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Sample records for znte epilayers grown

  1. Photoluminescence characteristics of ZnTe bulk crystal and ZnTe epilayer grown on GaAs substrate by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Hai-Yan; Mu, Qi; Zhang, Lei; Lü, Yuan-Jie; Ji, Zi-Wu; Feng, Zhi-Hong; Xu, Xian-Gang; Guo, Qi-Xin

    2015-12-01

    Excitation power and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the ZnTe epilayer grown on (100) GaAs substrate and ZnTe bulk crystal are investigated. The measurement results show that both the structures are of good structural quality due to their sharp bound excitonic emissions and absence of the deep level structural defect-related emissions. Furthermore, in contrast to the ZnTe bulk crystal, although excitonic emissions for the ZnTe epilayer are somewhat weak, perhaps due to As atoms diffusing from the GaAs substrate into the ZnTe epilayer and/or because of the strain-induced degradation of the crystalline quality of the ZnTe epilayer, neither the donor-acceptor pair (DAP) nor conduction band-acceptor (e-A) emissions are observed in the ZnTe epilayer. This indicates that by further optimizing the growth process it is possible to obtain a high-crystalline quality ZnTe heteroepitaxial layer that is comparable to the ZnTe bulk crystal. Project supported by the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120131110006), the Key Science and Technology Program of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. 2013GGX10221), the Key Laboratory of Functional Crystal Materials and Device (Shandong University, Ministry of Education), China (Grant No. JG1401), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61306113), the Major Research Plan of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91433112), and the Partnership Project for Fundamental Technology Researches of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  2. Substrate temperature dependence of ZnTe epilayers grown on GaAs(0 0 1) by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Zeng, Yiping; Liu, Chao; Li, Yanbo

    2010-04-01

    ZnTe thin films have been grown on GaAs(0 0 1) substrates at different temperatures with constant Zn and Te beam equivalent pressures (BEPs) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) observation indicates that two-dimensional (2D) growth mode can be established after around one-minute three-dimensional (3D) nucleation by increasing the substrate temperature to 340 °C. We found that Zn desorption from the ZnTe surface is much greater than that of Te at higher temperatures, and estimated the Zn sticking coefficient by the evolution of growth rate. The Zn sticking coefficient decreases from 0.93 to 0.58 as the temperature is elevated from 320 to 400 °C. The ZnTe epilayer grown at 360 °C displays the narrowest full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 660 arcsec from (0 0 4) reflection in double-crystal X-ray rocking curve (DCXRC) measurements. The surface morphology of ZnTe epilayers is strongly dependent on the substrate temperature, and the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness diminishes drastically with the increase in temperature.

  3. Optical properties of single ZnTe nanowires grown at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artioli, A.; Rueda-Fonseca, P.; Stepanov, P.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Den Hertog, M.; Bougerol, C.; Genuist, Y.; Donatini, F.; André, R.; Nogues, G.; Kheng, K.; Tatarenko, S.; Ferrand, D.; Cibert, J.

    2013-11-01

    Optically active gold-catalyzed ZnTe nanowires have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy, on a ZnTe(111) buffer layer, at low temperature (350 °C) under Te rich conditions, and at ultra-low density (from 1 to 5 nanowires per μm2). The crystalline structure is zinc blende as identified by transmission electron microscopy. All nanowires are tapered and the majority of them are ⟨111⟩ oriented. Low temperature micro-photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence experiments have been performed on single nanowires. We observe a narrow emission line with a blue-shift of 2 or 3 meV with respect to the exciton energy in bulk ZnTe. This shift is attributed to the strain induced by a 5 nm-thick oxide layer covering the nanowires, and this assumption is supported by a quantitative estimation of the strain in the nanowires.

  4. Photoluminescence of vapor and solution grown ZnTe single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biao, Y.; Azoulay, M.; George, M. A.; Burger, A.; Collins, W. E.; Silberman, E.; Su, C.-H.; Volz, M. E.; Szofran, F. R.; Gillies, D. C.

    1994-04-01

    ZnTe single crystals grown by horizontal physical vapor transport (PVT) and by vertical traveling heater method (THM) from a Te solution were characterized by photoluminescence (PL) at 10.6 K and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Copper was identified by PL as a major impurity existing in both crystals, forming a substitutional acceptor, Cu Zn. The THM ZnTe crystals were found to contain more Cu impurity than the PVT ZnTe crystals. The formation of Cu Zn-V Te complexes and the effects of annealing, oxygen contamination and intentional Cu doping were also studied. Finally, the surface morphology analyzed by AFM was correlated to the PL results.

  5. The deep levels in InGaAlP epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using tertiarybutylphosphine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumiya, T.; Ishikawa, H.; Mashita, M.

    1994-12-01

    InGaAlP epilayers and double-hetero structure light emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP). The photoluminescence (PL) intensities were low compared with the epilayer grown using PH 3, and depended markedly on the TBP synthesis lots. Deep levels, were studied and two oxygen related levels were observed in the epilayers with small PL intensities. An intimate relation between the deep levels and the photoluminescence (PL) intensity has been found. A larger TBP flow rate reduced the deep level concentrations and improved the PL intensity.

  6. Optical properties of self-assembled ZnTe quantum dots grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.S.; Lai, Y.J.; Chou, W.C.

    2005-02-01

    The morphology and the size-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the type-II ZnTe quantum dots (QDs) grown in a ZnSe matrix were obtained. The coverage of ZnTe varied from 2.5 to 3.5 monolayers (MLs). The PL peak energy decreased as the dot size increased. Excitation power and temperature-dependent PL spectra are used to characterize the optical properties of the ZnTe quantum dots. For 2.5- and 3.0-ML samples, the PL peak energy decreased monotonically as the temperature increased. However, for the 3.5-ML sample, the PL peak energy was initially blueshifted and then redshifted as the temperature increased above 40 K. Carrier thermalizationmore » and carrier transfer between QDs are used to explain the experimental data. A model of temperature-dependent linewidth broadening is employed to fit the high-temperature data. The activation energy, which was found by the simple PL intensity quenching model, of the 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 MLs were determined to be 6.35, 9.40, and 18.87 meV, respectively.« less

  7. Optical properties of beryllium-doped GaSb epilayers grown on GaAs substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhuo; Chen, Baile; Chen, Xiren; Shao, Jun; Gong, Qian; Liu, Huiyun; Wu, Jiang

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the effects of p-type beryllium (Be) doping on the optical properties of GaSb epilayers grown on GaAs substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) have been studied. Temperature- and excitation power-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed on both nominally undoped and intentionally Be-doped GaSb layers. Clear PL emissions are observable even at the temperature of 270 K from both layers, indicating the high material quality. In the Be-doped GaSb layer, the transition energies of main PL features exhibit red-shift up to ∼7 meV, and the peak widths characterized by Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) also decrease. In addition, analysis on the PL integrated intensity in the Be-doped sample reveals a gain of emission signal, as well as a larger carrier thermal activation energy. These distinctive PL behaviors identified in the Be-doped GaSb layer suggest that the residual compressive strain is effectively relaxed in the epilayer, due possibly to the reduction of dislocation density in the GaSb layer with the intentional incorporation of Be dopants. Our results confirm the role of Be as a promising dopant in the improvement of crystalline quality in GaSb, which is a crucial factor for growth and fabrication of high quality strain-free GaSb-based devices on foreign substrates.

  8. Composition and luminescence studies of InGaN epilayers grown at different hydrogen flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, E.; Fang, F.; Oehler, F.; Edwards, P. R.; Kappers, M. J.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; McAleese, C.; Humphreys, C. J.; Martin, R. W.

    2013-06-01

    Indium gallium nitride (InxGa1 - xN) is a technologically important material for many optoelectronic devices, including LEDs and solar cells, but it remains a challenge to incorporate high levels of InN into the alloy while maintaining sample quality. A series of InGaN epilayers was grown with different hydrogen flow rates (0-200 sccm) and growth temperatures (680-750 °C) to obtain various InN fractions and bright emission in the range 390-480 nm. These 160-nm thick epilayers were characterized through several compositional techniques (wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging. The compositional analysis with the different techniques shows good agreement when taking into account compositional gradients evidenced in these layers. The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the gas flow at lower growth temperatures is shown to maintain a high surface quality and luminescence homogeneity. This allowed InN fractions of up to ˜16% to be incorporated with minimal peak energy variations over a mapped area while keeping a high material quality.

  9. Characterization of nonpolar a-plane GaN epi-layers grown on high-density patterned r-plane sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinno, Daiki; Otsuki, Shunya; Sugimori, Shogo; Daicho, Hisayoshi; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2018-02-01

    To reduce the number of threading dislocations (TDs) in nonpolar a-plane GaN (a-GaN) epi-layers grown on flat r-plane sapphire substrates (r-FSS), we investigated the effects on the crystalline quality of the a-GaN epi-layers of high-density patterned r-plane sapphire substrates (r-HPSS), the patterns of which were placed at intervals of several hundred nanometers. Two types of r-HPSS, the patterns of which had diameters and heights on the order of several hundred nanometers (r-NHPSS) or several micrometers (r-MHPSS), were prepared with conventional r-FSS. The effect of these r-HPSS on the a-GaN epi-layers was demonstrated by evaluating the surface morphology and the crystalline quality of the epi-layers. The surfaces of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-FSS and r-NHPSS were pit-free and mirror-like, whereas the surface of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-MHPSS was very rough due to the large, irregular GaN islands that grew on the patterns, mainly at the initial growth stage. The crystalline quality of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-NHPSS was better than that of the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-FSS. We confirmed that there were fewer TDs in the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-NHPSS than there were in the a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-FSS. The TDs propagating to the surface in a-GaN epi-layer grown on r-NHPSS were mainly generated on the flat sapphire regions between the patterns. Interestingly, it was also found that the TDs that propagated to the surface concentrated with a periodic pitch along the c-axis direction. The TD densities of a-GaN epi-layers grown on r-FSS and r-NHPSS were estimated to be approximately 5.0 × 1010 and 1.5 × 109 cm-2, respectively. This knowledge will contribute to the further development of a-GaN epi-layers for high-performance devices.

  10. Study of recombination characteristics in MOCVD grown GaN epi-layers on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Dobrovolskas, D.; Malinauskas, T.; Meskauskaite, D.; Miasojedovas, S.; Mickevicius, J.; Pavlov, J.; Rumbauskas, V.; Simoen, E.; Zhao, M.

    2017-12-01

    The radiative and non-radiative recombination carrier decay lifetimes in GaN epi-layers grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition technology on Si substrates were measured by contactless techniques of time-resolved photoluminescence and microwave-probed transients of photoconductivity. The lifetime variations were obtained to be dependent on growth regimes. These variations have been related to varied densities of edge dislocations associated with growth temperature. It has been also revealed that the lateral carrier lifetime and photoluminescence intensity distribution is determined by the formation of dislocation clusters dependent on the growth conditions. For low excitation level, the asymptotic component within the excess carrier decay transients is attributed to carrier trapping and anomalous diffusion through random-walk processes within dislocation cluster regions and barriers at dislocation cores. The two-componential decay process at high excitation conditions, where excess carriers may suppress barriers, proceeds through a nonlinear recombination, where band-to-band transitions determine the nonlinearity of the process, while the asymptotic component is ascribed to the impact of D-A pair PL within the long-wavelength wing of the UV-PL band.

  11. Photoluminescence of ZnTe/ZnMgTe multiple quantum well structures grown on ZnTe substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tooru; Ohshita, Hiroshi; Saito, Katsuhiko; Guo, Qixin

    2018-02-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnTe/ZnMgTe quantum well (QW) structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) were investigated systematically with respect to well widths and Mg contents. Observed PL peak energies were consistent well with the calculated emission energies of the QWs considering a lattice distortion in the ZnTe well. From the temperature dependence of PL intensity, it was found that a suppression of a carrier escape from QW is crucial to obtain a PL at higher temperature in the ZnTe/ZnMgTe QW. Based on the results, multiple quantum well structures were designed and fabricated, which exhibited a green PL at room temperature.

  12. Self-organized MBE growth of II VI epilayers on patterned GaSb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissmann, H.; Tran Anh, T.; Rogaschewski, S.; von Ortenberg, M.

    1999-05-01

    We report on the self-organized MBE growth of II-VI epilayers on patterned and unpatterned GaSb substrates resulting in quantum wires and quantum wells, respectively. The HgSe : Fe quantum wires were grown on (0 0 1)GaSb substrates with a buffer of lattice-matched ZnTe 1- xSe x. Due to the anisotropic growth of HgSe on the A-oriented stripes roof-like overgrowth with a definite ridge was obtained. Additional Fe doping in the direct vicinity of the ridge results in a highly conductive quantum wire.

  13. Defects, strain relaxation, and compositional grading in high indium content InGaN epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Bazioti, C.; Kehagias, Th.; Pavlidou, E.

    2015-10-21

    We investigate the structural properties of a series of high alloy content InGaN epilayers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, employing the deposition temperature as variable under invariant element fluxes. Using transmission electron microscopy methods, distinct strain relaxation modes were observed, depending on the indium content attained through temperature adjustment. At lower indium contents, strain relaxation by V-pit formation dominated, with concurrent formation of an indium-rich interfacial zone. With increasing indium content, this mechanism was gradually substituted by the introduction of a self-formed strained interfacial InGaN layer of lower indium content, as well as multiple intrinsic basal stacking faults andmore » threading dislocations in the rest of the film. We show that this interfacial layer is not chemically abrupt and that major plastic strain relaxation through defect introduction commences upon reaching a critical indium concentration as a result of compositional pulling. Upon further increase of the indium content, this relaxation mode was again gradually succeeded by the increase in the density of misfit dislocations at the InGaN/GaN interface, leading eventually to the suppression of the strained InGaN layer and basal stacking faults.« less

  14. Deep traps in n-type GaN epilayers grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kamyczek, P.; Placzek-Popko, E.; Zielony, E.

    2014-01-14

    In this study, we present the results of investigations on Schottky Au-GaN diodes by means of conventional DLTS and Laplace DLTS methods within the temperature range of 77 K–350 K. Undoped GaN layers were grown using the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy technique on commercial GaN/sapphire templates. The quality of the epilayers was studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) which proved the hexagonal phase and good crystallinity of GaN epilayers as well as a slight strain. The photoluminescence spectrum confirmed a high crystal quality by intense excitonic emission but it also exhibited a blue emission band of low intensity. DLTS signal spectra revealed themore » presence of four majority traps: two high-temperature and two low-temperature peaks. Using the Laplace DLTS method and Arrhenius plots, the apparent activation energy and capture cross sections were obtained. For two high-temperature majority traps, they were equal to E{sub 1} = 0.65 eV, σ{sub 1} = 8.2 × 10{sup −16} cm{sup 2} and E{sub 2} = 0.58 eV, σ{sub 2} = 2.6 × 10{sup −15} cm{sup 2} whereas for the two low-temperature majority traps they were equal to E{sub 3} = 0.18 eV, σ{sub 3} = 9.7 × 10{sup −18} cm{sup 2} and E{sub 4} = 0.13 eV, σ{sub 4} = 9.2 × 10{sup −18} cm{sup 2}. The possible origin of the traps is discussed and the results are compared with data reported elsewhere.« less

  15. High quality of InAsSb epilayer with cutoff wavelength longer than 10 μm grown on GaAs by the modified LPE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. H.; Sun, C. H.; Sun, Y.; Ge, J.; Wang, R.; Wu, J.; Wang, Q. W.; Dai, N.

    2009-04-01

    The InAsSb epilayers with a cutoff wavelength of 11.5 μm were successfully grown on highly lattice-mismatched semi-insulating (1 0 0) GaAs substrate by the modified liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmission spectrum revealed a strong band gap narrowing for this alloy. The electrical properties were investigated by the Van der Pauw measurements at 300 and 77 K. InAsSb epilayers showed high Hall mobilities being 11,800 cm 2/V s at room temperature (RT). After an annealing treament for 10 h, the electron mobility at 77 K were improved from 1730 cm 2/V s (prior to annealing) to 13,470 cm 2/V s. Wet etching was used to display the surface etch pits prior to and after annealing treatment, showing that the mobility improvement was due to the reduction of the etch pits density.

  16. X-ray diffraction study of A- plane non-polar InN epilayer grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moret, Matthieu; Briot, Olivier; Gil, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Strong polarisation-induced electric fields in C-plane oriented nitrides semiconductor layers reduce the performance of devices. Eliminating the polarization fields can be achieved by growing nitrides along non polar direction. We have grown non polar A-plane oriented InN on R-plane (1‾102) nitridated sapphire substrate by MOCVD. We have studied the structural anisotropy observed in these layers by analyzing High Resolution XRay Diffraction rocking curve (RC) experiments as a function of the in-plane beam orientation. A-plane InN epilayer have a unique epitaxial relationship on R-Plane sapphire and show a strong structural anisotropy. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the InN(11‾20) XRD RC values are contained between 44 and 81 Arcmin. FWHM is smaller when the diffraction occurs along the [0001] and the largest FWHM values, of the (11‾20) RC, are obtained when the diffraction occurs along the [1‾100] in-plane direction. Atomic Force Microscopy imaging revealed morphologies with well organized crystallites. The grains are structured along a unique crystallographic orientation of InN, leading to larger domains in this direction. This structural anisotropy can be, in first approximation, attributed to the difference in the domain sizes observed. XRD reciprocal space mappings (RSM) were performed in asymmetrical configuration on (13‾40) and (2‾202) diffraction plane. RSM are measured with a beam orientation corresponding to a maximal and a minimal width of the (11‾20) Rocking curves, respectively. A simple theoretical model is exposed to interpret the RSM. We concluded that the dominant contribution to the anisotropy is due to the scattering coherence length anisotropy present in our samples.

  17. Characteristics of InN epilayers grown with H2-assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jin; Li, Jinchai; Lu, Shiqiang; Kang, Junyong; Lin, Wei

    2017-11-01

    A series of InN films were grown on GaN-on-sapphire template with H2 pulse flow by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations demonstrate that the smooth surface has been achieved. The X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra measurements indicate that InN layers experience stronger accommodated compressive stress, resulting in a larger fraction of (002) oriented InN grains. On the basics of the first-principles calculations, these features can be understand as competition between N-penetrating effect with the assistance of the H atom and the etching effect of H2. Finally, the absorption spectra in conjunction with simulated results reveal that the band gap energy predominantly increase with increasing compressive strain.

  18. Investigation of Localized States in GaAsSb Epilayers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xian; Wei, Zhipeng; Zhao, Fenghuan; Yang, Yahui; Chen, Rui; Fang, Xuan; Tang, Jilong; Fang, Dan; Wang, Dengkui; Li, Ruixue; Ge, Xiaotian; Ma, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    We report the carrier dynamics in GaAsSb ternary alloy grown by molecular beam epitaxy through comprehensive spectroscopic characterization over a wide temperature range. A detailed analysis of the experimental data reveals a complex carrier relaxation process involving both localized and delocalized states. At low temperature, the localized degree shows linear relationship with the increase of Sb component. The existence of localized states is also confirmed by the temperature dependence of peak position and band width of the emission. At temperature higher than 60 K, emissions related to localized states are quenched while the band to band transition dominates the whole spectrum. This study indicates that the localized states are related to the Sb component in the GaAsSb alloy, while it leads to the poor crystal quality of the material, and the application of GaAsSb alloy would be limited by this deterioration. PMID:27381641

  19. Structural anisotropic properties of a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lotsari, A.; Kehagias, Th.; Katsikini, M.

    2014-06-07

    Heteroepitaxial non-polar III-Nitride layers may exhibit extensive anisotropy in the surface morphology and the epilayer microstructure along distinct in-plane directions. The structural anisotropy, evidenced by the “M”-shape dependence of the (112{sup ¯}0) x-ray rocking curve widths on the beam azimuth angle, was studied by combining transmission electron microscopy observations, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy in a-plane GaN epilayers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The structural anisotropic behavior was attributed quantitatively to the high dislocation densities, particularly the Frank-Shockley partial dislocations that delimit the I{sub 1} intrinsic basal stacking faults,more » and to the concomitant plastic strain relaxation. On the other hand, isotropic samples exhibited lower dislocation densities and a biaxial residual stress state. For PAMBE growth, the anisotropy was correlated to N-rich (or Ga-poor) conditions on the surface during growth, that result in formation of asymmetric a-plane GaN grains elongated along the c-axis. Such conditions enhance the anisotropy of gallium diffusion on the surface and reduce the GaN nucleation rate.« less

  20. Effect of thermal annealing on carrier localization and efficiency of spin detection in GaAsSb epilayers grown on InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Cheng; Han, Junbo; Jin, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Xingjun

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the thermal annealing on the optical and spin properties in GaAs0.44Sb0.56 epilayers grown on InP was investigated via photoreflectance, power-dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy as well as optical orientation measurement. The carrier's localization and the optical spin detection efficiency increase with an increase of annealing temperature up to 600 °C. The enhancement of the spin detection efficiency is attributed to both the shortening of the electron lifetime and the prolonging of the spin lifetime as a result of the enhanced carriers' localization induced by the annealing process. Our results provided an approach to enhance spin detection efficiency of GaAsSb with its PL emission in the 1.55 μm region.

  1. Comparison of the structural properties of Zn-face and O-face single crystal homoepitaxial ZnO epilayers grown by RF-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schifano, R.; Riise, H. N.; Domagala, J. Z.; Azarov, A. Yu.; Ratajczak, R.; Monakhov, E. V.; Venkatachalapathy, V.; Vines, L.; Chan, K. S.; Wong-Leung, J.; Svensson, B. G.

    2017-01-01

    Homoepitaxial ZnO growth is demonstrated from conventional RF-sputtering at 400 °C on both Zn and O polar faces of hydrothermally grown ZnO substrates. A minimum yield for the Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrum, χmin, equal to ˜3% and ˜12% and a full width at half maximum of the 00.2 diffraction peak rocking curve of (70 ± 10) arc sec and (1400 ± 100) arc sec have been found for samples grown on the Zn and O face, respectively. The structural characteristics of the film deposited on the Zn face are comparable with those of epilayers grown by more complex techniques like molecular beam epitaxy. In contrast, the film simultaneously deposited on the O-face exhibits an inferior crystalline structure ˜0.7% strained in the c-direction and a higher atomic number contrast compared with the substrate, as revealed by high angle annular dark field imaging measurements. These differences between the Zn- and O-face films are discussed in detail and associated with the different growth mechanisms prevailing on the two surfaces.

  2. Defect structures and growth mechanisms of boron arsenide epilayers grown on 6H-silicon carbide and 15R-silicon carbide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui

    B12As2 possesses the extraordinary properties, such as wide bandgap of 3.47eV and unique 'self heal' ability from electron irradiation damage, which make it attractive for the applications in space electronics, high temperature semiconductors and in particular, beta cells, devices capable of producing electrical energy by coupling a radioactive beta emitter to a semiconductor junction. Due to the absence of native substrates, B12As2 has been grown on substrates with compatible structural parameters via chemical vapor deposition. To date, growth on Si with (100), (110) and (111) orientation and (0001) 6H-SiC has been attempted. However, structural variants, including rotational and translational variants, have been observed in the epilayers and are expected to have a detrimental effect on device performance which has severely hindered progress of this material to date. In addition, none of the earlier reports provide a detailed atomic level study of defect structures in the films and growth mechanisms remain obscure. The focus of this thesis is to study defect structures in B12As2 films grown on different SiC substrates using synchrotron x-ray topography, high resolution transmission microscopy as well as other characterization techniques. The goals of the studies are to understand the generations of the defects present in B12As 2 films and their growth mechanisms so as to develop strategies to reduce defect densities and obtain better film quality for future device fabrication. The following detailed studies have been carried out: (1) The microstructures in B12As2 epitaxial layers grown on on-axis c-plane (0001) 6H-SiC substrates were analyzed in detail. Synchrotron white beam X-ray topography (SWBXT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a mosaic structure consisting of a solid solution of twin and matrix epilayer domains. The epitaxial relationship was determined to be (0001)B12As2<112¯0> B12As2||(0001)6H-SiC<112¯0>6H-SiC. B 12As2 twinned domains were

  3. Contactless electroreflectance studies of surface potential barrier for N- and Ga-face epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kudrawiec, R.; Janicki, L.; Gladysiewicz, M.

    2013-07-29

    Two series of N- and Ga-face GaN Van Hoof structures were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy to study the surface potential barrier by contactless electroreflectance (CER). A clear CER resonance followed by strong Franz-Keldysh oscillation of period varying with the thickness of undoped GaN layer was observed for these structures. This period was much shorter for N-polar structures that means smaller surface potential barrier in these structures than in Ga-polar structures. From the analysis of built-in electric field it was determined that the Fermi-level is located 0.27 ± 0.05 and 0.60 ± 0.05 eV below the conduction band formore » N- and Ga-face GaN surface, respectively.« less

  4. Comparison of cross-sectional transmission electron microscope studies of thin germanium epilayers grown on differently oriented silicon wafers.

    PubMed

    Norris, D J; Myronov, M; Leadley, D R; Walther, T

    2017-12-01

    We compare transmission electron microscopical analyses of the onset of islanding in the germanium-on-silicon (Ge/Si) system for three different Si substrate orientations: (001), (11¯0) and (11¯1)Si. The Ge was deposited by reduced pressure chemical vapour deposition and forms islands on the surface of all Si wafers; however, the morphology (aspect ratio) of the deposited islands is different for each type of wafer. Moreover, the mechanism for strain relaxation is different for each type of wafer owing to the different orientation of the (111) slip planes with the growth surface. Ge grown on (001)Si is initially pseudomorphically strained, yielding small, almost symmetrical islands of high aspect ratio (clusters or domes) on top interdiffused SiGe pedestals, without any evidence of plastic relaxation by dislocations, which would nucleate later-on when the islands might have coalesced and then the Matthews-Blakeslee limit is reached. For (11¯0)Si, islands are flatter and more asymmetric, and this is correlated with plastic relaxation of some islands by dislocations. In the case of growth on (11¯1)Si wafers, there is evidence of immediate strain relaxation taking place by numerous dislocations and also twinning. In the case of untwined film/substrate interfaces, Burgers circuits drawn around certain (amorphous-like) regions show a nonclosure with an edge-type a/4[1¯12] Burgers vector component visible in projection along [110]. Microtwins of multiples of half unit cells in thickness have been observed which occur at the growth interface between the Si(11¯1) buffer layer and the overlying Ge material. Models of the growth mechanisms to explain the interfacial configurations of each type of wafer are suggested. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Growth and Crystal Orientation of ZnTe on m-Plane Sapphire with Nanofaceted Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasu, Taizo; Sun, Wei-Che; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Asahi, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    ZnTe thin films on sapphire substrate with nanofaceted structure have been studied. The nanofaceted structure of the m-plane (10-10) sapphire was obtained by heating the substrate at above 1100°C in air, and the r-plane (10-12) and S-plane (1-101) were confirmed. ZnTe layers were prepared on the nanofaceted m-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The effect of the nanofaceted structure on the orientation of the thin films was examined based on x-ray diffraction (XRD) pole figures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also employed to characterize the interface structures. The ZnTe layer on the nanofaceted m-plane sapphire substrate exhibited (331)-plane orientation, compared with (211)-plane without the nanofaceted structure. After thermal treatment, the m-plane surface vanished and (211) layer could not be formed because of the lack of surface lattice matching. On the other hand, (331)-plane thin film was formed on the nanofaceted m-plane sapphire substrate, since the (111) ZnTe domains were oriented on the S-facet. The orientation of the ZnTe epilayer depended on the atomic ordering on the surface and the influence of the S-plane.

  6. Asymmetric, compressive, SiGe epilayers on Si grown by lateral liquid-phase epitaxy utilizing a distinction between dislocation nucleation and glide critical thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Andrew J.; Quitoriano, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    Uniaxially strained Si1-xGex channels have been proposed as a solution for high mobility channels in next-generation MOSFETS to ensure continued device improvement as the benefits from further miniaturisation are diminishing. Previously proposed techniques to deposit uniaxially strained Si1-xGex epilayers on Si (0 0 1) substrates require multiple deposition steps and only yielded thin strips of uniaxially strained films. A lateral liquid-phase epitaxy (LLPE) technique was developed to deposit a blanket epilayer of asymmetrically strained Si97.4Ge2.6 on Si in a single step, where the epilayer was fully strained in the growth direction and 31% strain-relaxed in the orthogonal direction. The LLPE technique promoted the glide of misfit dislocations, which nucleated in a region with an orthogonal misfit dislocation network, into a region where the dislocation nucleation was inhibited. This created an array of parallel misfit dislocations which were the source of the asymmetric strain. By observing the thicknesses at which the dislocation network transitions from orthogonal to parallel and at which point dislocation glide is exhausted, the separate critical thicknesses for dislocation nucleation and dislocation glide can be determined.

  7. Effects of in-situ UV irradiation on the uniformity and optical properties of GaAsBi epi-layers grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaton, Daniel A.; Steger, M.; Christian, T.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2018-02-01

    In-situ UV illumination influences the incorporation dynamics of bismuth adatom in GaAs. Here we use the inherent variation of the fluence across the sample to explore the role of the incident irradiation. With illumination it is found that steady state growth processes are achieved more quickly resulting in more abrupt interfaces, as well as uniform GaAs1-xBix epi-layers. Comparisons of low temperature photoluminescence spectra show an increasing density of clusters of incorporated bismuth atoms with decreasing incident fluence.

  8. Effects of in-situ UV irradiation on the uniformity and optical properties of GaAsBi epi-layers grown by MBE

    SciTech Connect

    Beaton, Daniel A.; Steger, M.; Christian, T.

    In-situ UV illumination influences the incorporation dynamics of bismuth adatom in GaAs. Here we use the inherent variation of the fluence across the sample to explore the role of the incident irradiation. With illumination it is found that steady state growth processes are achieved more quickly resulting in more abrupt interfaces, as well as uniform GaAs 1-xBi x epi-layers. Comparisons of low temperature photoluminescence spectra show an increasing density of clusters of incorporated bismuth atoms with decreasing incident fluence.

  9. Effects of in-situ UV irradiation on the uniformity and optical properties of GaAsBi epi-layers grown by MBE

    DOE PAGES

    Beaton, Daniel A.; Steger, M.; Christian, T.; ...

    2017-12-14

    In-situ UV illumination influences the incorporation dynamics of bismuth adatom in GaAs. Here we use the inherent variation of the fluence across the sample to explore the role of the incident irradiation. With illumination it is found that steady state growth processes are achieved more quickly resulting in more abrupt interfaces, as well as uniform GaAs 1-xBi x epi-layers. Comparisons of low temperature photoluminescence spectra show an increasing density of clusters of incorporated bismuth atoms with decreasing incident fluence.

  10. Impact of photoluminescence temperature and growth parameter on the exciton localized in BxGa1-xAs/GaAs epilayers grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidouri, Tarek; Saidi, Faouzi; Maaref, Hassen; Rodriguez, Philippe; Auvray, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    In this work, BxGa1-xAs/GaAs epilayers with three different boron compositions were elaborated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on GaAs (001) substrate. Structural study using High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) have been used to estimate the boron fraction. The luminescence keys were carried out as functions of temperature in the range 10-300 K, by the techniques of photoluminescence (PL). The low PL temperature has shown an abnormal emission appeared at low energy side witch attributed to the recombination through the deep levels. In all samples, the PL peak energy and the full width at half maximum (FWHM), present an anomalous behavior as a result of the competition process between localized and delocalized carriers. We propose the Localized-state Ensemble model to explain the unusual photoluminescence behaviors. Electrical carriers generation, thermal escape, recapture, radiative and non-radiative lifetime are taken into account. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements were found to be in reasonable agreement with the model of localized states. We controlled the evolution of such parameters versus composition by varying the V/III ratio to have a quantitative and qualitative understanding of the recombination mechanisms. At high temperature, the model can be approximated to the band-tail-state emission.

  11. Impacts of excimer laser annealing on Ge epilayer on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiwei; Mao, Yichen; Yi, Xiaohui; Lin, Guangyang; Li, Cheng; Chen, Songyan; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jianyuan

    2017-02-01

    The impacts of excimer laser annealing on the crystallinity of Ge epilayers on Si substrate grown by low- and high-temperature two-step approach in an ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition system were investigated. The samples were treated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) at various laser power densities with the temperature above the melting point of Ge, while below that of Si, resulting in effective reduction of point defects and dislocations in the Ge layer with smooth surface. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of X-ray diffraction patterns of the low-temperature Ge epilayer decreases with the increase in laser power density, indicating the crystalline improvement and negligible effect of Ge-Si intermixing during ELA processes. The short laser pulse time and large cooling rate cause quick melting and recrystallization of Ge epilayer on Si in the non-thermal equilibrium process, rendering tensile strain in Ge epilayer as calculated quantitatively with thermal mismatch between Si and Ge. The FWHM of X-ray diffraction patterns is significantly reduced for the two-step grown samples after treated by a combination of ELA and conventional furnace thermal annealing, indicating that the crystalline of Ge epilayer is improved more effectively with pre- annealing by excimer laser.

  12. Effects of dry etching processes on exciton and polariton characteristics in ZnTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J. H.; Xie, W. B.; Shen, W. Z.; Ogawa, H.; Guo, Q. X.

    2003-12-01

    We have employed temperature-dependent reflection spectra to study the effects of reactive ion etching (RIE) on the exciton and polariton characteristics in ZnTe crystals exposed to CH4/H2 gases under different rf plasma powers. Classic exciton-polariton theory has been used to calculate the reflection spectra. By comparing with an as-grown ZnTe crystal and the temperature-dependent behavior, we are able to identify the excitons and RIE-induced polariton structures in these dry etched ZnTe crystals. An increase of the rf plasma power will lead to an increase of defect density in the surface damage layers, resulting in a decrease of the photon energies of the observed exciton and polariton structures.

  13. Carrier concentration dependence of donor activation energy in n-type GaN epilayers grown on Si (1 1 1) by plasma-assisted MBE

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Mahesh; Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore 560 013; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.

    Highlights: ► The n-type GaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. ► The optical characteristics of a donor level in Si-doped GaN were studied. ► Activation energy of a Si-related donor was estimated from temperature dependent PL measurements. ► PL peak positions, FWHM of PL and activation energies are found to be proportional to the cube root of carrier density. ► The involvement of donor levels is supported by the temperature-dependent electron concentration measurements. -- Abstract: The n-type GaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted MBE and either intentionally doped with Si or unintentionally doped. The optical characteristics ofmore » a donor level in Si-doped, GaN were studied in terms of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of electron concentration. Temperature dependent PL measurements allowed us to estimate the activation energy of a Si-related donor from temperature-induced decay of PL intensity. PL peak positions, full width at half maximum of PL and activation energies are found to be proportional to the cube root of carrier density. The involvement of donor levels is supported by the temperature-dependent electron concentration measurements.« less

  14. The structural and optical properties of high-Al-content AlInGaN epilayers grown by RF-MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baozhu; An, Tao; Wen, Huanming; Wu, Ruihong; An, Shengbiao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2008-11-01

    AlInGaN Quaternary Alloys were successfully grown on sapphire substrate by radio-frequency plasma-excited molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MBE). Different Al content AlInGaN quaternary alloys were acquired by changing the Al cell's temperature. The streaky RHEED pattern observed during AlInGaN growth showed the layer-by-layer growth mode. Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry (RBS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) were used to characterize the structural and optical properties of the AlInGaN alloys. The experimental results show that the AlInGaN with appropriate Al cell's temperature, could acquire Al/In ratio near 4.7, then could acquire better crystal and optical quality. The samllest X-ray and CL full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the AlInGaN are 5arcmin and 25nm, respectivly. There are some cracks and V-defects occur in high-Al/In-ratio AlInGaN alloys. In the CL image, the cracks and V-defect regions are the emission-enhanced regions. The emission enhancement of the cracked and V-defect regions may be related to the In-segregation.

  15. High internal quantum efficiency ultraviolet to green luminescence peaks from pseudomorphic m-plane Al{sub 1−x}In{sub x}N epilayers grown on a low defect density m-plane freestanding GaN substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chichibu, S. F., E-mail: chichibulab@yahoo.co.jp; Hazu, K.; Furusawa, K.

    2014-12-07

    Structural and optical qualities of half-a-μm-thick m-plane Al{sub 1−x}In{sub x}N epilayers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were remarkably improved via coherent growth on a low defect density m-plane freestanding GaN substrate prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. All the epilayers unexceptionally suffer from uniaxial or biaxial anisotropic in-plane stress. However, full-width at half-maximum values of the x-ray ω-rocking curves were nearly unchanged as the underlayer values being 80 ∼ 150 arc sec for (101{sup ¯}0) and (101{sup ¯}2) diffractions with both 〈0001〉 and 〈112{sup ¯}0〉 azimuths, as long as pseudomorphic structure was maintained. Such Al{sub 1−x}In{sub x}N epilayers commonly exhibited a broadmore » but predominant luminescence peak in ultraviolet (x ≤ 0.14) to green (x = 0.30) wavelengths. Its equivalent value of the internal quantum efficiency at room temperature was as high as 67% for x = 0.14 and 44% for x = 0.30. Because its high-energy cutoff commonly converged with the bandgap energy, the emission peak is assigned to originate from the extended near-band-edge states with strong carrier localization.« less

  16. Origin and roles of oxygen impurities in hexagonal boron nitride epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenadier, S. J.; Maity, A.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2018-04-01

    Photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements have been employed to study the origin and roles of oxygen impurities in hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) epilayers grown on sapphire substrates. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity revealed the presence of a previously unnoticed impurity level of about 0.6 eV in h-BN epilayers grown at high temperatures. The results suggested that in addition to the common nitrogen vacancy (VN) shallow donors in h-BN, oxygen impurities diffused from sapphire substrates during high temperature growth also act as substitutional donors (ON). The presence of ON gives rise to an additional emission peak in the photoluminescence spectrum, corresponding to a donor-acceptor pair recombination involving the ON donor and the CN (carbon occupying nitrogen site) deep level acceptor. Moreover, due to the presence of ON donors, the majority charge carrier type changed to electrons in epilayers grown at high temperatures, in contrast to typical h-BN epilayers which naturally exhibit "p-type" character. The results provided a more coherent picture for common impurities/defects in h-BN as well as a better understanding of the growth mediated impurities in h-BN epilayers, which will be helpful for finding possible ways to further improve the quality and purity of this emerging material.

  17. Low temperature growth of heavy boron-doped hydrogenated Ge epilayers and its application in Ge/Si photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Lee, Ming Jay; Wu, Mount-Learn; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Tsao, I.-Yu; Chang, Jenq-Yang

    2017-04-01

    In this study, heavily boron-doped hydrogenated Ge epilayers are grown on Si substrates at a low growth temperature (220 °C). The quality of the boron-doped epilayers is dependent on the hydrogen flow rate. The optical emission spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction and Hall measurement results demonstrate that better quality boron-doped Ge epilayers can be obtained at low hydrogen flow rates (0 sccm). This reduction in quality is due to an excess of hydrogen in the source gas, which breaks one of the Ge-Ge bonds on the Ge surface, leading to the formation of unnecessary dangling bonds. The structure of the boron doped Ge epilayers is analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In addition, the performance, based on the I-V characteristics, of Ge/Si photodetectors fabricated with boron doped Ge epilayers produced under different hydrogen flow rates was examined. The photodetectors with boron doped Ge epilayers produced with a low hydrogen flow rate (0 sccm) exhibited a higher responsivity of 0.144 A/W and a lower dark current of 5.33 × 10-7 A at a reverse bias of 1 V.

  18. On the interplay between Si(110) epilayer atomic roughness and subsequent 3C-SiC growth direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaka, Rami; Michaud, Jean-François; Vennéguès, Philippe; Nguyen, Luan; Alquier, Daniel; Portail, Marc

    2016-11-01

    In this contribution, we performed the growth of a 3C-SiC/Si/3C-SiC layer stack on a Si(001) substrate by means of chemical vapor deposition. We show that, by tuning the growth conditions, the 3C-SiC epilayer can be grown along either the [111] direction or the [110] direction. The key parameter for the growth of the desired 3C-SiC orientation on the Si(110)/3C-SiC(001)/Si(001) heterostructure is highlighted and is linked to the Si epilayer surface morphology. The epitaxial relation between the layers has been identified using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We showed that, regardless of the top 3C-SiC epilayer orientation, domains rotated by 90° around the growth direction are present in the epilayer. Furthermore, the difference between the two 3C-SiC orientations was investigated by means of high magnification TEM. The results indicate that the faceted Si(110) epilayer surface morphology results in a (110)-oriented 3C-SiC epilayer, whereas a flat hetero-interface has been observed between 3C-SiC(111) and Si(110). The control of the top 3C-SiC growth direction can be advantageous for the development of new micro-electro-mechanical systems.

  19. Probing carbon impurities in hexagonal boron nitride epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, M. R.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2017-05-01

    Carbon doped hexagonal boron nitride epilayers have been grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Photocurrent excitation spectroscopy has been utilized to probe the energy levels associated with carbon impurities in hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The observed transition peaks in photocurrent excitation spectra correspond well to the energy positions of the bandgap, substitutional donors (CB, carbon impurities occupying boron sites), and substitutional acceptors (CN, carbon impurities occupying nitrogen sites). From the observed transition peak positions, the derived energy level of CB donors in h-BN is ED ˜ 0.45 eV, which agrees well with the value deduced from the temperature dependent electrical resistivity. The present study further confirms that the room temperature bandgap of h-BN is about 6.42-6.45 eV, and the CN deep acceptors have an energy level of about 2.2-2.3 eV. The results also infer that carbon doping introduces both shallow donors (CB) and deep acceptors (CN) via self-compensation, and the energy level of carbon donors appears to be too deep to enable carbon as a viable candidate as an n-type dopant in h-BN epilayers.

  20. Effect of Zn and Te beam intensity upon the film quality of ZnTe layers on severely lattice mismatched sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasu, Taizo; Sun, W.; Kobayashi, M.; Asahi, T.

    2017-06-01

    Zinc telluride layers were grown on highly-lattice-mismatched sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy, and their crystallographic properties were studied by means of X-ray diffraction pole figures. The crystal quality of the ZnTe thin film was further studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray rocking curves and low-temperature photoluminescence measurements. These methods show that high-crystallinity (111)-oriented single domain ZnTe layers with the flat surface and good optical properties are realized when the beam intensity ratio of Zn and Te beams is adjusted. The migration of Zn and Te was inhibited by excess surface material and cracks were appeared. In particular, excess Te inhibited the formation of a high-crystallinity ZnTe film. The optical properties of the ZnTe layer revealed that the exciton-related features were dominant, and therefore the film quality was reasonably high even though the lattice constants and the crystal structures were severely mismatched.

  1. Self-Assembled Formation of Well-Aligned Cu-Te Nano-Rods on Heavily Cu-Doped ZnTe Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jing; Cheng, Man Kit; Lai, Ying Hoi; Wei, Guanglu; Yang, Sean Derman; Wang, Gan; Ho, Sut Kam; Tam, Kam Weng; Sou, Iam Keong

    2016-11-01

    Cu doping of ZnTe, which is an important semiconductor for various optoelectronic applications, has been successfully achieved previously by several techniques. However, besides its electrical transport characteristics, other physical and chemical properties of heavily Cu-doped ZnTe have not been reported. We found an interesting self-assembled formation of crystalline well-aligned Cu-Te nano-rods near the surface of heavily Cu-doped ZnTe thin films grown via the molecular beam epitaxy technique. A phenomenological growth model is presented based on the observed crystallographic morphology and measured chemical composition of the nano-rods using various imaging and chemical analysis techniques. When substitutional doping reaches its limit, the extra Cu atoms favor an up-migration toward the surface, leading to a one-dimensional surface modulation and formation of Cu-Te nano-rods, which explain unusual observations on the reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns and apparent resistivity of these thin films. This study provides an insight into some unexpected chemical reactions involved in the heavily Cu-doped ZnTe thin films, which may be applied to other material systems that contain a dopant having strong reactivity with the host matrix.

  2. Growth of ZnMgTe/ZnTe waveguide structures on ZnTe (0 0 1) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Y.; Imada, S.; Baba, T.; Kobayashi, M.

    2011-05-01

    ZnMgTe/ZnTe/ZnMgTe layered structures were grown on (0 0 1) ZnTe substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. This structure was designed to apply to waveguides in various optoelectronic devices to reduce light loss. Since the lattice mismatch between ZnTe and ZnMgTe was not negligible, the critical layer thickness (CLT) was theoretically derived. Structures with varying Mg composition and layer thickness of ZnMgTe cladding layer were grown and examined for crystal quality with respect to theoretical data. The crystal quality was investigated by means of cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and reciprocal space mapping (RSM). Optical confinements were observed by irradiating a laser beam from one end of the sample and monitoring the transmitted light from the other end.

  3. Elimination of oval defects in epilayers by using chemical beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, W. T.

    1985-06-01

    One ubiquitous problem that continues to haunt over molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) persistently throughout all these year and still without a good controllable solution is the presence of oval defects in gallium-containing compound semiconductor epilayers. While these defects have not presented major problems for discrete devices, they are likely to be a serious obstacle for integrated circuit applications. We showed that oval defects were present in GaAs and In0.53Ga0.47As epilayers grown by conventional MBE process using elemental Ga and In as group III sources, and either solid As4 or thermally cracked As4 from gas mixtures of trimethylarsine and hydrogen. On the other hand, the use of the chemical beam epitaxy in which the Ga and In were derived by thermal pyrolysis of their metal alkyls at the heated substrate surface resulted reproducibly in epilayers free of oval defects over the entire substrate surface of ˜8 cm diameter (limited by the substrate holder size). On the basis of the present results it is evident that the oval defects were related to the use of elemental Ga melt as the evaporant in conventional MBE.

  4. Confinement of Screw Dislocations to Predetermined Lateral Positions in (0001) 4H-SiC Epilayers Using Homoepitaxial Web Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, Andrew J.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Powell, J. Anthony; Beheim, Glenn M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports initial demonstration of a cantilevered homoepitaxial growth process that places screw dislocations at predetermined lateral positions in on-axis 4H-SiC mesa epilayers. Thin cantilevers were grown extending toward the interior of hollow pre-growth mesa shapes etched into an on-axis 4H-SiC wafer, eventually completely coalescing to form roofed cavities. Each completely coalesced cavity exhibited either: 1) a screw dislocation growth spiral located exactly where final cantilever coalescence occurred, or 2) no growth spiral. The fact that growth spirals are not observed at any other position except the central coalescence point suggests that substrate screw dislocations, initially surrounded by the hollow portion of the pre-growth mesa shape, are relocated to the final coalescence point of the webbed epilayer roof. Molten potassium hydroxide etch studies revealed that properly grown webbed cantilevers exhibited no etch pits, confirming the superior crystal quality of the cantilevers.

  5. Epitaxial growth and chemical vapor transport of ZnTe by closed-tube method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, H.; Nishio, M.; Arizumi, T.

    1981-04-01

    The epitaxial growth of ZnTe in a ZnTe- I2 system by a closed tube method is investigated by varying the charged iodine concentration ( MI2) or the temperature difference ( ΔT) between the high and low temperature zones. The transport rate is a function of MI2 and ΔT and has a minimum value increasing monotonically at higher and lower iodine concentration, and it increases with increasing ΔT. This experimental result can be explained well by thermodynamical calculations. The growth rate of ZnTe has the same tendency as the transport rate. The surface morphology of epitaxial layer on (110)ZnTe is not sinificantly affected by MI2 but becomes smoother with increasing temperature. The surface morphology and the growth rate of ZnTe layers also depend upon the orientation of substrate. The epitaxial layer can be obtained at temperature as low as 623°C.

  6. Refractive indexes of (Al, Ga, In) as epilayers on InP for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondry, M. J.; Babic, D. I.; Bowers, J. E.; Coldren, L. A.

    1992-06-01

    MBE grown bulk and short period superlattices of (Al, Ga, In) As epilayers lattice matched to InP were characterized by double-crystal diffractometry and low-temperature photoluminescence. A reflection spectroscopy technique was used to determine the refractive index of (Al, Ga, In) As films as a function of wavelength. The measured data were fitted to a single-oscillator dispersion model and the model coefficients are given. The resulting expression can be used in the design of wave-guides, modulators, and other optical devices.

  7. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, Timothy J.; Ginley, David S.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  8. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1989-05-09

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In modular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substrate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating.

  9. Substrate solder barriers for semiconductor epilayer growth

    DOEpatents

    Drummond, T.J.; Ginley, D.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1987-10-23

    During the growth of compound semiconductors by epitaxial processes, substrates are typically mounted to a support. In molecular beam epitaxy, mounting is done using indium as a solder. This method has two drawbacks: the indium reacts with the substrate, and it is difficult to uniformly wet the back of a large diameter substrate. Both of these problems have been successfully overcome by sputter coating the back of the substrate with a thin layer of tungsten carbide or tungsten carbide and gold. In addition to being compatible with the growth of high quality semiconductor epilayers this coating is also inert in all standard substate cleaning etchants used for compound semiconductors, and provides uniform distribution of energy in radiant heating. 1 tab.

  10. High quality Ge epilayer on Si (1 0 0) with an ultrathin Si1-x Ge x /Si buffer layer by RPCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Da; Guo, Qinglei; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Anli; Wang, Bei; Li, Ya; Wang, Gang

    2017-07-01

    The authors report a method to grow high quality strain-relaxed Ge epilayer on a combination of low temperature Ge seed layer and Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition system without any subsequent annealing treatment. Prior to the growth of high quality Ge epilayer, an ultrathin Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer with the thickness of 50 nm and a 460 nm Ge seed layer were deposited successively at low temperature. Then an 840 nm Ge epilayer was grown at high deposition rate with the surface root-mean-square roughness of 0.707 nm and threading dislocation density of 2.5  ×  106 cm-2, respectively. Detailed investigations of the influence of ultrathin low-temperature Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer on the quality of Ge epilayer were performed, which indicates that the crystalline quality of Ge epilayer can be significantly improved by enhancing the Ge concentration of Si1-x Ge x /Si superlattice buffer layer.

  11. Progress in MOCVD growth of HgCdTe epilayers for HOT infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebłowski, A.; Gawron, W.; Martyniuk, P.; Stepień, D.; Kolwas, K.; Piotrowski, J.; Madejczyk, P.; Kopytko, M.; Piotrowski, A.; Rogalski, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present progress in MOCVD growth of (100) HgCdTe epilayers achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology and Vigo System S.A. It is shown that MOCVD technology is an excellent tool in fabrication of different HgCdTe detector structures with a wide range of composition, donor/acceptor doping and without post grown annealing. Particular progress has been achieved in the growth of (100) HgCdTe epilayers for long wavelength infrared photoconductors operated in HOT conditions. The (100) HgCdTe photoconductor optimized for 13-μm attain detectivity equal to 6.5x109 Jones and therefore outperform its (111) counterpart. The paper also presents technological progress in fabrication of MOCVD-grown (111) HgCdTe barrier detectors. The barrier device performance is comparable with state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. The detectivity of HgCdTe detectors is close to the value marked HgCdTe photodiodes. Dark current densities are close to the values given by "Rule 07".

  12. In-Situ Optical Determination of Thermomechanical Properties of ZnSe and ZnTe Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, A.; Ndap, J.-O.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Ma, X.; Silberman, E.; Feth, S.; Palosz, W.; Su, C.-H.

    1999-01-01

    At temperatures above 1/2 T(sub m), the generation and movement of dislocations may result due to the load created by the weight of the crystal itself The deformation may be expected to increase the line defect density and may result in generation of low angle grain boundaries, especially in the regions of the crystal attached to the ampule. It has often been suspected that elimination of this effect in space can improve crystallinity of crystals grown under microgravity conditions, however, a direct experimental proof of such relation is still missing. In this work we have designed and built a system of in-situ optical detection and measurement of the mechanical deformations of a crystal wafer under its own weight, and studied the deformation effects as a function of temperature. The results of the measurements for ZnSe and ZnTe crystal wafers will be presented.

  13. Structural and optical properties of Ga auto-incorporated InAlN epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, E.; Smith, M. D.; Sadler, T. C.; Lorenz, K.; Li, H. N.; Alves, E.; Parbrook, P. J.; Martin, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    InAlN epilayers deposited on thick GaN buffer layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) revealed an auto-incorporation of Ga when analysed by wavelength dispersive x-ray (WDX) spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Samples were grown under similar conditions with the change in reactor flow rate resulting in varying Ga contents of 12-24%. The increase in flow rate from 8000 to 24 000 sccm suppressed the Ga auto-incorporation which suggests that the likely cause is from residual Ga left behind from previous growth runs. The luminescence properties of the resultant InAlGaN layers were investigated using cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements.

