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Sample records for zoarces viviparus exposed

  1. Liver histopathology in Baltic eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) - A baseline study for use in marine environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Nicolai F; Stentiford, Grant D; Feist, Stephen W; Lang, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The use of liver histopathology in various fish species as a biomarker in marine monitoring programmes to assess the biological effect of exposure to anthropogenic contaminants is well established. However, although the eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) has repeatedly been recommended as an appropriate bioindicator for monitoring purposes in the Baltic Sea, information on histopathological liver alterations of this species is scarce. In order to obtain an overview, a total of 1070 eelpout, collected in the period between spring 2001 and winter 2010 from 34 sampling sites distributed over large parts of the Baltic Sea, were histologically analyzed. Liver lesions were recorded and classified according to established liver lesion categories. A high prevalence of non-specific and early toxicopathic non-neoplastic hepatic lesions was recorded. In contrast, pre-neoplastic lesions were observed only in rare cases and neoplastic changes were absent. A comparison with published data on other fish species revealed that the observed alterations may indicate effects of environmental stressors including contaminants. The results of the present study, thus, support the application of eelpout liver histopathology in environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Severe malformations of eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) fry are induced by maternal estrogenic exposure during early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morthorst, Jane E; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2016-02-01

    Pregnant eelpout were exposed via the water to known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) to clarify if EDCs could be causing the increased eelpout fry malformation frequencies observed in coastal areas receiving high anthropogenic input. The presence of a teratogenic window for estrogen-induced malformations was also investigated by starting the exposure at different times during eelpout pregnancy. Both 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) (17.8 ng/L) and pyrene (0.5 μg/L) significantly increased fry malformation frequency whereas 4-t-octylphenol (4-t-OP) up to 14.3 μg/L did not. Vitellogenin was significantly induced by EE2 (5.7 and 17.8 ng/L) but not by 4-t-OP and pyrene. A critical period for estrogen-induced fry malformations was identified and closed between 14 and 22 days post fertilization (dpf). Exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2) between 0 and 14 dpf caused severe malformations and severity increased the closer exposure start was to fertilization, whereas malformations were absent by exposure starting later than 14 dpf. Data on ovarian fluid volume and larval length supported the suggested teratogenic window. Larval mortality also increased when exposure started right after fertilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Climate induced temperature effects on growth performance, fecundity and recruitment in marine fish: developing a hypothesis for cause and effect relationships in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) and common eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pörtner, H. O.; Berdal, B.; Blust, R.; Brix, O.; Colosimo, A.; De Wachter, B.; Giuliani, A.; Johansen, T.; Fischer, T.; Knust, R.; Lannig, G.; Naevdal, G.; Nedenes, A.; Nyhammer, G.; Sartoris, F. J.; Serendero, I.; Sirabella, P.; Thorkildsen, S.; Zakhartsev, M.

    2001-12-01

    Effects of global warming on animal distribution and performance become visible in many marine ecosystems. The present study was designed to develop a concept for a cause and effect understanding with respect to temperature changes and to explain ecological findings based on physiological processes. The concept is based on a wide comparison of invertebrate and fish species with a special focus on recent data obtained in two model species of fish. These fish species are both characterized by northern and southern distribution limits in the North Atlantic: eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus), as a typical non-migrating inhabitant of the coastal zone and the cod ( Gadus morhua), as a typical inhabitant of the continental shelf with a high importance for fisheries. Mathematical modelling demonstrates a clear significant correlation between climate induced temperature fluctuations and the recruitment of cod stocks. Growth performance in cod is optimal at temperatures close to 10°C, regardless of the population investigated in a latitudinal cline. However, temperature specific growth rates decrease at higher latitudes. Also, fecundity is less in White Sea than in North and Baltic Sea cod or eelpout populations. These findings suggest that a cold-induced shift in energy budget occurs which is unfavorable for growth performance and fecundity. Thermal tolerance limits shift depending on latitude and are characterized by oxygen limitation at both low or high temperatures. Oxygen supply to tissues is optimized at low temperature by a shift in hemoglobin isoforms and oxygen binding properties to lower affinities and higher unloading potential. Protective stimulation of heat shock protein synthesis was not observed. According to a recent model of thermal tolerance the downward shift of tolerance limits during cold adaptation is associated with rising mitochondrial densities and, thus, aerobic capacity and performance in the cold, especially in eurythermal species. At the same time

  4. No microplastics in benthic eelpout (Zoarces viviparus): An urgent need for spectroscopic analyses in microplastic detection.

    PubMed

    Wesch, Charlotte; Barthel, Anne-Kathrin; Braun, Ulrike; Klein, Roland; Paulus, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring the ingestion of microplastics is challenging and suitable detection techniques are insufficiently used. Thus, misidentifying natural for synthetic microfibres cannot be avoided. As part of a framework to monitor the ingestion of microplastics in eelpout, this short report addresses the accurate identification of microfibres. We show that, following visual inspections, putatively synthetic microfibres are indeed of natural origin, as ascertained by spectrometric analyses. Consequently, we call for an inclusion of spectroscopic techniques in standardized microplastic monitoring schemes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender related differences in the oxidative stress response to PCB exposure in an endangered goodeid fish (Girardinichthys viviparus).

    PubMed

    Vega-López, Armando; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Jiménez-Orozco, Fausto Alejandro; García-Latorre, Ethel; Domínguez-López, Maria Lilia

    2007-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent xenobiotics within aquatic environments, which elicit diverse toxic effects such as induction of oxidative stress. Despite numerous earlier studies, no detailed information exists on the toxic response by different sexes in fish. The aim of this study was to determine sex-linked differences in oxidative stress response and antioxidant defenses in Girardinichthys viviparus, an endangered fish endemic to Mexico, when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne PCBs. The biological markers evaluated were lipid peroxidation (LPOX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. Adult eight-month-old specimens born in the laboratory were exposed to (1/2) of the LC0 (0.92 mg PCBs/L) in semi-hard synthetic water and sacrificed on days 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 for biomarker assays. Sex-linked differences were observed in the control fish with respect to all three factors assayed. PCBs elicited significant (p<0.01) time- and sex-dependent LPOX levels which were higher in the case of males. In PCB-treated G. viviparus, SOD activity was depressed in both sexes and appears to return to pre-exposure levels after 16 days in males only. In contrast, CAT was significantly induced (p<0.01) in both sexes. This enzyme may be responsible for balancing oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses under experimental conditions. PCBs at sub-lethal concentrations are hazardous to both sexes of G. viviparus since these compounds are able to induce liver LPOX and changes in the antioxidant defense activities. The relationship between these biomarkers and cytochrome P450 and CYP1A induction is also discussed.

  6. Experimental determination of a Viviparus contectus thermometry equation.

    PubMed

    Bugler, Melanie J; Grimes, Stephen T; Leng, Melanie J; Rundle, Simon D; Price, Gregory D; Hooker, Jerry J; Collinson, Margaret E

    2009-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the (18)O/(16)O isotope fractionation between the biogenic aragonite of Viviparus contectus (Gastropoda) and its host freshwater were undertaken to generate a species-specific thermometry equation. The temperature dependence of the fractionation factor and the relationship between Deltadelta(18)O (delta(18)O(carb.) - delta(18)O(water)) and temperature were calculated from specimens maintained under laboratory and field (collection and cage) conditions. The field specimens were grown (Somerset, UK) between August 2007 and August 2008, with water samples and temperature measurements taken monthly. Specimens grown in the laboratory experiment were maintained under constant temperatures (15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C) with water samples collected weekly. Application of a linear regression to the datasets indicated that the gradients of all three experiments were within experimental error of each other (+/-2 times the standard error); therefore, a combined (laboratory and field data) correlation could be applied. The relationship between Deltadelta(18)O (delta(18)O(carb.) - delta(18)O(water)) and temperature (T) for this combined dataset is given by: T = - 7.43( + 0.87, - 1.13)*Deltadelta18O + 22.89(+/- 2.09) (T is in degrees C, delta(18)O(carb.) is with respect to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) and delta(18)O(water) is with respect to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW). Quoted errors are 2 times standard error).Comparisons made with existing aragonitic thermometry equations reveal that the linear regression for the combined Viviparus contectus equation is within 2 times the standard error of previously reported aragonitic thermometry equations. This suggests there are no species-specific vital effects for Viviparus contectus. Seasonal delta(18)O(carb.) profiles from specimens retrieved from the field cage experiment indicate that during shell secretion the delta(18)O(carb.) of the shell carbonate is not influenced by

  7. Dictyocaulus viviparus genome, variome and transcriptome elucidate lungworm biology and support future intervention

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Samantha N.; Strübe, Christina; Rosa, Bruce A.; Martin, John C.; Tyagi, Rahul; Choi, Young-Jun; Wang, Qi; Hallsworth Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Gasser, Robin B.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-01-01

    The bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus (order Strongylida), is an important parasite of livestock that causes substantial economic and production losses worldwide. Here we report the draft genome, variome, and developmental transcriptome of D. viviparus. The genome (161 Mb) is smaller than those of related bursate nematodes and encodes fewer proteins (14,171 total). In the first genome-wide assessment of genomic variation in any parasitic nematode, we found a high degree of sequence variability in proteins predicted to be involved host-parasite interactions. Next, we used extensive RNA sequence data to track gene transcription across the life cycle of D. viviparus, and identified genes that might be important in nematode development and parasitism. Finally, we predicted genes that could be vital in host-parasite interactions, genes that could serve as drug targets, and putative RNAi effectors with a view to developing functional genomic tools. This extensive, well-curated dataset should provide a basis for developing new anthelmintics, vaccines, and improved diagnostic tests and serve as a platform for future investigations of drug resistance and epidemiology of the bovine lungworm and related nematodes. PMID:26856411

  8. Emergence of a new rhabdovirus associated with mass mortalities in eelpout (Zoarces viviparous) in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Axén, C; Hakhverdyan, M; Boutrup, T S; Blomkvist, E; Ljunghager, F; Alfjorden, A; Hagström, Å; Olesen, N J; Juremalm, M; Leijon, M; Valarcher, J-F

    2017-02-01

    We report the first description of a new Rhabdoviridae tentatively named eelpout rhabdovirus (EpRV genus Perhabdovirus). This virus was associated with mass mortalities in eelpout (Zoarces viviparous, Linnaeus) along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast line in 2014. Diseased fish showed signs of central nervous system infection, and brain lesions were confirmed by histology. A cytopathogenic effect was observed in cell culture, but ELISAs for the epizootic piscine viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), infectious pancreas necrosis virus (IPNV), infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) were negative. Further investigations by chloroform inactivation, indirect fluorescence antibody test and electron microscopy indicated the presence of a rhabdovirus. By deep sequencing of original tissue suspension and infected cell culture supernatant, the full viral genome was assembled and we confirmed the presence of a rhabdovirus with 59.5% nucleotide similarity to the closest relative Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus. The full-genome sequence of this new virus, eelpout rhabdovirus (EpRV), has been deposited in GenBank under accession number KR612230. An RT-PCR based on the L-gene sequence confirmed the presence of EpRV in sick/dead eelpout, but the virus was not found in control fish. Additional investigations to characterize the pathogenicity of EpRV are planned. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Genes of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus associated with transition from pasture to parasitism.

    PubMed

    Strube, C; Buschbaum, S; Schnieder, T

    2012-08-01

    Genes necessary to enable nematode parasitic life after free-living larval life are of substantial interest to understand parasitism. We investigated transcriptional changes during transition to parasitism in the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus, one of the most important parasites in cattle farming due to substantial economic losses. Upregulated transcripts in either free-living, developmentally arrested L3 or parasitic immature L5 were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) followed by differential screening and subsequent virtual Northern blot verification. From 400 sequenced clones of parasitic L5, 372 (93.0%) upregulated high quality ESTs were obtained clustering into 30 contigs and 38 singletons. Most conceptual translated peptides were SCP/TAPS "family" members also known as pathogenesis-related protein (PRP) superfamily (28.5% of total ESTs), cysteine proteases (24.5%), and H-gal-GP orthologues (9.9%). These proteins are predicted to play key roles in fundamental biological processes such as nutrition and development but also parasite-host interactions and immune defense mechanisms. Increased energy requirement of the rapidly developing L5 lungworm stage was obvious in a proportion of 12.2% upregulated ESTs being components of the respiratory chain. From the developmentally arrested L3 stage sequencing of 200 clones resulted in 195 high quality ESTs (97.0%) clustering into 7 contigs and 3 singletons only. Besides a hypothetical protein (70.1% of total ESTs) most transcripts encoded the cleavage stimulation factor subunit 2 (17.5%), which is a component of the poly(A(+)) machinery and found to be involved in gene silencing. Obtained data provide the basis for future fundamental research into genes associated with parasitic lifestyle but also applied research like vaccine and/or drug development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Failure to eradicate the lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus on dairy farms by a single mass-treatment before turnout.

    PubMed

    Ploeger, H W; Holzhauer, M

    2012-04-30

    On two dairy farms it was attempted to eradicate lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus, by means of a single mass-treatment of all cattle that had been grazed the previous year(s), before turnout in the spring. Both farms experienced two years of lungworm outbreaks in the adult dairy herd prior to this study. Following confirmation that both herds contained lungworm carriers, all animals older than approximately 6 months were treated with eprinomectin in March 2007. One week after treatment none of the animals were shedding lungworm larvae. Subsequently, animals were pastured according to normal farm routine. From August to November all first-calving heifers were coprologically and serologically monitored for lungworm infection. During 2007 both farms remained lungworm-negative and did not report any clinical sign indicative for a lungworm infection. The following year, on one of the farms replacements grazing on cow pastures, started showing signs of parasitic bronchitis which was serologically confirmed. The other herd remained free of parasitic bronchitis until at least the fourth year after the mass treatment, although some coughing was noticed in 2008 among first-lactation heifers. It was concluded that a single mass-treatment before the grazing season may be useful to break a series of annual lungworm outbreaks. However, it is not a secure method to prevent parasitic bronchitis for more than one year. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between biomarkers and endocrine-disrupting compounds in wild Girardnichthys viviparus from two lakes with different degrees of pollution.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Rubio, Hugo F; Dzul-Caamal, Ricardo; Gallegos-Rangel, María Esperanza; Madera-Sandoval, Ruth L; Domínguez-López, María Lilia; García-Latorre, Ethel; Vega-López, Armando

    2015-04-01

    Despite great efforts worldwide to evaluate the effects of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in fish, there is little information available about the interactions of EDCs with the disruption of the sexual endocrine axis in fish species with matrotrophic viviparity and intraluminal gestation. To understand these interactions, six sampling campaigns were performed within a period of 1 year in two lakes with different degrees of pollution. A battery of biomarkers of the oestrogenic response was assessed in the liver [vitellogenin, CYP 1A1, epoxide hydrolase activity, and metallothioneins (MT)] and MT in the head of Girardinichthys viviparus. Linear correlation analysis and canonical correspondence analysis were performed to explore the relationship between the oestrogenic response with EDCs and with metals. The biomarker responses were assessed using the water content of EDCs (oestrone, 17-β-oestradiol, oestriol, 17-α-ethinyl oestradiol, total phenols, bisphenol A, nonyl phenol, octyl phenol), as well as the PAHs indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, naphthalene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) and metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn). Greater disruption of the sexual endocrine axis occurred in fish of both sexes inhabiting the polluted lake whose effects were apparently influenced by CYP 1A1 activity and by 17-α-ethinyl oestradiol. In addition, non-estrogenic mechanisms in the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in male fish were observed, elicited by endogenous levels and the water concentration of Pb. In contrast, in females from the less polluted lake, VTG induction was related to exogenous oestrogens. The disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is a complex process influenced by both endogenous and exogenous factors and contributes to male feminisation by exposure to EDCs.

  12. Analysis of the transcriptome of adult Dictyocaulus filaria and comparison with Dictyocaulus viviparus, with a focus on molecules involved in host-parasite interactions✰

    PubMed Central

    Mangiola, Stefano; Young, Neil D.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Strube, Christina; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Mitreva, Makedonka; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Hofmann, Andreas; Jex, Aaron R.; Gasser, Robin B.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes cause diseases of major economic importance in animals. Key representatives are species of Dictyocaulus (= lungworms), which cause bronchitis (= dictyocaulosis, commonly known as “husk”) and have a major adverse impact on the health of livestock. In spite of their economic importance, very little is known about the immunomolecular biology of these parasites. Here, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of the adult transcriptome of Dictyocaulus filaria of small ruminants and compared it with that of Dictyocaulus viviparus of bovids. We then identified a subset of highly transcribed molecules inferred to be linked to host-parasite interactions, including cathepsin B peptidases, fatty-acid and/or retinol-binding proteins, β-galactoside-binding galectins, secreted protein 6 precursors, macrophage migration inhibitory factors, glutathione peroxidases, a transthyretin-like protein and a type 2-like cystatin. We then studied homologs of D. filaria type 2-like cystatin encoded in D. viviparus and 24 other nematodes representing seven distinct taxonomic orders, with a particular focus on their proposed role in immunomodulation and/or metabolism. Taken together, the present study provides new insights into nematode-host interactions. The findings lay the foundation for future experimental studies and could have implications for designing new interventions against lungworms and other parasitic nematodes. The future characterization of the genomes of Dictyocaulus spp. should underpin these endeavors. PMID:24487001

  13. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  14. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 – 30 November 2011

    PubMed Central

    ABREU, ALUANA G.; ALBAINA, A.; ALPERMANN, TILMAN J.; APKENAS, VANESSA E.; BANKHEAD-DRONNET, S.; BERGEK, SARA; BERUMEN, MICHAEL L.; CHO, CHANG-HUNG; CLOBERT, JEAN; COULON, AURÉLIE; DE FERAUDY, D.; ESTONBA, A.; HANKELN, THOMAS; HOCHKIRCH, AXEL; HSU, TSAI-WEN; HUANG, TSURNG-JUHN; IRIGOIEN, X.; IRIONDO, M.; KAY, KATHLEEN M.; KINITZ, TIM; KOTHERA, LINDA; LE HÉNANFF, MAXIME; LIEUTIER, F.; LOURDAIS, OLIVIER; MACRINI, CAMILA M. T.; MANZANO, C.; MARTIN, C.; MORRIS, VERONICA R. F.; NANNINGA, GERRIT; PARDO, M. A.; PLIESKE, JÖRG; POINTEAU, S.; PRESTEGAARD, TORE; QUACK, MARKUS; RICHARD, MURIELLE; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; SCHWARCZ, KAISER D.; SHADE, JESSICA; SIMMS, ELLEN L.; SOLFERINI, VERA N.; STEVENS, VIRGINIE M.; VEITH, MICHAEL; WEN, MEI-JUAN; WICKER, FLORIAN; YOST, JENNIFER M.; ZARRAONAINDIA, I.

    2017-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. PMID:22296658

  15. Crater with Exposed Layers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-17

    On Earth, geologists can dig holes and pull up core samples to find out what lies beneath the surface. On Mars, geologists cannot dig holes very easily themselves, but a process has been occurring for billions of years that has been digging holes for them: impact cratering. Impact craters form when an asteroid, meteoroid, or comet crashes into a planet's surface, causing an explosion. The energy of the explosion, and the resulting size of the impact crater, depends on the size and density of the impactor, as well as the properties of the surface it hits. In general, the larger and denser the impactor, the larger the crater it will form. The impact crater in this image is a little less than 3 kilometers in diameter. The impact revealed layers when it excavated the Martian surface. Layers can form in a variety of different ways. Multiple lava flows in one area can form stacked sequences, as can deposits from rivers or lakes. Understanding the geology around impact craters and searching for mineralogical data within their layers can help scientists on Earth better understand what the walls of impact craters on Mars expose. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA12328

  16. Russian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 21A EXPOSE-R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-10

    ISS018-E-039227 (10 March 2009) --- One of two Expedition 18 spacewalkers on March 10 provided this close-up image of the Expose-R experiment, reinstalled a short while earlier on the outside of the Russian segment of the International Space Station. The European experiment is equipped with three trays which contain a variety of biological samples.

  17. Russian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 21A EXPOSE-R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-10

    ISS018-E-039228 (10 March 2009) --- One of two Expedition 18 spacewalkers on March 10 provided this close-up image of the Expose-R experiment, reinstalled a short while earlier on the outside of the Russian segment of the International Space Station. The European experiment is equipped with three trays which contain a variety of biological samples.

  18. Russian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 21A EXPOSE-R

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-10

    ISS018-E-039226 (10 March 2009) --- One of two Expedition 18 spacewalkers on March 10 provided this close-up image of the Expose-R experiment, reinstalled a short while earlier on the outside of the Russian segment of the International Space Station. The European experiment is equipped with three trays which contain a variety of biological samples.

  19. EXPOSE-R on Mission on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Kloss, Maria; Reitz, Guenther

    Currently EXPOSE-R is on mission! This astrobiological exposure facility was accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D Zenith payload site, located outside the Russian Svezda Module of the International Space Station (ISS) by extravehicular activity (EVA) on March 10th 2009. It contains 3 trays accommodating 12 sample compartments with sample carriers in three levels either open to space vacuum or kept in a defined gas environment. In its 8 experiments of biological and chemical content, more than 1200 individual samples are exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations, vacuum, cosmic rays or extreme temperature variations. In their different experiments the involved scientists are studying the question of life's origin on Earth and the results of their experiments are contributing to different aspects of the evolution and distribution of life in the Universe. Additionally integrated into the EXPOSE-R facility are several dosimeters monitoring the ionising and the solar UV-radiation during the mission to deliver useful information to complement the sample analysis. In close cooperation with the DLR and the Technical University Munich (TUM), the Rheinisch -Westfülische Technischen Hochschule Aachen (RWTH Aachen) operates the experiment "Spores". a This is one of the 6 astrobiological experiments of the ROSE-Consortium" (Response of Or-ganisms to Space Environment) of the EXPOSE-R mission. In these experiments spores of bacteria, fungi and ferns are being over layered or mixed with meteorite material. The analysis of the effect of the space parameters on different biological endpoints of the spores of the mi-croorganism Bacillus subtilis will be performed after the retrieval of the experiment scheduled for the end of 2010. Parallel to the space mission an identical set of samples was accommodated into EXPOSE-R trays identical in construction to perform the Mission Ground Reference (MGR) Test. Currently this MGR Test is carried out in the Planetary and Space

  20. Sampling designs for contaminant temporal trend analyses using sedentary species exemplified by the snails Bellamya aeruginosa and Viviparus viviparus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ge; Danielsson, Sara; Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Zhou, Yihui; Qiu, Yanling; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders

    2017-10-01

    Environmental monitoring typically assumes samples and sampling activities to be representative of the population being studied. Given a limited budget, an appropriate sampling strategy is essential to support detecting temporal trends of contaminants. In the present study, based on real chemical analysis data on polybrominated diphenyl ethers in snails collected from five subsites in Tianmu Lake, computer simulation is performed to evaluate three sampling strategies by the estimation of required sample size, to reach a detection of an annual change of 5% with a statistical power of 80% and 90% with a significant level of 5%. The results showed that sampling from an arbitrarily selected sampling spot is the worst strategy, requiring much more individual analyses to achieve the above mentioned criteria compared with the other two approaches. A fixed sampling site requires the lowest sample size but may not be representative for the intended study object e.g. a lake and is also sensitive to changes of that particular sampling site. In contrast, sampling at multiple sites along the shore each year, and using pooled samples when the cost to collect and prepare individual specimens are much lower than the cost for chemical analysis, would be the most robust and cost efficient strategy in the long run. Using statistical power as criterion, the results demonstrated quantitatively the consequences of various sampling strategies, and could guide users with respect of required sample sizes depending on sampling design for long term monitoring programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Advances in treating exposed fractures.

    PubMed

    Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; Dos Santos Silva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose.

  2. [Drug Exposed Infants and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin issue addresses the theme of drug-exposed infants and the services required by these infants and their families. "Cocaine-Exposed Infants: Myths and Misunderstandings" (Barbara J. Myers and others) comments on the negative accounts of drug-exposed babies presented by mass media and reviews the mix of positive and negative…

  3. Fire resistance of exposed wood members

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White

    2004-01-01

    Fire resistance data on exposed wood beams and columns are plentiful, but few studies have been done on exposed wood members in tension and in decks. To provide data to verify the application of a new calculation procedure, a limited series of fire resistance tests were conducted on wood members loaded in tension and on exposed wood decks.

  4. Climate change affects marine fishes through the oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Pörtner, Hans O; Knust, Rainer

    2007-01-05

    A cause-and-effect understanding of climate influences on ecosystems requires evaluation of thermal limits of member species and of their ability to cope with changing temperatures. Laboratory data available for marine fish and invertebrates from various climatic regions led to the hypothesis that, as a unifying principle, a mismatch between the demand for oxygen and the capacity of oxygen supply to tissues is the first mechanism to restrict whole-animal tolerance to thermal extremes. We show in the eelpout, Zoarces viviparus, a bioindicator fish species for environmental monitoring from North and Baltic Seas (Helcom), that thermally limited oxygen delivery closely matches environmental temperatures beyond which growth performance and abundance decrease. Decrements in aerobic performance in warming seas will thus be the first process to cause extinction or relocation to cooler waters.

  5. Hypercapnia induced shifts in gill energy budgets of Antarctic notothenioids.

    PubMed

    Deigweiher, Katrin; Hirse, Timo; Bock, Christian; Lucassen, Magnus; Pörtner, Hans O

    2010-03-01

    Mechanisms responsive to hypercapnia (elevated CO(2) concentrations) and shaping branchial energy turnover were investigated in isolated perfused gills of two Antarctic Notothenioids (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Notothenia coriiceps). Branchial oxygen consumption was measured under normo- versus hypercapnic conditions (10,000 ppm CO(2)) at high extracellular pH values. The fractional costs of ion regulation, protein and RNA synthesis in the energy budgets were determined using specific inhibitors. Overall gill energy turnover was maintained under pH compensated hypercapnia in both Antarctic species as well as in a temperate zoarcid (Zoarces viviparus). However, fractional energy consumption by the examined processes rose drastically in G. gibberifrons (100-180%), and to a lesser extent in N. coriiceps gills (7-56%). In conclusion, high CO(2) concentrations under conditions of compensated acidosis induce cost increments in epithelial processes, however, at maintained overall rates of branchial energy turnover.

  6. Silent Victims: Children Exposed to Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Kathryn R.; Davey, Debrynda

    2007-01-01

    Annually an estimated 3 million or more children are exposed to acts of domestic violence between adults in their homes. These children are at risk for abuse themselves as well as other immediate and long-term problems, especially if they have been exposed to repeated episodes of domestic violence. Multiple behavioral manifestations, including…

  7. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (<0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 3 EXPOSE Missions - overview and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, E.; Willnekcer, R.; Reitz, G.; Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Cman, C.

    2011-10-01

    The International Space Station ISS provides a variety of external research platforms for experiments aiming at the utilization of space parameters like vacuum, temperature oscillation and in particular extraterrestrial short wavelength UV and ionizing radiation which cannot be simulated accurately in the laboratory. Three Missions, two past and one upcoming, will be presented. A family of astrobiological experimental ESA facilities called "EXPOSE" were and will be accommodated on these outside exposure platforms: on one of the external balconies of the European Columbus Module (EXPOSE-E) and on the URM-D platform on the Russian Zvezda Module (EXPOSE-R and EXPOSE-R2). Exobiological and radiation experiments, exposing chemical, biological and dosimetric samples to the harsh space environment are - and will be - accommodated on these facilities to increase our knowledge on the origin, evolution and distribution of life, on Earth and possibly beyond. The biological experiments investigate resistance and adaptation of organisms like bacteria, Achaea, fungi, lichens, plant seeds and small animals like mosquito larvae to extreme environmental conditions and underlying mechanisms like DNA repair. The organic chemical experiments analyse chemical reactions triggered by the extraterrestrial environment, especially short wavelength UV radiation, to better understand prebiotic chemistry. The facility is optimized to allow exposure of biological specimen and material samples under a variety of conditions, using optical filter systems. Environmental parameters like temperature and radiation are regularly recorded and down linked by telemetry. Two long term missions named according to their facility - EXPOSE-E and EXPOSE-R - are completed and a third mission is planned and currently prepared. Operations of all three missions including sample accommodation are performed by DLR. An overview of the two completed missions will be given including lessons learned as well as an outlook

  9. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterizedmore » by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed

  10. TREATMENT OF LEAD EXPOSED CHILDREN TRIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Treatment of Lead-exposed Children (TLC) clinical trial compared the effect of lead chelation with succimer to placebo therapy. Outcomes included IQ, neuropsychological function, behavior, physical growth and blood pressure three years after initiation of treatment. Residenti...

  11. Mortality of Munitions Workers Exposed to Dinitrotuluene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    ACCESSION NO . 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED L MORTALITY OF MUNITIONS WORKERS EXPOSED...AD__ _ _ _ _ _ o MORTALITY OF MUNITIONS WORKERS tO EXPOSED TO DINITROTOLUENE Um FINAL REPORT Richard J. Levine, Dragana A. Andjelkovich, Sharon...Kersteter, Earl W. Arp, Jr., Sandor A. Balogh, Patricia B. Blunden, and Jonathan M. Stanley Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology Research Triangle

  12. The astrobiological mission EXPOSE-R on board of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Burfeindt, Jürgen; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Pereira, Carlos; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    EXPOSE-R flew as the second of the European Space Agency (ESA) EXPOSE multi-user facilities on the International Space Station. During the mission on the external URM-D platform of the Zvezda service module, samples of eight international astrobiology experiments selected by ESA and one Russian guest experiment were exposed to low Earth orbit space parameters from March 10th, 2009 to January 21st, 2011. EXPOSE-R accommodated a total of 1220 samples for exposure to selected space conditions and combinations, including space vacuum, temperature cycles through 273 K, cosmic radiation, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110, >170 or >200 nm at various fluences up to GJ m-2. Samples ranged from chemical compounds via unicellular organisms and multicellular mosquito larvae and seeds to passive radiation dosimeters. Additionally, one active radiation measurement instrument was accommodated on EXPOSE-R and commanded from ground in accordance with the facility itself. Data on ultraviolet radiation, cosmic radiation and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry and data carrier every few months. The EXPOSE-R trays and samples returned to Earth on March 9th, 2011 with Shuttle flight, Space Transportation System (STS)-133/ULF 5, Discovery, after successful total mission duration of 27 months in space. The samples were analysed in the individual investigators laboratories. A parallel Mission Ground Reference experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions following to the data transmitted from the flight mission.

  13. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  14. The Expose-R2 mission: astrobiology and astrochemistry in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, René

    EXPOSE is an exposure platform developed by ESA which permits scientists to install test samples for 1 to 2 years at the outer surface of the ISS. In that way, the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical sample materials can be explored. This environment, featuring full-spectrum solar light, near-vacuum, cosmic radiation, wide temperature variations and near-weightlessness, is impossible to reproduce in its entirety in the lab. As such, EXPOSE offers astrochemists and astrobiologists a chance to acquire novel scientific data. Astrochemists are interested in Low Earth Orbit conditions due to the fact that photochemistry in space is quite different from photochemistry on Earth, where the high-energy UV compounds of the solar spectrum are filtered away by our atmosphere. As for the astro biologists, EXPOSE offers an attractive opportunity to expand earlier results obtained during short-duration LEO flights, which have shown that particular microbes and, amazingly, even some multi-cellular macroscopic organisms were able to cope with a two-week exposure to space. The open space environment, often described as harsh and hostile, can apparently be tolerated by some robust inhabitants of our Earth - unprotected, in the absence of a space suit! The first mission of EXPOSE, as an external payload on the European Columbus module, happened during 2008-2009 with the test samples provided by five separate research teams. Three additional teams were involved in the monitoring of space environment. The results were published collectively in 2012 in a special issue of the monthly journal Astrobiology. Several organisms survived, having spent 1.5 years in space. The second mission was called EXPOSE-R, the R referring to ‘Russian segment’, the location where the EXPOSE instrument was installed this time. The EXPOSE-R mission took place in 2009-2011, ten science teams were involved. The publication of the results, again as a collection, is currently in

  15. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSES OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromosome damage was studied in female B6C3F1 mice exposed to dichloromethane (DCM) by subcutaneous or inhalation treatments. o increase in either the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) or chromosome aberrations (CAs) in bone marrow cells was observed after a singl...

  16. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  17. Exposing the Mathematical Wizard: Approximating Trigonometric Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2011-01-01

    For almost all students, what happens when they push buttons on their calculators is essentially magic, and the techniques used are seemingly pure wizardry. In this article, the author draws back the curtain to expose some of the mathematics behind computational wizardry and introduces some fundamental ideas that are accessible to precalculus…

  18. Nature Drilling Exposes Deeply Buried Minerals

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-08

    This image from NASA Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the context for orbital observations of exposed rocks that had been buried on Mars. The area is dominated by the Huygens crater, which is about the size of Wisconsin.

  19. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  20. Interviews with Children Exposed to Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Maria; Nasman, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how research practices may simultaneously follow principles of children's citizenship rights to participation and principles of protection and support when children exposed to violence are informants. The article focuses upon organisation of interview processes and interactions between adult researchers and child…

  1. Underground Martian Ice Deposit Exposed at Scarp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-11

    Click on the image for larger version A cross-section of a thick sheet of underground ice is exposed at the steep slope (or scarp) that appears bright blue in this enhanced-color view from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The view covers an area about 550 yards (500 meters) wide. Figure 1 includes a 100-meter (109-yard) scale bar. North is toward the top. The upper third of the image shows level ground that is about 140 yards (130 meters) higher in elevation than the ground in the bottom third. In between, the scarp descends sharply, exposing about 260 vertical feet (80 vertical meters) of water ice. Color is exaggerated to make differences in surface materials easier to see. The presence of exposed water ice at this site was confirmed by observation with the same orbiter's Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). In January 2018, in the journal Science, researchers reported finding and studying eight such ice-exposing scarps in the middle latitudes of Mars. The presence of vast underground ice deposits in Mars' middle latitudes was known previously. The report of unusual sites where they are exposed provides new information about their depth and layering. It also identifies potential water resources for future Mars missions and possibilities for studying Martian climate history by examining the ice layers holding a record of past climate cycles. The ice may have been deposited as snow when the tilt of Mars' rotation axis was greater than it is now. HiRISE observation ESP_022389_1230 was made on May 7, 2011, at 56.6 degrees south latitude, 114.1 degrees east longitude. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22077

  2. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs

    SciTech Connect

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M., E-mail: liliya.fatkhutdi

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectionalmore » study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. - Highlights: • The effects of MWCNT exposure in humans remain unclear. • We found increased KL-6/TGF-β levels in the biofluids of MWCNT-exposed workers.

  3. Surface contamination on LDEF exposed materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemminger, Carol S.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the surface composition and chemistry of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed materials including silvered Teflon (Ag/FEP), Kapton, S13GLO paint, quartz crystal monitors (QCM's), carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, and carbon fiber/Al Alloy composites. In each set of samples, silicones were the major contributors to the molecular film accumulated on the LDEF exposed surfaces. All surfaces analyzed have been contaminated with Si, O, and C; most have low levels (less than 1 atom percent) of N, S, and F. Occasionally observed contaminants included Cl, Na, K, P, and various metals. Orange/brown discoloration observed near vent slots in some Ag/FEP blankets were higher in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen relative to other contamination types. The source of contamination has not been identified, but amine/amide functionalities were detected. It is probable that this same source of contamination account for the low levels of sulfur and nitrogen observed on most LDEF exposed surfaces. XPS, which probes 50 to 100 A in depth, detected the major sample components underneath the contaminant film in every analysis. This probably indicates that the contaminant overlayer is patchy, with significant areas covered by less that 100 A of molecular film. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of LDEF exposed surfaces during secondary electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples confirmed contamination of the surfaces with Si and O. In general, particulates were not observed to develop from the contaminant overlayer on the exposed LDEF material surfaces. However, many SiO2 submicron particles were seen on a masked edge of an Ag/FEP blanket. In some cases such as the carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, interpretation of the contamination data was hindered by the lack of good laboratory controls. Examination of laboratory controls for the carbon fiber/Al alloy composites showed that preflight contamination was

  4. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jon A

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  5. Hearing parameters in noise exposed industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Celik, O; Yalçin, S; Oztürk, A

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study carried out in a group of noise-exposed workers in a hydro-electric power plant. Thus, the main focus of the study is on 130 industrial workers who were exposed to high level of noise. The control group was consisted of 33 subjects with normal hearing. Hearing and acoustic reflex thresholds were obtained from all subjects and the results from age-matched subgroups were compared. The sensorineural hearing loss which were detected in 71 workers were bilateral, symmetrical and affected mainly frequencies of 4-6 kHz. In essence, the hearing losses were developed within the first 10 years of noise exposure and associated with slight progress in the following years. When acoustic reflex thresholds derived from the study and control groups were compared, statistically significant difference was determined only for the thresholds obtained at 4 kHz (p < 0.0005).

  6. Work ability in vibration-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Gerhardsson, L; Hagberg, M

    2014-12-01

    Hand-arm vibration exposure may cause hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) including sensorineural disturbances. To investigate which factors had the strongest impact on work ability in vibration-exposed workers. A cross-sectional study in which vibration-exposed workers referred to a department of occupational and environmental medicine were compared with a randomized sample of unexposed subjects from the general population of the city of Gothenburg. All participants underwent a structured interview, answered several questionnaires and had a physical examination including measurements of hand and finger muscle strength and vibrotactile and thermal perception thresholds. The vibration-exposed group (47 subjects) showed significantly reduced sensitivity to cold and warmth in digit 2 bilaterally (P < 0.01) and in digit 5 in the left hand (P < 0.05) and to warmth in digit 5 in the right hand (P < 0.01), compared with the 18 referents. Similarly, tactilometry showed significantly raised vibration perception thresholds among the workers (P < 0.05). A strong relationship was found for the following multiple regression model: estimated work ability = 11.4 - 0.1 × age - 2.3 × current stress level - 2.5 × current pain in hands/arms (multiple r = 0.68; P < 0.001). Vibration-exposed workers showed raised vibrotactile and thermal perception thresholds, compared with unexposed referents. Multiple regression analysis indicated that stress disorders and muscle pain in hands/arms must also be considered when evaluating work ability among subjects with HAVS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  7. NEONATAL VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING IN COCAINE-EXPOSED AND NON-EXPOSED INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Lynn T.; Arendt, Robert; Fagan, Joseph; Minnes, Sonia; Salvator, Ann; Bolek, Tina; Becker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated early neonatal visual preferences in 267 poly drug exposed neonates (131 cocaine-exposed and 136 non-cocaine exposed) whose drug exposure was documented through interviews and urine and meconium drug screens. Infants were given four visual recognition memory tasks comparing looking time to familiarized stimuli of lattices and rectangular shapes to novel stimuli of a schematic face and curved hourglass and bull’s eye forms. Cocaine-exposed infants performed more poorly, after consideration of confounding factors, with a relationship of severity of cocaine exposure to lower novelty score found for both self-report and biologic measures of exposure, Findings support theories which link prenatal cocaine exposure to deficits in information processing entailing attentional and arousal organizational systems. Neonatal visual discrimination and attention tasks should be further explored as potentially sensitive behavioral indicators of teratologic effects. PMID:25717215

  8. Mitochondrial DNA deletion percentage in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin.

    PubMed

    Powers, Julia M; Murphy, Gillian; Ralph, Nikki; O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, James E J

    2016-12-01

    The percentages of mitochondrial genomes carrying the mtDNA 3895 and the mtDNA 4977 (common) deletion were quantified in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin biopsies, for five cohorts of patients varying either in sun exposure profile, age or skin cancer status. Non-melanoma skin cancer diagnoses are rising in Ireland and worldwide [12] but most risk prediction is based on subjective visual estimations of sun exposure history. A quantitative objective test for pre-neoplastic markers may result in better adherence to sun protective behaviours. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to be subject to the loss of a significant proportion of specific sections of genetic code due to exposure to ultraviolet light in sunlight. Although one such deletion has been deemed more sensitive, another, called the mtDNA 4977 or common deletion, has proved to be a more useful indicator of possible risk in this study. Quantitative molecular analysis was carried out to determine the percentage of genomes carrying the deletion using non sun exposed and sun exposed skin biopsies in cohorts of patients with high or low sun exposure profiles and two high exposure groups undergoing treatment for NMSC. Results indicate that mtDNA deletions correlate to sun exposure; in groups with high sun exposure habits a significant increase in deletion number in exposed over non sun exposed skin occurred. An increase in deletion percentage was also seen in older cohorts compared to the younger group. The mtDNA 3895 deletion was detected in small amounts in exposed skin of many patients, the mtDNA 4977 common deletion, although present to some extent in non sun exposed skin, is suggested to be the more reliable and easily detected marker. In all cohorts except the younger group with relatively lower sun exposure, the mtDNA 4977 deletion was more frequent in sun exposed skin samples compared to non-sun exposed skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Schulte, Wolfgang; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Demets, René; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS), carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency) EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form), lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR) experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center) in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center), according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status) or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data). In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  10. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    PubMed Central

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Schulte, Wolfgang; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Demets, René; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS), carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency) EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form), lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR) experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center) in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center), according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status) or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data). In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results. PMID

  11. The PUR Experiment on the EXPOSE-R facility: biological dosimetry of solar extraterrestrial UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérces, A.; Egyeki, M.; Fekete, A.; Horneck, G.; Kovács, G.; Panitz, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our experiment Phage and Uracil Response was to extend the use of bacteriophage T7 and uracil biological dosimeters for measuring the biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) dose in the harsh extraterrestrial radiation conditions. The biological detectors were exposed in vacuum-tightly cases in the European Space Agency (ESA) astrobiological exposure facility attached to the external platform of Zvezda (EXPOSE-R). EXPOSE-R took off to the International Space Station (ISS) in November 2008 and was installed on the External platform of the Russian module Zvezda of the ISS in March 2009. Our goal was to determine the dose-effect relation for the formation of photoproducts (i.e. damage to phage DNA and uracil, respectively). The extraterrestrial solar UV radiation ranges over the whole spectrum from vacuum-UV (λ<200 nm) to UVA (315 nm<λ<400 nm), which causes photolesions (photoproducts) in the nucleic acids/their components either by photoionization or excitation. However, these wavelengths cause not only photolesions but in a wavelength-dependent efficiency the reversion of some photolesions, too. Our biological detectors measured in situ conditions the resultant of both reactions induced by the extraterrestrial UV radiation. From this aspect the role of the photoreversion in the extension of the biological UV dosimetry are discussed.

  12. Spectacular Layers Exposed in Becquerel Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Toward the end of its Primary Mapping Mission, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) acquired one of its most spectacular pictures of layered sedimentary rock exposed within the ancient crater Becquerel. Pictures such as this one from January 25, 2001, underscore the fact that you never know from one day to the next what the next MOC images will uncover. While the Primary Mission ends January 31, 2001, thousands of new pictures--revealing as-yet-unseen terrain on the red planet--may be obtained during the Extended Mission phase, scheduled to run through at least April 2002.

    The picture shown here reveals hundreds of light-toned layers in the 167 kilometers (104 miles) wide basin named for 19th Century French physicist Antoine H. Becquerel (1852-1908). These layers are interpreted to be sedimentary rocks deposited in the crater at some time in the distant past. They have since been eroded and exposed, revealing faults, dark layers between the bright layers, and a long geologic history (of unknown duration) recorded in these materials. Sets of parallel faults can be seen cutting across the layers in the left third of the image. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the top/upper right.

  13. Normal Modes Expose Active Sites in Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Glantz-Gashai, Yitav; Meirson, Tomer; Samson, Abraham O

    2016-12-01

    Accurate prediction of active sites is an important tool in bioinformatics. Here we present an improved structure based technique to expose active sites that is based on large changes of solvent accessibility accompanying normal mode dynamics. The technique which detects EXPOsure of active SITes through normal modEs is named EXPOSITE. The technique is trained using a small 133 enzyme dataset and tested using a large 845 enzyme dataset, both with known active site residues. EXPOSITE is also tested in a benchmark protein ligand dataset (PLD) comprising 48 proteins with and without bound ligands. EXPOSITE is shown to successfully locate the active site in most instances, and is found to be more accurate than other structure-based techniques. Interestingly, in several instances, the active site does not correspond to the largest pocket. EXPOSITE is advantageous due to its high precision and paves the way for structure based prediction of active site in enzymes.

  14. Normal Modes Expose Active Sites in Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Glantz-Gashai, Yitav; Samson, Abraham O.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate prediction of active sites is an important tool in bioinformatics. Here we present an improved structure based technique to expose active sites that is based on large changes of solvent accessibility accompanying normal mode dynamics. The technique which detects EXPOsure of active SITes through normal modEs is named EXPOSITE. The technique is trained using a small 133 enzyme dataset and tested using a large 845 enzyme dataset, both with known active site residues. EXPOSITE is also tested in a benchmark protein ligand dataset (PLD) comprising 48 proteins with and without bound ligands. EXPOSITE is shown to successfully locate the active site in most instances, and is found to be more accurate than other structure-based techniques. Interestingly, in several instances, the active site does not correspond to the largest pocket. EXPOSITE is advantageous due to its high precision and paves the way for structure based prediction of active site in enzymes. PMID:28002427

  15. Population exposed to landslide risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; Munafò, Michele; Baiocco, Fabio; Marinosci, Ines; Chiocchini, Raffaella; Mugnoli, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Italy is one of the European countries most affected by landslides counting over 486,000 mass movements with a total area of 20,700 square kilometres equal to 6.9% of the national territory. Moreover Italy is a densely urbanized country: 8101 municipalities, about 200 inhabitants per sq. km, 16,000 km of rail network and 180,000 km of road network. Landslides caused more than 5000 fatalities in the last century and considerable damage to urban areas, transport infrastructure and facilities, environmental and cultural heritage. The aim of this work is to estimate the population exposed to landslide risk in Italy. The input data are: the Italian Landslide Inventory, the Italian Population Census data and the high-resolution Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer (Geoland2). The Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) realised by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-governing Provinces, identifies landslides occurred in the national territory in accordance with standardized methods and using a detailed landslide mapping (1:10,000 scale). The 14th Population Census, made by ISTAT (Italian National Institute of Statistics) in 2001, contains data of resident population for the 382,534 census tracts in which Italy is divided. The pan-European high-resolution (HR) Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer, realized using remote sensing data within the GMES initiative (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) by European Commission and European Space Agency, contains the degree of imperviousness (between 0 and 100%). GIS overlay of this information layer (20 x 20 m grid) with census tracts has allowed the spatialization of population within urban settlements of each census tract. This methodology has been particularly useful in the case of rural census tracts characterized by large surface area and low population density. The methodology could be also applied to estimate the population exposed to

  16. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for immediate...

  17. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for immediate...

  18. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for immediate...

  19. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for immediate...

  20. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for immediate...

  1. Post-exposed fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gary A.

    This thesis explains the development and characterization of a novel technique to fabricate weak fiber Bragg gratings for highly specific multi-element sensor arrays. This method, termed the "rescan technique," involves re-exposing a local region of a grating to fringeless ultraviolet light to "trim" unwanted portions of the reflection spectrum. The spectral effects that result from a rescan can only be adequately described by inventing the concept of a three-dimensional index growth surface, where induced index is a function of both the writing intensity and the exposure time. Using this information, it is possible to predict the spectral response of a rescanned grating using a numerical model. For our model, we have modified the piecewise-uniform approach to include coefficients within the coupled-mode formulism that imitate the same scattering properties as the actual grating. By taking high accuracy measurements of the refractive index change in germanosilicate fiber, we have created the necessary 3D map of photoinduced index to accurately model gratings and their post-exposure spectra. We will also demonstrate that optical fiber exhibits what we call "exposure history"; the final index change in a region depends on the previous exposures conditions.

  2. Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers.

    PubMed

    McDiarmid, M A; Freeman, C S; Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1996-11-01

    As part of a settlement agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) involving exposure to cadmium (Cd), a battery production facility provided medical surveillance data to OSHA for review. Measurements of cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine were obtained for more than 100 workers over an 18-month period. Some airborne Cd exposure data were also made available. Two subpopulations of this cohort were of primary interest in evaluating compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the Cadmium Standard. These were a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure due to elevations in some biological parameter, and a group of platemakers. Platemaking had presented a particularly high exposure opportunity and had recently undergone engineering interventions to minimize exposure. The effect on three biological monitoring parameters of medical removal protection in the first group and engineering controls in platemakers is reported. Results reveal that both medical removal from cadmium exposures and exposure abatement through the use of engineering and work practice controls generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers. Implications for the success of interventions are discussed.

  3. Thyroid hormones in chronic heat exposed men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertner, A.; Israeli, R.; Lev, A.; Cassuto, Y.

    1983-03-01

    Previous reports have indicated that thyroid gland activity, is depressed in the heat. Total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) serum levels in 17 workers of the metal work shop at a plant near the Dead Sea and 8 workers in Beer Sheva, Israel were examined. The metal workshop of the plant near the Dead Sea is part of a large chemical plant. The one in Beer Sheva is part of a large construction company. Maintenance work, as well as metal work projects are performed in both workshops. During the work shifts, the workers of the Dead Sea plant were exposed to temperatures ranging from 30 36°C (May Oct.) and 14 21°C (Dec. Feb). In Beer Sheva the range was 25 32°C (June Sept.) and 10 17°C (Dec. Feb.). Total T4 was measured by competitive protein binding and total T3 by radioimmunoassay in blood drawn before work (0700) in July and January. In summer. T4 was higher and T3 was lower for both groups than in winter. The observed summer T3 decrease may result from depressed extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3. We conclude that the regulation of energy metabolism in hot climates may be related to extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3.

  4. Animal cruelty by children exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Currie, Cheryl L

    2006-04-01

    The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. A community sample of 47 mothers with two children and a history of domestic violence were compared to a matched sample of 45 mothers with two children who did not have such a history. Children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to have been cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The age and gender of children who were cruel to animals did not differ from children who were not cruel to animals. However, exposed children cruel to animals were significantly older than non-exposed children cruel to animals. Animal cruelty by children is correlated with exposure to domestic violence.

  5. [Psychological and neurobehavioral effects of aluminum on exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Guo, G; Ma, H; Wang, X

    1998-09-01

    To explore neurotoxicity and the changes in psychological and neurobehavioral functions in workers exposed to aluminum. Psychological status and neurobehavioral functions of 103 exposed workers and 64 controls were examined with Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery recommended by World Health Organization (WHO), and meanwhile, air concentrations of aluminum in the workplaces and urine levels of aluminum in the exposed workers were determined. Urine levels of aluminum in the exposed workers were markedly higher than those in non-exposed controls, with a statistical significance. Scores for tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion in the workers exposed to aluminum for more than ten years were significantly more than those in non-exposed controls. Scores of the performance of Santa Ana, digit symbol and pursuit aiming in the former were significantly lower, and no other changes in psychological and behavioral functions was found in workers exposed for less than ten years, except for their scores of pursuit aiming. Obvious changes in psychological status, neuromotor speed and their accuracy were observed in workers exposed to aluminum for a long term.

  6. [Oxidative Stress Level of Vanadium-exposed Workers].

