p65 and ERK/c-Jun phosphorylation, leading to down-regulation of MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression in EGF-treated cells. Meanwhile, EGF-induced p300 stabilization was found to be involved in MMP-9 expression, whereas GA-AuNPs inhibited the EGF-promoted stability of the p300 protein. Although GA-AuNPs and gallic acid suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation via the same signaling pathway, the effective concentration of gallic acid was approximately 100-fold higher than that of GA-AuNPs for inhibition of MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated cells to a similar extent. Collectively, our data indicate that, in comparison with gallic acid, GA-AuNPs have a superior ability to inhibit EGF/EGFR-mediated MMP-9 expression in TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings also point to a way to improve the anti-tumor activity of gallic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The polar caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    1985-12-01

    According to the most common definition, the 'polar cap' is the region bounded by the average or statistical auroral oval. Studies of the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on various upper atmospheric phenomena are reviewed. The Antarctic region and the Arctic region represent an area for such investigations. Particular attention is given in this paper to those observations in the highest latitude region which provide some information concerning corresponding changes of the internal structure of the magnetosphere. A definition and working definition of the polar cap are considered along with the IMF and magnetospheric models, the entry of solar energetic electrons, statistical studies regarding the aurora, individual events, polar cap arcs, the cusp aurora, auroral electron precipitation, convection, ionospheric currents and field-aligned currents, the ionosphere, the thermosphere, polar rain, polar wind, and hopping motions of heavy ions.

  17. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 1.4 m/pixel (5 ft/pixel) view of a typical martian north polar ice cap texture. The surface is pitted and rough at the scale of several meters. The north polar residual cap of Mars consists mainly of water ice, while the south polar residual cap is mostly carbon dioxide. This picture is located near 85.2oN, 283.2oW. The image covers an area approximately 1 km wide by 1.4 km high (0.62 by 0.87 miles). Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  18. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows landforms created by sublimation processes on the south polar residual cap of Mars. The bulk of the ice in the south polar residual cap is frozen carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 86.6oS, 342.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  19. Micro-emulsion-assisted synthesis of ZnS nanospheres and their photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yao; He Xiaoyan; Cao Minhua

    2008-11-03

    ZnS nanospheres with rough surface were synthesized by using a micro-emulsion-assisted solvothemal process. The molar ratio of [water]/[surfactant] played an important role in controlling the size of the ZnS nanospheres. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were used for the characterization of the resulting ZnS nanospheres. A possible formation mechanism was proposed. These ZnS nanospheres exhibited a good photocatalytic activity for degradation of an aqueous p-nitrophenol solution and the total organic carbon (TOC) of the degradation product has also been investigated.

  20. Multicolor tuning of manganese-doped ZnS colloidal nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Quan, Zewei; Yang, Dongmei; Li, Chunxia; Kong, Deyan; Yang, Piaoping; Cheng, Ziyong; Lin, Jun

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we report a facile route which is based on tuning doping concentration of Mn(2+) ions in ZnS nanocrystals, to achieve deliberate color modulation from blue to orange-yellow under single-wavelength excitation. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as photoluminescence (PL) spectra were employed to characterize the obtained samples. In this process, the relative emission intensities of both ZnS host (blue) and Mn(2+) dopant (orange-yellow) are sensitive to the Mn(2+) doping concentration, due to the energy transfer from ZnS host to Mn(2+) dopant. As a result of fine-tuning of these two emission components, white emission can be realized for Mn(2+)-doped ZnS nanocrystals. Furthermore, the as-synthesized doped nanocrystals possess extremely narrow size distribution and can be readily transferred into aqueous solution for the next potential applications.

  1. Organic-Inorganic Nanostructure Architecture via Directly Capping Fullerenes onto Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Kwan; Kim, Jonggi; Yang, Changduk

    2011-12-01

    A new form of fullerene-capped CdSe nanoparticles (PCBA-capped CdSe NPs), using carboxylate ligands with [60]fullerene capping groups that provides an effective synthetic methodology to attach fullerenes noncovalently to CdSe, is presented for usage in nanotechnology and photoelectric fields. Interestingly, either the internal charge transfer or the energy transfer in the hybrid material contributes to photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the CdSe moieties.

  2. Some physical investigations on ZnS 1- xSe x films obtained by selenization of ZnS sprayed films using the Boubaker polynomials expansion scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridjine, S.; Touihri, S.; Boubaker, K.; Amlouk, M.

    2010-01-01

    ZnS 1- xSe x thin films have been grown by selenization process, applied to ZnS sprayed thin films deposited on Pyrex glass substrates at 550 °C. The crystal structure and surface morphology were investigated by the XRD technique and by the atomic force microscopy. This structural study shows that selenium-free ( x=0) ZnS thin films, prepared at substrate temperature TS=450 °C, were well crystallized in cubic structure and oriented preferentially along (1 1 1) direction. The thermal and mechanical properties were also investigated using a photothermal protocol along with Vickers hardness measurements. On the other hand, the analyze of the transmittance T( λ) and the reflectance R( λ), optical measurements of these films depicts a decrease in the band gap energy value Eg with an increase in Se content ( x). Indeed, Eg values vary from 3.6 to 3.1 eV.

  3. Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnS and ZnS:Al films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurma, T.

    2018-06-01

    ZnS and ZnS:Al films have been deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method. Three different atomic ratios of aluminium were used as the dopant element. The effects of aluminum incorporation on structural and optical properties of the ZnS films have been investigated. The XRD analysis showed that the cubic structure of the ZnS was not much affected by Al doping. The crystal size of the films decreased, as the Al ratio increased. Al incorporation caused an increase in the intensity of ZnS films' peaks observed in Raman spectra and nearly symmetrical peaks were observed. Al doping caused a small decrease in optical band gap of the ZnS film. The coating of ZnS:Al films on the surface was quite good and there were not any deformation in their crystallization levels. Reflectance values of films are about 5% in the visible region but a little decrease is seen with aluminum doping. We can say that Al doping tends to improve the optical properties of the ZnS:Al films when compared with the undoped ZnS.

  4. Advising. CAP Job Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This Job Function Book (Advising) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are representative…

  5. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  6. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information:VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is

  7. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.3, Longitude 314.4 East (45.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  8. North Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour.

    In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime.

    The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.2, Longitude 57.4 East (302.6 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation

  9. Synthesis, characterization and photovoltaic performance of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots- P3HT hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Pathak, Dinesh; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2017-11-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) and transition metal-doped ZnS nanocrystals were synthesized by co-precipitation method. Further the synthesized nanocrystals were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM), Fluorescence, UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transformed Infra-red (FTIR) Spectrometer (FTIR). Scanning electron microscope supplemented with EDAX was employed to attain grain size and chemical composition of the nanomaterials. A considerable blue shift of absorption band was noted by the manganese concentration (0.5 M) in the doped sample in comparison with ZnS quantum dots because of the decrease in the size of nanoparticles which may be due to quantum confinement. The photoluminescence emission observed at 596 nm is due to the emission of divalent manganese and can be ascribed to a 4T1→6A1 transition within the 3d shell. Though, the broad blue emission band was observed at 424 nm which may originates from the radiative recombination comprising defect states in the un-doped zinc sulphide quantum dots. XRD analysis exhibited that the synthesized nanomaterial endured in cubic structure. The synthesized nanomaterial combined with organic polymer P3HT, poly (3-hexyl thiophene) and worked in the construction of inverted solar cells. The photovoltaic devices with un-doped zinc sulphide quantum dots showed power conversion efficiency of 0.48% without annealing and 0.52% with annealing. By doping with manganese, the efficiency was enhanced by a factor of 0.52 without annealing and 0.59 with annealing. The morphology and packing behavior of blend of nanocrystals with organic polymer were explored using Atomic Force Microscopy.

  10. RNA Cap Methyltransferase Activity Assay

    PubMed Central

    Trotman, Jackson B.; Schoenberg, Daniel R.

    2018-01-01

    Methyltransferases that methylate the guanine-N7 position of the mRNA 5′ cap structure are ubiquitous among eukaryotes and commonly encoded by viruses. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the biochemical analysis of RNA cap methyltransferase activity of biological samples. This assay involves incubation of cap-methyltransferase-containing samples with a [32P]G-capped RNA substrate and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to produce RNAs with N7-methylated caps. The extent of cap methylation is then determined by P1 nuclease digestion, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and phosphorimaging. The protocol described here includes additional steps for generating the [32P]G-capped RNA substrate and for preparing nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts from mammalian cells. This assay is also applicable to analyzing the cap methyltransferase activity of other biological samples, including recombinant protein preparations and fractions from analytical separations and immunoprecipitation/pulldown experiments. PMID:29644259

  11. 2D double-layer-tube-shaped structure Bi2S3/ZnS heterojunction with enhanced photocatalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Wang, Zihang; Fu, Feng; Li, Xiang; Li, Wenhong

    2015-10-01

    Bi2S3/ZnS heterojunction with 2D double-layer-tube-shaped structures was prepared by the facile synthesis method. The corresponding relationship was obtained among loaded content to phase, morphology, and optical absorption property of Bi2S3/ZnS composite. The results shown that Bi2S3 loaded could evidently change the crystallinity of ZnS, enhance the optical absorption ability for visible light of ZnS, and improve the morphologies and microstructure of ZnS. The photocatalytic activities of the Bi2S3/ZnS sample were evaluated for the photodegradation of phenol and desulfurization of thiophene under visible light irradiation. The results showed that Bi2S3 loaded greatly improved the photocatalytic activity of ZnS, and the content of loaded Bi2S3 had an impact on the catalytic activity of ZnS. Moreover, the mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic activity was also investigated by analysis of relative band positions of Bi2S3 and ZnS, and photo-generated hole was main active radicals during photocatalytic oxidation process.

  12. Designing Smart Charter School Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Erin

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Andrew J. Rotherham proposed a new approach to the contentious issue of charter school caps, the statutory limits on charter school growth in place in several states. Rotherham's proposal, termed "smart charter school caps," called for quality sensitive caps that allow the expansion of high-performing charter schools while also…

  13. Summer South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 April 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is composed mainly of frozen carbon dioxide. Each summer, a little bit of this carbon dioxide sublimes away. Pits grow larger, and mesas get smaller, as this process continues from year to year. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of a small portion of the south polar cap as it appeared in mid-summer in January 2004. The dark areas may be places where the frozen carbon dioxide contains impurities, such as dust, or places where sublimation of ice has roughened the surface so that it appears darker because of small shadows cast by irregularities in the roughened surface. The image is located near 86.9oS, 7.6oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  14. South Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 March 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows mesas and pits formed by sublimation of carbon dioxide of the south polar cap.

    Location near: 85.8oS, 351.5oW Image width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  15. CAP: Mobile App

    Science.gov Websites

    Interpreting Services Training Non-DoD Employees Partner Agencies A - L Partner Agencies M - Z Training Service Service Members Site Map + CAP Customers DoD Employees DoD Agencies Support Services Training Non-DoD Employees Partner Agencies A - L Partner Agencies M - Z Training Service Members Military Treatment

  16. Capping university overhead rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard

    On October 3 the Office of Management and Budget released final regulations on college and university administrative costs that can be charged against federal grants and contracts. A number of expenses were disallowed and all administrative costs were capped at 26%.Earlier this year Richard Darman, director of the Office of Management and Budget, announced his intention to “stop the abuse” in university reimbursements. Almost 300 replies were received in response to the earlier set of proposals on the matter.

  17. Performance of blasting caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  18. Eu2+ -induced enhancement of defect luminescence of ZnS.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Bo, Zhang; Fu-Xiang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The Eu 2 + -induced enhancement of defect luminescence of ZnS was studied in this work. While photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibited 460 nm and 520 nm emissions in both ZnS and ZnS:Eu nanophosphors, different excitation characteristics were shown in their photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra. In ZnS nanophosphors, there was no excitation signal in the PLE spectra at the excitation wavelength λ ex  > 337 nm (the bandgap energy 3.68 eV of ZnS); while in ZnS:Eu nanophosphors, two excitation bands appeared that were centered at 365 nm and 410 nm. Compared with ZnS nanophosphors, the 520 nm emission in the PL spectra was relatively enhanced in ZnS:Eu nanophosphors and, furthermore, in ZnS:Eu nanophosphors the 460 nm and 520 nm emissions increased more than 10 times in intensity. The reasons for these differences were analyzed. It is believed that the absorption of Eu 2 + intra-ion transition and subsequent energy transfer to sulfur vacancy, led to the relative enhancement of the 520 nm emission in ZnS:Eu nanophosphors. In addition, more importantly, Eu 2 + acceptor-bound excitons are formed in ZnS:Eu nanophosphors and their excited levels serve as the intermediate state of electronic relaxation, which decreases non-radiative electronic relaxation and thus increases the intensity of the 460 nm and 520 nm emission dramatically. In summary, the results in this work indicate a new mechanism for the enhancement of defect luminescence of ZnS in Eu 2 + -doped ZnS nanophosphors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles during zinc oxidization by H2S and H2S/H2O supercritical fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrikov, A. A.; Fedyaeva, O. N.; Sokol, M. Ya.; Shatrova, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Formation of zinc sulfide nanoparticles was detected during interaction of bulk samples with hydrogen sulfide at supercritical parameters. Synthesis proceeds with liberation of H2 by the reaction nZn + nH2S = (ZnS) n + nH2. It has been found by the X-ray diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry that the addition of water stimulates coupled reactions of nanoparticle synthesis nZn + nH2O = (ZnO) n + nH2 and (ZnO) n + nH2S = (ZnS) n + nH2O and brings about an increase in the synthesis rate and morphological changes of (ZnS) n nanoparticles.

  20. Investigation of thioglycerol stabilized ZnS quantum dots in electroluminescent device performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ethiraj, Anita Sagadevan, E-mail: anita.ethiraj@vit.ac.in; Center for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore, TamilNadu-632014; Rhen, Dani

    2016-05-06

    The present work is focused on the investigation of thioglycerol (TG) stabilized Zinc Sulfide Quantum dots (ZnS QDs) in the hybrid electroluminescence (EL) device. Optical absorption spectroscopy clearly indicates the formation of narrow size distributed ZnS in the quantum confinement regime. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Photoluminescence (PL), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) data supports the same. The hybrid EL device with structure of ITO (indium tin oxide)//PEDOT:PSS ((poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate)//HTL (α NPD- N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1-naphthyl)-(1,1′-phenyl)-4,4′-diamine// PVK:ZnS QDs//ETL(PBD- 2-tert-butylphenyl- 5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole)//LiF:Al (Device 1) was fabricated. Reference device without the ZnS QDs were also prepared (Device 2). The results show that the ZnS QDs based device exhibitedmore » bright electroluminescence emission of 24 cd/m{sup 2} at a driving voltage of 16 Volts under the forward bias conditions as compared to the reference device without the ZnS QDs, which showed 6 cd/m{sup 2} at ∼22 Volts.« less

  1. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous ZnS with narrow size distribution of small pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, L. C.; Mateescu, C. D.; Birjega, R.; Nistor, S. V.