  14. Large scale ZnTe nanostructures on polymer micro patterns via capillary force photolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Florence, S. Sasi, E-mail: sshanmugaraj@jazanu.edu.sa; Can, N.; Adam, H.

    2016-06-10

    A novel approach to prepare micro patterns ZnTe nanostructures on Si (100) substrate using thermal evaporation is proposed by capillary Force Lithography (CFL) technique on a self-assembled sacrificial Polystyrene mask. Polystyrene thin films on Si substrates are used to fabricate surface micro-relief patterns. ZnTe nanoparticles have been deposited by thermal evaporation method. The deposited ZnTe nanoparticles properties were assessed by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). SEM studies indicated that the particles are uniform in size and shape, well dispersed and spherical in shape. This study reports the micro-arrays of ZnTe nanoparticles on a self-assembled sacrificial PS maskmore » using a capillary flow photolithography process which showed excellent, morphological properties which can be used in photovoltaic devices for anti-reflection applications.« less

  15. Thermoluminescent properties of nanocrystalline ZnTe thin films: Structural and morphological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpal, Shashikant; Kumar, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) is a binary II-VI direct band gap semiconducting material with cubic structure and having potential applications in different opto-electronic devices. Here we investigated the effects of annealing on the thermoluminescence (TL) of ZnTe thin films. A nanocrystalline ZnTe thin film was successfully electrodeposited on nickel substrate and the effect of annealing on structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied. The TL emission spectrum of as deposited sample is weakly emissive in UV region at ∼328 nm. The variation in the annealing temperature results into sharp increase in emission intensity at ∼328 nm along with appearance of a new peak at ∼437 nm in visible region. Thus, the deposited nanocrystalline ZnTe thin films exhibited excellent thermoluminescent properties upon annealing. Furthermore, the influence of annealing (annealed at 400 °C) on the solid state of ZnTe were also studied by XRD, SEM, EDS, AFM. It is observed that ZnTe thin film annealed at 400 °C after deposition provide a smooth and flat texture suited for optoelectronic applications.

  16. ZnTe Alloying Effect on Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type PbTe.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyunghan; Shin, Hocheol; Im, Jino; Park, Sang Hyun; Chung, In

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the effect of ZnTe incorporation on PbTe to enhance thermoelectric performance. We report structural, microscopic, and spectroscopic characterizations, ab initio theoretical calculations, and thermoelectric transport properties of Pb 0.985 Na 0.015 Te-x% ZnTe (x = 0, 1, 2, 4). We find that the solid solubility limit of ZnTe in PbTe is less than 1 mol %. The introduction of 2% ZnTe in p-type Pb 0.985 Na 0.015 Te reduces the lattice thermal conductivity through the ZnTe precipitates at the microscale. Consequently, a maximum thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.73 at 700 K is achieved for the spark plasma-sintered Pb 0.985 Na 0.015 Te-2% ZnTe, which arises from a decreased lattice thermal conductivity of ∼0.69 W m -1 K -1 at ∼700 K in comparison with Pb 0.985 Na 0.015 Te.

  17. Vibronic spectra of Cu(2+) in ZnTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Su, C.-H.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared-absorption spectra of substitutional Cu(2+) ions in ZnTe have been measured at 4.6 K. Several distinct absorption peaks are observed between 800 and 2000/cm. Absorption peaks at 1002 and 1069/cm are identified as zero-phonon lines arising from 2T2-2E transitions. Between 1069 and 2000/cm, several sets of sharp absorption lines are seen to recur regularly at an interval of 210/cm, corresponding to the LO phonon energy. Within each set distinct vibronic sidebands that cannot be identified with critical-point energies of TA, LA, TO or LO phonon modes are observed. A dynamic Jahn-Teller effect, involving coupling between a single-phonon mode and the electronic states of the 2E level, is proposed to account for the observed spectra.

  18. van der Waals epitaxial ZnTe thin film on single-crystalline graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xin; Chen, Zhizhong; Wang, Yiping; Lu, Zonghuan; Shi, Jian; Washington, Morris; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2018-01-01

    Graphene template has long been promoted as a promising host to support van der Waals flexible electronics. However, van der Waals epitaxial growth of conventional semiconductors in planar thin film form on transferred graphene sheets is challenging because the nucleation rate of film species on graphene is significantly low due to the passive surface of graphene. In this work, we demonstrate the epitaxy of zinc-blende ZnTe thin film on single-crystalline graphene supported by an amorphous glass substrate. Given the amorphous nature and no obvious remote epitaxy effect of the glass substrate, this study clearly proves the van der Waals epitaxy of a 3D semiconductor thin film on graphene. X-ray pole figure analysis reveals the existence of two ZnTe epitaxial orientational domains on graphene, a strong X-ray intensity observed from the ZnTe [ 1 ¯ 1 ¯ 2] ǁ graphene [10] orientation domain, and a weaker intensity from the ZnTe [ 1 ¯ 1 ¯ 2] ǁ graphene [11] orientation domain. Furthermore, this study systematically investigates the optoelectronic properties of this epitaxial ZnTe film on graphene using temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, and fabrication and characterization of a ZnTe-graphene photodetector. The research suggests an effective approach towards graphene-templated flexible electronics.

  19. Structural analysis of nanocrystalline ZnTe alloys synthesized by melt quenching technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harinder; Singh, Tejbir; Thakur, Anup; Sharma, Jeewan

    2018-05-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnxTe100-x (x=0, 5, 20, 30, 40, 50) alloys have been synthesized using melt quenching technique. Energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS) has been used to verify the elemental composition of samples. Various absorption modes are recorded from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirming the formation of ZnTe. The structural study has been performed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) method. All synthesized samples have been found to be nanocrystalline in nature with average crystallite size in the range from 49.3 nm to 77.1 nm. Results have shown that Zn0Te100 exhibits hexagonal phase that transforms into a cubic ZnTe phase as the amount of zinc is increased. Pure ZnTe phase has been obtained for x = 50. The texture coefficient (Tc) has been calculated to find the prominent orientations of different planes.

  20. Growth optimization and characterization of GaN epilayers on multifaceted (111) surfaces etched on Si(100) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ansah-Antwi, KwaDwo Konadu, E-mail: kakadee@gmail.com; Chua, Soo Jin; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, E4-5-45, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576

    2015-11-15

    The four nearest Si(111) multifaceted sidewalls were exposed inside an array of 3 μm-wide square holes patterned on an Si(100) substrate, and this patterned Si(100) substrate was used as a substrate for the deposition of a gallium nitride (GaN) epilayer. Subsequently the effect that the growth pressure, the etched-hole profiles, and the etched-hole arrangement had upon the quality of the as-grown GaN was investigated. The coalescence of the as-grown GaN epilayer on the exposed Si(111) facets was observed to be enhanced with reduced growth pressure from 120 to 90 Torr. A larger Si(001) plane area at the bottom of the etched holesmore » resulted in bidirectional GaN domains, which resulted in poor material quality. The bidirectional GaN domains were observed as two sets of six peaks via a high-resolution x-ray diffraction phi scan of the GaN(10-11) reflection. It was also shown that a triangular array of etched holes was more desirable than square arrays of etched holes for the growth high-quality and continuous GaN films.« less

  1. Effect of substrate dislocations on the Hg in-diffusion in CdZnTe substrates used for HgCdTe epilayer growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Kapoor, A. K.; Nagpal, A.; Sharma, S.; Verma, D.; Kumar, A.; Raman, R.; Basu, P. K.

    2006-12-01

    Chemical-etched HgCdTe epilayers grown onto CdZnTe substrates have been studied using defect etching and EDS on cleaved (1 1 0) face. Formation of etch pits and mercury (Hg) in-diffusion into CZT substrate has been correlated with the substrate quality i.e. the presence of dislocations around second phase inclusions. That the Hg in-diffusion takes place through these dislocations is authenticated by the presence of Te-inclusions in substrates where large density of etch pits are revealed after chemical etching. X-ray rocking curve measurements were carried out to reveal crystalline quality of the substrates. FTIR spectroscopy indicates low transmission values and absence of interference fringes in MCT epilayers with large Hg diffusion. Hg diffusion into CZT substrate upto 25 μm in samples with low FWHM values and upto 250 μm in samples with multiple peaks and high FWHM values was observed.

  2. Use of separate ZnTe interface layers to form OHMIC contacts to p-CdTe films

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, Timothy A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of improving electrical contact to a thin film of a p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor comprising: depositing a first undoped layer of ZnTe on a thin film of p-type tellurium containing II-VI semiconductor with material properties selected to limit the formation of potential barriers at the interface between the p-CdTe and the undoped layer, to a thickness sufficient to control diffusion of the metallic-doped ZnTe into the p-type tellurim-containing II-VI semiconductor, but thin enough to minimize affects of series resistance; depositing a second heavy doped p-type ZnTe layer to the first layer using an appropriate dopant; and depositing an appropriate metal onto the outer-most surface of the doped ZnTe layer for connecting an external electrical conductor to an ohmic contact.

  3. Defect properties of Sn- and Ge-doped ZnTe: suitability for intermediate-band solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Mauricio A.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structure and defect properties of Sn- and Ge- doped ZnTe by first-principles calculations within the DFT+GW formalism. We find that ({{{Sn}}}{{Zn}}) and ({{{Ge}}}{{Zn}}) introduce isolated energy levels deep in the band gap of ZnTe, derived from Sn-5s and Ge-4s states, respectively. Moreover, the incorporation of Sn and Ge on the Zn site is favored in p-type ZnTe, in both Zn-rich and Te-rich environments. The optical absorption spectra obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation reveals that sub-bandgap absorptance is greatly enhanced due to the formation of the intermediate band. Our results suggest that Sn- and Ge-doped ZnTe would be a suitable material for the development of intermediate-band solar cells, which have the potential to achieve efficiencies beyond the single-junction limit.

  4. Use of separate ZnTe interface layers to form ohmic contacts to p-CdTe films

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, T.A.

    1999-06-01

    A method of is disclosed improving electrical contact to a thin film of a p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor comprising: depositing a first undoped layer of ZnTe on a thin film of p-type tellurium containing II-VI semiconductor with material properties selected to limit the formation of potential barriers at the interface between the p-CdTe and the undoped layer, to a thickness sufficient to control diffusion of the metallic-doped ZnTe into the p-type tellurium-containing II-VI semiconductor, but thin enough to minimize affects of series resistance; depositing a second heavy doped p-type ZnTe layer to the first layer using an appropriate dopant; and depositing an appropriate metal onto the outer-most surface of the doped ZnTe layer for connecting an external electrical conductor to an ohmic contact. 11 figs.

  5. Synthesis of ZnTe dendrites on multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polyimide nanocomposite membrane by electrochemical atomic layer deposition and photoelectrical property research

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yimin; Kou, Huanhuan; Li, Jiajia

    2012-10-15

    We report on the electrochemical atomic layer deposition (EC-ALD) of ZnTe dendrites on the carboxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polyimide (COOH-MWCNTs/PI) membrane. Electrochemical characteristics were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the deposition of ZnTe dendrites was completed using amperometric method (I-t). The prepared ZnTe dendrites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The growth mechanism of ZnTe dendrites was elucidated to give a deep understanding of crystal growth. The concentration of reagents and deposition cycle had a significant effect on the morphology and structure of deposits. UV-vis transmission study indicated a direct bandmore » gap of 2.26 eV. Photoelectrical measurement confirmed the p-type conductivity of ZnTe dendrites, which indicated that the dendritic ZnTe crystals may have potential practical application in optoelectronic devices. - Graphical abstract: Representative SEM images of ZnTe dendrites. (a) Panorama of ZnTe dendrites; (b) a single dendrite. The regular branches appeared like leaves and showed a parallel arrangement layer upon layer between each other. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnTe dendrites were successfully synthesized on CNTs/PI membrane by electrodeposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The growth mechanism of ZnTe dendritic structures was investigated in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration and deposition cycle greatly affected the morphology of ZnTe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OCP and I-t studies showed that ZnTe can be beneficial to photoelectric applications.« less

  6. Investigations of 3C-SiC inclusions in 4H-SiC epilayers on 4H-SiC single crystal substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Si, W.; Dudley, M.; Kong, H.S.

    1997-03-01

    Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and Nomarski optical microscopy (NOM) have been used to characterize 4H-SiC epilayers and to study the character of triangular inclusions therein. 4H-SiC substrates misoriented by a range of angles from (0001), as well as (1 1{bar 0}0) and (11 2{bar 0}) oriented substrates were used. No evidence was found for the nucleation of 3C-SiC inclusions at superscrew dislocations (along the [0001] axis) in the 4H-SiC substrates. Increasing the off-axis angle of the substrates from 3.5 to 6.5{degree} was found to greatly suppress the formation of the triangular inclusions. In the case of substrates misorientedmore » by 8.0{degree} from (0001) toward [112{bar 0}], the triangular inclusions were virtually eliminated. The crystalline quality of 4H-SiC epilayers grown on the substrates misoriented by 8.0{degree} from (0001) was very good. For the (11{bar 0}0) and (112{bar 0}) samples, there is no indication of 3C-SiC inclusions in the epilayers. Possible formation mechanisms and the morphology of 3C-SiC inclusions are discussed. 17 refs., 13 figs.« less

  7. Dynamic probe of ZnTe(110) surface by scanning tunneling microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Ken; Yoshida, Shoji; Shigekawa, Hidemi; Kuroda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The reconstructed surface structure of the II–VI semiconductor ZnTe (110), which is a promising material in the research field of semiconductor spintronics, was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS). First, the surface states formed by reconstruction by the charge transfer of dangling bond electrons from cationic Zn to anionic Te atoms, which are similar to those of IV and III–V semiconductors, were confirmed in real space. Secondly, oscillation in tunneling current between binary states, which is considered to reflect a conformational change in the topmost Zn–Te structure between the reconstructed and bulk-like ideal structures, was directly observed by STM. Third, using the technique of charge injection, a surface atomic structure was successfully fabricated, suggesting the possibility of atomic-scale manipulation of this widely applicable surface of ZnTe. PMID:27877752

  8. Electrical properties and transport mechanisms of p-znte/n-si heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyam, M. A. M.; El-Shair, H. T.; Salem, G. F.

    2008-03-01

    Zinc telluride thin films have been deposited on glass and silicon wafers substrates at room temperature by thermal evaporation technique in a vacuum of 10-5 Torr. The thickness dependence of both the dc electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of ZnTe were carried out at room temperature and after being annealed over a thickness range from 22 nm to 170 nm. The type of conduction, the carriers concentration and the conduction mechanisms were revealed. The average thermal activation energy Δ E equals to 0.324 eV for the as deposited films and 0.306 eV for annealed films, it is found to correspond with the ionization energy reported for intrinsic defect levels in ZnTe. Seebeck coefficient measurements showed that ZnTe thin films behave as p-type semiconductor and the average value of the free charge carrier concentration is found to be 1.6×1019 cm-3. The built-in voltage, the width of the depletion region, the diode quality factor and the operating conduction mechanisms have been determined from dark current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of p-ZnTe/ n-Si heterojunctions.

  9. Identification of Zn vacancies in ZnTe doped with Cl and I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asoka-Kumar, Palakkal; Alatalo, Matti; Wang, Wen

    1997-03-01

    The doping difficulties of II-VI semiconductors are well known. For example, ZnTe can be doped easily to have p-type conductivity but not n-type. We examined Cl and I doped ZnTe using positron annihilation spectroscopy to understand the role of vacancies in the compensation mechanism. The annihilation line shapes from inner-shell electrons can be used for elemental identification[1]. Results from ZnTe:Cl and ZnTe:I show an enhancement of annihilations with Te electrons compared to undoped samples, and is explained as arising due to first neighbor of a Zn vacancy. Theoretical calculations of the annihilation line shapes from bulk ZnTe and Zn and Te vacancies will also be presented. This work was supported in part by the US DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-76CH00016. [1] P. Asoka-Kumar, M. Alatalo, V.J. Ghosh, A.C. Kruseman, B. Nielsen, and K.G. Lynn, Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 77, 2097 (1996).

  10. X-ray diffraction, Raman, and photoacoustic studies of ZnTe nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ersching, K.; Campos, C. E. M.; de Lima, J. C.; Grandi, T. A.; Souza, S. M.; da Silva, D. L.; Pizani, P. S.

    2009-06-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnTe was prepared by mechanical alloying. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy techniques were used to study the structural, chemical, optical, and thermal properties of the as-milled powder. An annealing of the mechanical alloyed sample at 590 °C for 6 h was done to investigate the optical properties in a defect-free sample (close to bulk form). The main crystalline phase formed was the zinc-blende ZnTe, but residual trigonal tellurium and hexagonal ZnO phases were also observed for both as-milled and annealed samples. The structural parameters, phase fractions, average crystallite sizes, and microstrains of all crystalline phases were obtained from Rietveld analyses of the X-ray patterns. Raman results corroborate the XRD results, showing the longitudinal optical phonons of ZnTe (even at third order) and those modes of trigonal Te. Nonradiative surface recombination and thermal bending heat transfer mechanisms were proposed from photoacoustic analysis. An increase in effective thermal diffusivity coefficient was observed after annealing and the carrier diffusion coefficient, the surface recombination velocity, and the recombination time parameters remained the same.

  11. Reduction of threading dislocation density in SiGe epilayer on Si (0 0 1) by lateral growth liquid-phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Andrew J.; Quitoriano, Nathaniel J.

    2018-02-01

    Si0.973Ge0.027 epilayers were grown on a Si (0 0 1) substrate by a lateral liquid-phase epitaxy (LLPE) technique. The lateral growth mechanism favoured the glide of misfit dislocations and inhibited the nucleation of new dislocations by maintaining the thickness less than the critical thicknesses for dislocation nucleation and greater than the critical thickness for glide. This promoted the formation of an array of long misfit dislocations parallel to the [1 1 0] growth direction and reduced the threading dislocation density to 103 cm-2, two orders of magnitude lower than the seed area with an isotropic misfit dislocation network.

  12. Excitation mechanisms of Er optical centers in GaN epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    George, D. K.; Hawkins, M. D.; McLaren, M.

    2015-10-26

    We report direct evidence of two mechanisms responsible for the excitation of optically active Er{sup 3+} ions in GaN epilayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. These mechanisms, resonant excitation via the higher-lying inner 4f shell transitions and band-to-band excitation of the semiconductor host, lead to narrow emission lines from isolated and the defect-related Er optical centers. However, these centers have different photoluminescence spectra, local defect environments, decay dynamics, and excitation cross sections. The photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from the isolated Er optical center which can be excited by either mechanism has the same decay dynamics, but possesses a much highermore » excitation cross-section under band-to-band excitation. In contrast, the photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from the defect-related Er optical center can only be observed through band-to-band excitation but has the largest excitation cross-section. These results explain the difficulty in achieving gain in Er doped GaN and indicate approaches for realization of optical amplification, and possibly lasing, at room temperature.« less

  13. Large-k exciton dynamics in GaN epilayers: Nonthermal and thermal regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinattieri, Anna; Bogani, Franco; Cavigli, Lucia; Manzi, Donatella; Gurioli, Massimo; Feltin, Eric; Carlin, Jean-François; Martin, Denis; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2013-02-01

    We present a detailed investigation performed at low temperature (T<50 K) concerning the exciton dynamics in GaN epilayers grown on c-plane sapphire substrates, focusing on the exciton formation and the transition from the nonthermal to the thermal regime. The time-resolved kinetics of longitudinal-optical-phonon replicas is used to address the energy relaxation in the excitonic band. From picosecond time-resolved spectra, we bring evidence for a long lasting nonthermal excitonic distribution, which accounts for the first 50 ps. Such a behavior is confirmed in different experimental conditions when both nonresonant and resonant excitations are used. At low excitation power density, the exciton formation and their subsequent thermalization are dominated by impurity scattering rather than by acoustic phonon scattering. The estimate of the average energy of the excitons as a function of delay after the excitation pulse provides information on the relaxation time, which describes the evolution of the exciton population to the thermal regime.

  14. Temperature dependence of the band gap of GaAsSb epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukic-Zrnic, R.; Gorman, B. P.; Cottier, R. J.; Golding, T. D.; Littler, C. L.; Norman, A. G.

    2002-12-01

    We have optically characterized a series of GaAs1-xSbx epilayers (0.19grown by molecular bean epitaxy on semi-insulating GaAs substrates, with surface orientations of (001), (001) 8° toward (111)B, (001) 8° toward (111)A, and (115)B. For each of these samples, we have investigated the absorption as a function of temperature (4 K

  15. The boron implantation in the varied zone MBE MCT epilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, Alexander V.; Grigor'ev, Denis V.; Kokhanenko, Andrey P.; Korotaev, Alexander G.; Sidorov, Yuriy G.; Varavin, Vasiliy S.; Dvoretsky, Sergey A.; Mikhailov, Nicolay N.; Talipov, Niyaz Kh.

    2005-09-01

    In the paper experimental results on boron implantation of the CdxHg1-xTe epilayers with various composition near surface of the material are discussed. The electron concentration in the surface layer after irradiation vs irradiation dose and ion energy are investigated for range of doses 1011 - 3•1015 cm-2 and energies of 20 - 150 keV. Also the results of the electrical active defects distribution measurement, carried out by differential Hall method, after boron implantation are represented. Consideration of the received data shows, that composition gradient influence mainly on the various dynamics of accumulation of electric active radiation defects. The electric active defects distribution analysis shows, that the other factors are negligible.

  16. Surface and bulk electronic structures of unintentionally and Mg-doped In0.7Ga0.3N epilayer by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, Masataka; Tsuda, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Takahiro; Banal, Ryan G.; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yang, AnLi; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Koide, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kaneko, Masamitsu; Uematsu, Nao; Wang, Ke; Araki, Tsutomu; Nanishi, Yasushi

    2018-03-01

    The surface and bulk electronic structures of In0.7Ga0.3N epilayers are investigated by angle-resolved hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES) combined with soft X-PES. The unintentionally and Mg-doped In0.7Ga0.3N (u-In0.7Ga0.3N and In0.7Ga0.3N:Mg, respectively) epilayers are grown by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Here three samples with different Mg concentrations ([Mg] = 0, 7 × 1019, and 4 × 1020 cm-3) are chosen for comparison. It is found that a large downward energy band bending exists in all samples due to the formation of a surface electron accumulation (SEA) layer. For u-In0.7Ga0.3N epilayer, band bending as large as 0.8 ± 0.05 eV occurs from bulk to surface. Judged from the valence band spectral edge and numerical analysis of energy band with a surface quantum well, the valence band maximum (VBM) with respect to Fermi energy (EF) level in the bulk is determined to be 1.22 ± 0.05 eV. In contrast, for In0.7Ga0.3N:Mg epilayers, the band bending increases and the VBM only in the bulk tends to shift toward the EF level owing to the Mg acceptor doping. Hence, the energy band is considered to exhibit a downward bending structure due to the coexistence of the n+ SEA layer and Mg-doped p layer formed in the bulk. When [Mg] changes from 7 × 1019 to 4 × 1020 cm-3, the peak split occurs in HX-PES spectra under the bulk sensitive condition. This result indicates that the energy band forms an anomalous downward bending structure with a singular point due to the generation of a thin depleted region at the n+ p interface. For In0.7Ga0.3N:Mg epilayers, the VBM in the bulk is assumed to be slightly lower than EF level within 0.1 eV.

  17. Fast Growth of GaN Epilayers via Laser-Assisted Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition for Ultraviolet Photodetector Applications.

    PubMed

    Rabiee Golgir, Hossein; Li, Da Wei; Keramatnejad, Kamran; Zou, Qi Ming; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Fei; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-François; Lu, Yong Feng

    2017-06-28

    In this study, we successfully developed a carbon dioxide (CO 2 )-laser-assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LMOCVD) approach to fast synthesis of high-quality gallium nitride (GaN) epilayers on Al 2 O 3 [sapphire(0001)] substrates. By employing a two-step growth procedure, high crystallinity and smooth GaN epilayers with a fast growth rate of 25.8 μm/h were obtained. The high crystallinity was confirmed by a combination of techniques, including X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. By optimizing growth parameters, the ∼4.3-μm-thick GaN films grown at 990 °C for 10 min showed a smooth surface with a root-mean-square surface roughness of ∼1.9 nm and excellent thickness uniformity with sharp GaN/substrate interfaces. The full-width at half-maximum values of the GaN(0002) X-ray rocking curve of 313 arcsec and the GaN(101̅2) X-ray rocking curve of 390 arcsec further confirmed the high crystallinity of the GaN epilayers. We also fabricated ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors based on the as-grown GaN layers, which exhibited a high responsivity of 0.108 A W -1 at 367 nm and a fast response time of ∼125 ns, demonstrating its high optical quality with potential in optoelectronic applications. Our strategy thus provides a simple and cost-effective means toward fast and high-quality GaN heteroepitaxy growth suitable for fabricating high-performance GaN-based UV detectors.

  18. The Role of Work Function and Band Gap in Resistive Switching Behaviour of ZnTe Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowtu, Srinu; Sangani, L. D. Varma; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam

    2018-02-01

    Resistive switching behavior by engineering the electrode work function and band gap of ZnTe thin films is demonstrated. The device structures Au/ZnTe/Au, Au/ZnTe/Ag, Al/ZnTe/Ag and Pt/ZnTe/Ag were fabricated. ZnTe was deposited by thermal evaporation and the stoichiometry and band gap were controlled by varying the source-substrate distance. Band gap could be varied between 1.0 eV to approximately 4.0 eV with the larger band gap being attributed to the partial oxidation of ZnTe. The transport characteristics reveal that the low-resistance state is ohmic in nature which makes a transition to Poole-Frenkel defect-mediated conductivity in the high-resistance states. The highest R off-to- R on ratio achieved is 109. Interestingly, depending on stoichiometry, both unipolar and bipolar switching can be realized.

  19. Review—hexagonal boron nitride epilayers: Growth, optical properties and device applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, H. X.; Lin, Jing Yu

    This paper provides a brief overview on recent advances made in authors’ laboratory in epitaxial growth and optical studies of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) epilayers and heterostructures. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been employed to probe the optical properties of h-BN. It was observed that the near band edge emission of h-BN is unusually high and is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of high quality AlN epilayers. It was shown that the unique quasi-2D nature induced by the layered structure of h-BN results in high optical absorption and emission. The impurity related and near band-edge transitions in h-BNmore » epilayers were probed for materials synthesized under varying ammonia flow rates. Our results have identified that the most dominant impurities and deep level defects in h-BN epilayers are related to nitrogen vacancies. By growing h-BN under high ammonia flow rates, nitrogen vacancy related defects can be eliminated and epilayers exhibiting pure free exciton emission have been obtained. Deep UV and thermal neutron detectors based on h-BN epilayers were shown to possess unique features. Lastly, it is our belief that h-BN will lead to many potential applications from deep UV emitters and detectors, radiation detectors, to novel 2D photonic and electronic devices.« less

  20. Review—hexagonal boron nitride epilayers: Growth, optical properties and device applications

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, H. X.; Lin, Jing Yu

    2016-09-07

    This paper provides a brief overview on recent advances made in authors’ laboratory in epitaxial growth and optical studies of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) epilayers and heterostructures. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been employed to probe the optical properties of h-BN. It was observed that the near band edge emission of h-BN is unusually high and is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of high quality AlN epilayers. It was shown that the unique quasi-2D nature induced by the layered structure of h-BN results in high optical absorption and emission. The impurity related and near band-edge transitions in h-BNmore » epilayers were probed for materials synthesized under varying ammonia flow rates. Our results have identified that the most dominant impurities and deep level defects in h-BN epilayers are related to nitrogen vacancies. By growing h-BN under high ammonia flow rates, nitrogen vacancy related defects can be eliminated and epilayers exhibiting pure free exciton emission have been obtained. Deep UV and thermal neutron detectors based on h-BN epilayers were shown to possess unique features. Lastly, it is our belief that h-BN will lead to many potential applications from deep UV emitters and detectors, radiation detectors, to novel 2D photonic and electronic devices.« less

  1. Photoluminescence and Raman characterization of PLEE and MBE grown semiconductor epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Dale A.

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with extraordinary properties and thus many potential applications have been predicted to be the best reinforcements for the next-generation multifunctional composite materials. Difficulties exist in transferring the most use of the unprecedented properties of individual CNTs to macroscopic forms of CNT assemblies. Therefore, this thesis focuses on two main goals: 1) discussing the issues that influence the performance of bulk CNT products, and 2) fabricating high-performance dry CNT films and composite films with an understanding of the fundamental structure-property relationship in these materials. Dry CNT films were fabricated by a winding process using CNT arrays with heights of 230 mum, 300 im and 360 mum. The structures of the as-produced films, as well as their mechanical and electrical properties were examined in order to find out the effects of different CNT lengths. It was found that the shorter CNTs synthesized by shorter time in the CVD furnace exhibited less structural defects and amorphous carbon, resulting in more compact packing and better nanotube alignment when made into dry films, thus, having better mechanical and electrical performance. A novel microcombing approach was developed to mitigate the CNT waviness and alignment in the dry films, and ultrahigh mechanical properties and exceptional electrical performance were obtained. This method utilized a pair of sharp surgical blades with microsized features at the blade edges as micro-combs to, for the first time, disentangle and straighten the wavy CNTs in the dry-drawn CNT sheet at single-layer level. The as-combed CNT sheet exhibited high level of nanotube alignment and straightness, reduced structural defects, and enhanced nanotube packing density. The dry CNT films produced by microcombing had a very high Young's modulus of 172 GPa, excellent tensile strength of 3.2 GPa, and unprecedented electrical conductivity of 1.8x10 5 S/m, which were records for CNT films or buckypapers. This novel technique could construct CNT films with reproducible properties, which also had the potential to be scale-up for industrial mass production. Based on the microcombing approach, dispersion issue of the long, straight, and highly aligned CNTs was investigated by adding PVA matrix into the microcombed CNT sheets. It was found although microcombing promoted the formation of agglomerated strands of the long, straight, and aligned CNTs, this was not an adverse problem in impairing the composite performance. When matrix was added, those agglomerated strands were wrapped together which maintained a more stable and better contact between nanotubes than those in the dry films. The as-produced CNT/PVA composite films exhibit an electrical conductivity of 1.84x105 S/m, Young's modulus of 119 GPa, tensile strength of 2.9 GPa, and toughness of 52.4 J/cm3, which represent improvements over those of uncombed samples by 300%, 100%, 120%, and 200%, respectively, demonstrating the effectiveness and reliability of microcombing in producing high-performance CNT/polymer composite films.

  2. Entirely relaxed lattice-mismatched GaSb/GaAs/Si(001) heterostructure grown via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Minh Thien Huu; Hoang Huynh, Sa; Binh Do, Huy; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Luc, Quang Ho; Lee, Ching Ting; Chang, Edward Yi

    2018-05-01

    A GaSb epilayer is grown on a GaAs/Si(001) epitaxial substrate via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy micrographs and high-resolution X-ray reciprocal space mapping indicate an entirely relaxed interfacial misfit (IMF) array GaSb epilayer. The valence-band offset and conduction-band offset of the Al2O3/GaSb/GaAs/Si structure are estimated to be 2.39 and 3.65 eV, respectively. The fabricated Al2O3/p-GaSb/GaAs/Si MOS capacitors exhibited good capacitance–voltage characteristics with a small accumulation frequency dispersion of approximately 1.05% per decade. These results imply that the GaSb epilayer grown on the GaAs/Si platform in the IMF mode can be used for future complementary metal–oxide semiconductor applications.

  3. Characterization of Cadmium-Zinc Telluride Crystals Grown by 'Contactless' PVT Using Synchrotron White Beam Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Gillies, D.; Grasza, K.; Chung, H.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.

    1997-01-01

    Crystals of Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te grown by Physical Vapor Transport (PVT) using self-seeding 'contactless' techniques were characterized using synchrotron radiation (reflection, transmission, and Laue back-reflection X-ray topography). Crystals of low (x = 0.04) and high (up to x approx. = 0.4) ZnTe content were investigated. Twins and defects such as dislocations, precipitates, and slip bands were identified. Extensive inhomogeneous strains present in some samples were found to be generated by interaction (sticking) with the pedestal and by composition gradients in the crystals. Large (up to about 5 mm) oval strain fields were observed around some Te precipitates. Low angle grain boundaries were found only in higher ZnTe content (x greater than or equal to 0.2) samples.

  4. Guided Growth of Horizontal p-Type ZnTe Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge toward large-scale integration of nanowires is the control over their alignment and position. A possible solution to this challenge is the guided growth process, which enables the synthesis of well-aligned horizontal nanowires that grow according to specific epitaxial or graphoepitaxial relations with the substrate. However, the guided growth of horizontal nanowires was demonstrated for a limited number of materials, most of which exhibit unintentional n-type behavior. Here we demonstrate the vapor–liquid–solid growth of guided horizontal ZnTe nanowires and nanowalls displaying p-type behavior on four different planes of sapphire. The growth directions of the nanowires are determined by epitaxial relations between the nanowires and the substrate or by a graphoepitaxial effect that guides their growth along nanogrooves or nanosteps along the surface. We characterized the crystallographic orientations and elemental composition of the nanowires using transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The optoelectronic and electronic properties of the nanowires were studied by fabricating photodetectors and top-gate thin film transistors. These measurements showed that the guided ZnTe nanowires are p-type semiconductors and are photoconductive in the visible range. The guided growth of horizontal p-type nanowires opens up the possibility of parallel nanowire integration into functional systems with a variety of potential applications not available by other means. PMID:27885331

  5. Guided Growth of Horizontal p-Type ZnTe Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Reut, Gilad; Oksenberg, Eitan; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Rechav, Katya; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2016-08-04

    A major challenge toward large-scale integration of nanowires is the control over their alignment and position. A possible solution to this challenge is the guided growth process, which enables the synthesis of well-aligned horizontal nanowires that grow according to specific epitaxial or graphoepitaxial relations with the substrate. However, the guided growth of horizontal nanowires was demonstrated for a limited number of materials, most of which exhibit unintentional n-type behavior. Here we demonstrate the vapor-liquid-solid growth of guided horizontal ZnTe nanowires and nanowalls displaying p-type behavior on four different planes of sapphire. The growth directions of the nanowires are determined by epitaxial relations between the nanowires and the substrate or by a graphoepitaxial effect that guides their growth along nanogrooves or nanosteps along the surface. We characterized the crystallographic orientations and elemental composition of the nanowires using transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The optoelectronic and electronic properties of the nanowires were studied by fabricating photodetectors and top-gate thin film transistors. These measurements showed that the guided ZnTe nanowires are p-type semiconductors and are photoconductive in the visible range. The guided growth of horizontal p-type nanowires opens up the possibility of parallel nanowire integration into functional systems with a variety of potential applications not available by other means.

  6. Improvement in etching rate for epilayer lift-off with surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fan-Lei; Horng, Ray-Hua; Lu, Jian-Heng; Chen, Chun-Li; Kao, Yu-Cheng

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the GaAs epilayer is quickly separated from GaAs substrate by epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process with mixture etchant solution. The HF solution mixes with surfactant as mixture etchant solution to etch AlAs sacrificial layer for the selective wet etching of AlAs sacrificial layer. Addiction surfactants etchant significantly enhance the etching rate in the hydrofluoric acid etching solution. It is because surfactant provides hydrophilicity to change the contact angle with enhances the fluid properties of the mixture etchant between GaAs epilayer and GaAs substrate. Arsine gas was released from the etchant solution because the critical reaction product in semiconductor etching is dissolved arsine gas. Arsine gas forms a bubble, which easily displaces the etchant solution, before the AlAs layer was undercut. The results showed that acetone and hydrofluoric acid ratio of about 1:1 for the fastest etching rate of 13.2 μm / min. The etching rate increases about 4 times compared with pure hydrofluoric acid, moreover can shorten the separation time about 70% of GaAs epilayer with GaAs substrate. The results indicate that etching ratio and stability are improved by mixture etchant solution. It is not only saving the epilayer and the etching solution exposure time, but also reducing the damage to the epilayer structure.

  7. Transfer of InP epilayers by wafer bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjort, Klas

    2004-08-01

    Wafer bonding increases the freedom of design in the integration of dissimilar materials. For example, it is interesting to combine III-V compounds that have direct band gap and high mobility with silicon (Si) that is extensively used in microelectronic applications. The interest to integrate III-V-based materials with Si arises primarily from two types of applications: smart pixels for optical intra- and inter-chip interconnects in the so-called optoelectronic integrated circuits, and optoelectronic devices using some material advantages of combining III-V with Si. Also, in the III-V industry larger substrates are crucial for higher efficiency in high-volume production, and especially so for monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC). For indium phosphide (InP) the development of large-area substrates has not been able to keep up with market demands. One way to circumvent this problem is to use silicon substrates that are large-area, low-cost, and mechanically strong with high thermal conductivity. In addition, silicon is transparent at the emission wavelengths most often used in InP-based optoelectronics. Unfortunately, the large lattice-mismatch, 8.1%, between silicon and InP, has limited the success of heteroepitaxial growth. Hence, one alternative to be reviewed is InP-to-Si wafer bonding. When a direct semiconductor interface is not needed there are several other means of wafer bonding, e.g. adhesive, eutectic, and solid-state. These processes can be used for direct integration of small islets of epitaxially thin InP microelectronics onto other substrates, e.g. by transferring of InP-based epilayers to a Si-based microwave circuit by pick-and-place, BCB resist adhesive bonding and sacrificing of the InP substrate.

  8. Polymorphic one-dimensional (N2H4)2ZnTe: soluble precursors for the formation of hexagonal or cubic zinc telluride.

    PubMed

    Mitzi, David B

    2005-10-03

    Two hydrazine zinc(II) telluride polymorphs, (N2H4)2ZnTe, have been isolated, using ambient-temperature solution-based techniques, and the crystal structures determined: alpha-(N2H4)2ZnTe (1) [P21, a = 7.2157(4) Angstroms, b = 11.5439(6) Angstroms, c = 7.3909(4) Angstroms, beta = 101.296(1) degrees, Z = 4] and beta-(N2H4)2ZnTe (2) [Pn, a = 8.1301(5) Angstroms, b = 6.9580(5) Angstroms, c = 10.7380(7) Angstroms, beta = 91.703(1) degrees, Z = 4]. The zinc atoms in 1 and 2 are tetrahedrally bonded to two terminal hydrazine molecules and two bridging tellurium atoms, leading to the formation of extended one-dimensional (1-D) zinc telluride chains, with different chain conformations and packings distinguishing the two polymorphs. Thermal decomposition of (N2H4)2ZnTe first yields crystalline wurtzite (hexagonal) ZnTe at temperatures as low as 200 degrees C, followed by the more stable zinc blende (cubic) form at temperatures above 350 degrees C. The 1-D polymorphs are soluble in hydrazine and can be used as convenient precursors for the low-temperature solution processing of p-type ZnTe semiconducting films.

  9. Microstructure and interface analysis of emerging Ga(Sb,Bi) epilayers and Ga(Sb,Bi)/GaSb quantum wells for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, E.; Delorme, O.; Cerutti, L.; Tournié, E.; Rodriguez, J.-B.; Trampert, A.

    2018-04-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy, we present an in-depth microstructural analysis of a series of Ga(Sb,Bi) epilayers and Ga(Sb,Bi)/GaSb quantum wells grown on GaSb(001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Despite the dilute bismide compound Ga(Sb,Bi) is regarded as a highly-mismatched alloy, we find that the material is of remarkable structural perfection, even up to 11%-14% Bi, the maximum Bi concentration incorporated into GaSb so far. No extended defects, nanoclusters, or composition modulations are detectable in the pseudomorphic layers. In addition, the quantum wells exhibit regular and homogeneous morphologies including smooth and stable interfaces with a chemical width on the same order as in other high-quality III-V heterointerfaces. These results may give reasons for the recent successful realization of mid-infrared lasers with room temperature operation based on the very same quantum well structures.

  10. Influences of ultrathin amorphous buffer layers on GaAs/Si grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haiyang; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Zhuo; Yang, Zeyuan; Yin, Haiying; Fan, Yibing; Ma, Xing; Huang, Yongqing; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a technique for the growth of GaAs epilayers on Si, combining an ultrathin amorphous Si buffer layer and a three-step growth method, has been developed to achieve high crystalline quality for monolithic integration. The influences of the combined technique for the crystalline quality of GaAs on Si are researched in this article. The crystalline quality of GaAs epilayer on Si with the combined technique is investigated by scanning electron microscopy, double crystal X-ray diffraction (DCXRD), photoluminescence, and transmission electron microscopy measurements. By means of this technique, a 1.8-µm-thick high-quality GaAs/Si epilayer was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The full-width at half-maximum of the DCXRD rocking curve in the (400) reflection obtained from the GaAs/Si epilayers is about 163 arcsec. Compared with only using three-step growth method, the current technique reduces etch pit density from 3 × 106 cm-2 to 1.5 × 105 cm-2. The results demonstrate that the combined technique is an effective approach for reducing dislocation density in GaAs epilayers on Si.

  11. Design of a multistep phase mask for high-energy THz pulse generation in ZnTe crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetisyan, Yuri H.; Makaryan, Armen; Tadevosyan, Vahe

    2017-08-01

    A new scheme for generating high-energy terahertz (THz) pulses by optical rectification of tilted pulse front (TPF) femtosecond laser pulses in ZnTe crystal is proposed and analyzed. The TPF laser pulses are originated due to propagation through a multistep phase mask (MSPM) attached to the entrance surface of the nonlinear crystal. Similar to the case of contacting optical grating the necessity of the imaging optics is avoided. In addition, introduction of large amounts of angular dispersion is also eliminated. The operation principle is based on the fact that the MSPM splits a single input beam into many smaller time-delayed "beamlets", which together form a discretely TPF in the nonlinear crystal. The dimensions of the mask's steps required for high-energy THz-pulse generation in ZnTe and widely used lithium niobate (LN) crystals are calculated. The optimal number of steps is estimated taking into account individual beamlet's spatial broadening and problems related to the mask fabrication. The THz field in no pump depletion approximation is analytically calculated using radiating antenna model. The analysis shows that application of ZnTe crystal allows obtaining higher THz-pulse energy than that of LN crystal, especially when long-wavelength pump sources are used. The proposed method is a promising way to develop high-energy, monolithic, and alignment-free THzpulse source.

  12. The transport phenomena during the growth of ZnTe crystal by the temperature gradient solution growth technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Liying; Jie, Wanqi; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Boru; Yang, Fan

    2017-03-01

    A numerical model is developed to simulate the temperature field, the thermosolutal convection, the solute segregation and the growth interface morphology during the growth of ZnTe crystal from Te rich solution by the temperature gradient solution growth (TGSG) technique. Effects of the temperature gradient on the transport phenomena, the growth interface morphology and the growth rate are examined. The influences of the latent heat and the thermal conductivity of ZnTe crystal on the transport phenomena and the growth interface are also discussed. We find that the mass transfer of ZnTe in the solution is very slow because of the low diffusion coefficient and the lack of mixing in the lower part of the solution. During the growth, dilute solution with high density and low growth temperature accumulates in the central region of the growth interface, making the growth interface change into two distinct parts. The inner part is very concave, while the outer part is relatively flat. Growth conditions in front of the two parts of the growth interface are different. The crystalline quality of the inner part of the ingot is predicted to be worse than that of the outer part. High temperature gradient can significantly increase the growth rate, and avoid the diffusion controlled growth to some extent.

  13. Optical properties and band alignments in ZnTe nanoparticles/MoS2 layer hetero-interface using SE and KPFM studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Intu; Mehta, B. R.

    2017-11-01

    Integration of a layered two-dimensional (2D) material with a non-2D material provides a platform where one can modulate and achieve the properties desired for various next-generation electronic and opto-electronic applications. Here, we investigated ZnTe nanoparticles/MoS2 hetero-interfaces with the thickness of the MoS2 varying from few to multilayer. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the crystalline behaviour of the ZnTe nanoparticles, while the number of MoS2 layers was investigated using Raman measurements. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) analysis based on the five-layer fitting model was used to analyse the optical behaviour of the heterojunction, where the excitonic features corresponding to the MoS2 layers and absorption features due to the ZnTe nanoparticles are observed. From the Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements, the surface potential (SP) of the ZnTe nanoparticles/MoS2 is found to be different in comparison with the SP of the ZnTe nanoparticles and MoS2, which is indicative of the charge transfer at the ZnTe nanoparticles/MoS2 hetero-interface. Various parameters obtained using SE and KPFM measurements were used to propose energy band alignments at the ZnTe nanoparticles/MoS2 hetero-interface. In addition, an interface photovoltage of 193 mV was obtained by carrying out KPFM measurements under illuminating condition.

  14. Correlation of EBIC and SWBXT Imaged Defects and Epilayer Growth Pits in 6H-SiC Schottky Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnable, C. M.; Tabib-Azar, M.; Neudeck, P. G.; Bailey, S. G.; Su, H. B.; Dudley, M.; Raffaelle, R. P.

    2000-01-01

    We show the first direct experimental correlation between the presence of closed core screw dislocations in 6H-SiC epilayers with recombination centers, as well as with some of the small growth pits on the epilayer surface in lightly-doped 6H-SiC Schottky diodes. At every Synchrotron White-Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXT)-identified closed core screw dislocation, an Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) image showed a dark spot indicating a recombination center, and Nomarski optical microscope and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) images showed a corresponding small growth pit with a sharp apex on the surface of the epilayer.

  15. Carbon acceptor incorporation in GaAs grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition: Arsine versus tertiarybutylarsine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, S. P.; Haacke, G.

    1991-10-01

    Undoped p-type GaAs epilayers were grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at 650 °C and 76 Torr using either arsine or tertiarybutylarsine (TBA), and trimethylgallium (TMG). Extremely high-purity precursors were used in order to eliminate extrinsic doping effects. Carbon acceptors from the TMG were the dominant residual electrical impurities under all growth conditions. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements were used to make a quantitative comparison of the carbon acceptor concentrations for arsine- and TBA-grown epilayers over a range of As partial pressures. For a given group V partial pressure, we report a significant reduction in carbon acceptor incorporation using TBA compared with arsine under identical growth conditions.

  16. Depth-resolved ultra-violet spectroscopic photo current-voltage measurements for the analysis of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor epilayer deposited on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozden, Burcu; Yang, Chungman; Tong, Fei; Khanal, Min P.; Mirkhani, Vahid; Sk, Mobbassar Hassan; Ahyi, Ayayi Claude; Park, Minseo

    2014-10-01

    We have demonstrated that the depth-dependent defect distribution of the deep level traps in the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) epi-structures can be analyzed by using the depth-resolved ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopic photo current-voltage (IV) (DR-UV-SPIV). It is of great importance to analyze deep level defects in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure, since it is recognized that deep level defects are the main source for causing current collapse phenomena leading to reduced device reliability. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-layers were grown on a 6 in. Si wafer by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The DR-UV-SPIV measurement was performed using a monochromatized UV light illumination from a Xe lamp. The key strength of the DR-UV-SPIV is its ability to provide information on the depth-dependent electrically active defect distribution along the epi-layer growth direction. The DR-UV-SPIV data showed variations in the depth-dependent defect distribution across the wafer. As a result, rapid feedback on the depth-dependent electrical homogeneity of the electrically active defect distribution in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT epi-structure grown on a Si wafer with minimal sample preparation can be elucidated from the DR-UV-SPIV in combination with our previously demonstrated spectroscopic photo-IV measurement with the sub-bandgap excitation.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations on the local order of liquid and amorphous ZnTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rino, José Pedro; Borges, Denilson; Mota, Rita C.; Silva, Maurício A. P.

    2008-05-01

    Molecular dynamics studies of structural and dynamical correlations of molten and vitreous states under several conditions of density and temperature were performed. We use an effective recently proposed interatomic potential, consisting of two- and three-body covalent interactions which has successfully described the structural, dynamical, and structural phase transformation induced by pressure in ZnTe [D. S. Borges and J. P. Rino, Phys. Rev. B 72, 014107 (2005)]. The two-body term of the interaction potential consists of Coulomb interaction resulting from charge transfer, steric repulsion due to atomic sizes, charge-dipole interaction to include the effect of electronic polarizability of anions, and dipole-dipole (van der Waals) interactions. The three-body covalent term is a modification of the Stillinger-Weber potential. Molecular dynamics simulations in isobaric-isenthalpic ensemble have been performed for systems amounting to 4096 and 64 000 particles. Starting from a crystalline zinc-blende (ZB) structure, the system is initially heated until a very homogeneous liquid is obtained. The vitreous zinc telluride phase is attained by cooling the liquid at sufficiently fast cooling rates, while slower cooling rates lead to a disordered ZB crystalline structure. Two- and three-body correlations for the liquid and vitreous phases are analyzed through pair distribution functions, static structure factors, and bond angle distributions. In particular, the neutron static structure factor for the liquid phase is in very good agreement with both the reported experimental data and first-principles simulations.

  18. Phonon Drag in Thin Films, Cases of Bi2Te3 and ZnTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Hang; Uher, Ctirad

    2014-03-01

    At low temperatures, in (semi-)conductors subjected to a thermal gradient, charge carriers (electrons and holes) are swept (dragged) by out-of-equilibrium phonons due to strong electron-phonon interaction, giving rise to a large contribution to the Seebeck coefficient called the phonon-drag effect. Such phenomenon was surprisingly observed in our recent transport study of highly mismatched alloys as potential thermoelectric materials: a significant phonon-drag thermopower reaching 1.5-2.5 mV/K was recorded for the first time in nitrogen-doped ZnTe epitaxial layers on GaAs (100). In thin films of Bi2Te3, we demonstrate a spectacular influence of substrate phonons on charge carriers. We show that one can control and tune the position and magnitude of the phonon-drag peak over a wide range of temperatures by depositing thin films on substrates with vastly different Debye temperatures. Our experiments also provide a way to study the nature of the phonon spectrum in thin films, which is rarely probed but clearly important for a complete understanding of thin film properties and the interplay of the substrate and films. This work is supported by the Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0000957.

  19. The origins of near band-edge transitions in hexagonal boron nitride epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Du, X. Z.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been employed to probe the near band-edge transitions in hexagonal BN (h-BN) epilayers synthesized under varying ammonia flow rates. The results suggest that the quasi-donor-acceptor pair emission line at 5.3 eV is due to the transition between the nitrogen vacancy and a deep acceptor, whereas the 5.5 eV emission line is due to the recombination of an exciton bound to a deep acceptor formed by carbon impurity occupying the nitrogen site. By growing h-BN under high ammonia flow rates, nitrogen vacancy related peaks can be eliminated and epilayers exhibiting pure free exciton emission have been obtained.

  20. Defect-induced magnetism in cobalt-doped ZnO epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciatto, G.; Di Trolio, A.; Fonda, E.; Alippi, P.; Polimeni, A.; Capizzi, M.; Varvaro, G.; Bonapasta, A. Amore

    2014-02-01

    We used a synergic Co-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density functional theory calculations approach to perform a study of defects which could account for the room temperature ferromagnetism of ZnCoO, an oxide of great potential interest in semiconductor spintronics. Our results suggest that a key role is played by specific defect complexes in which O vacancies are located close to the Co atoms. Extended defects such as Co clusters have a marginal function, although we observe their formation at the epilayer surface under certain growth conditions. We also show preliminary results of the study of hydrogen-induced defects in ZnCoO epilayers deliberately hydrogen irradiated via a Kaufman source. Hydrogen was in fact predicted to mediate a ferromagnetic spin-spin interaction between neighboring magnetic impurities.

  1. Isoelectronic bound-exciton photoluminescence in strained beryllium-doped Si0.92Ge0.08 epilayers and Si0.92Ge0.08/Si superlattices at ambient and elevated hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangsig; Chang, Ganlin; Herman, Irving P.; Bevk, Joze; Moore, Karen L.; Hall, Dennis G.