    PubMed

    Wei, Teng-da; Li, Shun-pin; Liu, Yun-xing; Tan, Chun-ping; Li, Juan; Zhang, Zu-hui; Lan, Ya-jia; Zhang, Qin

    2015-11-01

    To determine the oxidative stress level in peripheral blood of vanadium-exposed workers, as an indication of population health effect of vanadium on human neurobehavioral system. 86 vanadium-exposed workers and 65 non-exposed workers were recruited by cluster sampling. A questionnaire was administered to collect demographic and occupational exposure information. Serum activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents were detected by kit assay. The differences in oxidative stress level between vanadium-exposed and non-exposed workers were compared. Vanadium-exposed workers had higher levels of MDA contents than the controls. The total superoxide dismutase(T-SOD) activity in vanadium-exposed workers was significantly lower than that in the controls, which was associated with lowered levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. No changes in serum levels of cupro-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) was found in vanadium-exposed workers. No difference in iNOS activity was found between vanadium-exposed workers and controls. Vanadium exposure increases free radical production in serum and reduces antioxidant capacity. But the relationship between vanadium exposure and iNOS damage remains uncertain.

  7. Assessing the photoaging process at sun exposed and non-exposed skin using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Kurachi, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Photoaging is the skin premature aging due to exposure to ultraviolet light, which damage the collagen, elastin and can induce alterations on the skin cells DNA, and, then, it may evolve to precancerous lesions, which are widely investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and lifetime. The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime analysis has been presented as a technique of great potential for biological tissue characterization at optical diagnostics. The main targeted fluorophores are NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), which have free and bound states, each one with different average lifetimes. The average lifetimes for free and bound NADH and FAD change according to tissue metabolic alterations and may contribute to a non-invasive clinical investigation of injuries such as skin lesions. These lesions and the possible areas where they may develop can be interrogated using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy taking into account the variability of skin phototypes and the changes related to melanin, collagen and elastin, endogenous fluorophores which have emissions that spectrally overlap to the NADH and FAD emission. The objective of this study is to assess the variation on fluorescence lifetimes of normal skin at sun exposed and non-exposed areas and associate this variation to the photoaging process.

  8. Reactivity and Regulation in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy; Bendersky, Margaret; Ramsay, Douglas; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Children prenatally exposed to cocaine may be at elevated risk for adjustment problems in early development because of greater reactivity and reduced regulation during challenging tasks. Few studies have examined whether cocaine-exposed children show such difficulties during the preschool years, a period marked by increased social and cognitive…

  9. Neurobehavioral Syndromes in Cocaine-Exposed Newborn Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Barry M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The effects of fetal cocaine exposure on newborn cry characteristics were studied in 80 cocaine-exposed and 80 control infants. Findings were consistent with the notion that two neurobehavioral syndromes, excitable and depressed, can be described in cocaine-exposed infants and that these two syndromes are a result of direct neurotoxic effects and…

  10. The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holden, George W.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence…

  11. Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

  12. Children Exposed in Utero to Illegal Drugs: Education's Newest Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaison Bulletin, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin highlights topics addressed at a National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) Action Seminar on Infants Exposed to Illicit Drugs and Alcohol in Utero. The incidence of babies being born exposed to cocaine and other illicit drugs is outlined, and it is concluded that numbers appear to be on the rise. The…

  13. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison...

  14. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison...

  15. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle...

  16. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison...

  17. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle...

  18. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle...

  19. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison...

  20. Behavioral Treatment of Drug Exposed Infants: Analyzing and Treating Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Mary R.

    1992-01-01

    Some children who are exposed to cocaine prenatally or in infancy exhibit neurological and behavioral difficulties or developmental delays in preschool. The causes and treatment of aggression in one child in a preschool program who had been prenatally exposed to cocaine is described. (SM)

  1. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed as children.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hitomi; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Miyao, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiromi; Sato, Yuzo; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    To compare cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors exposed as children with cancer mortality among an unexposed control group (the entire population of Japan, JPCG). The subjects were the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivor groups (0-14 years of age in 1945) reported in life span study report 12 (follow-up years were from 1950 to 1990), and a control group consisting of the JPCG. We estimated the expected number of deaths due to all causes and cancers of various causes among the exposed survivors who died in the follow-up interval, if they had died with the same mortality as the JPCG (0-14 years of age in 1945). We calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of A-bomb survivors in comparison with the JPCG. SMRs were significantly higher in exposed boys overall for all deaths, all cancers, leukemia, and liver cancer, and for exposed girls overall for all cancers, solid cancers, liver cancer, and breast cancer. In boys, SMRs were significantly higher for all deaths and liver cancer even in those exposed to very low doses, and for all cancers, solid cancers, and liver cancer in those exposed to low doses. In girls, SMRs were significantly higher for liver cancer and uterine cancer in those exposed to low doses, and for leukemia, solid cancers, stomach cancer, and breast cancer in those exposed to high doses. We calculated the SMRs for the A-bomb survivors versus JPCG in childhood and compared them with a true non-exposed group. A notable result was that SMRs in boys exposed to low doses were significantly higher for solid cancer.

  2. Survey on Urinary Levels of Aflatoxins in Professionally Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Fulvio; Brera, Carlo; De Santis, Barbara; Fedrizzi, Giorgio; Bacci, Tiziana; Bedogni, Lorena; Capanni, Sauro; Collini, Giorgia; Crespi, Enrica; Debegnach, Francesca; Ferdenzi, Patrizia; Gargano, Angelo; Gattei, Daniela; Luberto, Ferdinando; Magnani, Ines; Magnani, Massimo Giuseppe; Mancuso, Pamela; Menotta, Simonetta; Mozzanica, Stefania; Olmi, Milva; Ombrini, Giuseppe; Sala, Orietta; Soricelli, Sabina; Vicentini, Massimo; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Feed mill workers may handle or process maize contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs). This condition may lead to an unacceptable intake of toxins deriving from occupational exposure. This study assessed the serological and urinary levels of AFs in workers exposed to potentially contaminated dusts in two mills. From March to April 2014, blood and urine samples were collected, on Monday and Friday morning of the same working week from 29 exposed workers and 30 non-exposed controls. AFs (M1, G2, G1, B1, B2) and aflatoxicol (AFOH) A were analyzed. Each subject filled in a questionnaire to evaluate potential food-borne exposures to mycotoxins. AFs contamination in environmental dust was measured in both plants. No serum sample was found to be positive. Seventy four percent of urine samples (73.7%) revealed AFM1 presence. AFM1 mean concentration was 0.035 and 0.027 ng/mL in exposed and non-exposed workers, respectively (p = 0.432); the concentration was slightly higher in Friday’s than in Monday’s samples, in exposed workers, 0.040 versus (vs.) 0.031 and non-exposed controls (0.030 vs. 0.024, p = 0.437). Environmental AFs contamination ranged from 7.2 to 125.4 µg/kg. The findings of this study reveal the presence of higher AFs concentration in exposed workers than in non-exposed controls, although these differences are to be considered consistent with random fluctuations. PMID:28338636

  3. [A survey of occupational health among polyether-exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Fu, Xu-ying; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Chun-ping; Zheng, Guan-hua; Bai, Lan; Zhang, Pan-pan

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the occupational health of the workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 70 front-line workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene (exposure group) and 50 managers (control group) in a polyether manufacturer; in addition, air monitoring at workplace and occupational health examination were also performed. The obtained data were analyzed. The female workers in exposure group and the spouses of male workers in exposure group had significantly higher spontaneous abortion rates than their counterparts in control group (P < 0.01). The exposure group had a significantly higher abnormal rate of blood urea nitrogen than the control group (P < 0.01). The workers with different polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean levels of DNA damage than the control group (P < 0.01); the workers with not less than 5 and less than 20 polyether-exposed working years and those with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than the control group (P < 0.01); there were no significant differences in overall chromosome aberration rate and mean level of DNA damage between each two groups of workers with different polyether-exposed working years (P > 0.05); the workers with not less than 5 and less than 20 polyether-exposed working years and workers with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than those with less than 5 polyether-exposed working years (P < 0.01). Simultaneous exposure to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene causes occupational hazards among the workers in polyether manufacturer.

  4. Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine and Crack: Implications for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Jeff B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper considers the major consequences of prenatal exposure to cocaine, including physiological effects and characteristics of exposed infants and then goes on to discuss the education of these children, noting various behavioral approaches and the importance of assessment. (DB)

  5. VERTEBRAL DYSPLASIA IN YOUNG FISH EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDE TRIFLURALIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede, exposed to 5-5 to 31 micrograms/l of the herbicide trifluralin, throughout their first 28 days of life, developed a heretofore, undescribed vertebral dysplasia. This dysplasia consisted of semisymmetrical hypertrophy of vertebra...

  6. Detail view of the exposed polychromatic aggregate ceiling designed and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the exposed polychromatic aggregate ceiling designed and cast by John Joseph Earley for the vehicular entrance portals to the courtyard - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 98. DETAIL VIEW OF STORM DAMAGE AND EXPOSED SUBSTRUCTURE, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. DETAIL VIEW OF STORM DAMAGE AND EXPOSED SUBSTRUCTURE, NORTHWEST SIDE OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING WEST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. Pulmonary function and symptoms in workers exposed to wood dust.

    PubMed Central

    Shamssain, M H

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to wood dust can cause a variety of lung problems, including chronic airflow obstruction. METHODS: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100), forced expiratory flow (FEF), forced mid expiratory flow (FMF), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, breathlessness, wheezing, and nasal symptoms) were recorded in 145 non-smoking workers (77 male, 68 female) exposed to wood dust in a furniture factory in Umtata, Republic of Transkei, and 152 non-smoking control subjects (77 male, 75 female) from a bottling factory with a clean environment. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and standing height the forced expiratory indices were significantly lower in the exposed male workers than in the control subjects. FEF and PEF in the exposed men were 81.3% and 89.4% of predicted values and were lower than other indices. FVC in exposed men showed a significant inverse correlation with exposure (expressed in number of years of employment). The FVC was reduced by 26 ml per year of employment. The proportion of men with an FEV1/FVC below 70 was higher in exposed workers than in control subjects and higher in the exposed workers with more years of employment. The exposed workers had more respiratory symptoms than the control subjects, the prevalence, especially of cough and nasal symptoms, increasing with the increase in the number of years of employment. CONCLUSION: Workers exposed to pine and fibre dust have more respiratory symptoms and a greater risk of airflow obstruction. PMID:1549828

  9. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D M

    1984-01-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH). PMID:6743584

  10. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Smith, D M

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  11. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-exposed-uninfected children versus those not exposed to HIV.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Stephen J; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Vibol, Ung; Aurpibul, Linda; Vonthanak, Sophan; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Ratanadilok, Kattiya; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Pruksakaew, Kanchana; van der Lugt, Jasper; Paul, Robert; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Valcour, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative children born to HIV-infected mothers may exhibit differences in neurodevelopment (ND) compared to age- and gender-matched controls whose lives have not been affected by HIV. This could occur due to exposure to HIV and antiretroviral agents in utero and perinatally, or differences in the environment in which they grow up. This study assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children enrolled as controls in a multicenter ND study from Thailand and Cambodia. One hundred sixty HEU and 167 HUU children completed a neurodevelopmental assessment using the Beery Visual Motor Integration (VMI) test, Color Trails, Perdue Pegboard, and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Thai children (n = 202) also completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (IQ) and Stanford-Binet II memory tests. In analyses adjusted for caregiver education, parent as caregiver, household income, age, and ethnicity, statistically significant lower scores were seen on verbal IQ (VIQ), full-scale IQ (FSIQ), and Binet Bead Memory among HEU compared to HUU. The mean (95% CI) differences were -6.13 (-10.3 to -1.96), p = 0.004; -4.57 (-8.80 to -0.35), p = 0.03; and -3.72 (-6.57 to -0.88), p = 0.01 for VIQ, FSIQ, and Binet Bead Memory, respectively. We observed no significant differences in performance IQ, other Binet memory domains, Color Trail, Perdue Pegboard, Beery VMI, or CBCL test scores. We conclude that HEU children evidence reductions in some neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to HUU; however, these differences are small and it remains unclear to what extent they have immediate and long-term clinical significance.

  12. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-exposed-uninfected children versus those not exposed to HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Stephen J.; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Vibol, Ung; Aurpibul, Linda; Vonthanak, Sophan; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Ratanadilok, Kattiya; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Pruksakaew, Kanchana; van der Lugt, Jasper; Paul, Robert; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Valcour, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative children born to HIV-infected mothers may exhibit differences in neurodevelopment (ND) compared to age- and gender-matched controls whose lives have not been affected by HIV. This could occur due to exposure to HIV and antiretroviral agents in utero and perinatally, or differences in the environment in which they grow up. This study assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children enrolled as controls in a multicenter ND study from Thailand and Cambodia. One hundred sixty HEU and 167 HUU children completed a neurodevelopmental assessment using the Beery Visual Motor Integration (VMI) test, Color Trails, Perdue Pegboard, and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Thai children (n = 202) also completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (IQ) and Stanford-Binet II memory tests. In analyses adjusted for caregiver education, parent as caregiver, household income, age, and ethnicity, statistically significant lower scores were seen on verbal IQ (VIQ), full-scale IQ (FSIQ), and Binet Bead Memory among HEU compared to HUU. The mean (95% CI) differences were −6.13 (−10.3 to −1.96), p = 0.004; −4.57 (−8.80 to −0.35), p = 0.03; and −3.72 (−6.57 to −0.88), p = 0.01 for VIQ, FSIQ, and Binet Bead Memory, respectively. We observed no significant differences in performance IQ, other Binet memory domains, Color Trail, Perdue Pegboard, Beery VMI, or CBCL test scores. We conclude that HEU children evidence reductions in some neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to HUU; however, these differences are small and it remains unclear to what extent they have immediate and long-term clinical significance. PMID:24878112

  13. Cardiovascular changes in workers exposed to fine particulate dust.

    PubMed

    Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Stroszejn-Mrowca, Grażyna; Szyjkowska, Agata; Szymczak, Wiesław; Koszada-Włodarczyk, Wiesława; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide evidence that airborne particulate matter may contribute to the increased incidence and mortality rates due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Only some of them address the problem of occupational exposure to particulate air pollution. The aim of our study was to assess cardiovascular reaction and autonomic regulation in workers exposed to fine particles. All workers had medical examination, resting ECG with heart rate variability analysis (HRV), 24-h ECG, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. The subjects were 20 male workers (mean age: 32.14.0 year) of a ceramic ware factory exposed to the dust and 20 workers who were not exposed (mean age: 39.4±7.8 year). The period of employment under exposure amounted to 5.6±2.1 year. Dust exposure was measured using individual dosimeters. The geometric mean total dust concentration was 44±1.5 mg/m(3) and the FPD (fine particulate dust) concentration amounted to 11.5±1.6 mg/m(3). No abnormalities were noted in the resting ECG in both groups, in 24-h ECG 2 subjects, both from exposed and control groups, had ventricular heart rhythm and repolarization disturbances. Blood pressure in ABPM, both systolic as well as diastolic, was normal and did not differ between the groups. Resting heart rate in the exposed group was significantly lower (p = 0.038) than in the control group. In the exposed group STD R-R from short-term records was significantly higher (p = 0.01). Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis showed that the low frequency power spectrum (LF) did not differ in the exposed and the control group, while high frequency (HF) was significantly higher in the exposed group. LF/HF ratio was significantly lower in the exposed in comparison with the control group. Although we did not reveal significant abnormalities in ECG as well as in ABPM in the exposed group, it seems that neurovegetative disturbances (parasympathetic predominance) may serve as an early indicator of

  14. Cancer in patients with rheumatic diseases exposed to TNF antagonists.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Loreto; Abasolo, Lydia; Descalzo, Miguel A; Pérez-Zafrilla, Beatriz; Sellas, Agustí; de Abajo, Francisco; Gomez-Reino, Juan J

    2011-08-01

    To describe the risk of cancer in patients exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists. The following 2 clinical cohorts were studied: (1) BIOBADASER 2.0: a registry of patients suffering from rheumatic diseases exposed to TNF antagonists (2531 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 1488 spondyloarthropathies, and 675 other rheumatic conditions); and (2) EMECAR: a cohort of 789 RA patients not exposed to TNF antagonists. Cancer incidence rates (IR) per 1000 patient-years and incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated for BIOBADASER 2.0 and EMECAR patients. The IR over time in BIOBADASER 2.0 patients was analyzed by joinpoint regression. The IRR was estimated to compare cancer rates in exposed versus nonexposed RA patients. Standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIR, SMR) were also estimated. Risk factors for cancer in patients exposed to TNF antagonists were investigated by generalized linear models. The SMR for cancer in BIODASER 2.0 was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.51-0.86), and the SIR was 0.1 (95% CI 0.03-0.23). The IR in RA patients exposed to TNF antagonists was 5.8 (95% CI: 4.4-7.6), and the adjusted IRR was 0.48 (95% CI: 0.09-2.45). The IR in patients with previous cancer was 26.4 (95% CI: 4.1-171.5). Age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and steroids were associated with a higher risk of developing cancer. The IR decreased after the first 4 months of exposure, without statistical significance. Overall cancer and mortality rates in patients with rheumatic diseases exposed to TNF antagonists are no higher than in the background Spanish population. However special attention should be paid to elderly patients, those with previous cancers, and patients treated with steroids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Whole DNA methylome profiling in mice exposed to secondhand smoke.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Stella; Zheng, Albert; Yoon, Jae-In; Li, Arthur Xuejun; Wu, Xiwei; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2012-11-01

    Aberration of DNA methylation is a prime epigenetic mechanism of carcinogenesis. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs frequently in lung cancer, with exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) being an established risk factor. The causal role of SHS in the genesis of lung cancer, however, remains elusive. To investigate whether SHS can cause aberrant DNA methylation in vivo, we have constructed the whole DNA methylome in mice exposed to SHS for a duration of 4 mo, both after the termination of exposure and at ensuing intervals post-exposure (up to 10 mo). Our genome-wide and gene-specific profiling of DNA methylation in the lung of SHS-exposed mice revealed that all groups of SHS-exposed mice and controls share a similar pattern of DNA methylation. Furthermore, the methylation status of major repetitive DNA elements, including long-interspersed nuclear elements (LINE L1), intracisternal A particle long-terminal repeat retrotransposons (IAP-LTR), and short-interspersed nuclear elements (SINE B1), in the lung of all groups of SHS-exposed mice and controls remains comparable. The absence of locus-specific gain of DNA methylation and global loss of DNA methylation in the lung of SHS-exposed mice within a timeframe that precedes neoplastic-lesion formation underscore the challenges of lung cancer biomarker development. Identifying the initiating events that cause aberrant DNA methylation in lung carcinogenesis may help improve future strategies for prevention, early detection and treatment of this highly lethal disease.

  16. Whole DNA methylome profiling in mice exposed to secondhand smoke

    PubMed Central

    Tommasi, Stella; Zheng, Albert; Yoon, Jae-In; Li, Arthur Xuejun; Wu, Xiwei; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Aberration of DNA methylation is a prime epigenetic mechanism of carcinogenesis. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs frequently in lung cancer, with exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) being an established risk factor. The causal role of SHS in the genesis of lung cancer, however, remains elusive. To investigate whether SHS can cause aberrant DNA methylation in vivo, we have constructed the whole DNA methylome in mice exposed to SHS for a duration of 4 mo, both after the termination of exposure and at ensuing intervals post-exposure (up to 10 mo). Our genome-wide and gene-specific profiling of DNA methylation in the lung of SHS-exposed mice revealed that all groups of SHS-exposed mice and controls share a similar pattern of DNA methylation. Furthermore, the methylation status of major repetitive DNA elements, including long-interspersed nuclear elements (LINE L1), intracisternal A particle long-terminal repeat retrotransposons (IAP-LTR), and short-interspersed nuclear elements (SINE B1), in the lung of all groups of SHS-exposed mice and controls remains comparable. The absence of locus-specific gain of DNA methylation and global loss of DNA methylation in the lung of SHS-exposed mice within a timeframe that precedes neoplastic-lesion formation underscore the challenges of lung cancer biomarker development. Identifying the initiating events that cause aberrant DNA methylation in lung carcinogenesis may help improve future strategies for prevention, early detection and treatment of this highly lethal disease. PMID:23051858

  17. [Biochemical evaluation on rural workers exposed to pesticides].

    PubMed

    Simoniello, María Fernanda; Kleinsorge, Elisa C; Carballo, Marta A

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops but may represent a potential risk to farmers and the environment. The aim of this work was to evaluate horticultural workers exposed to pesticide, categorized by: direct exposure (n = 45), indirect exposure (n = 50) and controls (n = 50) using exposure and effect biomarkers: cholinesterase (ChE), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), Damage Index Comet Assay (IDEC) and Damage Index Repair Assay (IDER). Our results show: a) an AChE inhibition in directly and indirectly exposed population (p < 0.001), b) significant increase in the levels of TBARS in direct exposure (p < 0.001), c) the CAT reduction was significant (p < 0.01), d) a significant increase in IDEC and IDER in both exposed groups (p < 0.001). Our results evidence variations in oxidative balance and DNA damage in exposed workers. These findings represent a contribution to the sub-clinical evaluation of subjects exposed to agrochemicals in our country.

  18. Arsenic in Mexican children exposed to contaminated well water.

    PubMed

    Monroy-Torres, Rebeca; Macías, Alejandro E; Gallaga-Solorzano, Juan Carlos; Santiago-García, Enrique Javier; Hernández, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study measures the arsenic level in school children exposed to contaminated well water in a rural area in México. Arsenic was measured in hair by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Overall, 110 children were included (average 10 years-old). Among 55 exposed children, mean arsenic level on hair was 1.3 mg/kg (range <0.006-5.9). All unexposed children had undetectable arsenic levels. The high level of arsenic in water was associated to the level in hair. However, exposed children drank less well water at school or at home than unexposed children, suggesting that the use of contaminated water to cook beans, broths or soups may be the source of arsenic exposure.

  19. Exposed subsurface ice sheets in the Martian mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dundas, Colin M.; Bramson, Ali M.; Ojha, Lujendra; Wray, James J.; Mellon, Michael T.; Byrne, Shane; McEwen, Alfred S.; Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Viola, Donna; Sutton, Sarah; Clark, Erin; Holt, John W.

    2018-01-01

    Thick deposits cover broad regions of the Martian mid-latitudes with a smooth mantle; erosion in these regions creates scarps that expose the internal structure of the mantle. We investigated eight of these locations and found that they expose deposits of water ice that can be >100 meters thick, extending downward from depths as shallow as 1 to 2 meters below the surface. The scarps are actively retreating because of sublimation of the exposed water ice. The ice deposits likely originated as snowfall during Mars’ high-obliquity periods and have now compacted into massive, fractured, and layered ice. We expect the vertical structure of Martian ice-rich deposits to preserve a record of ice deposition and past climate.

  20. Cytogenetic investigation of subjects professionally exposed to radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Maes, Annemarie; Van Gorp, Urbain; Verschaeve, Luc

    2006-03-01

    Nowadays, virtually everybody is exposed to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from mobile phone base station antennas or other sources. At least according to some scientists, this exposure can have detrimental health effects. We investigated cytogenetic effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes from subjects who were professionally exposed to mobile phone electromagnetic fields in an attempt to demonstrate possible RFR-induced genetic effects. These subjects can be considered well suited for this purpose as their RFR exposure is 'normal' though rather high, and definitely higher than that of the 'general population'. The alkaline comet assay, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberration tests revealed no evidence of RFR-induced genetic effects. Blood cells were also exposed to the well known chemical mutagen mitomycin C in order to investigate possible combined effects of RFR and the chemical. No cooperative action was found between the electromagnetic field exposure and the mutagen using either the comet assay or SCE test.

  1. Prolactin levels in manganese-exposed male welders.

    PubMed

    Tutkun, Engin; Abuşoğlu, Sedat; Yılmaz, Hinç; Gündüzöz, Meşide; Gıynas, Nilgün; Bal, Ceylan Demir; Ünlü, Ali

    2014-12-01

    Early studies on manganese (Mn) exposure have demonstrated that this transition metal affects dopamine neurotransmission. Dopamine serves as a tonic inhibitor of prolactin release in the anterior hypophysis. Our aim was to determine the relation between serum prolactin levels and manganese-exposure. Whole blood was collected from 95 non-exposed control subjects and 179 manganese-exposed male welders. Whole blood manganese was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma--Mass Spectrometer on Agilent 7700 (Agilent Technologies, USA). Serum prolactin levels (PRL), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), urea, creatinine, soduim (Na), potassium (K) were analyzed by immunological and spectrophotometric methods on Roche E170 Modular System (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). The mean ages for control and manganese-exposed group were 40.5 ± 7.8 and 39.5 ± 8.7, respectively (p = 0.258). The mean working period (years) for control and manganese-exposed group were 17.4 ± 9.8 and 18.2 ± 7.7 years, respectively (p = 0.581). Serum AST and potassium levels were significantly higher in control group than manganese-exposed group (p = 0.002 and p = 0.048, respectively) and body-mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in control group than manganese-exposed group (p = 0.033). There was a significantly positive correlation between whole blood manganese levels and serum prolactin (r = 0.860, p < 0.001). Serum ALT levels were positively correlated with serum AST, urea and sodium (r = 0.315, p < 0.001; r = 0.121, p = 0.046; r = 0.130, p = 0.031). Serum prolactin level is a diagnostic marker for determining the effect of manganese-exposure.

  2. Biomonitoring of Toxic Effects of Pesticides in Occupationally Exposed Individuals.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Muhammad; Siddiqa, Maryam; Rashid, Saddaf; Hashmi, Imran; Awan, Muhammad Ali; Ali, Muhammad Arif

    2016-06-01

    Workers in pesticide manufacturing industries are constantly exposed to pesticides. Genetic biomonitoring provides an early identification of potential cancer and genetic diseases in exposed populations. The objectives of this biomonitoring study were to assess DNA damage through comet assay in blood samples collected from industry workers and compare these results with those of classical analytical techniques used for complete blood count analysis. Samples from controls (n = 20) and exposed workers (n = 38) from an industrial area in Multan, Pakistan, were subjected to various tests. Malathion residues in blood samples were measured by gas chromatography. The exposed workers who were employed in the pesticide manufacturing industry for a longer period (i.e., 13-25 years) had significantly higher DNA tail length (7.04 μm) than the controls (0.94 μm). Workers in the exposed group also had higher white blood cell and red blood cell counts, and lower levels of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration, and mean corpuscular volume in comparison with normal levels for these parameters. Malathion was not detected in the control group. However, in the exposed group, 72% of whole blood samples had malathion with a mean value of 0.14 mg/L (range 0.01-0.31 mg/L). We found a strong correlation (R (2) = 0.91) between DNA damage in terms of tail length and malathion concentration in blood. Intensive efforts and trainings are thus required to build awareness about safety practices and to change industrial workers' attitude to prevent harmful environmental and anthropogenic effects.

  3. [Hepatotoxicity in healthy infants exposed to nevirapine during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Iveli, Pablo; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; Rovira-Girabal, Núria; Fortuny-Guasch, Clàudia; Figueras-Nadal, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    The use of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women is discouraged due to its potential to cause hepatotoxicity. There is limited information available on the toxicity in non-HIV infected newborn exposed to this drug during pregnancy. The aim of the study is to determine the extent of hepatotoxicity in the newborn exposed to nevirapine and HIV during pregnancy. A cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study was conducted on a cohort of healthy infants born to HIV-infected mothers, in whom the first determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), before 6weeks of age, was collected. Patients were allocated to 2groups according to exposure to nevirapine during pregnancy. Hepatotoxicity was rated according to the AIDS Table for Grading the Severity of Adult and Pediatric Adverse Events (DAIDS). This study included 160newborns from 159pregnancies (88exposed to nevirapine-based regimens and 71 exposed to protease inhibitors-based therapies). No cases of hepatotoxicity were observed according to the DAIDS Table for Grading. Two cases of ALT above normal values (2.8%; 95%CI: 0.3-9.8%) were observed in patients not exposed to nevirapine, and one case (1.1%; 95%CI: 0.0-6.1%) in the group exposed to nevirapine (P=.585). The lack of differences between groups suggests that highly active antiretroviral treatment regimens including nevirapine administered during pregnancy do not involve a higher risk of liver disease compared to other treatment combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Acoustic absorbance measurements in neonates exposed to smoking during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pucci, Beatriz Paloma Corrêa; Roque, Nayara Michelle Costa de Freitas; Gamero, Marcella Scigliano; Durante, Alessandra Spada

    2017-04-01

    To analyze acoustic absorbance using wideband tympanometry in neonates exposed to passive smoking during pregnancy. A study comprising 54 neonates in the control group (CG - unexposed) and 19 in the study group (SG - exposed) was carried out. Subjects were submitted to the wideband tympanometry test and subsequent analysis of absorbance of 17 frequencies. Low frequencies had a lower level of absorbance compared to high frequencies for both ambient and peak pressures, with no difference between the groups. No effect of passive smoking on acoustic absorbance measurements in neonates was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of indium tin oxide films exposed to atomic axygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Paul G.; De, Bhola N.; Woollam, John A.; Coutts, T. J.; Li, X.

    1989-01-01

    A qualitative simulation of the effects of atomic oxygen has been conducted on indium tin oxide (ITO) films prepared by dc sputtering onto room-temperature substrates, by exposing them to an RF-excited oxygen plasma and characterizing the resulting changes in optical, electrical, and structural properties as functions of exposure time with ellipsometry, spectrophotometry, resistivity, and X-ray measurements. While the films thus exposed exhibit reduced resistivity and optical transmission; both of these effects, as well as partial crystallization of the films, may be due to sample heating by the plasma. Film resistivity is found to stabilize after a period of exposure.

  6. Prescribing prophylaxis to patients who have been exposed to HIV.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Sue

    2012-03-01

    Emergency nurse practitioners should be prepared to prescribe post-exposure prophylaxis for sexual exposure (PEPSE) to people who may have been exposed to HIV, even where the number of such presentations is small. As this article makes clear, nurse prescribers require a sound knowledge of the drugs recommended in PEPSE protocols, and of their side effects, to relieve patients' anxiety and inform them about safe sexual practice. The article offers a case study and reflection to show that patients, particularly those who may have been exposed to HIV, who have been given the information they want are more likely to complete their courses of treatment.

  7. Care of the infant born exposed to human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Mendez, H; Jule, J E

    1990-09-01

    The expanding epidemic of HIV infection in reproductive-age women, the availability of antiretroviral therapy for children, and recommendations for increased case identification activities augur a time when more and more pediatricians are going to be called on to care for HIV-exposed infants. This article outlines a comprehensive medical framework for the care of these children from the labor and delivery setting to the nursery, outpatient clinic, and the emergency room. It includes issues of infection control; medical, developmental, and psychosocial care; and laboratory evaluations. Finally, it address the need for long-term follow-up of all children born exposed to HIV.

  8. Contaminations of inner surface of magnesium fluoride windows in the `Expose-R' experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurat, V. E.

    2017-10-01

    A series of experiments was carried out previously on board of the International Space Station in `EXPOSE-R', a multi-user expose facility, provided by European Space Agency attached to the external surface of the Russian Segment. In one experiment, spores of microorganisms and species of higher plant seeds, in heat-sealed polymer bags were irradiated by solar radiation passed through MgF2 windows in a high space vacuum. After sample exposure, it was found that in many cases the inner surfaces of windows were contaminated. Analysis of the contamination revealed the presence of chemical groups CH2, CH3, NH, OH, C═O, Si-CH3 (Demets et al. in 2015). Their presence in deposits was explained by photofixation of gaseous precursors - some of the vapours of glues and additives in polymeric materials in the core facility of `Expose-R'. Carbon-, oxygen- and silicon-containing groups may be deposited from outer intrinsic atmosphere. This atmosphere is connected with sample compartments and core facility. However, the presence of NH groups on inner surfaces of windows was not expected. This paper shows that the process responsible for carbon-, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing group formation can be a photopolymerization of caprolactam, which is released from the outer Nylon 6 layer of polymer bags under Solar vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

  9. Survival of Spores of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in Space: data from the Space Experiment SPORES on EXPOSE-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Katja; Lux-Endrich, Astrid; Panitz, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    In the space experiment `Spores in artificial meteorites' (SPORES), spores of the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years on board the EXPOSE-R facility outside of the International Space Station. The environmental conditions tested in space were: space vacuum at 10-7-10-4 Pa or argon atmosphere at 105 Pa as inert gas atmosphere, solar extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm with fluences up to 5.8 × 108 J m-2, cosmic radiation of a total dose range from 225 to 320 mGy, and temperature fluctuations from -25 to +50°C, applied isolated or in combination. Comparable control experiments were performed on ground. After retrieval, viability of spores was analysed by two methods: (i) ethidium bromide staining and (ii) test of germination capability. About 30% of the spores in vacuum survived the space travel, if shielded against insolation. However, in most cases no significant decrease was observed for spores exposed in addition to the full spectrum of solar UV irradiation. As the spores were exposed in clusters, the outer layers of spores may have shielded the inner part. The results give some information about the likelihood of lithopanspermia, the natural transfer of micro-organisms between planets. In addition to the parameters of outer space, sojourn time in space seems to be one of the limiting parameters.

  10. On the biology and food of small-sized fish from North and Baltic Sea areas. IV. Investigations on an eulittoral mud flat at Sylt Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. Dieter; Hartwig, Eike

    1982-03-01

    The fish fauna of an eulittoral mud flat was investigated at Sylt Island (North Sea) with special regard to its food uptake. During the course of a year the following species were caught: Pomatoschistus microps, Anguilla anguilla (elvers), Zoarces viviparus, and Gasterosteus aculeatus. Considering the potentially available food, the most abundant organisms of the benthos were harpacticoids and nematodes, whereas in the phytal layer gastropods and gammarids were dominant. The benthic biomass was found to be greatest in spring, while phytal organisms were most abundant in late summer. The greatest fish density was stated in September 1974 though only P. microps was present. The fish biomass was highest in spring when the elvers appeared. The main food of P. microps was epibenthos; in the diet of A. anguilla phytal organisms dominated over epibenthos, in G. aculeatus suprabenthic organisms were also present. The most prominent food component by biomass was gammarids in all investigated fish, whereas harpacticoids were only dominant in number. During the course of the year the biomass of ingested food yielded highest values in summer and autumn, but lowest in winter. A very great predatory activity was found in September 1974, which possibly caused a grazing effect on harpacticoids. An estimation of the turnover rate of small-sized fish in this month led to a value of 70 mg dry weight m-2 · d-1.

  11. Estimating the Number of Substance-Exposed Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomby, Deanna S.; Shiono, Patricia H.

    1991-01-01

    Estimates the number of infants exposed to legal and illegal substances before birth, drawing on 27 published reports and National Institute on Drug Abuse data. The following are estimated exposure levels: (1) cocaine, 2-3 percent; (2) marijuana, 3-12 percent; (3) cigarettes, 38 percent; and (4) alcohol, 73 percent. (SLD)

  12. PBF detail of metal pedestrian bridge over exposed control cables, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF detail of metal pedestrian bridge over exposed control cables, which run between Control (PER-619) and Reactor Buildings (PER-620). Camera facing northwest. Southwest corner of PER-620 at upper right of view. Date: May 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-41-6-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Protecting exposed tissues with external ultrasonic super-hydration.

    PubMed

    Silberg, Barry Neil

    2006-01-01

    The author contends that a technique preventing dehydration of exposed tissues, such as external ultrasonic super-hydration, will result in a lower morbidity rate, decreasing deep tissue pain, susceptibility to infection, fat necrosis, wound dehiscence, and improving recovery times. He discusses how he uses this technique in his aesthetic surgery practice.

  14. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  15. RESPIRATORY DAMAGE IN CHILDREN EXPOSED TO URBAN POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory


    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) children are chronically exposed to complex mixtures of air pollutants. In a cross-sectional arm of our study, we investigated the association between exposure to SWMMC atmosphere and nasal abnormalities, hyperinflation, and intersti...

  16. Equilibrium disorders in workers exposed to mixed solvents.

    PubMed

    Giorgianni, Concetto; Tanzariello, Mariagiuseppina; De Pasquale, Domenico; Brecciaroli, Renato; Spatari, Giovanna

    2018-02-06

    Organic solvents cause diseases of the vestibular system. However, little is known regarding the correlation between vestibular damage and exposure to organic solvents below threshold limit values. The best measure by which to evaluate vestibular disorders is static and dynamic posturography. The aim of this study was to evaluate equilibrium disorders via static and dynamic posturography in workers without clear symptoms and exposed to low doses of mixed solvents. 200 subjects were selected. Using an Otometrics device (Madsen, Denmark), all subjects endured static and dynamic posturography testing with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Results were compared with a control group of unexposed individuals. Based on the obtained data, the following results can be drawn: (a) subjects exposed to mixtures of solvents show highly significant differences regarding all static and dynamic posturography parameters in comparison to the control group; (b) posturography testing has proven to be a valid means by which to detect subliminal equilibrium disorders in subjects exposed to solvents. We can confirm that refinery workers exposed to mixtures of solvents can present subliminal equilibrium disorders. Early diagnosis of the latter is made possible by static and dynamic posturography.

  17. Semen quality of workers occupationally exposed to hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    De Celis, R; Feria-Velasco, A; González-Unzaga, M; Torres-Calleja, J; Pedrón-Nuevo, N

    2000-02-01

    To determine whether occupational exposure of men to hydrocarbons has adverse effects on the quality of their semen. Comparative study. The rubber industry in Mexico City. Forty-eight workers who were exposed to hydrocarbons for 2-24 years and 42 unexposed workers. None. Environmental hydrocarbon concentrations were determined by continuous air monitoring in all areas of the factory. Analyses of semen samples were performed in accordance with World Health Organization criteria. Hydrocarbon concentrations were as follows: ethylbenzene, 220.7-234 mg/m3; benzene, 31.9-47.8 mg/m3; toluene, 189.7-212.5 mg/m3; and xylene, 47-56.4 mg/m3. The number of subjects with ejaculates that had normal characteristics was greater in the unexposed group (76%) than in the exposed group (17%). More abnormal characteristics were found in the semen of exposed workers than unexposed workers, including alterations in viscosity, liquefaction capacity, sperm count, sperm motility, and the proportion of sperm with normal morphology. Some abnormal characteristics correlated with the number of years of exposure to the hydrocarbons. Damage to the spermatogenic process resulting from hydrocarbon exposure was demonstrated by an increased rate of abnormalities in the semen of exposed workers compared with unexposed workers. This information may be useful for conducting future analyses of reproductive risks related to exposure to high concentrations of hydrocarbons.

  18. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS...

  19. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8 Section 78.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS...

  20. EXPOSED BEAM AND VINYL VENTED SOFFIT MATERIAL IN THE CARPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXPOSED BEAM AND VINYL VENTED SOFFIT MATERIAL IN THE CARPORT ON THE SOUTHEAST SIDE OF THE UNIT - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Single-Family Type 6, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Central African Hunters Exposed to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Nathan D.; Ndongmo, Clement B.; McNicholl, Janet; Robbins, Kenneth E.; Aidoo, Michael; Fonjungo, Peter N.; Alemnji, George; Zeh, Clement; Djoko, Cyrille F.; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Burke, Donald S.; Folks, Thomas M.

    2005-01-01

    HIV-seronegative Cameroonians with exposure to nonhuman primates were tested for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Seroreactivity was correlated with exposure risk (p<0.001). One person had strong humoral and weak cellular immune reactivity to SIVcol peptides. Humans are exposed to and possibly infected with SIV, which has major public health implications. PMID:16485481

  2. 'Unicorn' among rats exposed to mycotoxins from Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Schoental, R

    1983-05-01

    A horn-like nodule developed in the middle of the forehead of a white rat, exposed perinatally to T-2 toxin and to zearalenone, the secondary metabolites of Fusarium. The hard nodule consisted mainly of keratine, derived from a squamous carcinoma spreading through the nasal turbinals and invading the brain.

  3. Profiles of Reactivity in Cocaine-Exposed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Pamela; Molnar, Danielle S.; Eiden, Rina D.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that specific, theoretically consistent profiles of reactivity could be identified in a sample of cocaine-exposed infants and whether these profiles were associated with a range of infant and/or maternal characteristics. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups of infants based on physiological,…

  4. Tree growth prediction using size and exposed crown area

    Treesearch

    Peter H. Wyckoff; James S. Clark

    2005-01-01

    We address the relationships between tree growth rate and growing environment for 21 co-occurring species. Tree growth rates are obtained from mapped plots at the Coweeta Long-Term Ecological Research site in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We employ high-resolution aerial photography to assess the light environment for trees growing in these plots, using exposed...

  5. 46 CFR 108.223 - Guards on exposed equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... have hand covers, guards, or rails installed on all belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards on exposed equipment. 108.223 Section 108.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN...

  6. Detail, oblique view to northeast atop building 935 showing exposed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, oblique view to northeast atop building 935 showing exposed roof sections of buildings 934 (center) and 933 (left), 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 3, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  7. RESPONSE OF BUSH BEAN EXPOSED TO ACID MIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender) were treated once a week for six weeks with simulated acid mist at five pH ranging from 5.5 to 2.0. Leaf injury developed on plants exposed to acid concentrations below pH 3 and many leaves developed a flecking symptom simila...

  8. Youth Exposed to Violence: The Role of Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Budge, Stephanie L.; McKay, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 174 inner-city urban high school students, this study examined the degree to which family and peer support would moderate the negative impact of exposure to violence on academic performance, symptoms of distress, and persistence intentions. Over 94% of the students reported having been exposed to at least one form of community…

  9. Proteomic Profiling of Bladders from Mice Exposed with Sodium Arsenite

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic, an environmental contaminant, has been linked with cancer of the bladder in humans. To study the mode of action of arsenic, female CH3 mice were exposed to 85 ppm sodium arsenite in their drinking water for 30 days. Following the exposure a comparative proteomic analysis...

  10. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in themore » exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.« less

  11. 15. A CLOSE UP VIEW OF ONE OF THE EXPOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. A CLOSE UP VIEW OF ONE OF THE EXPOSED AGGREGATE LAMP STANDARDS, ITS BRONZE DECORATED FERRULE AND BRONZE LENS RECEIVER. - County Line Bridge, Spanning St. Joseph River at State Route 219, 0.6 mile south of U.S. Route 20, Osceola, St. Joseph County, IN

  12. Out-of-Home Placement of Children Exposed to Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Berkowitz, Steven; Marans, Steven; Murphy, Robert A.; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing concern about the increasing number of children in the USA who are exposed to community violence and the need to remove some of them from their families. This study examines risk factors for out-of-home placement among a large pool of children and adolescents who were referred for general clinical assessment following exposure to…

  13. Genetic Predisposition for Dermal Problems in Hexavalent Chromium Exposed Population

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priti; Bihari, Vipin; Agarwal, Sudhir K.; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of genetic susceptibility on hexavalent chromium induced dermal adversities. The health status of population was examined from the areas of Kanpur (India) having the elevated hexavalent chromium levels in groundwater. Blood samples were collected for DNA isolation to conduct polymorphic determination of genes, namely: NQO1 (C609T), hOGG1 (C1245G), GSTT1, and GSTM1 (deletion). Symptomatic exposed subjects (n = 38) were compared with asymptomatic exposed subjects (n = 108) along with asymptomatic controls (n = 148) from a non contaminated reference community. Exposed symptomatic group consisted of 36.8% subjects who were GSTM1 null genotyped as compared to asymptomatic where only 19.4% subjects were null. The exposed subjects with GSTM1 null genotype were more susceptible to dermal adversities in comparison with wild genotyped subjects (OR = 2.42; 95% CI = 1.071–5.451). Age, smoking, gender or duration of residence were not found to have any confounding effect towards this association. Association with other genes was not statistically significant, nonetheless, possible contribution by these genes cannot be ruled out. In conclusion, variation in the polymorphic status of GSTM1 gene may influence dermal outcomes among residents from Cr(VI) contaminated areas. Further studies are therefore, needed to examine these observations among different population groups. PMID:22919465

  14. 18. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EXPOSED VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EXPOSED VIEW OF LOWER PULLEYS OF LEFT-HAND MILL. LOWER LEFT IS BAND SAW PULLEY. UPPER LEFT IS TENSION WHEEL. LARGE PULLEY ON RIGHT IS DRIVE WHEEL FROM POWER SOURCE. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  15. A Pill to Treat People Exposed to Radioactive Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2018-01-16

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  16. Parenting Stress and Child Maltreatment in Drug-Exposed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Susan J.

    1992-01-01

    This study, with 48 infants and toddlers (24 of which were drug exposed), found that mothers who used drugs during pregnancy reported higher levels of total parenting stress, child-related stress, and parent-related stress than foster mothers and comparison mothers. A strong association between maternal use of drugs and serious child maltreatment…

  17. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES OF MOUSE EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transcriptional responses of mouse embryo cultures exposed to bromochloroacetic acid

    Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III*
    ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductive Tox...

  18. Exposed Ice in the Northern Mid-Latitudes of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.

    2007-01-01

    Ice-Rich Layer: Polygonal features with dimensions of approximately 100 meters, bounded by cracks, are commonly observed on the martian northern plains. These features are generally attributed to thermal cracking of ice-rich sediments, in direct analogy to polygons in terrestrial polar regions. We mapped polygons in the northern mid-latitudes (30 to 65 N) using MOC and HiRISE images. Polygons are scattered across the northern plains, with a particular concentration in western Utopia Planitia. This region largely overlaps the Late Amazonian Astapus Colles unit, characterized by polygonal terrain and nested pits consistent with periglacial and thermokarst origins. Bright and Dark Polygonal Cracks: An examination of all MOC images (1997 through 2003) covering the study area demonstrated that, at latitudes of 55 to 65 N, most of the imaged polygons show bright bounding cracks. We interpret these bright cracks as exposed ice. Between 40 and 55 N, most of the imaged polygons show dark bounding cracks. These are interpreted as polygons from which the exposed ice has been removed by sublimation. The long-term stability limit for exposed ice, even in deep cracks, apparently lies near 55 N. Bright and Dark Spots: Many HiRISE and MOC frames showing polygons in the northern plains also show small numbers of bright and dark spots, particularly in western Utopia Planitia. Many of the spots are closely associated with collapse features suggestive of thermokarst. The spots range from tens to approximately 100 meters in diameter. The bright spots are interpreted as exposed ice, due to their prevalence on terrain mapped as ice rich. The dark spots are interpreted as former bright spots, which have darkened as the exposed ice is lost by sublimation. The bright spots may be the martian equivalents of pingos, ice-cored mounds found in periglacial regions on Earth. Terrestrial pingos from which the ice core has melted often collapse to form depressions similar to the martian dark spots

  19. [Color vision impairment in workers exposed to mercury vapor].

    PubMed

    Jedrejko, Marta; Skoczyńska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Acquired reversible dyschromatopsia has been associated with occupational exposure to mercury vapor. Early-detected impairments in color discrimination precede adverse permanent effects of mercury, so they may help to monitor the health of the exposed workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color discrimination ability in this group of workers, using Lanthony D-15d test. Employed in a chloralkali plant, 27 male workers exposed to mercury vapor and 27 healthy white-collar workers (control group) were qualified for the study. To assess color discrimination, the Lanthony 15-Hue desaturated test (Lanthony D-15) was used. In order to investigate quantitative and qualitative results, the Lanthony D-15d scoring software was performed. Urinary mercury was determined using flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. In the workers exposed to mercury vapor, urine mercury concentration was 117.4 +/- 62.6 microg/g creatinine on average compared with 0.279 +/- 0.224 mg/g creatinine in the control group (p < 0.0001). In 18 exposed persons (66.7%), the results of the Lanthony D-15d test showed qualitative changes, which are borderline corresponding to the early stage of developing dyschromatopsia type III. The quantitative analysis of the test findings indicated a significantly higher value of the Color Confusion Index (CCI) in the right eye in the exposed group compared to the control group (p = 0.01), with no significant difference in the CCI in the left eye. In the exposed group, the CCI in the right eye was significantly higher than the CCI in the left eye (p = 0.0005). There was neither correlation between CCI and the level of urinary mercury, nor between CCI and duration of exposure. The results showed that the Lanthony D-15d test is useful in the detection of early toxic effects in the eyesight of the workers exposed to mercury vapor. The observed color vision impairments are borderline corresponding to the early stage of developing dyschromatopsia type III.

  20. [Effect of lead-exposed astrocytes on neuronal synaptic formation].

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan; Li, Tingting; Yu, Haiyang; Liao, Yingjun; Jin, Yaping

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effect of lead-exposed astrocyte conditioned medium (ACM) on the synaptic formation of neurons and to provide reference for the mechanism of lead neurotoxicity. Astrocytes were cultured in the medium containing 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 µmol/L lead acetate for 72 h. Alamar Blue was used to assess the cell viability of astrocytes, and then ACM was collected. Primarily cultured neurons were divided into six groups: pure culture group, non-glutamic acid (Glu)-induced ACM treatment group, Glu-induced lead-free ACM treatment group, and Glu-induced 50, 100, and 200 µmol/L lead acetate-exposed ACM treatment groups. Neurons were collected after being cultured in ACM for 24, 48, or 72 h. The content of synaptophysin (SYP) in neurons was determined by Western blot. The SYP expression in neurons was measured by immunofluorescence after being cultured in ACMfor 72 h. In all lead-exposed groups, the cell viability of astrocytes declined with increasing concentration of lead (P < 0.05). The Western blot showed that compared with the pure culture group, the non-Glu-induced ACM treatment group and Glu-induced lead- free ACM treatment group had significantly increased content of SYP in neurons (P < 0.01); compared with the non-Glu-induced ACM treatment group, the Glu-induced ACM treatment groups had significantly reduced SYP expression in neurons (P < 0.05); compared with the Glu-induced lead-free ACM treatment group, all lead-exposed ACM treatment groups had the content of SYP in neurons significantly reduced with increasing concentration of lead after 72-h culture (P < 0.01), the 200 µmol/L lead-exposed ACM treatment group had significantly reduced content of SYP in neurons after 48-h culture (P < 0.01), and all lead-exposed ACM treatment groups showed no significant changes in the content of SYP in neurons after 24-h culture. Double-labeling immunofluorescence of SYP showed that all lead-exposed ACM treatment groups had a significant decrease in the number

  1. Immunological studies in cattle exposed to polybrominated biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Kateley, John R.; Bazzell, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The intactness of the immune system in cattle exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) has been investigated by using several immunoassays. Eighty-seven animals have been studied, 35 control animals (not exposed to PBBs) and 52 animals exposed to PBBs (0.02–30 ppm/g fat equivalent). The immunoassays included a complete blood count, identification of peripheral blood T and B lymphocyte subpopulations, serum immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, and IgA), the in vitro response to lymphocytes to phytolectins (PHA, Con A, PWM), the antibody response to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), the cell-mediated response to PPD, and determination of autoantibodies and/or immunosuppressive serum factors. For control and PBB-exposed cattle, there was no statistical difference between the number of circulating erythrocytes or leukocytes, the hematocrit, or hemoglobin content; the percentage or number of T and B lymphocytes; the isotope incorporation index (DNA synthesis) of lymphocytes in response to mitogens; the concentrations of serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, or IgA; the mean peak titer to KLH; or in vivo or in vitro immune response to PPD. Additional evaluation of cattle with tissue levels of PBB greater than 3 ppm/g tissue for hematological and immunological parameters revealed no statistical difference from control animals. Other experiments were performed to evaluate serum from cattle exposed to PBBs for autoantibodies to smooth muscle, mitochondrial or nuclear antigens. No evidence for autoantibodies was observed. Further studies were done to examine the cytotoxic and/or immunosuppressive activity of sera from PBB-exposed animals. In these studies, the blastogenic response of lymphocytes from control cattle and humans were evaluated in the presence and absence of serum from animals exposed to PBBs (> 3 ppm/g tissue). No evidence for either a cytotoxic or an immunosuppressive influence of such sera was demonstrable. Our studies indicate that PBB, at the levels studied, does

  2. Obstetric Outcomes of Mothers Previously Exposed to Sexual Violence.

    PubMed

    Gisladottir, Agnes; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Harlow, Bernard L; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Jonsdottir, Eyrun; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Hauksdottir, Arna; Aspelund, Thor; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A

    2016-01-01

    There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age) or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence. We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS) to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR). Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later) at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068). For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126) matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI) was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women). Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79), prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88), antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07) and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34). Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21), except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93). Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates. Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.