    2008-08-01

    Pure, nanocrystalline cubic ZnS forming a stable mesoporous structure was synthesized at room temperature by a non-toxic surfactant-assisted liquid liquid reaction, in the 9.5 10.5 pH range of values. The appearance of an X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak in the region of very small angles (˜ 2°) reveals the presence of a porous material with a narrow pore size distribution, but with an irregular arrangement of the pores, a so-called worm hole or sponge-like material. The analysis of the wide angle XRD diffractograms shows the building blocks to be ZnS nanocrystals with cubic structure and average diameter of 2 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations confirm the XRD results; ZnS crystallites of 2.5 nm with cubic (blende) structure are the building blocks of the pore walls with pore sizes from 1.9 to 2.5 nm, and a broader size distribution for samples with smaller pores. Textural measurements (N2 adsorption desorption isotherms) confirm the presence of mesoporous ZnS with a narrow range of small pore sizes. The relatively lower surface area of around 100 m2/g is attributed to some remaining organic molecules, which are filling the smallest pores. Their presence, confirmed by IR spectroscopy, seems to be responsible for the high stability of the resulting mesoporous ZnS as well.

  2. Field emission from ZnS nanorods synthesized by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Maiti, U. N.; Jana, S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2006-11-01

    The field emission property of zinc sulphides nanorods synthesized in the thin film form on Si substrates has been studied. It is seen that ZnS nanorod thin films showed good field emission properties with a low-macroscopic turn-on field (2.9-6.3 V/μm). ZnS nanorods were synthesized by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a polycrystalline prefabricated ZnS target at a relatively higher pressure (10 -1 mbar) and at a lower substrate temperature (233-273 K) without using any catalyst. Transmission electron microscopic image showed the formation of ZnS nanorods with high aspect ratio (>60). The field emission data were analysed using Fowler-Nordhiem theory and the nearly straight-line nature of the F-N plots confirmed cold field emission of electrons. It was also found that the turn-on field decreased with the decrease of nanorod's diameters. The optical properties of the ZnS nanorods were also studied. From the measurements of transmittance of the films deposited on glass substrates, the direct allowed bandgap values have been calculated and they were in the range 3.83-4.03 eV. The thickness of the films was ˜600 nm.

  3. Substrate dependent hierarchical structures of RF sputtered ZnS films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalana, S. R.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.

    2018-05-01

    RF magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnS nanostructures with special emphasis given to study the effect of substrates (quartz, glass and quartz substrate pre-coated with Au, Ag, Cu and Pt) on the structure, surface evolution and optical properties. Type of substrate has a significant influence on the crystalline phase, film morphology, thickness and surface roughness. The present study elucidates the suitability of quartz substrate for the deposition of stable and highly crystalline ZnS films. We found that the role of metal layer on quartz substrate is substantial in the preparation of hierarchical ZnS structures and these structures are of great importance due to its high specific area and potential applications in various fields. A mechanism for morphological evolution of ZnS structures is also presented based on the roughness of substrates and primary nonlocal effects in sputtering. Furthermore, the findings suggest that a controlled growth of hierarchical ZnS structures may be achieved with an ordinary RF sputtering technique by changing the substrate type.

  4. Polar Cap Retreat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 August 2004 This red wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of the retreating seasonal south polar cap in the most recent spring in late 2003. Bright areas are covered with frost, dark areas are those from which the solid carbon dioxide has sublimed away. The center of this image is located near 76.5oS, 28.2oW. The scene is large; it covers an area about 250 km (155 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  5. One-step fabrication of biocompatible chitosan-coated ZnS and ZnS:Mn2+ quantum dots via a γ-radiation route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shu-Quan; Kang, Bin; Dai, Yao-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Xu; Chen, Da

    2011-11-01

    Biocompatible chitosan-coated ZnS quantum dots [CS-ZnS QDs] and chitosan-coated ZnS:Mn2+ quantum dots [CS-ZnS:Mn2+ QDs] were successfully fabricated via a convenient one-step γ-radiation route. The as-obtained QDs were around 5 nm in diameter with excellent water-solubility. These QDs emitting strong visible blue or orange light under UV excitation were successfully used as labels for PANC-1 cells. The cell experiments revealed that CS-ZnS and CS-ZnS:Mn2+ QDs showed low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility, which offered possibilities for further biomedical applications. Moreover, this convenient synthesis strategy could be extended to fabricate other nanoparticles coated with chitosan. PACS: 81.07.Ta; 78.67.Hc; 82.35.Np; 87.85.Rs.

  6. Optical, thermal and morphological study of ZnS doped PVA polymer nano composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guruswamy, B.; Ravindrachary, V.; Shruthi, C.; Sagar, Rohan N.; Hegde, Shreedatta

    2018-05-01

    The effect of ZnS nano particle doping on optical, thermal properties and morphological study of the PVA polymer has been investigated using FTIR, UV-Visible and TGA, FESEM techniques. Nano sized ZnS particles were synthesized by a simple wet chemical route. Pure and ZnS/PVA nano composites were prepared using solution casting technique. The FTIR study confirms that the ZnS nano particles interacts with the OH group of PVA polymer and forms the complex. The formation of these complexes affects the optical and thermal properties of the composite. The changes in optical properties were studied using UV-Vis absorption method. The variation in thermal property was analysed using TGA results. The modified surface morphology analysis was carried out using FESEM.

  7. Synthesis of Mn doped ZnS nanocrystals: Crystallographic and morphological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Azharuddin Z.; Shirsath, Narendra B.; Sonawane, Prabhakar S.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of doping concentration on the physical properties of ZnS nanocrystals synthesized using coprecipitation method at room temperature is reported in this paper. In particular, we have studied the structural properties of Zn1-xMnxS where (x=0.01, 0.03, 0.05) by X-ray diffraction. X-ray peak broadening analysis used to calculate the crystalline sizes, lattice parameters, number of unit cell per particle and volume of unit cell. Crystalline ZnS with a cubic structure is confirmed by XRD results. The grain size of pure and Mn doped samples were found in the range of 7nm to 9nm. All the physical parameters of cubic ZnS nanocrystals were calculated are similar with standard values. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) which revealed that the synthesized nanocrystals are well-crystalline and possessing cubic phase.

  8. Heterocrystal and bicrystal structures of ZnS nanowires synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, J. S.; Zhang, W. J.; Jiang, Y.; Meng, X. M.; Zapien, J. A.; Shao, M. W.; Lee, S. T.

    2006-06-01

    ZnS nanowires with heterocrystal and bicrystal structures were successfully synthesized using the DC-plasma chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. The heterocrystalline ZnS nanowires have the zinc blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) zones aligned alternately in the transverse direction but without an obvious period. The bicrystal ZnS nanowires are composed of two ZB fractions separated by a clear grain boundary along the length. Significantly, the grain boundaries in both the heterocrystal and bicrystal structures are atomically sharp without any visible lattice distortion. The effects of plasma species, ion bombardment, and silicon impurities in the formation of these distinctive structures are discussed. A defect-induced red-shift and broadening of the band-gap emission are revealed in photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements.

  9. ZnS thin films deposition by thermal evaporation for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyahia, K.; Benhaya, A.; Aida, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    ZnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates by thermal evaporation from millimetric crystals of ZnS. The structural, compositional and optical properties of the films are studied by X-ray diffraction, SEM microscopy, and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The obtained results show that the films are pin hole free and have a cubic zinc blend structure with (111) preferential orientation. The estimated optical band gap is 3.5 eV and the refractive index in the visible wavelength ranges from 2.5 to 1.8. The good cubic structure obtained for thin layers enabled us to conclude that the prepared ZnS films may have application as buffer layer in replacement of the harmful CdS in CIGS thin film solar cells or as an antireflection coating in silicon-based solar cells.

  10. One-Pot Process in Scalable Bath for Water-Dispersed ZnS Nanocrystals with the Tailored Size

    DOE PAGES

    Jung, Hyunsung; Phelps, Tommy J.; Rondinone, Adam J.; ...

    2017-05-01

    Well-dispersed ZnS nanocrystals with tailored size in aqueous solutions were synthesized by employing cysteine-sulfur (Cys-S) complexes with low molecular weight in a scalable anoxic vessel. High yield production of water-dispersed ZnS nanocrystals on a 10-L scale was demonstrated in an aqueous solution process. The average crystallite size of ZnS was controlled by changing the ratio of the cysteine to sulfide in the applied Cys-S complexes. A decrease in the crystallite size of ZnS likely resulted in both the blue shift of peak positions and the relative variation of peak intensities in the photoluminescence properties. In addition, the pH-dependent stability againstmore » aggregation of ZnS nanocrystals was investigated to reduce agglomeration.« less

  11. Pits in Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This full-frame image from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows faults and pits in Mars' north polar residual cap that have not been previously recognized.

    The faults and depressions between them are similar to features seen on Earth where the crust is being pulled apart. Such tectonic extension must have occurred very recently because the north polar residual cap is very young, as indicated by the paucity of impact craters on its surface. Alternatively, the faults and pits may be caused by collapse due to removal of material beneath the surface. The pits are aligned along the faults, either because material has drained into the subsurface along the faults or because gas has escaped from the subsurface through them.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  12. Advancements in the Quantification of the Crystal Structure of ZNS Materials Produced in Variable Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Screens and displays consume tremendous amounts of power. Global trends to significantly consume less power and increase battery life have led to the reinvestigation of electroluminescent materials. The state of the art in ZnS materials has not been furthered in the past 30 years and there is much potential in improving electroluminescent properties of these materials with advanced processing techniques. Self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) utilises a rapid exothermic process involving high energy and nonlinearity coupled with a high cooling rate to produce materials formed outside of normal equilibrium boundaries thus possessing unique properties. The elimination of gravity during this process allows capillary forces to dominate mixing of the reactants which results in a superior and enhanced homogeneity in the product materials. ZnS type materials have been previously conducted in reduced gravity and normal gravity. It has been claimed in literature that a near perfect phases of ZnS wurtzite was produced. Although, the SHS of this material is possible at high pressures, there has been no quantitative information on the actual crystal structures and lattice parameters that were produced in this work. Utilising this process with ZnS doped with Cu, Mn, or rare earth metals such as Eu and Pr leads to electroluminescence properties, thus making this an attractive electroluminescent material. The work described here will revisit the synthesis of ZnS via high pressure SHS and will re-examine the work performed in both normal gravity and in reduced gravity within the ZARM drop tower facility. Quantifications in the lattice parameters, crystal structures, and phases produced will be presented to further explore the unique structure-property performance relationships produced from the SHS of ZnS materials.

  13. Dependence of nonlinear optical properties of Ag2S@ZnS core-shells on Zinc precursor and capping agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghanipour, M.; Khanzadeh, M.; Karimipour, M.; Molaei, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, four different types of Ag2S@ZnS core-shells were synthesized and their nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were investigated using a Z-scan technique by a 532 nm laser diode. Here, Ag2S and ZnS nanoparticles were also synthesized and their NLO properties were compared with Ag2S@ZnS core-shells. It was observed that the NLO properties of Ag2S@ZnS quantum dots significantly increased by increasing the values of Zn(NO3)2 and thioglycolic acid (TGA). It was also observed that the NLO properties of Ag2S@ZnS core-shells for 0.1 g of Zn(NO3)2 and 7000 μl TGA is higher than sole Ag2S and ZnS nanoparticles. In open aperture Z-scan curve of ZnS sample, a saturable absorption peak was observed and this peak was seen also in type of Ag2S@ZnS nanoparticles which the value of Zn(NO3)2 much more.

  14. Synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles and their incorporation into poly(hydroxybutyrate) matrix in the formation of a novel nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Shahina; Raza, Zulfiqar Ali; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Jan, Tariq

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized through a modified chemical precipitation protocol and then mediated into poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) matrix to get ZnS/PHB nanocomposite. Mean diameter and zeta potential of ZnS NPs, as determined using dynamic light scattering technique (DLS), were observed to be 53 nm and ‑89 mV, respectively. The structural investigations performed using x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique depicted the phase purity of ZnS NPs exhibiting cubic crystal structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis was conducted to identify the presence or absence of bonding vibrational modes on the surface of synthesized single phase ZnS NPs. The FTIR analysis confirmed the metal to sulphur bond formation by showing the characteristic band at 1123 cm‑1. The UV–vis absorption spectra of ZnS NPs confirmed the synthesis of particles in nanoscale regime showing a λ max of 302 nm. These NPs were then successfully incorporated into PHB matrix to synthesize ZnS/PHB nanocomposite. The synthesis of nanocomposite was confirmed by EDX analysis. The chemical bonding and structural properties of ZnS/PHB nanocomposite were determined by FTIR and XRD analysis, respectively. The FTIR analysis confirmed the synthesis of ZnS/PHB nanocomposite. Moreover, XRD analysis showed that structure of nanocomposite was completely controlled by ZnS NPs as pure PHB exhibited orthorhombic crystal structure while the nanocomposite demonstrated cubic crystal structure of ZnS. Thermal properties of nanocomposite were studied through thermogravimetric analysis revealing that the incorporation of ZnS NPs into PHB matrix lead to enhance heat resistance properties of PHB.

  15. The effect of different thickness alumina capping layers on the final morphology of dewet thin Ni films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Benjamin C.; Behbahanian, Amir; Stoker, T. McKay; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Hartnett, Chris; Rack, Phillip D.; Roberts, Nicholas A.

    2018-03-01

    Nanoparticles on a substrate have numerous applications in nanotechnology, from enhancements to solar cell efficiency to improvements in carbon nanotube growth. Producing nanoparticles in a cost effective fashion with control over size and spacing is desired, but difficult to do. This work presents a scalable method for altering the radius and pitch distributions of nickel nanoparticles. The introduction of alumina capping layers to thin nickel films during a pulsed laser-induced dewetting process has yielded reductions in the mean and standard deviation of radii and pitch for dewet nanoparticles with no noticeable difference in final morphology with increased capping layer thickness. The differences in carbon nanotube mats grown, on the uncapped sample and one of the capped samples, is also presented here, with a more dense mat being present for the capped case.