    1997-03-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) from a beryllium-doped Si0.92Ge0.08 epilayer and three different beryllium-doped Si0.92Ge0.08/Si superlattices (SL's) commensurately grown on Si(100) substrates is examined at 9 K at ambient pressure and, for the epilayer and one SL, as a function of hydrostatic pressure. In each structure, excitons bind to the isoelectronic Be pairs in the strained Si0.92Ge0.08 layers. The zero-phonon PL peaks of the epilayer and the in situ doped 50-Å Si0.92Ge0.08/100-Å Si SL shift linearly with pressure toward lower energy at the rate of 0.68+/-0.03 and 0.97+/-0.03 meV/kbar, respectively, which are near the 0.77-meV/kbar value for Si:Be. The PL energies at ambient and elevated pressure are analyzed by accounting for strain, quantum confinement, and exciton binding. A modified Hopfield-Thomas-Lynch model is used to model exciton binding to the Be pairs. This model, in which potential wells bind electrons to a site (that then trap holes), predicts a distribution of electron binding energies when an inhomogeneous distribution of potential-well depths is used. This accounts for the large PL linewidth and the decrease of linewidth with increasing pressure, among other observations. In SL's, the exciton binding energy is shown to depend on the width of the wells as well as the spatial distribution of Be dopants in the superlattice. Also, at and above 58 kbar a very unusual peak is observed in one of the SL's, which is associated with a free-exciton peak in Si, that shifts very fast with pressure (-6.02+/-0.03 meV/kbar).

  2. Study of extending carrier lifetime in ZnTe quantum dots coupled with ZnCdSe quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W. C.; Chou, W. C.; Lee, J. D.; Lee, Ling; Phu, Nguyen Dang; Hoang, Luc Huy

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrated the growth of a self-assembled type-II ZnTe/ZnSe quantum dot (QD) structure coupled with a type-I Zn0.88Cd0.12Se/ZnSe quantum well (QW) on the (001) GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). As the spacer thickness is less than 2 nm, the carrier lifetime increasing from 20 ns to nearly 200 ns was successfully achieved. By utilizing the time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and PL with different excitation power, we identify the PL emission from the coupled QDs consisting of two recombination mechanisms. One is the recombination between electrons in ZnSe barrier and holes confined within ZnTe QDs, and the other is between electrons confined in Zn0.88Cd0.12Se QW and holes confined within ZnTe QDs. According to the band diagram and power-dependent PL, both of the two recombinations reveal the type-II transition. In addition, the second recombination mechanism dominates the whole carrier recombination as the spacer thickness is less than 2 nm. A significant extension of carrier lifetime by increasing the electron and hole separation is illustrated in a type-II ZnTe/ZnSe QD structure coupling with a type-I ZnCdSe/ZnSe QW. Current sample structure could be used to increase the quantum efficient of solar cell based on the II-VI compound semiconductors.

  3. Mg concentration profile and its control in the low temperature grown Mg-doped GaN epilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. T.; Yang, J.; Zhao, D. G.; Jiang, D. S.; Liang, F.; Chen, P.; Zhu, J. J.; Liu, Z. S.; Liu, W.; Xing, Y.; Zhang, L. Q.; Wang, W. J.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y. T.; Du, G. T.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the Cp2Mg flux and growth pressure influence to Mg doping concentration and depth profiles is studied. From the SIMS measurement we found that a transition layer exists at the bottom region of the layer in which the Mg doping concentration changes gradually. The thickness of transition layer decreases with the increases of Mg doping concentration. Through analysis, we found that this is caused by Ga memory effect which the Ga atoms stay residual in MOCVD system will react with Mg source, leading a transition layer formation and improve the growth rate. And the Ga memory effect can be well suppressed by increasing Mg doping concentration and growth pressure and thus get a steep Mg doping at the bottom region of p type layer.

  4. Optimization of hetero-epitaxial growth for the threading dislocation density reduction of germanium epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Haining; Wang, Zhewei; Chen, Chaonan; Xu, Zemin; Wu, Ke; Wu, Lan; Xu, Bo; Ye, Hui

    2018-04-01

    In order to suppress dislocation generation, we develop a "three-step growth" method to heteroepitaxy low dislocation density germanium (Ge) layers on silicon with the MBE process. The method is composed of 3 growth steps: low temperature (LT) seed layer, LT-HT intermediate layer as well as high temperature (HT) epilayer, successively. Threading dislocation density (TDD) of epitaxial Ge layers is measured as low as 1.4 × 106 cm-2 by optimizing the growth parameters. The results of Raman spectrum showed that the internal strain of heteroepitaxial Ge layers is tensile and homogeneous. During the growth of LT-HT intermediate layer, TDD reduction can be obtained by lowering the temperature ramping rate, and high rate deposition maintains smooth surface morphology in Ge epilayer. A mechanism based on thermodynamics is used to explain the TDD and surface morphological dependence on temperature ramping rate and deposition rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Ge layer obtained can provide an excellent platform for III-V materials integrated on Si.

  5. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of PbSe on Si (211) using a ZnTe buffer layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X. J.; Chang, Y.; Hou, Y. B.

    2011-09-15

    The authors report the results of successful growth of single crystalline PbSe on Si (211) substrates with ZnTe as a buffer layer by molecular beam epitaxy. Single crystalline PbSe with (511) orientation was achieved on ZnTe/Si (211), as evidenced by RHEED patterns indicative of 2 dimensional (2D) growth, x ray diffraction rocking curves with a full width at half maximum as low as 153 arc sec and mobility as large as 1.1x10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1} at 77 K. Cross hatch patterns were found on the PbSe(511) surface in Nomarski filtered microscope images suggesting the presence of a surface thermalmore » strain relaxation mechanism, which was confirmed by Fourier transformed high resolution transmission electron microscope images.« less

  6. Coexistence of optically active radial and axial CdTe insertions in single ZnTe nanowire.

    PubMed

    Wojnar, P; Płachta, J; Zaleszczyk, W; Kret, S; Sanchez, Ana M; Rudniewski, R; Raczkowska, K; Szymura, M; Karczewski, G; Baczewski, L T; Pietruczik, A; Wojtowicz, T; Kossut, J

    2016-03-14

    We report on the growth, cathodoluminescence and micro-photoluminescence of individual radial and axial CdTe insertions in ZnTe nanowires. In particular, the cathodoluminescence technique is used to determine the position of each emitting object inside the nanowire. It is demonstrated that depending on the CdTe deposition temperature, one can obtain an emission either from axial CdTe insertions only, or from both, radial and axial heterostructures, simultaneously. At 350 °C CdTe grows only axially, whereas at 310 °C and 290 °C, there is also significant deposition on the nanowire sidewalls resulting in radial core/shell heterostructures. The presence of Cd atoms on the sidewalls is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Micro-photoluminescence study reveals a strong linear polarization of the emission from both types of heterostructures in the direction along the nanowire axis.

  7. Experimental study of THz electro-optical sampling crystals ZnSe, ZnTe and GaP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukova, M.; Makarov, E.; Putilin, S.; Tsypkin, A.; Chegnov, V.; Chegnova, O.; Bespalov, V.

    2017-11-01

    The application of optoelectronic techniques to the generation and detection of THz radiation is now well established. Wide gap semiconductor crystals of groups II-VI, III-V and III-VI are abundantly used. However, some limitations are occurred while using powerful laser systems. In this paper we introduce experimental results of two-photon absorption (2PA) in ZnSe, ZnTe and GaP studied with femtosecond pump-probe supercontinuum spectroscopy. Using of supercontinuum helps us to measure 2PA absorption dynamics and nonlinear index of refraction in wide frequency ranges. Besides influence of Fe concentration in ZnSe:Fe crystals on transmitted THz radiation is described.

  8. Quantitative strain and compositional studies of InxGa1-xAs Epilayer in a GaAs-based pHEMT device structure by TEM techniques.

    PubMed

    Sridhara Rao, Duggi V; Sankarasubramanian, Ramachandran; Muraleedharan, Kuttanellore; Mehrtens, Thorsten; Rosenauer, Andreas; Banerjee, Dipankar

    2014-08-01

    In GaAs-based pseudomorphic high-electron mobility transistor device structures, strain and composition of the In x Ga1-x As channel layer are very important as they influence the electronic properties of these devices. In this context, transmission electron microscopy techniques such as (002) dark-field imaging, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging, scanning transmission electron microscopy-high angle annular dark field (STEM-HAADF) imaging and selected area diffraction, are useful. A quantitative comparative study using these techniques is relevant for assessing the merits and limitations of the respective techniques. In this article, we have investigated strain and composition of the In x Ga1-x As layer with the mentioned techniques and compared the results. The HRTEM images were investigated with strain state analysis. The indium content in this layer was quantified by HAADF imaging and correlated with STEM simulations. The studies showed that the In x Ga1-x As channel layer was pseudomorphically grown leading to tetragonal strain along the [001] growth direction and that the average indium content (x) in the epilayer is ~0.12. We found consistency in the results obtained using various methods of analysis.

  9. Ultralow threading dislocation density in GaN epilayer on near-strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer and its applications in hetero-epitaxial LEDs

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Ko, Chung-Ting; Yang, Jer-Ren; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-01-01

    High threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN-based devices is a long unresolved problem because of the large lattice mismatch between GaN and the substrate, which causes a major obstacle for the further improvement of next-generation high-efficiency solid-state lighting and high-power electronics. Here, we report InGaN/GaN LEDs with ultralow TD density and improved efficiency on a sapphire substrate, on which a near strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer was grown by remote plasma atomic layer deposition. This “compliant” buffer layer is capable of relaxing strain due to the absorption of misfit dislocations in a region within ~10 nm from the interface, leading to a high-quality overlying GaN epilayer with an unusual TD density as low as 2.2 × 105 cm−2. In addition, this GaN compliant buffer layer exhibits excellent uniformity up to a 6” wafer, revealing a promising means to realize large-area GaN hetero-epitaxy for efficient LEDs and high-power transistors. PMID:26329829

  10. Ultralow threading dislocation density in GaN epilayer on near-strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer and its applications in hetero-epitaxial LEDs.

    PubMed

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Ko, Chung-Ting; Yang, Jer-Ren; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-09-02

    High threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN-based devices is a long unresolved problem because of the large lattice mismatch between GaN and the substrate, which causes a major obstacle for the further improvement of next-generation high-efficiency solid-state lighting and high-power electronics. Here, we report InGaN/GaN LEDs with ultralow TD density and improved efficiency on a sapphire substrate, on which a near strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer was grown by remote plasma atomic layer deposition. This "compliant" buffer layer is capable of relaxing strain due to the absorption of misfit dislocations in a region within ~10 nm from the interface, leading to a high-quality overlying GaN epilayer with an unusual TD density as low as 2.2 × 10(5) cm(-2). In addition, this GaN compliant buffer layer exhibits excellent uniformity up to a 6" wafer, revealing a promising means to realize large-area GaN hetero-epitaxy for efficient LEDs and high-power transistors.

  11. Elimination of carbon vacancies in 4H-SiC epi-layers by near-surface ion implantation: Influence of the ion species

    SciTech Connect

    Ayedh, H. M.; Svensson, B. G.; Hallén, A.

    The carbon vacancy (V{sub C}) is a prevailing point defect in high-purity 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, and it plays a decisive role in controlling the charge carrier lifetime. One concept of reducing the V{sub C}-concentration is based on carbon self-ion implantation in a near surface layer followed by thermal annealing. This leads to injection of carbon interstitials (C{sub i}'s) and annihilation of V{sub C}'s in the epi-layer “bulk”. Here, we show that the excess of C atoms introduced by the self-ion implantation plays a negligible role in the V{sub C} annihilation. Actually, employing normalized implantation conditions with respect to displaced Cmore » atoms, other heavier ions like Al and Si are found to be more efficient in annihilating V{sub C}'s. Concentrations of V{sub C} below ∼2 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} can be reached already after annealing at 1400 °C, as monitored by deep-level transient spectroscopy. This corresponds to a reduction in the V{sub C}-concentration by about a factor of 40 relative to the as-grown state of the epi-layers studied. The negligible role of the implanted species itself can be understood from simulation results showing that the concentration of displaced C atoms exceeds the concentration of implanted species by two to three orders of magnitude. The higher efficiency for Al and Si ions is attributed to the generation of collision cascades with a sufficiently high energy density to promote C{sub i}-clustering and reduce dynamic defect annealing. These C{sub i}-related clusters will subsequently dissolve during the post-implant annealing giving rise to enhanced C{sub i} injection. However, at annealing temperatures above 1500 °C, thermodynamic equilibrium conditions start to apply for the V{sub C}-concentration, which limit the net effect of the C{sub i} injection, and a competition between the two processes occurs.« less

  12. Very thin, high Ge content Si 0.3Ge 0.7 relaxed buffer grown by MBE on SOI(0 0 1) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myronov, M.; Shiraki, Y.

    2007-04-01

    Growth procedure and excellent properties of very thin 240 nm thick, 95% relaxed, high Ge content Si 0.3Ge 0.7 buffer grown on SOI(0 0 1) substrate are demonstrated. All epilayers of the newly developed Si 0.3Ge 0.7/SOI(0 0 1) variable-temperature virtual substrate were grown in a single process by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. Surface analysis of grown samples revealed smooth, cross-hatch free surface with low root mean square surface roughness of 0.9 nm and low threading dislocations density of 5×10 4 cm -2.

  13. Defect characterization of MOCVD grown AlN/AlGaN films on sapphire substrates by TEM and TKD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, J. H.; Lee, M. E.; Westraadt, J.; Engelbrecht, J. A. A.

    2018-04-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to characterize defects structures in AlN/AlGaN epilayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire (Al2O3) substrates. The AlN buffer layer was shown to be epitaxially grown on the sapphire substrate with the two lattices rotated relatively through 30°. The AlN layer had a measured thickness of 20-30 nm and was also shown to contain nano-sized voids. The misfit dislocations in the buffer layer have been shown to be pure edge with a spacing of 1.5 nm. TEM characterization of the AlGaN epilayers was shown to contain a higher than expected threading dislocation density of the order 1010 cm-2 as well as the existence of "nanopipes". TEM analysis of the planar lamella for AlGaN has presented evidence for the possibility of columnar growth. The strain and misorientation mapping in the AlGaN epilayer by transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) using the FIB lamella has also been demonstrated to be complimentary to data obtained by TEM imaging.

  14. Controlling the optical properties of monocrystalline 3C-SiC heteroepitaxially grown on silicon at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Gerard; Myronov, Maksym

    2017-11-01

    Cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) offers an alternative wide bandgap semiconductor to conventional materials such as hexagonal silicon carbide (4H-SiC) or gallium nitride (GaN) for the detection of UV light and can offer a closely lattice matched virtual substrate for subsequent GaN heteroepitaxy. As 3C-SiC can be heteroepitaxially grown on silicon (Si) substrates its optical properties can be manipulated by controlling the thickness and doping concentrations. The optical properties of 3C-SiC epilayers have been characterized by measuring the transmission of light through suspended membranes. Decreasing the thickness of the 3C-SiC epilayers is shown to shift the absorbance edge to lower wavelengths, a result of the indirect bandgap nature of silicon carbide. This property, among others, can be exploited to fabricate very low-cost, tuneable 3C-SiC based UV photodetectors. This study investigates the effect of thickness and doping concentration on the optical properties of 3C-SiC epilayers grown at low temperatures by a standard Si based growth process. The results demonstrate the potential photonic applications of 3C-SiC and its heterogeneous integration into the Si industry.

  15. Optical properties of InGaN grown by MOCVD on sapphire and on bulk GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, Marek; Eliseev, Petr G.; Lee, Jinhyun; Smagley, Vladimir A.; Sugahara, Tamoya; Sakai, Shiro

    1999-11-01

    Experimental data on photoluminescence of various bulk and quantum-well epitaxial InGaN/GaN structures grown by MOCVD are interpreted in terms of a band-tail model of inhomogeneously broadened radiative recombination. The anomalous temperature-induced blue spectral is shown to result from band-tail recombination under non-degenerate conditions. Significant differences are observed between epilayers grown on sapphire substrates and on GaN substrates prepared by the sublimination method, with no apparent evidence of band tails in homoepitaxial structures, indicating their higher crystalline quality.

  16. Growth and device processing of hexagonal boron nitride epilayers for thermal neutron and deep ultraviolet detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Doan, T. C.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.

    2016-07-15

    Solid-state neutron detectors with high performance are highly sought after for the detection of fissile materials. However, direct-conversion neutron detectors based on semiconductors with a measureable efficiency have not been realized. We report here the first successful demonstration of a direct-conversion semiconductor neutron detector with an overall detection efficiency for thermal neutrons of 4% and a charge collection efficiency as high as 83%. The detector is based on a 2.7 μm thick {sup 10}B-enriched hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) epitaxial layer. The results represent a significant step towards the realization of practical neutron detectors based on h-BN epilayers. Neutron detectors basedmore » on h-BN are expected to possess all the advantages of semiconductor devices including wafer-scale processing, compact size, light weight, and ability to integrate with other functional devices.« less

  17. Annealing studies of heteroepitaxial InSbN on GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy for long-wavelength infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Nimai C.; Bharatan, Sudhakar; Li Jia

    2012-10-15

    We report the effect of annealing on the structural, vibrational, electrical, and optical properties of heteropepitaxially grown InSbN epilayers on GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy for long-wavelength infrared detector applications. As-grown epilayers exhibited high N incorporation in the both substitutional and interstitial sites, with N induced defects as evidenced from high resolution x-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and room temperature (RT) micro-Raman studies. The as-grown optical band gap was observed at 0.132 eV ({approx}9.4 {mu}m) and the epilayer exhibited high background carrier concentration at {approx}10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} range with corresponding mobility of {approx}10{sup 3} cm{sup 2}/Vs. Exmore » situ and in situ annealing at 430 Degree-Sign C though led to the loss of N but improved InSb quality due to effective annihilation of N related defects and other lattice defects attested to enhanced InSb LO phonon modes in the corresponding Raman spectra. Further, annealing resulted in the optical absorption edge red shifting to 0.12 eV ({approx}10.3 {mu}m) and the layers were characterized by reduced background carrier concentration in the {approx}10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} range with enhanced mobility in {approx}10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/Vs range.« less

  18. The effect of Ge precursor on the heteroepitaxy of Ge1-x Sn x epilayers on a Si (001) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahandar, Pedram; Weisshaupt, David; Colston, Gerard; Allred, Phil; Schulze, Jorg; Myronov, Maksym

    2018-03-01

    The heteroepitaxial growth of Ge1-x Sn x on a Si (001) substrate, via a relaxed Ge buffer, has been studied using two commonly available commercial Ge precursors, Germane (GeH4) and Digermane (Ge2H6), by means of chemical vapour deposition at reduced pressures (RP-CVD). Both precursors demonstrate growth of strained and relaxed Ge1-x Sn x epilayers, however Sn incorporation is significantly higher when using the more reactive Ge2H6 precursor. As Ge2H6 is significantly more expensive, difficult to handle or store than GeH4, developing high Sn content epilayers using the latter precursor is of great interest. This study demonstrates the key differences between the two precursors and offers routes to process optimisation which will enable high Sn content alloys at relatively low cost.

  19. Current-induced spin polarization in InGaAs and GaAs epilayers with varying doping densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luengo-Kovac, M.; Huang, S.; Del Gaudio, D.; Occena, J.; Goldman, R. S.; Raimondi, R.; Sih, V.

    2017-11-01

    The current-induced spin polarization and momentum-dependent spin-orbit field were measured in InxGa1 -xAs epilayers with varying indium concentrations and silicon doping densities. Samples with higher indium concentrations and carrier concentrations and lower mobilities were found to have larger electrical spin generation efficiencies. Furthermore, current-induced spin polarization was detected in GaAs epilayers despite the absence of measurable spin-orbit fields, indicating that the extrinsic contributions to the spin-polarization mechanism must be considered. Theoretical calculations based on a model that includes extrinsic contributions to the spin dephasing and the spin Hall effect, in addition to the intrinsic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling, are found to reproduce the experimental finding that the crystal direction with the smaller net spin-orbit field has larger electrical spin generation efficiency and are used to predict how sample parameters affect the magnitude of the current-induced spin polarization.

  20. Engineering of InN epilayers by repeated deposition of ultrathin layers in pulsed MOCVD growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickevičius, J.; Dobrovolskas, D.; Steponavičius, T.; Malinauskas, T.; Kolenda, M.; Kadys, A.; Tamulaitis, G.

    2018-01-01

    Capabilities of repeated deposition of ultrathin layers by pulsed metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for improvement of structural and luminescence properties of InN thin films on GaN/sapphire templates were studied by varying the growth temperature and the durations of pulse and pause in the delivery of In precursor. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were exploited to characterize the structural quality, surface morphology and luminescence properties. Better structural quality is achieved by using longer trimethylindium pulses. However, it is shown that the luminescence properties of InN epilayers correlate with the pause and pulse ratio rather than with their absolute lengths, and the deposition of 1.5-2 monolayers of InN during one growth cycle is optimal to achieve the highest PL intensity. Moreover, the use of temperature ramping enabled achieving the highest PL intensity and the smallest blue shift of the PL band. The luminescence parameters are linked with the structural properties, and domain-like patterns of InN layers are revealed.

  1. Fluorescence properties of alloyed ZnSeS quantum dots overcoated with ZnTe and ZnTe/ZnS shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, Oluwasesan; Mashazi, Philani; Nyokong, Tebello; Forbes, Patricia B. C.

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescent alloyed ternary ZnSeS quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized via the pyrolysis of organometallic precursors. The effects of passivation of ZnTe and ZnTe/ZnS shells on the optical properties of the ternary alloyed ZnSeS core have been studied. A ligand exchange reaction using L-cysteine as a capping ligand was used to obtain water-soluble nanocrystals. The nanocrystals were each characterized by UV/vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of alloyed ZnSeS QDs was 14% and this value increased to 27% when ZnTe was overcoated around the surface but further coating with a ZnS shell decreased the PL QY slightly to 24%. This implies that ZnTe shell suppressed non-radiative recombination exciton states in the alloyed core while further layering with a ZnS shell offered no further improvement in suppressing the defect states. XPS analysis confirmed the presence of the first shell layering but showed a weakened intensity signal of S (2p) and Se (3d) for the ZnSeS/ZnTe/ZnS QDs. Our work demonstrates for the first time that shell passivation of alloyed Zn-based QDs can offer improved optical properties. We hope the optical information presented in this work will be useful in the selection of alloyed Zn-based QDs appropriate for the intended application.

  2. Role of an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer on the strain engineering of GaN films grown on Si(110) and Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X. Q.; Takahashi, T.; Rong, X.; Chen, G.; Wang, X. Q.; Shen, B.; Matsuhata, H.; Ide, T.; Shimizu, M.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the role of an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer (SL-IL) on the strain engineering of the GaN films grown on Si(110) and Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that micro-cracks limitted only at the SL-IL position are naturally generated. These micro-cracks play an important role in relaxing the tensile strain caused by the difference of the coefficient of thermal expansion between GaN and Si and keeping the residual strain in the crack-free GaN epilayers resulted from the SL-IL during the growth. The mechanism understanding of the strain modulation by the SL-IL in the GaN epilayers grown on Si substrates makes it possible to design new heterostructures of III-nitrides for optic and electronic device applications.

  3. Current Status of the Quality of 4H-SiC Substrates and Epilayers for Power Device Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, M.; Wang, H.; Guo, Jianqiu

    ABSTRACT Interfacial dislocations (IDs) and half-loop arrays (HLAs) present in the epilayers of 4H-SiC crystal are known to have a deleterious effect on device performance. Synchrotron X-ray Topography studies carried out on n-type 4H-SiC offcut wafers before and after epitaxial growth show that in many cases BPD segments in the substrate are responsible for creating IDs and HLAs during CVD growth. This paper reviews the behaviors of BPDs in the substrate during the epitaxial growth in different cases: (1) screw-oriented BPD segments intersecting the surface replicate directly through the interface during the epitaxial growth and take part in stress relaxationmore » process by creating IDs and HLAs (Matthews-Blakeslee model [1] ); (2) non-screw oriented BPD half loop intersecting the surface glides towards and replicates through the interface, while the intersection points convert to threading edge dislocations (TEDs) and pin the half loop, leaving straight screw segments in the epilayer and then create IDs and HLAs; (3) edge oriented short BPD segments well below the surface get dragged towards the interface during epitaxial growth, leaving two long screw segments in their wake, some of which replicate through the interface and create IDs and HLAs. The driving force for the BPDs to glide toward the interface is thermal stress and driving force for the relaxation process to occur is the lattice parameter difference at growth temperature which results from the doping concentration difference between the substrate and epilayer.« less

  4. Space-charge behavior of 'Thin-MOS' diodes with MBE-grown silicon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, U.; Bean, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Basic theoretical and experimental characteristics of a novel 'Thin-MOS' technology, which has promising aspects for integrated high-frequency devices up to several hundred gigahertz are presented. The operation of such devices depends on charge injection into undoped silicon layers of about 1000-A thickness, grown by molecular beam epitaxy on heavily doped substrates, and isolation by thermally grown oxides of about 100-A thickness. Capacitance-voltage characteristics measured at high and low frequencies agree well with theoretical ones derived from uni and ambipolar space-charge models. It is concluded that after oxidation the residual doping in the epilayer is less than approximately 10 to the 16th/cu cm and rises by 3 orders of magnitude at the substrate interface within less than 100 A and that interface states at the oxide interface can be kept low.

  5. Current-induced spin polarization in InGaAs and GaAs epilayers with varying doping densities

    DOE PAGES

    Luengo-Kovac, Marta; Huang, Simon; Del Gaudio, Davide; ...

    2017-11-16

    Here, the current-induced spin polarization and momentum-dependent spin-orbit field were measured in In xGa 1-xAs epilayers with varying indium concentrations and silicon doping densities. Samples with higher indium concentrations and carrier concentrations and lower mobilities were found to have larger electrical spin generation efficiencies. Furthermore, current-induced spin polarization was detected in GaAs epilayers despite the absence of measurable spin-orbit fields, indicating that the extrinsic contributions to the spin-polarization mechanism must be considered. Theoretical calculations based on a model that includes extrinsic contributions to the spin dephasing and the spin Hall effect, in addition to the intrinsic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbitmore » coupling, are found to reproduce the experimental finding that the crystal direction with the smaller net spin-orbit field has larger electrical spin generation efficiency and are used to predict how sample parameters affect the magnitude of the current-induced spin polarization.« less

  6. Current-induced spin polarization in InGaAs and GaAs epilayers with varying doping densities

    SciTech Connect

    Luengo-Kovac, Marta; Huang, Simon; Del Gaudio, Davide

    Here, the current-induced spin polarization and momentum-dependent spin-orbit field were measured in In xGa 1-xAs epilayers with varying indium concentrations and silicon doping densities. Samples with higher indium concentrations and carrier concentrations and lower mobilities were found to have larger electrical spin generation efficiencies. Furthermore, current-induced spin polarization was detected in GaAs epilayers despite the absence of measurable spin-orbit fields, indicating that the extrinsic contributions to the spin-polarization mechanism must be considered. Theoretical calculations based on a model that includes extrinsic contributions to the spin dephasing and the spin Hall effect, in addition to the intrinsic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbitmore » coupling, are found to reproduce the experimental finding that the crystal direction with the smaller net spin-orbit field has larger electrical spin generation efficiency and are used to predict how sample parameters affect the magnitude of the current-induced spin polarization.« less

  7. Phosphorus doping of Si and Si1 - xGex grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition using Si2H6 and GeH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. P.; Huang, G. W.; Chang, C. Y.

    1996-03-01

    100 ppm PH3 diluted in hydrogen is used as the n-type dopant gas in Si and Si1-xGex epilayers grown by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD) using Si2H6 and GeH4. The phosphorus concentration in Si increases linearly at a small PH3 flow rate and becomes nearly saturated at higher flow rates, while the phosphorus concentration in Si1-xGex only shows a nearly linear behavior with PH3 flow rate. The growth rates of Si and Si1-xGex epilayers decrease seriously (˜50%) and slightly (˜10%) with the increase of PH3 flow rate, respectively. These results can be explained by a model based on the enhancement of hydrogen desorption rate at smaller PH3 flow rates and different levels of the effects of phosphorus blocking of surface-activated sites between Si and Si1-xGex epilayers at higher PH3 flow rates.

  8. Microstructure and Optical Properties of Nonpolar m-Plane GaN Films Grown on m-Plane Sapphire by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tongbo; Duan, Ruifei; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin; Huo, Ziqiang; Yang, Jiankun; Zeng, Yiping

    2008-05-01

    Thick nonpolar (1010) GaN layers were grown on m-plane sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) using magnetron sputtered ZnO buffers, while semipolar (1013) GaN layers were obtained by the conventional two-step growth method using the same substrate. The in-plane anisotropic structural characteristics and stress distribution of the epilayers were revealed by high resolution X-ray diffraction and polarized Raman scattering measurements. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed that the striated surface morphologies correlated with the basal plane stacking faults for both (1010) and (1013) GaN films. The m-plane GaN surface showed many triangular-shaped pits aligning uniformly with the tips pointing to the c-axis after etching in boiled KOH, whereas the oblique hillocks appeared on the semipolar epilayers. In addition, the dominant emission at 3.42 eV in m-plane GaN films displayed a red shift with respect to that in semipolar epilayers, maybe owing to the different strain states present in the two epitaxial layers.

  9. Electrical Characterization of Molecular Beam Epitaxy Grown Mercury-Cadmium Alloy Under Low Magnetic Field Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.

    HgCdTe alloy is currently the most important semiconductor material for IR detection technology. Different growth techniques are used to produce HgCdTe, but achieving a high-quality material is still a major objective in the field. Among the growth techniques for HgCdTe, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is one of the most promising, mainly because of its versatility. Furthermore, the growth by MBE is carried out at a low temperature which limits interdiffusion processes. The focus of this research is the understanding of the electrical properties of HgCdTe layers grown by MBE technique. Using a model based on a single discrete acceptor level near the valence band and a corresponding fully ionized donor level, a good fit to the observed Hall data on p-type epilayers was obtained. In some samples, another acceptor level was needed. Also, analysis of R _{h} data and low temperature mobilities indicated that the p-type MBE growth layers were highly compensated. This was also confirmed by mercury saturated annealing experiments. Annealing of (111)B epilayers with Hg pressure leads us to believe that Hg vacancies are responsible for the p-type character. The findings reveal that the electrical properties differ drastically between different growth orientations, with (111)B having the highest residual doping levels for a particular Cd composition. It is concluded that MBE growth for HgCdTe is essentially a Te rich growth and our understanding is that this extra Te is responsible for the n-type character in the epilayers. A comparison between HgCdTe twinned layers and twin-free layers has shown that electrically active acceptors and high hole mobilities are associated with the presence of twins. Incorporation of several foreign elements also tried and all were found to substitute the metal sites during growth. With magnetic field studies on R_ {h}, resistivity and conductivity tensor analysis, the band structure of the HgCdTe alloy is also investigated. Junction depth and the

  10. Raman and infrared spectroscopic investigations of a ferroelastic phase transition in B a2ZnTe O6 double perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Roberto L.; Lobo, Ricardo P. S. M.; Ramos, Sérgio L. L. M.; Sebastian, Mailadil T.; Matinaga, Franklin M.; Righi, Ariete; Dias, Anderson

    2018-05-01

    The low-temperature vibrational properties of B a2ZnTe O6 double-perovskite ceramics obtained by the solid-state route were investigated by Raman scattering and Fourier-transform infrared reflectivity. We found that this material undergoes a reversible ferroelastic phase transition at around 140 K, well compatible with a recently proposed rhombohedral-to-monoclinic structural change that would occur below 165 K. Complementary calorimetric measurements showed that the phase transition has a first-order character, with an entropy jump compatible with a displacive mechanism. The vibrational spectra show clearly the splitting of the doubly degenerate E modes into nondegenerate representations of the low-symmetry phase. In particular, the lowest-frequency Raman mode presents soft-mode behavior and splits below the critical temperature, confirming the in-plane ferroelastic deformation in the low-temperature phase.

  11. Isolating GaSb membranes grown metamorphically on GaAs substrates using highly selective substrate removal etch processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrova, Olga; Balakrishnan, Ganesh

    2017-02-24

    The etch rates of NH 4OH:H 2O 2 and C 6H 8O 7:H 2O 2 for GaAs and GaSb have been investigated to develop a selective etch for GaAs substrates and to isolate GaSb epilayers grown on GaAs. The NH 4OH:H 2O 2 solution has a greater etch rate differential for the GaSb/GaAs material system than C 6H 8O 7:H 2O 2 solution. The selectivity of NH 4OH:H 2O 2 for GaAs/GaSb under optimized etch conditions has been observed to be as high as 11471 ± 1691 whereas that of C 6H 8O 7:H 2O 2 has been measured upmore » to 143 ± 2. The etch contrast has been verified by isolating 2 μm thick GaSb epi-layers that were grown on GaAs substrates. GaSb membranes were tested and characterized with high-resolution X-Ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).« less

  12. Probing exciton density of states through phonon-assisted emission in GaN epilayers: A and B exciton contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavigli, Lucia; Gabrieli, Riccardo; Gurioli, Massimo; Bogani, Franco; Feltin, Eric; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas; Vinattieri, Anna

    2010-09-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of the phonon-assisted emission in a high-quality c -plane GaN epilayer is presented up to 200 K. By performing photoluminescence and reflectivity measurements, we find important etaloning effects in the phonon-replica spectra, which have to be corrected before addressing the lineshape analysis. Direct experimental evidence for free exciton thermalization is found for the whole temperature range investigated. A close comparison with existing models for phonon replicas originating from a thermalized free exciton distribution shows that the simplified and commonly adopted description of the exciton-phonon interaction with a single excitonic band leads to a large discrepancy with experimental data. Only the consideration of the complex nature of the excitonic band in GaN, including A and B exciton contributions, allows accounting for the temperature dependence of the peak energy, intensity, and lineshape of the phonon replicas.

  13. Depletion-mode vertical Ga2O3 trench MOSFETs fabricated using Ga2O3 homoepitaxial films grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Kohei; Thieu, Quang Tu; Wakimoto, Daiki; Koishikawa, Yuki; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu

    2017-12-01

    We developed depletion-mode vertical Ga2O3 trench metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors by using n+ contact and n- drift layers. These epilayers were grown on an n+ (001) Ga2O3 single-crystal substrate by halide vapor phase epitaxy. Cu and HfO2 were used for the gate metal and dielectric film, respectively. The mesa width and gate length were approximately 2 and 1 µm, respectively. The devices showed good DC characteristics, with a specific on-resistance of 3.7 mΩ cm2 and clear current modulation. An on-off ratio of approximately 103 was obtained.

  14. Deep ultraviolet photoluminescence studies of aluminum-rich aluminum gallium nitride and aluminum nitride epilayers and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepal, Neeraj

    Deep ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been employed to study optical properties of AlGaN alloys, undoped and doped AlN epilayers and nanostructure AlN photonics crystals (PCs). Using a deep UV laser system with an excitation wave length at 197 nm, continuous wave PL, temperature dependent, and time-resolved PL have been carried out on these AlGaN and AlN epilayers and nanostructures. We have measured the compositional and temperature dependence of the energy bandgap of AlxGa1-xN alloys covering the entire alloy range of x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and fitted with the Varshni equation. Varshni coefficients, alpha and beta, in AlGaN alloys have a parabolic dependence with alloy concentration x. Based on the experimental data, an empirical relation was thus obtained for the energy gap of AlGaN alloys for the entire alloy concentration and at any temperature below 800 K. The exciton localization energy in AlxGa1-xN alloys the entire composition range (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) has been measured by fitting the band edge emission peak energy with the Varshni equation. Deviations of the excitonic emission peak energy from the Varshni equation at low temperatures provide directly the exciton localization energies, ELoc in AlGaN alloys. It was found that ELoc increases with x for x ≤ 0.7, and decreases with x for x ≥ 0.8. The relations between the exciton localization energy, the activation energy, and the emission linewidth have been established. It thus provides three different and independent methods to determine the exciton localization energies in AlGaN alloys. Impurity transitions in AlGaN alloys have also been investigated. Continuous wave (CW) PL spectra of Si and undoped AlGaN alloys reveals groups of impurity transitions that have been assigned to the recombination between shallow donors and an isolated triply charged cation-vacancy (VIII)3-, a doubly charged cation-vacancy-complex (VIII-complex)2- , and a singly charged cation-vacancy-complex (VIII

  15. Fabrication and characterization of AlN metal-insulator-semiconductor grown Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahyuddin, A.; Azrina, A.; Mohd Yusoff, M. Z.; Hassan, Z.

    2017-11-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the effect of inserting a single AlGaN interlayer between AlN epilayer and GaN/AlN heterostructures on Si (111) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is confirmed from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that the AlGaN interlayer has a remarkable effect on reducing the tensile stress and dislocation density in AlN top layer. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were conducted to study the electrical properties of AlN/GaN heterostructures. While deriving the findings through the calculation it is suggested that the AlGaN interlayer can significantly reduce the value of effective oxide charge density and total effective number of charges per unit area which are 1.37 × 10-6C/cm2 and 8.55 × 1012cm-2, respectively.

  16. High Temperature Annealing of MBE-grown Mg-doped GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, S.; Konczewicz, L.; Peyre, H.; Juillaguet, S.; Khalfioui, M. Al; Matta, S.; Leroux, M.; Damilano, B.; Brault, J.

    2017-06-01

    In this report, are shown the results of high temperature resistivity and Hall Effect studies of Mg-doped GaN epilayers. The samples studied were grown on (0001) (c-plane) sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy and 0.5 μm GaN:Mg layers have been achieved on low temperature buffers of GaN (30 nm) and AlN ( 150 nm). The experiments were carried out in the temperature range from 300 K up to 900 K. Up to about 870 K a typical thermally activated conduction process has been observed with the activation energy value EA = 215 meV. However, for higher temperatures, an annealing effect is observed in all the investigated samples. The increase of the free carrier concentration as a function of time leads to an irreversible decrease of sample resistivity of more than 60%.

  17. Large electron capture-cross-section of the major nonradiative recombination centers in Mg-doped GaN epilayers grown on a GaN substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichibu, S. F.; Shima, K.; Kojima, K.; Takashima, S.; Edo, M.; Ueno, K.; Ishibashi, S.; Uedono, A.

    2018-05-01

    Complementary time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation measurements were carried out at room temperature on Mg-doped p-type GaN homoepitaxial films for identifying the origin and estimating the electron capture-cross-section ( σ n ) of the major nonradiative recombination centers (NRCs). To eliminate any influence by threading dislocations, free-standing GaN substrates were used. In Mg-doped p-type GaN, defect complexes composed of a Ga-vacancy (VGa) and multiple N-vacancies (VNs), namely, VGa(VN)2 [or even VGa(VN)3], are identified as the major intrinsic NRCs. Different from the case of 4H-SiC, atomic structures of intrinsic NRCs in p-type and n-type GaN are different: VGaVN divacancies are the major NRCs in n-type GaN. The σ n value approximately the middle of 10-13 cm2 is obtained for VGa(VN)n, which is larger than the hole capture-cross-section (σp = 7 × 10-14 cm2) of VGaVN in n-type GaN. Combined with larger thermal velocity of an electron, minority carrier lifetime in Mg-doped GaN becomes much shorter than that of n-type GaN.

  18. Determination of carrier lifetime and diffusion length in Al-doped 4H-SiC epilayers by time-resolved optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaugaudas, Gediminas; Dargis, Donatas; Kwasnicki, Pawel; Arvinte, Roxana; Zielinski, Marcin; Jarašiūnas, Kęstutis

    2015-01-01

    A series of p-type 4H-SiC epilayers with aluminium concentration ranging from 2  ×  1016 to 8  ×  1019 cm-3 were investigated by time-resolved optical techniques in order to determine the effect of aluminium doping on high-injection carrier lifetime at room temperature and the diffusion coefficient at different injections (from ≈3  ×  1018 to ≈5  ×  1019 cm-3) and temperatures (from 78 to 730 K). We find that the defect limited carrier lifetime τSRH decreases from 20 ns in the low-doped samples down to ≈0.6 ns in the heavily doped epilayers. Accordingly, the ambipolar diffusion coefficient decreases from Da = 3.5 cm2 s-1 down to ≈0.6 cm2 s-1, corresponding to the hole mobility of µh = 70 cm2 Vs-1 and 12 cm2 Vs-1, respectively. In the highly doped epilayers, the injection-induced decrease of the diffusion coefficient, due to the transition from the minority carrier diffusion to the ambipolar diffusion, provided the electron diffusion coefficient of De ≈ 3 cm2 s-1. The Al-doping resulted in the gradual decrease of the ambipolar diffusion length, from LD = 2.7 µm down to LD = 0.25 µm in the epilayers with the lowest and highest aluminium concentrations.

  19. Role of dislocations and carrier concentration in limiting the electron mobility of InN films grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangi, Malleswararao; De, Arpan; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    We report the molecular beam epitaxy growth of device quality InN films on GaN epilayer and nano-wall network (NWN) templates deposited on c-sapphire by varying the film thickness up to 1 μm. The careful experiments are directed towards obtaining high mobility InN layers having a low band gap with improved crystal quality. The dislocation density is quantified by using high resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve broadening values of symmetric and asymmetric reflections, respectively. We observe that the dislocation density of the InN films grown on GaN NWN is less than that of the films grown on the GaN epilayer. This is attributed to the nanoepitaxial lateral overlayer growth (ELOG) process, where the presence of voids at the interface of InN/GaN NWN prevents the propagation of dislocation lines into the InN epilayers, thereby causing less defects in the overgrown InN films. Thus, this new adaptation of the nano-ELOG growth process enables us to prepare InN layers with high electron mobility. The obtained electron mobility of 2121 cm2/Vs for 1 μm thick InN/GaN NWN is comparable with the literature values of similar thickness InN films. Furthermore, in order to understand the reasons that limit electron mobility, the charge neutrality condition is employed to study the variation of electron mobility as a function of dislocation density and carrier concentration. Overall, this study provides a route to attaining improved crystal quality and electronic properties of InN films.

  20. Impact of surface morphology on the properties of light emission in InGaN epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristijonas Uždavinys, Tomas; Marcinkevičius, Saulius; Mensi, Mounir; Lahourcade, Lise; Carlin, Jean-François; Martin, Denis; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    Scanning near-field optical microscopy was used to study the influence of the surface morphology on the properties of light emission and alloy composition in InGaN epitaxial layers grown on GaN substrates. A strong correlation between the maps of the photoluminescence (PL) peak energy and the gradient of the surface morphology was observed. This correlation demonstrates that the In incorporation strongly depends on the geometry of the monolayer step edges that form during growth in the step-flow mode. The spatial distribution of nonradiative recombination centers — evaluated from PL intensity maps — was found to strongly anticorrelate with the local content of In atoms in the InGaN alloy.

  1. Optimization of the interfacial misfit array growth mode of GaSb epilayers on GaAs substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyahia, D.; Kubiszyn, Ł.; Michalczewski, K.; Kębłowski, A.; Martyniuk, P.; Piotrowski, J.; Rogalski, A.

    2018-02-01

    The growth of undoped GaSb epilayers on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates with 2° offcut towards 〈1 1 0〉, by molecular beam epitaxy system (MBE) at low growth temperature is reported. The strain due to the lattice mismatch of 7.78% is relieved spontaneously at the interface by using interfacial misfit array (IMF) growth mode. Three approaches of this technique are investigated. The difference consists in the steps after the growth of GaAs buffer layer. These steps are the desorption of arsenic from the GaAs surface, and the cooling down to the growth temperature, under or without antimony flux. The X-ray analysis and the transmission electron microscopy point out that desorption of arsenic followed by the substrate temperature decreasing under no group V flux leads to the best structural and crystallographic properties in the GaSb layer. It is found that the 2 μm-thick GaSb is 99.8% relaxed, and that the strain is relieved by the formation of a periodic array of 90° pure-edge dislocations along the [1 1 0] direction with a periodicity of 5.6 nm.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Study of Poly And Monocrystalline CdS/CdTe Junctions and Cu Doped Znte Back Contacts for Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Rodolfo, II

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a material used to make solar cells because it absorbs the sunlight very efficiently and converts it into electricity. However, CdTe modules suffer from degradation of 1% over a period of 1 year. Improvements on the efficiency and stability can be achieved by designing better materials at the atomic scale. Experimental techniques to study materials at the atomic scale, such as Atomic Probe Tomography (APT) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) are expensive and time consuming. On the other hand, Molecular Dynamics (MD) offers an inexpensive and fast computer simulation technique to study the growth evolution of materials with atomic scale resolution. In combination with advance characterization software, MD simulations provide atomistic visualization, defect analysis, structure maps, 3-D atomistic view, and composition profiles. MD simulations help to design better quality materials by predicting material behavior at the atomic scale. In this work, a new MD method to study several phenomena such as polycrystalline growth of CdTe-based materials, interdiffusion of atoms at interfaces, and deposition of a copper doped ZnTe back contact is established. Results are compared with experimental data found in the literature and experiments performed and shown to be in remarkably good agreement.

  3. Characterization of 380nm UV-LEDs grown on free-standing GaN by atmospheric-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, C. Y.; Li, Z. Y.; Kuo, H. C.; Chang, J. Y.; Chi, G. C.

    2014-03-01

    We reported the defects and optical characterizations of the ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on free-standing GaN substrate (FS-GaN) and sapphire. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the total defect densities of grown UV LEDs on FS-GaN and sapphire including edge, screw and mixed type were 3.6×106 cm-2 and 5.5×108 cm-2. When substrate of UV LEDs was changed from sapphire to FS-GaN, it can be clearly found that the crystallography of GaN epilayers was drastically different from that GaN epilayers on sapphire. Besides, the microstructures or indium clustering can be not observed at UV LEDs on FS-GaN from TEM measurement. The internal quantum efficiency of UVLEDs on FS-GaN and sapphire were 34.8 % and 39.4 % respectively, which attributed to indium clustering in multi-layers quantum wells (MQWs) of UV LEDs on sapphire. The relationship between indiumclustering and efficiency droop were investigated by temperature-dependent electroluminescence (TDEL) measurements.

  4. Terahertz emission and spectroscopy on InN epilayer and nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H.; Pan, C.-L.; Gwo, S.

    2009-02-01

    We report a comprehensive study on THz emission and spectroscopy of indium nitride (InN) films and its nanorod arrays grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy technique. For the enhancement of THz emission from InN, we demonstrated two method; firstly using nanorod arrays, which have large surface area for optical absorption and THz emission, and secondly using nonpolar InN film, of which the electric field is along the sample surface. We propose that a "screened" photo-Dember effect due to narrow surface electron accumulation layer of InN is responsible for the nanorod-size-dependent enhancement from InN nanorods. The primary THz radiation mechanism of nonpolar InN is found to be due to the acceleration of photoexcited carriers under the polarization-induced in-plane electric field. THz time-domain spectroscopy has been used to investigate THz conductivity and dielectric response of InN nanorod arrays and epitaxial film. The complex THz conductivity of InN film is well fitted by the Drude model, while the negative imaginary conductivity of the InN nanorods can be described by using a non-Drude model, which includes a preferential backward scattering due to defects in InN nanorods, or a Coulombic restoring force from charged defects.

  5. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of high-quality ScN epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, Yuichi, E-mail: OSHIMA.Yuichi@nims.go.jp; Víllora, Encarnación G.; Shimamura, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-21

    The heteroepitaxial growth of ScN films was investigated on various substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Single crystalline mirror-like ScN(100) and ScN(110) layers were successfully deposited on r- and m-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. Homogeneous stoichiometric films (N/Sc ratio 1.01 ± 0.10) up to 40 μm in thickness were deposited. Their mosaicity drastically improved with increasing the film thickness. The band gap was determined by optical methods to be 2.06 eV. Impurity concentrations including H, C, O, Si, and Cl were investigated through energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, it was found that the presence of impurities wasmore » efficiently suppressed in comparison with that of HVPE-grown ScN films reported in the past, which was possible thanks to the home-designed corrosion-free HVPE reactor. Room-temperature Hall measurements indicated that the residual free electron concentrations ranged between 10{sup 18}–10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, which was markedly lower than the reported values. The carrier mobility increased monotonically with the decreasing in carrier concentration, achieving the largest value ever reported, 284 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at n = 3.7 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}.« less

  6. Direct observation of anti-phase boundaries in heteroepitaxy of GaSb thin films grown on Si(001) by transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, S. Y.; Hosseini Vajargah, S.; Ghanad-Tavakoli, S.; Kleiman, R. N.; Botton, G. A.

    2012-10-01

    Unambiguous identification of anti-phase boundaries (APBs) in heteroepitaxial films of GaSb grown on Si has been so far elusive. In this work, we present conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) diffraction contrast imaging using superlattice reflections, in conjunction with convergent beam electron diffraction analysis, to determine a change in polarity across APBs in order to confirm the presence of anti-phase disorder. In-depth analysis of anti-phase disorder is further supported with atomic resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy. The nature of APBs in GaSb is further elucidated by a comparison to previous results for GaAs epilayers grown on Si.

  7. Web Growth Used to Confine Screw Dislocations to Predetermined Lateral Positions in 4H-SiC Epilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Beheim, Glenn M.

    2004-01-01

    Silicon-carbide- (SiC-) based power devices could enable substantial aerospace electronics benefits over today's silicon-based electronics. However, present-day SiC wafers contain electrically harmful dislocations (including micropipes) that are unpredictably distributed in high densities across all commercial 4H- and 6H-SiC wafers. The NASA Glenn Research Center recently demonstrated a crystal growth process that moves SiC wafer dislocations to predetermined lateral positions in epitaxial layers so that they can be reproducibly avoided during subsequent SiC electronic device fabrication. The process starts by reactive ion etching mesa patterns with enclosed trench regions into commercial on-axis (0001) 4H- or 6H-SiC substrates. An example of a pregrowth mesa geometry with six enclosed triangular-shaped trench regions is shown. After the etch mask is stripped, homoepitaxial growth is carried out in pure stepflow conditions that enable thin cantilevers to grow laterally from the tops of mesas whose pregrowth top surfaces are not threaded by substrate screw dislocations. The image in the bottom figure shows the postgrowth structure that forms after the lateral cantilevers expand to coalesce and completely roof over each of the six triangular trench regions. Atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements of the roof revealed that three elementary screw dislocation growth spirals, each shown in the AFM insets of the bottom image on the previous page, formed in the film roof at three respective points of cantilever film coalescence. The image above shows the structure following an etch in molten potassium hydroxide (KOH) that produced surface etch pits at the dislocation defects. The larger KOH etch pits--S1, S2, and S3--shown in this image correspond to screw dislocations relocated to the final points of cantilever coalescence. The smaller KOH etch pits are consistent with epilayer threading edge dislocations from the pregrowth substrate mesa (P1, P3, and P4) and a final

  8. High-Quality GaN Epilayers Achieved by Facet-Controlled Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth on Sputtered AlN/PSS Templates.

    PubMed

    He, Chenguang; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Kang; He, Longfei; Wu, Hualong; Liu, Ningyang; Zhang, Shan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhitao

    2017-12-13

    It is widely believed that the lack of high-quality GaN wafers severely hinders the progress in GaN-based devices, especially for defect-sensitive devices. Here, low-cost AlN buffer layers were sputtered on cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) to obtain high-quality GaN epilayers. Without any mask or regrowth, facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth was realized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The uniform coating of the sputtered AlN buffer layer and the optimized multiple modulation guaranteed high growth selectivity and uniformity of the GaN epilayer. As a result, an extremely smooth surface was achieved with an average roughness of 0.17 nm over 3 × 3 μm 2 . It was found that the sputtered AlN buffer layer could significantly suppress dislocations on the cones. Moreover, the optimized three-dimensional growth process could effectively promote dislocation bending. Therefore, the threading dislocation density (TDD) of the GaN epilayer was reduced to 4.6 × 10 7 cm -2 , which is about an order of magnitude lower than the case of two-step GaN on the PSS. In addition, contamination and crack in the light-emitting diode fabricated on the obtained GaN were also effectively suppressed by using the sputtered AlN buffer layer. All of these advantages led to a high output power of 116 mW at 500 mA with an emission wavelength of 375 nm. This simple, yet effective growth technique is believed to have great application prospects in high-performance TDD-sensitive optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  9. Gifted Children Grown Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Joan

    This book describes the outcomes of a longitudinal study of 210 British children that compared the recognized and the unrecognized gifted with their classmates. It describes what has happened to them and their families as they have grown up in very different circumstances, in poverty or wealth, through many types of schooling and life…

  10. Investigation of aluminium ohmic contacts to n-type GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kribes, Y.; Harrison, I.; Tuck, B.; Kim, K. S.; Cheng, T. S.; Foxon, C. T.