  3. Obstetric Outcomes of Mothers Previously Exposed to Sexual Violence

    PubMed Central

    Gisladottir, Agnes; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Harlow, Bernard L.; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Jonsdottir, Eyrun; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I.; Hauksdottir, Arna; Aspelund, Thor; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12–19 years of age) or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence. Methods We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS) to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR). Women who attended the RTS in 1993–2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later) at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068). For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126) matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI) was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women). Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01–2.79), prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03–1.88), antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22–3.07) and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00–1.34). Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61–1.21), except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34–0.93). Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates. Conclusion Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes. PMID:27007230

  4. Cancer risk in men exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Strohsnitter, W C; Noller, K L; Hoover, R N; Robboy, S J; Palmer, J R; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Kaufman, R H; Adam, E; Herbst, A L; Hatch, E E

    2001-04-04

    An association between prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure and cancer in men, especially testicular cancer, has been suspected, but findings from case-control studies have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to investigate the association between prenatal DES exposure and cancer risk in men via prospective follow-up. A total of 3613 men whose prenatal DES exposure status was known were followed from 1978 through 1994. The overall and site-specific cancer incidence rates among the DES-exposed men were compared with those of the unexposed men in the study and with population-based rates. The relative rate (RR) was used to assess the strength of the association between prenatal DES exposure and cancer development. All statistical tests were two-sided. Overall cancer rates among DES-exposed men were similar to those among unexposed men (RR = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.58 to 1.96) and to national rates (RR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.44). Testicular cancer may be elevated among DES-exposed men, since the RRs for testicular cancer were 3.05 (95% CI = 0.65 to 22.0) times those of unexposed men in the study and 2.04 (95% CI = 0.82 to 4.20) times those of males in the population-based rates. The higher rate of testicular cancer in the DES-exposed men is, however, also compatible with a chance observation. To date, men exposed to DES in utero do not appear to have an increased risk of most cancers. It remains uncertain, however, whether prenatal DES exposure is associated with testicular cancer.

  5. Measurement of DNA repair deficiency in workers exposed to benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Hallberg, L.M.; Au, W.W.; El Zein, R.

    1996-05-01

    We hypothesize that chronic exposure to environmental toxicants can induce genetic damage causing DNA repair deficiencies and leading to the postulated mutator phenotype of carcinogenesis. To test our hypothesis, a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay was used in which pCMVcat plasmids were damaged with UV light (175, 350 J/m{sup 2} UV light), inactivating the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene, and then transfected into lymphocytes. Transfected lymphocytes were therefore challenged to repair the damaged plasmids, reactivating the reporter gene. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Gaucher cell lines were used as positive and negative controls for the HCR assay. The Gaucher cell line repairedmore » normally but XP cell lines demonstrated lower repair activity. Additionally, the repair activity of the XP heterozygous cell line showed intermediate repair compared to the homozygous XP and Gaucher cells. We used HCR to measure the effects of benzene exposure on 12 exposed and 8 nonexposed workers from a local benzene plant. Plasmids 175 J/m{sup 2} and 350 J/m{sup 2} were repaired with a mean frequency of 66% and 58%, respectively, in control workers compared to 71% and 62% in exposed workers. Conversely, more of the exposed workers were grouped into the reduced repair category than controls. These differences in repair capacity between exposed and control workers were, however, not statistically significant. The lack of significant differences between the exposed and control groups may be due to extremely low exposure to benzene (<0.3 ppm), small population size, or a lack of benzene genotoxicity at these concentrations. These results are consistent with a parallel hprt gene mutation assay. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  6. Interaction of Al with O2 exposed Mo2BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolvardi, Hamid; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2015-03-01

    A Mo2BC(0 4 0) surface was exposed to O2. The gas interaction was investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of air exposed surfaces. The calculations suggest that the most dominating physical mechanism is dissociative O2 adsorption whereby Mosbnd O, Osbnd Mosbnd O and Mo2sbnd Csbnd O bond formation is observed. To validate these results, Mo2BC thin films were synthesized utilizing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and air exposed surfaces were probed by XPS. MoO2 and MoO3 bond formation is observed and is consistent with here obtained ab initio data. Additionally, the interfacial interactions of O2 exposed Mo2BC(0 4 0) surface with an Al nonamer is studied with ab initio molecular dynamics to describe on the atomic scale the interaction between this surface and Al to mimic the interface present during cold forming processes of Al based alloys. The Al nonamer was disrupted and Al forms chemical bonds with oxygen contained in the O2 exposed Mo2BC(0 4 0) surface. Based on the comparison of here calculated adsorption energy with literature data, Alsbnd Al bonds are shown to be significantly weaker than the Alsbnd O bonds formed across the interface. Hence, Alsbnd Al bond rupture is expected for a mechanically loaded interface. Therefore the adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide layer is predicted. This is consistent with experimental observations. The data presented here may also be relevant for other oxygen containing surfaces in a contact with Al or Al based alloys for example during forming operations.

  7. Mutagenicity of urine from individuals exposed to LPG combustion products.

    PubMed

    Yin, X J; Liu, J Z; Kong, X H; Chu, J H; Wang, H; Xiao, Z X

    1998-09-01

    The mutagenicity of urine from individuals exposed to the combustion products of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was detected with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and its newly developed derivatives YG1021 (nitroreductase overproducing) and YG1024 (O-acetyltransferase overproducing). The detection showed significantly increased mutagenicity for the two YG strains and increased positive rates for all three strains in the presence of both rat liver S9 and beta-glucuronidase. Further analysis demonstrated that urine samples taken from smoking and non-smoking exposed individuals exhibited significantly higher mutagenic potency (revertants/10 microliters urine concentrate) than their corresponding controls. These results indicate that the increased urine mutagenicity is caused by the exposure to LPG combustion products or smoking. The mutagenic potency of urine samples of all exposed individuals tested with YG1024 was found to be about 7 times higher than with TA98. The difference in mutagenic potency was smaller for the same samples when comparison was made between YG1021 and TA98. This suggests that the mutagenic compounds present in the urine samples contain mainly aromatic compounds as glucuronide conjugates. Our results demonstrate that YG1024 is more sensitive than TA98 in detecting the mutagenicity of these samples. In addition, no significant difference in the mutagenic potency between the 'pure' exposed (non-smokers') and the 'pure' smokers' (unexposed) samples was found in all three tester strains. This might mean that the exposure extent of mutagens/carcinogens in LPG combustion products for exposed individuals roughly corresponds to the smoking level of smokers who smoke 20-40 cigarettes per day. Furthermore, the results also suggest that synergism might exist in the mutagenic effects of exposure to LPG combustion products and cigarette smoking.

  8. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rezaul Karim, Mohammad; Ahmad, Sk Akhtar

    2014-12-01

    To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas. It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method. The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01) lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49%) in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%). Stunting (p < 0.01), wasting (p < 0.05) and underweight (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children. In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  9. Signs and symptoms of mercury-exposed gold miners.

    PubMed

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Bernaudat, Ludovic; Siebert, Uwe; Roider, Gabriele; Nowak, Dennis; Drasch, Gustav

    2017-03-30

    Gold miners use mercury to extract gold from ore adding liquid mercury to the milled gold-containing ore. This results in a mercury-gold compound, called amalgam. Miners smelt this amalgam to obtain gold, vaporizing it and finally inhaling the toxic mercury fumes. The objective was to merge and analyze data from different projects, to identify typical signs and symptoms of chronic inorganic mercury exposure. Miners and community members from various artisanal small-scale gold mining areas had been examined (Philippines, Mongolia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Indonesia). Data of several health assessments were pooled. Urine, blood and hair samples were analyzed for mercury (N = 1252). Questionnaires, standardized medical examinations and neuropsychological tests were used. Participants were grouped into: Controls (N = 209), living in an exposed area (N = 408), working with mercury as panners (N = 181), working with mercury as amalgam burners (N = 454). Chi2 test, linear trend test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation coefficient, Spearman's rho, and analysis of variance tests were used. An algorithm was used to define participants with chronic mercury intoxication. Mean mercury concentrations in all exposed subgroups were elevated and above threshold limits, with amalgam burners showing highest levels. Typical symptoms of chronic metallic mercury intoxication were tremor, ataxia, coordination problems, excessive salivation and metallic taste. Participants from the exposed groups showed poorer results in different neuropsychological tests in comparison to the control group. Fifty-four percent of the high-exposed group (amalgam burners) were diagnosed as being mercury-intoxicated, compared to 0% within the control group (Chi2 p < 0.001). Chronic mercury intoxication, with tremor, ataxia and other neurological symptoms together with a raised body burden of mercury was clinically diagnosed in exposed people in artisanal small-scale mining

  10. Personality and psychopathological profiles in individuals exposed to mobbing.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Prestigiacomo, Claudio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ruberto, Amedeo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, mental health and medical professionals have been asked to assess claims of psychological harm arising from harassment at the workplace, or "mobbing." This study assessed the personality and psychopathological profiles of 146 individuals exposed to mobbing using validity, clinical, and content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Profiles and factor analyses were obtained. Two major dimensions emerged among those exposed to mobbing: (a) depressed mood, difficulty in making decisions, change-related anguish, and passive-aggressive traits (b) somatic symptoms, and need for attention and affection. This cross-sectional pilot study provides evidence that personality profiles of mobbing victims and psychological damage resulting from mobbing may be evaluated using standardized assessments, though a longitudinal study is needed to delineate cause-and-effect relationships.

  11. Mental health interventions for children exposed to disasters and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe interventions used with children who are exposed to disasters and terrorism and to present information about the potential benefits of these interventions. A literature search conducted in January 2013 using relevant databases and literature known to the authors that was not generated by the search yielded a total of 85 studies appropriate for review. Intervention approaches used with children exposed to disasters and terrorism included preparedness interventions, psychological first aid, psychological debriefing, psychoeducation, cognitive behavioral techniques, exposure and narrative techniques, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and traumatic grief interventions. The investigation of these interventions is complex, and studies varied in methodological rigor (e.g., sample size, the use of control groups, outcomes measured). Given the limitations in the currently available empirical information, this review integrates the literature, draws tentative conclusions about the current state of knowledge, and suggests future directions for study.

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence of space-exposed polyurethane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Ralph H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The object of this work was to utilize laser-induced fluorescence technique to characterize several samples of space-exposed polyurethane. These samples were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), which was in a shuttle-like orbit for nearly 6 years. Because of our present work to develop laser-induced-fluorescence inspection techniques for polymers, space-exposed samples and controls were lent to us for evaluation. These samples had been attached to the outer surface of LDEF; therefore, they were subjected to thermal cycling, solar ultraviolet radiation, vacuum, and atomic oxygen. It is well documented that atomic oxygen and ultraviolet exposure have detrimental effects on many polymers. This was a unique opportunity to make measurements on material that had been naturally degraded by an unusual environment. During our past work, data have come from artificially degraded samples and generally have demonstrated a correlation between laser-induced fluorescence and tensile strength or elasticity.

  13. High-risk occupations for women exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Freeman, C S

    1994-08-01

    Occupational exposures to cadmium are associated with increased risk of lung cancer and renal disease. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published two standards for cadmium on September 14, 1992 that reduced the permissible occupational exposure limit. In the cadmium industry, women were less likely to be exposed to high levels of cadmium and more likely to hold job titles containing the word "hand" than were men. Only small numbers of female workers were exposed to any level of cadmium. OSHA's risk assessment relied, in part, on morbidity and mortality data from male workers and in part on rodent (animal) data from both sexes. OSHA did not evaluate illness rates specific to female workers. Several factors may alter the risk of these illnesses and their sequelae among workers, including differences in smoking, route of exposures, ability to wear personal protective equipment, and lifestyle.

  14. Profiles of Reactivity in Cocaine-Exposed Children

    PubMed Central

    Schuetze, Pamela; Molnar, Danielle S.; Eiden, Rina D.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the possibility that specific, theoretically consistent profiles of reactivity could be identified in a sample of cocaine-exposed infants and whether these profiles were associated with a range of infant and/or maternal characteristics. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups of infants based on physiological, behavioral and maternal reported measures of reactivity. Five replicable clusters were identified which corresponded to 1) Dysregulated/High Maternal Report Reactors, 2) Low Behavioral Reactors, 3) High Reactors, 4) Optimal Reactors and 5) Dysregulated/Low Maternal Report Reactors. These clusters were associated with differences in prenatal cocaine exposure status, birthweight, maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal negative affect during mother-infant interactions. These results support the presence of distinct reactivity profiles among high risk infants recruited on the basis of prenatal cocaine exposure and demographically similar control group infants not exposed to cocaine. PMID:23204615

  15. Radiation effects on ETFE polymer exposed to glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisawa, Renato Amaral; Abidzina, Volha; de Almeida, Adelaide; Budak, Satilmis; Tereshko, I.; Elkin, I.; Ila, Daryush

    2007-08-01

    The polymer ethylenetetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) is composed of alternating ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene segments. Because it has applications in areas such as medical physics and industrial coatings, there is a great interest in surface modification studies of ETFE polymer. When this material is exposed to ionizing radiation it suffers damage that depends on the type, energy and intensity of the irradiation. In order to determine the radiation damage mechanism from exposure to low voltage plasma, ETFE films were exposed to residual gas plasma in glow discharge regime to a fluence of 2 × 1017 ions/cm2. Irradiated films were analyzed with optical absorption photospectrometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the structural changes caused by low energy glow discharge.

  16. Cancer mortality among workers exposed to zinc chromate paints.

    PubMed

    Dalager, N A; Mason, T J; Fraumeni, J F; Hoover, R; Payne, W W

    1980-01-01

    To evaluate the carcinogenicity of chromium compounds among user industries, the proportionate mortality experience of spray painters exposed to zinc chromate primer paints and electroplaters exposed to chromic acid in the aircraft maintenance industry was examined. Compared to the mortality patterns of U.S. white males, no excess of cancer was found in the 48 deaths among electroplaters. Analysis of the 202 deaths among spray painters revealed a significant excess of cancer, primarily of the respiratory tract. The relative increase of respiratory cancer showed a positive gradient with the length of estimated exposure time, and was confined to painters whose interval from first employment to death was at least 20 years. The findings consistent with occupational exposure to chromium compounds, previously shown to be carcinogenic in manufacturing processes, but the effect of other paint constituents, tobacco smoking, or methodologic limitations could not be discounted.

  17. Trace metals in occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D E; Tillery, J B; Prevost, R J

    1975-01-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in Houston, Texas on five trace metals in policemen, parking garage attendants, women living near freeways and three control groups of subjects. The controls were matched with the exposed groups for covariate information such as age, sex, smoking habits, ethnic background, socioeconomic status, hair color, and education. Each subject was sampled four times for blood, urine, hair, and feces, and these samples were analyzed for lead, cadmium, zinc, manganese, and copper. Lead and cadmium were correlated with airborne exposures but zinc, manganese and copper were not. The second part of this paper deals with a market study of platinum and palladium markets and a design of an epidemiology survey of individuals occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed to these two metals. The market survey shows that although the catalytic muffler will have a major impact on the market, it is predicted that producers can meet these demands. PMID:1157784

  18. Cancer incidence among boat-building workers exposed to styrene.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Avima M; Bertke, Stephen J

    2017-07-01

    A cancer incidence analysis was conducted on The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health boat-builders cohort exposed to styrene, a possible carcinogen. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and standardized rate ratios (SRR) were calculated using national and Washington State rates and a person-years analysis program. Among 3704 workers living in Washington State after 1991, when cancer registry case accrual began, 516 first primary diagnoses occurred through 2007. While overall cancer incidence was significantly reduced [SIR: 0.83 (0.76, 0.90)], internal comparisons suggest an association with exposure comparing high to low exposed person-time [SRR: 1.28 (1.05, 1.55)]. There is evidence of styrene exposure being linked to cancer incidence, which is notable since the cohort has not yet reached the median age of cancer diagnosis (65) in the United States. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Olfactory function in painters exposed to organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Sandmark, B; Broms, I; Löfgren, L; Ohlson, C G

    1989-02-01

    The olfactory receptor cells are in direct contact with the exterior environment, and some chemical agents can impair olfactory function. The olfactory function of 54 painters exposed to organic solvents was compared with that of 42 unexposed referents. A new clinical test validated for the sense of smell was used, the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Age, smoking habits, exposure to organic solvents, and medical disorders of importance for the sense of smell were recorded. The painters had a somewhat lower test score than the referents. However, the influence of the exposure variable was not statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis including age and smoking habits. The exposure to organic solvents was low, and therefore an effect of high exposure on olfactory function cannot be ruled out. Since some of the painters had earlier been highly exposed, the effects of high exposure are likely to be reversible.

  20. Early development of infants exposed to drugs prenatally.

    PubMed

    Eyler, F D; Behnke, M

    1999-03-01

    This article includes a summary and critique of methodological limitations of the peer-reviewed studies of developmental outcome during the first 2 years in children prenatally exposed to the most commonly used drugs of abuse: tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, heroin/methadone, and cocaine. Reported effects vary by specific drug or drug combinations and amount and timing of exposure; however, few thresholds have been established. Drug effects also appear to be exacerbated in children with multiple risks, including poverty, and nonoptimal caregiving environments. Although prenatal exposure to any one drug cannot reliably predict the outcome of an individual child, it may be a marker for an array of variables that can impact development. Appropriate intervention strategies require future research that determines which factors place exposed children at risk and which are protective for optimal development.

  1. Potential contribution of exposed resin to ecosystem emissions of monoterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, Allyson S. D.; Harley, Peter; Monson, Russell K.

    2013-10-01

    Conifers, especially pines, produce and store under pressure monoterpene-laden resin in canals located throughout the plant. When the plants are damaged and resin canals punctured, the resin is exuded and the monoterpenes are released into the atmosphere, a process that has been shown to influence ecosystem-level monoterpene emissions. Less attention has been paid to the small amounts of resin that are exuded from branches, expanding needles, developing pollen cones, and terminal buds in the absence of any damage. The goal of this study was to provide the first estimate of the potential of this naturally-exposed resin to influence emissions of monoterpenes from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. When resin is first exuded as small spherical beads from undamaged tissues it emits monoterpenes to the atmosphere at a rate that is four orders of magnitude greater than needle tissue with an equivalent exposed surface area and the emissions from exuded beads decline exponentially as the resin dries. We made measurements of resin beads on the branches of ponderosa pine trees in the middle of the growing season and found, on average, 0.15 cm2 of exposed resin bead surface area and 1250 cm2 of total needle surface area per branch tip. If the resin emerged over the course of 10 days, resin emissions would make up 10% of the ecosystem emissions each day. Since we only accounted for exposed resin at a single point in time, this is probably an underestimate of how much total resin is exuded from undamaged pine tissues over the course of a growing season. Our observations, however, reveal the importance of this previously unrecognized source of monoterpenes emitted from pine forests and its potential to influence regional atmospheric chemistry dynamics.

  2. Systemic complications of trinitrotoluene (TNT) in exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Mostafa; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shohrati, Majid; Saburi, Amin; Babaei, Mahmoud; Najafian, Bita

    2013-03-01

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used as an explosive. TNT can induce some well-recognized toxic impacts comprising toxic hepatitis, aplastic anemia and cataract. The aim of study was evaluation of TNT exposed workers for systemic complication. In a cross-sectional study, we carried out Liver Function Test (LFT), complete blood count (CBC) and slit lamp biomicroscopy to compare the prevalence and severity of these 3 complications between 47 male TNT exposed workers (with at least one year continuous experience of TNT exposure) and 43 unexposed male hospital worker who hadn't had any previous contacts with TNT. We also performed Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) to assess the probable obstructive/restrictive abnormalities, caused by TNT. Mean alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level of TNT exposed group was significantly higher than the unexposed group (p = 0.023) Forced Expiratory Volume in one second to Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratios of both groups were in the range of restrictive pattern (82.03% and 81.42% for the exposed and unexposed group, respectively) with no meaningful difference. We didn't find out any specific TNT induced cataract and general cortical cataract (CC) and nuclear sclerotic cataract (NSC) prevalence was not significantly different. we haven't found TNT as a chemical, causing toxic hepatitis or aplastic anemia; neither did we find it as a compound, responsible for a meaningful increase in cataract prevalence. However, due to the increased ALP serum levels and FEV1/FVC ratios among TNT workers, safety precautions are advised.

  3. Toxicity of lunar dust assessed in inhalation-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R; Zhang, Ye; Renne, Roger A; Hunter, Robert L; McCluskey, Richard A; Chen, Bean T; Castranova, Vincent; Driscoll, Kevin E; Gardner, Donald E; McClellan, Roger O; Cooper, Bonnie L; McKay, David S; Marshall, Linda; James, John T

    2013-10-01

    Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6 mg/m(3) of respirable-size lunar dust for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4 weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks or 13 weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to ≤6.8 mg/m(3). This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8 mg/m(3) was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats.

  4. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a smelter exposed to zinc fumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ameille, J.; Brechot, J.M.; Brochard, P.

    1992-03-01

    A smelter exposed to zinc fumes reported severe recurrent episodes of cough, dyspnea and fever. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed a marked increase in lymphocytes count with predominance of CD8 T-lymphocytes. Presence of zinc in alveolar macrophages was assessed by analytic transmission electron microscopy. This is the first case of recurrent bronchoalveolitis related to zinc exposure in which the clinical picture and BAL results indicate a probable hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

  5. Toxicity of lunar dust assessed in inhalation-exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R.; Zhang, Ye; Renne, Roger A.; Hunter, Robert L.; McCluskey, Richard A.; Chen, Bean T.; Castranova, Vincent; Driscoll, Kevin E.; Gardner, Donald E.; McClellan, Roger O.; Cooper, Bonnie L.; McKay, David S.; Marshall, Linda; James, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6 mg/m3 of respirable-size lunar dust for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4 weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks or 13 weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to ≤6.8 mg/m3. This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8 mg/m3 was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats. PMID:24102467

  6. Effects of parkinsonism on health status in welding exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rachel C; Lundin, Jessica I; Criswell, Susan R; Hobson, Angela; Swisher, Laura M; Evanoff, Bradley A; Checkoway, Harvey; Racette, Brad A

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that welders frequently display parkinsonian signs, such as bradykinesia and tremor. Demonstrating that these parkinsonian findings are associated with reductions in quality of life (QoL) or health status could have important repercussions for worker safety and performance. Subjects included 394 active workers exposed to welding fumes and evaluated for parkinsonism by movement disorders experts in a worksite-based epidemiology study. Subjects were diagnosed with parkinsonism if the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection part 3 (UPDRS3) score was ≥15. All subjects completed a Parkinson's disease (PD) symptom questionnaire and the PDQ39, a widely used QoL and health status measure for PD. Total PDQ39 score and all subscores were greater in welders with parkinsonism than welders without parkinsonism, with the most significant differences observed for mobility, emotional well-being, and activities of daily living (ADL's). The PDQ39 scores for welding exposed workers with parkinsonism were similar to scores seen in a group of early PD patients. Parkinsonism in active, welding exposed workers is associated with reductions in health status and QoL affecting a broad range of categories and within the range seen in early PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Parkinsonism on Health Status in Welding Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Rachel C.; Lundin, Jessica I.; Criswell, Susan R.; Hobson, Angela; Swisher, Laura M.; Evanoff, Bradley A.; Checkoway, Harvey; Racette, Brad A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that welders frequently display parkinsonian signs, such as bradykinesia and tremor. Demonstrating that these parkinsonian findings are associated with reductions in quality of life (QoL) or health status could have important repercussions for worker safety and performance. Methods Subjects included 394 active workers exposed to welding fumes and evaluated for parkinsonism by movement disorders experts in a worksite-based epidemiology study. Subjects were diagnosed with parkinsonism if the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection part 3 (UPDRS3) score was >15. All subjects completed a Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptom questionnaire and the PDQ39, a widely used QoL and health status measure for PD. Results Total PDQ39 score and all subscores were greater in welders with parkinsonism than welders without parkinsonism, with the most significant differences observed for mobility, emotional well-being, and activities of daily living (ADL’s). The PDQ39 scores for welding exposed workers with parkinsonism were similar to scores seen in a group of early PD patients. Conclusion Parkinsonism in active, welding exposed workers is associated with reductions in health status and QoL affecting a broad range of categories and within the range seen in early PD. PMID:21724446

  8. Maternal depression and neurobehavior in newborns prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Paz, Monica S; Smith, Lynne M; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Della Grotta, Sheri; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M

    2009-01-01

    The effects of maternal depression on neonatal neurodevelopment in MA exposed neonates have not been well characterized. To determine the neurobehavioral effects of maternal depressive symptoms on neonates exposed and not exposed to methamphetamine (MA) using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). The purpose of the IDEAL study is to determine the effects of prenatal MA exposure on child outcome. IDEAL screened 13,808 subjects, 1632 were eligible and consented and 176 mothers were enrolled. Only biological mothers with custody of their child at the one-month visit (n=50 MA; n=86 comparison) had the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) administered. The NNNS was administered to the neonate by an examiner blinded to MA exposure within the first five days of life. General Linear Models tested the effects of maternal depression and prenatal MA exposure on NNNS outcomes, with and without covariates. Significance was accepted at p<.05. After adjusting for covariates, regardless of exposure status, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with lower handling and arousal scores, elevated physiological stress scores and an increased incidence of hypotonicity. When adjusting for covariates, MA exposure was associated with lower arousal and higher lethargy scores. Maternal depressive symptoms are associated with neurodevelopmental patterns of decreased arousal and increased stress. Prenatal MA exposure combined with maternal depression was not associated with any additional neonatal neurodevelopmental differences.

  9. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage and exposed silage particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Silage on dairy farms has been identified as a major source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, rates of VOC emission from silage are not accurately known. In this work, we measured ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage and exposed corn silage particles using wind tunnel systems. Flux of ethanol was highest immediately after exposing loose silage samples to moving air (as high as 220 g m -2 h -1) and declined by as much as 76-fold over 12 h as ethanol was depleted from samples. Emission rate and cumulative 12 h emission increased with temperature, silage permeability, exposed surface area, and air velocity over silage samples. These responses suggest that VOC emission from silage on farms is sensitive to climate and management practices. Ethanol emission rates from loose silage were generally higher than previous estimates of total VOC emission rates from silage and mixed feed. For 15 cm deep loose samples, mean cumulative emission was as high as 170 g m -2 (80% of initial ethanol mass) after 12 h of exposure to an air velocity of 5 m s -1. Emission rates measured with an emission isolation flux chamber were lower than rates measured in a wind tunnel and in an open setting. Results show that the US EPA emission isolation flux chamber method is not appropriate for estimating VOC emission rates from silage in the field.

  10. Definitive Surgical Treatment of Infected or Exposed Ventral Hernia Mesh

    PubMed Central

    Szczerba, Steven R.; Dumanian, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To discuss the difficulties in dealing with infected or exposed ventral hernia mesh, and to illustrate one solution using an autogenous abdominal wall reconstruction technique. Summary Background Data The definitive treatment for any infected prosthetic material in the body is removal and substitution. When ventral hernia mesh becomes exposed or infected, its removal requires a solution to prevent a subsequent hernia or evisceration. Methods Eleven patients with ventral hernia mesh that was exposed, nonincorporated, with chronic drainage, or associated with a spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula were referred by their initial surgeons after failed local wound care for definitive management. The patients were treated with radical en bloc excision of mesh and scarred fascia followed by immediate abdominal wall reconstruction using bilateral sliding rectus abdominis myofascial advancement flaps. Results Four of the 11 patients treated for infected mesh additionally required a bowel resection. Transverse defect size ranged from 8 to 18 cm (average 13 cm). Average procedure duration was 3 hours without bowel repair and 5 hours with bowel repair. Postoperative length of stay was 5 to 7 days without bowel repair and 7 to 9 days with bowel repair. Complications included hernia recurrence in one case and stitch abscesses in two cases. Follow-up ranges from 6 to 54 months (average 24 months). Conclusions Removal of infected mesh and autogenous flap reconstruction is a safe, reliable, and one-step surgical solution to the problem of infected abdominal wall mesh. PMID:12616130

  11. Asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis in workers exposed to reactive dyes.

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Wass, U; Meding, B; Belin, L

    1993-01-01

    A survey was conducted at 15 textile plants with dyehouses in western Sweden. Employees with a history of work related rhinitis, asthma, or skin symptoms were offered a clinical and immunological investigation including skin prick tests, skin patch tests, and radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) to detect specific allergy to reactive dyes. Among the 1142 employees, 162 were exposed to reactive dyes and 10 of these (6%) reported work related respiratory or nasal symptoms. An allergy to reactive dyes could be confirmed in five (3%, 95% confidence interval 1-7%). All but one had been exposed to reactive dyes for one year or less before the onset of symptoms. Positive RASTs could be detected in four of the five patients. All of the RAST positive patients were positive to remazol black B, but six out of eight additional remazol dyes also elicited positive results. RAST and RAST inhibition showed a cross reactivity between some of the dyes. Seven persons with work related dermatitis and three with urticaria or Quincke oedema were found. In one patient contact dermatitis to a monoazo dye was shown, but no positive patch test reactions to reactive dyes. IgE-mediated allergy to reactive dyes seems to be an important cause of respiratory and nasal symptoms among dyehouse employees exposed to dust from reactive dyes. PMID:8431393

  12. Psychosomatic symptoms among Palestinian nurses exposed to workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Yousef; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Bast-Pettersen, Rita

    2018-06-01

    The study examined associations between workplace aggression (WPA) and psychosomatic symptoms in Palestinian nurses. The 341 nurses, (62% females and 38% males), answered a WHO questionnaire and a psychosomatic symptoms checklist. A total of 27.3% of the nurses reported exposure to WPA of any kind within the last 12 months. After adjusting for covariates, female nurses exposed to WPA of any kind and those exposed to verbal aggression reported a higher symptom score: (1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3, 2.7), and (1.4; 95%CI 0.2, 2.6), respectively, than unexposed females. Male nurses exposed to bullying reported a higher symptom score: (3.2; 95%CI 1.0, 5.5) than unexposed males. Exposure to WPA was associated with higher occurrences of psychosomatic symptoms for both sexes. The female nurses reacted most strongly to verbal aggression or to WPA of any type, while bullying was associated with the male nurses' symptoms. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Differential cardiac effects in rats exposed to atmospheric ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The results of this study demonstrate that atmospheric smog generated from both isoprene and toluene cause cardiac effects in rats. In addition, it appears that smog from toluene is more toxic in terms of cardiac arrhythmogenicity. Smog, which is a complex mixture of particulate matter and gaseous irritants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, reactive aldehydes), as well as components which react with sunlight to form secondary pollutants, has recently been linked to increased risk of adverse cardiac responses. The components, and therefore health effects, of atmospheric smog are determined by the fuel used to generate them. In this study we examined the difference between isoprene- and toluene-generated smog in causing cardiac effects in rats and hypothesized that both atmospheres would cause cardiac electrical and functional changes in rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to either atmospheric smog generated by the USEPA’s mobile reaction chamber using either isoprene or toluene, or filtered air for four hours. One day later, rats were anesthetized and left ventricular functional responses to dobutamine were measured using a Millar probe and arrhythmia sensitivity to aconitine. Baseline left ventricular pressure (LVP) was lower in toluene-exposed animals but not isoprene when compared to air. Increases in LVP with increasing doses of dobutamine were impaired only in toluene-exposed rats. Both isoprene and toluene impaired the rate of ventri

  14. Myocardial fibrosis in rats exposed to low frequency noise.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Eduardo; Oliveira, Pedro; Borrecho, Gonçalo; Oliveira, Maria João R; Brito, José; Aguas, Artur; Martins, Dos Santos José

    2013-06-01

    Low frequency noise (LFN) characterized by large pressure amplitude (> or =90 dB SPL) and low frequency bands (< or =500 Hz) can lead to structural and ultrastructural modifications in the extracellular matrix of several tissues, with an abnormal proliferation of collagen and development of fibrosis. It is not known whether LFN induces similar structural alterations in the ventricular myocardium of rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate and measure the myocardial fibrosis induced by LFN. Two groups of rats were considered: group A with 26 rats continuously exposed to LFN during a period of 3 months; group B with 20 control rats.The hearts were sectioned from the ventricular apex to the atria and the mid-ventricular fragment was selected. Chromotrope-aniline blue (CAB) staining was used for histological observation. The measurement of fibrosis was performed using the computer image analysis Image J software. Histological observation with CAB staining showed the presence of collagen deposition between the cardiomyocytes. Fibrosis increased 97.5%, 81.5% and 83.7%, respectively, in the left ventricle, interventricular septum and right ventricle, in exposed rats (P <0.001).The ratio fibrosis/muscle in left ventricle, interventricular septum and right ventricle was significantly higher in LFN exposed rats (P< 0.001). Our study demonstrates a significant myocardial fibrosis induced by low frequency noise in rats. Our results reinforce the need for further experimental and clinical investigations concerning the effects of low frequency noise on the heart.

  15. Unmet Health Care Needs among Children Exposed to Parental Incarceration.

    PubMed

    Turney, Kristin

    2017-05-01

    Objectives The incarceration rate in the United States has increased rapidly since the mid-1970s and, accordingly, a large number of children are exposed to parental incarceration. Research finds that parental incarceration is associated with deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among children, but little is known about these children's health care access. Methods I used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 95,531), a population-based and nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between exposure to parental incarceration and children's unmet health care needs. Results In logistic regression models that adjust for an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, children exposed to parental incarceration, compared to their counterparts, have 1.26 (95% CI 1.02-1.54) times the odds of having any unmet health care need. Analyses that disaggregate by type of unmet health care need (mental, dental, vision, mental health, or other) suggest this association is driven by a greater likelihood of unmet mental health care needs (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.04-2.46). Conclusions Children exposed to parental incarceration, a vulnerable group especially at risk of physical and mental health problems, face challenges to health care access, especially mental health care access. Given that parental incarceration is concentrated among those children most in need of health care, parental incarceration may exacerbate existing inequalities in unmet health care needs.

  16. Expose : procedure and results of the joint experiment verification tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Rabbow, E.; Baglioni, P.

    The International Space Station will carry the EXPOSE facility accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D located outside the Russian Service Module. The launch will be affected in 2005 and it is planned to stay in space for 1.5 years. The tray like structure will accomodate 2 chemical and 6 biological PI-experiments or experiment systems of the ROSE (Response of Organisms to Space Environment) consortium. EXPOSE will support long-term in situ studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and evaporitic ecosystems. The either vented or sealed experiment pockets will be covered by an optical filter system to control intensity and spectral range of solar UV irradiation. Control of sun exposure will be achieved by the use of individual shutters. To test the compatibility of the different biological systems and their adaptation to the opportunities and constraints of space conditions a profound ground support program has been developed. The procedure and first results of this joint Experiment Verification Tests (EVT) will be presented. The results will be essential for the success of the EXPOSE mission and have been done in parallel with the development and construction of the final hardware design of the facility. The results of the mission will contribute to the understanding of the organic chemistry processes in space, the biological adaptation strategies to extreme conditions, e.g. on early Earth and Mars, and the distribution of life beyond its planet of origin.

  17. Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daligcon, B. C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of glucogenesis on the plasma glucose and liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G stress is investigated. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats are injected with C-14 lactate, alanine, of glycerol, and six of the rats are exposed to 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 hr. The plasma glucose and liver glycogen of the centrifuged and noncentrifuged rats are analyzed. A significant increase in the C-14 incorporation of the substrate into the plasma glucose and liver glycogen is observed in the centrifuged rats. The injection of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a gluconeogenesis inhibitor, results in a blocked increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen. The role of epinephrine on the hyperglycemic and liver glycogen responses of centrifuged rats is studied. It is concluded that the initial increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen in rats exposed to hyper-G stress is the result of an increased rate of gluconeogenesis.

  18. Liver function in workers exposed of the cosmetics industry.

    PubMed

    Casale, T; Caciari, T; Rosati, M V; Biagi, M; De Sio, S; Andreozzi, G; Schifano, M P; Capozzella, A; Pimpinella, B; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether occupational exposure to substances used in the cosmetic factories may cause effects on the liver and blood counts in exposed workers. The study included 48 exposed workers and 86 unexposed controls. All workers included in the study underwent blood count, white blood count, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase. The differences between the means and frequencies were compared using the Student's t-test and chi-square test with Yates correction and were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. The analysis of the results shows that 35.4% of workers in the cosmetics industry had liver test values above the range. We noted a statistically significant higher prevalence of GPT (p <0.05) and total bilirubin (p <0.05) in the workers of the cosmetics industry compared with the control group. The results obtained suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of substances used in the cosmetic industry is able to influence some liver parameters in occupationally exposed workers.

  19. Increased oxidative stress in infants exposed to passive smoking.

    PubMed

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of passive cigarette smoking on the oxidative and anti-oxidative status of plasma in infants. Eighty-four infants aged 6-28 weeks were divided into two groups: the study group included infants who had been exposed to passive smoking via at least five cigarettes per day for at least the past 6 weeks at home, while the control group included infants who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma was assessed by the measurement of individual antioxidant components: vitamin C, albumin, bilirubin, uric acid, thiol contents and total antioxidant capacity (TAC 1 and TAC 2). Oxidative status was assessed by the determination of total peroxide levels and the oxidative stress index (OSI 1 and OSI 2). Plasma vitamin C, thiol concentration and TAC 1 and TAC 2 levels were significantly lower, whereas plasma total peroxide levels and OSI 1 and OSI 2 were significantly higher, in passive smoking infants than in the controls (P<0.01). We conclude that passive smoking has a negative impact on numerous parts of the antioxidant defence system in infants, and exposes them to potent oxidative stress.

  20. Assessing color vision loss among solvent-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Mergler, D; Blain, L

    1987-01-01

    Acquired color vision loss has been associated with exposure to organic solvents in the workplace. However, not all tests of chromatic discrimination loss are designed to detect acquired, as opposed to congenital, loss. The Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel (D-15-d), a simple 15 cap color arrangement test, designed to identify mild acquired dyschromatopsia, can be administered rapidly in the field, under standard conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the D-15-d among 23 solvent-exposed workers of a paint manufacturing plant, by comparing the results obtained with the D-15-d to those obtained with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue (FM-100), a highly sensitive measure of color vision loss. The D-15-d revealed a significantly higher prevalence of dyschromatopsia among the ten highly exposed workers (80%) as compared to the 13 moderately exposed workers (30.8%); FM-100 results revealed one false positive. All dyschromatopic workers presented blue-yellow loss; the FM-100 detected eight complex patterns, while the D-15-d identified 5. Comparison of D-15-d and FM-100 scores were highly correlated (corr. coeff. 0.87; p less than 0.001). Multiple regression analyses showed both scores to be significantly related to age and exposure level. The findings of this study indicate that the D-15-d is an adequate instrument for field study batteries. However, the FM-100 should be used for more detailed assessment.

  1. Histological Effects of Enamel Matrix Derivative on Exposed Dental Pulp.

    PubMed

    Bajić, Marijana Popović; Danilović, Vesna; Prokić, Branislav; Prokić, Bogomir Bolka; Manojlović, Milica; Živković, Slavoljub

    2015-01-01

    Direct pulp capping procedure is a therapeutic application of a drug on exposed tooth pulp in order to ensure the closure of the pulp chamber and to allow the healing process to take place. The aim of this study was to examine the histological effects of Emdogain® on exposed tooth pulp of a Vietnamese pig (Sus scrofa verus). The study comprised 20 teeth of a Vietnamese pig. After class V preparation on the buccal surfaces of incisors, canines and first premolars, pulp was exposed. In the experimental group, the perforations were capped with Emdogain® (Straumann, Basel, Switzerland), while in the control group pulp capping was performed with MTA® (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA). All cavities were restored with glass-ionomer cement (GC Fuji VIII, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). The observational period was 28 days, after which the animal was sacrificed and histological preparations were made. A light microscope was used to analyze dentin bridge formation, tissue reorganization and inflammation, and the presence of bacteria in the pulp. The formation of dentin bridge was observed in the experimental and control groups. Inflammation of the pulp was mild to moderate in both groups. Angiogenesis and many odontoblast-like cells, responsible for dentin bridge formation, were observed. Necrosis was not observed in any case, nor were bacteria present in the pulp. Histological analysis indicated a favorable therapeutic effect of Emdogain® Gel in direct pulp capping of Vietnamese pigs. Pulp reaction was similar to that of MTA®.

  2. Gene expression changes in medical workers exposed to radiation.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Elena; Severini, Cinzia; Quercioli, Daniele; Perdichizzi, Stefania; Mascolo, Maria Grazia; Horn, Wolfango; Vaccari, Monica; Nucci, Maria Concetta; Lodi, Vittorio; Violante, Francesco Saverio; Bolognesi, Claudia; Grilli, Sandro; Silingardi, Paola; Colacci, Annamaria

    2009-10-01

    The use of nuclear resources for medical purposes causes considerable concern about occupational exposure. Nevertheless, little information is available regarding the effects of low-dose irradiations protracted over time. We used oligomicroarrays to identify the genes that are transcriptionally regulated by persistent exposure to extremely low doses of ionizing radiation in 28 exposed professionals (mean cumulative effective dose +/- SD, 19 +/- 38 mSv) compared with a matched sample of nonexposed subjects. We identified 256 modulated genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells profiles, and the main biological processes we found were DNA packaging and mitochondrial electron transport NADH to ubiquinone. Next we investigated whether a different pattern existed when only 22 exposed subjects with accumulated doses >2.5 mSv, a threshold corresponding to the natural background radiation in Italy per year, and mean equal to 25 +/- 41 mSv were used. In addition to DNA packaging and NADH dehydrogenase function, the analysis of the higher-exposed subgroup revealed a significant modulation of ion homeostasis and programmed cell death as well. The changes in gene expression that we found suggest different mechanisms from those involved in high-dose studies that may help to define new biomarkers of radiation exposure for accumulated doses below 25 mSv.

  3. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of

  4. Color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to mercury vapor.

    PubMed

    Urban, Pavel; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Nerudová, Jana; Lukás, Edgar; Cábelková, Zdena; Cikrt, Miroslav

    2003-08-01

    To study color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to elemental mercury (Hg) vapor. Twenty-four male workers from a chloralkali plant exposed to Hg vapor, aged 42+/-9.8 years, duration of exposure 14.7+/-9.7 years, were examined. The 8h TWA air-borne Hg concentration in workplace was 59 microg/m(3); mean Hg urinary excretion (HgU) was 20.5+/-19.3 microg/g creatinine; mean Hg urinary excretion after the administration of a chelating agent, sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane-sulfonate (DMPS), was 751.9+/-648 microg/48h. Twenty-four age- and gender-matched control subjects were compared. Visual acuity, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and history of diseases or drugs potentially influencing color vision were registered. The Lanthony 15-Hue desaturated test (L-D15-d) was used to assess color vision. The results were expressed quantitatively as Bowman's Color Confusion Index (CCI), and qualitatively according to Verriest's classification of acquired dyschromatopsias. The CCI was significantly higher in the exposed group than in the control (mean CCI 1.15 versus 1.04; P=0.04). The proportion of subjects with errorless performance on the Lanthony test was significantly lower in the Hg exposed group compared to referents (52% versus 73%; P=0.035). The exposed group showed higher frequency of type III dyschromatopsias (blue-yellow confusion axis) in comparison with the control group (12.5% versus 8.3%), however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Multiple regression did not show any significant relationship between the CCI, and age, alcohol consumption, or measures of exposure. In agreement with previous studies by Cavalleri et al. [Toxicol. Lett. 77 (1995) 351; Environ. Res. Sec. A 77 (1998) 173], the results of this study support the hypothesis that exposure to mercury vapor can induce sub-clinical color vision impairment. This effect was observed at an exposure level below the current biological limit for occupational exposure to mercury. This

  5. Work ability score of solvent-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Furu, Heidi; Sainio, Markku; Hyvärinen, Hanna-Kaisa; Kaukiainen, Ari

    2018-03-28

    Occupational chronic solvent encephalopathy (CSE), characterized by neurocognitive dysfunction, often leads to early retirement. However, only the more severe cases are diagnosed with CSE, and little is known about the work ability of solvent-exposed workers in general. The aim was to study memory and concentration symptoms, work ability and the effect of both solvent-related and non-occupational factors on work ability, in an actively working solvent-exposed population. A questionnaire on exposure and health was sent to 3640 workers in four solvent-exposed fields, i.e. painters and floor-layers, boat builders, printers, and metal workers. The total number of responses was 1730. We determined the work ability score (WAS), a single question item of the Work Ability Index, and studied solvent exposure, demographic factors, Euroquest memory and concentration symptoms, chronic diseases, and employment status using univariate and multivariate analyses. The findings were compared to those of a corresponding national blue-collar reference population (n = 221), and a small cohort of workers with CSE (n = 18). The proportion of workers with memory and concentration symptoms was significantly associated with solvent exposure. The WAS of solvent-exposed workers was lower than that of the national blue-collar reference group, and the difference was significant in the oldest age group (those aged over 60). Solvent-exposed worker's WAS were higher than those of workers diagnosed with CSE. The WAS were lowest among painters and floor-layers, followed by metal workers and printers, and highest among boat builders. The strongest explanatory factors for poor work ability were the number of chronic diseases, age and employment status. Solvent exposure was a weak independent risk factor for reduced WAS, comparable to a level of high alcohol consumption. Even if memory and concentration symptoms were associated with higher solvent exposure, the effect of solvents on self

  6. Adverse health outcomes in women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Robert N; Hyer, Marianne; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Adam, Ervin; Bond, Brian; Cheville, Andrea L; Colton, Theodore; Hartge, Patricia; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Herbst, Arthur L; Karlan, Beth Y; Kaufman, Raymond; Noller, Kenneth L; Palmer, Julie R; Robboy, Stanley J; Saal, Robert C; Strohsnitter, William; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Troisi, Rebecca

    2011-10-06

    Before 1971, several million women were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES) given to their mothers to prevent pregnancy complications. Several adverse outcomes have been linked to such exposure, but their cumulative effects are not well understood. We combined data from three studies initiated in the 1970s with continued long-term follow-up of 4653 women exposed in utero to DES and 1927 unexposed controls. We assessed the risks of 12 adverse outcomes linked to DES exposure, including cumulative risks to 45 years of age for reproductive outcomes and to 55 years of age for other outcomes, and their relationships to the baseline presence or absence of vaginal epithelial changes, which are correlated with a higher dose of, and earlier exposure to, DES in utero. Cumulative risks in women exposed to DES, as compared with those not exposed, were as follows: for infertility, 33.3% vs. 15.5% (hazard ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.05 to 2.75); spontaneous abortion, 50.3% vs. 38.6% (hazard ratio, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1.88); preterm delivery, 53.3% vs. 17.8% (hazard ratio, 4.68; 95% CI, 3.74 to 5.86); loss of second-trimester pregnancy, 16.4% vs. 1.7% (hazard ratio, 3.77; 95% CI, 2.56 to 5.54); ectopic pregnancy, 14.6% vs. 2.9% (hazard ratio, 3.72; 95% CI, 2.58 to 5.38); preeclampsia, 26.4% vs. 13.7% (hazard ratio 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.89); stillbirth, 8.9% vs. 2.6% (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.33 to 4.54); early menopause, 5.1% vs. 1.7% (hazard ratio, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.67 to 3.31); grade 2 or higher cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, 6.9% vs. 3.4% (hazard ratio, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.59 to 3.27); and breast cancer at 40 years of age or older, 3.9% vs. 2.2% (hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.18). For most outcomes, the risks among exposed women were higher for those with vaginal epithelial changes than for those without such changes. In utero exposure of women to DES is associated with a high lifetime risk of a broad spectrum of adverse health outcomes

  7. Juvenile hypothyroidism among two populations exposed to radioiodine.

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, J R; Grossman, C M; Morton, W E; Nussbaum, R H; Kordysh, E A; Quastel, M R; Sobel, R B; Nussbaum, F D

    1999-01-01

    We found an epidemic of juvenile hypothyroidism among a population of self-defined "downwinders" living near the Hanford nuclear facility located in southeast Washington State. The episode followed massive releases of 131I. Self-reported data on 60 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism (<20 years of age) among a group of 801 Hanford downwinders are presented, as well as data concerning the thyroid status of approximately 160,000 children exposed to radioiodine before 10 years of age as a result of the 26 April 1986 Chernobyl explosion in the former Soviet Union. These children were residents of five regions near Chernobyl. They were examined by standardized screening protocols over a period of 5 years from 1991 to 1996. They are a well-defined group of 10 samples. Fifty-six cases of hypothyroidism were found among boys and 92 among girls. Body burdens of 137Cs have been correlated with hypothyroidism prevalence rates. On the other hand, the group of juvenile (<20 years of age) Hanford downwinders is not a representative sample. Most of the 77 cases of juvenile hypothyroidism in the Hanford group were diagnosed from 1945 to 1970. However, the ratio of reported cases to the county population under 20 years of age is roughly correlated with officially estimated mean levels of cumulative thyroid 131I uptake in these counties, providing evidence that juvenile hypothyroidism was associated with radioiodine exposures. Because even subtle hypothyroidism may be of clinical significance in childhood and can be treated, it may be useful to screen for the condition in populations exposed to radioiodine fallout. Although radiation exposure is associated with hypothyroidism, its excess among fallout-exposed children has not been previously quantified. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10090710

  8. Improving antenatal risk assessment in women exposed to high risks.

    PubMed

    Perry, Natasha; Newman, Louise K; Hunter, Mick; Dunlop, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal substance use and related psychosocial risk factors are known to increase the likelihood of child protection involvement; less is known about the predictive nature of maternal reflective functioning (RF) in this population. This preliminary study assessed psychosocial and psychological risk factors for a group of substance dependent women exposed to high risks in pregnancy, and their impact on child protection involvement. Pregnant women on opiate substitution treatment (n = 11) and a comparison group (n = 15) were recruited during their third trimester to complete measures of RF (Pregnancy Interview), childhood trauma, mental health and psychosocial assessments. At postnatal follow-up, RF was reassessed (Parent Development Interview - Revised Short Version) and mother-infant dyads were videotaped to assess emotional availability (EA). Child protection services were contacted to determine if any concerns had been raised for infant safety. Significant between-group differences were observed for demographics, psychosocial factors, trauma and mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found for RF or EA between groups. Eight women in the 'exposed to high risks' group became involved with child protection services. Reflective functioning was not significantly associated with psychosocial risk factors, and therefore did not mediate the outcome of child protection involvement. Women 'exposed to high risks' were equally able to generate a model of their own and their infants' mental states and should not be seen within a deficit perspective. Further research is required to better understand the range of risk factors that predict child protection involvement in high risk groups. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Heart rate variability in workers chronically exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Chlebda, Ewa

    2004-07-01

    Lead is a strong neurotoxin. The effects of lead on the activity of the autonomic nervous system, assessed by the use of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, have not yet been established. To assess the effects of occupational chronic lead exposure on the autonomic nervous system activity. The study group consisted of 22 copper foundry workers (mean age 41.8+/-8.7 years) who had elevated parameters of lead overload and were admitted to the hospital for chelate therapy. The control group consisted of 13 age-matched healthy males. Lead concentration was measured with the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and concentration of free protoporphyrins in erythrocytes (FEP) using a fluorometric method. Each patient underwent 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, and standard short-term as well as long-term HRV parameters were obtained. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in HRV parameters. In the control group, HRV parameters correlated with age. In patients, a significant negative correlation between lead concentration and some short-term HRV parameters calculated during the night was found: SDNN (r=-0.48, p<0.05), TP (r=-0.48, p<0.01) and LF (r=-0.48, p<0.01). In patients, a negative correlation between lead concentration and HFnight/HFday index was found (r=-0.47 p<0.01), whereas in controls this correlation was positive (r=0.66 p<0.05). Overall HRV indices are similar in subjects exposed to lead and in healthy controls. A decrease in the physiological elevation of HF values during the night, together with an increase in lead blood concentration and lack of relationship between age and HRV parameters in workers chronically exposed to lead may suggest disturbances of the autonomic system. In subjects not exposed to lead a decrease in heart rate with an increase in FEP concentration was observed.