  16. The Cathodoluminescence of Cleartran: A Novel Form of Polycrystalline ZnS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    Temperature TO Transverse Optical UV Ultraviolet Vm= Micrometer 4_I xiI VS_ZI AFIT/DS/ENP/86-2 . - - Abstract Cathodolumine4cence studies were carried out...The results of these studies were compared to and contrasted with the cathodoluminescence of cvd ZnS samples grown by Raytheon and CVD Inc., with...luminogen impurity" (2:406). Since that time and until 1957, most II-VI compound research consisted of luminescence studies of ZnS (mostly phosphors) and

  17. South Polar Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-337, 21 April 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 'swiss cheese' pattern of frozen carbon dioxide on the south polar residual cap. Observation of these materials over two Mars years has revealed that the scarps that bound the mesas and small buttes are retreating-the carbon dioxide ice is subliming away-at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per Mars year in some places. The picture covers an area about 900 m (about 900 yards) wide near 87.1oS, 93.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  18. Polar Cap Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  19. Laterally loaded pile cap connections.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the moment capacity and load-displacement response of the pile-to-cap connection details. Lateral load tests were conducted on four pile caps (3 ft H x 3 ft W x 6.5 ft L) with two 40 foot-long steel pipe piles (12.75 inch OD) ...

  20. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Miri; Chung, Hae-Eun; Yu, Jin; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Min; Lee, Won-Jae; Paek, Seung-Min; Lee, Jong Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Choy, Jin-Ho; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study explored the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion profile of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with respect to their particle size in rats. Methods Two ZnO nanoparticles of different size (20 nm and 70 nm) were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve, tissue distribution, excretion, and the fate of the nanoparticles in organs were analyzed. Results The plasma zinc concentration of both sizes of ZnO nanoparticles increased during the 24 hours after administration in a dose-dependent manner. They were mainly distributed to organs such as the liver, lung, and kidney within 72 hours without any significant difference being found according to particle size or rat gender. Elimination kinetics showed that a small amount of ZnO nanoparticles was excreted via the urine, while most of nanoparticles were excreted via the feces. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies in the tissues showed no noticeable ZnO nanoparticles, while new Zn-S bonds were observed in tissues. Conclusion ZnO nanoparticles of different size were not easily absorbed into the bloodstream via the gastrointestinal tract after a single oral dose. The liver, lung, and kidney could be possible target organs for accumulation and toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles was independent of particle size or gender. ZnO nanoparticles appear to be absorbed in the organs in an ionic form rather than in a particulate form due to newly formed Zn-S bonds. The nanoparticles were mainly excreted via the feces, and smaller particles were cleared more rapidly than the larger ones. ZnO nanoparticles at a concentration below 300 mg/kg were distributed in tissues and excreted within 24 hours. These findings provide crucial information on possible acute and chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in potential target organs. PMID:22811602

  1. The influence of doping element on structural and luminescent characteristics of ZnS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryshtab, T.; Khomchenko, V. S.; Andraca-Adame, J. A.; Rodionov, V. E.; Khachatryan, V. B.; Tzyrkunov, Yu. A.

    2006-10-01

    For the fabrication of green and blue emitting ZnS structures the elements of I, III, and VII groups (Cu, Al, Ga, Cl) are used as dopants. The influence of type of impurity, doping technique, and type of substrate on crystalline structure and surface morphology together with luminescent properties was investigated. The doping of thin films was realized during the growth process and/or post-deposition thermal treatment. ZnS thin films were deposited by physical (EBE) and chemical (MOCVD) methods onto glass or ceramic (BaTiO 3) substrates. Closed spaced evaporation and thermodiffusion methods were used for the post-deposition doping of ZnS films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and measurements of photoluminescent (PL) spectra were used for the investigations. It was shown that the doping by the elements of I (Cu) and III (Al, Ga) groups does not change the crystal structure during the thermal treatment up to 1000 ∘C, whereas simultaneous use of the elements of I (Cu) and VII (Cl) groups leads to decrease of the phase transition temperature to 800 ∘C. The presence of impurities in the growth process leads to a grain size increase. At post-deposition treatment Ga and Cl act as activators of recrystallization process. The transition of ZnS sphalerite lattice to wurtzite one leads to the displacement of the blue emission band position towards the short-wavelength range by 10 nm.

  2. Selective Sulfidation of Lead Smelter Slag with Pyrite and Flotation Behavior of Synthetic ZnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Junwei; Liu, Wei; Wang, Dawei; Jiao, Fen; Zhang, Tianfu; Qin, Wenqing

    2016-08-01

    The selective sulfidation of lead smelter slag with pyrite in the presence of carbon and Na salts, and the flotation behavior of synthetic ZnS were studied. The effects of temperature, time, pyrite dosage, Na salts, and carbon additions were investigated based on thermodynamic calculation, and correspondingly, the growth mechanism of ZnS particles was studied at high temperatures. The results indicated that the zinc in lead smelter slag was selectively converted into zinc sulfides by sulfidation roasting. The sulfidation degree of zinc was increased until the temperature, time, pyrite, and carbon dosages reached their optimum values, under which it was more than 95 pct. The growth of ZnS particles largely depended upon roasting temperature, and the ZnS grains were significantly increased above 1373 K (1100 °C) due to the formation of a liquid phase. After the roasting, the zinc sulfides generated had a good floatability, and 88.34 pct of zinc was recovered by conventional flotation.

  3. Ultra-Smooth ZnS Films Grown on Silicon via Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, Christopher; Tate, Janet

    2011-10-01

    Ultra-smooth, high quality ZnS films were grown on (100) and (111) oriented Si wafers via pulsed laser deposition with a KrF excimer laser in UHV (10-9 Torr). The resultant films were examined with optical spectroscopy, electron diffraction, and electron probe microanalysis. The films have an rms roughness of ˜1.5 nm, and the film stoichiometry is approximately Zn:S :: 1:0.87. Additionally, each film exhibits an optical interference pattern which is not a function of probing location on the sample, indicating excellent film thickness uniformity. Motivation for high-quality ZnS films comes from a proposed experiment to measure carrier amplification via impact ionization at the boundary between a wide-gap and a narrow-gap semiconductor. If excited charge carriers in a sufficiently wide-gap harvester can be extracted into a narrow-gap host material, impact ionization may occur. We seek near-perfect interfaces between ZnS, with a direct gap between 3.3 and 3.7 eV, and Si, with an indirect gap of 1.1 eV.

  4. Growth of Au and ZnS nanostructures via engineered peptide and M13 bacteriophage templates.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sungwook; Chung, Woo-Jae; Wang, Debin; Lee, Seung-Wuk; De Yoreo, James J

    2018-04-25

    We demonstrate directed nucleation of Au and ZnS patterns on templates comprised of functional peptides and an M13 bacteriophage. We discuss the control over nucleation in terms of the interplay between enhanced ion binding and reduced interfacial energy resulting from the presence of the templates.

  5. Preparation and characterization of ZnS thin films by the chemical bath deposition method (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shizutoshi; Iwashita, Taisuke

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, the conversion efficiency of Cu(In・Ga)Se2 (CIGS)-based solar cell already reached over 20%. CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method are used for CIGS-based thin film solar cells as the buffer layer. Over the past several years, a considerable number of studies have been conducted on ZnS buffer layer prepared by CBD in order to improve in conversion efficiency of CIGS-based solar cells. In addition, application to CIGS-based solar cell of ZnS buffer layer is expected as an eco-friendly solar cell by cadmium-free. However, it was found that ZnS thin films prepared by CBD included ZnO or Zn(OH)2 as different phase [1]. Nakata et. al reported that the conversion efficiency of CIGS-based solar cell using ZnS buffer layer (CBD-ZnS/CIGS) reached over 18% [2]. The problem which we have to consider next is improvement in crystallinity of ZnS thin films prepared by CBD. In this work, we prepared ZnS thin films on quarts (Si02) and SnO2/glass substrates by CBD with the self-catalysis growth process in order to improve crystallinity and quality of CBD-ZnS thin films. The solution to use for CBD were prepared by mixture of 0.2M ZnI2 or ZnSO4, 0.6M (NH2)2CS and 8.0M NH3 aq. In the first, we prepared the particles of ZnS on Si02 or SnO2/glass substrates by CBD at 80° for 20 min as initial nucleus (1st step ). After that, the particles of ZnS on Si02 or SnO2/glass substrates grew up to be ZnS thin films by CBD method at 80° for 40 min again (2nd step). We found that the surface of ZnS thin films by CBD with the self-catalyst growth process was flat and smooth. Consequently, we concluded that the CBD technique with self-catalyst growth process in order to prepare the particles of ZnS as initial nucleus layer was useful for improvement of crystallinity of ZnS thin films on SnO2/glass. [1] J.Vidal et,al., Thin Solid Films 419 (2002) 118. [2] T.Nakata et.al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(2B), L165-L167 (2002)

  6. An inorganic capping strategy for the seeded growth of versatile bimetallic nanostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Pei, Yuchen; Maligal-Ganesh, Raghu V.; Xiao, Chaoxian; ...

    2015-09-11

    Metal nanostructures have attracted great attention in various fields due to their tunable properties through precisely tailored sizes, compositions and structures. Using mesoporous silica (mSiO 2) as the inorganic capping agent and encapsulated Pt nanoparticles as the seeds, we developed a robust seeded growth method to prepare uniform bimetallic nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica shells (PtM@mSiO 2, M = Pd, Rh, Ni and Cu). Unexpectedly, we found that the inorganic silica shell is able to accommodate an eight-fold volume increase in the metallic core by reducing its thickness. The bimetallic nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica shells showed enhanced catalytic propertiesmore » and thermal stabilities compared with those prepared with organic capping agents. As a result, this inorganic capping strategy could find a broad application in the synthesis of versatile bimetallic nanostructures with exceptional structural control and enhanced catalytic properties.« less

  7. Stuck fuel rod capping sleeve

    DOEpatents

    Gorscak, Donald A.; Maringo, John J.; Nilsen, Roy J.

    1988-01-01

    A stuck fuel rod capping sleeve to be used during derodding of spent fuel assemblies if a fuel rod becomes stuck in a partially withdrawn position and, thus, has to be severed. The capping sleeve has an inner sleeve made of a lower work hardening highly ductile material (e.g., Inconel 600) and an outer sleeve made of a moderately ductile material (e.g., 304 stainless steel). The inner sleeve may be made of an epoxy filler. The capping sleeve is placed on a fuel rod which is then severed by using a bolt cutter device. Upon cutting, the capping sleeve deforms in such a manner as to prevent the gross release of radioactive fuel material

  8. Researchers dodge UK migration cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2011-03-01

    Research scientists are among those to be prioritized under the UK government's new immigration rules that will impose an annual cap on the number of work visas issued to those from outside the European Union (EU).

  9. Optical and electrical properties of copper-incorporated ZnS films applicable as solar cell absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabian, M.; Esteki, Z.; Shokrvash, H.; Kavei, G.

    2016-10-01

    Un-doped and Cu-doped ZnS (ZnS:Cu) thin films were synthesized by Successive Ion Layer Absorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. The UV-visible absorption studies have been used to calculate the band gap values of the fabricated ZnS:Cu thin films. It was observed that by increasing the concentration of Cu2+ ions, the Fermi level moves toward the edge of the valence band of ZnS. Photoluminescence spectra of un-doped and Cu-doped ZnS thin films was recorded under 355 nm. The emission spectrum of samples has a blue emission band at 436 nm. The peak positions of the luminescence showed a red shift as the Cu2+ ion concentration was increased, which indicates that the acceptor level (of Cu2+) is getting close to the valence band of ZnS.

  10. Variability in Chemical Vapor Deposited Zinc Sulfide: Assessment of Legacy and International CVD ZnS Materials

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Korenstein, Ralph

    2009-10-06

    Samples of CVD ZnS from the United States, Germany, Israel, and China were evaluated using transmission spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and biaxial flexure testing. Visible and near-infrared scattering, 6 μm absorption, and ultraviolet cut-on edge varied substantially in tested materials. Crystallographic hexagonality and texture was determined and correlated with optical scattering. Transmission cut-on (ultraviolet edge) blue-shifts with annealing and corresponds to visible color but not the 6 μm absorption. Photoluminescence results suggest that CVD ZnS exhibits a complex suite of electronic bandgap defects. All CVD ZnS tested with biaxial flexure exhibit similar fracture strength values and Weibull moduli. This surveymore » suggests that technical understanding of the structure and optical properties CVD ZnS is still in its infancy.« less

  11. Two and four photon absorption and nonlinear refraction in undoped, chromium doped and copper doped ZnS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Dimple; Malik, B. P.; Gaur, Arun

    2015-12-01

    The ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with Cr and Cu doping were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanostructures of the prepared undoped and doped ZnS QDs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sizes of QDs were found to be within 3-5 nm range. The nonlinear parameters viz. Two photon absorption coefficient (β2), nonlinear refractive index (n2), third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ3) at wavelength 532 nm and Four photon absorption coefficient (β4) at wavelength 1064 nm have been calculated by Z-scan technique using nanosecond Nd:YAG laser in undoped, Cr doped and Cu doped ZnS QDs. Higher values of nonlinear parameters for doped ZnS infer that they are potential material for the development of photonics devices and sensor protection applications.

  12. Low-Temperature Surface Preparation and Epitaxial Growth of ZnS and Cu 2ZnSnS 4 on ZnS(110) and GaP(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Steven P; Wilson, Samual; Moutinho, Helio R

    Here we give a summary of the low-temperature preparation methods of ZnS(110) and GaP(100) crystals for epitaxial growth of ZnS and Cu 2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) via molecular beam epitaxy. Substrates were prepared for epitaxial growth by means of room-temperature aqueous surface treatments and subsequent ultra-high vacuum transfer to the deposition system. Epitaxial growth of ZnS was successful at 500 K on both ZnS(110) and GaP(100) as only single domains were observed with electron backscatter diffraction; furthermore, transmission electron microscopy measurements confirmed an epitaxial interface. Epitaxial growth of CZTS was successful on ZnS at 700 K. However, epitaxial growth was notmore » possible on GaP at 700 K due to Ga xS y formation, which significantly degraded the quality of the GaP crystal surface. Although CZTS was grown epitaxially on ZnS, growth of multiple crystallographic domains remains a problem that could inherently limit the viability of epitaxial CZTS for model system studies.« less

  13. Low-Temperature Surface Preparation and Epitaxial Growth of ZnS and Cu 2ZnSnS 4 on ZnS(110) and GaP(100)

    DOE PAGES

    Harvey, Steven P; Wilson, Samual; Moutinho, Helio R; ...