    1997-11-01

    Using epi-layers of different doping concentrations, we have investigated aluminium contacts on n-type gallium nitride grown by plasma source molecular beam epitaxy. To achieve repeatable and reliable results it was found that the semiconductor needed to be etched in aqua-regia before the deposition of the contact metallization. Scanning electron micrographs of the semiconductor surface show a deterioration of the semiconductor surface on etching. The specific contact resistivity of the etched samples were, however, superior. Annealing the contacts at 0268-1242/12/11/030/img9 produced contacts with the lowest specific contact resistance of 0268-1242/12/11/030/img10. The long-term aging of these contacts was also investigated. The contacts and the sheet resistance were both found to deteriorate over a three-month period.

  11. Graphic Grown Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  12. High indium non-polar InGaN clusters with infrared sensitivity grown by PAMBE

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Shruti; Mohan, Lokesh; Chandan, Greeshma

    2015-03-15

    Studies on the optical properties of InGaN alloy of relatively higher indium content are of potential interest to understand the effect of indium content on the optical band gap of epitaxial InGaN. We report the growth of self assembled non-polar high indium clusters of In{sub 0.55}Ga{sub 0.45}N over non-polar (11-20) a-plane In{sub 0.17}Ga{sub 0.83}N epilayer grown on a-plane (11-20)GaN/(1-102) r-plane sapphire substrate using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). Such structures are potential candidates for high brightness LEDs emitting in longer wavelengths. The high resolution X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of two distinct compositions of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N alloys,more » which were further confirmed by photoluminescence studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of such structure was postulated which was supported with the results obtained by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The structure hence grown when investigated for photo-detecting properties, showed sensitivity to both infrared and ultraviolet radiations due to the different composition of InGaN region.« less

  13. Substrate nitridation induced modulations in transport properties of wurtzite GaN/p-Si (100) heterojunctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    Phase pure wurtzite GaN films were grown on Si (100) substrates by introducing a silicon nitride layer followed by low temperature GaN growth as buffer layers. GaN films grown directly on Si (100) were found to be phase mixtured, containing both cubic ({beta}) and hexagonal ({alpha}) modifications. The x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy studies reveal that the significant enhancement in the structural as well as in the optical properties of GaN films grown with silicon nitride buffer layer grown at 800 deg. C when compared to the samples grown in the absence of silicon nitridemore » buffer layer and with silicon nitride buffer layer grown at 600 deg. C. Core-level photoelectron spectroscopy of Si{sub x}N{sub y} layers reveals the sources for superior qualities of GaN epilayers grown with the high temperature substrate nitridation process. The discussion has been carried out on the typical inverted rectification behavior exhibited by n-GaN/p-Si heterojunctions. Considerable modulation in the transport mechanism was observed with the nitridation conditions. The heterojunction fabricated with the sample of substrate nitridation at high temperature exhibited superior rectifying nature with reduced trap concentrations. Lowest ideality factors ({approx}1.5) were observed in the heterojunctions grown with high temperature substrate nitridation which is attributed to the recombination tunneling at the space charge region transport mechanism at lower voltages and at higher voltages space charge limited current conduction is the dominating transport mechanism. Whereas, thermally generated carrier tunneling and recombination tunneling are the dominating transport mechanisms in the heterojunctions grown without substrate nitridation and low temperature substrate nitridation, respectively.« less

  14. Fabrication of 4H-SiC lateral double implanted MOSFET on an on-axis semi-insulating substrate without using epi-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung Woo; Seok, Ogyun; Moon, Jeong Hyun; Bahng, Wook; Jo, Jungyol

    2017-12-01

    4H-SiC lateral double implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (LDIMOSFET) were fabricated on on-axis semi-insulating SiC substrates without using an epi-layer. The LDIMOSFET adopted a current path layer (CPL), which was formed by ion-implantation. The CPL works as a drift region between gate and drain. By using on-axis semi-insulating substrate and optimized CPL parameters, breakdown voltage (BV) of 1093 V and specific on-resistance (R on,sp) of 89.8 mΩ·cm2 were obtained in devices with 20 µm long CPL. Experimentally extracted field-effect channel mobility was 21.7 cm2·V-1·s-1 and the figure-of-merit (BV2/R on,sp) was 13.3 MW/cm2.

  15. In-situ transport and microstructural evolution in GaN Schottky diodes and epilayers exposed to swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Singh, R.; Kumar, Parmod; Singh, Udai B.; Asokan, K.; Karaseov, Platon A.; Titov, Andrei I.; Kanjilal, D.

    2018-04-01

    A systematic investigation of radiation hardness of Schottky barrier diodes and GaN epitaxial layers is carried out by employing in-situ electrical resistivity and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) microstructure measurements. The change in the current transport mechanism of Au/n-GaN Schottky barrier diodes due to irradiation is reported. The role of irradiation temperature and ion type was also investigated. Creation of damage is studied in low and medium electron energy loss regimes by selecting different ions, Ag (200 MeV) and O (100 MeV) at various fluences at two irradiation temperatures (80 K and 300 K). GaN resistivity increases up to 6 orders of magnitude under heavy Ag ions. Light O ion irradiation has a much lower influence on sheet resistance. The presence of isolated defect clusters in irradiated GaN epilayers is evident in XTEM investigation which is explained on the basis of the thermal spike model.

  16. Role of an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer on the strain engineering of GaN films grown on Si(110) and Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, X. Q.; Takahashi, T.; Matsuhata, H.

    2013-12-02

    We investigate the role of an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer (SL-IL) on the strain engineering of the GaN films grown on Si(110) and Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that micro-cracks limitted only at the SL-IL position are naturally generated. These micro-cracks play an important role in relaxing the tensile strain caused by the difference of the coefficient of thermal expansion between GaN and Si and keeping the residual strain in the crack-free GaN epilayers resulted from the SL-IL during the growth. The mechanism understanding of the strain modulation by the SL-IL in the GaN epilayersmore » grown on Si substrates makes it possible to design new heterostructures of III-nitrides for optic and electronic device applications.« less

  17. Industrial Exploitation of a Alternate Technology for the Production of HgCdTe Epilayers, Structures and Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-14

    be explained by nonuniform distribution of carriers. The incorporation of indium, during growth, which is reported hereafter has been carried out not...than n-on-p junctions for LWIR photodiodes14 . One important advantage of this configuration is the easier control of low doping (101" cm-3 range) in...program. These characteristics are least as good if not better than those previously reported about LWIR HgCdTe material grown on the production line at

  18. Ion channeling studies on mixed phases formed in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown Mg-doped GaN on Al2O3(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaravel, B.; Luo, E. Z.; Xu, J. B.; Wilson, I. H.; Fong, W. K.; Wang, L. S.; Surya, C.

    2000-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling were used to determine the relative quantities of wurtzite and zinc-blende phases in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown Mg-doped GaN(0001) on an Al2O3(0001) substrate with a GaN buffer layer. Offnormal axial channeling scans were used. High-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements also confirmed the presence of mixed phases. The in-plane orientation was found to be GaN[11¯0]‖GaN[112¯0]‖Al2O3[112¯0]. The effects of rapid thermal annealing on the relative phase content, thickness and crystalline quality of the GaN epilayer were also studied.

  19. Quality improvements of ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe layers grown on InP substrates by a thin ZnCdSe interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, L.; Yang, B. X.; Tamargo, M. C.; Snoeks, E.; Zhao, L.

    1998-03-01

    The quality of lattice-matched ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe epitaxial layers grown on (001) InP substrates with a III-V buffer layer has been improved by initially growing a ZnCdSe interfacial layer (50 Å) at low temperature. The widths of double crystal x-ray rocking curves for ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe epilayers with band gaps as high as 3.05 eV were reduced to about 70 arcsec. The defect density evaluated from etch pit density and plan-view transmission electron microscopy measurements was reduced by two orders of magnitude, to 106-107cm-2. The photoluminescence band edge emission became more symmetric and slightly narrower. It is proposed that an initial two-dimensional growth mode has been achieved by incorporating such a lattice-matched ZnCdSe layer.

  20. Deep level defects in dilute GaAsBi alloys grown under intense UV illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Mooney, P. M.; Tarun, Marianne; Beaton, D. A.

    2016-07-21

    Dilute GaAs1-xBix alloys exhibiting narrow band edge photoluminescence (PL) were recently grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with the growth surface illuminated by intense UV radiation. To investigate whether the improved optical quality of these films results from a reduction in the concentration of deep level defects, p+/n and n+/p junction diodes were fabricated on both the illuminated and dark areas of several samples. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements show that the illuminated and dark areas of both the n- and p-type GaAs1-xBix epi-layers have similar concentrations of near mid-gap electron and hole traps, in the 1015 cm-3 range.more » Thus the improved PL spectra cannot be explained by a reduction in non-radiative recombination at deep level defects. We note that carrier freeze-out above 35 K is significantly reduced in the illuminated areas of the p-type GaAs1-xBix layers compared to the dark areas, allowing the first DLTS measurements of defect energy levels close to the valence band edge. These defect levels may account for differences in the PL spectra from the illuminated and dark areas of un-doped layers with a similar Bi fraction.« less

  1. Growth and Properties of Lattice Matched GaAsSbN Epilayer on GaAs for Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bharatan, Sudhakar; Iyer, Shanthi; Matney, Kevin; Collis, Ward J.; Nunna Kalyan; Li, Jia; Wu, Liangjin; McGuire, Kristopher; McNeil, Laurie E.

    2006-01-01

    The growth and properties of GaAsSbN single quantum wells (SQWs) are investigated in this work. The heterostructures were grown on GaAs substrates in an elemental solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system assisted with a RF plasma nitrogen source. A systematic study has been carried out to determine the influence of various growth conditions, such as the growth temperature and the source shutter-opening sequence, on the quality of the grown layers and the incorporation of N and Sb. The effects of ex situ and in situ annealing under As overpressure on the optical properties of the layers have also been investigated. Substrate temperature in the range of 450-470 C was found to be optimum. Simultaneous opening of the source shutters was found to yield sharper QW interfaces. N and Sb incorporations were found to depend strongly upon substrate temperatures and source shutter opening sequences. A significant increase in PL intensity with a narrowing of PL line shape and blue shift in emission energy were observed on annealing the GaAsSbN/GaAs SQW, with in situ annealing under As overpressure providing better results, compared to ex situ annealing.

  2. Reduction of Defects in AlGaN Grown on Nanoscale-Patterned Sapphire Substrates by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Tasi, Chi-Tsung; Wang, Wei-Kai; Tsai, Tsung-Yen; Huang, Shih-Yung; Horng, Ray-Hua; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a 3-μm-thick AlGaN film with an Al mole fraction of 10% was grown on a nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrate (NPSS) using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The growth mechanism, crystallization, and surface morphology of the epilayers were examined using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy at various times in the growth process. The screw threading dislocation (TD) density of AlGaN-on-NPSS can improve to 1–2 × 109 cm−2, which is significantly lower than that of the sample grown on a conventional planar sapphire substrate (7 × 109 cm−2). TEM analysis indicated that these TDs do not subsequently propagate to the surface of the overgrown AlGaN layer, but bend or change directions in the region above the voids within the side faces of the patterned substrates, possibly because of the internal stress-relaxed morphologies of the AlGaN film. Hence, the laterally overgrown AlGaN films were obtained by HVPE, which can serve as a template for the growth of ultraviolet III-nitride optoelectronic devices. PMID:28772961

  3. Reduction of Defects in AlGaN Grown on Nanoscale-Patterned Sapphire Substrates by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Tasi, Chi-Tsung; Wang, Wei-Kai; Tsai, Tsung-Yen; Huang, Shih-Yung; Horng, Ray-Hua; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2017-05-31

    In this study, a 3-μm-thick AlGaN film with an Al mole fraction of 10% was grown on a nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrate (NPSS) using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The growth mechanism, crystallization, and surface morphology of the epilayers were examined using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy at various times in the growth process. The screw threading dislocation (TD) density of AlGaN-on-NPSS can improve to 1-2 × 10⁸ cm -2 , which is significantly lower than that of the sample grown on a conventional planar sapphire substrate (7 × 10⁸ cm -2 ). TEM analysis indicated that these TDs do not subsequently propagate to the surface of the overgrown AlGaN layer, but bend or change directions in the region above the voids within the side faces of the patterned substrates, possibly because of the internal stress-relaxed morphologies of the AlGaN film. Hence, the laterally overgrown AlGaN films were obtained by HVPE, which can serve as a template for the growth of ultraviolet III-nitride optoelectronic devices.

  4. Hydrothermal growth of n-ZnO films on a patterned p-GaN epilayer and its application in heterojunction light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Rong-Ming; Wang, Shui-Jinn; Chen, Ching-Yi; Wu, Cheng-Han; Lin, Yan-Ru; Lo, Hsin-Ming

    2017-04-01

    The hydrothermal growth (HTG) of crystalline n-ZnO films on both the nonpatterned and patterned p-GaN epilayers with a honeycomb array of etched holes is demonstrated, and its application in n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes (HJ-LEDs) is reported. The results reveal that an HTG n-ZnO film on a patterned p-GaN layer exhibits a high-quality single crystal with FWHMs of 0.463 and 0.983° obtained from a ω-rocking curve and a ϕ-scan pattern, respectively, which are much better than those obtained on a nonpatterned p-GaN layer. In addition, the n-ZnO/patterned p-GaN HJ-LED exhibited a much better rectifying diode behavior owing to having a higher n-ZnO film crystallinity quality and an improved interface with the p-GaN layer. Strong violet and violet-blue lights emitted from the n-ZnO/patterned p-GaN HJ-LED at around 405, 412, and 430 nm were analyzed.

  5. Protein Crystals Grown in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A collage of protein and virus crystals, many of which were grown on the U.S. Space Shuttle or Russian Space Station, Mir. The crystals include the proteins canavalin; mouse monoclonal antibody; a sweet protein, thaumatin; and a fungal protease. Viruses are represented here by crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus and satellite tobacco mosaic virus. The crystals are photographed under polarized light (thus causing the colors) and range in size from a few hundred microns in edge length up to more than a millimeter. All the crystals are grown from aqueous solutions and are useful for X-ray diffraction analysis. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

  6. Ge auto-doping and out-diffusion in InGaP grown on Ge substrate and their effects on the ordering of InGaP

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong-Ming; Ho, Hao-I; Tsai, Shi-Jane

    2016-03-21

    We report on the Ge auto-doping and out-diffusion in InGaP epilayer with Cu-Pt ordering grown on 4-in. Ge substrate. Ge profiles determined from secondary ion mass spectrometry indicate that the Ge out-diffusion depth is within 100 nm. However, the edge of the wafer suffers from stronger Ge gas-phase auto-doping than the center, leading to ordering deterioration in the InGaP epilayer. In the edge, we observed a residual Cu-Pt ordering layer left beneath the surface, suggesting that the ordering deterioration takes place after the deposition rather than during the deposition and In/Ga inter-diffusion enhanced by Ge vapor-phase auto-doping is responsible for themore » deterioration. We thus propose a di-vacancy diffusion model, in which the amphoteric Ge increases the di-vacancy density, resulting in a Ge density dependent diffusion. In the model, the In/Ga inter-diffusion and Ge out-diffusion are realized by the random hopping of In/Ga host atoms and Ge atoms to di-vacancies, respectively. Simulation based on this model well fits the Ge out-diffusion profiles, suggesting its validity. By comparing the Ge diffusion coefficient obtained from the fitting and the characteristic time constant of ordering deterioration estimated from the residual ordering layer, we found that the hopping rates of Ge and the host atoms are in the same order of magnitude, indicating that di-vacancies are bound in the vicinity of Ge atoms.« less

  7. Atomic configurations in AP-MOVPE grown lattice-mismatched InGaAsN films unravelled by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with bulk and surface characterization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Escalante, M. C.; Ściana, B.; Dawidowski, W.; Bielak, K.; Gabás, M.

    2018-03-01

    This work presents the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on the bonding N configuration in InGaAsN epilayers grown by atmospheric pressure metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. Growth temperature has been tuned in order to obtain both, relaxed and strained layers. The studies were concentrated on analysing the influence of the growth temperature, post growth thermal annealing process and surface quality on the formation of Ga-N and In-N bonds as well as N-related defects. The contamination of InGaAsN films by growth precursor residues and oxides has also been addressed. The growth temperature stands out as a decisive factor boosting In-N bonds formation, while the thermal annealing seems to affect the N-related defects density in the layers.

  8. Investigation on structural, optical and electrical properties of Cp2Mg flow varied p-GaN grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surender, S.; Pradeep, S.; Ramesh, R.; Baskar, K.

    2016-05-01

    In this work the effect of different concentration of Magnesium doped GaN (p-GaN) were systematically studied. The p-GaN epilayers were grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by horizontal flow Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) with various flow rates of 100 sccm to 300 sccm using bis-(cyclopentadienyl) - magnesium (Cp2Mg) precursor. The samples were subjected to structural, optical, morphological and electrical studies using High Resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), room temperature photoluminescence (PL), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Hall measurement respectively. Results indicated that the Mg doped GaN of 200 sccm Cp2Mg has the root mean square (rms) roughness of about 0.3 nm for a scan area of 5×5 µm2 which has good two dimensional growth. Moreover, Hall measurements results shows that (200 sccm Cp2Mg) Mg-doped GaN possess the highest hole concentration of 5.4×1017cm-3 and resistivity of 1.7 Ωcm at room temperature.

  9. ZnxCd1-xSe alloy nanowires covering the entire compositional range grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, C. X.; Liu, Z.; Ng, C. M.; Hark, S. K.

    2005-07-01

    We show that preferentially oriented, single-crystalline ZnxCd1-xSe alloy nanowires can be grown on GaAs (100) surface using Au as a catalyst over the entire compositional range in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition system. The composition of the alloy nanowires can be simply adjusted through the ratio of the flow rates of group-II precursors. Electron microscopy shows that the nanowires are smooth and uniform in shape; their diameters range from 20 to 80 nm and lengths exceed a few micrometers. Nanowires containing more than 13% Zn are zinc blende structured and grow along the ⟨110⟩ direction. Those containing less Zn are wurtzite structured and grow along the ⟨210⟩ direction. Compared with the bulk alloy, the change from zinc blende to wurtzite structure in nanowires occurs at far smaller x. The preferred orientation and the persistence of the zinc blende structure both reflect the influence of the substrate on the growth of the nanowires. Photoluminescence measurements identify a strong near-band-edge emission for all samples and show that its peak energy tracks the band gap of ZnxCd1-xSe epilayer for x>0.13. The growth of alloy nanowires at many compositions opens up the possibility of realizing quasi-one-dimensional heterojunctions.

  10. Investigation on structural, optical and electrical properties of Cp2Mg flow varied p-GaN grown by MOCVD

    SciTech Connect

    Surender, S.; Pradeep, S.; Ramesh, R.

    2016-05-23

    In this work the effect of different concentration of Magnesium doped GaN (p-GaN) were systematically studied. The p-GaN epilayers were grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by horizontal flow Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) with various flow rates of 100 sccm to 300 sccm using bis-(cyclopentadienyl) - magnesium (Cp2Mg) precursor. The samples were subjected to structural, optical, morphological and electrical studies using High Resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), room temperature photoluminescence (PL), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Hall measurement respectively. Results indicated that the Mg doped GaN of 200 sccm Cp2Mg has the root mean square (rms) roughness of about 0.3more » nm for a scan area of 5×5 µm{sup 2} which has good two dimensional growth. Moreover, Hall measurements results shows that (200 sccm Cp2Mg) Mg-doped GaN possess the highest hole concentration of 5.4×10{sup 17}cm{sup −3} and resistivity of 1.7 Ωcm at room temperature.« less

  11. The effect of Bi composition on the properties of InP{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Das, T. D., E-mail: tddas@hotmail.com

    InP{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} epilayers (x ≥ 1.2%) on InP (001) are grown reproducibly by liquid phase epitaxy with conventional solution baking in a H{sub 2} environment. The Bi composition and surface morphology of the grown layers are studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. High-resolution x-ray diffraction is used to characterize the lattice parameters and the crystalline quality of the layers. 10 K photoluminescence measurements indicate three clearly resolved peaks in undoped InP layers with band-to-band transition at 1.42 eV which is redshifted with Bi incorporation in the layer with a maximum band gap reduction of 50 meV/% Bi. The effectmore » is attributed to the interaction between the valence band edge and Bi-related defect states as is explained here by valence-band anticrossing model. Room temperature Hall measurements indicate that the mobility of the layer is not significantly affected for Bi concentration up to 1.2%.« less

  12. Positron Spectroscopy of Hydrothermally Grown Actinide Oxides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    POSITRON SPECTROSCOPY OF HYDROTHERMALLY GROWN ACTINIDE OXIDES THESIS Edward C. Schneider...United States Government. AFIT-ENP-14-M-33 POSITRON SPECTROSCOPY OF HYDROTHERMALLY GROWN ACTINIDE OXIDES THESIS...33 POSITRON SPECTROSCOPY OF HYDROTHERMALLY GROWN ACTINIDE OXIDES Edward C. Schneider, BS Captain, USAF Approved

  13. Optical Characterization of Bulk ZnSeTe Solid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Feth, S.; Zhu, Shen; Lehoczky, S. L.; Wang, Ling Jun

    2000-01-01

    Optical characterization was performed on wafers sliced from crystals of ZnSe, ZnTe, and ZnSe(1-x)Te(x)(0 less than x less than 0.4) grown by physical vapor transport. Energy band gaps at room temperature were determined from optical transmission measurements on 11 wafers. A best fit curve to the band gap versus composition x data gives a bowing parameter of 1.45. This number lies between the value of 1.23 determined previously on ZnSeTe bulk crystals and the value of 1.621 reported on ZnSeTe epilayers. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured on six samples. The spectra of ZnSe and ZnTe were dominated by near band edge emissions and no deep donor-acceptor pairs were observed. The PL spectrum exhibited a broad emission for each of the ZnSe(1-x)Te(x) samples, 0.09 less than x less than 0.39. For x=0.09, this emission energy is about 0.2 eV lower than the band gap energy measured at low temperature. As x increases the energy discrepancy gradually decreases and reduces to almost zero at x=0.4. The single broad PL emission spectra and the spectra measured as a function of temperature were interpreted as being associated with the exciton bound to Te clusters because of the high Te content in these samples.

  14. Zn(1-x)MnxTe diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Zaleszczyk, Wojciech; Janik, Elzbieta; Presz, Adam; Dłuzewski, Piotr; Kret, Sławomir; Szuszkiewicz, Wojciech; Morhange, Jean-François; Dynowska, Elzbieta; Kirmse, Holm; Neumann, Wolfgang; Petroutchik, Aleksy; Baczewski, Lech T; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Wojtowicz, Tomasz

    2008-11-01

    It is shown that the growth of II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires is possible by the catalytically enhanced molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Zn(1-x)MnxTe NWs with manganese content up to x=0.60 were produced by this method. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements confirm the incorporation of Mn(2+) ions in the cation substitutional sites of the ZnTe matrix of the NWs.

  15. Container-Grown Longleaf Pine Seedling Quality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Hainds; James P. Barnett

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the comparative hardiness of various classes or grades of container-grown longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings. Most container longleaf seedlings are grown in small ribbed containers averaging 5 to 7 cubic inches in volume and 3 to 6 inches in depth. Great variability is often exhibited in typical lots of container-...

  16. Defect structure of high temperature hydride vapor phase epitaxy-grown epitaxial (0 0 0 1) AlN/sapphire using growth mode modification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xujun; Zhang, Jicai; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Jinping; Wang, Jianfeng; Xu, Ke

    2017-06-01

    Defect structures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy for AlN/sapphire (0 0 0 1) epilayers grown by high temperature hydride vapor phase epitaxy using a growth mode modification process. The defect structures, including threading dislocations, inversion domains, and voids, were analyzed by diffraction contrast, high-resolution imaging, and convergent beam diffraction. AlN film growth was initiated at 1450 °C with high V/III ratio for 8 min. This was followed by low V/III ratio growth for 12 min. The near-interfacial region shows a high density of threading dislocations and inversion domains. Most of these dislocations have Burgers vector b = 1/3〈1 1 2 0〉 and were reduced with the formation of dislocation loops. In the middle range 400 nm < h < 2 μm, dislocations gradually aggregated and reduced to ∼109 cm-2. The inversion domains have a shuttle-like shape with staggered boundaries that deviate by ∼ ±5° from the c axis. Above 2 μm thickness, the film consists of isolated threading dislocations with a total density of 8 × 108 cm-2. Most of threading dislocations are either pure edge or mixed dislocations. The threading dislocation reduction in these films is associated with dislocation loops formation and dislocation aggregation-interaction during island growth with high V/III ratio.

  17. Characteristics of Mg-doped and In-Mg co-doped p-type GaN epitaxial layers grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, S. J.; Senthil Kumar, M.; Lee, Y. S.; Suh, E.-K.; An, M. H.

    2010-05-01

    Mg-doped and In-Mg co-doped p-type GaN epilayers were grown using the metal organic chemical vapour deposition technique. The effect of In co-doping on the physical properties of p-GaN layer was examined by high resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Hall effect, photoluminescence (PL) and persistent photoconductivity (PPC) at room temperature. An improved crystalline quality and a reduction in threading dislocation density are evidenced upon In doping in p-GaN from HRXRD and TEM images. Hole conductivity, mobility and carrier density also significantly improved by In co-doping. PL studies of the In-Mg co-doped sample revealed that the peak position is blue shifted to 3.2 eV from 2.95 eV of conventional p-GaN and the PL intensity is increased by about 25%. In addition, In co-doping significantly reduced the PPC effect in p-type GaN layers. The improved electrical and optical properties are believed to be associated with the active participation of isolated Mg impurities.

  18. Network of vertically c-oriented prismatic InN nanowalls grown on c-GaN/sapphire template by chemical vapor deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barick, B. K.; Saroj, Rajendra Kumar; Prasad, Nivedita; Sutar, D. S.; Dhar, S.

    2018-05-01

    Networks of vertically c-oriented prism shaped InN nanowalls, are grown on c-GaN/sapphire templates using a CVD technique, where pure indium and ammonia are used as metal and nitrogen precursors. A systematic study of the growth, structural and electronic properties of these samples shows a preferential growth of the islands along [ 1 1 2 bar 0 ] and [0 0 0 1] directions leading to the formation of such a network structure, where the vertically [0 0 0 1] oriented tapered walls are laterally align along one of the three [ 1 1 2 bar 0 ] directions. Inclined facets of these walls are identified as semipolar (1 1 2 bar 2) -planes of wurtzite InN. Onset of absorption for these samples is observed to be higher than the band gap of InN suggesting a high background carrier concentration in this material. Study of the valence band edge through XPS indicates the formation of positive depletion regions below the surface of the side facets [(1 1 2 bar 2) -planes] of the walls. This is in contrast with the observation for c-plane InN epilayers, where electron accumulation is often reported below the top surface.

  19. Phase transformation of molecular beam epitaxy-grown nanometer-thick Gd₂O₃ and Y₂O₃ on GaN.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Shao-Yun; Lee, Chih-Hsun; Lai, Te-Yang; Lee, Yi-Jun; Chang, Pen; Hsu, Chia-Hung; Huang, Tsung-Shiew; Kwo, J Raynien; Hong, Minghwei

    2013-02-01

    High quality nanometer-thick Gd₂O₃ and Y₂O₃ (rare-earth oxide, R₂O₃) films have been epitaxially grown on GaN (0001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The R₂O₃ epi-layers exhibit remarkable thermal stability at 1100 °C, uniformity, and highly structural perfection. Structural investigation was carried out by in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) with synchrotron radiation. In the initial stage of epitaxial growth, the R₂O₃ layers have a hexagonal phase with the epitaxial relationship of R₂O₃ (0001)(H)<1120>(H)//GaN(0001)(H)<1120>(H). With the increase in R₂O₃ film thickness, the structure of the R₂O₃ films changes from single domain hexagonal phase to monoclinic phase with six different rotational domains, following the R₂O₃ (201)(M)[020](M)//GaN(0001)(H)<1120>(H) orientational relationship. The structural details and fingerprints of hexagonal and monoclinic phase Gd₂O₃ films have also been examined by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Approximate 3-4 nm is the critical thickness for the structural phase transition depending on the composing rare earth element.

  20. Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haiyong; Yan, Fawang; Zhang, Yang; Li, Jinmin; Zeng, Yiping; Wang, Guohong

    2008-01-01

    Sapphire substrates were patterned by a chemical wet etching technique in the micro- and nanoscale to enhance the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). InGaN/GaN LEDs on a pyramidal patterned sapphire substrate in the microscale (MPSS) and pyramidal patterned sapphire substrate in the nanoscale (NPSS) were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The characteristics of the LEDs fabricated on the MPSS and NPSS prepared by wet etching were studied and the light output powers of the LEDs fabricated on the MPSS and NPSS increased compared with that of the conventional LEDs fabricated on planar sapphire substrates. In comparison with the planar sapphire substrate, an enhancement in output power of about 29% and 48% is achieved with the MPSS and NPSS at an injection current of 20 mA, respectively. This significant enhancement is attributable to the improvement of the epitaxial quality of GaN-based epilayers and the improvement of the light extraction efficiency by patterned sapphire substrates. Additionally, the NPSS is more effective to enhance the light output power than the MPSS.

  1. Study of thermal stability of spontaneously grown superlattice structures by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy in AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, A.; Maitra, T.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Satpati, B.; Nayak, A.; Bhunia, S.

    2018-04-01

    Spontaneous superlattice ordering in a length scale larger than an atomic layer has been observed in AlxGa1-xAs layers grown on (100) GaAs substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopic image clearly revealed superlattice structures and the selected area electron diffraction showed closely spaced superlattice spots around the main diffraction pattern. High resolution x-ray diffraction showed distinct and sharp superlattice peaks symmetrically positioned around the central (004) Bragg peak and the similar measurement for (002) planes, which is quasi-forbidden for Bragg reflections showed only superlattice peaks. Thermal annealing studies showed the superlattice structure was stable up to 800 °C and disappeared after annealing at 900 °C retaining the crystallinity of the epilayer. Study of inter-diffusivitiesin such superlattice structures has been carried out using high temperaturex-ray diffraction results. Here we present (004) x-ray θ-2θ scans of the AlGaAs/GaAs (100) sample with annealing time for different temperatures. Conclusions regarding interdiffusion in such superlattice structures are drawn from high temperature X-ray measurements.

  2. Molecule diagram from space-grown crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Researchers' at Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, in Buffalo, N.Y. have analyzed the molecular structures of insulin crystals grown during Space Shuttle experiments and are unlocking the mystery of how insulin works.

  3. Structural disorder of natural BimSen superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springholz, G.; Wimmer, S.; Groiss, H.; Albu, M.; Hofer, F.; Caha, O.; Kriegner, D.; Stangl, J.; Bauer, G.; Holý, V.

    2018-05-01

    The structure and morphology of BimSen epitaxial layers with compositions ranging from Bi2Se3 to the Bi1Se1 grown by molecular beam epitaxy with different flux compositions are investigated by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. It is shown that the lattice structure changes significantly as a function of the beam flux composition, i.e., Se/BiSe flux ratio that determines the stoichiometry of the layers. A perfect Bi2Se3 phase is formed only with a sufficiently high additional Se flux, whereas Bi1Se1 is obtained when only a BiSe compound source without additional Se is used. For intermediate values of the excess Se flux during growth, Bi2Se3 -δ layers are obtained with the Se deficit δ varying between 0 and 1. This Se deficit is accommodated by incorporation of additional Bi-Bi double layers into the Bi2Se3 structure that otherwise exclusively consists of Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. While a periodic insertion of such Bi double layers would result in the formation of natural BimSen superlattices, we find that this Bi double-layer insertion is rather stochastic with a high degree of disorder depending on the film composition. Therefore, the structure of such epilayers is better described by a one-dimensional paracrystal model, consisting of disordered sequences of quintuple and double layers rather than by strictly periodic natural superlattices. From detailed analysis of the x-ray diffraction data, we determine the dependence of the lattice parameters a and c and distances of the individual (0001) planes dj as a function of composition, evidencing that only the in-plane lattice parameter a shows a linear dependence on composition. The simulation of the diffraction curves with the random stacking paracrystal model yields an excellent agreement with the experimental data and it brings quantitative information on the randomness of the stacking sequence, which is compared to growth modeling using Monte

  4. Quality-enhanced In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As film grown on GaAs substrate with an ultrathin amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As buffer layer

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fangliang; Li, Guoqiang, E-mail: msgli@scut.edu.cn

    2014-01-27

    Using low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy, amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As layers have been grown on GaAs substrates to act as buffer layers for the subsequent epitaxial growth of In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As films. It is revealed that the crystallinity of as-grown In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As films is strongly affected by the thickness of the large-mismatched amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As buffer layer. Given an optimized thickness of 2 nm, this amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As buffer layer can efficiently release the misfit strain between the In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As epi-layer and the GaAs substrate, trap the threading and misfit dislocations from propagating to the following In{sub 0.3}Ga{submore » 0.7}As epi-layer, and reduce the surface fluctuation of the as-grown In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As, leading to a high-quality In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As film with competitive crystallinity to that grown on GaAs substrate using compositionally graded In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As metamorphic buffer layers. Considering the complexity of the application of the conventional In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As graded buffer layers, this work demonstrates a much simpler approach to achieve high-quality In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As film on GaAs substrate and, therefore, is of huge potential for the InGaAs-based high-efficiency photovoltaic industry.« less

  5. Nitrogen-Polar (000 1 ¯ ) GaN Grown on c-Plane Sapphire with a High-Temperature AlN Buffer.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Han, Jung

    2017-03-02

    We demonstrate growing nitrogen-polar (N-polar) GaN epilayer on c-plane sapphire using a thin AlN buffer layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. We have studied the influence of the AlN buffer layer on the polarity, crystalline quality, and surface morphology of the GaN epilayer and found that the growth temperature of the AlN buffer layer played a critical role in the growth of the GaN epilayer. The low growth temperature of the AlN buffer results in gallium-polar GaN. Even a nitridation process has been conducted. High growth temperature for an AlN buffer layer is required to achieve pure N-polarity, high crystalline quality, and smooth surface morphology for a GaN epilayer.

  6. Interfacial Control of Ferromagnetism in Ultrathin La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 Sandwiched between CaRu1-xTixO3 (x = 0-0.8) Epilayers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Binbin; Chen, Pingfan; Xu, Haoran; Jin, Feng; Guo, Zhuang; Lan, Da; Wan, Siyuan; Gao, Guanyin; Chen, Feng; Wu, Wenbin

    2016-12-21

    Controlling functionalities in oxide heterostructures remains challenging for the rather complex interfacial interactions. Here, by modifying the interface properties with chemical doping, we achieve a nontrivial control over the ferromagnetism in ultrathin La 0.67 Ca 0.33 MnO 3 (LCMO) layer sandwiched between CaRu 1-x Ti x O 3 [CRTO(x)] epilayers. The Ti doping suppresses the interfacial electron transfer from CRTO(x) to LCMO side; as a result, a steadily decreased Curie temperature with increasing x, from 262 K at x = 0 to 186 K at x = 0.8, is observed for the structures with LCMO fixed at 3.2 nm. Moreover, for more insulating CRTO(x ≥ 0.5), the electron confinement induces an interfacial Mn-e g (x 2 -y 2 ) orbital order in LCMO which further attenuates the ferromagnetism. Also, in order to characterize the heterointerfaces, for the first time the doping- and thickness-dependent metal-insulator transitions in CRTO(x) films are examined. Our results demonstrate that the LCMO/CRTO(x) heterostructure could be a model system for investigating the interfacial multiple interactions in correlated oxides.

  7. Impact of P/In flux ratio and epilayer thickness on faceting for nanoscale selective area growth of InP by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Fahed, M; Desplanque, L; Coinon, C; Troadec, D; Wallart, X

    2015-07-24

    The impact of the P/In flux ratio and the deposited thickness on the faceting of InP nanostructures selectively grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is reported. Homoepitaxial growth of InP is performed inside 200 nm wide stripe openings oriented either along a [110] or [1-10] azimuth in a 10 nm thick SiO2 film deposited on an InP(001) substrate. When varying the P/In flux ratio, no major shape differences are observed for [1-10]-oriented apertures. On the other hand, the InP nanostructure cross sections strongly evolve for [110]-oriented apertures for which (111)B facets are more prominent and (001) ones shrink for large P/In flux ratio values. These results show that the growth conditions allow tailoring the nanocrystal shape. They are discussed in the framework of the equilibrium crystal shape model using existing theoretical calculations of the surface energies of different low-index InP surfaces as a function of the phosphorus chemical potential, directly related to the P/In ratio. Experimental observations strongly suggest that the relative (111)A surface energy is probably smaller than the calculated value. We also discuss the evolution of the nanostructure shape with the InP-deposited thickness.

  8. Grown-ups Ought To Know Better.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brightman, Samuel C.

    Among the articles by Sam Brightman collected in this volume from the newsletter, "Adult & Continuing Education Today (ACET)" are the following: "Grown-Ups Ought to Know Better"; "Adult Education: The Only Sure Factor Is Growth"; "Adult Education Important in This Election Year"; "Will Nursery School External Degree Programs Come Next?";…

  9. Molecule diagram from earth-grown crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Like many chemicals in the body, the three-dimensional structure of insulin is extremely complex. When grown on the ground, insulin crystals do not grow as large or as ordered as researchers desire--obscuring the blueprint of the insulin molecules.

  10. Container-grown longleaf pine seedling quality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Hainds; James P. Barnett

    2006-01-01

    The Longleaf Alliance, in cooperation with the USDA Forest Service, the Georgia Forestry Commission, and the Clemson Extension Service, has installed numerous longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedling quality studies across the Southeastern United States. This paper reviews survival and growth for different classes of container-grown longleaf...

  11. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  12. Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael

    1997-12-01

    Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

  13. Compositions of Mg and Se, surface morphology, roughness and Raman property of Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layers grown at various substrate temperatures or dopant transport rates by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Katsuhiko; Urata, Kensuke; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Daichi; Araki, Yasuhiro; Abiru, Masakatsu; Mori, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Tooru; Guo, Qixin

    2015-03-01

    The growth of undoped and phosphorus (P)-doped Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layers on (100) ZnTe substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy was carried out. The compositions of Mg and Se, surface morphology, roughness and Raman property were characterized as a function of substrate temperature. Not only the compositions of Mg and Se but also the crystal quality of undoped Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layer strongly depended upon the substrate temperature. Furthermore, the growth of Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layer nearly-lattice-matched to ZnTe substrate was achieved independent of the transport rate of trisdimethylaminophosphorus. Undoped Zn1-xMgxSeyTe1-y layer nearly-lattice-matched to ZnTe led to improvement of surface roughness. On the other hand, P doping brought about deterioration of crystalline quality.

  14. Biomass of open-grown Virginia pine

    SciTech Connect

    Madgwick, H.A.I.; Olah, F.D.; Burkhart, H.E.

    1977-03-01

    Five open-grown Pinus virginiana trees ranging from 1.05 to 15.78 m tall were destructively sampled and the data used to obtain relationships between tree size and biomass to estimate dry matter production. The ratio of foliage to above-ground woody biomass decreased with tree age from 0.4 for a 7-year-old tree to 0.05 for a 39-year-old tree. Needle longevity increased with tree age. 5 references.

  15. Quantum cascade lasers grown on silicon.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Van, Hoang; Baranov, Alexei N; Loghmari, Zeineb; Cerutti, Laurent; Rodriguez, Jean-Baptiste; Tournet, Julie; Narcy, Gregoire; Boissier, Guilhem; Patriarche, Gilles; Bahriz, Michael; Tournié, Eric; Teissier, Roland

    2018-05-08

    Technological platforms offering efficient integration of III-V semiconductor lasers with silicon electronics are eagerly awaited by industry. The availability of optoelectronic circuits combining III-V light sources with Si-based photonic and electronic components in a single chip will enable, in particular, the development of ultra-compact spectroscopic systems for mass scale applications. The first circuits of such type were fabricated using heterogeneous integration of semiconductor lasers by bonding the III-V chips onto silicon substrates. Direct epitaxial growth of interband III-V laser diodes on silicon substrates has also been reported, whereas intersubband emitters grown on Si have not yet been demonstrated. We report the first quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) directly grown on a silicon substrate. These InAs/AlSb QCLs grown on Si exhibit high performances, comparable with those of the devices fabricated on their native InAs substrate. The lasers emit near 11 µm, the longest emission wavelength of any laser integrated on Si. Given the wavelength range reachable with InAs/AlSb QCLs, these results open the way to the development of a wide variety of integrated sensors.

  16. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  17. Nucleolus in clinostat-grown plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shen-Miller, J.; Dannenhoffer, J.; Hinchman, R.

    1991-05-01

    The clinostat is an apparatus that is used to mimic zero gravity in studies of plant growth in the absence of gravitropic response. Clinostat-grown tissue cultures of carrot exhibit significant increases both in the number of nuclei containing more than one nucleolus and in nucleolar volume. Oat seedlings germinated and grown on clinostats exhibit a decreased rate of shoot elongation, increased tissue sensitivity to applied auxin, and an increased response to gravitropic stimulation. Clinostat treatment clearly affects plant metabolism. The nucleolus is the region in the nucleus where ribosome synthesis and assembly take place. The 18S, 5.8S, and 25S ribosomalmore » genes, in tandem units, are located in the nucleolus. Ribosomes orchestrate the production of all proteins that are necessary for the maintenance of cell growth, development, and survival. A full study of the effects of nullification of gravitropism, by clinostat rotation, on nucleolar development in barley has been initiated. The authors study developmental changes of nucleolar number and diameter in clinostat-grown root tissues. Preliminary results show that barley roots exhibit changes in nucleolar number and diameter. Growth rates of barley root and shoot also appear to be reduced, in measurements of both length and weight.« less

  18. Are randomly grown graphs really random?

    PubMed

    Callaway, D S; Hopcroft, J E; Kleinberg, J M; Newman, M E; Strogatz, S H

    2001-10-01

    We analyze a minimal model of a growing network. At each time step, a new vertex is added; then, with probability delta, two vertices are chosen uniformly at random and joined by an undirected edge. This process is repeated for t time steps. In the limit of large t, the resulting graph displays surprisingly rich characteristics. In particular, a giant component emerges in an infinite-order phase transition at delta=1/8. At the transition, the average component size jumps discontinuously but remains finite. In contrast, a static random graph with the same degree distribution exhibits a second-order phase transition at delta=1/4, and the average component size diverges there. These dramatic differences between grown and static random graphs stem from a positive correlation between the degrees of connected vertices in the grown graph-older vertices tend to have higher degree, and to link with other high-degree vertices, merely by virtue of their age. We conclude that grown graphs, however randomly they are constructed, are fundamentally different from their static random graph counterparts.

  19. The photovoltaic properties of an Al In As/InP heterojunctions grown by LPE method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Edward Y.

    1989-01-01

    Work is presented on heterojunction solar cells which were studied under the NASA/Arizona State University intern program. The heterojunction solar cells were fabricated by the liquid phase epitaxy method. The basic conversion efficiency was measured at 5 percent. It was determined that a thicker epilayer is needed, and that the density of recombination center should be reduced to give a smaller saturation current and hence a larger open-circuit voltage.

  20. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat tails...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat tails...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat tails...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems...

  5. Study of defect structures in 6H-SiC a/m-plane pseudofiber crystals grown by hot-wall CVD epitaxy

    DOE PAGES

    Goue, Ouloide Y.; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Yang, Yu; ...

    2015-11-25

    Structural perfection of silicon carbide (SiC) single crystals is essential to achieve high-performance power devices. A new bulk growth process for SiC proposed by researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center, called large tapered crystal (LTC) growth, based on axial fiber growth followed by lateral expansion, could produce SiC boules with potentially as few as one threading screw dislocation per wafer. In this study, the lateral expansion aspect of LTC growth is addressed through analysis of lateral growth of 6H-SiC a/m-plane seed crystals by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition. Preliminary synchrotron white-beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) indicates that the as-grown boules match themore » polytype structure of the underlying seed and have a faceted hexagonal morphology with a strain-free surface marked by steps. SWBXT Laue diffraction patterns of transverse and axial slices of the boules reveal streaks suggesting the existence of stacking faults/polytypes, and this is confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Transmission x-ray topography of both transverse and axial slices reveals inhomogeneous strains at the seed–epilayer interface and linear features propagating from the seed along the growth direction. Micro-Raman mapping of an axial slice reveals that the seed contains high stacking disorder, while contrast extinction analysis (g·b and g·b×l) of the linear features reveals that these are mostly edge-type basal plane dislocations. Further high-resolution transmission electron microscopy investigation of the seed–homoepilayer interface also reveals nanobands of different SiC polytypes. A model for their formation mechanism is proposed. Lastly, the implication of these results for improving the LTC growth process is addressed.« less

  6. Structural ordering and interface morphology in symmetrically strained(GaIn)As/Ga(PAs) superlattices grown on off-oriented GaAs(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, C.; Tapfer, L.; Zhuang, Y.; de Caro, L.; Marschner, T.; Stolz, W.

    1997-02-01

    In this work we investigate the structural properties of symmetrically strained (GaIn)As/GaAs/Ga(PAs)/GaAs superlattices by means of x-ray diffraction, reciprocal-space mapping, and x-ray reflectivity. The multilayers were grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy on (001) GaAs substrates intentionally off-oriented towards one of the nearest <110> directions. High-resolution triple-crystal reciprocal-space maps recorded for different azimuth angles in the vicinity of the (004) Bragg diffraction clearly show a double periodicity of the x-ray peak intensity that can be ascribed to a lateral and a vertical periodicity occurring parallel and perpendicular to the growth surface. Moreover, from the intensity modulation of the satellite peaks, a lateral-strain gradient within the epilayer unit cell is found, varying from a tensile to a compressive strain. Thus, the substrate off-orientation promotes a lateral modulation of the layer thickness (ordered interface roughness) and of the lattice strain, giving rise to laterally ordered macrosteps. In this respect, contour maps of the specular reflected beam in the vicinity of the (000) reciprocal lattice point were recorded in order to inspect the vertical and lateral interface roughness correlation. A semiquantitative analysis of our results shows that the interface morphology and roughness is greatly influenced by the off-orientation angle and the lateral strain distribution. Two mean spatial wavelengths can be determined, one corresponding exactly to the macrostep periodicity and the other indicating a further interface waviness along the macrosteps. The same spatial periodicities were found on the surface by atomic-force-microscopy images confirming the x-ray results and revealing a strong vertical correlation of the interfaces up to the outer surface.

  7. Theoretical utmost performance of the (1 0 0) long-wave HgCdTe Auger suppressed photodetectors grown on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyniuk, P.; Gawron, W.; Madejczyk, P.; Rogalski, A.

    2017-08-01

    The vast majority of HgCdTe detectors designed to detect long wavelength (8-14 μm) infrared radiation must be cooled to achieve the required performance. It must be stressed that cooling requirement is both expensive and bulky and the main objective is to reach higher operating temperature condition preserving near background limited performance and high speed response. In order to reach that goal the thermal generation rate needs to be reduced below the photon generation rate. Except Auger 7, p-type HgCdTe active layers are mostly limited by technology dependent Shockley-Read-Hall generation-recombination processes. One of the ways to reduce of the trap density is a growth of the (1 0 0) HgCdTe epilayers on GaAs substrates. In addition, that orientation allows reaching lower carrier concentration in comparison to the commonly used (1 1 1) orientation (5 × 1015-1016 cm-3). In this paper we report on theoretical utmost performance of (1 0 0) HgCdTe Auger suppressed photodetectors grown on GaAs substrates. (1 0 0) HgCdTe orientation allows to reduce p-type doping to the level of ∼5 × 1014 cm-3 in analyzed long wavelength range. In addition Shockley-Read-Hall traps could be reduced to the level of ∼4.4 × 108 cm-3 resulting in suppression of the dark current by nearly two orders of magnitude within the range ∼20 ÷ 0.31 A/cm2 and detectivity, ∼1010-1011 cmHz1/2/W at temperature 230 K, voltage 200 mV.

  8. Physical and mechanical properties of saligna eucalyptus grown in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    C.C. Gerhards

    1965-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties were determined for saligna eucalyptus (Eucalyptus saligna, Smith) grown in Hawaii. In comparison with wood of the same species grown in Australia, saligna eucalyptus grown in Hawaii was lower in density, shrinkage, and compressive strength parallel to grain; it was about equal in strength in bending and shear; and it was stiffer....

  9. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  10. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  11. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  12. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  13. Comparison of hydrocarbon yields in cotton from field grown vs. greenhouse grown plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four accession of cotton (SA-1181, 1403, 1419, and 2269) were grown both in field conditions and a greenhouse to compare the environmental effects on leaf biomass, % yield of hydrocarbons (HC), and total HC (g HC /g leaves) under natural and controlled (protected) conditions. Leaf biomass was simi...

  14. Optical Characterization of Bulk ZnSeTe Solid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Feth, S.; Zhu, Shen; Lehoczky, S. L.; Wang, Ling Jun

    2000-01-01

    Optical characterization was performed on wafers sliced from crystals of ZnSe, ZnTe and ZnSe (sub 1-x) Te (sub x) (0 less than x less than 0.4) grown by physical vapor transport technique. The energy band gaps at room temperature were determined from optical transmission measurements on 11 wafers. The best fit to the band gap vs. composition, x, data gives a bowing parameter of 1.336 which is between the value of 1.23 determined previously on ZnSeTe bulk crystals by reflectivity and the value of 1.621 reported on epilayers by photoconductivity. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured on 6 samples. The spectra of ZnSe and ZnTe were dominated by near band edge emissions and no deep donor-acceptor pairs were observed. The PL spectrum exhibited a broad emission for each of the ZnSe (sub 1-x) Te (sub x) samples, 0.09 less than x less than 0.39. For x = 0.09, this emission energy is about 0.2eV lower than the band gap energy measured at low temperature. As x increases the energy discrepancy gradually decreases and reduces to almost zero at x = 0.4. The single broad PL emission spectra and the spectra measured as a function of temperature were interpreted to be associated with the exciton bound to Te clusters because of the high Te content in these samples.

  15. InGaAs(0.98 μm)/GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting laser grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houng, Y. M.; Tan, M. R. T.; Liang, B. W.; Wang, S. Y.; Yang, L.; Mars, D. E.

    1994-03-01

    We report the growth of InGaAs/GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with an emission wavelength at 0.98 μm by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE). The surface emitting laser diodes are composed of a 15-pair p + GaAs/AlAs graded mirror with a 3-quantum well In 0.2Ga 0.8As active region and a 16.5-pair n + GaAs/AlAs grade mirror on an n + GaAs substrate. We use a simple interferometric technique for in-situ monitoring and feedback control of layer thickness to obtain a highly reproducible Bragg reflector. This technique uses an optical pyrometer to measure apparent temperature oscillations of the growing epi-layer surface. These measurements can be performed with continuous substrate rotation and without any growth interruption. The growing layer thickness can then be related to the apparent temperature oscillation spectrum. When the layer reaches the desired thickness, the growth of the subsequent layer is then initiated. By making layer thickness measurements and control in real-time throughout the entire growth cycle of the structure, the center of the mirror reflectivity and the Fabry-Pérot resonance at the desired wavelength can be reproducibly obtained. The reproducibility of the center wavelength and FWHM of the reflectivity stop-band with a variation of ≤ 0.2% was achieved in the AlAs/GaAs mirror stacks grown using this technique. The VCSEL structures with a variation of the Fabry-Pérot wavelength of ≤ 0.4% have been grown. Bottom-emitting laser diodes were fabricated and operated CW at room temperature. CW threshold currents of 3 and 6 mA are measured at room temperature for 10 and 25 μm diameter lasers, respectively. Output powers higher than 15 mW are obtained from these devices. These devices have an external quantum efficiency higher than 40%.

  16. Video of Tissue Grown in Space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Principal investigator Leland Chung grew prostate cancer and bone stromal cells aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Although the experiment samples were lost along with the ill-fated spacecraft and crew, he did obtain downlinked video of the experiment that indicates the enormous potential of growing tissues in microgravity. Cells grown aboard Columbia had grown far larger tissue aggregates at day 5 than did the cells grown in a NASA bioreactor on the ground.

  17. Influence of shading on container-grown flowering dogwoods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bare root dogwoods can be successfully grown when transplanted into a container production system. Shade treatments regardless of color or density did have an effect on the plant growth of Cherokee Brave™ and Cherokee Princess dogwood. Plants grown under 50% black and 50% white shade had more heigh...

  18. 78 FR 28120 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0051; FV12-966-1 FIR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... marketing order which regulates the handling of tomatoes grown in Florida. The interim rule was necessary to...