  10. Vascular Hyperpermeability Response in Animals Systemically Exposed to Arsenic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Chao-Yuah; Lin, Ming-Lu

    2018-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases induced by chronic exposure to arsenic remain unclarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether increased vascular leakage is induced by inflammatory mustard oil in mice systemically exposed to various doses of arsenic and whether an increased vascular leakage response is still present in arsenic-fed mice after arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months. ICR mice were fed water or various doses of sodium arsenite (10, 15, or 20 mg/kg/day; 5 days/week) for 8 weeks. In separate experiments, the mice were treated with sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg) for 2 or 8 weeks, followed by arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months. Vascular permeability to inflammatory mustard oil was quantified using Evans blue (EB) techniques. Both arsenic-exposed and water-fed (control) mice displayed similar basal levels of EB leakage in the ears brushed with mineral oil, a vehicle of mustard oil. The levels of EB leakage induced by mustard oil in the arsenic groups fed with sodium arsenite (10 or 15 mg/kg) were similar to those of water-fed mice. However, increased levels of EB leakage in response to mustard oil stimulation were significantly higher in mice treated with sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg; high dose) than in arsenic-fed (10 or 15 mg/kg; low and middle doses) or control mice. After arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months, mustard oil-induced vascular EB leakage in arsenic-fed (20 mg/kg) mice was similar to that in control mice. Dramatic increases in mustard oil-induced vascular leakage were only present in mice systemically exposed to the high arsenic dose, indicating the synergistic effects of the high arsenic dose and mustard oil.

  11. Obstructive airway diseases in women exposed to biomass smoke.

    PubMed

    Ekici, Aydanur; Ekici, Mehmet; Kurtipek, Ercan; Akin, Ahmet; Arslan, Mesut; Kara, Türkan; Apaydin, Zeliha; Demir, Selma

    2005-09-01

    The majority of women living in rural areas in Turkey use biomass fuels for domestic energy and are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution every day. The objective of this study was to compare the presence of chronic airway diseases (CAD) in two groups of nonsmoking women older than 40 years with (exposed group, n=397) and without a history of exposure to biomass cooking (liquid petroleum gas (LPG); control group, n=199), in 2002 in Kirikkale, Turkey. Detailed respiratory symptoms were collected with a standard questionnaire adapted from that of the British Medical Research Council. Exposure was calculated as the average hours spent daily for cooking multiplied by the number of years. CAD were defined as either chronic airway obstruction (CAO; (forced expiratory volume in 1s/forced vital capacity)<0.70), chronic bronchitis, or chronic bronchitis with CAO. The prevalence of CAD in the exposed group was found to be higher than that in the LPG group (28.5% vs. 13.6%, crude odds ratios (ORs) 2.5 (1.5--4.0), P=0.0001). The fraction of CAD attributed to exposure to biomass smoke after adjusting for possible confounding factors was 23.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.4--33.2). Acute symptoms during exposure to biomass smoke were important predictors for the presence of CAD. Biomass smoke pollution is an important contributing factor in the development of CAD in nonsmoking women living in a rural area. The presence of acute symptoms during cooking in women in rural areas should signal to general practitioners the possibility of CAD.

  12. Exposed-core chalcogenide microstructured optical fibers for chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troles, Johann; Toupin, Perrine; Brilland, Laurent; Boussard-Plédel, Catherine; Bureau, Bruno; Cui, Shuo; Mechin, David; Adam, Jean-Luc

    2013-05-01

    Chemical bonds of most of the molecules vibrate at a frequency corresponding to the near or mid infrared field. It is thus of a great interest to develop sensitive and portable devices for the detection of specific chemicals and biomolecules for various applications in health, the environment, national security and so on. Optical fibers define practical sensing tools. Chalcogenide glasses are known for their transparency in the infrared optical range and their ability to be drawn as fibers. They are consequently good candidates to be used in biological/chemical sensing. For that matter, in the past decade, chalcogenide glass fibers have been successfully implemented in evanescent wave spectroscopy experiments, for the detection of bio-chemical species in various fields of applications including microbiology and medicine, water pollution and CO2 detection. Different types of fiber can be used: single index fibers or microstructured fibers. Besides, in recent years a new configuration of microstructured fibers has been developed: microstructured exposed-core fibers. This design consists of an optical fiber with a suspended micron-scale core that is partially exposed to the external environment. This configuration has been chosen to elaborate, using the molding method, a chalcogenide fiber for chemical species detection. The sensitivity of this fiber to detect molecules such as propan-2-ol and acetone has been compared with those of single index fibers. Although evanescent wave absorption is inversely proportional to the fiber diameter, the result shows that an exposed-core fiber is much more sensitive than a single index fiber having a twice smaller external diameter.

  13. Oxidative damage of DNA in subjects occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Pawlas, Natalia; Olewińska, Elżbieta; Markiewicz-Górka, Iwona; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Januszewska, Lidia; Lundh, Thomas; Januszewska, Ewa; Pawlas, Krystyna

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) in environmental and occupational settings continues to be a serious public health problem and may pose an elevated risk of genetic damage. The aim of this study was to assess the level of oxidative stress and DNA damage in subjects occupationally exposed to lead. We studied a population of 78 male workers exposed to lead in a lead and zinc smelter and battery recycling plant and 38 men from a control group. Blood lead levels were detected by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and plasma lead levels by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The following assays were performed to assess the DNA damage and oxidative stress: comet assay, determination of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant status (TAS). The mean concentration of lead in the blood of the exposed group was 392 ± 103 μg/L and was significantly higher than in the control group (30.3 ± 29.4 μg/L, p < 0.0001). Oxidative DNA damages measured by comet assay showed no significant differences between populations. The concentration of 8-OHdG was about twice as high as in the control group. We found a significant positive correlation between the level of biomarkers of lead exposure [lead in blood, lead in plasma, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP)] and urine concentration of 8-OHdG. The level of oxidative damage of DNA was positively correlated with the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and negatively with total anti-oxidative status (TAS). Our study suggests that occupational exposure causes an increase in oxidative damage to DNA, even in subjects with relatively short length of service (average length of about 10 years). 8-OHdG concentration in the urine proved to be a sensitive and non-invasive marker of lead induced genotoxic damage.

  14. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, T.N.; Kieffer, H.H.; Christensen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap. The surface H2O ice was first observed by THEMIS as a region that was cooler than expected for dry soil at that latitude during the summer season. Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations indicate that there is H2O ice at the surface. Viking observations, and the few other relevant THEMIS observations, indicate that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap.

  15. Erosion of graphite surface exposed to hot supersonic hydrogen gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, O. P.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical model based on laminar boundary layer flow equations is developed to predict the erosion rate of a graphite (AGCarb-101) surface exposed to a hot supersonic stream of hydrogen gas. The supersonic flow in the nozzle outside the boundary layer formed over the surface of the specimen is determined by assuming one-dimensional isentropic conditions. An overall surface reaction rate expression based on the experimental studies by Clarke and Fox is used to describe the interaction of hydrogen with graphite. A satisfactory agreement is found between the results of the computation, and the available experimental data. Some shortcomings of the model, and further possible improvements are discussed.

  16. Final results of space exposed experiment developed for students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, Doris K.

    1993-01-01

    SEEDS was a cooperative endeavor of NASA Headquarters, the NASA Langley Research Center, and the George W. Park Seed Company. Approximately 132,000 SEEDS kits containing Rutger's tomato seeds that had flown on LDEF, as well as similar seeds that had been stored in a climate-controlled warehouse for the same time period, were sent to schools in every state and 30 foreign countries. Student researchers from kindergarten through university compared germination and growth characteristics of the space-exposed and Earth-based seeds and returned data to NASA for analysis. Important scientific information was gained as students reported very little difference between the two seed groups.

  17. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy analysis of space-exposed polymer films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, Carol R.; Young, Philip R.

    1993-01-01

    The characterization of the surface of selected space-exposed polymer films by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) is reported. Principles of STM, an emerging new technique for materials analysis, are reviewed. The analysis of several films which received up to 5.8 years of low Earth orbital (LEO) exposure onboard the NASA Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is discussed. Specimens included FEP Teflon thermal blanket material, Kapton film, and several experimental polymer films. Ultraviolet and atomic oxygen-induced crazing and erosion are described. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate how STM is enhancing the understanding of LEO space environmental effects on polymer films.

  18. Corrosivity Sensor for Exposed Pipelines Based on Wireless Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lawand, Lydia; Shiryayev, Oleg; Al Handawi, Khalil; Vahdati, Nader; Rostron, Paul

    2017-01-01

    External corrosion was identified as one of the main causes of pipeline failures worldwide. A solution that addresses the issue of detecting and quantifying corrosivity of environment for application to existing exposed pipelines has been developed. It consists of a sensing array made of an assembly of thin strips of pipeline steel and a circuit that provides a visual sensor reading to the operator. The proposed sensor is passive and does not require a constant power supply. Circuit design was validated through simulations and lab experiments. Accelerated corrosion experiment was conducted to confirm the feasibility of the proposed corrosivity sensor design. PMID:28556805

  19. Corrosivity Sensor for Exposed Pipelines Based on Wireless Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Lawand, Lydia; Shiryayev, Oleg; Al Handawi, Khalil; Vahdati, Nader; Rostron, Paul

    2017-05-30

    External corrosion was identified as one of the main causes of pipeline failures worldwide. A solution that addresses the issue of detecting and quantifying corrosivity of environment for application to existing exposed pipelines has been developed. It consists of a sensing array made of an assembly of thin strips of pipeline steel and a circuit that provides a visual sensor reading to the operator. The proposed sensor is passive and does not require a constant power supply. Circuit design was validated through simulations and lab experiments. Accelerated corrosion experiment was conducted to confirm the feasibility of the proposed corrosivity sensor design.

  20. Erosion of graphite surface exposed to hot supersonic hydrogen gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, O. P.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical model based on laminar boundary layer flow equations was developed to predict the erosion rate of a graphite (AGCarb-101) surface exposed to a hot supersonic stream of hydrogen gas. The supersonic flow in the nozzle outside the boundary layer formed over the surface of the specimen was determined by assuming one-dimensional isentropic conditions. An overall surface reaction rate expression based on experimental studies was used to describe the interaction of hydrogen with graphite. A satisfactory agreement was found between the results of the computation, and the available experimental data. Some shortcomings of the model and further possible improvements are discussed.

  1. Maximally exposed offsite individual location determination for NESHAPS compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2000-03-13

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer program CAP88 for demonstrating compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS.) One of the inputs required for CAP88 is the location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI) by sector and distance. Distances to the MEI have been determined for 15 different potential release locations at SRS. These locations were compared with previous work and differences were analyzed. Additionally, SREL Conference Center was included as a potential offsite location since in the future it may be used as a dormitory. Worst sectors were then determined basedmore » on the distances.« less

  2. Study on bond behaviour exposed to fire using beam specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaib Ahmad, Mohammad; Bhargava, Pradeep; Sharma, Umesh Kumar

    2018-04-01

    The composite action of concrete and steel in a reinforced concrete structure depends upon the bond between them. Bond behaviour is studied in terms of bond-slip relationship. The bond between them depends upon mechanical properties of concrete and steel. In an event of fire these mechanical properties degrades and hence the bond behaviour changes. Some researches were performed to study the effect of temperature on the bond-slip relationship which are based on pull out specimens. Generally these relationships are obtained using pull out specimen which over estimates the bond properties. In this study beam specimens were used which is recommended by Rilem. These specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures up to 650 °C and there bond-slip behaviour were studied. The study shows that bond strength decreases while peak slip increases with increases in temperature. Also an equation proposed was proposed which can predict the bond strength between concrete and steel exposed up to the temperature of 650 °C.

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF RAT LIVER EXPOSED TO NANOPARTICLES OF LEAD COMPOUNDS.

    PubMed

    Omelchuk, S; Aleksijchuk, V; Sokurenko, L; Blagaia, A; Prudchenko, S

    2016-12-01

    In recent times, the lead becomes great importance in environmental pollution, including its nanoparticles. In the literature, there is little data on the changes in the liver after the exposure with lead nanoparticles. The purpose of this study was the identification and determination of macroscopic, microscopic, and biochemical changes of the structural elements of the rat's liver exposed to the action of lead compounds. The study was carried out on 60 male Wistar rats. The first and second groups of animals were intraperitoneally injected with colloidal solution of nanoparticles of Lead Sulfide size of 10 nm and 30 nm, and the third group was intraperitoneally injected with a solution of nitrate lead. Macroscopic, histological, histochemical, biochemical methods and gas chromatography were used to identify the changes of fatty acids metabolism. The experiment has found that body weights of animals in all tested groups were decreased after 6 weeks of lead nanoparticles injection, while relative liver weight was increased. Levels of total lipids and cholesterol, total protein and albumin in the blood serum in study groups have decreased, and the level of triglycerides and glucose have increased. Moderate dystrophic changes were observed in the histological examinations of the liver, and this was confirmed by morphometric and densitometric parameters. Changes of fatty acid composition of lipids of the liver exposed to nanoparticles were the result of increasing arachidonic fatty acid content and reduction of the stearic fatty acid content. Thus, it has been proven by the experiment that the effect of lead nanoparticles depends on their size.

  4. Spatial variability of macrobenthic zonation on exposed sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, Puri; Rubal, Marcos; Cacabelos, Eva; Maldonado, Cristina; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    We analysed the consistence of vertical patterns of distribution (i.e. zonation) for macrofauna at different spatial scales on four intermediate exposed beaches in the North of Portugal. We tested the hypothesis that biological zonation on exposed sandy beaches would vary at the studied spatial scales. For this aim, abundance, diversity and structure of macrobenthic assemblages were examined at the scales of transect and beach. Moreover, the main environmental factors that could potentially drive zonation patterns were investigated. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the number of biological zones ranged from two to three depending on the beach and from indistinct zonation to three zones at the scale of transect. Therefore, results support our working hypothesis because zonation patterns were not consistent at the studied spatial scales. The median particle size, sorting coefficient and water content were significantly correlated with zonation patterns of macrobenthic assemblages. However, a high degree of correlation was not reached when the total structure of the assemblage was considered.

  5. Differential Adjustment Among Rural Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence.

    PubMed

    Sianko, Natallia; Hedge, Jasmine M; McDonell, James R

    2016-04-22

    This study examines differences in psychological adjustment in a sample of rural adolescents who have been exposed to family violence. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 580 adolescents and their primary caregivers. The results revealed that over two thirds of the study participants (68.8%) had been exposed to violence in their families. As hypothesized, cluster analysis identified several profiles among adolescents, distinguished by their psychological and emotional functioning: well adjusted (46.2%), moderately adjusted (44.3%), and struggling (9.5%). Discriminant function analysis confirmed the groupings and revealed that family functioning was among the most influential factors explaining adjustment differences. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) further showed that adolescents from each of the three adjustment profiles reported significantly different levels of family social support, parental involvement, and perceived neighborhood safety. Overall, the results confirm heterogeneity of adolescent adaptation in the aftermath of family violence and provide insights into family and neighborhood factors that account for variability in adolescents' reactions to violence. Implications for future research and practical interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daligcon, B. C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of gluconeogenesis on the levels of plasma glucose and liver glycogen was studied in rats exposed to hyper-G stress. Incorporation of lactate, alanine, or glycerol, labeled with C-14, into plasma glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats centrifuged at 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0-hr periods, and was compared to noncentrifuged controls injected with appropriate glycogen precursors. It was found that exposure to G-stress leads to increased incorporation from all three substrates into both plasma glucose and liver glycogen. These early incorporation increases were blocked upon pre-G administration of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a gluconeogenesis inhibitor, or propanolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, as well as by adrenodemedullation. Results indicate that the rapid rise in plasma glucose, as well as in liver glycogen in rats exposed to hyper-G stress is due to an increased rate of gluconeogenesis, and that epinephrine, released in response to hyper-G-induced activation of the sympathetic-adrenal system, plays a dominant role during the early stages of hyper-G stress.

  7. Assessment of genotoxic effects of lead in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Chinde, Srinivas; Kumari, Monika; Devi, Kanapuram Rudrama; Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana; Rahman, Mohammed Fazlur; Kumari, Srinivas Indu; Mahboob, Mohammed; Grover, Paramjit

    2014-10-01

    The genotoxicological effects in 200 lead acid storage battery recycling and manufacturing industry workers in Hyderabad along with matched 200 controls were studied. The genetic damage was determined by comet, micronucleus (MN), and chromosomal aberration (CA) test in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The MN test was also carried out in buccal epithelial cells (BECs). Pb in ambient air, blood Pb (B-Pb) concentrations, and hematological parameters were measured. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) formed were also studied. The results of the present study showed that there was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) increase in mean percent tail DNA, frequency of CA, and MN in PBL as well as in BEC as compared to controls. Pb in ambient air and B-Pb concentrations were found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01). The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell values were significantly lowered in Pb-exposed workers in comparison to controls. SOD, GPx, and CAT levels were significantly decreased while GSH and MDA levels increased in exposed group when compared to control group. The present study suggests that environmental health standards should be enforced to control Pb contamination from battery industries to reduce human health risk.

  8. Cytogenetic effects in workers occupationally exposed to tobacco dust.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, B; Swarna, M; Padmavathi, P; Jyothi, A; Reddy, P P

    2003-03-03

    Tobacco dust mainly contains nitrosamines, which are readily absorbed by the body tissues like skin, respiratory epithelium, and mucous membrane of mouth, nose and intestines. Exposure to tobacco dust is known to affect the respiratory tracts in humans. In the present study, cytogenetic effects of exposure to tobacco dust are evaluated in 154 male tobacco factory workers and 138 age and sex matched controls by analysing chromosomal aberrations in their peripheral blood lymphocytes. The workers were in the age group of 20-55 years and were employed in the tobacco processing factory for 1-32 years. Heparinised blood samples were collected from workers and control subjects and lymphocyte cultures were carried out by using standard technique. Slides were prepared and 150 metaphases were screened for each sample for various structural and numerical types of abnormalities. A statistically significant increase was observed in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in non-smoking and smoking exposed groups when compared to the respective controls. An increase in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations was also observed with increase in years of service in the exposed subjects.

  9. The Immune System of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants.

    PubMed

    Abu-Raya, Bahaa; Kollmann, Tobias R; Marchant, Arnaud; MacGillivray, Duncan M

    2016-01-01

    Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation. And although prevaccination vaccine-specific antibody levels are often lower in HEU than HU, most HEU infants mount adequate humoral immune response following primary vaccination with diphtheria toxoid, haemophilus influenzae type b, whole cell pertussis, measles, hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, HEU infants are often found to have lower absolute neutrophil counts as compared to HU infants. On the other hand, an increase of innate immune cytokine production and expression of co-stimulatory markers has been noted in HEU infants, but this increase appears to be restricted to the first few weeks of life. The immune system of HEU children beyond infancy remains largely unexplored.

  10. Differential Adjustment Among Rural Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence

    PubMed Central

    Sianko, Natallia; Hedge, Jasmine M.; McDonell, James R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines differences in psychological adjustment in a sample of rural adolescents who have been exposed to family violence. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 580 adolescents and their primary caregivers. The results revealed that over two thirds of the study participants (68.8%) had been exposed to violence in their families. As hypothesized, cluster analysis identified several profiles among adolescents, distinguished by their psychological and emotional functioning: well adjusted (46.2%), moderately adjusted (44.3%), and struggling (9.5%). Discriminant function analysis confirmed the groupings and revealed that family functioning was among the most influential factors explaining adjustment differences. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) further showed that adolescents from each of the three adjustment profiles reported significantly different levels of family social support, parental involvement, and perceived neighborhood safety. Overall, the results confirm heterogeneity of adolescent adaptation in the aftermath of family violence and provide insights into family and neighborhood factors that account for variability in adolescents’ reactions to violence. Implications for future research and practical interventions are discussed. PMID:27106255

  11. Antibody responses of raccoons naturally exposed to influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Root, J Jeffrey; Bentler, Kevin T; Sullivan, Heather J; Blitvich, Bradley J; McLean, Robert G; Franklin, Alan B

    2010-10-01

    An investigation was performed to describe the responses of naturally acquired antibodies to influenza A virus in raccoons (Procyon lotor) over time. Seven wild raccoons, some of which had been exposed to multiple subtypes of influenza A virus, were held in captivity for 279 days, and serum samples were collected on 10 occasions during this interval. Serum samples from 9 of 10 bleeding occasions were tested using an epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of antibodies to influenza A virus. Although titer declines were noted in most animals over time, all animals maintained detectable antibodies for the duration of the study. These data indicate that naturally acquired antibodies to influenza A virus can remain detectable in raccoons for many months, with the actual duration presumably being much longer because all animals had been exposed to influenza A virus before this study commenced. This information is important to surveillance programs because the duration of naturally acquired antibodies to influenza A virus in wildlife populations is largely unknown.

  12. Eye Lens Opacities Among Physicians Occupationally Exposed to Ionizing Radiation.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Kivelä, Tero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Mrena, Samy

    2015-08-01

    We compared the frequency of lens opacities among physicians with and without occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, and estimated dose-response between cumulative dose and opacities. We conducted ophthalmologic examinations of 21 physicians with occupational exposure to radiation and 16 unexposed physicians. Information on cumulative radiation doses (mean 111 mSv) was based on dosimeter readings recorded in a national database on occupational exposures. Lens changes were evaluated using the Lens Opacities Classification System II, with an emphasis on posterior subcapsular (PSC) and cortical changes. Among the exposed physicians, the prevalences of cortical and PSC changes were both 11% (3/21), and the corresponding frequencies in the unexposed group were 44% (n = 7) and 6% (n = 1). For dose-response analysis, the data were pooled with 29 exposed physicians from our previous study. No association of either type of lens changes with cumulative recorded dose was observed. Our findings do not indicate an increased frequency of lens opacities in physicians with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the subjects in this study have received relatively low doses and therefore the results do not exclude small increases in lens opacities or contradict the studies reporting increases among interventional cardiologists with materially higher cumulative doses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  13. Spontaneous abortions among nickel-exposed female refinery workers.

    PubMed

    Vaktskjold, Arild; Talykova, Ljudmila V; Chashchin, Valerij P; Odland, Jon Ø; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-04-01

    A case-control study to investigate whether women employed in nickel-exposed work areas in early pregnancy are at elevated risk of spontaneous abortion (SA). Data about pregnancy outcome and maternal factors were obtained about each delivery and SA from women in selected work places. Each pregnancy record was assigned a categorical nickel (Ni) exposure rating according to the women's occupations at pregnancy onset. The guidelines were the water-soluble Ni subfraction of the inhalable aerosol fraction obtained by personal monitoring for nickel- and copper-refinery workers or/and measured urinary-Ni concentrations. The unadjusted odds ratio for the association between the maternal exposure to Ni and an SA for Ni-exposed women was 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.84), and the adjusted was 1.14 (0.95-1.37). In conclusion, there was no statistical association between maternal occupational exposure to water-soluble Ni in early pregnancy and the risk of self-reported SA. The findings do not exclude the possibility of a weak excess risk, or a risk in the first weeks of pregnancy.

  14. Cancer in Experimental Animals Exposed to Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Tokar, Erik J.; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Ward, Jerold M.; Lunn, Ruth; Sams, Reeder L.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has long been considered a human carcinogen. Recent studies raise further concern about the metalloid as a major, naturally occurring carcinogen in the environment. However, during this same period it has proven difficult to provide experimental evidence of the carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic in laboratory animals and, until recently, there was considered to be a lack of clear evidence for carcinogenicity of any arsenical in animals. More recent work with arsenical methylation metabolites and early life exposures to inorganic arsenic has now provided evidence of carcinogenicity in rodents. Given that tens of millions of people worldwide are exposed to potentially unhealthy levels of environmental arsenic, in vivo rodent models of arsenic carcinogenesis are a clear necessity for resolving critical issues, like mechanisms of action, target tissue specificity, and sensitive subpopulations, and in developing strategies to reduce cancers in exposed human populations. This work reviews the available rodent studies considered relevant to carcinogenic assessment of arsenicals, taking advantage of the most recent review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) that has not yet appeared as a full monograph but has been summarized (IARC 2009). Many valid studies show that arsenic can interact with other carcinogens/agents to enhance oncogenesis, and help elucidate mechanisms, and these too are summarized in this review. Finally, this body of rodent work is discussed in light of its impact on mechanisms and in the context of the persistent argument that arsenic is not carcinogenic in animals. PMID:20812815

  15. Functions of TGF-β-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Saas, Philippe; Perruche, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) belong to the family of dendritic cells and possess specific features that distinguish them from conventional dendritic cells. For instance, pDC are the main interferon-alpha-secreting cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells exert both proinflammatory and regulatory functions. This is attested by the involvement of pDC through interferon-alpha secretion in several autoimmune diseases, and by the implication of pDC in tolerance. The same is true for TGF-β that plays a dual role in inflammation. In this review, we discuss recent data on pDC and TGF-β interactions. As with many cell types, pDCs are able to respond to TGF-β using the classic Smad signaling pathway. In addition, pDCs are capable to secrete TGF-β, in particular in response to TGF-β exposure. Exposure of pDCs to TGF-β prevents type I interferon secretion in response to TLR7/9 ligands. In contrast, the consequences of TGF-β on the antigen-presenting cell capacities of pDC are less clear, since TGF-β-exposed pDCs may lead to both regulatory T-cell and interleukin-17-secreting cell polarization. Here, we discuss the factors that may influence this polarization. We also discuss how pDCs exposed to TGF-β may participate in tolerance induction and maintenance, or, on the contrary, in autoimmune diseases.

  16. Error-related negativities during spelling judgments expose orthographic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lindsay N; Perfetti, Charles A; Rickles, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects' spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detoxification genes polymorphisms in SIDS exposed to tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Filonzi, Laura; Magnani, Cinzia; Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Vaghi, Marina; Nosetti, Luana; Nonnis Marzano, Francesco

    2018-03-30

    The best hypothesis to explain Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) pathogenesis is offered by the "triple risk model", which suggests that an interaction of different variables related to exogenous stressors and infant vulnerability may lead to the syndrome. Environmental factors are triggers that act during a particular sensible period, modulated by intrinsic genetic characteristics. Although literature data show that one of the major SIDS risk factors is smoking exposure, a specific involvement of molecular components has never been highlighted. Starting from these observations and considering the role of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes functional polymorphisms in the detoxification process, we analyzed GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype frequencies in 47 SIDS exposed to tobacco smoke and 75 healthy individuals. A significant association (p < .0001) between the GSTM1 null genotype and SIDS exposed to smoke was found. On the contrary, no association between GSTT1 polymorphism and SIDS was determined. Results indicated the contribution of the GSTM1 -/- genotype resulting in null detoxification activity in SIDS cases, and led to a better comprehension of the triple risk model, highlighting smoking exposure as a real SIDS risk factor on a biochemical basis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Prevalence of tinnitus in workers exposed to noise and organophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Delecrode, Camila Ribas; de Freitas, Thais Domingues; Frizzo, Ana Claúdia Figueiredo; Cardoso, Ana Claúdia Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Research on the workplace has emphasized the effects of noise exposure on workers' hearing, but has not considered the effects of agrochemicals. Aim: To evaluate and correlate the hearing level and tinnitus of workers exposed simultaneously to noise and organophosphates in their workplace and to measure tinnitus distress on their quality of life. Method: A retrospective clinical study. We evaluated 82 organophosphate sprinklers from the São Paulo State Regional Superintendence who were active in the fight against dengue and who were exposed to noise and organophosphates. We performed pure tone audiometry and applied the translated THI (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) questionnaire. Results: Of the sample, 28.05% reported current tinnitus or had presented tinnitus, and the workers with tinnitus had an increased incidence of abnormal audiometry. The average hearing threshold for the 4–8-kHz frequency range of the workers with current tinnitus was higher than that of the others, and was most affected at the 4-kHz frequency. The THI score ranged 0–84, with an average score of 13.1. Twelve (52.17%) workers had THI scores consistent with discrete handicap. Conclusion: There is an increased incidence of abnormal pure tone audiometry in workers with tinnitus, and its impact on the workers' quality of life was discrete. The correlation between average hearing threshold and tinnitus distress was weak. PMID:25991953

  19. Neural Tube Defects In Mice Exposed To Tap Water

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Murali K; Werre, Stephen R; Hrubec, Terry C

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2006 we suddenly began to observe neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos of untreated control mice. We hypothesized the mice were being exposed unknowingly to a teratogenic agent and investigated the cause. Our results suggested that NTDs were not resulting from bedding material, feed, strain or source of the mice. Additionally, mice were negative for routine and comprehensive screens of pathogens. To further test whether the NTDs resulted from infectious or genetic cause localized to our facility, we obtained three strains of timed pregnant mice from commercial suppliers located in 4 different states. All strains and sources of mice arrived in our laboratory with NTDs, implying that commercially available mice were possibly exposed to a teratogen prior to purchase. Our investigation eventually concluded that exposure to tap water was causing the NTDs. The incidence of NTDs was greatest in purchased mice provided tap water and lowest in purchased mice provided distilled deionized water (DDI). Providing mice DDI water for two generations (F2-DDI) eliminated the NTDs. When F2-DDI mice were provided tap water from three different urban areas prior to breeding, their offspring again developed NTDs. Increased length of exposure to tap water significantly increased the incidence of NTDs. These results indicate that a contaminant in municipal tap water is likely causing NTDs in mice. The unknown teratogen appears to have a wide geographic distribution but has not yet been identified. Water analysis is currently underway to identify candidate contaminants that might be responsible for the malformations. PMID:20549630

  20. Benefit-cost analysis of moist exposed burn ointment.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Dham, Ruwayda; Kadry, Mohammaed; Abdallah, Abdel Fattah; Al-Oteify, Mahmoud; Fathi, Osman; Samir, Ahmed

    2002-11-01

    Burn injury is one of the most devastating injuries that may affect a patient. Even in economically deprived areas, burn care is largely driven by relatively plentiful resources equating quality of care with generous monitoring and clinical attention with little concern to management cost. Burn care costs have been the subject of very few investigations and are among the least studied by health services researchers. Nevertheless, it can be stated that local care of burn wounds accounts for a large proportion of the cost per day for treating patients. As economic times are changing and as market penetration of managed care contracts and stiff competition in the health care industry gains momentum, ways to reduce expenditures without adversely affecting the quality of care have become of primary importance. We report a randomized prospective comparative study analyzing the benefit-cost value of moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO) application, an exposed method for burn wound care without the need for a secondary covering dressing, as compared to conventional closed methods.

  1. Cancer incidence among workers exposed to softwood dust in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Smailyte, Giedre

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cancer incidence in a cohort of woodworkers exposed to softwood dust in a Lithuanian wooden joinery products factory. The study population consisted of 1518 workers (1080 men and 438 women) employed in the factory for at least 1 year between 1947 and 1996 and living in Lithuania on 1 January 1978, when the follow-up for cancer incidence began. The follow-up period for cancer was 1978-2007. Cancer risk was assessed by standardised incidence ratios (SIR) with reference to the national population. Overall cancer incidence was not increased among woodworkers. However, the number of mouth and pharynx cancer cases among male woodworkers was significantly increased compared with expected numbers (SIR 2.19, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.74). A higher risk was found for cancer of the buccal cavity than for pharyngeal cancer (SIRs 2.83 and 1.45, respectively). The SIR for larynx cancer was also elevated (SIR 1.39, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.64) among men, while the number of lung cancer cases was higher than expected only among women (SIR 2.07, 95% CI 00.57 to 5.31). This results of this study support the hypothesis that exposure to softwood dust may increase the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. No support was found for an increased risk of other respiratory cancers among workers exposed to softwood dust.

  2. Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.

    1985-05-01

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence ofmore » cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.« less

  3. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  4. Test system for exposing fish to resuspended, contaminated sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Wiener, J.G.; Steingraeber, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new test system for exposing fish to resuspended sediments and associated contaminants. Test sediments were resuspended by revolving test chambers on rotating shafts driven by an electric motor. The timing, speed, and duration of test-chamber revolution were controlled by a rheostat and electronic timer. Each chamber held 45 litres of water and accommodated about 49 g of test fish. The system described had three water baths, each holding six test chambers. We illustrate the performance of this system with results from a 28-day test in which juvenile bluegills Lepomis macrochirus were exposed to resuspended, riverine sediments differing in texture and cadmium content. The test had one sediment-free control and five sediment treatments, with three replicates (chambers) per treatment and 25 fish per replicate. Two-thirds (30 litres) of the test water and sediment in each chamber was renewed weekly. The mean concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) did not vary among treatments; the grand-mean TSS in the five sediment treatments was 975 mg litre−1, similar to the target TSS of 1000 mg litre−1. At the end of the test, an average of 50% of the introduced cadmium was associated with the suspended sediment compartment, whereas the filtered (0.45 μm) water contained 0.4% and bluegills 1.8% of the cadmium.

  5. Growth characteristics of maize seeds exposed to magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Vashisth, Ananta; Joshi, Devendra Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Standardization of magnetic field was done for maximum enhancement in germination characteristics of maize seeds. Seeds of maize were exposed to static magnetic fields of strength 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h for all field strengths. Results indicate that magnetic field application enhanced seed performance in terms of percentage germination, speed of germination, seedling length, and seedling dry weight significantly compared to unexposed control. Among the various combinations of field strength and duration, 200 mT for 1 h exposure gave best results. Exposure of seeds to magnetic fields improved seed coat membrane integrity as it reduced cellular leakage and, consequently, electrical conductivity. Experiments conducted at a research farm as well as farmer's field showed that plants raised from seeds exposed to 200 mT for 1 h had higher values of leaf area index, shoot length, number of leaves, chlorophyll content, shoot/root dry weight, and root characteristics as compared to corresponding values in untreated control. From the studies, it may be concluded that exposure of dry seeds to static magnetic field of 200 mT for 1 h improved shoot and root growth. Improved root system and biomass led to increased seed yield. Improved functional root parameters suggested that magnetically treated maize seeds could be used under moisture stress conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:151-157, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Damage to Hippocampus of Rats after Being Exposed to Infrasound.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng Yao; Chen, Chen; Xie, Xue Jun; Xu, Sheng Long; Guo, Guo Zhen; Wang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to observe damage of hippocampus in rats after exposure to infrasound, and to assess HSP70 expression in hippocampus. SD rats in the experimental group were exposed to 140 dB (8 Hz) infrasound for 2 h per day for 3 days. The morphology of the hippocampus was examined by transmission electronic microscopic (TEM). Cell apoptosis was observed by TUNEL staining at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 2 w after exposure. HSP70 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB). TEM showed that hippocampus was significantly damaged by exposure, and exhibited recovery 1 week after exposure. The TUNEL data showed that neuronal apoptosis after exposure was significantly higher than in the control rats at 24 h and 48 h, and the apoptotic cells decreased one week after exposure. IHC and WB showed HSP70 expression was significantly higher in the exposed rats, peaked at 24 h. Exposure to 140 dB (8 Hz) infrasound for 2 h per day for 3 days appeared to induce damage to the hippocampus of rats, based on changes in ultrastructure and increased cell apoptosis. However, recovery from the damage occurred overtime. HSP70 expression also increased after the exposure and decreased by 48. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  7. Lead excretion in milk of accidentally exposed dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Higgins, William; Thompson, Belinda; Ebel, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in dairy cattle is associated with economic losses due to mortality and treatment costs, but with production animals there is also risk to the human food chain. The first objective of this study was to quantify the Pb concentration in milk from Pb-exposed cattle. The second objective was to correlate blood and milk Pb concentrations from individual cows. The third objective was long-term monitoring to determine the duration of milk contamination after exposure ceased. A dairy herd of more than 100 cows was accidentally exposed to Pb-contaminated feed. Milk and blood were collected for Pb analysis. Serial collection of milk samples continued for 2.5 years. The initial concentration of Pb in bulk tank milk was 0.0999 mg l⁻¹. The highest milk Pb concentration from an individual cow was 0.4657 mg l⁻¹ and the highest blood Pb concentration was 1.216 mg l⁻¹. One milk sample collected at the end of the study (day 922) contained 0.0117 mg Pb l⁻¹ of Pb. The calculated relationship between milk (y) and blood (x) Pb concentration was ln(y) = 3.4(x) - 2.21 (R² = 0.98).

  8. Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing of Implantable Neurostimulators Exposed to Metal Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Seth J; Kainz, Wolfgang; Casamento, Jon; Witters, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing of three implantable neurostimulators exposed to the magnetic fields emitted from several walk-through and hand-held metal detectors. The motivation behind this testing comes from numerous adverse event reports involving active implantable medical devices (AIMDs) and security systems that have been received by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). EMC testing was performed using three neurostimulators exposed to the emissions from 12 walk-through metal detectors (WTMDs) and 32 hand-held metal detectors (HHMDs). Emission measurements were performed on all HHMDs and WTMDs and summary data is presented. Results from the EMC testing indicate possible electromagnetic interference (EMI) between one of the neurostimulators and one WTMD and indicate that EMI between the three neurostimulators and HHMDs is unlikely. The results suggest that worst case situations for EMC testing are hard to predict and testing all major medical device modes and setting parameters are necessary to understand and characterize the EMC of AIMDs. PMID:20448818

  9. HSP70 expression in Biomphalaria glabrata snails exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    da Silva Cantinha, Rebeca; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Oguiura, Nancy; de Bragança Pereira, Carlos Alberto; Rigolon, Marcela M; Nakano, Eliana

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the effects of the heavy metal cadmium on the stress protein HSP70 are investigated in freshwater mollusks Biomphalaria glabrata. Adult snails were exposed for 96h to CdCl 2 at concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.7mgL -1 (LC 50/96h =0.34 (0.30-0.37). Time and concentration-dependent increases in the expression of HSP70 were observed at sub-lethal levels in the immunoblotting assay. Further, an increased survival to a lethal heat shock was observed in animals pre-exposed to a nonlethal concentration of cadmium, evidencing the induction of acquired tolerance. The present study demonstrated the inducibility of B. glabrata HSP70 by cadmium, a relevant environmental contaminant, at non-lethal levels, providing evidences that the assessment of HSP70 in B. glabrata can be regarded as a suitable biomarker for ecotoxicological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposing the cancer genome atlas as a SPARQL endpoint

    PubMed Central

    Deus, Helena F.; Veiga, Diogo F.; Freire, Pablo R.; Weinstein, John N.; Mills, Gordon B.; Almeida, Jonas S.

    2011-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional effort to characterize several types of cancer. Datasets from biomedical domains such as TCGA present a particularly challenging task for those interested in dynamically aggregating its results because the data sources are typically both heterogeneous and distributed. The Linked Data best practices offer a solution to integrate and discover data with those characteristics, namely through exposure of data as Web services supporting SPARQL, the Resource Description Framework query language. Most SPARQL endpoints, however, cannot easily be queried by data experts. Furthermore, exposing experimental data as SPARQL endpoints remains a challenging task because, in most cases, data must first be converted to Resource Description Framework triples. In line with those requirements, we have developed an infrastructure to expose clinical, demographic and molecular data elements generated by TCGA as a SPARQL endpoint by assigning elements to entities of the Simple Sloppy Semantic Database (S3DB) management model. All components of the infrastructure are available as independent Representational State Transfer (REST) Web services to encourage reusability, and a simple interface was developed to automatically assemble SPARQL queries by navigating a representation of the TCGA domain. A key feature of the proposed solution that greatly facilitates assembly of SPARQL queries is the distinction between the TCGA domain descriptors and data elements. Furthermore, the use of the S3DB management model as a mediator enables queries to both public and protected data without the need for prior submission to a single data source. PMID:20851208

  11. A modeling framework for exposing risks in complex systems.

    PubMed

    Sharit, J

    2000-08-01

    This article introduces and develops a modeling framework for exposing risks in the form of human errors and adverse consequences in high-risk systems. The modeling framework is based on two components: a two-dimensional theory of accidents in systems developed by Perrow in 1984, and the concept of multiple system perspectives. The theory of accidents differentiates systems on the basis of two sets of attributes. One set characterizes the degree to which systems are interactively complex; the other emphasizes the extent to which systems are tightly coupled. The concept of multiple perspectives provides alternative descriptions of the entire system that serve to enhance insight into system processes. The usefulness of these two model components derives from a modeling framework that cross-links them, enabling a variety of work contexts to be exposed and understood that would otherwise be very difficult or impossible to identify. The model components and the modeling framework are illustrated in the case of a large and comprehensive trauma care system. In addition to its general utility in the area of risk analysis, this methodology may be valuable in applications of current methods of human and system reliability analysis in complex and continually evolving high-risk systems.

  12. Error-Related Negativities During Spelling Judgments Expose Orthographic Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lindsay N.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects’ spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. PMID:24389506

  13. The Exposed Proteomes of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Vanessa; Vadillo, Santiago; San Juan, Carlos; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abian, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli are well-known intestinal pathogens in pigs. B. hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a disease with an important impact on pig production while B. pilosicoli is responsible of a milder diarrheal disease in these animals, porcine intestinal spirochetosis. Recent sequencing projects have provided information for the genome of these species facilitating the search of vaccine candidates using reverse vaccinology approaches. However, practically no experimental evidence exists of the actual gene products being expressed and of those proteins exposed on the cell surface or released to the cell media. Using a cell-shaving strategy and a shotgun proteomic approach we carried out a large-scale characterization of the exposed proteins on the bacterial surface in these species as well as of peptides and proteins in the extracellular medium. The study included three strains of B. hyodysenteriae and two strains of B. pilosicoli and involved 148 LC-MS/MS runs on a high resolution Orbitrap instrument. Overall, we provided evidence for more than 29,000 different peptides pointing to 1625 and 1338 different proteins in B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli, respectively. Many of the most abundant proteins detected corresponded to described virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The level of expression of these proteins, however, was different among species and strains, stressing the value of determining actual gene product levels as a complement of genomic-based approaches for vaccine design. PMID:27493641

  14. Evoked otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to noise: A review

    PubMed Central

    Alcarás, Patrícia Arruda de Souza; Lüders, Débora; França, Denise Maria Vaz Romano; Klas, Regina Maria; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira de; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The otoacoustic emissions test is an essential tool in the evaluation of auditory function, since it allows the early detection of cochlear damage of occupational origin. Objective: To present a review of the literature and analyze the effectiveness of the clinical application of the otoacoustic emissions test in workers exposed to noise. Methods: A bibliographical search covering a period of 10 years was performed in the Virtual Health Library including published articles in national and international journals indexed in the internationally recognized databases for the health sciences, LILACS, SCIELO, and MEDLINE, using the terms “otoacoustic emissions” and “occupational exposure.” The type of published article (national/international), the type and intensity of the stimulus most commonly used for the evoked otoacoustic emissions, the gender and age of the subjects, and the conclusions from the retrospective studies were all taken into consideration. Results and Conclusions: A total of 19 articles were analyzed, 7 national and 12 international, covering subjects from 17 to 77 years of age, mostly men. The type of stimulus most commonly used for the evoked otoacoustic emissions was the distortion method (12). Through this review, we have concluded that testing of evoked otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to noise is an important tool in the early diagnosis of noise-induced cochlear hearing disorders. PMID:25991982

  15. Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Chen, C Y; Sheu, J Y; Chuang, I C; Pan, J H; Lin, T H

    1999-02-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to hexavalent chromium induces lipid peroxidation in human. This study involved 25 chrome-plating factory workers and a reference group of 28 control subjects. The whole-blood and urinary chromium concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the activities of protective enzymes were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. In the chrome-plating workers, the mean concentrations of chromium in blood and urine were 5.98 microg/L and 5.25 microg/g creatinine, respectively; the mean concentrations of MDA in blood and urine were 1.7 micromol/L and 2.24 micromol/g creatinine. The concentrations of both chromium and MDA in blood and urine were significantly higher in the chromium-exposed workers. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) were not markedly different between control and exposed workers. Data suggest that MDA may be used as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure. Antioxidant enzymic activities are not a suitable marker for chromium exposure.

