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Sample records for zo-1 protein expression

  1. Estrogen decreases tight junction protein ZO-1 expression in human primary gut tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zejun; Zhang, Lumin; Ding, Miao; Luo, Zhenwu; Yuan, Shao; Bansal, Meena B; Gilkeson, Gary; Lang, Ren; Jiang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Females have a higher prevalence of most autoimmune diseases; however, the mechanism is unknown. In this study, we examined the expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and estrogen receptor (ER)-α/β in human primary gut tissues by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and qPCR. The expression of ZO-1 and ER-β but not ER-α was present in both male and female gut tissues. There was no sex difference in ER-β expression, but ZO-1 expression was decreased in females compared to males. In vitro, estrogen treatment decreased ZO-1 mRNA and protein expression, ZO-1 promoter activity, IL-6 production, and NF-κB activation in human primary gut tissues or the Caco-2 cells, but increased the ER-β expression in Caco-2 cells. Consistently, plasma IL-6 levels in females were reduced relative to males in vivo. Our finding indicates that estrogen may play a role in gut tight junction expression and permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The tight junction protein ZO-1 and an interacting transcription factor regulate ErbB-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Balda, Maria S.; Matter, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Epithelial tight junctions regulate paracellular diffusion and restrict the intermixing of apical and basolateral plasma membrane components. We now identify a Y-box transcription factor, ZONAB (ZO-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein), that binds to the SH3 domain of ZO-1, a submembrane protein of tight junctions. ZONAB localizes to the nucleus and at tight junctions, and binds to sequences of specific promoters containing an inverted CCAAT box. In reporter assays, ZONAB and ZO-1 functionally interact in the regulation of the ErbB-2 promoter in a cell density-dependent manner. In stably transfected overexpressing cells, ZO-1 and ZONAB control expression of endogenous ErbB-2 and function in the regulation of paracellular permeability. These data indicate that tight junctions directly participate in the control of gene expression and suggest that they function in the regulation of epithelial cell differentiation. PMID:10790369

  3. Recombinant Human Sonic Hedgehog Protein Regulates the Expression of ZO-1 and Occludin by Activating Angiopoietin-1 in Stroke Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng-cai; Huang, Ming; Wang, Yong; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Yan; Wang, Meng-die; Mao, Ling; Hu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the regulating effect of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in cerebral ischemia. By employing permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model, we find that Shh significantly decreases brain edema and preserves BBB permeability. Moreover, Shh increases zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin and angiopiotetin-1 (Ang-1) expression in the ischemic penumbra. Blockage of Shh with cyclopamine abolishes the effects of Shh on brain edema, BBB permeability and ZO-1, occludin, Ang-1 expression. Primary brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs) and astrocytes were pre-treated with Shh, cyclopamine, Ang-1-neutralizing antibody, and subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Results show that the Ang-1 protein level in the culture medium of Shh-treated astrocytes is significantly higher. Shh also increased ZO-1, occludin and Ang-1 expression in BMECs, while cyclopamine and Ang-1-neutralizing antibody inhibited the effects of Shh on the ZO-1 and occludin expression, respectively. This study suggests that, under ischemic insults, Shh triggers Ang-1 production predominantly in astrocytes, and the secreted Ang-1 acts on BMECs, thereby upregulating ZO-1 and occludin to repair the tight junction and ameliorate the brain edema and BBB leakage. PMID:23894369

  4. [Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on mRNA expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells after Escherichia coli LF82 infection].

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-Jun; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Jiao; Wang, Ya; Chen, Peng-De; Hu, Chong-Kang; Zeng, Ling-Chao; Yang, Jie; Wang, Bao-Xi; Jiang, Xun

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the change in the expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and the protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) after adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (E.coli) LF82 infection. The Caco-2 cell line was used to establish an in vitro model of tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were divided into EPA treatment groups (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA) and EPA (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA)+E.coli LF82 treatment (0, 6, and 12 hours) groups. A microscope was used to observe the morphological characteristics of the cells. MTT assay was used to determine the cell growth curve. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at both sides of the cell membrane was compared to evaluate the Caco-2 cell model. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of EPA on the survival rate and apoptosis rate of Caco-2 cells. RT-qPCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells after EPA and/or E.coli LF82 treatment. ELISA was used to measure the change in the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in culture supernatant. After EPA treatment (25 and 50 μmol/L), the proliferation of Caco-2 cells was induced in a dose-dependent manner. The survival rates of the cells were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The EPA treatment (100 and 200 μmol/L) groups had a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The survival rates of the cells were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The EPA treatment (100 and 200 μmol/L) groups had a significant increase in cell apoptosis rate compared with the control group (P<0.05). The 6- and 12-hour E.coli LF82 treatment groups had decreasing mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells over the time of treatment and had significantly lower mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the untreated group

  5. Neuronal connexin36 association with zonula occludens-1 protein (ZO-1) in mouse brain and interaction with the first PDZ domain of ZO-1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinbo; Olson, Carl; Lu, Shijun; Kamasawa, Naomi; Yasumura, Thomas; Rash, John E.; Nagy, James I.

    2007-01-01

    Among the 20 members in the connexin family of gap junction proteins, only connexin36 (Cx36) is firmly established to be expressed in neurons and to form electrical synapses at widely distributed interneuronal gap junctions in mammalian brain. Several connexins have recently been reported to interact with the PDZ domain-containing protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), which was originally considered to be associated only with tight junctions, but has recently been reported to associate with other structures including gap junctions in various cell types. Based on the presence of sequence corresponding to a putative PDZ binding motif in Cx36, we investigated anatomical relationships and molecular association of Cx36 with ZO-1. By immunofluorescence, punctate Cx36/ZO-1 colocalization was observed throughout the central nervous system of wild-type mice, whereas labelling for Cx36 was absent in Cx36 knockout mice, confirming the specificity of the anti-Cx36 antibodies employed. By freeze-fracture replica immunogold labelling, Cx36 and ZO-1 in brain were found colocalized within individual ultrastructurally identified gap junction plaques, although some plaques contained only Cx36 whereas others contained only ZO-1. Cx36 from mouse brain and Cx36-transfected HeLa cells was found to coimmunoprecipitate with ZO-1. Unlike other connexins that bind the second of the three PDZ domains in ZO-1, glutathione S-transferase-PDZ pull-down and mutational analyses indicated Cx36 interaction with the first PDZ domain of ZO-1, which required at most the presence of the four c-terminus amino acids of Cx36. These results demonstrating a Cx36/ZO-1 association suggest a regulatory and/or scaffolding role of ZO-1 at gap junctions that form electrical synapses between neurons in mammalian brain. PMID:15090040

  6. Astrocytes increase barrier properties and ZO-1 expression in retinal vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gardner, T W; Lieth, E; Khin, S A; Barber, A J; Bonsall, D J; Lesher, T; Rice, K; Brennan, W A

    1997-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy and other diseases associated with retinal edema are characterized by increased microvascular leakage. Astrocytes have been proposed to maintain endothelial function in the brain, suggesting that glial impairment may underlie the development of retinal edema. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of astrocytes on barrier properties in retinal microvascular endothelial cells. Bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells were exposed to conditioned media from rat brain astrocytes. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) was determined on 24-mm Transwell (Cambridge, MA) polycarbonate filters with the End-Ohm device (World Precision Instruments, Sarasota, FL). ZO-1 protein content was quantified by microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) significantly increased TER (P < 0.0001) and ZO-1 content (P < 0.01). Both serum-containing and serum-free N1B defined ACM increased ZO-1 expression, but heating abolished the effect. Serum-free ACM decreased cell proliferation by 16%. Astrocytes release soluble, heat-labile factors that increase barrier properties and tight junction protein content. These results suggest that astrocytes enhance blood-retinal barrier properties, at least in part by increasing tight junction protein expression. Our findings suggest that glial malfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of vasogenic retinal edema.

  7. ZO-1 expression is suppressed by GM-CSF via miR-96/ERG in brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jilin; Liu, Dongxin; Wei, Jiayi; Fang, Wengang; Zhao, Weidong; Chen, Yuhua; Shang, Deshu

    2018-05-01

    The level of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) increases in some disorders such as vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. We previously reported that in Alzheimer's disease patients, a high level of GM-CSF in the brain parenchyma downregulated expression of ZO-1, a blood-brain barrier tight junction protein, and facilitated the infiltration of peripheral monocytes across the blood-brain barrier. However, the molecular mechanism underlying regulation of ZO-1 expression by GM-CSF is unclear. Herein, we found that the erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factor ERG cooperated with the proto-oncogene protein c-MYC in regulation of ZO-1 transcription in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). The ERG expression was suppressed by miR-96 which was increased by GM-CSF through the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Inhibition of miR-96 prevented ZO-1 down-regulation induced by GM-CSF both in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed the mechanism of ZO-1 expression reduced by GM-CSF, and provided a potential target, miR-96, which could block ZO-1 down-regulation caused by GM-CSF in BMECs.

  8. The N and C Termini of ZO-1 Are Surrounded by Distinct Proteins and Functional Protein Networks*

    PubMed Central

    Van Itallie, Christina M.; Aponte, Angel; Tietgens, Amber Jean; Gucek, Marjan; Fredriksson, Karin; Anderson, James Melvin

    2013-01-01

    The proteins and functional protein networks of the tight junction remain incompletely defined. Among the currently known proteins are barrier-forming proteins like occludin and the claudin family; scaffolding proteins like ZO-1; and some cytoskeletal, signaling, and cell polarity proteins. To define a more complete list of proteins and infer their functional implications, we identified the proteins that are within molecular dimensions of ZO-1 by fusing biotin ligase to either its N or C terminus, expressing these fusion proteins in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells, and purifying and identifying the resulting biotinylated proteins by mass spectrometry. Of a predicted proteome of ∼9000, we identified more than 400 proteins tagged by biotin ligase fused to ZO-1, with both identical and distinct proteins near the N- and C-terminal ends. Those proximal to the N terminus were enriched in transmembrane tight junction proteins, and those proximal to the C terminus were enriched in cytoskeletal proteins. We also identified many unexpected but easily rationalized proteins and verified partial colocalization of three of these proteins with ZO-1 as examples. In addition, functional networks of interacting proteins were tagged, such as the basolateral but not apical polarity network. These results provide a rich inventory of proteins and potential novel insights into functions and protein networks that should catalyze further understanding of tight junction biology. Unexpectedly, the technique demonstrates high spatial resolution, which could be generally applied to defining other subcellular protein compartmentalization. PMID:23553632

  9. The heat-shock protein Apg-2 binds to the tight junction protein ZO-1 and regulates transcriptional activity of ZONAB.

    PubMed

    Tsapara, Anna; Matter, Karl; Balda, Maria S

    2006-03-01

    The tight junction adaptor protein ZO-1 regulates intracellular signaling and cell proliferation. Its Src homology 3 (SH3) domain is required for the regulation of proliferation and binds to the Y-box transcription factor ZO-1-associated nucleic acid binding protein (ZONAB). Binding of ZO-1 to ZONAB results in cytoplasmic sequestration and hence inhibition of ZONAB's transcriptional activity. Here, we identify a new binding partner of the SH3 domain that modulates ZO-1-ZONAB signaling. Expression screening of a cDNA library with a fusion protein containing the SH3 domain yielded a cDNA coding for Apg-2, a member of the heat-shock protein 110 (Hsp 110) subfamily of Hsp70 heat-shock proteins, which is overexpressed in carcinomas. Regulated depletion of Apg-2 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells inhibits G(1)/S phase progression. Apg-2 coimmunoprecipitates with ZO-1 and partially localizes to intercellular junctions. Junctional recruitment and coimmunoprecipitation with ZO-1 are stimulated by heat shock. Apg-2 competes with ZONAB for binding to the SH3 domain in vitro and regulates ZONAB's transcriptional activity in reporter gene assays. Our data hence support a model in which Apg-2 regulates ZONAB function by competing for binding to the SH3 domain of ZO-1 and suggest that Apg-2 functions as a regulator of ZO-1-ZONAB signaling in epithelial cells in response to cellular stress.

  10. The Heat-Shock Protein Apg-2 Binds to the Tight Junction Protein ZO-1 and Regulates Transcriptional Activity of ZONAB

    PubMed Central

    Tsapara, Anna; Matter, Karl; Balda, Maria S.

    2006-01-01

    The tight junction adaptor protein ZO-1 regulates intracellular signaling and cell proliferation. Its Src homology 3 (SH3) domain is required for the regulation of proliferation and binds to the Y-box transcription factor ZO-1-associated nucleic acid binding protein (ZONAB). Binding of ZO-1 to ZONAB results in cytoplasmic sequestration and hence inhibition of ZONAB's transcriptional activity. Here, we identify a new binding partner of the SH3 domain that modulates ZO-1–ZONAB signaling. Expression screening of a cDNA library with a fusion protein containing the SH3 domain yielded a cDNA coding for Apg-2, a member of the heat-shock protein 110 (Hsp 110) subfamily of Hsp70 heat-shock proteins, which is overexpressed in carcinomas. Regulated depletion of Apg-2 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells inhibits G1/S phase progression. Apg-2 coimmunoprecipitates with ZO-1 and partially localizes to intercellular junctions. Junctional recruitment and coimmunoprecipitation with ZO-1 are stimulated by heat shock. Apg-2 competes with ZONAB for binding to the SH3 domain in vitro and regulates ZONAB's transcriptional activity in reporter gene assays. Our data hence support a model in which Apg-2 regulates ZONAB function by competing for binding to the SH3 domain of ZO-1 and suggest that Apg-2 functions as a regulator of ZO-1–ZONAB signaling in epithelial cells in response to cellular stress. PMID:16407410

  11. Hepatic immunohistochemical localization of the tight junction protein ZO-1 in rat models of cholestasis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. M.; Glade, J. L.; Stevenson, B. R.; Boyer, J. L.; Mooseker, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    Structural alterations in hepatocyte tight junctions accompanying cholestasis were investigated using immunolocalization of ZO-1, the first known protein component of the tight junction. Disruption in the paracellular barrier function of the tight junction has been proposed to allow reflux of bile into the blood. Cholestasis was induced in 210 to 235 g male Sprague-Dawley rats either by five consecutive daily subcutaneous injections of 17-alpha-ethinyl estradiol (0.5 mg/kg/d in propylene glycol) or ligation of the common bile duct for 72 hours. The structural organization of the tight junction was assessed in each model by indirect immunofluorescent and immunoperoxidase staining for ZO-1 on frozen sections of liver and compared with controls. In control, sham-operated, and estradiol-injected animals, ZO-1 localizes in a uniform continuous manner along the margins of the canaliculi. In contrast, bile duct ligation results in the appearance of numerous discontinuities in ZO-1 staining accompanied by dilation or collapse of the lumenal space. Tissue content of the ZO-1 protein, as determined by quantitative immunoblotting, was unaffected in either cholestatic model compared with controls. These findings indicate that the molecular organization of the tight junction can be assessed from immunostaining patterns of ZO-1 in frozen sections of cholestatic livers. Under these experimental conditions, the organization of the tight junction at the level of the ZO-1 protein is altered by bile duct obstruction but not by ethinyl estradiol. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2719075

  12. [Effects of N-butylphthalide on the expressions of ZO-1 and claudin-5 in blood-brain barrier of rats with acute carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Ding, Xiaoyu; Bi, Mingjun; Wang, Jinglin; Zou, Yong; Tang, Jiyou; Li, Qin

    2018-05-01

    To explore the effects of N-butylphthalide on the expressions of ZO-1 and claudin-5 in blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. A total of 144 adult healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal control group, CO poisoning group, and NBP treatment group, with 48 rats in each group. The acute CO poisoning model was reproduced in hyperbaric oxygen chamber, and all model rats were given hyperbaric oxygen therapy once daily. The rats in the normal control group were free to breathe fresh air. The rats in NBP treatment group were administered orally NBP 60 mg/kg twice a day at 2 hours after poisoning until death. The rats in normal control group and CO poisoning group were treated with equal amount of pure olive oil. Four rats were sacrificed from each group at 1, 3, 7, 14 days after model reproducing, respectively. The changes in ultrastructure of BBB were observed under transmission electron microscope. The expressions of ZO-1 and claudin-5 proteins were determined by immunofluorescence staining and Western Blot. The localization of the two target proteins was observed by immunofluorescence double staining. The correlation between the two proteins was analyzed by linear regression. The ultrastructure of BBB was normal in normal control group, some ZO-1 and a large number of claudin-5 positive cells were observed. The ultrastructure of BBB was seriously injured, ZO-1 and claudin-5 positive cells in brain tissue were significantly decreased, and the expressions of ZO-1 and claudin-5 proteins in brain tissue at 1 day after poisoning in CO poisoning group were significantly lower than those of normal control group (ZO-1 protein: 3.38±0.30 vs. 24.50±5.62, claudin-5 protein: 11.38±0.93 vs. 46.35±6.88, both P < 0.05), and although gradually restored, they were maintained at relatively lower levels until 14 days as compared with those in normal control group (ZO-1 protein: 10.35±0.80 vs. 24.63±3.57, claudin-5

  13. Altered Expression of ZO-1 and ZO-2 in Sertoli Cells and Loss of Blood-Testis Barrier Integrity in Testicular Carcinoma In Situ1

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Cornelia; Weigel, Roswitha; Hembes, Tanja; Lauke-Wettwer, Heidrun; Kliesch, Sabine; Bergmann, Martin; Brehm, Ralph H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is the noninvasive precursor of most human testicular germ cell tumors. In normal seminiferous epithelium, specialized tight junctions between Sertoli cells constitute the major component of the blood-testis barrier. Sertoli cells associated with CIS exhibit impaired maturation status, but their functional significance remains unknown. The aim was to determine whether the blood-testis barrier is morphologically and/or functionally altered. We investigated the expression and distribution pattern of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens (ZO) 1 and 2 in normal seminiferous tubules compared to tubules showing CIS. In normal tubules, ZO-1 and ZO-2 immunostaining was observed at the blood-testis barrier region of adjacent Sertoli cells. Within CIS tubules, ZO-1 and ZO-2 immunoreactivity was reduced at the blood-testis barrier region, but spread to stain the Sertoli cell cytoplasm. Western blot analysis confirmed ZO-1 and ZO-2, and their respective mRNA were shown by RT-PCR. Additionally, we assessed the functional integrity of the blood-testis barrier by lanthanum tracer study. Lanthanum permeated tight junctions in CIS tubules, indicating disruption of the blood-testis barrier. In conclusion, Sertoli cells associated with CIS show an altered distribution of ZO-1 and ZO-2 and lose their blood-testis barrier function. PMID:17217619

  14. Baicalin Protects against TNF-α-Induced Injury by Down-Regulating miR-191a That Targets the Tight Junction Protein ZO-1 in IEC-6 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Ren; Chen, Jian; Wu, Qihui; Kuang, Zaoyuan

    2017-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in the developing process of inflammatory bowel disease. Tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), one of epithelial junctional proteins, maintains the permeability of intestinal barrier. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of baicalin on TNF-α-induced injury and ZO-1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We found that baicalin pretreatment significantly improved cell viability and cell migration following TNF-α stimulation. miR-191a inhibitor increased the protective effect of baicalin on cell motility injured by TNF-α. In addition, miR-191a down-regulated the mRNA and protein level of its target gene ZO-1. TNF-α stimulation increased miR-191a expression, leading to the decline of ZO-1 mRNA and protein. Moreover, pretreatment with baicalin reversed TNF-α induced decrease of ZO-1 and increase of miR-191a, miR-191a inhibitor significantly enhanced ZO-1 protein expression restored by baicalin. These results indicate that baicalin exerts a protective effect on IEC-6 (rat small intestinal epithelial cells) cells against TNF-α-induced injury, which is at least partly via inhibiting the expression of miR-191a, thus increasing ZO-1 mRNA and protein levels.

  15. Bradykinin increases blood-tumor barrier permeability by down-regulating the expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and rearranging actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Bo; Xue, Yi-Xue; Liu, Yun-Hui; Wang, Yi-Bao

    2008-04-01

    Bradykinin (BK) has been shown to open blood-tumor barrier (BTB) selectively and to increase permeability of the BTB transiently, but the mechanism is unclear. This study was performed to determine whether BK opens the BTB by affecting the tight junction (TJ)-associated proteins zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and caludin-5 and cytoskeleton protein filamentous actin (F-actin). In rat brain glioma model and BTB model in vitro, we find that the protein expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 are attenuated by BK induction. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays show that the attenuated expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and F-actin is most obvious in the smaller tumor capillaries (<20 microm) after BK infusion, and there is no change in the larger tumor capillaries (>20 microm). The redistribution of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and rearrangement of F-actin in brain microvascular endothelial cells are observed at the same time. Meanwhile, Evans blue assay shows that the permeability of BTB increases after BK infusion. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that TJ is opened and that pinocytotic vesicular density is increased. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and horseradish peroxidase flux assays also reveal that TJ is opened by BK induction. In addition, radioimmunity and Western blot assay reveal a significant decrease in expression levels of cAMP and catalytic subunit of protien kinase A (PKAcs) of tumor tissue. This study demonstrates that the increase of BK-mediated BTB permeability is associated with the down-regulation of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and the rearrangement of F-actin and that cAMP/PKA signal transduction system might be involved in the modulating process.

  16. Up-regulation of the tight-junction protein ZO-1 by substance P and IGF-1 in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ji-Ae; Murata, Shizuka; Nishida, Teruo

    2009-08-01

    The formation of a barrier by tight junctions is important in epithelia of various tissues. Substance P (SP) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 synergistically promote barrier function in the corneal epithelium. We have now examined the effects of SP and IGF-1 on expression of the tight-junction protein zonula occludens (ZO)-1 in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot analyses revealed that SP and IGF-1 increased the amounts of ZO-1 mRNA and protein in these cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with neither SP nor IGF-1 alone having such an effect. The SP- and IGF-1-induced up-regulation of ZO-1 was accompanied by phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and both of these effects were blocked by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK activation. SP and IGF-1 also increased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) (an indicator of barrier function) of an A431 cell monolayer in a manner sensitive to PD98059. Our results thus suggest that the synergistic induction of ZO-1 expression by SP and IGF-1 may promote barrier function in skin epithelial cells. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Toll-like receptor 2 enhances ZO-1-associated intestinal epithelial barrier integrity via protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Cario, Elke; Gerken, Guido; Podolsky, Daniel K

    2004-07-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in regulation of intestinal epithelial integrity in response to lumenal bacteria. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) constitutively express Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, which contains multiple potential PKC binding sites. The aim of this study was to determine whether TLR2 may activate PKC in response to specific ligands, thus potentially modulating barrier function in IECs. TLR2 agonist (synthetic bacterial lipopeptide Pam(3)CysSK4, peptidoglycan)-induced activation of PKC-related signaling cascades were assessed by immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and kinase assays-combined with functional transfection studies in the human model IEC lines HT-29 and Caco-2. Transepithelial electrical resistance characterized intestinal epithelial barrier function. Stimulation with TLR2 ligands led to activation (phosphorylation, enzymatic activity, translocation) of specific PKC isoforms (PKCalpha and PKCdelta). Phosphorylation of PKC by TLR2 ligands was blocked specifically by transfection with a TLR2 deletion mutant. Ligand-induced activation of TLR2 greatly enhanced transepithelial resistance in IECs, which was prevented by pretreatment with PKC-selective antagonists. This effect correlated with apical tightening and sealing of tight junction (TJ)-associated ZO-1, which was mediated via PKC in response to TLR2 ligands, whereas morphologic changes of occludin, claudin-1, or actin cytoskeleton were not evident. Downstream the endogenous PKC substrate myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS), but not transcriptional factor activator protein-1 (AP-1), was activated significantly on stimulation. The present study provides evidence that PKC is an essential component of the TLR2 signaling pathway with the physiologic consequence of directly enhancing intestinal epithelial integrity through translocation of ZO-1 on activation.

  18. Angelica archengelica extract induced perturbation of rat skin and tight junctional protein (ZO-1) of HaCaT cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, N.; Naz, S.; Tiwary, AK.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study Herbal enhancers compared to the synthetic ones have shown less toxis effects. Coumarins have been shown at concentrations inhibiting phospoliphase C-Y (Phc-Y) are able to enhance tight junction (TJ) permeability due to hyperpoalation of Zonolous Occludense-1 (ZO-1) proteins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of ethanolic extract of Angelica archengelica (AA-E) which contain coumarin on permeation of repaglinide across rat epidermis and on the tight junction plaque protein ZO-1 in HaCaT cells. Methods Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from the rat skin treated with different concentrations of AA-E was assessed by Tewameter. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) on were performed on AA-E treated rat skin portions. The possibility of AA-E influence on the architecture of tight junctions by adverse effect on the cytoplasmic ZO-1 in HaCaT cells was investigated. Finally, the systemic delivery of repaglinide from the optimized transdermal formulation was investigated in rats. Results The permeation of repaglinide across excised rat epidermis was 7-fold higher in the presence of AA-E (5% w/v) as compared to propylene glycol:ethanol (7:3) mixture. The extract was found to perturb the lipid microconstituents in both excised and viable rat skin, although, the effect was less intense in the later. The enhanced permeation of repaglinide across rat epidermis excised after treatment with AA-E (5% w/v) for different periods was in concordance with the high TEWL values of similarly treated viable rat skin. Further, the observed increase in intercellular space, disordering of lipid structure and corneocyte detachment indicated considerable effect on the ultrastructure of rat epidermis. Treatment of HaCaT cell line with AA-E (0.16% w/v) for 6 hrs influenced ZO-1 as evidenced by reduced immunofluorescence of anti-TJP1 (ZO-1) antibody in Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy studies (CLSM) studies. The plasma

  19. Drug Transporters and Na+/H+ Exchange Regulatory Factor PSD-95/Drosophila Discs Large/ZO-1 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Dustin R.; Nolin, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Drug transporters govern the absorption, distribution, and elimination of pharmacologically active compounds. Members of the solute carrier and ATP binding-cassette drug transporter family mediate cellular drug uptake and efflux processes, thereby coordinating the vectorial movement of drugs across epithelial barriers. To exert their physiologic and pharmacological function in polarized epithelia, drug transporters must be targeted and stabilized to appropriate regions of the cell membrane (i.e., apical versus basolateral). Despite the critical importance of drug transporter membrane targeting, the mechanisms that underlie these processes are largely unknown. Several clinically significant drug transporters possess a recognition sequence that binds to PSD-95/Drosophila discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) proteins. PDZ proteins, such as the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) family, act to stabilize and organize membrane targeting of multiple transmembrane proteins, including many clinically relevant drug transporters. These PDZ proteins are normally abundant at apical membranes, where they tether membrane-delimited transporters. NHERF expression is particularly high at the apical membrane in polarized tissue such as intestinal, hepatic, and renal epithelia, tissues important to drug disposition. Several recent studies have highlighted NHERF proteins as determinants of drug transporter function secondary to their role in controlling membrane abundance and localization. Mounting evidence strongly suggests that NHERF proteins may have clinically significant roles in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of several pharmacologically active compounds and may affect drug action in cancer and chronic kidney disease. For these reasons, NHERF proteins represent a novel class of post-translational mediators of drug transport and novel targets for new drug development. PMID:26092975

  20. Expression of ZO-1 and claudin-1 in a 3D epidermal equivalent using canine progenitor epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Keiji; Asahina, Ryota; Nishida, Hidetaka; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Maeda, Sadatoshi

    2018-05-21

    Previous studies indicate that tight junctions are involved in the pathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis (cAD). An in vitro skin model is needed to elucidate the specific role of tight junctions in cAD. A 3D epidermal equivalent model using canine progenitor epidermal keratinocytes (CPEK) has been established; the expression of tight junctions within this model is uncharacterized. To investigate the expression of tight junctions in the 3D epidermal equivalent. Two normal laboratory beagle dogs served as donors of full-thickness skin biopsy samples for comparison to the in vitro model. Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to investigate the expression of tight junctions including zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and claudin-1 in normal canine skin, and in the CPEK 3D epidermal equivalent. Results demonstrated the expression of ZO-1 and claudin-1 in the CPEK 3D epidermal equivalent, with staining patterns that were similar to those in normal canine skin. The CPEK 3D epidermal equivalent has the potential to be a suitable in vitro research tool for clarifying the specific role of tight junctions in cAD. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Hyaluronan 35kDa treatment protects mice from Citrobacter rodentium infection and induces epithelial tight junction protein ZO-1 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeojung; Kessler, Sean P; Obery, Dana R; Homer, Craig R; McDonald, Christine; de la Motte, Carol A

    2017-10-01

    Maintaining a healthy intestinal barrier, the primary physical barrier between intestinal microbiota and the underlying lamina propria, is critical for optimal health. Epithelial integrity is essential for the prevention of the entrance of luminal contents, such as bacteria and their products, through the large intestinal barrier. In this study, we investigated the protective functions of biosynthetic, specific sized, hyaluronan around 35kDa (HA35) on intestinal epithelium in healthy mice, as well as mice infected Citrobacter rodentium, an established model that mimics infection with a serious human pathogen, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Our results reveal that treatment with HA35 protects mice from Citrobacter infection and enhances the epithelial barrier function. In particular, we have found that HA35 induces the expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens (ZO)-1 in both healthy and Citrobacter infected mice, as demonstrated by immunoflurorescence and Western blot analyses. Furthermore, we determined that HA35 treatment enhances ZO-1 expression and reduces intestinal permeability at the early stages of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Together, our data demonstrate that the expression and functionality of tight junctions, are increased by HA35 treatment, suggesting a novel mechanism for the protection from Citrobacter infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stress- and Rho-activated ZO-1–associated nucleic acid binding protein binding to p21 mRNA mediates stabilization, translation, and cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Mei; Balda, Maria S.; Matter, Karl

    2012-01-01

    A central component of the cellular stress response is p21WAF1/CIP1, which regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Inflammation and cell stress often up-regulate p21 posttranscriptionally by regulatory mechanisms that are poorly understood. ZO-1–associated nucleic acid binding protein (ZONAB)/DbpA is a Y-box transcription factor that is regulated by components of intercellular junctions that are affected by cytokines and tissue damage. We therefore asked whether ZONAB activation is part of the cellular stress response. Here, we demonstrate that ZONAB promotes cell survival in response to proinflammatory, hyperosmotic, and cytotoxic stress and that stress-induced ZONAB activation involves the Rho regulator GEF-H1. Unexpectedly, stress-induced ZONAB activation does not stimulate ZONAB’s activity as a transcription factor but leads to the posttranscriptional up-regulation of p21 protein and mRNA. Up-regulation is mediated by ZONAB binding to specific sites in the 3′-untranslated region of the p21 mRNA, resulting in mRNA stabilization and enhanced translation. Binding of ZONAB to mRNA is activated by GEF-H1 via Rho stimulation and also mediates Ras-induced p21 expression. We thus identify a unique type of stress and Rho signaling activated pathway that drives mRNA stabilization and translation and links the cellular stress response to p21 expression and cell survival. PMID:22711822

  3. Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) is involved in morula to blastocyst transformation in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hehai; Ding, Tianbing; Brown, Naoko; Yamamoto, Yasutoshi; Prince, Lawrence S.; Reese, Jeff; Paria, B. C.

    2008-01-01

    It is unknown whether or not tight junction formation plays any role in morula to blastocyst transformation that is associated with development of polarized trophoblast cells and fluid accumulation. Tight junctions are a hallmark of polarized epithelial cells and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) is a known key regulator of tight junction formation. Here we show that ZO-1 protein is first expressed during compaction of 8-cell embryos. This stage-specific appearance of ZO-1 suggests its participation in morula to blastocyst transition. Consistent with this idea, we demonstrate that ZO-1 siRNA delivery inside the blastomeres of zona-weakened embryos using electroporation not only knocks down ZO-1 gene and protein expressions, but also inhibits morula to blastocyst transformation in a concentration dependent manner. In addition, ZO-1 inactivation reduced the expression of Cdx2 and Oct-4, but not ZO-2 and F-actin. These results provide the first evidence that ZO-1 is involved in blastocyst formation from the morula by regulating accumulation of fluid and differentiation of nonpolar blastomeres to polar trophoblast cells. PMID:18423437

  4. P-glycoprotein regulates blood–testis barrier dynamics via its effects on the occludin/zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) protein complex mediated by focal adhesion kinase (FAK)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Linlin; Mruk, Dolores D.; Lui, Wing-Yee; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2011-01-01

    The blood–testis barrier (BTB), one of the tightest blood–tissue barriers in the mammalian body, creates an immune-privileged site for postmeiotic spermatid development to avoid the production of antibodies against spermatid-specific antigens, many of which express transiently during spermiogenesis and spermiation. However, the BTB undergoes extensive restructuring at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transit of preleptotene spermatocytes and to prepare for meiosis. This action thus prompted us to investigate whether this stage can be a physiological window for the delivery of therapeutic and/or contraceptive drugs across the BTB to exert their effects at the immune-privileged site. Herein, we report findings that P-glycoprotein, an ATP-dependent efflux drug transporter and an integrated component of the occludin/zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) adhesion complex at the BTB, structurally interacted with focal adhesion kinase (FAK), creating the occludin/ZO-1/FAK/P-glycoprotein regulatory complex. Interestingly, a knockdown of P-glycoprotein by RNAi was found to impede Sertoli cell BTB function, making the tight junction (TJ) barrier “leaky.” This effect was mediated by changes in the protein phosphorylation status of occludin via the action of FAK, thereby affecting the endocytic vesicle-mediated protein trafficking events that destabilized the TJ barrier. However, the silencing of P-glycoprotein, although capable of impeding drug transport across the BTB and TJ permeability barrier function, was not able to induce the BTB to be “freely” permeable to adjudin. These findings indicate that P-glycoprotein is involved in BTB restructuring during spermatogenesis but that P-glycoprotein–mediated restructuring does not “open up” the BTB to make it freely permeable to drugs. PMID:22106313

  5. The ZO-1–associated Y-box factor ZONAB regulates epithelial cell proliferation and cell density

    PubMed Central

    Balda, Maria S.; Garrett, Michelle D.; Matter, Karl

    2003-01-01

    Epithelial tight junctions regulate paracellular permeability, restrict apical/basolateral intramembrane diffusion of lipids, and have been proposed to participate in the control of epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Previously, we have identified ZO-1–associated nucleic acid binding proteins (ZONAB), a Y-box transcription factor whose nuclear localization and transcriptional activity is regulated by the tight junction–associated candidate tumor suppressor ZO-1. Now, we found that reduction of ZONAB expression using an antisense approach or by RNA interference strongly reduced proliferation of MDCK cells. Transfection of wild-type or ZONAB-binding fragments of ZO-1 reduced proliferation as well as nuclear ZONAB pools, indicating that promotion of proliferation by ZONAB requires its nuclear accumulation. Overexpression of ZONAB resulted in increased cell density in mature monolayers, and depletion of ZONAB or overexpression of ZO-1 reduced cell density. ZONAB was found to associate with cell division kinase (CDK) 4, and reduction of nuclear ZONAB levels resulted in reduced nuclear CDK4. Thus, our data indicate that tight junctions can regulate epithelial cell proliferation and cell density via a ZONAB/ZO-1–based pathway. Although this regulatory process may also involve regulation of transcription by ZONAB, our data suggest that one mechanism by which ZONAB and ZO-1 influence proliferation is by regulating the nuclear accumulation of CDK4. PMID:12566432

  6. NHS-A isoform of the NHS gene is a novel interactor of ZO-1.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shiwani; Koh, Katrina S Y; Collin, Caitlin; Dave, Alpana; McMellon, Amy; Sugiyama, Yuki; McAvoy, John W; Voss, Anne K; Gécz, Jozef; Craig, Jamie E

    2009-08-15

    Mutations in the NHS (Nance-Horan Syndrome) gene lead to severe congenital cataracts, dental defects and sometimes mental retardation. NHS encodes two protein isoforms, NHS-A and -1A that display cell-type dependent differential expression and localization. Here we demonstrate that of these two isoforms, the NHS-A isoform associates with the cell membrane in the presence of intercellular contacts and it immunoprecipitates with the tight junction protein ZO-1 in MDCK (Madin Darby Canine Kidney) epithelial cells and in neonatal rat lens. The NHS-1A isoform however is a cytoplasmic protein. Both Nhs isoforms are expressed during mouse development. Immunolabelling of developing mouse with the anti-NHS antibody that detects both isoforms revealed the protein in the developing head including the eye and brain. It was primarily expressed in epithelium including neural epithelium and certain vascular endothelium but only weakly expressed in mesenchymal cells. In the epithelium and vascular endothelium the protein associated with the cell membrane and co-localized with ZO-1, which indirectly indicates expression of the Nhs-A isoform in these structures. Membrane localization of the protein in the lens vesicle similarly supports Nhs-A expression. In conclusion, the NHS-A isoform of NHS is a novel interactor of ZO-1 and may have a role at tight junctions. This isoform is important in mammalian development especially of the organs in the head.

  7. Roles of ZO-1 and ZO-2 in establishment of the belt-like adherens and tight junctions with paracellular permselective barrier function.

    PubMed

    Tsukita, Sachiko; Katsuno, Tatsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Umeda, Kazuaki; Tamura, Atsushi; Tsukita, Shoichiro

    2009-05-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) create the primary permselective barrier to diffusion of solutes and ions through the paracellular pathway. The molecular architecture of TJs has gradually been unraveled in recent years, providing the basis for "barriology" (defined by Shoichiro Tsukita as the science of the barrier in multicellular organisms). Claudins are now considered to be the essential basic components of TJ strands, with which other integral membrane proteins, such as occludin, tricellulin, JAMs, and CAR, are associated. Peripherally associated scaffolding proteins are required for the organization of the integral membrane proteins. Among these, ZO-1, -2, and -3 have attracted a great deal of attention as TJ organizers, since ZO-1 (and in some cases, also ZO-2/3) was reported to be directly associated with claudins, occludin, and JAMs, as well as with AF-6/afadin and alpha-catenin. Here we summarize recent studies on ZO-1/2/3-deficiency in mice and cells, which have provided clear and important information regarding the functions of ZO-1/2/3 in vivo. In addition to the respective suppression of ZO-1/2/3 expression, simultaneous suppression of all three proteins has revealed the essential and nonessential in vivo roles of ZO-1/2 and ZO-3, respectively. ZO-3 shows an epithelial-specific TJ localization in a ZO-1/2-dependent fashion. ZO-1 and ZO-2 play pivotal roles in the final establishment of the belt-like adherens junctions (zonula adherens), followed by the formation of the belt-like TJs (zonula occludens) with paracellular barrier function, thereby providing the general basis for selective paracellular permeability in epithelial and endothelial cells.

  8. Involvement of the interaction of afadin with ZO-1 in the formation of tight junctions in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Ooshio, Takako; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ikeda, Wataru; Miyata, Muneaki; Fukumoto, Yuri; Matsuzawa, Naomi; Ogita, Hisakazu; Takai, Yoshimi

    2010-02-12

    Tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) are major junctional apparatuses in epithelial cells. Claudins and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) are major cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) at TJs, whereas cadherins and nectins are major CAMs at AJs. Claudins and JAMs are associated with ZO proteins, whereas cadherins are associated with beta- and alpha-catenins, and nectins are associated with afadin. We previously showed that nectins first form cell-cell adhesions where the cadherin-catenin complex is recruited to form AJs, followed by the recruitment of the JAM-ZO and claudin-ZO complexes to the apical side of AJs to form TJs. It is not fully understood how TJ components are recruited to the apical side of AJs. We studied the roles of afadin and ZO-1 in the formation of TJs in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Before the formation of TJs, ZO-1 interacted with afadin through the two proline-rich regions of afadin and the SH3 domain of ZO-1. During and after the formation of TJs, ZO-1 dissociated from afadin and associated with JAM-A. Knockdown of afadin impaired the formation of both AJs and TJs in MDCK cells, whereas knockdown of ZO-1 impaired the formation of TJs, but not AJs. Re-expression of full-length afadin restored the formation of both AJs and TJs in afadin-knockdown MDCK cells, whereas re-expression of afadin-DeltaPR1-2, which is incapable of binding to ZO-1, restored the formation of AJs, but not TJs. These results indicate that the transient interaction of afadin with ZO-1 is necessary for the formation of TJs in MDCK cells.

  9. Involvement of the Interaction of Afadin with ZO-1 in the Formation of Tight Junctions in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ooshio, Takako; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ikeda, Wataru; Miyata, Muneaki; Fukumoto, Yuri; Matsuzawa, Naomi; Ogita, Hisakazu; Takai, Yoshimi

    2010-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) are major junctional apparatuses in epithelial cells. Claudins and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) are major cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) at TJs, whereas cadherins and nectins are major CAMs at AJs. Claudins and JAMs are associated with ZO proteins, whereas cadherins are associated with β- and α-catenins, and nectins are associated with afadin. We previously showed that nectins first form cell-cell adhesions where the cadherin-catenin complex is recruited to form AJs, followed by the recruitment of the JAM-ZO and claudin-ZO complexes to the apical side of AJs to form TJs. It is not fully understood how TJ components are recruited to the apical side of AJs. We studied the roles of afadin and ZO-1 in the formation of TJs in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Before the formation of TJs, ZO-1 interacted with afadin through the two proline-rich regions of afadin and the SH3 domain of ZO-1. During and after the formation of TJs, ZO-1 dissociated from afadin and associated with JAM-A. Knockdown of afadin impaired the formation of both AJs and TJs in MDCK cells, whereas knockdown of ZO-1 impaired the formation of TJs, but not AJs. Re-expression of full-length afadin restored the formation of both AJs and TJs in afadin-knockdown MDCK cells, whereas re-expression of afadin-ΔPR1–2, which is incapable of binding to ZO-1, restored the formation of AJs, but not TJs. These results indicate that the transient interaction of afadin with ZO-1 is necessary for the formation of TJs in MDCK cells. PMID:20008323

  10. MiR-18a increased the permeability of BTB via RUNX1 mediated down-regulation of ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yin-Sha; Zhao, Ying-Yu; Zhao, Li-Ni; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yun-Hui; Ma, Jun; Xue, Yi-Xue

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of miR-18a regulating the permeability of blood-tumor barrier (BTB) via down-regulated expression and distribution of runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). An in vitro BTB model was established with hCMEC/D3 cells and U87MG cells to obtain glioma vascular endothelial cells (GECs). The endogenous expressions of miR-18a and RUNX1 were converse in GECs. The overexpression of miR-18a significantly impaired the integrity and increased the permeability of BTB, which respectively were detected by TEER and HRP flux assays, accompanied by down-regulated mRNA and protein expressions and distributions of ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 in GECs. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was carried out and revealed RUNX1 is a target gene of miR-18a. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expressions and distribution of RUNX1 were downregulated by miR-18a. Most important, miR-18a and RUNX1 could reversely regulate the permeability of BTB as well as the expressions and distributions of ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation verified that RUNX1 interacted with "TGGGGT" DNA sequence in promoter region of ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 respectively. Taken together, our present study indicated that miR-18a increased the permeability of BTB via RUNX1 mediated down-regulation of tight junction related proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5, which would attract more attention to miR-18a and RUNX1 as potential targets of drug delivery across BTB and provide novel strategies for glioma treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MiR-144 Increases Intestinal Permeability in IBS-D Rats by Targeting OCLN and ZO1.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qiuke; Huang, Yongquan; Zhu, Shuilian; Li, Peiwu; Chen, Xinlin; Hou, Zhengkun; Liu, Fengbin

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea (IBS-D) is a chronic, functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal pain or diarrhoea and altered bowel habits, which correlate with intestinal hyperpermeability. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in regulating intestinal permeability in IBS-D. However, the role of miRNAs in regulating intestinal permeability and protecting the epithelial barrier remains unclear. Our goals were to (i) identify differential expression of miRNAs and their targets in the distal colon of IBS-D rats; (ii) verify in vitro whether occludin (OCLN) and zonula occludens 1 (ZO1/TJP1) were direct targets of miR-144 and were down-regulated in IBS-D rats; and (iii) determine whether down-regulation of miR-144 in vitro could reverse the pathological hallmarks of intestinal hyperpermeability via targeting OCLN and ZO1. The IBS-D rat model was established using 4% acetic acid and evaluated by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The distal colon was obtained in order to perform miRNA microarray analysis and to isolate and culture colonic epithelial cells. When differential expression of miRNA was found, the results were verified by qRT-PCR, and the target genes were further explored by bioinformatics analysis. Correlation analyses were carried out to compare the expression of miRNA and target genes. Then, mutants, miRNA mimics and inhibitors of the target genes were constructed and transfected to colonic epithelial cells. qRT-PCR, western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and dual-luciferase assays were used to investigate the expression of miR-144 and OCLN, ZO1 in IBS-D rats. There were 8 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated miRNAs identified in the IBS-D rat model. Of these, miR-144 was markedly up-regulated and resulted in the down-regulation of OCLN and ZO1 expression. Overexpression of miR-144 by transfection of miR-144 precursor markedly inhibited the expression of OCLN and ZO1. Further studies confirmed that OCLN and ZO1 were direct

  12. Synthetic gelatinases inhibitor attenuates electromagnetic pulse-induced blood-brain barrier disruption by inhibiting gelatinases-mediated ZO-1 degradation in rats.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lian-Bo; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Qi; Yang, Long-Long; Liu, Hai-Qiang; Xu, Sheng-Long; Qi, Yu-Hong; Ding, Gui-Rong; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2011-07-11

    Previously we found that exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) induced an increase in blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability and the degradation of tight junction protein ZO-1 in rats. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), play a key role in degradation of tight junction proteins, are known mediators of BBB compromise. We hypothesized that the degradation of ZO-1 by gelatinases contributed to EMP-induced BBB opening. To test this hypothesis, the mRNA level of ZO-1, protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were detected in rat cerebral cortex after exposing rats to EMP at 200 kV/m for 200 pulses. It was found that the mRNA level of ZO-1 was unaltered at different time points after EMP exposure. The protein levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 significantly increased at 3 h and 0.5 h, respectively. However, TIMP-1 (inhibitor of MMP-9) and TIMP-2 (inhibitor of MMP-2) only moderately increased after EMP exposure. In addition, in situ zymography results showed that the gelatinase activity increased in cerebral microvessels at 3 h after EMP exposure. When rats were treated with gelatinases inhibitor (SB-3CT) before EMP exposure, the EMP-induced BBB opening was attenuated and the ZO-1 degradation was reversed. Our results suggested that EMP-induced BBB opening was related to gelatinase mediated ZO-1 degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Soybean Agglutinin on Intestinal Barrier Permeability and Tight Junction Protein Expression in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Qin, Guixin; Sun, Zewei; Che, Dongsheng; Bao, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    This study was developed to provide further information on the intestinal barrier permeability and the tight junction protein expression in weaned piglets fed with different levels of soybean agglutinin (SBA). Twenty-five weaned crossbred barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected and randomly allotted to five groups, each group with five replicates. The piglets in the control group were not fed with leguminous products. 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2% SBA was added to the control diet to form four experimental diets, respectively. After the experimental period of 7 days (for each group), all the piglets were anesthetized with excess procaine and slaughtered. The d-lactic acid in plasma and the Ileal mucosa diamine oxidase (DAO) was analyzed to observe the change in the intestinal permeability. The tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 in the jejunum tissue distribution and relative expression were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. The results illustrated that a high dose of SBA (0.1–0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no significant affects. The contents of DAO, d-lactic acid, occludin or ZO-1, had a linear relationship with the SBA levels (0–0.2%) in diets. The high dose SBA (0.1–0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no affects. PMID:22272087

  14. Effects of soybean agglutinin on intestinal barrier permeability and tight junction protein expression in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Qin, Guixin; Sun, Zewei; Che, Dongsheng; Bao, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    This study was developed to provide further information on the intestinal barrier permeability and the tight junction protein expression in weaned piglets fed with different levels of soybean agglutinin (SBA). Twenty-five weaned crossbred barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected and randomly allotted to five groups, each group with five replicates. The piglets in the control group were not fed with leguminous products. 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2% SBA was added to the control diet to form four experimental diets, respectively. After the experimental period of 7 days (for each group), all the piglets were anesthetized with excess procaine and slaughtered. The d-lactic acid in plasma and the Ileal mucosa diamine oxidase (DAO) was analyzed to observe the change in the intestinal permeability. The tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 in the jejunum tissue distribution and relative expression were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. The results illustrated that a high dose of SBA (0.1-0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no significant affects. The contents of DAO, d-lactic acid, occludin or ZO-1, had a linear relationship with the SBA levels (0-0.2%) in diets. The high dose SBA (0.1-0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no affects.

  15. Cingulin Contains Globular and Coiled-Coil Domains and Interacts with Zo-1, Zo-2, Zo-3, and Myosin

    PubMed Central

    Cordenonsi, Michelangelo; D'Atri, Fabio; Hammar, Eva; Parry, David A.D.; Kendrick-Jones, John; Shore, David; Citi, Sandra

    1999-01-01

    We characterized the sequence and protein interactions of cingulin, an M r 140–160-kD phosphoprotein localized on the cytoplasmic surface of epithelial tight junctions (TJ). The derived amino acid sequence of a full-length Xenopus laevis cingulin cDNA shows globular head (residues 1–439) and tail (1,326–1,368) domains and a central α-helical rod domain (440–1,325). Sequence analysis, electron microscopy, and pull-down assays indicate that the cingulin rod is responsible for the formation of coiled-coil parallel dimers, which can further aggregate through intermolecular interactions. Pull-down assays from epithelial, insect cell, and reticulocyte lysates show that an NH2-terminal fragment of cingulin (1–378) interacts in vitro with ZO-1 (K d ∼5 nM), ZO-2, ZO-3, myosin, and AF-6, but not with symplekin, and a COOH-terminal fragment (377–1,368) interacts with myosin and ZO-3. ZO-1 and ZO-2 immunoprecipitates contain cingulin, suggesting in vivo interactions. Full-length cingulin, but not NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal fragments, colocalizes with endogenous cingulin in transfected MDCK cells, indicating that sequences within both head and rod domains are required for TJ localization. We propose that cingulin is a functionally important component of TJ, linking the submembrane plaque domain of TJ to the actomyosin cytoskeleton. PMID:10613913

  16. ZO proteins redundantly regulate the transcription factor DbpA/ZONAB.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Domenica; Tapia, Rocio; Jond, Lionel; Sudol, Marius; Fanning, Alan S; Citi, Sandra

    2014-08-08

    The localization and activities of DbpA/ZONAB and YAP transcription factors are in part regulated by the density-dependent assembly of epithelial junctions. DbpA activity and cell proliferation are inhibited by exogenous overexpression of the tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-1, leading to a model whereby ZO-1 acts by sequestering DbpA at the TJ. However, mammary epithelial cells and mouse tissues knock-out for ZO-1 do not show increased proliferation, as predicted by this model. To address this discrepancy, we examined the localization and activity of DbpA and YAP in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells depleted either of ZO-1, or one of the related proteins ZO-2 and ZO-3 (ZO proteins), or all three together. Depletion of only one ZO protein had no effect on DbpA localization and activity, whereas depletion of ZO-1 and ZO-2, which is associated with reduced ZO-3 expression, resulted in increased DbpA localization in the cytoplasm. Only depletion of ZO-2 reduced the nuclear import of YAP. Mammary epithelial (Eph4) cells KO for ZO-1 showed junctional DbpA, demonstrating that ZO-1 is not required to sequester DbpA at junctions. However, further depletion of ZO-2 in Eph4 ZO-1KO cells, which do not express ZO-3, caused decreased junctional localization and expression of DbpA, which were rescued by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. In vitro binding assays showed that full-length ZO-1 does not interact with DbpA. These results show that ZO-2 is implicated in regulating the nuclear shuttling of YAP, whereas ZO proteins redundantly control the junctional retention and stability of DbpA, without affecting its shuttling to the nucleus. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Regulation of tight junction assembly and epithelial morphogenesis by the heat shock protein Apg-2.

    PubMed

    Aijaz, Saima; Sanchez-Heras, Elena; Balda, Maria S; Matter, Karl

    2007-11-20

    Tight junctions are required for epithelial barrier formation and participate in the regulation of signalling mechanisms that control proliferation and differentiation. ZO-1 is a tight junction-associated adaptor protein that regulates gene expression, junction assembly and epithelial morphogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that the heat shock protein Apg-2 binds ZO-1 and thereby regulates its role in cell proliferation. Here, we addressed the question whether Apg-2 is also important for junction formation and epithelial morphogenesis. We demonstrate that depletion of Apg-2 by RNAi in MDCK cells did not prevent formation of functional tight junctions. Similar to ZO-1, however, reduced expression of Apg-2 retarded de novo junction assembly if analysed in a Ca-switch model. Formation of functional junctions, as monitored by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance, and recruitment of tight and adherens junction markers were retarded. If cultured in three dimensional extracellular matrix gels, Apg-2 depleted cells, as previously shown for ZO-1 depleted cells, did not form hollow polarised cysts but poorly organised, irregular structures. Our data indicate that Apg-2 regulates junction assembly and is required for normal epithelial morphogenesis in a three-dimensional culture system, suggesting that Apg-2 is an important regulator of epithelial differentiation. As the observed phenotypes are similar to those previously described for ZO-1 depleted cells and depletion of Apg-2 retards junctional recruitment of ZO-1, regulation of ZO-1 is likely to be an important functional role for Apg-2 during epithelial differentiation.

  18. EMP-induced alterations of tight junction protein expression and disruption of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Ding, Gui-Rong; Qiu, Lian-Bo; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Li, Kang-Chu; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Jia-Xing; Li, Yu-Rong; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2010-07-15

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical to maintain cerebral homeostasis. In this study, we examined the effects of exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the functional integrity of BBB and, on the localization and expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins (occludin and ZO-1) in rats. Animals were sham or whole-body exposed to EMP at 200 kV/m for 400 pulses. The permeability of BBB in rat cerebral cortex was examined by using Evans Blue (EB) and lanthanum nitrate as vascular tracers. The localization and expression of TJ proteins were assessed by western blot and immunofluorescence analysis, respectively. The data indicated that EMP exposure caused: (i) increased permeability of BBB, and (ii) altered localization as well as decreased levels of TJ protein ZO-1. These results suggested that the alteration of ZO-1 may play an important role in the disruption of tight junctions, which may lead to dysfunction of BBB after EMP exposure. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estrogen Modulates Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Rat Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kyung-Jin; Ahn, Kyuyoun

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the localization of tight junctions and the modulation of zonula occludens- (ZO-) 1, occludin and claudin-1 expression by estrogen in castrated female rat vagina. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230–240 g, n = 45) were divided into three groups and subjected to a sham operation (control group, n = 15), bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx group, n = 15), or bilateral ovariectomy followed by daily subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (50 μg/kg/day, Ovx + Est group, n = 15). The cellular localization and expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 were determined in each group by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Expression of ZO-1 was diffuse in all groups, with the highest intensity in the superficial epithelium in the control group. Occludin was localized in the intermediate and basal epithelium. Claudin-1 was most intense in the superficial layer of the vaginal epithelium in the control group. Expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 was significantly decreased after ovariectomy and was restored to the level of the control after estrogen replacement. Conclusions. Tight junctions are distinctly localized in rat vagina, and estrogen modulates the expression of tight junctions. Further researches are needed to clarify the functional role of tight junctions in vaginal lubrication. PMID:27127786

  20. Estrogen Modulates Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Rat Vagina.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Suk; Ahn, Kyuyoun; Park, Kwangsung

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the localization of tight junctions and the modulation of zonula occludens- (ZO-) 1, occludin and claudin-1 expression by estrogen in castrated female rat vagina. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-240 g, n = 45) were divided into three groups and subjected to a sham operation (control group, n = 15), bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx group, n = 15), or bilateral ovariectomy followed by daily subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (50 μg/kg/day, Ovx + Est group, n = 15). The cellular localization and expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 were determined in each group by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Expression of ZO-1 was diffuse in all groups, with the highest intensity in the superficial epithelium in the control group. Occludin was localized in the intermediate and basal epithelium. Claudin-1 was most intense in the superficial layer of the vaginal epithelium in the control group. Expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 was significantly decreased after ovariectomy and was restored to the level of the control after estrogen replacement. Conclusions. Tight junctions are distinctly localized in rat vagina, and estrogen modulates the expression of tight junctions. Further researches are needed to clarify the functional role of tight junctions in vaginal lubrication.

  1. The effects of electromagnetic pulse on the protein levels of tight junction associated-proteins in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, heart, lung, and testis of rats.

    PubMed

    Qiu, LianBo; Chen, Chen; Ding, GuiRong; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, MengYao

    2011-08-01

    To investigate changes in the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, heart, lung, and testes of rats after exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Eighteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham and exposure groups. The exposure groups received EMP at 200 kV/m for 200 pulses with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. The expression of TJ proteins (ZO-1, occludin, actin) in the several organs was examined by western blotting. ZO-1 levels in the cerebral cortex decreased 1 h and 3 h after EMP exposure compared with sham group (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed for occludin and actin. ZO-1 levels in the hippocampus increased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), and occludin decreased after 3 h (P<0.05); however, actin was unaffected. ZO-1 levels in the heart increased 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), occludin decreased 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), and actin increased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05). ZO-1, occludin and actin levels in the lung decreased compared with those in the sham group (P<0.05). ZO-1 and occludin levels in the testes decreased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), but actin showed no significant change. Exposure to EMP altered the expression levels of TJ proteins, particularly ZO-1, in the organs of adult male rats, which may induce changes in barrier structure and function. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Occludin confers adhesiveness when expressed in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Van Itallie, C M; Anderson, J M

    1997-05-01

    Occludin is an integral membrane protein specifically associated with tight junctions. Previous studies suggest it is likely to function in forming the intercellular seal. In the present study, we expressed occludin under an inducible promotor in occludin-null fibroblasts to determine whether this protein confers intercellular adhesion. When human occludin is stably expressed in NRK and Rat-1 fibroblasts, which lack endogenous occludin and tight junctions but do have well developed ZO-1-containing adherens-like junctions, occludin colocalizes with ZO-1 to points of cell-cell contact. In contrast, L-cell fibroblasts which lack cadherin-based adherens junctions, target neither ZO-1 nor occludin to sites of cell contact. Occludin-induced adhesion was next quantified using a suspended cell assay. In NRK and Rat-1 cells, occludin expression induces adhesion in the absence of calcium, thus independent of cadherin-cadherin contacts. In contrast, L-cells are nonadhesive in this assay and show no increase in adhesion after induction of occludin expression. Binding of an antibody to the first of the putative extracellular loops of occludin confirmed that this sequence was exposed on the cell surface, and synthetic peptides containing the amino acid sequence of this loop inhibit adhesion induced by occludin expression. These results suggest that the extracellular surface of occludin is directly involved in cell-cell adhesion and the ability to confer adhesiveness correlates with the ability to colocalize with its cytoplasmic binding protein, ZO-1.

  3. Regulation of tight junction assembly and epithelial morphogenesis by the heat shock protein Apg-2

    PubMed Central

    Aijaz, Saima; Sanchez-Heras, Elena; Balda, Maria S; Matter, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Background Tight junctions are required for epithelial barrier formation and participate in the regulation of signalling mechanisms that control proliferation and differentiation. ZO-1 is a tight junction-associated adaptor protein that regulates gene expression, junction assembly and epithelial morphogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that the heat shock protein Apg-2 binds ZO-1 and thereby regulates its role in cell proliferation. Here, we addressed the question whether Apg-2 is also important for junction formation and epithelial morphogenesis. Results We demonstrate that depletion of Apg-2 by RNAi in MDCK cells did not prevent formation of functional tight junctions. Similar to ZO-1, however, reduced expression of Apg-2 retarded de novo junction assembly if analysed in a Ca-switch model. Formation of functional junctions, as monitored by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance, and recruitment of tight and adherens junction markers were retarded. If cultured in three dimensional extracellular matrix gels, Apg-2 depleted cells, as previously shown for ZO-1 depleted cells, did not form hollow polarised cysts but poorly organised, irregular structures. Conclusion Our data indicate that Apg-2 regulates junction assembly and is required for normal epithelial morphogenesis in a three-dimensional culture system, suggesting that Apg-2 is an important regulator of epithelial differentiation. As the observed phenotypes are similar to those previously described for ZO-1 depleted cells and depletion of Apg-2 retards junctional recruitment of ZO-1, regulation of ZO-1 is likely to be an important functional role for Apg-2 during epithelial differentiation. PMID:18028534

  4. Glutamine and arginine improve permeability and tight junction protein expression in methotrexate-treated Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Beutheu, Stéphanie; Ghouzali, Ibtissem; Galas, Ludovic; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-10-01

    Chemotherapy induces an increase of intestinal permeability that is partially related to an alteration of tight junction proteins, occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Protective effects of glutamine on intestinal barrier function have been previously shown but the effects of other amino acids remained poorly documented. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effects of nine amino acids on intestinal permeability during methotrexate (MTX) treatment in Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 cells were incubated in culture medium supplemented with glutamine, arginine, glutamate, leucine, taurine, citrulline, glycine, histidine or cysteine during 24 h and then treated with MTX (100 ng/ml). The dose of each amino acid was 16.6 fold the physiological plasma concentrations. Barrier function was assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), FITC-dextran paracellular flux, occludin and ZO-1 expression and localization. Signaling pathways were also studied. Only glutamine, glutamate, arginine and leucine reversed the decrease of TEER observed after MTX treatment (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the addition of 6-diazo-5-oxo-1-norleucine, an inhibitor of glutaminase, blunted the effect of glutamine on MTX-treated cells (P < 0.05). Glutamine and arginine combination restored TEER and FITC-dextran flux to a similar extent than glutamine alone. In addition, pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with glutamine and arginine, alone or combined, differently limited the decrease of ZO-1 and occludin expression (P < 0.05) and the alteration of their cellular distribution, through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Glutamine prevented MTX-induced barrier disruption in Caco-2 cells. Arginine also had protective effects but in a lesser extent. The effect of glutamine and arginine should be evaluated in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Tight Junction Protein-Related Gene mRNA Expression Levels between Male and Female Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Joo; Kim, Nayoung; Park, Ji Hyun; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Sun Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2018-03-21

    Male predominance has been observed in the erosive reflux disease (ERD), but reverse finding in nonerosive reflux disease (NERD). This suggests sex-specific medicine approach is needed but its mechanism is remained to be elucidated. We aimed to compare clinical characteristics and mRNA expression levels of tight junction-related proteins between male and female gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. Sixteen healthy controls, 45 ERD, and 14 NERD patients received upper endoscopies and completed questionnaires. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) of occludin (OCLN), zonal occludens (ZO) 1, claudin1 (CDLN1) and claudin4 (CDLN4), and neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) were performed in the distal esophageal mucosal specimen. These results were analyzed by sex. Female GERD patients were affected more by reflux symptoms than males. The impairment of overall QoL was more prominent in female patients with reflux symptoms than male patients (5.6±0.2 vs. 4.9±0.6, p=0.009). The levels of OCLN mRNA expression were significantly lower in the male ERD group. On the other hand, those of CLDN1, CLDN4, and NK1R except ZO-1 were significantly higher in the male ERD group. We demonstrated that female ERD/NERD patients were affected more by GERD and male ERD patients showed significant changes of tight junction protein mRNA expression levels.