  19. 78 FR 45898 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 955 [Docket No. AMS-FV-13-0037; FV13-955-2 CR] Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia... document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible producers of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia... Vidalia onions produced in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from September 9...

  20. 78 FR 77367 - Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 981 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-13-0082; FV14-981-1 CR] Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... marketing order that regulates the handling of almonds grown in California. DATES: The referendum will be...

  1. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. Carboxylate metabolism in sugar beet plants grown with excess Zn.

    PubMed

    Sagardoy, R; Morales, F; Rellán-Álvarez, R; Abadía, A; Abadía, J; López-Millán, A F

    2011-05-01

    The effects of Zn excess on carboxylate metabolism were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown hydroponically in a growth chamber. Root extracts of plants grown with 50 or 100μM Zn in the nutrient solution showed increases in several enzymatic activities related to organic acid metabolism, including citrate synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, when compared to activities in control root extracts. Root citric and malic acid concentrations increased in plants grown with 100μM Zn, but not in plants grown with 50μM Zn. In the xylem sap, plants grown with 50 and 100μM Zn showed increases in the concentrations of citrate and malate compared to the controls. Leaves of plants grown with 50 or 100μM Zn showed increases in the concentrations of citric and malic acid and in the activities of citrate synthase and fumarase. Leaf isocitrate dehydrogenase increased only in plants grown with 50μM Zn when compared to the controls. In plants grown with 300μM Zn, the only enzyme showing activity increases in root extracts was citrate synthase, whereas the activities of other enzymes decreased compared to the controls, and root citrate concentrations increased. In the 300μM Zn-grown plants, the xylem concentrations of citric and malic acids were higher than those of controls, whereas in leaf extracts the activity of fumarase increased markedly, and the leaf citric acid concentration was higher than in the controls. Based on our data, a metabolic model of the carboxylate metabolism in sugar beet plants grown under Zn excess is proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Irrigation frequency alters nutrient uptake in container-grown Rhododendron plants grown with different rates of nitrogen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The influence of irrigation frequency (same amount of water per day given at different times) on nutrient uptake of container-grown evergreen Rhododendron ‘P.J.M. Compact’ (PJM) and ‘English Roseum’ (ER) and deciduous Rhododendron ‘Gibraltar’ (AZ) grown with different rates of nitrogen (N) fertilize...

  4. Carbon Nanotube Microarrays Grown on Nanoflake Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Howard K.; Hauge, Robert H.; Pint, Cary; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a new composition of matter where single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are grown in aligned arrays from nanostructured flakes that are coated in Fe catalyst. This method of growth of aligned SWNTs, which can yield well over 400 percent SWNT mass per unit substrate mass, exceeds current yields for entangled SWNT growth. In addition, processing can be performed with minimal wet etching treatments, leaving aligned SWNTs with superior properties over those that exist in entangled mats. The alignment of the nanotubes is similar to that achieved in vertically aligned nanotubes, which are called "carpets. " Because these flakes are grown in a state where they are airborne in a reactor, these flakes, after growing SWNTs, are termed "flying carpets. " These flakes are created in a roll-to-roll evaporator system, where three subsequent evaporations are performed on a 100-ft (approx. =30-m) roll of Mylar. The first layer is composed of a water-soluble "release layer, " which can be a material such as NaCl. After depositing NaCl, the second layer involves 40 nm of supporting layer material . either Al2O3 or MgO. The thickness of the layer can be tuned to synthesize flakes that are larger or smaller than those obtained with a 40-nm deposition. Finally, the third layer consists of a thin Fe catalyst layer with a thickness of 0.5 nm. The thickness of this layer ultimately determines the diameter of SWNT growth, and a layer that is too thick will result in the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes instead of single-wall nanotubes. However, between a thickness of 0.5 nm to 1 nm, single-walled carbon nanotubes are known to be the primary constituent. After this three-layer deposition process, the Mylar is rolled through a bath of water, which allows catalyst-coated flakes to detach from the Mylar. The flakes are then collected and dried. The method described here for making such flakes is analogous to that which is used to make birefringent ink that is

  5. The photovoltaic properties of an Al In As/InP heterojunctions grown by LPE method. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.Y.

    1989-10-01

    Work is presented on heterojunction solar cells which were studied under the NASA/Arizona State University intern program. The heterojunction solar cells were fabricated by the liquid phase epitaxy method. The basic conversion efficiency was measured at 5 percent. It was determined that a thicker epilayer is needed, and that the density of recombination center should be reduced to give a smaller saturation current and hence a larger open-circuit voltage.

  6. Terahertz conductivity of the highly mismatched amorphous alloy, GaNBi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaisakh, C. P.; Foxon, C. T.; Novikov, S. V.; Kini, R. N.

    2017-12-01

    We report terahertz optical conductivity measurements of the highly mismatched alloy, GaNBi. We find that in these amorphous GaNBi epilayers grown using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy, the optical conductivity is enhanced in the samples grown at higher gallium beam equivalent pressure (BEP). The optical conductivity spectra in these pseudo-amorphous epilayers follow a Drude-Smith behaviour due to charge confinement effects. The direct current conductivity in the epilayers grown at the highest Ga BEP (3.1 × 10-7 Torr) show an increase of three orders of magnitude compared to the one grown at the lowest Ga BEP (2.0 × 10-7 Torr). Our measurements suggests a percolative transition from an insulating nature in the GaNBi epilayers grown at low Ga BEP to a highly conducting phase in the epilayers grown at high Ga BEP.

  7. At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups Past Issues / Winter ... by the National Institutes of Health - the Nation's Medical Research Agency. NIH is part of the U.S. ...

  8. Nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    DOEpatents

    Melechko, Anatoli V [Oak Ridge, TN; McKnight, Timothy E [Greenback, TN; Guillorn, Michael A [Ithaca, NY; Ilic, Bojan [Ithaca, NY; Merkulov, Vladimir I [Knoxville, TN; Doktycz, Mitchel J [Knoxville, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, Michael L [Knoxville, TN

    2011-08-23

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoreplicant structure coupled to a surface of the substrate.

  9. GaN grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Kong; Meixin, Feng; Jin, Cai; Hui, Wang; Huaibing, Wang; Hui, Yang

    2015-04-01

    High-quality gallium nitride (GaN) film was grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) and investigated using XRD and SEM. It was found that the optimum thickness of the GaN buffer layer on the NPSS is 15 nm, which is thinner than that on micro-patterned sapphire substrates (MPSS). An interesting phenomenon was observed for GaN film grown on NPSS:GaN mainly grows on the trench regions and little grows on the sidewalls of the patterns at the initial growth stage, which is dramatically different from GaN grown on MPSS. In addition, the electrical and optical properties of LEDs grown on NPSS were characterized. Project supported by the Suzhou Nanojoin Photonics Co., Ltd and the High-Tech Achievements Transformation of Jiangsu Province, China (No.BA2012010).

  10. Growing Media Affect Size of Container-Grown Red Pine

    Treesearch

    Howard M. Phipps

    1974-01-01

    Red pine seedlings were grown in nine different soil media and in two types of containers in a greenhouse. Growth differed significantly among the media after 16 weeks, with the largest seedlings produced in a peat-vermiculite mix

  11. Quality and Quantity Evaluations of Shade Grown Forages

    Treesearch

    K. P. Ladyman; M. S. Kerley; R. L. Kallenbach; H. E. Garrett; J. W. Van Sambeek; N. E. Navarrete-Tindall

    2003-01-01

    Seven legumes were grown during the summer-fall of 2000, at the Horticulture and Agroforestry Research Center (39? 01 ' N, 92? 46' W) near New Franklin, MO. The forages were grown in 7.5L white pots placed on light-colored gravel either under full sunlight, 45% sunlight, or 20% sunlight created by a shade cloth over a rectangular frame. Drip irrigation was...

  12. Law Enforcement Efforts to Control Domestically Grown Marijuana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-25

    mari- juana grown indoors , the involvement of large criminal organizations, and the patterns of domestic marijuana distribution. In response to a GAO...information is particularly important if the amount of marijuana grown indoors and the number of large-scale cultiva- tion and distribution organizations... marijuana indoors is becoming increasingly popular. A 1982 narcotics assessment by the Western States Information Network (WSIN)2 of marijuana

  13. Occurrence of squalene in methanol-grown bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, I; Shechter, I

    1978-01-01

    The nonpolar lipids of methanol-grown bacteria which utilize one-carbon (C1) compounds via the RMP pathway (Pseudomonas C, Pseudomonas methylotropha, and Methylomonas methanolica) were found to contain squalene in concentrations between 0.1 to 1.16 mg/g of cell (dry weight). Squalene could not be detected in lipid extracts of methanol-grown bacteria which utilize C1 compounds via the serine pathway. PMID:98521

  14. Photosynthesis and Biomass Allocation in Oak Seedlings Grown Under Shade

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    1998-01-01

    Abstract-Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) (NRO) and white oak (Q. alba L.) (WO) acorns were sown into wooden plots and grown under 30 percent shade screen (30 percent S) or 70 percent shade screen (70 percent S). Seedlings grown under full sun were the controls (C). At the end of the first year, the 30 percent S NRO had 30 percent greater seedling dry weight (DW...

  15. Quantification of confocal images of biofilms grown on irregular surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Stacy Sommerfeld; Tu, Mai Han; Falsetta, Megan L.; Ketterer, Margaret R.; Kiedrowski, Megan R.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Apicella, Michael A.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Fiegel, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms grow on many types of surfaces, including flat surfaces such as glass and metal and irregular surfaces such as rocks, biological tissues and polymers. While laser scanning confocal microscopy can provide high-resolution images of biofilms grown on any surface, quantification of biofilm-associated bacteria is currently limited to bacteria grown on flat surfaces. This can limit researchers studying irregular surfaces to qualitative analysis or quantification of only the total bacteria in an image. In this work, we introduce a new algorithm called modified connected volume filtration (MCVF) to quantify bacteria grown on top of an irregular surface that is fluorescently labeled or reflective. Using the MCVF algorithm, two new quantification parameters are introduced. The modified substratum coverage parameter enables quantification of the connected-biofilm bacteria on top of the surface and on the imaging substratum. The utility of MCVF and the modified substratum coverage parameter were shown with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms grown on human airway epithelial cells. A second parameter, the percent association, provides quantified data on the colocalization of the bacteria with a labeled component, including bacteria within a labeled tissue. The utility of quantifying the bacteria associated with the cell cytoplasm was demonstrated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae biofilms grown on cervical epithelial cells. This algorithm provides more flexibility and quantitative ability to researchers studying biofilms grown on a variety of irregular substrata. PMID:24632515

  16. Growth and Characterization of (211)B Cadmium Telluride Buffer Layer Grown by Metal-organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy on Nanopatterned Silicon for Mercury Cadmium Telluride Based Infrared Detector Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintri, Shashidhar S.

    Mercury cadmium telluride (MCT or Hg1-xCdxTe) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is presently the material of choice for fabricating infrared (IR) detectors used in night vision based military applications. The focus of MCT epitaxy has gradually shifted since the last decade to using Si as the starting substrate since it offers several advantages. But the ˜19 % lattice mismatch between MCT and Si generates lots of crystal defects some of which degrade the performance of MCT devices. Hence thick CdTe films are used as buffer layers on Si to accommodate the defects. However, growth of high quality single crystal CdTe on Si is challenging and to date, the best MBE CdTe/Si reportedly has defects in the mid-105 cm -2 range. There is a critical need to reduce the defect levels by at least another order of magnitude, which is the main motivation behind the present work. The use of alternate growth technique called metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) offers some advantages over MBE and in this work MOVPE has been employed to grow the various epitaxial films. In the first part of this work, conditions for obtaining high quality (211)B CdTe epitaxy on (211)Si were achieved, which also involved studying the effect of having additional intermediate buffer layers such as Ge and ZnTe and incorporation of in-situ thermal cyclic annealing (TCA) to reduce the dislocation density. A critical problem of Si cross-contamination due to 'memory effect' of different reactant species was minimized by introducing tertiarybutylArsine (TBAs) which resulted in As-passivation of (211)Si. The best 8-10 µm thick CdTe films on blanket (non-patterned) Si had dislocations around 3×105 cm-2, which are the best reported by MOVPE till date and comparable to the highest quality films available by MBE. In the second part of the work, nanopatterned (211)Si was used to study the effect of patterning on the crystal quality of epitaxial CdTe. In one such study, patterning of ˜20 nm holes in SiO2

  17. Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathy, B. C.; Brown, C. S.; Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

  18. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  19. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-11-16

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies.

  20. Spatial Distribution of Photosynthesis during Drought in Field-Grown and Acclimated and Nonacclimated Growth Chamber-Grown Cotton 1

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Robert R.; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Ort, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    Inhomogeneous photosynthetic activity has been reported to occur in drought-stressed leaves. In addition, it has been suggested that these water stress-induced nonuniformities in photosynthesis are caused by “patchy” stomatal closure and that the phenomenon may have created the illusion of a nonstomatal component to the inhibition of photosynthesis. Because these earlier studies were performed with nonacclimated growth chamber-grown plants, we sought to determine whether such “patches” existed in drought-treated, field-grown plants or in chamber-grown plants that had been acclimated to low leaf water potentials (ψleaf). Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was grown in the field and subjected to drought by withholding irrigation and rain from 24 d after planting. The distribution of photosynthesis, which may reflect the stomatal aperture distribution in a heterobaric species such as cotton, was assayed by autoradiography after briefly exposing attached leaves of field-grown plants to 14CO2. A homogeneous distribution of radioactive photosynthate was evident even at the lowest ψleaf of −1.34 MPa. “Patchiness” could, however, be induced by uprooting the plant and allowing the shoot to air dry for 6 to 8 min. In parallel studies, growth chamber-grown plants were acclimated to drought by withholding irrigation for three 5-d drought cycles interspersed with irrigation. This drought acclimation lowered the ψleaf value at which control rates of photosynthesis could be sustained by approximately 0.7 MPa and was accompanied by a similar decline in the ψleaf at which patchiness first appeared. Photosynthetic inhomogeneities in chamber-grown plants that were visible during moderate water stress and ambient levels of CO2 could be largely removed with elevated CO2 levels (3000 μL L−1), suggesting that they were stomatal in nature. However, advanced dehydration (less than approximately 2.0 MPa) resulted in “patches” that could not be so removed and were

  1. Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxial Reactor for the Deposition of Infrared Detector Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-09

    out during 2013. A set of growth experiments to deposit CdTe and ZnTe thin films on GaAs and Si substrates was carried out to test the system...After several dummy runs, a few growth runs to deposit CdTe and ZnTe, both doped and undoped, were grown on 3-inch diameter Si substrates or part of...to deposit CdTe and ZnTe on Si and GaAs substrates for use in this project. Some layers have been processed to make solar cells. Project 3

  2. Large-area, laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor layers

    DOEpatents

    Han, Jung; Song, Jie; Chen, Danti

    2017-07-18

    Structures and methods for confined lateral-guided growth of a large-area semiconductor layer on an insulating layer are described. The semiconductor layer may be formed by heteroepitaxial growth from a selective growth area in a vertically-confined, lateral-growth guiding structure. Lateral-growth guiding structures may be formed in arrays over a region of a substrate, so as to cover a majority of the substrate region with laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor tiles. Quality regions of low-defect, stress-free GaN may be grown on silicon.

  3. Dislocation Density Reduction in Cadmium Telluride and Mercury Cadmium Telluride Grown on Silicon Using Thermal Cycle Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Stuart Bennett

    Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) is a material of great importance for infrared focal plane array applications. In order to produce large format detector arrays this material needs to be grown on a large area substrate, with silicon being the most mature substrate, it is the optimal choice for large format arrays. To help mitigate the effect of the lattice mismatch between the two materials, cadmium telluride (CdTe) is used as a buffer layer. The CdTe itself has nearly the same lattice mismatch (19.3%) to silicon, but due to the technological advantages it offers and compatibility with HgCdTe, it is the best buffer layer choice. The lattice mismatch between HgCdTe/CdTe and the silicon substrate leads to the formation of dislocations at densities in the mid 106 to low 107 cm-2 range in the epilayers. Such a high dislocation density greatly effects detector device performance quantities such as operability and sensitivity. Hence, the dislocation density should be brought down by at least an order of magnitude by adopting novel in situ and ex situ material processing techniques. In this work, in situ and ex situ thermal cycle annealing (TCA) methods have been used to decrease dislocation density in CdTe and HgCdTe. During the molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of the CdTe buffer layer, the growth was interrupted and the layer was subjected to an annealing cycle within the growth chamber under tellurium overpressure. During the annealing cycle the temperature is raised to beyond the growth temperature (290 → 550 °C) and then allowed to cool before resuming growth again. This process was repeated several times during the growth. After growth, a portion of the material was subjected to a dislocation decoration etch in order to count the etch pit density (EPD) which has a direct correspondence with the dislocation density in the crystal. The crystalline quality was also characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking curves and photoluminescence. The in situ TCA

  4. Photoluminescence study of MBE grown InGaN with intentional indium segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Maurice C.; Namkoong, Gon; Chen, Fei; Furis, Madalina; Pudavar, Haridas E.; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2005-05-01

    Proper control of MBE growth conditions has yielded an In0.13Ga0.87N thin film sample with emission consistent with In-segregation. The photoluminescence (PL) from this epilayer showed multiple emission components. Moreover, temperature and power dependent studies of the PL demonstrated that two of the components were excitonic in nature and consistent with indium phase separation. At 15 K, time resolved PL showed a non-exponential PL decay that was well fitted with the stretched exponential solution expected for disordered systems. Consistent with the assumed carrier hopping mechanism of this model, the effective lifetime, , and the stretched exponential parameter, , decrease with increasing emission energy. Finally, room temperature micro-PL using a confocal microscope showed spatial clustering of low energy emission.

  5. Luminescence and Scintillation Properties of Czochralski Grown LYGBO Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawad, U.; Kim, Hong Joo; Park, H.; Kim, Sunghwan; Khan, Sajid

    2016-06-01

    Mixed crystals Li6YxGd1-x(BO3)3:Ce3+ (LYGBO) (where, x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0) are grown by using Czochralski method with different proportions of Li6Y(BO3)3 and Li6Gd(BO3)3. All crystals are doped with 3 mole% optimized concentrations of Ce3+ ions. The grown crystals are 20-70 mm in length and 5-10 mm in diameter. Detailed sintering and crystal growth procedure is presented in this study. The required phase of the grown crystals is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence and X-ray induced luminescence of the grown crystals at room temperature are measured. Various scintillation properties such as energy resolution, light yield, α/β ratio and fluorescence decay time under the excitation by 137Cs γ-ray and 241Am particles are also presented.

  6. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 966 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-13-0076; FV13-966-1 PR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased... rule would increase the assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2013- 14 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.024 to $0.0375 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes...

  7. 77 FR 21492 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 966 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0080; FV11-966-1 PR] Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased... increase the assessment rate established for the Florida Tomato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-12 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0275 to $0.037 per 25-pound carton of tomatoes handled. The Committee...

  8. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the...

  9. Transgene expression of lilies grown in the greenhouse and outdoors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White plants were transformed with either the bar-uidA fusion gene or the npt II and uidA genes and grown for two seasons in the greenhouse and outdoors in containers. All transgenes were under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. During the first year there was no differ...

  10. Atomically flat platinum films grown on synthetic mica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2018-04-01

    Atomically flat platinum thin films were heteroepitaxially grown on synthetic fluorophlogopite mica [KMg3(AlSi3O10)F2] by van der Waals epitaxy. Platinum films deposited on a fluorophlogopite mica substrate by inductively coupled plasma-assisted sputtering with oxygen introduction on a synthetic mica substrate resulted in the growth of twin single-crystalline epitaxial Pt(111) films.

  11. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0010; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural... Marketing Order No. 946 (7 CFR part 946), hereinafter referred to as the ``order,'' and the applicable...

  12. Energy content of tropical grasses and legumes grown for bioenergy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biomass samples of the tropical grasses Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Staph, Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick, Brachiaria decumbens Staph, Panicum maximum Jacq., Pennistetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng and three species of the tropical legume Stylosanthes grown in Mato Grosso do Su...

  13. Seed handling practices for southern pines grown in containers

    Treesearch

    William H. Pawuk; James P. Barnett

    1979-01-01

    Cost of producing container-grown seedlings increase when containers are not fully stocked. Best use of containers requires high seed viability and low losses of newly germinated seedlings. Seed handling practices before and after sowing affect germination and seedling survival. This is a summary of seed preperation, sowing rates, disease control, and seed...

  14. Lumber grade recoverey from Hawaii-grown robusta Eucalyptus logs

    Treesearch

    Roger G. Skolmen

    1970-01-01

    In part to supplement meager data on lumber grade yield of Hawaii-grown timber, 30 robusta eucalyptus logs were shipped to a Michigan sawmill for processing. The logs were from 12 trees in three different stands. The lumber produced was graded according to National Hardwood Lumber Association standards. The sample was too small to provide a basis for predicting grade...

  15. Fertilizer applications for container-grown ornamental tree production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of better utilization of nutrients during the growing season is needed to produce marketable container-grown ornamental shade trees economically. Fertilizer practices to grow Acer rubrum ‘Red Sunset’ trees in two separate fields (each containing four plots) irrigated with either city or po...

  16. Nutrient leaching from container-grown ornamental tree production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Economically producing marketable container-grown ornamental shade trees with minimum amounts of nutrient leachate requires better management of nutrient applications during a growing season. Fertilizer practices with 16 treatments were used to test the nutrient leachate for growing Acer rubrum ‘Red...

  17. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  18. Shade periodicity affects growth of container grown dogwoods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Container-grown dogwoods rank third in the US in nursery sales of ornamental trees. However, Dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture, especially when bare root liners are used as the initial transplant into containers due unacceptable levels of mortality and poor growth. This...

  19. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California olive... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-09-0089; FV10-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  20. Pest Control For Container-Grown Longleaf Pine

    Treesearch

    Scott Enebak; Bill Carey

    2002-01-01

    Several insect, weed, and disease pests are discussed that have been observed affecting container-grown longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings. The available tools to minimize the effects of these pests are limited to a few select insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Extreme care should be taken to ensure that the chemical chosen is...

  1. Increased occurrence of pesticide residues on crops grown in protected environments compared to crops grown in open field conditions.

    PubMed

    Allen, Gina; Halsall, Crispin J; Ukpebor, Justina; Paul, Nigel D; Ridall, Gareth; Wargent, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    Crops grown under plastic-clad structures or in greenhouses may be prone to an increased frequency of pesticide residue detections and higher concentrations of pesticides relative to equivalent crops grown in the open field. To test this we examined pesticide data for crops selected from the quarterly reports (2004-2009) of the UK's Pesticide Residue Committee. Five comparison crop pairs were identified whereby one crop of each pair was assumed to have been grown primarily under some form of physical protection ('protected') and the other grown primarily in open field conditions ('open'). For each pair, the number of detectable pesticide residues and the proportion of crop samples containing pesticides were statistically compared (n=100 s samples for each crop). The mean concentrations of selected photolabile pesticides were also compared. For the crop pairings of cabbage ('open') vs. lettuce ('protected') and 'berries' ('open') vs. strawberries ('protected') there was a significantly higher number of pesticides and proportion of samples with multiple residues for the protected crops. Statistically higher concentrations of pesticides, including cypermethrin, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, boscalid and iprodione were also found in the protected crops compared to the open crops. The evidence here demonstrates that, in general, the protected crops possess a higher number of detectable pesticides compared to analogous crops grown in the open. This may be due to different pesticide-use regimes, but also due to slower rates of pesticide removal in protected systems. The findings of this study raise implications for pesticide management in protected-crop systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanophotonic integrated circuits from nanoresonators grown on silicon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Roger; Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Parekh, Devang; Lu, Fanglu; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Li, Kun; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2014-07-07

    Harnessing light with photonic circuits promises to catalyse powerful new technologies much like electronic circuits have in the past. Analogous to Moore's law, complexity and functionality of photonic integrated circuits depend on device size and performance scale. Semiconductor nanostructures offer an attractive approach to miniaturize photonics. However, shrinking photonics has come at great cost to performance, and assembling such devices into functional photonic circuits has remained an unfulfilled feat. Here we demonstrate an on-chip optical link constructed from InGaAs nanoresonators grown directly on a silicon substrate. Using nanoresonators, we show a complete toolkit of circuit elements including light emitters, photodetectors and a photovoltaic power supply. Devices operate with gigahertz bandwidths while consuming subpicojoule energy per bit, vastly eclipsing performance of prior nanostructure-based optoelectronics. Additionally, electrically driven stimulated emission from an as-grown nanostructure is presented for the first time. These results reveal a roadmap towards future ultradense nanophotonic integrated circuits.

  3. Large local lattice expansion in graphene adlayers grown on copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaoyu; Avila, José; Arezki, Hakim; Nguyen, Van Luan; Shen, Jiahong; Mucha-Kruczyński, Marcin; Yao, Fei; Boutchich, Mohamed; Chen, Yue; Lee, Young Hee; Asensio, Maria C.

    2018-05-01

    Variations of the lattice parameter can significantly change the properties of a material, and, in particular, its electronic behaviour. In the case of graphene, however, variations of the lattice constant with respect to graphite have been limited to less than 2.5% due to its well-established high in-plane stiffness. Here, through systematic electronic and lattice structure studies, we report regions where the lattice constant of graphene monolayers grown on copper by chemical vapour deposition increases up to 7.5% of its relaxed value. Density functional theory calculations confirm that this expanded phase is energetically metastable and driven by the enhanced interaction between the substrate and the graphene adlayer. We also prove that this phase possesses distinctive chemical and electronic properties. The inherent phase complexity of graphene grown on copper foils revealed in this study may inspire the investigation of possible metastable phases in other seemingly simple heterostructure systems.

  4. Neural signal registration and analysis of axons grown in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigareva, Y.; Malishev, E.; Gladkov, A.; Kolpakov, V.; Bukatin, A.; Mukhina, I.; Kazantsev, V.; Pimashkin, A.

    2016-08-01

    Registration of neuronal bioelectrical signals remains one of the main physical tools to study fundamental mechanisms of signal processing in the brain. Neurons generate spiking patterns which propagate through complex map of neural network connectivity. Extracellular recording of isolated axons grown in microchannels provides amplification of the signal for detailed study of spike propagation. In this study we used neuronal hippocampal cultures grown in microfluidic devices combined with microelectrode arrays to investigate a changes of electrical activity during neural network development. We found that after 5 days in vitro after culture plating the spiking activity appears first in microchannels and on the next 2-3 days appears on the electrodes of overall neural network. We conclude that such approach provides a convenient method to study neural signal processing and functional structure development on a single cell and network level of the neuronal culture.

  5. Methane digester for wastewater grown aquatic plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to build and test a small-scale, prototype anaerobic digester using wastewater grown aquatic plants as feed stock. Two 150 gal. digesters of the horizontal ''bag'' shape were constructed and fed with water hyacinths and duckweed plants grown on wastewater. Bio-films were added to increase methane bacteria surface attachment area, and solar heating was used to increase operating temperatures. Repeated difficulties were encountered with the low cost materials and construction techniques used, causing leaks of liquids and methane gas, and in the solar heat exchanger. As a consequence, no reliable data were obtained on performance.more » Due to an inadequate budget, the project was terminated without making construction changes needed to properly operate the system for a long period of time. 15 refs., 7 figs.« less

  6. Platinum blue staining of cells grown in electrospun scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohammed; Millas, Ana Luiza G; Estandarte, Ana Katrina C; Bhella, Gurdeep K; McKean, Robert; Bittencourt, Edison; Robinson, Ian K

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast cells grown in electrospun polymer scaffolds were stained with platinum blue, a heavy metal stain, and imaged using scanning electron microscopy. Good contrast on the cells was achieved compared with samples that were gold sputter coated. The cell morphology could be clearly observed, and the cells could be distinguished from the scaffold fibers. Here we optimized the required concentration of platinum blue for imaging cells grown in scaffolds and show that a higher concentration causes platinum aggregation. Overall, platinum blue is a useful stain for imaging cells because of its enhanced contrast using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the future it would be useful to investigate cell growth and morphology using three-dimensional imaging methods.

  7. Synchrotron studies of top-down grown silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turishchev, S. Yu.; Parinova, E. V.; Nesterov, D. N.; Koyuda, D. A.; Sivakov, V.; Schleusener, A.; Terekhov, V. A.

    2018-06-01

    Morphology of the top-down grown silicon nanowires obtained by metal-assisted wet-chemical approach on silicon substrates with different resistance were studied by scanning electron microscopy. Obtained arrays of compact grown Si nanowires were a subject for the high resolution electronic structures studies by X-ray absorption near edge structure technique performed with the usage of high intensity synchrotron radiation of the SRC storage ring of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The different oxidation rates were found by investigation of silicon atoms local surrounding specificity of the highly developed surface and near surface layer that is not exceeded 70 nm. Flexibility of the wires arrays surface morphology and its composition is demonstrated allowing smoothly form necessary surface oxidation rate and using Si nanowires as a useful matrixes for a wide range of further functionalization.

  8. Reproductive Ontogeny of Wheat Grown on the MIR Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Stieber, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    The reproductive ontogeny of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat grown on the space station Mir is chronicled from the vegetative phase through flower development. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition From the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Filament elongation, which characteristically occurs just prior to anthesis and moves the anthers through the stigmatic branches thus facilitating pollination, did no1 xcur in the flowers of spikes grown on Mir. While development of spikes on tillers typically occurs later :han that of spikes on the main stem, all flowers appear to be arrested at the same developmental point.

  9. Growth and characterization of hexamethylenetetramine crystals grown from solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, B.; Chandrasekaran, J.; Balaprabhakaran, S.

    2014-06-01

    Organic nonlinear optical single crystals of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT; 10 × 10 × 5 mm3) were prepared by crystallization from methanol solution. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization techniques such as single crystal XRD, powder XRD, UV-Vis and electrical studies. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed the crystalline structure of the grown crystals. Their crystalline nature was also confirmed by powder XRD technique. The optical transmittance property was identified from UV-Vis spectrum. Dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency at different temperatures. DC conductivity and photoconductivity studies were also carried out for the crystal. The powder second harmonic generation efficiency (SHG) of the crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser and the efficiency was found to be two times greater than that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  10. Summer planting of container-grown northern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Raymond Graber

    1978-01-01

    Seedlings of paper birch and yellow birch were grown in Styrofoam blocks of two cavity sizes, 40 cc and 125 cc, in four different soil mixes. After 16 weeks, the seedlings were outplanted on a cleared forest site in mid July. Seedling survival for all treatments after two growing seasons was very good (98.8 percent). The effects of container size and soil mix were...

  11. Nano transfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    DOEpatents

    Melechko, Anatoli V [Oak Ridge, TN; McKnight, Timothy E [Greenback, TN; Guillorn, Michael A [Ithaca, NY; Ilic, Bojan [Ithaca, NY; Merkulov, Vladimir I [Knoxville, TX; Doktycz, Mitchel J [Knoxville, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, Michael L [Knoxville, TN

    2012-03-27

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. An apparatus, includes a substrate and a nanoconduit material coupled to a surface of the substrate. The substrate defines an aperture and the nanoconduit material defines a nanoconduit that is i) contiguous with the aperture and ii) aligned substantially non-parallel to a plane defined by the surface of the substrate.

  12. Polyol concentrations in Aspergillus repens grown under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Kelavkar, U P; Chhatpar, H S

    1993-09-01

    Na(+), K(+) and the ratio of Na(+)/K(+) were higher in cells of the halotolerant Aspergillus repens grown with 2 M NaCl than without NaCl. The osmolytes, proline, glycerol, betaine and glutamate, did not affect the Na(+)/K(+) ratio, nor the polyol content of cells under any conditions. The concentrations of polyols, consisting of glycerol, arabitol, erythritol and mannitol, changed markedly during growth, indicating that they have a crucial role in osmotic adaptation.

  13. Characterization of Graphene Grown Directly on Crystalline Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwell, Sara L.

    Graphene has become one of the most popular materials under research, particularly since the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. Many visions posit that graphene electronics will be some of the fastest and smallest circuitry physically feasible, however before this becomes reality the scientific community must gain a firm handle on the creation of semiconducting varieties of graphene. In addition, well understood epitaxial growth of graphene on insulating materials will add to the facility of fabricating all-carbon electronics. This thesis presents experimental work detailing the growth of pristine graphene grown on sapphire (GOS) through the thermal decomposition of acetylene, and the electronic characterization of graphene grown on nitrogen-seeded silicon carbide (NG), a semiconducting variety of graphene grown in collaboration with researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology and Rutgers University. GOS displays turbostratic stacking and characteristics of monolayer graphene as analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Scanning tunneling microscopy characterization of NG illustrates a topography of pleats from 0.5-2 nm tall, 1-4 nm thick, and 1-20 nm long, as well as atomically flat plateaus and other areas of intermixed features. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements across NG features show peaks interpreted as Landau levels induced by strain. Analysis of these Landau levels in coordination with previous characterization concludes that a model employing a bandgap fits best.

  14. Chromosome Conformation of Human Fibroblasts Grown in 3-Dimensional Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiming; Comment, Nicholas; Chen, Jie; Ronquist, Scott; Hero, Alfred; Ried, Thomas; Rajapakse, Indika

    2015-01-01

    In the study of interphase chromosome organization, genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) maps are often generated using 2-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures. These 2D cells have morphological deviations from cells that exist in 3-dimensional (3D) tissues in vivo, and may not maintain the same chromosome conformation. We used Hi-C maps to test the extent of differences in chromosome conformation between human fibroblasts grown in 2D cultures and those grown in 3D spheroids. Significant differences in chromosome conformation were found between 2D cells and those grown in spheroids. Intra-chromosomal interactions were generally increased in spheroid cells, with a few exceptions, while inter-chromosomal interactions were generally decreased. Overall, chromosomes located closer to the nuclear periphery had increased intra-chromosomal contacts in spheroid cells, while those located more centrally had decreased interactions. This study highlights the necessity to conduct studies on the topography of the interphase nucleus under conditions that mimic an in vivo environment. PMID:25738643

  15. Solution-Grown Rubrene Crystals as Radiation Detecting Devices

    DOE PAGES

    Carman, Leslie; Martinez, H. Paul; Voss, Lars; ...

    2017-01-11

    There has been increased interest in organic semiconductors over the last decade because of their unique properties. Of these, 5, 6, 11, 12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) has generated the most interest because of its high charge carrier mobility. In this paper, large single crystals with a volume of ~1 cm 3 were grown from solution by a temperature reduction technique. The faceted crystals had flat surfaces and cm-scale, visually defect-free areas suitable for physical characterization. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that solvent does not incorporate into the crystals and photoluminescence spectra are consistent with pristine, high-crystallinity rubrene. Furthermore, the response curve to pulsedmore » optical illumination indicates that the solution grown crystals are of similar quality to those grown by physical vapor transport, albeit larger. The good quality of these crystals in combination with the improvement of electrical contacts by application of conductive polymer on the graphite electrodes have led to the clear observation of alpha particles with these rubrene detectors. Finally, preliminary results with a 252Cf source generate a small signal with the rubrene detector and may demonstrate that rubrene can also be used for detecting high-energy neutrons.« less

  16. Expression of virulence factors by Staphylococcus aureus grown in serum.

    PubMed

    Oogai, Yuichi; Matsuo, Miki; Hashimoto, Masahito; Kato, Fuminori; Sugai, Motoyuki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2011-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces many virulence factors, including toxins, immune-modulatory factors, and exoenzymes. Previous studies involving the analysis of virulence expression were mainly performed by in vitro experiments using bacterial medium. However, when S. aureus infects a host, the bacterial growth conditions are quite different from those in a medium, which may be related to the different expression of virulence factors in the host. In this study, we investigated the expression of virulence factors in S. aureus grown in calf serum. The expression of many virulence factors, including hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases, and iron acquisition factors, was significantly increased compared with that in bacterial medium. In addition, the expression of RNA III, a global regulon for virulence expression, was significantly increased. This effect was partially restored by the addition of 300 μM FeCl₃ into serum, suggesting that iron depletion is associated with the increased expression of virulence factors in serum. In chemically defined medium without iron, a similar effect was observed. In a mutant with agr inactivated grown in serum, the expression of RNA III, psm, and sec4 was not increased, while other factors were still induced in the mutant, suggesting that another regulatory factor(s) is involved. In addition, we found that serum albumin is a major factor for the capture of free iron to prevent the supply of iron to bacteria grown in serum. These results indicate that S. aureus expresses virulence factors in adaptation to the host environment.

  17. Developmental, nutritional and hormonal anomalies of weightlessness-grown wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carman, J. G.; Hole, P.; Salisbury, F. B.; Bingham, G. E.

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of water in weightlessness, as occurs in orbiting spacecraft, presents multiple challenges for plant growth. Soils remain saturated, impeding aeration, and leaf surfaces remain wet, impeding gas exchange. Herein we report developmental and biochemical anomalies of "Super Dwarf" wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown aboard Space Station Mir during the 1996-97 "Greenhouse 2" experiment. Leaves of Mir-grown wheat were hyperhydric, senesced precociously and accumulated aromatic and branched-chain amino acids typical of tissues experiencing oxidative stress. The highest levels of stress-specific amino acids occurred in precociously-senescing leaves. Our results suggest that the leaf ventilation system of the Svet Greenhouse failed to remove sufficient boundary layer water, thus leading to poor gas exchange and onset of oxidative stress. As oxidative stress in plants has been observed in recent space-flight experiments, we recommend that percentage water content in apoplast free-spaces of leaves be used to evaluate leaf ventilation effectiveness. Mir-grown plants also tillered excessively. Crowns and culms of these plants contained low levels of abscisic acid but high levels of cytokinins. High ethylene levels may have suppressed abscisic acid synthesis, thus permitting cytokinins to accumulate and tillering to occur.

  18. Induced abnormality in Mir- and Earth grown Super Dwarf wheat.

    PubMed

    Bubenheim, D L; Stieber, J; Campbell, W F; Salisbury, F B; Levinski, M; Sytchev, V; Podolsky, I; Chernova, L; Pdolsky, I

    2003-01-01

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing 'Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  19. Developmental, nutritional and hormonal anomalies of weightlessness-grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Carman, J G; Hole, P; Salisbury, F B; Bingham, G E

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of water in weightlessness, as occurs in orbiting spacecraft, presents multiple challenges for plant growth. Soils remain saturated, impeding aeration, and leaf surfaces remain wet, impeding gas exchange. Herein we report developmental and biochemical anomalies of "Super Dwarf" wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown aboard Space Station Mir during the 1996-97 "Greenhouse 2" experiment. Leaves of Mir-grown wheat were hyperhydric, senesced precociously and accumulated aromatic and branched-chain amino acids typical of tissues experiencing oxidative stress. The highest levels of stress-specific amino acids occurred in precociously-senescing leaves. Our results suggest that the leaf ventilation system of the Svet Greenhouse failed to remove sufficient boundary layer water, thus leading to poor gas exchange and onset of oxidative stress. As oxidative stress in plants has been observed in recent space-flight experiments, we recommend that percentage water content in apoplast free-spaces of leaves be used to evaluate leaf ventilation effectiveness. Mir-grown plants also tillered excessively. Crowns and culms of these plants contained low levels of abscisic acid but high levels of cytokinins. High ethylene levels may have suppressed abscisic acid synthesis, thus permitting cytokinins to accumulate and tillering to occur. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Induced abnormality in Mir- and Earth grown Super Dwarf wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Stieber, J.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Levinski, M.; Sytchev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Chernova, L.; Pdolsky, I.

    2003-01-01

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing 'Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  1. Assessing biodiesel quality parameters for wastewater grown Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Bagul, Samadhan Yuvraj; K Bharti, Randhir; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2017-07-01

    Microalgae are reported as the efficient source of renewable biodiesel which should be able to meet the global demand of transport fuels. Present study is focused on assessment of wastewater grown indigenous microalga Chlorella sp. for fuel quality parameters. This was successfully grown in secondary treated waste water diluted with tap water (25% dilution) in glass house. The microalga showed a dry weight of 0.849 g L -1 with lipid content of 27.1% on dry weight basis on 21st day of incubation. After transesterification, the yield of fatty acid methyl ester was 80.64% with major fatty acids as palmitic, linoleic, oleic and linolenic. The physical parameters predicted from empirical equations in the biodiesel showed cetane number as 56.5, iodine value of 75.5 g I 2 100 g -1 , high heating value 40.1 MJ kg -1 , flash point 135 °C, kinematic viscosity 4.05 mm 2 s -1 with density of 0.86 g cm 3 and cold filter plugging point as 0.7 °C. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), 1 H, 13 C NMR spectrum confirmed the chemical nature of biodiesel. The results indicated that the quality of biodiesel was almost as per the criterion of ASTM standards; hence, wastewater grown Chlorella sp. can be used as a promising strain for biodiesel production.

  2. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assessmore » metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.« less

  3. Profiling of MOCVD- and MBE-grown VCSEL wafers for WDM sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sze, Theresa; Mahbobzadeh, A. M.; Cheng, Julian; Hersee, Stephen D.; Osinski, Marek; Brueck, Steven R. J.; Malloy, Kevin J.

    1993-06-01

    We compare vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers grown by molecular beam epitaxial methods to those grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition methods as sources for wavelength-division multiplexing systems.

  4. Comparative Floral Development of Mir-Grown and Ethylene-Treated, Earth-Grown Super Dwarf Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William F.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Bugbee, Bruce; Klassen, Steven; Naegle, Erin; Strickland, Darren T.; Bingham, Gail E.; Levinskikh, Margarita; Iljina, Galena M.; Veselova, Tatjana D.

    2001-01-01

    To study plant growth in microgravity, we grew Super Dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Svet growth chamber onboard the orbiting Russian space station, Mir, and in identical ground control units at the Institute of BioMedical Problems in Moscow, Russia. Seedling emergence was 56% and 73% in the two root-module compartments on Mir and 75% and 90% on Earth. Growth was vigorous (produced ca. 1 kg dry mass), and individual plants produced 5 to 8 tillers on Mir compared with 3 to 5 on Earth-grown controls. Upon harvest in space and return to Earth, however, all inflorescences of the flight-grown plants were sterile. To ascertain if Super Dwarf wheat responded to the 1.1 to 1.7 micromol/mol atmospheric levels of ethylene measured on the Mir prior to and during flowering, plants on earth were exposed to 0, 1, 3, 10, and 20 micromol/mol of ethylene gas and 1200 micromol/mol CO2 from 7d after emergence to maturity. As in our Mir wheat, plant height, awn length, and the flag leaf were significantly shorter in the ethylene-exposed plants than in controls; inflorescences also exhibited 100% sterility. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of florets from Mir-grown and ethylene-treated, earth-grown plants showed that development ceased prior to anthesis, and the anthers did not dehisce. Laser scanning confocal microscopic (LSCM) examination of pollen grains from Mir and ethylene-treated plants on earth exhibited zero, one, and occasionally two, but rarely three nuclei; pollen produced in the absence of ethylene was always trinucleate, the normal condition. The scarcity of trinucleate pollen, abrupt cessation of floret development prior to anthesis, and excess tillering in wheat plants on Mir and in ethylene-containing atmospheres on earth build a strong case for the ethylene on Mir as the agent for the induced male sterility and other symptoms, rather than microgravity.

  5. Dielectric Spectroscopy Study of ZnSe Grown by Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kokan, J.; Gerhardt, R.; Su, Ching-Hua

    1997-01-01

    The dielectric properties of ZnSe samples grown by physical vapor transport were measured as a function of frequency. Differences can be seen in the dielectric properties of samples grown under different conditions. The spectra of heat treated samples were also acquired and were found to exhibit significant deviations from those of the as grown crystals.

  6. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced from...

  7. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced from...

  8. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced from...

  9. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced from...

  10. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced from...

  11. 78 FR 28118 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...; FV13-955-1 IR] Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements AGENCY... Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is administered locally by the Vidalia Onion Committee (Committee). This rule changes the date...

  12. Optical and Electrical Characterization of Bulk Grown Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK GROWN INDIUM- GALLIUM -ARSENIDE ALLOYS THESIS...Government. AFIT/GAP/ENP/10-M02 OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK GROWN INDIUM- GALLIUM -ARSENIDE ALLOYS THESIS Presented to...ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK GROWN INDIUM- GALLIUM -ARSENIDE ALLOYS Austin C Bergstrom, BS 2 nd Lieutenant, USAF

  13. Response of container-grown flowering dogwood cultivars to sun/shade production regime, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, ‘Cherokee Brave™’ and ‘Cherokee Princess’ were grown in #5 nursery containers in an amended 100% bark substrate. Treatments were assigned based on exposure time to a full sun/shade condition during the growing season: 1) plants grown in full sun, 2) plants grown in...

  14. Limited evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of Nepal alder grown in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    C. C. Gerhards

    1964-01-01

    Nepal alder (Alnus nepalensis ) grown in Hawaii was evaluated for shrinkage, strength in bending, and hardness. This Hawaii-grown wood was comparable in bending strength to wood of the same species grown in Bengal, India, but was lower in modulus of elasticity and exhibited greater hardness and shrinkage. It was also harder than such Mainland species as aspen (Populus...

  15. Leaf chemical composition of twenty-one Populus hybrid clones grown under intensive culture

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Dickson; Philip R. Larson

    1976-01-01

    Leaf material from 21 nursery-grown Populus hybrid clones was analyzed for three nitrogen fractions (total N, soluble protein, and soluble amino acids) and three carbhydrate fractions (reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, and total nonstructural carbohydrates-TNC). In addition, nursery-grown green ash and silver maple, field-grown bigtooth and trembling aspen, and...

  16. Quantification Of 4H- To 3C-Polymorphism In Silicon Carbide (SiC) Epilayers And An Investigation Of Recombination-Enhanced Dislocation Motion In SiC By Optical Emission Microscopy (Oem) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speer, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    quantifying and mapping defects on both the substrate and mesa surfaces, and of quantifying polymorphic changes in the grown materials. In addition, an optical emission microscopy (OEM) system is developed that will facilitate comprehensive study of recombination-enhanced dislocation motion (REDM).

  17. Dopant Selective Reactive Ion Etching of Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for selectively etching a substrate is provided. In one embodiment, an epilayer is grown on top of the substrate. A resistive element may be defined and etched into the epilayer. On the other side of the substrate, the substrate is selectively etched up to the resistive element, leaving a suspended resistive element.

  18. Synthesis and Secretion of Isoflavones by Field-Grown Soybean.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamazaki, Yumi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2017-09-01

    Isoflavones play important roles in rhizosphere plant-microbe interactions. Daidzein and genistein secreted by soybean roots induce the symbiotic interaction with rhizobia and may modulate rhizosphere interactions with microbes. Yet despite their important roles, little is known about the biosynthesis, secretion and fate of isoflavones in field-grown soybeans. Here, we analyzed isoflavone contents and the expression of isoflavone biosynthesis genes in field-grown soybeans. In roots, isoflavone contents and composition did not change with crop growth, but the expression of UGT4, an isoflavone-specific 7-O-glucosyltransferase, and of ICHG (isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase) was decreased during the reproductive stages. Isoflavone contents were higher in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during both vegetative and reproductive stages, and were comparable in the rhizosphere soil between these two stages. We analyzed the degradation dynamics of daidzein and its glucosides to develop a model for predicting rhizosphere isoflavone contents from the amount of isoflavones secreted in hydroponic culture. Conjugates of daidzein were degraded much faster than daidzein, with degradation rate constants of 8.51 d-1 for malonyldaidzin and 11.6 d-1 for daidzin, vs. 9.15 × 10-2 d-1 for daidzein. The model suggested that secretion of isoflavones into the rhizosphere is higher during vegetative stages than during reproductive stages in field-grown soybean. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Doping of germanium nanowires grown in presence of PH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutuc, E.; Chu, J. O.; Ott, J. A.; Guha, S.

    2006-12-01

    The authors study the Au-catalyzed chemical vapor growth of germanium (Ge) nanowires in the presence of phosphine (PH3), used as a dopant precursor. The device characteristics of the ensuing nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) indicate n-type, highly doped nanowires. Using a combination of different nanowire growth sequences and their FET characteristics, the authors determine that phosphorus incorporates predominately via the conformal growth, which accompanies the acicular, nanowire growth. As such, the Ge nanowires grown in the presence of PH3 contain a phosphorus doped shell and an undoped core. The authors determine the doping level in the shell to be ≃(1-4)×1019cm-3.

  20. Nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates

    DOEpatents

    Melechko, Anatoli V [Oak Ridge, TN; McKnight, Timothy E. , Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan [Ithaca, NY; Merkulov, Vladimir I [Knoxville, TN; Doktycz, Mitchel J [Knoxville, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, Michael L [Knoxville, TN

    2011-05-17

    Methods, manufactures, machines and compositions are described for nanotransfer and nanoreplication using deterministically grown sacrificial nanotemplates. A method includes depositing a catalyst particle on a surface of a substrate to define a deterministically located position; growing an aligned elongated nanostructure on the substrate, an end of the aligned elongated nanostructure coupled to the substrate at the deterministically located position; coating the aligned elongated nanostructure with a conduit material; removing a portion of the conduit material to expose the catalyst particle; removing the catalyst particle; and removing the elongated nanostructure to define a nanoconduit.

  1. New exopolysaccharides produced by Aureobasidium pullulans grown on glucosamine.

    PubMed

    Cescutti, Paola; Pupulin, Raffaella; Delben, Franco; Abbate, Maria; Dentini, Mariella; Sparapano, Lorenzo; Rizzo, Roberto; Crescenzi, Vittorio

    2002-07-16

    The polysaccharides produced by Aureobasidium pullulans, grown using glucosamine as the carbon source, were investigated by means of methylation analysis, affinity chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. The results indicated that, besides a small amount of pullulan, this micro-organism was capable of producing-in low yields-mixtures of at least two different complex polysaccharides containing mainly mannose and galactose. (1)H NMR spectra of two fractions obtained by lectin affinity chromatography indicated that one polymer was constituted exclusively of mannose residues while the other contained both galactofuranosyl and mannopyranosyl residues.

  2. Defects in zinc oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Francis C. C.; Wang, Zilan; Ping Ho, Lok; Younas, M.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.; Su, S. C.; Shan, C. X.

    2016-01-01

    ZnO films are grown on c-plane sapphire using the pulsed laser deposition method. Systematic studies on the effects of annealing are performed to understand the thermal evolutions of the defects in the films. Particular attention is paid to the discussions of the ZnO/sapphire interface thermal stability, the Zn-vacancy related defects having different microstructures, the origins of the green luminescence (∼2.4-2.5 eV) and the near band edge (NBE) emission at 3.23 eV.

  3. Gallenene epitaxially grown on Si(1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Min-Long; Tu, Yu-Bing; Sun, Kai; Wang, Ya-Li; Xie, Zheng-Bo; Liu, Lei; Shi, Ming-Xia; Wang, Jun-Zhong

    2018-07-01

    Gallenene, an analogue of graphene composed of gallium, is epitaxially grown on Si(1 1 1) surface and studied by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM). The STM images display that the buffer layer has a superstructure with respect to the substrate lattice and the gallenene layer has a hexagonal honeycomb structure. The scanning tunneling spectra (STS) of the gallenene show that it behaves as a metallic layer. First-principles calculations give the proposed configuration. Our results provide a method to synthesize the gallenene and shed important light on the growth mechanism of it.

  4. Space Grown Insulin Crystals Provide New Data on Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through innovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystals growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a disease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Champion Deivanaygam, a researcher at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama in Birmingham, assists in this work. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  5. Space Grown Insulin Crystals Provide New Data on Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Diabetic patients may someday reduce their insulin injections and lead more normal lives because of new insights gained through irnovative space research in which insulin crystals were grown on the Space Shuttle. Results from a 1994 insulin crystal growth experiment in space are leading to a new understanding of protein insulin. Lack of insulin is the cause of diabetes, a desease that accounts for one-seventh of the nation's health care costs. Dr. Marianna Long, associate director of the Center of Macromolecular Crystallography at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, is a co-investigator on the research. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  6. Scientists Inspect Plant Grown onboard the ISS in 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Astroculture (tm) unit is growing plants on its second flight on the International Space Station. Dr. Weijia Zhou (left), director of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, inspects soybeans grown in the plant growth unit aboard ISS in 2002. Coating technology is used inside the miniature plant greenhouse to remove ethylene, a chemical produced by plant leaves that can cause plants to mature too quickly. This same coating technology is used in a new anthrax-killing device. The Space Station experiment is managed by the Space Partnership Development Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

  7. Response of sun-grown and shade-grown northern red oak seedlings to outplanting in clearcuts and shelterwoods in North Alabama

    Treesearch

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; Emile S. Gardiner; David L. Loftis

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine if greenhouse light environment would affect outplanting success for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in clearcuts and shelterwoods. In 2002, northern red oak seedlings were grown from acorns under full-ambient (sun) and half-ambient (shade) light conditions in a greenhouse. Seedlings grown...