    2017-08-12

    Here we give a summary of the low-temperature preparation methods of ZnS(110) and GaP(100) crystals for epitaxial growth of ZnS and Cu 2ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) via molecular beam epitaxy. Substrates were prepared for epitaxial growth by means of room-temperature aqueous surface treatments and subsequent ultra-high vacuum transfer to the deposition system. Epitaxial growth of ZnS was successful at 500 K on both ZnS(110) and GaP(100) as only single domains were observed with electron backscatter diffraction; furthermore, transmission electron microscopy measurements confirmed an epitaxial interface. Epitaxial growth of CZTS was successful on ZnS at 700 K. However, epitaxial growth was notmore » possible on GaP at 700 K due to Ga xS y formation, which significantly degraded the quality of the GaP crystal surface. Although CZTS was grown epitaxially on ZnS, growth of multiple crystallographic domains remains a problem that could inherently limit the viability of epitaxial CZTS for model system studies.« less

  14. Halobenzoquinone-mediated assembly of amino acid modified Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots for halobenzoquinones detection in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Zhe; Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Hongwei; Li, Jingwen; Zhong, Zhengquan; Fan, Hongbo; Cheng, Faliang

    2018-10-05

    Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) were reported as disinfection byproducts (DBPs) which had potential risk of bladder cancer. In this paper, a highly selective analytical method for HBQs was developed by HBQs-mediated assembly of amino acid modified Mn-doped ZnS/Quantum Dots (Mn: ZnS QDs). In the presence HBQs, a charge-transfer complex (CTC) was formed between aromatic rings of HBQs and the primary amino groups on the surface of the QDs. The formation of CTC led to the aggregation of QDs, as a result fluorescence decreasing occurred. The decrease was correlated with the concentration of HBQs. Then a fluorescence sensor array for discrimination of three kinds of HBQs including 2,6-Dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), 2,6-Dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone (DBBQ) and 2,3,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ) was developed. Four kinds of amino acids including cysteine, threonine, tyrosine and tryptophan were embellished on the Mn: ZnS QDs. The different extents of aggregation led to different fluorescence decreasing effect, thus distinct fluorescence patterns were created. It showed that three kinds of HBQs could be discriminated successfully by fluorescence sensor array at a range of concentrations through principal component analysis (PCA). The unknown samples were predicted by with a stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) using Mahalanobis distance as a selection criterion with accuracy of 100%. Remarkably, the practicability of the proposed sensor array was further validated by identification of three kinds of HBQs at different concentrations in real drinking water samples. Compared to LC/MS/MS, this fluorescent sensor array-based method was proved to be more convenient since the nanoparticles can be prepared flexibly according to the property of the target. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel drug delivery of 5-fluorouracil device based on TiO2/ZnS nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Faria, Henrique Antonio Mendonça; de Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar

    2015-11-01

    The structural and electronic properties of titanium oxide nanotubes (TiO2) have attracted considerable attention for the development of therapeutic devices and imaging probes for nanomedicine. However, the fluorescence response of TiO2 has typically been within ultraviolet spectrum. In this study, the surface modification of TiO2 nanotubes with ZnS quantum dots was found to produce a red shift in the ultra violet emission band. The TiO2 nanotubes used in this work were obtained by sol-gel template synthesis. The ZnS quantum dots were deposited onto TiO2 nanotube surface by a micelle-template inducing reaction. The structure and morphology of the resulting hybrid TiO2/ZnS nanotubes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. According to the results of fluorescence spectroscopy, pure TiO2 nanotubes exhibited a high emission at 380nm (3.26eV), whereas TiO2/ZnS exhibited an emission at 410nm (3.02eV). The TiO2/ZnS nanotubes demonstrated good bio-imaging ability on sycamore cultured plant cells. The biocompatibility against mammalian cells (Chinese Hamster Ovarian Cells-CHO) suggesting that TiO2/ZnS may also have suitable optical properties for use as biological markers in diagnostic medicine. The drug release characteristic of TiO2/ZnS nanotubes was explored using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an anticancer drug used in photodynamic therapy. The results show that the TiO2/ZnS nanotubes are a promising candidate for anticancer drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fabrication of single Ga-doped ZnS nanowires as high-gain photosensors by focused ion beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Shih-Hsiang; Hung, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Ping-Hung; Su, Ya-Wen; Wang, Chiu-Yen

    2017-09-01

    ZnS nanowires were synthesized via a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism and then fabricated into a single-nanowire field-effect transistor by focused ion beam (FIB) deposition. The field-effect electrical properties of the FIB-fabricated ZnS nanowire device, namely conductivity, mobility and hole concentration, were 9.13 Ω-1 cm-1, 13.14 cm2 V-1 s-1and 4.27 × 1018 cm-3, respectively. The photoresponse properties of the ZnS nanowires were studied and the current responsivity, current gain, response time and recovery time were 4.97 × 106 A W-1, 2.43 × 107, 9 s and 24 s, respectively. Temperature-dependent I-V measurements were used to analyze the interfacial barrier height between ZnS and the FIB-deposited Pt electrode. The results show that the interfacial barrier height is as low as 40 meV. The energy-dispersive spectrometer elemental line scan shows the influence of Ga ions on the ZnS nanowire surface on the FIB-deposited Pt contact electrodes. The results of temperature-dependent I-V measurements and the elemental line scan indicate that Ga ions were doped into the ZnS nanowire, reducing the barrier height between the FIB-deposited Pt electrodes and the single ZnS nanowire. The small barrier height results in the FIB-fabricated ZnS nanowire device acting as a high-gain photosensor.

  17. Northern Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 13 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on November 26, 2002 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80, Longitude 43.2 East (316.8 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for

  18. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  19. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye under visible irradiation by water soluble ZnS:Mn/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaparde, Rohini A.; Acharya, Smita A.

    2018-05-01

    ZnS:Mn/ ZnS core/shell nanoparticles was prepared by two step synthesis method. In first step, oleic acid - coated Mn doped ZnS core nanoparticles were prepared which were charged through ligand exchange. Shell of ZnS NPs was finally deposited upon the surface of charged Mn doped ZnS core. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image exhibit morphological confirmation of ZnS:Mn/ZnS core/shell. As Nano ZnS are the most suitable candidates for photocatalyst that extensively involved in degradation and complete mineralization of various toxic organic pollutants owing to its high efficiency, strong oxidizing power, non-toxicity, high photochemical and biological stability, corrosive resistance and low cost. Photodegradation of malachite green is systematically investigated by adding different molar proportional of ZnS:Mn/ZnS core/shell in the dye. The rate of de-coloration of dye is detected by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. Efficient detoriation in the colour of dye is attributed to the core /shell morphology of the particles.

  20. Single-layer ZnS supported on Au(111): A combined XPS, LEED, STM and DFT study

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Xingyi; Sorescu, Dan C.; Lee, Junseok

    2016-12-31

    Single-layer of ZnS, consisting of one atomic layer of ZnS(111) plane, has been grown on Au(111) and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). While the LEED measurement indicates a coincidence structure of ZnS-(3×3)/Au(111)-(4×4), high resolution STM images reveal hexagonal unit cells of 6.7×6.7 Å 2 and 11.6×11.6 Å 2, corresponding to √3 and 3 times the unit cell of the ideal zincblende ZnS-(1×1), respectively, depending on the tunneling conditions. Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) indicate a significantly reconstructed non-planar structure of ZnS single-layer on Au(111) with 2/3 ofmore » the S anions being located nearly in the plane of the Zn cations and the rest 1/3 of the S anions protruding above the Zn plane. In conclusion, the calculated STM image shows similar characteristics to those of the experimental STM image. Additionally, the DFT calculations reveal the different bonding nature of the S anions in ZnS single-layer supported on Au(111).« less

  1. Controlling the Photocorrosion of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles in Water by Doping with Chloride and Cobalt Ions.

    PubMed

    Weide, Philipp; Schulz, Katharina; Kaluza, Stefan; Rohe, Markus; Beranek, Radim; Muhler, Martin

    2016-12-06

    Photodegradation under UV light irradiation is a major drawback in photocatalytic applications of sulfide semiconductors. ZnS nanoparticles were doped with very low amounts of chloride or cobalt ions in the ppm range and codoped with chloride and cobalt ions during their synthesis by precipitation in aqueous solution followed by calcination. The high-temperature wurtzite phase annealed at 800 °C had a high susceptibility to UV irradiation in water, while the low-temperature zincblende phase annealed at 400 °C was found to be stable. Chlorine doping increased the rate of photocorrosion in water, whereas cobalt doping led to a stabilization of the ZnS nanoparticles. Based on photochemical and spectroscopic investigations applying UV/vis, X-ray photoelectron, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, the increased susceptibility of Cl-doped ZnS is ascribed to a higher number of surface point defects, whereas the stabilization by Co 2+ is caused by additional recombination pathways for the charge carriers in the bulk, thus avoiding photocorrosion processes at the surface. Additional doping of Cl-doped ZnS with cobalt ions was found to counteract the detrimental effect of the chloride ions efficiently.

  2. Preparation and properties of ZnS superhydrophobic surface with hierarchical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lujun; Zheng, Maojun; He, Shuanghu; Ma, Li; Li, Mei; Shen, Wenzhong

    2011-01-01

    A novel ZnS hierarchical structure composed of nanorod arrays with branched nanosheets and nanowires grown on their upside walls, was synthesized over Au-coated silicon substrate via chemical vapor deposition technique. Contact angle and sliding angle of this hierarchical film with no surface modification were measured to be about 153.8° and 9.1° for 5 μl water droplets. Self-cleaning behavior and dynamic water-repelling performance were clearly demonstrated. In addition, electrowetting transition phenomenon from superhydrophobic to hydrophilic state happened when a critical bias ∼7.0 V was applied. Below this threshold voltage, the contact angle change is little. This work for the first time reports the creation of ZnS superhydrophobic surface and could enrich its research field as surface functional materials.

  3. Low-temperature growth and photoluminescence property of ZnS nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zengxing; Wang, Jianxiong; Yuan, Huajun; Gao, Yan; Liu, Dongfang; Song, Li; Xiang, Yanjuan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Liu, Lifeng; Luo, Shudong; Dou, Xinyuan; Mou, Shicheng; Zhou, Weiya; Xie, Sishen

    2005-10-06

    At a low temperature of 450 degrees C, ZnS nanoribbons have been synthesized on Si and KCl substrates by a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method with a two-temperature-zone furnace. Zinc and sulfur powders are used as sources in the different temperature zones. X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SEAD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis show that the ZnS nanoribbons are the wurtzite structure, and there are two types-single-crystal and bicrystal nanoribbons. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows that the spectrum mainly includes two parts: a purple emission band centering at about 390 nm and a blue emission band centering at about 445 nm with a weak green shoulder around 510 nm.

  4. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of ZnS nanobowl arrays via colloidal monolayer template

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional Zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanobowl arrays were synthesized via self-assembled monolayer polystyrene sphere template floating on precursor solution surface. A facile approach was proposed to investigate the morphology evolution of nanobowl arrays by post-annealing procedure. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement of as-grown nanoarrays shows that the spectrum mainly includes two parts: a purple emission peak at 382 nm and a broad blue emission band centering at 410 nm with a shoulder around 459 nm, and a blue emission band at 440 nm was obtained after the annealing procedure. ZnS nanoarrays with special morphologies and PL emission are benefits to their promising application in novel photoluminescence nanodevice. PMID:25246857

  5. Optical constants of wurtzite ZnS thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, H. C.; Chang, R. P. H.

    2001-11-01

    The complex dielectric functions of wurtzite ZnS thin films grown on (0001) Al2O3 have been determined by using spectroscopic ellipsometry over the spectral range of 1.33-4.7 eV. Below the band gap, the refractive index n is found to follow the first-order Sellmeir dispersion relationship n2(λ)=1+2.22λ2/(λ2-0.0382). Strong and well-defined free excitonic features located above the band edge are clearly observed at room temperature. The intrinsic optical parameters of wurtzite ZnS such as band gaps and excitonic binding energies have been determined by fitting the absorption spectrum using a modified Elliott expression together with Lorentizan broadening. Both parameters are found to be larger than their zinc blende counterparts.

  6. Minimizing artifact formation in magnetorheological finishing of chemical vapor deposition ZnS flats.

    PubMed

    Kozhinova, Irina A; Romanofsky, Henry J; Maltsev, Alexander; Jacobs, Stephen D; Kordonski, William I; Gorodkin, Sergei R

    2005-08-01

    The polishing performance of magnetorheological (MR) fluids prepared with a variety of magnetic and nonmagnetic ingredients was studied on four types of initial surface for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) ZnS flats from domestic and foreign sources. The results showed that it was possible to greatly improve smoothing performance of magnetorheological finishing (MRF) by altering the fluid composition, with the best results obtained for nanoalumina abrasive used with soft carbonyl iron and altered MR fluid chemistry. Surface roughness did not exceed 20 nm peak to valley and 2 nm rms after removal of 2 microm of material. The formation of orange peel and the exposure of a pebblelike structure inherent in ZnS from the CVD process were suppressed.

  7. Degradation of the Crystalline Structure of ZnS Ceramics under Abrasive Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, I. P.; Dunaev, A. A.; Chmel, A. E.

    2018-04-01

    Stability of optical elements based on ZnS ceramics to dust and rain erosion is usually estimated from the loss of material mass in a directional flow of solid particles or atmospheric precipitates. In this case, the mechanism of degradation and fracture of the surface layer of an optical element is not considered. The photoluminescence (PL) method was used for investigating the crystal lattice response to the abrasive action and the formation of cleavage in ZnS ceramics, which differ in manufacturing technology and, accordingly, in the grain size by two orders of magnitude. It is shown that during abrasive treatment of samples, their spectra exhibit changes typical of degradation of the crystal lattice of material grains. The PL spectra of cleavage surfaces reveal almost complete degradation of the structure of crystallite grains with a size from 1-2 to 100-200 μm.