  6. Comparison of tight junction protein expression in the ciliary epithelia of mouse, rabbit, cat and human eyes.

    PubMed

    Karim, M J; Biswas, S; Bhattacherjee, P; Paterson, C A

    2011-06-01

    Tight junctions in the nonpigmented epithelium (NPE) of the ciliary processes and the iris vascular endothelium form the ocular blood aqueous barrier that prevents leakage of proteins, immune cells and non-immune cells of blood into the anterior chamber. We attempted to determine whether ultrastructural differences in tight junctions reported in earlier studies are reflected in the expression pattern of tight junction proteins (TJP) and whether the TJP in mice, rabbits and cats resemble those of humans. For immunohistochemistry, 10 μm thick cryosections were rehydrated in PBS and fixed in 50 mM ammonium chloride at room temperature. After rinses in PBS, the sections were incubated twice in 0.1% Triton X-100, 10% goat serum, specific primary antibody or in PBS. After rinses in PBS, the sections were incubated in FITC-conjugated secondary antibody. After rinses in PBS, the sections were mounted with Vectashield mounting medium with propidium iodide, examined and photographed using a confocal microscope. The expression patterns of TJP in ocular ciliary epithelium of human, rabbit, cat and mouse were similar. Occludin immunoreactivity was observed as a sharp line along the junction between pigmented epithelium (PE) and NPE, and along the apico-lateral surfaces of NPE. Very light staining of the ciliary stroma was observed in cat and mouse. Claudin-1 was expressed along the entire boundaries of NPE and was more distinct between PE and NPE in rabbit. The ciliary stroma showed faint staining in cat and mouse. ZO-1 showed staining between PE and NPE, and at the adjacent membrane. Moderate staining was seen in PE in cat and mouse, which suggests that claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1 are expressed along the junction between PE and NPE, and the apico-lateral border of NPE. Lack of major difference in the expression patterns among the different species is important for validating the use of rabbit, mouse and cat in studies of intraocular inflammation in humans.

  7. [Effects of electromagnetic pulse on blood-brain barrier permeability and tight junction proteins in rats].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lian-bo; Ding, Gui-rong; Zhang, Ya-mei; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Xiao-wu; Li, Kang-chu; Xu, Sheng-long; Tan, Juan; Zhou, Jia-xing; Guo, Guo-zhen

    2009-09-01

    To study the effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the permeability of blood-brain barrier, tight junction (TJ)-associated protein expression and localization in rats. 66 male SD rats, weighing (200 approximately 250) g, were sham or whole-body exposed to EMP at 200 kV/m for 200 pulses. The repetition rate was 1 Hz. The permeability of the blood-brain barrier in rats was assessed by albumin immunohistochemistry. The expression of typical tight junction protein ZO-1 and occludin in both cerebral cortex homogenate and cerebral cortex microvessel homogenate was analyzed by the Western blotting and the distribution of ZO-1 and occludin was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy. In the sham exposure rats, no brain capillaries showed albumin leakage, at 0.5 h after 200 kV/m EMP exposure for 200 pulses; a few brain capillaries with extravasated serum albumin was found, with the time extended, the number of brain capillaries with extravasated serum albumin increased, and reached the peak at 3 h, then began to recover at 6 h. In addition, no change in the distribution of the occludin was found after EMP exposure. Total occludin expression had no significant change compared with the control. However, the expression level of ZO-1 significantly decreased at 1 h and 3 h after EMP exposure in both cerebral cortex homogenate and cerebral cortex microvessel homogenate. Furthermore, immunofluorescence studies also showed alterations in ZO-1 protein localization in cerebral cortex microvessel. The EMP exposure (200 kV/m, 200 pulses) could increase blood-brain barrier permeability in rat, and this change is associated with specific alterations in tight junction protein ZO-1.

  8. Decreased expression of zonula occludens-1 and occludin in the bladder urothelium of patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jane-Dar; Lee, Ming-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Unique barrier properties of the urothelial surface membrane permit urine storage without contents leak into the bloodstream. Previous reports suggested that the bladder urothelial barrier might be compromised in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). We examined the changes of tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin) in IC/PBS patients. Bladder samples were derived from of 32 patients with IC/PBS and eight controls. We detected the tight junction proteins of ZO-1 and occludin expression by immunoblotting, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and double immunofluorescent (IF) staining with confocal microscopy. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Expression of ZO-1 and occludin in the IC/PBS group was reduced compared to the control group by immunoblotting and IHC staining. Also, the thinning and denudation of urothelium were demonstrated in the IC/PBS group by histological study. IF staining showed the interruption of bladder urothelium in IC/PBS patients under confocal microscopy. Our data showed that decreased expression of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) and interruption of bladder urothelium in IC/PBS patients. Treatment to repair the discontinuous urothelium may be useful to relieve some clinical symptoms of patients with IC/PBS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Protein kinase C activation modulates reversible increase in cortical blood-brain barrier permeability and tight junction protein expression during hypoxia and posthypoxic reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Willis, Colin L; Meske, Diana S; Davis, Thomas P

    2010-11-01

    Hypoxia (Hx) is a component of many disease states including stroke. Ischemic stroke occurs when there is a restriction of cerebral blood flow and oxygen to part of the brain. During the ischemic, and subsequent reperfusion phase of stroke, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is lost with tight junction (TJ) protein disruption. However, the mechanisms of Hx and reoxygenation (HR)-induced loss of BBB integrity are not fully understood. We examined the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in modifying TJ protein expression in a rat model of global Hx. The Hx (6% O(2)) induced increased hippocampal and cortical vascular permeability to 4 and 10 kDa dextran fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and endogenous rat-IgG. Cortical microvessels revealed morphologic changes in nPKC-θ distribution, increased nPKC-θ and aPKC-ζ protein expression, and activation by phosphorylation of nPKC-θ (Thr538) and aPKC-ζ (Thr410) residues after Hx treatment. Claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 showed disrupted organization at endothelial cell margins, whereas Western blot analysis showed increased TJ protein expression after Hx. The PKC inhibition with chelerythrine chloride (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) attenuated Hx-induced hippocampal vascular permeability and claudin-5, PKC (θ and ζ) expression, and phosphorylation. This study supports the hypothesis that nPKC-θ and aPKC-ζ signaling mediates TJ protein disruption resulting in increased BBB permeability.

  10. Dendrin expression in glomerulogenesis and in human minimal change nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dunér, Fredrik; Patrakka, Jaakko; Xiao, Zhijie; Larsson, Jenny; Vlamis-Gardikas, Alexios; Pettersson, Erna; Tryggvason, Karl; Hultenby, Kjell; Wernerson, Annika

    2008-08-01

    Dendrin is an 81-kD cytosolic protein hitherto described in the brain, where it is associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Recently, we found dendrin in foot processes of mouse glomerular podocytes. Here we describe its expression both during mouse glomerulogenesis and in the normal and diseased human kidney for the first time. Dendrin expression was characterized using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and semi-quantified using immunoelectron microscopy. In glomerulogenesis, dendrin mRNA and protein appeared first at the early capillary loop stage. It was concentrated to the pre-podocytes on the basal side of podocalyxin, an apical cell membrane marker. In human tissue, dendrin transcripts were detected in the brain and kidney. In the mature kidney dendrin localized solely in the podocytes, close to the filtration slit diaphragms. A comparison with the slit-associated protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) was done in minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). Dendrin and ZO-1 were re-distributed from slit regions to the podocyte cytoplasm in areas with foot process effacement (FPE). In areas without FPE, dendrin and ZO-1 distributions were unchanged compared to controls. The total amounts of dendrin or ZO-1 markers were unchanged. This differs from nephrin that, according to our previous results, is also decreased in non-effaced areas. The expression of dendrin during glomerulogenesis and in the normal human kidney is similar to that previously shown for nephrin, which suggests that dendrin associates with the slit diaphragm complex. In MCNS patients, dendrin and ZO-1 are re-distributed within the podocytes. Whether this is a cause or a consequence of FPE remains unclear.

  11. Dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet to heat-stressed broiler chickens and its effect on heat shock protein 70 expression, blood parameters and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Hasheimi, S R; Zulkifli, I; Somchit, M N; Zunita, Z; Loh, T C; Soleimani, A F; Tang, S C

    2013-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet and to heat-stressed broiler chickens on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 density, plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR) and body temperature. Beginning from day 28, chicks were divided into five dietary groups: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet +1%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ1%), (iii) basal diet +2%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ2%), (iv) basal diet +1%Z. officinale powder (ZO1%) and (v) basal diet +2%Z. officinale powder (ZO2%). From day 35-42, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38±1°C and 80% RH for 2 h/day. Irrespective of diet, heat challenge elevated HSP70 expression, CORT and HLR on day 42. On day 42, following heat challenge, the ZZ1% birds showed lower body temperatures than those of control, ZO1% and ZO2%. Neither CORT nor HLR was significantly affected by diet. The ZO2% and ZZ2% diets enhanced HSP70 expression when compared to the control groups. We concluded that dietary supplementation of Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet powder may induce HSP70 reaction in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. IL-4 and IL-13 Compromise the Sinonasal Epithelial Barrier and Perturb Intercellular Junction Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Sarah K.; Laury, Adrienne M.; Katz, Elizabeth H.; Den Beste, Kyle A.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Altered expression of epithelial intercellular junction proteins has been observed in sinonasal biopsies from nasal polyps and epithelial layers cultured from nasal polyp patients. These alterations comprise a “leaky” epithelial barrier phenotype. We hypothesize that Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 modulate epithelial junction proteins thereby contributing to the leaky epithelial barrier. Methods Differentiated primary sinonasal epithelial layers cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed to IL-4, IL-13, and controls for 24 hours at 37°C. Epithelial resistance measurements were taken every 4 hours during cytokine exposure. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining/confocal microscopy were used to assess changes in a panel of tight and adherens junction proteins. Western blot densitometry was quantified with image analysis. Results IL-4 and IL-13 exposure resulted in a mean decrease in transepithelial resistance at 24 hours to 51.6% (n=6) and 68.6% (n=8) of baseline, respectively. Tight junction protein JAM-A expression decreased 42.2% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 37.5% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Adherens junction protein E-cadherin expression decreased 35.3% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 32.9% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Tight junction protein claudin-2 showed more variability but had a trend toward higher expression with Th2 cytokine exposure. There were no appreciable changes in claudin-1, occludin, or ZO-1 with IL-4 or IL-13 exposure. Conclusion Sinonasal epithelial exposure to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 results in alterations in intercellular junction proteins, reflecting increased epithelial permeability. Such changes may explain some of the phenotypic manifestations of Th2-mediated sinonasal disease, such as edema, nasal discharge, and environmental reactivity. PMID:24510479

  13. Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 compromise the sinonasal epithelial barrier and perturb intercellular junction protein expression.

    PubMed

    Wise, Sarah K; Laury, Adrienne M; Katz, Elizabeth H; Den Beste, Kyle A; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-05-01

    Altered expression of epithelial intercellular junction proteins has been observed in sinonasal biopsies from nasal polyps and epithelial layers cultured from nasal polyp patients. These alterations comprise a "leaky" epithelial barrier phenotype. We hypothesize that T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 modulate epithelial junction proteins, thereby contributing to the leaky epithelial barrier. Differentiated primary sinonasal epithelial layers cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed to IL-4, IL-13, and controls for 24 hours at 37°C. Epithelial resistance measurements were taken every 4 hours during cytokine exposure. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining/confocal microscopy were used to assess changes in a panel of tight and adherens junction proteins. Western blot densitometry was quantified with image analysis. IL-4 and IL-13 exposure resulted in a mean decrease in transepithelial resistance at 24 hours to 51.6% (n = 6) and 68.6% (n = 8) of baseline, respectively. Tight junction protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) expression decreased 42.2% with IL-4 exposure (n = 9) and 37.5% with IL-13 exposure (n = 9). Adherens junction protein E-cadherin expression decreased 35.3% with IL-4 exposure (n = 9) and 32.9% with IL-13 exposure (n = 9). Tight junction protein claudin-2 showed more variability but had a trend toward higher expression with Th2 cytokine exposure. There were no appreciable changes in claudin-1, occludin, or zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) with IL-4 or IL-13 exposure. Sinonasal epithelial exposure to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 results in alterations in intercellular junction proteins, reflecting increased epithelial permeability. Such changes may explain some of the phenotypic manifestations of Th2-mediated sinonasal disease, such as edema, nasal discharge, and environmental reactivity. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  14. Modeling Protein Expression and Protein Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Telesca, Donatello; Müller, Peter; Kornblau, Steven M.; Suchard, Marc A.; Ji, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput functional proteomic technologies provide a way to quantify the expression of proteins of interest. Statistical inference centers on identifying the activation state of proteins and their patterns of molecular interaction formalized as dependence structure. Inference on dependence structure is particularly important when proteins are selected because they are part of a common molecular pathway. In that case, inference on dependence structure reveals properties of the underlying pathway. We propose a probability model that represents molecular interactions at the level of hidden binary latent variables that can be interpreted as indicators for active versus inactive states of the proteins. The proposed approach exploits available expert knowledge about the target pathway to define an informative prior on the hidden conditional dependence structure. An important feature of this prior is that it provides an instrument to explicitly anchor the model space to a set of interactions of interest, favoring a local search approach to model determination. We apply our model to reverse-phase protein array data from a study on acute myeloid leukemia. Our inference identifies relevant subpathways in relation to the unfolding of the biological process under study. PMID:26246646

  15. Characterization of big bang, a novel gene encoding for PDZ domain-containing proteins that are dynamically expressed throughout Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sabrina Y; Renihan, Maia K; Boulianne, Gabrielle L

    2006-06-01

    PDZ (PSD-95, Discs-large, ZO-1) domain proteins often function as scaffolding proteins and have been shown to play important roles in diverse cellular processes such as the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity, and signal transduction. Here, we report the identification and cloning of a novel Drosophila melanogaster gene that is predicted to produce several different PDZ domain-containing proteins through alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing. This gene, that we have named big bang (bbg), was first identified as C96-GAL4, a GAL4 enhancer trap line that was generated in our lab. To further characterize bbg, its expression pattern was examined in ovaries, embryos, and late third instar larvae using UAS reporter gene constructs, in situ hybridization, or immunocytochemistry. In addition, the expression of alternatively spliced transcripts was examined in more detail using in situ hybridization. We find that during embryogenesis bbg is predominantly expressed in the developing gut, but it is also expressed in external sensory organs found in the epidermis. In the late third instar larva, bbg is expressed along the presumptive wing margin in the wing disc, broadly in the eye disc, and in other imaginal discs as well as in the brain. The expression patterns observed are dynamic and specific during development, suggesting that like other genes that encode for several different PDZ domain protein isoforms, bbg likely plays important roles in multiple developmental processes.

  16. Effects of SOV-induced phosphatase inhibition and expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases in rat corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Li; Harris, Deshea L; Joyce, Nancy C

    2005-11-01

    Contact inhibition is an important mechanism for maintaining corneal endothelium in a non-replicative state. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play a role in regulating the integrity of cell-cell contacts, differentiation, and growth. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether phosphatases are involved in the maintenance of contact-dependent inhibition of proliferation in corneal endothelial cells and to identify candidate PTPs that are expressed in these cells and might be involved in regulation of contact inhibition. Confluent cultures of rat corneal endothelial cells or endothelium in ex vivo corneas were treated with the general phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (SOV). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) evaluated the effect of SOV on cell-cell contacts by staining for ZO-1, and on cell cycle progression by staining for Ki67. Transverse sections of rat cornea and cultured rat corneal endothelial cells were used to test for expression of the candidate PTPs: PTP-mu, PTP-LAR, PTP1B, SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN using ICC and either Western blots or RT-PCR. ZO-1 staining demonstrated that SOV induced a time-dependent release of cell-cell contacts in confluent cultures of corneal endothelial cells and in the endothelium of ex vivo corneas. Staining for Ki67 indicated that SOV promoted limited cell cycle progression in the absence of serum. PTP-mu, PTP1B, SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN, but not PTP-LAR, were expressed in rat corneal endothelial cells in situ and in culture. The subcellular location of PTP-mu and PTP1B differed in subconfluent and confluent cells, while that of SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN was similar, regardless of confluent status. Western blots confirmed the expression of PTP1B, SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN. RT-PCR confirmed expression of PTP-mu mRNA. Phosphatases are involved in regulation of junctional integrity and of cell proliferation in corneal endothelial cells. PTP-mu, PTP1B, SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN are expressed in rat corneal endothelium and may be involved in

  17. Probiotics modify tight-junction proteins in an animal model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Briskey, David; Heritage, Mandy; Jaskowski, Lesley-Anne; Peake, Jonathan; Gobe, Glenda; Subramaniam, V. Nathan; Crawford, Darrell; Campbell, Catherine; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have investigated the effects of a multispecies probiotic preparation containing a combination of probiotic bacterial genera that included Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli and a Streptococcus in a mouse model of high-fat diet or obesity-induced liver steatosis. Methods: Three groups of C57B1/6J mice were fed either a standard chow or a high-fat diet for 20 weeks, while a third group was fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks and then concomitantly administered probiotics for a further 10 weeks. Serum, liver and large bowel samples were collected for analysis. Results: The expression of the tight-junction proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 was reduced (p < 0.05) in high-fat diet-fed mice compared to chow-fed mice. Probiotic supplementation helped to maintain tight ZO-1 and ZO-2 expression compared with the high-fat diet group (p < 0.05), but did not restore ZO-1 or ZO-2 expression compared with chow-fed mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet ± probiotics had significant steatosis development compared with chow-fed mice (p < 0.05); steatosis was less severe in the probiotics group compared with the high-fat diet group. Hepatic triglyceride concentration was higher in mice fed a high-fat diet ± probiotics compared with the chow group (p < 0.05), and was lower in the probiotics group compared with the high-fat diet group (p < 0.05). Compared with chow-fed mice, serum glucose, cholesterol concentration and the activity of alanine transaminase were higher (p < 0.05), whereas serum triglyceride concentration was lower (p < 0.05) in mice fed a high-fat diet ± probiotics. Conclusions: Supplementation with a multispecies probiotic formulation helped to maintain tight-junction proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2, and reduced hepatic triglyceride concentration compared with a high-fat diet alone. PMID:27366215

  18. Glutamine enhances tight junction protein expression and modulates corticotropin-releasing factor signaling in the jejunum of weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Chen; Wu, Guoyao; Sun, Yuli; Wang, Bin; He, Beibei; Dai, Zhaolai; Wu, Zhenlong

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of tight junction integrity is associated with decreased nutrient absorption and numerous gastrointestinal diseases in humans and piglets. Although l-glutamine has been reported to enhance intestinal-mucosal mass and barrier function under stressful conditions, in vivo data to support a functional role for l-glutamine on intestinal tight junction protein (TJP) expression in weanling mammals are limited. This study tested the hypothesis that glutamine regulates expression of TJPs and stress-related corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the jejunum of weanling piglets. Piglets were reared by sows or weaned at 21 d of age to a corn and soybean meal-based diet that was or was not supplemented with 1% l-glutamine for 7 d. Growth performance, intestinal permeability, TJP abundance, and CRF expression were examined. Weaning caused increases (P < 0.05) in intestinal permeability by 40% and in CRF concentrations by 4.7 times in association with villus atrophy (P < 0.05). Western blot analysis showed reductions (P < 0.05) in jejunal expression of occludin, claudin-1, zonula occludens (ZO) 2, and ZO-3, but no changes in the abundance of claudin-3, claudin-4, or ZO-1 in weanling piglets compared with age-matched suckling controls. Glutamine supplementation improved (P < 0.05) intestinal permeability and villus height, while reducing (P < 0.05) jejunal mRNA and protein levels for CRF and attenuating (P < 0.05) weanling-induced decreases in occludin, claudin-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3 protein abundances. Collectively, our results support an important role for l-glutamine in regulating expression of TJPs and CRF in the jejunum of weanling piglets. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  20. Reduced E-cadherin expression is associated with abdominal pain and symptom duration in a study of alternating and diarrhea predominant IBS.

    PubMed

    Wilcz-Villega, E; McClean, S; O'Sullivan, M

    2014-03-01

    Increased intestinal permeability and altered expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins may be implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study aimed to investigate the expression of adherens junction (AJ) protein E-cadherin and TJ proteins zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and claudin (CLD)-1 and associations with IBS symptoms. Junctional proteins were immunostained in cecal biopsy tissue of Rome II IBS patients (n = 34) comprising both alternating (IBS-A) and diarrhea predominant (IBS-D) subtypes, and controls (n = 12). IBS symptom duration, abdominal pain severity and stool frequency were assessed for IBS patients. Protein expression was determined by immunofluorescence. E-cadherin and ZO-1 protein expression was significantly lower (p = 0.03 and p = 0.016, respectively) in the cecal surface epithelium of the IBS group comprising both IBS-A and IBS-D subtypes. CLD-1 expression was not significantly altered compared with controls. On subtype analysis, ZO-1 expression was significantly reduced in both IBS-A and IBS-D compared with controls, whereas E-cadherin was reduced only in IBS-A. Lower E-cadherin expression was associated with longer symptoms duration specifically in IBS-A patients (rs = -0.76, p = 0.004). Reduced E-cadherin associated with abdominal pain severity in the overall IBS group (rs = -0.36, p = 0.041), but this association was unrelated to IBS subtype. E-cadherin protein expression in the cecum was significantly lower in IBS-A compared with controls and associated with longstanding symptoms. E-cadherin was further associated with abdominal pain severity in the IBS group overall, but unrelated to IBS subtype. Altered E-cadherin expression may provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying intestinal barrier dysfunction in IBS. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein on intestinal bacterial translocation in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang; Li, Chang; Jiang, Yingjian; Zheng, Hongmei; Li, Dehui; Liang, Yibo; Deng, Wensheng; Zhang, Dianliang

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein (CPTP) on the intestinal epithelial tight junction proteins in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Fifty patients with SAP were classified into two groups according to the presence of bacterial translocation (BT) in the blood. Thirty healthy individuals were included in the control group. The presence of BT was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. The expression of tight junction proteins and CPTP was determined using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Bacterial DNA was detected in the peripheral blood of 62.0% of the patients with SAP. The expression of CPTP and tight junction proteins in SAP patients was lower than that in healthy controls. Among the patients with SAP, those positive for BT(+) showed a lower level of CPTP and occluding (OC) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) expression and a higher level of IVA cPLA2 expression than BT(-) patients. Moreover, the expression of CPTP was significantly associated with ZO-1 and showed a negative correlation with expression of IVA cPLA2 in SAP-BT(+) patients. CPTP affects the expression of tight junction proteins and may protects the intestinal epithelial barrier by downregulating the expression of IVA cPLA2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Prophylactic effect of rebamipide on aspirin-induced gastric lesions and disruption of tight junctional protein zonula occludens-1 distribution.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Yoshida, Norimasa; Nakabe, Nami; Isozaki, Yutaka; Kajikawa, Hirokazu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Handa, Osamu; Kokura, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Yuji; Matsui, Hirofumi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2008-03-01

    Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are known to induce gastroduodenal complications such as ulcer, bleeding, and dyspepsia. In this study, we examined the prophylactic effect of rebamipide, an anti-ulcer agent with free-radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effect, on acidified aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. In addition, we investigated the mucosal barrier functions disrupted by aspirin. Oral administration of acidified aspirin resulted in linear hemorrhagic erosions with increasing myeloperoxidase activity and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentrations in the gastric mucosa. Rebamipide suppressed these acidified aspirin-induced gastric lesions and inflammatory changes significantly, and its protective effect was more potent in the case of repeated (twice daily for 3 days) treatment than single treatment before aspirin administration. Immunostaining of zonula occludens (ZO)-1, one of the tight junctional proteins, was strengthened in rat gastric mucosa after repeated administration of rebamipide. In addition, aspirin induced the increasing transport of fluorescine isothiocyanate-labeled dextrans with localized disruption and decreased expression of ZO-1 protein on rat gastric mucosal cell line RGM-1. Rebamipide effectively prevented aspirin-induced permeability changes and disruption of ZO-1 distribution. These results suggest that rebamipide protects against aspirin-induced gastric mucosal lesions by preserving gastric epithelial cell-to cell integrity in addition to the anti-inflammatory effects.

  3. CAVEOLIN-1 REGULATES HIV-1 TAT-INDUCED ALTERATIONS OF TIGHT JUNCTION PROTEIN EXPRESSION VIA MODULATION OF THE RAS SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yu; Smart, Eric J.; Weksler, Babette; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the critical structure for preventing HIV trafficking into the brain. Specific HIV proteins, such as Tat protein, can contribute to the dysfunction of tight junctions at the BBB and HIV entry into the brain. Tat is released by HIV-1 infected cells and can interact with a variety of cell surface receptors activating several signal transduction pathways, including those localized in caveolae. The present study focused on the mechanisms of Tat-induced caveolae-associated Ras signaling at the level of the BBB. Treatment with Tat activated the Ras pathway in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). However, caveolin-1 silencing markedly attenuated these effects. Because the integrity of the brain endothelium is regulated by intercellular tight junctions, these structural elements of the BBB were also evaluated in the present study. Exposure to Tat diminished the expression of several tight junction proteins, namely, occludin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and ZO-2 in the caveolar fraction of HBMEC. These effects were effectively protected by pharmacological inhibition of the Ras signaling and by silencing of caveolin-1. The present data indicate the importance of caveolae-associated signaling in the disruption of tight junctions upon Tat exposure. They also demonstrate that caveolin-1 may constitute an early and critical modulator that controls signaling pathways leading to the disruption of tight junction proteins. Thus, caveolin-1 may provide an effective target to protect against Tat-induced HBMEC dysfunction and the disruption of the BBB in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:18667611

  4. Expression of TM4SF10, a Claudin/EMP/PMP22 family cell junction protein, during mouse kidney development and podocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, Leslie A; Martinka, Scott; Simske, Jeffrey S

    2007-02-01

    Cell junctions in the nephron are highly specialized to perform specific and distinct filtration and reabsorption functions. The mature kidney forms complex cell junctions including slit diaphragms that prevent the passage of serum proteins into the filtrate, and tubule cell junctions that regulate specific paracellular ion reuptake. We have investigated the expression of TM4SF10 (Trans-Membrane tetra(4)-Span Family 10) in mouse kidneys. TM4SF10 is the vertebrate orthologue of Caenorhabditis elegans VAB-9, a tetraspan adherens junction protein in the PMP22/EMP/Claudin family of proteins. We found that TM4SF10 localizes at the basal-most region of podocyte precursors before the capillary loop stage, at some tubule precursors, and at the ureteric bud junction with S-shaped bodies. Overall expression of TM4SF10 peaked at postnatal day 4 and was virtually absent in adult kidneys. The very limited expression of TM4SF10 protein that persisted into adulthood was restricted to a few tubule segments but remained localized to the basal region of lateral membranes. In undifferentiated cultured podocytes, TM4SF10 localized to the perinuclear region and translocated to the cell membrane after Cadherin appearance at cell-cell contacts. TM4SF10 colocalized with ZO1 and p120ctn in undifferentiated confluent podocytes and also colocalized with the tips of actin filaments at cell contacts. Upon differentiation of cultured podocytes, TM4SF10 protein disappeared from cell contacts and expression ceased. These results suggest that TM4SF10 functions during differentiation of podocytes and may participate in the maturation of cell junctions from simple adherens junctions to elaborate slit diaphragms. TM4SF10 may define a new class of Claudin-like proteins that function during junctional development.

  5. Chlorogenic Acid Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Increases Expression of Intestinal Tight Junction Proteins in Weaned Rats Challenged with LPS

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zheng; Liu, Shiqiang; Zhou, Yan; Mi, Shumei; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Yao, Kang; Assaad, Houssein; Deng, Zeyuan; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, a natural phenolic acid present in fruits and plants, provides beneficial effects for human health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether chlorogenic acid (CHA) could improve the intestinal barrier integrity for weaned rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirty-two weaned male Sprague Dawley rats (21±1 d of age; 62.26±2.73 g) were selected and randomly allotted to four treatments, including weaned rat control, LPS-challenged and chlorogenic acid (CHA) supplemented group (orally 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg body). Dietary supplementation with CHA decreased (P<0.05) the concentrations of urea and albumin in the serum, compared to the LPS-challenged group. The levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α were lower (P<0.05) in the jejunal and colon of weaned rats receiving CHA supplementation, in comparison with the control group. CHA supplementation increased (P<0.05) villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosae under condictions of LPS challenge. CHA supplementation decreased (P<0.05) intestinal permeability, which was indicated by the ratio of lactulose to mannitol and serum DAO activity, when compared to weaned rats with LPS challenge. Immunohistochemical analysis of tight junction proteins revealed that ZO-1 and occludin protein abundances in the jejunum and colon were increased (P<0.05) by CHA supplementation. Additionally, results of immunoblot analysis revealed that the amount of occludin in the colon was also increased (P<0.05) in CHA-supplemented rats. In conclusion, CHA decreases intestinal permeability and increases intestinal expression of tight junction proteins in weaned rats challenged with LPS. PMID:24887396

  6. RhoA/rho kinase signaling reduces connexin43 expression in high glucose-treated glomerular mesangial cells with zonula occludens-1 involvement

    SciT

    Xie, Xi; Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Ocean College, Hainan University, Haikou 570228; Chen, Cheng

    RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling has been suggested to be involved in diabetic nephropathy (DN) pathogenesis. Altered expression of connexin43 (Cx43) has been found in kidneys of diabetic animals. Both of them have been found to regulate nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation in high glucose-treated glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between RhoA/ROCK signaling and Cx43 in the DN pathogenesis. We found that upregulation of Cx43 expression inhibited NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation induced by RhoA/ROCK signaling in GMCs. Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK signaling attenuated the high glucose-induced decrease in Cx43. F-actin accumulation and anmore » enhanced interaction between zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Cx43 were observed in high glucose-treated GMCs. ZO-1 depletion or disruption of F-actin formation also inhibited the reduction in Cx43 protein levels induced by high glucose. In conclusion, activated RhoA/ROCK signaling induces Cx43 degradation in GMCs cultured in high glucose, depending on F-actin regulation. Increased F-actin induced by RhoA/ROCK signaling promotes the association between ZO-1 and Cx43, which possibly triggered Cx43 endocytosis, a mechanism of NF-κB activation in high glucose-treated GMCs. - Highlights: • RhoA/ROCK signaling induces Cx43 degradation in GMCs. • F-actin and ZO-1 have functions in the regulation of Cx43 by RhoA/ROCK signaling. • We reveal the relationship between RhoA/ROCK and Cx43 in the activation of NF-κB.« less

  7. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy. PMID:29181307

  8. Biotechnology Protein Expression and Purification Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Project Scientist Core Facility is to provide purified proteins, both recombinant and natural, to the Biotechnology Science Team Project Scientists and the NRA-Structural Biology Test Investigators. Having a core facility for this purpose obviates the need for each scientist to develop the necessary expertise and equipment for molecular biology, protein expression, and protein purification. Because of this, they are able to focus their energies as well as their funding on the crystallization and structure determination of their target proteins.

  9. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Regulates Tight Junction Protein Levels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Hu, Dong; Huo, Haizhong; Zhang, Weifeng; Adiliaghdam, Fatemeh; Morrison, Sarah; Ramirez, Juan M; Gul, Sarah S; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Hodin, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays a pivotal role in maintaining gut health and well-being. Oral supplementation with IAP in mice improves gut barrier function and prevents luminal proinflammatory factors from gaining access to the circulation. In this study, we sought to explore the relationship between IAP and tight junction protein (TJP) expression and function. STUDY DESIGN The effect of IAP deletion on TJP levels was studied in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated from IAP-knockout and wild type mice. Regulation of TJPs by IAP was assayed in the human colon cancer Caco-2 and T84 cells by overexpressing the human IAP gene. Tight junction protein levels and localization were measured by using RT q-PCR and antibodies targeting the specific TJPs. Finally, the effect of IAP on inflammation-induced intestinal permeability was measured by in vitro trans-well epithelial electrical resistance (TEER). RESULTS Intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene deletion in MEFs resulted in significantly lower levels of ZO-1, ZO-2, and Occludin compared with levels in wild-type control cells; IAP over-expression in Caco-2 and T84 cells resulted in approximate 2-fold increases in the mRNA levels of ZO-1 and ZO-2. The IAP treatment ameliorated lipopolysaccharide-induced increased permeability in the Caco-2 trans-well system. Furthermore, IAP treatment preserved the localization of the ZO-1 and Occludin proteins during inflammation and was also associated with improved epithelial barrier function. CONCLUSIONS Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a major regulator of gut mucosal permeability and appears to work at least partly through improving TJP levels and localization. These data provide a strong foundation to develop IAP as a novel therapy to maintain gut barrier function. PMID:27106638

  10. [Changes in expression of Slingshot protein in hypoxic human intestinal epithelial cell and its relation with barrier function of the cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Pei; He, Wen; Wang, Fengjun

    2016-04-01

    To study the effect of hypoxia on Slingshot protein expression in human intestinal epithelial cell and its relation with changes in barrier function of the cells. The human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 was used to reproduce monolayer-cells. One portion of the monolayer-cell specimens were divided into six parts according to the random number table, and they were respectively exposed to hypoxia for 0 (without hypoxia), 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was determined with an ohmmeter. Another portion of the monolayer-cell specimens were exposed to hypoxia as above. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expressions of zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-1, Slingshot-1, Slingshot-2, and Slingshot-3. The remaining portion of the monolayer-cell specimens were also exposed to hypoxia as above. The content of fibrous actin (F-actin) and globular actin (G-actin) was determined by fluorescence method. The sample number of above-mentioned 3 experiments was respectively 10, 10, and 18 at each time point. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett test. (1) Compared with that of cells exposed to hypoxia for 0 h, TER of cells exposed to hypoxia for 1 to 24 h was significantly reduced (P values below 0.01). (2) Compared with those of cells exposed to hypoxia for 0 h (all were 1.00), the protein expressions of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 of cells exposed to hypoxia for 1 to 24 h were generally lower, especially those of cells exposed to hypoxia for 12 h or 24 h (respectively 0.69 ± 0.20, 0.47 ± 0.15, and 0.47 ± 0.22, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with those of cells exposed to hypoxia for 0 h, the protein expressions of Slingshot-1 and Slingshot-3 of cells exposed to hypoxia for 1 to 24 h were not obviously changed (P values above 0.05). The protein expression of Slingshot-2 of cells was decreased at first and then gradually increased from hypoxia hour 1 to 24. The protein expression of

  11. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Regulates Tight Junction Protein Levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Hu, Dong; Huo, Haizhong; Zhang, Weifeng; Adiliaghdam, Fatemeh; Morrison, Sarah; Ramirez, Juan M; Gul, Sarah S; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Hodin, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays a pivotal role in maintaining gut health and well-being. Oral supplementation with IAP in mice improves gut barrier function and prevents luminal proinflammatory factors from gaining access to the circulation. In this study, we sought to explore the relationship between IAP and tight junction protein (TJP) expression and function. The effect of IAP deletion on TJP levels was studied in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated from IAP-knockout and wild type mice. Regulation of TJPs by IAP was assayed in the human colon cancer Caco-2 and T84 cells by overexpressing the human IAP gene. Tight junction protein levels and localization were measured by using RT q-PCR and antibodies targeting the specific TJPs. Finally, the effect of IAP on inflammation-induced intestinal permeability was measured by in vitro trans-well epithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene deletion in MEFs resulted in significantly lower levels of ZO-1, ZO-2, and Occludin compared with levels in wild-type control cells; IAP overexpression in Caco-2 and T84 cells resulted in approximate 2-fold increases in the mRNA levels of ZO-1 and ZO-2. The IAP treatment ameliorated lipopolysaccharide-induced increased permeability in the Caco-2 trans-well system. Furthermore, IAP treatment preserved the localization of the ZO-1 and Occludin proteins during inflammation and was also associated with improved epithelial barrier function. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a major regulator of gut mucosal permeability and appears to work at least partly through improving TJP levels and localization. These data provide a strong foundation to develop IAP as a novel therapy to maintain gut barrier function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Expression Differentiation Is Constrained to Low-Expression Proteins over Ecological Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Margres, Mark J.; Wray, Kenneth P.; Seavy, Margaret; McGivern, James J.; Herrera, Nathanael D.; Rokyta, Darin R.

    2016-01-01

    Protein expression level is one of the strongest predictors of protein sequence evolutionary rate, with high-expression protein sequences evolving at slower rates than low-expression protein sequences largely because of constraints on protein folding and function. Expression evolutionary rates also have been shown to be negatively correlated with expression level across human and mouse orthologs over relatively long divergence times (i.e., ∼100 million years). Long-term evolutionary patterns, however, often cannot be extrapolated to microevolutionary processes (and vice versa), and whether this relationship holds for traits evolving under directional selection within a single species over ecological timescales (i.e., <5000 years) is unknown and not necessarily expected. Expression is a metabolically costly process, and the expression level of a particular protein is predicted to be a tradeoff between the benefit of its function and the costs of its expression. Selection should drive the expression level of all proteins close to values that maximize fitness, particularly for high-expression proteins because of the increased energetic cost of production. Therefore, stabilizing selection may reduce the amount of standing expression variation for high-expression proteins, and in combination with physiological constraints that may place an upper bound on the range of beneficial expression variation, these constraints could severely limit the availability of beneficial expression variants. To determine whether rapid-expression evolution was restricted to low-expression proteins owing to these constraints on highly expressed proteins over ecological timescales, we compared venom protein expression levels across mainland and island populations for three species of pit vipers. We detected significant differentiation in protein expression levels in two of the three species and found that rapid-expression differentiation was restricted to low-expression proteins. Our

  13. Hypoxia/Aglycemia-Induced Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction and Tight Junction Protein Downregulation Can Be Ameliorated by Citicoline

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qunwen; Zhao, Yuhui; Chen, Ji; Zhao, Bin; Chen, Yanfang

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effect of citicoline on the permeability and expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs) in endothelial cells under hypoxia/aglycemia conditions. Hypoxia or oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) was utilized to induce endothelial barrier breakdown model on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd.3s). The effect of citicoline on endothelial barrier breakdown models was determined at either low or high concentrations. FITC-Dextran flux was used to examine the endothelial permeability. The expression of TJPs was measured by immunofluorescence, Real-time PCR and Western Blot methods. Results showed that hypoxia or OGD increased the permeability of HUVECs accompanied with down-regulation of occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin at both mRNA and protein levels. Similarly in bEnd.3s, hypoxia increased the permeability and decreased the expression of ZO-1 and claudin-5. Citicoline treatment dose-dependently decreased the permeability in these two models, which paralleled with elevated expression of TJPs. The data demonstrate that citicoline restores the barrier function of endothelial cells compromised by hypoxia/aglycemia probably via up-regulating the expression of TJPs. PMID:24358213

  14. Protein expression in the stressed Vibrio strains.

    PubMed

    Tóth, D; Ferianc, P; Karelová, E; Polek, B

    1996-05-15

    In a conjunction process using Escherichia coli SM10 (pLOF) KmR APR as donor and Vibrio S141 SmR as recipient, several mutants were constructed: Vibrio PH 101, V. PH 106, and V. PH 109 with lowered ability to synthesize poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. The survival and metabolic activities of parent and mutant strains were estimated when they were subjected to stress conditions (starvation of carbon and energy sources and/or cadmium treatment). Using two-dimensional electrophoresis, the synthesis of stress proteins was demonstrated. Vibrio cultures consecutively exposed to CdCl2 and then to starvation or vice versa responded similarly metabolically. These results show increased proteosynthetic activity of the stressed Vibrio cells, indicating that the primary cadmium treatment induced the expression and synthesis of the protective proteins, enabling the cells to cope with the secondary stress.

  15. Zonula occludens-1, occludin and E-cadherin expression and organization in salivary glands with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mellas, Rachel E; Leigh, Noel J; Nelson, Joel W; McCall, Andrew D; Baker, Olga J

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes secretory dysfunction of the salivary glands leading to dry mouth. Previous studies reported that tight junction (TJ) proteins are down-regulated and lose polarity in human minor salivary glands with SS, suggesting that TJ structure is compromised in SS patients. In this paper, we utilized the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse with the main goal of evaluating this model for future TJ research. We found that the organization of apical proteins in areas proximal and distal to lymphocytic infiltration remained intact in mouse and human salivary glands with SS. These areas looked comparable to control glands (i.e., with no lymphocytic infiltration). TJ staining was absent in areas of lymphocytic infiltration coinciding with the loss of salivary epithelium. Gene expression studies show that most TJs are not significantly altered in 20-week-old NOD/ShiLtJ mice as compared with age-matched C57BL/6 controls. Protein expression studies revealed that the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-12, as well as E-cadherin, do not significantly change in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Our results suggest that ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin are not altered in areas without lymphocytic infiltration. However, future studies will be necessary to test the functional aspect of these results. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Improving membrane protein expression and function using genomic edits

    DOE PAGES

    Jensen, Heather M.; Eng, Thomas; Chubukov, Victor; ...

    2017-10-12

    Expression of membrane proteins often leads to growth inhibition and perturbs central metabolism and this burden varies with the protein being overexpressed. There are also known strain backgrounds that allow greater expression of membrane proteins but that differ in efficacy across proteins. Here, we hypothesized that for any membrane protein, it may be possible to identify a modified strain background where its expression can be accommodated with less burden. To directly test this hypothesis, we used a bar-coded transposon insertion library in tandem with cell sorting to assess genome-wide impact of gene deletions on membrane protein expression. The expression ofmore » five membrane proteins (CyoB, CydB, MdlB, YidC, and LepI) and one soluble protein (GST), each fused to GFP, was examined. We identified Escherichia coli mutants that demonstrated increased membrane protein expression relative to that in wild type. For two of the proteins (CyoB and CydB), we conducted functional assays to confirm that the increase in protein expression also led to phenotypic improvement in function. This study represents a systematic approach to broadly identify genetic loci that can be used to improve membrane protein expression, and our method can be used to improve expression of any protein that poses a cellular burden.« less

  17. Improving membrane protein expression and function using genomic edits

    SciT

    Jensen, Heather M.; Eng, Thomas; Chubukov, Victor

    Expression of membrane proteins often leads to growth inhibition and perturbs central metabolism and this burden varies with the protein being overexpressed. There are also known strain backgrounds that allow greater expression of membrane proteins but that differ in efficacy across proteins. Here, we hypothesized that for any membrane protein, it may be possible to identify a modified strain background where its expression can be accommodated with less burden. To directly test this hypothesis, we used a bar-coded transposon insertion library in tandem with cell sorting to assess genome-wide impact of gene deletions on membrane protein expression. The expression ofmore » five membrane proteins (CyoB, CydB, MdlB, YidC, and LepI) and one soluble protein (GST), each fused to GFP, was examined. We identified Escherichia coli mutants that demonstrated increased membrane protein expression relative to that in wild type. For two of the proteins (CyoB and CydB), we conducted functional assays to confirm that the increase in protein expression also led to phenotypic improvement in function. This study represents a systematic approach to broadly identify genetic loci that can be used to improve membrane protein expression, and our method can be used to improve expression of any protein that poses a cellular burden.« less

  18. Zonula Occludens-1, Occludin and E-cadherin Expression and Organization in Salivary Glands with Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mellas, Rachel E.; Leigh, Noel J.; Nelson, Joel W.; McCall, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes secretory dysfunction of the salivary glands leading to dry mouth. Previous studies reported that tight junction (TJ) proteins are down-regulated and lose polarity in human minor salivary glands with SS, suggesting that TJ structure is compromised in SS patients. In this paper, we utilized the NOD/ShiLtJ mouse with the main goal of evaluating this model for future TJ research. We found that the organization of apical proteins in areas proximal and distal to lymphocytic infiltration remained intact in mouse and human salivary glands with SS. These areas looked comparable to control glands (i.e., with no lymphocytic infiltration). TJ staining was absent in areas of lymphocytic infiltration coinciding with the loss of salivary epithelium. Gene expression studies show that most TJs are not significantly altered in 20-week-old NOD/ShiLtJ mice as compared with age-matched C57BL/6 controls. Protein expression studies revealed that the TJ proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-12, as well as E-cadherin, do not significantly change in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Our results suggest that ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin are not altered in areas without lymphocytic infiltration. However, future studies will be necessary to test the functional aspect of these results. PMID:25248927

  19. Recombinant Expression Screening of P. aeruginosa Bacterial Inner Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Transmembrane proteins (TM proteins) make up 25% of all proteins and play key roles in many diseases and normal physiological processes. However, much less is known about their structures and molecular mechanisms than for soluble proteins. Problems in expression, solubilization, purification, and crystallization cause bottlenecks in the characterization of TM proteins. This project addressed the need for improved methods for obtaining sufficient amounts of TM proteins for determining their structures and molecular mechanisms. Results Plasmid clones were obtained that encode eighty-seven transmembrane proteins with varying physical characteristics, for example, the number of predicted transmembrane helices, molecular weight, and grand average hydrophobicity (GRAVY). All the target proteins were from P. aeruginosa, a gram negative bacterial opportunistic pathogen that causes serious lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis. The relative expression levels of the transmembrane proteins were measured under several culture growth conditions. The use of E. coli strains, a T7 promoter, and a 6-histidine C-terminal affinity tag resulted in the expression of 61 out of 87 test proteins (70%). In this study, proteins with a higher grand average hydrophobicity and more transmembrane helices were expressed less well than less hydrophobic proteins with fewer transmembrane helices. Conclusions In this study, factors related to overall hydrophobicity and the number of predicted transmembrane helices correlated with the relative expression levels of the target proteins. Identifying physical characteristics that correlate with protein expression might aid in selecting the "low hanging fruit", or proteins that can be expressed to sufficient levels using an E. coli expression system. The use of other expression strategies or host species might be needed for sufficient levels of expression of transmembrane proteins with other physical characteristics. Surveys like this

  20. Comparison of ultrastructure, tight junction-related protein expression and barrier function of human corneal epithelial cells cultivated on amniotic membrane with and without air-lifting.

    PubMed

    Ban, Yuriko; Cooper, Leanne J; Fullwood, Nigel J; Nakamura, Takahiro; Tsuzuki, Masakatsu; Koizumi, Noriko; Dota, Atsuyoshi; Mochida, Chikako; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the air-lifting technique for culturing corneal limbal epithelial cells on amniotic membrane (AM) for use in ocular surface reconstruction. A cultured sheet that has a good barrier function should be better for this purpose. In corneal epithelium, tight junctions (TJ) play a vital role in the barrier function. The TJ complex includes the integral transmembrane proteins occludin and the claudins, and some membrane-associated proteins such as ZO-1. In this paper, we investigated the barrier function and the expression of TJ related proteins. Corneal limbal epithelium obtained from donor corneas and cultivated on acellular AM was divided into two groups. These were the non-air-lifting (Non-AL) group, which was continuously submerged in medium, and the air-lifting (AL) group, which was submerged in medium for 3 weeks, then exposed to air by lowering the medium level. Morphology and the permeability to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were determined by electron microscopy. Tight junction (TJ)-related protein and mRNA expression changes were assessed by immunoblotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cultures of both groups formed 4-5-layer-thick, well-stratified epithelium. The AL cultures had tightly packed epithelial cells with all the HRP/diaminobenzidine (DAB) reaction product accumulated on the apical surface of the superficial cells. The Non-AL culture, by contrast, had more loosely packed epithelial cells with larger intercellular spaces. The HRP/DAB reaction product penetrated the intercellular space to a depth of 3-4 cell layers. Statistically, there was a significant difference in intercellular spaces and desmosome count in the superficial cells between the groups. With AL, TJ-related proteins localized at the apical portion of the lateral membrane. TJ-related protein and mRNA amounts were not changed by AL while claudin subtype expression became more consistent and closer to that of in vivo corneal epithelium

  1. [Pichia pastoris as an expression system for recombinant protein production].

    PubMed

    Ciarkowska, Anna; Jakubowska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Pichia pastoris has become increasingly popular as a host for recombinant protein production in recent years. P. pastoris is more cost effective and allows achieving higher expression levels than insect and mammalian cells. It also offers some significant advantages over E. coli expression systems, such as avoiding problems with proper protein folding. Also, P. pastoris as an eukaryotic organism can carry out posttranslational modifications of produced proteins. Additionally, P. pastoris can produce high levels of recombinant proteins in extracellular medium which simplifies protein purification. Having many advantages over other expression systems makes P. pastoris an organism of choice for industrial protein production.

  2. Plant-derived triterpene celastrol ameliorates oxygen glucose deprivation-induced disruption of endothelial barrier assembly via inducing tight junction proteins.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zhao, Jia; Rong, Jianhui

    2016-12-01

    The integrity and functions of blood-brain barrier (BBB) are regulated by the expression and organization of tight junction proteins. The present study was designed to explore whether plant-derived triterpenoid celastrol could regulate tight junction integrity in murine brain endothelial bEnd3 cells. We disrupted the tight junctions between endothelial bEnd3 cells by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). We investigated the effects of celastrol on the permeability of endothelial monolayers by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). To clarify the tight junction composition, we analyzed the expression of tight junction proteins by RT-PCR and Western blotting techniques. We found that celastrol recovered OGD-induced TEER loss in a concentration-dependent manner. Celastrol induced occludin, claudin-5 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in endothelial cells. As a result, celastrol effectively maintained tight junction integrity and inhibited macrophage migration through endothelial monolayers against OGD challenge. Further mechanistic studies revealed that celastrol induced the expression of occludin and ZO-1) via activating MAPKs and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. We also observed that celastrol regulated claudin-5 expression through different mechanisms. The present study demonstrated that celastrol effectively protected tight junction integrity against OGD-induced damage. Thus, celastrol could be a drug candidate for the treatment of BBB dysfunction in various diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of immunosuppressive treatment on protein expression in rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Kędzierska, Karolina; Sporniak-Tutak, Katarzyna; Sindrewicz, Krzysztof; Bober, Joanna; Domański, Leszek; Parafiniuk, Mirosław; Urasińska, Elżbieta; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej; Domański, Maciej; Smektała, Tomasz; Masiuk, Marek; Skrzypczak, Wiesław; Ożgo, Małgorzata; Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The structural proteins of renal tubular epithelial cells may become a target for the toxic metabolites of immunosuppressants. These metabolites can modify the properties of the proteins, thereby affecting cell function, which is a possible explanation for the mechanism of immunosuppressive agents’ toxicity. In our study, we evaluated the effect of two immunosuppressive strategies on protein expression in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Fragments of the rat kidneys were homogenized after cooling in liquid nitrogen and then dissolved in lysis buffer. The protein concentration in the samples was determined using a protein assay kit, and the proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The obtained gels were then stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue, and their images were analyzed to evaluate differences in protein expression. Identification of selected proteins was then performed using mass spectrometry. We found that the immunosuppressive drugs used in popular regimens induce a series of changes in protein expression in target organs. The expression of proteins involved in drug, glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was pronounced. However, to a lesser extent, we also observed changes in nuclear, structural, and transport proteins’ synthesis. Very slight differences were observed between the group receiving cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and glucocorticoids (CMG) and the control group. In contrast, compared to the control group, animals receiving tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and glucocorticoids (TMG) exhibited higher expression of proteins responsible for renal drug metabolism and lower expression levels of cytoplasmic actin and the major urinary protein. In the TMG group, we observed higher expression of proteins responsible for drug metabolism and a decrease in the expression of respiratory chain enzymes (thioredoxin-2) and markers of distal renal tubular damage (heart fatty acid-binding protein) compared to expression in the CMG

  4. Protein phosphatase 2A associates with and regulates atypical PKC and the epithelial tight junction complex

    PubMed Central

    Nunbhakdi-Craig, Viyada; Machleidt, Thomas; Ogris, Egon; Bellotto, Dennis; White, Charles L.; Sontag, Estelle

    2002-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) play a crucial role in the establishment of cell polarity and regulation of paracellular permeability in epithelia. Here, we show that upon calcium-induced junction biogenesis in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, ABαC, a major protein phosphatase (PP)2A holoenzyme, is recruited to the apical membrane where it interacts with the TJ complex. Enhanced PP2A activity induces dephosphorylation of the TJ proteins, ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1, and is associated with increased paracellular permeability. Expression of PP2A catalytic subunit severely prevents TJ assembly. Conversely, inhibition of PP2A by okadaic acid promotes the phosphorylation and recruitment of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 to the TJ during junctional biogenesis. PP2A negatively regulates TJ assembly without appreciably affecting the organization of F-actin and E-cadherin. Significantly, inhibition of atypical PKC (aPKC) blocks the calcium- and serum-independent membrane redistribution of TJ proteins induced by okadaic acid. Indeed, PP2A associates with and critically regulates the activity and distribution of aPKC during TJ formation. Thus, we provide the first evidence for calcium-dependent targeting of PP2A in epithelial cells, we identify PP2A as the first serine/threonine phosphatase associated with the multiprotein TJ complex, and we unveil a novel role for PP2A in the regulation of epithelial aPKC and TJ assembly and function. PMID:12196510

  5. Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in chlamydomonas chloroplast

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2010-03-16

    Methods and compositions are disclosed to engineer chloroplast comprising heterologous mammalian genes via a direct replacement of chloroplast Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein coding regions to achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. When algae is used, algal expressed protein is produced predominantly as a soluble protein where the functional activity of the peptide is intact. As the host algae is edible, production of biologics in this organism for oral delivery or proteins/peptides, especially gut active proteins, without purification is disclosed.

  6. Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in Chlamydomonas chloroplast

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-01-13

    Methods and compositions are disclosed to engineer chloroplast comprising heterologous mammalian genes via a direct replacement of chloroplast Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein coding regions to achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. When algae is used, algal expressed protein is produced predominantly as a soluble protein where the functional activity of the peptide is intact. As the host algae is edible, production of biologics in this organism for oral delivery of proteins/peptides, especially gut active proteins, without purification is disclosed.

  7. Effect of human rhinovirus infection on airway epithelium tight junction protein disassembly and transepithelial permeability.

    PubMed

    Looi, Kevin; Troy, Niamh M; Garratt, Luke W; Iosifidis, Thomas; Bosco, Anthony; Buckley, Alysia G; Ling, Kak-Ming; Martinovich, Kelly M; Kicic-Starcevich, Elizabeth; Shaw, Nicole C; Sutanto, Erika N; Zosky, Graeme R; Rigby, Paul J; Larcombe, Alexander N; Knight, Darryl A; Kicic, Anthony; Stick, Stephen M

    2016-10-11

    No studies have assessed the effects of human rhinovirus (HRV) infection on epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and resultant barrier function. To correlate viral infection with TJ disassembly, epithelial barrier integrity, and function. Human airway epithelial cells were infected with HRV minor serotype 1B (HRV-1B) at various 50% tissue culture infectivity doses (TCID 50 ) over 72 hours. HRV replication was assessed by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) while cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by proliferation and apoptotic assays, respectively. Protein expression of claudin-1, occludin, and zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) was assessed using In-Cell™ Western assays. Transepithelial permeability assays were performed to assess effects on barrier functionality. RT 2 Profiler focused qPCR arrays and pathway analysis evaluating associations between human TJ and antiviral response were performed to identify potential interactions and pathways between genes of interests. HRV-1B infection affected viability that was both time and TCID 50 dependent. Significant increases in apoptosis and viral replication post-infection correlated with viral titer. Viral infection significantly decreased claudin-1 protein expression at the lower TCID 50 , while a significant decrease in all three TJ protein expressions occurred at higher TCID 50 . Decrease in protein expression was concomitant with significant increases in epithelial permeability of fluorescein isothiocynate labeled-dextran 4 and 20 kDa. Analysis of focused qPCR arrays demonstrated a significant decrease in ZO-1 gene expression. Furthermore, network analysis between human TJ and antiviral response genes revealed possible interactions and regulation of TJ genes via interleukin (IL)-15 in response to HRV-1B infection. HRV-1B infection directly alters human airway epithelial TJ expression leading to increased epithelial permeability potentially via an antiviral response of IL-15.

  8. Transforming Lepidopteran Insect Cells for Improved Protein Processing and Expression

    The lepidopteran insect cells used with the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) are capable of synthesizing and accurately processing foreign proteins. However, proteins expressed in baculovirus-infected cells often fail to be completely processed, or are not processed in a manner that meet...

  9. Hypertonic saline alleviates experimentally induced cerebral oedema through suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor VEGFR2 expression in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Linqiang; Cao, Wei; Deng, Yiyu; Zhu, Gaofeng; Han, Yongli; Zeng, Hongke

    2016-10-13

    Cerebral oedema is closely related to the permeability of blood-brain barrier, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) all of which are important blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability regulatory factors. Zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 are also the key components of BBB. Hypertonic saline is widely used to alleviate cerebral oedema. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanisms underlying hypertonic saline that ameliorates cerebral oedema effectively. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and of oxygen-glucose deprivation model in primary astrocytes were used in this study. The brain water content (BWC) was used to assess the effect of 10 % HS on cerebral oedema. The assessment of Evans blue (EB) extravasation was performed to evaluate the protective effect of 10 % HS on blood-brain barrier. The quantification of VEGF, VEGFR2, ZO-1 and claudin-5 was used to illustrate the mechanism of 10 % HS ameliorating cerebral oedema. BWC was analysed by wet-to-dry ratios in the ischemic hemisphere of SD rats; it was significantly decreased after 10 % HS treatment (P < 0.05). We also investigated the blood-brain barrier protective effect by 10 % HS which reduced EB extravasation effectively in the peri-ischemic brain tissue. In parallel to the above notably at 24 h following MCAO, mRNA and protein expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 in the peri-ischemic brain tissue was down-regulated after 10 % HS treatment (P < 0.05). Along with this, in vitro studies showed increased VEGF and VEGFR2 mRNA and protein expression in primary astrocytes under hypoxic condition (P < 0.05), but it was suppressed after HS treatment (P < 0.05). In addition, HS inhibited the down-regulation of ZO-1, claudin-5 effectively. The results suggest that 10 % HS could alleviate cerebral oedema possibly through reducing the ischemia induced BBB permeability as a consequence of

  10. SBDS Protein Expression Patterns in the Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Trisha E.; Calicchio, Monica L.; Fleming, Mark D.; Shimamura, Akiko; Harris, Marian H.

    2010-01-01

    Shwachman Diamond Syndrome (SDS) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome caused by biallelic SBDS gene mutations. Here we examined SBDS protein levels in human bone marrow. SBDS protein expression was high in neutrophil progenitors, megakaryocytes, plasma cells and osteoblasts. In contrast, SBDS protein levels were low in all hematopoietic cell lineages from patients harboring the common SBDS mutations. We conclude that SBDS protein levels vary widely between specific marrow lineages. Uniformly low SBDS protein expression levels distinguish the majority of SDS patients from controls or other marrow failure syndromes. PMID:20658628

  11. Protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana after chronic clinorotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piastuch, William C.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    Soluble protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Heynh.) leaf and stem tissue was examined after chronic clinorotation. Seeds of Arabidopsis were germinated and plants grown to maturity on horizontal or vertical slow-rotating clinostats (1 rpm) or in stationary vertical control units. Total soluble proteins and in vivo-labeled soluble proteins isolated from these plants were analyzed by two-dimensional sodium doedocyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) and subsequent fluorography. Visual and computer analysis of the resulting protein patterns showed no significant differences in either total protein expression or in active protein synthesis between horizontal clinorotation and vertical controls in the Arabidopsis leaf and stem tissue. These results show chronic clinorotation does not cause gross changes in protein expression in Arabidopsis.

  12. Protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana after chronic clinorotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piastuch, W. C.; Brown, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Soluble protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Heynh.) leaf and stem tissue was examined after chronic clinorotation. Seeds of Arabidopsis were germinated and plants grown to maturity on horizontal or vertical slow-rotating clinostats (1 rpm) or in stationary vertical control units. Total soluble proteins and in vivo-labeled soluble proteins isolated from these plants were analyzed by two-dimensional SDS PAGE and subsequent fluorography. Visual and computer analysis of the resulting protein patterns showed no significant differences in either total protein expression or in active protein synthesis between horizontal clinorotation and vertical controls in the Arabidopsis leaf and stem tissue. These results show chronic clinorotation does not cause gross changes in protein expression in Arabidopsis.

  13. Nucleic acid programmable protein array a just-in-time multiplexed protein expression and purification platform.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ji; LaBaer, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Systematic study of proteins requires the availability of thousands of proteins in functional format. However, traditional recombinant protein expression and purification methods have many drawbacks for such study at the proteome level. We have developed an innovative in situ protein expression and capture system, namely NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array), where C-terminal tagged proteins are expressed using an in vitro expression system and efficiently captured/purified by antitag antibodies coprinted at each spot. The NAPPA technology presented in this chapter enable researchers to produce and display fresh proteins just in time in a multiplexed high-throughput fashion and utilize them for various downstream biochemical researches of interest. This platform could revolutionize the field of functional proteomics with it ability to produce thousands of spatially separated proteins in high density with narrow dynamic rand of protein concentrations, reproducibly and functionally. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Major cancer protein amplifies global gene expression

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists may have discovered why a protein called MYC can provoke a variety of cancers. Like many proteins associated with cancer, MYC helps regulate cell growth. A new study carried out by researchers at the National Institutes of Health and colleagues

  15. Advances in recombinant protein expression for use in pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Assenberg, Rene; Wan, Paul T; Geisse, Sabine; Mayr, Lorenz M

    2013-06-01

    Protein production for structural and biophysical studies, functional assays, biomarkers, mechanistic studies in vitro and in vivo, but also for therapeutic applications in pharma, biotech and academia has evolved into a mature discipline in recent years. Due to the increased emphasis on biopharmaceuticals, the growing demand for proteins used for structural and biophysical studies, the impact of genomics technologies on the analysis of large sets of structurally diverse proteins, and the increasing complexity of disease targets, the interest in innovative approaches for the expression, purification and characterisation of recombinant proteins has steadily increased over the years. In this review, we summarise recent developments in the field of recombinant protein expression for research use in pharma, biotech and academia. We focus mostly on the latest developments for protein expression in the most widely used expression systems: Escherichia coli (E. coli), insect cell expression using the Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS) and, finally, transient and stable expression of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Comparative Protein Profiling of Intraphagosomal Expressed Proteins of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Neelja; Kumar, Manish; Sharma, Divakar; Bisht, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    BCG, the only available vaccine against tuberculosis affords a variable protection which wanes with time. In this study we have analyzed and compared the proteins which are expressed differentially during broth-culture and intraphagosomal growth of M.bovis BCG. Eight proteins which showed increased expression during the intraphagosomal growth were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS. These were - a precursor of alanine and proline-rich secreted protein apa, isoforms of malate dehydrogenase, large subunit alpha (Alpha-ETF) of electron transfer flavoprotein, immunogenic protein MPB64 precursor, UPF0036 protein, and two proteins with unknown function. Based on these findings we speculate that higher expression of these proteins has a probable role in intracellular survival, adaptation and/or immunoprotective effect of BCG. Further, these proteins might also be used as gene expression markers for endosome trafficking events of BCG.