  8. Thermoelectic properties of CVD grown large area graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherehiy, Andriy

    This thesis is based on experimental work on thermoelectric properties of CVD grown large area graphene. The thermoelectric power (TEP) of CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) grown large area graphene transferred onto a Si/SiO 2_substrate was measured by simply attaching two miniature thermocouples and a resistive heater. Availability of such large area graphene facilitates straight forward TEP measurement without the use of any microfabrication processes. All investigated graphene samples showed a positive TEP S ≈ 20 mVK in ambient conditions and saturated at a negative value as low as S ≈ -50 mVK after vacuum-annealing at 500 K in a vacuum of 10-7 Torr. The observed p-type behavior under ambient conditions is attributed to the oxygen doping, while the n-type behavior under degassed conditions is due to electron doping from SiO2 surface states. It was observed that the sign of the TEP switched from negative to positive for the degassed graphene when exposed to acceptor gases. Conversely, the TEP of vacuum-annealed graphene exposed to the donor gases became even more negative than the TEP of vacuum-annealed sample.

  9. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, Oladapo; Velasquez Orta, Sharon B; Monje-Ramirez, Ignacio; Yáñez Noguez, Isaura; Harvey, Adam P; Orta Ledesma, María T

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a process for producing biodiesel sustainably from microalgae grown in wastewater, whilst significantly reducing the wastewater's nutrients and total coliform. Furthermore, ozone-flotation harvesting of the resultant biomass was investigated, shown to be viable, and resulted in FAMEs of greater oxidation stability. Desmodesmus sp. and two mixed cultures were successfully grown on wastewater. Desmodesmus sp. grew rapidly, to a higher maximum biomass concentration of 0.58 g/L. A native mixed culture dominated by Oscillatoria and Arthrospira, reached 0.45 g/L and exhibited the highest lipid and FAME yield. The FAME obtained from ozone-flotation exhibited the greatest oxidative stability, as the degree of saturation was high. In principle ozone could therefore be used as a combined method of harvesting and reducing FAME unsaturation. During microalgae treatment, the total nitrogen in wastewater was reduced by 55.4-83.9%. More importantly, total coliform removal was as high as 99.8%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. LWIR HgCdTe Detectors Grown on Ge Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilela, M. F.; Lofgreen, D. D.; Smith, E. P. G.; Newton, M. D.; Venzor, G. M.; Peterson, J. M.; Franklin, J. J.; Reddy, M.; Thai, Y.; Patten, E. A.; Johnson, S. M.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2008-09-01

    Long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) HgCdTe p-on- n double-layer heterojunctions (DLHJs) for infrared detector applications have been grown on 100 mm Ge (112) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The objective of this current work was to grow our baseline p-on- n DLHJ detector structure (used earlier on Si substrates) on 100 mm Ge substrates in the 10 μm to 11 μm LWIR spectral region, evaluate the material properties, and obtain some preliminary detector performance data. Material characterization techniques included are X-ray rocking curves, etch pit density (EPD) measurements, compositional uniformity determined from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) transmission, and doping concentrations determined from secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Detector properties include resistance-area product (RoA), spectral response, and quantum efficiency. Results of LWIR HgCdTe detectors and test structure arrays (TSA) fabricated on both Ge and silicon (Si) substrates are presented and compared. Material properties demonstrated include X-ray full-width of half-maximum (FWHM) as low as 77 arcsec, typical etch pit densities in mid 106 cm-2 and wavelength cutoff maximum/minimum variation <2% across the full wafer. Detector characteristics were found to be nearly identical for HgCdTe grown on either Ge or Si substrates.

  11. Gene expression from plants grown on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimpson, Alexander; Pereira, Rhea; Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie

    Three experiments were performed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2006 as part of the TROPI experiments. These experiments were performed to study graviTROPIsm and photoTROPIsm responses of Arabidopsis in microgravity (µg). Seedlings were grown with a variety of light and gravitational treatments for approximately five days. The frozen samples were returned to Earth during three space shuttle missions in 2007 and stored at -80° C. Due to the limited amount of plant biomass returned, new protocols were developed to minimize the amount of material needed for RNA extraction as a preparation for microarray analysis. Using these new protocols, RNA was extracted from several sets of seedlings grown in red light followed by blue light with one sample from 1.0g treatment and the other at µg. Using a 2-fold change criterion, microarray (Affymetrix, GeneChip) results showed that 613 genes were upregulated in the µg sample while 757 genes were downregulated. Upregulated genes in response to µg included transcription factors from the WRKY (15 genes), MYB (3) and ZF (8) families as well as those that are involved in auxin responses (10). Downregulated genes also included transcription factors such as MYB (5) and Zinc finger (10) but interestingly only two WRKY family genes were down-regulated during the µg treatment. Studies are underway to compare these results with other samples to identify the genes involved in the gravity and light signal transduction pathways (this project is Supported By: NASA NCC2-1200).

  12. Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Bisbee, Patricia A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Birmele, Michele N.; Prior, Ronald L.; Perchonok, Michele; Dixon, Mike; Yorio, Neil C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12 kPa, respectively. Plants were harvested at 21 days after planting, with aerial shoots and swollen hypocotyls (edible portion of the radish referred to as the “root” hereafter) separated immediately upon removal from the chambers. Samples were subsequently evaluated for their sensory characteristics (color, taste, overall appearance, and texture), taste-determining factors (glucosinolate and soluble carbohydrate content and myrosinase activity), proximate nutrients (protein, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) and potential health benefit attributes (antioxidant capacity). In roots of control plants, concentrations of glucosinolate, total soluble sugar, and nitrate, as well as myrosinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (measured as ORACFL), were 2.9, 20, 5.1, 9.4, and 1.9 times greater than the amount in leaves, respectively. There was no significant difference in total antioxidant capacity, sensory characteristics, carbohydrate composition, or proximate nutrient content among the three pressure treatments. However, glucosinolate content in the root and nitrate concentration in the leaf declined as the atmospheric pressure decreased, suggesting perturbation to some nitrogen-related metabolism.

  13. 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in field-grown onion.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2013-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of soil amendments on concentrations of two volatile organic compounds, 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone, in onion bulbs. The soil in five plots was mixed with sewage sludge, five plots were mixed with yard waste compost, five plots were mixed with laying hen manure each at 15 t acre(-1), and five unamended plots that never received soil amendments were used for comparison purposes. Plots (n = 20) were planted with onion, Allium cepa L. var. Super Star-F1 bulbs. Gas chromatographic/mass spetrometric (GC/MS) analyses of mature onion bulbs crude extracts revealed the presence of two major fragment ions that correspond to 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone. Soil amended with yard waste compost enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 31 and 59%, respectively. Soil amended with chicken manure enhanced 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone production by 28 and 43%, respectively. Concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone were lowest in onion bulbs of plants grown in sewage sludge and unamended soil, respectively. The increased concentrations of 2-undecanone and 2-tridecanone in onion bulbs may provide a protective character against insect and spider mite attack in field grown onions.

  14. Automorphogenesis and gravitropism of plant seedlings grown under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoson, T.; Saiki, M.; Kamisaka, S.; Yamashita, M.

    Plant seedlings exhibit automorphogenesis on clinostats. The occurrence of automorphogenesis was confirmed under microgravity in Space Shuttle STS-95 flight. Rice coleoptiles showed an inclination toward the caryopsis in the basal region and a spontaneous curvature in the same adaxial direction in the elongating region both on a three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat and in space. Both rice roots and Arabidopsis hypocotyls also showed a similar morphology in space and on the 3-D clinostat. In rice coleoptiles, the mechanisms inducing such an automorphic curvature were studied. The faster-expanding convex side of rice coleoptiles showed a higher extensibility of the cell wall than the opposite side. Also, in the convex side, the cell wall thickness was smaller, the turnover of the matrix polysaccharides was more active, and the microtubules oriented more transversely than the concave side, and these differences appear to be causes of the curvature. When rice coleoptiles grown on the 3-D clinostat were placed horizontally, the gravitropic curvature was delayed as compared with control coleoptiles. In clinostatted coleoptiles, the corresponding suppression of the amyloplast development was also observed. Similar results were obtained in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Thus, the induction of automorphogenesis and a concomitant decrease in graviresponsiveness occurred in plant shoots grown under microgravity conditions.

  15. Root exudation of phytosiderophores from soil-grown wheat

    PubMed Central

    Oburger, Eva; Gruber, Barbara; Schindlegger, Yvonne; Schenkeveld, Walter D C; Hann, Stephan; Kraemer, Stephan M; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, phytosiderophore (PS) release of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Tamaro) grown on a calcareous soil was repeatedly and nondestructively sampled using rhizoboxes combined with a recently developed root exudate collecting tool. As in nutrient solution culture, we observed a distinct diurnal release rhythm; however, the measured PS efflux was c. 50 times lower than PS exudation from the same cultivar grown in zero iron (Fe)-hydroponic culture. Phytosiderophore rhizosphere soil solution concentrations and PS release of the Tamaro cultivar were soil-dependent, suggesting complex interactions of soil characteristics (salinity, trace metal availability) and the physiological status of the plant and the related regulation (amount and timing) of PS release. Our results demonstrate that carbon and energy investment into Fe acquisition under natural growth conditions is significantly smaller than previously derived from zero Fe-hydroponic studies. Based on experimental data, we calculated that during the investigated period (21–47 d after germination), PS release initially exceeded Fe plant uptake 10-fold, but significantly declined after c. 5 wk after germination. Phytosiderophore exudation observed under natural growth conditions is a prerequisite for a more accurate and realistic assessment of Fe mobilization processes in the rhizosphere using both experimental and modeling approaches. PMID:24890330

  16. Analysis of Phase Separation in Czochralski Grown Single Crystal Ilmenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, R.; Powell, Kirk St. A.; Loregnard, Kieron R.; Lin, Sy-Chyi; Muthusami, Jayakumar; Zhou, Feng; Pandey, R. K.; Brown, Geoff; Hawley, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Ilmenite (FeTiOs) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with an energy gap of 2.58 eV. Ilmenite has properties suited for radiation tolerant applications, as well as a variety of other electronic applications. Single crystal ilmenite has been grown from the melt using the Czochralski method. Growth conditions have a profound effect on the microstructure of the samples. Here we present data from a variety of analytical techniques which indicate that some grown crystals exhibit distinct phase separation during growth. This phase separation is apparent for both post-growth annealed and unannealed samples. Under optical microscopy, there appear two distinct areas forming a matrix with an array of dots on order of 5 pm diameter. While appearing bright in the optical micrograph, atomic force microscope (AFM) shows the dots to be shallow pits on the surface. Magnetic force microscope (MFM) shows the dots to be magnetic. Phase identification via electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) indicates two major phases in the unannealed samples and four in the annealed samples, where the dots appear to be almost pure iron. This is consistent with micrographs taken with a scanning probe microscope used in the magnetic force mode. Samples that do not exhibit the phase separation have little or no discernible magnetic structure detectable by the MFM.

  17. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae. PMID:26974840

  18. Listeria monocytogenes Internalizes in Romaine Lettuce Grown in Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Archana G; Oliver, Haley F; Deering, Amanda J

    2017-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in a number of outbreaks involving fresh produce, including an outbreak in 2016 resulting from contaminated packaged salads. The persistence and internalization potential of L. monocytogenes in romaine lettuce was evaluated, and the persistence of two L. monocytogenes strains was assessed on three romaine lettuce cultivars. Seeds were germinated, and plants grown in three soil types (i.e., standard potting mix, autoclaved potting mix, and top soil) and sterile soft-top agar for up to 21 days. Average CFU per gram of L. monocytogenes on seeds and plants was calculated from five replicates per harvest day. Up to 8.2 log CFU/g L. monocytogenes persisted on romaine lettuce plants (Braveheart cultivar) grown in soft-top agar, while those grown in commercial potting mix (initial soil aerobic plate count of 4.0 × 10 4 CFU/g) had a final concentration of 5.4 log CFU/g, and autoclaved commercial potting mix had a final concentration of 3.8 ± 0.2 log CFU/g after a 21-day period. Pathogen levels dropped below the limit of detection (2 log CFU/g) by day 18 in 75% topsoil (initial soil aerobic plate count of 4.0 × 10 1 CFU/g); this did not occur in sterile media. Although L. monocytogenes strain differences and presence of a clay coating on seeds did not affect persistence, differences were observed in L. monocytogenes growth and survival among cultivars. To assess internalization, seeds were inoculated with L. monocytogenes expressing green fluorescent protein. Three plants were fixed, paraffin embedded, and sectioned; localization was studied by using standard immunohistochemistry techniques. A total of 539 internalized L. monocytogenes cells were visualized among three 20-day seedlings. L. monocytogenes cells were located in all major tissue types (pith followed by cortex, xylem, phloem, and epidermis). The presence of L. monocytogenes in the plant vasculature suggests potential for transport throughout the plant into edible

  19. Ancient maize from Chacoan great houses: Where was it grown?

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Larry; Cordell, Linda; Vincent, Kirk; Taylor, Howard; Stein, John; Farmer, G. Lang; Futa, Kiyoto

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we compare chemical (87Sr/86Sr and elemental) analyses of archaeological maize from dated contexts within Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to potential agricultural sites on the periphery of the San Juan Basin. The oldest maize analyzed from Pueblo Bonito probably was grown in an area located 80 km to the west at the base of the Chuska Mountains. The youngest maize came from the San Juan or Animas river floodplains 90 km to the north. This article demonstrates that maize, a dietary staple of southwestern Native Americans, was transported over considerable distances in pre-Columbian times, a finding fundamental to understanding the organization of pre-Columbian southwestern societies. In addition, this article provides support for the hypothesis that major construction events in Chaco Canyon were made possible because maize was brought in to support extra-local labor forces. PMID:14563925

  20. Epitaxial titanium diboride films grown by pulsed-laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, H. Y.; Christen, H. M.; Cantoni, C.; Goyal, A.; Lowndes, D. H.

    2002-03-01

    Epitaxial, smooth, and low-resistivity titanium diboride (TiB2) films have been grown on SiC substrates using pulsed-laser deposition. Combined studies from ex situ x-ray diffraction and in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction indicate the crystallographic alignment between TiB2 and SiC both parallel and normal to the substrate. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies show that these epitaxial films have a smooth surface, and the resistivity of these films is comparable to that of single-crystal TiB2. Growth of these films is motivated by this material's structural and chemical similarity and lattice match to the newly discovered superconductor MgB2, both to gain further insight into the physical mechanisms of diborides in general and, more specifically, as a component of MgB2-based thin-film heterostructures.

  1. Some karyological observations on plants grown in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.; Oconnor, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess whether cell division in a plant root would be affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Root materials from sunflower, oat, and mung bean plants grown on STS-2 and STS-3 were utilized for the experiments. It is found that all oat, sunflower, and mung seedlings showed a reduced number of cells in division as they went through their first cell division cycle on earth when compared to their ground controls. A significant number of oat, mung, and sunflower plantlets exhibited random root orientation and the lack of strictly orthotropic growth of their shoot systems in the flight samples. In addition, it is found that the mung roots were apparently least affected in terms of their cytology despite the fact that their roots were often randomly oriented.

  2. Grown organic matter as a fuel raw material resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roller, W. L.; Keener, H. M.; Kline, R. D.; Mederski, H. J.; Curry, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive search was made on biomass production from the standpoint of climatic zones, water, nutrients, costs and energy requirements for many species. No exotic species were uncovered that gave hope for a bonanza of biomass production under culture, location, and management markedly different from those of existing agricultural concepts. A simulation analysis of biomass production was carried out for six species using conventional production methods, including their production costs and energy requirements. These estimates were compared with data on food, fiber, and feed production. The alternative possibility of using residues from food, feed, or lumber was evaluated. It was concluded that great doubt must be cast on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. The feasibility of collecting residues may be nearer, but the competition for the residues for return to the soil or cellulosic production is formidable.

  3. Optical transparency of graphene layers grown on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rut’kov, E. V.; Lavrovskaya, N. P.; Sheshenya, E. S., E-mail: sheshenayket@gmail.ru

    It is shown that, in contradiction with the fundamental results obtained for free graphene, graphene films grown on the Rh(111) surface to thicknesses from one to ~(12–15) single layers do not absorb visible electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface and influence neither the brightness nor true temperature of the sample. At larger thicknesses, such absorption occurs. This effect is observed for the surfaces of other metals, specifically, Pt(111), Re(1010), and Ni(111) and, thus, can be considered as being universal. It is thought that the effect is due to changes in the electronic properties of thin graphene layers because of electronmore » transfer between graphene and the metal substrate.« less

  4. Sustainability and economic evaluation of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Mendes, Adélio M; Caetano, Nídia S; Martins, António A

    2014-09-01

    This article evaluates the sustainability and economic potential of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater for biodiesel and biomass production. Three sustainability and two economic indicators were considered in the evaluation within a life cycle perspective. For the production system the most efficient process units were selected. Results show that harvesting and oil separation are the main process bottlenecks. Microalgae with higher lipid content and productivity are desirable for biodiesel production, although comparable to other biofuel's feedstock concerning sustainability. However, improvements are still needed to reach the performance level of fossil diesel. Profitability reaches a limit for larger cultivation areas, being higher when extracted biomass is sold together with microalgae oil, in which case the influence of lipid content and areal productivity is smaller. The values of oil and/or biomass prices calculated to ensure that the process is economically sound are still very high compared with other fuel options, especially biodiesel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrical characterization of plasma-grown oxides on gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hshieh, F. I.; Bhat, K. N.; Ghandhi, S. K.; Borrego, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma-grown GaAs oxides and their interfaces have been characterized by measuring the electrical properties of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors and of Schottky junctions. The current transport mechanism in the oxide at high electrical field was found to be Frankel-Poole emission, with an electron trap center at 0.47 eV below the conduction band of the oxide. The interface-state density, evaluated from capacitance and conductance measurements, exhibits a U-shaped interface-state continuum extending over the entire band gap. Two discrete deep states with high concentration are superimposed on this continuum at 0.40 and 0.70 eV below the conduction band. The results obtained from measurements on Schottky junctions have excluded the possibility that these two deep states originate from plasma damage. Possible origins of these states are discussed in this paper.

  6. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Menchhofer, Paul A [Clinton, TN; Montgomery, Frederick C [Oak Ridge, TN; Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  7. Ancient maize from Chacoan great houses: Where was it grown?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Cordell, L.; Vincent, K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Stein, J.; Farmer, G.L.; Futa, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we compare chemical (87Sr/86Sr and elemental) analyses of archaeological maize from dated contexts within Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to potential agricultural sites on the periphery of the San Juan Basin. The oldest maize analyzed from Pueblo Bonito probably was grown in an area located 80 km to the west at the base of the Chuska Mountains. The youngest maize came from the San Juan or Animas river floodplains 90 km to the north. This article demonstrates that maize, a dietary staple of southwestern Native Americans, was transported over considerable distances in pre-Columbian times, a finding fundamental to understanding the organization of pre-Columbian southwestern societies. In addition, this article provides support for the hypothesis that major construction events in Chaco Canyon were made possible because maize was brought in to support extra-local labor forces.

  8. Glycoalkaloids in potato tubers grown under controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitithamyong, A.; Vonelbe, J. H.; Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1999-01-01

    Tuber content of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, and total glycoalkaloids (TGA) was determined for the potato cultivars, Norland, Russet Burbank, and Denali grown under different environmental conditions in growth chambers. The lowest TGA concentrations (0.30 to 0.35 mg g-1 dry tissue) were found in the cv. Norland with 400 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), 12 h day length, 16 C temperature, and 350 micromoles mol-1 carbon dioxide. The ratio of alpha-chaconine to alpha-solanine was close to 60:40 under all growing conditions, except that it was 50:50 under the low temperature of 12 C. Cultivars responded similarly to environmental conditions although TGA was about 20% greater in cv. Russet Burbank and about 30% greater in Denali compared to Norland. The largest changes in TGA occurred with changes in temperature. In comparison to 16 C, TGA were 40% greater at 12 C, 80% greater at 20 C, and 125% greater at 24 C (0.70 mg g-1 dry weight). The TGA concentration increased from 10 to 25% with an increase in light from 400 to 800 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF for all three cultivars. TGA increased 20% with extension of the day length from 12 to 24 hr and also increased 20% when carbon dioxide was increased from 350 to 1000 micromoles mol-1. TGA concentrations were not influenced by changes in relative humidity from 50 to 80%. TGA concentrations decreased only slightly in harvests made from 9 to 21 weeks after planting. Variations in TGA among the different growing conditions and cultivars were below 20 mg/100 g fresh weight (approximately 1.0 mg g-1 dry weight) recognized as the upper concentration for food safety. However the results suggest that TGA should be considered when potatoes are grown at temperatures above 20 C.

  9. Relaxor properties of barium titanate crystals grown by Remeika method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Michel; Tiagunov, Jenia; Dul'kin, Evgeniy; Mojaev, Evgeny

    2017-06-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) crystals have been grown by the Remeika method using both the regular KF and mixed KF-NaF (0.6-0.4) solvents. Typical acute angle "butterfly wing" BT crystals have been obtained, and they were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (including energy dispersive spectroscopy), conventional dielectric and acoustic emission methods. A typical wing has a triangular plate shape which is up to 0.5 mm thick with a 10-15 mm2 area. The plate has a (001) habit and an atomically smooth outer surface. Both K+ and F- solvent ions are incorporated as dopants into the crystal lattice during growth substituting for Ba2+ and O2- ions respectively. The dopants' distribution is found to be inhomogeneous, their content being almost an order of magnitude higher (up to 2 mol%) at out surface of the plate relatively to the bulk. A few μm thick surface layer is formed where a multidomain ferroelectric net is confined between two≤1 μm thick dopant-rich surfaces. The layer as a whole possess relaxor ferroelectric properties, which is apparent from the appearance of additional broad maxima, Tm, in the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity around the ferroelectric phase transition. Intense acoustic emission responses detected at temperatures corresponding to the Tm values allow to observe the Tm shift to lower temperatures at higher frequencies, or dispersion, typical for relaxor ferroelectrics. The outer surface of the BT wing can thus serve as a relaxor thin film for various electronic application, such as capacitors, or as a substrate for BT-based multiferroic structure. Crystals grown from KF-NaF fluxes contain sodium atoms as an additional impurity, but the crystal yield is much smaller, and while the ferroelectric transition peak is diffuse it does not show any sign of dispersion typical for relaxor behavior.

  10. Pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans grown on ethanol stillage as a nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    West, T P; Strohfus, B

    1996-01-01

    Pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans strain RP-1 using thin stillage from fuel ethanol production as a nitrogen source was studied in a medium using corn syrup as a carbon source. The use of 1% thin stillage as a nitrogen source instead of ammonium sulphate elevated polysaccharide production by strain RP-1 cells when grown on a concentration of up to 7.5% corn syrup, independent of yeast extract supplementation. Dry weights of cells grown in medium containing ammonium sulphate as the nitrogen source were higher than the stillage-grown cells after 7 days of growth. The viscosity of the polysaccharide on day 7 was higher for cells grown on thin stillage rather than ammonium sulphate as a nitrogen source. The pullulan content of the polysaccharide elaborated by ammonium sulphate-grown cells on day 7 was higher than the pullulan content of polysaccharide produced by stillage-grown cells regardless of whether yeast extract was added to the culture medium.

  11. The Ties That Bind: Midlife Parents' Daily Experiences With Grown Children.

    PubMed

    Fingerman, Karen L; Kim, Kyungmin; Birditt, Kira S; Zarit, Steven H

    2016-04-01

    Daily pleasant or stressful experiences with grown children may contribute to parental well-being. This diary study focused on midlife parents' ( N = 247) reports regarding grown children for 7 days. Nearly all parents (96%) had contact with a child that week via phone, text, or in person. Nearly all parents shared laughter or enjoyable interactions with grown children during the study week. More than half of parents experienced stressful encounters (e.g., child got on nerves) or stressful thoughts about grown children (e.g., worrying, fretting about a problem). Pleasant and stressful experiences with grown children were associated with parents' positive and negative daily moods. A pleasant experience with a grown child the same day as a stressful experience mitigated effects of those stressful experiences on negative mood, however. The findings have implications for understanding intergenerational ambivalence and stress buffering in this tie.

  12. The Ties That Bind: Midlife Parents’ Daily Experiences With Grown Children

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Kim, Kyungmin; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Daily pleasant or stressful experiences with grown children may contribute to parental well-being. This diary study focused on midlife parents’ (N = 247) reports regarding grown children for 7 days. Nearly all parents (96%) had contact with a child that week via phone, text, or in person. Nearly all parents shared laughter or enjoyable interactions with grown children during the study week. More than half of parents experienced stressful encounters (e.g., child got on nerves) or stressful thoughts about grown children (e.g., worrying, fretting about a problem). Pleasant and stressful experiences with grown children were associated with parents’ positive and negative daily moods. A pleasant experience with a grown child the same day as a stressful experience mitigated effects of those stressful experiences on negative mood, however. The findings have implications for understanding intergenerational ambivalence and stress buffering in this tie. PMID:27022198

  13. Lipid composition of slash pine tissue cultures grown with lunar and earth soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Weete, J. D.; Baur, P. S.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lipid analyses were conducted on slash pine tissues grown in culture in the presence of lunar (Apollo 15) and earth soils. Significant reductions in the total lipids, fatty acids, and sterol components were found in the tissues grown in contact with each of the soils employed when compared to the control. Tissues grown with lunar soil showed the greatest reductions. These results are discussed with respect to previous ultrastructural studies on similarly treated slash pine tissues and lipid analyses on tobacco tissue cultures.

  14. Confocal Raman studies in determining crystalline nature of PECVD grown Si nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Nafis; Bhargav, P. Balaji; Ramasamy, P.

    2015-06-24

    Silicon nanowires of diameter ∼200 nm and length of 2-4 µm are grown in the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique using nanoclustered Au catalyst assisted vapour-liquid-solid process. The crystallinity in the as-grown and annealed samples is studied using confocal Raman spectroscopic studies. Amorphous phase is formed in the as-grown samples. Structural studies using high resolution transmission electron microscopy confirm the polycrystalline nature in the annealed sample.

  15. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption to...

  16. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption to...

  17. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption to...

  18. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption to...

  19. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption to...

  20. High resolution diffraction imaging of crystals grown in microgravity and closely related terrestrial crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, B.; Dobbyn, R.; Black, D.; Burdette, H.; Kuriyama, M.; Spal, R.; Vandenberg, L.; Fripp, A.; Simchick, R.; Lal, R.

    1991-01-01

    Irregularities found in three crystals grown in space, in four crystals grown entirely on the ground were examined and compared. Irregularities were observed in mercuric iodide, lead tin telluride, triglycine sulfate, and gallium arsenide by high resolution synchrotron x radiation diffraction imaging. Radiation detectors made from mercuric iodide crystals grown in microgravity were reported to perform far better than conventional detectors grown from the same material under full gravity. Effort is now underway to reproduce these 'space' crystals, optimize their properties, and extend comparable superiority to other types of materials.

  1. Production and postharvest characteristics of Rosa hybrida L. Meijikatar'' grown in pots under carbon dioxide enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.G.; Kelly, J.W.; Rajapakse, N.C.

    1993-09-01

    The effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on growth, photosynthesis, and postharvest characteristics of Meijikatar'' potted roses were determined. Plants were grown in 350, 700, or 1,050 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter until they reached 50% flower bud coloration and then were placed into dark storage for 5 days at 4 or 16C. Plants grown in 700 or 1,050 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter reached the harvest stage earlier and were taller at harvest than plants produced in 350 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter, but there were no differences in the number of flowers and flower buds per plant among CO[sub 2] treatments. Plants grown in earlymore » spring were taller and had more flowers and flower buds than plants grown in late winter. shoot and root growth of plants grown in 700 or 1,050 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter were higher than in plants produced in 350 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter, with plants grown in early spring showing greater increases than plants grown in late winter. Immediately after storage, plants grown in 350 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter and stored at 4C had the fewest etiolated shoots, while plants grown in 1,050 [mu]l CO[sub 2]/liter and stored at 16C had the most. Five days after removal from storage, chlorophyll concentration of upper and lower leaves had been reduced by [approximately]50% from the day of harvest. Carbon dioxide enrichment had no effect on postharvest leaf chlorosis, but plants grown in early spring and stored at 16C had the most leaf chlorosis while plants grown in late winter and stored at 4C had the least leaf chlorosis.« less

  2. As-Grown Gallium Nitride Nanowire Electromechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montague, Joshua R.

    Technological development in recent years has led to a ubiquity of micro- and nano-scale electromechanical devices. Sensors for monitoring temperature, pressure, mass, etc., are now found in nearly all electronic devices at both the industrial and consumer levels. As has been true for integrated circuit electronics, these electromechanical devices have continued to be scaled down in size. For many nanometer-scale structures with large surface-to-volume ratio, dissipation (energy loss) becomes prohibitively large causing a decreasing sensitivity with decreasing sensor size. In this work, gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires are investigated as singly-clamped (cantilever) mechanical resonators with typical mechanical quality factors, Q (equal to the ratio of resonance frequency to peak full-width-at-half-maximum-power) and resonance frequencies, respectively, at or above 30,000, and near 1 MHz. These Q values---in vacuum at room temperature---indicate very low levels of dissipation; they are essentially the same as those for bulk quartz crystal resonators that form the basis of simple clocks and mass sensors. The GaN nanowires have lengths and diameters, respectively, of approximately 15 micrometers and hundreds of nanometers. As-grown GaN nanowire Q values are larger than other similarly-sized, bottom-up, cantilever resonators and this property makes them very attractive for use as resonant sensors. We demonstrate the capability of detecting sub-monolayer levels of atomic layer deposited (ALD) films, and the robust nature of the GaN nanowires structure that allows for their 'reuse' after removal of such layers. In addition to electron microscope-based measurement techniques, we demonstrate the successful capacitive detection of a single nanowire using microwave homodyne reflectometry. This technique is then extended to allow for simultaneous measurements of large ensembles of GaN nanowires on a single sample, providing statistical information about the distribution of

  3. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations. 780.506 Section 780.506 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION....506 Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations. The exemption provided by section 13(a...

  4. 76 FR 4254 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 945 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0109; FV11-945-1] Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated... among eligible producers of Irish potatoes in certain designated counties in Idaho, and Malheur County... Irish potatoes grown in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from March 5 to...

  5. Helicopter Parents and Landing Pad Kids: Intense Parental Support of Grown Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Wesselmann, Eric D.; Zarit, Steven; Furstenberg, Frank; Birditt, Kira S.

    2012-01-01

    Popular media describe adverse effects of helicopter parents who provide intense support to grown children, but few studies have examined implications of such intense support. Grown children (N = 592, M age = 23.82 years, 53% female, 35% members of racial/ethnic minority groups) and their parents (N = 399, M age = 50.67 years, 52% female; 34%…

  6. Prevention of Cold Damage to Container-Grown Longleaf Pine Roots

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Tinus; Mary Anne Sword; James P. Barnett

    2002-01-01

    When longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings are container-grown in open fields, their roots may be exposed to damaging, cold temperatures. Major losses in some nurseries have occurred. Between November 1996 and February 1997, we measured the cold hardiness of container-grown longleaf pine roots by measuring electrolyte leakage (a) of...

  7. Mid-Atlantic Consumer Purchasing Behavior and Knowledge of Locally Grown and Seasonal Produce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Amy J.; Kelley, Kathleen M.; Hyde, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Mid-Atlantic urban consumers were surveyed on their fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviors and their knowledge of produce grown in the region. Consumers were generally unaware of what produce is grown in the mid-Atlantic and during what months they are harvested. Additionally, differences pertaining to number of produce items purchased were…

  8. 75 FR 64681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 983 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0077; FV10-983-3 CR] Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona..., Arizona, and New Mexico pistachio producers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. DATES: The...

  9. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780.505 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  10. Managing cool-season weeds in sugarbeet grown for biofuel in the Southeastern U.S.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugarbeet, grown for biofuel, is being considered as an alternate cool-season crop in the southeastern U. S. coastal plain. Typically, the crop would be seeded in the autumn, grow through the winter, and harvested the following spring. Labels for herbicides registered for use on sugarbeet grown in ...

  11. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. 30... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.44 Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. No group...

  12. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. 30... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.44 Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. No group...

  13. 7 CFR 30.43 - Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. 30.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.43 Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. No group divisions are...

  14. 7 CFR 30.43 - Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. 30.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.43 Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. No group divisions are...

  15. 7 CFR 30.43 - Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. 30.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.43 Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. No group divisions are...

  16. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. 30... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.44 Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. No group...

  17. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. 30... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.44 Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. No group...

  18. 7 CFR 30.43 - Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. 30.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.43 Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. No group divisions are...

  19. 7 CFR 30.43 - Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. 30.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.43 Class 8; Foreign-grown cigar-leaf types. No group divisions are...

  20. 7 CFR 30.44 - Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. 30... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.44 Class 9; foreign-grown types other than cigar leaf. No group...

  1. Arsenic uptake and speciation in vegetables grown under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Smith, E; Juhasz, A L; Weber, J

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation of arsenic (As) by vegetables is a potential human exposure pathway. The speciation of As in vegetables is an important consideration due to the varying toxicity of different As species. In this study, common Australian garden vegetables were hydroponically grown with As-contaminated irrigation water to determine the uptake and species of As present in vegetable tissue. The highest concentrations of total As were observed in the roots of all vegetables and declined in the aerial portions of the plants. Total As accumulation in the edible portions of the vegetables decreased in the order radish > mung bean > lettuce = chard. Arsenic was present in the roots of radish, chard, and lettuce as arsenate (As(V)) and comprised between 77 and 92% of the total As present, whereas in mung beans, arsenite (As(III)) comprised 90% of the total As present. In aerial portions of the vegetables, As was distributed equally between both As(V) and As(III) in radish and chard but was present mainly as As(V) in lettuce. The presence of elevated As in vegetable roots suggests that As species may be complexed by phytochelatins, which limits As translocation to aerial portions of the plant.

  2. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Carducci, Annalaura; Caponi, Elisa; Ciurli, Adriana; Verani, Marco

    2015-07-17

    Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L) a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated.

  3. Interband π -like plasmon in silicene grown on silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindona, A.; Cupolillo, A.; Alessandro, F.; Pisarra, M.; Coello Fiallos, D. C.; Osman, S. M.; Caputi, L. S.

    2018-01-01

    Silicene, the two-dimensional allotrope of silicon, is predicted to exist in a low-buckled honeycomb lattice, characterized by semimetallic electronic bands with graphenelike energy-momentum dispersions around the Fermi level (represented by touching Dirac cones). Single layers of silicene are mostly synthesized by depositing silicon on top of silver, where, however, the different phases observed to date are so strongly hybridized with the substrate that not only the Dirac cones, but also the whole valence and conduction states of ideal silicene appear to be lost. Here, we provide evidence that at least part of this semimetallic behavior is preserved by the coexistence of more silicene phases, epitaxially grown on Ag(111). In particular, we combine electron energy loss spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory to characterize the low-energy plasmon of a multiphase-silicene/Ag(111) sample, prepared at controlled silicon coverage and growth temperature. We find that this mode survives the interaction with the substrate, being perfectly matched with the π -like plasmon of ideal silicene. We therefore suggest that the weakened interaction of multiphase silicene with the substrate may provide a unique platform with the potential to develop different applications based on two-dimensional silicon systems.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of CVD grown large area graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherehiy, Andriy; Jayasinghe, Ruwantha; Stallard, Robert; Sumanasekera, Gamini; Sidorov, Anton; Benjamin, Daniel; Jiang, Zhigang; Yu, Qingkai; Wu, Wei; Bao, Jiming; Liu, Zhihong; Pei, Steven; Chen, Yong

    2010-03-01

    The thermoelectric power (TEP) of CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) grown large area graphene transferred onto a Si/SiO2 substrate was measured by simply attaching two miniature thermocouples and a resistive heater. Availability of such large area graphene facilitates straight forward TEP measurement without the use of any microfabrication processes. All investigated graphene samples showed a positive TEP ˜ + 30 μV/K in ambient conditions and saturated at a negative value as low as ˜ -75 μV/K after vacuum-annealing at 500 K in a vacuum of ˜10-7 Torr. The observed p-type behavior under ambient conditions is attributed to the oxygen doping, while the n-type behavior under degassed conditions is due to electron doping from SiO2 surface states. It was observed that the sign of the TEP switched from negative to positive for the degassed graphene when exposed to acceptor gases. Conversely, the TEP of vacuum-annealed graphene exposed to the donor gases became even more negative than the TEP of vacuum-annealed sample.

  5. Ethylene Inhibits Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus Grown on Peanuts

    PubMed Central

    Gunterus, A.; Roze, L.V.; Beaudry, R.; Linz, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus synthesize aflatoxins when they grow on a variety of susceptible food and feed crops. These mycotoxins are among the most carcinogenic naturally occurring compounds known and they pose significant health risks to humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that ethylene and CO2 act alone and together to reduce aflatoxin synthesis by A. parasiticus grown on laboratory media. To demonstrate the potential efficacy of treatment of stored seeds and grains with these gases, we tested ethylene and CO2 for ability to inhibit aflatoxin accumulation on Georgia Green peanuts stored for up to 5 days. We demonstrated an inverse relationship between A. parasiticus spore inoculum size and the level of toxin accumulation. We showed that ethylene inhibits aflatoxin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner on peanuts; CO2 also inhibits aflatoxin synthesis over a narrow dose range. Treatments had not discernable effect on mold growth. These observations support further exploration of this technology to reduce aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops in the field and during storage. PMID:17418318

  6. A novel conformation of gel grown biologically active cadmium nicotinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Lekshmi P.; Bijini, B. R.; Divya, R.; Nair, Prabitha B.; Eapen, S. M.; Dileep Kumar, B. S.; Nishanth Kumar, S.; Nair, C. M. K.; Deepa, M.; Rajendra Babu, K.

    2017-11-01

    The elimination of toxic heavy metals by the formation of stable co-ordination compounds with biologically active ligands is applicable in drug designing. A new crystalline complex of cadmium with nicotinic acid is grown at ambient temperature using the single gel diffusion method in which the crystal structure is different from those already reported. Single crystal x-ray diffraction reveals the identity of crystal structure belonging to monoclinic system, P21/c space group with cell dimensions a = 17.220 (2) Å, b = 10.2480 (2) Å, c = 7.229(9) Å, β = 91.829(4)°. Powder x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallinity of the sample. The unidentate mode of co-ordination between the metal atom and the carboxylate group is supported by the Fourier Transform Infra Red spectral data. Thermal analysis ensures the thermal stability of the complex. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are also calculated. The stoichiometry of the complex is confirmed by the elemental analysis. The UV-visible spectral analysis shows the wide transparency window of the complex in the visible region. The band gap of the complex is found to be 3.92 eV. The complex shows excellent antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  7. Properties of GaN grown on sapphire substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, R. K.; Debnam, W. J.; Fripp, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of GaN on sapphire substrates using an open-tube growth furnace has been carried out to study the effects of substrate orientation and transfer gas upon the properties of the layers. It has been found that for the (0001) substrates, surface appearance was virtually independent of carrier gas and of doping levels. For the (1(-1)02) substrates surface faceting was greatly reduced when He was used as a transfer gas as opposed to H2. Faceting was also reduced when the GaN was doped with Zn, and the best surfaces for the (1(-1)02) substrates were obtained in a Zn-doped run using He as the transfer gas. The best sample in terms of electrical properties for the (1(-1)02) substrate had a mobility greater than 400 sq cm/V per sec and a carrier concentration of about 10 to the 17th per cu cm. This sample was undoped and used He as the transfer gas. The best (0001) sample was also grown undoped with He as the transfer gas and had a mobility of 300 sq cm/V per sec and a carrier concentration of 1 x 10 to the 18th per cu cm.

  8. Prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Wallis, D J; Humphreys, C J

    2013-10-01

    The use of III-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is now widespread in applications such as indicator lamps, display panels, backlighting for liquid-crystal display TVs and computer screens, traffic lights, etc. To meet the huge market demand and lower the manufacturing cost, the LED industry is moving fast from 2 inch to 4 inch and recently to 6 inch wafer sizes. Although Al2O3 (sapphire) and SiC remain the dominant substrate materials for the epitaxy of nitride LEDs, the use of large Si substrates attracts great interest because Si wafers are readily available in large diameters at low cost. In addition, such wafers are compatible with existing processing lines for 6 inch and larger wafers commonly used in the electronics industry. During the last decade, much exciting progress has been achieved in improving the performance of GaN-on-Si devices. In this contribution, the status and prospects of III-nitride optoelectronics grown on Si substrates are reviewed. The issues involved in the growth of GaN-based LED structures on Si and possible solutions are outlined, together with a brief introduction to some novel in situ and ex situ monitoring/characterization tools, which are especially useful for the growth of GaN-on-Si structures.

  9. Suppression of Mg propagation into subsequent layers grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Anchal; Tahhan, Maher; Mates, Tom; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature (LT) flow modulation epitaxy (FME) or "pulsed" growth was successfully used to prevent magnesium from Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) grown p-GaN:Mg layers riding into subsequently deposited n-type layers. Mg concentration in the subsequent layers was lowered from ˜1 × 1018 cm-3 for a medium temperature growth at 950 °C to ˜1 × 1016 cm-3 for a low temperature growth at 700 °C via FME. The slope of the Mg concentration drop in the 700 °C FME sample was 20 nm/dec—the lowest ever demonstrated by MOCVD. For growth on Mg implanted GaN layers, the drop for a medium temperature regrowth at 950 °C was ˜10 nm/dec compared to >120 nm/dec for a high temperature regrowth at 1150 °C. This drop-rate obtained at 950 °C or lower was maintained even when the growth temperature in the following layers was raised to 1150 °C. A controlled silicon doping series using LT FME was also demonstrated with the lowest and highest achieved doping levels being 5 × 1016 cm-3 and 6 × 1019 cm-3, respectively.

  10. Resilience among abused and neglected children grown up.

    PubMed

    McGloin, J M; Widom, C S

    2001-01-01

    Although an extensive literature has accumulated documenting the maladaptive outcomes associated with childhood victimization, a limited body of knowledge addresses resilience. This paper sought to operationalize the construct of resilience across a number of domains of functioning and time periods and to determine the extent to which abused and neglected children grown up demonstrate resilience. Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971 were matched on gender, age, race, and approximate family social class with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed prospectively into young adulthood. Between 1989 and 1995. 1,196 participants (676 abused and neglected and 520 controls) were administered a 2-hr in-person interview, including a psychiatric assessment. Resilience requires meeting the criteria for success across six of eight domains of functioning: employment, homelessness, education, social activity, psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, and two domains assessing criminal behavior (official arrest and self-reports of violence). Results indicate that 22% of abused and neglected individuals meet the criteria for resilience. More females met the criteria for resilience and females were successful across a greater number of domains than males. We speculate on the meaning of these findings and discuss implications for the child maltreatment field. Limitations of the study are also acknowledged.

  11. Sun Oven Grown Cuprates Superconductivity and Periodic Lattice Distortions PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acrivos, Juana V.; Chidvinadze, J. G.; Gulanova, D. D.; Loy, D.

    2011-03-01

    Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O4 + 2 n + δ identified by the layer heavy element composition with substitution, s (2 s :2:n-1:n > 2) cuprates grown by green chemistry, transition temperatures to superconductivity Tc = 87 to 150K are related to their structure. Enhanced XRD at energies near but below the Cu K, and Pb and Bi L3-edges for pure n=2, 3 phases show Darwin shaped preferred [HKL] reflections that identify the magnitude of the allowed transition moment from the core state to extended unoccupied states determined by the electron density symmetry in that plane, confirmed by XAS of 3 μ m thick films. Weak PLD are still detected, but the stability gained by substitution of Bi by Pb is the formation of nearly symmetric Pb8 cubes in (2s : 2 : 1 : 2)13 and (2s < formula > < ? TeX super-lattices. The preferred 2D [HKL] reflection planes play the same role in the chemical activity of 3D solids as the linear bonds do in molecular reactions, governed by scattering dependent on the electron density symmetry in their highest and lowest unoccupied states. Supported by US NSF, Dreyfus, DOE Laboratories SSRL-SLAC, STUC-Ukraine and Georgia NSF.

  12. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Titanium-Catalyzed Silicon Nanostructures Grown by APCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Mohammad A. U.; Smith, Brady J.; Jackson, Justin B.; De Long, Matthew C.; Miller, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on growth of Ti-catalyzed silicon nanostructures (SNCs) through atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition. An extensive growth study relating the growth condition parameters, including the partial pressure of SiCl4 gas, reaction temperature, and reaction time, was carried out to obtain insight into the growth regimes for the observed SNCs. Based on phase diagram analysis of Ti-Si alloy and growth rate analysis of the silicon nanowires (SNWs) and silicon nanoplatelets, we believe the growth mechanism to be strongly dependent on the thermodynamics of the system, exhibiting a delicate balance that can easily tip between the growth and etching regimes of the system. Three types of SNCs were observed frequently throughout the study: nanowires, nanoplatelets, and balls. Regimes for highly etched growth were also noted through growth conditions plots. Ti-catalyzed SNWs grown using SiCl4 gas strongly suggest growth occurring through a type of vapor-solid-solid (VSS) mechanism that is limited by diffusion through the solid-catalyst interface. On the other hand, the two-dimensional SNP morphologies suggest growth occurring through the twin-plane mechanism at the edges, at 10 nm to 100 nm scales, also through a similar, VSS mechanism.

  14. Mitochondrial lipids in Bufo arenarum full-grown oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gili, Valeria; Alonso, Telma S

    2004-05-01

    Both the content and composition of polar and neutral lipids from the mitochondrial fraction of ovarian full-grown Bufo arenarum oocytes were analysed in the present study. Triacylglycerols (TAG) represent 33% of the total lipids, followed by phosphatidylcholine (PC), free fatty acids (FFA) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) or cardiolipin, a specific component of the inner mitochondrial membrane, represents about 4% of the total lipid content. Palmitic (16:0) and arachidonic (20:4n6) acids are the most abundant fatty acids in PC and PE, respectively. DPG is enriched in fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 18, the principal component being linoleic acid. In phosphatidylinositol (PI), 20:4n6 and stearic acid (18:0) represent about 72 mol% of the total acyl group level. The main fatty acids in TAG are linoleic (18:2), oleic (18:1), and palmitic acids. The fatty acid composition of FFA and diacylglycerols (DAG) is similar, 16:0 being the most abundant acyl group. PE is the most unsaturated lipid and sphingomyelin (SM) has the lowest unsaturation index.

  15. Lattice-Matched Epitaxial Graphene Grown on Boron Nitride.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew; Albar, Juan D; Summerfield, Alex; Thomas, James C; Cheng, Tin S; Korolkov, Vladimir V; Stapleton, Emily; Wrigley, James; Goodey, Nathan L; Mellor, Christopher J; Khlobystov, Andrei N; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Foxon, C Thomas; Eaves, Laurence; Novikov, Sergei V; Beton, Peter H

    2018-01-10

    Lattice-matched graphene on hexagonal boron nitride is expected to lead to the formation of a band gap but requires the formation of highly strained material and has not hitherto been realized. We demonstrate that aligned, lattice-matched graphene can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy using substrate temperatures in the range 1600-1710 °C and coexists with a topologically modified moiré pattern with regions of strained graphene which have giant moiré periods up to ∼80 nm. Raman spectra reveal narrow red-shifted peaks due to isotropic strain, while the giant moiré patterns result in complex splitting of Raman peaks due to strain variations across the moiré unit cell. The lattice-matched graphene has a lower conductance than both the Frenkel-Kontorova-type domain walls and also the topological defects where they terminate. We relate these results to theoretical models of band gap formation in graphene/boron nitride heterostructures.

  16. Nutritional Characteristics of Forage Grown in South of Benin

    PubMed Central

    Musco, Nadia; Koura, Ivan B.; Tudisco, Raffaella; Awadjihè, Ghislain; Adjolohoun, Sebastien; Cutrignelli, Monica I.; Mollica, Maria Pina; Houinato, Marcel; Infascelli, Federico; Calabrò, Serena

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide recommendations on the most useful forage species to smallholder farmers, eleven grass and eleven legume forages grown in Abomey-Calavi in Republic of Benin were investigated for nutritive value (i.e. chemical composition and energy content) and fermentation characteristics (i.e. gas and volatile fatty acid production, organic matter degradability). The in vitro gas production technique was used, incubating the forages for 120 h under anaerobic condition with buffalo rumen fluid. Compared to legume, tropical grass forages showed lower energy (8.07 vs 10.57 MJ/kg dry matter [DM]) and crude protein level (16.10% vs 19.91% DM) and higher cell wall content (neutral detergent fiber: 63.8% vs 40.45% DM), respectively. In grass forages, the chemical composition showed a quite high crude protein content; the in vitro degradability was slightly lower than the range of tropical pasture. The woody legumes were richer in protein and energy and lower in structural carbohydrates than herbaceous plants, however, their in vitro results are influenced by the presence of complex compounds (i.e. tannins). Significant correlations were found between chemical composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics. The in vitro gas production method appears to be a suitable technique for the evaluation of the nutritive value of forages in developing countries. PMID:26732328

  17. Herbivore responses to plants grown in enriched carbon dioxide atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1990-05-01

    Our initial study of sagebrush and grasshopper responses to elevated and historical carbon dioxide atmospheres is complete and has been accepted for publication. The study on Biomass Allocation Patterns of Defoliated Sagebrush Grown Under Two Levels of Carbon Dioxide has completed and the manuscript has been submitted for publication. We have completed the study of plant growth under two nutrient and carbon dioxide regimes and grasshopper feeding responses. The study of a specialist feeding caterpillar, the cabbage butterfly, and a mustard hostplant has recently been completed. We were able to identify the principal allelochemicals of the mustard plants, butenyl andmore » pentenyl isothiocyanates, by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Measurement of these chemicals has been a critical component of this study since these compounds contain nitrogen and sulphur and act as a feeding stimulant to the caterpillar. This insect responds to elevated carbon dioxide by consuming more leaves and we can now say that this is not due to a change in the feeding stimulants. Reduced leaf protein content is a critical factor for even specialist feeding insect herbivores under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. The study on Grasshopper Population Responses to Enriched Carbon Dioxide Concentration is currently in progress at the Duke University Phytotron. We have changed hostplant species in order to complement the investigations of carbon dioxide effects on tallgrass prairie. Specifically, we are using big bluestem, Andropogon geradii, as the host plant to feed to the grasshoppers. This experiment will be completed in July 1990.« less

  18. Pyrolysis kinetics of algal consortia grown using swine manure wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sharara, Mahmoud A; Holeman, Nathan; Sadaka, Sammy S; Costello, Thomas A

    2014-10-01

    In this study, pyrolysis kinetics of periphytic microalgae consortia grown using swine manure slurry in two seasonal climatic patterns in northwest Arkansas were investigated. Four heating rates (5, 10, 20 and 40 °C min(-1)) were used to determine the pyrolysis kinetics. Differences in proximate, ultimate, and heating value analyses reflected variability in growing substrate conditions, i.e., flocculant use, manure slurry dilution, and differences in diurnal solar radiation and air temperature regimes. Peak decomposition temperature in algal harvests varied with changing the heating rate. Analyzing pyrolysis kinetics using differential and integral isoconversional methods (Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose) showed strong dependency of apparent activation energy on the degree of conversion suggesting parallel reaction scheme. Consequently, the weight loss data in each thermogravimetric test was modeled using independent parallel reactions (IPR). The quality of fit (QOF) for the model ranged between 2.09% and 3.31% indicating a good agreement with the experimental data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Secretomic survey of Trichoderma harzianum grown on plant biomass substrates.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Mendoza, Diana Paola; Junqueira, Magno; do Vale, Luis Henrique Ferreira; Domont, Gilberto Barbosa; Ferreira Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes; Sousa, Marcelo Valle de; Ricart, Carlos André Ornelas

    2014-04-04

    The present work aims at characterizing T. harzianum secretome when the fungus is grown in synthetic medium supplemented with one of the four substrates: glucose, cellulose, xylan, and sugarcane bagasse (SB). The characterization was done by enzymatic assays and proteomic analysis using 2-DE/MALDI-TOF and gel-free shotgun LC-MS/MS. The results showed that SB induced the highest cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities when compared with the other substrates, while remarkable differences in terms of number and distribution of protein spots in 2-DE gels were also observed among the samples. Additionally, treatment of the secretomes with PNGase F revealed that most spot trails in 2-DE gels corresponded to N-glycosylated proteoforms. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the samples identified 626 different protein groups, including carbohydrate-active enzymes and accessory, noncatalytic, and cell-wall-associated proteins. Although the SB-induced secretome displayed the highest cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities, it did not correspond to a higher proteome complexity because CM-cellulose-induced secretome was significantly more diverse. Among the identified proteins, 73% were exclusive to one condition, while only 5% were present in all samples. Therefore, this study disclosed the variation of T. harzianum secretome in response to different substrates and revealed the diversity of the fungus enzymatic toolbox.