  16. Exposed Fractured Bedrock in the Central Pit of a Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-09

    This HiRISE image shows the central pit feature of an approximately 20-kilometer diameter complex crater in located at 304.480 degrees east, -11.860 degrees south, just north of the Valles Marineris. Here we can observe a partial ring of light-toned, massive and fractured bedrock, which has been exposed by the impact-forming event, and via subsequent erosion that typically obscure the bedrock of complex central features. Features such as this one are of particular interest as they provide scientists with numerous exposures of bedrock that can be readily observed from orbit and originate from the deep Martian subsurface. Unlike on Earth, plate tectonics do not appear to be active on Mars. Thus, much of the Martian subsurface is not directly observable through uplift, erosion and exposure of mountain chains, which provide the majority of bedrock exposures on Earth. Exposures of subsurface materials generated by these features provides us with some of the only "windows" into the subsurface geology. This makes the study of impact craters an invaluable source of information when trying to understand, not only the impact process, but also the composition and history of Mars. Although much of what we see here is composed of massive and fractured bedrock, there are zones of rock fragmentation, called "brecciation." These fragmented rocks (a.k.a., breccias) are best viewed in the eastern portion of the central pit, which was captured in a previous HiRISE image. Additionally, we see some occurrences of impact melt-bearing deposits that surround and coat the bedrock exposed within the central pit. Several dunes are on the surface throughout the central pit and surrounding crater floor. The mechanisms behind the formation of central features, particularly central pits, are not completely understood. Geologic mapping of these circumferential "mega" blocks of bedrock indicate radial and concentric fracturing that is consistent with deformation through uplift. The exposed bedrock

  17. Biomarkers in humans exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Binkova, B.; Topinka, J.; Mrackova, G.

    1997-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been identified as a major source of carcinogenic risk in the coke-oven industry. This study evaluates following markers: personal exposure to PAH, DNA adducts, chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) polymorphisms. 23 top side coke-oven workers and 13 unexposed workers employed in the same plant at Kosice, Slovakia were studied. Personal monitors were used to measure carcinogenic PAH exposure during 8 h of working shift prior the collection of blood and urine samples. Personal exposure to eight carcinogenic PAHs ranged from 0.6 to 632 {mu}g/m{sup 3}more » and from 0.07 to 0.62 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for exposed and control groups, respectively. Based on the values of individual persons, the positive significant correlations were found between DNA adducts detected in WBC and LYM (Spearman r=0.451, p=0.044), between DNA adducts and SCE (r=0.363, p=0.034) and between AB.C. and SCE-H (SCE evaluated as the index of heterogeneity H-variance/mean: r=0.381, p=0.024). Using individual PAH exposure data the following significant correlations between exposure and biomarkers were found: WBC-DNA adducts (r=0.325;p=0.058);SCE-H (r=0.467, p=0.007). Groupwise comparison of the exposed and control groups (Mann-Whitney U-test) showed significantly increased values of SCE (6.71{+-}1.20 vs. 5.20 {+-}1.16, respectively) and DNA adducts in WBC and LYM (2.70{+-}0.74 vs 1.94{+-}0.51 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides; 2.46{+-}0.83 vs. 1.60{+-}0.32 adducts/10{sup 8}nucleotides, respectively). No influence of the smoking habits on the biomarkers was detectable in exposed or unexposed individuals. Multifactor analysis of variance taking into account confounding factors such as GSTM1, NAT2, diet and adjusting the data for age and smoking clearly showed the effect of exposure on DNA adducts, AB.C and SCE-H.« less

  18. Analysing deterioration of marble stones exposed to underwater conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Bethencourt, Manuel; Freire-Lista, David; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The peculiar conditions of the marine environment make the conservation of underwater archaeological sites an extremely complex procedure. This is due to the fact that the prevailing conditions in this environment promote the development of deterioration phenomena in submerged artefacts through the synergistic action of physical, chemical and biological factors. The objective of the present investigation was to determine how petrophysical properties of cultural heritage materials can be affected by being exposed to the specific underwater conditions of the sea bottom, and so, to evaluate how this can affect, in a long term, in their durability and evolution when they part of an archaeological site. For this purpose, two types of marble (the Italian Carrara and the Spanish Macael) were subjected to an experiment consisting of exposing stone materials for one and a half year to underwater conditions. The experimental test was located in an archaeological site in the Bay of Cadiz (southern Spain), Bajo del Chapitel (recognized as Cultural Interest), which includes remains of shipwrecks from different periods. In this site, samples were submerged to 12 m depth and placed in the sea bottom simulating the different positions in which underwater archaeological objects can be found (fully exposed, half buried and covered). Petrophysical characterisation involved determination of the apparent and bulk densities, water saturation (maximum water content a material may contain), open porosity (porosity accessible to water), chromatic parameters and ultrasonic velocity. Before measuring, samples were subjected to mechanical cleaning (in those samples with biological colonization) and to removal of salt deposits. Results showed significant differences in these petrophysical properties after underwater submersion, which were directly related to the type of underwater exposure condition. Comparative analysis of petrophysical properties, like the one conducted in this study

  19. Genetic Analysis of Mice Skin Exposed by Hyper-Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Rika; Terada, Masahiro; Seki, Masaya; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    In the space environment, physiological alterations, such as low bone density, muscle weakness and decreased immunity, are caused by microgravity and cosmic radiation. On the other hand, it is known that the leg muscles are hypertrophy by 2G-gravity. An understanding of the effects on human body from microgravity to hyper-gravity is very important. Recently, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has started a project to detect the changes on gene expression and mineral metabolism caused by microgravity by analyzing the hair of astronauts who stay in the international Space Station (ISS) for a long time. From these results of human hair’s research, the genetic effects of human hair roots by microgravity will become clear. However, it is unclear how the gene expression of hair roots was effected by hypergravity. Therefore, in this experiment, we analyzed the effect on mice skin contained hair roots by comparing microgravity or hypergravity exposed mice. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the genetic effects on mice skin by microgravity or 2G-gravity. The samples were taken from mice exposed to space flight (FL) or hypergravity environment (2G) for 3-months, respectively. The extracted and amplified RNA from these mice skin was used to DNA microarray analysis. in this experiment, we analyzed the effect of gravity by using mice skin contained hair roots, which exposed space (FL) and hyper-gravity (2G) for 3 months and each control. By DNA microarray analysis, we found the common 98 genes changed in both FL and 2G. Among these 98 genes, the functions and pathways were identified by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software. Next, we focused the one of the identified pathways and compared the effects on each molecules in this pathways by the different environments, such as FL and 2G. As the results, we could detect some interesting molecules, which might be depended on the gravity levels. In addition, to investigate

  20. Effects of volcanic deposit disaggregation on exposed water composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, W. E.; Genareau, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions produce a variety of hazards. Pyroclastic material can be introduced to water through ash fallout, pyroclastic flows entering water bodies, and/or lahars. Remobilization of tephras can occur soon after eruption or centuries later, introducing additional pyroclastic material into the environment. Introduction of pyroclastic material may alter the dissolved element concentration and pH of exposed waters, potentially impacting drinking water supplies, agriculture, and ecology. This study focuses on the long-term impacts of volcanic deposits on water composition due to the mechanical breakup of volcanic deposits over time. Preliminary work has shown that mechanical milling of volcanic deposits will cause significant increases in dissolved element concentrations, conductivity, and pH of aqueous solutions. Pyroclastic material from seven eruptions sites was collected, mechanically milled to produce grain sizes <32 microns, and a standard ash leachate protocol was performed. Milled tephras were analyzed using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and water leachates were analyzed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical-Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Mechanical disaggregation increases the surface area of the material as well as the amount of active surface sites for leaching. The samples tested consist of felsic (Taupo and Valles Caldera), intermediate (Kelud, Soufriere Hills, Ruapehu), mafic (Lathrop Wells) and ultramafic (mantle xenoliths) volcanic deposits. Lathrop Wells has an average bulk concentration of 49.15 wt.% SiO2, 6.11 wt. % MgO, and 8.39 wt. % CaO and produces leachate concentrations of 85.69 mg/kg for Ca and 37.22 mg/kg for Mg. Taupo and Valles Caldera samples have a bulk concentration of 72.9 wt.% SiO2, 0.59 wt. % MgO, and 1.48 wt. % CaO, and produces leachate concentrations of 4.08 mg/kg for Ca and 1.56 mg/kg for Mg. Similar testing will be conducted on the intermediate and ultramafic samples to test the hypothesis that bulk magma

  1. Cytogenetic Monitoring of Farmers exposed to pesticides in Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Hoyos, L S; Carvajal, S; Solano, L; Rodriguez, J; Orozco, L; López, Y; Au, W W

    1996-01-01

    We have monitored 30 pesticide-exposed workers and 30 matched controls for expression of chromosome aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in their lymphocytes. Peripheral blood cultures were set up within 3 hr after the collection of samples, and four cultures were set up from each donor. For CA analysis, 100 complete metaphase cells from each donor were evaluated. For the SCE assay, 50 complete metaphase cells from each donor were analyzed. The CA and SCE data were analyzed for differences between the two groups using the chi 2 and the Student's t-test, respectively. From the CA analysis it was obvious that the overwhelming majority of aberrations were chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks; therefore, only these data are presented and used for statistical analysis. Isochromatid breaks were counted as two breaks each and chromatid breaks as one in calculating the total chromatid break frequencies. Statistical evaluation of the data indicates that there is no significant difference (p > 0.05; chi 2 test) between the exposed and the nonexposed groups based on chromatid breaks per 100 cells (1.2 +/- 0.3 and 1.5 +/- 0.2, respectively) and total chromatid breaks per 100 cells (1.7 +/- 0.3 and 2.1 +/- 0.2, respectively). No significantly difference between the two groups (p > 0.05, Student's t-test) was observed with SCE frequencies (5.0 +/- 1.1 and 4.8 +/- 0.9, respectively). Linear regression analysis indicates that the data were not influenced by age, cigarette smoking, or alcohol consumption. It is assuring that the exposure conditions among these Indian farmers have not caused detectable increases of chromosome damage using standard assays; this suggests the lack of serious long-term health problems. However, periodic monitoring of such exposed populations should be conducted using the same or other more sensitive assays. In addition, other populations with exposure to different types of pesticides in Colombia should also be investigated. PMID

  2. Nasal biopsies of children exposed to air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Rodriguez-Alcaraz, A; Valencia-Salazar, G; Mora-Tascareño, A; García, R; Osnaya, N; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Devlin, R B; Van Dyke, T

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) atmosphere is a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Children in SWMMC are exposed chronically and sequentially to numerous toxicants, and they exhibit significant nasal damage. The objective of this study was to assess p53 accumulation by immunohistochemistry in nasal biopsies of SWMMC children. We evaluated 111 biopsies from 107 children (83 exposed SWMMC children and 24 control children residents in a pollutant-compliant Caribbean island). Complete clinical histories and physical examinations, including an ear-nose-throat (ENT) exam were done. There was a significant statistical difference in the upper and lower respiratory symptomatology and ENT findings between control and exposed children (p < 0.001). Control children gave no respiratory symptomatology in the 3 months prior to the study; their biopsies exhibited normal ciliated respiratory epithelium and were p53-negative. SWMMC children complained of epistaxis, nasal obstruction. and crusting. Irregular areas of whitish-gray recessed mucosa over the inferior and middle turbinates were seen in 25% of SWMMC children, and their nasal biopsies displayed basal cell hyperplasia, decreased numbers of ciliated and goblet cells, neutrophilic epithelial infiltrates, squamous metaplasia. and mild dysplasia. Four of 21 SWMMC children with grossly abnormal mucosal changes exhibited strong transmural nuclear p53 staining in their nasal biopsies (p 0.005, odds ratio 26). In the context of lifetime exposures to toxic and potentially carcinogenic air pollutants, p53 nasal induction in children could potentially represent. a) a checkpoint response to toxic exposures, setting up a selective condition for p53 mutation, or b) a p53 mutation has already occurred as a result of such selection. Because the biological significance of p53 nuclear accumulation in the nasal biopsies of these children is not clear at this point, we strongly

  3. Mothers and infants exposed to intimate partner violence compensate.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Nicole; Morris, Catherine Young; Secco, Loretta; Stewart, Miriam; Hughes, Jean; Critchley, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Reasons for the developmental variability in children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) are unclear and under studied. This article presents exploratory findings on (a) the potential impact of IPV on mother-child relationships and child development and (b) the association between these maternal-child relationship impacts and child development. The fit of findings with compensatory, spillover, and compartmentalization hypotheses was explored. Participants were 49 mothers and 51 children younger than 3 years of age affected by IPV. Data were collected on maternal-child interactions, child development, social support, difficult life circumstances, family functioning, child temperament, and parental depression. The findings suggested developmental impacts on children in the sample, along with children's high sensitivity and responsiveness to their caregivers. Although some spillover effects were observed, the predominant observation was of mothers and infants compensating for exposure to IPV in their interactions.

  4. Reproductive toxicity in boron exposed workers in Bandirma, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Nurşen; Duydu, Yalçin; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-06-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates have been considered as being "toxic to reproduction and development", following results of animal studies with high doses. However unfavorable effects of boron exposure on reproduction and development have not been proved in epidemiological studies so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproductive toxicity indicators in highly exposed workers employed in a boric acid production plant in Bandırma, Turkey. Two hundred and four workers participated in this study. The mean blood boron concentration of the high exposure group of workers was 223.89 ± 69.49 (152.82-454.02)ng/g. Unfavorable effects of boron exposure on the reproductive toxicity indicators were not observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual orientation of male mouse offspring prenatally exposed to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Watabe, T; Endo, A

    1994-01-01

    Pregnant mice were intubated with either low (2 g/kg) or high (4 g/kg) dose of ethanol twice daily throughout the last third of the gestational period (from dg14 to dg18: gestational day; plug positive = dg 0). Ninety days after birth, the sexual orientation test was conducted on male offspring. This test was designed to observe a two-choice preference for either male or female partners in a setting in which the test animal could move freely between the two incentive compartments within which a stud male and an estrous female had been placed. We found that young adult males that had been exposed to ethanol prenatally have a decreased preference for the opposite sex and an increased preference for the same sex as a partner, although their physical development was apparently unaffected.

  6. Reproductive adaptation in Drosophila exposed to oxygen-enriched atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloek, G.; Winkle, L.

    1979-01-01

    Ten successive generations of a Drosophila melanogaster population were exposed to an atmospheric mix of 50% oxygen/50% nitrogen at standard pressure. This atmospheric mix has been shown to be toxic to this species and causes significantly shortened life span. By the fifth generation, survivorship and life span for the first 25-30 days were identical to control populations and total life span was shorter by only a few days. Egg-laying rates were stable in the experimental populations but below those of the controls. Hatching success was identical between experimental and control populations. Even though the egg-laying rates were lower in 50% oxygen, it was concluded that the population had adapted and could maintain a stable population in these conditions. The near-normal life spans, normal hatching rates, and overall population stability, exhibited following five generations of adaptation, were considered sufficient to allow continued reproduction in spite of a reduced egg-laying rate.

  7. Magical Empiricism and 'Exposed Being' in Medicine and Traditional Healing.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Southern African traditional healers often generalize too broadly from discrete ('accidental') instances of success, partly to recruit a clientele, while biomedicine frequently reasons incorrectly from the general to the specific. Both logics are based on empirical observations, but are inversions of each other; these I characterize as 'magical empiricism.' 'Magic' functions as a metapragmatic discourse to recruit a clientele from a skeptical public that doubts the efficacy of any therapeutic interventions, and it acts in parallel with other practical (and efficacious) healing acts. I introduce the concept of 'exposed beings' to describe locally specific constructions of the person as patient and healer. This helps to explain the existence and enduring appeal of many different medical practices and beliefs in South Africa, but I suggest that 'medical parallelism' rather than 'pluralism' might be more accurate.

  8. Psychological distress of adolescents exposed to Hurricane Hugo.

    PubMed

    Hardin, S B; Weinrich, M; Weinrich, S; Hardin, T L; Garrison, C

    1994-07-01

    To ascertain the effects of a natural disaster on adolescents, 1482 South Carolina high school students who were exposed to Hurricane Hugo were surveyed 1 year after the disaster. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire measuring Hugo exposure, nonviolent and violent life events, social support, self-efficacy, and psychological distress. Results showed that the students reported minimal exposure to the hurricane and psychological distress variables approximated national norms. As exposure increased, adolescents reported increased symptoms of psychological distress; i.e., anger, depression, anxiety, and global mental distress. Females and white students experienced higher levels of distress. In most cases, other stressful life events were at least as strong a predictor of psychological distress as was exposure to the hurricane. Self-efficacy and social support were protective.

  9. Brominated flame retardant: environmental and exposed individuals' health impact.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Patrice; Charlier, Corinne

    2017-04-01

    Since Antiquity, men have used chemicals to protect their goods against fire. Effective and easy to use, brominated flame retardants are used since decades massively in plastic industry. Such like other organohalogenated compounds, brominated flame retardants are very persistent in the environment and able to accumulate along the food chain. Many authors highlight their presence in the environment, in many animal species and in the human serum. Worryingly, man is exposed as soon as the pregnancy and then by the breastfeeding. This exposition may have consequence on our health. Many studies (in vitro, in vivo or epidemiologic) highlight brominated flame retardant negative effects on the endocrine system, mainly on the thyroid function but also on the reproduction, the neurodevelopment in the children and on the metabolism with increasing diabetes risk. If authorities and some big enterprises are aware about the problematic, new studies are needed to confirm previous results, elucidate endocrine disrupting mechanisms and highlight hypothetical synergies with other pollutants such like PCBs.

  10. Biochemical Responses in Freshwater Fish Exposed to Insecticide Propoxur.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Carjone Rosa; Marins, Aline Teixeira; do Amaral, Aline Monique Blank; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Severo, Eduardo Stringini; Moraes, Bibiana Silveira; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2018-04-01

    Although designed to control pests selectively, there is some evidence that environmental contamination by pesticides increases risks for humans and wildlife. In the present study, we evaluated biomarkers of oxidative stress in Astyanax jacuhiensis exposed to (5, 15 and 30 µg L -1 ) of carbamate Propoxur (PPX) for 96 h. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) in liver and gills showed reduced activity in all PPX concentrations tested. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities reduced in brain and muscle at concentrations 15 and 30 µg L -1 of PPX. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) had no significant differences. In the brain, protein carbonyl (PC) increased in all groups treated with PPX. Although PPX is a selective pesticide, it causes oxidative damage and enzyme alteration in fish. This study pointed out some biomarkers that could be used to assess effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of pesticides, and infer about studies using fish as bioindicator.

  11. Efficacy of moist exposed burn ointment on burns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Qi; Yip, Tsui-Pik; Hui, Irene; Lai, Vincy; Wong, Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we sought to test the medical efficacy of a Chinese medical herb product, moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO), on wound healing rate and infection control in burn injury. Standardized deep burn wounds were created on the back skin of rats by applying a hot brass bar for 12 to 18 seconds. MEBO was applied four times per day and compared with petroleum jelly, silver sulfadiazine, and dry exposure therapy. Under such a controlled setting, although MEBO had a better wound healing rate than the dry exposure treatment, it did not show the medical advantage statistically, as has been claimed, over the other two treatments (P > .05), either in terms of wound healing rate or bacterial control. We conclude that the MEBO is not suitable for deep burn wound treatment, particularly when infection is a concern.

  12. Health effects among refrigeration repair workers exposed to fluorocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D D; Lockey, J E; Petajan, J; Gunter, B J; Rom, W N

    1986-01-01

    Refrigeration repair workers may be intermittently exposed to fluorocarbons and their thermal decomposition products. A case of peripheral neuropathy (distal axonopathy) in a commercial refrigeration repairman prompted an epidemiological investigation of the health of refrigeration repair workers. No additional cases of peripheral neuropathy were identified among the 27 refrigeration repair workers studied. A reference group of 14 non-refrigeration repair workers was also studied. No differences were noted between groups for the ulnar (motor and sensory), median (motor and sensory), peroneal, sural, or tibial nerve conduction velocities. Refrigeration repair workers reported palpitations and lightheadedness significantly more often than workers in the reference group. No clinical neurological or electroneurophysiological abnormalities were detected in eight refrigeration repair workers followed up for three years during continuous employment. PMID:3004555

  13. Reduced recruitment in Hyalella azteca (Saussure, 1858) exposed to copper.

    PubMed

    Othman, M Shuhaimi; Pascoe, David

    2002-09-01

    Neonates of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were exposed for a 35-day period in the laboratory to a range of copper concentrations, nominally 18 microg/l, 40 microg/l, 70 microg/l and 260 microg/l. The reproductive status of the population was assessed by recording recruitment, the number of precopulatory pairs and number of gravid females. At the end of the experiment, the body lengths of individuals were measured using image analysis. There was a significant decrease in the final population size of H. azteca with increasing copper concentration and compared with the control. Copper significantly reduced recruitment of juveniles and length composition of the final population and there was also a trend toward reduced precopula number with increasing copper concentrations.

  14. Western Candor Chasma - Layers exposed near the middle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    One of the most striking discoveries of the Mars Global Surveyor mission has been the identification of thousands of meters/feet of layers within the wall rock of the enormous martian canyon system, Valles Marineris.

    Valles Marineris was first observed in 1972 by the Mariner 9 spacecraft, from which the troughs get their name: Valles--valleys, Marineris--Mariner.

    Some hints of layering in both the canyon walls and within some deposits on the canyon floors were seen in Mariner 9 and Viking orbiter images from the 1970s. The Mars Orbiter Camera on board Mars Global Surveyor has been examining these layers at much higher resolution than was available previously.

    MOC images led to the realization that there are layers in the walls that go down to great depths. An example of the wall rock layers can be seen in MOC image 8403, shown above (C).

    MOC images also reveal amazing layered outcrops on the floors of some of the Valles Marineris canyons. Particularly noteworthy is MOC image 23304 (D, above), which shows extensive, horizontally-bedded layers exposed in buttes and mesas on the floor of western Candor Chasma. These layered rocks might be the same material as is exposed in the chasm walls (as in 8403--C, above), or they might be rocks that formed by deposition (from water, wind, and/or volcanism) long after Candor Chasma opened up.

    In addition to layered materials in the walls and on the floors of the Valles Marineris system, MOC images are helping to refine our classification of geologic features that occur within the canyons. For example, MOC image 25205 (E, above), shows the southern tip of a massive, tongue-shaped massif (a mountainous ridge) that was previously identified as a layered deposit. However, this MOC image does not show layering. The material has been sculpted by wind and mass-wasting--downslope movement of debris--but no obvious layers were exposed by these processes.

    Valles Marineris a fascinating region on Mars that holds much

  15. Reproductive adaptation in Drosophila exposed to oxygen-enriched atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Kloek, G; Winkle, L

    1979-04-01

    Ten successive generations of a Drosophila melanogaster population were exposed to an atmospheric mix of 50% oxygen/50% nitrogen at standard pressure. This atmospheric mix has been shown to be toxic to this species and causes significantly shortened life span. By the fifth generation, survivorship and life span for the first 25-30 days were identical to control populations and total life span was shorter by only a few days. Egg-laying rates were stable in the experimental populations but below those of the controls. Hatching success was identical between experimental and control populations. Even though the egg-laying rates were lower in 50% oxygen, it was concluded that the population had adapted and could maintain a stable population in these conditions. The near-normal life spans, normal hatching rates, and overall population stability, exhibited following five generations of adaptation, were considered sufficient to allow continued reproduction in spite of a reduced egg-laying rate.

  16. Exposing the QCD Splitting Function with CMS Open Data.

    PubMed

    Larkoski, Andrew; Marzani, Simone; Thaler, Jesse; Tripathee, Aashish; Xue, Wei

    2017-09-29

    The splitting function is a universal property of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which describes how energy is shared between partons. Despite its ubiquitous appearance in many QCD calculations, the splitting function cannot be measured directly, since it always appears multiplied by a collinear singularity factor. Recently, however, a new jet substructure observable was introduced which asymptotes to the splitting function for sufficiently high jet energies. This provides a way to expose the splitting function through jet substructure measurements at the Large Hadron Collider. In this Letter, we use public data released by the CMS experiment to study the two-prong substructure of jets and test the 1→2 splitting function of QCD. To our knowledge, this is the first ever physics analysis based on the CMS Open Data.

  17. Two mooring dolphin concept for exposed tanker terminals

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, J.; Birt, C.

    1978-02-01

    The conventional design of a tanker terminal provides for two or more mooring dolphins on each side of the breasting dolphins. Head and stern lines are attached to the outer mooring dolphins and breast lines to the inner mooring dolphins. In exposed locations, the expense of construction may be significantly reduced if a way can be found to reduce the number of mooring dolphins required for the safe mooring of ships at a fixed berth. A study based on plans for a proposed terminal for tankers from 25,000 to 100,000 dwt in the Bay of Fundy in eastern Canada considersmore » the possibility of reducing the total number of mooring dolphins from four to two. Results of a static analysis of mooring loads due to wind and current and a hydraulic model test for mooring loads due to waves are presented.« less

  18. Predictors of lung cancer among former asbestos-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila

    2015-09-01

    Despite extensive literature concerning the risk of lung cancer incidence among asbestos workers there is still lack of data specifying the association between the level of exposure and the frequency of cancer occurrence. The aim of the analysis was to assess the influence of smoking and selected factors related to occupational exposure on the risk of the incidence of lung cancer among the workers who were exposed to asbestos dust in the past. The assessment was performed based on the case-control studies carried out within a cohort including 7,374 former workers of asbestos processing plants, examined over the years 2000-2013. Analysis of the material was based on the calculation of the odds ratio (OR) using conditional logistic regression modeling, adjusted for cigarette smoking, cumulative exposure, branch and time since last exposure. During the survey period there were 165 cases of lung cancer. Among the individuals who smoked, the relative risk of lung cancer incidence was twice as high in the persons smoking more than 20 pack-years (OR=2.23; 95% CI: 1.45-3.46) than it was in the case of the non-smokers. Analysis revealed that the risk of lung cancer in the group with the highest exposure was two times higher in comparison with the low cumulative asbestos exposure (OR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.22-3.25). The risk continued to increase until 30 years after cessation of asbestos exposure and started to decline many years after the last exposure. Influence of the mentioned above characteristics is particularly visible for tumors located in the lower parts of the lungs. Our findings confirm the strong evidence that the lung cancer risk is associated with asbestos exposure and it increases along with the increasing exposure. A strategy of smoking cessation among the individuals exposed to asbestos dust would potentially have health promoting effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exposing the cancer genome atlas as a SPARQL endpoint.

    PubMed

    Deus, Helena F; Veiga, Diogo F; Freire, Pablo R; Weinstein, John N; Mills, Gordon B; Almeida, Jonas S

    2010-12-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional effort to characterize several types of cancer. Datasets from biomedical domains such as TCGA present a particularly challenging task for those interested in dynamically aggregating its results because the data sources are typically both heterogeneous and distributed. The Linked Data best practices offer a solution to integrate and discover data with those characteristics, namely through exposure of data as Web services supporting SPARQL, the Resource Description Framework query language. Most SPARQL endpoints, however, cannot easily be queried by data experts. Furthermore, exposing experimental data as SPARQL endpoints remains a challenging task because, in most cases, data must first be converted to Resource Description Framework triples. In line with those requirements, we have developed an infrastructure to expose clinical, demographic and molecular data elements generated by TCGA as a SPARQL endpoint by assigning elements to entities of the Simple Sloppy Semantic Database (S3DB) management model. All components of the infrastructure are available as independent Representational State Transfer (REST) Web services to encourage reusability, and a simple interface was developed to automatically assemble SPARQL queries by navigating a representation of the TCGA domain. A key feature of the proposed solution that greatly facilitates assembly of SPARQL queries is the distinction between the TCGA domain descriptors and data elements. Furthermore, the use of the S3DB management model as a mediator enables queries to both public and protected data without the need for prior submission to a single data source. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chromosome Aberration in Human Blood Lymphocytes Exposed to Energetic Protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, M.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    During space flight, astronauts are exposed to a space radiation consisting of high-energy protons, high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei, as well as secondary particles that are generated when the primary particles penetrate the spacecraft shielding. Secondary particles have a higher LET value than primary protons and therefore expected to have a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). To investigate this theory, we exposed human peripheral blood lymphocytes to protons with energies of 250 MeV, 800MeV, 2 GeV, or 2.5 GeV. LET values for these protons ranged from 0.4 to 0.2 keV/micrometer. and doses ranged from 0.2 to 3 Gy. Over this energy the probability of nuclear reaction leading to secondary radiation, and the multiplicity of reaction produces such as neutrons and mesons increases substantially. The effect of aluminum and polyethylene shielding was also assessed using the 2 GeV and 2.5GeV proton beams. After exposure lymphocytes were stimulated to divide and chromosomes were collected from cells in the first G2 and metaphase cell cycle after exposure using a chemical induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. Dose response data for chromosome damage was analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting technique. Selected samples were also analyzed with multicolor FISH (mFISH) and multicolor banding FISH (mBAND) techniques. Data indicates that the dose response for simple-type exchanges is similar for proton and gamma exposure, whereas protons induce higher yields of complex exchanges that are LET dependent. RBE values will be presented for each proton energy, and the effects of shielding and possible cytogenetic signatures of proton exposure will be discussed.

  1. Lactobacillus plantarum culture supernatants improve intestinal tissue exposed to deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Maidana, L G; Gerez, J; Pinho, F; Garcia, S; Bracarense, A P F L

    2017-10-02

    In the present study, histological, morphometrical and ultrastructural analysis were performed to investigate intestinal mucosa changes in piglets exposed to deoxynivalenol alone or associated with two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and the respective culture supernatants. Jejunal explants were incubated for 4h in culture medium with a) only culture medium (DMEM, control group), b) deoxynivalenol (DON, 10μM), c) heat-inactivated Lactobacillus plantarum strain1 - LP1 (1.1×10 8 CFU/ml) plus DON, d) heat-inactivated Lactobacillus plantarum strain2-LP2 (2.0×10 9 CFU/ml) plus DON, e) heat-inactivated Lactobacillus plantarum strain1 culture supernatant (CS1) plus DON, and f) heat-inactivated Lactobacillus plantarum strain1 culture supernatant (CS1) plus DON. Explants exposed to DON and DON plus LP1 and LP2 showed a significant increase in histological changes (mainly villi atrophy and apical necrosis) and a significant decrease in villi height when compared to unexposed explants. However, explants treated with CS1+DON and CS2+DON remained similar to the control group both in histological and morphometrical aspects. DON also induced a significant decrease in goblet cell density compared to control whereas CS1+DON treatment induced an increase in the number of goblet cells in comparison to DON explants. In addition, ultrastructural assessment showed control, CS1+DON and CS2+DON explants with well delineated finger shape villi, meanwhile DON-treated, LP1+DON and LP2+DON explants showed a severe villi atrophy with leukocytes exudation on the intestinal surface. Taken together, our results indicate that the culture supernatant treatment reduced the toxic effects induced by DON on intestinal tissue and may contribute as an alternative strategy to reduce mycotoxin toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurodevelopmental delay in children exposed in utero to hyperemesis gravidarum.

    PubMed

    Fejzo, Marlena S; Magtira, Aromalyn; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Macgibbon, Kimber; Mullin, Patrick M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders in children exposed in utero to hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to identify prognostic factors for these disorders. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of 312 children from 203 mothers with HG were compared to neurodevelopmental outcomes from 169 children from 89 unaffected mothers. Then the clinical profiles of patients with HG and a normal child outcome were compared to the clinical profiles of patients with HG and a child with neurodevelopmental delay to identify prognostic factors. Binary responses were analyzed using either a Chi-square or Fisher Exact test and continuous responses were analyzed using a t-test. Children exposed in utero to HG have a 3.28-fold increase in odds of a neurodevelopmental diagnosis including attention disorders, learning delay, sensory disorders, and speech and language delay (P<0.0005). Among characteristics of HG pregnancies, only early onset of symptoms (prior to 5 weeks gestation) was significantly linked to neurodevelopmental delay. We found no evidence for increased risk of 13 emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders, including autism, intellectual impairment, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, the study was not sufficiently powered to detect rare conditions. Medications, treatments, and preterm birth were not associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Women with HG are at a significantly increased risk of having a child with neurodevelopmental delay. Common antiemetic treatments were not linked to neurodevelopmental delay, but early symptoms may play a role. There is an urgent need to address whether aggressive treatment that includes vitamin and nutrient supplementation in women with early symptoms of severe nausea of pregnancy decreases the risk of neurodevelopmental delay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chromosome aberrations in human blood lymphocytes exposed to energetic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, Megumi; George, Ms Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    During space flight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation consisting of high-energy protons, high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei, as well as secondary particles that are generated when the primary particles penetrate the spacecraft shielding. Secondary particles have a higher LET value than primary protons and are therefore expected to have a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). To investigate this theory, we exposed human peripheral blood lymphocytes to protons with energies of 250 MeV, 800MeV, 2 GeV, or 2.5 GeV. LET values for these protons ranged from 0.4 to 0.2 keV/µm. and doses ranged from 0.2 to 3 Gy. Over this energy range the probability of nuclear reaction leading to secondary radiation, and the multiplicity of reaction products such as neutrons and mesons increases substantially. The effect of aluminum and polyethylene shielding was also assessed using the 2 GeV and 2.5GeV proton beams. After exposure lymphocytes were stimulated to divide and chromosomes were collected from cells in the first G2 and metaphase cell cycle after exposure using a chemical induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. Dose response data for chromosome damage was analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting technique. Selected samples were also analyzed with multicolor FISH (mFISH) and multicolor banding FISH (mBAND) techniques. Data indicates that the dose response for simple-type exchanges is similar for proton and gamma exposure, whereas protons induce higher yields of complex exchanges that are energy dependent. RBE values will be presented for each proton energy, and the effects of shielding and possible cytogenetic signatures of proton exposure will be discussed.

  4. Multiple Endocrine Disrupting Effects in Rats Perinatally Exposed to Butylparaben.

    PubMed

    Boberg, J; Axelstad, M; Svingen, T; Mandrup, K; Christiansen, S; Vinggaard, A M; Hass, U

    2016-07-01

    Parabens comprise a group of preservatives commonly added to cosmetics, lotions, and other consumer products. Butylparaben has estrogenic and antiandrogenic properties and is known to reduce sperm counts in rats following perinatal exposure. Whether butylparaben exposure can affect other endocrine sensitive endpoints, however, remains largely unknown. In this study, time-mated Wistar rats (n = 18) were orally exposed to 0, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg bw/d of butylparaben from gestation day 7 to pup day 22. Several endocrine-sensitive endpoints were adversely affected. In the 2 highest dose groups, the anogenital distance of newborn male and female offspring was significantly reduced, and in prepubertal females, ovary weights were reduced and mammary gland outgrowth was increased. In male offspring, sperm count was significantly reduced at all doses from 10 mg/kg bw/d. Testicular CYP19a1 (aromatase) expression was reduced in prepubertal, but not adult animals exposed to butylparaben. In adult testes, Nr5a1 expression was reduced at all doses, indicating persistent disruption of steroidogenesis. Prostate histology was altered at prepuberty and adult prostate weights were reduced in the high dose group. Thus, butylparaben exerted endocrine disrupting effects on both male and female offspring. The observed adverse developmental effect on sperm count at the lowest dose is highly relevant to risk assessment, as this is the lowest observed adverse effect level in a study on perinatal exposure to butylparaben. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Expósito, Nora; Kumar, Vikas; Sierra, Jordi; Schuhmacher, Marta; Giménez Papiol, Gemma

    2017-12-01

    Microalgae growth inhibition assays are candidates for referent ecotoxicological assays, and are a fundamental part in the strategy to reduce the use of fish and other animal models in aquatic toxicology. In the present work, the performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metals following standardized growth inhibition assays has been assessed in three different scenarios: 1) dilutions of single heavy metals, 2) artificial mixture of heavy metals at similar levels than those found in natural rivers and, 3) natural samples containing known mixtures of contaminants (heavy metals). Chemical speciation of heavy metals has been estimated with Eh-pH diagram and Visual MINTEQ software; heavy metal and free heavy metal ion concentrations were used as input data, together with microalgae growth inhibition, for Dr. Fit software. The final goal was to assess the suitability of the ecotoxicological test based on the growth inhibition of microalgae cultures, and the mathematic models based on these results, for regulatory and decision-making purposes. The toxicity of a given heavy metal is not only determined by its chemical speciation; other chemical and biological interaction play an important role in the final toxicity. Raphidocelis subcapitata 48h-h-EC50 for tested heavy metals (especially Cu and Zn) were in agreement with previous studies, when ion metal bioavailability was assumed to be 100%. Nevertheless, the calculated growth inhibition was not in agreement with the obtained inhibition when exposed to the artificial mixture of heavy metals or the natural sample. Interactions between heavy metal ions and the compounds of the culture media and/or the natural sample determine heavy metal bioavailability, and eventually their toxicity. More research is needed for facing the challenge posed by pollutant mixtures as they are present in natural environments, and make microalgae-based assays suitable for pollution management and regulatory purposes. Copyright

  6. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone

  7. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the Secretary...

  8. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. 75.521 Section 75.521 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... telephone wires. Each ungrounded, exposed power conductor and each ungrounded, exposed telephone wire that...

  9. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. 75.521 Section 75.521 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... telephone wires. Each ungrounded, exposed power conductor and each ungrounded, exposed telephone wire that...

  10. BIOMEX on EXPOSE-R2: First results on the preservation of Raman biosignatures after space exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqué, Mickael; Böttger, Ute; Leya, Thomas; de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul

    2017-04-01

    After a 15-month exposure on-board the EXPOSE-R2 space platform, situated on the outside of the International Space Station, four astrobiology experiments successfully came back to Earth in March and June 2016. Among them, the BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment) experiment aims at investigating the endurance of extremophiles and stability of biomolecules under space and Mars-like conditions in the presence of Martian mineral analogues (de Vera et al., 2012). The preservation and evolution of Raman biosignatures under such conditions is of particular interest for guiding future search-for-life missions to Mars (and other planetary objects) carrying Raman spectrometers (such as the Raman Laser Spectrometer instrument on board the future ExoMars rover). The photoprotective carotenoid pigments (present either in photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae, cyanobacteria and in some bacteria and archaea) have been classified as high priority targets for biomolecule detection on Mars and therefore used as biosignature models due to their stability and easy identification by Raman spectroscopy (Böttger et al., 2012). We report here on the first results from the analysis of two carotenoids containing organisms: the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. (strain CCCryo 231-06; = UTEX EE21 and CCMEE 391) isolated from Antarctica and the green alga cf. Sphaerocystis sp. (strain CCCryo 101-99) isolated from Spitsbergen. Desiccated cells of these organisms were exposed to space and simulated Mars-like conditions in space in the presence of two Martian mineral analogues (phyllosilicatic and sulfatic Mars regolith simulants) and a Lunar regolith analogue and analyzed with a 532nm Raman microscope at 1mW laser power. Carotenoids in both organisms were surprisingly still detectable at relatively high levels after being exposed for 15 months in Low Earth Orbit to UV, cosmic rays, vacuum (or Mars-like atmosphere) and temperatures stresses regardless of the mineral matrix used. Further

  11. Comparative analysis of performance in reading and writing of children exposed and not exposed to high sound pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Santos, Juliana Feitosa dos; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de; Seligman, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the possible relationships between high sound pressure levels in the classroom and performance in the use of lexical and phonological routes in reading and writing. This consisted on a quantitative and exploratory study. The following measures were carried out: acoustic measurement, using the dosimeter, visual inspection of the external auditory canal, tonal audiometry thresholds, speech recognition tests and acoustic immittance; instrument for evaluation of reading and writing of isolated words. The non-parametric χ² test and Fisher's exact test were used for data analysis. The results of acoustic measurements in 4 schools in Santa Maria divided the sample of 87 children of third and fourth years of primary school, aged 8 to 10 years, in 2 groups. The 1st group was exposed to sound levels higher than 80 dB(A) (Study group) and the 2nd group at levels lower than 80 dB(A) (Control group). Higher prevalence of correct answers in reading and writing of nonwords, reading irregular words and frequency effect were observed. Predominance of correct answers in the writing of irregular words was observed in the Control group. For the Study group, a higher number of type errors neologism in reading and writing were observed, especially regarding the writing of nonwords and the extension effect; fewer errors of lexicalization type and verbal paragraphy in writing were observed. In assessing the reading and writing skills, children in the Study group exposed to high noise levels had poorer performance in the use of lexical and phonological routes, both in reading and in writing.

  12. Overview of the ISS Radiation Environment Observed during the ESA EXPOSE-R2 Mission in 2014-2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, T. P.; Bankov, N. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Matviichuk, Yu. N.; Dimitrov, Pl. G.; Häder, D.-P.; Horneck, G.

    2017-11-01

    The radiation risk radiometer-dosimeter (R3D)-R2 solid-state detector performed radiation measurements at the European Space Agency EXPOSE-R2 platform outside of the Russian "Zvezda" module at the International Space Station (ISS) from 24 October 2014 to 11 January 2016. The ISS orbital parameters were average altitude of 415 km and 51.6° inclination. We developed special software and used experimentally obtained formulas to determine the radiation flux-to-dose ratio from the R3DR2 Liulin-type deposited-energy spectrometer. We provide for the first time simultaneous, long-term estimates of radiation dose external to the ISS for four source categories: (i) galactic cosmic ray particles and their secondary products; (ii) protons in the South Atlantic Anomaly region of the inner radiation belt (IRB); (iii) relativistic electrons and/or bremsstrahlung in the outer radiation belt (ORB); and (iv) solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The latter category is new in this study. Additionally, in this study, secondary particles (SP) resulting from energetic particle interaction with the detector and nearby materials are identified. These are observed continuously at high latitudes. The detected SPs are identified using the same sorting requirements as SEP protons. The IRB protons provide the highest consistent hourly dose, while the ORB electrons and SEPs provide the most extreme hourly doses. SEPs were observed 11 times during the study interval. The R3DR2 data support calculation of average equivalent doses. The 30 day and 1 year average equivalent doses are much smaller than the skin and eyes doses recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection (Report 132), which provides radiation protection guidance for Low Earth Orbit.

  13. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to

  14. Engineering a robotic approach to mapping exposed volcanic fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcheta, C. E.; Parness, A.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Field geology provides a framework for advanced computer models and theoretical calculations of volcanic systems. Some field terrains, though, are poorly preserved or accessible, making documentation, quantification, and investigation impossible. Over 200 volcanologists at the 2012 Kona Chapman Conference on volcanology agreed that and important step forward in the field over the next 100 years should address the realistic size and shape of volcanic conduits. The 1969 Mauna Ulu eruption of Kīlauea provides a unique opportunity to document volcanic fissure conduits, thus, we have an ideal location to begin addressing this topic and provide data on these geometries. Exposed fissures can be mapped with robotics using machine vision. In order to test the hypothesis that fissures have irregularities with depth that will influence their fluid dynamical behavior, we must first map the fissure vents and shallow conduit to deci- or centimeter scale. We have designed, constructed, and field-tested the first version of a robotic device that will image an exposed volcanic fissure in three dimensions. The design phase included three steps: 1) create the payload harness and protective shell to prevent damage to the electronics and robot, 2) construct a circuit board to have the electronics communicate with a surface-based computer, and 3) prototype wheel shapes that can handle a variety of volcanic rock textures. The robot's mechanical parts were built using 3d printing, milling, casting and laser cutting techniques, and the electronics were assembled from off the shelf components. The testing phase took place at Mauna Ulu, Kīlauea, Hawai'i, from May 5 - 9, 2014. Many valuable design lessons were learned during the week, and the first ever 3D map from inside a volcanic fissure were successfully collected. Three vents had between 25% and 95% of their internal surfaces imaged. A fourth location, a non-eruptive crack (possibly a fault line) had two transects imaging the textures

  15. Necrosis in human neuronal cells exposed to paraquat.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Naho; Aki, Toshihiko; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Noritake, Kanako; Unuma, Kana; Uemura, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is an herbicide that was once used worldwide, but is now prohibited in many nations due to its high toxicity to humans. However, there are still rare cases of the fetal intoxication of PQ, which was purchased prior to the prohibition in Japan. In this study, several cell death pathways, the mitochondrial stress response, and autophagy were examined in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to PQ. The results reveal the decrease of a mitochondrial stress sensitive-BNIP3 (Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3) protein, the suppression of autophagic flux, and the lack of apoptosis as well as other regulated forms of necrosis, such as necroptosis and ferroptosis. Taken together, our preliminary survey of cellular responses against PQ shows that, although responses of mitochondria and autophagy are observed, subsequent cell death is necrosis. Mechanism of PQ-induced SH-SY5Y cell death should be complicated and cannot be explained thoroughly by already-known mechanisms.

  16. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  17. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme.

  18. Optical flow estimation on image sequences with differently exposed frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, Tomas; McKelvey, Tomas; Lindström, Konstantin

    2015-09-01

    Optical flow (OF) methods are used to estimate dense motion information between consecutive frames in image sequences. In addition to the specific OF estimation method itself, the quality of the input image sequence is of crucial importance to the quality of the resulting flow estimates. For instance, lack of texture in image frames caused by saturation of the camera sensor during exposure can significantly deteriorate the performance. An approach to avoid this negative effect is to use different camera settings when capturing the individual frames. We provide a framework for OF estimation on such sequences that contain differently exposed frames. Information from multiple frames are combined into a total cost functional such that the lack of an active data term for saturated image areas is avoided. Experimental results demonstrate that using alternate camera settings to capture the full dynamic range of an underlying scene can clearly improve the quality of flow estimates. When saturation of image data is significant, the proposed methods show superior performance in terms of lower endpoint errors of the flow vectors compared to a set of baseline methods. Furthermore, we provide some qualitative examples of how and when our method should be used.

  19. The effect of kinetin on wheat seedlings exposed to boron.

    PubMed

    Eser, Ahmet; Aydemir, Tülin

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine relationship between boron (B) induced oxidative stress and antioxidant system in boron sensitive and tolerant wheat cultivars Bezostaya and Kutluk, and also to investigate whether Kinetin (KN) enhances the level of antioxidant system, relative growth, concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline and chlorophyll content in both cultivars exposed to B stress. B treatments diminished growth and chlorophyll content whereas, it enhanced accumulation of H 2 O 2 , MDA and proline, and various antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in the shoot and root of both cultivars. However, the follow-up application of KN to the B stressed plants improved growth and chlorophyll content and further enhanced the mentioned antioxidant enzymes and level of H 2 O 2 , MDA and proline. This study thus suggests that KN improves B tolerance of the studied cultivars grown under B toxicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Relaxation of microparticles exposed to hydrodynamic forces in microfluidic conduits.

    PubMed

    Janča, Josef; Halabalová, Věra; Polášek, Vladimír; Vašina, Martin; Menshikova, Anastasia Yu

    2011-02-01

    The behavior of microparticles exposed to gravitational and lift forces and to the velocity gradient in flow velocity profile formed in microfluidic conduits is studied from the viewpoint of the transient period (the relaxation) between the moment at which a particle starts to be transported by the hydrodynamic flow and the time at which it reaches an equilibrium position, characterized by a balance of all active forces. The theoretical model allowing the calculation of the relaxation time is proposed. The numerical calculus based on the proposed model is compared with the experimental data obtained under different experimental conditions, namely, for different lengths of microfluidic channels, different average linear velocities of the carrier liquid, and different sizes and densities of the particles used in the study. The results are important for the optimization of microfluidic separation units such as microthermal field-flow fractionation channels in which the separation or manipulation of the microparticles of various origin, synthetic, natural, biological, etc., is performed under similar experimental conditions but by applying an additional thermodynamic force.

  1. Loss of gas from echogenic liposomes exposed to pulsed ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Jason L.; Luan, Ying; Peng, Tao; Huang, Shao-Ling; McPherson, David D.; Versluis, Michel; de Jong, Nico; Holland, Christy K.

    2017-01-01

    The destruction of echogenic liposomes (ELIP) in response to pulsed ultrasound excitations has been studied acoustically previously. However, the mechanism underlying the loss of echogenicity due to cavitation of ELIP has not been fully clarified. In this study, an ultra-high speed imaging approach was employed to observe the destruction phenomena of single ELIP exposed to ultrasound bursts at a center frequency of 6- MHz. We observed a rapid size reduction during the ultrasound excitation in 139 out of 397 (35 %) ultra-high-speed recordings. The shell dilation rate, which is defined as the microbubble wall velocity divided by the instantaneous radius, Ṙ/R, was extracted from the radius versus time response of each ELIP, and was found to be correlated with the deflation. Fragmentation and surface mode vibrations were also observed and are shown to depend on the applied acoustic pressure and initial radius. Results from this study can be utilized to optimize the theranostic application of ELIP, e.g., by tuning the size distribution or the excitation frequency. PMID:27811382

  2. Moist exposed burn ointment for treating pressure ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Ma, Yubo; Yang, Qi; Pan, Yu; Meng, Qinggang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pressure ulcers often seriously affect the quality of life of patients. Moist Exposed Burn Ointment (MEBO) has been developed to treat patients with pressure ulcers. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MEBO in the treatment of pressure ulcers in Chinese patients. Methods: Seventy-two patients with pressure ulcers were randomly assigned to 2 groups who received a placebo or MEBO for 2 months. The primary outcomes included the wound surface area (WSA) and pressure ulcer scale for healing (PUSH) tool. The secondary outcomes included a visual analog scale (VAS), questionnaire of ulcer status, and adverse effects. Results: Sixty-seven patients completed the study. After 2 months of treatment, the difference of mean change from the baseline was greater for MEBO (vs placebo) for WSA mean (SD) −6.0 (−8.8, −3.3), PUSH Tool −2.6 (−4.7, −1.5), and VAS score −2.9 (−4.4, −1.7). On the basis of the questionnaire, the pressure ulcers were “completely healed” (50.0% vs 16.7%) (P < .05) in patients after 2 months of treatment with MEBO versus placebo. No major adverse effects were found in the 2 groups. Conclusion: We showed that MEBO is effective and well tolerated for improving wound healing in Chinese patients with pressure ulcers. PMID:28723796

  3. Atmospheric deposition exposes Qinling pandas to toxic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Zheng, Ying-Juan; Liu, Qiang; Song, Yi; An, Zhi-Sheng; Ma, Qing-Yi; Ellison, Aaron M

    2017-03-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered animals in the world, and it is recognized worldwide as a symbol for conservation. A previous study showed that wild and captive pandas, especially those of the Qinling subspecies, were exposed to toxicants in their diet of bamboo; the ultimate origin of these toxicants is unknown. Here we show that atmospheric deposition is the most likely origin of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the diets of captive and wild Qinling pandas. Average atmospheric deposition was 199, 115, and 49 g·m -2 ·yr -1 in the center of Xi'an City, at China's Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center (SWARC), and at Foping National Nature Reserve (FNNR), respectively. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Ni) and POPs was highest at Xi'an City, intermediate at SWARC, and lowest at FNNR. Soil concentrations of the aforementioned heavy metals other than As and Zn also were significantly higher at SWARC than at FNNR. Efforts to conserve Qinling pandas may be compromised by air pollution attendant to China's economic development. Improvement of air quality and reductions of toxic emissions are urgently required to protect China's iconic species. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Discrimination of poorly exposed lithologies in AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, William H.; Harsanyi, Joseph C.

    1993-01-01

    One of the advantages afforded by imaging spectrometers such as AVIRIS is the capability to detect target materials at a sub-pixel scale. This paper presents several examples of the identification of poorly exposed geologic materials - materials which are either subpixel in scale or which, while having some surface expression over several pixels, are partially covered by vegetation or other materials. Sabol et al. (1992) noted that a primary factor in the ability to distinguish sub-pixel targets is the spectral contrast between the target and its surroundings. In most cases, this contrast is best expressed as an absorption feature or features present in the target but absent in the surroundings. Under such circumstances, techniques such as band depth mapping (Clark et al., 1992) are feasible. However, the only difference between a target material and its surroundings is often expressed solely in the continuum. We define the 'continuum' as the reflectance or radiance spanning spectral space between spectral features. Differences in continuum slope and shape can only be determined by reduction techniques which considers the entire spectral range; i.e., techniques such as spectral mixture analysis (Adams et al., 1989) and recently developed techniques which utilize an orthogonal subspace projection operator (Harsanyi, 1993). Two of the three examples considered herein deal with cases where the target material differs from its surroundings only by such a subtle continuum change.

  5. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes. PMID:26791101

  6. Thrombotic Markers in Metabolic Syndrome Subjects Exposed to Diesel Exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Carlsten, C.; Kaufman, J. D.; Trenga, C. A.; Allen, J.; Peretz, A.; Sullivan, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic-derived particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanism of this association is unclear. Prothrombotic processes have been linked to PM in epidemiological and animal models, but have not been consistently implicated in controlled human models. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to PM. We conducted a controlled human exposure of DE in subjects with metabolic syndrome. The study objective was to evaluate DE exposure effects on prothrombotic markers in a population vulnerable to cardiovascular disease. A randomized, crossover, double-blinded design was used: 16 subjects with metabolic syndrome exposed on 3 different days (≥2 wk washout) to DE at 0 (filtered air, FA), 100 μg PM2.5/m3 (DE100) and 200 μg PM2.5/m3 (DE200). We assessed DE-associated changes in D-dimer, von Willebrand factor (VWF), and plasmin activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) at 3, 7, and 22 h after exposure initiation. A DE200-attributable decrease (1.17-fold; CI 1.04 to 1.34) in VWF was noted at 7 h. Significant changes did not occur in other primary endpoints. As previously noted with healthy subjects, strong diurnal patterns in PAI-1 were observed. Thus, in a novel study, we were unable to demonstrate a prothrombotic effect of moderate-dose diesel exhaust exposure in a population at risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:18668408

  7. Patterns of adjustment among siblings exposed to intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Caroline C

    2011-02-01

    This research explored and compared patterns of adjustment in siblings exposed to intimate partner violence. The quality of family relationships were investigated as potential mechanisms that accounted for heterogeneity in these patterns. Participants included 47 sibling pairs and their mothers recruited from the community. Mothers and children reported on child adjustment measures and the quality of family relationships. Five cluster patterns were identified for both younger and older siblings, replicating three identified in previous research: primarily internalizing symptoms, a combination of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and an asymptomatic cluster. There was little overlap in cluster membership within families; most siblings differed in terms of their pattern of adjustment. The quality of family relationships varied significantly across clusters. Overall, asymptomatic siblings reported the most positive family relationships. Maternal warmth differed across clusters for both older and younger siblings, while maternal hostility varied across clusters for older but not younger siblings. The quality of sibling relationships also differed across clusters for older but not younger siblings. These findings underscore the importance of examining differential sibling experiences within violent families, and demonstrate the significance of family relationships as a mediating mechanism influencing heterogeneous child adjustment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Separation of selenium species released from Se-exposed algae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Huckins, James N.; Clark, Randal C.

    1994-01-01

    We have assessed a fractionation scheme for selenium species that separates Se-containing amino acids and other organoselenium compounds in aqueous samples. We investigated the retention of standard solutions of selenate (Se+6), selenite (Se+4), and selenomethionine (Se−2) by fractionation media (Sephadex A-25 ion-exchange resin, copper-treated Chelex-100 ligand-exchange resin, and activated charcoal) and by several types of membrane filters. The fractionation method successfully isolated Se from the standard solutions into appropriate fractions for radiometric quantitation of 75Se. However, some filter media retained unacceptably large amounts of selenate and selenite. Mass balance microcosms were inoculated with green algae (Chlamydomonas">Chlamydomonasreinhardtii">reinhardtii) previously exposed to inorganic 75Se, and the fractionation scheme was used to examine the release of 75Se species into water and air. The results of the microcosm exposure indicate that seasonal blooms and crashes of phytoplankton populations may produce increased concentrations of organoselenium species.