  17. Novel isoprenylated proteins identified by an expression library screen.

    PubMed

    Biermann, B J; Morehead, T A; Tate, S E; Price, J R; Randall, S K; Crowell, D N

    1994-10-14

    Isoprenylated proteins are involved in eukaryotic cell growth and signal transduction. The protein determinant for prenylation is a short carboxyl-terminal motif containing a cysteine, to which the isoprenoid is covalently attached via thioether linkage. To date, isoprenylated proteins have almost all been identified by demonstrating the attachment of an isoprenoid to previously known proteins. Thus, many isoprenylated proteins probably remain undiscovered. To identify novel isoprenylated proteins for subsequent biochemical study, colony blots of a Glycine max cDNA expression library were [3H]farnesyl-labeled in vitro. Proteins identified by this screen contained several different carboxyl termini that conform to consensus farnesylation motifs. These proteins included known farnesylated proteins (DnaJ homologs) and several novel proteins, two of which contained six or more tandem repeats of a hexapeptide having the consensus sequence (E/G)(G/P)EK(P/K)K. Thus, plants contain a diverse array of genes encoding farnesylated proteins, and our results indicate that fundamental differences in the identities of farnesylated proteins may exist between plants and other eukaryotes. Expression library screening by direct labeling can be adapted to identify isoprenylated proteins from other organisms, as well as proteins with other post-translational modifications.

  18. Impact of Chronic Alcohol Ingestion on Cardiac Muscle Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Fogle, Rachel L.; Lynch, Christopher J.; Palopoli, Mary; Deiter, Gina; Stanley, Bruce A.; Vary, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic alcohol abuse contributes not only to an increased risk of health-related complications, but also to a premature mortality in adults. Myocardial dysfunction, including the development of a syndrome referred to as alcoholic cardiomyopathy, appears to be a major contributing factor. One mechanism to account for the pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy involves alterations in protein expression secondary to an inhibition of protein synthesis. However, the full extent to which myocardial proteins are affected by chronic alcohol consumption remains unresolved. Methods The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the expression of cardiac proteins. Male rats were maintained for 16 weeks on a 40% ethanol-containing diet in which alcohol was provided both in drinking water and agar blocks. Control animals were pair-fed to consume the same caloric intake. Heart homogenates from control- and ethanol-fed rats were labeled with the cleavable isotope coded affinity tags (ICAT™). Following the reaction with the ICAT™ reagent, we applied one-dimensional gel electrophoresis with in-gel trypsin digestion of proteins and subsequent MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometric techniques for identification of peptides. Differences in the expression of cardiac proteins from control- and ethanol-fed rats were determined by mass spectrometry approaches. Results Initial proteomic analysis identified and quantified hundreds of cardiac proteins. Major decreases in the expression of specific myocardial proteins were observed. Proteins were grouped depending on their contribution to multiple activities of cardiac function and metabolism, including mitochondrial-, glycolytic-, myofibrillar-, membrane-associated, and plasma proteins. Another group contained identified proteins that could not be properly categorized under the aforementioned classification system. Conclusions Based on the changes in proteins, we speculate modulation of

  19. Exocyst Complex Protein Expression in the Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, I.M.; Ackerman, W.E.; Vandre, D.D.; Robinson, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Protein production and secretion are essential to syncytiotrophoblast function and are associated with cytotrophoblast cell fusion and differentiation. Syncytiotrophoblast hormone secretion is a crucial determinant of maternal-fetal health, and can be misregulated in pathological pregnancies. Although, polarized secretion is a key component of placental function, the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. Objective While the octameric exocyst complex is classically regarded as a master regulator of secretion in various mammalian systems, its expression in the placenta remained unexplored. We hypothesized that the syncytiotrophoblast would express all exocyst complex components and effector proteins requisite for vesicle-mediated secretion more abundantly than cytotrophoblasts in tissue specimens. Methods A two-tiered immunobiological approach was utilized to characterize exocyst and ancillary proteins in normal, term human placentas. Exocyst protein expression and localization was documented in tissue homogenates via immunoblotting and immunofluorescence labeling of placental sections. Results The eight exocyst proteins, EXOC1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, were found in the human placenta. In addition, RAB11, an important exocyst complex modulator, was also expressed. Exocyst and Rab protein expression appeared to be regulated during trophoblast differentiation, as the syncytiotrophoblast expressed these proteins with little, if any, expression in cytotrophoblast cells. Additionally, exocyst proteins were localized at or near the syncytiotrophoblast apical membrane, the major site of placental secretion Discussion/Conclusion Our findings highlight exocyst protein expression as novel indicators of trophoblast differentiation. The exocyst’s regulated localization within the syncytiotrophoblast in conjunction with its well known functions suggests a possible role in placental polarized secretion PMID:24856041

  20. Improving membrane protein expression by optimizing integration efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The heterologous overexpression of integral membrane proteins in Escherichia coli often yields insufficient quantities of purifiable protein for applications of interest. The current study leverages a recently demonstrated link between co-translational membrane integration efficiency and protein expression levels to predict protein sequence modifications that improve expression. Membrane integration efficiencies, obtained using a coarse-grained simulation approach, robustly predicted effects on expression of the integral membrane protein TatC for a set of 140 sequence modifications, including loop-swap chimeras and single-residue mutations distributed throughout the protein sequence. Mutations that improve simulated integration efficiency were 4-fold enriched with respect to improved experimentally observed expression levels. Furthermore, the effects of double mutations on both simulated integration efficiency and experimentally observed expression levels were cumulative and largely independent, suggesting that multiple mutations can be introduced to yield higher levels of purifiable protein. This work provides a foundation for a general method for the rational overexpression of integral membrane proteins based on computationally simulated membrane integration efficiencies. PMID:28918393

  1. Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Brucella suis Outer Membrane Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    13-09-20061 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cloning, expression and purification of Brucella suis outer membrane proteins 5b. GRANT NUMBER...attractive for this purpose. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified seven predicted OMPs of Brucella suis . The recombinant proteins were...fused with 6-his and V5 epitope tags at their C termini to facilitate detection and purification. The B. suis surface genes were PCR synthesized based

  2. Performance benchmarking of four cell-free protein expression systems.

    PubMed

    Gagoski, Dejan; Polinkovsky, Mark E; Mureev, Sergey; Kunert, Anne; Johnston, Wayne; Gambin, Yann; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2016-02-01

    Over the last half century, a range of cell-free protein expression systems based on pro- and eukaryotic organisms have been developed and have found a range of applications, from structural biology to directed protein evolution. While it is generally accepted that significant differences in performance among systems exist, there is a paucity of systematic experimental studies supporting this notion. Here, we took advantage of the species-independent translation initiation sequence to express and characterize 87 N-terminally GFP-tagged human cytosolic proteins of different sizes in E. coli, wheat germ (WGE), HeLa, and Leishmania-based (LTE) cell-free systems. Using a combination of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analysis, we assessed the expression yields, the fraction of full-length translation product, and aggregation propensity for each of these systems. Our results demonstrate that the E. coli system has the highest expression yields. However, we observe that high expression levels are accompanied by production of truncated species-particularly pronounced in the case of proteins larger than 70 kDa. Furthermore, proteins produced in the E. coli system display high aggregation propensity, with only 10% of tested proteins being produced in predominantly monodispersed form. The WGE system was the most productive among eukaryotic systems tested. Finally, HeLa and LTE show comparable protein yields that are considerably lower than the ones achieved in the E. coli and WGE systems. The protein products produced in the HeLa system display slightly higher integrity, whereas the LTE-produced proteins have the lowest aggregation propensity among the systems analyzed. The high quality of HeLa- and LTE-produced proteins enable their analysis without purification and make them suitable for analysis of multi-domain eukaryotic proteins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. New partner proteins containing novel internal recognition motif for human Glutaminase Interacting Protein (hGIP)

    PubMed Central

    Zencir, Sevil; Banerjee, Monimoy; Dobson, Melanie J.; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Fodor, Elfrieda Ayaydin; Topcu, Zeki; Mohanty, Smita

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression in cells is mediated by protein-protein, DNA-protein and receptor-ligand interactions. PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1) domains are protein–protein interaction modules. PDZ-containing proteins function in the organization of multi-protein complexes controlling spatial and temporal fidelity of intracellular signaling pathways. In general, PDZ proteins possess multiple domains facilitating distinct interactions. The human Glutaminase Interacting Protein (hGIP) is an unusual PDZ protein comprising entirely of a single PDZ domain and plays pivotal roles in many cellular processes through its interaction with the C-terminus of partner proteins. Here, we report the identification by yeast two-hybrid screening of two new hGIP-interacting partners, DTX1 and STAU1. Both proteins lack the typical C-terminal PDZ recognition motif but contain a novel internal hGIP recognition motif recently identified in a phage display library screen. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed the in vivo association of hGIP with DTX1 and STAU1 in mammalian cells validating the previous discovery of S/T-X-V/L-D as a consensus internal motif for hGIP recognition. Similar to hGIP, DTX1 and STAU1 have been implicated in neuronal function. Identification of these new interacting partners furthers our understanding of GIP-regulated signaling cascades and these interactions may represent potential new drug targets in humans. PMID:23395680

  4. Recombinant Brucella abortus gene expressing immunogenic protein

    SciT

    Mayfield, J.E.; Tabatabai, L.B.

    This patent describes a synthetic recombinant DNA molecule containing a DNA sequence. It comprises a gene of Brucella abortus encoding an immunogenic protein having a molecular weight of approximately 31,000 daltons as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions, the protein having an isoelectric point around 4.9, and containing a twenty-five amino acid sequence from its amino terminal end consisting of Gln-Ala-Pro-Thr-Phe-Phe-Arg-Ile-Gly-Thr-Gly-Gly-Thr-Ala-Gly-Thr-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-Ile-Gly-Gly-Leu-Ile-Ala, wherein Gln, Ala, Pro, Thr, Phe, Arg, Ile, Gly, Tyr, and Leu, respectively, represent glutamine, alanine, proline, threonine, phenylalanine, arginine, isolecuine, glycine, tyrosine, and leucine.

  5. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rosano, Germán L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant proteins. Its use as a cell factory is well-established and it has become the most popular expression platform. For this reason, there are many molecular tools and protocols at hand for the high-level production of heterologous proteins, such as a vast catalog of expression plasmids, a great number of engineered strains and many cultivation strategies. We review the different approaches for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in E. coli and discuss recent progress in this ever-growing field. PMID:24860555

  6. Variation in Protein Intake Induces Variation in Spider Silk Expression

    PubMed Central

    Blamires, Sean J.; Wu, Chun-Lin; Tso, I-Min

    2012-01-01

    Background It is energetically expensive to synthesize certain amino acids. The proteins (spidroins) of spider major ampullate (MA) silk, MaSp1 and MaSp2, differ in amino acid composition. Glutamine and proline are prevalent in MaSp2 and are expensive to synthesize. Since most orb web spiders express high proline silk they might preferentially attain the amino acids needed for silk from food and shift toward expressing more MaSp1 in their MA silk when starved. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed three spiders; Argiope aetherea, Cyrtophora moluccensis and Leucauge blanda, high protein, low protein or no protein solutions. A. aetherea and L. blanda MA silks are high in proline, while C. moluccesnsis MA silks are low in proline. After 10 days of feeding we determined the amino acid compositions and mechanical properties of each species' MA silk and compared them between species and treatments with pre-treatment samples, accounting for ancestry. We found that the proline and glutamine of A. aetherea and L. blanda silks were affected by protein intake; significantly decreasing under the low and no protein intake treatments. Glutmaine composition in C. moluccensis silk was likewise affected by protein intake. However, the composition of proline in their MA silk was not significantly affected by protein intake. Conclusions Our results suggest that protein limitation induces a shift toward different silk proteins with lower glutamine and/or proline content. Contradictions to the MaSp model lie in the findings that C. moluccensis MA silks did not experience a significant reduction in proline and A. aetherea did not experience a significant reduction in serine on low/no protein. The mechanical properties of the silks could not be explained by a MaSp1 expressional shift. Factors other than MaSp expression, such as the expression of spidroin-like orthologues, may impact on silk amino acid composition and spinning and glandular processes may impact mechanics. PMID:22363691

  7. Tight Junction Protein 1a regulates pigment cell organisation during zebrafish colour patterning.

    PubMed

    Fadeev, Andrey; Krauss, Jana; Frohnhöfer, Hans Georg; Irion, Uwe; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2015-04-27

    Zebrafish display a prominent pattern of alternating dark and light stripes generated by the precise positioning of pigment cells in the skin. This arrangement is the result of coordinated cell movements, cell shape changes, and the organisation of pigment cells during metamorphosis. Iridophores play a crucial part in this process by switching between the dense form of the light stripes and the loose form of the dark stripes. Adult schachbrett (sbr) mutants exhibit delayed changes in iridophore shape and organisation caused by truncations in Tight Junction Protein 1a (ZO-1a). In sbr mutants, the dark stripes are interrupted by dense iridophores invading as coherent sheets. Immuno-labelling and chimeric analyses indicate that Tjp1a is expressed in dense iridophores but down-regulated in the loose form. Tjp1a is a novel regulator of cell shape changes during colour pattern formation and the first cytoplasmic protein implicated in this process.

  8. Genome engineering for improved recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mahalik, Shubhashree; Sharma, Ashish K; Mukherjee, Krishna J

    2014-12-19

    A metabolic engineering perspective which views recombinant protein expression as a multistep pathway allows us to move beyond vector design and identify the downstream rate limiting steps in expression. In E.coli these are typically at the translational level and the supply of precursors in the form of energy, amino acids and nucleotides. Further recombinant protein production triggers a global cellular stress response which feedback inhibits both growth and product formation. Countering this requires a system level analysis followed by a rational host cell engineering to sustain expression for longer time periods. Another strategy to increase protein yields could be to divert the metabolic flux away from biomass formation and towards recombinant protein production. This would require a growth stoppage mechanism which does not affect the metabolic activity of the cell or the transcriptional or translational efficiencies. Finally cells have to be designed for efficient export to prevent buildup of proteins inside the cytoplasm and also simplify downstream processing. The rational and the high throughput strategies that can be used for the construction of such improved host cell platforms for recombinant protein expression is the focus of this review.

  9. Subcellular localization of transiently expressed fluorescent fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Collings, David A

    2013-01-01

    The recent and massive expansion in plant genomics data has generated a large number of gene sequences for which two seemingly simple questions need to be answered: where do the proteins encoded by these genes localize in cells, and what do they do? One widespread approach to answering the localization question has been to use particle bombardment to transiently express unknown proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or its numerous derivatives. Confocal fluorescence microscopy is then used to monitor the localization of the fluorescent protein as it hitches a ride through the cell. The subcellular localization of the fusion protein, if not immediately apparent, can then be determined by comparison to localizations generated by fluorescent protein fusions to known signalling sequences and proteins, or by direct comparison with fluorescent dyes. This review aims to be a tour guide for researchers wanting to travel this hitch-hiker's path, and for reviewers and readers who wish to understand their travel reports. It will describe some of the technology available for visualizing protein localizations, and some of the experimental approaches for optimizing and confirming localizations generated by particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, the most commonly used experimental system. As the non-conservation of signal sequences in heterologous expression systems such as onion, and consequent mis-targeting of fusion proteins, is always a potential problem, the epidermal cells of the Argenteum mutant of pea are proposed as a model system.

  10. BAX protein expression and clinical outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tai, Y T; Lee, S; Niloff, E; Weisman, C; Strobel, T; Cannistra, S A

    1998-08-01

    Expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX sensitizes ovarian cancer cell lines to paclitaxel in vitro by enhancing the pathway of programmed cell death. The present study was performed to determine the relationship between BAX expression and clinical outcome in 45 patients with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer. BAX protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and its relationship with clinical outcome was determined. Assessment of BAX mRNA transcript levels and mutational analysis of the BAX coding region were also performed. BAX protein was expressed at high levels (defined as > or = 50% of tumor cells positive) in tumor tissue from 60% of newly diagnosed patients. All patients whose tumors expressed high levels of BAX achieved a complete response (CR) to first-line chemotherapy that contained paclitaxel plus a platinum analogue, compared with 57% of patients in the low-BAX group (P = .036). After a median follow-up of 1.9 years, the median disease-free survival (DFS) of patients in the high-BAX group has not been reached, compared with a median DFS of 1.1 years for low-BAX expressors (P = .0061). BAX retained independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis when corrected for stage and histology. BAX mRNA transcripts were easily detected in samples with low BAX protein expression, and no BAX mutations were identified. The correlation between high BAX levels and improved clinical outcome suggests that an intact apoptotic pathway is an important determinant of chemoresponsiveness in ovarian cancer patients who receive paclitaxel.

  11. Enteral delivery of proteins enhances the expression of proteins involved in the cytoskeleton and protein biosynthesis in human duodenal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Goichon, Alexis; Bertrand, Julien; Chan, Philippe; Lecleire, Stéphane; Coquard, Aude; Cailleux, Anne-Françoise; Vaudry, David; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2015-08-01

    Amino acids are well known to be key effectors of gut protein turnover. We recently reported that enteral delivery of proteins markedly stimulated global duodenal protein synthesis in carbohydrate-fed healthy humans, but specifically affected proteins remain unknown. We aimed to assess the influence of an enteral protein supply on the duodenal mucosal proteome in carbohydrate-fed humans. Six healthy volunteers received for 5 h, on 2 occasions and in random order, either an enteral infusion of maltodextrins alone (0.25 g · kg⁻¹ · h⁻¹) mimicking the fed state or maltodextrins with a protein powder (0.14 g proteins · kg⁻¹ · h⁻¹). Endoscopic duodenal biopsy specimens were then collected and frozen until analysis. A 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-based comparative proteomics analysis was then performed, and differentially expressed proteins (at least ±1.5-fold change; Student's t test, P < 0.05) were identified by mass spectrometry. Protein expression changes were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Thirty-two protein spots were differentially expressed after protein delivery compared with maltodextrins alone: 28 and 4 spots were up- or downregulated, respectively. Among the 22 identified proteins, 11 upregulated proteins were involved either in the cytoskeleton (ezrin, moesin, plastin 1, lamin B1, vimentin, and β-actin) or in protein biosynthesis (glutamyl-prolyl-transfer RNA synthetase, glutaminyl-transfer RNA synthetase, elongation factor 2, elongation factor 1δ, and eukaryotic translation and initiation factor 3 subunit f). Enteral delivery of proteins altered the duodenal mucosal proteome and mainly stimulated the expression of proteins involved in cytoskeleton and protein biosynthesis. These results suggest that protein supply may affect intestinal morphology by stimulating actin cytoskeleton remodeling. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Changes in barrier health status of the gill for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during valine deficiency: Regulation of tight junction protein transcript, antioxidant status and apoptosis-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Luo, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on tight junction protein transcription, antioxidant status and apoptosis on grass carp gills (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed six different experimental diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.7, 19.1 g/kg). The results indicated that valine deficiency decreased Claudin b, Claudin 3, Occludin and ZO-1 transcription and increased Claudin 15 expression in the fish gill (P < 0.05). These effects were partly due to the down-regulation of interleukin 10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and IκB α and the up-regulation of relative mRNA expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor κB P65 (NF-κB P65) (P < 0.05). However, valine deficiency and valine supplementation did not have a significant effect on Claudin c and Claudin 12 expression in grass carp gills (P > 0.05). Valine deficiency also disrupted antioxidant status in the gill by decreasing anti-superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical capacity, glutathione contents and the activities and mRNA levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P < 0.05). These results may be ascribed to the down-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the up-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) (P < 0.05). Additionally, valine deficiency induced DNA fragmentation via the up-regulation of Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Caspase 9 expressions (P < 0.05). These results may be ascribed to the improvement in ROS levels in the fish gill (P < 0.05). Taken together, the results showed that valine deficiency impaired the structural integrity of fish gill by disrupted fish antioxidant defenses and regulating the expression of tight junction protein, cytokines, antioxidant

  13. Prognostic relevance of Centromere protein H expression in esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xian-Zhi; Zhang, Ge; Wang, Jun-Ye; Liu, Wan-Li; Wang, Fang; Dong, Ju-Qin; Xu, Li-Hua; Cao, Jing-Yan; Song, Li-Bing; Zeng, Mu-Sheng

    2008-08-13

    Many kinetochore proteins have been shown to be associated with human cancers. The aim of the present study was to clarify the expression of Centromere protein H (CENP-H), one of the fundamental components of the human active kinetochore, in esophageal carcinoma and its correlation with clinicopathological features. We examined the expression of CENP-H in immortalized esophageal epithelial cells as well as in esophageal carcinoma cells, and in 12 cases of esophageal carcinoma tissues and the paired normal esophageal tissues by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, we analyzed CENP-H protein expression in 177 clinicopathologically characterized esophageal carcinoma cases by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test for prognostic and diagnostic associations. The level of CENP-H mRNA and protein were higher in the immortalized cells, cancer cell lines and most cancer tissues than in normal control tissues. Immunohistochemistry showed that CENP-H was expressed in 127 of 171 ESCC cases (74.3%) and in 3 of 6 esophageal adenocarcinoma cases (50%). Statistical analysis of ESCC cases showed that there was a significant difference of CENP-H expression in patients categorized according to gender (P = 0.013), stage (P = 0.023) and T classification (P = 0.019). Patients with lower CENP-H expression had longer overall survival time than those with higher CENP-H expression. Multivariate analysis suggested that CENP-H expression was an independent prognostic marker for esophageal carcinoma patients. A prognostic value of CENP-H was also found in the subgroup of T3 approximately T4 and N0 tumor classification. Our results suggest that CENP-H protein is a valuable marker of esophageal carcinoma progression. CENP-H might be used as a valuable prognostic marker for esophageal carcinoma patients.

  14. Expression patterns of protein C inhibitor in mouse development.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Gerry T M; Uhrin, Pavel; Weipoltshammer, Klara; Almeder, Marlene; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Geiger, Margarethe; Meijers, Joost C M; Schöfer, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Proteolysis of extracellular matrix is an important requirement for embryonic development and is instrumental in processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and cell migration. Efficient remodeling requires controlled spatio-temporal expression of both the proteases and their inhibitors. Protein C inhibitor (PCI) effectively blocks a range of serine proteases, and recently has been suggested to play a role in cell differentiation and angiogenesis. In this study, we mapped the expression pattern of PCI throughout mouse development using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We detected a wide-spread, yet distinct expression pattern with prominent PCI levels in skin including vibrissae, and in fore- and hindgut. Further sites of PCI expression were choroid plexus of brain ventricles, heart, skeletal muscles, urogenital tract, and cartilages. A strong and stage-dependent PCI expression was observed in the developing lung. In the pseudoglandular stage, PCI expression was present in distal branching tubules whereas proximal tubules did not express PCI. Later in development, in the saccular stage, PCI expression was restricted to distal bronchioli whereas sacculi did not express PCI. PCI expression declined in postnatal stages and was not detected in adult lungs. In general, embryonic PCI expression indicates multifunctional roles of PCI during mouse development. The expression pattern of PCI during lung development suggests its possible involvement in lung morphogenesis and angiogenesis.

  15. Abnormal expression of leiomyoma cytoskeletal proteins involved in cell migration.

    PubMed

    Ura, Blendi; Scrimin, Federica; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Athanasakis, Emmanouil; Aloisio, Michelangelo; Monasta, Lorenzo; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are monoclonal tumors. Several factors are involved in the neoplastic transformation of the myometrium. In our study we focused on dysregulated cytoskeletal proteins in the leiomyoma as compared to the myometrium. Paired tissue samples of ten leiomyomas and adjacent myometria were obtained and analyzed by two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Mass spectrometry was used for protein identification, and western blotting for 2-DE data validation. The values of ten cytoskeletal proteins were found to be significantly different: eight proteins were upregulated in the leiomyoma and two proteins were downregulated. Three of the upregulated proteins (myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9, four and a half LIM domains protein 1 and LIM and SH3 domain protein 1) are involved in cell migration, while downregulated protein transgelin is involved in replicative senescence. Myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9 (MYL9) was further validated by western blotting because it is considered to be a cell migration marker in several cancers and could play a key role in leiomyoma development. Our data demonstrate significant alterations in the expression of cytoskeletal proteins involved in leiomyoma growth. A better understanding of the involvement of cytoskeletal proteins in leiomyoma pathogenesis may contribute to the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of new pharmacological approaches.

  16. Using ion exchange chromatography to purify a recombinantly expressed protein.

    PubMed

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Gabelli, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography (IEX) separates molecules by their surface charge, a property that can vary vastly between different proteins. There are two types of IEX, cation exhange and anion exchange chromatography. The protocol that follows was designed by the authors for anion exchange chromatography of a recombinantly expressed protein having a pI of 4.9 and containing two cysteine residues and one tryptophan residue, using an FPLC system. Prior to anion exchange, the protein had been salted out using ammonium sulfate precipitation and partially purified via hydrophobic interaction chromatography (see Salting out of proteins using ammonium sulfate precipitation and Use and Application of Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography for Protein Purification). Slight modifications to this protocol may be made to accommodate both the protein of interest and the availability of equipment. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transient expression of CCL21as recombinant protein in tomato.

    PubMed

    Beihaghi, Maria; Marashi, Hasan; Bagheri, Abdolreza; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2018-03-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of expressing recombinant protein of C-C chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21) in Solanum lycopersicum via agroinfiltration. CCL21 is a chemokine can be used for anti-metastatic of cancer cell lines. To examine the expression of CCL21 protein in S. lycopersicum , the construct of ccl21 was synthesized. This construct was cloned into pBI121 and the resulting CCL21 plasmid was agro-infiltrated into S. lycopersicum leaves. Within three days after infiltration, Expression of the foreign gene was confirmed by quantitative Real-time PCR. A recombinant CCL21 protein was immunogenically detected by western blot, dot blot and ELISA assay. And results showed that the foreign gene was expressed in the transformed leaves in high level. Also scratch assay was used to investigate the role of this protein in anti-metastatic function. The results demonstrated anti-metastatic of cancer cells in the presence of this protein.

  18. The Expression and Significance of Neuronal Iconic Proteins in Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongxia; Hu, Ruimin; Sun, Jianyong; Mao, Xing; Zhao, Zhonghua; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that there are many common cell biological features shared by neurons and podocytes; however, the mechanism of podocyte foot process formation remains unclear. Comparing the mechanisms of process formation between two cell types should provide useful guidance from the progress of neuron research. Studies have shown that some mature proteins of podocytes, such as podocin, nephrin, and synaptopodin, were also expressed in neurons. In this study, using cell biological experiments and immunohistochemical techniques, we showed that some neuronal iconic molecules, such as Neuron-specific enolase, nestin and Neuron-specific nuclear protein, were also expressed in podocytes. We further inhibited the expression of Neuron-specific enolase, nestin, synaptopodin and Ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolase-1 by Small interfering RNA in cultured mouse podocytes and observed the significant morphological changes in treated podocytes. When podocytes were treated with Adriamycin, the protein expression of Neuron-specific enolase, nestin, synaptopodin and Ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolase-1 decreased over time. Meanwhile, the morphological changes in the podocytes were consistent with results of the Small interfering RNA treatment of these proteins. The data demonstrated that neuronal iconic proteins play important roles in maintaining and regulating the formation and function of podocyte processes. PMID:24699703

  19. Interfacial Polymerization for Colorimetric Labeling of Protein Expression in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Jacob L.; Sheldon, Phillip R.; Hoversten, Liv J.; Romero, Gabriela; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Berron, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the location of rare proteins in cells typically requires the use of on-sample amplification. Antibody based recognition and enzymatic amplification is used to produce large amounts of visible label at the site of protein expression, but these techniques suffer from the presence of nonspecific reactivity in the biological sample and from poor spatial control over the label. Polymerization based amplification is a recently developed alternative means of creating an on-sample amplification for fluorescence applications, while not suffering from endogenous labels or loss of signal localization. This manuscript builds upon polymerization based amplification by developing a stable, archivable, and colorimetric mode of amplification termed Polymer Dye Labeling. The basic concept involves an interfacial polymer grown at the site of protein expression and subsequent staining of this polymer with an appropriate dye. The dyes Evans Blue and eosin were initially investigated for colorimetric response in a microarray setting, where both specifically stained polymer films on glass. The process was translated to the staining of protein expression in human dermal fibroblast cells, and Polymer Dye Labeling was specific to regions consistent with desired protein expression. The labeling is stable for over 200 days in ambient conditions and is also compatible with modern mounting medium. PMID:25536421

  20. Interfacial polymerization for colorimetric labeling of protein expression in cells.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Jacob L; Sheldon, Phillip R; Hoversten, Liv J; Romero, Gabriela; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Berron, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    Determining the location of rare proteins in cells typically requires the use of on-sample amplification. Antibody based recognition and enzymatic amplification is used to produce large amounts of visible label at the site of protein expression, but these techniques suffer from the presence of nonspecific reactivity in the biological sample and from poor spatial control over the label. Polymerization based amplification is a recently developed alternative means of creating an on-sample amplification for fluorescence applications, while not suffering from endogenous labels or loss of signal localization. This manuscript builds upon polymerization based amplification by developing a stable, archivable, and colorimetric mode of amplification termed Polymer Dye Labeling. The basic concept involves an interfacial polymer grown at the site of protein expression and subsequent staining of this polymer with an appropriate dye. The dyes Evans Blue and eosin were initially investigated for colorimetric response in a microarray setting, where both specifically stained polymer films on glass. The process was translated to the staining of protein expression in human dermal fibroblast cells, and Polymer Dye Labeling was specific to regions consistent with desired protein expression. The labeling is stable for over 200 days in ambient conditions and is also compatible with modern mounting medium.

  1. p53 AND MDM2 PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN ACTINIC CHEILITIS

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Maria da Conceição Andrade; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Moreira, André Luis Gomes; Reis, Sílvia Regina Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant lip lesion caused by excessive and prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which can lead to histomorphological alterations indicative of abnormal cell differentiation. In this pathology, varying degrees of epithelial dysplasia may be found. There are few published studies regarding the p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis. Fifty-eight cases diagnosed with actinic cheilitis were histologically evaluated using Banóczy and Csiba (1976) parameters, and were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using the streptavidin-biotin method in order to assess p53 and MDM2 protein expression. All studied cases expressed p53 proteins in basal and suprabasal layers. In the basal layer, the nuclei testing positive for p53 were stained intensely, while in the suprabasal layer, cells with slightly stained nuclei were predominant. All cases also tested positive for the MDM2 protein, but with varying degrees of nuclear expression and a predominance of slightly stained cells. A statistically significant correlation between the percentage of p53 and MDM2-positive cells was established, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia. The expression of p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis can be an important indicator in lip carcinogenesis, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia. PMID:19082401

  2. p53 and MDM2 protein expression in actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Maria da Conceição Andrade; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Moreira, André Luis Gomes; Reis, Sílvia Regina Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant lip lesion caused by excessive and prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which can lead to histomorphological alterations indicative of abnormal cell differentiation. In this pathology, varying degrees of epithelial dysplasia may be found. There are few published studies regarding the p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis. Fifty-eight cases diagnosed with actinic cheilitis were histologically evaluated using Banóczy and Csiba (1976) parameters, and were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using the streptavidin-biotin method in order to assess p53 and MDM2 protein expression. All studied cases expressed p53 proteins in basal and suprabasal layers. In the basal layer, the nuclei testing positive for p53 were stained intensely, while in the suprabasal layer, cells with slightly stained nuclei were predominant. All cases also tested positive for the MDM2 protein, but with varying degrees of nuclear expression and a predominance of slightly stained cells. A statistically significant correlation between the percentage of p53 and MDM2-positive cells was established, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia. The expression of p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis can be an important indicator in lip carcinogenesis, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia.

  3. Fe-S Proteins that Regulate Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mettert, Erin L.; Kiley, Patricia J.

    2014-01-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster containing proteins that regulate gene expression are present in most organisms. The innate chemistry of their Fe-S cofactors makes these regulatory proteins ideal for sensing environmental signals, such as gases (e.g. O2 and NO), levels of Fe and Fe-S clusters, reactive oxygen species, and redox cycling compounds, to subsequently mediate an adaptive response. Here we review the recent findings that have provided invaluable insight into the mechanism and function of these highly significant Fe-S regulatory proteins. PMID:25450978

  4. The protein expression landscape of the Arabidopsis root

    PubMed Central

    Petricka, Jalean J.; Schauer, Monica A.; Megraw, Molly; Breakfield, Natalie W.; Thompson, J. Will; Georgiev, Stoyan; Soderblom, Erik J.; Ohler, Uwe; Moseley, Martin Arthur; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Benfey, Philip N.

    2012-01-01

    Because proteins are the major functional components of cells, knowledge of their cellular localization is crucial to gaining an understanding of the biology of multicellular organisms. We have generated a protein expression map of the Arabidopsis root providing the identity and cell type-specific localization of nearly 2,000 proteins. Grouping proteins into functional categories revealed unique cellular functions and identified cell type-specific biomarkers. Cellular colocalization provided support for numerous protein–protein interactions. With a binary comparison, we found that RNA and protein expression profiles are weakly correlated. We then performed peak integration at cell type-specific resolution and found an improved correlation with transcriptome data using continuous values. We performed GeLC-MS/MS (in-gel tryptic digestion followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) proteomic experiments on mutants with ectopic and no root hairs, providing complementary proteomic data. Finally, among our root hair-specific proteins we identified two unique regulators of root hair development. PMID:22447775

  5. Paracellular tightness and the functional expression of efflux transporters P-gp and BCRP in bEnd3 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu; Jin, Hong; Zhao, Zhigang

    2018-04-23

    Objective The blood-brain barrier (BBB), regulating brain homeostasis and limiting the entry of most drugs, is characterized by intercellular tight junctions and the presence of transporters. In this study, the paracellular tightness and functional expression of efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) were evaluated in mouse brain immortalized cell line bEnd3 to prove it as a useful BBB-mimicking system for biological and pharmacological research. Methods The presence of P-gp, BCRP and tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 were validated by RT-PCR and Western blot. The tightness of bEnd3 monolayers was evaluated by measuring the permeability of hydrophilic marker Lucifer yellow. The P-gp functionality was identified by intracellular uptake assay using Rhodamine 123 (R123) as P-gp substrate and verapamil as P-gp inhibitor. The BCRP functionality was identified by flow cytometric analysis of mitoxantrone accumulation and fluorescence microscopic analysis of Hoechst 33342 accumulation using Ko-143 as BCRP inhibitor. Results The bEnd3 cells demonstrated the expression of P-gp, BCRP and tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 at mRNA and protein levels. The permeability coefficient of Lucifer yellow was 1.3 ± 0.13 × 10 -3  cm/min, indicating the moderate paracellular tightness barrier formed by bEnd3 cells. The verapamil induced a higher cellular uptake of Rhodamine 123, and Ko-143 significantly elevated cellular accumulation of mitoxantrone and Hoechst 33342, suggesting the P-gp and BCRP functionality shown by bEnd3 cells. Conclusions The bEnd3 cell line represents a useful in vitro tool for studying BBB characteristics and drug transport mechanisms at the BBB.

  6. SGLT2 Protein Expression Is Increased in Human Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxin X.; Levi, Jonathan; Luo, Yuhuan; Myakala, Komuraiah; Herman-Edelstein, Michal; Qiu, Liru; Wang, Dong; Peng, Yingqiong; Grenz, Almut; Lucia, Scott; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; D'Agati, Vivette D.; Koepsell, Hermann; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Rosenberg, Avi Z.; Levi, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    There is very limited human renal sodium gradient-dependent glucose transporter protein (SGLT2) mRNA and protein expression data reported in the literature. The first aim of this study was to determine SGLT2 mRNA and protein levels in human and animal models of diabetic nephropathy. We have found that the expression of SGLT2 mRNA and protein is increased in renal biopsies from human subjects with diabetic nephropathy. This is in contrast to db-db mice that had no changes in renal SGLT2 protein expression. Furthermore, the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on renal lipid content and inflammation is not known. The second aim of this study was to determine the potential mechanisms of beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibition in the progression of diabetic renal disease. We treated db/db mice with a selective SGLT2 inhibitor JNJ 39933673. We found that SGLT2 inhibition caused marked decreases in systolic blood pressure, kidney weight/body weight ratio, urinary albumin, and urinary thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances. SGLT2 inhibition prevented renal lipid accumulation via inhibition of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein-β, pyruvate kinase L, SCD-1, and DGAT1, key transcriptional factors and enzymes that mediate fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. SGLT2 inhibition also prevented inflammation via inhibition of CD68 macrophage accumulation and expression of p65, TLR4, MCP-1, and osteopontin. These effects were associated with reduced mesangial expansion, accumulation of the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin and type IV collagen, and loss of podocyte markers WT1 and synaptopodin, as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. In summary, our study showed that SGLT2 inhibition modulates renal lipid metabolism and inflammation and prevents the development of nephropathy in db/db mice. PMID:28196866

  7. Transepithelial resistance and claudin expression in trout RTgill-W1 cell line: effects of osmoregulatory hormones.

    PubMed

    Trubitt, Rebecca T; Rabeneck, D Brett; Bujak, Joanna K; Bossus, Maryline C; Madsen, Steffen S; Tipsmark, Christian K

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we examined the trout gill cell line RTgill-W1 as a possible tool for in vitro investigation of epithelial gill function in fish. After seeding in transwells, transepithelial resistance (TER) increased until reaching a plateau after 1-2 days (20-80Ω⋅cm(2)), which was then maintained for more than 6 days. Tetrabromocinnamic acid, a known stimulator of TER via casein kinase II inhibition, elevated TER in the cell line to 125% of control values after 2 and 6h. Treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid induced a decrease in TER to <15% of pre-treatment level. Cortisol elevated TER after 12-72 h in a concentration-dependent manner, and this increase was antagonized by growth hormone (Gh). The effects of three osmoregulatory hormones, Gh, prolactin, and cortisol, on the mRNA expression of three tight junction proteins were examined: claudin-10e (Cldn-10e), Cldn-30, and zonula occludens-1 (Zo-1). The expression of cldn-10e was stimulated by all three hormones but with the strongest effect of Gh (50-fold). cldn-30 expression was stimulated especially by cortisol (20-fold) and also by Gh (4-fold). Finally, zo-1 was unresponsive to hormone treatment. Western blot analysis detected Cldn-10e and Cldn-30 immunoreactive proteins of expected molecular weight in samples from rainbow trout gills but not from RTgill-W1 cultures, possibly due to low expression levels. Collectively, these results show that the RTgill-W1 cell layers have tight junctions between cells, are sensitive to hormone treatments, and may provide a useful model for in vitro study of some in vivo gill phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Secreted Proteins Defy the Expression Level-Evolutionary Rate Anticorrelation.

    PubMed

    Feyertag, Felix; Berninsone, Patricia M; Alvarez-Ponce, David

    2017-03-01

    The rates of evolution of the proteins of any organism vary across orders of magnitude. A primary factor influencing rates of protein evolution is expression. A strong negative correlation between expression levels and evolutionary rates (the so-called E-R anticorrelation) has been observed in virtually all studied organisms. This effect is currently attributed to the abundance-dependent fitness costs of misfolding and unspecific protein-protein interactions, among other factors. Secreted proteins are folded in the endoplasmic reticulum, a compartment where chaperones, folding catalysts, and stringent quality control mechanisms promote their correct folding and may reduce the fitness costs of misfolding. In addition, confinement of secreted proteins to the extracellular space may reduce misinteractions and their deleterious effects. We hypothesize that each of these factors (the secretory pathway quality control and extracellular location) may reduce the strength of the E-R anticorrelation. Indeed, here we show that among human proteins that are secreted to the extracellular space, rates of evolution do not correlate with protein abundances. This trend is robust to controlling for several potentially confounding factors and is also observed when analyzing protein abundance data for 6 human tissues. In addition, analysis of mRNA abundance data for 32 human tissues shows that the E-R correlation is always less negative, and sometimes nonsignificant, in secreted proteins. Similar observations were made in Caenorhabditis elegans and in Escherichia coli, and to a lesser extent in Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our observations contribute to understand the causes of the E-R anticorrelation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Using Green and Red Fluorescent Proteins to Teach Protein Expression, Purification, and Crystallization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yifeng; Zhou, Yangbin; Song, Jiaping; Hu, Xiaojian; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Zhihong

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a laboratory curriculum using the green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and RFP) to visualize the cloning, expression, chromatography purification, crystallization, and protease-cleavage experiments of protein science. The EGFP and DsRed monomer (mDsRed)-coding sequences were amplified by PCR and cloned into pMAL (MBP-EGFP) or…

  10. Different Cells Make Different Proteins: A Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Tissue-Specific Protein Expression in Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibarguren, Izaskun; Villamarín, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    All the cells of higher organisms have the same DNA but not the same proteins. Each type of specialised cell that forms a tissue has its own pattern of gene expression and, consequently, it contains a particular set of proteins that determine its function. Here, we describe a laboratory exercise addressed to undergraduate students that aims to…

  11. Heterologous Expression of Membrane Proteins: Choosing the Appropriate Host

    PubMed Central

    Pochon, Nathalie; Dementin, Sébastien; Hivin, Patrick; Boutigny, Sylvain; Rioux, Jean-Baptiste; Salvi, Daniel; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné; Richaud, Pierre; Joyard, Jacques; Pignol, David; Sabaty, Monique; Desnos, Thierry; Pebay-Peyroula, Eva; Darrouzet, Elisabeth; Vernet, Thierry; Rolland, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Background Membrane proteins are the targets of 50% of drugs, although they only represent 1% of total cellular proteins. The first major bottleneck on the route to their functional and structural characterisation is their overexpression; and simply choosing the right system can involve many months of trial and error. This work is intended as a guide to where to start when faced with heterologous expression of a membrane protein. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of 20 membrane proteins, both peripheral and integral, in three prokaryotic (E. coli, L. lactis, R. sphaeroides) and three eukaryotic (A. thaliana, N. benthamiana, Sf9 insect cells) hosts was tested. The proteins tested were of various origins (bacteria, plants and mammals), functions (transporters, receptors, enzymes) and topologies (between 0 and 13 transmembrane segments). The Gateway system was used to clone all 20 genes into appropriate vectors for the hosts to be tested. Culture conditions were optimised for each host, and specific strategies were tested, such as the use of Mistic fusions in E. coli. 17 of the 20 proteins were produced at adequate yields for functional and, in some cases, structural studies. We have formulated general recommendations to assist with choosing an appropriate system based on our observations of protein behaviour in the different hosts. Conclusions/Significance Most of the methods presented here can be quite easily implemented in other laboratories. The results highlight certain factors that should be considered when selecting an expression host. The decision aide provided should help both newcomers and old-hands to select the best system for their favourite membrane protein. PMID:22216205

  12. Circulating tight junction proteins mirror blood-brain barrier integrity in leukaemia central nervous system metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Cheng; Si, Meng-Ya; Li, Ya-Zhen; Chen, Huan-Zhu; Fan, Zhi-Cheng; Xie, Qing-Dong; Jiao, Xiao-Yang

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of circulating tight junction (TJ) proteins as biomarkers reflecting of leukaemia central nervous system (CNS) metastasis. TJs [claudin5 (CLDN5), occludin (OCLN) and ZO-1] concentrations were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from 45 leukaemia patients. Serum ZO-1 was significantly higher (p < 0.05), but CSF ZO-1 levels were not significantly higher in the CNS leukaemia (CNSL) compared to the non-CNSL. The CNSL patients also had a lower CLDN5/ZO1 ratio in both serum and CSF than in non-CNSL patients (p < 0.05). The TJ index was negatively associated with WBC CSF , ALB CSF and BBB values in leukaemia patients. Among all of the parameters studied, CLDN5 CSF had the highest specificity in discriminating between CNSL and non-CNSL patients. Therefore, analysing serum and CSF levels of CLDN5, OCLN and the CLDN5/ZO1 ratio is valuable in evaluating the potential of leukaemia CNS metastasis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Expression of Tocopherol-Associated Protein in Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Teruo; Murakami, Masaru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    Tocopherol-associated protein (TAP) was expressed in mouse mast cells. TAP was predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, and the subcellular localization was not changed by α-tocopherol. The results suggest that the physiological role of TAP in mast cells is not regulation of tocopherol function but an as-yet-unidentified activity. PMID:15539527

  14. Heterogeneity of proteins expressed by Brazilian Sporothrix schenckii isolates.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Do Amaral, Cristiane Candida; Sasaki, Alexandre; Godoy, Patrício Martinez; De Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2009-12-01

    The profiles of proteins present in the exoantigens of Brazilian Sporothrix schenckii isolates were studied and compared by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Thirteen isolates from five different regions of Brazil (1,000 to 2,000 km apart) and ten from a more limited region (200 to 400 km apart within the state of São Paulo) were cultured in Sabouraud, M199 and minimum (MM) media. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the expression of proteins, which varied according to the medium and the isolate, were observed. Fractions with the same MW but varying in intensity were detected, as well as fractions present in 1 isolate but absent in others. Dendrograms were constructed and isolates grouped based on the fractions obtained, irrespective of the intensity. The results showed that Brazilian S. schenckii isolates express different protein profiles, a feature also present in isolates from a more restricted region. The exoantigens were found to have a maximum of 15 protein fractions, ranging in MW from 19-220 KDaltons depending on the medium used for the cultures. These data show the great heterogeneity of Brazilian S. schenckii protein expression.

  15. Raman microscopy of bladder cancer cells expressing green fluorescent protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandair, Gurjit S.; Han, Amy L.; Keller, Evan T.; Morris, Michael D.

    2016-11-01

    Gene engineering is a commonly used tool in cellular biology to determine changes in function or expression of downstream targets. However, the impact of genetic modulation on biochemical effects is less frequently evaluated. The aim of this study is to use Raman microscopy to assess the biochemical effects of gene silencing on T24 and UMUC-13 bladder cancer cell lines. Cellular biochemical information related to nucleic acid and lipogenic components was obtained from deconvolved Raman spectra. We show that the green fluorescence protein (GFP), the chromophore that served as a fluorescent reporter for gene silencing, could also be detected by Raman microscopy. Only the gene-silenced UMUC-13 cell lines exhibited low-to-moderate GFP fluorescence as determined by fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopic studies. Moreover, we show that gene silencing and cell phenotype had a greater effect on nucleic acid and lipogenic components with minimal interference from GFP expression. Gene silencing was also found to perturb cellular protein secondary structure in which the amount of disorderd protein increased at the expense of more ordered protein. Overall, our study identified the spectral signature for cellular GFP expression and elucidated the effects of gene silencing on cancer cell biochemistry and protein secondary structure.

  16. Automation of large scale transient protein expression in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuguang; Bishop, Benjamin; Clay, Jordan E.; Lu, Weixian; Jones, Margaret; Daenke, Susan; Siebold, Christian; Stuart, David I.; Yvonne Jones, E.; Radu Aricescu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional mammalian expression systems rely on the time-consuming generation of stable cell lines; this is difficult to accommodate within a modern structural biology pipeline. Transient transfections are a fast, cost-effective solution, but require skilled cell culture scientists, making man-power a limiting factor in a setting where numerous samples are processed in parallel. Here we report a strategy employing a customised CompacT SelecT cell culture robot allowing the large-scale expression of multiple protein constructs in a transient format. Successful protocols have been designed for automated transient transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T and 293S GnTI− cells in various flask formats. Protein yields obtained by this method were similar to those produced manually, with the added benefit of reproducibility, regardless of user. Automation of cell maintenance and transient transfection allows the expression of high quality recombinant protein in a completely sterile environment with limited support from a cell culture scientist. The reduction in human input has the added benefit of enabling continuous cell maintenance and protein production, features of particular importance to structural biology laboratories, which typically use large quantities of pure recombinant proteins, and often require rapid characterisation of a series of modified constructs. This automated method for large scale transient transfection is now offered as a Europe-wide service via the P-cube initiative. PMID:21571074

  17. The E4 protein; structure, function and patterns of expression

    SciT

    Doorbar, John, E-mail: jdoorba@nimr.mrc.ac.uk

    2013-10-15

    The papillomavirus E4 open reading frame (ORF) is contained within the E2 ORF, with the primary E4 gene-product (E1{sup ∧}E4) being translated from a spliced mRNA that includes the E1 initiation codon and adjacent sequences. E4 is located centrally within the E2 gene, in a region that encodes the E2 protein′s flexible hinge domain. Although a number of minor E4 transcripts have been reported, it is the product of the abundant E1{sup ∧}E4 mRNA that has been most extensively analysed. During the papillomavirus life cycle, the E1{sup ∧}E4 gene products generally become detectable at the onset of vegetative viral genomemore » amplification as the late stages of infection begin. E4 contributes to genome amplification success and virus synthesis, with its high level of expression suggesting additional roles in virus release and/or transmission. In general, E4 is easily visualised in biopsy material by immunostaining, and can be detected in lesions caused by diverse papillomavirus types, including those of dogs, rabbits and cattle as well as humans. The E4 protein can serve as a biomarker of active virus infection, and in the case of high-risk human types also disease severity. In some cutaneous lesions, E4 can be expressed at higher levels than the virion coat proteins, and can account for as much as 30% of total lesional protein content. The E4 proteins of the Beta, Gamma and Mu HPV types assemble into distinctive cytoplasmic, and sometimes nuclear, inclusion granules. In general, the E4 proteins are expressed before L2 and L1, with their structure and function being modified, first by kinases as the infected cell progresses through the S and G2 cell cycle phases, but also by proteases as the cell exits the cell cycle and undergoes true terminal differentiation. The kinases that regulate E4 also affect other viral proteins simultaneously, and include protein kinase A, Cyclin-dependent kinase, members of the MAP Kinase family and protein kinase C. For HPV16 E1

  18. Developmental expression of Drosophila Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome family proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Mesa, Evelyn; Abreu-Blanco, Maria Teresa; Rosales-Nieves, Alicia E.; Parkhurst, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WASP) family proteins participate in many cellular processes involving rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. To the date, four WASP subfamily members have been described in Drosophila: Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy. Wash, WASp, and SCAR are essential during early Drosophila development where they function in orchestrating cytoplasmic events including membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. A mutant for Whamy has not yet been reported. Results We generated monoclonal antibodies that are specific to Drosophila Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy, and use these to describe their spatial and temporal localization patterns. Consistent with the importance of WASP family proteins in flies, we find that Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy are dynamically expressed throughout oogenesis and embryogenesis. For example, we find that Wash accumulates at the oocyte cortex. WASp is highly expressed in the PNS, while SCAR is the most abundantly expressed in the CNS. Whamy exhibits an asymmetric subcellular localization that overlaps with mitochondria and is highly expressed in muscle. Conclusion All four WASP family members show specific expression patterns, some of which reflect their previously known roles and others revealing new potential functions. The monoclonal antibodies developed offer valuable new tools to investigate how WASP family proteins regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. PMID:22275148

  19. Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer

    SciT

    Raymond, Amy; Lovell, Scott; Lorimer, Don

    2009-12-01

    With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38{alpha}), viral polymerase (HCV NS5B), and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ) were expressed in both E. colimore » and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.« less

  20. Transient expression and cellular localization of recombinant proteins in cultured insect cells

    Heterologous protein expression systems are used for production of recombinant proteins, interpretation of cellular trafficking/localization, and for the determination of biochemical function of proteins at the sub-organismal level. Although baculovirus expression systems are increasingly used for ...

  1. Methods and constructs for expression of foreign proteins in photosynthetic organisms

    DOEpatents

    Laible, Philip D.; Hanson, Deborah K.

    2002-01-01

    A method for expressing and purifying foreign proteins in photosynthetic organisms comprising the simultaneous expression of both the heterologous protein and a means for compartmentalizing or sequestering of the protein.

  2. Dark proteins: effect of inclusion body formation on quantification of protein expression.

    PubMed

    Iafolla, Marco A J; Mazumder, Mostafizur; Sardana, Vandit; Velauthapillai, Tharsan; Pannu, Karanbir; McMillen, David R

    2008-09-01

    Plasmid-borne gene expression systems have found wide application in the emerging fields of systems biology and synthetic biology, where plasmids are used to implement simple network architectures, either to test systems biology hypotheses about issues such as gene expression noise or as a means of exerting artificial control over a cell's dynamics. In both these cases, fluorescent proteins are commonly applied as a means of monitoring the expression of genes in the living cell, and efforts have been made to quantify protein expression levels through fluorescence intensity calibration and by monitoring the partitioning of proteins among the two daughter cells after division; such quantification is important in formulating the predictive models desired in systems and synthetic biology research. A potential pitfall of using plasmid-based gene expression systems is that the high protein levels associated with expression from plasmids can lead to the formation of inclusion bodies, insoluble aggregates of misfolded, nonfunctional proteins that will not generate fluorescence output; proteins caught in these inclusion bodies are thus "dark" to fluorescence-based detection methods. If significant numbers of proteins are incorporated into inclusion bodies rather than becoming biologically active, quantitative results obtained by fluorescent measurements will be skewed; we investigate this phenomenon here. We have created two plasmid constructs with differing average copy numbers, both incorporating an unregulated promoter (P(LtetO-1) in the absence of TetR) expressing the GFP derivative enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), and inserted them into Escherichia coli bacterial cells (a common model organism for work on the dynamics of prokaryotic gene expression). We extracted the inclusion bodies, denatured them, and refolded them to render them active, obtaining a measurement of the average number of EGFP per cell locked into these aggregates; at the same time, we used

  3. Expression, Delivery and Function of Insecticidal Proteins Expressed by Recombinant Baculoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Bonning, Bryony C.; Harrison, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. The discovery of RNA interference as a gene-specific regulation mechanism offers a new approach for improvement of baculovirus biopesticidal efficacy through genetic modification. PMID:25609310

  4. Expression, delivery and function of insecticidal proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Kroemer, Jeremy A; Bonning, Bryony C; Harrison, Robert L

    2015-01-21

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. The discovery of RNA interference as a gene-specific regulation mechanism offers a new approach for improvement of baculovirus biopesticidal efficacy through genetic modification.

  5. [Construction and expression of a eukaryotic expression vector containing human CR2-Fc fusion protein].

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxin; Wu, Zhihao; Zhang, Chuanfu; Jia, Leili; Song, Hongbin; Xu, Yuanyong

    2014-01-01

    To construct a eukaryotic expression vector containing human complement receptor 2 (CR2)-Fc and express the CR2-Fc fusion protein in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extracellular domain of human CR2 and IgG1 Fc were respectively amplified, ligated and inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector PCI-neo. After verified by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing, the recombinant plasmid was transfected into CHO K1 cells. The ones with stable expression of the fusion protein were obtained by means of G418 selection. The expression of the CR2-Fc fusion protein was detected and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing demonstrated that the recombinant plasmid was valid. SDS-PAGE showed that relative molecular mass (Mr;) of the purified product was consistent with the expected value. Western blotting further proved the single band at the same position. We constructed the eukaryotic expression vector of CR2-Fc/PCI-neo successfully. The obtained fusion protein was active and can be used for the further study of the role in HIV control.

  6. Secreted Proteins Defy the Expression Level–Evolutionary Rate Anticorrelation

    PubMed Central

    Feyertag, Felix; Berninsone, Patricia M.; Alvarez-Ponce, David

    2017-01-01

    The rates of evolution of the proteins of any organism vary across orders of magnitude. A primary factor influencing rates of protein evolution is expression. A strong negative correlation between expression levels and evolutionary rates (the so-called E–R anticorrelation) has been observed in virtually all studied organisms. This effect is currently attributed to the abundance-dependent fitness costs of misfolding and unspecific protein–protein interactions, among other factors. Secreted proteins are folded in the endoplasmic reticulum, a compartment where chaperones, folding catalysts, and stringent quality control mechanisms promote their correct folding and may reduce the fitness costs of misfolding. In addition, confinement of secreted proteins to the extracellular space may reduce misinteractions and their deleterious effects. We hypothesize that each of these factors (the secretory pathway quality control and extracellular location) may reduce the strength of the E–R anticorrelation. Indeed, here we show that among human proteins that are secreted to the extracellular space, rates of evolution do not correlate with protein abundances. This trend is robust to controlling for several potentially confounding factors and is also observed when analyzing protein abundance data for 6 human tissues. In addition, analysis of mRNA abundance data for 32 human tissues shows that the E–R correlation is always less negative, and sometimes nonsignificant, in secreted proteins. Similar observations were made in Caenorhabditis elegans and in Escherichia coli, and to a lesser extent in Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our observations contribute to understand the causes of the E–R anticorrelation. PMID:28007979

  7. Expression and Localization of Plant Protein Disulfide Isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Shorrosh, B. S.; Subramaniam, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Dixon, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a putative protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, EC 5.3.4.1) from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and an antiserum was raised against the expressed PDI-active protein. The antiserum recognized a protein of approximately 60 kD in extracts from alfalfa, soybean, and tobacco roots and stems. Levels of this protein remained relatively constant on exposure of alfalfa cell suspension cultures to the protein glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin, whereas a slightly lower molecular mass form, also detected by the antiserum, was induced by this treatment. A lower molecular mass form of PDI was also observed in roots of alfalfa seedlings during the first 5 weeks after germination. PDI levels increased in developing soybean seeds up to 17 d after fertilization and then declined. Tissue print immunoblots revealed highest levels of PDI protein in the cambial tissues of soybean stems and petioles and in epidermal, subepidermal, cortical, and pith tissues of stems of alfalfa and tobacco. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the localization of PDI to the endoplasmic reticulum in soybean root nodules. PMID:12231974

  8. Changes in protein expression during honey bee larval development.

    PubMed

    Chan, Queenie W T; Foster, Leonard J

    2008-10-29

    The honey bee (Apis mellifera), besides its role in pollination and honey production, serves as a model for studying the biochemistry of development, metabolism, and immunity in a social organism. Here we use mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to quantify nearly 800 proteins during the 5- to 6-day larval developmental stage, tracking their expression profiles. We report that honey bee larval growth is marked by an age-correlated increase of protein transporters and receptors, as well as protein nutrient stores, while opposite trends in protein translation activity and turnover were observed. Levels of the immunity factors prophenoloxidase and apismin are positively correlated with development, while others surprisingly were not significantly age-regulated, suggesting a molecular explanation for why bees are susceptible to major age-associated bee bacterial infections such as American Foulbrood or fungal diseases such as chalkbrood. Previously unreported findings include the reduction of antioxidant and G proteins in aging larvae. These data have allowed us to integrate disparate findings in previous studies to build a model of metabolism and maturity of the immune system during larval development. This publicly accessible resource for protein expression trends will help generate new hypotheses in the increasingly important field of honey bee research.

  9. G-protein coupled receptor expression patterns delineate medulloblastoma subgroups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Genetic profiling has identified four principle tumor subgroups; each subgroup is characterized by different initiating mutations, genetic and clinical profiles, and prognoses. The two most well-defined subgroups are caused by overactive signaling in the WNT and SHH mitogenic pathways; less is understood about Groups 3 and 4 medulloblastoma. Identification of tumor subgroup using molecular classification is set to become an important component of medulloblastoma diagnosis and staging, and will likely guide therapeutic options. However, thus far, few druggable targets have emerged. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) possess characteristics that make them ideal targets for molecular imaging and therapeutics; drugs targeting GPCRs account for 30-40% of all current pharmaceuticals. While expression patterns of many proteins in human medulloblastoma subgroups have been discerned, the expression pattern of GPCRs in medulloblastoma has not been investigated. We hypothesized that analysis of GPCR expression would identify clear subsets of medulloblastoma and suggest distinct GPCRs that might serve as molecular targets for both imaging and therapy. Results Our study found that medulloblastoma tumors fall into distinct clusters based solely on GPCR expression patterns. Normal cerebellum clustered separately from the tumor samples. Further, two of the tumor clusters correspond with high fidelity to the WNT and SHH subgroups of medulloblastoma. Distinct over-expressed GPCRs emerge; for example, LGR5 and GPR64 are significantly and uniquely over-expressed in the WNT subgroup of tumors, while PTGER4 is over-expressed in the SHH subgroup. Uniquely under-expressed GPCRs were also observed. Our key findings were independently validated using a large international dataset. Conclusions Our results identify GPCRs with potential to act as imaging and therapeutic targets. Elucidating tumorigenic pathways

  10. Production of therapeutic proteins in algae, analysis of expression of seven human proteins in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Rasala, Beth A; Muto, Machiko; Lee, Philip A; Jager, Michal; Cardoso, Rosa MF; Behnke, Craig A; Kirk, Peter; Hokanson, Craig A; Crea, Roberto; Mendez, Michael; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recombinant proteins are widely used today in many industries, including the biopharmaceutical industry, and can be expressed in bacteria, yeasts, mammalian and insect cell cultures, or in transgenic plants and animals. In addition, transgenic algae have also been shown to support recombinant protein expression, both from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes. However, to date, there are only a few reports on recombinant proteins expressed in the algal chloroplast. It is unclear if this is due to few attempts or to limitations of the system that preclude expression of many proteins. Thus, we sought to assess the versatility of transgenic algae as a recombinant protein production platform. To do this, we tested whether the algal chloroplast could support the expression of a diverse set of current or potential human therapeutic proteins. Of the seven proteins chosen, greater than 50% expressed at levels sufficient for commercial production. Three expressed at 2% to 3% of total soluble protein, while a forth protein accumulated to similar levels when translationally fused to a well-expressed serum amyloid protein. All of the algal chloroplast-expressed proteins are soluble and showed biological activity comparable to that of the same proteins expressed using traditional production platforms. Thus, the success rate, expression levels, and bioactivty achieved demonstrate the utility of C. reinhardtii as a robust platform for human therapeutic protein production. PMID:20230484

  11. Claudin gene expression patterns do not associate with interspecific differences in paracellular nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Price, Edwin R; Rott, Katherine H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H

    2016-01-01

    Bats exhibit higher paracellular absorption of glucose-sized molecules than non-flying mammals, a phenomenon that may be driven by higher permeability of the intestinal tight junctions. The various claudins, occludin, and other proteins making up the tight junctions are thought to determine their permeability properties. Here we show that absorption of the paracellular probe l-arabinose is higher in a bat (Eptesicus fuscus) than in a vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) or a hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). Furthermore, histological measurements demonstrated that hedgehogs have many more enterocytes in their intestines, suggesting that bats cannot have higher absorption of arabinose simply by having more tight junctions. We therefore investigated the mRNA levels of several claudins and occludin, because these proteins may affect permeability of tight junctions to macronutrients. To assess the expression levels of claudins per tight junction, we normalized the mRNA levels of the claudins to the constitutively expressed tight junction protein ZO-1, and combined these with measurements previously made in a bat and a rodent to determine if there were among-species differences. Although expression ratios of several genes varied among species, there was not a consistent difference between bats and non-flyers in the expression ratio of any particular gene. Protein expression patterns may differ from mRNA expression patterns, and might better explain differences among species in arabinose absorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nociceptive DRG neurons express muscle lim protein upon axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Levin, Evgeny; Andreadaki, Anastasia; Gobrecht, Philipp; Bosse, Frank; Fischer, Dietmar

    2017-04-04

    Muscle lim protein (MLP) has long been regarded as a cytosolic and nuclear muscular protein. Here, we show that MLP is also expressed in a subpopulation of adult rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in response to axonal injury, while the protein was not detectable in naïve cells. Detailed immunohistochemical analysis of L4/L5 DRG revealed ~3% of MLP-positive neurons 2 days after complete sciatic nerve crush and maximum ~10% after 4-14 days. Similarly, in mixed cultures from cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral DRG ~6% of neurons were MLP-positive after 2 days and maximal 17% after 3 days. In both, histological sections and cell cultures, the protein was detected in the cytosol and axons of small diameter cells, while the nucleus remained devoid. Moreover, the vast majority could not be assigned to any of the well characterized canonical DRG subpopulations at 7 days after nerve injury. However, further analysis in cell culture revealed that the largest population of MLP expressing cells originated from non-peptidergic IB4-positive nociceptive neurons, which lose their ability to bind the lectin upon axotomy. Thus, MLP is mostly expressed in a subset of axotomized nociceptive neurons and can be used as a novel marker for this population of cells.