  20. Morphologies of tungsten nanotendrils grown under helium exposure

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Kun; Doerner, R. P.; Baldwin, Matthew J.; ...

    2017-02-14

    Nanotendril “fuzz” will grow under He bombardment under tokamak-relevant conditions on tungsten plasma-facing materials in a magnetic fusion energy device. We have grown tungsten nanotendrils at low (50 eV) and high (12 keV) He bombardment energy, in the range 900–1000 °C, and characterized them using electron microscopy. Low energy tendrils are finer (~22 nm diameter) than high-energy tendrils (~176 nm diameter), and low-energy tendrils have a smoother surface than high-energy tendrils. Cavities were omnipresent and typically ~5–10 nm in size. Oxygen was present at tendril surfaces, but tendrils were all BCC tungsten metal. Electron diffraction measured tendril growth axes andmore » grain boundary angle/axis pairs; no preferential growth axes or angle/axis pairs were observed, and low-energy fuzz grain boundaries tended to be high angle; high energy tendril grain boundaries were not observed. We speculate that the strong tendency to high-angle grain boundaries in the low-energy tendrils implies that as the tendrils twist or bend, strain must accumulate until nucleation of a grain boundary is favorable compared to further lattice rotation. Finally, the high-energy tendrils consisted of very large (>100 nm) grains compared to the tendril size, so the nature of the high energy irradiation must enable faster growth with less lattice rotation.« less

  1. Morphologies of tungsten nanotendrils grown under helium exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Doerner, R. P.; Baldwin, M. J.; Meyer, F. W.; Bannister, M. E.; Darbal, Amith; Stroud, Robert; Parish, Chad M.

    2017-01-01

    Nanotendril “fuzz” will grow under He bombardment under tokamak-relevant conditions on tungsten plasma-facing materials in a magnetic fusion energy device. We have grown tungsten nanotendrils at low (50 eV) and high (12 keV) He bombardment energy, in the range 900–1000 °C, and characterized them using electron microscopy. Low energy tendrils are finer (~22 nm diameter) than high-energy tendrils (~176 nm diameter), and low-energy tendrils have a smoother surface than high-energy tendrils. Cavities were omnipresent and typically ~5–10 nm in size. Oxygen was present at tendril surfaces, but tendrils were all BCC tungsten metal. Electron diffraction measured tendril growth axes and grain boundary angle/axis pairs; no preferential growth axes or angle/axis pairs were observed, and low-energy fuzz grain boundaries tended to be high angle; high energy tendril grain boundaries were not observed. We speculate that the strong tendency to high-angle grain boundaries in the low-energy tendrils implies that as the tendrils twist or bend, strain must accumulate until nucleation of a grain boundary is favorable compared to further lattice rotation. The high-energy tendrils consisted of very large (>100 nm) grains compared to the tendril size, so the nature of the high energy irradiation must enable faster growth with less lattice rotation. PMID:28195125

  2. Morphologies of tungsten nanotendrils grown under helium exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Doerner, R P; Baldwin, M J; Meyer, F W; Bannister, M E; Darbal, Amith; Stroud, Robert; Parish, Chad M

    2017-02-14

    Nanotendril "fuzz" will grow under He bombardment under tokamak-relevant conditions on tungsten plasma-facing materials in a magnetic fusion energy device. We have grown tungsten nanotendrils at low (50 eV) and high (12 keV) He bombardment energy, in the range 900-1000 °C, and characterized them using electron microscopy. Low energy tendrils are finer (~22 nm diameter) than high-energy tendrils (~176 nm diameter), and low-energy tendrils have a smoother surface than high-energy tendrils. Cavities were omnipresent and typically ~5-10 nm in size. Oxygen was present at tendril surfaces, but tendrils were all BCC tungsten metal. Electron diffraction measured tendril growth axes and grain boundary angle/axis pairs; no preferential growth axes or angle/axis pairs were observed, and low-energy fuzz grain boundaries tended to be high angle; high energy tendril grain boundaries were not observed. We speculate that the strong tendency to high-angle grain boundaries in the low-energy tendrils implies that as the tendrils twist or bend, strain must accumulate until nucleation of a grain boundary is favorable compared to further lattice rotation. The high-energy tendrils consisted of very large (>100 nm) grains compared to the tendril size, so the nature of the high energy irradiation must enable faster growth with less lattice rotation.

  3. Exceptional gettering response of epitaxially grown kerfless silicon

    DOE PAGES

    Powell, D. M.; Markevich, V. P.; Hofstetter, J.; ...

    2016-02-08

    The bulk minority-carrier lifetime in p- and n-type kerfless epitaxial (epi) crystalline silicon wafers is shown to increase >500 during phosphorus gettering. We employ kinetic defect simulations and microstructural characterization techniques to elucidate the root cause of this exceptional gettering response. Simulations and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) indicate that a high concentra- tion of point defects (likely Pt) is “locked in” during fast (60 C/min) cooling during epi wafer growth. The fine dispersion of moderately fast-diffusing recombination-active point defects limits as-grown lifetime but can also be removed during gettering, confirmed by DLTS measurements. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy indicates metal agglomeratesmore » at structural defects, yet the structural defect density is sufficiently low to enable high lifetimes. Consequently, after phosphorus diffusion gettering, epi silicon exhibits a higher lifetime than materials with similar bulk impurity contents but higher densities of structural defects, including multicrystalline ingot and ribbon silicon materials. As a result, device simulations suggest a solar-cell efficiency potential of this material >23%.« less

  4. Uptake of perfluorinated compounds by plants grown in nutrient solution.

    PubMed

    García-Valcárcel, A I; Molero, E; Escorial, M C; Chueca, M C; Tadeo, J L

    2014-02-15

    The uptake rates of three perfluorinated carboxylates and three perfluorinated sufonates by a grass (B diandrus) grown in nutrient solution at two different perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) concentrations were assessed. Grass can be ingested by grazing animals causing the PFCs to enter the food chain, which is a pathway of human exposure to these compounds. A rapid and miniaturized method was developed to determine PFCs in plants, based on a matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction procedure followed by quantitation by HPLC-MS/MS with an MQL in the range from 1 to 9 ng/g. An increase of PFCs levels in plant was observed along the exposure time. Differences in uptake for studied perfluorinated carboxylates were found, showing a decrease with carbon chain length (from 3027 to 1,167 ng/g at the end of assay), whereas no significant differences in absorption were obtained between perfluorinated sulfonates (about 1,700 ng/g). Initially, higher PFC transfer factors (ratio between concentration in plant and concentration in initial nutrient solution) were obtained for plants growing in the nutrient solution at the highest PFC concentration, but these factors became similar with time to plants exposed to the lowest concentration. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cellular Lipids of a Nocardia Grown on Propane and n-Butane

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. B.

    1964-01-01

    Lipid fractions of propane- and n-butane-grown nocardial cells each contain a chloroform-soluble, ether-insoluble polymer not observed previously in liquid n-alkane-grown cells. The polymer in propane-grown cells is poly-β-hydroxybutyrate. The polymer in n-butane-grown cells apparently contains unsaturation in the molecule, and is identified tentatively as a co-polymer of β-hydroxybutyric and β-hydroxybutenoic (specifically 3-hydroxy 2-butenoic) acids. The other major component of the lipid fraction consists of triglycerides containing principally palmitic and stearic acids. There seems to be little qualitative distinction in the glycerides of propane- or n-butane-grown cells. Oxidative assimilation of n-butane is described. PMID:14199017

  6. Glycemic index of American-grown jasmine rice classified as high.

    PubMed

    Truong, Teresa H; Yuet, Wei Cheng; Hall, Micki D

    2014-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine the glycemic index (GI) of jasmine rice grown in the United States (US). Secondary objective was to compare the GI of US grown jasmine rice to those grown in Thailand. Twelve healthy subjects were served all four brands of jasmine rice and a reference food (glucose), each containing 50 g of available carbohydrate. Fingerstick blood glucose was measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after consumption following a fasting state. The GI was calculated using the standard equation. The GI values for test foods ranged from 96 to 116 and were all classified as high GI foods. No difference in GI was found between American-grown and Thailand-grown jasmine rice. Although not statistically significant, observations show glycemic response among Asian American participants may be different. GI should be considered when planning meals with jasmine rice as the main source carbohydrate.

  7. Characterization of potassium bromide crystals grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswari, J. Uma; Krishnan, C.; Kalyanaraman, S.; Selvarajan, P.

    2016-12-01

    Potassium bromide crystals were grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis ensures that the grown sample is in Fm3m space group and FCC structure. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) reveals the presence of elements in the title compound. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum reveals that the grown sample is a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. FTIR analysis confirms the functional groups present in the sample. The thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTA) analyses ensure that the sample material is thermally stable up to 160 °C. The second harmonic efficiency of the sample is 1.3 times greater than that of standard KDP. The mechanical strength of the grown sample is estimated by Vickers microhardness tester. The electrical properties were investigated by impedance analysis and the results of various studies of the grown crystals are discussed.

  8. The fertilization ability and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro

    PubMed Central

    MAKITA, Miho; UEDA, Mayuko; MIYANO, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In vitro growth culture systems for oocytes are being developed in several mammalian species. In these growth culture systems, in vitro grown oocytes usually have lower blastocyst formation than in vivo grown oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Furthermore, there have been a few reports that investigated the fertilization ability of in vitro grown oocytes in large animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fertilization process and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes collected from bovine early antral follicles (0.4−0.7 mm in diameter) were cultured for growth with 17β-estradiol and androstenedione for 14 days and matured in vitro. These oocytes were then inseminated for 6 or 12 h, and further cultured for development up to 8 days in vitro. After growth culture, oocytes grew from 95 µm to around 120 µm and acquired maturation competence (79%). Although fertilization rates of in vitro grown oocytes were low after 6 h of insemination, 34% of in vitro grown oocytes fertilized normally after 12 h of insemination, having two polar bodies and two pronuclei with a sperm tail, and 22% of these oocytes developed into blastocysts after 8 days of culture. The fertilization and blastocyst formation rates were similar to those of in vivo grown oocytes. In addition, blastocyst cell numbers were also similar between in vitro and in vivo grown oocytes. In conclusion, in vitro grown bovine oocytes are similar to in vivo grown oocytes in fertilization ability and can develop into blastocysts. PMID:27151093

  9. The fertilization ability and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    Makita, Miho; Ueda, Mayuko; Miyano, Takashi

    2016-08-25

    In vitro growth culture systems for oocytes are being developed in several mammalian species. In these growth culture systems, in vitro grown oocytes usually have lower blastocyst formation than in vivo grown oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Furthermore, there have been a few reports that investigated the fertilization ability of in vitro grown oocytes in large animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fertilization process and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes collected from bovine early antral follicles (0.4-0.7 mm in diameter) were cultured for growth with 17β-estradiol and androstenedione for 14 days and matured in vitro. These oocytes were then inseminated for 6 or 12 h, and further cultured for development up to 8 days in vitro. After growth culture, oocytes grew from 95 µm to around 120 µm and acquired maturation competence (79%). Although fertilization rates of in vitro grown oocytes were low after 6 h of insemination, 34% of in vitro grown oocytes fertilized normally after 12 h of insemination, having two polar bodies and two pronuclei with a sperm tail, and 22% of these oocytes developed into blastocysts after 8 days of culture. The fertilization and blastocyst formation rates were similar to those of in vivo grown oocytes. In addition, blastocyst cell numbers were also similar between in vitro and in vivo grown oocytes. In conclusion, in vitro grown bovine oocytes are similar to in vivo grown oocytes in fertilization ability and can develop into blastocysts.

  10. Listeria monocytogenes grown at 7° C shows reduced acid survival and an altered transcriptional response to acid shock compared to L. monocytogenes grown at 37° C.

    PubMed

    Ivy, R A; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2012-06-01

    Survival of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in acidic environments (e.g., in the human stomach) is vital to its transmission. Refrigerated, ready-to-eat foods have been sources of listeriosis outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether growth at a low temperature (i.e., 7°C) affects L. monocytogenes survival or gene transcription after exposure to a simulated gastric environment (i.e., acid shock at 37°C). L. monocytogenes cells grown at 7°C were less resistant to artificial gastric fluid (AGF) or acidified brain heart infusion broth (ABHI) than bacteria grown at higher temperatures (i.e., 30°C or 37°C). For L. monocytogenes grown at 7°C, stationary-phase cells were more resistant to ABHI than log-phase cells, indicating that both temperature and growth phase affect acid survival. Microarray transcriptomic analysis revealed that the number and functional categories of genes differentially expressed after acid shock differed according to both growth temperature and growth phase. The acid response of L. monocytogenes grown to log phase at 37°C involved stress-related transcriptional regulators (i.e., σ(B), σ(H), CtsR, and HrcA), some of which have been implicated in adaptation to the intracellular environment. In contrast, for bacteria grown at 7°C to stationary phase, acid exposure did not result in differential expression of the stress regulons examined. However, two large operons encoding bacteriophage-like proteins were induced, suggesting lysogenic prophage induction. The adaptive transcriptional response observed in 37°C-grown cells was largely absent in 7°C-grown cells, suggesting that temperatures commonly encountered during food storage and distribution affect the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive gastric passage and ultimately cause disease.

  11. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Carducci, Annalaura; Caponi, Elisa; Ciurli, Adriana; Verani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L) a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated. PMID:26193291

  12. Culturable endophytic bacterial communities associated with field-grown soybean.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Lopes, K B; Carpentieri-Pipolo, V; Oro, T H; Stefani Pagliosa, E; Degrassi, G

    2016-03-01

    Assess the diversity of the culturable endophytic bacterial population associated with transgenic and nontransgenic soybean grown in field trial sites in Brazil and characterize them phenotypically and genotypically focusing on characteristics related to plant growth promotion. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of soybean cultivars (nontransgenic (C) and glyphosate-resistant (GR) transgenic soybean), including the isogenic BRS133 and BRS245RR. Significant differences were observed in bacterial densities in relation to genotype and tissue from which the isolates were obtained. The highest number of bacteria was observed in roots and in GR soybean. Based on characteristics related to plant growth promotion, 54 strains were identified by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis, with most of the isolates belonging to the species Enterobacter ludwigii and Variovorax paradoxus. Among the isolates, 44·4% were able to either produce indoleacetic acid (IAA) or solubilize phosphates, and 9·2% (all from GR soybean) presented both plant growth-promoting activities. The results from this study indicate that the abundance of endophytic bacterial communities of soybean differs between cultivars and in general it was higher in the transgenic cultivars than in nontransgenic cultivars. BRS 245 RR exhibited no significant difference in abundance compared to nontransgenic BRS133. This suggests that the impact of the management used in the GR soybean fields was comparable with the impacts of some enviromental factors. However, the bacterial endophytes associated to GR and nontransgenic soybean were different. The soybean-associated bacteria showing characteristics related to plant growth promotion were identified as belonging to the species Pantoea agglomerans and Variovorax paradoxus. Our study demonstrated differences concerning compostion of culturable endophytic bacterial population in nontransgenic and transgenic soybean. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  13. Cadmium distribution in field-grown fruit trees

    SciTech Connect

    Korcak, R.F.

    The effect of soil applied Cd on Cd distribution in and growth of five species of fruit trees was investigated. Cadmium was applied at three rates (0, 5, and 10 mg kg{sup {minus}1} soil) as CdSO{sub 4} to orchard plots established at two pH levels, low (5.5) and high (6.5). Five fruit tree types were planted: Gala apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) budded on M.26 (dwarfing) or MM.111 (semistandard) rootstocks, Redskin peach (Prunus persica L.) on Lovell rootstock, Stanley plum (Prunus domestica L.) on Myrobalon rootstock, and Seckel pear (Pyrus communis L.) on seedling rootstock. The trees were grown for 6more » yr, 7 yr in the case of pear, and leaf, bark, wood, fruit, and root Cd concentrations were monitored. Gala apple on both rootstocks accumulated very small concentrations of Cd, usually 0.1 mg kg{sup {minus}1} dry wt. in all tissues tested. Peach and plum were intermediate in Cd accumulation, but both still relatively low. Seckel pear had high Cd concentrations in all tissues including fruit flesh and peel. Pear leaf Cd concentrations were 2.0 mg kg{sup {minus}1} from the 10 mg kg{sup {minus}1} soil Cd application after 5 yr. Pear fruit peel and flesh showed elevated, although nonsignificant, Cd concentrations with increased Cd applied. There was little difference between bark and wood tissue Cd concentrations independent of tree type. Root Cd concentrations were highest for pear followed by peach and plum, and lowest in apple.« less

  14. Secretome analysis of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum grown on cellulose.

    PubMed

    Do Vale, Luis H F; Gómez-Mendoza, Diana P; Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ricart, Carlos A O; Ximenes F Filho, Edivaldo; Sousa, Marcelo V

    2012-08-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a mycoparasitic filamentous fungus that produces and secretes a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used in cell wall degradation. Due to its potential in biomass conversion, T. harzianum draws great attention from biofuel and biocontrol industries and research. Here, we report an extensive secretome analysis of T. harzianum. The fungus was grown on cellulose medium, and its secretome was analyzed by a combination of enzymology, 2DE, MALDI-MS and -MS/MS (Autoflex II), and LC-MS/MS (LTQ-Orbitrap XL). A total of 56 proteins were identified using high-resolution MS. Interestingly, although cellulases were found, the major hydrolytic enzymes secreted in the cellulose medium were chitinases and endochitinases, which may reflect the biocontrol feature of T. harzianum. The glycoside hydrolase family, including chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14), endo-N-acetylglucosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.96), hexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23), xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8), exo-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.58), endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4), xylosidases (EC 3.2.1.37), α-L-arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55), N-acetylhexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), and other enzymes represented 51.36% of the total secretome. Few representatives were classified in the protease family (8.90%). Others (17.60%) are mostly intracellular proteins. A considerable part of the secretome was composed of hypothetical proteins (22.14%), probably because of the absence of an annotated T. harzianum genome. The T. harzianum secretome composition highlights the importance of this fungus as a rich source of hydrolytic enzymes for bioconversion and biocontrol applications. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Optical, structural, thermal and dielectric spectroscopy characterizations of seeded melt grown 2-hydroxy biphenyl single crystal.

    PubMed

    Sadhasivam, S; Rajesh, Narayana Perumal

    2014-09-15

    Organic single crystal of 2-hydroxy biphenyl (2-HB) was grown by top seeded melt growth method. Scanning electron microscopy studies has been carried out on the surface of the grown crystals to investigate the nature of growth and defects. The crystalline perfection and lattice parameters of 2-HB has been determined by single crystal XRD analysis and it belongs to orthorhombic crystal system with space group Fdd2. The functional groups and molecular associations were confirmed by FT-IR. The optical characteristics such as cut-off and transmittance were carried out using UV-Vis-NIR spectra. Absence of absorption in the region between 320 and 1100 nm makes the grown crystal desirable to optical applications. Thermal stability of grown crystals was characterized by thermogravimetric (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses. Broadband dielectric studies reveals that dielectric constant of grown crystal is low. The resistivity of grown crystal was studied by impedance analysis. The second harmonic generation intensity of 3.8 mJ was studied. The grown crystal belongs to soft material studied by hardness test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [An analysis of nutritional and harmful components of vegetables grown in plastic greenhouses].

    PubMed

    Yao, H; Yan, W; Li, G; Chen, Y; Guo, W; Wang, G; Xu, Z; Feng, C; Liu, K; Jin, D

    1999-09-01

    To study the changes in nutritional and harmful components of vegetables grown in plastic greenhouses. In plastic greenhouses, microclimate and air concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, fluoride and respirable particulate were measured, and chlorophyll, total sugar, crude fiber, nitrite, fluoride, arsenic and some mineral elements in vegetables were determined as compared with those grown in the open-air fields. Greenhouse appeared a lower wind speed and darker illumination. Contents of chlorophyll a an b, total chlorophyll, reduced vitamin C, crude fiber in vegetables grown in greenhouse all were lower than those grown in open-air fields. Contents of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper and phosphorous were all lower in the vegetables grown in greenhouse than those grown in open-air fields. The contents of chlorophyll reducing Vitamin C. Lower wind speed and inadequate illumination in greenhouse affected photosynthesis and uptake of water in vegetables causing changes in their nutritional components. But, no contamination of burning coal was found in vegetables grown in greenhouse.

  17. Morphology of Arabidopsis Grown under Chronic Centrifugation and on the Clinostat 123

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Allan H.; Dahl, A. Orville; Chapman, David K.

    1976-01-01

    Morphological measurements were made on populations of Arabidopsis thaliana grown from seed for 21 days under essentially constant environmental conditions except for the influence of gravitational or centrifugal accelerations. Growth conditions were what had been proposed for experiments in an artificial satellite. Observations are reported for plants grown at normal 1-g upright or on horizontal clinostats and for plants grown on a centrifuge. Increased g-force, up to 15 times normal, was found to have significant but small effects on some morphological end points. The plants' sensitivity to the magnitude of the g-force was much less than to its vector direction. Data from centrifuge experiments (which determined the g-functions for particular characters) were extrapolated to zero-g to predict a set of morphological characteristics of a plant developing in the satellite environment. As an alternative means of predicting properties of a zero-g plant, characteristics of plants grown on horizontal clinostats were measured. The results of these two predictive methods were not in agreement. Clinostat grown plants were morphologically distinct from upright stationary controls. When plants were grown while rotating in the upright position on vertical clinostats they were similar to stationary plants also grown upright, but there were small differences some of which were statistically significant. PMID:16659483

  18. Response to copper of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 grown in elemental sulfur.

    PubMed

    Almárcegui, Rodrigo J; Navarro, Claudio A; Paradela, Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; von Bernath, Diego; Jerez, Carlos A

    2014-11-01

    The response of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 to copper was analyzed in sulfur-grown cells by using quantitative proteomics. Forty-seven proteins showed altered levels in cells grown in the presence of 50 mM copper sulfate. Of these proteins, 24 were up-regulated and 23 down-regulated. As seen before in ferrous iron-grown cells, there was a notorious up-regulation of RND-type Cus systems and different RND-type efflux pumps, indicating that these proteins are very important in copper resistance. Copper also triggered the down-regulation of the major outer membrane porin of A. ferrooxidans in sulfur-grown bacteria, suggesting they respond to the metal by decreasing the influx of cations into the cell. On the contrary, copper in sulfur-grown cells caused an overexpression of putative TadA and TadB proteins known to be essential for biofilm formation in bacteria. Surprisingly, sulfur-grown microorganisms showed increased levels of proteins related with energy generation (rus and petII operons) in the presence of copper. Although rus operon is overexpressed mainly in cells grown in ferrous iron, the up-regulation of rusticyanin in sulfur indicates a possible role for this protein in copper resistance as well. Finally, copper response in A. ferrooxidans appears to be influenced by the substrate being oxidized by the microorganism. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Nucleoli from growing oocytes support the development of enucleolated full-grown oocytes in the pig.

    PubMed

    Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Ogushi, Sugako; Miyano, Takashi

    2010-02-01

    Recent research has shown that the maternal nucleolus is essential for embryonic development. The morphology of the nucleolus in growing oocytes differs from that in full-grown oocytes. We determined the ability of nucleoli from growing oocytes to substitute for nucleoli of full-grown oocytes in terms of supporting embryonic development in this study. Growing (around 100 microm in diameter) and full-grown porcine oocytes (120 microm) were collected from small (0.6-1.0 mm) and large antral follicles (4-5 mm), respectively. The nucleolus was aspirated from full-grown oocytes by micromanipulation, and the resulting enucleolated oocytes were matured to metaphase II; the nucleoli originating from full-grown and growing oocytes were then injected into the oocytes. The Chromatin of growing oocytes was aspirated with the nucleolus during the enucleolation process. Growing oocytes were thus treated with actinomycin D to release the chromatin from their nucleoli, and the nucleoli were collected and transferred to the enucleolated and matured full-grown oocytes. After activation by electro-stimulation, nucleoli were formed in pronuclei of sham-operated oocytes. Enucleolated oocytes that had been injected with nucleoli from either full-grown or growing, however, did not form any nucleoli in the pronuclei. No enucleolated oocytes developed to blastocysts, whereas enucleolated oocytes injected with nucleoli from full-grown oocytes (15%) or growing oocytes (18%) developed to blastocysts. These results indicate that the nucleoli from growing oocytes can substitute for nucleoli from full-grown oocytes during early embryonic development. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Numerical simulation of thermal stress distributions in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. Avinash; Srinivasan, M.; Ramasamy, P.

    2018-04-01

    Numerical simulation is one of the important tools in the investigation and optimization of the single-crystal silicon grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. A 2D steady global heat transfer model was used to investigate the temperature distribution and the thermal stress distributions at particular crystal position during the Cz growth process. The computation determines the thermal stress such as von Mises stress and maximum shear stress distribution along grown crystal and shows possible reason for dislocation formation in the Cz-grown single-crystal silicon.

  2. Millimeterwave and digital applications of InP-based MBE grown HEMTs and HBTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiling, Paul

    1997-05-01

    Microwave and millimeterwave devices grown by MBE have significantly advanced the state of the art for RF device performance with respect to noise figure, power output, power added efficiency and extended the clock frequency of digital circuits into the millimeterwave regime. Ober the last 10-15 years, military systems have greatly benefited from the superior performance of MBE grown devices. In order to have a similar impact on the commercial marketplace, MBE growers will have to focus their efforts on a different set of performance criteria; i.e. cost, uniformity and reproducibility. This paper discusses outstanding performance achieved by MBE grown devices and outlines the criteria for commercial applications.

  3. Study of CdTe quantum dots grown using a two-step annealing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Kriti; Pandey, Praveen K.; Nagpal, Swati; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C.

    2006-02-01

    High size dispersion, large average radius of quantum dot and low-volume ratio has been a major hurdle in the development of quantum dot based devices. In the present paper, we have grown CdTe quantum dots in a borosilicate glass matrix using a two-step annealing method. Results of optical characterization and the theoretical model of absorption spectra have shown that quantum dots grown using two-step annealing have lower average radius, lesser size dispersion, higher volume ratio and higher decrease in bulk free energy as compared to quantum dots grown conventionally.

  4. Control of average spacing of OMCVD grown gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, Asad

    Metallic nanostructures and their applications is a rapidly expanding field. Nobel metals such as silver and gold have historically been used to demonstrate plasmon effects due to their strong resonances, which occur in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) produces an enhanced electromagnetic field at the interface between a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) and the surrounding dielectric. This enhanced field can be used for metal-dielectric interfacesensitive optical interactions that form a powerful basis for optical sensing. In addition to the surrounding material, the LSPR spectral position and width depend on the size, shape, and average spacing between these particles. Au NP LSPR based sensors depict their highest sensitivity with optimized parameters and usually operate by investigating absorption peak: shifts. The absorption peak: of randomly deposited Au NPs on surfaces is mostly broad. As a result, the absorption peak: shifts, upon binding of a material onto Au NPs might not be very clear for further analysis. Therefore, novel methods based on three well-known techniques, self-assembly, ion irradiation, and organo-meta1lic chemical vapour deposition (OMCVD) are introduced to control the average-spacing between Au NPs. In addition to covalently binding and other advantages of OMCVD grown Au NPs, interesting optical features due to their non-spherical shapes are presented. The first step towards the average-spacing control is to uniformly form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) as resists for OMCVD Au NPs. The formation and optimization of the OTS SAMs are extensively studied. The optimized resist SAMs are ion-irradiated by a focused ion beam (Fill) and ions generated by a Tandem accelerator. The irradiated areas are refilled with 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) to provide nucleation sites for the OMCVD Au NP growth. Each step during sample preparation is monitored by

  5. Surface characterization of low-temperature grown yttrium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Mirosław; Lisowski, Wojciech; Pisarek, Marcin; Nikiforow, Kostiantyn; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2018-04-01

    The step-by-step growth of yttrium oxide layer was controlled in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The O/Y atomic concentration (AC) ratio in the surface layer of finally oxidized Y substrate was found to be equal to 1.48. The as-grown yttrium oxide layers were then analyzed ex situ using combination of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), elastic-peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to characterize their surface chemical composition, electron transport phenomena and surface morphology. Prior to EPES measurements, the Y oxide surface was pre-sputtered by 3 kV argon ions, and the resulting AES-derived composition was found to be Y0.383O0.465C0.152 (O/Y AC ratio of 1.21). The SEM images revealed different surface morphology of sample before and after Ar sputtering. The oxide precipitates were observed on the top of un-sputtered Y oxide layer, whereas the oxide growth at the Ar ion-sputtered surface proceeded along defects lines normal to the layer plane. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) characterizing electron transport was evaluated as a function of energy in the range of 0.5-2 keV from the EPES method. Two reference materials (Ni and Au) were used in these measurements. Experimental IMFPs determined for the Y0.383O0.465C0.152 and Y2O3 surface compositions, λ, were uncorrected for surface excitations and approximated by the simple function λ = kEp at electron energies E between 500 eV and 2000 eV, where k and p were fitted parameters. These values were also compared with IMFPs resulting from the TPP-2 M predictive equation for both oxide compositions. The fitted functions were found to be reasonably consistent with the measured and predicted IMFPs. In both cases, the average value of the mean percentage deviation from the fits varied between 5% and 37%. The IMFPs measured for Y0.383O0.465C0.152 surface composition were found to be similar to the IMFPs for Y2O3.

  6. Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions

  7. 7 CFR 982.467 - Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown... Regulations § 982.467 Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States. Each handler who receives hazelnuts grown outside the United States shall report to the Board monthly on F/H...

  8. 7 CFR 982.467 - Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown... Regulations § 982.467 Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States. Each handler who receives hazelnuts grown outside the United States shall report to the Board monthly on F/H...

  9. 76 FR 27919 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Late Payment and Interest Requirements on Past Due...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... CFR Part 955 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0016; FV11-955-1 PR] Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Late... assessment requirements in effect under the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is administered locally by the...

  10. Physico-chemical characteristics, nutrient composition and consumer acceptability of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions.

    PubMed

    Nitika; Punia, Darshan; Khetarpaul, N

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the investigation was to analyse physico-chemical characteristics, nutrient composition and consumer acceptability of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions. The seeds of five varieties of wheat (C-306, WH-283, WH-711, WH-896 and WH-912) grown under organic and inorganic farming conditions were ground in a Junior Mill to pass through 60-mesh sieves and were stored in air-tight containers until use. Standard methods were used to estimate the physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient composition. Consumer acceptability was studied by carrying out the organoleptic evaluation of wheat chapatis, a common item in diets of the Indian population. The results of study revealed that inorganically grown wheat varieties had significantly higher 1,000-grain weight and more grain hardness as compared with organically grown wheat varieties, and a non-significant difference was observed in their gluten content, water absorption capacity and hydration capacity. On average, wheat varieties grown under inorganic conditions contained significantly higher protein and crude fibre content as compared with varieties grown under organic conditions. WH-711 variety had maximum protein content. Protein fractions (i.e. albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin) were significantly higher in varieties grown under inorganic conditions than those of varieties grown under organic conditions. The variety WH-711 had the highest total soluble sugars and variety WH-912 had the highest starch content. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents were significantly higher in inorganically grown wheat varieties as compared with organically grown wheat varieties. The wheat varieties grown under organic conditions had significantly higher protein and starch digestibility than the wheat grown under inorganic conditions. The data revealed that there were significant differences in total calcium and phosphorus contents of wheat varieties grown under organic and inorganic

  11. Do thermal donors reduce the lifetimes of Czochralski-grown silicon crystals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamura, Y.; Harada, H.; Nakano, S.; Nishizawa, S.; Kakimoto, K.

    2018-05-01

    High-performance electronics require long carrier lifetimes within their silicon crystals. This paper reports the effects of thermal donors on the lifetimes of carriers in as-grown n-type silicon crystals grown by the Czochralski method. We grew silicon crystals with two different concentrations of thermal donors using the following two cooling processes: one was cooled with a 4-h halt after detaching the crystal from the melt, and the other was cooled continuously. The crystal grown with the cooling halt contained higher concentrations of thermal donors of the order of 1 × 1013 cm-3, while the crystal without the halt had no thermal donors. The measured bulk lifetimes were in the range of 15-18 ms. We concluded that thermal donors in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals do not act to reduce their lifetimes.

  12. Room temperature direct band gap emission characteristics of surfactant mediated grown compressively strained Ge films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyar, Ajit K.; Grimm, Andreas; Bar, R.; Schmidt, Jan; Wietler, Tobias; Joerg Osten, H.; Ray, Samit K.

    2016-10-01

    Compressively strained Ge films have been grown on relaxed Si0.45Ge0.55 virtual substrates using molecular beam epitaxy in the presence of Sb as a surfactant. Structural characterization has shown that films grown in the presence of surfactant exhibit very smooth surfaces with a relatively higher strain value in comparison to those grown without any surfactant. The variation of strain with increasing Ge layer thickness was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The strain is found to be reduced with increasing film thickness due to the onset of island nucleation following Stranski-Krastanov growth mechanism. No phonon assisted direct band gap photoluminescence from compressively strained Ge films grown on relaxed Si0.45Ge0.55 has been achieved up to room temperature. Excitation power and temperature dependent photoluminescence have been studied in details to investigate the origin of different emission sub-bands.

  13. 76 FR 31295 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... forms to collect information related to the Federal marketing orders for nectarines and peaches grown in... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Andrew Hatch, Supervisory Marketing Specialist, Marketing Order... Email: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Marketing Order Nos. 916 and 917...

  14. Growth and nanomechanical characterization of nanoscale 3D architectures grown via focused electron beam induced deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Lewis, Brett B.; Mound, Brittnee A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta; ...

    2017-10-12

    Here, nanomechanical measurements of platinum–carbon 3D nanoscale architectures grown via focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) were performed using a nanoindentation system in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for simultaneous in situ imaging.

  15. Comparative analysis of anti-polyglutamine Fab crystals grown on Earth and in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Owens, Gwen E; New, Danielle M; Olvera, Alejandra I; Manzella, Julia Ashlyn; Macon, Brittney L; Dunn, Joshua C; Cooper, David A; Rouleau, Robyn L; Connor, Daniel S; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2016-10-01

    Huntington's disease is one of nine neurodegenerative diseases caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ)-repeat expansion. An anti-polyQ antigen-binding fragment, MW1 Fab, was crystallized both on Earth and on the International Space Station, a microgravity environment where convection is limited. Once the crystals returned to Earth, the number, size and morphology of all crystals were recorded, and X-ray data were collected from representative crystals. The results generally agreed with previous microgravity crystallization studies. On average, microgravity-grown crystals were 20% larger than control crystals grown on Earth, and microgravity-grown crystals had a slightly improved mosaicity (decreased by 0.03°) and diffraction resolution (decreased by 0.2 Å) compared with control crystals grown on Earth. However, the highest resolution and lowest mosaicity crystals were formed on Earth, and the highest-quality crystal overall was formed on Earth after return from microgravity.

  16. 78 FR 2908 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Tangelos Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has considered the economic impact of this rulemaking on small entities..., January 15, 2013 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 2908

  17. A comparison of the bromination dynamics of pitch-based and vapor-grown graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The electrical resistance of pitch based P-100 fibers and experimental organic vapor grown fibers was recorded in-situ during bromination and subsequent exposure to ambient laboratory air. The results indicate that the bromination and debromination reactions proceed much slower for vapor grown fibers than for pitch based. While this may be due in part to the larger diameter of the vapor grown fibers, the majority of the effect can probably be attributed to the differences in graphene plane orientation between the fiber types. Although the reactions are slower in the vapor grown than in the pitch based fibers, the extent of reaction as measured by the change in electrical resistance is essentially the same, with comparable (or larger) decreases in resistivity. The bromination reaction proceeds with one or more plateaus in the resistance versus time curves, which suggests staging and strengthens the argument that these fibers produce true intercalation compounds.

  18. Epitaxial Ge Solar Cells Directly Grown on Si (001) by MOCVD Using Isobutylgermane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngjo; Kim, Kangho; Lee, Jaejin; Kim, Chang Zoo; Kang, Ho Kwan; Park, Won-Kyu

    2018-03-01

    Epitaxial Ge layers have been grown on Si (001) substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using an isobutylgermane (IBuGe) metalorganic source. Low and high temperature two-step growth and post annealing techniques are employed to overcome the lattice mismatch problem between Ge and Si. It is demonstrated that high quality Ge epitaxial layers can be grown on Si (001) by using IBuGe with surface RMS roughness of 2 nm and an estimated threading dislocation density of 4.9 × 107 cm -2. Furthermore, single-junction Ge solar cells have been directly grown on Si substrates with an in situ MOCVD growth. The epitaxial Ge p- n junction structures are investigated with transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical C- V measurements. As a result, a power conversion efficiency of 1.69% was achieved for the Ge solar cell directly grown on Si substrate under AM1.5G condition.

  19. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF FIELD-GROWN CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acidic rainfall on yields of radish (Raphanus sativa), garden beet (Beta vulgaris), kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under standard agronomic practices. The experimental design a...

  20. Microstructural studies by TEM of diamond films grown by combustion flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, G.-H. M.; Hirose, Y.; Amanuma, S.; McClure, M.; Prater, J. T.; Glass, J. T.

    Microstructures of diamond films grown in an oxygen-acetylene combustion flame were studied by TEM. The O2/C2H2 gas ratio was fixed and the substrate materials and temperature were varied. High quality diamond films were grown by this method at high growth rates of about 30 micron/hr. A rough surface and high density of secondary nucleation sites and microtwins were observed in the diamond grains grown on molybdenum (Mo) at a substrate temperature of 500 C. When the substrate temperature wass raised to between 500 and 870 C, the defect density was greatly reduced, revealing a low density of stacking faults and dislocations. Diamond films grown on Si substrates did not show the same substrate temperature dependence on defect density, at least not over the same temperature range. However, the same correlation between defect density, secondary nucleation, and surface morphology was observed.

  1. Cytokinin, acting through ethylene, restores gravitropism to Arabidopsis seedlings grown under red light.

    PubMed Central

    Golan, A; Tepper, M; Soudry, E; Horwitz, B A; Gepstein, S

    1996-01-01

    Cytokinin replaces light in several aspects of the photomorphogenesis of dicot seedlings. Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown under red light have been shown to become disoriented, losing the negative hypocotyl gravitropism that has been observed in seedlings grown in darkness or white light. We report here that cytokinin at micromolar concentrations restores gravitropism to seedlings grown under red light. Cytokinin cancels the effect of red light on the gravity-sensing system and at the same time replaces light in the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Furthermore, application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid acts similarly to cytokinin. Cytokinin cannot restore gravitropism under red light to an ethylene-insensitive mutant that is defective at the EIN2 locus. Stimulation of ethylene production, therefore, can explain the action of cytokinin in restoring negative gravitropism to the hypocotyls of Arabidopsis seedlings grown under continuous red light. PMID:8938401

  2. 77 FR 72197 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Agricultural Statistics Service, the total farm-gate value of summer/fall processed pears grown in Oregon and... introductory text and paragraph (a) are revised to read as follows: Sec. 927.237 Processed pear assessment rate...

  3. Comparative analysis of anti-polyglutamine Fab crystals grown on Earth and in microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Gwen E.; New, Danielle M.; Olvera, Alejandra I.; Manzella, Julia Ashlyn; Macon, Brittney L.; Dunn, Joshua C.; Cooper, David A.; Rouleau, Robyn L.; Connor, Daniel S.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease is one of nine neurodegenerative diseases caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ)-repeat expansion. An anti-polyQ antigen-binding fragment, MW1 Fab, was crystallized both on Earth and on the International Space Station, a microgravity environment where convection is limited. Once the crystals returned to Earth, the number, size and morphology of all crystals were recorded, and X-ray data were collected from representative crystals. The results generally agreed with previous microgravity crystallization studies. On average, microgravity-grown crystals were 20% larger than control crystals grown on Earth, and microgravity-grown crystals had a slightly improved mosaicity (decreased by 0.03°) and diffraction resolution (decreased by 0.2 Å) compared with control crystals grown on Earth. However, the highest resolution and lowest mosaicity crystals were formed on Earth, and the highest-quality crystal overall was formed on Earth after return from microgravity. PMID:27710941

  4. Preferential orientation of NV defects in CVD diamond films grown on (113)-oriented substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesik, M.; Plays, T.; Tallaire, A.; Achard, J.; Brinza, O.; William, L.; Chipaux, M.; Toraille, L.; Debuisschert, T.; Gicquel, A.; Roch, J. F.; Jacques, V.

    2015-06-01

    Thick CVD diamond layers were successfully grown on (113)-oriented substrates. They exhibited smooth surface morphologies and a crystalline quality comparable to (100) electronic grade material, and much better than (111)-grown layers. High growth rates (15-50 {\\mu}m/h) were obtained while nitrogen doping could be achieved in a fairly wide range without seriously imparting crystalline quality. Electron spin resonance measurements were carried out to determine NV centers orientation and concluded that one specific orientation has an occurrence probability of 73 % when (100)-grown layers show an equal distribution in the 4 possible directions. A spin coherence time of around 270 {\\mu}s was measured which is equivalent to that reported for material with similar isotopic purity. Although a higher degree of preferential orientation was achieved with (111)-grown layers (almost 100 %), the ease of growth and post-processing of the (113) orientation make it a potentially useful material for magnetometry or other quantum mechanical applications.

  5. Dopant Segregation in Earth- and Space-Grown InP Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilewsky, Andreas Nikolaus; Okamoto, Yusuke; Benz, Klaus Werner; Nishinaga, Tatau

    1992-07-01

    Macro- and microsegregation of sulphur in InP crystals grown from In solution by the travelling heater method under microgravity and normal gravity are analyzed using spatially resolved photoluminescence. Whereas the macrosegregation in earth- as well as space-grown crystals is explained by conventional steady-state models based on the theory of Burton, Prim and Slichter (BPS), the microsegregation can only be understood in terms of the non-steady-state step exchange model.

  6. Nucleoli from growing oocytes inhibit the maturation of enucleolated, full-grown oocytes in the pig.

    PubMed

    Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Ogushi, Sugako; Miyano, Takashi; Fulka, Josef

    2011-06-01

    In mammals, the nucleolus of full-grown oocyte is essential for embryonic development but not for oocyte maturation. In our study, the role of the growing oocyte nucleolus in oocyte maturation was examined by nucleolus removal and/or transfer into previously enucleolated, growing (around 100 µm in diameter) or full-grown (120 µm) pig oocytes. In the first experiment, the nucleoli were aspirated from growing oocytes whose nucleoli had been compacted by actinomycin D treatment, and the enucleolated oocytes were matured in vitro. Most of non-treated or actinomycin D-treated oocytes did not undergo germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD; 13% and 12%, respectively). However, the GVBD rate of enucleolated, growing oocytes significantly increased to 46%. The low GVBD rate of enucleolated, growing oocytes was restored again by the re-injection of nucleoli from growing oocytes (23%), but not when nucleoli from full-grown oocytes were re-injected into enucleolated, growing oocytes (49%). When enucleolated, full-grown oocytes were injected with nucleoli from growing or full-grown oocytes, the nucleolus in the germinal vesicle was reassembled (73% and 60%, respectively). After maturation, the enucleolated, full-grown oocytes injected with nucleoli from full-grown oocytes matured to metaphase II (56%), whereas injection with growing-oocyte nucleoli reduced this maturation to 21%. These results suggest that the growing-oocyte nucleolus is involved in the oocyte's meiotic arrest, and that the full-grown oocyte nucleolus has lost the ability. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Microbiological Quality and Food Safety of Plants Grown on ISS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project is to select and advance methods to enable real-time sampling, microbiological analysis, and sanitation of crops grown on the International Space Station (ISS). These methods would validate the microbiological quality of crops grown for consumption to ensure safe and palatable fresh foods. This would be achieved through the development / advancement of microbiological sample collection, rapid pathogen detection and effective sanitation methods that are compatible with a microgravity environment.

  8. Comparison of AlGaAs Oxidation in MBE and MOCVD Grown Samples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    vertical cavity surface emitting lasers ( VCSELs ) [1, 2, 3]. They are also being... molecular beam epitaxy ( MBE ) [5, 6] or metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) [7, 8]. The MBE -grown A1GaAs layers are sometimes pseudo or digital...Simultaneous wet-thermal oxidation of MBE and MOCVD grown AlxGal_xAs layers (x = 0.1 to 1.0) showed that the epitaxial growth method does not

  9. Helicopter Parents and Landing Pad Kids: Intense Parental Support of Grown Children

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Wesselmann, Eric D.; Zarit, Steven; Furstenberg, Frank; Birditt, Kira S.

    2015-01-01

    Popular media describe adverse effects of helicopter parents who provide intense support to grown children, but few studies have examined implications of such intense support. Grown children (N = 592, M age = 23.82 years, 53% female, 35% members of racial/ethnic minority groups) and their parents (n = 399, M age = 50.67 years, 52% female; 34% members of racial/ethnic minority groups) reported on the support they exchanged with one another. Intense support involved parents’ providing several types of support (e.g., financial, advice, emotional) many times a week. Parents and grown children who engaged in such frequent support viewed it as nonnormative (i.e., too much support), but grown children who received intense support reported better psychological adjustment and life satisfaction than grown children who did not receive intense support. Parents who perceived their grown children as needing too much support reported poorer life satisfaction. The discussion focuses on generational differences in the implications of intense parental involvement during young adulthood. PMID:26336323

  10. Helicopter Parents and Landing Pad Kids: Intense Parental Support of Grown Children.

    PubMed

    Fingerman, Karen L; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Wesselmann, Eric D; Zarit, Steven; Furstenberg, Frank; Birditt, Kira S

    2012-08-01

    Popular media describe adverse effects of helicopter parents who provide intense support to grown children, but few studies have examined implications of such intense support. Grown children (N = 592, M age = 23.82 years, 53% female, 35% members of racial/ethnic minority groups) and their parents (n = 399, M age = 50.67 years, 52% female; 34% members of racial/ethnic minority groups) reported on the support they exchanged with one another. Intense support involved parents' providing several types of support (e.g., financial, advice, emotional) many times a week. Parents and grown children who engaged in such frequent support viewed it as nonnormative (i.e., too much support), but grown children who received intense support reported better psychological adjustment and life satisfaction than grown children who did not receive intense support. Parents who perceived their grown children as needing too much support reported poorer life satisfaction. The discussion focuses on generational differences in the implications of intense parental involvement during young adulthood.

  11. Stomatal conductance of lettuce grown under or exposed to different light qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyeon-Hye; Goins, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The objective of this research was to examine the effects of differences in light spectrum on the stomatal conductance (Gs) and dry matter production of lettuce plants grown under a day/night cycle with different spectra, and also the effects on Gs of short-term exposure to different spectra. METHODS: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants were grown with 6 h dark and 18 h light under four different spectra, red-blue (RB), red-blue-green (RBG), green (GF) and white (CWF), and Gs and plant growth were measured. KEY RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Conductance of plants grown for 23 d under CWF rose rapidly on illumination to a maximum in the middle of the light period, then decreased again before the dark period when it was minimal. However, the maximum was smaller in plants grown under RB, RGB and GF. This demonstrates that spectral quality during growth affects the diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance. Although Gs was smaller in plants grown under RGB than CWF, dry mass accumulation was greater, suggesting that Gs did not limit carbon assimilation under these spectral conditions. Temporarily changing the spectral quality of the plants grown for 23 d under CWF, affected stomatal responses reversibly, confirming studies on epidermal strips. This study provides new information showing that Gs is responsive to spectral quality during growth and, in the short-term, is not directly coupled to dry matter accumulation.

  12. Violaxanthin is an abscisic acid precursor in water-stressed dark-grown bean leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yi; Walton, D.C.

    The leaves a dark-grown bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings accumulate considerably lower quantities of xanthophylls and carotenes than do leaves of light-grown seedlings, but they synthesize at least comparable amounts of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites when water stressed. We observed a 1:1 relationship on a molar basis between the reduction in levels of ciolaxanthin, 9{prime}-cis-neoxanthin, and 9-cis-violaxanthin and the accumulation of ABA, phaseic acid, and dihydrophaseic acid, when leaves from dark-grown plants were stressed for 7 hours. Early in the stress period, reductions in xanthophylls were greater than the accumulation of ABA and its metabolites, suggesting the accumulationmore » of an intermediate which was subsequently converted to ABA. Leaves which were detached, but no stressed, did not accumulate ABA nor were their xanthophyll levels reduced. Leaves from plants that had been sprayed with cycloheximido did not accumulate ABA when stressed, nor were their xanthophyll levels reduced significantly. Incubation of dark-grown stressed leaves in an {sup 18}O{sub 2}-containing atmosphere resulted in the synthesis of ABA with levels of {sup 18}O in the carboxyl group that were virtually identical to those observed in light-grown leaves. The results of these experiments indicate that violaxanthin is an ABA precursor in stressed dark-grown leaves, and they are used to suggest several possible pathways from violaxanthin to ABA.« less

  13. Biochemical characteristics of thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts of dark-grown pine cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, K; Murakami, A; Fujita, Y

    1992-01-01

    Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) cotyledons were found to synthesize chlorophylls in complete darkness during germination, although the synthesis was not as great as that in the light. The compositions of thylakoid components in plastids of cotyledons grown in the dark and light were compared using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of polypeptides and spectroscopic determination of membrane redox components. All thylakoid membrane proteins found in preparations from light-grown cotyledons were also present in preparations from dark-grown cotyledons. However, levels of photosystem I, photosystem II, cytochrome b([ill])/f, and light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complexes in dark-grown cotyledons were only one-fourth of those in light-grown cotyledons, on a fresh weight basis. These results suggest that the low abundance of thylakoid components in dark-grown cotyledons is associated with the limited supply of chlorophyll needed to assemble the two photosystem complexes and the light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex.

  14. Hydraulics and gas exchange recover more rapidly from severe drought stress in small pot-grown grapevines than in field-grown plants.