  8. Metal chalcogenide nanoparticle gel networks: Their formation mechanism and application for novel material generation and heavy metal water remediation via cation exchange reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palhares, Leticia F.

    overall reaction is kinetically controlled, since systems with similar solubility, and thus similar thermodynamic driving force (e.g. PbS and CdS) exchange at very different rates. A correlation exists between the speed of the reaction and the difference between the reduction potential of the incoming cation and that of Zn2+; the larger the difference, the faster the exchange. At the same time, the porosity of the aerogels and the surfactant-free surfaces hold great importance for the exchange reactions, allowing for exchange between cations of similar size and charge (i.e. Pb2+ for Zn2+), a phenomenon that was previously reported as impossible in ligand-capped metal chalcogenide nanoparticles. These observations allowed for a better understanding of the factors governing the cation exchange reaction in nanoscale metal chalcogenides. Quaternary ZnS-CuInS2 gels were obtained by cation exchange with Cu+ and In3+, but the pure CuInS2 phase was not obtained under the mild reaction conditions used, probably due to the very different mobility of the two exchanging cations. The kinetically fast cation exchange process and the propensity of the soft chalcogenide gel networks to bind heavy metal ions selectively, suggest that these materials could also be suitable for the removal of heavy metal ions from the environment. The dissertation research studied the capacity of ZnS aerogels to sequester heavy metal ions such as Pb2+ and Hg2+ from water. The materials are efficient in removing the heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions with a wide range of initial concentrations. For initial concentrations that mimic an environmental spill (i.e. 100 ppb Pb2+), the treatment with the aerogel affords a final concentration lower than the 15 ppm action level recommended by the EPA. Under thermodynamically forcing conditions, the water remediation capacity of the ZnS nanoparticle aerogels was determined to be 14.2 mmol Pb2+ / g ZnS aerogel, which is the highest value reported to date.

  9. South Polar Cap, Summer 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the south polar cap of Mars as it appeared to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on April 17, 2000. In winter and early spring, this entire scene would be covered by frost. In summer, the cap shrinks to its minimum size, as shown here. Even though it is summer, observations made by the Viking orbiters in the 1970s showed that the south polar cap remains cold enough that the polar frost (seen here as white) consists of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide freezes at temperatures around -125o C (-193o F). Mid-summer afternoon sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left from about 11.2o above the horizon. Soon the cap will experience sunsets; by June 2000, this pole will be in autumn, and the area covered by frost will begin to grow. Winter will return to the south polar region in December 2000. The polar cap from left to right is about 420 km (260 mi) across.

  10. Polar Cap Plasma and Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Heather A.; Craven, Paul D.; Comfort, Richard H.; Chandler, Michael O.; Moore, Thomas E.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation will describe the character of the polar cap plasma in 10% AGU Spring 1998 particular the convection velocities at the perigee (about 1.8 Re) and apogee( about 8.9 Re) of Polar in relationship to Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and solar wind parameters. This plasma is thought to be due to several sources; the polar wind, cleft ion fountain, and auroral outflow. The plasma in the polar cap tends to be mostly field-aligned. At any given point in the polar cap, this plasma could be from a different regions since convection of magnetic field lines can transport this material. it is quite difficult to study such a phenomena with single point measurements. Current knowledge of the polar cap plasma obtained by in situ measurements will be presented along with recent results from the Polar mission. This study also examines the direct electrical coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere by comparing convection velocities measured by the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) and Magnetic Field Experiment (MFE) instruments in magnetosphere and measurements of the ionosphere by ground-based radars. At times such a comparison is difficult because the Polar satellite at apogee spends a large amount of time in the polar cap which is a region that is not coverage well by the current SuperDam coherent radars. This is impart due to the lack of irregularities that returns the radar signal.

  11. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and structural characterization of ZnS on (001) GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, R. G., II; Huang, P. C.; Stock, S. R.; Summers, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of surface nucleation processes on the quality of ZnS layers grown on (001) GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. Reflection high energy electron diffraction indicated that nucleation at high temperatures produced more planar surfaces than nucleation at low temperatures, but the crystalline quality as assessed by X-ray double crystal diffractometry is relatively independent of nucleation temperature. A critical factor in layer quality was the initial roughness of the GaAs surfaces.

  12. ZnS nanostructured thin-films deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Deshmukh, S. G., E-mail: deshmukhpradyumn@gmail.com; Jariwala, Akshay; Agarwal, Anubha

    ZnS thin films were grown on glass substrate using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique at room temperature. Aqueous solutions of ZnCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S were used as precursors. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectroscopy and optical absorption measurements were applied to study the structural, surface morphology and optical properties of as-deposited ZnS thin films. The X-ray diffraction profiles revealed that ZnS thin films consist of crystalline grains with cubic phase. Spherical nano grains of random size and well covered on the glass substrate were observed from FESEM. The average grainmore » size were found to be 77 nm, 100 nm and 124 nm for 20 cycles, 40 cycles and 60 cycles samples respectively. For 60 cycle sample, Raman spectra show two prominent peaks at 554 cm{sup −1} and 1094 cm{sup −1}. The optical band gap values were found to be 3.76 eV, 3.72 eV and 3.67 eV for 20 cycle, 40 cycle and 60 cycle samples respectively.« less

  13. Structural and optical properties of Mg doped ZnS quantum dots and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, M.; Boopathyraja, A.

    2018-01-01

    Zn1-xMgxS (x = 0, 0.2 and 0.4) quantum dots (QDs) were prepared by co-precipitation method. The Mg dopant did not modify the cubic blende structure of ZnS QDs. The Mg related secondary phase was not detected even for 40% of Mg doping. The size mismatch between host Zn ion and dopant Mg ion created distortion around the dopant. The creation of distortion centres produced small changes in the lattice parameters and diffraction peak position. All the QDs showed small sulfur deficiency and the deficiency level were increased by Mg doping. Band gap of the QD was decreased due to the dominated quantum confinement effect over compositional effect at initial doping of Mg. But at higher doping the band gap was increased due to compositional effect, since there was no change in average crystallite size. The prepared QDs had three emission bands in the UV and Visible regions corresponding to near band edge emission and defect related emissions. The electron transport reaction chain which forms free radicals was broken by sulfur vacancy trap sites. Therefore, the ZnS QDs had better antioxidant activity and the antioxidant behaviour was enhanced by Mg doping. The enhanced UV absorption and emission of 20% of Mg doped ZnS QDs let to maximize the zone of inhibition against E. Coli bacterial strain.

  14. Synthesis of Mn-doped ZnS architectures in ternary solution and their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinjuan; Zhang, Qinglin; Zou, Bingsuo; Lei, Aihua; Ren, Pinyun

    2011-10-01

    Mn-doped ZnS sea urchin-like architectures were fabricated by a one-pot solvothermal route in a ternary solution made of ethylenediamine, ethanolamine and distilled water. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL). It was demonstrated that the as-prepared sea urchin-like architectures with diameter of 0.5-1.5 μm were composed of nanorods, possessing a wurtzite structures. The preferred growth orientation of nanorods was found to be the [0 0 2] direction. The PL spectra of the Mn-doped ZnS sea urchin-like architectures show a strong orange emission at 587 nm, indicating the successful doping of Mn 2+ ions into ZnS host. Ethanolamine played the role of oriented-assembly agent in the formation of sea urchin-like architectures. A possible growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of sea urchin-like architectures.

  15. ZnS nanostructured thin-films deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, S. G.; Jariwala, Akshay; Agarwal, Anubha; Patel, Chetna; Panchal, A. K.; Kheraj, Vipul

    2016-04-01

    ZnS thin films were grown on glass substrate using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique at room temperature. Aqueous solutions of ZnCl2 and Na2S were used as precursors. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectroscopy and optical absorption measurements were applied to study the structural, surface morphology and optical properties of as-deposited ZnS thin films. The X-ray diffraction profiles revealed that ZnS thin films consist of crystalline grains with cubic phase. Spherical nano grains of random size and well covered on the glass substrate were observed from FESEM. The average grain size were found to be 77 nm, 100 nm and 124 nm for 20 cycles, 40 cycles and 60 cycles samples respectively. For 60 cycle sample, Raman spectra show two prominent peaks at 554 cm-1 and 1094 cm-1. The optical band gap values were found to be 3.76 eV, 3.72 eV and 3.67 eV for 20 cycle, 40 cycle and 60 cycle samples respectively.

  16. The development of a new optical sensor based on the Mn doped ZnS quantum dots modified with the molecularly imprinted polymers for sensitive recognition of florfenicol.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Susan; Jahani, Moslem; Belador, Foroogh

    2016-04-15

    The Mn doped ZnS quantum dots (Mn:ZnS QDs) capped with the florfenicol molecularly imprinted polymer (Mn:ZnS QDs@MIP) were prepared via the sol-gel surface imprinting approach using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the functional monomer and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the cross-linker for the optosensing of the florfenicol. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer, IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry, and spectrofluorometry were used to elucidate the formation, morphology, and identification of the products. To illustrate the usefulness of the new imprinted material, the non-imprinted coated Mn:ZnS QDs (Mn:ZnS QDs@NIP) were synthesized without the presence of the florfenicol. It was revealed that the fluorescence (FL) intensity of the Mn:ZnS QDs@MIP increased with increasing the FF concentration. Under the optimal conditions, changes in the FL intensity in the presence of the target molecule showed a linear response in the concentration range of 30-700 μmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 24 μmol L(-1). The developed method was finally applied successfully to the determination of FF in different meat samples with satisfactory recoveries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The development of a new optical sensor based on the Mn doped ZnS quantum dots modified with the molecularly imprinted polymers for sensitive recognition of florfenicol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Susan; Jahani, Moslem; Belador, Foroogh

    2016-04-01

    The Mn doped ZnS quantum dots (Mn:ZnS QDs) capped with the florfenicol molecularly imprinted polymer (Mn:ZnS QDs@MIP) were prepared via the sol-gel surface imprinting approach using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the functional monomer and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the cross-linker for the optosensing of the florfenicol. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer, IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry, and spectrofluorometry were used to elucidate the formation, morphology, and identification of the products. To illustrate the usefulness of the new imprinted material, the non-imprinted coated Mn:ZnS QDs (Mn:ZnS QDs@NIP) were synthesized without the presence of the florfenicol. It was revealed that the fluorescence (FL) intensity of the Mn:ZnS QDs@MIP increased with increasing the FF concentration. Under the optimal conditions, changes in the FL intensity in the presence of the target molecule showed a linear response in the concentration range of 30-700 μmol L- 1 with a detection limit of 24 μmol L- 1. The developed method was finally applied successfully to the determination of FF in different meat samples with satisfactory recoveries.

  18. Polar Cap Formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, C. B.; Shaya, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Since thermal migration is not an effective mechanism for water transport in the polar regions at the Galilean satellites, some other process must be responsible for the formation of Ganymede's polar caps. It is proposed that Ganymede's polar caps are the optical manifestation of a process that began with the distribution of an ice sheet over the surface of Ganymede. The combined processes of impact gardening and thermal migration led, in regions at latitudes less than 40 to 45 deg., to the burial of some fraction of this ice, the migration of some to the polar caps margins, and a depletion of free ice in the optical surface. At higher latitudes, no process was effective in removing ice from the optical surface, so the remanants of the sheet are visible today.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of biopolymer protected zinc sulphide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, U. S.; Sarkar, D.

    2015-09-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles are prepared by a simple, economic and green synthesis route. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm zinc blend structure. ZnS formation is confirmed through chemical analysis by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays. Transmission electron microscopy reveals formation of nanosize with dimension in the range of 8-2 nm. Band gap of the nanocrystals is found to lie in the range of 4.51-4.65 eV. Photoluminescence study indicate defect like vacancies. The growth mechanism of ZnS nanoparticles is discussed with the help of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The materials show high dielectric constant compared to its bulk counterpart. The dielectric loss of the samples shows anomalous behaviour. The frequency dependent A.C. conductivity of the samples is discussed both in high and low frequency regimes. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristic performed under dark and under illumination, shows excellent light response of the material.

  20. Polar cap formation on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaya, E. J.; Pilcher, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that Ganymede's polar caps are the remnants of a more extensive covering of water ice that formed during a period in which the satellite was geologically active. It is inferred that the initial thickness of this covering was a significant fraction of the gardening depth since the covering formed. This suggests an initial thickness of at least a few meters over heavily cratered regions such as the south polar grooved terrain. The absence of similar polar caps on Callisto apparently reflects the absence of comparable geologic activity in the history of this satellite.

  1. Stimulated low-frequency Raman scattering in aqueous suspension of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyushkin, Anatolii S.; Baranov, Anatoly N.; Bulychev, Nikolay A.; Kazaryan, Mishik A.; Kudryavtseva, Anna D.; Shevchenko, Mikhail A.; Strokov, Maxim A.; Tcherniega, Nikolay V.; Zemskov, Konstantin I.

    2018-04-01

    The low-frequency acoustic mode in nanoparticles of different nature in aqueous suspension has been studied by stimulated low-frequency Raman scattering (SLFRS). Nanoparticles investigated (CuO, Ag, Au, ZnS) had different dimensions and different vibrational properties. Synthesis of cupric oxide nanoparticles in acoustoplasma discharge is described in details. SLFRS has been excited by nanosecond pulses of ruby laser. Spectra of the scattered light had been registered with the help of Fabry-Perot interferometer. SLFRS conversion efficiency, threshold and frequency shift of the scattered light are measured.

  2. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  3. North Polar Cap - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-28

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the margin of the north polar cap.

  4. Nucleation temperature-controlled synthesis and in vitro toxicity evaluation of L-cysteine-capped Mn:ZnS quantum dots for intracellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vivek; Pandey, Gajanan; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Yadav, Sapna; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy

    2016-03-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), one of the fastest developing and most exciting fluorescent materials, have attracted increasing interest in bioimaging and biomedical applications. The long-term stability and emission in the visible region of QDs have proved their applicability as a significant fluorophore in cell labelling. In this study, an attempt has been made to explore the efficacy of L-cysteine as a capping agent for Mn-doped ZnS QD for intracellular imaging. A room temperature nucleation strategy was adopted to prepare non-toxic, water-dispersible and biocompatible Mn:ZnS QDs. Aqueous and room temperature QDs with L-cysteine as a capping agent were found to be non-toxic even at a concentration of 1500 µg/mL and have wide applications in intracellular imaging. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Morphology and thermal studies of zinc sulfide and cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuntokun, Jejenija; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal complexes of 1-cyano-1-carboethoxyethylene-2,2-dithiolato-κS,S'-bis(N,N-dimethylthiourea-κS) have been synthesized and characterized with analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were thermolysed in hexadecylamine at 200 °C to prepare ZnS and CdS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD). TEM images showed spherically shaped nanoparticles, whose sizes are in the range 4.33-7.21 nm for ZnS and 4.95-7.7 nm CdS respectively and XRD confirmed cubic crystalline phases for the nanoparticles. The optical band gap energy evaluated from the absorption spectra are 2.88 eV (430 nm) and 2.81 eV (440 nm) for the ZnS and CdS nanoparticles respectively. The as-prepared metal sulfide nanoparticles were further incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to give ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA composites. The polymer nanocomposites were studied to investigate their morphology and thermal properties relative to the pure PVA. XRD diffractions indicated that the crystalline phases of the nanoparticles and the sizes in PVA matrices remained unaltered. Infra-red spectra studies revealed interactions between the PVA and the metal sulfide nanoparticles and TGA studies show that the ZnS/PVA and CdS/PVA nanocomposites exhibit better thermal stability than the pure PVA.