  13. Novel leukocyte protein, Trojan, differentially expressed during thymocyte development.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Petar; Motobu, Maki; Salmi, Jussi; Uchida, Tatsuya; Vainio, Olli

    2010-04-01

    "Trojan" is a novel cell surface protein, discovered from chicken embryonic thymocytes on the purpose to identify molecules involved in T cell differentiation. The molecule is predicted as a type I transmembrane protein having a Sushi and two fibronectin type III domains and a pair of intracellular phosphorylation sites. Its transcript expression is specific for lymphoid tissues and the presence of the protein on the surface of recirculating lymphocytes and macrophages was confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis. In thymus, about half of the double negative (CD4(-) CD8(-)) and CD8 single positive and the majority of CD4 single positive cells express Trojan with a relatively high intensity. However, only a minority of the double positive (CD4(+) CD8(+)) cells are positive for Trojan. This expression pattern, similar to that of some proteins with anti-apoptotic and function, like IL-7Ralpha, makes Trojan an attractive candidate of having an anti-apoptotic role. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative temporospatial expression profiling of murine amelotin protein during amelogenesis.

    PubMed

    Somogyi-Ganss, Eszter; Nakayama, Yohei; Iwasaki, Kengo; Nakano, Yukiko; Stolf, Daiana; McKee, Marc D; Ganss, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Tooth enamel is formed in a typical biomineralization process under the guidance of specific organic components. Amelotin (AMTN) is a recently identified, secreted protein that is transcribed predominantly during the maturation stage of enamel formation, but its protein expression profile throughout amelogenesis has not been described in detail. The main objective of this study was to define the spatiotemporal expression profile of AMTN during tooth development in comparison with other known enamel proteins. A peptide antibody against AMTN was raised in rabbits, affinity purified and used for immunohistochemical analyses on sagittal and transverse paraffin sections of decalcified mouse hemimandibles. The localization of AMTN was compared to that of known enamel proteins amelogenin, ameloblastin, enamelin, odontogenic ameloblast-associated/amyloid in Pindborg tumors and kallikrein 4. Three-dimensional images of AMTN localization in molars at selected ages were reconstructed from serial stained sections, and transmission electron microscopy was used for ultrastructural localization of AMTN. AMTN was detected in ameloblasts of molars in a transient fashion, declining at the time of tooth eruption. Prominent expression in maturation stage ameloblasts of the continuously erupting incisor persisted into adulthood. In contrast, amelogenin, ameloblastin and enamelin were predominantly found during the early secretory stage, while odontogenic ameloblast-associated/amyloid in Pindborg tumors and kallikrein 4 expression in maturation stage ameloblasts paralleled that of AMTN. Secreted AMTN was detected at the interface between ameloblasts and the mineralized enamel. Recombinant AMTN protein did not mediate cell attachment in vitro. These results suggest a primary role for AMTN in the late stages of enamel mineralization. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Prediction of essential proteins based on gene expression programming.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jiancheng; Wang, Jianxin; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Zhen; Pan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Essential proteins are indispensable for cell survive. Identifying essential proteins is very important for improving our understanding the way of a cell working. There are various types of features related to the essentiality of proteins. Many methods have been proposed to combine some of them to predict essential proteins. However, it is still a big challenge for designing an effective method to predict them by integrating different features, and explaining how these selected features decide the essentiality of protein. Gene expression programming (GEP) is a learning algorithm and what it learns specifically is about relationships between variables in sets of data and then builds models to explain these relationships. In this work, we propose a GEP-based method to predict essential protein by combing some biological features and topological features. We carry out experiments on S. cerevisiae data. The experimental results show that the our method achieves better prediction performance than those methods using individual features. Moreover, our method outperforms some machine learning methods and performs as well as a method which is obtained by combining the outputs of eight machine learning methods. The accuracy of predicting essential proteins can been improved by using GEP method to combine some topological features and biological features.

  16. Heterogeneity mapping of protein expression in tumors using quantitative immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Faratian, Dana; Christiansen, Jason; Gustavson, Mark; Jones, Christine; Scott, Christopher; Um, InHwa; Harrison, David J

    2011-10-25

    Morphologic heterogeneity within an individual tumor is well-recognized by histopathologists in surgical practice. While this often takes the form of areas of distinct differentiation into recognized histological subtypes, or different pathological grade, often there are more subtle differences in phenotype which defy accurate classification (Figure 1). Ultimately, since morphology is dictated by the underlying molecular phenotype, areas with visible differences are likely to be accompanied by differences in the expression of proteins which orchestrate cellular function and behavior, and therefore, appearance. The significance of visible and invisible (molecular) heterogeneity for prognosis is unknown, but recent evidence suggests that, at least at the genetic level, heterogeneity exists in the primary tumor(1,2), and some of these sub-clones give rise to metastatic (and therefore lethal) disease. Moreover, some proteins are measured as biomarkers because they are the targets of therapy (for instance ER and HER2 for tamoxifen and trastuzumab (Herceptin), respectively). If these proteins show variable expression within a tumor then therapeutic responses may also be variable. The widely used histopathologic scoring schemes for immunohistochemistry either ignore, or numerically homogenize the quantification of protein expression. Similarly, in destructive techniques, where the tumor samples are homogenized (such as gene expression profiling), quantitative information can be elucidated, but spatial information is lost. Genetic heterogeneity mapping approaches in pancreatic cancer have relied either on generation of a single cell suspension(3), or on macrodissection(4). A recent study has used quantum dots in order to map morphologic and molecular heterogeneity in prostate cancer tissue(5), providing proof of principle that morphology and molecular mapping is feasible, but falling short of quantifying the heterogeneity. Since immunohistochemistry is, at best, only semi

  17. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression

    SciT

    Deng Jianbei; Hua Kunjie; Caveney, Erica J.

    2006-01-20

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in themore » cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.« less

  18. Manipulating heat shock protein expression in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Tolson, J Keith; Roberts, Stephen M

    2005-02-01

    Upregulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) has been observed to impart resistance to a wide variety of physical and chemical insults. Elucidation of the role of Hsps in cellular defense processes depends, in part, on the ability to manipulate Hsp expression in laboratory animals. Simple methods of inducing whole body hyperthermia, such as warm water immersion or heating pad application, are effective in producing generalized expression of Hsps. Hsps can be upregulated locally with focused direct or indirect heating, such as with ultrasound or with laser or microwave radiation. Increased Hsp expression in response to toxic doses of xenobiotics has been commonly observed. Some pharmacologic agents are capable of altering Hsps more specifically by affecting processes involved in Hsp regulation. Gene manipulation offers the ability to selectively increase or decrease individual Hsps. Knockout mouse strains and Hsp-overexpressing transgenics have been used successfully to examine the role of specific Hsps in protection against hyperthermia, chemical insults, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Gene therapy approaches also offer the possibility of selective alteration of Hsp expression. Some methods of increasing Hsp expression have application in specialized areas of research, such cold response, myocardial protection from exercise, and responses to stressful or traumatic stimuli. Each method of manipulating Hsp expression in laboratory animals has advantages and disadvantages, and selection of the best method depends upon the experimental objectives (e.g., the alteration in Hsp expression needed, its timing, and its location) and resources available.

  19. Cooperative working of bacterial chromosome replication proteins generated by a reconstituted protein expression system

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Kei; Katayama, Tsutomu; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M.

    2013-01-01

    Replication of all living cells relies on the multirounds flow of the central dogma. Especially, expression of DNA replication proteins is a key step to circulate the processes of the central dogma. Here we achieved the entire sequential transcription–translation–replication process by autonomous expression of chromosomal DNA replication machineries from a reconstituted transcription–translation system (PURE system). We found that low temperature is essential to express a complex protein, DNA polymerase III, in a single tube using the PURE system. Addition of the 13 genes, encoding initiator, DNA helicase, helicase loader, RNA primase and DNA polymerase III to the PURE system gave rise to a DNA replication system by a coupling manner. An artificial genetic circuit demonstrated that the DNA produced as a result of the replication is able to provide genetic information for proteins, indicating the in vitro central dogma can sequentially undergo two rounds. PMID:23737447

  20. Reduced expression of CD45 Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase Pr

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-08

    H S /D T R A on A ugust 19, 2009 w w w .jbc.org D ow nloaded from PTP1B , CD45, TCPTP, LMPTP-A, LMPTP-B, MEG1, MEG2, HePTP, PTP), three belong to...the dual specificity phosphatase VHR or the protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B . Given these FIGURE 5. Mice expressing intermediate CD45 levels survive

  1. Expression of 16 Nitrogenase Proteins within the Plant Mitochondrial Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Robert S.; Tilbrook, Kimberley; Warden, Andrew C.; Campbell, Peter C.; Rolland, Vivien; Singh, Surinder P.; Wood, Craig C.

    2017-01-01

    The industrial production and use of nitrogenous fertilizer involves significant environmental and economic costs. Strategies to reduce fertilizer dependency are required to address the world's increasing demand for sustainable food, fibers, and biofuels. Biological nitrogen fixation, a process unique to diazatrophic bacteria, is catalyzed by the nitrogenase complex, and reconstituting this function in plant cells is an ambitious biotechnological strategy to reduce fertilizer use. Here we establish that the full array of biosynthetic and catalytic nitrogenase (Nif) proteins from the diazotroph Klebsiella pneumoniae can be individually expressed as mitochondrial targeting peptide (MTP)-Nif fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana. We show that these are correctly targeted to the plant mitochondrial matrix, a subcellular location with biochemical and genetic characteristics potentially supportive of nitrogenase function. Although Nif proteins B, D, E, F, H, J, K, M, N, Q, S, U, V, X, Y, and Z were all detectable by Western blot analysis, the NifD catalytic component was the least abundant. To address this problem, a translational fusion between NifD and NifK was designed based on the crystal structure of the nitrogenase MoFe protein heterodimer. This fusion protein enabled equimolar NifD:NifK stoichiometry and improved NifD expression levels in plants. Finally, four MTP-Nif fusion proteins (B, S, H, Y) were successfully co-expressed, demonstrating that multiple components of nitrogenase can be targeted to plant mitochondria. These results establish the feasibility of reconstituting the complete componentry for nitrogenase in plant cells, within an intracellular environment that could support the conversion of nitrogen gas into ammonia. PMID:28316608

  2. Inhibition of interferon-inducible MxA protein expression by hepatitis B virus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Rosmorduc, O; Sirma, H; Soussan, P; Gordien, E; Lebon, P; Horisberger, M; Bréchot, C; Kremsdorf, D

    1999-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis B treatment has been significantly improved by interferon (IFN) treatment. However, some studies have suggested that hepatitis B virus (HBV) might have a direct effect on the resistance to IFN. Defective particles, generated by spliced HBV RNA and associated with chronic hepatitis B, have been previously characterized; expression of these particles leads to cytoplasmic accumulation of the capsid protein. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these defective genomes in IFN resistance. The global antiviral activity of IFN was studied by virus yield reduction assays, the expression of three IFN-induced antiviral proteins was analysed by Western blotting and confocal microscopy, and the regulation of MxA gene expression was studied by Northern blotting and the luciferase assay, in Huh7 cells transfected with a complete or the defective HBV genome. Results showed that the expression of the defective genome reduces the antiviral activity of IFN and that this modulation involves a selective inhibition of MxA protein induction by the HBV capsid protein. Our results also show the trans-suppressive effect of the HBV capsid on the MxA promoter, which might participate in this phenomenon. In conclusion, this study shows a direct interplay between the IFN-sensitive pathway and the capsid protein and might implicate this defective HBV genome in virus persistence.

  3. Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.

    PubMed

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-06-01

    Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression and subcellular localization of a novel nuclear acetylcholinesterase protein.

    PubMed

    Santos, Susana Constantino Rosa; Vala, Inês; Miguel, Cláudia; Barata, João T; Garção, Pedro; Agostinho, Paula; Mendes, Marta; Coelho, Ana V; Calado, Angelo; Oliveira, Catarina R; e Silva, João Martins; Saldanha, Carlota

    2007-08-31

    Acetylcholine is found in the nervous system and also in other cell types (endothelium, lymphocytes, and epithelial and blood cells), which are globally termed the non-neuronal cholinergic system. In this study we investigated the expression and subcellular localization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in endothelial cells. Our results show the expression of the 70-kDa AChE in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. We also describe, for the first time, a nuclear and cytoskeleton-bound AChE isoform with approximately 55 kDa detected in endothelial cells. This novel isoform is decreased in response to vascular endothelial growth factor via the proteosomes pathway, and it is down-regulated in human leukemic T-cells as compared with normal T-cells, suggesting that the decreased expression of the 55-kDa AChE protein may contribute to an angiogenic response and associate with tumorigenesis. Importantly, we show that its nuclear expression is not endothelial cell-specific but also evidenced in non-neuronal and neuronal cells. Concerning neuronal cells, we can distinguish an exclusively nuclear expression in postnatal neurons in contrast to a cytoplasmic and nuclear expression in embryonic neurons, suggesting that the cell compartmentalization of this new AChE isoform is changed during the development of nervous system. Overall, our studies suggest that the 55-kDa AChE may be involved in different biological processes such as neural development, tumor progression, and angiogenesis.

  5. Abscisic Acid (ABA) Regulation of Arabidopsis SR Protein Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Tiago M. D.; Carvalho, Raquel F.; Richardson, Dale N.; Duque, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. Indeed, mounting evidence implicates splicing factors in signal transduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone, which plays pivotal roles in the response to various abiotic stresses. Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis-acting elements. Overall, this study pinpoints SR34, SR34b, SCL30a, SCL28, SCL33, RS40, SR45 and SR45a as promising candidates for involvement in ABA-mediated stress responses. PMID:25268622

  6. Unique expression of cytoskeletal proteins in human soft palate muscles.

    PubMed

    Shah, Farhan; Berggren, Diana; Holmlund, Thorbjörn; Levring Jäghagen, Eva; Stål, Per

    2016-03-01

    The human oropharyngeal muscles have a unique anatomy with diverse and intricate functions. To investigate if this specialization is also reflected in the cytoarchitecture of muscle fibers, intermediate filament proteins and the dystrophin-associated protein complex have been analyzed in two human palate muscles, musculus uvula (UV) and musculus palatopharyngeus (PP), with immunohistochenmical and morphological techniques. Human limb muscles were used as reference. The findings show that the soft palate muscle fibers have a cytoskeletal architecture that differs from the limb muscles. While all limb muscles showed immunoreaction for a panel of antibodies directed against different domains of cytoskeletal proteins desmin and dystrophin, a subpopulation of palate muscle fibers lacked or had a faint immunoreaction for desmin (UV 11.7% and PP 9.8%) and the C-terminal of the dystrophin molecule (UV 4.2% and PP 6.4%). The vast majority of these fibers expressed slow contractile protein myosin heavy chain I. Furthermore, an unusual staining pattern was also observed in these fibers for β-dystroglycan, caveolin-3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase nNOS, which are all membrane-linking proteins associated with the dystrophin C-terminus. While the immunoreaction for nNOS was generally weak or absent, β-dystroglycan and caveolin-3 showed a stronger immunostaining. The absence or a low expression of cytoskeletal proteins otherwise considered ubiquitous and important for integration and contraction of muscle cells indicate a unique cytoarchitecture designed to meet the intricate demands of the upper airway muscles. It can be concluded that a subgroup of muscle fibers in the human soft palate appears to have special biomechanical properties, and their unique cytoarchitecture must be taken into account while assessing function and pathology in oropharyngeal muscles. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  7. Mutational Analysis of the Rift Valley Fever Virus Glycoprotein Precursor Proteins for Gn Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Inaia; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Nishiyama, Shoko; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2016-05-24

    The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) M-segment encodes the 78 kD, NSm, Gn, and Gc proteins. The 1st AUG generates the 78 kD-Gc precursor, the 2nd AUG generates the NSm-Gn-Gc precursor, and the 3rd AUG makes the NSm'-Gn-Gc precursor. To understand biological changes due to abolishment of the precursors, we quantitatively measured Gn secretion using a reporter assay, in which a Gaussia luciferase (gLuc) protein is fused to the RVFV M-segment pre-Gn region. Using the reporter assay, the relative expression of Gn/gLuc fusion proteins was analyzed among various AUG mutants. The reporter assay showed efficient secretion of Gn/gLuc protein from the precursor made from the 2nd AUG, while the removal of the untranslated region upstream of the 2nd AUG (AUG2-M) increased the secretion of the Gn/gLuc protein. Subsequently, recombinant MP-12 strains encoding mutations in the pre-Gn region were rescued, and virological phenotypes were characterized. Recombinant MP-12 encoding the AUG2-M mutation replicated slightly less efficiently than the control, indicating that viral replication is further influenced by the biological processes occurring after Gn expression, rather than the Gn abundance. This study showed that, not only the abolishment of AUG, but also the truncation of viral UTR, affects the expression of Gn protein by the RVFV M-segment.

  8. Mutational Analysis of the Rift Valley Fever Virus Glycoprotein Precursor Proteins for Gn Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Phoenix, Inaia; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Nishiyama, Shoko; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) M-segment encodes the 78 kD, NSm, Gn, and Gc proteins. The 1st AUG generates the 78 kD-Gc precursor, the 2nd AUG generates the NSm-Gn-Gc precursor, and the 3rd AUG makes the NSm’-Gn-Gc precursor. To understand biological changes due to abolishment of the precursors, we quantitatively measured Gn secretion using a reporter assay, in which a Gaussia luciferase (gLuc) protein is fused to the RVFV M-segment pre-Gn region. Using the reporter assay, the relative expression of Gn/gLuc fusion proteins was analyzed among various AUG mutants. The reporter assay showed efficient secretion of Gn/gLuc protein from the precursor made from the 2nd AUG, while the removal of the untranslated region upstream of the 2nd AUG (AUG2-M) increased the secretion of the Gn/gLuc protein. Subsequently, recombinant MP-12 strains encoding mutations in the pre-Gn region were rescued, and virological phenotypes were characterized. Recombinant MP-12 encoding the AUG2-M mutation replicated slightly less efficiently than the control, indicating that viral replication is further influenced by the biological processes occurring after Gn expression, rather than the Gn abundance. This study showed that, not only the abolishment of AUG, but also the truncation of viral UTR, affects the expression of Gn protein by the RVFV M-segment. PMID:27231931

  9. Expression of proteins in Escherichia coli as fusions with maltose-binding protein to rescue non-expressed targets in a high-throughput protein-expression and purification pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Stephen N.; Choi, Ryan; Kelley, Angela; Crowther, Gregory J.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent advances, the expression of heterologous proteins in Escherichia coli for crystallization remains a nontrivial challenge. The present study investigates the efficacy of maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion as a general strategy for rescuing the expression of target proteins. From a group of sequence-verified clones with undetectable levels of protein expression in an E. coli T7 expression system, 95 clones representing 16 phylogenetically diverse organisms were selected for recloning into a chimeric expression vector with an N-terminal histidine-tagged MBP. PCR-amplified inserts were annealed into an identical ligation-independent cloning region in an MBP-fusion vector and were analyzed for expression and solubility by high-throughput nickel-affinity binding. This approach yielded detectable expression of 72% of the clones; soluble expression was visible in 62%. However, the solubility of most proteins was marginal to poor upon cleavage of the MBP tag. This study offers large-scale evidence that MBP can improve the soluble expression of previously non-expressing proteins from a variety of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. While the behavior of the cleaved proteins was disappointing, further refinements in MBP tagging may permit the more widespread use of MBP-fusion proteins in crystallographic studies. PMID:21904041

  10. An inducible expression system for high-level expression of recombinant proteins in slow growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Lisa; Spratt, Joanne M; Kong, Carlyn U; Triccas, James A

    2015-09-01

    A novel protein expression vector utilising the inducible hspX promoter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was constructed and evaluated in this study. High-level induction of three mycobacterial antigens, comprising up to 9% of bacterial sonicate, was demonstrated in recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG when grown under low-oxygen tension, which serves to enhance hspX promoter activity. Recombinant proteins were efficiently purified from bacterial lysates in a soluble form by virtue of a C-terminal 6-histidine tag. Purification of the immunodominant M. tuberculosis Ag85B antigen using this system resulted in a recombinant protein that stimulated significant IFN-γ release from Ag85B-reactive T cells generated after vaccination of mice with an Ag85B-expressing vaccine. Further, the M. tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) protein purified from recombinant BCG displayed strong enzymatic activity in recombinant form. This study demonstrated that high levels of native-like recombinant mycobacterial proteins can be produced in mycobacterial hosts, and this may aid the analysis of mycobacterial protein function and the development of new treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cloning and expression analysis of a novel G-protein-coupled receptor selectively expressed on granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, S; Cooper, P R; Potter, S L; Mueck, B; Jarai, G

    2001-06-01

    The migration of neutrophils into sites of acute and chronic inflammation is mediated by chemokines. We used degenerate-primer reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to analyze chemokine receptor expression in neutrophils and identify novel receptors. RNA was isolated from human peripheral blood neutrophils and from neutrophils that had been stimulated for 5 h with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or by coculturing with primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Amplification products were cloned, and clone redundancy was determined. Seven known G-protein-coupled receptors were identified among 38 clones-CCR1, CCR4, CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR4, HM63, and FPR1-as well as a novel gene, EX33. The full-length EX33 clone was obtained, and an in silico approach was used to identify the putative murine homologue. The EX33 gene encodes a 396-amino-acid protein with limited sequence identity to known receptors. Expression studies of several known chemokine receptors and EX33 revealed that resting neutrophils expressed higher levels of CXCRs and EX33 compared with activated neutrophils. Northern blot experiments revealed that EX33 is expressed mainly in bone marrow, lung, and peripheral blood leukocytes. Using RT-PCR analysis, we showed more abundant expression of EX33 in neutrophils and eosinophils, in comparison with that in T- or B-lymphocytes, indicating cell-specific expression among leukocytes.

  12. Expression of P53 protein after exposure to ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, A. M.; Salvador, C.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Ostrosky, P.; Brandan, M. E.

    2001-10-01

    One of the most important tumor suppressor genes is p53 gene, which is involved in apoptotic cell death, cell differentiation and cell cycle arrest. The expression of p53 gene can be evaluated by determining the presence of P53 protein in cells using Western Blot assay with a chemiluminescent method. This technique has shown variabilities that are due to biological factors. Film developing process can influence the quality of the p53 bands obtained. We irradiated tumor cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes with 137Cs and 60Co gamma rays to standardize irradiation conditions, to compare ionizing radiation with actinomycin D and to reduce the observed variability of P53 protein induction levels. We found that increasing radiation doses increase P53 protein induction while it decreases viability. We also conclude that ionizing radiation could serve as a positive control for Western Blot analysis of protein P53. In addition, our results show that the developing process may play an important role in the quality of P53 protein bands and data interpretation.

  13. Expression Atlas: gene and protein expression across multiple studies and organisms

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Y Amy; Bazant, Wojciech; Burke, Melissa; Fuentes, Alfonso Muñoz-Pomer; George, Nancy; Koskinen, Satu; Mohammed, Suhaib; Geniza, Matthew; Preece, Justin; Jarnuczak, Andrew F; Huber, Wolfgang; Stegle, Oliver; Brazma, Alvis; Petryszak, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Expression Atlas (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/gxa) is an added value database that provides information about gene and protein expression in different species and contexts, such as tissue, developmental stage, disease or cell type. The available public and controlled access data sets from different sources are curated and re-analysed using standardized, open source pipelines and made available for queries, download and visualization. As of August 2017, Expression Atlas holds data from 3,126 studies across 33 different species, including 731 from plants. Data from large-scale RNA sequencing studies including Blueprint, PCAWG, ENCODE, GTEx and HipSci can be visualized next to each other. In Expression Atlas, users can query genes or gene-sets of interest and explore their expression across or within species, tissues, developmental stages in a constitutive or differential context, representing the effects of diseases, conditions or experimental interventions. All processed data matrices are available for direct download in tab-delimited format or as R-data. In addition to the web interface, data sets can now be searched and downloaded through the Expression Atlas R package. Novel features and visualizations include the on-the-fly analysis of gene set overlaps and the option to view gene co-expression in experiments investigating constitutive gene expression across tissues or other conditions. PMID:29165655

  14. The expression of cytoskeleton regulatory protein Mena in colorectal lesions.

    PubMed

    Gurzu, Simona; Jung, I; Prantner, I; Ember, I; Pávai, Z; Mezei, T

    2008-01-01

    The actin regulatory proteins Ena/VASP (Enabled/Vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein) family is involved in the control of cell motility and adhesion. They are important in the actin-dependent processes where dynamic actin reorganization it is necessary. The deregulation of actin cycle could have an important role in the cells' malignant transformation, tumor invasion or metastasis. Recently studies revealed that the human orthologue of murine Mena is modulated during the breast carcinogenesis. In our study, we tried to observe the immunohistochemical expression of mammalian Ena (Mena) in the colorectal polyps and carcinomas. We analyzed 10 adenomatous polyps (five with dysplasia) and 36 adenocarcinomas. We used the indirect immunoperoxidase staining. BD Biosciences have provided the Mena antibody. We observed that Mena was not expressed in the normal colorectal mucosa neither in polyps without dysplasia, but its expression was very high in polyps with high dysplasia. In colorectal carcinomas, Mena marked the tumoral cells in 80% of cases. In 25% of positive cases, the intensity was 3+, in 60% 2+ and in the other 15% 1+. The Mena intensity was higher in the microsatellite stable tumors (MSS) and was correlated with vascular invasion, with intensity of angiogenesis marked with CD31 and CD105 and with c-erbB-2 and p53 expression. This is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in colorectal lesions.

  15. Intermediate filament protein nestin is expressed in developing meninges.

    PubMed

    Yay, A; Ozdamar, S; Canoz, O; Baran, M; Tucer, B; Sonmez, M F

    2014-01-01

    Nestin is a type VI intermediate filament protein known as a marker for progenitor cells that can be mostly found in tissues during the embryonic and fetal periods. In our study, we aimed to determine the expression of nestin in meninges covering the brain tissue at different developmental stages and in the new born. In this study 10 human fetuses in different development stages between developmental weeks 9-34 and a newborn brain tissue were used. Fetuses in paraffin section were stained with H+E and nestin immunohistochemical staining protocol was performed. In this study, in the human meninges intense nestin expression was detected as early as in the 9th week of development. Intensity of this expression gradually decreased in later stages of development and nestin expression still persisted in a small population of newborn meningeal cells. In the present study, nestin positive cells gradually diminished in the developing and maturing meninges during the fetal period. This probably depends on initiation of a decrease in nestin expression and replacement with other tissue-specific intermediate filaments while the differentiation process continues. These differences can make significant contributions to the investigation and diagnosis of various pathological disorders (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 36).

  16. Expression of recombinant green fluorescent protein in Bacillus methanolicus.

    PubMed

    Nilasari, Dewi; Dover, Nir; Rech, Sabine; Komives, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Microbial biocatalysts are used in a wide range of industries to produce large scale quantities of proteins, amino acids, and commodity chemicals. While the majority of these processes use glucose or other low-cost sugars as the substrate, Bacillus methanolicus is one example of a biocatalyst that has shown sustained growth on methanol as a carbon source at elevated temperature (50-53°C optimum) resulting in reduced feed and utility costs. Specifically, the complete chemical process enabled by this approach takes methane from natural gas, and following a low-cost conversion to methanol, can be used for the production of high value products. In this study, production of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) by B. methanolicus is explored. A plasmid was constructed that incorporates the methanol dehydrogenase (mdh) promoter of B. methanolicus MGA3 together with the GFPuv gene. The plasmid, pNW33N, was shown to be effective for expression in other Bacillus strains, although not previously in B. methanolicus. A published electroporation protocol for transformation of B. methanolicus was modified to result in expression of GFP using plasmid pNW33N-mdh-GFPuv (pNmG). Transformation was confirmed by both agarose gel electrophoresis and by observation of green fluorescence under UV light exposure. The mass yield of cells and protein were measured in shake flask experiments. The optimum concentration of methanol for protein production was found to be at 200 mM. Higher concentrations than 200 mM resulted in slightly higher biomass production but lower amounts of recombinant protein. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  17. Blue Light Modulates Murine Microglial Gene Expression in the Absence of Optogenetic Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kevin P; Kiernan, Elizabeth A; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Williams, Justin C; Watters, Jyoti J

    2016-02-17

    Neural optogenetic applications over the past decade have steadily increased; however the effects of commonly used blue light paradigms on surrounding, non-optogenetic protein-expressing CNS cells are rarely considered, despite their simultaneous exposure. Here we report that blue light (450 nm) repetitively delivered in both long-duration boluses and rapid optogenetic bursts gene-specifically altered basal expression of inflammatory and neurotrophic genes in immortalized and primary murine wild type microglial cultures. In addition, blue light reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression in microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide. These results demonstrate previously unreported, off-target effects of blue light in cells not expressing optogenetic constructs. The unexpected gene modulatory effects of blue light on wild type CNS resident immune cells have novel and important implications for the neuro-optogenetic field. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic utility of blue light modulation of the wild type CNS.

  18. Blue Light Modulates Murine Microglial Gene Expression in the Absence of Optogenetic Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kevin P.; Kiernan, Elizabeth A.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Williams, Justin C.; Watters, Jyoti J.

    2016-01-01

    Neural optogenetic applications over the past decade have steadily increased; however the effects of commonly used blue light paradigms on surrounding, non-optogenetic protein-expressing CNS cells are rarely considered, despite their simultaneous exposure. Here we report that blue light (450 nm) repetitively delivered in both long-duration boluses and rapid optogenetic bursts gene-specifically altered basal expression of inflammatory and neurotrophic genes in immortalized and primary murine wild type microglial cultures. In addition, blue light reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression in microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide. These results demonstrate previously unreported, off-target effects of blue light in cells not expressing optogenetic constructs. The unexpected gene modulatory effects of blue light on wild type CNS resident immune cells have novel and important implications for the neuro-optogenetic field. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic utility of blue light modulation of the wild type CNS. PMID:26883795

  19. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) influences epithelial barrier function by regulating Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin expression

    SciT

    Severson, Eric A.; Kwon, Mike; Hilgarth, Roland S.

    2010-07-02

    The Apical Junctional Complex (AJC) encompassing the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) plays a pivotal role in regulating epithelial barrier function and epithelial cell proliferative processes through signaling events that remain poorly characterized. A potential regulator of AJC protein expression is Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 is a constitutively active kinase that is repressed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we report that GSK-3 activity regulates the structure and function of the AJC in polarized model intestinal (SK-CO15) and kidney (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)) epithelial cells. Reduction of GSK-3 activity, either by small molecule inhibitors ormore » siRNA targeting GSK-3 alpha and beta mRNA, resulted in increased permeability to both ions and bulk solutes. Immunofluorescence labeling and immunoblot analyses revealed that the barrier defects correlated with decreased protein expression of AJC transmembrane proteins Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin without influencing other TJ proteins, Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Junctional Adhesion Molecule A (JAM-A). The decrease in Occludin and E-cadherin protein expression correlated with downregulation of the corresponding mRNA levels for these respective proteins following GSK-3 inhibition. These observations implicate an important role of GSK-3 in the regulation of the structure and function of the AJC that is mediated by differential modulation of mRNA transcription of key AJC proteins, Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin.« less

  20. Functional modules by relating protein interaction networks and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tornow, Sabine; Mewes, H W

    2003-11-01

    Genes and proteins are organized on the basis of their particular mutual relations or according to their interactions in cellular and genetic networks. These include metabolic or signaling pathways and protein interaction, regulatory or co-expression networks. Integrating the information from the different types of networks may lead to the notion of a functional network and functional modules. To find these modules, we propose a new technique which is based on collective, multi-body correlations in a genetic network. We calculated the correlation strength of a group of genes (e.g. in the co-expression network) which were identified as members of a module in a different network (e.g. in the protein interaction network) and estimated the probability that this correlation strength was found by chance. Groups of genes with a significant correlation strength in different networks have a high probability that they perform the same function. Here, we propose evaluating the multi-body correlations by applying the superparamagnetic approach. We compare our method to the presently applied mean Pearson correlations and show that our method is more sensitive in revealing functional relationships.

  1. Functional modules by relating protein interaction networks and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Tornow, Sabine; Mewes, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    Genes and proteins are organized on the basis of their particular mutual relations or according to their interactions in cellular and genetic networks. These include metabolic or signaling pathways and protein interaction, regulatory or co-expression networks. Integrating the information from the different types of networks may lead to the notion of a functional network and functional modules. To find these modules, we propose a new technique which is based on collective, multi-body correlations in a genetic network. We calculated the correlation strength of a group of genes (e.g. in the co-expression network) which were identified as members of a module in a different network (e.g. in the protein interaction network) and estimated the probability that this correlation strength was found by chance. Groups of genes with a significant correlation strength in different networks have a high probability that they perform the same function. Here, we propose evaluating the multi-body correlations by applying the superparamagnetic approach. We compare our method to the presently applied mean Pearson correlations and show that our method is more sensitive in revealing functional relationships. PMID:14576317

  2. Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Is Exacerbated in Experimental Model of Hepatic Encephalopathy via MMP-9 Activation and Downregulation of Tight Junction Proteins.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Saurabh; Sandhir, Rajat

    2018-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in bile duct ligation (BDL) model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Four weeks after BDL surgery, a significant increase was observed in serum bilirubin levels. Masson trichrome staining revealed severe hepatic fibrosis in the BDL rats. 99m Tc-mebrofenin retention was increased in the liver of BDL rats suggesting impaired hepatobiliary transport. An increase in permeability to sodium fluorescein, Evans blue, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran along with increase in water and electrolyte content was observed in brain regions of BDL rats suggesting disrupted BBB. Increased brain water content can be attributed to increase in aquaporin-4 mRNA and protein expression in BDL rats. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mRNA and protein expression was increased in brain regions of BDL rats. Additionally, mRNA and protein expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) was also increased in different regions of brain. A significant decrease in mRNA expression and protein levels of tight junction proteins, viz., occludin, claudin-5, and zona occluden-1 (ZO-1) was observed in different brain regions of BDL rats. VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression was also found to be significantly upregulated in different brain regions of BDL animals. The findings from the study suggest that increased BBB permeability in HE involves activation of MMP-9 and loss of tight junction proteins.

  3. Common and specific signatures of gene expression and protein-protein interactions in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Tuller, T; Atar, S; Ruppin, E; Gurevich, M; Achiron, A

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to understand intracellular regulatory mechanisms in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which are either common to many autoimmune diseases or specific to some of them. We incorporated large-scale data such as protein-protein interactions, gene expression and demographical information of hundreds of patients and healthy subjects, related to six autoimmune diseases with available large-scale gene expression measurements: multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). These data were analyzed concurrently by statistical and systems biology approaches tailored for this purpose. We found that chemokines such as CXCL1-3, 5, 6 and the interleukin (IL) IL8 tend to be differentially expressed in PBMCs of patients with the analyzed autoimmune diseases. In addition, the anti-apoptotic gene BCL3, interferon-γ (IFNG), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene physically interact with significantly many genes that tend to be differentially expressed in PBMCs of patients with the analyzed autoimmune diseases. In general, similar cellular processes tend to be differentially expressed in PBMC in the analyzed autoimmune diseases. Specifically, the cellular processes related to cell proliferation (for example, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, nuclear factor-κB, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, stress-activated protein kinase c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase), inflammatory response (for example, interleukins IL2 and IL6, the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and the B-cell receptor), general signaling cascades (for example, mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 and TRK) and apoptosis are activated in most of the analyzed autoimmune diseases. However, our results suggest that in each of the analyzed diseases, apoptosis and chemotaxis are activated via

  4. Vascular endothelial cells express isoforms of protein kinase A inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lum, Hazel; Hao, Zengping; Gayle, Dave; Kumar, Priyadarsini; Patterson, Carolyn E; Uhler, Michael D

    2002-01-01

    The expression and function of the endogenous inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKI) in endothelial cells are unknown. In this study, overexpression of rabbit muscle PKI gene into endothelial cells inhibited the cAMP-mediated increase and exacerbated thrombin-induced decrease in endothelial barrier function. We investigated PKI expression in human pulmonary artery (HPAECs), foreskin microvessel (HMECs), and brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMECs). RT-PCR using specific primers for human PKI alpha, human PKI gamma, and mouse PKI beta sequences detected PKI alpha and PKI gamma mRNA in all three cell types. Sequencing and BLAST analysis indicated that forward and reverse DNA strands for PKI alpha and PKI gamma were of >96% identity with database sequences. RNase protection assays showed protection of the 542 nucleotides in HBMEC and HPAEC PKI alpha mRNA and 240 nucleotides in HBMEC, HPAEC, and HMEC PKI gamma mRNA. Western blot analysis indicated that PKI gamma protein was detected in all three cell types, whereas PKI alpha was found in HBMECs. In summary, endothelial cells from three different vascular beds express PKI alpha and PKI gamma, which may be physiologically important in endothelial barrier function.

  5. Structure and expression of a novel compact myelin protein – Small VCP-interacting protein (SVIP)

    SciT

    Wu, Jiawen; Peng, Dungeng; Voehler, Markus

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •SVIP (small p97/VCP-interacting protein) co-localizes with myelin basic protein (MBP) in compact myelin. •We determined that SVIP is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). •The helical content of SVIP increases dramatically during its interaction with negatively charged lipid membrane. •This study provides structural insight into interactions between SVIP and myelin membranes. -- Abstract: SVIP (small p97/VCP-interacting protein) was initially identified as one of many cofactors regulating the valosin containing protein (VCP), an AAA+ ATPase involved in endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Our previous study showed that SVIP is expressed exclusively in the nervous system. In the present study, SVIP and VCPmore » were seen to be co-localized in neuronal cell bodies. Interestingly, we also observed that SVIP co-localizes with myelin basic protein (MBP) in compact myelin, where VCP was absent. Furthermore, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic measurements, we determined that SVIP is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). However, upon binding to the surface of membranes containing a net negative charge, the helical content of SVIP increases dramatically. These findings provide structural insight into interactions between SVIP and myelin membranes.« less

  6. Effect of Leptospira interrogans outer membrane proteins LipL32 on HUVEC.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhan; Bao, Lang; Li, DaoKun; Huang, Bi; Wu, Bingting

    2010-09-01

    Leptospira cause disease through a toxin-mediated process by inducing vascular injury, particularly a small-vessel vasculitis. Breakdown of vessel endothelial cell integrity may increase vessel permeability which is correlated with the changes of tight junction and/or apoptosis in vessel endothelial cells. The specific toxin responsible remains unidentified. In this study, we amplified outer membrane protein LipL32 from the genome of Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai, and it was subcloned in pET32a(+) vector to express thioredoxin(Trx)-LipL32 fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The protein was expressed and purified, and Trx-LipL32 was administered to culture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to elucidate the role of leptospiral outer membrane proteins in vessel endothelial cell. The purified recombinant protein was capable to increase the permeability of HUVECs. And the protein was able to decrease the expression of ZO-1 and induce F-actin in HUVECs display thickening and clustering. Moreover, apoptosis of HUVEC was significantly accelerated. But the fusion partner had no effect in these regards. It is possible that LipL32 is involved in the vessel lesions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ALK amplification and protein expression predict inferior prognosis in neuroblastomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Zhou, Chunju; Sun, Qinnuan; Cai, Rongqin; Li, Yong; Wang, Daye; Gong, Liping

    2013-10-01

    ALK gene has been identified as a major neuroblastoma (NBL) predisposition gene. But ALK gene copy number and protein expression in ganglioneuroblastoma (GNBL) and ganglioneuroma (GN) are poorly described in the literature. Furthermore, there are controversies on the correlation between ALK protein expression and clinical outcome in NBL. We evaluated MYCN/ALK gene copy number by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and detected ALK protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 188 NBL, 52 GNBL and 6 GN samples and analyzed their association with clinical outcome of the patients. Although ALK gene copy number increase is a recurrent genetic aberration of neuroblastic tumors (NTs) (39.1%, 96/246), ALK amplification was only present in three NBLs (1.2%, 3/246). The frequency of ALK positivity in NBL (50.5%, 51/101) was significantly higher than in GNBL (22.6%, 7/31) and in GN (0.0%, 0/4) (P<0.05). In addition, ALK positivity also significantly correlates with MYCN/ALK gene copy number increases (P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that MYCN/ALK amplification is correlated with decreased overall survival in NBL. A better prognosis trend was observed in patients with MYCN/ALK gain tumors compared with those with MYCN/ALK normal tumors. Furthermore, ALK positivity significantly correlated with inferior survival in NBL (P=0.044). ALK positivity in NTs correlated with advanced tumor types and MYCN/ALK gene copy number increases. ALK positivity predicts inferior prognosis in NBL and IHC is a simplified strategy to screen ALK positivity in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression and Production of SH2 Domain Proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bernard A; Ogiue-Ikeda, Mari; Machida, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    The Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain lies at the heart of phosphotyrosine signaling, coordinating signaling events downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), adaptors, and scaffolds. Over a hundred SH2 domains are present in mammals, each having a unique specificity which determines its interactions with multiple binding partners. One of the essential tools necessary for studying and determining the role of SH2 domains in phosphotyrosine signaling is a set of soluble recombinant SH2 proteins. Here we describe methods, based on a broad experience with purification of all SH2 domains, for the production of SH2 domain proteins needed for proteomic and biochemical-based studies such as peptide arrays, mass-spectrometry, protein microarrays, reverse-phase microarrays, and high-throughput fluorescence polarization (HTP-FP). We describe stepwise protocols for expression and purification of SH2 domains using GST or poly His-tags, two widely adopted affinity tags. In addition, we address alternative approaches, challenges, and validation studies for assessing protein quality and provide general characteristics of purified human SH2 domains.

  9. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    PubMed Central

    Assenberg, René; Delmas, Olivier; Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.; Bourhy, Hervé; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6122 or P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress. PMID:18391421

  10. Altered gravity downregulates aquaporin-1 protein expression in choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Masseguin, C; Corcoran, M; Carcenac, C; Daunton, N G; Güell, A; Verkman, A S; Gabrion, J

    2000-03-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is a water channel expressed abundantly at the apical pole of choroidal epithelial cells. The protein expression was quantified by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy in adult rats adapted to altered gravity. AQP1 expression was decreased by 64% at the apical pole of choroidal cells in rats dissected 5.5-8 h after a 14-day spaceflight. AQP1 was significantly overexpressed in rats readapted for 2 days to Earth's gravity after an 11-day flight (48% overshoot, when compared with the value measured in control rats). In a ground-based model that simulates some effects of weightlessness and alters choroidal structures and functions, apical AQP1 expression was reduced by 44% in choroid plexus from rats suspended head down for 14 days and by 69% in rats suspended for 28 days. Apical AQP1 was rapidly enhanced in choroid plexus of rats dissected 6 h after a 14-day suspension (57% overshoot, in comparison with control rats) and restored to the control level when rats were dissected 2 days after the end of a 14-day suspension. Decreases in the apical expression of choroidal AQP1 were also noted in rats adapted to hypergravity in the NASA 24-ft centrifuge: AQP1 expression was reduced by 47% and 85% in rats adapted for 14 days to 2 G and 3 G, respectively. AQP1 is downregulated in the apical membrane of choroidal cells in response to altered gravity and is rapidly restored after readaptation to normal gravity. This suggests that water transport, which is partly involved in the choroidal production of cerebrospinal fluid, might be decreased during spaceflight and after chronic hypergravity.

  11. Expression of goose parvovirus whole VP3 protein and its epitopes in Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Tarasiuk, K; Woźniakowski, G; Holec-Gąsior, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the expression of goose parvovirus capsid protein (VP3) and its epitopes in Escherichia coli cells. Expression of the whole VP3 protein provided an insufficient amount of protein. In contrast, the expression of two VP3 epitopes (VP3ep4, VP3ep6) in E. coli, resulted in very high expression levels. This may suggest that smaller parts of the GPV antigenic determinants are more efficiently expressed than the complete VP3 gene.

  12. Complexity of Gene Expression Evolution after Duplication: Protein Dosage Rebalancing

    PubMed Central

    Rogozin, Igor B.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing debates about functional importance of gene duplications have been recently intensified by a heated discussion of the “ortholog conjecture” (OC). Under the OC, which is central to functional annotation of genomes, orthologous genes are functionally more similar than paralogous genes at the same level of sequence divergence. However, a recent study challenged the OC by reporting a greater functional similarity, in terms of gene ontology (GO) annotations and expression profiles, among within-species paralogs compared to orthologs. These findings were taken to indicate that functional similarity of homologous genes is primarily determined by the cellular context of the genes, rather than evolutionary history. Subsequent studies suggested that the OC appears to be generally valid when applied to mammalian evolution but the complete picture of evolution of gene expression also has to incorporate lineage-specific aspects of paralogy. The observed complexity of gene expression evolution after duplication can be explained through selection for gene dosage effect combined with the duplication-degeneration-complementation model. This paper discusses expression divergence of recent duplications occurring before functional divergence of proteins encoded by duplicate genes. PMID:25197576

  13. High-Throughput Protein Expression Using a Combination of Ligation-Independent Cloning (LIC) and Infrared Fluorescent Protein (IFP) Detection

    PubMed Central

    Dortay, Hakan; Akula, Usha Madhuri; Westphal, Christin; Sittig, Marie; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Protein expression in heterologous hosts for functional studies is a cumbersome effort. Here, we report a superior platform for parallel protein expression in vivo and in vitro. The platform combines highly efficient ligation-independent cloning (LIC) with instantaneous detection of expressed proteins through N- or C-terminal fusions to infrared fluorescent protein (IFP). For each open reading frame, only two PCR fragments are generated (with three PCR primers) and inserted by LIC into ten expression vectors suitable for protein expression in microbial hosts, including Escherichia coli, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, the protozoon Leishmania tarentolae, and an in vitro transcription/translation system. Accumulation of IFP-fusion proteins is detected by infrared imaging of living cells or crude protein extracts directly after SDS-PAGE without additional processing. We successfully employed the LIC-IFP platform for in vivo and in vitro expression of ten plant and fungal proteins, including transcription factors and enzymes. Using the IFP reporter, we additionally established facile methods for the visualisation of protein-protein interactions and the detection of DNA-transcription factor interactions in microtiter and gel-free format. We conclude that IFP represents an excellent reporter for high-throughput protein expression and analysis, which can be easily extended to numerous other expression hosts using the setup reported here. PMID:21541323

  14. A 3-Protein Expression Signature of Neuroblastoma for Outcome Prediction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi; Xu, Hua; Fang, Fang; Li, Zhiheng; Zhou, Huiting; Pan, Jian; Guo, Wanliang; Zhu, Xueming; Wang, Jian; Wu, Yi

    2018-05-22

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children with contrasting outcomes. Precise risk assessment contributes to prognosis prediction, which is critical for treatment strategy decisions. In this study, we developed a 3-protein predictor model, including the neural stem cell marker Msi1, neural differentiation marker ID1, and proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), to improve clinical risk assessment of patients with NB. Kaplan-Meier analysis in the microarray data (GSE16476) revealed that low expression of ID1 and high expression of Msi1 and PCNA were associated with poor prognosis in NB patients. Combined application of these 3 markers to constitute a signature further stratified NB patients into different risk subgroups can help obtain more accurate prediction performance. Survival prognostic power of age and Msi1_ID1_PCNA signature by receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that this signature predicted more effectively and sensitively compared with classic risk stratification system, compensating for the deficiency of the prediction function of the age. Furthermore, we validated the expressions of these 3 proteins in neuroblastic tumor spectrum tissues by immunohistochemistry revealed that Msi1 and PCNA exhibited increased expression in NB compared with intermedial ganglioneuroblastoma and benign ganglioneuroma, whereas ID1 levels were reduced in NB. In conclusion, we established a robust risk assessment predictor model based on simple immunohistochemistry for therapeutic decisions of NB patients.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  15. Rapid analysis of protein interactions: On-chip micropurification of recombinant protein expressed in Esherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Tohru; Taoka, Masato; Manki, Hiroshi; Kume, Shouen; Isobe, Toshiaki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2002-09-01

    We describe a rapid analysis of interactions between antibodies and a recombinant protein present in total cell lysates. Using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor, a low concentration of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fused protein expressed in small scale Esherichia coli culture was purified on an anti-GST antibody immobilized sensor chip. The 'on-chip purification' was verified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry by measuring the molecular masses of recombinant proteins purified on the sensor chip. The specific binding of monoclonal antibodies for the on-chip micropurified recombinant proteins can then be monitored, thus enabling kinetic analysis and epitope mapping of the bound antibodies. This approach reduced time, resources and sample consumption by avoiding conventional steps related to concentration and purification.

  16. Expression and the antigenicity of recombinant coat proteins of tungro viruses expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yee, Siew Fung; Chu, Chia Huay; Poili, Evenni; Sum, Magdline Sia Henry

    2017-02-01

    Rice tungro disease (RTD) is a recurring disease affecting rice farming especially in the South and Southeast Asia. The disease is commonly diagnosed by visual observation of the symptoms on diseased plants in paddy fields and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, visual observation is unreliable and PCR can be costly. High-throughput as well as relatively cheap detection methods are important for RTD management for screening large number of samples. Due to this, detection by serological assays such as immunoblotting assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are preferred. However, these serological assays are limited by lack of continuous supply of antibodies as reagents due to the difficulty in preparing sufficient purified virions as antigens. This study aimed to generate and evaluate the reactivity of the recombinant coat proteins of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) as alternative antigens to generate antibodies. The genes encoding the coat proteins of both viruses, RTBV (CP), and RTSV (CP1, CP2 and CP3) were cloned and expressed as recombinant fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. All of the recombinant fusion proteins, with the exception of the recombinant fusion protein of the CP2 of RTSV, were reactive against our in-house anti-tungro rabbit serum. In conclusion, our study showed the potential use of the recombinant fusion coat proteins of the tungro viruses as alternative antigens for production of antibodies for diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. AR-v7 protein expression is regulated by protein kinase and phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinan; Xie, Ning; Gleave, Martin E.; Rennie, Paul S.; Dong, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Failure of androgen-targeted therapy and progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are often attributed to sustained expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and its major splice variant, AR-v7. Although the new generation of anti-androgens such as enzalutamide effectively inhibits AR activity, accumulating pre-clinical and clinical evidence indicates that AR-v7 remains constitutively active in driving CRPC progression. However, molecular mechanisms which control AR-v7 protein expression remain unclear. We apply multiple prostate cancer cell models to demonstrate that enzalutamide induces differential activation of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) and Akt kinase depending on the gene context of cancer cells. The balance between PP-1 and Akt activation governs AR phosphorylation status and activation of the Mdm2 ubiquitin ligase. Mdm2 recognizes phosphorylated serine 213 of AR-v7, and induces AR-v7 ubiquitination and protein degradation. These findings highlight the decisive roles of PP-1 and Akt for AR-v7 protein expression and activities when AR is functionally blocked. PMID:26378044

  18. Preferential expression and immunogenicity of HIV-1 Tat fusion protein expressed in tomato plant.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Hibi, Yurina; Karamatsu, Katsuo; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Imai, Kenichi; Laurena, Antonio C; Okamoto, Takashi

    2010-10-01

    HIV-1 Tat plays a major role in viral replication and is essential for AIDS development making it an ideal vaccine target providing that both humoral and cellular immune responses are induced. Plant-based antigen production, due to its cheaper cost, appears ideal for vaccine production. In this study, we created a plant-optimized tat and mutant (Cys30Ala/Lys41Ala) tat (mtat) gene and ligated each into a pBI121 expression vector with a stop codon and a gusA gene positioned immediately downstream. The vector construct was bombarded into tomato leaf calli and allowed to develop. We thus generated recombinant tomato plants preferentially expressing a Tat-GUS fusion protein over a Tat-only protein. In addition, plants bombarded with either tat or mtat genes showed no phenotypic difference and produced 2-4 microg Tat-GUS fusion protein per milligram soluble plant protein. Furthermore, tomato extracts intradermally inoculated into mice were found to induce a humoral and, most importantly, cellular immunity.

  19. Green fluorescent protein as a reporter of gene expression and protein localization.

    PubMed

    Kain, S R; Adams, M; Kondepudi, A; Yang, T T; Ward, W W; Kitts, P

    1995-10-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria is rapidly becoming an important reporter molecule for monitoring gene expression and protein localization in vivo, in situ and in real time. GFP emits bright green light (lambda max = 509 nm) when excited with UV or blue light (lambda max = 395 nm, minor peak at 470 nm). The fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of GFP are similar to those of fluorescein, and the conditions used to visualize this fluorophore are also suitable for GFP. Unlike other bioluminescent reporters, the chromophore in GFP is intrinsic to the primary structure of the protein, and GFP fluorescence does not require a substrate or cofactor. GFP fluorescence is stable, species-independent and can be monitored non-invasively in living cells and, in the case of transparent organisms, whole animals. Here we demonstrate GFP fluorescence in bacterial and mammalian cells and introduce our Living Colors line of GFP reporter vectors, GFP protein and anti-GFP antiserum. The reporter vectors for GFP include a promoterless GFP vector for monitoring the expression of cloned promoters/enhancers in mammalian cells and a series of six vectors for creating fusion protein to either the N or C terminus of GFP.

  20. Expression and purification of recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein and its interactions with polyomavirus proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, X.; Chang, D.; Rottinghaus, S.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Recombinant polyomavirus VP2 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448), using the recombinant expression system pFPYV2. Recombinant VP2 was purified to near homogeneity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, electroelution, and Extracti-Gel chromatography. Polyclonal serum to this protein which reacted specifically with recombinant VP2 as well as polyomavirus virion VP2 and VP3 on Western blots (immunoblots) was produced. Purified VP2 was used to establish an in vitro protein-protein interaction assay with polyomavirus structural proteins and purified recombinant VP1. Recombinant VP2 interacted with recombinant VP1, virion VP1, and the four virion histones. Recombinant VP1 coimmunoprecipitated with recombinant VP2 or truncated VP2 (delta C12VP2), which lacked the carboxy-terminal 12 amino acids. These experiments confirmed the interaction between VP1 and VP2 and revealed that the carboxyterminal 12 amino acids of VP2 and VP3 were not necessary for formation of this interaction. In vivo VP1-VP2 interaction study accomplished by cotransfection of COS-7 cells with VP2 and truncated VP1 (delta N11VP1) lacking the nuclear localization signal demonstrated that VP2 was capable of translocating delta N11VP1 into the nucleus. These studies suggest that complexes of VP1 and VP2 may be formed in the cytoplasm and cotransported to the nucleus for virion assembly to occur.

  1. Trichohyalin-like 1 protein, a member of fused S100 proteins, is expressed in normal and pathologic human skin

    SciT

    Yamakoshi, Takako; Makino, Teruhiko, E-mail: tmakino@med.u-toyama.ac.jp; Ur Rehman, Mati

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Trichohyalin-like 1 protein is a member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. ► Specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein were generated. ► TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. ► TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in tumor nests of BCC and SCC. ► The expression of TCHHL1 proteins increased in epidermis of psoriasis vulgaris. - Abstract: Trichohyalin-like 1 (TCHHL1) protein is a novel member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. The deduced amino acid sequence of TCHHL1 contains an EF-hand domain in the N-terminus, one trans-membrane domain andmore » a nuclear localization signal. We generated specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein and examined the expression of TCHHL1 proteins in normal and pathological human skin. An immunohistochemical study showed that TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. In addition, signals of TCHHL1 proteins were observed around the nuclei of cultured growing keratinocytes. Accordingly, TCHHL1 mRNA has been detected in normal skin and cultured growing keratinocytes. Furthermore, TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in the peripheral areas of tumor nests in basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. A dramatic increase in the number of Ki67 positive cells was observed in TCHHL1-expressing areas. The expression of TCHHL1 proteins also increased in non-cancerous hyperproliferative epidermal tissues such as those of psoriasis vulgaris and lichen planus. These findings highlight the possibility that TCHHL1 proteins are expressed in growing keratinocytes of the epidermis and might be associated with the proliferation of keratinocytes.« less

  2. Neurotoxocarosis alters myelin protein gene transcription and expression.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Lea; Beyerbach, Martin; Lühder, Fred; Beineke, Andreas; Strube, Christina

    2015-06-01

    Neurotoxocarosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by migrating larvae of the common dog and cat roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati), which are zoonotic agents. As these parasites are prevalent worldwide and neuropathological and molecular investigations on neurotoxocarosis are scare, this study aims to characterise nerve fibre demyelination associated with neurotoxocarosis on a molecular level. Transcription of eight myelin-associated genes (Cnp, Mag, Mbp, Mog, Mrf-1, Nogo-A, Plp1, Olig2) was determined in the mouse model during six time points of the chronic phase of infection using qRT-PCR. Expression of selected proteins was analysed by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. Additionally, demyelination and neuronal damage were investigated histologically. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between transcription rates of T. canis-infected and uninfected control mice were detected for all analysed genes while T. cati affected five of eight investigated genes. Interestingly, 2', 3 ´-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (Cnp) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog) were upregulated in both T. canis- and T. cati-infected mice preceding demyelination. Later, CNPase expression was additionally enhanced. As expected, myelin basic protein (Mbp) was downregulated in cerebra and cerebella of T. canis-infected mice when severe demyelination was present 120 days post infectionem (dpi). The transcriptional pattern observed in the present study appears to reflect direct traumatic and hypoxic effects of larval migration as well as secondary processes including host immune reactions, demyelination and attempts to remyelinate damaged areas.

  3. Expression of Water Channel Proteins in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum1

    PubMed Central

    Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Golldack, Dortje; Quigley, Francoise; Michalowski, Christine B.; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Bohnert, Hans J.

    2000-01-01

    We have characterized transcripts for nine major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), some of which function as water channels (aquaporins), from the ice plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. To determine the cellular distribution and expression of these MIPs, oligopeptide-based antibodies were generated against MIP-A, MIP-B, MIP-C, or MIP-F, which, according to sequence and functional characteristics, are located in the plasma membrane (PM) and tonoplast, respectively. MIPs were most abundant in cells involved in bulk water flow and solute flux. The tonoplast MIP-F was found in all cells, while signature cell types identified different PM-MIPs: MIP-A predominantly in phloem-associated cells, MIP-B in xylem parenchyma, and MIP-C in the epidermis and endodermis of immature roots. Membrane protein analysis confirmed MIP-F as tonoplast located. MIP-A and MIP-B were found in tonoplast fractions and also in fractions distinct from either the tonoplast or PM. MIP-C was most abundant but not exclusive to PM fractions, where it is expected based on its sequence signature. We suggest that within the cell, MIPs are mobile, which is similar to aquaporins cycling through animal endosomes. MIP cycling and the differential regulation of these proteins observed under conditions of salt stress may be fundamental for the control of tissue water flux. PMID:10806230

  4. Protein disorder is positively correlated with gene expression in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Paliy, Oleg; Gargac, Shawn M.; Cheng, Yugong; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Dunker, A. Keith

    2009-01-01

    We considered on a global scale the relationship between the predicted fraction of protein disorder and RNA and protein expression in E. coli. Fraction of protein disorder correlated positively with both measured RNA expression levels of E. coli genes in three different growth media and with predicted abundance levels of E. coli proteins. Though weak, the correlation was highly significant. Correlation of protein disorder with RNA expression did not depend on the growth rate of E. coli cultures and was not caused by a small subset of genes showing exceptionally high concordance in their disorder and expression levels. Global analysis was complemented by detailed consideration of several groups of proteins. PMID:18465893

  5. Recombinant G protein-coupled receptor expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for protein characterization.