    PubMed

    Romero, Pascual; Botía, Pablo; Keller, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Modifications of plant hydraulics and shoot resistances (R shoot ) induced by water withholding followed by rewatering, and their relationships with plant water status, leaf gas exchange and water use efficiency at the leaf level, were investigated in pot-grown and field-grown, own-rooted Syrah grapevines in an arid climate. Water stress induced anisohydric behavior, gradually reducing stomatal conductance (g s ) and leaf photosynthesis (A) in response to decreasing midday stem water potential (Ψ s ). Water stress also rapidly increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/g s ); this effect persisted for many days after rewatering. Whole-plant (K plant ), canopy (K canopy ), shoot (K shoot ) and leaf (K leaf ) hydraulic conductances decreased during water stress, in tune with the gradual decrease in Ψ s , leaf gas exchange and whole plant water use. Water-stressed vines also had a lower Ψ gradient between stem and leaf (ΔΨ l ), which was correlated with lower leaf transpiration rate (E). E and ΔΨ l increased with increasing vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in non-stressed control vines but not in stressed vines. Perfusion of xylem-mobile dye showed that water flow to petioles and leaves was substantially reduced or even stopped under moderate and severe drought stress. Leaf blade hydraulic resistance accounted for most of the total shoot resistance. However, hydraulic conductance of the whole root system (K root ) was not significantly reduced until water stress became very severe in pot-grown vines. Significant correlations between K plant , K canopy and Ψ s , K canopy and leaf gas exchange, K leaf and Ψ s , and K leaf and A support a link between water supply, leaf water status and gas exchange. Upon re-watering, Ψ s recovered faster than gas exchange and leaf-shoot hydraulics. A gradual recovery of hydraulic functionality of plant organs was also observed, the leaves being the last to recover after rewatering. In pot-grown vines, K canopy recovered rather

  15. Protein profile of mouse ovarian follicles grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    Anastácio, Amandine; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Chardonnet, Solenne; Pionneau, Cédric; Fédérici, Christian; Almeida Santos, Teresa; Poirot, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    Could the follicle proteome be mapped by identifying specific proteins that are common or differ between three developmental stages from the secondary follicle (SF) to the antrum-like stage? From a total of 1401 proteins identified in the follicles, 609 were common to the three developmental stages investigated and 444 were found uniquely at one of the stages. The importance of the follicle as a functional structure has been recognized; however, up-to-date the proteome of the whole follicle has not been described. A few studies using proteomics have previously reported on either isolated fully-grown oocytes before or after meiosis resumption or cumulus cells. The experimental design included a validated mice model for isolation and individual culture of SFs. The system was chosen as it allows continuous evaluation of follicle growth and selection of follicles for analysis at pre-determined developmental stages: SF, complete Slavjanski membrane rupture (SMR) and antrum-like cavity (AF). The experiments were repeated 13 times independently to acquire the material that was analyzed by proteomics. SFs (n = 2166) were isolated from B6CBA/F1 female mice (n = 42), 12 days old, from 15 l. About half of the follicles isolated as SF were analyzed as such (n = 1143) and pooled to obtain 139 μg of extracted protein. Both SMR (n = 359) and AF (n = 124) were obtained after individual culture of 1023 follicles in a microdrop system under oil, selected for analysis and pooled, to obtain 339 μg and 170 μg of protein, respectively. The follicle proteome was analyzed combining isoelectric focusing (IEF) fractionation with 1D and 2D LC-MS/MS analysis to enhance protein identification. The three protein lists were submitted to the 'Compare gene list' tool in the PANTHER website to gain insights on the Gene Ontology Biological processes present and to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to highlight protein networks. A label-free quantification was performed with 1D LC-MS/MS analyses to

  16. Loblolly pine grown under elevated CO2 affects early instar pine sawfly performance.

    PubMed

    Williams, R S; Lincoln, D E; Thomas, R B

    1994-06-01

    Seedlings of loblolly pine Pinus taeda (L.), were grown in open-topped field chambers under three CO 2 regimes: ambient, 150 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient, and 300 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient. A fourth, non-chambered ambient treatment was included to assess chamber effects. Needles were used in 96 h feeding trials to determine the performance of young, second instar larvae of loblolly pine's principal leaf herbivore, red-headed pine sawfly, Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch). The relative consumption rate of larvae significantly increased on plants grown under elevated CO 2 , and needles grown in the highest CO 2 regime were consumed 21% more rapidly than needles grown in ambient CO 2 . Both the significant decline in leaf nitrogen content and the substantial increase in leaf starch content contributed to a significant increase in the starch:nitrogen ratio in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Insect consumption rate was negatively related to leaf nitrogen content and positively related to the starch:nitrogen ratio. Of the four volatile leaf monoterpenes measured, only β-pinene exhibited a significant CO 2 effect and declined in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Although consumption changed, the relative growth rates of larvae were not different among CO 2 treatments. Despite lower nitrogen consumption rates by larvae feeding on the plants grown in elevated CO 2 , nitrogen accumulation rates were the same for all treatments due to a significant increase in nitrogen utilization efficiency. The ability of this insect to respond at an early, potentially susceptible larval stage to poorer food quality and declining levels of a leaf monoterpene suggest that changes in needle quality within pines in future elevated-CO 2 atmospheres may not especially affect young insects and that tree-feeding sawflies may respond in a manner similar to herb-feeding lepidopterans.

  17. Comparison of isothiocyanate yield from wasabi rhizome tissues grown in soil or water.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Tamanna; Porter, N G; Savage, G P; McNeil, D L

    2003-06-04

    The isothiocyanate (ITC) yield of wasabi, the Japanese horseradish (Wasabi japonica), was measured on its release from glucosinolates in the rhizomes of plants grown in two traditional ways. Mature plants of 18 months old were harvested from two different commercial farms located in the South Island of New Zealand. At one farm, the plants were grown in raised soil beds, while the plants at the other farm were grown in gravel irrigated by river water. Following harvest, the rhizomes from each growth medium were divided into five size groups based on the weight and length of the rhizomes. The different sized rhizomes were also subdivided into proximal, medial, and distal portions of the rhizomes and each portion was further subdivided into epidermis plus cortex, and vascular plus pith. The individual and total ITC contents of each portion (proximal, medial, and distal) of the rhizomes were measured using dichloromethane extraction followed by the GC-FPD. The total ITC content of the rhizomes grown in soil increased (13 times) linearly from 6 to 114 g of rhizome weight, while the mean ITC content of the water-grown wasabi increased (10 times) nonlinearly for similar sized rhizomes. Water-grown rhizomes in the weight range from 18 to 45 g gave significantly (P = 0.030) higher total ITC (1-2 times) than similarly sized soil-grown rhizomes. Analysis of the tissues showed that the total and the individual ITCs were found in significantly higher levels (73 and 64%, respectively) in the skin and cortex tissue compared to the vascular and pith tissues. Analysis of the ITC content of the different locations of the wasabi rhizome showed that the distal portion of the rhizome contained significantly higher levels of both total and individual ITCs compared to the medial and proximal portions of the rhizome.

  18. Analysis of peg formation in cucumber seedlings grown on clinostats and in a microgravity (space) environment.

    PubMed

    Link, B M; Cosgrove, D J

    1999-12-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar out-growth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. Previous studies have indicated that peg formation is gravity dependent. In this study we analyzed peg formation in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) grown under conditions of normal gravity, microgravity, and simulated microgravity (clinostat rotation). Seeds were germinated on the ground, in clinostats and on board the space shuttle (STS 95) for 1-2 days, frozen and subsequently examined for their stage of development, degree of hook formation, number of pegs formed, and peg morphology. The frequency of peg formation in space grown seedlings was found to be nearly identical to that of clinostat grown seedlings and to differ from that of seedlings germinated under normal gravity only in a minority of cases; approximately 6% of the seedlings formed two pegs and nearly 2% of the seedlings lacked pegs, whereas such abnormalities did not occur in ground controls. The degree of hook formation was found to be less pronounced for space grown seedlings, compared to clinostat grown seedlings, indicating a greater degree of decoupling between peg formation and hook formation in space. Nonetheless, in all seedlings having single pegs and a hook, the peg was found to be positioned correctly on the inside of the hook, showing that there is coordinate development even in microgravity environments. Peg morphologies were altered in space grown samples, with the pegs having a blunt appearance and many pegs showing alterations in expansion, with the peg extending out over the edges of the seed coat and downwards. These phenotypes were not observed in clinostat or ground grown seedlings.

  19. Analysis of peg formation in cucumber seedlings grown on clinostats and in a microgravity (space) environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar out-growth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. Previous studies have indicated that peg formation is gravity dependent. In this study we analyzed peg formation in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) grown under conditions of normal gravity, microgravity, and simulated microgravity (clinostat rotation). Seeds were germinated on the ground, in clinostats and on board the space shuttle (STS 95) for 1-2 days, frozen and subsequently examined for their stage of development, degree of hook formation, number of pegs formed, and peg morphology. The frequency of peg formation in space grown seedlings was found to be nearly identical to that of clinostat grown seedlings and to differ from that of seedlings germinated under normal gravity only in a minority of cases; approximately 6% of the seedlings formed two pegs and nearly 2% of the seedlings lacked pegs, whereas such abnormalities did not occur in ground controls. The degree of hook formation was found to be less pronounced for space grown seedlings, compared to clinostat grown seedlings, indicating a greater degree of decoupling between peg formation and hook formation in space. Nonetheless, in all seedlings having single pegs and a hook, the peg was found to be positioned correctly on the inside of the hook, showing that there is coordinate development even in microgravity environments. Peg morphologies were altered in space grown samples, with the pegs having a blunt appearance and many pegs showing alterations in expansion, with the peg extending out over the edges of the seed coat and downwards. These phenotypes were not observed in clinostat or ground grown seedlings.

  20. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants.

    PubMed

    Schuerger, A C; Brown, C S

    1997-02-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  1. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  2. Influence of growth temperature on properties of zirconium dioxide films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukli, Kaupo; Ritala, Mikko; Aarik, Jaan; Uustare, Teet; Leskela, Markku

    2002-08-01

    ZrO2 films were grown by atomic layer deposition from ZrCl4 and H2O or a mixture of H2O and H2O2 on Si(100) substrates in the temperature range of 180-600 degC. The films were evaluated in the as-deposited state, in order to follow the effect of deposition temperature on the film quality. The rate of crystal growth increased and the content of residual impurities decreased with increasing temperature. The zirconium-to-oxygen atomic ratio, determined by ion-beam analysis, corresponded to the stoichiometric dioxide regardless of the growth temperature. The effective permittivity of ZrO2 in Al/ZrO2/Si capacitor structures increased from 13-15 in the films grown at 180 degC to 19 in the films grown at 300-600 degC, measured at 100 kHz. The permittivity was relatively high in the crystallized films, compared to the amorphous ones, but rather insensitive to the crystal structure. The permittivity was higher in the films grown using water. The leakage current density tended to be lower and the breakdown field higher in the films grown using hydrogen peroxide.

  3. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Taweesak, Viyachai; Lee Abdullah, Thohirah; Hassan, Siti Aishah; Kamarulzaman, Nitty Hirawaty; Wan Yusoff, Wan Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White”) were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL), 6 (400 mL), and 8 (533 mL) times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes. PMID:25478586

  4. Proximate nutritional composition of CELSS crops grown at different CO2 partial pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Berry, W. L.

    1994-01-01

    Two Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) candidate crops, soybean (Glycine max) and potato (Solanum tuberosum), were grown hydroponically in controlled environments maintained at carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressures ranging from 0.05 to 1.00 kPa (500 to 10,000 ppm at 101 kPa atmospheric pressure). Plants were harvested at maturity (90 days for soybean and 105 days for potato) and all tissues analyzed for proximate nutritional composition (i.e. protein, fat, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and ash content). Soybean seed ash and crude fiber were higher and carbohydrate was lower than values reported for field-grown seed. Potato tubers showed little difference from field-grown tubers. Crude fiber of soybean stems and leaves increased with increased CO2, as did soybean leaf protein (total nitrogen). Potato leaf and stem (combined) protein levels also increased with increased CO2, while leaf and stem carbohydrates decreased. Values for leaf and stem protein and ash were higher than values generally reported for field-grown plants for both species. Results suggest that CO2 partial pressure should have little influence on proximate composition of potato tubers or soybean seed, but that high ash and protein levels might be expected from leaves and stems of crops grown in controlled environments of a CELSS.

  5. Strain transfer across grain boundaries in MoS2 monolayers grown by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehues, Iris; Blob, Anna; Stiehm, Torsten; Schmidt, Robert; Jadriško, Valentino; Radatović, Borna; Čapeta, Davor; Kralj, Marko; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Bratschitsch, Rudolf

    2018-07-01

    Monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) mechanically exfoliated from bulk crystals have exceptional mechanical and optical properties. They are extremely flexible, sustaining mechanical strain of about 10% without breaking. Their optical properties dramatically change with applied strain. However, the fabrication of a large number of mechanical devices is tedious due to the micromechanical exfoliation process. Alternatively, monolayers can be grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on the wafer scale, with the drawback of cracks and grain boundaries in the material. Therefore, it is important to investigate the mechanical properties of CVD-grown material and its potential as a material for mass production of nanomechanical devices. Here, we measure the optical absorption of CVD-grown MoS2 monolayers with applied uniaxial tensile strain. We derive a strain-dependent shift for the A exciton of  ‑42 meV/%. This value is identical to MoS2 monolayers, which are mechanically exfoliated from natural molybdenite crystals. Using angle-resolved second-harmonic generation spectroscopy, we find that the applied uniaxial tensile strain is fully transferred across grain boundaries of the CVD-grown monolayer. Our work demonstrates that large-area artificially grown MoS2 monolayers are promising for mass-produced nanomechanical devices.

  6. BiVO4 thin film photoanodes grown by chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Lladó, Esther; Chen, Le; Hettick, Mark; Mashouf, Neeka; Lin, Yongjing; Javey, Ali; Ager, Joel W

    2014-01-28

    BiVO4 thin film photoanodes were grown by vapor transport chemical deposition on FTO/glass substrates. By controlling the flow rate, the temperatures of the Bi and V sources (Bi metal and V2O5 powder, respectively), and the temperature of the deposition zone in a two-zone furnace, single-phase monoclinic BiVO4 thin films can be obtained. The CVD-grown films produce global AM1.5 photocurrent densities up to 1 mA cm(-2) in aqueous conditions in the presence of a sacrificial reagent. Front illuminated photocatalytic performance can be improved by inserting either a SnO2 hole blocking layer and/or a thin, extrinsically Mo doped BiVO4 layer between the FTO and the CVD-grown layer. The incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE), measured under front illumination, for BiVO4 grown directly on FTO/glass is about 10% for wavelengths below 450 nm at a bias of +0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl. For BiVO4 grown on a 40 nm SnO2/20 nm Mo-doped BiVO4 back contact, the IPCE is increased to over 40% at wavelengths below 420 nm.

  7. Growth and yield responses of field-grown sweetpotato to elevated carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, P.K.; Hileman, D.R.; Ghosh, P.P.

    1996-09-01

    Root crops are important in developing countries, where food supplies are frequently marginal. Increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} usually lead to increases in plant growth and yield, but little is known about the response of root crops to CO{sub 2} enrichment under field conditions. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of CO{sub 2} enrichment on growth and yield of field-grown sweetpotato. Plants were grown in open-top chambers in the field at four CO{sub 2} levels ranging from 354 (ambient) to 665 {mu}mol mol{sup {minus}1} in two growing seasons. Shoot growth was not affected significantly by elevated CO{sub 2}.more » Yield of storage roots increased 46 and 75% at the highest CO{sub 2} level in the 2 yr. The yield enhancement occurred through increases in the number of storage roots in the second year. Storage-root/shoot ratios increased 44% and leaf nitrogen concentrations decreased by 24% at the highest CO{sub 2} level. A comparison of plants grown in the open field to plants grown in open-top chambers at ambient CO{sub 2} concentrations indicated that open-top chambers reduced shoot growth in the first year and storage-root yield in both years. These results are consistent with the majority of CO{sub 2}-enrichment studies done on pot-grown sweetpotato. 37 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  8. Lipids of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cells Grown on Hydrocarbons and on Trypticase Soy Broth1

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Paul; Cooney, J. J.

    1969-01-01

    Lipids were extracted from cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown on a pure hydrocarbon (tridecane), mixed hydrocarbons (JP-4 jet fuel), and on Trypticase Soy Broth. Total lipids produced from each substrate represented from 7.1 to 8.2% of cellular dry weight, of which 5.0 to 6.4% were obtained before cellular hydrolysis (free lipids) and 1.7 to 2.0% were extracted after cellular hydrolysis (bound lipids). Free lipids from cells grown on each medium were separated into four fractions by thin-layer chromatography. All fractions were present in cells from each type of medium, and the “neutral fraction” constituted the largest fraction. The fatty acid composition of free lipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Cells grown on each medium contained saturated and unsaturated C14 to C20 fatty acids. Trace amounts of C13 fatty acids were found in tridecane-grown cells. Saturated C16 and C18 were the major acids present in all cells. Quantitative differences were found in fatty acids produced on the three media, but specific correlations between substrate carbon sources and fatty acid content of cells were not evident. Tridecane-grown cells contained only traces of C13 acid and small amounts of C15 and C17 acids, suggesting that the organism's fatty acids were derived from de novo synthesis rather than by direct incorporation of the hydrocarbon. PMID:4976464

  9. Zn-vacancy related defects in ZnO grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, F. C. C.; Luo, C. Q.; Wang, Z. L.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.

    2017-02-01

    Undoped and Ga-doped ZnO (002) films were grown c-sapphire using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. Znvacancy related defects in the films were studied by different positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). These included Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) employing a continuous monenergetic positron beam, and positron lifetime spectroscopy using a pulsed monoenergetic positron beam attached to an electron linear accelerator. Two kinds of Znvacancy related defects namely a monovacancy and a divacancy were identified in the films. In as-grown undoped samples grown with relatively low oxygen pressure P(O2)≤1.3 Pa, monovacancy is the dominant Zn-vacancy related defect. Annealing these samples at 900 oC induced Zn out-diffusion into the substrate and converted the monovacancy to divacancy. For the undoped samples grown with high P(O2)=5 Pa irrespective of the annealing temperature and the as-grown degenerate Ga-doped sample (n=1020 cm-3), divacancy is the dominant Zn-vacancy related defect. The clustering of vacancy will be discussed.

  10. Comparison of the microflora on organically and conventionally grown spring mix from a California processor.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Christie A; Harrison, Mark A

    2005-06-01

    Considerable speculation has occurred concerning the potential for higher numbers of foodborne pathogens on organically grown produce compared with produce not grown organically. The microflora composition of spring mix or mesclun, a mixture of multiple salad ingredients, grown either by organic or conventional means was determined. Unwashed or washed spring mix was obtained from a commercial California fresh-cut produce processor who does not use manure in their cultivation practices. Fifty-four samples of each type of product were supplied over a 4-month period. Analysis included enumeration of total mesophiles, psychrotrophs, coliforms, generic Escherichia coli, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and molds. In addition, spring mix was analyzed for the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. The mean populations of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, yeasts, molds, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms on conventionally grown spring mix were not statistically different (P > 0.05) from respective mean populations on organically grown spring mix. The mean population of each microbial group was significantly higher on unwashed spring mix compared with the washed product. Of the 14 samples found to contain E. coli, eight were from nonwashed conventional spring mix, one was from washed conventional spring mix, and four were from nonwashed organic spring mix. Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were not detected in any of the samples analyzed.

  11. Growth of Cadmium-Zinc Telluride Crystals by Controlled Seeding Contactless Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; Grasza, K.; Gillies, D.; Jerman, G.

    1996-01-01

    Bulk crystals of cadmium-zinc telluride, 23 mm in diameter and up to 45 grams in weight were grown. Controlled seed formation procedure was used to limit the number of grains in the crystal. Most uniform distribution of ZnTe in the crystals was obtained using excess (Cd + Zn) pressure in the ampoule.

  12. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTITUMOR, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC CONSTITUENTS OF FIELD-GROWN AND IN VITRO-GROWN LYSIMACHIA VULGARIS L

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Guner, Birgul; Karakas, Fatma Pehlivan; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lysimachia vulgaris L. (Yellow loosestrife) is a medicinal plant in the family Myrsinaceae. It has been used in the treatment of fever, ulcer, diarrhea and wounds in folk medicine. It has also analgesic, expectorant, astringent and anti-inflammatory activities. Two different sources of the plant (field-grown and in vitro-grown) were used to evaluate the biological activities (antibacterial, antitumor and antioxidant) of L. vulgaris. In vitro-grown plant materials were collected from L. vulgaris plants that were previously regenerated in our laboratory. Materials and Methods: Plant materials were extracted with water, ethanol and acetone. For antibacterial test, disc diffusion method and 10 different pathogenic bacteria were used. Antioxidant activity was indicated by using DPPH method. The total phenol amount by using Folin-Ciocaltaeu method and the total flavonoid amount by using aluminum chloride (AlCl3) colorimetric method were determined. Results: Generally, yellow loosestrife extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes). Strong antitumor activity of yellow loosestrife was observed via potato disc diffusion bioassay. Nine different phenolics were also determined and compared by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Conclusion: Future investigations should be focused on fractionation of the extracts to identify active components for biological activity. PMID:28573234

  13. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTITUMOR, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC CONSTITUENTS OF FIELD-GROWN AND IN VITRO-GROWN LYSIMACHIA VULGARIS L.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Arzu Birinci; Guner, Birgul; Karakas, Fatma Pehlivan; Turker, Arzu Ucar

    2017-01-01

    Lysimachia vulgaris L. (Yellow loosestrife) is a medicinal plant in the family Myrsinaceae. It has been used in the treatment of fever, ulcer, diarrhea and wounds in folk medicine. It has also analgesic, expectorant, astringent and anti-inflammatory activities. Two different sources of the plant (field-grown and in vitro -grown) were used to evaluate the biological activities (antibacterial, antitumor and antioxidant) of L. vulgaris. In vitro-grown plant materials were collected from L. vulgaris plants that were previously regenerated in our laboratory. Plant materials were extracted with water, ethanol and acetone. For antibacterial test, disc diffusion method and 10 different pathogenic bacteria were used. Antioxidant activity was indicated by using DPPH method. The total phenol amount by using Folin-Ciocaltaeu method and the total flavonoid amount by using aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) colorimetric method were determined. Generally, yellow loosestrife extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes) . Strong antitumor activity of yellow loosestrife was observed via potato disc diffusion bioassay. Nine different phenolics were also determined and compared by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Future investigations should be focused on fractionation of the extracts to identify active components for biological activity.

  14. Electron-spin-resonance studies of vapor-grown carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshik, B.; Meyer, D.; Apple, T.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of annealing temperature and fiber diameter on the degree of disorder of vapor-grown carbon fibers were investigated by analyzing the electron-spin-resonance (ESR) line shapes of fibers annealed at six various temperatures up to 3375 K. The diameter of fibers, grown from methane gas, ranged from 10 to 140 microns with most fibers between 20 and 50 microns. It was found that the degree of disorder of vapor-grown fibers decreases upon annealing to higher temperature; standard angular deviation between the fiber axis and the crystallite basal planes could vary from 35 deg (for annealing temperature of 2275 K) to 12 deg (for 3375 K). With respect to fiber diameter, order parameters were found to be higher for fibers of smaller diameters.

  15. Root-shoot interaction in the greening of wheat seedlings grown under red light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathy, B. C.; Brown, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Wheat seedlings grown with roots exposed to constant red light (300-500 micromoles m-2 s-1) did not accumulate chlorophyll in the leaves. In contrast, seedlings grown with their roots shielded from light accumulated chlorophylls. Chlorophyll biosynthesis could be induced in red-light-grown chlorophyll-deficient yellow plants by either reducing the red-light intensity at the root surface to 100 micromoles m-1 s-1 or supplementing with 6% blue light. The inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis was due to impairment of the Mg-chelatase enzyme working at the origin of the Mg-tetrapyrrole pathway. The root-perceived photomorphogenic inhibition of shoot greening demonstrates root-shoot interaction in the greening process.

  16. The performance studies of DKDP crystals grown by a rapid horizontal growth method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Qi, Hongji; Wang, Bin; Wang, Hu; Chen, Duanyang; Shao, Jianda

    2018-04-01

    A deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal with about 70% deuterium level was grown by a rapid horizontal growth method with independent design equipment, which includes a continuous filtration system. The cooling program during crystal growth was designed according to a self-developed software to catch the size of growing crystal in real time. The crystal structure, optical performance and laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of this DKDP crystal were investigated in this paper. The deuterium concentration of the crystal was confirmed by the neutron diffraction technique, which was effective and available in determining a complete range of deuteration level. The dielectric property was measured to evaluate the perfection of the lattice. The transmittance and LIDT were carried out further to evaluate the optical and functional properties of this DKDP crystal grown in the rapid horizontal growth technique. All of the detailed characterization for DKDP figured out that the 70% deuterated KDP crystal grown in this way had relatively good qualities.

  17. Fabrication of in-situ grown graphene reinforced Cu matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yakun; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; Shi, Chunsheng; Li, Jiajun; Nash, Philip; Zhao, Naiqin

    2016-01-01

    Graphene/Cu composites were fabricated through a graphene in-situ grown approach, which involved ball-milling of Cu powders with PMMA as solid carbon source, in-situ growth of graphene on flaky Cu powders and vacuum hot-press sintering. SEM and TEM characterization results indicated that graphene in-situ grown on Cu powders guaranteed a homogeneous dispersion and a good combination between graphene and Cu matrix, as well as the intact structure of graphene, which was beneficial to its strengthening effect. The yield strength of 244 MPa and tensile strength of 274 MPa were achieved in the composite with 0.95 wt.% graphene, which were separately 177% and 27.4% enhancement over pure Cu. Strengthening effect of in-situ grown graphene in the matrix was contributed to load transfer and dislocation strengthening.

  18. Low temperature grown GaNAsSb: A promising material for photoconductive switch application

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K. H.; Yoon, S. F.; Wicaksono, S.

    2013-09-09

    We report a photoconductive switch using low temperature grown GaNAsSb as the active material. The GaNAsSb layer was grown at 200 °C by molecular beam epitaxy in conjunction with a radio frequency plasma-assisted nitrogen source and a valved antimony cracker source. The low temperature growth of the GaNAsSb layer increased the dark resistivity of the switch and shortened the carrier lifetime. The switch exhibited a dark resistivity of 10{sup 7} Ω cm, a photo-absorption of up to 2.1 μm, and a carrier lifetime of ∼1.3 ps. These results strongly support the suitability of low temperature grown GaNAsSb in the photoconductivemore » switch application.« less

  19. Multilayer porous structures of HVPE and MOCVD grown GaN for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braniste, T.; Ciers, Joachim; Monaico, Ed.; Martin, D.; Carlin, J.-F.; Ursaki, V. V.; Sergentu, V. V.; Tiginyanu, I. M.; Grandjean, N.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we report on a comparative study of electrochemical processes for the preparation of multilayer porous structures in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and metal organic chemical vapor phase deposition (MOCVD) grown GaN. It was found that in HVPE-grown GaN, multilayer porous structures are obtained due to self-organization processes leading to a fine modulation of doping during the crystal growth. However, these processes are not totally under control. Multilayer porous structures with a controlled design have been produced by optimizing the technological process of electrochemical etching in MOCVD-grown samples, consisting of five pairs of thin layers with alternating-doping profiles. The samples have been characterized by SEM imaging, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and micro-reflectivity measurements, accompanied by transfer matrix analysis and simulations by a method developed for the calculation of optical reflection spectra. We demonstrate the applicability of the produced structures for the design of Bragg reflectors.

  20. Expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Bingham, Gail; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir

    Plants are exposed to the extreme environment in space, especially space radiation is suspected to induce oxidative stress by generating high-energy free radicals and microgravity would enhance the effect of space radiation, however, current understandings of plant growth and responses on this synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity is limited to a few experiments. In this study, expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment was analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA microarray experiments to understand plant responses and adaptation to space environment and to develop the space stress-tolerant plants. The seeds of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Haruna nijo, kept in the international space station (ISS) over 4 months, were germinated after 3 days of irrigation in LADA plant growth chamber onboard Russian segment of ISS and the final germination ratio was over 90 %. The height of plants was about 50 to 60 cm and flag leaf has been opened after 26 days of irrigation under 24 hr lighting, showing the similar growth to ground-grown barley. Expression levels of stress/defense-related genes in space-grown barley were compared to those in ground-grown barley by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In 17 stress/defense-related genes that are up-regulated by oxidative stress or other abiotic stress, only catalase, pathogenesis-related protein 13, chalcone synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes were increased in space-grown barley. DNA microarrya analysis with the GeneChip Barley Genome Array showed the similar expression profiles of the stress/defense-related genes to those by RT-PCR experiment, suggesting that the barley germinated and grown in LADA onboard ISS is not damaged by space environment, especially oxidative stress induced by space radiation and microgravity.

  1. Carbon nanotubes grown on metal microelectrodes for the detection of dopamine

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Cheng; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Nguyen, Michael; ...

    2015-12-07

    Microelectrodes modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are useful for the detection of neurotransmitters because the CNTs enhance sensitivity and have electrocatalytic effects. CNTs can be grown on carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) but the intrinsic electrochemical activity of carbon fibers makes evaluating the effect of CNT enhancement difficult. Metal wires are highly conductive and many metals have no intrinsic electrochemical activity for dopamine, so we investigated CNTs grown on metal wires as microelectrodes for neurotransmitter detection. In this work, we successfully grew CNTs on niobium substrates for the first time. Instead of planar metal surfaces, metal wires with a diameter ofmore » only 25 μm were used as CNT substrates; these have potential in tissue applications due to their minimal tissue damage and high spatial resolution. Scanning electron microscopy shows that aligned CNTs are grown on metal wires after chemical vapor deposition. By use of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, CNT-coated niobium (CNT-Nb) microelectrodes exhibit higher sensitivity and lower ΔE p value compared to CNTs grown on carbon fibers or other metal wires. The limit of detection for dopamine at CNT-Nb microelectrodes is 11 ± 1 nM, which is approximately 2-fold lower than that of bare CFMEs. Adsorption processes were modeled with a Langmuir isotherm, and detection of other neurochemicals was also characterized, including ascorbic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin, adenosine, and histamine. CNT-Nb microelectrodes were used to monitor stimulated dopamine release in anesthetized rats with high sensitivity. This research demonstrates that CNT-grown metal microelectrodes, especially CNTs grown on Nb microelectrodes, are useful for monitoring neurotransmitters.« less

  2. MBE grown III-V strain relaxed buffer layers and superlattices characterized by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.J.; Fritz, I.J.; Drummond, T.J.

    1993-11-01

    Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), the authors have investigated the effects of growth temperature and dopant incorporation on the surface morphology of MBE grown graded buffer layers and strained layer superlattices (SLSs) in the InGaAlAs/GaAs and InAsSb/InSb material systems. The AFM results show quantitatively that over the temperature range from 380 to 545 C, graded in{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}As(x = 0.05 {minus} 0.32) buffer layers grown at high temperatures ({approximately}520 C), and graded In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}As (x = 0.05 {minus} 0.33) buffer layers and In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As/In{sub 0.26}Al{sub 0.35}Ga{sub 0.39}As SLSs grown at low temperatures ({approximately}400 C) have the lowest RMSmore » roughness. Also, for SLSs InAs{sub 0.21}Sb{sub 0.79}/InSb, undoped layers grown at 470 C were smoother than undoped layers grown at 420 C and Be-doped layers grown at 470 C. These results illustrate the role of surface tension in the growth of strained layer materials near the melting temperature of the InAs{sub x}Sb{sub {minus}x}/InSb superlattice. Nomarski interference and transmission electron microscopies, IR photoluminescence, x-ray diffraction, and photocurrent spectroscopy were also used to evaluate the relative quality of the material but usually, the results were not conclusive.« less

  3. Optical and structural studies of films grown thermally on zirconium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J. M.; McNatt, J. S.; Shepard, M. J.; Farkas, N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2002-06-01

    Variable angle IR reflection spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy are used to determine the thickness and morphology of films grown thermally on Zr surfaces in air. The density and homogeneity of these films increases with temperature in the range studied (773-873 K) and growth at the highest temperature follows cubic rate law kinetics. We demonstrate a structure-property relationship for these thermally grown films and suggest the application of IR reflectivity as an inspection method during the growth of environmentally passive films on industrial Zr components.

  4. Encystment of Azotobacter nigricans grown diazotrophically on kerosene as sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    García-Esquivel, Gabriela; Calva-Calva, Graciano; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Fernández-Linares, Luis Carlos; Vázquez, Refugio Rodríguez; Esparza-García, Fernando José

    2009-03-01

    Encystment of Azotobacter nigricans was induced by its diazotrophic cultivation on kerosene. Its growth and nitrogenase activity were affected by kerosene in comparison to cultures grown on sucrose. Electron microscopy of vegetative cells showed that when nitrogenase activity was higher and the poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules were not present to a significant extent, peripheral bodies were abundant. After 8 days of culture on kerosene, the presence of cysts with intracellular bunches of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules was observed. Germination of cysts bears germinating multicelled yet unbroken capsule cysts with up to three cells inside. This is the first report of encystment induction of Azotobacter species grown on kerosene.

  5. Anisotropy of electrical resistivity in PVT grown WSe2-x crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, G. K.; Patel, Y. A.; Agarwal, M. K.

    2018-05-01

    Single crystals of p-type WSe2 and WSe1.9 were grown by a physical vapour transport technique. The anisotropy in d.c. electrical resistivity was investigated in these grown crystals. The off-stoichiometric WSe1.9 exhibited a higher anisotropy ratio as compared to WSe2 crystals. The electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of a large number of stacking faults in these crystals. The resistivity enhancement along the c-axis and anisotropic effective mass ratio explained on the basis of structural disorder introduced due to off-stoichiometry.

  6. Preliminary assessment of systems for deriving liquid and gaseous fuels from waste or grown organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Reynolds, T. W.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The overall feasibility of the chemical conversion of waste or grown organic matter to fuel is examined from the technical, economic, and social viewpoints. The energy contribution from a system that uses waste and grown organic feedstocks is estimated as 4 to 12 percent of our current energy consumption. Estimates of today's market prices for these fuels are included. Economic and social issues are as important as technology in determining the feasibility of such a proposal. An orderly program of development and demonstration is recommended to provide reliable data for an assessment of the viability of the proposal.

  7. Growth and antimicrobial studies of γ-glycine crystal grown using CuSO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayalakshmi, V.; Dhanasekaran, P.

    2018-05-01

    In the current work single crystals of pure and 1M of CuSO4-added glycine were grown by slow evaporation method and its optical and antimicrobial properties were studied. The Polymorph of glycine transforms from a-glycine to γ-glycine due to the incorporation of CuSO4 on glycine was affirmed by the PXRD and FTIR studies. The impact of CuSO4 on the antimicrobial action of the grown samples was deliberate by utilizing the agar diffusion method.

  8. Oxide Ceramic Films Grown on 60 Nitinol for NASA and Department of Defense Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Street, Kenneth W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Cytron, Sheldon J.

    2005-01-01

    Both the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) have worked to develop oxide ceramic films grown on 60 nitinol (60-wt% nickel and 40-wt% titanium) to decrease friction and increase wear resistance under unlubricated conditions. In general, oxide and nonoxide ceramic films have unique capabilities as mechanical-, chemical-, and thermal-barrier materials in diverse applications, including high-temperature bearings and gas bearings requiring low friction, wear resistance, and chemical stability. All oxide ceramic films grown on 60 nitinol were furnished by ARDEC, and materials and surface characterization and tribological experiments were conducted at Glenn.

  9. Structural and optical characteristics of GaAs films grown on Si/Ge substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykov, A. V.; Dorokhin, M. V.; Vergeles, P. S.; Baidus, N. V.; Kovalskiy, V. A.; Yakimov, E. B.; Soltanovich, O. A.

    2018-03-01

    A GaAs/AlAs heterostructure and a GaAs film grown on Si/Ge substrates have been fabricated and studied. A Ge buffer on a silicon substrate was fabricated using the MBE process. A3B5 films were grown by MOCVD at low pressures. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to define the optical quality of A3B5 films. Structural properties were investigated using the electron beam induced current method. It was established that despite a rather high density of dislocations on the epitaxial layers, the detected photoluminescence radiation of layers indicates the acceptable crystalline quality of the top GaAs layer.

  10. Use of Kelvin probe force microscopy for identification of CVD grown graphene flakes on copper foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mehta, B. R.; Kanjilal, D.

    2017-05-01

    Graphene flakes have been grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method on Cu foils. The obtained graphene flakes have been characterized by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The graphene flakes grown on Cu foil comprise mainly single layer graphene and confirm that the nucleation for graphene growth starts very quickly. Moreover, KPFM has been found to be a valuable technique to differentiate between covered and uncovered portion of Cu foil by graphene flakes deposited for shorter duration. The results show that KPFM can be a very useful technique in understanding the mechanism of graphene growth.

  11. Paramagnetic resonance of LaGaO3: Mn single crystals grown by floating zone melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazhenin, V. A.; Potapov, A. P.; Artyomov, M. Yu.; Salosin, M. A.; Fokin, A. V.; Gil'mutdinov, I. F.; Mukhamedshin, I. R.

    2016-02-01

    The EPR spectrum of Mn-doped lanthanum gallate single crystals grown by floating zone melting with optical heating has been studied. In contrast to the crystals grown according to the Czochralski method, no manganese is found in these crystals even after high-temperature annealing in air. The spectral characteristics of Fe3+ and Gd3+ centers in crystals prepared by various methods have been compared in the rhombohedral phase, and the fourth-rank nondiagonal parameters of the Fe3+ trigonal centers have been determined, as well.

  12. Optical Properties of Zinc Selenide Grown Using Molecular Beam Deposition Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    studied were grown using a standard MBE machine with insitu diagnostics. The ZnSe material used for growing the samples is highly pure polycrystalline...width of the interference maxima n can be found from equation (1). Beyond 550 nm absorption is varying rapidly and this will cause Tmax to vary...nonlinearity Is utilized - such as in an optically bistable switch. It is known from previous work on ZnSe grown on GaAs 113] that the material begins growing

  13. Erbium Distribution in Single Crystal YAG Fibers Grown by Laser-Heated Pedestal Growth Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-28

    single crystal YAG fibers grown by laser - heated pedestal growth technique Single crystal (SC) yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) as a host...inserted into a SC YAG tube. This rod-in-tube was used as a preform in our laser -heated pedestal growth (LHPG) apparatus to grow a fiber with a radial...fibers grown by laser -heated pedestal growth technique Report Title Single crystal (SC) yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) as a host material has

  14. Oxygen-induced recombination centers in as-grown Czochralski silicon crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nauka, K.; Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous quantitative microprofiles of the interstitial oxygen concentration and of the excess carrier lifetime are obtained in Czochralski-grown Si crystals employing double laser absorption scanning. It is found that oxygen concentration maxima and minima along the crystal growth direction coincide with lifetime minima and maxima, respectively. Another finding is that the magnitude of oxygen-induced lifetime changes increases dramatically in going from the center to the periphery of the crystal. The findings discussed imply that 'as-grown' oxygen precipitates figure in lifetime-limiting processes.

  15. Classification using NMR-based metabolomics of Sophora flavescens grown in Japan and China.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Ikeda, Yuriko; Yamamoto, Akari; Saima, Toyoe; Fujita, Tatsuya; Fukuda, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Eriko; Baba, Masaki; Okada, Yoshihito; Shirataki, Yoshiaki

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate that NMR-based metabolomics can be used to identify the country of growth (Japan or China) of Sophora flavescens plants. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) conducted on extracts of S. flavescens grown in China provided data distinct from that of extracts of plants grown in Japan. Loading plot analysis showed signals characteristic of Japanese S. flavescens. NMR analyses showed these signals to be due to kurarinol (1) and kushenol H (2). These compounds were confirmed by HPLC analysis to be distinctive markers for Japanese S. flavescens.

  16. Selenium in particulates and gaseous fractions of smoke from cigarettes prepared from tobacco grown on fly-ash-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Gutemann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.; Hoffman, D.

    Cigarettes prepared from tobacco grown in pots of soils amended with soft coal fly ash were smoked, and the mainstream and gaseous fractions were analyzed for total selenium concentration. Fly-ash-grown and control (soil-grown) tobaccos contained, respectively, 0.79 and 0.03 ppm selenium. The quantities of selenium (ng per cigarette) found in the mainstream particulate and gaseous fractions were, respectively, 62.4 and 246.0 for the fly-ash-grown and 8.6 and 12.0 for the control treatments. Studies of the absorption, retention, effects, metabolism, and excretion of selenium in the body are reviewed.

  17. All MBE grown InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on on-axis Si (001).

    PubMed

    Kwoen, Jinkwan; Jang, Bongyong; Lee, Joohang; Kageyama, Takeo; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2018-04-30

    Directly grown III-V quantum dot (QD) laser on on-axis Si (001) is a good candidate for achieving monolithically integrated Si photonics light source. Nowadays, laser structures containing high quality InAs / GaAs QD are generally grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). However, the buffer layer between the on-axis Si (001) substrate and the laser structure are usually grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In this paper, we demonstrate all MBE grown high-quality InAs/GaAs QD lasers on on-axis Si (001) substrates without using patterning and intermediate layers of foreign material.

  18. Improved field emission properties of carbon nanotubes grown on stainless steel substrate and its application in ionization gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Detian; Cheng, Yongjun; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Huzhong; Dong, Changkun; Li, Da

    2016-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique on different substrates. Microstructures and field emission characteristics of the as-grown CNT arrays were investigated systematically, and its application in ionization gauge was also evaluated preliminarily. The results indicate that the as-grown CNT arrays are vertically well-aligned relating to the substrate surfaces, but the CNTs grown on stainless steel substrate are longer and more crystalline than the ones grown on silicon wafer substrate. The field emission behaviors of the as-grown CNT arrays are strongly dependent upon substrate properties. Namely, the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate has better field emission properties, including lower turn on and threshold fields, better emission stability and repeatability, compared with the one grown on silicon wafer substrate. The superior field emission properties of the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate are mainly attributed to low contact resistance, high thermal conductivity, good adhesion strength, etc. In addition, the metrological behaviors of ionization gauge with the CNT array grown on stainless steel substrate as an electron source were investigated, and this novel cathode ionization gauge extends the lower limit of linear pressure measurement to 10-8 Pa, which is one order of magnitude lower than the result reported for the same of gauge with CNT cathode.

  19. Effect of amaranth dye on the growth and properties of conventional and SR method grown KAP single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu Rao, G.; P., Rajesh; Ramasamy, P.

    2018-04-01

    The 0.1 mol% amaranth added KAP single crystals were grown from aqueous solutions by both slow evaporation solution technique and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method. The single crystal having dimension of 45 mm length and 12 mm diameter was grown with growth rate of 1.5 mm/day using SR method. 87 % transmittance is obtained for SR method grown amaranth added KAP single crystal. The high intense luminescence at 661 nm is obtained from amaranth added conventional and SR method grown KAP single crystal. The amaranth added KAP single crystal possesses good mechanical and laser damage threshold stability.

  20. Investigation of Strain-Relaxation Characteristics of Nitrides Grown on Si(110) by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Using X-ray Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Quanzhong; Lewins, Christopher J.; Allsopp, Duncan W. E.; Bowen, Chris R.; Wang, Wang N.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the effect of an interfacial biaxial stress field on the dislocation formation dynamics during epitaxial growth of nitrides on Si(110). The anisotropic mismatch stress between a 2-fold symmetry Si(110) atomic plane and the AlN basal plane of 6-fold symmetry may be relaxed through the creation of additional characteristic dislocations, as proposed by Ruiz-Zepeda et al. with Burgers vectors: b= 1/2[bar 2110] and b= [1bar 210], +/-60° from [11bar 20]. The dislocations generated under such a biaxial stress field appear annihilating more efficiently with increasing thickness, leading to high-quality nitride epilayers on Si(110) for improved quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells.

  1. GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Nanoscale Patterned Sapphire Substrates with Void-Embedded Cortex-Like Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2011-09-01

    High-efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an emitting wavelength of 438 nm were demonstrated utilizing nanoscale patterned sapphire substrates with void-embedded cortex-like nanostructures (NPSS-VECN). Unlike the previous nanopatterned sapphire substrates, the presented substrate has a new morphology that can not only improve the crystalline quality of GaN epilayers but also generate a void-embedded nanostructural layer to enhance light extraction. Under a driving current of 20 mA, the external quantum efficiency of an LED with NPSS-VECN is enhanced by 2.4-fold compared with that of the conventional LED. Moreover, the output powers of two devices respectively are 33.1 and 13.9 mW.

  2. The Peculiarities of Strain Relaxation in GaN/AlN Superlattices Grown on Vicinal GaN (0001) Substrate: Comparative XRD and AFM Study.

    PubMed

    Kuchuk, Andrian V; Kryvyi, Serhii; Lytvyn, Petro M; Li, Shibin; Kladko, Vasyl P; Ware, Morgan E; Mazur, Yuriy I; Safryuk, Nadiia V; Stanchu, Hryhorii V; Belyaev, Alexander E; Salamo, Gregory J

    2016-12-01

    Superlattices (SLs) consisting of symmetric layers of GaN and AlN have been investigated. Detailed X-ray diffraction and reflectivity measurements demonstrate that the relaxation of built-up strain in the films generally increases with an increasing number of repetitions; however, an apparent relaxation for subcritical thickness SLs is explained through the accumulation of Nagai tilt at each interface of the SL. Additional atomic force microscopy measurements reveal surface pit densities which appear to correlate with the amount of residual strain in the films along with the appearance of cracks for SLs which have exceeded the critical thickness for plastic relaxation. These results indicate a total SL thickness beyond which growth may be limited for the formation of high-quality coherent crystal structures; however, they may indicate a growth window for the reduction of threading dislocations by controlled relaxation of the epilayers.

  3. Proximate composition of CELSS crops grown in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M; Mackowiak, C L; Sager, J C; Knott, W M; Berry, W L

    1996-01-01

    Edible biomass from four crops of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), four crops of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), four crops of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), and three crops of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown in NASA's CELSS Biomass Production Chamber were analyzed for proximate composition. All plants were grown using recirculating nutrient (hydroponic) film culture with pH and electrical conductivity automatically controlled. Temperature and humidity were controlled to near optimal levels for each species and atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained near 100 Pa during the light cycles. Soybean seed contained the highest percentage of protein and fat, potato tubers and wheat seed contained the highest levels of carbohydrate, and lettuce leaves contained the highest level of ash. Analyses showed values close to data published for field-grown plants with several exceptions: In comparison with field-grown plants, wheat seed had higher protein levels; soybean seed had higher ash and crude fiber levels; and potato tubers and lettuce leaves had higher protein and ash levels. The higher ash and protein levels may have been a result of the continuous supply of nutrients (e.g., potassium and nitrogen) to the plants by the recirculating hydroponic culture.

  4. 76 FR 65357 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ...; Suspension of Order Regulations Regarding Random Row Diversion AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... marketing order for tart cherries (order). The order regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in the... Christian D. Nissen, Regional Manager, Southeast Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order and Agreement...

  5. Taper equation and volume tables for plantation-grown red alder.

    Treesearch

    Andrew A. Bluhm; Sean M. Garber; David E. Hibbs

    2007-01-01

    A taper equation and associated tables are presented for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) trees grown in plantations. The data were gathered from variable-density experimental plantations throughout the Pacific Northwest. Diameter inside bark along the stem was fitted to a variable exponent model form by using generalized nonlinear least squares and a...

  6. Postharvest evaluation of soilless-grown table grape during storage in modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; Buttaro, Donato; Santamaria, Pietro; Serio, Francesco

    2011-09-01

    Soilless growth systems, developed mainly for vegetables and ornamental crops, have also been used recently as an alternative to soil culture for table grape in order to achieve optimal production performance. In this study, sensory, physical and chemical parameters were analysed in table grapes obtained from soil and soilless growth systems at harvest and during storage in air or modified atmosphere. At harvest, soilless-grown berries were 30% firmer than those grown in soil. Moreover, they showed 60% higher antioxidant activity and total phenol content than soil-grown fruits. Modified atmosphere storage resulted in a better quality of table grapes compared with those stored in air. Furthermore, soilless growth was more suitable than soil growth for preserving visual quality and controlling rachis browning and weight loss. Since the soilless system produces berries that are cleaner and of higher quality than those grown in soil, the implementation of soilless growth for the production of health-promoting and convenience fruits is suggested. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effect of varying light intensity on welfare indices of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of varying light-intensity on ocular, immue, fear, and leg health of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights under environmentally controlled conditions were evaluated. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 Ross 308 chicks were randomly ...

  8. Determining the Correct Planting Depth For Container-Grown Longleaf Pine Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Hainds

    2004-01-01

    The Longleaf Alliance installed four planting-depth studies from 1998 to 2002 to determine the optimal depth for container-grown longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings. Results indicate that deep planting significantly reduced seedling survival and growth. Results also indicate that longleaf is very tolerant of shallow planting whereby the...

  9. Towner State Nursery weed control program for field-grown conifer nursery stock

    Treesearch

    Roy LaFramboise

    2002-01-01

    The Towner State Nursery is owned and operated by the North Dakota Forest Service. The nursery is 160 acres in size and is located in north-central North Dakota. The Towner Nursery specializes in the production of conifer seedlings, transplants, and greenhouse-grown container stock for conservation tree plantings. Transplants constitute 80% of the stock produced. The...

  10. Dimensional stability and decay resistance of composite fiberboard made from plantation-grown southern yellow pine

    Treesearch

    Poo Chow; Timothy Harp; John A. Youngquist; Jim H. Muehl; Andrzej M. Krzysik

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the phenol-formaldehyde resin content level (3 percent and 7 percent), and three fungi species (Poria placenta, Gleophyllum trabeum, and Polyporus versicolor) on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of high density composition boards made from plantation-grown southern pine chips. A standard ASTM...

  11. Comparison of Vibrio parahaemolyticus grown in estuarine water and rich medium.

    PubMed Central

    Pace, J; Chai, T J

    1989-01-01

    Cell envelope composition and selected physiological traits of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were studied in regard to the Kanagawa phenomenon and growth conditions. Cell envelopes were prepared from cells cultured in Proteose Peptone-beef extract (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) medium or filtered estuarine water. Protein, phospholipid, and lipopolysaccharide contents varied with culture conditions. The phospholipids present in the cell envelopes were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin. Phosphatidylethanolamine decreased and phosphatidylglycerol increased in cells grown in estuarine water. Profiles of proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated numerous protein species, with four to six predominant proteins ranging from 26,000 to 120,000 in molecular weight. The profile of V. parahaemolyticus cell envelope proteins was unique and might be useful in the identification of the organism. Alkaline phosphatase activity was slightly higher in Kanagawa-negative strains and was higher in cells grown in estuarine water than in cells grown in rich laboratory medium. The DNA levels in estuarine water-grown cells increased, while RNA levels and cell volume decreased. Bacteriophage sensitivity typing demonstrated a close intraspecies relationship. Results indicated that Kanagawa-positive and -negative strains were closely related, but they could be grouped separately and may have undergone starvation-related physiological changes when cultured in estuarine water. Images PMID:2782869

  12. Diurnal patterns of chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 fixation in orchard grown Torreya taxifolia (Arn.).

    Treesearch

    Anita C. Koehn; Robert L. Doudrick

    1999-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 fixation in orchard measurements were taken on sunny days in October 1996, on three Torreya taxifolia (Arn.) plants grown in an open canopy orchard. Information from chlorophyll fluorescence quenching analysis indicated that during periods of highest light intensity and temperatures there were...

  13. Metal-insulator transition characteristics of VO2 thin films grown on Ge(100) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Ko, C.; Ramanathan, S.

    2010-10-01

    Phase transitions exhibited by correlated oxides could be of potential relevance to the emerging field of oxide electronics. We report on the synthesis of high-quality VO2 thin films grown on single crystal Ge(100) substrates by physical vapor deposition and their metal-insulator transition (MIT) properties. Thermally triggered MIT is demonstrated with nearly three orders of magnitude resistance change across the MIT with transition temperatures of 67 °C (heating) and 61 °C (cooling). Voltage-triggered hysteretic MIT is observed at room temperature at threshold voltage of ˜2.1 V for ˜100 nm thickness VO2 films. Activation energies for electron transport in the insulating and conducting states are obtained from variable temperature resistance measurements. We further compare the properties of VO2 thin films grown under identical conditions on Si(100) single crystals. The VO2 thin films grown on Ge substrate show higher degree of crystallinity, slightly reduced compressive strain, larger resistance change across MIT compared to those grown on Si. Depth-dependent x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed to provide information on compositional variation trends in the two cases. These results suggest Ge could be a suitable substrate for further explorations of switching phenomena and devices for thin film functional oxides.

  14. 78 FR 69985 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Decreased Assessment Rate for Area No. 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ...; FV13-948-2 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Decreased Assessment Rate for Area No. 2 AGENCY... decreases the assessment rate established for the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2... potatoes handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order, which regulates the handling of...

  15. 75 FR 38698 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Relaxation of Handling Regulation for Area No. 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...; FV09-948-2 FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Relaxation of Handling Regulation for Area No. 3... that relaxed the size requirement prescribed under the Colorado potato marketing order. The interim rule provided for the handling of all varieties of potatoes with a minimum diameter of \\3/4\\ inch, if...

  16. 76 FR 41589 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... FIR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... established for the State of Washington Potato Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0035 to $0.003 per hundredweight of potatoes handled. The Committee locally administers...

  17. 29 CFR 780.814 - “Grown in commercial quantities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... cotton in bales rather than by acreage or amounts of seed cotton grown, since seed cotton is not a...

  18. 29 CFR 780.814 - “Grown in commercial quantities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... cotton in bales rather than by acreage or amounts of seed cotton grown, since seed cotton is not a...

  19. 29 CFR 780.814 - “Grown in commercial quantities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... cotton in bales rather than by acreage or amounts of seed cotton grown, since seed cotton is not a...

  20. 29 CFR 780.814 - “Grown in commercial quantities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... cotton in bales rather than by acreage or amounts of seed cotton grown, since seed cotton is not a...