  9. Toward Exposing Timing-Based Probing Attacks in Web Applications.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian; Chen, Yue; Shi, Futian; Jia, Yaoqi; Liang, Zhenkai

    2017-02-25

    Web applications have become the foundation of many types of systems, ranging from cloud services to Internet of Things (IoT) systems. Due to the large amount of sensitive data processed by web applications, user privacy emerges as a major concern in web security. Existing protection mechanisms in modern browsers, e.g., the same origin policy, prevent the users' browsing information on one website from being directly accessed by another website. However, web applications executed in the same browser share the same runtime environment. Such shared states provide side channels for malicious websites to indirectly figure out the information of other origins. Timing is a classic side channel and the root cause of many recent attacks, which rely on the variations in the time taken by the systems to process different inputs. In this paper, we propose an approach to expose the timing-based probing attacks in web applications. It monitors the browser behaviors and identifies anomalous timing behaviors to detect browser probing attacks. We have prototyped our system in the Google Chrome browser and evaluated the effectiveness of our approach by using known probing techniques. We have applied our approach on a large number of top Alexa sites and reported the suspicious behavior patterns with corresponding analysis results. Our theoretical analysis illustrates that the effectiveness of the timing-based probing attacks is dramatically limited by our approach.

  10. The efficiency of photovoltaic cells exposed to pulsed laser light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, R. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jenkins, P.

    1993-01-01

    Future space missions may use laser power beaming systems with a free electron laser (FEL) to transmit light to a photovoltaic array receiver. To investigate the efficiency of solar cells with pulsed laser light, several types of GaAs, Si, CuInSe2, and GaSb cells were tested with the simulated pulse format of the induction and radio frequency (RF) FEL. The induction pulse format was simulated with an 800-watt average power copper vapor laser and the RF format with a frequency-doubled mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. Averaged current vs bias voltage measurements for each cell were taken at various optical power levels and the efficiency measured at the maximum power point. Experimental results show that the conversion efficiency for the cells tested is highly dependent on cell minority carrier lifetime, the width and frequency of the pulses, load impedance, and the average incident power. Three main effects were found to decrease the efficiency of solar cells exposed to simulated FEL illumination: cell series resistance, LC 'ringing', and output inductance. Improvements in efficiency were achieved by modifying the frequency response of the cell to match the spectral energy content of the laser pulse with external passive components.

  11. Diagnostic efficacy of posttraumatic symptoms in children exposed to disaster.

    PubMed

    Lonigan, C J; Anthony, J L; Shannon, M P

    1998-10-01

    Examined 5 conditional probability indices to determine the diagnostic efficacy of 48 symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 5,687 children exposed to Hurricane Hugo, of whom 5.5% had a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). Moderate levels of sensitivity and high levels of specificity were obtained for most symptoms. Odds ratios more precisely demonstrated that some Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) symptoms of PTSD, especially when combined, were useful for identifying children with PTSS but that anxiety symptoms and some DSM symptoms of PTSD had poor diagnostic utility. Satisfying criteria for the DSM-III-R numbing/avoidance cluster and symptoms from the numbing/avoidance cluster had the highest diagnostic efficacy, suggesting that avoidance may be the hallmark of severe posttraumatic reactions. These results suggest which symptoms should be conceptualized as central versus peripheral to the disorder and which symptoms and symptom combinations clinicians should attend to most when diagnosing or screening PTSD in children.

  12. Long-term study on workers occupationally exposed to ethylbenzene.

    PubMed

    Bardodĕj, Z; Círek, A

    1988-01-01

    Ethylbenzene is synthesized from benzene; subject to catalytic dehydrogenation it yields styrene, a raw material for the production of synthetic rubber and plastics. Long-term biomonitoring of occupational ethylbenzene exposures, carried out in the past 20 years in some 200 ethylbenzene-production workers, revealed this substance to pose little hazard to human health. As it turned out, mandelic acid concentrations in these workers' urine never exceeded 3.25 mmol.l-1 and none of the exposed showed damage to hematopoiesis and/or liver tissue. Over the last 10 years no case of malignancy has been recorded in this industrial facility belonging to a larger chemical complex where the overall incidence of cancer is about 3 times the national average. Today's low-level ethylbenzene exposures would make it fully justifiable if the present-day MAC limits, both whole-shift (200 mg.m-3) and peak (1,000 mg.m-3), were to be halved, i.e. to be lowered to 100 mg.m3 and 500 mg.m3 respectively. These newly recommended limit values are no more exceeded nowadays.

  13. Salivary biomarkers of neural hypervigilance in trauma-exposed women.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seungyeon A; Weierich, Mariann R

    2016-01-01

    More than half of all adults will be exposed to a traumatic event at some point in their lives, yet we do not yet have reliable biomarkers to help predict who experiences trauma-related symptoms in response to exposure. We tested the utility of salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase as markers of (1) neural reactivity to negative affective information and (2) neural hypervigilance in the absence of threat. 20 women (mean age 23.6 +/- 5.8 years) with a history of trauma exposure. Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase reactivity were measured in response to a trauma reminder during a clinical interview. Neural reactivity to novel and familiar affective scenes was measured in a later session using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Salivary alpha amylase, but not cortisol, increased in response to the trauma reminder. Salivary alpha amylase reactivity was associated with neural reactivity in the salience network in response to novel negative scenes and neural hypervigilance as indexed by reactivity to novel neutral scenes. Salivary alpha amylase might serve as a more reliable marker of trauma-related reactivity to negative affective information, and also as a marker of hypervigilance in the absence of threatening information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. RADIOLYTIC GAS PRODUCTION RATES OF POLYMERS EXPOSED TO TRITIUM GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.

    Data from previous reports on studies of polymers exposed to tritium gas is further analyzed to estimate rates of radiolytic gas production. Also, graphs of gas release during tritium exposure from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, a trade name is Teflon®), and Vespel® polyimide are re-plotted as moles of gas as a function of time, which is consistent with a later study of tritium effects on various formulations of the elastomer ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM). These gas production rate estimates may be useful while considering using these polymers in tritium processing systems. These rates are valid at least formore » the longest exposure times for each material, two years for UHMW-PE, PTFE, and Vespel®, and fourteen months for filled and unfilled EPDM. Note that the production “rate” for Vespel® is a quantity of H{sub 2} produced during a single exposure to tritium, independent of length of time. The larger production rate per unit mass for unfilled EPDM results from the lack of filler- the carbon black in filled EPDM does not produce H{sub 2} or HT. This is one aspect of how inert fillers reduce the effects of ionizing radiation on polymers.« less

  15. Image registration for multi-exposed HDRI and motion deblurring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seok; Wey, Ho-Cheon; Lee, Seong-Deok

    2009-02-01

    In multi-exposure based image fusion task, alignment is an essential prerequisite to prevent ghost artifact after blending. Compared to usual matching problem, registration is more difficult when each image is captured under different photographing conditions. In HDR imaging, we use long and short exposure images, which have different brightness and there exist over/under satuated regions. In motion deblurring problem, we use blurred and noisy image pair and the amount of motion blur varies from one image to another due to the different exposure times. The main difficulty is that luminance levels of the two images are not in linear relationship and we cannot perfectly equalize or normalize the brightness of each image and this leads to unstable and inaccurate alignment results. To solve this problem, we applied probabilistic measure such as mutual information to represent similarity between images after alignment. In this paper, we discribed about the characteristics of multi-exposed input images in the aspect of registration and also analyzed the magnitude of camera hand shake. By exploiting the independence of luminance of mutual information, we proposed a fast and practically useful image registration technique in multiple capturing. Our algorithm can be applied to extreme HDR scenes and motion blurred scenes with over 90% success rate and its simplicity enables to be embedded in digital camera and mobile camera phone. The effectiveness of our registration algorithm is examined by various experiments on real HDR or motion deblurring cases using hand-held camera.

  16. Phosphorus Effects of Mesoporous Bioactive Glass on Occlude Exposed Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Cheng-Hwei; Kung, Jung-Chang; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Shih, Chi-Jen; Chien, Chi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In recent studies, sealing of exposed dentinal tubules is generally considered as one of the most effective strategies to treat dentin hypersensitivity. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) is a potential material for treating dentin hypersensitivity due to its highly specific areas for dissolution and re-precipitated reaction for reduction in dentin permeability. The groups of commercial products of PerioGlas®, synthetic MBG and MBG without phosphorus (MBGNP) were compared. The MBG and MBGNP powders were prepared by the sol-gel method and mixed with different calculated ratios of phosphoric acid (PA) and then was brushed onto dentin surfaces. We used X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to investigate the physiochemistry and the occlusion ability of dentinal tubules. The results showed that MBG paste mixed with PA solution has a better ability for occluding dentinal tubules than MBGNP; it has a short reaction time and good operability. The major crystallite phase of MBG agents was monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O] in the early stages of the reactions. MBG pastes that were mixed with 30% and 40% PA had the ability to create excellent penetration depth greater than 80 μm. These agents have the potential to treat dentin hypersensitivity. PMID:28788393

  17. Foliar lead uptake by lettuce exposed to atmospheric fallouts.

    PubMed

    Uzu, Gaëlle; Sobanska, Sophie; Sarret, Géraldine; Muñoz, Manuel; Dumat, Camille

    2010-02-01

    Metal uptake by plants occurs by soil-root transfer but also by direct transfer of contaminants from the atmosphere to the shoots. This second pathway may be particularly important in kitchen gardens near industrial plants. The mechanisms of foliar uptake of lead by lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) exposed to the atmospheric fallouts of a lead-recycling plant were studied. After 43 days of exposure, the thoroughly washed leaves contained 335 +/- 50 mg Pb kg(-1) (dry weight). Micro-X-ray fluorescence mappings evidenced Pb-rich spots of a few hundreds of micrometers in diameter located in necrotic zones. These spots were more abundant at the base of the central nervure. Environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed that smaller particles (a few micrometers in diameter) were also present in other regions of the leaves, often located beneath the leaf surface. In addition, submicrometric particles were observed inside stomatal openings. Raman microspectrometry analyses of the leaves identified smelter-originated Pb minerals but also secondary phases likely resulting from the weathering of original particles. On the basis of these observations, several pathways for foliar lead uptake are discussed. A better understanding of these mechanisms may be of interest for risk assessment of population exposure to atmospheric metal contamination.

  18. OPC Paste Samples Exposed To Aggressive Solutions. Cementitious Barriers Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.

    2014-11-01

    The study presented in this report focused on a low-activity wasteform containing a high-pH pore solution with a significant level of sulfate. The purpose of the study was to improve understanding of the complex concrete/wasteform reactive transport problem, in particular, the role of pH in sulfate attack. Paste samples prepared at three different water-to-cement ratios were tested. The mixtures were prepared with ASTM Type I cement, without additional admixtures. The samples were exposed to two different sodium sulfate contact solutions. The first solution was prepared at 0.15M Na 2SO 4. The second solution also incorporated 0.5M NaOH, to mimic themore » high pH conditions found in Saltstone. The data collected indicated that, in Na 2SO 4 solution, damage occurs to the pastes. In the case of the high-pH sulfate solution (Na 2SO 4 + NaOH), no signs of damage were observed on any of the paste mixtures. These results indicate that the high sulfate content found in the wasteform pore solution will not necessarily lead to severe damage to concrete. Good-quality mixtures could thus prove durable over the long term, and act as an effective barrier to prevent radionuclides from reaching the environment.« less

  19. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, D M

    1995-01-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p'-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted "hot spots" in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent. PMID:8593865

  20. Pharmaceuticals Exposed to the Space Environment: Problems and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Health Countermeasures Element maintains ongoing efforts to inform detailed risks, gaps, and further questions associated with the use of pharmaceuticals in space. Most recently, the Pharmacology Risk Report, released in 2010, illustrates the problems associated with maintaining pharmaceutical efficacy. Since the report, one key publication includes evaluation of pharmaceutical products stored on the International Space Station (ISS). This study shows that selected pharmaceuticals on ISS have a shorter shelf-life in space than corresponding terrestrial controls. The HRP Human Research Roadmap for planetary exploration identifies the risk of ineffective or toxic medications due to long-term storage during missions to Mars. The roadmap also identifies the need to understand and predict how pharmaceuticals will behave when exposed to radiation for long durations. Terrestrial studies of returned samples offer a start for predictive modeling. This paper shows that pharmaceuticals returned to Earth for post-flight analyses are amenable to a Weibull distribution analysis in order to support probabilistic risk assessment modeling. The paper also considers the prospect of passive payloads of key pharmaceuticals on sample return missions outside of Earth's magnetic field to gather additional statistics. Ongoing work in radiation chemistry suggests possible mitigation strategies where future work could be done at cryogenic temperatures to explore methods for preserving the strength of pharmaceuticals in the space radiation environment, perhaps one day leading to an architecture where pharmaceuticals are cached on the Martian surface and preserved cryogenically.

  1. Synthesis of protein in intestinal cells exposed to cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.W.; Berg, W.D. Jr.; Coppenhaver, D.H.

    1987-11-01

    The mechanism by which cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), formed by intestinal epithelial cells in response to cholera toxin, ultimately results in alterations in water and electrolyte transport is poorly understood. Several studies have indicated that inhibitors of transcription or translation block much of the transport of ions and water in the intestine and edema formation in tissue elicited by cholera toxin. Data presented in this study confirmed the inhibitory effects of cycloheximide on cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation in the rabbit intestinal loop model. Neither cycloheximide nor actinomycin D altered the amount of cyclic AMP that accumulated in intestinal cells andmore » Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to cholera toxin. An increase in (/sup 3/H) leucine incorporation was readily demonstrable in intestinal epithelial cells from rabbits challenged with Vibrio cholerae. Similarly, intestinal epithelial cells incubated with cholera toxin for 4 hr synthesized substantially more protein than controls as determined by relative incorporation of (/sup 35/S) methionine. Most of the new protein synthesized in response to cholera toxin was membrane associated and of high molecular weight. The possible significance of the toxin-induced protein relative to cholera pathogenesis was discussed.« less

  2. "Try not to judge": mothers of substance exposed infants.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Lisa M; Gill, Sara L

    2013-01-01

    To describe the hospital experiences of mothers who give birth to substance-exposed infants. Secondary analysis of data from a larger study that was focused on the experiences of Mexican-American mothers in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was conducted. Semistructured interviews with five women who were recovering addicts on methadone were analyzed. Each of their infants spent time in an NICU following birth. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Four themes were identified: (a) "try not to judge," (b) "scoring" the baby, (c) "share with me," and (d) "I'm the mother here!" The quality of the relationship between the mothers and the nurses in the NICU was a crucial aspect of the mothers' experiences and may have an effect on long-term outcomes. Women with addictions often have other significant risk factors that may further jeopardize their ability to mother; therefore, it is essential to develop a strong support network. Nurses can be instrumental in organizing resources for this population of women. Judging behaviors may have a detrimental effect on women with addictions. Maternal adaptation to the mothering role can be enhanced by making reasonable efforts to include the mother in the care of the infant.

  3. Psychological therapies for children and adolescents exposed to trauma.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Donna; Maiocchi, Licia; Bhandari, Abhishta P; Taylor, Fiona; Gray, Carl; O'Brien, Louise

    2016-10-11

    Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes, all of which are associated with high personal and health costs. A wide range of psychological treatments are used to prevent negative outcomes associated with trauma in children and adolescents. To assess the effects of psychological therapies in preventing PTSD and associated negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents who have undergone a traumatic event. We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group's Specialised Register to 29 May 2015. This register contains reports of relevant randomised controlled trials from The Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We also checked reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. We did not restrict the searches by date, language or publication status. All randomised controlled trials of psychological therapies compared with a control such as treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment, pharmacological therapy or other treatments in children or adolescents who had undergone a traumatic event. Two members of the review group independently extracted data. We calculated odds ratios for binary outcomes and standardised mean differences for continuous outcomes using a random-effects model. We analysed data as short-term (up to and including one month after therapy), medium-term (one month to one year after therapy) and long-term (one year or longer). Investigators included 6201 participants in the 51 included trials. Twenty studies included only children, two included only preschool children and ten only adolescents; all others included both children and adolescents. Participants were exposed to sexual abuse in 12 trials, to war or community violence in ten, to physical trauma and natural disaster in six each and to

  4. Chromium distribution in an Amazonian river exposed to tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Eduardo Araujo; Luz, Cleber Calado; de Carvalho, Dario Pires; Dorea, Caetano Chang; de Holanda, Igor Bruno Barbosa; Manzatto, Ângelo Gilberto; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the Cr concentrations in surface water, suspended particles, and bottom sediments exposed to tannery effluent releases in the Candeias River. Cr concentrations were compared in relation to environmental thresholds imposed by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the Brazilian Environmental Council (CONAMA), and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) was calculated in bottom sediment. Samples were collected in flood and dry seasons. Cr extraction was done by an acid extraction and quantified by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Most samples were found to be below the environmental thresholds imposed by CONAMA and USEPA, except in the one from the discharge zone sampled during the dry season, showing values 1.5 and 6.1 higher than CONAMA in water and bottom sediment, respectively. Cr concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in suspended particles during dry season than flood season. Surface water and bottom sediment did not show significant differences between the seasons. The Igeo revealed an enrichment of Cr in bottom sediments after discharge zone, indicating that the effluent may be contributing to metal accumulation in the sediment. Apparently, the Candeias River shows a wash behavior on the river bottom, leaching the accumulated metal deposited on the riverbed to other areas during the flood pulses, which decreases Cr concentration in the discharge zone during dry seasons. Thus, this behavior can promote Cr dispersion to unpolluted areas.

  5. Aldehyde dehydrogenase induction in arsenic-exposed rat bladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Chun; Yu, Hsin-Su; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment. Many human cancers, including urothelial carcinoma (UC), show a dose-dependent relationship with arsenic exposure in the south-west coast of Taiwan (also known as the blackfoot disease (BFD) areas). However, the molecular mechanisms of arsenic-mediated UC carcinogenesis has not yet been defined. In vivo study, the rat bladder epithelium were exposed with arsenic for 48 h. The proteins were extracted from untreated and arsenic-treated rat bladder cells and utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Selected peptides were extracted from the gel and identified by quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) Ultima-Micromass spectra. The significantly difference expression of proteins in arsenic-treated groups as compared with untreated groups was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting. We found that thirteen proteins were down-regulated and nine proteins were up-regulated in arsenic-treated rat bladder cells when compared with untreated groups. The IHC and western blotting results confirmed that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) protein was up-regulated in arsenic-treated rat bladder epithelium. Expression of ALDH protein was significantly higher in UC patients from BFD areas than those from non-BFD areas using IHC (p=0.018). In conclusion, the ALDH protein expression could be used as molecular markers for arsenic-induced transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Studying Health Outcomes in Farmworker Populations Exposed to Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Linda A.; Anger, W. Kent; Keifer, Matthew; Langley, Rick; Robson, Mark G.; Rohlman, Diane

    2006-01-01

    A major goal of studying farmworkers is to better understand how their work environment, including exposure to pesticides, affects their health. Although a number of health conditions have been associated with pesticide exposure, clear linkages have yet to be made between exposure and health effects except in cases of acute pesticide exposure. In this article, we review the most common health end points that have been studied and describe the epidemiologic challenges encountered in studying these health effects of pesticides among farmworkers, including the difficulties in accessing the population and challenges associated with obtaining health end point data. The assessment of neurobehavioral health effects serves as one of the most common and best examples of an approach used to study health outcomes in farmworkers and other populations exposed to pesticides. We review the current limitations in neurobehavioral assessment and strategies to improve these analytical methods. Emerging techniques to improve our assessment of health effects associated with pesticide exposure are reviewed. These techniques, which in most cases have not been applied to farmworker populations, hold promise in our ability to study and understand the relationship between pesticide exposure and a variety of health effects in this population. PMID:16760000

  7. Thymic cytoarchitecture changes in mice exposed to vanadium.

    PubMed

    Ustarroz-Cano, Martha; Garcia-Pelaez, Isabel; Cervantes-Yepez, Silvana; Lopez-Valdez, Nelly; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2017-12-01

    The thymus is a vital immune system organ wherein selection of T-lymphocytes occurs in a process regulated by dendritic and epithelial thymic cells. Previously, we have reported that in a mouse model of vanadium inhalation, a decrease in CD11c dendritic cells was observed. In the present study, we report on a thymic cortex-medulla distribution distortion in these hosts due to apparent effects of the inhaled vanadium on cytokeratin-5 (K5 + ) epithelial cells in the same mouse model - after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of exposure - by immunohistochemistry. These cells - together with dendritic cells - eliminate autoreactive T-cell clones and regulate the production of regulatory T-cells in situ. Because both cell types are involved in the negative selection of autoreactive clones, a potential for an increase in development of autoimmune conditions could be a possible consequence among individuals who might be exposed often to vanadium in air pollution, including dwellers of highly polluted cities with elevated levels of particulate matter onto which vanadium is often adsorbed.

  8. Subaerially exposed Holocene coral reef, Enriquillo Valley, Dominican Republic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Burke, K.; Kulstad, R.

    1984-01-01

    An extremely well-preserved Holocene fringing coral reef occurs at an average elevation of 5 m below sea level around the margins of the central Enriquillo Valley, Dominican Republic. The reef records the latest marine incursion from the east into an 85-km-long, 12-km-wide tectonic depression and appears to represent a unique preservation. Excellent cross sections of the reef exposed in erosional gullies reveal a composition and zonation typical of modern Caribbean reefs that are found in offshore low-energy environments. Radiocarbon age determinations (2) indicate that reef growth coincided with sea-level rise following the last ice age (5,930 + or - 100 to 4,760 + or - 90 yr B.P.). Deltaic deposition and possible vertical movements on active fault scarps dammed the eastern mouth of the valley and created Lago Enriquillo, the level of which was then rapidly lowered by evaporation in an arid climate to produce a saline lake approximately 40 m below sea level. Stratigraphic studies of rocks along the valley edge and data from drill holes in the basin center indicate that there were earlier post-Miocene marine incursions similar to that described here.

  9. Men in nursing on television: exposing and reinforcing stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Roslyn; Ferguson, Caleb; Wilbourn, Mark; Salamonson, Yenna

    2014-04-01

    To describe the results of a study of images of men in nursing on television. Previous research has highlighted stereotypical images around nursing, such as the battle-axe, naughty nurse and handmaiden. More recent research focuses on images of nurses who are men, because of the growing numbers of men in the nursing workforce. Given that negative images can harm recruitment and retention in the profession, it is important to interrogate how men in nursing are portrayed in popular culture. Representations on television are particularly critical to explore because of the medium's wide audience. Qualitative study. Five American medical television programmes appearing between 2007 and 2010 were analysed for their construction of men in nursing: Grey's Anatomy, Hawthorne, Mercy, Nurse Jackie and Private Practice. Men in nursing on television were portrayed in ways that engaged with explicit and implicit stereotypes. The men were often subject to questions about their choice of career, masculinity and sexuality and their role usually reduced to that of prop, minority spokesperson or source of comedy. Thus, rather contradictorily, although the programmes often sought to expose common stereotypes about men in nursing, they nonetheless often reinforced stereotypes in more implicit ways. This research has implications for better understanding not only the status of nursing in our society but also for nursing practice and education and attracting more men to the profession. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Exposed Bedrock in the Koval'sky Impact Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-27

    This image shows partially exposed bedrock within the Koval'sky impact basin, which is on the outskirts of the extensive lava field of Daedalia Planum. Daedalia Planum is located southwest of Arsia Mons, which may be the source responsible for filling the crater with lava flows and ash deposits. On one side, bright bedrock with scattered dark blue spots are seen. The dark blue spots are boulders shedding from the outcrops. The color range of the bedrock provides some information on its composition. The blue color is indicative of the presence of iron-rich minerals that are generally not oxidized (i.e., rusted), unlike most of the ruddy Martian surface. Volcanic rocks are common on Mars. Possible candidate minerals for the bluish materials are often consistent with iron-rich minerals, such as pyroxene and olivine. The ridges may represent remnants of the original surface of the lava flows that filled the Koval'sky impact basin. NB: The region is named for M. A. Koval'sky, a Russian astronomer. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21765

  11. Cancer occurrence in shipyard workers exposed to asbestos in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Kolonel, L N; Yoshizawa, C N; Hirohata, T; Myers, B C

    1985-08-01

    Because large numbers of persons were employed in United States shipyards during World War II, the long-term risks for cancer associated with asbestos exposure in this setting are of great concern. We report here on the mortality findings after up to 29 years of follow-up on a retrospective cohort of 7971 male Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard workers, which included more than 3000 men whose employment period spanned the World War II years. Compared with the general population of Hawaii, workers in the shipyard cohort had no increase in total mortality or in total cancer mortality irrespective of the duration of their exposure. However, the risk ratio for lung cancer among workers with at least 15 years of asbestos exposure was 1.4 overall (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.0) and 1.7 for those with a latency interval of 30 or more years (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.5). In addition, seven mesotheliomas occurred between 1977 and 1982 in a subset of the cohort, consisting of 7029 Hawaii residents who are being followed prospectively for cancer incidence. This represented an incidence of 67.3 per million men per year, compared with a rate of 5.8 for the state as a whole. These results suggest that the long-term relative increase in risk for mesothelioma may be even greater than that for bronchogenic carcinoma in this and other cohorts of United States shipyard workers exposed to asbestos.

  12. Lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E; Rosner, Bernard; Smith, Thomas J; Dockery, Douglas W; Speizer, Frank E

    2004-11-01

    Diesel exhaust has been suspected to be a lung carcinogen. The assessment of this lung cancer risk has been limited by lack of studies of exposed workers followed for many years. In this study, we assessed lung cancer mortality in 54,973 U.S. railroad workers between 1959 and 1996 (38 years). By 1959, the U.S. railroad industry had largely converted from coal-fired to diesel-powered locomotives. We obtained work histories from the U.S. Railroad Retirement Board, and ascertained mortality using Railroad Retirement Board, Social Security, and Health Care Financing Administration records. Cause of death was obtained from the National Death Index and death certificates. There were 43,593 total deaths including 4,351 lung cancer deaths. Adjusting for a healthy worker survivor effect and age, railroad workers in jobs associated with operating trains had a relative risk of lung cancer mortality of 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.30-1.51). Lung cancer mortality did not increase with increasing years of work in these jobs. Lung cancer mortality was elevated in jobs associated with work on trains powered by diesel locomotives. Although a contribution from exposure to coal combustion products before 1959 cannot be excluded, these results suggest that exposure to diesel exhaust contributed to lung cancer mortality in this cohort. Key words: diesel exhaust, lung cancer, occupational exposure.

  13. Rheological alteration of erythrocytes exposed to carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yujin; Li, Cheng-Ai; Kim, Duckjong; Shin, Sehyun

    2017-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been increasingly used in a variety of biomedical applications, such as in vivo delivery of drugs and tumor imaging. Potential exposure of SWNTs to human red blood cells (RBCs) may cause serious toxicity including alteration of mechanical properties of cells. The present study investigated the cellular response to exposure of SWNTs with measuring rheological characteristics of RBCs, including hemolysis, deformability, aggregation, and morphological changes. RBCs were exposed to two different dispersion-state samples (i.e. individual SWNTs and bundled SWNTs) in chitosan hydroxyphenyl acetamide (CHPA) solutions. The concentrations of SWNTs were carefully chosen to avoid any hemorheological alterations due to hemolysis. Rheological characteristics were measured using microfluidic-laser diffractometry and aggregometry. Our results show that the bundled SWNTs had higher hemolytic activity than did the individual SWNTs. RBC aggregation apparently decreased as the concentration of SWNTs or incubation time increased. Additionally, bundled SWNTs caused significant alterations in the shape and fusion of RBCs. In conclusion, bundled SWNTs were found to be more toxic than individual SWNTs. These results provide important insights into the interactions between RBCs and SWNTs and will facilitate assessment of the risk of nanomaterial toxicity of blood.

  14. Peripheral chemoreceptor activity in sleeping neonates exposed to warm environments.

    PubMed

    Chardon, K; Bach, V; Telliez, F; Tourneux, P; Elabbassi, E B; Cardot, V; Gaultier, C; Libert, J P

    2003-09-01

    In neonates, it is often assumed that ventilatory control and heat stress interact. Thus the two factors have been implicated in various pathologies (apnoea, sudden infant death syndrome). However, little is known about the mechanisms of this interaction, and the influence of sleep is still debated. This study aimed at determining the influence of warm exposure on the decrease in ventilation during a hyperoxic test (HT), which is considered to be a measure of peripheral chemoreceptor activity. The test was performed in active (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) in 12 neonates exposed to thermoneutral or warm environments. The HT consisted of 30 s of inspired, 100% O(2). The ventilatory response was assessed in terms of a response time, defined as the time elapsing between HT onset and the first significant change in V(E). Our results show that, in both thermal conditions, the fall in V(E) was higher in AS than in QS. Warm exposure significantly enhanced the ventilatory response in AS (-27.5 +/- 8.7% vs. -38.3 +/- 8.8%, P < 0.01) but not in QS. A thermometabolic drive or inputs from thermoreceptors could be involved in the reinforcement of peripheral chemoreceptor activity in AS in warmer environments, which could contribute to an increasing risk of apnoea in neonates with altered chemoreceptor function. Since hypothalamic structures are involved in thermoregulatory, sleep processes and (probably) in respiratory control, it could well be the principal site where this interaction occurs.

  15. Biomonitoring of traffic police officers exposed to airborne platinum

    PubMed Central

    Iavicoli, I; Bocca, B; Petrucci, F; Senofonte, O; Carelli, G; Alimonti, A; Caroli, S

    2004-01-01

    Background: Over the past two decades there has been a substantial increase in environmental levels of palladium, platinum, and rhodium, the platinum group elements (PGEs), due to the widespread use of catalytic converters for automotive traction. Aim: To evaluate urinary platinum levels in occupationally exposed subjects. Methods: A total of 161 employees from the Rome City Police Force were studied; 103 were traffic police involved in controlling streets with an average flow of vehicles, while the remaining 58 were control subjects engaged only in office work. Platinum quantification in the urine samples of these subjects was carried out by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between platinum levels in the group of subjects engaged in traffic control and the control group (4.45 (2.42) ng/l v 4.56 (2.84) ng/l, respectively). Conclusions: Urinary levels were found to be higher than those reported for other urban populations, thus showing a progressive increase in human exposure to Pt. PMID:15208381

  16. Runaway chemical reaction exposes community to highly toxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kaszniak, Mark; Vorderbrueggen, John

    2008-11-15

    The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) conducted a comprehensive investigation of a runaway chemical reaction at MFG Chemical (MFG) in Dalton, Georgia on April 12, 2004 that resulted in the uncontrolled release of a large quantity of highly toxic and flammable allyl alcohol and allyl chloride into the community. Five people were hospitalized and 154 people required decontamination and treatment for exposure to the chemicals. This included police officers attempting to evacuate the community and ambulance personnel who responded to 911 calls from residents exposed to the chemicals. This paper presents the findings of the CSB report (U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB), Investigation Report: Toxic Chemical Vapor Cloud Release, Report No. 2004-09-I-GA, Washington DC, April 2006) including a discussion on tolling practices; scale-up of batch reaction processes; Process Safety Management (PSM) and Risk Management Plan (RMP) implementation; emergency planning by the company, county and the city; and emergency response and mitigation actions taken during the incident. The reactive chemical testing and atmospheric dispersion modeling conducted by CSB after the incident and recommendations adopted by the Board are also discussed.

  17. Exposing SAMOS Data and Vocabularies within the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dockery, Nkemdirim; Elya, Jocelyn; Smith, Shawn

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), we at the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) will present the development process for the exposure of quality-controlled data and core vocabularies managed by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative using Semantic Web technologies. Participants in the SAMOS initiative collect continuous navigational (position, course, heading, speed), meteorological (winds, pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity) parameters while at sea. One-minute interval observations are packaged and transmitted back to COAPS via daily emails, where they undergo standardized formatting and quality control. The authors will present methods used to expose these daily datasets. The Semantic Web, a vision of the World Wide Web Consortium, focuses on extending the principles of the web from connecting documents to connecting data. The creation of a web of Linked Data that can be used across different applications in a machine-readable way is the ultimate goal. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard language and format used in the Semantic Web. RDF pages may be queried using the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). The authors will showcase the development of RDF resources that map SAMOS vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies such as those found in the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server. Each individual SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described in an RDF resource page. These RDF resources will define each SAMOS vocabulary term and provide a link to the mapped vocabulary term (or multiple terms) served externally. Along with enhanced retrieval by parameter, time, and location, we will be able to add additional parameters with the confidence that they follow an international standard. The production of RDF

  18. Modeling temperature and stress in rocks exposed to the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallet, B.; Mackenzie, P.; Shi, J.; Eppes, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    The potential contribution of solar-driven thermal cycling to the progressive breakdown of surface rocks on the Earth and other planets is recognized but under studied. To shed light on this contribution we have launched a collaborative study integrating modern instrumental and numerical approaches to define surface temperatures, stresses, strains, and microfracture activity in exposed boulders, and to shed light on the thermo-mechanical response of boulders to diurnal solar exposure. The instrumental portion of our study is conducted by M. Eppes and coworkers who have monitored the surface and environmental conditions of two ~30 cm dia. granite boulders (one in North Carolina, one in New Mexico) in the field for one and tow years, respectively. Each boulder is instrumented with 8 thermocouples, 8 strain gauges, a surface moisture sensor and 6 acoustic emission (AE) sensors to monitor microfracture activity continuously and to locate it within 2.5 cm. Herein, we focus on the numerical modeling. Using a commercially available finite element program, MSC.Marc®2008r1, we have developed an adaptable, realistic thermo-mechanical model to investigate quantitatively the temporal and spatial distributions of both temperature and stress throughout a boulder. The model accounts for the effects of latitude and season (length of day and the sun's path relative to the object), atmospheric damping (reduction of solar radiation when traveling through the Earth's atmosphere), radiative interaction between the boulder and its surrounding soil, secondary heat exchange of the rock with air, and transient heat conduction in both rock and soil. Using representative thermal and elastic rock properties, as well as realistic representations of the size, shape and orientation of a boulder instrumented in the field in North Carolina, the model is validated by comparison with direct measurements of temperature and strain on the surface of one boulder exposed to the sun. Using the validated

  19. Polymorphic trial in oxidative damage of arsenic exposed Vietnamese.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Junko; Soejima, Mikiko; Yasuda, Toshihiro; Koda, Yoshiro; Kunito, Takashi; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Takeshita, Haruo

    2011-10-15

    Arsenic causes DNA damage and changes the cellular capacity for DNA repair. Genes in the base excision repair (BER) pathway influence the generation and repair of oxidative lesions. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) Ser326Cys; apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) Asp148Glu; X-ray and repair and cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg280His and Arg399Gln in the BER genes were analyzed, and the relationship between these 4 SNPs and the urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations of 100 Vietnamese population exposed to arsenic was investigated. Individuals with hOGG1 326Cys/Cys showed significantly higher urinary 8-OHdG concentrations than did those with 326 Ser/Cys and Ser/Ser. As for APE1 Asp148Glu, heterozygous subjects showed significantly higher urinary 8-OHdG concentrations than did those homozygous for Asp/Asp. Moreover, global ethnic comparison of the allelic frequencies of the 4SNPs was performed in 10 population and previous reported data. The mutant allele frequencies of hOGG1 Ser326Cys in the Asian populations were higher than those in the African and Caucasian populations. As for APE1 Asp148Glu, Caucasians showed higher mutant frequencies than those shown by African and Asian populations. Among Asian populations, the Bangladeshi population showed relatively higher mutant allele frequencies of the APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphism. This study is the first to demonstrate the existence of genetic heterogeneity in a worldwide distribution of SNPs (hOGG1 Ser326Cys, APE1 Asp148Glu, XRCC1 Arg280His, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln) in the BER genes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Helium segregation on surfaces of plasma-exposed tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroudas, Dimitrios; Blondel, Sophie; Hu, Lin; Hammond, Karl D.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2016-02-01

    We report a hierarchical multi-scale modeling study of implanted helium segregation on surfaces of tungsten, considered as a plasma facing component in nuclear fusion reactors. We employ a hierarchy of atomic-scale simulations based on a reliable interatomic interaction potential, including molecular-statics simulations to understand the origin of helium surface segregation, targeted molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of near-surface cluster reactions, and large-scale MD simulations of implanted helium evolution in plasma-exposed tungsten. We find that small, mobile He n (1  ⩽  n  ⩽  7) clusters in the near-surface region are attracted to the surface due to an elastic interaction force that provides the thermodynamic driving force for surface segregation. This elastic interaction force induces drift fluxes of these mobile He n clusters, which increase substantially as the migrating clusters approach the surface, facilitating helium segregation on the surface. Moreover, the clusters’ drift toward the surface enables cluster reactions, most importantly trap mutation, in the near-surface region at rates much higher than in the bulk material. These near-surface cluster dynamics have significant effects on the surface morphology, near-surface defect structures, and the amount of helium retained in the material upon plasma exposure. We integrate the findings of such atomic-scale simulations into a properly parameterized and validated spatially dependent, continuum-scale reaction-diffusion cluster dynamics model, capable of predicting implanted helium evolution, surface segregation, and its near-surface effects in tungsten. This cluster-dynamics model sets the stage for development of fully atomistically informed coarse-grained models for computationally efficient simulation predictions of helium surface segregation, as well as helium retention and surface morphological evolution, toward optimal design of plasma facing components.

  1. Cardiac biomarkers in HIV-exposed uninfected children.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Paige L; Leister, Erin; Zeldow, Bret; Shearer, William T; Colan, Steven D; Siberry, George K; Dooley, Laurie B; Scott, Gwendolyn B; Rich, Kenneth C; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2013-04-24

    To evaluate associations of cardiac biomarkers with in-utero antiretroviral drug exposures and cardiac function/structure measured by echocardiograms in HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children. We analyzed the association of three cardiac biomarkers (cardiac troponin T, cTnT; high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hsCRP; and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, NT-proBNP) with prenatal antiretroviral drug exposures, maternal-child characteristics, and echocardiographic parameters. Among 338 HEU children (mean age 4.3 years), 51% had at least one elevated cardiac biomarker. Maternal tobacco use was associated with elevated NT-proBNP [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.28, P=0.02]. Maternal alcohol and abacavir use were associated with elevated cTnT levels (aOR 3.56, P=0.01 and aOR 2.33, P=0.04, respectively). Among 94 children with paired echocardiogram-biomarker measurements, cTnT measurements were correlated with increased left-ventricular thickness-to-dimension ratio (r=0.21, P=0.04); and elevated cTnT was associated with higher mean left-ventricular end-diastolic (LVED) posterior wall thickness (P=0.04). hsCRP measurements were negatively correlated with septal thickness (r=-0.22, P=0.03) and elevated hsCRP was associated with lower mean left-ventricular contractility Z-scores (P=0.04). NT-proBNP measurements were correlated with increased LVED dimension (r=0.20, P=0.05) and elevated NT-proBNP was associated with lower mean end-systolic septal thickness (P=0.03). Our findings suggest that cardiac biomarkers may help identify HEU children who require further cardiac evaluation including echocardiography. Potential cardiac effects of prenatal abacavir exposure in this population need further investigation.

  2. Deaths and tumours among rotogravure printers exposed to toluene.

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, B G; Nise, G; Englander, V; Attewell, R; Skerfving, S; Möller, T

    1990-01-01

    A cohort of 1020 rotogravure printers exposed to toluene and employed for a minimum period of three months in eight plants during 1925-85 was studied. Air levels of toluene were available since 1943 in one plant and since 1969 in most. Based on these measurements and on present concentrations of toluene in blood and subcutaneous fat, the yearly average air levels in each plant were estimated. They reached a maximum of about 450 ppm in the 1940s and 1950s but were only about 30 ppm by the mid-1980s. Exposure to benzene had occurred up to the beginning of the 1960s. Compared with regional rates, total mortality did not increase during the observation period 1952-86 (129 observed deaths v 125 expected; SMR = 1.03). There was no increase in mortality from non-malignant diseases of the lungs, nervous system, or gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. There was no overall excess of tumours 1958-85 (68 v 54, SMR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.95-1.7). Among the specific cancers, only those of the respiratory tract were significantly increased (16 v 9; SMR = 1.76, CI = 1.03-2.9). Statistical significance was not attained, however, when only subjects with an exposure period of at least five years and a latency period of at least 10 years were considered. Further, there were no dose response relations with cumulated toluene dose (ppm years). There were no significant increases of tumours at other sites, including leukaemias/lymphomas/myelomas. PMID:2378814

  3. Helium segregation on surfaces of plasma-exposed tungsten

    DOE PAGES

    Maroudas, Dimitrios; Blondel, Sophie; Hu, Lin; ...

    2016-01-21

    Here we report a hierarchical multi-scale modeling study of implanted helium segregation on surfaces of tungsten, considered as a plasma facing component in nuclear fusion reactors. We employ a hierarchy of atomic-scale simulations based on a reliable interatomic interaction potential, including molecular-statics simulations to understand the origin of helium surface segregation, targeted molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of near-surface cluster reactions, and large-scale MD simulations of implanted helium evolution in plasma-exposed tungsten. We find that small, mobile He-n (1 <= n <= 7) clusters in the near-surface region are attracted to the surface due to an elastic interaction force that provides themore » thermodynamic driving force for surface segregation. Elastic interaction force induces drift fluxes of these mobile Hen clusters, which increase substantially as the migrating clusters approach the surface, facilitating helium segregation on the surface. Moreover, the clusters' drift toward the surface enables cluster reactions, most importantly trap mutation, in the near-surface region at rates much higher than in the bulk material. Moreover, these near-surface cluster dynamics have significant effects on the surface morphology, near-surface defect structures, and the amount of helium retained in the material upon plasma exposure. We integrate the findings of such atomic-scale simulations into a properly parameterized and validated spatially dependent, continuum-scale reaction-diffusion cluster dynamics model, capable of predicting implanted helium evolution, surface segregation, and its near-surface effects in tungsten. This cluster-dynamics model sets the stage for development of fully atomistically informed coarse-grained models for computationally efficient simulation predictions of helium surface segregation, as well as helium retention and surface morphological evolution, toward optimal design of plasma facing components.« less

  4. Transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos exposed to deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Chueh, Tsung-Cheng; Hsu, Li-Sung; Kao, Chin-Ming; Hsu, Tung-Wei; Liao, Hung-Yu; Wang, Kuan-Yi; Chen, Ssu Ching

    2017-05-01

    Deltamethrin (DTM), a type II pyrethroid, is one of the most commonly used insecticides. The increased use of pyrethroid leads to potential adverse effects, particularly in sensitive populations such as children and pregnant women. None of the related studies was focused on the transcriptome responses in zebrafish embryos after treatment with DTM; therefore, RNA-seq, a high-throughput method, was performed to analyze the global expression of differential expressed genes (DEGs) in zebrafish embryos treated with DTM (40 and 80 μg/L) from fertilization to 48 h postfertilization (hpf) as compared with that in the control group (without DTM treatment). Two cDNA libraries were generated from treated embryos and one cDNA library from nontreated embryos, respectively. Over 92% of reads mapped to the reference in these three libraries. It was observed that many differential genes were expressed in comparison with embryos before and after DTM. The 20 most differentially expressed upregulated or downregulated genes were majorly involved in the signaling transduction. Validation of selected nine genes expression using qRT-PCR confirmed RNA-seq results. The transcriptome sequences were further subjected to gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, showing G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, respectively, were most enriched. The data from this study contributed to a better understanding of the potential consequences of fish exposed to DTM, to an evaluation of the potential threat of DTM to fish populations in aquatic environments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1548-1557, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Guano exposed: Impact of aerobic conditions on bat fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Fofanov, Viacheslav Y; Furstenau, Tara N; Sanchez, Daniel; Hepp, Crystal M; Cocking, Jill; Sobek, Colin; Pagel, Nicole; Walker, Faith; Chambers, Carol L

    2018-06-01

    Bats and their associated guano microbiota provide important terrestrial and subterranean ecosystem services and serve as a reservoir for a wide range of epizootic and zoonotic diseases. Unfortunately, large-scale studies of bats and their guano microbiotas are limited by the time and cost of sample collection, which requires specially trained individuals to work at night to capture bats when they are most active. Indirectly surveying bat gut microbiota through guano deposits could be a more cost-effective alternative, but it must first be established whether the postdefecation exposure to an aerobic environment has a large impact on the guano microbial community. A number of recent studies on mammalian feces have shown that the impact of aerobic exposure is highly species specific; therefore, it is difficult to predict how exposure will affect the bat guano microbiota without empirical data. In our study, we collected fresh guano samples from 24 individuals of 10 bat species that are common throughout the arid environments of the American southwest and subjected the samples to 0, 1, and 12 hr of exposure. The biodiversity decreased rapidly after the shift from an anaerobic to an aerobic environment-much faster than previously reported in mammalian species. However, the relative composition of the core guano microbiota remained stable and, using highly sensitive targeted PCR methods, we found that pathogens present in the original, non-exposed samples could still be recovered after 12 hr of exposure. These results suggest that with careful sample analysis protocols, a more efficient passive collection strategy is feasible; for example, guano could be collected on tarps placed near the roost entrance. Such passive collection methods would greatly reduce the cost of sample collection by allowing more sites or roosts to be surveyed with a fraction of trained personnel, time, and effort investments needed.

  6. Types of rocks exposed at the Viking landing sites

    SciTech Connect

    Guinness, E.; Arvidson, R.; Dale-Bannister, M.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral estimates derived from Viking Lander multispectral images have been used to investigate the types of rocks exposed at both landing sites, and to infer whether the rocks are primary igneous rocks or weathering products. These analyses should aid interpretations of spectra to be returned from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on the upcoming Mars Observer Mission. A series of gray surfaces on the Landers were used to check the accuracy of the camera preflight calibrations. Results indicate that the pre-flight calibrations for the three color channels are probably correct for all cameras but camera 2 on Lander 1.more » The calibration for the infrared channels appears to have changed, although the cause is not known. For this paper, only the color channels were used to derive data for rocks. Rocks at both sites exhibit a variety of reflectance values. For example, reflectance estimates for two rocks in the blue (0.4-0.5 microns), green (0.5-0.6 microns), and red (0.6-0.75 microns) channels are 0.16, 0.23, and 0.33 and 0.12, 0.19, 0.37 at a phase angle of 20 degrees. These values have been compared with laboratory reflectance spectra of analog materials and telescopic spectra of Mars, both convolved to the Lander bandpasses. Lander values for some rocks are similar to earth based observations of martian dark regions and with certain mafic igneous rocks thinly coated with amorphous ferric-oxide rich weathering products. These results are consistent with previous interpretations.« less

  7. Exercise Training Reverses Extrapulmonary Impairments in Smoke-exposed Mice.

    PubMed

    Bowen, T Scott; Aakerøy, Lars; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Kunth, Patricia; Bakkerud, Fredrik; Wohlwend, Martin; Ormbostad, Anne Marie; Fischer, Tina; Wisloff, Ulrik; Schuler, Gerhard; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Adams, Volker; Bronstad, Eivind

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. However, evidence on the extrapulmonary effects of smoke exposure that precede lung impairments remains unclear at present, as are data on nonpharmacological treatments such as exercise training. Three groups of mice, including control (n = 10), smoking (n = 10), and smoking with 6 wk of high-intensity interval treadmill running (n = 11), were exposed to 20 wk of fresh air or whole-body cigarette smoke. Exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and lung destruction (histology) were subsequently measured, whereas the heart, peripheral endothelium (aorta), and respiratory (diaphragm) and limb (extensor digitorum longus and soleus) skeletal muscles were assessed for in vivo and in vitro function, in situ mitochondrial respiration, and molecular alterations. Smoking reduced body weight by 26% (P < 0.05) without overt airway destruction (P > 0.05). Smoking impaired exercise capacity by 15% while inducing right ventricular dysfunction by ~20%, endothelial dysfunction by ~20%, and diaphragm muscle weakness by ~15% (all P < 0.05), but these were either attenuated or reversed by exercise training (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, smoking mice had normal limb muscle and mitochondrial function (cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers); however, diaphragm measures of oxidative stress and protein degradation were increased by 111% and 65%, respectively (P < 0.05), but these were attenuated by exercise training (P < 0.05). Prolonged cigarette smoking reduced exercise capacity concomitant with functional impairments to the heart, peripheral endothelium, and respiratory muscle that preceded the development of overt emphysema. However, high-intensity exercise training was able to reverse these smoke-induced extrapulmonary impairments.

  8. End stage renal disease among ceramic workers exposed to silica.

    PubMed

    Rapiti, E; Sperati, A; Miceli, M; Forastiere, F; Di Lallo, D; Cavariani, F; Goldsmith, D F; Perucci, C A

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate whether ceramic workers exposed to silica experience an excess of end stage renal disease. On the basis of a health surveillance programme, a cohort of 2980 male ceramic workers has been enrolled during the period 1974-91 in Civitacastellana, Lazio, Italy. For each worker, employment history, smoking data, and x ray film readings were available. The vital status was ascertained for all cohort members. All 2820 people still alive and resident in the Lazio region as in June 1994 were searched for a match in the regional end stage renal diseases registry, which records (since June, 1994) all patients undergoing dialysis treatment in public and private facilities of the region. Expected numbers of prevalent cases from the cohort were computed by applying the rate of patients on dialysis treatment by the age distribution of the cohort. A total of six cases was detected when 1.87 were expected (observed/expected (O/E) = 3.21; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.17 to 6.98). The excess risk was present among non-smokers (O = 2; O/E = 4.34) and smokers (O = 4; O/E = 2.83), as well as among workers without silicosis (O = 4; O/E = 2.78) and workers with silicosis (O = 2; O/E = 4.54). The risk was higher among subjects with < 20 years since first employment (O = 4; O/E = 4.65) than among those employed > 20 years. These results provide further evidence that exposure to silica dust among ceramic workers is associated with nephrotoxic effects.

  9. End stage renal disease among ceramic workers exposed to silica

    PubMed Central

    Rapiti, E.; Sperati, A.; Miceli, M.; Forastiere, F.; Di, L; Cavariani, F.; Goldsmith, D. F.; Perucci, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether ceramic workers exposed to silica experience an excess of end stage renal disease. METHODS: On the basis of a health surveillance programme, a cohort of 2980 male ceramic workers has been enrolled during the period 1974-91 in Civitacastellana, Lazio, Italy. For each worker, employment history, smoking data, and x ray film readings were available. The vital status was ascertained for all cohort members. All 2820 people still alive and resident in the Lazio region as in June 1994 were searched for a match in the regional end stage renal diseases registry, which records (since June, 1994) all patients undergoing dialysis treatment in public and private facilities of the region. Expected numbers of prevalent cases from the cohort were computed by applying the rate of patients on dialysis treatment by the age distribution of the cohort. RESULTS: A total of six cases was detected when 1.87 were expected (observed/expected (O/E) = 3.21; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.17 to 6.98). The excess risk was present among non-smokers (O = 2; O/E = 4.34) and smokers (O = 4; O/E = 2.83), as well as among workers without silicosis (O = 4; O/E = 2.78) and workers with silicosis (O = 2; O/E = 4.54). The risk was higher among subjects with < 20 years since first employment (O = 4; O/E = 4.65) than among those employed > 20 years. CONCLUSION: These results provide further evidence that exposure to silica dust among ceramic workers is associated with nephrotoxic effects.   PMID:10492655

  10. Nickel and blood counts in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Capozzella, Assunta; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Francesco; Nieto, Hector Alberto; Marrocco, Mariasilvia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Sancini, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R(2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R(2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. A cohort mortality study of employees exposed to chlorinated chemicals.