    PubMed

    Blocker, Kory M; Britton, Zachary T; Naranjo, Andrea N; McNeely, Patrick M; Young, Carissa L; Robinson, Anne S

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins that mediate signaling across the cellular membrane and facilitate cellular responses to external stimuli. Due to the critical role that GPCRs play in signal transduction, therapeutics have been developed to influence GPCR function without an extensive understanding of the receptors themselves. Closing this knowledge gap is of paramount importance to improving therapeutic efficacy and specificity, where efforts to achieve this end have focused chiefly on improving our knowledge of the structure-function relationship. The purpose of this chapter is to review methods for the heterologous expression of GPCRs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including whole-cell assays that enable quantitation of expression, localization, and function in vivo. In addition, we describe methods for the micellular solubilization of the human adenosine A2a receptor and for reconstitution of the receptor in liposomes that have enabled its biophysical characterization. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Statins Inhibit Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 Expression in Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Hakan; Basar, Murat; Seval-Celik, Yasemin; Osteen, Kevin G.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Taylor, Hugh S.; Lockwood, Charles J.; Arici, Aydin

    2012-01-01

    Statins are potent inhibitors of the endogenous mevalonate pathway. Besides inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis, statins may also demonstrate anti-inflammatory properties. Inflammation is implicated in the attachment and invasion of endometrial cells to the peritoneal surface and growth of ectopic endometrium by inducing proliferation and angiogenesis. In this study, the effect of statins on monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) expression in endometriotic implants in nude mouse model and in cultured endometriotic cells was evaluated. In mouse model, simvastatin decreased MCP-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner in endometriotic implants (P < .05). Similarly, both simvastatin and mevastatin revealed a dose-dependent inhibition of MCP-1 production in cultured endometriotic cells (P < .01). This inhibitory effect of the statins on MCP-1 production was reversed by the downstream substrates of the mevalonate pathway. Moreover, statins decreased MCP-1 messenger RNA expression in cultured endometriotic cells (P < .05). In conclusion, statins exert anti-inflammatory effect in endometriotic cells and could provide a potential treatment of endometriosis in the future. PMID:22267540

  7. The growing impact of lyophilized cell-free protein expression systems

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J. Porter; Yang, Seung Ook; Wilding, Kristen M.; Bundy, Bradley C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recently reported shelf-stable, on-demand protein synthesis platforms are enabling new possibilities in biotherapeutics, biosensing, biocatalysis, and high throughput protein expression. Lyophilized cell-free protein expression systems not only overcome cold-storage limitations, but also enable stockpiling for on-demand synthesis and completely sterilize the protein synthesis platform. Recently reported high-yield synthesis of cytotoxic protein Onconase from lyophilized E. coli extract preparations demonstrates the utility of lyophilized cell-free protein expression and its potential for creating on-demand biotherapeutics, vaccines, biosensors, biocatalysts, and high throughput protein synthesis. PMID:27791452

  8. SHuffle, a novel Escherichia coli protein expression strain capable of correctly folding disulfide bonded proteins in its cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Production of correctly disulfide bonded proteins to high yields remains a challenge. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli is the popular choice, especially within the research community. While there is an ever growing demand for new expression strains, few strains are dedicated to post-translational modifications, such as disulfide bond formation. Thus, new protein expression strains must be engineered and the parameters involved in producing disulfide bonded proteins must be understood. Results We have engineered a new E. coli protein expression strain named SHuffle, dedicated to producing correctly disulfide bonded active proteins to high yields within its cytoplasm. This strain is based on the trxB gor suppressor strain SMG96 where its cytoplasmic reductive pathways have been diminished, allowing for the formation of disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm. We have further engineered a major improvement by integrating into its chromosome a signal sequenceless disulfide bond isomerase, DsbC. We probed the redox state of DsbC in the oxidizing cytoplasm and evaluated its role in assisting the formation of correctly folded multi-disulfide bonded proteins. We optimized protein expression conditions, varying temperature, induction conditions, strain background and the co-expression of various helper proteins. We found that temperature has the biggest impact on improving yields and that the E. coli B strain background of this strain was superior to the K12 version. We also discovered that auto-expression of substrate target proteins using this strain resulted in higher yields of active pure protein. Finally, we found that co-expression of mutant thioredoxins and PDI homologs improved yields of various substrate proteins. Conclusions This work is the first extensive characterization of the trxB gor suppressor strain. The results presented should help researchers design the appropriate protein expression conditions using SHuffle strains. PMID:22569138

  9. Regulation of RE1 Protein Silencing Transcription Factor (REST) Expression by HIP1 Protein Interactor (HIPPI)*

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Moumita; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier we have shown that the proapoptotic protein HIPPI (huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) protein interactor) along with its molecular partner HIP1 could regulate transcription of the caspase-1 gene. Here we report that RE1-silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) is a new transcriptional target of HIPPI. HIPPI could bind to the promoter of REST and increased its expression in neuronal as well as non-neuronal cells. Such activation of REST down-regulated expression of REST target genes, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or proenkephalin (PENK). The ability of HIPPI to activate REST gene transcription was dependent on HIP1, the nuclear transporter of HIPPI. Using a Huntington disease cell model, we have demonstrated that feeble interaction of HIP1 with mutant huntingtin protein resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of HIPPI and HIP1, leading to higher occupancy of HIPPI at the REST promoter, triggering its transcriptional activation and consequent repression of REST target genes. This novel transcription regulatory mechanism of REST by HIPPI may contribute to the deregulation of transcription observed in the cell model of Huntington disease. PMID:21832040

  10. Regulation of RE1 protein silencing transcription factor (REST) expression by HIP1 protein interactor (HIPPI).

    PubMed

    Datta, Moumita; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P

    2011-09-30

    Earlier we have shown that the proapoptotic protein HIPPI (huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) protein interactor) along with its molecular partner HIP1 could regulate transcription of the caspase-1 gene. Here we report that RE1-silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) is a new transcriptional target of HIPPI. HIPPI could bind to the promoter of REST and increased its expression in neuronal as well as non-neuronal cells. Such activation of REST down-regulated expression of REST target genes, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or proenkephalin (PENK). The ability of HIPPI to activate REST gene transcription was dependent on HIP1, the nuclear transporter of HIPPI. Using a Huntington disease cell model, we have demonstrated that feeble interaction of HIP1 with mutant huntingtin protein resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of HIPPI and HIP1, leading to higher occupancy of HIPPI at the REST promoter, triggering its transcriptional activation and consequent repression of REST target genes. This novel transcription regulatory mechanism of REST by HIPPI may contribute to the deregulation of transcription observed in the cell model of Huntington disease.

  11. Characterization of tight junction proteins in cultured human urothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Alice; Dorokhov, Nikolay; Ryerse, Jan; Klumpp, David J; McHowat, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are essential for normal function of epithelia, restricting paracellular diffusion and contributing to the maintenance of cell surface polarity. Superficial cells of the urothelium develop TJs, the basis for the paracellular permeability barrier of the bladder against diffusion of urinary solutes. Focusing on the superficial cell layer of stratified cell cultures of an immortalized human ureteral cell line, TEU-2 cells, we have examined the presence of TJ and TJ-associated proteins. TEU-2 cells were treated with calcium chloride and fetal bovine serum culture conditions used to induce stratification that resembles the normal transitional epithelial phenotype. Cultures were examined for TJ and TJ-associated proteins by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and evaluated for TJ mRNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). TEU-2 cultures exhibited immunoreactivity at intercellular margins for claudins 1, 4, 5, 7, 14, and 16 whereas claudins 2, 8, and 12 were intracellular. RT-PCR corroborated the presence of these claudins at the mRNA level. The TJ-associated proteins occludin, JAM-1, and zonula occludens (ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3) were localized at cell margins. We have found that numerous TJs and TJ-associated proteins are expressed in stratified TEU-2 cultures. Further, we propose TEU-2s provide a useful ureteral model for future studies on the involvement of TJs proteins in the normal and pathological physiology of the human urinary system.

  12. Protein-protein interaction network of gene expression in the hydrocortisone-treated keloid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Zhang, Zhiliang; Xue, Zhujia; Wang, Lin; Fu, Mingang; Lu, Yi; Bai, Ling; Zhang, Ping; Fan, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the molecular mechanism of hydrocortisone in keloid tissue, the gene expression profiles of keloid samples treated with hydrocortisone were subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Firstly, the gene expression profiles (GSE7890) of five samples of keloid treated with hydrocortisone and five untreated keloid samples were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Secondly, data were preprocessed using packages in R language and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using a significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) protocol. Thirdly, the DEGs were subjected to gene ontology (GO) function and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Finally, the interactions of DEGs in samples of keloid treated with hydrocortisone were explored in a human protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and sub-modules of the DEGs interaction network were analyzed using Cytoscape software. Based on the analysis, 572 DEGs in the hydrocortisone-treated samples were screened; most of these were involved in the signal transduction and cell cycle. Furthermore, three critical genes in the module, including COL1A1, NID1, and PRELP, were screened in the PPI network analysis. These findings enhance understanding of the pathogenesis of the keloid and provide references for keloid therapy. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Optimised 'on demand' protein arraying from DNA by cell free expression with the 'DNA to Protein Array' (DAPA) technology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ronny; Cook, Elizabeth A; Kastelic, Damjana; Taussig, Michael J; Stoevesandt, Oda

    2013-08-02

    We have previously described a protein arraying process based on cell free expression from DNA template arrays (DNA Array to Protein Array, DAPA). Here, we have investigated the influence of different array support coatings (Ni-NTA, Epoxy, 3D-Epoxy and Polyethylene glycol methacrylate (PEGMA)). Their optimal combination yields an increased amount of detected protein and an optimised spot morphology on the resulting protein array compared to the previously published protocol. The specificity of protein capture was improved using a tag-specific capture antibody on a protein repellent surface coating. The conditions for protein expression were optimised to yield the maximum amount of protein or the best detection results using specific monoclonal antibodies or a scaffold binder against the expressed targets. The optimised DAPA system was able to increase by threefold the expression of a representative model protein while conserving recognition by a specific antibody. The amount of expressed protein in DAPA was comparable to those of classically spotted protein arrays. Reaction conditions can be tailored to suit the application of interest. DAPA represents a cost effective, easy and convenient way of producing protein arrays on demand. The reported work is expected to facilitate the application of DAPA for personalized medicine and screening purposes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of a protein engineering strategy to overcome limitations in the production of "Difficult to Express" recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hirra; Fisher, David I; Abbott, W Mark; Roth, Robert G; Dickson, Alan J

    2017-10-01

    Certain recombinant proteins are deemed "difficult to express" in mammalian expression systems requiring significant cell and/or process engineering to abrogate expression bottlenecks. With increasing demand for the production of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells, low protein yields can have significant consequences for industrial processes. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that restrict expression of recombinant proteins, naturally secreted model proteins were analyzed from the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP) protein family. In particular, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were subjected to detailed study. TIMP proteins share significant sequence homology (∼50% identity and ∼70% similarity in amino acid sequence). However, they show marked differences in secretion in mammalian expression systems despite this extensive sequence homology. Using these two proteins as models, this study characterized the molecular mechanisms responsible for poor recombinant protein production. Our results reveal that both TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 are detectable at mRNA and protein level within the cell but only TIMP-2 is secreted effectively into the extracellular medium. Analysis of protein localization and the nature of intracellular protein suggest TIMP-3 is severely limited in its post-translational processing. To overcome this challenge, modification of the TIMP-3 sequence to include a furin protease-cleavable pro-sequence resulted in secretion of the modified TIMP-3 protein, however, incomplete processing was observed. Based on the TIMP-3 data, the protein engineering approach was optimized and successfully applied in combination with cell engineering, the overexpression of furin, to another member of the TIMP protein family (the poorly expressed TIMP-4). Use of the described protein engineering strategy resulted in successful secretion of poorly (TIMP-4) and non-secreted (TIMP-3) targets, and presents a novel strategy to enhance the production of "difficult" recombinant

  15. Aberrant expression of the tight junction molecules claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1 mediates cell growth and invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Babkair, Hamzah; Yamazaki, Manabu; Uddin, Md Shihab; Maruyama, Satoshi; Abé, Tatsuya; Essa, Ahmed; Sumita, Yoshimasa; Ahsan, Md Shahidul; Swelam, Wael; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    We reported that altered cell contact mediated by E-cadherin is an initial event in the pathogenesis of oral epithelial malignancies. To assess other effects of cell adhesion, we examined the expression levels of tight junction (TJ) molecules in oral carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To identify changes in the expression of TJ molecules, we conducted an analysis of the immunohistochemical profiles of claudin-1 (CLDN-1) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in surgical specimens acquired from patients with oral SCC containing foci of epithelial dysplasia or from patients with CIS. We used immunofluorescence, Western blotting, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and RNA interference to evaluate the functions of CLDN-1 and ZO-1 in cultured oral SCC cells. TJ molecules were not detected in normal oral epithelial tissues but were expressed in SCC/CIS cells. ZO-1 was localized within the nucleus of proliferating cells. When CLDN-1 expression was inhibited by transfecting cells with specific small interference RNAs, SCC cells dissociated, and their ability to proliferate and invade Matrigel was inhibited. In contrast, although RNA interference-mediated inhibition of ZO-1 expression did not affect cell morphology, it inhibited cell proliferation and invasiveness. Our findings indicated that the detection of TJ molecules in the oral epithelia may serve as a marker for the malignant phenotype of cells in which CLDN-1 regulates proliferation and invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lipid transfer proteins from fruit: cloning, expression and quantification.

    PubMed

    Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Leeuwen, W Astrid; Budde, Ilona Kleine; Cornelissen, Jessica; Bulder, Ingrid; Rafalska, Ilona; Besolí, Noèlia Telléz; Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Asero, Riccardo; Fernandez Rivas, Montserrat; Rivas, Montserrat Fernandez; Gonzalez Mancebo, Eloina; Mancebo, Eloina Gonzalez; van Ree, Ronald

    2005-08-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are stable, potentially life-threatening allergens in fruits and many other vegetable foods. The aim of this study was to clone and express recombinant apple LTP (Mal d 3), as has previously been done for peach LTP (Pru p 3) and set up quantitative tests for measuring fruit LTPs. cDNA for Mal d 3 and Pru p 3 was cloned, expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris and the resulting proteins were purified via cation exchange chromatography. The immune reactivity of rMal d 3 was compared to nMal d 3 by RAST (inhibition), immunoblotting and basophil histamine release testing. To obtain monoclonal and monospecific polyclonal antibodies, mice and rabbits were immunized with purified nMal d 3. The deduced amino acid sequence of Mal d 3 was identical to the published sequence, Pru p 3 differed at two positions (S9A and S76H). The rMal d 3 had an IgE-binding potency and biological activity close to its natural counterpart. One sandwich ELISA selectively detecting apple LTP and another cross-reactive with cherry, nectarine and hazelnut LTP were developed. In addition, a competitive RIA was developed with polyclonal rabbit antiserum and labeled nMal d 3. rMal d 3 (as shown before for rPru p 3) may be a useful tool for application in component-resolved diagnosis of food allergy. Assays for the measurement of LTP will increase the traceability of this potentially dangerous allergen. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. [Eukaryotic Expression and Immunogenic Research of Recombination Ebola Virus Membrane Protein Gp-Fc].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Yang, Ren; Wang, Jiao; Wang, Xuan; Hou, Mieling; An, Lina; Zhu, Ying; Cao, Yuxi; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We used 293 cells to express the recombinant membrane protein of the Ebola virus. Then, the immunogenicity of the recombinant protein was studied by immunized BALB/c mice. According to the codon use frequency of humans, the gene encoding the extracellular domain of the Ebola virus membrane protein was optimized, synthesized, and inserted into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pXG-Fc to construct the human IgG Fc and Ebola GP fusion protein expression plasmid pXG-modGP-Fc. To achieve expression, the fusion protein expression vector was transfected into high-density 293 cells using transient transfection technology. The recombinant protein was purified by protein A affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were immunized with the purified fusion protein, and serum antibody titers evaluated by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Purification and analyses of the protein revealed that the eukaryotic expression vector could express the recombinant protein GP-Fc effectively, and that the recombinant protein in the supernatant of the cell culture was present as a dimer. After immunization with the purified recombinant protein, a high titer of antigen-specific IgG could be detected in the serum of immunized mice by indirect ELISA, showing that the recombinant protein had good immunogenicity. These data suggest that we obtained a recombinant protein with good immunogenicity. Our study is the basis for development of a vaccine against the Ebola virus and for screening of monoclonal antibodies.

  18. Expression and putative role of mitochondrial transport proteins in cancer.

    PubMed

    Lytovchenko, Oleksandr; Kunji, Edmund R S

    2017-08-01

    Cancer cells undergo major changes in energy and biosynthetic metabolism. One of them is the Warburg effect, in which pyruvate is used for fermentation rather for oxidative phosphorylation. Another major one is their increased reliance on glutamine, which helps to replenish the pool of Krebs cycle metabolites used for other purposes, such as amino acid or lipid biosynthesis. Mitochondria are central to these alterations, as the biochemical pathways linking these processes run through these organelles. Two membranes, an outer and inner membrane, surround mitochondria, the latter being impermeable to most organic compounds. Therefore, a large number of transport proteins are needed to link the biochemical pathways of the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix. Since the transport steps are relatively slow, it is expected that many of these transport steps are altered when cells become cancerous. In this review, changes in expression and regulation of these transport proteins are discussed as well as the role of the transported substrates. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Mitochondria in Cancer, edited by Giuseppe Gasparre, Rodrigue Rossignol and Pierre Sonveaux. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Coat protein expression strategy of oat blue dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Michael C; Weiland, John J

    2014-02-01

    Oat blue dwarf virus (OBDV) is a member of the genus Marafivirus whose genome encodes a 227 kDa polyprotein (p227) ostensibly processed post-translationally into its functional components. Encoded near the 3' terminus and coterminal with the p227 ORF are ORFs specifying major and minor capsid proteins (CP). Since the CP expression strategy of marafiviruses has not been thoroughly investigated, we produced a series of point mutants in the OBDV CP encoding gene and examined expression in protoplasts. Results support a model in which the 21 kDa major CP is the product of direct translation of a sgRNA, while the 24 kDa minor CP is a cleavage product derived from both the polyprotein and a larger ~26 kDa precursor translated directly from the sgRNA. Cleavage occurs at an LXG[G/A] motif conserved in many viruses that use papain-like proteases for polyprotein processing and protection against degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. RNA protein interactions governing expression of the most abundant protein in human body, type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in human body. The protein turns over slowly and its replacement synthesis is low. However, in wound healing or in pathological fibrosis the cells can increase production of type I collagen several hundred fold. This increase is predominantly due to posttranscriptional regulation, including increased half-life of collagen messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and their increased translatability. Type I collagen is composed of two α1 and one α2 polypeptides that fold into a triple helix. This stoichiometry is strictly regulated to prevent detrimental synthesis of α1 homotrimers. Collagen polypeptides are co-translationally modified and the rate of modifications is in dynamic equilibrium with the rate of folding, suggesting coordinated translation of collagen α1(I) and α2(I) polypeptides. Collagen α1(I) mRNA has in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) a C-rich sequence that binds protein αCP, this binding stabilizes the mRNA in collagen producing cells. In the 5' UTR both collagen mRNAs have a conserved stem-loop (5' SL) structure. The 5' SL is critical for high collagen expression, knock in mice with disruption of the 5' SL are resistant to liver fibrosis. the 5' SL binds protein LARP6 with strict sequence specificity and high affinity. LARP6 recruits RNA helicase A to facilitate translation initiation and associates collagen mRNAs with vimentin and nonmuscle myosin filaments. Binding to vimentin stabilizes collagen mRNAs, while nonmuscle myosin regulates coordinated translation of α1(I) and α2(I) mRNAs. When nonmuscle myosin filaments are disrupted the cells secrete only α1 homotrimers. Thus, the mechanism governing high collagen expression involves two RNA binding proteins and development of cytoskeletal filaments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Notch3 protein expression in skin fibroblasts from CADASIL patients.

    PubMed

    Qualtieri, Antonio; Ungaro, Carmine; Bagalà, Angelo; Bianchi, Silvia; Pantoni, Leonardo; Moccia, Marcello; Mazzei, Rosalucia

    2018-07-15

    CADASIL is an inherited cerebrovascular disease caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. Notch signaling is involved in a broad spectrum of function, from the cell proliferation to apoptosis. Thus far, because the molecular mechanism underlying the pathological alterations remains unclear and taking into account that fibroblasts contribute to the integrity of the vasculature, our aims was to establish whether fibroblasts, in subjects carrying different NOTCH3 mutations, show abnormalities in the protein expression. We performed the investigation on skin fibroblasts in culture obtained from three CADASIL patients and normal subjects. The patients were genetically characterized, and carried a p.R61W, a p.C174T, and p.R103X, mutation respectively. Notch3 expression was first evaluated on fibroblasts by immunofluorescence analysis, then western blot on cellular extract was utilized to validate the immunofluorescence results. The Notch3 immunoreactivity was clearly detected along the cellular body and in the cellular nuclei of the control fibroblasts. We observed a marked, statistically significant, reduction of the fluorescence immunoreactivity in the fibroblasts from patient with the classical C174T cysteine mutation and a less pronounced reduction in the other two subject's samples with respect to the normal controls. These data were confirmed by the immunoblot analysis. Our results show that the investigated three NOTCH3 mutations are associated with a reduction of the levels of Notch3 expression in vitro. Because the smooth muscle cells appear to be predominantly involved in this cerebrovascular disease, our result, despite the limitation of the sample size examinated, clearly suggest that also fibroblasts, directly involved in making the vascular basal lamina and in maintaining the vascular integrity, may play an important role in the mechanism responsible for the disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF.

    PubMed

    Cantu-Bustos, J Enrique; Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Galbraith, David W; McEvoy, Megan M; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-05-01

    Production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli has been improved considerably through the use of fusion proteins, because they increase protein solubility and facilitate purification via affinity chromatography. In this article, we propose the use of CusF as a new fusion partner for expression and purification of recombinant proteins in E. coli. Using a cell-free protein expression system, based on the E. coli S30 extract, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was expressed with a series of different N-terminal tags, immobilized on self-assembled protein microarrays, and its fluorescence quantified. GFP tagged with CusF showed the highest fluorescence intensity, and this was greater than the intensities from corresponding GFP constructs that contained MBP or GST tags. Analysis of protein production in vivo showed that CusF produces large amounts of soluble protein with low levels of inclusion bodies. Furthermore, fusion proteins can be exported to the cellular periplasm, if CusF contains the signal sequence. Taking advantage of its ability to bind copper ions, recombinant proteins can be purified with readily available IMAC resins charged with this metal ion, producing pure proteins after purification and tag removal. We therefore recommend the use of CusF as a viable alternative to MBP or GST as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential Protein Expressions in Virus-Infected and Uninfected Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    He, Ding; Pengtao, Gong; Ju, Yang; Jianhua, Li; He, Li; Guocai, Zhang; Xichen, Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Protozoan viruses may influence the function and pathogenicity of the protozoa. Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that could contain a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, T. vaginalis virus (TVV). However, there are few reports on the properties of the virus. To further determine variations in protein expression of T. vaginalis , we detected 2 strains of T. vaginalis ; the virus-infected (V + ) and uninfected (V - ) isolates to examine differentially expressed proteins upon TVV infection. Using a stable isotope N-terminal labeling strategy (iTRAQ) on soluble fractions to analyze proteomes, we identified 293 proteins, of which 50 were altered in V + compared with V - isolates. The results showed that the expression of 29 proteins was increased, and 21 proteins decreased in V + isolates. These differentially expressed proteins can be classified into 4 categories: ribosomal proteins, metabolic enzymes, heat shock proteins, and putative uncharacterized proteins. Quantitative PCR was used to detect 4 metabolic processes proteins: glycogen phosphorylase, malate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, which were differentially expressed in V + and V - isolates. Our findings suggest that mRNA levels of these genes were consistent with protein expression levels. This study was the first which analyzed protein expression variations upon TVV infection. These observations will provide a basis for future studies concerning the possible roles of these proteins in host-parasite interactions.

  4. Rift Valley fever virus structural and non-structural proteins: Recombinant protein expression and immunoreactivity against antisera from sheep

    The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) encodes structural proteins, nucleoprotein (N), N-terminus glycoprotein (Gn), C-terminus glycoprotein (Gc) and L protein, 78-kDa and non-structural proteins NSm and NSs. Using the baculovirus system we expressed the full-length coding sequence of N, NSs, NSm, Gc an...

  5. High-level expression of soluble recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using an HE-maltotriose-binding protein fusion tag.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingqian; Guo, Wanying; Su, Bingqian; Guo, Yujie; Wang, Jiang; Chu, Beibei; Yang, Guoyu

    2018-02-01

    Recombinant proteins are commonly expressed in prokaryotic expression systems for large-scale production. The use of genetically engineered affinity and solubility enhancing fusion proteins has increased greatly in recent years, and there now exists a considerable repertoire of these that can be used to enhance the expression, stability, solubility, folding, and purification of their fusion partner. Here, a modified histidine tag (HE) used as an affinity tag was employed together with a truncated maltotriose-binding protein (MBP; consisting of residues 59-433) from Pyrococcus furiosus as a solubility enhancing tag accompanying a tobacco etch virus protease-recognition site for protein expression and purification in Escherichia coli. Various proteins tagged at the N-terminus with HE-MBP(Pyr) were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells to determine expression and solubility relative to those tagged with His6-MBP or His6-MBP(Pyr). Furthermore, four HE-MBP(Pyr)-fused proteins were purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography to assess the affinity of HE with immobilized Ni 2+ . Our results showed that HE-MBP(Pyr) represents an attractive fusion protein allowing high levels of soluble expression and purification of recombinant protein in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression of APG-2 protein, a member of the heat shock protein 110 family, in developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Okui, M; Ito, F; Ogita, K; Kuramoto, N; Kudoh, J; Shimizu, N; Ide, T

    2000-01-01

    APG-2 protein is a member of the heat shock protein 110 family, and it is thought to play an important role in the maintenance of neuronal functions under physiological and stress conditions. However, neither the tissue-distribution of APG-2 protein nor developmental change of its expression has been studied at the protein level. Therefore, we generated an antiserum against APG-2 protein and studied expression of this protein in rat brain and other tissues by use of the Western blot method. The results showed a high expression of APG-2 protein in various regions of the central nervous system (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, midbrain, hypothalamus, cerebellum, medulla pons, and spinal cord) throughout the entire postnatal stage. Similarly, a high level of APG-2 protein was detected in the whole brain of rat embryos and in adult rat tissues such as liver, lung, spleen, and kidney. In contrast, its expression in heart was high at postnatal days 1 and 3, but thereafter drastically decreased to a low level. Furthermore, APG-2 protein was detected in neuronal primary cultures prepared from rat cerebral cortex, and its level did not change notably during neuronal differentiation. These results show that APG-2 protein is constitutively expressed in various tissues and also in neuronal cells throughout the entire embryonic and postnatal period. suggesting that it might play an important role in these tissues under non-stress conditions.

  7. [Expression of Dengue virus type 2 nonstructural protein 3 and isolation of host proteins interacting with it].

    PubMed

    Weng, Daihui; Lei, Yingfeng; Dong, Yangchao; Han, Peijun; Ye, Chuantao; Yang, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Yin, Wen

    2015-12-01

    To construct the plasmid expressing the fusion protein of Dengue virus type 2 (DENV2) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) with affinity tag, and isolate the cellular proteins interacting with NS3 protein using tandem affinity purification (TAP) assay. Primers for amplifying NS3 gene were designed according to the sequence of DENV2 genome and chemically synthesized. The NS3 fragments, after amplified by PCR with DENV2 cDNA as template, were digested and cloned into the mammalian eukaryotic expression vector pCI-SF with the tandem affinity tag (FLAG-StrepII). The recombinant pCI-NS3-SF was transiently transformed by Lipofectamine(TM) 2000 into HEK293T cells, and the expression of the fusion protein was confirmed by Western blotting. Cellular proteins that interacted with NS3 were isolated and purified by TAP assay. The eukaryotic expression vector expressing NS3 protein was successfully constructed. The host proteins interacting with NS3 protein were isolated by TAP system. TAP is an efficient method to isolate the cellular proteins interacting with DENV2 NS3.

  8. Exploiting translational coupling for the selection of cells producing toxic recombinant proteins from expression vectors.

    PubMed

    Tagliavia, Marcello; Cuttitta, Angela

    2016-01-01

    High rates of plasmid instability are associated with the use of some expression vectors in Escherichia coli, resulting in the loss of recombinant protein expression. This is due to sequence alterations in vector promoter elements caused by the background expression of the cloned gene, which leads to the selection of fast-growing, plasmid-containing cells that do not express the target protein. This phenomenon, which is worsened when expressing toxic proteins, results in preparations containing very little or no recombinant protein, or even in clone loss; however, no methods to prevent loss of recombinant protein expression are currently available. We have exploited the phenomenon of translational coupling, a mechanism of prokaryotic gene expression regulation, in order to select cells containing plasmids still able to express recombinant proteins. Here we designed an expression vector in which the cloned gene and selection marker are co-expressed. Our approach allowed for the selection of the recombinant protein-expressing cells and proved effective even for clones encoding toxic proteins.

  9. G protein-coupled receptor 84, a microglia-associated protein expressed in neuroinflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Caroline; Pagé, Julie; Bédard, Andréanne; Tremblay, Pierrot; Vallières, Luc

    2007-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) is a recently discovered member of the seven transmembrane receptor superfamily whose function and regulation are unknown. Here, we report that in mice suffering from endotoxemia, microglia express GPR84 in a strong and sustained manner. This property is shared by subpopulations of peripheral macrophages and, to a much lesser extent, monocytes. The induction of GPR84 expression by endotoxin is mediated, at least in part, by proinflammatory cytokines, notably tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), because mice lacking either one or both of these molecules have fewer GPR84-expressing cells in their cerebral cortex than wild-type mice during the early phase of endotoxemia. Moreover, when injected intracerebrally or added to microglial cultures, recombinant TNF stimulates GPR84 expression through a dexamethasone-insensitive mechanism. Finally, we show that microglia produce GPR84 not only during endotoxemia, but also during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis. In conclusion, this study reports the identification of a new sensitive marker of microglial activation, which may play an important regulatory role in neuroimmunological processes, acting downstream to the effects of proinflammatory mediators.

  10. Cytokine-mediated dysregulation of zonula occludens-1 properties in human brain microvascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Rochfort, Keith D; Cummins, Philip M

    2015-07-01

    Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) is essential to the proper assembly of interendothelial junction complexes that control blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. The goal of the current paper was to improve our understanding of how proinflammatory cytokines modulate ZO-1 properties within the human BBB microvascular endothelium. In this respect, we investigated the effects of TNF-α and IL-6 on ZO-1 using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMvECs). Following treatment of HBMvECs with either cytokine (0-100 ng/ml, 18 h), we observed significantly decreased ZO-1 expression and ZO-1:occludin co-association, in parallel with increased ZO-1 phosphorylation (pTyr and pThr). All effects were dose-dependent. Either cytokine also caused extensive cell-cell border delocalization of ZO-1 in parallel with elevated HBMvEC permeability. Furthermore, pre-treatment of HBMvECs with antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, apocynin, N-acetylcysteine), or employing targeted inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation (NSC23766, gp91/p47 siRNA), were all found to comparably attenuate the cytokine-dependent decrease in ZO-1 protein expression. In summary, we present an in vitro model of how different proinflammatory cytokines can dysregulate ZO-1 properties in HBMvECs. A causal role for NADPH oxidase activation and oxidant signalling is also confirmed. Our findings add mechanistic depth to current in vivo models of BBB injury manifesting ZO-1 dysregulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of the GM2 activator protein in mouse testis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Teh; Li, Su-Chen; Chen, I-Li

    2017-12-01

    The GM2-activator protein (GM2-AP), revealed by Li et al. in 1973 in human liver, was initially identified as a protein cofactor that stimulated β-hexosaminidase A to hydrolyze N-acetylgalactosamine from GM2 ganglioside. This cofactor was found to be missing in human variant AB Tay-Sachs disease. Over the years, the GM2-AP has also been shown to be involved in kidney vesicular transport, lipid presentation by CD1 molecule to T-cells, and interaction of human sperm with zona pellucida. Since the expression of the GM2-AP via mRNA detection in mouse tissues was found to be the highest in testis, we became interested in the localization of the GM2-AP at cellular level in mouse testis during spermatogenesis. Using immunohistochemical analysis and electron microscopy, we found that the GM2-AP was predominantly localized in the basal cytoplasm and the attenuated processes of Sertoli cells. The stained structure appeared to be lysosomes. The most interesting finding was the association of the GM2-AP with the acrosomal apparatus in early spermatids. A modest to intense staining was observed in some acrosomal granules and acrosomal caps. The GM2-AP seemed to disappear from acrosomal caps in the later stage of spermatids, in which the nucleus became elongated and condensed. These results suggest that the GM2-AP may be involved in the normal functions of Sertoli cells and play important roles during the development of acrosomal caps in the early spermatids. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. High-level SLP-2 expression and HER-2/neu protein expression are associated with decreased breast cancer patient survival.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenfeng; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yanxue; Li, Hongtao; Zhang, Shiwu; Fu, Li; Niu, Yun; Ning, Liansheng; Cao, Xuchen; Liu, Zhihua; Sun, Baocun

    2007-09-01

    There is sufficient evidence that human stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2) is a novel cancer-related gene. Its protein is overexpressed in many human cancers. SLP-2 can contribute to the promotion of cell growth, cell adhesion, and tumorigenesis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and lymph node metastasis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical detection of SLP-2, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and HER-2/neu were performed on 263 cases of primary invasive breast cancer with a tissue microarray. Of 263 cases, 138 (52.5%) showed high expression of SLP-2 protein, and 125 (47.5%) showed low or absent expression. In addition, there were significant positive associations between tumor stage and size (P = .020), lymph node metastasis (P < .001), clinical stage (P < .001), distant metastasis (P = .002), and HER-2/neu protein expression (P = .037) and high-level SLP-2 expression. High-level SLP-2 expression was associated with decreased overall survival (P = .011) and was more often found in patients with tumors larger than 20 mm, lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical stage, distant metastasis, and HER-2/neu protein-positive expression. More important, lymph node metastasis, HER-2/neu-positive expression, and high-level SLP-2 expression were associated with significantly decreased survival.

  13. Enteral glutamine infusion modulates ubiquitination of heat shock proteins, Grp-75 and Apg-2, in the human duodenal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Chan, Philippe; Azhar, Saida; Lecleire, Stéphane; Donnadieu, Nathalie; Vaudry, David; Cailleux, Anne-Françoise; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2014-04-01

    Glutamine, the most abundant amino acid in the human body, plays several important roles in the intestine. Previous studies showed that glutamine may affect protein expression by regulating ubiquitin-proteasome system. We thus aimed to evaluate the effects of glutamine on ubiquitinated proteins in human duodenal mucosa. Five healthy male volunteers were included and received during 5 h, on two occasions and in a random order, either an enteral infusion of maltodextrins alone (0.25 g kg(-1) h(-1), control), mimicking carbohydrate-fed state, or maltodextrins with glutamine (0.117 g kg(-1) h(-1), glutamine). Endoscopic duodenal biopsies were then taken. Total cellular protein extracts were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis and analyzed by an immunodetection using anti-ubiquitin antibody. Differentially ubiquitinated proteins were then identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization MS/MS. Five proteins were differentially ubiquitinated between control and glutamine conditions. Among these proteins, we identified two chaperone proteins, Grp75 and hsp74. Grp75 was less ubiquitinated after glutamine infusion compared with control. In contrast, hsp74, also called Apg-2, was more ubiquitinated after glutamine. In conclusion, we provide evidence that glutamine may regulate ubiquitination processes of specific proteins, i.e., Grp75 and Apg-2. Grp75 has protective and anti-inflammatory properties, while Apg-2 indirectly regulates stress-induced cell survival and proliferation through interaction with ZO-1. Further studies should confirm these results in stress conditions.

  14. Transient Expression and Cellular Localization of Recombinant Proteins in Cultured Insect Cells.

    PubMed

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Hull, J Joe

    2017-04-20

    Heterologous protein expression systems are used for the production of recombinant proteins, the interpretation of cellular trafficking/localization, and the determination of the biochemical function of proteins at the sub-organismal level. Although baculovirus expression systems are increasingly used for protein production in numerous biotechnological, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications, nonlytic systems that do not involve viral infection have clear benefits but are often overlooked and underutilized. Here, we describe a method for generating nonlytic expression vectors and transient recombinant protein expression. This protocol allows for the efficient cellular localization of recombinant proteins and can be used to rapidly discern protein trafficking within the cell. We show the expression of four recombinant proteins in a commercially available insect cell line, including two aquaporin proteins from the insect Bemisia tabaci, as well as subcellular marker proteins specific for the cell plasma membrane and for intracellular lysosomes. All recombinant proteins were produced as chimeras with fluorescent protein markers at their carboxyl termini, which allows for the direct detection of the recombinant proteins. The double transfection of cells with plasmids harboring constructs for the genes of interest and a known subcellular marker allows for live cell imaging and improved validation of cellular protein localization.

  15. A Generic Protocol for Intracellular Expression of Recombinant Proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Phan, Trang; Huynh, Phuong; Truong, Tuom; Nguyen, Hoang

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) is a potential and attractive host for the production of recombinant proteins. Different expression systems for B. subtilis have been developed recently, and various target proteins have been recombinantly synthesized and purified using this host. In this chapter, we introduce a generic protocol to express a recombinant protein in B. subtilis. It includes protocols for (1) using our typical expression vector (plasmid pHT254) to introduce a target gene, (2) transformation of the target vector into B. subtilis, and (3) evaluation of the actual expression of a recombinant protein.

  16. [Prokaryotic expression, purification and antigenicity identification of recombinant human survivin protein].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaotao; Wang, Wei; Tian, Renli; Xu, Yuanji; Yan, Jinqi; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Jiangping; Yu, Jiyun

    2013-08-01

    To construct a prokaryotic expression plasmid pET28a-survivin, optimize the recombinant protein expression conditions in E.coli, and purify the survivin recombinant protein and identify its antigenicity. Survivin cDNA segment was amplified by PCR and cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET28a(+) to construct the recombinant expression vector pET28a-survivin. The expression vector was transformed into BL21 (DE3) and the fusion protein survivin/His was induced by IPTG. The fusion protein was purified through Ni affinity chromatography. The antigenicity of the purified survivin protein was identified by Western blotting and ELISA. The recombinant expression vector was verified successfully by BamHI and HindIII. The fusion protein induced by IPTG was obtained with Mr; about 24 000. The purity of the purified protein reached 90% by SDS-PAGE analysis. And the antigenicity of the survivin protein was validated by Western blotting and ELISA. The prokaryotic expression plasmid pET28a-survivin was successfully constructed and the survivin protein was expressed and purified in E.coli. The antigenicity of the purified survivin protein was demonstrated desirable.

  17. High-level expression of a synthetic gene encoding a sweet protein, monellin, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongjun; Cai, Heng; Lu, Fuping; Du, Lianxiang

    2005-11-01

    The expression of a synthetic gene encoding monellin, a sweet protein, in E. coli under the control of T7 promoter from phage is described. The single-chain monellin gene was designed based on the biased codons of E. coli so as to optimize its expression. Monellin was produced and accounted for 45% of total soluble proteins. It was purified to yield 43 mg protein per g dry cell wt. The purity of the recombinant protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE.

  18. In vitro protein expression: an emerging alternative to cell-based approaches.

    PubMed

    He, Mingyue

    2011-04-30

    Protein expression remains a bottleneck in the production of proteins. Owing to several advantages, cell-free translation is emerging as an alternative to cell-based methods for the generation of proteins. Recent advances have led to many novel applications of cell-free systems in biotechnology, proteomics and fundamental biological research. This special issue of New Biotechnology describes recent advances in cell-free protein expression systems and their applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Heat shock protein expression enhances heat tolerance of reptile embryos

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jing; Zhang, Wen; Dang, Wei; Mou, Yi; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Bao-Jun; Du, Wei-Guo

    2014-01-01

    The role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in heat tolerance has been demonstrated in cultured cells and animal tissues, but rarely in whole organisms because of methodological difficulties associated with gene manipulation. By comparing HSP70 expression patterns among representative species of reptiles and birds, and by determining the effect of HSP70 overexpression on embryonic development and hatchling traits, we have identified the role of HSP70 in the heat tolerance of amniote embryos. Consistent with their thermal environment, and high incubation temperatures and heat tolerance, the embryos of birds have higher onset and maximum temperatures for induced HSP70 than do reptiles, and turtles have higher onset and maximum temperatures than do lizards. Interestingly, the trade-off between benefits and costs of HSP70 overexpression occurred between life-history stages: when turtle embryos developed at extreme high temperatures, HSP70 overexpression generated benefits by enhancing embryo heat tolerance and hatching success, but subsequently imposed costs by decreasing heat tolerance of surviving hatchlings. Taken together, the correlative and causal links between HSP70 and heat tolerance provide, to our knowledge, the first unequivocal evidence that HSP70 promotes thermal tolerance of embryos in oviparous amniotes. PMID:25080340

  20. Heat shock protein expression enhances heat tolerance of reptile embryos.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Zhang, Wen; Dang, Wei; Mou, Yi; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Bao-Jun; Du, Wei-Guo

    2014-09-22

    The role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in heat tolerance has been demonstrated in cultured cells and animal tissues, but rarely in whole organisms because of methodological difficulties associated with gene manipulation. By comparing HSP70 expression patterns among representative species of reptiles and birds, and by determining the effect of HSP70 overexpression on embryonic development and hatchling traits, we have identified the role of HSP70 in the heat tolerance of amniote embryos. Consistent with their thermal environment, and high incubation temperatures and heat tolerance, the embryos of birds have higher onset and maximum temperatures for induced HSP70 than do reptiles, and turtles have higher onset and maximum temperatures than do lizards. Interestingly, the trade-off between benefits and costs of HSP70 overexpression occurred between life-history stages: when turtle embryos developed at extreme high temperatures, HSP70 overexpression generated benefits by enhancing embryo heat tolerance and hatching success, but subsequently imposed costs by decreasing heat tolerance of surviving hatchlings. Taken together, the correlative and causal links between HSP70 and heat tolerance provide, to our knowledge, the first unequivocal evidence that HSP70 promotes thermal tolerance of embryos in oviparous amniotes. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM): protein expression, mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Walid A; Chen, Jun; Haig, Jennifer; Antoon, Roula; Litman, Jessica; Sherman, Christopher; Derwin, Kathleen; Yeger, Herman

    2008-06-01

    Experimentally, porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM) that mimics extracellular matrix has excellent potential as a bladder substitute. Herein we investigated the spatial localization and expression of different key cellular and extracellular proteins in the ACM; furthermore, we evaluated the inherent mechanical properties of the resultant ACM prior to implantation. Using a proprietary decellularization method, the DNA contents in both ACM and normal bladder were measured; in addition we used immunohistochemistry and western blots to quantify and localize the different cellular and extracellular components, and finally the mechanical testing was performed using a uniaxial mechanical testing machine. The mean DNA content in the ACM was significantly lower in the ACM compared to the bladder. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed that collagen I and IV were preserved in the ACM, but possibly denatured collagen III in the ACM. Furthermore, elastin, laminin and fibronectin were mildly reduced in the ACM. Although the ACM did not exhibit nucleated cells, residual cellular components (actin, myosin, vimentin and others) were still present. There was, on the other hand, no significant difference in the mean stiffness between the ACM and the bladder. Although our decellularization method is effective in removing nuclear material from the bladder while maintaining its inherent mechanical properties, further work is mandatory to determine whether these residual DNA and cellular remnants would lead to any immune reaction, or if the mechanical properties of the ACM are preserved upon implantation and cellularization.

  2. Transient Expression of Chimeric Fluorescent Reporter Proteins in Pollen Tubes to Study Protein Polar Secretion and Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guitao; Liu, Ronghe; Zhuang, Menglong; Wang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Transient expression of chimeric fluorescent reporter proteins by biolistic bombardment is a quick and useful procedure for studying subcellular protein localization and dynamics in plants. It is especially beneficial in specific plant cells which are not suitable for protoplast-based and Agrobacterium-mediated protein transient expression. Polar protein secretion and vesicular trafficking play essential functions for cell polarization and tip growth. The growing pollen tube is regarded as an ideal model plant cell system to study the machinery and regulation of polar protein trafficking and targeting. A large amount of newly synthesized proteins are packed and polarly transported to the apical region to support the rapid and highly polarized tip growth. Here, we described a detailed step-by-step protocol for the transient expression of chimeric fluorescent reporter proteins in growing Arabidopsis and tobacco pollen tubes to study polar transportation logistics and mechanisms. In addition, we have optimized the Arabidopsis and tobacco in vitro pollen germination medium and the conditions to maximize the efficiency of protein expression. As a proof of concept, we have used this protocol to express actin microfilament and late endosomal fluorescent markers in Arabidopsis and tobacco pollen tubes.

  3. [Tripartite-motif protein 25 and pyruvate kinase M2 protein expression in non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Jing, Huai-Zhi; Qiu, Feng; Chen, Shi-Zhi; Su, Lin; Qu, Can

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the expression of tripartite-motif protein 25 (TRIM25) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) protein in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and explore their role in the occurrence and progression of NSCLC. The expressions of TRIM25 and PKM2 protein were detected in 60 NSCLC specimens and 20 adjacent normal lung tissue (>5 cm from the lesions) with immunofluorescence histochemical method and in 10 fresh specimens of NSCLC with Western blotting. The results were analyzed in relation with the clinicopathological features of the patients. The positivity rates of TRIM25 expression was 45% in the 60 lung carcinoma specimens, significantly higher than that in the 20 normal lung tissues (10%, P=0.005). TRIM25 protein was expressed in 28.6% of lung adenocarcinoma tissues and in 59.4% of squamous carcinoma tissues (P=0.017). TRIM25 protein expression was positively correlated with the TNM stages and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC (P<0.05). The expressions of PKM2 protein in 60 cases of lung carcinoma was 73.3%,while in 20 cases of normal lung tissues the expressions was 30%(P=0.001). The positivity rates of PKM2 expression differed significantly between lung adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma (57.1% vs 87.5%, P=0.008). An inverse correlation was noted between TRIM25 and PKM2 expressions (P=0.026). TRIM25 and PKM2 protein may participate in the occurrence and progression of NSCLC, and their expressions are inversely correlated.

  4. Nance-Horan syndrome protein, NHS, associates with epithelial cell junctions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shiwani; Ang, Sharyn L; Shaw, Marie; Mackey, David A; Gécz, Jozef; McAvoy, John W; Craig, Jamie E

    2006-06-15

    Nance-Horan syndrome, characterized by congenital cataracts, craniofacial, dental abnormalities and mental disturbances, is an X-linked disorder with significant phenotypic heterogeneity. Affected individuals have mutations in the NHS (Nance-Horan syndrome) gene typically resulting in premature truncation of the protein. This report underlines the complexity of the regulation of the NHS gene that transcribes several isoforms. We demonstrate the differential expression of the two NHS isoforms, NHS-A and NHS-1A, and differences in the subcellular localization of the proteins encoded by these isoforms. This may in part explain the pleiotropic features of the syndrome. We show that the endogenous and exogenous NHS-A isoform localizes to the cell membrane of mammalian cells in a cell-type-dependent manner and that it co-localizes with the tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-1 in the apical aspect of cell membrane in epithelial cells. We also show that the NHS-1A isoform is a cytoplasmic protein. In the developing mammalian lens, we found continuous expression of NHS that became restricted to the lens epithelium in pre- and postnatal lens. Consistent with the in vitro findings, the NHS-A isoform associates with the apical cell membrane in the lens epithelium. This study suggests that disturbances in intercellular contacts underlie cataractogenesis in the Nance-Horan syndrome. NHS is the first gene localized at TJs that has been implicated in congenital cataracts.

  5. RRE-dependent HIV-1 Env RNA effects on Gag protein expression, assembly and release

    SciT

    López, Claudia S., E-mail: lopezcl@ohsu.edu; Sloan, Rachel; Cylinder, Isabel

    The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. Evidence has shown there is a direct or indirect interaction between the Gag protein, and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Our current work shows that env gene expression impacts HIV-1 Gag expression and function in two ways. At the protein level, full-length Env expression altered Gag proteinmore » expression, while Env CT-deletion proteins did not. At the RNA level, RRE-containing Env mRNA expression reduced Gag expression, processing, and virus particle release from cells. Our results support models in which Gag is influenced by the Env CT, and Env mRNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export. - Highlights: • At the protein level, full-length HIV-1 Env alters Gag protein expression. • HIV-1 Env RNA expression reduces Gag levels and virus release. • Env RNA effects on Gag are dependent on the RRE. • RRE-containing Env RNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export.« less

  6. Similar protein expression profiles of ovarian and endometrial high-grade serous carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Kosuke; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Serada, Satoshi; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Hori, Yumiko; Fujimoto, Minoru; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Ueda, Yutaka; Morii, Eiichi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Naka, Tetsuji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian and endometrial high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) have similar clinical and pathological characteristics; however, exhaustive protein expression profiling of these cancers has yet to be reported. We performed protein expression profiling on 14 cases of HGSCs (7 ovarian and 7 endometrial) and 18 endometrioid carcinomas (9 ovarian and 9 endometrial) using iTRAQ-based exhaustive and quantitative protein analysis. We identified 828 tumour-expressed proteins and evaluated the statistical similarity of protein expression profiles between ovarian and endometrial HGSCs using unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (P<0.01). Using 45 statistically highly expressed proteins in HGSCs, protein ontology analysis detected two enriched terms and proteins composing each term: IMP2 and MCM2. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the higher expression of IMP2 and MCM2 in ovarian and endometrial HGSCs as well as in tubal and peritoneal HGSCs than in endometrioid carcinomas (P<0.01). The knockdown of either IMP2 or MCM2 by siRNA interference significantly decreased the proliferation rate of ovarian HGSC cell line (P<0.01). We demonstrated the statistical similarity of the protein expression profiles of ovarian and endometrial HGSC beyond the organs. We suggest that increased IMP2 and MCM2 expression may underlie some of the rapid HGSC growth observed clinically.

  7. Vectors for co-expression of an unrestricted number of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Scheich, Christoph; Kümmel, Daniel; Soumailakakis, Dimitri; Heinemann, Udo; Büssow, Konrad

    2007-01-01

    A vector system is presented that allows generation of E. coli co-expression clones by a standardized, robust cloning procedure. The number of co-expressed proteins is not limited. Five ‘pQLink’ vectors for expression of His-tag and GST-tag fusion proteins as well as untagged proteins and for cloning by restriction enzymes or Gateway cloning were generated. The vectors allow proteins to be expressed individually; to achieve co-expression, two pQLink plasmids are combined by ligation-independent cloning. pQLink co-expression plasmids can accept an unrestricted number of genes. As an example, the co-expression of a heterotetrameric human transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex from a single plasmid, its isolation and analysis of its stoichiometry are shown. pQLink clones can be used directly for pull-down experiments if the proteins are expressed with different tags. We demonstrate pull-down experiments of human valosin-containing protein (VCP) with fragments of the autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR). The cloning method avoids PCR or gel isolation of restriction fragments, and a single resistance marker and origin of replication are used, allowing over-expression of rare tRNAs from a second plasmid. It is expected that applications are not restricted to bacteria, but could include co-expression in other hosts such as Bacluovirus/insect cells. PMID:17311810

  8. Expressing the human proteome for affinity proteomics: optimising expression of soluble protein domains and in vivo biotinylation.

    PubMed

    Keates, Tracy; Cooper, Christopher D O; Savitsky, Pavel; Allerston, Charles K; Phillips, Claire; Hammarström, Martin; Daga, Neha; Berridge, Georgina; Mahajan, Pravin; Burgess-Brown, Nicola A; Müller, Susanne; Gräslund, Susanne; Gileadi, Opher

    2012-06-15

    The generation of affinity reagents to large numbers of human proteins depends on the ability to express the target proteins as high-quality antigens. The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) focuses on the production and structure determination of human proteins. In a 7-year period, the SGC has deposited crystal structures of >800 human protein domains, and has additionally expressed and purified a similar number of protein domains that have not yet been crystallised. The targets include a diversity of protein domains, with an attempt to provide high coverage of protein families. The family approach provides an excellent basis for characterising the selectivity of affinity reagents. We present a summary of the approaches used to generate purified human proteins or protein domains, a test case demonstrating the ability to rapidly generate new proteins, and an optimisation study on the modification of >70 proteins by biotinylation in vivo. These results provide a unique synergy between large-scale structural projects and the recent efforts to produce a wide coverage of affinity reagents to the human proteome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Expressing the human proteome for affinity proteomics: optimising expression of soluble protein domains and in vivo biotinylation

    PubMed Central

    Keates, Tracy; Cooper, Christopher D.O.; Savitsky, Pavel; Allerston, Charles K.; Phillips, Claire; Hammarström, Martin; Daga, Neha; Berridge, Georgina; Mahajan, Pravin; Burgess-Brown, Nicola A.; Müller, Susanne; Gräslund, Susanne; Gileadi, Opher

    2012-01-01

    The generation of affinity reagents to large numbers of human proteins depends on the ability to express the target proteins as high-quality antigens. The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) focuses on the production and structure determination of human proteins. In a 7-year period, the SGC has deposited crystal structures of >800 human protein domains, and has additionally expressed and purified a similar number of protein domains that have not yet been crystallised. The targets include a diversity of protein domains, with an attempt to provide high coverage of protein families. The family approach provides an excellent basis for characterising the selectivity of affinity reagents. We present a summary of the approaches used to generate purified human proteins or protein domains, a test case demonstrating the ability to rapidly generate new proteins, and an optimisation study on the modification of >70 proteins by biotinylation in vivo. These results provide a unique synergy between large-scale structural projects and the recent efforts to produce a wide coverage of affinity reagents to the human proteome. PMID:22027370

  10. Dietary phenylalanine-improved intestinal barrier health in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with increased immune status and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Li, Wen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of dietary phenylalanine (Phe) on the intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance, and the gene expression of immune- and antioxidant-related signalling molecules in the intestine. In addition, the dietary Phe (and Phe + Tyr) requirement of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was also estimated. Fish were fed fish meal-casein-gelatin based diets (302.3 g crude protein kg(-1)) containing 3.4 (basal diet), 6.1, 9.1, 11.5, 14.0 and 16.8 g Phe kg(-1) with a fixed amount of 10.7 g tyrosine kg(-1) for 8 weeks. The results showed that Phe deficiency or excess Phe reduced the lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities and complement C 3 content in the intestine (P < 0.05). Moreover, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin and claudin c mRNA levels were highest in the fish fed the diet containing 11.5 g Phe kg(-1) (P < 0.05). However, claudin 12 and claudin b mRNA levels were not significantly affected by dietary Phe (P > 0.05). Gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor of nuclear factor κBα (IκBα) in proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) increased as dietary Phe increased up to 6.1, 9.1, 11.5 and 14.0 g kg(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). However, interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA levels showed opposite tendencies. In addition, the mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower in the intestinal tissue of the group fed a diet with Phe levels of 16.8 g kg(-1) than in those of other groups (P < 0.05). The expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene was increased as dietary Phe increased up to 9.1 g kg(-1) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Phe improved intestinal immune status, and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, and Nrf2 in the fish

  11. Genomic position affects the expression of tobacco mosaic virus movement and coat protein genes.

    PubMed Central

    Culver, J N; Lehto, K; Close, S M; Hilf, M E; Dawson, W O

    1993-01-01

    Alterations in the genomic position of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) genes encoding the 30-kDa cell-to-cell movement protein or the coat protein greatly affected their expression. Higher production of 30-kDa protein was correlated with increased proximity of the gene to the viral 3' terminus. A mutant placing the 30-kDa open reading frame 207 nucleotides nearer the 3' terminus produced at least 4 times the wild-type TMV 30-kDa protein level, while a mutant placing the 30-kDa open reading frame 470 nucleotides closer to the 3' terminus produced at least 8 times the wild-type TMV 30-kDa protein level. Increases in 30-kDa protein production were not correlated with the subgenomic mRNA promoter (SGP) controlling the 30-kDa gene, since mutants with either the native 30-kDa SGP or the coat protein SGP in front of the 30-kDa gene produced similar levels of 30-kDa protein. Lack of coat protein did not affect 30-kDa protein expression, since a mutant with the coat protein start codon removed did not produce increased amounts of 30-kDa protein. Effects of gene positioning on coat protein expression were examined by using a mutant containing two different tandemly positioned tobamovirus (TMV and Odontoglossum ringspot virus) coat protein genes. Only coat protein expressed from the gene positioned nearest the 3' viral terminus was detected. Analysis of 30-kDa and coat protein subgenomic mRNAs revealed no proportional increase in the levels of mRNA relative to the observed levels of 30-kDa and coat proteins. This suggests that a translational mechanism is primarily responsible for the observed effect of genomic position on expression of 30-kDa movement and coat protein genes. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8446627

  12. Heterologous expression of proteins from Plasmodium falciparum: results from 1000 genes.

    PubMed

    Mehlin, Christopher; Boni, Erica; Buckner, Frederick S; Engel, Linnea; Feist, Tiffany; Gelb, Michael H; Haji, Lutfiyah; Kim, David; Liu, Colleen; Mueller, Natascha; Myler, Peter J; Reddy, J T; Sampson, Joshua N; Subramanian, E; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Worthey, Elizabeth; Zucker, Frank; Hol, Wim G J

    2006-08-01

    As part of a structural genomics initiative, 1000 open reading frames from Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most deadly form of malaria, were tested in an E. coli protein expression system. Three hundred and thirty-seven of these targets were observed to express, although typically the protein was insoluble. Sixty-three of the targets provided soluble protein in yields ranging from 0.9 to 406.6 mg from one liter of rich media. Higher molecular weight, greater protein disorder (segmental analysis, SEG), more basic isoelectric point (pI), and a lack of homology to E. coli proteins were all highly and independently correlated with difficulties in expression. Surprisingly, codon usage and the percentage of adenosines and thymidines (%AT) did not appear to play a significant role. Of those proteins which expressed, high pI and a hypothetical annotation were both strongly and independently correlated with insolubility. The overwhelmingly important role of pI in both expression and solubility appears to be a surprising and fundamental issue in the heterologous expression of P. falciparum proteins in E. coli. Twelve targets which did not express in E. coli from the native gene sequence were codon-optimized through whole gene synthesis, resulting in the (insoluble) expression of three of these proteins. Seventeen targets which were expressed insolubly in E. coli were moved into a baculovirus/Sf-21 system, resulting in the soluble expression of one protein at a high level and six others at a low level. A variety of factors conspire to make the heterologous expression of P. falciparum proteins challenging, and these observations lay the groundwork for a rational approach to prioritizing and, ultimately, eliminating these impediments.

  13. Uncovering Suitable Reference Proteins for Expression Studies in Human Adipose Tissue with Relevance to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pérez, Rafael; López, Juan A.; García-Santos, Eva; Camafeita, Emilio; Gómez-Serrano, María; Ortega-Delgado, Francisco J.; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José M.; Peral, Belén

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein expression studies based on the two major intra-abdominal human fat depots, the subcutaneous and the omental fat, can shed light into the mechanisms involved in obesity and its co-morbidities. Here we address, for the first time, the identification and validation of reference proteins for data standardization, which are essential for accurate comparison of protein levels in expression studies based on fat from obese and non-obese individuals. Methodology and Findings To uncover adipose tissue proteins equally expressed either in omental and subcutaneous fat depots (study 1) or in omental fat from non-obese and obese individuals (study 2), we have reanalyzed our previously published data based on two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four proteins (12 in study 1 and 12 in study 2) with similar expression levels in all conditions tested were selected and identified by mass spectrometry. Immunoblotting analysis was used to confirm in adipose tissue the expression pattern of the potential reference proteins and three proteins were validated: PARK7, ENOA and FAA. Western Blot analysis was also used to test customary loading control proteins. ENOA, PARK7 and the customary loading control protein Beta-actin showed steady expression profiles in fat from non-obese and obese individuals, whilst FAA maintained steady expression levels across paired omental and subcutaneous fat samples. Conclusions ENOA, PARK7 and Beta-actin are proper reference standards in obesity studies based on omental fat, whilst FAA is the best loading control for the comparative analysis of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues either in obese and non-obese subjects. Neither customary loading control proteins GAPDH and TBB5 nor CALX are adequate standards in differential expression studies on adipose tissue. The use of the proposed reference proteins will facilitate the adequate analysis of proteins differentially expressed in the context of obesity

  14. Maternal low protein diet and postnatal high fat diet increases adipose imprinted gene expression

    Maternal and postnatal diet can alter Igf2 gene expression and DNA methylation. To test whether maternal low protein and postnatal high fat (HF) diet result in alteration in Igf2 expression and obesity, we fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats 8% (LP) or 20% (NP) protein for 3 wk prior to breeding and...

  15. Teaching Molecular Biology to Undergraduate Biology Students: An Illustration of Protein Expression and Purification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Cesar Adolfo; Silva, Flavio Henrique; Novo, Maria Teresa Marques

    2004-01-01

    Practical classes on protein expression and purification were given to undergraduate biology students enrolled in the elective course "Introduction to Genetic Engineering." The heterologous expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)* of "Aequorea victoria" is an interesting system for didactic purposes because it can be viewed easily during…

  16. The N Terminus of Andes Virus L Protein Suppresses mRNA and Protein Expression in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Patrick; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the structure and function of the 250-kDa L protein of hantaviruses, although it plays a central role in virus genome transcription and replication. When attempting to study Andes virus (ANDV) L protein in mammalian cells, we encountered difficulties. Even in a strong overexpression system, ANDV L protein could not be detected by immunoblotting. Deletion analysis revealed that the 534 N-terminal amino acid residues determine the low-expression phenotype. Inhibition of translation due to RNA secondary structures around the start codon, rapid proteasomal degradation, and reduced half-life time were excluded. However, ANDV L protein expression could be rescued upon mutation of the catalytic PD-E-K motif and further conserved residues of the putative endonuclease at the N terminus of the protein. In addition, wild-type ANDV L rather than expressible L mutants suppressed the level of L mRNA, as well as reporter mRNAs. Wild-type L protein also reduced the synthesis of cellular proteins in the high-molecular-weight range. Using expressible ANDV L mutants as a tool for localization studies, we show that L protein colocalizes with ANDV N and NSs but not Gc protein. A fraction of L protein also colocalized with the cellular processing (P) body component DCP1a. Overall, these data suggest that ANDV L protein possesses a highly active endonuclease at the N terminus suppressing the level of its own as well as heterologous mRNAs upon recombinant expression in mammalian cells. PMID:23576516

  17. Human XPA and XRCC1 DNA repair proteins expressed in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Pushnova, E A; Ostanin, K; Thelen, M P

    2001-11-01

    Human XPA and XRCC1 DNA repair proteins have been expressed in a series of novel yeast episomal vectors. Expression of XPA cDNA resulted in synthesis of anti-XPA crossreacting polypeptides of 40 and 42 kDa, the status of the native protein found in human cells. Likewise, the majority of the recombinant XRCC1 found in the yeast intracellular fraction corresponded to the molecular mass of the full-length human protein. Recombinant XPA protein expressed as an NH(2)-terminal polyhistidine fusion could be affinity purified using Ni(2+) agarose. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Expression of hypoxia-inducible 2 (HIG2) protein in uterine cancer.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, S; Tsuda, H; Nomura, H; Kataoka, F; Chiyoda, T; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Susumu, N; Aoki, D

    2011-01-01

    For both cervical cancer (UCC) and endometrial cancer (EMC) there are no effective prognostic markers. In this study, we evaluated HIG2 protein expression in 332 uterine cancers (186 UCCs and 146 EMCs) and examined the relationship between HIG2 protein expression and clinical factors, including prognosis. Totally, HIG2 expression was detected in 58% of UCC and 66% of EMC. However, there was no significant relationship between HIG2 expression and age, clinical stage and histology in either UCC or EMC. In addition, HIG2 protein expression was not related to prognosis of UCC or EMC. The positivity rate of HIG2 protein was 56% and 61% in early-stage UCC and EMC, respectively and 67% in non-squamous cell carcinoma of UCC. The positivity rate of HIG2 protein was high even in early-stage UCC and EMC

  19. Insect cells-baculovirus system for the production of difficult to express proteins.

    PubMed

    Osz-Papai, Judit; Radu, Laura; Abdulrahman, Wassim; Kolb-Cheynel, Isabelle; Troffer-Charlier, Nathalie; Birck, Catherine; Poterszman, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    The production of sufficient quantities of homogenous protein not only is an essential prelude for structural investigations but also represents a rate-limiting step for many human functional studies. Although technologies for expression of recombinant proteins and complexes have been improved tremendously, in many cases, protein production remains a challenge and can be associated with considerable investment. This chapter describes simple and efficient protocols for expression screening and optimization of protein production in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. We describe the procedure, starting from the cloning of a gene of interest into an expression transfer baculovirus vector, followed by generation of the recombinant virus by homologous recombination, evaluation of protein expression, and scale-up. Handling of insect cell cultures and preparation of bacmid for co-transfection are also detailed.