  6. Chemical bath deposited ZnS buffer layer for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jiyeon; Lim, Donghwan; Eo, Young-Joo; Choi, Changhwan

    2018-02-01

    The dependence of Zn precursors using zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO)2), and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) on the characteristics of the chemical bath deposited ZnS thin film used as a buffer layer of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cell was studied. It is found that the ZnS film deposition rate increases with higher stability constant during decomplexation reaction of zinc ligands, which affects the crack formation and the amount of sulfur and oxygen contents within the film. The band gap energies of all deposited films are in the range of 3.40-3.49 eV, which is lower than that of the bulk ZnS film due to oxygen contents within the films. Among the CIGS solar cells having ZnS buffer layers prepared by different Zn precursors, the best cell efficiency with 9.4% was attained using Zn(CH3COO)2 precursor due to increased Voc mainly. This result suggests that [Zn(NH3)4]2+ complex formation should be well controlled to attain the high quality ZnS thin films.

  7. Microstructure Hierarchical Model of Competitive e+-Ps Trapping in Nanostructurized Substances: from Nanoparticle-Uniform to Nanoparticle-Biased Systems.

    PubMed

    Shpotyuk, Oleh; Ingram, Adam; Bujňáková, Zdenka; Baláž, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Microstructure hierarchical model considering the free-volume elements at the level of interacting crystallites (non-spherical approximation) and the agglomerates of these crystallites (spherical approximation) was developed to describe free-volume evolution in mechanochemically milled As 4 S 4 /ZnS composites employing positron annihilation spectroscopy in a lifetime measuring mode. Positron lifetime spectra were reconstructed from unconstrained three-term decomposition procedure and further subjected to parameterization using x3-x2-coupling decomposition algorithm. Intrinsic inhomogeneities due to coarse-grained As 4 S 4 and fine-grained ZnS nanoparticles were adequately described in terms of substitution trapping in positron and positronium (Ps) (bound positron-electron) states due to interfacial triple junctions between contacting particles and own free-volume defects in boundary compounds. Compositionally dependent nanostructurization in As 4 S 4 /ZnS nanocomposite system was imagined as conversion from o-Ps trapping sites to positron traps. The calculated trapping parameters that were shown could be useful to characterize adequately the nanospace filling in As 4 S 4 /ZnS composites.

  8. Active targeting of cancer cells using folic acid-conjugated platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Teow, Yiwei; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2010-12-01

    Interaction of nanoparticles with human cells is an interesting topic for understanding toxicity and developing potential drug candidates. Water soluble platinum nanoparticles were synthesized via reduction of hexachloroplatinic acid using sodium borohydride in the presence of capping agents. The bioactivity of folic acid and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) capped platinum nanoparticles (Pt-nps) has been investigated using commercially available cell lines. In the cell viability experiments, PVP-capped nanoparticles were found to be less toxic (>80% viability), whereas, folic acid-capped platinum nanoparticles showed a reduced viability down to 24% after 72 h of exposure at a concentration of 100 μg ml(-1) for MCF7 breast cancer cells. Such toxicity, combined with the possibility to incorporate functional organic molecules as capping agents, can be used for developing new drug candidates.

  9. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15... Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2) of... existence of the $100,000,000,000 cap under section 103(e)(2). The cap disclosure must be made at the time...

  10. Tip cap for a rotor blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofel, W. K.; Tuley, E. N.; Gay, C. H., Jr.; Troeger, R. E.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A replaceable tip cap for attachment to the end of a rotor blade is described. The tip cap includes a plurality of walls defining a compartment which, if desired, can be divided into a plurality of subcompartments. The tip cap can include inlet and outlet holes in walls thereof to permit fluid communication of a cooling fluid there through. Abrasive material can be attached with the radially outer wall of the tip cap.

  11. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. In funding year 2010 and subsequent funding years, the $2.25 billion funding cap on federal universal service.... For instance, the annual increase in the GDP-CPI from 2008 to 2009 would be used for the 2010 funding...

  12. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. In funding year 2010 and subsequent funding years, the $2.25 billion funding cap on federal universal service.... For instance, the annual increase in the GDP-CPI from 2008 to 2009 would be used for the 2010 funding...

  13. 47 CFR 54.507 - Cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.507 Cap. (a) Amount of the annual cap. In funding year 2010 and subsequent funding years, the $2.25 billion funding cap on federal universal service.... For instance, the annual increase in the GDP-CPI from 2008 to 2009 would be used for the 2010 funding...

  14. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that fits over the cervix to...

  15. Structural characteristics of a non-polar ZnS layer on a ZnO buffer layer formed on a sapphire substrate by mist chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, Koshi; Inaba, Katsuhiko; Yatabe, Zenji; Nakamura, Yusui

    2018-06-01

    ZnS is attractive as a material for low-cost light-emitting diodes. In this study, a non-polar ZnS layer was epitaxially grown on a sapphire substrate by inserting a ZnO buffer layer between ZnS and sapphire. The ZnS and ZnO layers were grown by a mist chemical vapor deposition system with a simple setup operated under atmospheric pressure. The sample was characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction measurements including 2θ/ω scans, rocking curves, and reciprocal space mapping. The results showed that an m-plane wurtzite ZnS layer grew epitaxially on an m-plane wurtzite ZnO buffer layer formed on the m-plane sapphire substrate to provide a ZnS/ZnO/sapphire structure.

  16. High durability antireflection coatings for silicon and multispectral ZnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Shay; Marcovitch, Orna; Yadin, Ygal; Klaiman, Dror; Koren, Nitzan; Zipin, Hedva

    2007-04-01

    In the current complex battle field, military platforms are required to operate on land, at sea and in the air in all weather conditions both day and night. In order to achieve such capabilities, advanced electro-optical systems are being constantly developed and improved. These systems such as missile seeker heads, reconnaissance and target acquisition pods and tracking, monitoring and alert systems have external optical components (window or dome) which must remain operational even at extreme environmental conditions. Depending on the intended use of the system, there are a few choices of window and dome materials. Amongst the more common materials one can point out sapphire, ZnS, germanium and silicon. Other materials such as spinel, ALON and yittria may also be considered. Most infrared materials have high indices of refraction and therefore they reflect a large part of radiation. To minimize the reflection and increase the transmission, antireflection (AR) coatings are the most common choice. Since these systems operate at different environments and weather conditions, the coatings must be made durable to withstand these extreme conditions. In cases where the window or dome is made of relatively soft materials such as multispectral ZnS, the coating may also serve as protection for the window or dome. In this work, several antireflection coatings have been designed and manufactured for silicon and multispectral ZnS. The coating materials were chosen to be either oxides or fluorides which are known to have high durability. Ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize the optical constants of the thin films. The effects of the deposition conditions on the optical constants of the deposited thin films and durability of the coatings will be discussed. The coatings were tested according to MIL-STD-810E and were also subjected to rain erosion tests at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) whirling arm apparatus in which one of the coatings showed

  17. Surface transmission enhancement of ZnS via continuous-wave laser microstructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Kevin J.; Florea, Catalin M.; Poutous, Menelaos K.; Busse, Lynda E.; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2014-03-01

    Fresnel reflectivity at dielectric boundaries between optical components, lenses, and windows is a major issue for the optics community. The most common method to reduce the index mismatch and subsequent surface reflection is to apply a thin film or films of intermediate indices to the optical materials. More recently, surface texturing or roughening has been shown to approximate a stepwise refractive index thin-film structure, with a gradient index of refraction transition from the bulk material to the surrounding medium. Short-pulse laser ablation is a recently-utilized method to produce such random anti-reflective structured surfaces (rARSS). Typically, high-energy femtosecond pulsed lasers are focused on the surface of the desired optical material to produce periodic or quasi-periodic assemblies of nanostructures which provide reduced surface reflection. This technique is being explored to generate a variety of structures across multiple optical materials. However, femtosecond laser systems are relatively expensive and more difficult to maintain. We present here a low power and low-cost alternative to femtosecond laser ablation, demonstrating random antireflective structures on the surface of Cleartran ZnS windows produced with a continuous-wave laser. In particular, we find that irradiation with a low-powered (<10 mW), defocused, CW 325nm-wavelength laser produces a random surface with significant roughness on ZnS substrates. The transmission through the structured ZnS windows is shown to increase by up to 9% across a broad wavelength range from the visible to the near-infrared.

  18. Application of Chlorophyll as Sensitizer for ZnS Photoanode in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, B. B.; Mahapatra, P. K.; Ghosh, M. K.

    2018-03-01

    Zinc sulphide thin films have been synthesized by the electrodeposition method onto stainless steel substrate followed by dipping in acetone solution of chlorophyll in different time intervals to form photosensitised thin films. The photoelectrochemical parameters of the films have been studied using the photoelectrochemical cell having the cell configuration as follows {{photoelectrode/NaOH}}({1{{M}}} ) + {{S}}({1{{M}}} ) + {{N}}{{{a}}_2}{{S}}({1{{M}}} ){{/C}} ({{{graphite}}} ) . The photoelectrochemical characterization of the semiconductor film and dye-sensitised films has been carried out by measuring current-voltage (I-V) in the dark, power output and photoresponse. The study proves that the conductivity of both ZnS film and dye-sensitised ZnS films are n-type. The power output curves illustrate that open circuit voltage (V oc) and short circuit current (I sc) increase from 0.210 V to 0.312 V and from 0.297 mA to 0.533 mA, respectively. The fill factor initially decreases from 0.299 to 0.213 and then increases to 0.297 irregularly whereas efficiency increases from 0.047% to 0.123%. The UV-Vis absorbance spectrum of chlorophyll in acetone shows the presence of chlorophyll. The structural morphology of the ZnS thin films has also been analysed by using x-ray diffraction technique (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The XRD pattern shows the formation of nanocrystalline ZnS thin films of size 65 nm and the SEM images confirm the formation of fibrous film of ZnS. The energy diffraction analysis of x-ray confirms the formation of ZnS thin films.

  19. Phytoremediation -- a practical capping alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Beath, J.M.; Peak, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Much literature has been devoted recently to the use of various plant species for the uptake of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Other uses for plants as part of the remediation process are growing in perceived effectiveness. Consequently, this paper deals with two other equally important potential uses of plants to address environmental problems that are just now evolving to the field trial stage: the use of plants to remediate organic pollutants; and the use of plants to control the rainfall-driven leaching of contaminants and the subsequent delivery to underlying groundwater. The traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) approachmore » to capping landfills will be contrasted with the potential benefits of using plants that can balance incoming rainfall with evapotranspiration, as well as plants which can act on organic constituents in soil or sludge by either uptake or by promoting microbial activity in soil. This paper compares traditional RCRA capping costs to those for a phytoremediation capping alternative, whose benefits include significantly lower implementation cost and continued remediation. This paper discusses important elements of a successful approach to phytoremediation including: species selection, implementation techniques, cost-efficient monitoring, regulatory aspects, project timing, and realistic expectations.« less

  20. Extinction of photoemission of Mn-Doped ZnS nanofluid in weak magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Anh-Tuan; Bui, Hong-Van; Pham, Van-Ben; Le, Van-Hong; Hoang, Nam-Nhat

    2016-08-01

    The observation of extinction of photoluminescence of Mn-doped ZnS nanofluid under applying of weak magnetic field is reported. At a constant field of 270 Gauss and above, the exponential decays of photoluminescent intensity was observed in disregard of field direction. About 50% extinction was achieved after 30 minute magnetization and a total extinction after 1 hour. The memory effect preserved for more than 2 hours at room temperature. This extinction was observed in a system with no clear ferromagnetic behavior.

  1. Experimental design and modeling of ultrasound assisted simultaneous adsorption of cationic dyes onto ZnS: Mn-NPs-AC from binary mixture.

    PubMed

    Asfaram, Arash; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Yousefi, Fakhri; Dastkhoon, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    The manganese impregnated zinc sulfide nanoparticles deposited on activated carbon (ZnS: Mn-NPs-AC) which fully was synthesized and characterized successfully applied for simultaneous removal of malachite green and methylene blue in binary situation. The effects of variables such as pH (2.0-10.0), sonication time (1-5min), adsorbent mass (0.005-0.025g) and MB and MG concentration (4-20mgL(-1)) on their removal efficiency was studied dy central composite design (CCD) to correlate dyes removal percentage to above mention variables that guides amongst the maximum influence was seen by changing the sonication time and adsorbent mass. Sonication time, adsorbent mass and pH in despite of dyes concentrations has positive relation with removal percentage. Multiple regression analysis of the experimental results is associated with 3-D response surface and contour plots that guide setting condition at pH of 7.0, 3min sonication time, 0.025g Mn: ZnS-NPs-AC and 15mgL(-1) of MB and MG lead to achievement of removal efficiencies of 99.87% and 98.56% for MG and MB, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model as best choice efficiency describe the dyes adsorption behavior, while MG and MB maximum adsorption capacity according to Langmuir was 202.43 and 191.57mgg(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stability, cytotoxicity and cell uptake of water-soluble dendron–conjugated gold nanoparticles with 3, 12 and 17 nm cores† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional characterization methods and procedures in addition to the data for the characterization of glutathione-capped gold nanoparticles and dendron-conjugated gold nanoparticles including FT-IR spectra (Fig. S1 and S2), UV-vis spectra (Fig. S3 and S6), TEM images (Fig. S4), MALDI-TOF/TOF spectra (Fig. S5), fluorescence spectra (Fig. S6 and S7), In vitro cytotoxic assay results (Fig. S9) and ICP-MS results (Tables 1 and 2). DOI: 10.1039/c5tb00608b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Deol, Suprit; Weerasuriya, Nisala

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the synthesis of water-soluble dendron–conjugated gold nanoparticles (Den–AuNPs) with various average core sizes and the evaluation of stability, cytotoxicity, cell permeability and uptake of these materials. The characterization of Den–AuNPs using various techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), 1H NMR, FT-IR, and UV-vis spectroscopy confirms the dendron conjugation to the glutathione-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The stability of AuNPs and Den–AuNPs in solutions of different pH and salt concentration is determined by monitoring the changes in surface plasmon bands of gold using UV-vis spectroscopy. The stability of Den–AuNPs at different pH remained about the same compared to that of AuNPs. In comparison, the Den–AuNPs are found to be more stable than the precursor AuNPs maintaining their solubility in the aqueous solution with the salt concentration of up to 100 mM. The improved stability of Den–AuNPs suggests that the post-functionalization of thiol-capped gold nanoparticle surfaces with dendrons can further improve the physiological stability and biocompatibility of gold nanoparticle-based materials. Cytotoxicity studies of AuNPs and Den–AuNPs with and without fluorophores are also performed by examining cell viability for 3T3 fibroblasts using a MTT cell proliferation assay. The conjugation of dendrons to the AuNPs with a fluorophore is able to decrease the cytotoxicity brought about by the fluorophore. The successful uptake of Den–AuNPs in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells shows the physiological viability of the hybrid materials. PMID:26366289

  3. Beet juice utilization: Expeditious green synthesis of nobel metal nanoparticles (Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd) using microwaves

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal nanoparticles of Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd were prepared in aqueous solutions via a rapid microwave-assisted green method using beet juice, an abundant sugar-rich agricultural produce, served as both a reducing and a capping reagent. The Ag nanoparticles with capping prepared by b...