    PubMed

    Wong, O

    1988-01-01

    The cohort of this historical prospective mortality study consisted of 697 male employees at a chlorination plant. A majority of the cohort was potentially exposed to benzotrichloride, benzyl chloride, benzoyl chloride, and other related chemicals. The mortality experience of the cohort was observed from 1943 through 1982. For the cohort as a whole, no statistically significant mortality excess was detected. The overall Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) was 100, and the SMR for all cancers combined was 122 (not significant). The respiratory cancer SMR for the cohort as a whole was 246 (7 observed vs. 2.8 expected). The excess was of borderline statistical significance, the lower 95% confidence limit being 99. Analysis by race showed that all 7 respiratory cancer deaths came from the white male employees, with an SMR of 265 (p less than 0.05). The respiratory cancer mortality excess was higher among employees in maintenance (SMR = 229) than among those in operations or production (SMR = 178). The lung cancer mortality excess among the laboratory employees was statistically significant (SMR = 1292). However, this observation should be viewed with caution, since it was based on only 2 deaths. Further analysis indicated that the respiratory cancer mortality excess was limited to the male employees with 15 or more years of employment (SMR = 379, p less than 0.05). Based on animal data as well as other epidemiologic studies, together with the internal consistency of analysis by length of employment, the data suggest an association between the chlorination process of toluene at the plant and an increased risk of respiratory cancer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Respiratory damage in children exposed to urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Fordham, Lynn A; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Chung, Charles J; Rodriguez-Alcaraz, Antonio; Paredes, Rogelio; Variakojis, Daina; Villarreal-Calderón, Anna; Flores-Camacho, Lourdes; Antunez-Solis, Angelina; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Hazucha, Milan J

    2003-08-01

    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) children are chronically exposed to complex mixtures of air pollutants. In a cross-sectional arm of our study, we investigated the association between exposure to SWMMC atmosphere and nasal abnormalities, hyperinflation, and interstitial markings assessed by chest X-rays, lung function changes, several serum cytokines, and endothelin-1 in 174 children aged 5-17 years vs. 27 control children residents in low-polluted areas. Control children had no nasal lesions, and only one child showed an abnormal chest X-ray. SWMMC children exhibited nasal abnormalities (22%), hyperinflation (67%), interstitial markings (49%), and a mild restrictive pattern by spirometry (10%). Interstitial markings were associated with a decrease in predicted values of FEF(25-75), FEF(75), and the FEV(1)/FVC ratio. Boys had a higher probability of developing interstitial markings with age (P = 0.004). Blood smear findings included toxic granulations in neutrophils and schistocytes. SWMMC children had more serum IL10 and IL6 and less IL8 than controls. In a longitudinal arm of our study, we found a significant seasonal drop in FVC and FEV(1) associated with a 6-month period of high ozone and PM(10) levels. Our data strongly suggest that a lifelong exposure to urban air pollution causes respiratory damage in children. Moreover, a cytokine network becomes imbalanced, with a shift towards upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Consequently, these children are potentially at risk for developing chronic lung disease and other systemic effects later in life. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Metabolomic characterization of laborers exposed to welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuo-Ching; Kuo, Ching-Hua; Tian, Tze-Feng; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Chiung, Yin-Mei; Hsiech, Chun-Ming; Tsai, Sung-Jeng; Wang, San-Yuan; Tsai, Dong-Ming; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Tseng, Y Jane

    2012-03-19

    The complex composition of welding fumes, multiplicity of molecular targets, diverse cellular effects, and lifestyles associated with laborers vastly complicate the assessment of welding fume exposure. The urinary metabolomic profiles of 35 male welders and 16 male office workers at a Taiwanese shipyard were characterized via (1)H NMR spectroscopy and pattern recognition methods. Blood samples for the same 51 individuals were also collected, and the expression levels of the cytokines and other inflammatory markers were examined. This study dichotomized the welding exposure variable into high (welders) versus low (office workers) exposures to examine the differences of continuous outcome markers-metabolites and inflammatory markers-between the two groups. Fume particle assessments showed that welders were exposed to different concentrations of chromium, nickel, and manganese particles. Multivariate statistical analysis of urinary metabolomic patterns showed higher levels of glycine, taurine, betaine/TMAO, serine, S-sulfocysteine, hippurate, gluconate, creatinine, and acetone and lower levels of creatine among welders, while only TNF-α was significantly associated with welding fume exposure among all cytokines and other inflammatory markers measured. Of the identified metabolites, the higher levels of glycine, taurine, and betaine among welders were suspected to play some roles in modulating inflammatory and oxidative tissue injury processes. In this metabolomics experiment, we also discovered that the association of the identified metabolites with welding exposure was confounded by smoking, but not with drinking, which is a finding consistent with known modified response of inflammatory markers among smokers. Our results correspond with prior studies that utilized nonmetabolomic analytical techniques and suggest that the metabolomic profiling is an efficient method to characterize the overall effect of welding fume exposure and other confounders. © 2012 American

  14. Increased oxidative stress in preschool children exposed to passive smoking.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Faruk; Sermetow, Kabil; Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Erel, Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on plasma oxidative and antioxidative status in passive smoking preschool children and to compare them with controls. Thirty-four passive smoking (five to 50 cigarettes per day) preschool children (study group) and 32 controls who had never been exposed to cigarette smoke were randomly chosen from children aged from 4 to 6 years. Urinary cotinine and plasma indicators of oxidative and antioxidative status, i.e., total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI), were determined. Mean environmental cigarette consumption was 22±13 cigarettes per day in passive smoking children. Mean urinary cotinine levels were 77.6±41.4 ng/mL and 11.9±2.3 ng/mL in the study and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean plasma TAC levels were 0.95±0.13 mmol Trolox equivalent/L and 1.01±0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent/L, respectively (p = 0.039). Mean plasma TOS levels were 28.6±7.9 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L and 18.5±6.3 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean OSI levels were 3.08±0.98 arbitrary units and 1.84±0.64 arbitrary units, respectively (p < 0.001). A small amount of cigarette smoke (five to 10 cigarettes per day) causes considerable oxidative stress. There were significant correlations between number of cigarettes consumed and oxidant status and OSI levels. Passive smoke is a potent oxidant in preschool children. Its deleterious effects are not limited just to heavy passive smoking, but also occur with exposure to small amounts of smoke.

  15. Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity

    PubMed Central

    Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Thorson, Anna; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a) quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b) qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a determinant of health, not

  16. Brain injury and development in preterm infants exposed to fentanyl

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Christopher; Haslam, Matthew; Pineda, Roberta; Rogers, Cynthia; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Inder, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Fentanyl is commonly utilized in preterm infants. Relatively little is known regarding the neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants exposed to fentanyl. Objective To investigate the association between cumulative fentanyl dose and brain injury and diameters in a cohort of preterm infants Methods Data on demographics, perinatal course, and neonatal course, including total fentanyl exposure prior to term equivalent age, were retrospectively evaluated for 103 infants born at ≤ 30 weeks gestational age who underwent magnetic resonance imaging at term equivalent age (mean gestational age 26.9 ± 1.8 weeks). Magnetic resonance images were evaluated for brain injury and regional brain diameters. Developmental testing was conducted at term equivalent and 2 years of age. Results Seventy-eight infants (76%) received fentanyl (median cumulative dose 3 μg/kg, interquartile range 1 – 441 μg/kg). Cumulative fentanyl dose in the first week of life correlated with the incidence of cerebellar hemorrhage after correction for covariates (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.1 – 4.1). Cumulative fentanyl dose before term equivalent age correlated with reductions in transverse cerebellar diameter after correction for covariates including the presence of cerebellar hemorrhage (r = 0.461, p = 0.002). No correlation was detected between cumulative fentanyl dose and development at 2 years of age. Conclusions Higher cumulative fentanyl dose in preterm infants correlated with a higher incidence of cerebellar injury and lower cerebellar diameter at term equivalent age. Our findings must be taken with caution, but emphasize the need for future prospective trials examining the risks and benefits of commonly utilized analgesic agents in preterm infants. PMID:26369570

  17. Assessment of central auditory processing in a group of workers exposed to solvents.

    PubMed

    Fuente, Adrian; McPherson, Bradley; Muñoz, Verónica; Pablo Espina, Juan

    2006-12-01

    Despite having normal hearing thresholds and speech recognition thresholds, results for central auditory tests were abnormal in a group of workers exposed to solvents. Workers exposed to solvents may have difficulties in everyday listening situations that are not related to a decrement in hearing thresholds. A central auditory processing disorder may underlie these difficulties. To study central auditory processing abilities in a group of workers occupationally exposed to a mix of organic solvents. Ten workers exposed to a mix of organic solvents and 10 matched non-exposed workers were studied. The test battery comprised pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflex measurement, acoustic reflex decay, dichotic digit, pitch pattern sequence, masking level difference, filtered speech, random gap detection and hearing-in-noise tests. All the workers presented normal hearing thresholds and no signs of middle ear abnormalities. Workers exposed to solvents had lower results in comparison with the control group and previously reported normative data, in the majority of the tests.

  18. Mechanisms of mucus release in exposed canine gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zalewsky, C A; Moody, F G

    1979-10-01

    Mucus release was studied in the exposed gastric mucosa of anesthetized fasted dogs using scanning and transmission microscopy as well as histochemical and autoradiographic techniques. Under unstimulated conditions, the gastric epithelium was composed of both nonsecreting and mucus-secreting epithelial cells, with the former being predominant. Nonsecreting cells were characterized by an intact apical mucus package of granules and a continuous plasma membrane. The secreting mucus cell population was found in the foveolar (pit region) as well as interfoveolar areas. Three mechanisms of mucus release were observed: (a) exocytosis, (b) apical expulsion, and (c) cell exfoliation. Evidence for exocytosis was found in all mucus cells, especially in the sulfated glycoprotein-rich foveolar cells. Exocytosis involved only a few granules at a time; this mode of secretion is likely slow and continuous. In contrast, apical expulsion resulted in an explosive release of the entire apical mucus package followed by in situ degeneration of the cell itself. This occurred in the oldest cells forming mucosal crests in the interfoveolar area, whose mucus predominantly stains for neutral glycoproteins. Cell exfoliation, in which the entire cell was extruded into the lumen, was rarely observed and may provide, in addition to apical expulsion, a second mechanism to rid the mucosa of senescent epithelial cells. Mucus secretion is a complex function of the gastric epithelium. The mechanism of secretion and the histochemically defined type of mucus secreted are variables which are dependent on the age of the cell, its position on the foveolae, and the microenvironment within the gastric lumen. The mucus-containing surface and pit cells of gastric epithelium have been described morphologically and ultrastructurally in a number of studies. These cells are highly differentiated, forming a layer which is dynamic and responsive to conditions present in the gastric lumen. Mucus cells arise from

  19. What's exposed? Mapping elements at risk from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubenböck, Hannes; Klotz, Martin; Geiß, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The world has suffered from severe natural disasters over the last decennium. The earthquake in Haiti in 2010 or the typhoon "Haiyan" hitting the Philippines in 2013 are among the most prominent examples in recent years. Especially in developing countries, knowledge on amount, location or type of the exposed elements or people is often not given. (Geo)-data are mostly inaccurate, generalized, not up-to-date or even not available at all. Thus, fast and effective disaster management is often delayed until necessary geo-data allow an assessment of effected people, buildings, infrastructure and their respective locations. In the last decade, Earth observation data and methods have developed a product portfolio from low resolution land cover datasets to high resolution spatially accurate building inventories to classify elements at risk or even assess indirectly population densities. This presentation will give an overview on the current available products and EO-based capabilities from global to local scale. On global to regional scale, remote sensing derived geo-products help to approximate the inventory of elements at risk in their spatial extent and abundance by mapping and modelling approaches of land cover or related spatial attributes such as night-time illumination or fractions of impervious surfaces. The capabilities and limitations for mapping physical exposure will be discussed in detail using the example of DLR's 'Global Urban Footprint' initiative. On local scale, the potential of remote sensing particularly lies in the generation of spatially and thematically accurate building inventories for the detailed analysis of the building stock's physical exposure. Even vulnerability-related indicators can be derived. Indicators such as building footprint, height, shape characteristics, roof materials, location, and construction age and structure type have already been combined with civil engineering approaches to assess building stability for large areas

  20. Integrity of Disposable Nitrile Exam Gloves Exposed to Simulated Movement

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert N.; Wong, Weng Kee

    2011-01-01

    Every year, millions of health care, first responder, and industry workers are exposed to chemical and biological hazards. Disposable nitrile gloves are a common choice as both a chemical and physical barrier to these hazards, especially as an alternative to natural latex gloves. However, glove selection is complicated by the availability of several types or formulations of nitrile gloves, such as low-modulus, medical-grade, low-filler, and cleanroom products. This study evaluated the influence of simulated movement on the physical integrity (i.e., holes) of different nitrile exam glove brands and types. Thirty glove products were evaluated out-of-box and after exposure to simulated whole-glove movement for 2 hr. In lieu of the traditional 1-L water-leak test, a modified water-leak test, standardized to detect a 0.15 ± 0.05 mm hole in different regions of the glove, was developed. A specialized air inflation method simulated bidirectional stretching and whole-glove movement. A worst-case scenario with maximum stretching was evaluated. On average, movement did not have a significant effect on glove integrity (chi-square; p=0.068). The average effect was less than 1% between no movement (1.5%) and movement (2.1%) exposures. However, there was significant variability in glove integrity between different glove types (p ≤ 0.05). Cleanroom gloves, on average, had the highest percentage of leaks, and 50% failed the water-leak test. Low-modulus and medical-grade gloves had the lowest percentages of leaks, and no products failed the water-leak test. Variability in polymer formulation was suspected to account for the observed discrepancies, as well as the inability of the traditional 1-L water-leak test to detect holes in finger/thumb regions. Unexpectedly, greater than 80% of the glove defects were observed in the finger and thumb regions. It is recommended that existing water-leak tests be re-evaluated and standardized to account for product variability. PMID:21476169

  1. Toxicological outcomes in rats exposed to inhaled ethanol during gestation.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Martin, Sheppard A; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Luebke, Robert W; Norwood, Joel; Rogers, John M; Copeland, Carey B; Bushnell, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Recent legislation has encouraged replacing petroleum-based fuels with renewable alternatives including ethanol, which is typically blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 10%, with allowances for concentrations up to 85% for some vehicles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ethanol vapors from these fuels. The well-known sensitivity of the developing nervous and immune systems to ingested ethanol, and the lack of information about its toxicity by inhalation prompted the present work on its potential developmental effects in a rat model. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed for 6.5h/day on days 9-20 of gestation to clean air or ethanol vapor at concentrations of 5000, 10,000, or 21,000 ppm, which resulted in estimated peak blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) of 2.3, 6.7, and 192 mg/dL, respectively. No overt toxicity in the dams was observed. Ethanol did not affect litter size or weight, or postnatal weight gain in the pups. Motor activity was normal in offspring through postnatal day (PND) 29. On PND 62, the 5000 and 21,000 ppm groups were more active than controls. On PND 29 and 62, offspring were tested with a functional observational battery, which revealed small changes in the neuromuscular and sensorimotor domains that were not systematically related to dose. Cell-mediated and humoral immunity were not affected by ethanol exposure in 6-week-old offspring. Systolic blood pressure was increased by 10,000 ppm ethanol in males at PND 90 but not at PND 180. No differences in lipoprotein profile, liver function, or kidney function were observed. In summary, prenatal exposure to inhaled ethanol caused some mild changes in physiological and behavioral development in offspring that were not clearly related to inhaled concentration or BEC, and did not produce detectable changes in immune function. This low toxicity of inhaled ethanol may result from the slow

  2. Impaired lung function in individuals chronically exposed to biomass combustion.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Médici; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    The use of biomass for cooking and heating is considered an important factor associated with respiratory diseases. However, few studies evaluate the amount of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), symptoms and lung function in the same population. To evaluate the respiratory effects of biomass combustion and compare the results with those of individuals from the same community in Brazil using liquefied petroleum gas (Gas). 1402 individuals in 260 residences were divided into three groups according to exposure (Gas, Indoor-Biomass, Outside-Biomass). Respiratory symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. Reflectance of paper filters was used to assess particulate matter exposure. In 48 residences the amount of PM2.5 was also quantified. Pulmonary function tests were performed in 120 individuals. Reflectance index correlated directly with PM2.5 (r=0.92) and was used to estimate exposure (ePM2.5). There was a significant increase in ePM2.5 in Indoor-Biomass and Outside-Biomass, compared to Gas. There was a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for cough, wheezing and dyspnea in adults exposed to Indoor-Biomass (OR=2.93, 2.33, 2.59, respectively) and Outside-Biomass (OR=1.78, 1.78, 1.80, respectively) compared to Gas. Pulmonary function tests revealed both Non-Smoker-Biomass and Smoker-Gas individuals to have decreased %predicted-forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) as compared to Non-Smoker-Gas. Pulmonary function tests data was inversely correlated with duration and ePM2.5. The prevalence of airway obstruction was 20% in both Non-Smoker-Biomass and Smoker-Gas subjects. Chronic exposure to biomass combustion is associated with increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms, reduced lung function and development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These effects are associated with the duration and magnitude of exposure and are exacerbated by tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Respiratory tract toxicity in rats exposed to Mexico City air.

    PubMed

    Moss, O R; Gross, E A; James, R A; Janszen, D B; Ross, P W; Roberts, K C; Howard, A M; Harkema, J R; Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Morgan, K T

    2001-03-01

    The rat has been used extensively as a health sentinel, indicator, or monitor of environmental health hazards, but this model has not been directly validated against human exposures. Humans in Mexico City show upper respiratory tract lesions and evidence of pulmonary damage related to their environmental inhalation exposure. In this study, male and female F344 rats were exposed (23 hr/day) in Mexico City to local Mexico City air (MCA)* for up to seven weeks. Controls were maintained at the same location under filtered air. Prior to these exposures, several steps were taken. First, the nasal passages of normal male rats shipped from the United States and housed in Mexico City were examined for mycoplasma infection; no evidence of infection was found. In addition, a mobile exposure and monitoring system was assembled and, with an ozone (O3) exposure atmosphere, was tested along with supporting histopathology techniques and analysis of rat nasal and lung tissues. Last, the entire exposure model (equipment and animals) was transported to Mexico City and validated for a three-week period. During the seven-week study there were 18 one-hour intervals during which the average O3 concentration of MCA in the exposure chamber exceeded the US National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 0.120 ppm 03 (hourly average, not to be exceeded more than once per year). This prolonged exposure of healthy F344 rats to MCA containing episodically low to moderate concentrations of 03 (as well as other urban air pollutants) did not induce inflammatory or epithelial lesions in the nasal airways or lung as measured by qualitative histologic techniques or quantitative morphometric techniques. These findings agree with those of previous controlled O3 inhalation studies, but they are in contrast to reports indicating that O3-polluted MCA causes significant nasal mucosal injury in adults and children living in southwestern Mexico City. Taken together, these findings may suggest that human

  4. Changes in ocular flora in eyes exposed to ophthalmic antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Dave, Sarita B; Toma, Hassanain S; Kim, Stephen J

    2013-05-01

    To determine changes in ocular flora in individuals repeatedly exposed to topical macrolide or fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Prospective, controlled, longitudinal study with 1-year follow-up. Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients undergoing serial unilateral intravitreal injection for choroidal neovascularization. Patients received 4 consecutive monthly unilateral intravitreal injections and were then treated as needed. Each patient was randomized to 1 of 4 antibiotics (azithromycin 1%, gatifloxacin 0.3%, moxifloxacin 0.5%, ofloxacin 0.3%) and used only their assigned antibiotic for 4 days after each injection. Conjunctival cultures of the treated eye and untreated fellow eye (control) were taken at baseline and before each injection. All bacterial isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility to 16 different antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Changes in bacteria composition of the conjunctiva over time. In azithromycin-treated eyes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 54.5% and 18.2% of cultured isolates, respectively, at baseline and 90.9% (P<0.01) and 4.5% (P<0.01), respectively, after azithromycin exposure. In fluoroquinolone-treated eyes, 45.7% and 6.5% of cultured isolates at baseline were S epidermidis and S aureus, respectively, but these percentages increased to 63.4% (P<0.03) and 13% (P = 0.24), respectively, after fluoroquinolone exposure. In contrast, the percentage of gram-negative species decreased from 8.7% at baseline to 1.6% (P<0.05) in fluoroquinolone-treated eyes. The percentage of S epidermidis isolated from azithromycin-treated eyes was significantly greater when compared with fellow control eyes (P<0.01) or fluoroquinolone-treated eyes (P<0.01). The percentage of S epidermidis isolated from the conjunctival surface significantly increases after repeated exposure to azithromycin and to a lesser degree fluoroquinolone antibiotics at the expense of other commensal flora. The author(s) have no

  5. Hippocampal phosphoproteomics of F344 rats exposed to 1-bromopropane

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenlie; Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550; Ichihara, Sahoko

    2015-01-15

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is neurotoxic in both experimental animals and human. To identify phosphorylated modification on the unrecognized post-translational modifications of proteins and investigate their role in 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity, changes in hippocampal phosphoprotein expression levels were analyzed quantitatively in male F344 rats exposed to 1-BP inhalation at 0, 400, or 1000 ppm for 8 h/day for 1 or 4 weeks. Hippocampal protein extracts were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by Pro-Q Diamond gel staining and SYPRO Ruby staining coupled with two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), respectively, as well as by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to identify phosphoproteins.more » Changes in selected proteins were further confirmed by Manganese II (Mn{sup 2+})-Phos-tag SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Bax and cytochrome c protein levels were determined by western blotting. Pro-Q Diamond gel staining combined with 2D-DIGE identified 26 phosphoprotein spots (p < 0.05), and MALDI-TOF/MS identified 18 up-regulated proteins and 8 down-regulated proteins. These proteins are involved in the biological process of response to stimuli, metabolic processes, and apoptosis signaling. Changes in the expression of phosphorylated 14-3-3 θ were further confirmed by Mn{sup 2+}-Phos-tag SDS-PAGE. Western blotting showed overexpression of Bax protein in the mitochondria with down-regulation in the cytoplasm, whereas cytochrome c expression was high in the cytoplasm but low in the mitochondria after 1-BP exposure. Our results suggest that the pathogenesis of 1-BP-induced hippocampal damage involves inhibition of antiapoptosis process. Phosphoproteins identified in this study can potentially serve as biomarkers for 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • 1-BP modified hippocampal phosphoproteome in rat and 23 altered proteins were identified. • 1-BP changed

  6. Pulmonary function and oxidative stress in workers exposed to styrene in plastic factory: occupational hazards in styrene-exposed plastic factory workers.

    PubMed

    Sati, Prakash Chandra; Khaliq, Farah; Vaney, Neelam; Ahmed, Tanzeel; Tripathi, Ashok K; Banerjee, Basu Dev

    2011-11-01

    Styrene is a volatile organic compound used in factories for synthesis of plastic products. The pneumotoxicity of styrene in experimental animals is known. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of styrene on lung function and oxidative stress in occupationally exposed workers in plastic factory. Thirty-four male workers, between 18 and 40 years of age, exposed to styrene for atleast 8 hours a day for more than a year were studied, while 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects not exposed to styrene served as controls. Assessment of lung functions showed a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in most of the lung volumes, capacities (FVC, FEV(1), VC, ERV, IRV, and IC) and flow rates (PEFR, MEF(75%), and MVV) in the study group (workers) as compared to controls. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed to be significantly high (p < 0.05) while ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was significantly low (p < 0.05) in styrene-exposed subjects. Reduced glutathione (GSH) level was significantly depleted in exposed subjects as compared to control group. The mean value of serum cytochrome c in styrene-exposed subjects was found to be 1.1 ng/ml (0.89-1.89) while in control its levels were under detection limit (0.05 ng/ml). It shows that styrene inhalation by workers leads to increased level of oxidative stress, which is supposed to be the cause of lung damage.

  7. Electrophoresis pattern of serum from mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.

    1977-01-01

    Three day old mice were continuously exposed to sulphur dioxide concentrations at 0ppm, 0.05ppm, 0.15ppm and 1ppm for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and centrifuged for electrophoresis studies of the serum in 5 percent acrylamide gel. The length of bands of different serum proteins from the SO2 exposed mice was at a variance as compared with the length of bands from the control exposed mice and alpha-1 band seems to be missing from the serum of SO2 exposed mice.

  8. The Chernobyl accident and cognitive functioning: a study of Norwegian adolescents exposed in utero.

    PubMed

    Heiervang, Kristin Sverdvik; Mednick, Sarnoff; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2010-01-01

    The results of investigations on the cognitive outcomes of adolescents exposed prenatally to radiation from Chernobyl are inconsistent. In 2005 through 2006, we assessed individuals exposed prenatally (N = 84) and controls (N = 94) using a broad neuropsychological test battery. Neuropsychological performance was significantly weaker in the 84 adolescents exposed prenatally compared to the 94 controls on measures of verbal working memory, verbal memory, and executive functioning when controlling for possible confounders. Our findings add new and important support to the hypothesis that the Chernobyl accident had a specific effect on the neuropsychological functioning of those exposed prenatally.

  9. Neurologic Outcomes in HIV-Exposed/Uninfected Infants Exposed to Antiretroviral Drugs During Pregnancy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Spaulding, Alicen B.; Yu, Qilu; Civitello, Lucy; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Pinto, Jorge; Gomes, Ivete M.; Alarcón, Jorge O.; Siberry, George K.; Harris, D. Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate antiretroviral (ARV) drug exposure and other factors during pregnancy that may increase the risk of neurologic conditions (NCs) in HIV-exposed/uninfected (HEU) infants. A prospective cohort study was conducted at 24 clinical sites in Latin America and the Caribbean. Data on maternal demographics, health, HIV disease status, and ARV use during pregnancy were collected. Infant data included measurement of head circumference after birth and reported medical diagnoses at birth, 6–12 weeks, and 6 months. Only infants with maternal exposure to combination ARV therapy (cART) (≥3 drugs from ≥2 drug classes) during pregnancy were included. Microcephaly, defined as head circumference for age z-score less than −2, and NC were evaluated for their association with covariates, including individual ARVs, using bivariable and logistic regression analyses. From 2002 to 2009, 1,400 HEU infants met study inclusion criteria. At least one NC was reported in 134 (9.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.1–11.2), microcephaly in 105 (7.5%; 95% CI: 6.2–9.0), and specific neurologic diagnoses in 33 (2.4%; 95% CI: 1.6–3.3) HEU infants. Microcephaly and NC were not significantly associated with any specific ARV analyzed (p > 0.05). Covariates associated with increased odds of NC included male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3–2.8), birth weight <2.5 kg (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 2.1–4.8), 1-min Apgar score <7 (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.4–4.4), and infant infections (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5–4.1). No ARV investigated was associated with adverse neurologic outcomes. Continued investigation of such associations may be warranted as new ARVs are used during pregnancy and cART exposure during the first trimester becomes increasingly common. PMID:26879281

  10. The affect of the space environment on the survival of Halorubrum chaoviator and Synechococcus (Nägeli): data from the Space Experiment OSMO on EXPOSE-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown using ESA's Biopan facility flown in Earth orbit that when exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks the survival rate of Synechococcus (Nägeli), a halophilic cyanobacterium isolated from the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and Halorubrum chaoviator a member of the Halobacteriaceae isolated from an evaporitic NaCl crystal obtained from a salt evaporation pond, were higher than all other test organisms except Bacillus spores. These results led to the EXPOSE-R mission to extend and refine these experiments as part of the experimental package for the external platform space exposure facility on the ISS. The experiment was flown in February 2009 and the organisms were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years. Samples were either exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation (λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm, cosmic radiation (dosage range 225-320 mGy), or kept in darkness shielded from solar UV-radiation. Half of each of the UV-radiation exposed samples and dark samples were exposed to space vacuum and half kept at 105 pascals in argon. Duplicate samples were kept in the laboratory to serve as unexposed controls. Ground simulation control experiments were also performed. After retrieval, organism viability was tested using Molecular Probes Live-Dead Bac-Lite stain and by their reproduction capability. Samples kept in the dark, but exposed to space vacuum had a 90 +/- 5% survival rate compared to the ground controls. Samples exposed to full UV-radiation for over a year were bleached and although results from Molecular Probes Live-Dead stain suggested ~10% survival, the data indicate that no survival was detected using cell growth and division using the most probable number method. Those samples exposed to attenuated UV-radiation exhibited limited survival. Results from of this study are relevant to understanding adaptation and evolution of life, the future of life beyond earth, the potential for interplanetary

  11. The Affect of the Space Environment on the Survival of Halorubrum Chaoviator and Synechococcus (Nageli): Data from the Space Experiment OSMO on EXPOSE-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have shown using ESA's Biopan facility flown in Earth orbit that when exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks the survival rate of Synechococcus (Nageli), a halophilic cyanobacterium isolated from the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and Halorubrum chaoviator a member of the Halobacteriaceae isolated from an evaporitic NaCl crystal obtained from a salt evaporation pond, were higher than all other test organisms except Bacillus spores. These results led to the EXPOSE-R mission to extend and refine these experiments as part of the experimental package for the external platform space exposure facility on the ISS. The experiment was flown in February 2009 and the organisms were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years. Samples were either exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation (lambda is greater than 110 nm or lambda is greater than 200 nm, cosmic radiation (dosage range 225-320 mGy), or kept in darkness shielded from solar UV-radiation. Half of each of the UV-radiation exposed samples and dark samples were exposed to space vacuum and half kept at 105 pascals in argon. Duplicate samples were kept in the laboratory to serve as unexposed controls. Ground simulation control experiments were also performed. After retrieval, organism viability was tested using Molecular Probes Live-Dead Bac-Lite stain and by their reproduction capability. Samples kept in the dark, but exposed to space vacuum had a 90 +/- 5% survival rate compared to the ground controls. Samples exposed to full UV-radiation for over a year were bleached and although results from Molecular Probes Live-Dead stain suggested approximately 10% survival, the data indicate that no survival was detected using cell growth and division using the most probable number method. Those samples exposed to attenuated UV-radiation exhibited limited survival. Results from of this study are relevant to understanding adaptation and evolution of life, the future of life

  12. SCM Paste Samples Exposed To Aggressive Solutions. Cementitious Barriers Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, T.

    This report summarizes experimental work performed by SIMCO Technologies Inc. (SIMCO) as part of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) project. The test series followed an experimental program dedicated to the study of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) hydrated cement pastes exposed to aggressive solutions. In the present study, the scope is extended to hydrated cement pastes incorporating supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). Also, the range of aggressive contact solutions was expanded. The experimental program aimed at testing aggressive contact solutions that more closely mimic the chemical composition of saltstone pore solution.more » Five different solutions, some of which incorporated high levels of carbonate and nitrate, were placed in contact with four different hydrated cement paste mixes. In all solutions, 150 mmol/L of SO 4 2– (14 400 ppm) were present. The solutions included different pH conditions and different sodium content. Two paste mixes were equivalent to Vault 1/4 and Vault 2 concrete mixes used at SRS in storage structures. Two additional paste mixes, cast at the same water-to-cement ratio and using the same cements but without SCMs, were also tested. The damage evolution in samples was monitored using ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and mass measurements. After three and twelve months of exposure conditions, samples were taken out of solution containers and analyzed to perform migration tests and porosity measurements. Globally, results were in line with the previous study and confirmed that high pH may limit the formation of some deleterious phases like gypsum. In this case, ettringite may form but is not necessarily associated with damage. However, the high concentration of sodium may be associated with the formation of an AFm-like mineral called U-phase. The most significant evidences of damage were all associated with the Vault 2 paste analog. This material

  13. Neurocognitive Changes among Elderly Exposed to PCBs/PCDFs in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kao-Chang; Guo, Nai-Wen; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Yang, Chiu-Yueh; Guo, YueLiang Leon

    2008-01-01

    Background In 1979 approximately 2,000 people were exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) due to ingestion of contaminated cooking oil in Taiwan. Although a previous study has shown delayed developmental milestones and poorer neurocognitive functioning in children born to exposed mothers, it is unclear whether neurocognitive functioning was impaired in people who were directly exposed to the PCBs and PDCFs. Objective The objective of this study was to compare neurocognitive functioning in people exposed to PCBs and PCDFs with that of unexposed sex- and age-matched neighbors. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study among exposed and unexposed subjects ≥60 years of age using prospective outcome measurements. We evaluated neurocognitive tests including cognition, memory modalities, learning, motor and sensory function, mood, and daily activity. Results In total, 162 (59%) exposed and 151 (55%) reference subjects completed this study. In exposed men, all test results were similar to the reference group; however, exposed women had reduced functioning in attention and digit span (ADS), visual memory span (VMS), and verbal memory recalls (VMR), especially learning ability. We also found a borderline reduction in the Mini-Mental State Examination. The digit symbol, motor, sensory, depression (determined by the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form), and activity of daily life were not different between the exposed and reference groups. A significant dose–response relationship was found for VMR, ADS, and VMS. Conclusion Our study showed dose-dependent neurocognitive deficits in certain aspects of attention, visual memory, and learning ability in women previously exposed to PCBs and PCDFs, but not in exposed men. PMID:18288316

  14. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  15. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  16. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  17. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  18. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine or...

  19. Comparing Early Language Development in Monolingual- and Bilingual- Exposed Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohashi, J. Kaori; Mirenda, Pat; Marinova-Todd, Stefka; Hambly, Catherine; Fombonne, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Roberts, Wendy; Smith, Isabel; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Thompson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a group of recently diagnosed bilingual-exposed children with autism (n = 20) aged 24-2 months with a matched group of monolingual-exposed children with autism (n = 40). The groups were matched with regard to chronological age at the time of language assessment and nonverbal IQ score, then compared with…

  20. SYSTEMS FOR EXPOSING MICE TO 2,450-MHZ ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two systems for exposing mice to 2,450-MHz electromagnetic fields are described. In a waveguide system, four mice were placed in a Styrofoam cage and exposed dorsally to circularly polarized electromagnetic fields. The temperature and humidity in the mouse holder were kept consta...

  1. Color vision impairments among shipyard workers exposed to mixed organic solvents, especially xylene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Paek, Domyung; Kho, Young Lim; Choi, Kyungho; Chae, Hong Jae

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated color vision impairment in workers exposed to organic solvents, especially xylene. Three groups of subjects, comprising 63 workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents, 122 non-exposed workers in the same industry, and 185 subjects from the general population as controls, were evaluated for color vision. Exposure to solvents was indirectly evaluated by measuring the concentration of a urinary metabolite. Color vision was assessed using the Lanthony Desaturated 15-hue (Lanthony D-15) panel. Color confusion index (CCI) values in the exposed group were significantly higher than in the non-exposed workers or the general population, after adjustment for age and education, and significantly correlated with the concentration of methylhippuric acid. Color vision impairments were detected more frequently among the exposed group, and the most common types were type III and complex impairments. The rate of type III impairments was 9.52% in the exposed group, 1.64% in the non-exposed group, and 1.62% in the general population. Our results support the hypothesis that acquired color vision impairments could be induced by exposure to xylene. Testing for color vision impairment is a relatively simple, non-invasive and sensitive diagnostic method for relatively low-level exposures to xylene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Attachment Status in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine and Other Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifer, Ronald; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Wright, Linda L.; Smeriglio, Vincent L.; Liu, Jing

    2004-01-01

    Attachment status of children exposed in utero to cocaine, opiates, and other substances was examined at 18 months (n=860) and 36 months (n=732) corrected age. Children exposed to cocaine and opiates had slightly lower rates of attachment security (but not disorganization), and their insecurity was skewed toward ambivalent, rather than avoidant,…

  3. Effects of topographic features on postfire exposed mineral soil in small watersheds

    Treesearch

    Mariana Dobre; Joan Q. Wu; William J. Elliot; Ina S. Miller; Theresa B. Jain

    2014-01-01

    Exposed mineral soil is an immediate result of forest fires with direct relevance on surface runoff and soil erosion. The goal of this study was to determine which topographic features influence the distribution of exposed mineral soil following wildfire in forested watersheds. In a field investigation 2 months after a simulated wildfire, ground cover was measured and...

  4. A simplified test for adhesive behavior in wood sections exposed to fire

    Treesearch

    E. L. Schaffer

    1968-01-01

    A relatively simple test procedure was developed to evaluate the behavior of various adhesives near fire-exposed surfaces in laminated constructions. A number of sections cut from laminated blocks were exposed to fire on one surface. After this exposure, the sections were transversely cut, and the gluelines were examined for separation depth. In addition, the cool...

  5. 49 CFR 195.569 - Do I have to examine exposed portions of buried pipelines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.569 Do I have to examine... exposed, you must examine the exposed portion for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating is deteriorated. If you find external corrosion requiring corrective action under...

  6. 49 CFR 195.569 - Do I have to examine exposed portions of buried pipelines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.569 Do I have to examine... exposed, you must examine the exposed portion for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating is deteriorated. If you find external corrosion requiring corrective action under...

  7. 49 CFR 195.569 - Do I have to examine exposed portions of buried pipelines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.569 Do I have to examine... exposed, you must examine the exposed portion for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating is deteriorated. If you find external corrosion requiring corrective action under...

  8. 49 CFR 195.569 - Do I have to examine exposed portions of buried pipelines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.569 Do I have to examine... exposed, you must examine the exposed portion for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating is deteriorated. If you find external corrosion requiring corrective action under...

  9. 49 CFR 195.569 - Do I have to examine exposed portions of buried pipelines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.569 Do I have to examine... exposed, you must examine the exposed portion for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating is deteriorated. If you find external corrosion requiring corrective action under...

  10. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 77.508 Section 77.508 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. All ungrounded, exposed power conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are adequately...

  11. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 77.508 Section 77.508 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. All ungrounded, exposed power conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are adequately...

  12. Five Year Follow-up of Army Personnel Potentially Exposed to Chemical Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    is, for the most part, death rates among workers and veterans are lower than among the general population, due to the so-called "healthy worker...soldier effect." The comparison to U.S. rates is also useful in those situations in which subset exposed and non-exposed death rates appear to be

  13. Membrane stability of winter wheat plants exposed to subzero temperatures for variable lengths of time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability to survive episodes of subfreezing temperature is essential to winter wheat. Fully cold-acclimated plants of six lines of winter wheat were exposed to -12, -14, -16 or -18° C, four 1-5 hours. Electrolyte leakage and plant survival were used to assess damage to the plants. Plants exposed ...

  14. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined... of Agriculture for scabies in cattle be unloaded en route and placed in infectious premises, they... with scabies or to have been exposed thereto, shall thereafter be handled in the same manner as...

  15. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined... of Agriculture for scabies in cattle be unloaded en route and placed in infectious premises, they... with scabies or to have been exposed thereto, shall thereafter be handled in the same manner as...

  16. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined... of Agriculture for scabies in cattle be unloaded en route and placed in infectious premises, they... with scabies or to have been exposed thereto, shall thereafter be handled in the same manner as...

  17. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined... of Agriculture for scabies in cattle be unloaded en route and placed in infectious premises, they... with scabies or to have been exposed thereto, shall thereafter be handled in the same manner as...

  18. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the point where the circuit enters the mine. Lightning arresters shall be connected to a low... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and...

  19. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the point where the circuit enters the mine. Lightning arresters shall be connected to a low... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and...

  20. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the point where the circuit enters the mine. Lightning arresters shall be connected to a low... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and...

  1. 46 CFR 169.721 - Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially... § 169.721 Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only). (a) Unless clearly unsuitable, each vessel must have one storm trysail of appropriate size. It must be sheeted independently of...

  2. 46 CFR 169.721 - Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially... § 169.721 Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only). (a) Unless clearly unsuitable, each vessel must have one storm trysail of appropriate size. It must be sheeted independently of...

  3. 46 CFR 169.721 - Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially... § 169.721 Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only). (a) Unless clearly unsuitable, each vessel must have one storm trysail of appropriate size. It must be sheeted independently of...

  4. 46 CFR 169.721 - Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially... § 169.721 Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only). (a) Unless clearly unsuitable, each vessel must have one storm trysail of appropriate size. It must be sheeted independently of...

  5. 46 CFR 169.721 - Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially... § 169.721 Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only). (a) Unless clearly unsuitable, each vessel must have one storm trysail of appropriate size. It must be sheeted independently of...

  6. Temporal analysis of oxidative effects on the pulmonary inflammatory response in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Campos, Keila Karine Duarte; Manso, Rafaela Gontijo; Gonçalves, Evandro Guedes; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Menezes, Cristiane Alves Silva; Bezerra, Frank Silva

    2013-01-01

    The most common factor related to the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) development is the chronic smoking habit. Our study describes the temporal kinesis of pulmonary cellular influx through BALF analyses of mice acutely exposed to cigarette smoke (CS), the oxidative damage and antioxidative enzyme activities. Thirty-six mice (C57BL/6, 8weeks old, male) were divided in 6 groups: the control group (CG), exposed to ambient air, and the other 30 mice were exposed to CS. Mice exposed to CS presented, especially after the third day of exposure, different cellular subpopulations in BALF. The oxidative damage was significantly higher in CS exposed groups compared to CG. Our data showed that the evaluated inflammatory cells, observed after three days of CS exposure, indicate that this time point could be relevant to studies focusing on these cellular subpopulation activities and confirm the oxidative stress even in a short term CS exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mental Health in School-Aged Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol and Other Substances

    PubMed Central

    Sandtorv, Lisbeth Beate; Hysing, Mari; Rognlid, Malin; Nilsen, Sondre Aasen; Elgen, Irene Bircow

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to substances can possibly influence a child’s neurodevelopment and may impact on subsequent mental health. We investigated the mental health status of school-aged children referred to a pediatric hospital with a history of prenatal exposure to alcohol or other substances. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and compared with a reference group. A total of 105 of 128 (82%) eligible children prenatally exposed to substances participated in the study, with 48 children exposed to alcohol and 57 to other substances. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire subscale mean scores, total difficulties scores, and total impact scores were statistically significantly higher in the group of exposed children, compared with the reference group. In this hospital-based population of school-aged children prenatally exposed to alcohol or other substances, the exposed group had an increased risk of mental health problems, compared with the reference group. PMID:29581703

  8. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Eliza Maria da Costa Brito; Lima, Monica Gomes; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Teixeira, Cláudio Eduardo Correa; de Lima, Lauro José Barata; Ventura, Dora Fix; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old) were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry) and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test—FM100). Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10–30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction. PMID:22220188

  9. Effects of the brominated flame retardants hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), on hepatic enzymes and other biomarkers in juvenile rainbow trout and feral eelpout.

    PubMed

    Ronisz, D; Finne, E Farmen; Karlsson, H; Förlin, L

    2004-08-25

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) leak out in the environment, including the aquatic one. Despite this, sublethal effects of these chemicals are poorly investigated in fish. In this study, a screening of selected biomarkers in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and feral eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) was performed after exposure to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Rainbow trout was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with HBCDD or TBBPA. Two out of four short-term experiments with HBCDD showed an increase in the activity of catalase. A 40% increase in liver somatic index (LSI) could be observed after 28 days. HBCDD did also seem to have an inhibitory effect on CYP1A's activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD)). A putative peroxisome proliferating activity of the compound was investigated without giving a definite answer. HBCDD did not seem to be estrogenic or genotoxic. TBBPA increased the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) after 4, 14 and 28 days in rainbow trout suggesting a possible role of this compound in inducing oxidative stress. The compound did not seem to be estrogenic. TBBPA seemed to compete with the artificial substrate ethoxyresorufin in vitro, during the EROD assay. In eelpout, only one 5 days in vivo experiment was performed. Neither of the compounds gave rise to any effect in this fish. This was the first screening of sublethal effects of the two chemicals in fish, using high doses. Our results indicate that there is a need for further studies of long-term, low-dose effects of these two widely used flame retardants.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants and related biological responses measured in coastal fish using chemical and biological screening methods.

    PubMed

    Tairova, Zhanna; Strand, Jakob; Bossi, Rossana; Larsen, Martin M; Förlin, Lars; Bignert, Anders; Hedman, Jenny; Gercken, Jens; Lang, Thomas; Fricke, Nicolai F; Asmund, Gert; Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution, levels of dioxin-like compounds (DLC), and biological responses in two fish species. The viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) was collected from various locations in the Baltic Sea and in fjords of Kattegat and Skagerrak, while shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) was obtained at the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) polluted site in North West Greenland. Significant differences were detected both in contaminant levels and relative contributions from either polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF or furans) and mono-ortho- and non-ortho (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB). Fish from the eastern Baltic Sea generally displayed higher contributions from PCDD/F compared to dl-PCB, whereas dl-PCB were generally predominated in fish from Danish, Swedish, and German sites. Levels of dl-PCB in muscle tissues were above OSPAR environmental assessment criteria (EAC) for PCB118, indicating a potential risk of adverse biological effects in the ecosystem, whereas levels of the total WHO-TEQs were below threshold for sea food suggesting limited risks for humans. No significant relationships between levels of DLC (expressed as WHO-TEQ), and biological responses such as the induction of CYP1A enzymatic activity and fry reproductive disorders were observed in eelpout. No marked relationship between WHO-TEQ and combined biological aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated transactivity (expressed as AhR-TEQ) was noted. However, there was a positive correlation between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites and induction of CYP1A activity, suggesting that PAH exhibited greater potential than DLC to produce biological effects in eelpout from the Baltic Sea.

  11. Analysis of emotionality and locomotion in radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Paval, Jaijesh; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, M Shankaranarayana; Nayak, Satheesha; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2013-07-01

    In the current study the modulatory role of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on emotionality and locomotion was evaluated in adolescent rats. Male albino Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned into the following groups having 12 animals in each group. Group I (Control): they remained in the home cage throughout the experimental period. Group II (Sham exposed): they were exposed to mobile phone in switch-off mode for 28 days, and Group III (RF-EMR exposed): they were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz) from an active GSM (Global system for mobile communications) mobile phone with a peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2) for 28 days. On 29th day, the animals were tested for emotionality and locomotion. Elevated plus maze (EPM) test revealed that, percentage of entries into the open arm, percentage of time spent on the open arm and distance travelled on the open arm were significantly reduced in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Rearing frequency and grooming frequency were also decreased in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Defecation boli count during the EPM test was more with the RF-EMR group. No statistically significant difference was found in total distance travelled, total arm entries, percentage of closed arm entries and parallelism index in the RF-EMR exposed rats compared to controls. Results indicate that mobile phone radiation could affect the emotionality of rats without affecting the general locomotion.

  12. DNA damage in children exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke and its association with oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Shermatov, Kabil; Zeyrek, Dost; Yildirim, Faruk; Kilic, Mehmet; Cebi, Nazime; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2012-12-01

    To compare oxidative status, total antioxidant capacity and values of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes in children exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke with healthy controls. Analytical, Observational. 54 children without any chronic diseases, attending the healthy child monitoring polyclinic. These comprised 27 children who had been exposed to passive cigarette smoke and 27 children who had not been exposed to cigarette smoke. Urine cotinine levels by the chemiluminescent technique; DNA damage by alkaline comet assay; and total oxidant status (TOS) using a novel automated measurement method. The mean urine cotinine, TOS, Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) and DNA damage values of the group exposed to cigarette smoke were determined to be at significantly higher level compared to the group not exposed to cigarette smoke (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was determined in the TAS level between the two groups (P=0.1) The results showed that TOS levels, OSI index and DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes were significantly higher in children exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke than in those not exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke.

  13. Technical Nuances of Exposing Rat Common Carotid Arteries for Practicing Microsurgical Anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Aklinski, Joseph; Gandhi, Sirin; Lawton, Michael T; Preul, Mark C

    2018-04-17

    Animal models are commonly used in training protocols for microsurgical vascular anastomosis. Rat common carotid arteries (CCAs) are frequently used for this purpose. Much attention has been paid to the technical details of various anastomosis configurations using these arteries. However, technical nuances of exposing rat CCAs have been understudied. The purpose of this study is to describe nuances of technique for safely and efficiently exposing rat CCAs in preparation for a vascular anastomosis. Bilateral CCAs were exposed and prepared for anastomosis in 10 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats through a midline cervical incision. The exposed length of the CCA was measured. Additionally, technical nuances of exposure and surgically relevant anatomic details were recorded. The CCAs were exposed from the sternoclavicular joint to their bifurcation (average length, 19.1 ± 2.8 mm). Tenets important for a safe and efficient exposure of the CCAs included 1) generous subcutaneous dissection to expose the external jugular veins (EJVs), 2) avoiding injury to or compression of the EJVs, 3) superior mobilization of the salivary glands, 4) division of internal jugular veins, 5) opening the carotid sheath at its midlevel and from medial to lateral, and 6) avoiding injury to the vagus nerve or sympathetic trunk. Using the principles introduced in this study, trainees may safely and efficiently expose rat CCAs in preparation for a bypass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in the profile of neonatal abstinence syndrome signs in methadone- versus buprenorphine-exposed neonates

    PubMed Central

    Gaalema, Diann E.; Scott, Teresa Linares; Heil, Sarah H.; Coyle, Mara G.; Kaltenbach, Karol; Badger, Gary J.; Arria, Amelia M.; Stine, Susan M.; Martin, Peter R.; Jones, Hendrée E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To compare the profile of signs of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in methadone- versus buprenorphine-exposed infants. Design, setting and participants Secondary analysis of NAS data from a multi-site, double-blind, double-dummy, flexible-dosing, randomized clinical trial. Data from a total of 129 neonates born to opioid-dependent women who had been assigned to receive methadone or buprenorphine treatment during pregnancy were examined. Measurements For 10 days after delivery, neonates (methadone = 72, buprenorphine = 57) were assessed regularly using a 19-item modified Finnegan scale. Data from neonates who required pharmacological treatment (methadone = 41, buprenorphine = 27) were included up to the time treatment was initiated. The incidence and mean severity of the total NAS score and each individual sign of NAS were calculated and compared between medication conditions, as was the median time until morphine treatment initiation among treated infants in each condition. Findings Two NAS signs (undisturbed tremors and hyperactive Moro reflex) were observed significantly more frequently in methadone-exposed neonates and three (nasal stuffiness, sneezing, loose stools) were observed more frequently in buprenorphine-exposed neonates. Mean severity scores on the total NAS score and five individual signs (disturbed and undisturbed tremors, hyperactive Moro reflex, excessive irritability, failure to thrive) were significantly higher among methadone-exposed neonates, while sneezing was higher among buprenorphine-exposed neonates. Among treated neonates, methadone-exposed infants required treatment significantly earlier than buprenorphine-exposed infants (36 versus 59 hours postnatal, respectively). Conclusions The profile of neonatal abstinence syndrome differs in methadone- versus buprenorphine-exposed neonates, with significant differences in incidence, severity and treatment initiation time. Overall, methadone-exposed neonates have a more severe neonatal

  15. [Epidemiological study of cytopenia among benzene-exposed workers and its influential factors].