  20. PDZ-containing proteins: alternative splicing as a source of functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, Jimena; Mendoza, Carolina

    2004-12-01

    Scaffold proteins allow specific protein complexes to be assembled in particular regions of the cell at which they organize subcellular structures and signal transduction complexes. This characteristic is especially important for neurons, which are highly polarized cells. Among the domains contained by scaffold proteins, the PSD-95, Discs-large, ZO-1 (PDZ) domains are of particular relevance in signal transduction processes and maintenance of neuronal and epithelial polarity. These domains are specialized in the binding of the carboxyl termini of proteins allowing membrane proteins to be localized by the anchoring to the cytoskeleton mediated by PDZ-containing scaffold proteins. In vivo studies carried out in Drosophila have taught that the role of many scaffold proteins is not limited to a single process; thus, in many cases the same genes are expressed in different tissues and participate in apparently very diverse processes. In addition to the differential expression of interactors of scaffold proteins, the expression of variants of these molecular scaffolds as the result of the alternative processing of the genes that encode them is proving to be a very important source of variability and complexity on a main theme. Alternative splicing in the nervous system is well documented, where specific isoforms play roles in neurotransmission, ion channel function, neuronal cell recognition, and are developmentally regulated making it a major mechanism of functional diversity. Here we review the current state of knowledge about the diversity and the known function of PDZ-containing proteins in Drosophila with emphasis in the role played by alternatively processed forms in the diversity of functions attributed to this family of proteins.

  1. Marker Protein Expression Combined With Expression Heterogeneity is a Powerful Indicator of Malignancy in Acral Lentiginous Melanomas.

    PubMed

    Cintra Lopes Carapeto, Fernando; Neves Comodo, Andréia; Germano, Andressa; Pereira Guimarães, Daiane; Barcelos, Denise; Fernandes, Mariana; Landman, Gilles

    2017-02-01

    Samples of acral lentiginous melanomas (ALMs) were obtained from the Department of Pathology at Escola Paulista de Medicina-Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil. Demographic, clinical, and follow-up data were obtained from the charts of Hospital São Paulo. From 2 tissue microarrays containing 60 nevi and quadruplicate samples of ≥1.0-mm of 49 ALM, sections were stained to evaluate SCF, KIT, BRAF, CYCLIND1, MYC, and PTEN immunohistochemical protein expression. Nevi and ALM from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed and collected. All specimens were in the vertical growth phase, and histopathological parameters indicated that tumors were at an advanced stage at diagnosis. Average tumor thickness was 6.95 mm, 63% were ulcerated, average mitotic index was 5 mitotic cells per mm, and 43% were at Clark's level V. Compared with nevi, the χ test showed that ALM significantly correlated with SCF protein expression (P = 0.001) and expression heterogeneity (P < 0.000). Similar findings were observed for KIT (P = 0.005, P = 0.003, respectively), MYC (P < 0.000, P < 0.000), and PTEN (P = 0.005, P < 0.000). Malignancy did not correlate with BRAF and CYCLIN D1 expression (P = 0.053 and P = 0.259, respectively), but it did significantly correlate with their heterogeneous expression (P < 0.000, P = 0.024, respectively). Combined protein expression had an odds ratio of greater malignancy when BRAF and MYC were positive and/or heterogeneously expressed (OR of 78 and 95, respectively). We show that marker protein expression, when combined with heterogeneous expression as shown by immunohistochemistry, is a powerful indicator of malignancy in ALMs, especially, when protein pairs are combined.

  2. Activation of p44/42 in Human Natural Killer Cells Decreases Cell-surface Protein Expression: Relationship to Tributyltin-induced alterations of protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Dudimah, Fred D.; Abraha, Abraham; Wang, Xiaofei; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) activates the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), p44/42 in human natural killer (NK) cells. TBT also reduces NK cytotoxic function and decreases the expression of several NK-cell proteins. To understand the role that p44/42 activation plays in TBT-induced loss of NK cell function, we have investigated how selective activation of p44/42 by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) affects NK cells. Previously we showed that PMA caused losses of lytic function similar to those seen with TBT exposures. Here we examined activation of p44/42 in the regulation of NK-cell protein expression and how this regulation may explain the protein expression changes seen with TBT exposures. NK cells exposed to PMA were examined for levels of cell-surface proteins, granzyme mRNA, and perforin mRNA expression. The expression of CD11a, CD16, CD18, and CD56 were reduced, perforin mRNA levels were unchanged and granzyme mRNA levels were increased. To verify that activation of p44/42 was responsible for the alterations seen in CD11a, CD16, CD18, and CD56 with PMA, NK cells were treated with the p44/42 pathway inhibitor (PD98059) prior to PMA exposures. In the presence of PD98059, PMA caused no decreases in the expression of the cell-surface proteins. Results of these studies indicate that the activation of p44/42 may lead to the loss of NK cell cytotoxic function by decreasing the expression of CD11a, CD16, CD18, and CD56. Further, activation of p44/42 appears to be at least in part responsible for the TBT-induced decreases in expression of CD16, CD18, and CD56. PMID:20883105

  3. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with a small metal-binding protein from Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli is still the preferred organism for large-scale production of recombinant proteins. The use of fusion proteins has helped considerably in enhancing the solubility of heterologous proteins and their purification with affinity chromatography. Here, the use of a small metal-binding protein (SmbP) from Nitrosomonas europaea is described as a new fusion protein for protein expression and purification in E. coli. Fluorescent proteins tagged at the N-terminal with SmbP showed high levels of solubility, compared with those of maltose-binding protein and glutathione S-transferase, and low formation of inclusion bodies. Using commercially available IMAC resins charged with Ni(II), highly pure recombinant proteins were obtained after just one chromatography step. Proteins may be purified from the periplasm of E. coli if SmbP contains the signal sequence at the N-terminal. After removal of the SmbP tag from the protein of interest, high-yields are obtained since SmbP is a protein of just 9.9 kDa. The results here obtained suggest that SmbP is a good alternative as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A protein disulfide isomerase gene fusion expression system that increases the extracellular productivity of Bacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Kajino, T; Ohto, C; Muramatsu, M; Obata, S; Udaka, S; Yamada, Y; Takahashi, H

    2000-02-01

    We have developed a versatile Bacillus brevis expression and secretion system based on the use of fungal protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a gene fusion partner. Fusion with PDI increased the extracellular production of heterologous proteins (light chain of immunoglobulin G, 8-fold; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, 12-fold). Linkage to PDI prevented the aggregation of the secreted proteins, resulting in high-level accumulation of fusion proteins in soluble and biologically active forms. We also show that the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI in a fusion protein is responsible for the suppression of the aggregation of the protein with intradisulfide, whereas aggregation of the protein without intradisulfide was prevented even when the protein was fused to a mutant PDI whose two active sites were disrupted, suggesting that another PDI function, such as chaperone-like activity, synergistically prevented the aggregation of heterologous proteins in the PDI fusion expression system.

  5. A Protein Disulfide Isomerase Gene Fusion Expression System That Increases the Extracellular Productivity of Bacillus brevis

    PubMed Central

    Kajino, Tsutomu; Ohto, Chikara; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Obata, Shusei; Udaka, Shigezo; Yamada, Yukio; Takahashi, Haruo

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a versatile Bacillus brevis expression and secretion system based on the use of fungal protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a gene fusion partner. Fusion with PDI increased the extracellular production of heterologous proteins (light chain of immunoglobulin G, 8-fold; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, 12-fold). Linkage to PDI prevented the aggregation of the secreted proteins, resulting in high-level accumulation of fusion proteins in soluble and biologically active forms. We also show that the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI in a fusion protein is responsible for the suppression of the aggregation of the protein with intradisulfide, whereas aggregation of the protein without intradisulfide was prevented even when the protein was fused to a mutant PDI whose two active sites were disrupted, suggesting that another PDI function, such as chaperone-like activity, synergistically prevented the aggregation of heterologous proteins in the PDI fusion expression system. PMID:10653729

  6. A mammalian germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein interacts with ubiquitously expressed proteins involved in splice site selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, David J.; Bourgeois, Cyril F.; Klink, Albrecht; Stévenin, James; Cooke, Howard J.

    2000-05-01

    RNA-binding motif (RBM) genes are found on all mammalian Y chromosomes and are implicated in spermatogenesis. Within human germ cells, RBM protein shows a similar nuclear distribution to components of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. To address the function of RBM, we have used protein-protein interaction assays to test for possible physical interactions between these proteins. We find that RBM protein directly interacts with members of the SR family of splicing factors and, in addition, strongly interacts with itself. We have mapped the protein domains responsible for mediating these interactions and expressed the mouse RBM interaction region as a bacterial fusion protein. This fusion protein can pull-down several functionally active SR protein species from cell extracts. Depletion and add-back experiments indicate that these SR proteins are the only splicing factors bound by RBM which are required for the splicing of a panel of pre-mRNAs. Our results suggest that RBM protein is an evolutionarily conserved mammalian splicing regulator which operates as a germ cell-specific cofactor for more ubiquitously expressed pre-mRNA splicing activators.

  7. Analysis of differential protein expression in normal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cell lines

    SciT

    Williams, K.; Chubb, C.; Huberman, E.

    High resolution two dimensional get electrophoresis (2DE) and database analysis was used to establish protein expression patterns for cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells and thirteen breast cancer cell lines. The Human Breast Epithelial Cell database contains the 2DE protein patterns, including relative protein abundances, for each cell line, plus a composite pattern that contains all the common and specifically expressed proteins from all the cell lines. Significant differences in protein expression, both qualitative and quantitative, were observed not only between normal cells and tumor cells, but also among the tumor cell lines. Eight percent of the consistently detected proteinsmore » were found in significantly (P < 0.001) variable levels among the cell lines. Using a combination of immunostaining, comigration with purified protein, subcellular fractionation, and amino-terminal protein sequencing, we identified a subset of the differentially expressed proteins. These identified proteins include the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The cell lines can be classified into four distinct groups based on their intermediate filament protein profile. We also identified heat shock proteins; hsp27, hsp60, and hsp70 varied in abundance and in some cases in the relative phosphorylation levels among the cell lines. Finally, we identified IMP dehydrogenase in each of the cell lines, and found the levels of this enzyme in the tumor cell lines elevated 2- to 20-fold relative to the levels in normal cells.« less

  8. Expression and analysis of exogenous proteins in epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Dagnino, Lina; Ho, Ernest; Chang, Wing Y

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we review protocols for transient transfection of primary keratinocytes. The ability to transfect primary epidermal cells regardless of their differentiation status allows the biochemical and molecular characterization of multiple proteins. We review methods to analyze exogenous protein abundance in transfected keratinocytes by immunoblot and immunoprecipitation. We also present protocols to determine the subcellular distribution of these proteins by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy approaches.

  9. High-yield, in vitro protein expression using a continuous-exchange, coupled transcription/ translation system.

    PubMed

    Martin, G A; Kawaguchi, R; Lam, Y; DeGiovanni, A; Fukushima, M; Mutter, W

    2001-10-01

    The Rapid Translation System (RTS 500) (Roche Molecular Biochemicals) is a high-yield protein expression system that utilizes an enhanced E. coli lysate for an in vitro transcription/translation reaction. In contrast to conventional transcription/translation, this system allows protein expression to continue for more than 24 h. We demonstrated the utility of the RTS 500 by expressing different soluble and active proteins that generally pose problems in cell-based expression systems. We first expressed GFP-lunasin, a fusion protein that, because of its toxicity, has been impossible to produce in whole cells. The second protein we expressed, human interleukin-2 (IL-2), is generally difficult to produce, either as the native molecule or as a GSTfusion protein, in a soluble form in bacteria. Finally, we demonstrated the capacity of the RTS 500 to co-express proteins, by the simultaneous production of GFP and CAT in a single reaction. This new technology appears to be particularly usefulfor the convenient production of preparative amounts (100-900 microg) of proteins that are toxic or insoluble in cell-based systems.

  10. High-throughput Cloning and Expression of Integral Membrane Proteins in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several structural genomics centers have been established and a remarkable number of three-dimensional structures of soluble proteins have been solved. For membrane proteins, the number of structures solved has been significantly trailing those for their soluble counterparts, not least because over-expression and purification of membrane proteins is a much more arduous process. By using high throughput technologies, a large number of membrane protein targets can be screened simultaneously and a greater number of expression and purification conditions can be employed, leading to a higher probability of successfully determining the structure of membrane proteins. This unit describes the cloning, expression and screening of membrane proteins using high throughput methodologies developed in our laboratory. Basic Protocol 1 deals with the cloning of inserts into expression vectors by ligation-independent cloning. Basic Protocol 2 describes the expression and purification of the target proteins on a miniscale. Lastly, for the targets that express at the miniscale, basic protocols 3 and 4 outline the methods employed for the expression and purification of targets at the midi-scale, as well as a procedure for detergent screening and identification of detergent(s) in which the target protein is stable. PMID:24510647

  11. In planta expression of HIV-1 p24 protein using an RNA plant virus-based expression vector.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Leung, C; Murdin, L; Rovinski, B; White, K A

    2000-02-01

    Plant viruses show significant potential as expression vectors for the production of foreign proteins (e.g., antigens) in plants. The HIV-1 p24 nucleocapsid protein is an important early marker of HIV infection and has been used as an antigen in the development of HIV vaccines. Toward developing a plant-based expression system for the production of p24, we have investigated the use of a (positive)-strand RNA plant virus, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), as an expression vector. The HIV p24 open reading frame (ORF) was introduced into a cloned cDNA copy of the TBSV genome as an in-frame fusion with a 5'-terminal portion of the TBSV coat protein ORF. In vitro-generated RNA transcripts corresponding to the engineered virus vector were infectious when inoculated into plant protoplasts; Northern and Western blot analyses verified the accumulation of a predicted p24-encoding viral subgenomic mRNA and the production of p24 fusion product. Whole-plant infections with the viral vector led to the accumulation of p24 fusion protein in inoculated leaves, which cross-reacted with p24-specific antibodies, thus confirming the maintenance of key antigenic determinants. This study is the first to demonstrate that TBSV can be engineered to express a complete foreign protein of clinical importance. Strategies for optimizing protein yield from this viral vector are discussed.

  12. Distinct Protein Expression Profiles of Solid-Pseudopapillary Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Park, Minhee; Lim, Jong-Sun; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Na, Keun; Lee, Min Jung; Kang, Chang Moo; Paik, Young-Ki; Kim, Hoguen

    2015-08-07

    Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) is an uncommon pancreatic tumor with mutation in CTNNB1 and distinct clinical and pathological features. We compared the proteomic profiles of SPN to mRNA expression. Pooled SPNs and pooled non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues were examined with high-resolution mass spectrometry. We identified 329 (150 up-regulated and 179 down-regulated) differentially expressed proteins in SPN. We identified 191 proteins (58.1% of the 329 dysregulated proteins) with the same expression tendencies in SPN based on mRNA data. Many overexpressed proteins were related to signaling pathways known to be activated in SPNs. We found that several proteins involved in Wnt signaling, including DKK4 and β-catenin, and proteins that bind β-catenin, such as FUS and NONO, were up-regulated in SPNs. Molecules involved in glycolysis, including PKM2, ENO2, and HK1, were overexpressed in accordance to their mRNA levels. In summary, SPN showed (1) distinct protein expression changes that correlated with mRNA expression, (2) overexpression of Wnt signaling proteins and proteins that bind directly to β-catenin, and (3) overexpression of proteins involved in metabolism. These findings may help develop early diagnostic biomarkers and molecular targets.

  13. Schisandrin B protects PC12 cells by decreasing the expression of amyloid precursor protein and vacuolar protein sorting 35★

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Mingmin; Mao, Shanping; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Baohui; Zhang, Qian; Pan, Gaofeng; Fu, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    PC12 cell injury was induced using 20 μM amyloid β-protein 25–35 to establish a model of Alzheimer's disease. The cells were then treated with 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays and Hoechst 33342 staining results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the survival rate of PC12 cells injured by amyloid β-protein 25–35 gradually increased and the rate of apoptosis gradually decreased. Reverse transcription-PCR, immunocytochemical staining and western blot results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the mRNA and protein expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein were gradually decreased. Vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein showed a consistent trend for change. These findings suggest that 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B antagonizes the cellular injury induced by amyloid β-protein 25–35 in a dose-dependent manner. This may be caused by decreasing the expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein. PMID:25745458

  14. Differential protein expression in alligator leukocytes in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide injection.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Mark; Kinney, Clint; Sanders, Paige

    2009-12-01

    Blood was collected from three juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) before, and again 24h after, injection with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The leukocytes were collected from both samples, and the proteins were extracted. Each group of proteins was labeled with a different fluorescent dye and the differences in protein expression were analyzed by two dimensional differential in-gel expressions (2D-DIGE). The proteins which appeared to be increased or decreased by treatment with LPS were selected and analyzed by MALDI-TOF to determine mass and LC-MS/MS to acquire the partial protein sequences. The peptide sequences were compared to the NCBI protein sequence database to determine homology with other sequences from other species. Several proteins of interest appeared to be increased upon LPS stimulation. Proteins with homology to human transgelin-2, fish glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, amphibian α-enolase, alligator lactate dehydrogenase, fish ubiquitin-activating enzyme, and fungal β-tubulin were also increased after LPS injection. Proteins with homology to fish vimentin 4, murine heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3, and avian calreticulin were found to be decreased in response to LPS. In addition, five proteins, four of which were up-regulated (827, 560, 512, and 650%) and one that exhibited repressed expression (307%), did not show homology to any protein in the database, and thus may represent newly discovered proteins. We are using this biochemical approach to isolate and characterize alligator proteins with potential relevant immune function.

  15. Protein Expression Profile using Two-Dimensional Gel Analysis in Squamous Cervical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Su-Mi; Min, Hyun-Jin; Ding, Guo Hua; Kwak, Sun-Young; Cho, Young-Lae; Nam, Kye-Hyun; Park, Choong Hak; Kim, Yong-Wan; Kim, Chong-Kook; Han, Byoung-Don; Lee, Young-Joo; Kim, Do Kang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Screening in cervical cancer is now progressing to discover candidate genes and proteins that may serve as biological markers and that play a role in tumor progression. We examined the protein expression patterns of the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues from Korean women with using two- dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI- TOF) mass spectrometer. Materials and Methods Normal cervix and SCC tissues were solubilized and 2-DE was performed using pH 3~10 linear IPG strips of 17 cm length. The protein expression was evaluated using PDQuest 2-D software™. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified with a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, and the peptide mass spectra identifications were performed using the Mascot program and by searching the Swiss-prot or NCBInr databases. Results A total of 35 proteins were detected in SCC. 17 proteins were up-regulated and 18 proteins weredown-regulated. Among the proteins that were identified, 12 proteins (pigment epithelium derived factor, annexin A2 and A5, keratin 19 and 20, heat shock protein 27, smooth muscle protein 22 alpha, α-enolase, squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 and 2, glutathione S-transferase and apolipoprotein a1) were protein previously known to be involved in tumor, and 21 proteins were newly identified in this study. Conclusion 2-DE offers the total protein expression profiles of SCC tissues; further characterization of these differentially expressed proteins will give a chance to identify the badly needed tumor-specific diagnostic markers for SCC. PMID:19771267

  16. Comparative transcriptional and translational analysis of leptospiral outer membrane protein expression in response to temperature.

    PubMed

    Lo, Miranda; Cordwell, Stuart J; Bulach, Dieter M; Adler, Ben

    2009-12-08

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis affecting millions of people annually. Transcriptional changes in response to temperature were previously investigated using microarrays to identify genes potentially expressed upon host entry. Past studies found that various leptospiral outer membrane proteins are differentially expressed at different temperatures. However, our microarray studies highlighted a divergence between protein abundance and transcript levels for some proteins. Given the abundance of post-transcriptional expression control mechanisms, this finding highlighted the importance of global protein analysis systems. To complement our previous transcription study, we evaluated differences in the proteins of the leptospiral outer membrane fraction in response to temperature upshift. Outer membrane protein-enriched fractions from Leptospira interrogans grown at 30 degrees C or overnight upshift to 37 degrees C were isolated and the relative abundance of each protein was determined by iTRAQ analysis coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (2-DLC/MS-MS). We identified 1026 proteins with 99% confidence; 27 and 66 were present at elevated and reduced abundance respectively. Protein abundance changes were compared with transcriptional differences determined from the microarray studies. While there was some correlation between the microarray and iTRAQ data, a subset of genes that showed no differential expression by microarray was found to encode temperature-regulated proteins. This set of genes is of particular interest as it is likely that regulation of their expression occurs post-transcriptionally, providing an opportunity to develop hypotheses about the molecular dynamics of the outer membrane of Leptospira in response to changing environments. This is the first study to compare transcriptional and translational responses to temperature shift in L. interrogans. The results thus provide an insight into the mechanisms used by L

  17. Dynamic Stabilization of Expressed Proteins in Engineered Diatom Biosilica Matrices.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yijia; Ford, Nicole R; Hecht, Karen A; Roesijadi, Guritno; Squier, Thomas C

    2016-05-18

    Self-assembly of recombinant proteins within the biosilica of living diatoms represents a means to construct functional materials in a reproducible and scalable manner that will enable applications that harness the inherent specificities of proteins to sense and respond to environmental cues. Here we describe the use of a silaffin-derived lysine-rich 39-amino-acid targeting sequence (Sil3T8) that directs a single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody or an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to assemble within the biosilica frustule, resulting in abundance of >200 000 proteins per frustule. Using either a fluorescent ligand bound to the scFv or the intrinsic fluorescence of EGFP, we monitored protein conformational dynamics, accessibility to external quenchers, binding affinity, and conformational stability. Like proteins in solution, proteins within isolated frustules undergo isotropic rotational motion, but with 2-fold increases in rotational correlation times that are indicative of weak macromolecular associations within the biosilica. Solvent accessibilities and high-affinity (pM) binding are comparable to those in solution. In contrast to solution conditions, scFv antibodies within the biosilica matrix retain their binding affinity in the presence of chaotropic agents (i.e., 8 M urea). Together, these results argue that dramatic increases in protein conformational stability within the biosilica matrices arise through molecular crowding, acting to retain native protein folds and associated functionality with the potential to allow the utility of engineered proteins under a range of harsh environmental conditions associated with environmental sensing and industrial catalytic transformations.

  18. [Expression of c-jun protein after experimental rat brain concussion].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Li, Yong-hong

    2010-02-01

    To observe e-jun protein expression after rat brain concussion and explore the forensic pathologic markers following brain concussion. Fifty-five rats were randomly divided into brain concussion group and control group. The expression of c-jun protein was observed by immunohistochemistry. There were weak positive expression of c-jun protein in control group. In brain concussion group, however, some neutrons showed positive expression of c-jun protein at 15 min after brain concussion, and reach to the peak at 3 h after brain concussion. The research results suggest that detection of c-jun protein could be a marker to determine brain concussion and estimate injury time after brain concussion.

  19. Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun

    2002-01-01

    With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  20. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  1. In-Vivo Real-Time Control of Protein Expression from Endogenous and Synthetic Gene Networks

    PubMed Central

    Orabona, Emanuele; De Stefano, Luca; Ferry, Mike; Hasty, Jeff; di Bernardo, Mario; di Bernardo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We describe an innovative experimental and computational approach to control the expression of a protein in a population of yeast cells. We designed a simple control algorithm to automatically regulate the administration of inducer molecules to the cells by comparing the actual protein expression level in the cell population with the desired expression level. We then built an automated platform based on a microfluidic device, a time-lapse microscopy apparatus, and a set of motorized syringes, all controlled by a computer. We tested the platform to force yeast cells to express a desired fixed, or time-varying, amount of a reporter protein over thousands of minutes. The computer automatically switched the type of sugar administered to the cells, its concentration and its duration, according to the control algorithm. Our approach can be used to control expression of any protein, fused to a fluorescent reporter, provided that an external molecule known to (indirectly) affect its promoter activity is available. PMID:24831205

  2. Expression of small heat shock proteins from pea seedlings under gravity altered conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talalaev, Alexandr S.

    2005-08-01

    A goal of our study was to evaluate the stress gene expression in Pisum sativum seedlings exposed to altered gravity and temperature elevation. We investigate message for the two inducible forms of the cytosolic small heat shock proteins (sHsp), sHsp 17.7 and sHsp 18.1. Both proteins are able to enhance the refolding of chemically denatured proteins in an ATP- independent manner, in other words they can function as molecular chaperones. We studied sHsps expression in pea seedlings cells by Western blotting. Temperature elevation, as the positive control, significantly increased PsHsp 17.7 and PsHsp 18.1 expression. Expression of the housekeeping protein, actin was constant and comparable to unstressed controls for all treatments. We concluded that gravitational perturbations incurred by clinorotation did not change sHsp genes expression.

  3. Phytomonas: A non-pathogenic trypanosomatid model for functional expression of proteins.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Mariana R; Sayé, Melisa; Reigada, Chantal; Carrillo, Carolina; Pereira, Claudio A

    2015-10-01

    Phytomonas are protozoan parasites from the Trypanosomatidae family which infect a wide variety of plants. Herein, Phytomonas Jma was tested as a model for functional expression of heterologous proteins. Green fluorescent protein expression was evaluated in Phytomonas and compared with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. Phytomonas was able to express GFP at levels similar to T. cruzi although the transgenic selection time was higher. It was possible to establish an efficient transfection and selection protocol for protein expression. These results demonstrate that Phytomonas can be a good model for functional expression of proteins from other trypanosomatids, presenting the advantage of being completely safe for humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genomics Analysis of Genes Expressed in Maize Endosperm Identifies Novel Seed Proteins and Clarifies Patterns of Zein Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young-Min; Hu, David Wang-Nan; Larkins, Brian A.; Jung, Rudolf

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed cDNA libraries from developing endosperm of the B73 maize inbred line to evaluate the expression of storage protein genes. This study showed that zeins are by far the most highly expressed genes in the endosperm, but we found an inverse relationship between the number of zein genes and the relative amount of specific mRNAs. Although α-zeins are encoded by large multigene families, only a few of these genes are transcribed at high or detectable levels. In contrast, relatively small gene families encode the γ- and δ-zeins, and members of these gene families, especially the γ-zeins, are highly expressed. Knowledge of expressed storage protein genes allowed the development of DNA and antibody probes that distinguish between closely related gene family members. Using in situ hybridization, we found differences in the temporal and spatial expression of the α-, γ-, and δ-zein gene families, which provides evidence that γ-zeins are synthesized throughout the endosperm before α- and δ-zeins. This observation is consistent with earlier studies that suggested that γ-zeins play an important role in prolamin protein body assembly. Analysis of endosperm cDNAs also revealed several previously unidentified proteins, including a 50-kD γ-zein, an 18-kD α-globulin, and a legumin-related protein. Immunolocalization of the 50-kD γ-zein showed this protein to be located at the surface of prolamin-containing protein bodies, similar to other γ-zeins. The 18-kD α-globulin, however, is deposited in novel, vacuole-like organelles that were not described previously in maize endosperm. PMID:11595803

  5. Rhythmic expression of DEC2 protein in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sato, Fuyuki; Muragaki, Yasuteru; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Katsumi; Kato, Yukio; Zhang, Yanping

    2016-06-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor DEC2 (bHLHE41/Sharp1) is one of the clock genes that show a circadian rhythm in various tissues. DEC2 regulates differentiation, sleep length, tumor cell invasion and apoptosis. Although studies have been conducted on the rhythmic expression of DEC2 mRNA in various tissues, the precise molecular mechanism of DEC2 expression is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined whether DEC2 protein had a rhythmic expression. Western blot analysis for DEC2 protein revealed a rhythmic expression in mouse liver, lung and muscle and in MCF-7 and U2OS cells. In addition, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity (phosphorylation of AMPK) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibited a rhythmic expression under the condition of medium change or glucose-depleted medium. However, the rhythmic expression of DEC2 in MEF gradually decreased in time under these conditions. The medium change affected the levels of DEC2 protein and phosphorylation of AMPK. In addition, the levels of DEC2 protein showed a rhythmic expression in vivo and in MCF-7 and U2OS cells. The results showed that the phosphorylation of AMPK immunoreactivity was strongly detected in the liver and lung of DEC2 knockout mice compared with that of wild-type mice. These results may provide new insights into rhythmic expression and the regulation between DEC2 protein and AMPK activity.

  6. Cigarette smoke induces the expression of Notch3, not Notch1, protein in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenshun; Tan, Qiuyue; Tan, Weijun; Zhang, L I

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of cigarette smoke on the expression of Notch proteins in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). Protein expression levels of Notch1 and Notch3 were analyzed using immunohistochemistry in 102 human LAC specimens. Of these, 52 were obtained from smokers and 50 from non-smokers. In addition, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) at varying concentrations (1, 2.5 and 5%) was administered to A549 cells. The expression of Notch1 and Notch3 protein was then detected by western blot analysis at different time points (0, 8, 24 and 48 h). Of the 102 LAC specimens, 42 (41.2%) were positive for Notch1 and 63 (61.8%) were positive for Notch3. There was no significant difference in the level of Notch1 expression between smokers and non-smokers with LAC (P>0.05). The positive rate and staining intensity of Notch3 expression were increased in the smokers compared with the non-smokers (P<0.05). The expression of Notch3 protein in A549 cells increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner following treatment with CSE, whilst the expression of Notch1 protein appeared stable. The results suggested that cigarette smoke was able to induce the expression of Notch3, not Notch1, protein in LAC. The data revealed an upregulation of Notch3 in LAC following cigarette smoke exposure. Such findings may provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of LAC.

  7. miR-24 and miR-205 expression is dependent on HPV onco-protein expression in keratinocytes

    SciT

    McKenna, Declan J., E-mail: dj.mckenna@ulster.ac.uk; Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Science, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL; Patel, Daksha, E-mail: d.patel@qub.ac.uk

    2014-01-05

    A screen of microRNA (miRNA) expression following differentiation in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified changes in several miRNAs, including miR-24 and miR-205. We investigated how expression of Human Papilloma Virus Type-16 (HPV16) onco-proteins E6 and E7 affected expression of miR-24 and miR-205 during proliferation and differentiation of HFKs. We show that the induction of both miR-24 and miR-205 observed during differentiation of HFKs is lost in HFKs expressing E6 and E7. We demonstrate that the effect on miR-205 is due to E7 activity, as miR-205 expression is dependent on pRb expression. Finally, we provide evidence that miR-24 effects in themore » cell may be due to targeting of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27. In summary, these results indicate that expression of both miR-24 and miR-205 are impacted by E6 and/or E7 expression, which may be one mechanism by which HPV onco-proteins can disrupt the balance between proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes. - Highlights: • miR-24 and miR-205 are induced during keratinocyte differentiation. • This induction is lost in keratinocytes expressing HPV onco-proteins E6 and E7. • miR-205 is dependent upon pRb expression. • miR-24 targets p27 in cycling keratinocytes.« less

  8. Evolved Escherichia coli strains for amplified, functional expression of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Gul, Nadia; Linares, Daniel M; Ho, Franz Y; Poolman, Bert

    2014-01-09

    The major barrier to the physical characterization and structure determination of membrane proteins is low protein yield and/or low functionality in recombinant expression. The enteric bacterium Escherichia coli is the most widely employed organism for producing recombinant proteins. Beside several advantages of this expression host, one major drawback is that the protein of interest does not always adopt its native conformation and may end up in large insoluble aggregates. We describe a robust strategy to increase the likelihood of overexpressing membrane proteins in a functional state. The method involves fusion in tandem of green fluorescent protein and the erythromycin resistance protein (23S ribosomal RNA adenine N-6 methyltransferase, ErmC) to the C-terminus of a target membrane protein. The fluorescence of green fluorescent protein is used to report the folding state of the target protein, whereas ErmC is used to select for increased expression. By gradually increasing the erythromycin concentration of the medium and testing different membrane protein targets, we obtained a number of evolved strains of which four (NG2, NG3, NG5 and NG6) were characterized and their genome was fully sequenced. Strikingly, each of the strains carried a mutation in the hns gene, whose product is involved in genome organization and transcriptional silencing. The degree of expression of (membrane) proteins correlates with the severity of the hns mutation, but cells in which hns was deleted showed an intermediate expression performance. We propose that (partial) removal of the transcriptional silencing mechanism changes the levels of proteins essential for the functional overexpression of membrane proteins. © 2013.

  9. Analysis of substrate specificity of human DHHC protein acyltransferases using a yeast expression system

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yusuke; Kashio, Atsushi; Ogata, Ren; Ishitomi, Akihiro; Yamazaki, Yuki; Kihara, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Palmitoylation plays important roles in the regulation of protein localization, stability, and activity. The protein acyltransferases (PATs) have a common DHHC Cys-rich domain. Twenty-three DHHC proteins have been identified in humans. However, it is unclear whether all of these DHHC proteins function as PATs. In addition, their substrate specificities remain largely unknown. Here we develop a useful method to examine substrate specificities of PATs using a yeast expression system with six distinct model substrates. We identify 17 human DHHC proteins as PATs. Moreover, we classify 11 human and 5 yeast DHHC proteins into three classes (I, II, and III), based on the cellular localization of their respective substrates (class I, soluble proteins; class II, integral membrane proteins; class III, lipidated proteins). Our results may provide an important clue for understanding the function of individual DHHC proteins. PMID:23034182

  10. Downregulation of ATM Gene and Protein Expression in Canine Mammary Tumors.

    PubMed

    Raposo-Ferreira, T M M; Bueno, R C; Terra, E M; Avante, M L; Tinucci-Costa, M; Carvalho, M; Cassali, G D; Linde, S D; Rogatto, S R; Laufer-Amorim, R

    2016-11-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene encodes a protein associated with DNA damage repair and maintenance of genomic integrity. In women, ATM transcript and protein downregulation have been reported in sporadic breast carcinomas, and the absence of ATM protein expression has been associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate ATM gene and protein expression in canine mammary tumors and their association with clinical outcome. ATM gene and protein expression was evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in normal mammary gland samples (n = 10), benign mammary tumors (n = 11), nonmetastatic mammary carcinomas (n = 19), and metastatic mammary carcinomas (n = 11). Lower ATM transcript levels were detected in benign mammary tumors and carcinomas compared with normal mammary glands (P = .011). Similarly, lower ATM protein expression was observed in benign tumors (P = .0003), nonmetastatic mammary carcinomas (P < .0001), and the primary sites of metastatic carcinomas (P < .0001) compared with normal mammary glands. No significant differences in ATM gene or protein levels were detected among benign tumors and nonmetastatic and metastatic mammary carcinomas (P > .05). The levels of ATM gene or protein expression were not significantly associated with clinical and pathological features or with survival. Similar to human breast cancer, the data in this study suggest that ATM gene and protein downregulation is involved in canine mammary gland tumorigenesis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. A screening strategy for heterologous protein expression in Escherichia coli with the highest return of investment.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Benny; Crombet, Lissete; Loppnau, Peter; Cossar, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Heterologous protein expression in Escherichia coli is commonly used to obtain recombinant proteins for a variety of downstream applications. However, many proteins are not, or are only poorly, expressed in soluble form. High level expression often leads to the formation of inclusion bodies and an inactive product that needs to be refolded. By screening the solubility pattern for a set of 71 target proteins in different host-strains and varying parameters such as location of purification tag, promoter and induction temperature we propose a protocol with a success rate of 77% of clones returning a soluble protein. This protocol is particularly suitable for high-throughput screening with the goal to obtain soluble protein product for e.g. structure determination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Expression of goat IL-18 mature protein in insect/baculovirus and determination of bioactivity of the recombinant protein].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Xi-Hui; Fan, Zhong-Ling; Chen, Jin-Long; Cao, Bing-Lei; Kong, Na; Hu, Jing-Dong; Zhao, Hong-Kun

    2011-02-01

    To express goat IL-18 in insect/baculovirus and detect the bioactivity of the recombinant protein. The mature goat interleukin-18(gIL-18) gene was cloned into the baculovirus transfer vector pFastBac Dual, and then the resulting eukaryotic expression plasmid pFastBac Dual-gIL18 was transformed into DH10Bac, followed by the identification of Bacmid-gIL18 recombinat plosmid by three antibiotics and blue-white patch. Finally, the recombinant bacmid was transfected into sf9 insect cells by Cellfectin and the transfected cells were harvested at different times. Then the expressed protein was identified by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and bioactivity assay. The recombinant protein recognized and bound to its specific antibody. Bioactivity assay showed that the recombinant protein stimulated the proliferation of lymphocytes and induced IFN-γproduction in spleen lymphocytes. The mature gIL-18 protein has been expressed successfully in insect/baculovirus expression system, and have good immunogenicity and bioactivity. The study paves a way for application of gIL-18 as an immunomodulator or immune adjuvant.

  13. Immunogenicity of Newcastle disease virus vectors expressing Norwalk virus capsid protein in the presence or absence of VP2 protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Chen, Shun; Jiang, Xi; Green, Kim Y; Samal, Siba K

    2015-10-01

    Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Development of an effective vaccine is required for reducing their outbreaks. In order to develop a GI norovirus vaccine, Newcastle disease virus vectors, rLaSota and modified rBC, were used to express VP1 protein of Norwalk virus. Co-expression of VP1 and VP2 proteins by Newcastle disease virus vectors resulted in enhanced expression of Norwalk virus VP1 protein and self-assembly of VP1 protein into virus-like particles. Furthermore, the Norwalk virus-specific IgG response induced in mice by Newcastle disease virus vectors was similar to that induced by baculovirus-expressed virus-like particles in mice. However, the modified rBC vector in the presence of VP2 protein induced significantly higher levels of cellular and mucosal immune responses than those induced by baculovirus-expressed VLPs. These results indicate that Newcastle disease virus has great potential for developing a live Norwalk virus vaccine by inducing humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunogenicity of Newcastle Disease Virus Vectors Expressing Norwalk Virus Capsid Protein in the Presence or Absence of VP2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Chen, Shun; Jiang, Xi; Green, Kim Y.; Samal, Siba K.

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Development of an effective vaccine is required for reducing their outbreaks. In order to develop a GI norovirus vaccine, Newcastle disease virus vectors, rLaSota and modified rBC, were used to express VP1 protein of Norwalk virus. Co-expression of VP1 and VP2 proteins by Newcastle disease virus vectors resulted in enhanced expression of Norwalk virus VP1 protein and self-assembly of VP1 protein into virus-like particles. Furthermore, the Norwalk virus-specific IgG response induced in mice by Newcastle disease virus vectors was similar to that induced by baculovirs-expressed virus-like particles in mice. However, the modified rBC vector in the presence of VP2 protein induced significantly higher levels of cellular and mucosal immune responses than those induced by baculovirus-expressed VLPs. These results indicate that Newcastle disease virus has great potential for developing a live Norwalk virus vaccine by inducing humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses in humans. PMID:26099695

  15. The PDZ protein tax-interacting protein-1 inhibits beta-catenin transcriptional activity and growth of colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Mutsumi; Sandy, Peter; Marzinotto, Stefania; Benetti, Roberta; Kai, Chikatoshi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Schneider, Claudio; Suzuki, Harukazu

    2003-10-03

    Wnt signaling is essential during development while deregulation of this pathway frequently leads to the formation of various tumors including colorectal carcinomas. A key component of the pathway is beta-catenin that, in association with TCF-4, directly regulates the expression of Wnt-responsive genes. To identify novel binding partners of beta-catenin that may control its transcriptional activity, we performed a mammalian two-hybrid screen and isolated the Tax-interacting protein (TIP-1). The in vivo complex formation between beta-catenin and TIP-1 was verified by coimmunoprecipitation, and a direct physical association was revealed by glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments in vitro. By using a panel of deletion mutants of both proteins, we demonstrate that the interaction is mediated by the PDZ (PSD-95/DLG/ZO-1 homology) domain of TIP-1 and requires primarily the last four amino acids of beta-catenin. TIP-1 overexpression resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin when tested on the TOP/FOPFLASH reporter system. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knock-down of endogenous TIP-1 slightly increased endogenous beta-catenin transactivation function. Moreover, we show that overexpression of TIP-1 reduced the proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of colorectal cancer cells. These data suggest that TIP-1 may represent a novel regulatory element in the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway.

  16. Statistical approaches to maximize recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: a general review.

    PubMed

    Papaneophytou, Christos P; Kontopidis, George

    2014-02-01

    The supply of many valuable proteins that have potential clinical or industrial use is often limited by their low natural availability. With the modern advances in genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, the number of proteins being produced using recombinant techniques is exponentially increasing and seems to guarantee an unlimited supply of recombinant proteins. The demand of recombinant proteins has increased as more applications in several fields become a commercial reality. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most widely used expression system for the production of recombinant proteins for structural and functional studies. However, producing soluble proteins in E. coli is still a major bottleneck for structural biology projects. One of the most challenging steps in any structural biology project is predicting which protein or protein fragment will express solubly and purify for crystallographic studies. The production of soluble and active proteins is influenced by several factors including expression host, fusion tag, induction temperature and time. Statistical designed experiments are gaining success in the production of recombinant protein because they provide information on variable interactions that escape the "one-factor-at-a-time" method. Here, we review the most important factors affecting the production of recombinant proteins in a soluble form. Moreover, we provide information about how the statistical design experiments can increase protein yield and purity as well as find conditions for crystal growth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stable, high-level expression of a type I antifreeze protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Solomon, R G; Appels, R

    1999-06-01

    The type I antifreeze proteins are simple amphipathic helical proteins found in abundance in polar fish species, where they act to prevent freezing of internal fluids by a mechanism of noncolligative freezing point depression. Large-scale production of these proteins for research and biotechnological purposes has been hampered by their apparent instability when expressed in heterologous host systems. This has necessitated their production as fusion proteins, in polymeric form, or as proproteins for secretion, with the concomitant necessity for postpurification processing to generate the mature form of the protein. We have successfully expressed a recombinant variant of type I antifreeze protein (rAFP) in Escherichia coli using the inducible T7 polymerase transcription expression system. The rAFP contains five copies of the 11 amino acid ice-binding repeat motif found in all type I antifreeze proteins. The protein accumulates to high levels intracellularly in the form of inclusion bodies, with no apparent degradation by the cellular proteolytic machinery. We have devised a simple and rapid purification protocol for this recombinant type I antifreeze protein which does not require cellular fractionation, purification of the inclusion bodies, or chromatographic steps. This protocol may be of general use for this class of protein. The protein displays all three activities common to these proteins: recrystallization inhibition, noncolligative freezing point depression, and modification of the morphology of single ice crystals in solution.

  18. Rift Valley Fever Virus Structural and Nonstructural Proteins: Recombinant Protein Expression and Immunoreactivity Against Antisera from Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Faburay, Bonto; Wilson, William; McVey, D. Scott; Drolet, Barbara S.; Weingartl, Hana; Madden, Daniel; Young, Alan; Ma, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) encodes the structural proteins nucleoprotein (N), aminoterminal glycoprotein (Gn), carboxyterminal glycoprotein (Gc), and L protein, 78-kD, and the nonstructural proteins NSm and NSs. Using the baculovirus system, we expressed the full-length coding sequence of N, NSs, NSm, Gc, and the ectodomain of the coding sequence of the Gn glycoprotein derived from the virulent strain of RVFV ZH548. Western blot analysis using anti-His antibodies and monoclonal antibodies against Gn and N confirmed expression of the recombinant proteins, and in vitro biochemical analysis showed that the two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, were expressed in glycosylated form. Immunoreactivity profiles of the recombinant proteins in western blot and in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against a panel of antisera obtained from vaccinated or wild type (RVFV)-challenged sheep confirmed the results obtained with anti-His antibodies and demonstrated the suitability of the baculo-expressed antigens for diagnostic assays. In addition, these recombinant proteins could be valuable for the development of diagnostic methods that differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). PMID:23962238

  19. The expression of bcl-2 and bcl-6 protein in normal and malignant transitional epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhenhua; Kim, Hankyeom; Park, Hongseok; Kim, Youngsik; Cheon, Jun; Kim, Insun

    2003-08-01

    The bcl-2 proto-oncogene plays a key role in cell longevity by preventing apoptosis. Bcl-2 is important in developing and maintaining the normal function of lymphoid and epithelial tissues. The bcl-6 protein is a 96 kDa nuclear protein selectively expressed in mature B cells within normal germinal centers as well as in their transformed counterparts in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Recently, the bcl-6 protein has also been reported to be expressed in normal skin and epidermal neoplasms. In this study, 47 cases of transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) were immunohistochemically studied for bcl-2 and bcl-6 protein expression. The results showed that bcl-2 was expressed only on basal layer cells, whereas bcl-6 expression was restricted to the superficial layers in the normal transitional epithelium. Von Brunn's nests showed strong immunostaining to bcl-2, but were negative to bcl-6. Among 47 TCCs, 15 (32.6%) and 29 (61.7%) cases were positive for bcl-2 and bcl-6, respectively. Compared with the normal transitional epithelium, the expression of bcl-2 was significantly decreased, whereas bcl-6 expression was significantly increased in TCCs. Additionally, the strong expression of bcl-6 had a positive correlation with the histopathologic grade of TCC. In conclusion, bcl-2 and bcl-6 proteins may play a role in the pathogenesis of TCCs, and bcl-6 expression reflects histopathologic grade.

  20. [Arf6, RalA and BIRC5 protein expression in non small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Knizhnik, A V; Kovaleva, O B; Laktionov, K K; Mochal'nikova, V V; Komel'kov, A V; Chevkina, E M; Zborovskaia, I B

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of tumor markers expression pattern which determines individual progression parameters is one of the major topics in molecular oncopathology research. This work presents research on expression analysis of several Ras-Ral associated signal transduction pathway proteins (Arf6, RalA and BIRC5) in accordance with clinical criteria in non small cell lung cancer patients. Using Western-blot analysis and RT-PCR Arf6, RalA and BIRC5 expression has been analyzed in parallel in 53 non small cell lung cancer samples of different origin. Arf6 protein expression was elevated in 55% non small cell lung cancer tumor samples in comparison with normal tissue. In the group of squamous cell lung cancer Arf6 expression elevation was observed more often. RalA protein expression was decreased in comparison to normal tissue samples in 64% of non small cell lung cancer regardless to morphological structure. Correlation between RalA protein expression decrease and absence of regional metastases was revealed for squamous cell lung cancer. BIRC5 protein expression in tumor samples versus corresponding normal tissue was 1.3 times more often elevated in the squamous cell lung cancer group (in 76% tumor samples). At the same time elevation of BIRC5 expression was fixed only in 63% of adenocarcinoma tumor samples. A statistically significant decrease (p = 0.0158) of RalA protein expression and increase (p = 0.0498) of Arf6 protein expression in comparison with normal tissue was found for T1-2N0M0 and T1-2N1-2M0 groups of squamous cell lung cancer correspondingly.

  1. Identifying Dynamic Protein Complexes Based on Gene Expression Profiles and PPI Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Chen, Weijie; Wang, Jianxin; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Identification of protein complexes from protein-protein interaction networks has become a key problem for understanding cellular life in postgenomic era. Many computational methods have been proposed for identifying protein complexes. Up to now, the existing computational methods are mostly applied on static PPI networks. However, proteins and their interactions are dynamic in reality. Identifying dynamic protein complexes is more meaningful and challenging. In this paper, a novel algorithm, named DPC, is proposed to identify dynamic protein complexes by integrating PPI data and gene expression profiles. According to Core-Attachment assumption, these proteins which are always active in the molecular cycle are regarded as core proteins. The protein-complex cores are identified from these always active proteins by detecting dense subgraphs. Final protein complexes are extended from the protein-complex cores by adding attachments based on a topological character of “closeness” and dynamic meaning. The protein complexes produced by our algorithm DPC contain two parts: static core expressed in all the molecular cycle and dynamic attachments short-lived. The proposed algorithm DPC was applied on the data of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the experimental results show that DPC outperforms CMC, MCL, SPICi, HC-PIN, COACH, and Core-Attachment based on the validation of matching with known complexes and hF-measures. PMID:24963481

  2. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2006-10-17

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  3. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  4. Analysis of disease-associated protein expression using quantitative proteomics—fibulin-5 is expressed in association with hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bracht, Thilo; Schweinsberg, Vincent; Trippler, Martin; Kohl, Michael; Ahrens, Maike; Padden, Juliet; Naboulsi, Wael; Barkovits, Katalin; Megger, Dominik A; Eisenacher, Martin; Borchers, Christoph H; Schlaak, Jörg F; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis are major health problems worldwide. Until now, highly invasive biopsy remains the diagnostic gold standard despite many disadvantages. To develop noninvasive diagnostic assays for the assessment of liver fibrosis, it is urgently necessary to identify molecules that are robustly expressed in association with the disease. We analyzed biopsied tissue samples from 95 patients with HBV/HCV-associated hepatic fibrosis using three different quantification methods. We performed a label-free proteomics discovery study to identify novel disease-associated proteins using a subset of the cohort (n = 27). Subsequently, gene expression data from all available clinical samples were analyzed (n = 77). Finally, we performed a targeted proteomics approach, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), to verify the disease-associated expression in samples independent from the discovery approach (n = 68). We identified fibulin-5 (FBLN5) as a novel protein expressed in relation to hepatic fibrosis. Furthermore, we confirmed the altered expression of microfibril-associated glycoprotein 4 (MFAP4), lumican (LUM), and collagen alpha-1(XIV) chain (COL14A1) in association to hepatic fibrosis. To our knowledge, no tissue-based quantitative proteomics study for hepatic fibrosis has been performed using a cohort of comparable size. By this means, we add substantial evidence for the disease-related expression of the proteins examined in this study.

  5. Expression of endogenous proteins in maize hybrids in a multi-location field trial in India.

    PubMed

    Gutha, Linga R; Purushottam, Divakar; Veeramachaneni, Aruna; Tigulla, Sarita; Kodappully, Vikas; Enjala, Chandana; Rajput, Hitendrasinh; Anderson, Jennifer; Hong, Bonnie; Schmidt, Jean; Bagga, Shveta

    2018-05-17

    Genetically modified (GM) crops undergo large scale multi-location field trials to characterize agronomics, composition, and the concentration of newly expressed protein(s) [herein referred to as transgenic protein(s)]. The concentration of transgenic proteins in different plant tissues and across the developmental stages of the plant is considered in the safety assessment of GM crops. Reference or housekeeping proteins are expected to maintain a relatively stable expression pattern in healthy plants given their role in cellular functions. Understanding the effects of genotype, growth stage and location on the concentration of endogenous housekeeping proteins may provide insight into the contribution these factors could have on transgenic protein concentrations in GM crops. The concentrations of three endogenous proteins (actin, elongation factor 1-alpha, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were measured in several different maize hybrids grown across multiple field locations over 2 years. Leaf samples were collected from healthy plants at three developmental stages across the growing seasons, and protein concentrations were quantified by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each protein. In general, the concentrations of these three endogenous proteins were relatively consistent across hybrid backgrounds, when compared within one growth stage and location (2-26%CV), whereas the concentrations of proteins in the same hybrid and growth stage across different locations were more variable (12-64%CV). In general, the protein concentrations in 2013 and 2014 show similar trends in variability. Some degree of variability in protein concentrations should be expected for both transgenic and endogenous plant-expressed proteins. In the case of GM crops, the potential variation in protein concentrations due to location effects is captured in the current model of multi-location field testing.

  6. Expression and immunological analysis of capsid protein precursor of swine vesicular disease virus HK/70.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong; Wu, Jing-yan; Shang, You-jun; Ying, Shuang-hui; Zheng, Hai-xue; Liu, Xiang-tao

    2010-06-01

    VP1, a capsid protein of swine vesicular disease virus, was cloned from the SVDV HK/70 strain and inserted into retroviral vector pBABE puro, and expressed in PK15 cells by an retroviral expression system. The ability of the VP1 protein to induce an immune response was then evaluated in guinea pigs. Western blot and ELISA results indicated that the VP1 protein can be recognized by SVDV positive serum, Furthermore, anti-SVDV specific antibodies and lymphocyte proliferation were elicited and increased by VP1 protein after vaccination. These results encourage further work towards the development of a vaccine against SVDV infection.

  7. Optimized expression in Pichia pastoris eliminates common protein contaminants from subsequent His-tag purification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Li, Yang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qun; Liu, Zhu

    2014-04-01

    A weakness of using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) to purify recombinant proteins expressed in Pichia pastoris is the co-purification of native proteins that exhibit high affinities for Ni-IMAC. We have determined the elution profiles of P. pastoris proteins and have examined the native proteins that co-purify when eluting with 100 mM imidazole. Four major contaminants were identified: mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme III (mADH), nucleotide excision repair endonuclease, and the hypothetical proteins TPHA_0L01390 and TDEL_0B02190 which are homologous proteins derived from Tetrapisispora phaffii and Torulaspora delbrueckii, respectively. A new P. pastoris expression strain was engineered that eliminated the predominant contaminant, mADH, by gene disruption. The total amount of protein contaminants was reduced by 55 % without effecting cell growth. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of using a proteomic approach to facilitate bioprocess optimization.

  8. SRY protein is expressed in ovotestis and streak gonads from human sex-reversal.

    PubMed

    Salas-Cortés, L; Jaubert, F; Nihoul-Feketé, C; Brauner, R; Rosemblatt, M; Fellous, M

    2000-01-01

    In mammals, a master gene located on the Y chromosome, the testis-determining gene SRY, controls sex determination. SRY protein is expressed in the genital ridge before testis determination, and in the testis it is expressed in Sertoli and germ cells. Completely sex-reversed patients are classified as either 46,XX males or 46,XY females. SRY mutations have been described in only 15% of patients with 46,XY complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis. However, although incomplete or partial sex-reversal affects 46,XX true hermaphrodites, 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, and 46,XX/46,XY mosaicism, only 15% of the 46,XX true hermaphrodites analyzed have the SRY gene. Here, we demonstrate that the SRY protein is expressed in the tubules of streak gonads and rete testis, indicating that the SRY protein is normally expressed early during testis determination. Based on these results, we propose that some factors downstream from SRY may be mutated in these 46,XY sex-reversal patients. We have also analyzed SRY protein expression in the ovotestis from 46,XX true hermaphrodites and 46,XX/46,XY mosaicism, demonstrating SRY protein expression in both testicular and ovarian portions in these patients. This suggests that the SRY protein does not inhibit ovary development. These results confirm that other factors are needed for complete testis development, in particular, those downstream of the SRY protein. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Changes in UCP expression in tissues of Zucker rats fed diets with different protein content.

    PubMed

    Masanés, R M; Yubero, P; Rafecas, I; Remesar, X

    2002-09-01

    The effect of dietary protein content on the uncoupling proteins (UCP) 1, 2 and 3 expression in a number of tissues of Zucker lean and obese rats was studied. Thirty-day-old male Zucker lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) rats were fed on hyperproteic (HP, 30% protein), standard (RD, 17% protein) or hypoproteic (LP, 9% protein) diets ad libitum for 30 days. Although dietary protein intake affected the weights of individual muscles in lean and obese animals, these weights were similar. In contrast, huge differences were observed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver weights. Lean rats fed on the LP diet generally increased UCP expression, whereas the HP group had lower values. Obese animals, HP and LP groups showed higher UCP expression in muscles, with slight differences in BAT and lower values for UCP3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The mean values of UCP expression in BAT of obese rats were lower than in their lean counterpart, whereas the expression in skeletal muscle was increased. Thus, expression of UCPs can be modified by dietary protein content, in lean and obese rats. A possible thermogenic function of UCP3 in muscle and WAT in obese rats must be taken into account.

  10. Prognostic significance of MYCN gene amplification and protein expression in primary brain tumors: Astrocytoma and meningioma.

    PubMed

    Estiar, Mehrdad Asghari; Javan, Firouzeh; Zekri, Ali; Mehrazin, Masoud; Mehdipour, Parvin

    2017-07-04

    Astrocytoma and meningioma are the most common primary brain tumors. MYCN as a member of MYC proto-oncogenes has recently appeared as an attractive therapeutic target. Functions of MYCN are critical for growth of nervous system and neural differentiation. We examined MYCN amplification and protein expression in astrocytoma and meningioma cases. In this study, we used real-time PCR, FISH assay and flowcytometry to analyze DNA amplification and protein expression of MYCN. Among 30 samples of brain tumor, 14 cases (46.6%) revealed MYCN amplification. High-protein expression of MYCN was also observed in 43.3% of patients. There was a significant correlation between MYCN gene amplification and protein expression (r= 0.523; p= 0.003), interestingly five case showed discrepancy between the gene amplification and protein expression. Although MYCN amplification fails to show correlation with poor prognosis (p= 0.305), protein high-expression of MYCN significantly reduce disease-free survival (p= 0.019). Our results challenge the concept of the neural specificity of MYCN by demonstrating contribution of MYCN in meningioma. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of research at both level of DNA and protein, to determine the biological functions and medical impacts of MYCN.

  11. Using Peptide-Level Proteomics Data for Detecting Differentially Expressed Proteins.

    PubMed

    Suomi, Tomi; Corthals, Garry L; Nevalainen, Olli S; Elo, Laura L

    2015-11-06

    The expression of proteins can be quantified in high-throughput means using different types of mass spectrometers. In recent years, there have emerged label-free methods for determining protein abundance. Although the expression is initially measured at the peptide level, a common approach is to combine the peptide-level measurements into protein-level values before differential expression analysis. However, this simple combination is prone to inconsistencies between peptides and may lose valuable information. To this end, we introduce here a method for detecting differentially expressed proteins by combining peptide-level expression-change statistics. Using controlled spike-in experiments, we show that the approach of averaging peptide-level expression changes yields more accurate lists of differentially expressed proteins than does the conventional protein-level approach. This is particularly true when there are only few replicate samples or the differences between the sample groups are small. The proposed technique is implemented in the Bioconductor package PECA, and it can be downloaded from http://www.bioconductor.org.

  12. Transgenic nude mouse with green fluorescent protein expression-based human glioblastoma multiforme animal model with EGFR expression and invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guo-Wei; Lan, Fo-Lin; Gao, Jian-Guo; Jiang, Cai-Mou; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Xiao-Hong; Ma, Yue-Hong; Shao, He-Dui; He, Xue-Yang; Chen, Jin-Long; Long, Jian-Wu; Xiao, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Zhi-Tong; Diao, Yi

    2012-08-01

    Previously, we developed an orthotopic xenograft model of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with high EGFR expression and invasiveness in Balb/c nu/nu nude mice. Now we also developed the same orthotopic xenograft model in transgenic nude mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. The present orthotopic xenografts labeled by phycoerythrin fluorescing red showed high EGFR expression profile, and invasive behavior under a bright green-red dual-color fluorescence background. A striking advantage in the present human GBM model is that the change of tumor growth can be observed visually instead of sacrificing animals in our further antitumor therapy studies.

  13. Protein half-life determines expression of proteostatic networks in podocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Christina B; Koehler, Sybille; Kann, Martin; Schermer, Bernhard; Benzing, Thomas; Brinkkoetter, Paul T; Rinschen, Markus M

    2018-04-25

    Podocytes are highly specialized, epithelial, postmitotic cells, which maintain the renal filtration barrier. When adapting to considerable metabolic and mechanical stress, podocytes need to accurately maintain their proteome. Immortalized podocyte cell lines are a widely used model for studying podocyte biology in health and disease in vitro. In this study, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the cultured human podocyte proteome in both proliferative and differentiated conditions at a depth of >7000 proteins. Similar to mouse podocytes, human podocyte differentiation involved a shift in proteostasis: undifferentiated podocytes have high expression of proteasomal proteins, whereas differentiated podocytes have high expression of lysosomal proteins. Additional analyses with pulsed stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture and protein degradation assays determined protein dynamics and half-lives. These studies unraveled a globally increased stability of proteins in differentiated podocytes. Mitochondrial, cytoskeletal, and membrane proteins were stabilized, particularly in differentiated podocytes. Importantly, protein half-lives strongly contributed to protein abundance in each state. These data suggest that regulation of protein turnover of particular cellular functions determines podocyte differentiation, a paradigm involving mitophagy and, potentially, of importance in conditions of increased podocyte stress and damage.-Schroeter, C. B., Koehler, S., Kann, M., Schermer, B., Benzing, T., Brinkkoetter, P. T., Rinschen, M. M. Protein half-life determines expression of proteostatic networks in podocyte differentiation.