  4. ZnS Buffer Layers Grown by Modified Chemical Bath Deposition for CIGS Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongchan; Ahn, Heejin; Shin, Hyundo; Um, Youngho

    2018-07-01

    ZnS thin films were prepared by the chemical bath deposition method using disodium ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid and hexamethylenetetramine as complexing agents in acidic conditions. The film prepared using a preheated S-ion source showed full surface coverage, but some clusters were found that were generated by the cluster-by-cluster reaction mechanism. On the other hand, the film prepared without this source had a uniform, dense, and smooth surface and showed fewer clusters than the film prepared using a preheated S-ion source. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra showed the energy core levels of Zn, O, and S components, and Zn-OH bonding decreased on the film using the preheated S-ion source. Especially, various binding energy peaks were found in the Zn 2 p 3/2 spectrum by Gaussian function fitting, and no peak corresponding to Zn-OH bonding was found for the film prepared using a preheated S-ion source. Moreover, the x-ray diffraction spectrum of the ZnS thin film using a non-preheated S-ion source showed amorphous or nanoscale crystallinity, but the emission peaks indicated that the structure of the film using preheated S-ion source was zincblende.

  5. ZnS Buffer Layers Grown by Modified Chemical Bath Deposition for CIGS Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongchan; Ahn, Heejin; Shin, Hyundo; Um, Youngho

    2018-03-01

    ZnS thin films were prepared by the chemical bath deposition method using disodium ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid and hexamethylenetetramine as complexing agents in acidic conditions. The film prepared using a preheated S-ion source showed full surface coverage, but some clusters were found that were generated by the cluster-by-cluster reaction mechanism. On the other hand, the film prepared without this source had a uniform, dense, and smooth surface and showed fewer clusters than the film prepared using a preheated S-ion source. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra showed the energy core levels of Zn, O, and S components, and Zn-OH bonding decreased on the film using the preheated S-ion source. Especially, various binding energy peaks were found in the Zn 2p 3/2 spectrum by Gaussian function fitting, and no peak corresponding to Zn-OH bonding was found for the film prepared using a preheated S-ion source. Moreover, the x-ray diffraction spectrum of the ZnS thin film using a non-preheated S-ion source showed amorphous or nanoscale crystallinity, but the emission peaks indicated that the structure of the film using preheated S-ion source was zincblende.

  6. Thermally stable solids based on endohedrally doped ZnS clusters.

    PubMed

    Matxain, Jon M; Piris, Mario; Lopez, Xabier; Ugalde, Jesus M

    2009-01-01

    The existence of inorganic, hollow, fullerene-like ZnS clusters has been theoretically predicted and then recently confirmed experimentally. These clusters were observed to trap alkali metals and halogens because the ionization energies (IE) of alkali metals are very similar to the electron affinities (EA) of halogens. This opens the possibility of forming molecular solids composed of these fullerene building blocks because the energy released due to the difference between the IE and EA would be very small. Herein we have focused on assembling bare Zn(12)S(12) and endohedral X@Zn(12)S(12)-Y@Zn(12)S(12) dimers (X = Na, K; Y = Cl, Br) by considering the square-faces-square orientation of every two adjacent clusters, which leads to a fcc cubic crystal structure in the solid. The structures were fully optimized in all cases, and their thermal stability was confirmed by ab initio thermal molecular dynamics calculations. The optimum lattice parameter of the solids was found to be around 13.8 A, which corresponds to distances of about 2.5 A between monomers, which is typical of covalent Zn-S bonds. The resulting solids are nanoporous materials similar to B(12)N(12). Due to their nanoporous structure, these zeolite-shaped solids could be used in heterogeneous catalysis and as storage materials and molecular sieves.

  7. The rebirth of the cervical cap.

    PubMed

    Cappiello, J D; Grainger-Harrison, M

    1981-01-01

    In an effort to dispel myths surrounding the cervical cap, the historical and political factors affecting the cap's use in the U.S. are described. Clinical aspects of cap fitting are also included. The cervical cap has found only limited acceptance in the U.S. Skepticisms on the part of physicians may be the result of 2 factors: confusion of the cervical cap with intracervical devices used for artificial insemination and confusion with stem pessaries; and the lack of clinical research and statistical evaluation of efficacy rates. The latter factor prompted Tietze et al. to conduct the only U.S. statistical study of the cap in 1953. Of the 143 women studied, the pregnancy rate was 7.6/100 years of use. Of the 28 unplanned pregnancies, 6 were related to faulty technique or omission of a spermicide and 10 were instances of admittedly irregular use. When these failures are omitted, the theoretical effectiveness rate is about 98%. Some practitioners are concerned about an increased incidence of cervical erosion with cap use. Possibly currently conducted studies will show that cap and spermicide users have a lower incidence of cervical erosion than women using no contraceptive method. Study findings suggest that the cervical cap may afford protection without any spermicidal supplement, but the use of spermicides continues to be recommended to clients. Advantages of the cervical cap include the following: it can be left in place longer than a diaphragm without additional applications of spermicide in the vagina; and the insertion of the cap is unrelated to the time of intercourse. Despite research on toleration of the cap for 3 weeks at a time, it is recommended that the cap be worn for only a few days at a time. At this time there are no manufacturers of cervical caps for contraceptive use in the U.S. The cap is now being imported from England and it costs $6.00. A factor that has made the cap unpopular with many physicians is the lengthy time required for fitting. An

  8. Synthesis of ZnS films on Si(100) wafers by using chemical bath deposition assisted by the complexing agent ethylenediamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, He-Jie; Wang, Xue-Mei; Gao, Xiao-Yong

    2015-07-01

    Low-cost synthesis of high-quality ZnS films on silicon wafers is of much importance to the ZnSbased heterojunction blue light-emitting device integrated with silicon. Thus, a series of ZnS films were chemically synthesized at low cost on Si(100) wafers at 353 K under a mixed acidic solution with a pH of 4 with zinc acetate and thioacetamide as precursors and with ethylenediamine and hydrochloric acid as the complexing agent and the pH value modifier, respectively. The effects of the ethylenediamine concentration on the crystallization, surface morphology, and optical properties of the ZnS films were investigated by using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, and fluorescence spectroscopy. A mechanism for the formation of ZnS film under an acidic condition was also proposed. All of the ZnS films were polycrystalline in nature, with a dominant cubic phase and a small amounts of hexagonal phases. The crystallization and the surface pattern of the films were clearly improved with increasing ethylenediamine concentration due to its enhanced complexing role. The absorption edge of the films almost underwent a blue shift with increasing ethylenediamine concentration, which was largely attributed to the quantum confinement effects caused by the small particle size of the polycrystalline ZnS films. Defect species and the corresponding strengths of the ZnS films were strongly affected by the ethylenediamine concentration.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of ZnS with controlled amount of S vacancies for photocatalytic H2 production under visible light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Huang, Baibiao; Li, Zhujie; Lou, Zaizhu; Wang, Zeyan; Dai, Ying; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Controlling amount of intrinsic S vacancies was achieved in ZnS spheres which were synthesized by a hydrothermal method using Zn and S powders in concentrated NaOH solution with NaBH4 added as reducing agent. These S vacancies efficiently extend absorption spectra of ZnS to visible region. Their photocatalytic activities for H2 production under visible light were evaluated by gas chromatograph, and the midgap states of ZnS introduced by S vacancies were examined by density functional calculations. Our study reveals that the concentration of S vacancies in the ZnS samples can be controlled by varying the amount of the reducing agent NaBH4 in the synthesis, and the prepared ZnS samples exhibit photocatalytic activity for H2 production under visible-light irradiation without loading noble metal. This photocatalytic activity of ZnS increases steadily with increasing the concentration of S vacancies until the latter reaches an optimum value. Our density functional calculations show that S vacancies generate midgap defect states in ZnS, which lead to visible-light absorption and responded. PMID:25712901

  10. Ultrafast carrier dynamics and third-order nonlinear optical properties of AgInS2/ZnS nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuai; Yang, Yang; Wang, Junzhong; Tang, Xiaosheng; Xu, Qing-Hua; Wang, Guo Ping

    2018-06-22

    Broad photoluminescence (PL) emission, a large Stokes shift and extremely long-lived radiative lifetimes are the characteristics of ternary I-III-VI semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), such as CuInS 2 and AgInS 2 . However, the lack of understanding regarding the intriguing PL mechanisms and photo-carrier dynamics limits their further applications. Here, AgInS 2 and AgInS 2 /ZnS NCs were chemically synthesized and their carrier dynamics were studied by time-resolved PL spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the surface defect state, which contributed dominantly to the non-radiative decay processes, was effectively passivated through ZnS alloying. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy was also used to investigate the carrier dynamics, revealing the electron storage at the surface state and donor state. Furthermore, the two photon absorption properties of AgInS 2 and AgInS 2 /ZnS NCs were measured using an open-aperture Z-scan technique. The improved third-order nonlinear susceptibility [Formula: see text] of AgInS 2 through ZnS alloying demonstrates potential application in two photon PL biological imaging.

  11. Controlled synthesis of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ doped ZnS quantum dots and their photovoltaic and magnetic properties

    DOE PAGES

    Horoz, Sabit; Yakami, Baichhabi; Poudyal, Uma; ...

    2016-04-27

    Eu-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized by wet-chemical method and found to form in zinc blende (cubic) structure. Both Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ doped ZnS can be controllably synthesized. The Eu 2+ doped ZnS QDs show broad photoluminescence emission peak around 512 nm, which is from the Eu2+ intra-ion transition of 4f 6d1 – 4f 7, while the Eu 3+ doped samples exhibit narrow emission lines characteristic of transitions between the 4f levels. The investigation of the magnetic properties shows that the Eu 3+ doped samples exhibit signs of ferromagnetism, on the other hand, Eu 2+ dopedmore » samples are paramagnetic of Curie-Weiss type. The incident photon to electron conversion efficiency is increased with the Eu doping, which suggests the QD solar cell efficiency can be enhanced by Eu doping due to widened absorption windows. This is an attractive approach to utilize benign and environmentally friendly wide band gap ZnS QDs in solar cell technology.« less

  12. High figure-of-merit p-type transparent conductor, Cu alloyed ZnS via radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Sandeep Kumar; Liu, Ya; Xu, Xiaojie; Woods-Robinson, Rachel; Das, Chandan; Ager, Joel W., III; Balasubramaniam, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    p-type transparent conducting Cu alloyed ZnS thin films from Cu{x} Zn{1-x} S targets (x = 0.1 , 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5) were deposited on glass substrates via radio frequency sputtering. x-ray diffraction and TEM-SAED analysis show that all the films have sphalerite ZnS as the majority crystalline phase. In addition, films with 30% and 40% Cu show the presence of increasing amounts of crystalline Cu2S phase. Conductivity values  ⩾400 S cm-1 were obtained for the films having 30% and 40% Cu, with the maximum conductivity of 752 S cm-1 obtained for the film with 40% Cu. Temperature dependent electrical transport measurements indicate metallic as well as degenerate hole conductivity in the deposited films. The reflection-corrected transmittance of this Cu alloyed ZnS (40% Cu) film was determined to be  ⩾75% at 550 nm. The transparent conductor figure of merit (ΦTC ) of the Cu alloyed ZnS (40% Cu), calculated with the average value of transmittance between 1.5 to 2.5 eV, was  ≈276 μS .

  13. Effects of Various Parameters on Structural and Optical Properties of CBD-Grown ZnS Thin Films: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Tarkeshwar; Lilhare, Devjyoti; Khare, Ayush

    2018-02-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique have proved their capability in a wide area of applications including electroluminescent and display devices, solar cells, sensors, and field emitters. These semiconducting thin films have attracted a much attention from the scientific community for industrial and research purposes. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review on the effect of various parameters on various properties of CBD-grown ZnS films. In the first part, we discuss the historical background of ZnS, its basic properties, and the advantages of the CBD technique. Detailed discussions on the film growth, structural and optical properties of ZnS thin films affected by various parameters, such as bath temperature and concentration, deposition time, stirring speed, complexing agents, pH value, humidity in the environment, and annealing conditions, are also presented. In later sections, brief information about the recent studies and findings is also added to explore the scope of research work in this field.

  14. Ultrafast carrier dynamics and third-order nonlinear optical properties of AgInS2/ZnS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kuai; Yang, Yang; Wang, Junzhong; Tang, Xiaosheng; Xu, Qing-Hua; Wang, Guo Ping

    2018-06-01

    Broad photoluminescence (PL) emission, a large Stokes shift and extremely long-lived radiative lifetimes are the characteristics of ternary I–III–VI semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), such as CuInS2 and AgInS2. However, the lack of understanding regarding the intriguing PL mechanisms and photo-carrier dynamics limits their further applications. Here, AgInS2 and AgInS2/ZnS NCs were chemically synthesized and their carrier dynamics were studied by time-resolved PL spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the surface defect state, which contributed dominantly to the non-radiative decay processes, was effectively passivated through ZnS alloying. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy was also used to investigate the carrier dynamics, revealing the electron storage at the surface state and donor state. Furthermore, the two photon absorption properties of AgInS2 and AgInS2/ZnS NCs were measured using an open-aperture Z-scan technique. The improved third-order nonlinear susceptibility {χ }(3) of AgInS2 through ZnS alloying demonstrates potential application in two photon PL biological imaging.