  14. Differentially Expressed Proteins Associated with Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianghui; Fu, Jianming; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Pan, Hongyu; Bai, Guihua

    2013-01-01

    Background Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, substantially reduces wheat grain yield and quality worldwide. Proteins play important roles in defense against the fungal infection. This study characterized differentially expressed proteins between near-isogenic lines (NILs) contrasting in alleles of Fhb1, a major FHB resistance gene in wheat, to identify proteins underlining FHB resistance of Fhb1. Methods The two-dimensional protein profiles were compared between the Fusarium-inoculated spikes of the two NILs collected 72 h after inoculation. The protein profiles of mock- and Fusarium-inoculated Fhb1+NIL were also compared to identify pathogen-responsive proteins. Results Eight proteins were either induced or upregulated in inoculated Fhb1+NIL when compared with mock-inoculated Fhb1+NIL; nine proteins were either induced or upregulated in the Fusarium-inoculated Fhb1+NIL when compared with Fusarium-inoculated Fhb1−NIL. Proteins that were differentially expressed in the Fhb1+NIL, not in the Fhb1−NIL, after Fusarium inoculation included wheat proteins for defending fungal penetration, photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and detoxification. Conclusions Coordinated expression of the identified proteins resulted in FHB resistance in Fhb1+NIL. The results provide insight into the pathway of Fhb1-mediated FHB resistance. PMID:24376514

  15. Investigation of protein expression profiles of erythritol-producing Candida magnoliae in response to glucose perturbation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Hyeong-Rho; Kim, Chang Sup; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-08-15

    Protein expression patterns of an erythritol-producing yeast, Candida magnoliae, were analyzed to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to glucose perturbation. Specifically, wild type C. magnoliae was grown under high and low glucose conditions and the cells were harvested at both mid-exponential and erythritol production phases for proteomic studies. In order to analyze intracellular protein abundances from the harvested cells quantitatively, total intracellular proteins were extracted and applied to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for separation and visualization of individual proteins. Among the proteins distributed in the range of pI 4-7 and molecular weight 29-97kDa, five osmo-responsive proteins were drastically changed in response to glucose perturbation. Hsp60 (Heat-shock protein 60), transaldolase and NADH:quinone oxidoreductase were down-regulated under the high glucose condition and Bro1 (BCK1-like Resistance to Osmotic shock) and Eno1 (enolase1) were up-regulated. These proteins are directly or indirectly related with cellular stress response. Importantly, protein expression patterns of Hsp60, Bro1 and Eno1 were strongly correlated with previous studies identifying the proteins perturbed by osmotic stress for other organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Protein Profiles Involved in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Kung-Kai; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Chiu, Chiang-Yen; Liang, Shih-Shin; Huang, Chun-Hao; Chi, Shu-Wen; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Hsi, Edward; Cheng, Kuang-Hung; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins among various stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by shotgun proteomics using nano-liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry and stable isotope dimethyl labeling. Methods Differentially expressed proteins were identified and compared based on the mass spectral differences of their isotope-labeled peptide fragments generated from protease digestion. Results Our quantitative proteomic analysis of the differentially expressed proteins with stable isotope (deuterium/hydrogen ratio, ≥2) identified a total of 353 proteins, with at least 5 protein biomarker proteins that were significantly differentially expressed between cancer and normal mice by at least a 2-fold alteration. These 5 protein biomarker candidates include α-enolase, α-catenin, 14-3-3 β, VDAC1, and calmodulin with high confidence levels. The expression levels were also found to be in agreement with those examined by Western blot and histochemical staining. Conclusions The systematic decrease or increase of these identified marker proteins may potentially reflect the morphological aberrations and diseased stages of pancreas carcinoma throughout progressive developments leading to PDAC. The results would form a firm foundation for future work concerning validation and clinical translation of some identified biomarkers into targeted diagnosis and therapy for various stages of PDAC. PMID:26262590

  17. Estimating the potential refolding yield of recombinant proteins expressed as inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jason G S; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2004-09-05

    Recombinant protein production in bacteria is efficient except that insoluble inclusion bodies form when some gene sequences are expressed. Such proteins must undergo renaturation, which is an inefficient process due to protein aggregation on dilution from concentrated denaturant. In this study, the protein-protein interactions of eight distinct inclusion-body proteins are quantified, in different solution conditions, by measurement of protein second virial coefficients (SVCs). Protein solubility is shown to decrease as the SVC is reduced (i.e., as protein interactions become more attractive). Plots of SVC versus denaturant concentration demonstrate two clear groupings of proteins: a more aggregative group and a group having higher SVC and better solubility. A correlation of the measured SVC with protein molecular weight and hydropathicity, that is able to predict which group each of the eight proteins falls into, is presented. The inclusion of additives known to inhibit aggregation during renaturation improves solubility and increases the SVC of both protein groups. Furthermore, an estimate of maximum refolding yield (or solubility) using high-performance liquid chromatography was obtained for each protein tested, under different environmental conditions, enabling a relationship between "yield" and SVC to be demonstrated. Combined, the results enable an approximate estimation of the maximum refolding yield that is attainable for each of the eight proteins examined, under a selected chemical environment. Although the correlations must be tested with a far larger set of protein sequences, this work represents a significant move beyond empirical approaches for optimizing renaturation conditions. The approach moves toward the ideal of predicting maximum refolding yield using simple bioinformatic metrics that can be estimated from the gene sequence. Such a capability could potentially "screen," in silico, those sequences suitable for expression in bacteria from those

  18. Suppression of polyglutamine protein toxicity by co-expression of a heat-shock protein 40 and a heat-shock protein 110

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Y; Ren, S; Lao, U; Edgar, B A; Wang, T

    2013-01-01

    A network of heat-shock proteins mediates cellular protein homeostasis, and has a fundamental role in preventing aggregation-associated neurodegenerative diseases. In a Drosophila model of polyglutamine (polyQ) disease, the HSP40 family protein, DNAJ-1, is a superior suppressor of toxicity caused by the aggregation of polyQ containing proteins. Here, we demonstrate that one specific HSP110 protein, 70 kDa heat-shock cognate protein cb (HSC70cb), interacts physically and genetically with DNAJ-1 in vivo, and that HSC70cb is necessary for DNAJ-1 to suppress polyglutamine-induced cell death in Drosophila. Expression of HSC70cb together with DNAJ-1 significantly enhanced the suppressive effects of DNAJ-1 on polyQ-induced neurodegeneration, whereas expression of HSC70cb alone did not suppress neurodegeneration in Drosophila models of either general polyQ disease or Huntington's disease. Furthermore, expression of a human HSP40, DNAJB1, together with a human HSP110, APG-1, protected cells from polyQ-induced neural degeneration in flies, whereas expression of either component alone had little effect. Our data provide a functional link between HSP40 and HSP110 in suppressing the cytotoxicity of aggregation-prone proteins, and suggest that HSP40 and HSP110 function together in protein homeostasis control. PMID:24091676

  19. Expression, purification and biochemical characterization of a single-stranded DNA binding protein from Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    PubMed

    Vernal, Javier; Serpa, Viviane I; Tavares, Carolina; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Terenzi, Hernán

    2007-05-01

    An open reading frame encoding a protein similar in size and sequence to the Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB protein) was identified in the Herbaspirillum seropedicae genome. This open reading frame was cloned into the expression plasmid pET14b. The SSB protein from H. seropedicae, named Hs_SSB, was overexpressed in E. coli strain BL21(DE3) and purified to homogeneity. Mass spectrometry data confirmed the identity of this protein. The apparent molecular mass of the native Hs_SSB was estimated by gel filtration, suggesting that the native protein is a tetramer made up of four similar subunits. The purified protein binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a similar manner to other SSB proteins. The production of this recombinant protein in good yield opens up the possibility of obtaining its 3D-structure and will help further investigations into DNA metabolism.

  20. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciT

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp; Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510; Yoshizaki, Takayuki

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytesmore » by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.« less

  1. High SRPX2 protein expression predicts unfavorable clinical outcome in patients with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Li, Xiaoli; Fan, Zhirui; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Shuzheng; Zhang, Mingzhi; Li, Huixiang; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Fan, Huijie; Suo, Zhenhe

    2018-01-01

    Background Sushi repeat-containing protein X-linked 2 (SRPX2) is overexpressed in a variety of different tumor tissues and correlated with poor prognosis in patients. Little research focuses on the role of SRPX2 expression in prostate cancer (PCa), and the clinicopathological significance of the protein expression in this tumor is relatively unknown. However, our previous transcriptome data from those cancer stem-like cells indicated the role of SRPX2 in PCa. Materials and methods In this study, RT-PCR and Western blotting were firstly used to examine the SRPX2 expression in three PCa cell lines including LNCaP, DU145, and PC3, and then SRPX2 protein expression was immunohistochemically investigated and statistically analyzed in a series of 106 paraffin-embedded PCa tissue specimens. Results Significantly lower levels of SRPX2 expression were verified in the LNCaP cells, compared with the expression in the aggressive DU145 and PC3 cells, in both mRNA and protein levels. Immunohistochemically, there were variable SRPX2 protein expressions in the clinical samples. Moreover, high levels of SRPX2 expression in the PCa tissues were significantly associated with Gleason score (P=0.008), lymph node metastasis (P=0.009), and distant metastasis (P=0.021). Furthermore, higher levels of SRPX2 expression in the PCa tissues were significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) (P<0.001). Conclusion Our results demonstrate that SRPX2 is highly expressed in aggressive PCa cells in vitro, and its protein expression in PCa is significantly associated with malignant clinical features and shorter OS, strongly indicating its prognostic value in prostate cancers. PMID:29881288

  2. Cloning and expression of Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chang-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Zheng

    2009-03-01

    A novel antifreeze protein cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR from the larva of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor. The coding fragment of 339 bp encodes a protein of 112 amino acid residues and was fused to the expression vectors pET32a and pTWIN1. The resulted expression plasmids were transformed into Escherischia coli strains BL21 (DE3), ER2566, and Origami B (DE3), respectively. Several strategies were used for expression of the highly disulfide-bonded beta-helix-contained protein with the activity of antifreeze in different expression systems. A protocol for production of refolded and active T. molitor antifreeze protein in bacteria was obtained.

  3. Expression of membrane-associated proteins within single emulsion cell facsimiles.

    PubMed

    Chanasakulniyom, Mayuree; Martino, Chiara; Paterson, David; Horsfall, Louise; Rosser, Susan; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2012-07-07

    MreB is a structural membrane-associated protein which is one of the key components of the bacterial cytoskeleton. Although it plays an important role in shape maintenance of rod-like bacteria, the understanding of its mechanism of action is still not fully understood. This study shows how segmented flow and microdroplet technology can be used as a new tool for biological in vitro investigation of this protein. In this paper, we demonstrate cell-free expression in a single emulsion system to express red fluorescence protein (RFP) and MreB linked RFP (MreB-RFP). We follow the aggregation and localisation of the fusion protein MreB-RFP in this artificial cell-like environment. The expression of MreB-RFP in single emulsion droplets leads to the formation of micrometer-scale protein patches distributed at the water/oil interface.

  4. Main Strategies of Plant Expression System Glycoengineering for Producing Humanized Recombinant Pharmaceutical Proteins.

    PubMed

    Rozov, S M; Permyakova, N V; Deineko, E V

    2018-03-01

    Most the pharmaceutical proteins are derived not from their natural sources, rather their recombinant analogs are synthesized in various expression systems. Plant expression systems, unlike mammalian cell cultures, combine simplicity and low cost of procaryotic systems and the ability for posttranslational modifications inherent in eucaryotes. More than 50% of all human proteins and more than 40% of the currently used pharmaceutical proteins are glycosylated, that is, they are glycoproteins, and their biological activity, pharmacodynamics, and immunogenicity depend on the correct glycosylation pattern. This review examines in detail the similarities and differences between N- and O-glycosylation in plant and mammalian cells, as well as the effect of plant glycans on the activity, pharmacokinetics, immunity, and intensity of biosynthesis of pharmaceutical proteins. The main current strategies of glycoengineering of plant expression systems aimed at obtaining fully humanized proteins for pharmaceutical application are summarized.

  5. Identification of ADAM 31: a protein expressed in Leydig cells and specialized epithelia.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Smith, J W

    2000-06-01

    A family of proteins containing a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain (ADAMs) has been identified recently. Here, we report the identification of a novel member of the ADAM protein family from mouse. This protein is designated ADAM 31. The complementary DNA sequence of ADAM 31 predicts a transmembrane protein with metalloproteinase, disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and cytoplasmic domains. Messenger RNA encoding ADAM 31 was most abundant in testes, but was also detected in many other tissues. More significantly, the antibodies raised against ADAM 31 reveal that the protein has a unique and restricted expression pattern. ADAM 31 is expressed in Leydig cells of the testes, but unlike many other ADAMs, it is not found on developing sperm. Furthermore, ADAM 31 is highly expressed on four types of specialized epithelia: the cauda epididymidis, the vas deferens, the convoluted tubules of the kidney, and the parietal cells of the stomach.

  6. Expression of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Human Kidney and in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Maria R; Rocca, Bruno J; Barone, Aurora; Onorati, Monica; Mundo, Lucia; Crivelli, Filippo; Di Nuovo, Franca; De Falco, Giulia; del Vecchio, Maria T; Tripodi, Sergio A; Tosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein is a multifaceted protein involved in several physiological and biological functions. Its expression in normal kidney and in renal carcinomas, once corroborated by functional data, may add elements to elucidate renal physiology and carcinogenesis. In this study, translationally controlled tumor protein expression was evaluated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and its localization was examined by immunohistochemistry on 84 nephrectomies for cancer. In normal kidney protein expression was found in the cytoplasm of proximal and distal tubular cells, in cells of the thick segment of the loop of Henle, and in urothelial cells of the pelvis. It was also detectable in cells of renal carcinoma with different pattern of localization (membranous and cytoplasmic) depending on tumor histotype. Our data may suggest an involvement of translationally controlled tumor protein in normal physiology and carcinogenesis. However, functional in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to verify this hypothesis.

  7. Expression of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Human Kidney and in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Maria R.; Rocca, Bruno J.; Barone, Aurora; Onorati, Monica; Mundo, Lucia; Crivelli, Filippo; Di Nuovo, Franca; De Falco, Giulia; del Vecchio, Maria T.; Tripodi, Sergio A.; Tosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein is a multifaceted protein involved in several physiological and biological functions. Its expression in normal kidney and in renal carcinomas, once corroborated by functional data, may add elements to elucidate renal physiology and carcinogenesis. In this study, translationally controlled tumor protein expression was evaluated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and its localization was examined by immunohistochemistry on 84 nephrectomies for cancer. In normal kidney protein expression was found in the cytoplasm of proximal and distal tubular cells, in cells of the thick segment of the loop of Henle, and in urothelial cells of the pelvis. It was also detectable in cells of renal carcinoma with different pattern of localization (membranous and cytoplasmic) depending on tumor histotype. Our data may suggest an involvement of translationally controlled tumor protein in normal physiology and carcinogenesis. However, functional in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to verify this hypothesis. PMID:26425551

  8. Characterization of giardin protein expression during encystation of Giardia duodenalis

    Giardia duodenalis trophozoites attach to the gut surface by means of a ventral disk that contains various giardin proteins that appear to be important to VD structural integrity. One approach to preventing giardiasis is to stimulate giardin-specific antibodies and thereby block trophozoite attachme...

  9. Expression and purification of membrane protein diacylglycerol acyltransferase

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG. Over-expression of DGATs increases TAG in seeds and other tissues. DGAT knockout mice are resista...

  10. An overview on molecular chaperones enhancing solubility of expressed recombinant proteins with correct folding.

    PubMed

    Mamipour, Mina; Yousefi, Mohammadreza; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    The majority of research topics declared that most of the recombinant proteins have been expressed by Escherichia coli in basic investigations. But the majority of high expressed proteins formed as inactive recombinant proteins that are called inclusion body. To overcome this problem, several methods have been used including suitable promoter, environmental factors, ladder tag to secretion of proteins into the periplasm, gene protein optimization, chemical chaperones and molecular chaperones sets. Co-expression of the interest protein with molecular chaperones is one of the common methods The chaperones are a group of proteins, which are involved in making correct folding of recombinant proteins. Chaperones are divided two groups including; cytoplasmic and periplasmic chaperones. Moreover, periplasmic chaperones and proteases can be manipulated to increase the yields of secreted proteins. In this article, we attempted to review cytoplasmic chaperones such as Hsp families and periplasmic chaperones including; generic chaperones, specialized chaperones, PPIases, and proteins involved in disulfide bond formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bovine papillomavirus type 4 L1 gene transfection in a Drosophila S2 cell expression system: absence of L1 protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Góes, Luiz Gustavo Bentim; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Ferraz, Oilita Pereira; Rieger, Tania Tassinari; dos Santos, José Ferreira; Pereira, Alexandre; Beçak, Willy; Lindsey, Charles J.; de Cassia Stocco, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The development of a bovine papillomavirus (BPV) vaccine is an outstanding challenge. BPV protein L1 gene transfection in the Drosophila melanogaster S2 cell expression system failed to produce L1 protein notwithstanding correct L1 gene insertion. Severe genetic inbalance in the host cell line, including cytogenetic alterations, may account for the lack of protein expression. PMID:24031166

  12. Plasmids for variable expression of proteins targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or intermembrane space.

    PubMed

    Newman, Laura E; Schiavon, Cara; Kahn, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and uses of a series of plasmids for directing expression to varied levels of exogenous proteins targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or intermembrane space. We found that the level of protein expression achieved, the kinetics of expression and mitochondrial import, and half-life after import can each vary with the protein examined. These factors should be considered when directing localization of an exogenous protein to mitochondria for rescue, proteomics, or other approaches. We describe the construction of a collection of plasmids for varied expression of proteins targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or intermembrane space, using previously defined targeting sequences and strength CMV promoters. The limited size of these compartments makes them particularly vulnerable to artifacts from over-expression. We found that different proteins display different kinetics of expression and import that should be considered when analyzing results from this approach. Finally, this collection of plasmids has been deposited in the Addgene plasmid repository to facilitate the ready access and use of these tools.

  13. Genes and Proteins Differentially Expressed during In Vitro Malignant Transformation of Bovine Pancreatic Duct Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Jesnowski, R; Zubakov, Dmitri; Faissner, Ralf; Ringel, Jörg; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Lösel, Ralf; Schnölzer, Martina; Löhr, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic carcinoma has an extremely bad prognosis due to lack of early diagnostic markers and lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Recently, we have established an in vitro model recapitulating the first steps in the carcinogenesis of the pancreas. SV40 large T antigen-immortalized bovine pancreatic duct cells formed intrapancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors on k-rasmut transfection after orthotopic injection in the nude mouse pancreas. Here we identified genes and proteins differentially expressed in the course of malignant transformation using reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization and 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, respectively. We identified 34 differentially expressed genes, expressed sequence tags, and 15 unique proteins. Differential expression was verified for some of the genes or proteins in samples from pancreatic carcinoma. Among these genes and proteins, the majority had already been described either to be influenced by a mutated ras or to be differentially expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, thus proving the feasibility of our model. Other genes and proteins (e.g., BBC1, GLTSCR2, and rhoGDIα), up to now, have not been implicated in pancreatic tumor development. Thus, we were able to establish an in vitro model of pancreatic carcinogenesis, which enabled us to identify genes and proteins differentially expressed during the early steps of malignant transformation. PMID:17356710

  14. Expression of fas protein on CD4+T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Fan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence on the Expression of Fas protein on CD4+ T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne laser in the cases of psoriasis. Methods:the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was determined in the casee of psoriasis(n=5) pre and post-low level laser irradiation(30 min、60min and 120min)by flow cytometry as compared withthe control(n=5). Results:In the cases of psoriasis,the expression of CD4+T FAS protein 21.4+/-3.1% was increased significantly than that of control group 16.8+/-2.1% pre-irradiation, p<0.05in the control,there is no difference between pre and post- irradiation,p>0.05in the cases , the expression of CD4+T Fas protein wae positively corelated to the irradiation times, when the energy density arrived to 22.92J/cm2(60 minutes)and 45.84J/cm2(120minutes), the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was increased significantly as compared with pre-irradiation,p<0.05.Conclusion: The expression of CD4+T Fas protein may be increased by low level He-Ne laser irradiation ,the uncontrolled status of apoptosis could be corrected.

  15. The Center for Optimized Structural Studies (COSS) platform for automation in cloning, expression, and purification of single proteins and protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Mlynek, Georg; Lehner, Anita; Neuhold, Jana; Leeb, Sarah; Kostan, Julius; Charnagalov, Alexej; Stolt-Bergner, Peggy; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Pinotsis, Nikos

    2014-06-01

    Expression in Escherichia coli represents the simplest and most cost effective means for the production of recombinant proteins. This is a routine task in structural biology and biochemistry where milligrams of the target protein are required in high purity and monodispersity. To achieve these criteria, the user often needs to screen several constructs in different expression and purification conditions in parallel. We describe a pipeline, implemented in the Center for Optimized Structural Studies, that enables the systematic screening of expression and purification conditions for recombinant proteins and relies on a series of logical decisions. We first use bioinformatics tools to design a series of protein fragments, which we clone in parallel, and subsequently screen in small scale for optimal expression and purification conditions. Based on a scoring system that assesses soluble expression, we then select the top ranking targets for large-scale purification. In the establishment of our pipeline, emphasis was put on streamlining the processes such that it can be easily but not necessarily automatized. In a typical run of about 2 weeks, we are able to prepare and perform small-scale expression screens for 20-100 different constructs followed by large-scale purification of at least 4-6 proteins. The major advantage of our approach is its flexibility, which allows for easy adoption, either partially or entirely, by any average hypothesis driven laboratory in a manual or robot-assisted manner.

  16. Expression of c-Fes protein isoforms correlates with differentiation in myeloid leukemias.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne; Berkowitz, Jeanne McAdara; Browning, Damaris; Slamon, Dennis J; Gasson, Judith C; Yates, Karen E

    2005-05-01

    The cellular fes gene encodes a 93-kilodalton protein-tyrosine kinase (p93) that is expressed in both normal and neoplastic myeloid cells. Increased c-Fes expression is associated with differentiation in normal myeloid cells and cell lines. Our hypothesis was that primary leukemia cells would show a similar pattern of increased expression in more differentiated cells. Therefore, we compared c-Fes expression in cells with an undifferentiated, blast phenotype (acute myelogenous leukemia--AML) to cells with a differentiated phenotype (chronic myelogenous leukemia--CML). Instead of differences in p93 expression levels, we found complex patterns of c-Fes immunoreactive proteins that corresponded with differentiation in normal and leukemic myeloid cells. The "blast" pattern consisted of c-Fes immunoreactive proteins p93, p74, and p70; the "differentiated" pattern showed two additional c-Fes immunoreactive proteins, p67 and p62. Using mRNA from mouse and human cell lines, we found deletion of one or more exons in the c-fes mRNA. Those deletions predicted truncation of conserved domains (CDC15/FCH and SH2) involved in protein-protein interactions. No deletions were found, however, within the kinase domain. We infer that alternative splicing generates a family of c-Fes proteins. This may be a mechanism to direct the c-Fes kinase domain to different subcellular locations and/or substrates at specific stages of myeloid cell differentiation.

  17. Expression of uncoupling protein 3 is upregulated in skeletal muscle during sepsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Wray, Curtis; Tian, Xintian; Hasselgren, Per-Olof; Lu, James

    2003-09-01

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is a member of the mitochondrial transporter superfamily that is expressed primarily in skeletal muscle. UCP3 is upregulated in various conditions characterized by skeletal muscle atrophy, including hyperthyroidism, fasting, denervation, diabetes, cancer, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and treatment with glucocorticoids (GCs). The influence of sepsis, another condition characterized by muscle cachexia, on UCP3 expression and activity is not known. We examined UCP3 gene and protein expression in skeletal muscles from rats after cecal ligation and puncture and from sham-operated control rats. Sepsis resulted in a two- to threefold increase in both mRNA and protein levels of UCP3 in skeletal muscle. Treatment of rats with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-38486 prevented the sepsis-induced increase in gene and protein expression of UCP3. The UCP3 mRNA and protein levels were increased 2.4- to 3.6-fold when incubated muscles from normal rats were treated with dexamethasone (DEX) and/or free fatty acids (FFA) ex vivo. In addition, UCP3 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in normal rat muscles in vivo with treatment of either DEX or FFA. The results suggest that sepsis upregulates the gene and protein expression of UCP3 in skeletal muscle, which may at least in part be mediated by GCs and FFA.

  18. Ethylene Regulates Monomeric GTP-Binding Protein Gene Expression and Activity in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Moshkov, Igor E.; Mur, Luis A.J.; Novikova, Galina V.; Smith, Aileen R.; Hall, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene rapidly and transiently up-regulates the activity of several monomeric GTP-binding proteins (monomeric G proteins) in leaves of Arabidopsis as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiographic analyses. The activation is suppressed by the receptor-directed inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene. In the etr1-1 mutant, constitutive activity of all the monomeric G proteins activated by ethylene is down-regulated relative to wild type, and ethylene treatment has no effect on the levels of activity. Conversely, in the ctr1-1 mutant, several of the monomeric G proteins activated by ethylene are constitutively up-regulated. However, the activation profile of ctr1-1 does not exactly mimic that of ethylene-treated wild type. Biochemical and molecular evidence suggested that some of these monomeric G proteins are of the Rab class. Expression of the genes for a number of monomeric G proteins in response to ethylene was investigated by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Rab8 and Ara3 expression was increased within 10 min of ethylene treatment, although levels fell back significantly by 40 min. In the etr1-1 mutant, expression of Rab8 was lower than wild type and unaffected by ethylene; in ctr1-1, expression of Rab8 was much higher than wild type and comparable with that seen in ethylene treatments. Expression in ctr1-1 was also unaffected by ethylene. Thus, the data indicate a role for monomeric G proteins in ethylene signal transduction. PMID:12692329

  19. Parasitization by Scleroderma guani influences protein expression in Tenebrio molitor pupae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wu, Guo-Xing; Ze, Sang-Zi; Stanley, David W; Yang, Bin

    2014-07-01

    Ectoparasitoid wasps deposit their eggs onto the surface and inject venom into their hosts. Venoms are chemically complex and they exert substantial impact on hosts, including permanent or temporary paralysis and developmental arrest. These visible venom effects are due to changes in expression of genes encoding physiologically relevant proteins. While the influence of parasitization on gene expression in several lepidopterans has been reported, the molecular details of parasitoid/beetle relationships remain mostly unknown. This shortcoming led us to pose the hypothesis that envenomation by the ectoparasitic ant-like bethylid wasp Scleroderma guani leads to changes in protein expression in the yellow mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. We tested our hypothesis by comparing the proteomes of non-parasitized and parasitized host pupae using iTRAQ-based proteomics. We identified 41 proteins that were differentially expressed (32↑- and 9↓-regulated) in parasitized pupae. We assigned these proteins to functional categories, including immunity, stress and detoxification, energy metabolism, development, cytoskeleton, signaling and others. We recorded parallel changes in mRNA levels and protein abundance in 14 selected proteins following parasitization. Our findings support our hypothesis by documenting changes in protein expression in parasitized hosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hyperglycemia decreases expression of 14-3-3 proteins in an animal model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seong-Jun; Sung, Jin-Hee; Koh, Phil-Ok

    2016-07-28

    Diabetes is a severe metabolic disorder and a major risk factor for stroke. Stroke severity is worse in patients with diabetes compared to the non-diabetic population. The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved acidic proteins that are ubiquitously expressed in cells and tissues. These proteins are involved in many cellular processes including metabolic pathways, signal transduction, protein trafficking, protein synthesis, and cell cycle control. This study investigated 14-3-3 proteins expression in the cerebral cortex of animals with diabetes, cerebral ischemic injury and a combination of both diabetes and cerebral ischemic injury. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40mg/kg) in adult male rats. After 4 weeks of treatment, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed for the induction of focal cerebral ischemia and cerebral cortex tissue was collected 24h after MCAO. We confirmed that diabetes increases infarct volume following MCAO compared to non-diabetic animals. In diabetic animals with MCAO injury, reduction of 14-3-3 β/α, 14-3-3 ζ/δ, 14-3-3 γ, and 14-3-3 ε isoforms was detected. The expression of these proteins was significantly decreased in diabetic animals with MCAO injury compared to diabetic-only and MCAO-only animals. Moreover, Western blot analysis ascertained the decreased expression of 14-3-3 family proteins in diabetic animals with MCAO injury, including β/α, ζ/δ, γ, ε, τ, and η isoforms. These results show the changes of 14-3-3 proteins expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals with MCAO injury. Thus, these findings suggest that decreases in 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins under the presence of diabetes following MCAO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Screening and large-scale expression of membrane proteins in mammalian cells for structural studies

    PubMed Central

    Goehring, April; Lee, Chia-Hsueh; Wang, Kevin H.; Michel, Jennifer Carlisle; Claxton, Derek P.; Baconguis, Isabelle; Althoff, Thorsten; Fischer, Suzanne; Garcia, K. Christopher; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Structural, biochemical and biophysical studies of eukaryotic membrane proteins are often hampered by difficulties in over-expression of the candidate molecule. Baculovirus transduction of mammalian cells (BacMam), although a powerful method to heterologously express membrane proteins, can be cumbersome for screening and expression of multiple constructs. We therefore developed plasmid Eric Gouaux (pEG) BacMam, a vector optimized for use in screening assays, as well as for efficient production of baculovirus and robust expression of the target protein. In this protocol we show how to use small-scale transient transfection and fluorescence-detection, size-exclusion chromatography (FSEC) experiments using a GFP-His8 tagged candidate protein to screen for monodispersity and expression level. Once promising candidates are identified, we describe how to generate baculovirus, transduce HEK293S GnTI− (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I-negative) cells in suspension culture, and over-express the candidate protein. We have used these methods to prepare pure samples of chicken acid-sensing ion channel 1a (cASIC1) and Caenorhabditis elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl), for X-ray crystallography, demonstrating how to rapidly and efficiently screen hundreds of constructs and accomplish large-scale expression in 4-6 weeks. PMID:25299155

  2. Approaches to Optimizing Animal Cell Culture Process: Substrate Metabolism Regulation and Protein Expression Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanxing

    Some high value proteins and vaccines for medical and veterinary applications by animal cell culture have an increasing market in China. In order to meet the demands of large-scale productions of proteins and vaccines, animal cell culture technology has been widely developed. In general, an animal cell culture process can be divided into two stages in a batch culture. In cell growth stage a high specific growth rate is expected to achieve a high cell density. In production stage a high specific production rate is stressed for the expression and secretion of qualified protein or replication of virus. It is always critical to maintain high cell viability in fed-batch and perfusion cultures. More concern has been focused on two points by the researchers in China. First, the cell metabolism of substrates is analyzed and the accumulation of toxic by-products is decreased through regulating cell metabolism in the culture process. Second, some important factors effecting protein expression are understood at the molecular level and the production ability of protein is improved. In pace with the rapid development of large-scale cell culture for the production of vaccines, antibodies and other recombinant proteins in China, the medium design and process optimization based on cell metabolism regulation and protein expression improvement will play an important role. The chapter outlines the main advances in metabolic regulation of cell and expression improvement of protein in animal cell culture in recent years.

  3. Canarypox virus expressing infectious bursal disease VP2 protein as immunogen for chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Grand, María Daniela Conte; Mitarotonda, Romina Cristina; Taboga, Oscar Alberto; Calamante, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Canarypox viruses (CNPV) carrying the coding sequence of VP2 protein from infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained. These viruses were able to express VP2 protein in vitro and to induce IBDV-neutralizing antibodies when inoculated in specific pathogen-free chickens demonstrating that CNPV platform is usefulness to develop immunogens for chickens. PMID:24948937

  4. Proteomics identification of differentially expressed proteins in the muscle of dysferlin myopathy patients.

    PubMed

    De la Torre, Carolina; Illa, Isabel; Faulkner, Georgine; Soria, Laura; Robles-Cedeño, Rene; Dominguez-Perles, Raul; De Luna, Noemí; Gallardo, Eduard

    2009-04-01

    The muscular dystrophies are a large and heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders that can be classified according to the mode of inheritance, the clinical phenotype and the molecular defect. To better understand the pathological mechanisms of dysferlin myopathy we compared the protein-expression pattern in the muscle biopsies of six patients with this disease with six patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A, five with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and six normal control subjects. To investigate differences in the expression levels of skeletal muscle proteins we used 2-DE and MS. Western blot or immunohistochemistry confirmed relevant results. The study showed specific increase expression of proteins involved in fast-to-slow fiber type conversion (ankyrin repeat protein 2), type I predominance (phosphorylated forms of slow troponin T), sarcomere stabilization (actinin-associated LIM protein), protein ubiquitination (TRIM 72) and skeletal muscle differentiation (Rho-GDP-dissociation inhibitor ly-GDI) in dysferlin myopathy. As anticipated, we also found differential expression of proteins common to all the muscular dystrophies studied. This comparative proteomic analysis suggests that in dysferlin myopathy (i) the type I fiber predominance is an active process of fiber type conversion rather than a selective loss of type II fibers and (ii) the dysregulation of proteins involved in muscle differentiation further confirms the role of dysferlin in this process. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Chapter 15. transforming lepidopteran insect cells for continuous recombinant protein expression

    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is widely used to produce large quantities of recombinant proteins. However, yields of extracellular and membrane-bound proteins obtained with this system often are very low, possibly due to the adverse effects of baculovirus infection on the host ins...

  6. Recombinant Protein Expression in Escherichia coli (E.coli): What We Need to Know.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Seyed Mohammad Gheibi; Farahani, Najmeh; Golichenari, Behrouz; Sahebkar, Amir Hosein

    2018-01-31

    Host, vector, and culture conditions (including cultivation media) are considered among the three main elements contributing to a successful production of recombinant proteins. Accordingly, one of the most common hosts to produce recombinant therapeutic proteins is Escherichia coli. A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify important factors affecting production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Escherichia coli is taken into account as the easiest, quickest, and cheapest host with a fully known genome. Thus, numerous modifications have been carried out on Escherichia coli to optimize it as a good candidate for protein expression and; as a result, several engineered strains of Escherichia coli have been designed. In general; host strain, vector, and cultivation parameters are recognized as crucial ones determining success of recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli. In this review, the role of host, vector, and culture conditions along with current pros and cons of different types of these factors leading to success of recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli were discussed. Successful protein expression in Escherichia coli necessitates a broad knowledge about physicochemical properties of recombinant proteins, selection among common strains of Escherichia coli and vectors, as well as factors related to media including time, temperature, and inducer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. [Expression, purification and antibody preparation of recombinat SARS-CoV X5 protein].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Na; Kong, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Ping; Du, Guan-Hua; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Ke-Di

    2008-11-01

    X5 protein is one of the putative unknown proteins of SARS-CoV. The recombinant protein has been successfully expressed in E. coli in the form of insoluble inclusion body. The inclusion body was dissolved in high concentration of urea. Affinity Chromatography was preformed to purify the denatured protein, and then the product was refolded in a series of gradient solutions of urea. The purified protein was obtained with the purity of > 95% and the yield of 93.3 mg x L(-1). Polyclonal antibody of this protein was obtained, and Western blotting assay indicated that the X5 protein has the strong property of antigen. Sixty-eight percent of the recombinant protein sequence was confirmed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis.

  8. Aberrant expression of genes and proteins in pterygium and their implications in the pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Qing-Yang; Hu, Zi-Xuan; Song, Xi-Ling; Pan, Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease induced by a variety of factors. The exact pathogenesis of pterygium remains unclear. Numbers of genes and proteins are discovered in pterygium and they function differently in the occurrence and development of this disease. We searched the Web of Science and PubMed throughout history for literatures about the subject. The keywords we used contain pterygium, gene, protein, angiogenesis, fibrosis, proliferation, inflammation, pathogenesis and therapy. In this review, we summarize the aberrant expression of a range of genes and proteins in pterygium compared with normal conjunctiva or cornea, including growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, interleukins, tumor suppressor genes, proliferation related proteins, apoptosis related proteins, cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, heat shock proteins and tight junction proteins. We illustrate their possible mechanisms in the pathogenesis of pterygium as well as the related intervention based on them for pterygium therapy. PMID:28730091

  9. Protein expression profile changes in human fibroblasts induced by low dose energetic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Clement, Jade Q.; Gridley, Daila S.; Rodhe, Larry H.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-12-01

    Extrapolation of known radiation risks to the risks from low dose and low dose-rate exposures of human population, especially prolonged exposures of astronauts in the space radiation environment, relies in part on the mechanistic understanding of radiation induced biological consequences at the molecular level. While some genomic data at the mRNA level are available for cells or animals exposed to radiation, the data at the protein level are still lacking. Here, we studied protein expression profile changes using Panorama antibody microarray chips that contain antibodies to 224 proteins (or their phosphorylated forms) involved in cell signaling that included mostly apoptosis, cytoskeleton, cell cycle and signal transduction. Normal human fibroblasts were cultured until fully confluent and then exposed to 2 cGy of 150 MeV protons at high-dose rate. The proteins were isolated at 2 or 6 h after exposure and labeled with Cy3 for the irradiated cells and with Cy5 for the control samples before loading onto the protein microarray chips. The intensities of the protein spots were analyzed using ScanAlyze software and normalized by the summed fluorescence intensities and the housekeeping proteins. The results showed that low dose protons altered the expression of more than 10% of the proteins listed in the microarray analysis in various protein functional groups. Cell cycle (24%) related proteins were induced by protons and most of them were regulators of G1/S-transition phase. Comparison of the overall protein expression profiles, cell cycle related proteins, cytoskeleton and signal transduction protein groups showed significantly more changes induced by protons compared with other protein functional groups.

  10. Not changes in membrane fluidity but proteotoxic stress triggers heat shock protein expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Rütgers, Mark; Muranaka, Ligia Segatto; Schulz-Raffelt, Miriam; Thoms, Sylvia; Schurig, Juliane; Willmund, Felix; Schroda, Michael

    2017-12-01

    A conserved reaction of all organisms exposed to heat stress is an increased expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Several studies have proposed that HSP expression in heat-stressed plant cells is triggered by an increased fluidity of the plasma membrane. Among the main lines of evidence in support of this model are as follows: (a) the degree of membrane lipid saturation was higher in cells grown at elevated temperatures and correlated with a lower amplitude of HSP expression upon a temperature upshift, (b) membrane fluidizers induce HSP expression at physiological temperatures, and (c) membrane rigidifier dimethylsulfoxide dampens heat-induced HSP expression. Here, we tested whether this holds also for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that heat-induced HSP expression in cells grown at elevated temperatures was reduced because they already contained elevated levels of cytosolic HSP70A/90A that apparently act as negative regulators of heat shock factor 1. We find that membrane rigidifier dimethylsulfoxide impaired translation under heat stress conditions and that membrane fluidizer benzyl alcohol not only induced HSP expression but also caused protein aggregation. These findings support the classical model for the cytosolic unfolded protein response, according to which HSP expression is induced by the accumulation of unfolded proteins. Hence, the membrane fluidity model should be reconsidered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cellular responses to the expression of unstable secretory proteins in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Jun-Ichi; Shiro, Daisuke; Tanaka, Mizuki; Onozaki, Yasumichi; Mizutani, Osamu; Kakizono, Dararat; Ichinose, Sakurako; Shintani, Tomoko; Gomi, Katsuya; Shintani, Takahiro

    2017-03-01

    Filamentous fungi are often used as cell factories for recombinant protein production because of their ability to secrete large quantities of hydrolytic enzymes. However, even using strong transcriptional promoters, yields of nonfungal proteins are generally much lower than those of fungal proteins. Recent analyses revealed that expression of certain nonfungal secretory proteins induced the unfolded protein response (UPR), suggesting that they are recognized as proteins with folding defects in filamentous fungi. More recently, however, even highly expressed endogenous secretory proteins were found to evoke the UPR. These findings raise the question of whether the unfolded or misfolded state of proteins is selectively recognized by quality control mechanisms in filamentous fungi. In this study, a fungal secretory protein (1,2-α-D-mannosidase; MsdS) with a mutation that decreases its thermostability was expressed at different levels in Aspergillus oryzae. We found that, at moderate expression levels, wild-type MsdS was secreted to the medium, while the mutant was not. In the strain with a deletion for the hrdA gene, which is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway, mutant MsdS had specifically increased levels in the intracellular fraction but was not secreted. When overexpressed, the mutant protein was secreted to the medium to a similar extent as the wild-type protein; however, the mutant underwent hyperglycosylation and induced the UPR. Deletion of α-amylase (the most abundant secretory protein in A. oryzae) alleviated the UPR induction by mutant MsdS overexpression. These findings suggest that misfolded MsdS and unfolded species of α-amylase might act synergistically for UPR induction.

  12. Frame-Insensitive Expression Cloning of Fluorescent Protein from Scolionema suvaense.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Yuki; Laskaratou, Danai; Sliwa, Michel; Ruckebusch, Cyril; Hatori, Kuniyuki; Mizuno, Hideaki; Hotta, Jun-Ichi

    2018-01-26

    Expression cloning from cDNA is an important technique for acquiring genes encoding novel fluorescent proteins. However, the probability of in-frame cDNA insertion following the first start codon of the vector is normally only 1/3, which is a cause of low cloning efficiency. To overcome this issue, we developed a new expression plasmid vector, pRSET-TriEX, in which transcriptional slippage was induced by introducing a DNA sequence of (dT) 14 next to the first start codon of pRSET. The effectiveness of frame-insensitive cloning was validated by inserting the gene encoding eGFP with all three possible frames to the vector. After transformation with one of these plasmids, E. coli cells expressed eGFP with no significant difference in the expression level. The pRSET-TriEX vector was then used for expression cloning of a novel fluorescent protein from Scolionema suvaense . We screened 3658 E. coli colonies transformed with pRSET-TriEX containing Scolionema suvaense cDNA, and found one colony expressing a novel green fluorescent protein, ScSuFP. The highest score in protein sequence similarity was 42% with the chain c of multi-domain green fluorescent protein like protein "ember" from Anthoathecata sp. Variations in the N- and/or C-terminal sequence of ScSuFP compared to other fluorescent proteins indicate that the expression cloning, rather than the sequence similarity-based methods, was crucial for acquiring the gene encoding ScSuFP. The absorption maximum was at 498 nm, with an extinction efficiency of 1.17 × 10⁵ M -1 ·cm -1 . The emission maximum was at 511 nm and the fluorescence quantum yield was determined to be 0.6. Pseudo-native gel electrophoresis showed that the protein forms obligatory homodimers.

  13. [Expression and Preliminary Research on the Soluble Domain of EV-D68 3A Protein].

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Kong, Jia; Yu, Xiao-fang; Han, Xue

    2015-11-01

    To understand the structure of the soluble region of Enterovirus 68 3A protein, we construct a prokaryotic expression vector expressing the soluble region of EV-D68 3A protein, and identify the forms of expression product after purification. The EV-D68 3A(1-61) gene was amplified by PCR and then cloned into the expression vector pET-28a-His-SUMO. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 induced by IPTG to express the fusion protein His-SUMO-3A(1-61). The recombinant protein was purified by Ni-NTA Agarose and cleaved by ULP Protease to remove His-SUMO tag. After that, the target protein 3A(1-61) was purified by a series of purification methods such as Ni-NTA, anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromato- graphy. Chemical cross-linking reaction assay was taken to determine the multiple polymerization state of the 3A soluble region. A prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-His-SUMO-3A(1-61) expressing the solution region of EV-D68 3A was successfully constructed and plenty of highly pure target proteins were obtained by multiple purification steps . The total protein amount was about 5 mg obtained from 1L Escherichia coli BL21 with purity > 95%. At the same time, those results determined the homomultimer form of soluble 3A construct. These data demonstrated that the expression and purification system of the soluble region of 3A were successfully set up and provide some basic konwledge for the research about 3A crystal structure and the development of antiviral drugs targeted at 3A to block viral replication.

  14. [Construction of cTnC-linker-TnI (P) Genes, Expression of Fusion Protein and Preparation of Lyophilized Protein].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiaoyun; Cai, Lei; Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Jihua

    2015-12-01

    In order to construct and express human cardiac troponin C-linker-troponin I(P) [ cTnC-linker-TnI(P)] fusion protein, detect its activity and prepare lyophilized protein, we searched the CDs of human cTnC and cTnI from GenBank, synthesized cTnC and cTnI(30-110aa) into cloning vector by a short DNA sequence coding for 15 neutral amino acid residues. pCold I-cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3). Then, cTnC-linker-TnI(P) fusion protein was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Soluable expression of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) in prokaryotic system was successfully obtained. The fusion protein was purified by Ni²⁺ Sepharose 6 Fast Flow affinity chromatography with over 95% purity and prepared into lyophilized protein. The activity of purified cTnC-linker-TnI(P) and its lyophilized protein were detected by Wondfo Finecare™ cTnI Test. Lyophilized protein of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was stable for 10 or more days at 37 °C and 4 or more months at 25 °C and 4 °C. The expression system established in this research is feasible and efficient. Lyophilized protein is stable enough to be provided as biological raw materials for further research.

  15. Intercellular Variability in Protein Levels from Stochastic Expression and Noisy Cell Cycle Processes

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mohammad; Vargas-Garcia, Cesar A.; Antunes, Duarte; Singh, Abhyudai

    2016-01-01

    Inside individual cells, expression of genes is inherently stochastic and manifests as cell-to-cell variability or noise in protein copy numbers. Since proteins half-lives can be comparable to the cell-cycle length, randomness in cell-division times generates additional intercellular variability in protein levels. Moreover, as many mRNA/protein species are expressed at low-copy numbers, errors incurred in partitioning of molecules between two daughter cells are significant. We derive analytical formulas for the total noise in protein levels when the cell-cycle duration follows a general class of probability distributions. Using a novel hybrid approach the total noise is decomposed into components arising from i) stochastic expression; ii) partitioning errors at the time of cell division and iii) random cell-division events. These formulas reveal that random cell-division times not only generate additional extrinsic noise, but also critically affect the mean protein copy numbers and intrinsic noise components. Counter intuitively, in some parameter regimes, noise in protein levels can decrease as cell-division times become more stochastic. Computations are extended to consider genome duplication, where transcription rate is increased at a random point in the cell cycle. We systematically investigate how the timing of genome duplication influences different protein noise components. Intriguingly, results show that noise contribution from stochastic expression is minimized at an optimal genome-duplication time. Our theoretical results motivate new experimental methods for decomposing protein noise levels from synchronized and asynchronized single-cell expression data. Characterizing the contributions of individual noise mechanisms will lead to precise estimates of gene expression parameters and techniques for altering stochasticity to change phenotype of individual cells. PMID:27536771

  16. Altered expression of p97/Valosin containing protein and impaired autophagy in preeclamptic human placenta.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Asker Zeki; Cayli, Sevil; Sahin, Cansu; Ocakli, Seda; Sanci, Tuba Ozdemir; Ilhan, Delibas Bahri

    2018-07-01

    Autophagy increases in placenta-related obstetrical diseases such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation but the regulation of autophagy by ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) proteins, p97/Valosin containing protein (VCP) and ubiquitin (Ub) have not been previuosly studied in preeclampsia. The objective of this study is to investigate the expression of UPP (p97/VCP and Ub), autophagosomal (p62 and LC3) and autolysosomal proteins (Lamp1 and Lamp2) in the normal and preeclamptic human placentas and to explore the regulatory mechanism of these proteins in autophagic pathway. Different portions of normal term placentas (n = 20) and preeclamptic placentas (n = 10) were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen for Western blotting and coimmunoprecipitation and others were fixed-embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemistry. Colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation experiments were done for the detection of interaction between p97/VCP and autophagic proteins. Compared with normal placentas, expression of p97/VCP was significantly reduced; however accumulation of ubiquitinlated proteins were significantly increased in preeclamptic placentas. The expression of autophagosomal proteins (LC3-II and p62) were significantly increased and no significant alterations of the expression of autolysosomal proteins were observed in preeclamptic placentas. Additionally, p97/VCP was found to colocalized and interact with autophagosomal and autolysosomal markers in normal and preeclamptic placentas. Autophagosome maturation diminished and autophagosomes had decreased localization with lysosomal markers in preeclamptic human placentas. Decreased expression of p97/VCP and increased expression of Ub in preeclampsia might be related to impaired autophagy and pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Therefore, our study highlights an important potential relationship between p97/VCP and autophagic proteins in preeclampsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient ASK-assisted system for expression and purification of plant F-box proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiou; Yao, Ruifeng; Ma, Sui; Hu, Shuai; Li, Suhua; Wang, Yupei; Yan, Chun; Xie, Daoxin; Yan, Jianbin

    2017-11-01

    Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation plays an essential role in plant growth and development as well as responses to environmental and endogenous signals. F-box protein is one of the key components of the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which recruit specific substrate proteins for subsequent ubiquitination and 26S proteasome-mediated degradation to regulate developmental processes and signaling networks. However, it is not easy to obtain purified F-box proteins with high activity due to their unstable protein structures. Here, we found that Arabidopsis SKP-like proteins (ASKs) can significantly improve soluble expression of F-box proteins and maintain their bioactivity. We established an efficient ASK-assisted method to express and purify plant F-box proteins. The method meets a broad range of criteria required for the biochemical analysis or protein crystallization of plant F-box proteins. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Expressed proteins of Herbaspirillum seropedicae in maize (DKB240) roots-bacteria interaction revealed using proteomics.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Cibele Santos; Amaral, Fernanda Plucani; Bueno, Jessica Cavalheiro Ferreira; Scariot, Mirella Christine; Valentim-Neto, Pedro Alexandre; Arisi, Ana Carolina Maisonnave

    2014-11-01

    Several molecular tools have been used to clarify the basis of plant-bacteria interaction; however, the mechanism behind the association is still unclear. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to investigate the root proteome of Zea mays (cv. DKB240) inoculated with Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain SmR1 grown in vitro and harvested 7 days after inoculation. Eighteen differentially accumulated proteins were observed in root samples, ten of which were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprint. Among the identified proteins, we observed three proteins present exclusively in inoculated root samples and six upregulated proteins and one downregulated protein relative to control. Differentially expressed maize proteins were identified as hypothetical protein ZEAMMB73_483204, hypothetical protein ZEAMMB73_269466, and tubulin beta-7 chain. The following were identified as H. seropedicae proteins: peroxiredoxin protein, EF-Tu elongation factor protein, cation transport ATPase, NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase, dinitrogenase reductase, and type III secretion ATP synthase. Our results presented the first evidence of type III secretion ATP synthase expression during H. seropedicae-maize root interaction.

  19. Mutant Huntingtin Causes a Selective Decrease in the Expression of Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2C.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chaohua; Zhu, Gaochun; Liu, Xiangqian; Li, He

    2018-04-30

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Mutant Htt causes synaptic transmission dysfunctions by interfering in the expression of synaptic proteins, leading to early HD symptoms. Synaptic vesicle proteins 2 (SV2s), a family of synaptic vesicle proteins including 3 members, SV2A, SV2B, and SV2C, plays important roles in synaptic physiology. Here, we investigated whether the expression of SV2s is affected by mutant Htt in the brains of HD transgenic (TG) mice and Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2a cells) expressing mutant Htt. Western blot analysis showed that the protein levels of SV2A and SV2B were not significantly changed in the brains of HD TG mice expressing mutant Htt with 82 glutamine repeats. However, in the TG mouse brain there was a dramatic decrease in the protein level of SV2C, which has a restricted distribution pattern in regions particularly vulnerable in HD. Immunostaining revealed that the immunoreactivity of SV2C was progressively weakened in the basal ganglia and hippocampus of TG mice. RT-PCR demonstrated that the mRNA level of SV2C progressively declined in the TG mouse brain without detectable changes in the mRNA levels of SV2A and SV2B, indicating that mutant Htt selectively inhibits the transcriptional expression of SV2C. Furthermore, we found that only SV2C expression was progressively inhibited in N2a cells expressing a mutant Htt containing 120 glutamine repeats. These findings suggest that the synaptic dysfunction in HD results from the mutant Htt-mediated inhibition of SV2C transcriptional expression. These data also imply that the restricted distribution and decreased expression of SV2C contribute to the brain region-selective pathology of HD.

  20. HLA-G and MHC Class II Protein Expression in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Bojo, Marcin; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Anna; Jabłońska, Joanna; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Kordek, Radzisław; Młynarski, Wojciech; Robak, Tadeusz; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Lech-Maranda, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    The expression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) and HLA class II protein was studied by immunohistochemical staining of lymph nodes from 148 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and related to the clinical course of the disease. Negative HLA-G expression was associated with a lower probability of achieving a complete remission (p = 0.04). Patients with negative HLA-G expression tended towards a lower 3-year overall survival (OS) rate compared to those with positive expression of HLA-G (p = 0.08). When restricting the analysis to patients receiving chemotherapy with rituximab, the estimated 3-year OS rate of patients with positive HLA-G expression was 73.3 % compared with 47.5 % (p = 0.03) in those with negative expression. Patients with negative HLA class II expression presented a lower 3-year OS rate compared to subjects with positive expression (p = 0.04). The loss of HLA class II expression (p = 0.05) and belonging to the intermediate high/high IPI risk group (p = 0.001) independently increased the risk of death. HLA class II expression also retained its prognostic value in patients receiving rituximab; the 3-year OS rate was 65.3 % in patients with positive HLA class II expression versus 29.6 % (p = 0.04) in subjects that had loss of HLA class II expression. To our knowledge, for the first time, the expression of HLA-G protein in DLBCL and its association with the clinical course of the disease was demonstrated. Moreover, the link between losing HLA class II protein expression and poor survival of patients treated with immunochemotherapy was confirmed.

  1. The Use of Affinity Tags to Overcome Obstacles in Recombinant Protein Expression and Purification.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, Chinthaka; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Research and industrial demands for recombinant proteins continue to increase over time for their broad applications in structural and functional studies and as therapeutic agents. These applications often require large quantities of recombinant protein at desirable purity, which highlights the importance of developing and improving production approaches that provide high level expression and readily achievable purity of recombinant protein. E. coli is the most widely used host for the expression of a diverse range of proteins at low cost. However, there are common pitfalls that can severely limit the expression of exogenous proteins, such as stability, low solubility and toxicity to the host cell. To overcome these obstacles, one strategy that has found to be promising is the use of affinity tags or carrier peptide to aid in the folding of the target protein, increase solubility, lower toxicity and increase the level of expression. In the meantime, the tags and fusion proteins can be designed to facilitate affinity purification. Since the fusion protein may not exhibit the native conformation of the target protein, various strategies have been developed to remove the tag during or after purification to avoid potential complications in structural and functional studies and to obtain native biological activities. Despite extensive research and rapid development along these lines, there are unsolved problems and imperfect applications. This focused review compares and contrasts various strategies that employ affinity tags to improve bacterial expression and to facilitate purification of recombinant proteins. The pros and cons of the approaches are discussed for more effective applications and new directions of future improvement.

  2. Expression of a novel stress-inducible protein, sestrin 2, in rat glomerular parietal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamatani, Hiroko; Sakairi, Toru; Takahashi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Mitsuharu; Maeshima, Akito; Ohse, Takamoto; Pippin, Jeffery W.; Shankland, Stuart J.; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    Sestrin 2, initially identified as a p53 target protein, accumulates in cells exposed to stress and inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. In normal rat kidneys, sestrin 2 was selectively expressed in parietal epithelial cells (PECs), identified by the marker protein gene product 9.5. In adriamycin nephropathy, sestrin 2 expression decreased in PECs on day 14, together with increased expression of phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (P-S6RP), a downstream target of mTOR. Sestrin 2 expression was markedly decreased on day 42, coinciding with glomerulosclerosis and severe periglomerular fibrosis. In puromycin aminonucleoside nephropathy, decreased sestrin 2 expression, increased P-S6RP expression, and periglomerular fibrosis were observed on day 9, when massive proteinuria developed. These changes were transient and nearly normalized by day 28. In crescentic glomerulonephritis, sestrin 2 expression was not detected in cellular crescents, whereas P-S6RP increased. In conditionally immortalized cultured PECs, the forced downregulation of sestrin 2 by short hairpin RNA resulted in increased expression of P-S6RP and increased apoptosis. These data suggest that sestrin 2 is involved in PEC homeostasis by regulating the activity of mTOR. In addition, sestrin 2 could be a novel marker of PECs, and decreased expression of sestrin 2 might be a marker of PEC injury. PMID:25056347

  3. Advanced technologies for improved expression of recombinant proteins in bacteria: perspectives and applications.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeev K; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-12-01

    Prokaryotic expression systems are superior in producing valuable recombinant proteins, enzymes and therapeutic products. Conventional microbial technology is evolving gradually and amalgamated with advanced technologies in order to give rise to improved processes for the production of metabolites, recombinant biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Recently, several novel approaches have been employed in a bacterial expression platform to improve recombinant protein expression. These approaches involve metabolic engineering, use of strong promoters, novel vector elements such as inducers and enhancers, protein tags, secretion signals, high-throughput devices for cloning and process screening as well as fermentation technologies. Advancement of the novel technologies in E. coli systems led to the production of "difficult to express" complex products including small peptides, antibody fragments, few proteins and full-length aglycosylated monoclonal antibodies in considerable large quantity. Wacker's secretion technologies, Pfenex system, inducers, cell-free systems, strain engineering for post-translational modification, such as disulfide bridging and bacterial N-glycosylation, are still under evaluation for the production of complex proteins and peptides in E. coli in an efficient manner. This appraisal provides an impression of expression technologies developed in recent times for enhanced production of heterologous proteins in E. coli which are of foremost importance for diverse applications in microbiology and biopharmaceutical production.

  4. Exercise alters myostatin protein expression in sedentary and exercised streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Daniela; Bueno, Patricia de Godoy; Nonaka, Keico Okino; Selistre-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro; Leal, Angela Merice de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of exercise on the pattern of muscle myostatin (MSTN) protein expression in two important metabolic disorders, i.e., obesity and diabetes mellitus. MSTN, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. We evaluated the effect of exercise on MSTN protein expression in diabetes mellitus and high fat diet-induced obesity. MSTN protein expression in gastrocnemius muscle was analyzed by Western Blot. P < 0.05 was assumed. Exercise induced a significant decrease in glycemia in both diabetic and obese animals. The expression of precursor and processed protein forms of MSTN and the weight of gastrocnemius muscle did not vary in sedentary or exercised obese animals. Diabetes reduced gastrocnemius muscle weight in sedentary animals. However, gastrocnemius muscle weight increased in diabetic exercised animals. Both the precursor and processed forms of muscle MSTN protein were significantly higher in sedentary diabetic rats than in control rats. The precursor form was significantly lower in diabetic exercised animals than in diabetic sedentary animals. However, the processed form did not change. These results demonstrate that exercise can modulate the muscle expression of MSTN protein in diabetic rats and suggest that MSTN may be involved in energy homeostasis.

  5. [Construction and expression of HSV-2gD-Hsp70 fusion protein gene].

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Yong; Yang, Hui-Lan; Wang, Ying; Guan, Lei

    2006-11-01

    To construct and express Hsp70-HSV2gD fusion protein. Genes of Hsp70 and HSV-2gD were subcloned into vectors pGEX-4T-1 respectively. After confirmed by DNA sequence analysis, the recombinant plasmids pGEX-4T-HSP-gD was transformed into E. coli DH5alpha and induced to express with IPTG. The expressed protein was characterized by SDS-PAGE and Western blot after purified. BALB/c mice were immunized with fusion proteins respectively via intra-m uscular injection. The proliferation of spleen lymphocytes, the level of y-IFN in culture and anti-HSV-2gD IgG antibody in serum was detected was detected. The expressed protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE after induced with IPTG, which showed a new band with an apparent molecular mass corresponding to the predicted size (118 kD). Western Blotting analysis demonstrates that the purified Hsp70-HSV2gD fusion protein had specific binding activity. The stimulation indexes of spleen lymphocytes, the level of gamma-IFN in culture and anti-HSV-2gD IgG antibody in serum of GST-Hsp70-gD group was obviously higher than that of other groups (P < 0.05 respectively). The successful expression of the Hsp70-HSV2gD fusion protein, which can induce immune responses, laid a solid foundation for its further research.

  6. High Level Expression and Purification of Recombinant Proteins from Escherichia coli with AK-TAG

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dan; Wen, Caixia; Zhao, Rongchuan; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Xinxin; Cui, Jingjing; Liang, Joshua G.; Liang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli was used as both solubility and affinity tag for recombinant protein production. When fused to the N-terminus of a target protein, an AK fusion protein could be expressed in soluble form and purified to near homogeneity in a single step from Blue-Sepherose via affinity elution with micromolar concentration of P1, P5- di (adenosine—5’) pentaphosphate (Ap5A), a transition-state substrate analog of AK. Unlike any other affinity tags, the level of a recombinant protein expression in soluble form and its yield of recovery during each purification step could be readily assessed by AK enzyme activity in near real time. Coupled to a His-Tag installed at the N-terminus and a thrombin cleavage site at the C terminus of AK, the streamlined method, here we dubbed AK-TAG, could also allow convenient expression and retrieval of a cleaved recombinant protein in high yield and purity via dual affinity purification steps. Thus AK-TAG is a new addition to the arsenal of existing affinity tags for recombinant protein expression and purification, and is particularly useful where soluble expression and high degree of purification are at stake. PMID:27214237

  7. Expression of Bcl-2 family proteins and spontaneous apoptosis in normal human testis.

    PubMed

    Oldereid, N B; Angelis, P D; Wiger, R; Clausen, O P

    2001-05-01

    We investigated the frequency of spontaneous apoptosis and expression of the Bcl-2 family of proteins during normal spermatogenesis in man. Testicular tissue with both normal morphology and DNA content was obtained from necro-donors and fixed in Bouin's solution. A TdT-mediated dUTP end-labelling method (TUNEL) was used for the detection of apoptotic cells. Expression of apoptosis regulatory Bcl-2 family proteins and of p53 and p21(Waf1) was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Germ cell apoptosis was detected in all testes and was mainly seen in primary spermatocytes and spermatids and in a few spermatogonia. Bcl-2 and Bak were preferentially expressed in the compartments of spermatocytes and differentiating spermatids, while Bcl-x was preferentially expressed in spermatogonia. Bax showed a preferential expression in nuclei of round spermatids, whereas Bad was only seen in the acrosome region of various stages of spermatids. Mcl-1 staining was weak without a particular pattern, whereas expression of Bcl-w, p53 and p21(Waf1) proteins was not detected by immunohistochemistry. The results show that spontaneous apoptosis occurs in all male germ cell compartments in humans. Bcl-2 family proteins are distributed preferentially within distinct germ cell compartments suggesting a specific role for these proteins in the processes of differentiation and maturation during human spermatogenesis.

  8. Complementation between avirulent Newcastle disease virus and a fusion protein gene expressed from a retrovirus vector: requirements for membrane fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, T; McQuain, C; McGinnes, L

    1991-01-01

    The cDNA derived from the fusion gene of the virulent AV strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was expressed in chicken embryo cells by using a retrovirus vector. The fusion protein expressed in this system was transported to the cell surface and was efficiently cleaved into the disulfide-linked F1-F2 form found in infectious virions. The cells expressing the fusion gene grew normally and could be passaged many times. Monolayers of these cells would plaque, in the absence of trypsin, avirulent NDV strains (strains which encode a fusion protein which is not cleaved in tissue culture). Fusion protein-expressing cells would not fuse if mixed with uninfected cells or uninfected cells expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein. However, the fusion protein-expressing cells, if infected with avirulent strains of NDV, would fuse with uninfected cells, suggesting that fusion requires both the fusion protein and another viral protein expressed in the same cell. Fusion was also seen after transfection of the HN protein gene into fusion protein-expressing cells. Thus, the expressed fusion protein gene is capable of complementing the virus infection, providing an active cleaved fusion protein required for the spread of infection. However, the fusion protein does not mediate cell fusion unless the cell also expresses the HN protein. Fusion protein-expressing cells would not plaque influenza virus in the absence of trypsin, nor would influenza virus-infected fusion protein-expressing cells fuse with uninfected cells. Thus, the influenza virus HA protein will not substitute for the NDV HN protein in cell-to-cell fusion. Images PMID:1987376

  9. Homologous expression of the Caldicellulosiruptor bescii CelA reveals that the extracellular protein is glycosylated

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Daehwan; Young, Jenna; Bomble, Yannick J.; ...

    2015-03-23

    Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are the most thermophilic cellulolytic microbes described with ability to digest lignocellulosic biomass without conventional pretreatment. The cellulolytic ability of different species varies dramatically and correlates with the presence of the multimodular cellulase CelA, which contains both a glycoside hydrolase family 9 endoglucanase and a glycoside hydrolase family 48 exoglucanase known to be synergistic in their activity, connected by three cellulose-binding domains via linker peptides. This architecture exploits the cellulose surface ablation driven by its general cellulase processivity as well as excavates cavities into the surface of the substrate, revealing a novel paradigm formore » cellulase activity. We recently reported that a deletion of celA in C. bescii had a significant effect on its ability to utilize complex biomass. To analyze the structure and function of CelA and its role in biomass deconstruction, we constructed a new expression vector for C. bescii and were able, for the first time, to express significant quantities of full-length protein in vivo in the native host. The protein, which contains a Histidine tag, was active and excreted from the cell. Expression of CelA protein with and without its signal sequence allowed comparison of protein retained intracellularly to protein transported extracellularly. Analysis of protein in culture supernatants revealed that the extracellular CelA protein is glycosylated whereas the intracellular CelA is not, suggesting that either protein transport is required for this post-translational modification or that glycosylation is required for protein export. The mechanism and role of protein glycosylation in bacteria is poorly understood and the ability to express CelA in vivo in C. bescii will allow the study of the mechanism of protein glycosylation in this thermophile. Finally, it will also allow the study of glycosylation of CelA itself and its role

  10. Functional expression of the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in transgenic lettuce.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hyeon-Jin; Cui, Min-Long; Ma, Biao; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2006-01-23

    Taste-modifying proteins are a natural alternative to artificial sweeteners and flavor enhancers and have been used in some cultures for centuries. The taste-modifying protein, miraculin, has the unusual property of being able to modify a sour taste into a sweet taste. Here, we report the use of a plant expression system for the production of miraculin. A synthetic gene encoding miraculin was placed under the control of constitutive promoters and transferred to lettuce. Expression of this gene in transgenic lettuce resulted in the accumulation of significant amounts of miraculin protein in the leaves. The miraculin expressed in transgenic lettuce possessed sweetness-inducing activity. These results demonstrate that the production of miraculin in edible plants can be a good alternative strategy to enhance the availability of this protein.

  11. Expression, purification and antibody preparation of PCV2 Rep and ORF3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiyuan; Ma, Teng; Pang, Daxin; Su, Dan; Chen, Fuwang; Chen, Xinrong; Guo, Ning; Ouyang, Ting; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Ren, Linzhu

    2016-05-01

    Rep and ORF3 proteins are important functional proteins of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). Here, Rep and ORF3 genes were cloned, expressed and used to raise polyclonal antibodies. The result showed the recombinant plasmids of Rep and ORF3 genes constructed in this study were expressed efficiently in the prokaryotic system, and the recombinant proteins had antigenicity and immunogenicity. Furthermore, reactivity and specificity of the antiserums were characterized by western blot and indirect immunofluorescent assays. The results elucidated that polyclonal antiserum prepared with Rep or ORF3 had good reactivity and specificity against PCV2, or the Rep and ORF3 expressed in PK-15 cells, respectively. The Rep protein is promising for PCV2 antibody and vaccine development. These results will be helpful for further studies focusing on pathogenesis of PCV2 and serology diagnostic test or vaccine development against PCV2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Methods for efficient high-throughput screening of protein expression in recombinant Pichia pastoris strains.

    PubMed

    Camattari, Andrea; Weinhandl, Katrin; Gudiminchi, Rama K

    2014-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is becoming one of the favorite industrial workhorses for protein expression. Due to the widespread use of integration vectors, which generates significant clonal variability, screening methods allowing assaying hundreds of individual clones are of particular importance. Here we describe methods to detect and analyze protein expression, developed in a 96-well format for high-throughput screening of recombinant P. pastoris strains. The chapter covers essentially three common scenarios: (1) an enzymatic assay for proteins expressed in the cell cytoplasm, requiring cell lysis; (2) a whole-cell assay for a fungal cytochrome P450; and (3) a nonenzymatic assay for detection and quantification of tagged protein secreted into the supernatant.

  13. Dynamics of Hippocampal Protein Expression During Long-term Spatial Memory Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Borovok, Natalia; Nesher, Elimelech; Levin, Yishai; Reichenstein, Michal; Pinhasov, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Spatial memory depends on the hippocampus, which is particularly vulnerable to aging. This vulnerability has implications for the impairment of navigation capacities in older people, who may show a marked drop in performance of spatial tasks with advancing age. Contemporary understanding of long-term memory formation relies on molecular mechanisms underlying long-term synaptic plasticity. With memory acquisition, activity-dependent changes occurring in synapses initiate multiple signal transduction pathways enhancing protein turnover. This enhancement facilitates de novo synthesis of plasticity related proteins, crucial factors for establishing persistent long-term synaptic plasticity and forming memory engrams. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate molecular mechanisms of memory traces formation; however, the identity of plasticity related proteins is still evasive. In this study, we investigated protein turnover in mouse hippocampus during long-term spatial memory formation using the reference memory version of radial arm maze (RAM) paradigm. We identified 1592 proteins, which exhibited a complex picture of expression changes during spatial memory formation. Variable linear decomposition reduced significantly data dimensionality and enriched three principal factors responsible for variance of memory-related protein levels at (1) the initial phase of memory acquisition (165 proteins), (2) during the steep learning improvement (148 proteins), and (3) the final phase of the learning curve (123 proteins). Gene ontology and signaling pathways analysis revealed a clear correlation between memory improvement and learning phase-curbed expression profiles of proteins belonging to specific functional categories. We found differential enrichment of (1) neurotrophic factors signaling pathways, proteins regulating synaptic transmission, and actin microfilament during the first day of the learning curve; (2) transcription and translation machinery, protein

  14. The Staphyloccous aureus Eap protein activates expression of proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Scriba, Thomas J; Sierro, Sophie; Brown, Eric L; Phillips, Rodney E; Sewell, Andrew K; Massey, Ruth C

    2008-05-01

    The extracellular adhesion protein (Eap) secreted by the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is known to have several effects on human immunity. We have recently added to knowledge of these roles by demonstrating that Eap enhances interactions between major histocompatibility complex molecules and human leukocytes. Several studies have indicated that Eap can induce cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To date, there has been no rigorous attempt to identify the breadth of cytokines produced by Eap stimulation or to identify the cell subsets that respond. Here, we demonstrate that Eap induces the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by CD14(+) leukocytes (monocytes and macrophages) within direct ex vivo PBMC populations (note that granulocytes are also CD14(+) but are largely depleted from PBMC preparations). Anti-intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54) antibodies inhibited this induction and implicated a role for this known Eap binding protein in cellular activation. IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion by murine cells exposed to Eap was also observed. The activation of CD14(+) cells by Eap suggests that it could play a significant role in both septic shock and fever, two of the major pathological features of S. aureus infections.

  15. Analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona microneme protein SnMIC10: protein characteristics and expression during intracellular development.

    PubMed

    Hoane, Jessica S; Carruthers, Vernon B; Striepen, Boris; Morrison, David P; Entzeroth, Rolf; Howe, Daniel K

    2003-07-01

    Sarcocystis neurona, an apicomplexan parasite, is the primary causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Like other members of the Apicomplexa, S. neurona zoites possess secretory organelles that contain proteins necessary for host cell invasion and intracellular survival. From a collection of S. neurona expressed sequence tags, we identified a sequence encoding a putative microneme protein based on similarity to Toxoplasma gondii MIC10 (TgMIC10). Pairwise sequence alignments of SnMIC10 to TgMIC10 and NcMIC10 from Neospora caninum revealed approximately 33% identity to both orthologues. The open reading frame of the S. neurona gene encodes a 255 amino acid protein with a predicted 39-residue signal peptide. Like TgMIC10 and NcMIC10, SnMIC10 is predicted to be hydrophilic, highly alpha-helical in structure, and devoid of identifiable adhesive domains. Antibodies raised against recombinant SnMIC10 recognised a protein band with an apparent molecular weight of 24 kDa in Western blots of S. neurona merozoites, consistent with the size predicted for SnMIC10. In vitro secretion assays demonstrated that this protein is secreted by extracellular merozoites in a temperature-dependent manner. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis of SnMIC10 showed a polar labelling pattern, which is consistent with the apical position of the micronemes, and immunoelectron microscopy provided definitive localisation of the protein to these secretory organelles. Further analysis of SnMIC10 in intracellular parasites revealed that expression of this protein is temporally regulated during endopolygeny, supporting the view that micronemes are only needed during host cell invasion. Collectively, the data indicate that SnMIC10 is a microneme protein that is part of the excreted/secreted antigen fraction of S. neurona. Identification and characterisation of additional S. neurona microneme antigens and comparisons to orthologues in other Apicomplexa could provide further insight into the

  16. Differentially expressed proteins among normal cervix, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; He, Y; Wang, X-L; Zhang, Y-X; Wu, Y-M

    2015-08-01

    To explore the differentially expressed proteins in normal cervix, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) tissues by differential proteomics technique. Cervical tissues (including normal cervix, CIN and CSCC) were collected in Department of Gynecologic Oncology of Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital. Two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and DeCyder software were used to detect the differentially expressed proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed to validate the expressions of selected proteins among normal cervix, CIN and CSCC. 2-D DIGE images with high resolution and good repeatability were obtained. Forty-six differentially expressed proteins (27 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated) were differentially expressed among the normal cervix, CIN and CSCC. 26 proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. S100A9 (S100 calcium-binding protein A9) was the most significantly up-regulated protein. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha-1 (eEF1A1) was the most significantly down-regulated protein. Pyruvate kinase isozymes M2 (PKM2) was both up-regulated and down-regulated. The results of WB showed that with the increase in the severity of cervical lesions, the expression of S100A9 protein was significantly increased among the three groups (P = 0.010). The expression of eEF1A1 was reduced but without significant difference (P = 0.861). The expression of PKM2 was significantly reduced (P = 0.000). IHC showed that protein S100A9 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm, and its positive expression rate was 20.0 % in normal cervix, 70.0 % in CIN and 100.0 % in CSCC, with a significant difference among them (P = 0.006). eEF1A1 was mainly expressed in the cell plasma, and its

  17. Vector Development for the Expression of Foreign Proteins in the Vaccine Strain Brucella abortus S19

    PubMed Central

    Comerci, Diego J.; Pollevick, Guido D.; Vigliocco, Ana M.; Frasch, Alberto C. C.; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.

    1998-01-01

    A vector for the expression of foreign antigens in the vaccine strain Brucella abortus S19 was developed by using a DNA fragment containing the regulatory sequences and the signal peptide of the Brucella bcsp31 gene. This fragment was cloned in broad-host-range plasmid pBBR4MCS, resulting in plasmid pBEV. As a reporter protein, a repetitive antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi was used. The recombinant fusion protein is stably expressed and secreted into the Brucella periplasmic space, inducing a good antibody response against the T. cruzi antigen. The expression of the repetitive antigen in Brucella neither altered its growth pattern nor generated a toxic or lethal effect during experimental infection. The application of this strategy for the generation of live recombinant vaccines and the tagging of B. abortus S19 vaccine is discussed. This is the first time that a recombinant protein has been expressed in the periplasm of brucellae. PMID:9673273

  18. Machine learning in computational biology to accelerate high-throughput protein expression.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Anand; Monk, Jonathan; Tegel, Hanna; Uhlen, Mathias; Palsson, Bernhard O; Rockberg, Johan; Brunk, Elizabeth

    2017-08-15

    The Human Protein Atlas (HPA) enables the simultaneous characterization of thousands of proteins across various tissues to pinpoint their spatial location in the human body. This has been achieved through transcriptomics and high-throughput immunohistochemistry-based approaches, where over 40 000 unique human protein fragments have been expressed in E. coli. These datasets enable quantitative tracking of entire cellular proteomes and present new avenues for understanding molecular-level properties influencing expression and solubility. Combining computational biology and machine learning identifies protein properties that hinder the HPA high-throughput antibody production pipeline. We predict protein expression and solubility with accuracies of 70% and 80%, respectively, based on a subset of key properties (aromaticity, hydropathy and isoelectric point). We guide the selection of protein fragments based on these characteristics to optimize high-throughput experimentation. We present the machine learning workflow as a series of IPython notebooks hosted on GitHub (https://github.com/SBRG/Protein_ML). The workflow can be used as a template for analysis of further expression and solubility datasets. ebrunk@ucsd.edu or johanr@biotech.kth.se. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain.

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression of Xenopus F-Box Family of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Saritas-Yildirim, Banu; Pliner, Hannah A; Ochoa, Angelica; Silva, Elena M

    2015-01-01

    Protein degradation via the multistep ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway is a rapid way to alter the protein profile and drive cell processes and developmental changes. Many key regulators of embryonic development are targeted for degradation by E3 ubiquitin ligases. The most studied family of E3 ubiquitin ligases is the SCF ubiquitin ligases, which use F-box adaptor proteins to recognize and recruit target proteins. Here, we used a bioinformatics screen and phylogenetic analysis to identify and annotate the family of F-box proteins in the Xenopus tropicalis genome. To shed light on the function of the F-box proteins, we analyzed expression of F-box genes during early stages of Xenopus development. Many F-box genes are broadly expressed with expression domains localized to diverse tissues including brain, spinal cord, eye, neural crest derivatives, somites, kidneys, and heart. All together, our genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the Xenopus F-box family of proteins provide a foundation for future research aimed to identify the precise role of F-box dependent E3 ubiquitin ligases and their targets in the regulatory circuits of development.

  1. Benzoate-mediated changes on expression profile of soluble proteins in Serratia sp. DS001.

    PubMed

    Pandeeti, E V P; Chinnaboina, M R; Siddavattam, D

    2009-05-01

    To assess differences in protein expression profile associated with shift in carbon source from succinate to benzoate in Serratia sp. DS001 using a proteomics approach. A basic proteome map was generated for the soluble proteins extracted from Serratia sp. DS001 grown in succinate and benzoate. The differently and differentially expressed proteins were identified using ImageMaster 2D Platinum software (GE Healthcare). The identity of the proteins was determined by employing MS or MS/MS. Important enzymes such as Catechol 1,2 dioxygenase and transcriptional regulators that belong to the LysR superfamily were identified. Nearly 70 proteins were found to be differentially expressed when benzoate was used as carbon source. Based on the protein identity and degradation products generated from benzoate it is found that ortho pathway is operational in Serratia sp. DS001. Expression profile of the soluble proteins associated with shift in carbon source was mapped. The study also elucidates degradation pathway of benzoate in Serratia sp. DS001 by correlating the proteomics data with the catabolites of benzoate.

  2. Expression and purification of the matrix protein of Nipah virus in baculovirus insect cell system.

    PubMed

    Masoomi Dezfooli, Seyedehsara; Tan, Wen Siang; Tey, Beng Ti; Ooi, Chien Wei; Hussain, Siti Aslina

    2016-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) causes fatal respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans and animals. The matrix (M) protein of NiV plays an important role in the viral assembly and budding process. Thus, an access to the NiV M protein is vital to the design of viral antigens as diagnostic reagents. In this study, recombinant DNA technology was successfully adopted in the cloning and expression of NiV M protein. A recombinant expression cassette (baculovirus expression vector) was used to encode an N-terminally His-tagged NiV M protein in insect cells. A time-course study demonstrated that the highest yield of recombinant M protein (400-500 μg) was expressed from 107 infected cells 3 days after infection. A single-step purification method based on metal ion affinity chromatography was established to purify the NiV M protein, which successfully yielded a purity level of 95.67% and a purification factor of 3.39. The Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the purified recombinant M protein (48 kDa) was antigenic and reacted strongly with the serum of a NiV infected pig. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Dexamethasone Regulates Cochlear Expression of Deafness-associated Proteins Myelin Protein Zero and Heat Shock Protein 70, as Revealed by iTRAQ Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yukihide; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Kariya, Shin; Orita, Yorihisa; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2015-08-01

    Using proteomics, we aimed to identify the proteins differentially regulated by dexamethasone in the mouse cochlea based on mass-spectrometry data. Glucocorticoid therapy is widely used for many forms of sensorineural hearing loss; however, the molecular mechanism of its action in the cochlea remains poorly understood. Dexamethasone or control saline was intratympanically applied to the cochleae of mice. Twelve hours after application, proteins differentially regulated by dexamethasone in the cochlea were analyzed by isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ)-mass spectrometry. Next, dexamethasone-dependent regulation of these proteins was verified in the cochleae of mice with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and systemic administration of dexamethasone by western blotting. Immunolocalizations of these proteins were examined in cochleae with NIHL. A total of 247 proteins with a greater than 95% confidence interval of protein identification were found, and 11 differentially expressed proteins by dexamethasone were identified by the iTRAQ-mass spectrometry. One protein, myelin protein zero (Mpz), was upregulated (1.870 ± 0.201-fold change, p < 0.01) at 6 hours post-systemic dexamethasone and noise exposure in a mouse model of NIHL. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was downregulated (0.511 ± 0.274-fold change, p < 0.05) at 12 hours post-systemic dexamethasone. Immunohistochemistry confirmed Mpz localization to the efferent and afferent processes of the spiral neurons, whereas Hsp70 showed a more ubiquitous expression pattern in the cochlea. Both Mpz and Hsp70 have been reported to be closely associated with sensorineural hearing loss in humans. Dexamethasone significantly modulated the expression levels of these proteins in the cochleae of mice.

  4. Studies to Prevent Degradation of Recombinant Fc-Fusion Protein Expressed in Mammalian Cell Line and Protein Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Sanjukta; Barrow, Colin J.; Kanwar, Rupinder K.; Ramana, Venkata; Kanwar, Jagat R.

    2016-01-01

    Clipping of recombinant proteins is a major issue in animal cell cultures. A recombinant Fc-fusion protein, VEGFR1(D1–D3)-Fc expressed in CHOK1SV GS-KO cells was observed to be undergoing clippings in lab scale cultures. Partial cleaving of expressed protein initiated early on in cell culture and was observed to increase over time in culture and also on storage. In this study, a few parameters were explored in a bid to inhibit clipping in the fusion protein The effects of culture temperature, duration of culture, the addition of an anti-clumping agent, ferric citrate and use of protease inhibitor cocktail on inhibition of proteolysis of the Fc fusion were studied. Lowering of culture temperature from 37 to 30 °C alone appears to be the best solution for reducing protein degradation from the quality, cost and regulatory points of view. The obtained Fc protein was characterized and found to be in its stable folded state, exhibiting a high affinity for its ligand and also biological and functional activities. PMID:27294920

  5. Parkinson disease and progressive supranuclear palsy: protein expression in skin.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Leyva, Ildefonso; Chi-Ahumada, Erika G; Carrizales, Juan; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Velázquez-Osuna, Salvador; Medina-Mier, Verónica; Martel-Gallegos, María G; Zarazúa, Sergio; Enríquez-Macías, Lourdes; Castro, Adriana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Jiménez-Capdeville, María E

    2016-03-01

    This study characterizes the expression of tau (p-tau) and α-synuclein (α-syn) by immunohistochemistry in the skin of three different populations: healthy control (HC), Parkinson disease (PD), and progressive supranuclear paralysis (PSP) subjects, with the purpose of finding a biomarker that could differentiate between subjects with PD and PSP. We evaluated the presence of p-tau and α-syn in a pilot study in the skin of three distinct groups of patients: 17 healthy subjects, 17 patients with PD, and 10 patients with PSP. Four millimeters punch biopsies were obtained from the occipital area and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against α-syn and phosphorylated species of tau. PHF (paired helical filaments) antibody identifies p-tau in both normal and pathological conditions and AT8 recognizes p-tau characteristic of pathological conditions. Differences between the three groups were assessed by quantification of immunopositive areas in the epidermis. The immunopositivity pattern of p-tau and α-syn was significantly different among the three groups. Healthy subjects showed minimal staining using AT8 and α-syn. The PD group showed significantly higher α-syn and AT8 immunopositivity, while the PSP group only expressed higher AT8 immunopositivity than HCs. These data suggest that the skin reflects brain pathology. Therefore, immunohistochemical analysis of p-tau and α-syn in the skin can be useful for further characterization of PD and PSP.

  6. Protein kinase A-dependent increase in WAVE2 expression induced by the focal adhesion protein vinexin.

    PubMed

    Mitsushima, Masaru; Sezaki, Takuhito; Akahane, Rie; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Suetsugu, Shiro; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Kioka, Noriyuki

    2006-03-01

    The focal adhesion protein vinexin is a member of a family of adaptor proteins that are thought to participate in the regulation of cell adhesion, cytoskeletal reorganization, and growth factor signaling. Here, we show that vinexin beta increases the amount of and reduces the mobility on SDS-PAGE of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE) 2 protein, which is a key factor modulating actin polymerization in migrating cells. This mobility retardation disappeared after in vitro phosphatase treatment. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed the interaction of vinexin beta with WAVE2 as well as WAVE1 and N-WASP. Vinexin beta interacts with the proline-rich region of WAVE2 through the first and second SH3 domains of vinexin beta. Mutations disrupting the interaction impaired the ability of vinexin beta to increase the amount of WAVE2 protein. Treatments with proteasome inhibitors increased the amount of WAVE2, but did not have an additive effect with vinexin beta. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) activity suppressed the vinexin-induced increase in WAVE2 protein, while activation of PKA increased WAVE2 expression without vinexin beta. These results suggest that vinexin beta regulates the proteasome-dependent degradation of WAVE2 in a PKA-dependent manner.

  7. Expression of cytoskeleton regulatory protein Mena in human hepatocellular carcinoma and its prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kunpeng; Wang, Jiani; Yao, Zhicheng; Liu, Bo; Lin, Yuan; Liu, Lei; Xu, Lihua

    2014-05-01

    The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Enabled [mammalian Ena (Mena)] protein and its clinical significance in human HCC. The Mena expression was examined at mRNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis in ten paired HCC tissues and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Mena protein in 81 specimens of HCC tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. Associations of Mena expression with the clinicopathological features were analyzed, and prognosis of HCC patients was evaluated. The result shows the expression of Mena mRNA and protein was higher in HCC than in the adjacent normal tissues in ten paired samples. Mena was mainly accumulated in the cytoplasm of tumor cells and over-expressed in 40.74% (33/81) patients by immunohistochemical staining. Over-expression of Mena was significantly associated with poor cellular differentiation (P = 0.025), advanced tumor stage (P = 0.003) and worse disease-free survival (DFS, P < 0.001). In addition, Mena is an independent prognostic factor for DFS in multivariate analysis (HR 2.309, 95% CI 1.104-4.828; P = 0.026). Mena is up-regulated in HCC and associated with tumor differentiation and clinical stage. Mena may be an independent prognostic marker for DFS of HCC patients.

  8. Expression and Localization of CLC Chloride Transport Proteins in the Avian Retina

    PubMed Central

    McMains, Emily; Krishnan, Vijai; Prasad, Sujitha; Gleason, Evanna

    2011-01-01

    Members of the ubiquitously expressed CLC protein family of chloride channels and transporters play important roles in regulating cellular chloride and pH. The CLCs that function as Cl−/H+ antiporters, ClCs 3–7, are essential in particular for the acidification of endosomal compartments and protein degradation. These proteins are broadly expressed in the nervous system, and mutations that disrupt their expression are responsible for several human genetic diseases. Furthermore, knock-out of ClC3 and ClC7 in the mouse result in the degeneration of the hippocampus and the retina. Despite this evidence of their importance in retinal function, the expression patterns of different CLC transporters in different retinal cell types are as yet undescribed. Previous work in our lab has shown that in chicken amacrine cells, internal Cl− can be dynamic. To determine whether CLCs have the potential to participate, we used PCR and immunohistochemical techniques to examine CLC transporter expression in the chicken retina. We observed a high level of variation in the retinal expression levels and patterns among the different CLC proteins examined. These findings, which represent the first systematic investigation of CLC transporter expression in the retina, support diverse functions for the different CLCs in this tissue. PMID:21408174

  9. [Expression of SLP-2 protein in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is associated with cancer invasion].

    PubMed

    Cao, Wen-feng; Zhang, Li-yong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yue-qi; Liu, Zhi-hua; Sun, Bao-cun

    2010-11-01

    To study the expression of stomatin-like protein-2 (SLP-2) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and analyze the correlation between SLP-2 expression and clinicopathological features. The expression of SLP-2 protein in ESCC tissues (18 and 220 cases respectively) was detected by Western blot and IHC. The association between SLP-2 expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed. Compared with normal epithelium, 13 cases of ESCC tissues showed a higher expression of SLP-2 on the protein level (72.2%, 13/18). IHC analysis on tissue microarray revealed that the expression rate of SLP-2 protein in ESCC was 54.1% and in normal esophageal mucosa was 3.6%, showing a significant difference (P < 0.001). SLP-2 high-level expression correlates with the extent of ESCC invasion (P = 0.033), but not with other clinicopathologic characteristics (P > 0.05). SLP-2 as a novel cancer-related gene may play an important role in tumorigenesis of ESCC. The overexpression of SLP-2 may be closely associated with the invasion of esophageal cancer.

  10. Functional evaluation of candidate ice structuring proteins using cell-free expression systems.

    PubMed

    Brödel, A K; Raymond, J A; Duman, J G; Bier, F F; Kubick, S

    2013-02-10

    Ice structuring proteins (ISPs) protect organisms from damage or death by freezing. They depress the non-equilibrium freezing point of water and prevent recrystallization, probably by binding to the surface of ice crystals. Many ISPs have been described and it is likely that many more exist in nature that have not yet been identified. ISPs come in many forms and thus cannot be reliably identified by their structure or consensus ice-binding motifs. Recombinant protein expression is the gold standard for proving the activity of a candidate ISP. Among existing expression systems, cell-free protein expression is the simplest and gives the fastest access to the protein of interest, but selection of the appropriate cell-free expression system is crucial for functionality. Here we describe cell-free expression methods for three ISPs that differ widely in structure and glycosylation status from three organisms: a fish (Macrozoarces americanus), an insect (Dendroides canadensis) and an alga (Chlamydomonas sp. CCMP681). We use both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems for the production of ISPs. An ice recrystallization inhibition assay is used to test functionality. The techniques described here should improve the success of cell-free expression of ISPs in future applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. G-protein-coupled receptors for neurotransmitter amino acids: C-terminal tails, crowded signalosomes.

    PubMed Central

    El Far, Oussama; Betz, Heinrich

    2002-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a superfamily of highly diverse integral membrane proteins that transduce external signals to different subcellular compartments, including nuclei, via trimeric G-proteins. By differential activation of diffusible G(alpha) and membrane-bound G(beta)gamma subunits, GPCRs might act on both cytoplasmic/intracellular and plasma-membrane-bound effector systems. The coupling efficiency and the plasma membrane localization of GPCRs are regulated by a variety of interacting proteins. In this review, we discuss recently disclosed protein interactions found with the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail regions of two types of presynaptic neurotransmitter receptors, the group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-B receptors (GABA(B)Rs). Calmodulin binding to mGluR7 and other group III mGluRs may provide a Ca(2+)-dependent switch for unidirectional (G(alpha)) versus bidirectional (G(alpha) and G(beta)gamma) signalling to downstream effector proteins. In addition, clustering of mGluR7 by PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1), a polyspecific PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg1/ZO-1) domain containing synaptic organizer protein, sheds light on how higher-order receptor complexes with regulatory enzymes (or 'signalosomes') could be formed. The interaction of GABA(B)Rs with the adaptor protein 14-3-3 and the transcription factor ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) suggests novel regulatory pathways for G-protein signalling, cytoskeletal reorganization and nuclear gene expression: processes that may all contribute to synaptic plasticity. PMID:12006104

  12. Expression of β-catenin protein in hepatocellular carcinoma and its relationship with alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ya-Jun; Huang, Tao; Yu, Hong-Lu; Zhang, Li; He, Qian-Jin; Xiong, Zhi-Fan; Peng, Hua

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the expression of β-catenin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and its relationship with α-fetoprotein (AFP) in HCC. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of β-catenin in normal liver tissues (n=10), liver cirrhosis tissues (n=20), and primary HCC tissues (n=60). The relationship between β-catenin expression and clinical parameters of HCC was investigated. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of β-catenin in the liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 transfected with a plasmid encoding AFP, and also the mRNA and protein expression levels of β-catenin were measured in the liver cancer cell line Huh7 before and after the transfection with AFP shRNA plasmids. The results showed that β-catenin was only expressed on the cell membrane in normal liver tissues. Its localization to the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells was observed in a small proportion of cirrhotic tissues or adjacent HCC tissues, and such ectopic expression of β-catenin was predominant in HCC tissues. The abnormal expression of β-catenin was correlated with serum AFP levels, cancer cell differentiation and vascular invasion (P<0.05). Additionally, the increased expression of AFP resulted in the upregulation of β-catenin mRNA and protein levels, while knockdown of AFP with AFP shRNA led to significantly decreased β-catenin mRNA and protein levels (P<0.05). It was suggested that the abnormal expression of β-catenin is implicated in hepatic carcinogenesis and development. AFP can lead to increased expression of β-catenin, which may account for the poor prognosis of AFP-associated HCC patients.

  13. Genome-wide RNAi screening identifies protein damage as a regulator of osmoprotective gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lamitina, Todd; Huang, Chunyi George; Strange, Kevin

    2006-08-08

    The detection, stabilization, and repair of stress-induced damage are essential requirements for cellular life. All cells respond to osmotic stress-induced water loss with increased expression of genes that mediate accumulation of organic osmolytes, solutes that function as chemical chaperones and restore osmotic homeostasis. The signals and signaling mechanisms that regulate osmoprotective gene expression in animal cells are poorly understood. Here, we show that gpdh-1 and gpdh-2, genes that mediate the accumulation of the organic osmolyte glycerol, are essential for survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans during osmotic stress. Expression of GFP driven by the gpdh-1 promoter (P(gpdh-1)::GFP) is detected only during hypertonic stress but is not induced by other stressors. Using P(gpdh-1)::GFP expression as a phenotype, we screened approximately 16,000 genes by RNAi feeding and identified 122 that cause constitutive activation of gpdh-1 expression and glycerol accumulation. Many of these genes function to regulate protein translation and cotranslational protein folding and to target and degrade denatured proteins, suggesting that the accumulation of misfolded proteins functions as a signal to activate osmoprotective gene expression and organic osmolyte accumulation in animal cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, 73% of these protein-homeostasis genes have been shown to slow age-dependent protein aggregation in C. elegans. Because diverse environmental stressors and numerous disease states result in protein misfolding, mechanisms must exist that discriminate between osmotically induced and other forms of stress-induced protein damage. Our findings provide a foundation for understanding how these damage-selectivity mechanisms function.

  14. Genome-wide RNAi screening identifies protein damage as a regulator of osmoprotective gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Lamitina, Todd; Huang, Chunyi George; Strange, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The detection, stabilization, and repair of stress-induced damage are essential requirements for cellular life. All cells respond to osmotic stress-induced water loss with increased expression of genes that mediate accumulation of organic osmolytes, solutes that function as chemical chaperones and restore osmotic homeostasis. The signals and signaling mechanisms that regulate osmoprotective gene expression in animal cells are poorly understood. Here, we show that gpdh-1 and gpdh-2, genes that mediate the accumulation of the organic osmolyte glycerol, are essential for survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans during osmotic stress. Expression of GFP driven by the gpdh-1 promoter (Pgpdh-1::GFP) is detected only during hypertonic stress but is not induced by other stressors. Using Pgpdh-1::GFP expression as a phenotype, we screened ≈16,000 genes by RNAi feeding and identified 122 that cause constitutive activation of gpdh-1 expression and glycerol accumulation. Many of these genes function to regulate protein translation and cotranslational protein folding and to target and degrade denatured proteins, suggesting that the accumulation of misfolded proteins functions as a signal to activate osmoprotective gene expression and organic osmolyte accumulation in animal cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, 73% of these protein-homeostasis genes have been shown to slow age-dependent protein aggregation in C. elegans. Because diverse environmental stressors and numerous disease states result in protein misfolding, mechanisms must exist that discriminate between osmotically induced and other forms of stress-induced protein damage. Our findings provide a foundation for understanding how these damage-selectivity mechanisms function. PMID:16880390

  15. Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression.

    PubMed

    Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

    2014-01-01

    G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.(1) In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes' adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.(2.)

  16. The extracellular matrix controls gap junction protein expression and function in postnatal hippocampal neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Imbeault, Sophie; Gauvin, Lianne G; Toeg, Hadi D; Pettit, Alexandra; Sorbara, Catherine D; Migahed, Lamiaa; DesRoches, Rebecca; Menzies, A Sheila; Nishii, Kiyomasa; Paul, David L; Simon, Alexander M; Bennett, Steffany AL

    2009-01-01

    Background Gap junction protein and extracellular matrix signalling systems act in concert to influence developmental specification of neural stem and progenitor cells. It is not known how these two signalling systems interact. Here, we examined the role of ECM components in regulating connexin expression and function in postnatal hippocampal progenitor cells. Results We found that Cx26, Cx29, Cx30, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, Cx45, and Cx47 mRNA and protein but only Cx32 and Cx36 mRNA are detected in distinct neural progenitor cell populations cultured in the absence of exogenous ECM. Multipotential Type 1 cells express Cx26, Cx30, and Cx43 protein. Their Type 2a progeny but not Type 2b and 3 neuronally committed progenitor cells additionally express Cx37, Cx40, and Cx45. Cx29 and Cx47 protein is detected in early oligodendrocyte progenitors and mature oligodendrocytes respectively. Engagement with a laminin substrate markedly increases Cx26 protein expression, decreases Cx40, Cx43, Cx45, and Cx47 protein expression, and alters subcellular localization of Cx30. These changes are associated with decreased neurogenesis. Further, laminin elicits the appearance of Cx32 protein in early oligodendrocyte progenitors and Cx36 protein in immature neurons. These changes impact upon functional connexin-mediated hemichannel activity but not gap junctional intercellular communication. Conclusion Together, these findings demonstrate a new role for extracellular matrix-cell interaction, specifically laminin, in the regulation of intrinsic connexin expression and function in postnatal neural progenitor cells. PMID:19236721

  17. Cell Wall and Secreted Proteins of Candida albicans: Identification, Function, and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chaffin, W. Lajean; López-Ribot, José Luis; Casanova, Manuel; Gozalbo, Daniel; Martínez, José P.

    1998-01-01

    The cell wall is essential to nearly every aspect of the biology and pathogenicity of Candida albicans. Although it was intially considered an almost inert cellular structure that protected the protoplast against osmotic offense, more recent studies have demonstrated that it is a dynamic organelle. The major components of the cell wall are glucan and chitin, which are associated with structural rigidity, and mannoproteins. The protein component, including both mannoprotein and nonmannoproteins, comprises some 40 or more moieties. Wall proteins may differ in their expression, secretion, or topological location within the wall structure. Proteins may be modified by glycosylation (primarily addition of mannose residues), phosphorylation, and ubiquitination. Among the secreted enzymes are those that are postulated to have substrates within the cell wall and those that find substrates in the extracellular environment. Cell wall proteins have been implicated in adhesion to host tissues and ligands. Fibrinogen, complement fragments, and several extracellular matrix components are among the host proteins bound by cell wall proteins. Proteins related to the hsp70 and hsp90 families of conserved stress proteins and some glycolytic enzyme proteins are also found in the cell wall, apparently as bona fide components. In addition, the expression of some proteins is associated with the morphological growth form of the fungus and may play a role in morphogenesis. Finally, surface mannoproteins are strong immunogens that trigger and modulate the host immune response during candidiasis. PMID:9529890

  18. Dietary soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression changes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, Guido J.; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Muller, Michael; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a comprehensive comparison of the effects of soy and meat proteins given at the recommended level on physiological markers of metabolic syndrome and the hepatic transcriptome. Male rats were fed semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only regarding protein source, with casein serving as reference. Body weight gain and adipose tissue mass were significantly reduced by soy but not meat proteins. The insulin resistance index was improved by soy, and to a lesser extent by meat proteins. Liver triacylglycerol contents were reduced by both protein sources, which coincided with increased plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Both soy and meat proteins changed plasma amino acid patterns. The expression of 1571 and 1369 genes were altered by soy and meat proteins respectively. Functional classification revealed that lipid, energy and amino acid metabolic pathways, as well as insulin signaling pathways were regulated differently by soy and meat proteins. Several transcriptional regulators, including NFE2L2, ATF4, Srebf1 and Rictor were identified as potential key upstream regulators. These results suggest that soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression responses in rats and provide novel evidence and suggestions for the health effects of different protein sources in human diets. PMID:26857845

  19. Dietary soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression changes in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, Guido J; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Muller, Michael; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-02-09

    This study reports on a comprehensive comparison of the effects of soy and meat proteins given at the recommended level on physiological markers of metabolic syndrome and the hepatic transcriptome. Male rats were fed semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only regarding protein source, with casein serving as reference. Body weight gain and adipose tissue mass were significantly reduced by soy but not meat proteins. The insulin resistance index was improved by soy, and to a lesser extent by meat proteins. Liver triacylglycerol contents were reduced by both protein sources, which coincided with increased plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Both soy and meat proteins changed plasma amino acid patterns. The expression of 1571 and 1369 genes were altered by soy and meat proteins respectively. Functional classification revealed that lipid, energy and amino acid metabolic pathways, as well as insulin signaling pathways were regulated differently by soy and meat proteins. Several transcriptional regulators, including NFE2L2, ATF4, Srebf1 and Rictor were identified as potential key upstream regulators. These results suggest that soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression responses in rats and provide novel evidence and suggestions for the health effects of different protein sources in human diets.

  20. Proteomics-based approach identified differentially expressed proteins with potential roles in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengyu; Min, Wenjiao; Huang, Canhua; Bai, Shujun; Tang, Minghai; Zhao, Xia

    2010-01-01

    We used proteomic approaches to identify altered expressed proteins in endometrial carcinoma, with the aim of discovering potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for endometrial carcinoma. The global proteins extracted from endometrial carcinoma and normal endometrial tissues were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and analyzed with PDQuest (Bio-Rad, Hercules, Calif) software. The differentially expressed spots were identified by mass spectrometry and searched against NCBInr protein database. Those proteins with potential roles were confirmed by Western blotting and immunohistochemical assays. Ninety-nine proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, and a cluster diagram analysis indicated that these proteins were involved in metabolism, cell transformation, protein folding, translation and modification, proliferation and apoptosis, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, and so on. In confirmatory immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analyses, overexpressions of epidermal fatty acid-binding protein, calcyphosine, and cyclophilin A were also observed in endometrial carcinoma tissues, which were consistent with the proteomic results. Our results suggested that these identified proteins, including epidermal fatty acid-binding protein, calcyphosine, and cyclophilin A, might be of potential values in the studies of endometrial carcinogenesis or investigations of diagnostic biomarkers or treatment targets for endometrial carcinoma.

  1. Gene cloning and prokaryotic expression of recombinant outer membrane protein from Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ye; Wang, Xiuli; Guo, Sheping; Qiu, Xuemei

    2011-06-01

    Gram-negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common pathogen in humans and marine animals. The outer membrane protein of bacteria plays an important role in the infection and pathogenicity to the host. Thus, the outer membrane proteins are an ideal target for vaccines. We amplified a complete outer membrane protein gene (ompW) from V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802. We then cloned and expressed the gene into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The gene coded for a protein that was 42.78 kDa. We purified the protein using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and Anti-His antibody Western blotting, respectively. Our results provide a basis for future application of the OmpW protein as a vaccine candidate against infection by V. parahaemolyticus. In addition, the purified OmpW protein can be used for further functional and structural studies.

  2. Differential expressed protein in developing stages of Nepenthes gracilis Korth. pitcher.

    PubMed

    Pinthong, Krit; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Tanee, Tawatchai; Sudmoon, Runglawan; Mokkamul, Piya

    2009-03-15

    Nepenthes gracilis Korth. is a member of carnivorous plants in family Nepenthaceae. The plants have beautiful and economically important pitchers. It is interesting to study the protein(s) correlated with the pitcher. Crude proteins were extracted from leaf, leaf with developing pitcher and developed pitcher of the same plant and analyzed by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Two protein bands with molecular weights of 42.7 and 38 kDa were obtained from young leaf and leaf with developing pitcher, respectively. The 42.7 kDa protein was identified as phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) by Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), but the 38 kDa band is an unknown protein. Both proteins were differentially expressed in each developing stage of the pitcher, thus may be powerful candidates play role in development pathway of leaf and pitcher.

  3. Multiplexed quantitation of protein expression and phosphorylation based on functionalized soluble nanopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Iliuk, Anton; Yu, Shuai; Geahlen, Robert L.; Tao, W. Andy

    2012-01-01

    We report here for the first time the multiplexed quantitation of phosphorylation and protein expression based on a functionalized soluble nanopolymer. The soluble nanopolymer, pIMAGO, is functionalized with Ti (IV) ions for chelating phosphoproteins in high specificity, and with infrared fluorescent tags for direct, multiplexed assays. The nanopolymer allows for direct competition for epitopes on proteins of interest, thus facilitating simultaneous detection of phosphorylation by pIMAGO and total protein amount by protein antibody in the same well of microplates. The new strategy has a great potential to measure cell signaling events by clearly distinguishing actual phosphorylation signals from protein expression changes, thus providing a powerful tool to accurately profile cellular signal transduction in healthy and disease cells. We anticipate broad applications of this new strategy in monitoring cellular signaling pathways and discovering new signaling events. PMID:23088311

  4. Pollen specific expression of maize genes encoding actin depolymerizing factor-like proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, I; Anthony, R G; Maciver, S K; Jiang, C J; Khan, S; Weeds, A G; Hussey, P J

    1996-01-01

    In pollen development, a dramatic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton takes place during the passage of the pollen grain into dormancy and on activation of pollen tube growth. A role for actin-binding proteins is implicated and we report here the identification of a small gene family in maize that encodes actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)-like proteins. The ADF group of proteins are believed to control actin polymerization and depolymerization in response to both intracellular and extracellular signals. Two of the maize genes ZmABP1 and ZmABP2 are expressed specifically in pollen and germinating pollen suggesting that the protein products may be involved in pollen actin reorganization. A third gene, ZmABP3, encodes a protein only 56% and 58% identical to ZmABP1 and ZmABP2, respectively, and its expression is suppressed in pollen and germinated pollen. The fundamental biochemical characteristics of the ZmABP proteins has been elucidated using bacterially expressed ZmABP3 protein. This has the ability to bind monomeric actin (G-actin) and filamentous actin (F-actin). Moreover, it decreases the viscosity of polymerized actin solutions consistent with an ability to depolymerize filaments. These biochemical characteristics, taken together with the sequence comparisons, support the inclusion of the ZmABP proteins in the ADF group. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8693008

  5. Protein expression of pectoralis major muscle in chickens in response to dietary methionine status.

    PubMed

    Corzo, A; Kidd, M T; Dozier, W A; Shack, L A; Burgess, S C

    2006-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of dietary methionine on breast-meat accretion and protein expression in skeletal muscle of broiler chickens in vivo. All broilers received a common pre-test diet up to 21 d of age, and were subsequently fed either a methionine-deficient (MD) or -adequate (MA) diet (3.1 v. 4.5 g/kg diet) from age 21 to 42 d. Dietary cystine levels were 3.7 v. 3.6 g/kg diet for the MD and MA diet, respectively. Detrimental effects on carcass yield (P=0.004), abdominal fat percentage (P=0.001), and breast-meat weight (P=0.001), yield (P=0.001), and uniformity (P=0.002) were observed and validated in birds fed MD diets. Via tandem MS, a total of 190 individual proteins were identified from pectoralis major (PM) muscle tissue. From the former composite, peptides from three proteins were observed to be present exclusively in breast muscle from those chickens fed the MD diet (pyruvate kinase, myosin alkali light chain-1, ribosomal-protein-L-29). No proteins were observed to be uniquely expressed in chickens fed MA diets. Research is warranted to further explore the possibility of the proteins pyruate kinase, myosin alkali light chain-1, or ribosomal protein L-29, as potential biological indicators of differences in protein expression of PM of chickens in response to a dietary methionine deficiency.

  6. Proximal tubule glutamine synthetase expression is necessary for the normal response to dietary protein restriction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2017-07-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion changes in parallel during changes in dietary protein intake. Dietary protein restriction decreases endogenous acid production and decreases urinary ammonia excretion, a major component of net acid excretion. Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the reaction of [Formula: see text] and glutamate, which regenerates the essential amino acid glutamine and decreases net ammonia generation. Because renal proximal tubule GS expression increases during dietary protein restriction, this could contribute to the decreased ammonia excretion. The purpose of the current study was to determine the role of proximal tubule GS in the renal response to protein restriction. We generated mice with proximal tubule-specific GS deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Cre-negative (Control) and PT-GS-KO mice in metabolic cages were provided 20% protein diet for 2 days and were then changed to low-protein (6%) diet for the next 7 days. Additional PT-GS-KO mice were maintained on 20% protein diet. Dietary protein restriction caused a rapid decrease in urinary ammonia excretion in both genotypes, but PT-GS-KO blunted this adaptive response significantly. This occurred despite no significant genotype-dependent differences in urinary pH or in serum electrolytes. There were no significant differences between Control and PT-GS-KO mice in expression of multiple other proteins involved in renal ammonia handling. We conclude that proximal tubule GS expression is necessary for the appropriate decrease in ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction.

  7. Protein expression, characterization and activity comparisons of wild type and mutant DUSP5 proteins

    DOE PAGES

    Nayak, Jaladhi; Gastonguay, Adam J.; Talipov, Marat R.; ...

    2014-12-18

    Background: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway is critical for cellular signaling, and proteins such as phosphatases that regulate this pathway are important for normal tissue development. Based on our previous work on dual specificity phosphatase-5 (DUSP5), and its role in embryonic vascular development and disease, we hypothesized that mutations in DUSP5 will affect its function. Results: In this study, we tested this hypothesis by generating full-length glutathione-S-transferase-tagged DUSP5 and serine 147 proline mutant (S147P) proteins from bacteria. Light scattering analysis, circular dichroism, enzymatic assays and molecular modeling approaches have been performed to extensively characterize the protein form and function.more » We demonstrate that both proteins are active and, interestingly, the S147P protein is hypoactive as compared to the DUSP5 WT protein in two distinct biochemical substrate assays. Furthermore, due to the novel positioning of the S147P mutation, we utilize computational modeling to reconstruct full-length DUSP5 and S147P to predict a possible mechanism for the reduced activity of S147P. Conclusion: Taken together, this is the first evidence of the generation and characterization of an active, full-length, mutant DUSP5 protein which will facilitate future structure-function and drug development-based studies.« less

  8. Survivin protein expression and hypoxia in advanced cervical carcinoma of patients treated by radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bache, Matthias; Holzapfel, Daniel; Kappler, Matthias; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Taubert, Helge; Dunst, Jürgen; Hänsgen, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    Survivin is strongly overexpressed in the vast majority of cancers. Initial investigations suggest a role for Survivin in radiation resistance. In this study, we investigate the effect of Survivin expression on clinical outcome and its relationship to tumor oxygenation parameters, expression of Hif-1alpha and anemia in patients with advanced cervical cancers treated with radiotherapy. Biopsies of 44 patients with cervical cancers (Stage IIB: n=9; Stage IIIB: n=31; Stage IVA: n=4) treated with radiotherapy were assessed by immunochemistry for expression of Survivin. Relation of Survivin to pretreatment tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, pO(2)), hemoglobin (hb) level, Hif-1alpha expression and clinical parameters were investigated. Survivin expression was detected in all tumors of the 44 patients. Seven showed a strong expression and 37 have moderate Survivin expression. Patients whose tumors showed moderate Survivin expression had a 5-year overall survival of 66%. However, only one of the seven patients with strong Survivin expression was alive 45 months after treatment. In a Cox regression analysis, Survivin expression was correlated to poor overall survival (p=0.02, RR=3.3). There was no relationship between Survivin expression and pO(2) or HF5, but rather an inverse correlation with hemoglobin level (p=0.04). Furthermore, for six of the seven tumors with a high Survivin expression, Hif-1alpha was detected. Survivin protein expression is linked with anemia and prognosis in advanced cervical carcinoma of patients treated by radiotherapy.

  9. A Theoretical Lower Bound for Selection on the Expression Levels of Proteins

    DOE PAGES

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2016-06-11

    We use simple models of the costs and benefits of microbial gene expression to show that changing a protein's expression away from its optimum by 2-fold should reduce fitness by at least [Formula: see text], where P is the fraction the cell's protein that the gene accounts for. As microbial genes are usually expressed at above 5 parts per million, and effective population sizes are likely to be above 10(6), this implies that 2-fold changes to gene expression levels are under strong selection, as [Formula: see text], where Ne is the effective population size and s is the selection coefficient.more » Thus, most gene duplications should be selected against. On the other hand, we predict that for most genes, small changes in the expression will be effectively neutral.« less

  10. A Theoretical Lower Bound for Selection on the Expression Levels of Proteins

    SciT

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.

    We use simple models of the costs and benefits of microbial gene expression to show that changing a protein's expression away from its optimum by 2-fold should reduce fitness by at least [Formula: see text], where P is the fraction the cell's protein that the gene accounts for. As microbial genes are usually expressed at above 5 parts per million, and effective population sizes are likely to be above 10(6), this implies that 2-fold changes to gene expression levels are under strong selection, as [Formula: see text], where Ne is the effective population size and s is the selection coefficient.more » Thus, most gene duplications should be selected against. On the other hand, we predict that for most genes, small changes in the expression will be effectively neutral.« less

  11. Localization of complement factor H gene expression and protein distribution in the mouse outer retina

    PubMed Central

    Smit-McBride, Zeljka; Oltjen, Sharon L.; Radu, Roxana A.; Estep, Jason; Nguyen, Anthony T.; Gong, Qizhi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the localization of complement factor H (Cfh) mRNA and its protein in the mouse outer retina. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the expression of Cfh and Cfh-related (Cfhr) transcripts in the RPE/choroid. In situ hybridization (ISH) was performed using the novel RNAscope 2.0 FFPE assay to localize the expression of Cfh mRNA in the mouse outer retina. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to localize Cfh protein expression, and western blots were used to characterize CFH antibodies used for IHC. Results Cfh and Cfhr2 transcripts were detected in the mouse RPE/choroid using qPCR, while Cfhr1, Cfhr3, and Cfhrc (Gm4788) were not detected. ISH showed abundant Cfh mRNA in the RPE of all mouse strains (C57BL/6, BALB/c, 129/Sv) tested, with the exception of the Cfh−/− eye. Surprisingly, the Cfh protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in photoreceptors rather than in RPE cells. The specificity of the CFH antibodies was tested by western blotting. Our CFH antibodies recognized purified mouse Cfh protein, serum Cfh protein in wild-type C57BL/6, BALB/c, and 129/Sv, and showed an absence of the Cfh protein in the serum of Cfh−/− mice. Greatly reduced Cfh protein immunohistological signals in the Cfh−/− eyes also supported the specificity of the Cfh protein distribution results. Conclusions Only Cfh and Cfhr2 genes are expressed in the mouse outer retina. Only Cfh mRNA was detected in the RPE, but no protein. We hypothesize that the steady-state concentration of Cfh protein is low in the cells due to secretion, and therefore is below the detection level for IHC. PMID:25684976

  12. Screening and expression of selected taxonomically conserved and unique hypothetical proteins in Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhir, Nor Azurah Mat; Nadzirin, Nurul; Mohamed, Rahmah; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Hypothetical proteins of bacterial pathogens represent a large numbers of novel biological mechanisms which could belong to essential pathways in the bacteria. They lack functional characterizations mainly due to the inability of sequence homology based methods to detect functional relationships in the absence of detectable sequence similarity. The dataset derived from this study showed 550 candidates conserved in genomes that has pathogenicity information and only present in the Burkholderiales order. The dataset has been narrowed down to taxonomic clusters. Ten proteins were selected for ORF amplification, seven of them were successfully amplified, and only four proteins were successfully expressed. These proteins will be great candidates in determining the true function via structural biology.

  13. The protein expression landscape of mitosis and meiosis in diploid budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Becker, Emmanuelle; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Régis; Guilleux, Marie-Hélène; Evrard, Bertrand; Pineau, Charles; Primig, Michael

    2017-03-06

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established model organism for the molecular analysis of fundamental biological processes. The genomes of numerous strains have been sequenced, and the transcriptome and proteome ofmajor phases during the haploid and diploid yeast life cycle have been determined. However, much less is known about dynamic changes of the proteome when cells switch from mitotic growth to meiotic development. We report a quantitative protein profiling analysis of yeast cell division and differentiation based on mass spectrometry. Information about protein levels was integrated with strand-specific tiling array expression data. We identified a total of 2366 proteins in at least one condition, including 175 proteins showing a statistically significant>5-fold change across the sample set, and 136 proteins detectable in sporulating but not respiring cells. We correlate protein expression patterns with biological processes and molecular function by Gene Ontology term enrichment, chemoprofiling, transcription interference and the formation of double stranded RNAs by overlapping sense/antisense transcripts. Our work provides initial quantitative insight into protein expression in diploid respiring and differentiating yeast cells. Critically, it associates developmentally regulated induction of antisense long noncoding RNAs and double stranded RNAs with fluctuating protein concentrations during growth and development. This integrated genomics analysis helps better understand how the transcriptome and the proteome correlate in diploid yeast cells undergoing mitotic growth in the presence of acetate (respiration) versus meiotic differentiation (Meiosis I and II). The study (i) provides quantitative expression data for 2366 proteins and their cognate mRNAs in at least one sample, (ii) shows strongly fluctuating protein levels during growth and differentiation for 175 cases, and (iii) identifies 136 proteins absent in mitotic but present in meiotic yeast cells. We

  14. Unsupervised Clustering of Subcellular Protein Expression Patterns in High-Throughput Microscopy Images Reveals Protein Complexes and Functional Relationships between Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Handfield, Louis-François; Chong, Yolanda T.; Simmons, Jibril; Andrews, Brenda J.; Moses, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Protein subcellular localization has been systematically characterized in budding yeast using fluorescently tagged proteins. Based on the fluorescence microscopy images, subcellular localization of many proteins can be classified automatically using supervised machine learning approaches that have been trained to recognize predefined image classes based on statistical features. Here, we present an unsupervised analysis of protein expression patterns in a set of high-resolution, high-throughput microscope images. Our analysis is based on 7 biologically interpretable features which are evaluated on automatically identified cells, and whose cell-stage dependency is captured by a continuous model for cell growth. We show that it is possible to identify most previously identified localization patterns in a cluster analysis based on these features and that similarities between the inferred expression patterns contain more information about protein function than can be explained by a previous manual categorization of subcellular localization. Furthermore, the inferred cell-stage associated to each fluorescence measurement allows us to visualize large groups of proteins entering the bud at specific stages of bud growth. These correspond to proteins localized to organelles, revealing that the organelles must be entering the bud in a stereotypical order. We also identify and organize a smaller group of proteins that show subtle differences in the way they move around the bud during growth. Our results suggest that biologically interpretable features based on explicit models of cell morphology will yield unprecedented power for pattern discovery in high-resolution, high-throughput microscopy images. PMID:23785265

  15. Expression of SET Protein in the Ovaries of Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boqun, Xu; Xiaonan, Dai; YuGui, Cui; Lingling, Gao; Xue, Dai; Gao, Chao; Feiyang, Diao; Jiayin, Liu; Gao, Li; Li, Mei; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Background. We previously found that expression of SET gene was up-regulated in polycystic ovaries by using microarray. It suggested that SET may be an attractive candidate regulator involved in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, expression and cellular localization of SET protein were investigated in human polycystic and normal ovaries. Method. Ovarian tissues, six normal ovaries and six polycystic ovaries, were collected during transsexual operation and surgical treatment with the signed consent form. The cellular localization of SET protein was observed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of SET protein were analyzed by Western Blot. Result. SET protein was expressed predominantly in the theca cells and oocytes of human ovarian follicles in both PCOS ovarian tissues and normal ovarian tissues. The level of SET protein expression in polycystic ovaries was triple higher than that in normal ovaries (P < 0.05). Conclusion. SET was overexpressed in polycystic ovaries more than that in normal ovaries. Combined with its localization in theca cells, SET may participate in regulating ovarian androgen biosynthesis and the pathophysiology of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. PMID:23861679

  16. Expression of SET Protein in the Ovaries of Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boqun, Xu; Xiaonan, Dai; Yugui, Cui; Lingling, Gao; Xue, Dai; Gao, Chao; Feiyang, Diao; Jiayin, Liu; Gao, Li; Li, Mei; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Background. We previously found that expression of SET gene was up-regulated in polycystic ovaries by using microarray. It suggested that SET may be an attractive candidate regulator involved in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, expression and cellular localization of SET protein were investigated in human polycystic and normal ovaries. Method. Ovarian tissues, six normal ovaries and six polycystic ovaries, were collected during transsexual operation and surgical treatment with the signed consent form. The cellular localization of SET protein was observed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of SET protein were analyzed by Western Blot. Result. SET protein was expressed predominantly in the theca cells and oocytes of human ovarian follicles in both PCOS ovarian tissues and normal ovarian tissues. The level of SET protein expression in polycystic ovaries was triple higher than that in normal ovaries (P < 0.05). Conclusion. SET was overexpressed in polycystic ovaries more than that in normal ovaries. Combined with its localization in theca cells, SET may participate in regulating ovarian androgen biosynthesis and the pathophysiology of hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

  17. Hippocampal expression of a virus-derived protein impairs memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Bétourné, Alexandre; Szelechowski, Marion; Thouard, Anne; Abrial, Erika; Jean, Arnaud; Zaidi, Falek; Foret, Charlotte; Bonnaud, Emilie M; Charlier, Caroline M; Suberbielle, Elsa; Malnou, Cécile E; Granon, Sylvie; Rampon, Claire; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel

    2018-02-13

    The analysis of the biology of neurotropic viruses, notably of their interference with cellular signaling, provides a useful tool to get further insight into the role of specific pathways in the control of behavioral functions. Here, we exploited the natural property of a viral protein identified as a major effector of behavioral disorders during infection. We used the phosphoprotein (P) of Borna disease virus, which acts as a decoy substrate for protein kinase C (PKC) when expressed in neurons and disrupts synaptic plasticity. By a lentiviral-based strategy, we directed the singled-out expression of P in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and we examined its impact on mouse behavior. Mice expressing the P protein displayed increased anxiety and impaired long-term memory in contextual and spatial memory tasks. Interestingly, these effects were dependent on P protein phosphorylation by PKC, as expression of a mutant form of P devoid of its PKC phosphorylation sites had no effect on these behaviors. We also revealed features of behavioral impairment induced by P protein expression but that were independent of its phosphorylation by PKC. Altogether, our findings provide insight into the behavioral correlates of viral infection, as well as into the impact of virus-mediated alterations of the PKC pathway on behavioral functions.

  18. Screening and large-scale expression of membrane proteins in mammalian cells for structural studies.

    PubMed

    Goehring, April; Lee, Chia-Hsueh; Wang, Kevin H; Michel, Jennifer Carlisle; Claxton, Derek P; Baconguis, Isabelle; Althoff, Thorsten; Fischer, Suzanne; Garcia, K Christopher; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Structural, biochemical and biophysical studies of eukaryotic membrane proteins are often hampered by difficulties in overexpression of the candidate molecule. Baculovirus transduction of mammalian cells (BacMam), although a powerful method to heterologously express membrane proteins, can be cumbersome for screening and expression of multiple constructs. We therefore developed plasmid Eric Gouaux (pEG) BacMam, a vector optimized for use in screening assays, as well as for efficient production of baculovirus and robust expression of the target protein. In this protocol, we show how to use small-scale transient transfection and fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography (FSEC) experiments using a GFP-His8-tagged candidate protein to screen for monodispersity and expression level. Once promising candidates are identified, we describe how to generate baculovirus, transduce HEK293S GnTI(-) (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I-negative) cells in suspension culture and overexpress the candidate protein. We have used these methods to prepare pure samples of chicken acid-sensing ion channel 1a (cASIC1) and Caenorhabditis elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) for X-ray crystallography, demonstrating how to rapidly and efficiently screen hundreds of constructs and accomplish large-scale expression in 4-6 weeks.

  19. Chlorella species as hosts for genetic engineering and expression of heterologous proteins: Progress, challenge and perspective.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Liu, Jin; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

    2016-10-01

    The species of Chlorella represent a highly specialized group of green microalgae that can produce high levels of protein. Many Chlorella strains can grow rapidly and achieve high cell density under controlled conditions and are thus considered to be promising protein sources. Many advances in the genetic engineering of Chlorella have occurred in recent years, with significant developments in successful expression of heterologous proteins for various applications. Nevertheless, a lot of obstacles remain to be addressed, and a sophisticated and stable Chlorella expression system has yet to emerge. This review provides a brief summary of current knowledge on Chlorella and an overview of recent progress in the genetic engineering of Chlorella, and highlights the advances in the development of a genetic toolbox of Chlorella for heterologous protein expression. Research directions to further exploit the Chlorella expression system with respect to both challenges and perspectives are also discussed. This paper serves as a comprehensive literature review for the Chlorella community and will provide valuable insights into future exploration of Chlorella as a promising host for heterologous protein expression. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Calcium affecting protein expression in longan under simulated acid rain stress.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tengfei; Li, Yongyu; Ma, Cuilan; Qiu, Dongliang

    2015-08-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longana Lour. cv. Wulongling) of uniform one-aged seedlings grown in pots were selected to study specific proteins expressed in leaves under simulated acid rain (SiAR) stress and exogenous Ca(2+) regulation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that there was a protein band specifically expressed under SiAR of pH 2.5 stress for 15 days with its molecular weight of about 23 kD. A 17 kD protein band specifically expressed after SiAR stress 5 days. Compared with pH 2.5, the pH 3.5 of SiAR made a less influence to protein expression. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) results showed that six new specific proteins including C4 (20.2 kD pI 6.0), F (24 kD pI 6.35), B3 (22.3 kD pI 6.35), B4 (23.5 kD pI 6.5), C5 (21.8 kD pI 5.6), and C6 (20.2 kD pI 5.6) specifically expressed. C4 always expressed during SiAR stress. F expressed under the stress of pH 2.5 for 15 days and expressed in all pH SiAR stress for 20 days. The expression of proteins including B3, C5, and C6 was related to pH value and stress intensity of SiAR. The expression of B4 resulted from synergistic effects of SiAR and Ca. The expression of G1 (Mr 19.3 kD, pI 4.5), G2 (Mr 17.8 kD, pI 4.65), G3 (Mr 16.6 kD, pI 4.6), and G4 (Mr 14.7 kD, pI 4.4) enhanced under the treatment of 5 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2 mM chlorpromazine (CPZ). These proteins showed antagonistic effects and might be relative to the Ca-calmodulin (Ca-CaM) system of longan in response to SiAR stress.