  15. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  16. Damages Caps in Medical Malpractice Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Leonard J; Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature on the effects of damages caps and concludes that the better-designed studies show that damages caps reduce liability insurance premiums. The effects of damages caps on defensive medicine, physicians’ location decisions, and the cost of health care to consumers are less clear. The only study of whether consumers benefit from lower health insurance premiums as a result of damages caps found no impact. Some state courts have based decisions declaring damages caps legislation unconstitutional on the lack of evidence of their effectiveness, thereby ignoring the findings of conflicting research studies or discounting their relevance. Although courts should be cautious in rejecting empirical evidence that caps are effective, legislators should consider whether they benefit consumers enough to justify limiting tort recoveries for those most seriously injured by malpractice. PMID:17517115

  17. Morphogenesis and crystallization of ZnS microspheres by a soft template-assisted hydrothermal route: synthesis, growth mechanism, and oxygen sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liangbao; Han, Jun; Luo, Tao; Li, Minqiang; Huang, Jiarui; Meng, Fanli; Liu, Jinhuai

    2009-01-05

    Almost monodisperse ZnS microspheres have been synthesized on a large scale by a hydrothermal route, in which tungstosilicate acid (TSA) was used as a soft template. By controlling the reaction conditions, such as reaction temperature, pH value of the solutions, and the reaction medium, almost monodisperse microspheres can be synthesized. The structure of these microspheres is sensitive to the reaction conditions. The growth mechanism of these nearly monodisperse microspheres was examined. Oxygen sensing is realized from ZnS microspheres. The current through the ZnS microspheres under UV illumination increases as the oxygen concentration decreases.

  18. CapZyme-Seq Comprehensively Defines Promoter-Sequence Determinants for RNA 5' Capping with NAD.

    PubMed

    Vvedenskaya, Irina O; Bird, Jeremy G; Zhang, Yuanchao; Zhang, Yu; Jiao, Xinfu; Barvík, Ivan; Krásný, Libor; Kiledjian, Megerditch; Taylor, Deanne M; Ebright, Richard H; Nickels, Bryce E

    2018-05-03

    Nucleoside-containing metabolites such as NAD + can be incorporated as 5' caps on RNA by serving as non-canonical initiating nucleotides (NCINs) for transcription initiation by RNA polymerase (RNAP). Here, we report CapZyme-seq, a high-throughput-sequencing method that employs NCIN-decapping enzymes NudC and Rai1 to detect and quantify NCIN-capped RNA. By combining CapZyme-seq with multiplexed transcriptomics, we determine efficiencies of NAD + capping by Escherichia coli RNAP for ∼16,000 promoter sequences. The results define preferred transcription start site (TSS) positions for NAD + capping and define a consensus promoter sequence for NAD + capping: HRRASWW (TSS underlined). By applying CapZyme-seq to E. coli total cellular RNA, we establish that sequence determinants for NCIN capping in vivo match the NAD + -capping consensus defined in vitro, and we identify and quantify NCIN-capped small RNAs (sRNAs). Our findings define the promoter-sequence determinants for NCIN capping with NAD + and provide a general method for analysis of NCIN capping in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  20. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  1. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  2. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  3. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs... ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a mushroom... polyethylene. It is used to cover the severed end of a long bone, such as the humerus or tibia, to control bone...

  4. JTF CapMed Warrior Transition Division

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-25

    The Quadruple Aim: Working Together, Achieving Success 2011 Military Health System Conference JTF CapMed Warrior Transition Division 25 January 2011...Colonel Julia Adams 1 Military Health System Conference Joint Task Force National Capital Region Medical (JTF CapMed ) Report Documentation Page Form...DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE JTF CapMed Warrior Transition Division 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  5. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Fitzgerald Jr, Curtis L.; ...

    2016-04-27

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale ( ≤24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of meso-scale experiments were performed using 100-l and 900-l reactors. Pasteurization and N 2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot-plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2 nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5g L -1, similar to small-scale batches.more » The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~ 320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98% of the buffer chemical costs. In conclusion, the final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, FTIR, DLS, and C/N analyses, which confirmed the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.« less

  6. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J; Fitzgerald, Curtis L; Lind, Randall F; Elkins, James G; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L; Watkins, Thomas R; Ivanov, Ilia N; Graham, David E

    2016-09-01

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale (≤ 24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of pilot-plant scale experiments were performed using 100-L and 900-L reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2-nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5 g L(-1), similar to the small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width × 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic, and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98 % of the buffer chemical costs. The final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, TEM, FTIR, PL, DLS, HPLC, and C/N analyses, which confirmed that the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.

  7. Synthesis and Thermoluminescence of ZnS:Mn2+ Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedifar, M.; Taghavinia, N.; Aminpour, M.

    2007-08-01

    The controlled chemical method has been used for synthesis of Mn doped ZnS nanoparticles. Optical absorption studies showed that increasing of surfactant density, from 0.0001 to 0.5 mol/lit., causes the size of nanoparticles to decrease from 4.8 nm to about 3 nm and the band gap width to increase from 4.15 to 4.50 eV. Also increasing the temperature during the synthesis process caused the nanoparticle size to be increased. As a new result we observed a thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak at about 475 K, with its intensity depending on concentration of the Mn dopant. Activation energy of this glow peak was obtained to be about 0.6eV. A discussion of the obtained results is also presented.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles capped with medicinal plant extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekulapally, Sujith R.

    In this study, synthesis, characterization and biological application of series nanometal (silver, Ag) and nanometal oxide (titania, TiO2) were carried out. These nanomaterials were prepared using wet-chemistry method and then coated using natural plant extract. Three medicinal plants, namely Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Allium sativum (Garlic) and Capsicum annuum (Chili) were chosen as grafting agent to decrease the side-effects and increase the efficiency of NPs towards living organism. Extraction conditions were controlled under 60-100 °C for 8 hrs. Ag and TiO2 NPs were fabricated using colloidal chemistry and variables were controlled at ambient condition. The band gap of TiO2 NPs used as disinfectant was also modified through coating the medicinal plant extracts. The medicinal plant extracts and coated NPs were measured using spectroscopic methods. Ultraviolet-visible spectra indicated the Ag NPs were formed. The peak at 410 nm resulted from the electrons transferred from their ground to the excited state. The broadened full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggested the ultrafine particles were obtained. The lipid soluble compounds, phenols, tri-terpenoids, flavanoids, capsaicinoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids steroidal glycosides, and vitamins were determined from the high performance liquid chromatographical analyses. X-ray powder diffraction indicated that the face-centered cubic Ag (PDF: 00-004-0783, a = 4.0862A, a = 90°) and anatase TiO2 (PDF: 01-08-1285, a = 3.7845, c = 9.5143A, a = 90°) were obtained using colloidal chemistry. Bactericidal activity indicated that these core-shelled TiO 2 were effective (MBC=0.6 ppm, within 30 mins) at inactivating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is proposed that the medicinal extracts enhanced the potency of NPs against bacteria. From our previous study, the Ag NPs were highly effective at inactivating both bacteria.

  9. Study of structural and optical properties of ZnS zigzag nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahchamani, Seyyed Zabihollah; Rezagholipour Dizaji, Hamid; Ehsani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-11-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanostructured thin films of different thicknesses with zigzag shapes have been deposited on glass substrates by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. Employing a homemade accessory attached to the substrate holder enabled the authors to control the substrate temperature and substrate angle. The prepared samples were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-VIS. spectroscopy techniques. The structural studies revealed that the film deposited at room temperature crystallized in cubic structure. The FESEM images of the samples confirmed the formation of zigzag nano-columnar shape with mean diameter about 60-80 nm. By using the data obtained from optical studies, the real part of the refractive index (n), the absorption coefficient (α) and the band gap (Eg) of the samples were calculated. The results show that the refractive indices of the prepared films are very sensitive to deposition conditions.

  10. Chemically functionalized ZnS quantum dots as new optical nanosensor of herbicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masteri-Farahani, M.; Mahdavi, S.; Khanmohammadi, H.

    2018-03-01

    Surface chemical functionalization of ZnS quantum dots (ZnS-QDs) with cysteamine hydrochloride resulted in the preparation of an optical nanosensor for detection of herbicides. Characterization of the functionalized ZnS-QDs was performed with physicochemical methods such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. The optical band gap of the functionalized ZnS-QDs was determined by using Tauc plot as 4.1 eV. Addition of various herbicides resulted in the linearly fluorescence quenching of the functionalized ZnS-QDs according to the Stern-Volmer equation. The functionalized ZnS-QDs can be used as simple, rapid, and inexpensive nanosensor for practical detection and measurement of various herbicides.

  11. Stability and electronic properties of oxygen-doped ZnS polytypes: DFTB study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Ilya S.; Vorokh, Andrey S.; Enyashin, Andrey N.

    2018-06-01

    Synthesis from aqueous solutions is an affordable method for fabrication of II-VI semiconductors. However, application of this method often imposes a disorder of crystal lattice, manifesting as a rich variety of polytypes arising from wurtzite and zinc blende phases. The origin of this disordering still remains debatable. Here, the influence of the most likely impurity at water environment - substitutional oxygen - on the polytypic equilibrium of zinc sulphide is studied by means of density-functional tight-binding method. According to calculations, the inclusion of such oxygen does not affect the polytypic equilibrium. Apart of thermodynamic stability, the electronic and elastic properties of ZnS polytypes are studied as the function of oxygen distribution.

  12. Optimizing ZnS/6LiF scintillators for wavelength-shifting-fiber neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, Lowell; Funk, Loren L; Hannan, Bruce W

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we compare the performance of grooved and flat ZnS/6LiF scintillators in a wavelength shifting-fiber (WLSF) detector. Flat ZnS/6LiF scintillators with the thickness L=0.2-0.8 mm were characterized using photon counting and pulse-height analysis and compared to a grooved scintillator of approximately 0.8 mm thick. While a grooved scintillator considerably increases the apparent thickness of the scintillator to neutrons for a given coating thickness, we find that the flat scintillators perform better than the grooved scintillators in terms of both light yield and neutron detection efficiency. The flat 0.8-mm-thick scintillator has the highest light output, and it is 52%more » higher compared with a grooved scintillator of same thickness. The lower light output of the grooved scintillator as compared to the flat scintillator is consistent with the greater scintillator-WLSF separation and the much larger average emission angle of the grooved scintillator. We also find that the average light cone width, or photon travel-length as measured using time-of-flight powder diffraction of diamond and vanadium, decreases with increasing L in the range of L=0.6-0.8 mm. This result contrasts with the traditional Swank diffusion model for micro-composite scintillators, and could be explained by a decrease in photon diffusion-coefficient or an increase in micro-particle content in the flat scintillator matrix for the thicker scintillators.« less

  13. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2) of...

  14. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2) of...

  15. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2) of...

  16. 31 CFR 50.15 - Cap disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cap disclosure. 50.15 Section 50.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.15 Cap disclosure. (a) General. Under section 103(e)(2) of...

  17. Guidance for Subaqueous Dredged Material Capping.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    from Ambrose Channel , over the contaminated sediments. At least two intermediate sur- veys and additional capping were required before capping was...organisms to a given bioturbation depth; reducing contami- nant flux rates to achieve specific sediment, pore water, or water column target...bathymetry, bottom slopes, cur- rents, water depths, water column density stratification, erosion/accretion trends, proximity to navigation channels

  18. Durability of Capped Wood Plastic Composites

    Treesearch

    Mark Mankowski; Mark J. Manning; Damien P. Slowik

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers of wood plastic composites (WPCs) have recently introduced capped decking to their product lines. These new materials have begun to take market share from the previous generation of uncapped products that possessed a homogenous composition throughout the thickness of their cross-section. These capped offerings have been introduced with claims that the...

  19. Investigation of the growth and in situ heating transmission electron microscopy analysis of Ag2S-catalyzed ZnS nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Jong Gu; Song, Junghyun; Bae, Tae-Sung; Kim, Kyou-Hyun; Lee, Young-Seak; Pang, Yoonsoo; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Chung, Hee-Suk

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the semiconductor-catalyzed formation of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) - silver sulfide (Ag2S)-catalyzed zinc sulfide (ZnS) NWs - based on a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism through metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with a Ag thin film. The Ag2S-catalyzed ZnS NWs were confirmed to have a wurtzite structure with a width and length in the range of ∼30 nm to ∼80 nm and ∼1 μm, respectively. Using extensive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses from plane and cross-sectional viewpoints, the ZnS NWs were determined to have a c-axis, [0001] growth direction. In addition, the catalyst at the top of the ZnS NWs was determined to consist of a Ag2S phase. To support the Ag2S-catalyzed growth of the ZnS NWs by a VLS reaction, an in situ heating TEM experiment was conducted from room temperature to 840 °C. During the experiment, the melting of the Ag2S catalyst in the direction of the ZnS NWs was first observed at approximately 480 °C along with the formation of a carbon (C) shell. Subsequently, the Ag2S catalyst melted completely into the ZnS NWs at approximately 825 °C. As the temperature further increased, the Ag2S and ZnS NWs continuously melted and vaporized up to 840 °C, leaving only the C shell behind. Finally, a possible growth mechanism was proposed based on the structural and chemical investigations.

  20. Evolution of the Mauthner axon cap.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Hilary S; Zottoli, Steven J; Hale, Melina E

    2009-01-01

    Studies of vertebrate brain evolution have focused primarily on patterns of gene expression or changes in size and organization of major brain regions. The Mauthner cell, an important reticulospinal neuron that functions in the startle response of many species, provides an opportunity for evolutionary comparisons at the cellular level. Despite broad interspecific similarities in Mauthner cell morphology, the motor patterns and startle behaviors it initiates vary markedly. Response diversity has been hypothesized to result, in part, from differences in the structure and function of the Mauthner cell-associated axon cap. We used light microscopy techniques to compare axon cap morphology across a wide range of species, including all four extant basal actinopterygian orders, representatives of a variety of teleost lineages and lungfishes, and we combined our data with published descriptions of axon cap structure. The 'composite' axon cap, observed in teleosts, is an organized conglomeration of glia and fibers of inhibitory and excitatory interneurons. Lungfish, amphibian tadpoles and several basal actinopterygian fishes have 'simple' axon caps that appear to lack glia and include few fibers. Several other basal actinopterygian fishes have 'simple-dense' caps that include greater numbers of fibers than simple caps, but lack the additional elements and organization of composite caps. Phylogenetic mapping shows that through evolution there are discrete transitions in axon cap morphology occurring at the base of gnathostomes, within basal actinopterygians, and at the base of the teleost radiation. Comparing axon cap evolution to the evolution of startle behavior and motor pattern provides insight into the relationship between Mauthner cell-associated structures and their functions in behavior. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.