    PubMed

    Peng, Juan-juan; Liu, Mei-xia; Yang, Feng; Guo, Wei-wei; Zhuang, Ran; Jia, Xian-dong

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the benzene exposure level and cytopenia among the benzene exposed workers in Shanghai, China and to analyze the influential factors for the health of benzene-exposed workers. A total of 3314 benzene-exposed workers, who were from 85 benzene-related enterprises selected by stratified random sampling based on enterprise sizes and industries, were included in the study. The time-weighted average (TWA) concentration of benzene in each workshop was measured by individual sampling and fixed point sampling, and the benzene exposure level in workshop was evaluated accordingly. The occupational health examination results and health status of benzene-exposed workers were collected. The median of TW A concentrations of benzene was 0.3 mg/m3. The TWA concentrations measured at 7 ( 1.4%) of the 504 sampling points were above the safety limit. Of the 7 points, 3 were from large enterprises, 2 from medium enterprises, and 2 from small enterprises; 3 were from shipbuilding industry, 1 from chemical industry, and 3 from light industry. Of the 3314 benzene-exposed workers, 451 ( 13.6%) had cytopenia, including 339 males ( 339/2548, 13.3%) and 112 females ( 112/766, 14.6% ). There were significant differences in the incidence rates of leukopenia and neutropenia among the benzene-exposed workers of different sexes and ages (P<0.05); there were significant differences in the incidence rate of cytopenia among the benzene-exposed workers of different ages and working years ( P<0.05 ); there were significant differences in the incidence of neutropenia among the benzene exposed workers of different working years ( P<0.05). Monitoring and intervention measures should be enhanced to protect the benzene-exposed workers in the large enterprises in shipbuilding industry and medium and private enterprises in chemical industry from occupational hazards.

  16. The impact of wood ice cream sticks' origin on the aroma of exposed ice cream mixes.

    PubMed

    Jiamyangyuen, S; Delwiche, J F; Harper, W J

    2002-02-01

    The effect of volatile compounds in white birch sticks obtained from four different geographical locations on the aroma of ice cream mix was investigated. Sensory evaluation, (specifically, a series of warmed-up paired comparisons) was conducted on stick-exposed ice cream mixes to determine whether aroma differences in those mixes could be detected. Batches of ice cream mix were exposed to the sticks and aged for 6 d at 4 degrees C and then assessed by the panelists by pairwise comparison. Findings suggest that differences in aroma of mixes that have been exposed to white birch sticks from four different geographical origins can be distinguished perceptually.

  17. Sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei analysis in lymphocytes of men exposed to simazine through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Susanna; Rubio, Arantxa; Sueiro, Rosa Ana; Garrido, Joaquín

    2003-06-06

    In some cities of the autonomous community of Extremadura (south-west of Spain), levels of simazine from 10 to 30 ppm were detected in tap water. To analyse the possible effect of this herbicide, two biomarkers, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and micronuclei (MN), were used in peripheral blood lymphocytes from males exposed to simazine through drinking water. SCE and MN analysis failed to detect any statistically significant increase in the people exposed to simazine when compared with the controls. With respect to high frequency cells (HFC), a statistically significant difference was detected between exposed and control groups.

  18. Time-dependent dielectric breakdown of plasma-exposed porous organosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, M. T.; Sinha, H.; Wiltbank, C. A.; Antonelli, G. A.; Nishi, Y.; Shohet, J. L.

    2012-03-01

    Time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) is a major concern for low-k organosilicate dielectrics. To examine the effect of plasma exposure on TDDB degradation, time-to-breakdown measurements were made on porous SiCOH before and after exposure to plasma. A capillary-array window was used to separate charged particle and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon bombardment. Samples exposed to VUV photons, and a combination of VUV photons and ion bombardment exhibited significant degradation in breakdown time. The samples exposed to VUV photons and ion bombardment showed more degradation in breakdown time in comparison to samples exposed to VUV photons alone.

  19. Hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of 1,3-butadiene in occupationally low exposed Italian workers and a few diesel-exposed miners.

    PubMed

    Begemann, P; Upton, P B; Ranasinghe, A; Swenberg, J A; Soleo, L; Vimercati, L; Gelormini, A; Fustinoni, S; Zwirner-Baier, I; Neumann, H G

    2001-06-01

    Hemoglobin adducts were determined as biomarkers of 1,3-butadiene (BD) in 30 workers and 10 controls from an Italian BD plant and in 14 diesel-exposed miners. N-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutyl)valine (THBVal), an N-terminal valine globin adduct of reactive butadiene metabolites, was analyzed by gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry after a modified Edman degradation and further acetylation. The BD exposure for the plant workers was 31 microg/m(3) (personal sampling). Whereas there was no detectable difference in hemoglobin adduct levels (range 17.7-61.4 pmol/g globin) between the total group of exposed and controls, slight but significant differences could be found between two subgroups of workers from different production units as well as one subgroup and controls (P<0.05), between smoking (n=13) and non-smoking exposed workers (n=17; P=0.066) as well as between smoking exposed workers and controls (P=0.055). Adduct levels of the miners (all non-smokers) were in the same range as those of the Italian BD-workers and controls. The internal exposure and strain measured by THBVal levels resulting from a very low occupational BD exposure was in the range of the contribution of moderate smoking.

  20. Transcriptomic responses of germinating Bacillus subtilis spores exposed to 1.5 years of space and simulated martian conditions on the EXPOSE-E experiment PROTECT.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Wayne L; Moeller, Ralf; Horneck, Gerda

    2012-05-01

    Because of their ubiquity and resistance to spacecraft decontamination, bacterial spores are considered likely potential forward contaminants on robotic missions to Mars. Thus, it is important to understand their global responses to long-term exposure to space or martian environments. As part of the PROTECT experiment, spores of B. subtilis 168 were exposed to real space conditions and to simulated martian conditions for 559 days in low-Earth orbit mounted on the EXPOSE-E exposure platform outside the European Columbus module on the International Space Station. Upon return, spores were germinated, total RNA extracted, fluorescently labeled, and used to probe a custom Bacillus subtilis microarray to identify genes preferentially activated or repressed relative to ground control spores. Increased transcript levels were detected for a number of stress-related regulons responding to DNA damage (SOS response, SPβ prophage induction), protein damage (CtsR/Clp system), oxidative stress (PerR regulon), and cell envelope stress (SigV regulon). Spores exposed to space demonstrated a much broader and more severe stress response than spores exposed to simulated martian conditions. The results are discussed in the context of planetary protection for a hypothetical journey of potential forward contaminant spores from Earth to Mars and their subsequent residence on Mars.

  1. Evolution of organic molecules under Mars-like UV radiation with EXPOSE-R2, a photochemistry experiment outside the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouquette, Laura; Stalport, Fabien; Cottin, Hervé; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Saiagh, Kafila; Poch, Olivier; Khalaf, Diana; Chaput, Didier; Grira, Katia; Chaouche, Naila; Dequaire, Tristan

    2016-10-01

    The detection and identification of organic molecules on Mars are of prime importance, as some of these molecules are life precursors and components. While in situ planetary missions are searching for them, it is essential to understand how organic molecules evolve and are preserved at the surface of Mars. Indeed the harsh conditions of the environment of Mars such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation or oxidative processes could explain the low abundance and diversity of organic molecules detected by now.The EXPOSE R2 facility has been placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) under solar radiation, outside the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014. One of the EXPOSE R2 experiment, called PSS (Photochemistry on the Space Station), is dedicated to astrobiology- and astrochemistry-related studies. Part of PSS samples have been dedicated to the study of the evolution of organic molecules under Mars-like surface radiation conditions. Indeed, UV radiation above 200 nm reaches the surface of Mars and could degrade organic matter. Organic samples have been exposed directly to the Sun under KBr filters (>200 nm) from November 2014 to February 2016, mimicking the UV radiation conditions of the surface of Mars. Four types of samples were exposed as thin layers of solid molecules: adenine, adenine with nontronite (a kind of clay mineral detected on Mars), chrysene and glycine with nontronite.To characterize the evolution of our samples under irradiation, infrared (IR) transmission analyses were performed, before the launch of EXPOSE R2 to the ISS in 2014, and after the exposure in space and the return on Earth, this year. These analyses allowed determining whether each molecule is preserved or photodegraded, and if so, its photolysis rate. The effect of nontronite on organic molecules preservation has been investigated as well. We also compared these results from LEO with laboratory data, obtained by irradiating organic samples under a UV lamp.

  2. The AMINO experiment: exposure of amino acids in the EXPOSE-R experiment on the International Space Station and in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Colas, Cyril; Cadène, Martine; Chaput, Didier; Brack, Andre; Cottin, Herve

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the results of previous experiments concerning the chemical behaviour of organic molecules in the space environment, organic molecules (amino acids and a dipeptide) in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed in the AMINO experiment in the EXPOSE-R facility onboard the International Space Station. After exposure to space conditions for 24 months (2843 h of irradiation), the samples were returned to the Earth and analysed in the laboratory for reactions caused by solar ultraviolet (UV) and other electromagnetic radiation. Laboratory UV exposure was carried out in parallel in the Cologne DLR Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt). The molecules were extracted from the sample holder and then (1) derivatized by silylation and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) in order to quantify the rate of degradation of the compounds and (2) analysed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in order to understand the chemical reactions that occurred. The GC-MS results confirm that resistance to irradiation is a function of the chemical nature of the exposed molecules and of the wavelengths of the UV light. They also confirm the protective effect of a coating of meteorite powder. The most altered compounds were the dipeptides and aspartic acid while the most robust were compounds with a hydrocarbon chain. The MS analyses document the products of reactions, such as decarboxylation and decarbonylation of aspartic acid, taking place after UV exposure. Given the universality of chemistry in space, our results have a broader implication for the fate of organic molecules that seeded the planets as soon as they became habitable as well as for the effects of UV radiation on exposed molecules at the surface of Mars, for example.

  3. Exogenous ascorbic acid improves defence responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) exposed to multiple stresses.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Armagan

    2017-09-01

    Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant that plays role both on growth and development and also stress response of the plant. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ascorbate on physiological and biochemical changes of sunflower that was exposed to multiple stresses. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased and glutathione, ascorbate and malondialdehyde contents as well as antioxidant enzyme activities increased for sunflower plant that was exposed to 50 mM NaCl and pendimethalin at different concentrations. These changes were found to be more significant in groups simultaneously exposed to both stress factors. While malondialdehyde content decreased, chlorophyll, carotenoid, ascorbate, glutathione contents and antioxidant enzyme activities increased in plants treated exogenously with ascorbate, compared to the untreated samples. According to the findings of our study; compared to individual stress, the effect of stress is more pronounced in sunflower exposed to multiple stresses, and treatment with exogenous ascorbate reduces the negative effects of stress.

  4. Bronchial dysplasia induced by radiation in miners exposed to 222Rn progeny.

    PubMed Central

    Michaylov, M A; Pressyanov, D S; Kalinov, K B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate whether sputum cytology can be used to monitor epithelial cell changes in groups at high risk of lung cancer from exposure to radiation. METHODS--Dysplasia of bronchial cells was investigated by means of sputum cytology in a group of 434 underground miners. 100 of them were not exposed, and 334 were exposed to 222Rn progeny at cumulative exposures < 450 working level months. RESULTS--The frequency of dysplasia in the exposed group was significantly higher than that in the not exposed group (P < 0.0001), and an exposure-response relation was found. This relation was different for smokers and non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS--Possibly the frequencies of dysplasia could be used to assess past exposures of groups of miners. This approach could be applied to cases where data on radiation monitoring are not available or are very scarce. Images p82-a PMID:7757171

  5. A comparison of alcohol involvement in exposed and injured drivers, phases I and II

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-02-01

    Author's abstract: The primary objective of the study was to compare alcohol related data collected from drivers involved in injury producing automobile accidents with the same type of data collected from drivers who were similarly exposed to these m...

  6. 20. Top 30/3. Plan of exposed substructure elevations. Wyoming ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Top 30/3. Plan of exposed substructure elevations. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  7. Proteomic analysis of a model fish species exposed to individual pesticides and a binary mixture

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic organisms are often exposed to multiple pesticides simultaneously. Due to the relatively poor characterization of mixture constituent interactions and the potential for highly complex exposure scenarios, there is considerable uncertainty in understanding the toxicity of m...

  8. Gene Expression Responses in Male Fathead Minnows Exposed to Binary Mixtures of an Estrogen and Antiestrogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic organisms are continuously exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals, many of which can interfere with their endocrine system, resulting in impaired reproduction, development or survival, among others. In order to analyze the effects and mechanisms of action of estrogen...

  9. OOCYTE ENVELOPE PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENIN IN MALE SHEEPHEAD MINNOW EXPOSED TO ESTRADIOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oocyte Envelope Proteins and Vitellogenin Expression in Male Sheepshead Minnows Exposed to Estradiol (Abstract). To be presented at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: Changing Environmental Awareness: Societal Concerns and Scientifi...

  10. USING PROTEOMICS TO MONITOR PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN HUMAN CELLS EXPOSED TO CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic properties in experimental systems. It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in the environment may contribute significantly to t...

  11. Drug and Alcohol Exposed Children: Implications for Special Education for Students Identified as Behaviorally Disordered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Anne M.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on children prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol, the potential impact on the educational and social services systems, and implications for programing for children identified as behaviorally disordered. (Author/JDD)

  12. COMPARISON OF BIOMARKERS IN WORKERS EXPOSED TO 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an important occupational and environmental pollutant. In TNT-exposed humans, the notable toxic manifestations have included aplastic anemia, toxic hepatitis, cataracts, hepatomegaly, and liver cancer. Therefore, we developed methods to biomonitor w...

  13. ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION AND NASAL INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES AMONG YOUNG ASTHMATICS EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVELS OF OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recent studies examining the inflammatory response in atopic asthma to ozone suggest a release of soluble mediators of inflammation factors that might be related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidant could prove useful in subjects exposed to additional oxidati...

  14. Macrolide Antibiotics Improve Phagocytic Capacity and Reduce Inflammation In Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Monocytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    phagocytotic function and on inflammatory cytokines/mediators production in vitro using SM-exposed monocyte THP - 1 cells. Using flow cytometry we found...in vitro using SM-exposed monocyte THP - 1 cells. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1 Reagents Sulfur mustard (2,2’-dichlorodiethyl sulfide; 4 mM) was...monocyte THP - 1 cells were obtained from ATCC (Manassas, VA). Cells were grown as suspension in the optimized media as formulated by the manufacturer and

  15. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 7. Neurology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Neurophysiological responses in three generations of miniature swine chronically exposed to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field have been assessed in a series of screening experiments. Results are presented from experiments on peripheral nerve function in parental (F/sub 0/) female swine at 100 days of gestation, and from experiments on synaptic transmission in first- and second-generation (F/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/) progeny at 6 weeks of age, all following chronic exposure to a 60-Hz electric field. In the several measures of peripheral nerve function examined, only two showed consistent differences between exposed and sham-exposed animals: C-fiber (but not B-fiber) conduction velocitymore » was decreased in nerve preparations from exposed swine, and recovery, as measured by the increase in amplitude of the compound action potential, was consistently, although not statistically, less in B- and C-fibers from exposed animals when compared to values for the sham-exposed controls. Although changes (increases or decreases) in various parameters of synaptic transmission were observed between exposed and sham-exposed groups, the differences were not consistent across experiments or generations. Only one measure of synaptic function showed a consistent difference throughout the studies: the conduction velocities of B and C components of the postsynaptic compound action potential were increased following electric-field exposure (statistically significant only in B-fibers of the F/sub 2/ generations). 7 refs., 60 figs., 17 tabs.« less

  16. Alterations in Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Mouse Skin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Alterations in Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Sulfur Mustard-exposed Mouse Skin 6. AUTHOR(S) Sabourin , C.L.K...in Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Mouse Skin Carol L. K. Sabourin ,1 John P. Petrali,2 and Robert P. Casillas2...inflammatory response following HD exposure by measuring ear swelling. Further studies using the 291 292 SABOURIN , PETRALI, AND CASILLAS Volume 14

  17. Prenatal substance abuse: short- and long-term effects on the exposed fetus.

    PubMed

    Behnke, Marylou; Smith, Vincent C

    2013-03-01

    Prenatal substance abuse continues to be a significant problem in this country and poses important health risks for the developing fetus. The primary care pediatrician's role in addressing prenatal substance exposure includes prevention, identification of exposure, recognition of medical issues for the exposed newborn infant, protection of the infant, and follow-up of the exposed infant. This report will provide information for the most common drugs involved in prenatal exposure: nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, opiates, cocaine, and methamphetamine.

  18. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.E.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year,more » medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma.« less

  19. Circadian Rhythmicity of Antioxidant Markers in Rats Exposed to 1.8 GHz Radiofrequency Fields

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Honglong; Qin, Fenju; Liu, Xueguan; Wang, Jiajun; Cao, Yi; Tong, Jian; Zhao, Heming

    2015-01-01

    Background: The potential health risks of exposure to Radiofrequency Fields (RF) emitted by mobile phones are currently of considerable public interest, such as the adverse effects on the circadian rhythmicities of biological systems. To determine whether circadian rhythms of the plasma antioxidants (Mel, GSH-Px and SOD) are affected by RF, we performed a study on male Sprague Dawley rats exposed to the 1.8 GHz RF. Methods: All animals were divided into seven groups. The animals in six groups were exposed to 1.8 GHz RF (201.7 μW/cm2 power density, 0.05653 W/kg specific absorption rate) at a specific period of the day (3, 7, 11, 15, 19 and 23 h GMT, respectively), for 2 h/day for 32 consecutive days. The rats in the seventh group were used as sham-exposed controls. At the end of last RF exposure, blood samples were collected from each rat every 4 h (total period of 24 h) and also at similar times from sham-exposed animals. The concentrations of three antioxidants (Mel, GSH-Px and SOD) were determined. The data in RF-exposed rats were compared with those in sham-exposed animals. Results: circadian rhythms in the synthesis of Mel and antioxidant enzymes, GSH-Px and SOD, were shifted in RF-exposed rats compared to sham-exposed animals: the Mel, GSH-Px and SOD levels were significantly decreased when RF exposure was given at 23 and 3 h GMT. Conclusion: The overall results indicate that there may be adverse effects of RF exposure on antioxidant function, in terms of both the daily antioxidative levels, as well as the circadian rhythmicity. PMID:25685954

  20. [Programs for better health of individuals exposed to increased occupational risk].

    PubMed

    Poteriaeva, E L; Nesina, I A; Liutkevich, A A; Tepliakov, G V; Egorova, L S

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with problems of optimizing sanatorium-and-spa programs to better health in workers exposed to vibration, through using panto-magnesium pearl baths. Examinations covered 49 individuals exposed to local vibration at work, who underwent health programs including magnetotherapy, manual massage and exercise therapy. The authors conclude that maximal effect of improved life quality was seen after panto-magnesium gas baths course auxiliary to the programs.

  1. Nine-year mortality experience in proton-exposed Macaca mulatta

    SciTech Connect

    Krupp, J.H.

    1976-08-01

    Macaca mulatta exposed at 2 yr of age to proton irradiation have been observed for mortality and latent effects since 1964. This report of progress covering the first 9 yr postexposure shows an interesting occurrence of neoplasia in the 55 MeV proton-exposed animals and an increased incidence of endometriosis in whole-body penetrating proton exposures. For doses of 400 rad and less, no significant deviation from control mortality is apparent, 9 yr postexposure.

  2. Preference for safflower oil in rats exposed to a cold environment under free-feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Masaji; Ishii, Toshiaki; Takewaki, Tadashi; Nishimura, Masakazu

    2005-07-01

    There are several benefits to a high-fat diet for animals exposed to cold, including improved tolerance to severe cold conditions and increased survival rates in cold environments. It is therefore of interest to examine whether animals exposed to cold will selectively consume lipids. We examined the intake of safflower oil (SO) by rats exposed to cold (4 +/- 2 degrees C) under a feeding condition in which the rats were given free access to SO. Rats exposed to cold consumed more SO than those housed at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. This finding suggests that rats prefer SO in a cold environment. There was no significant difference in the ratio of calories of SO ingested to that of matter (standard laboratory chow plus SO) ingested between rats exposed to cold and those at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. The high SO intake also affected cold tolerance and metabolite kinetics in the rats. Factors that affected the SO intake of rats exposed to cold are also discussed.

  3. Developmental toxicity in flounder embryos exposed to crude oils derived from different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Kwang-Min; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Moonkoo

    2017-06-01

    Crude oils from distinct geographical regions have distinct chemical compositions, and, as a result, their toxicity may be different. However, developmental toxicity of crude oils derived from different geographical regions has not been extensively characterized. In this study, flounder embryos were separately exposed to effluents contaminated by three crude oils including: Basrah Light (BLO), Pyrenees (PCO), and Sakhalin Vityaz (SVO), in addition to a processed fuel oil (MFO-380), to measure developmental toxicity and for gene expressions. Each oil possessed a distinct chemical composition. Edema defect was highest in embryos exposed to PCO and MFO-380 that both have a greater fraction of three-ring PAHs (33% and 22%, respectively) compared to BLO and SVO. Observed caudal fin defects were higher in embryos exposed to SVO and MFO-380, which are both dominated by naphthalenes (81% and 52%, respectively). CYP1A gene expressions were also highest in embryos exposed to SVO and MFO-380. Higher incidence of cardiotoxicity and lower nkx 2.5 expression were detected in embryos exposed to PCO. Unique gene expression profiles were observed in embryos exposed to crude oils with distinct compositions. This study demonstrates that crude oils of different geographical origins with different compositional characteristics induce developmental toxicity to different degrees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of lung burdens of inhaled particles of rats exposed during the day or night

    SciTech Connect

    Hesseltine, G.R.; Wolff, R.K.; Hanson, R.L.

    Inhalation studies frequently involve daytime exposures of nocturnal animals to toxicants. Such exposures may result in different respiratory tract depositions than would be obtained if rodents were exposed at night. Our study assessed the effect of night versus day exposures on lung burdens of particles inhaled by Fischer 344 rats. One group of 15 female rats was exposed to 0.3 micron volume median diameter particles of gallium oxide (Ga2O3) for 11.2 h during the day and a second group of 15 female rats was exposed to the same aerosol for 11.2 h at night. Gallium in the lungs at themore » end of exposure was measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Rats exposed during the night had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher lung burdens than day-exposed rats when burdens were expressed as either microgram Ga2O3/lung (mean +/- SD = 896 +/- 175 versus 698 +/- 150) or microgram Ga2O3/g lung (mean +/- SD = 683 +/- 134 versus 465 +/- 103). The greater amount of material in lungs of rats exposed at night probably reflected increased ventilation accompanying nocturnal activity.« less

  5. Artificial stone dust-induced functional and inflammatory abnormalities in exposed workers monitored quantitatively by biometrics.

    PubMed

    Ophir, Noa; Shai, Amir Bar; Alkalay, Yifat; Israeli, Shani; Korenstein, Rafi; Kramer, Mordechai R; Fireman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture of kitchen and bath countertops in Israel is based mainly on artificial stone that contains 93% silica as natural quartz, and ∼3500 workers are involved in cutting and processing it. Artificial stone produces high concentrations of silica dust. Exposure to crystalline silica may cause silicosis, an irreversible lung disease. Our aim was to screen exposed workers by quantitative biometric monitoring of functional and inflammatory parameters. 68 exposed artificial stone workers were compared to 48 nonexposed individuals (controls). Exposed workers filled in questionnaires, and all participants underwent pulmonary function tests and induced sputum analyses. Silica was quantitated by a Niton XL3 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Pulmonary function test results of exposed workers were significantly lower and induced sputa showed significantly higher neutrophilic inflammation compared to controls; both processes were slowed down by the use of protective measures in the workplace. Particle size distribution in induced sputum samples of exposed workers was similar to that of artificial stone dust, which contained aluminium, zirconium and titanium in addition to silica. In conclusion, the quantitation of biometric parameters is useful for monitoring workers exposed to artificial stone in order to avoid deterioration over time.

  6. Probiotics Reduce Necrotizing Enterocolitis Severity in HIV-exposed Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Van Niekerk, Evette; Nel, Daniel G; Blaauw, Reneé; Kirsten, Gert F

    2015-06-01

    To assess the effect of probiotics on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative women. HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed premature infants were randomized to either the probiotic or the placebo group. The probiotic consisted of 1 × 10(9) colony-forming units, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium infantis per day. In total, 74 HIV-exposed and 110 HIV-unexposed infants were enrolled and randomized. The incidence of death [4 (5.4%) vs. 7 (6%); p = 0.79] and NEC [4 (5%) vs. 5 (5%); p = 0.76] did not differ significantly between the HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed groups. A significant difference was found for total NEC incidence between the study and control groups [3 (3%) vs. 6 (6%); p = 0.029]. The incidence of NEC in the HIV-exposed group differed significantly [Bells I 2 (5%) vs. Bells III 2 (5%); p = 0.045). Probiotic supplementation reduced the incidence of NEC in the premature very low birth weight infants; however, results failed to show a lower incidence of NEC in HIV-exposed premature infants. A reduction in the severity of disease was found in the HIV-exposed study group. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [Oxidative damage and immunotoxicity effect of people who exposed to electronic waste].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ronghua; Xu, Caiju; Shen, Haitao; Tang, Yun; Meng, Jia; Lu, Wei; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Song, Yanhua; Han, Guangen; Cai, Delei; Ding, Gangqiang

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between risk factors and the effects of antioxidation and immune function in adults who exposed to electronic waste( e-waste). The exposed group was chosen from the people who lived in the e-waste disposing areas of Zhejiang province. The control group was chosen from people who lived in unpolluted area. Anticoagulation and coagulation peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 40 exposed persons (22 employees, 18 non-employees) and 36 exposed persons respectively. The oxidative, immune, Cd, Pb, Cr, Hg, and PCB indexes were detected. The contents of Cd, total PCB, MDA statistically increased in exposed group comparing with the control group (P < 0.05). The activity of SOD, GSH-Px, the percentage of helper/inducer T lymphocytes (CD4+) and the content of Cr in exposed group were less than those in the controlgroup (P < 0.05). Oxidative damage and immunotoxicity were observed in the group that lived in e-waste disposing areas. These effects were mainly related to the increase of Cd content or Cd and Pb contents in peripheral venous blood.

  8. Dental health of young children prenatally exposed to buprenorphine. A concern of child neglect?

    PubMed

    Kivistö, K; Alapulli, H; Tupola, S; Alaluusua, S; Kivitie-Kallio, S

    2014-06-01

    To study the oral health and dental neglect of prenatally buprenorphine-exposed 3-year-old children. The study consisted of 51 children who as newborns tested positive for buprenorphine in a urine screen. The control group comprised 68 children previously unexposed to narcotics. The dentist examined the children and interviewed their guardians. Buprenorphine-exposed children exhibited significantly more early childhood caries than did the control group. Caries indices, the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth or tooth surfaces and decayed teeth were greater in the buprenorphine-exposed children than the control children (p = 0.004, p = 0.004, p = 0.001, respectively). In the buprenorphine group, more children showed visible plaque (p = 0.003) and fewer children were caries-free (p = 0.009) than in the control group. The control children's teeth were also brushed more often than the buprenorphine-exposed children's teeth (p = 0.001) and the parents were more involved in their children's tooth brushing than were those in the buprenorphine-exposed group (p = 0.035). More caries and dental neglect were found in buprenorphine-exposed children than in controls. These findings highlight the importance of routine dental appointments, caries screening and preventive care for children in substance-abusing families.

  9. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.

    PubMed

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110 nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space.

  10. A multicenter study on the audiometric findings of styrene-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Morata, Thais C; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Johnson, Ann-Christin; Starck, Jukka; Pawlas, Krystyna; Zamyslowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Nylen, Per; Toppila, Esko; Krieg, Edward; Pawlas, Natalia; Prasher, Deepak

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate hearing loss among workers exposed to styrene, alone or with noise. This cross-sectional study was conducted as part of NoiseChem, a European Commission 5th Framework Programme research project, by occupational health institutes in Finland, Sweden, and Poland. Participants' ages ranged from 18-72 years (n = 1620 workers). Participants exposed to styrene, alone or with noise, were from reinforced fiberglass products manufacturing plants (n = 862). Comparison groups were comprised of workers noise-exposed (n = 400) or controls (n = 358). Current styrene exposures ranged from 0 to 309 mg/m(3), while mean current noise levels ranged from 70-84 dB(A). Hearing thresholds of styrene-exposed participants were compared with Annexes A and B from ANSI S3.44, 1996. The audiometric thresholds of styrene exposed workers were significantly poorer than those in published standards. Age, gender, and styrene exposure met the significance level criterion in the multiple logistic regression for the binary outcome 'hearing loss' (P = 0.0000). Exposure to noise (<85 dBA p = 0.0001; ≥85 dB(A) p = 0.0192) interacted significantly with styrene exposure. Occupational exposure to styrene is a risk factor for hearing loss, and styrene-exposed workers should be included in hearing loss prevention programs.

  11. Life satisfaction and school performance of children exposed to classic and cyber peer bullying.

    PubMed

    Bilić, Vesna; Flander, Gordana Buljan; Rafajac, Branko

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the exposure of school children to various forms of peer bullying (classic/cyber) and their life satisfaction in the domain of school, family, friends and school performance. The sample included 562 children from rural and urban areas of Croatia who were attending the seventh and the eighth grade of primary school. Results show that children were more often exposed to classic forms of peer bullying, especially verbal, and then physical bullying. On the other hand, cyber bullying most often comprises harassment in forums, blogs, chats or social networks, then on the web, by e-mail and mobile phone. Almost half of the examinees knew the identity of the bully, while a minority believes that bullies are the same ones who also physically abuse them at school. We found that children exposed to all forms of both classic and cyber bullying, unlike their peers who do not have such experience, show less satisfaction with friends, while those exposed to physical and cyber bullying show dissatisfaction with their family, too. However no statistically significant difference was found in their satisfaction with school. Children exposed to physical bullying showed poorer school performance, poorer achievement in Croatian and math, while children exposed to verbal and cyber bullying and children who were not exposed to such forms of bullying showed no differences in their school achievement.

  12. Mortality in US Army Gulf War Veterans Exposed to 1991 Khamisiyah Chemical Munitions Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Bullman, Tim A.; Mahan, Clare M.; Kang, Han K.; Page, William F.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether US Army Gulf War veterans who were potentially exposed to nerve agents during the March 1991 weapons demolitions at Khamisiyah, Iraq, are at increased risk of cause-specific mortality. Methods. The cause-specific mortality of 100487 exposed US Army Gulf War veterans was compared with that of 224980 unexposed US Army Gulf War veterans. Exposure was determined with the Department of Defense 2000 plume model. Relative risk estimates were derived from Cox proportional hazards models. Results. The risks of most disease-related mortality were similar for exposed and unexposed veterans. However, exposed veterans had an increased risk of brain cancer deaths (relative risk [RR]=1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.12, 3.34). The risk of brain cancer death was larger among those exposed 2 or more days than those exposed 1 day when both were compared separately to all unexposed veterans (RR=3.26; 95% CI=1.33, 7.96; RR=1.72; 95% CI=0.95,3.10, respectively). Conclusions. Exposure to chemical munitions at Khamisiyah may be associated with an increased risk of brain cancer death. Additional research is required to confirm this finding. PMID:16043669

  13. Mechanical and Microstructural Evaluations of Lightweight Aggregate Geopolymer Concrete before and after Exposed to Elevated Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Abdulkareem, Omar A.; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of a lightweight aggregate geopolymer concrete (LWAGC) synthesized by the alkali-activation of a fly ash source (FA) before and after being exposed to elevated temperatures, ranging from 100 to 800 °C. The results show that the LWAGC unexposed to the elevated temperatures possesses a good strength-to-weight ratio compared with other LWAGCs available in the published literature. The unexposed LWAGC also shows an excellent strength development versus aging times, up to 365 days. For the exposed LWAGC to the elevated temperatures of 100 to 800 °C, the results illustrate that the concretes gain compressive strength after being exposed to elevated temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Afterward, the strength of the LWAGC started to deteriorate and decrease after being exposed to elevated temperatures of 400 °C, and up to 800 °C. Based on the mechanical strength results of the exposed LWAGCs to elevated temperatures of 100 °C to 800 °C, the relationship between the exposure temperature and the obtained residual compressive strength is statistically analyzed and achieved. In addition, the microstructure investigation of the unexposed LWAGC shows a good bonding between aggregate and mortar at the interface transition zone (ITZ). However, this bonding is subjected to deterioration as the LWAGC is exposed to elevated temperatures of 400, 600 and 800 °C by increasing the microcrack content and swelling of the unreacted silicates. PMID:28788339

  14. Increased lung function decline in blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Thaon, Isabelle; Demange, Valérie; Herin, Fabrice; Touranchet, Annie; Paris, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    There is no consensus at the present time about the effect of welding on lung function decline. This study compared lung function decline between blue-collar workers exposed and not exposed to welding fumes in a French longitudinal cohort of 21,238 subjects aged 37 to 52 years at inclusion. Medical data, occupation, sector of activity, and spirometry were recorded twice by occupational physicians in 1990 and 1995. A job-exposure matrix was used to identify 503 male blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes and 709 control subjects and to define the weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes. Baseline lung function parameters were higher in workers exposed to welding fumes than in control subjects. After a 5-year follow-up, welding-fume exposure was associated with a nonsignificant decline in FVC (P = .06) and FEV(1) (P = .07) after adjustment for age, pack-years, BMI, and baseline value of the parameter. A significant accelerated decline in FEV(1) (P = .046) was also observed in never smokers exposed to welding fumes. An “exposure-response” relationship was observed between FEV(1) decline and weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes in nonsmokers but not in smokers. Blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes showed accelerated decline in lung function, which, in nonsmokers, was related to weekly duration of exposure.

  15. Mechanical and Microstructural Evaluations of Lightweight Aggregate Geopolymer Concrete before and after Exposed to Elevated Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Abdulkareem, Omar A; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2013-10-09

    This paper presents the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of a lightweight aggregate geopolymer concrete (LWAGC) synthesized by the alkali-activation of a fly ash source (FA) before and after being exposed to elevated temperatures, ranging from 100 to 800 °C. The results show that the LWAGC unexposed to the elevated temperatures possesses a good strength-to-weight ratio compared with other LWAGCs available in the published literature. The unexposed LWAGC also shows an excellent strength development versus aging times, up to 365 days. For the exposed LWAGC to the elevated temperatures of 100 to 800 °C, the results illustrate that the concretes gain compressive strength after being exposed to elevated temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Afterward, the strength of the LWAGC started to deteriorate and decrease after being exposed to elevated temperatures of 400 °C, and up to 800 °C. Based on the mechanical strength results of the exposed LWAGCs to elevated temperatures of 100 °C to 800 °C, the relationship between the exposure temperature and the obtained residual compressive strength is statistically analyzed and achieved. In addition, the microstructure investigation of the unexposed LWAGC shows a good bonding between aggregate and mortar at the interface transition zone (ITZ). However, this bonding is subjected to deterioration as the LWAGC is exposed to elevated temperatures of 400, 600 and 800 °C by increasing the microcrack content and swelling of the unreacted silicates.

  16. [Cognitive impairments in persons exposed to radiation during the period of prenatal development].

    PubMed

    Burtovaya, E Yu; Kantina, T E; Belova, M V; Akleyev, A V

    2015-01-01

    To assess the cognitive status in persons exposed to ionizing radiation in prenatal period. The study included in-utero exposed people (n = 77), and the comparison group (n = 73), which consisted of people who lived in the territories of the Chelyabinsk Oblast that were not radioactive. The following methods were used: clinical, clinical-psychological (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the WAIS test, the proverb interpretation task, neurophysiological (EEG) methods, laboratory-based methods (cholesterol, high and low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, cortisol, melatonin), and methods of statistical data processing. The number of people with non-psychotic mental disorders with the prevalence of organic mental disorders (cognitive and asthenic) was significantly higher among in-utero exposed subjects. A neurophysiological study revealed more severe changes in the bioelectric brain activity with the presence of pathological and theta-rhythms in exposed persons. The clinical-psychological study revealed a significant decrease in the analytic/synthetic ability in exposed people and significantly lower level of the general and verbal IQ. These changes were accompanied by higher levels of cortisol and melatonin which led to the activation and tension of the adaptation mechanisms in in-utero exposed subjects.

  17. Mortality in US Army Gulf War veterans exposed to 1991 Khamisiyah chemical munitions destruction.

    PubMed

    Bullman, Tim A; Mahan, Clare M; Kang, Han K; Page, William F

    2005-08-01

    We investigated whether US Army Gulf War veterans who were potentially exposed to nerve agents during the March 1991 weapons demolitions at Khamisiyah, Iraq, are at increased risk of cause-specific mortality. The cause-specific mortality of 100487 exposed US Army Gulf War veterans was compared with that of 224980 unexposed US Army Gulf War veterans. Exposure was determined with the Department of Defense 2000 plume model. Relative risk estimates were derived from Cox proportional hazards models. The risks of most disease-related mortality were similar for exposed and unexposed veterans. However, exposed veterans had an increased risk of brain cancer deaths (relative risk [RR]=1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.12, 3.34). The risk of brain cancer death was larger among those exposed 2 or more days than those exposed 1 day when both were compared separately to all unexposed veterans (RR=3.26; 95% CI=1.33, 7.96; RR=1.72; 95% CI=0.95,3.10, respectively). Exposure to chemical munitions at Khamisiyah may be associated with an increased risk of brain cancer death. Additional research is required to confirm this finding.

  18. [Croatian and international regulations on the protection and rights of workers exposed to asbestos at work].

    PubMed

    Zavalić, Marija; Macan, Jelena

    2009-11-01

    New regulations on the protection and rights of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos were introduced in Croatia in 2007 and 2008. They have been harmonised with the European Union (EU) and International Labour Organization (ILO) regulations, and make a step forward in safety at work, health protection, social rights, and pension schemes for Croatian workers occupationally exposed to asbestos. The 2007 Croatian regulation on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work defines and describes activities in which workers can be occupationally exposed to asbestos, defines the threshold value of asbestos in the air at work, defines valid methods for measurement of asbestos concentrations in the air, and establishes measures to reduce asbestos exposure at work or protect the exposed workers. Croatian law regulating obligatory health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos from year 2007 defines activities and competent authorities to implement health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos and to diagnose occupational diseases related to asbestos. This law also defines "occupational exposure to asbestos", and "occupational asbestos-related diseases", including asbestosis (pulmonary asbestos-related fibrosis), pleural asbestos-related disorders (plaques, pleural thickening, and benign effusion), lung and bronchial cancer, and malignant mesothelioma of serous membranes. These regulations have been harmonised with ILO, Directive 2003/18/EC amending Council Directive 83/477/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work, and with the Commission Recommendation 2003/670/EC concerning the European schedule of occupational diseases. The 2008 Croatian regulation on conditions of health surveillance, diagnostic procedures and criteria for confirmation of occupational asbestos-related diseases "defines the terms and the content of medical examination of workers

  19. Differential pattern of deposition of nanoparticles in the airways of exposed workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fireman, Elizabeth; Edelheit, Rinat; Stark, Moshe; Shai, Amir Bar

    2017-02-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) have been postulated to significantly contribute to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Due to their extremely small size (aerodynamic diameter <100 nm), UFP are able to deposit deep within the lung after inhalation and evade many mechanisms responsible for the clearance of larger particles. There is a lack of biologically relevant personal exposure metrics for exposure to occupational- and environmental-related micro- and nano-sized PM. The aim of the present study is to assess UFP in induced sputum (IS) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as possible biomarkers for assessing lung function impairment. Sputum induction and EBC testing were performed by conventional methods. UFP particles were assessed with the NanoSight LM20 (NanoSight Ltd, London, UK). The subjects included 35 exposed and 25 non-exposed workers. There were no group differences in pulmonary function test results and differential cell counts, but 63.6% of the exposed subjects had a higher percentage of neutrophils (OR3.28 p = 0.03) compared to the non-exposed subjects. The exposed subjects had higher percentages of UFP between 10 and 50 nm (69.45 ± 18.70 vs 60.11 ± 17.52 for the non-exposed group, p = 0.004). No differences were found in the IS samples. Years of exposure correlated positively to UFP content ( r = 0.342 p = 0.01) and macrophage content ( r = -0.327 p = 0.03). The percentage of small fraction of UFP in EBC, but not IS, is higher in exposed workers, and EBC may be a sensitive biomarker to assess exposure to nanoparticles.

  20. Induction of adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Anna; Sarti, Maurizio; Reddy, Siddharth B; Prihoda, Thomas J; Vijayalaxmi; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria

    2009-06-01

    The incidence of micronuclei was evaluated to assess the induction of an adaptive response to non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF) radiation in peripheral blood lymphocytes collected from five different human volunteers. After stimulation with phytohemagglutinin for 24 h, the cells were exposed to an adaptive dose of 900 MHz RF radiation used for mobile communications (at a peak specific absorption rate of 10 W/kg) for 20 h and then challenged with a single genotoxic dose of mitomycin C (100 ng/ml) at 48 h. Lymphocytes were collected at 72 h to examine the frequency of micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cells. Cells collected from four donors exhibited the induction of adaptive response (i.e., responders). Lymphocytes that were pre-exposed to 900 MHz RF radiation had a significantly decreased incidence of micronuclei induced by the challenge dose of mitomycin C compared to those that were not pre-exposed to 900 MHz RF radiation. These preliminary results suggested that the adaptive response can be induced in cells exposed to non-ionizing radiation. A similar phenomenon has been reported in cells as well as in animals exposed to ionizing radiation in several earlier studies. However, induction of adaptive response was not observed in the remaining donor (i.e., non-responder). The incidence of micronuclei induced by the challenge dose of mitomycin C was not significantly different between the cells that were pre-exposed and unexposed to 900 MHz RF radiation. Thus the overall data indicated the existence of heterogeneity in the induction of an adaptive response between individuals exposed to RF radiation and showed that the less time-consuming micronucleus assay can be used to determine whether an individual is a responder or non-responder.

  1. Studies on battery repair and recycling workers occupationally exposed to lead in Karachi.

    PubMed

    Haider, Muhammad Jamal; Qureshi, Naeemullah

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of occupational lead exposure on the hematological and biochemical parameters in occupationally exposed and non exposed inhabitants of Karachi. MATERIAL AND METHODS. In 100 lead exposed subjects recruited from automobile workshops, lead battery repair and recycling units located in Karachi and in 100 control subjects the general health status, hematological parameters and exposure markers for lead were measured. RESULTS. Results indicated that the mean values of blood lead level and delta-aminolevulinic acid were significantly higher (P<0.05) while the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase were significantly decreased (P<0.05) among battery repair and recycling workers as compared to controls. The abnormalities in the blood lead level, delta-aminolevulinic acid and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase were more frequent in lead exposed battery repair workers when compared with control subjects. The blood lead levels and deltaaminolevulinic acid were positively correlated while delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase was found to be negatively correlated with age, years of exposure and years of employment. Blood lead level was positively correlated with hemoglobin and RBC count while delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase was negatively correlated with hemoglobin concentration. The work related symptoms, droopiness, nasal symptoms and muscular pain were more frequent among battery repair workers as compared to control group. The findings of present study confirmed that occupational exposure to lead is associated with deviation in important hematological parameters and biological markers of exposure to lead among lead exposed workers, and also confirms the impact of lead exposure in the development of adverse effects among lead exposed workers. The study provides the data for risk assessment in lead battery repair workers of Karachi and suggests the need for preventive measures for

  2. Cosmic Radiation Exposure of Biological Test Systems During the EXPOSE-E Mission

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Michael; Bilski, Pawel; Körner, Christine; Vanhavere, Filip; Reitz, Günther

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the frame of the EXPOSE-E mission on the Columbus external payload facility EuTEF on board the International Space Station, passive thermoluminescence dosimeters were applied to measure the radiation exposure of biological samples. The detectors were located either as stacks next to biological specimens to determine the depth dose distribution or beneath the sample carriers to determine the dose levels for maximum shielding. The maximum mission dose measured in the upper layer of the depth dose part of the experiment amounted to 238±10 mGy, which relates to an average dose rate of 408±16 μGy/d. In these stacks of about 8 mm height, the dose decreased by 5–12% with depth. The maximum dose measured beneath the sample carriers was 215±16 mGy, which amounts to an average dose rate of 368±27 μGy/d. These values are close to those assessed for the interior of the Columbus module and demonstrate the high shielding of the biological experiments within the EXPOSE-E facility. Besides the shielding by the EXPOSE-E hardware itself, additional shielding was experienced by the external structures adjacent to EXPOSE-E, such as EuTEF and Columbus. This led to a dose gradient over the entire exposure area, from 215±16 mGy for the lowest to 121±6 mGy for maximum shielding. Hence, the doses perceived by the biological samples inside EXPOSE-E varied by 70% (from lowest to highest dose). As a consequence of the high shielding, the biological samples were predominantly exposed to galactic cosmic heavy ions, while electrons and a significant fraction of protons of the radiation belts and solar wind did not reach the samples. Key Words: Space radiation—Dosimetry—Passive radiation detectors—Thermoluminescence—EXPOSE-E. Astrobiology 12, 387–392. PMID:22680685

  3. Factors protecting against the development of adjustment difficulties in young adults exposed to childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Lynskey, M T; Fergusson, D M

    1997-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the factors which discriminated young people exposed to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who developed psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties in young adulthood from those young people exposed to CSA who did not develop psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties by age 18. Data were gathered on a birth cohort of 1,025 New Zealand children studied from birth to the age of 18 on (a) exposure to CSA; (b) patterns of psychiatric disorder and adjustment difficulties at age 18 years; (c) factors that may have influenced responses to CSA including characteristics of the abuse, parental bonding, parental characteristics, and adolescent peer affiliations. Just over 10% of the cohort reported CSA. Those reporting CSA were at increased risks of a range of difficulties at age 18 (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, other substance abuse/dependence, post sexual abuse trauma, attempted suicide). However, not all of those exposed to CSA developed difficulties and approximately a quarter of those exposed to CSA did not meet criteria for any adjustment difficulty. Further analysis suggested that the extent of adjustment difficulties in those exposed to CSA was influenced by two additional factors: (a) the extent of affiliations with delinquent or substance using peers in adolescence; and (b) the extent of paternal care or support in childhood. The findings of this study suggest that while young people exposed to CSA are at increased risks of psychiatric disorder and adjustment difficulties in young adulthood, not all individuals exposed to CSA will develop adjustment difficulties. Important factors protecting against the development of adjustment difficulties in young people experiencing CSA appear to be the nature and quality of peer and family relationships.

  4. Attention bias in earthquake-exposed survivors: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Kong, Fanchang; Han, Li; Najam Ul Hasan, Abbasi; Chen, Hong

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese Wenchuan earthquake, which happened on the 28th of May in 2008, may leave deep invisible scars in individuals. China has a large number of children and adolescents, who tend to be most vulnerable because they are in an early stage of human development and possible post-traumatic psychological distress may have a life-long consequence. Trauma survivors without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have received little attention in previous studies, especially in event-related potential (ERP) studies. We compared the attention bias to threat stimuli between the earthquake-exposed group and the control group in a masked version of the dot probe task. The target probe presented at the same space location consistent with earthquake-related words was the congruent trial, while in the space location of neutral words was the incongruent trial. Thirteen earthquake-exposed middle school students without PTSD and 13 matched controls were included in this investigation. The earthquake-exposed group showed significantly faster RTs to congruent trials than to incongruent trials. The earthquake-exposed group produced significantly shorter C1 and P1 latencies and larger C1, P1 and P2 amplitudes than the control group. In particular, enhanced P1 amplitude to threat stimuli was observed in the earthquake-exposed group. These findings are in agreement with the prediction that earthquake-exposed survivors have an attention bias to threat stimuli. The traumatic event had a much greater effect on earthquake-exposed survivors even if they showed no PTSD symptoms than individuals in the controls. These results will provide neurobiological evidences for effective intervention and prevention to post-traumatic mental problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Early physical and motor development of mouse offspring exposed to valproic acid throughout intrauterine development.

    PubMed

    Podgorac, Jelena; Pešić, Vesna; Pavković, Željko; Martać, Ljiljana; Kanazir, Selma; Filipović, Ljupka; Sekulić, Slobodan

    2016-09-15

    Clinical research has identified developmental delay and physical malformations in children prenatally exposed to the antiepileptic drug (AED) valproic acid (VPA). However, the early signs of neurodevelopmental deficits, their evolution during postnatal development and growth, and the dose effects of VPA are not well understood. The present study aimed to examine the influence of maternal exposure to a wide dose range (50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg/day) of VPA during breeding and gestation on early physical and neuromotor development in mice offspring. Body weight gain, eye opening, the surface righting reflex (SRR) and tail suspension test (TST) were examined in the offspring at postnatal days 5, 10 and 15. We observed that: (1) all tested doses of VPA reduced the body weight of the offspring and the timing of eye opening; (2) offspring exposed to VPA displayed immature forms of righting and required more time to complete the SRR; (3) latency for the first immobilization in the TST is shorter in offspring exposed to higher doses of VPA; however, mice in all groups exposed to VPA exhibited atypical changes in this parameter during the examined period of maturation; (4) irregularities in swinging and curling activities were observed in animals exposed to higher doses of VPA. This study points to delayed somatic development and postponed maturation of the motor system in all of the offspring prenatally exposed to VPA, with stronger effects observed at higher doses. The results implicate that the strategy of continuous monitoring of general health and achievements in motor milestones during the early postnatal development in prenatally VPA-exposed offspring, irrespectively of the dose applied, could help to recognize early developmental irregularities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging used for the evaluation of water presence in wood plastic composite boards exposed to exterior conditions

    Treesearch

    Marek Gnatowski; Rebecca Ibach; Mathew Leung; Grace Sun

    2014-01-01

    Two wood plastic composite (WPC) boards, one experimental and one commercial, were exposed to exterior conditions and evaluated non-destructively using a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit for moisture content (MC) and distribution. The experimental board was exposed in Vancouver, British Columbia, for more than 8 years, and the commercial board was exposed...

  7. 'Blueberry' Exposed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic of five images taken by the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sol 87 shows the hole drilled by the rover's rock abrasion tool into the rock dubbed 'Pilbara.' A sliced 'blueberry,' or spherule, which is darker and harder than the rest of the rock, can be seen near the center of the hole. The rock abrasion process left a pile of rock powder around the side of the hole, and to a lesser degree, inside the hole. The hole is 7.2 millimeters (about 0.28 inches) deep and 4.5 centimeters (about 1.8 inches) in diameter.

    Because the original images of this hole had areas of bright sunlight as well as shadow, the images making up this mosaic have been arranged to hide as much of the sunlit area as possible. The white spot is one area that could not be covered by other images. It is possible to stretch the image so that features in this white spot are visible, but this makes the rest of the mosaic harder to view. The bright streaks on the bottom part of the hole are most likely reflections from various parts of the robotic arm. The geometric and brightness seams have been corrected in this image.

  8. 'Blueberry' Exposed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This three-dimensional model shows a postage-stamp-sized patch of the rock target in the outcrop near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site. A sliced sphere-like particle, or 'blueberry,' can be seen to the far right of the model. The model was created from images taken by the rover's microscopic imager, after the surface of the rock was scraped away with the rock abrasion tool.

  9. Candor Exposed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-19

    This MOC image shows outcrops of light-toned rock, interpreted to be sedimentary in origin, in east Candor Chasma. The exposures of light-toned rock are separated by areas of windblown ripples and dark sand

  10. 'Bounce' Exposed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image, acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera, features the hole ground by the rover's rock abrasion tool into 'Bounce' rock. The hole measures approximately 35 centimeters (14 inches) long and 10 centimeters (4 inches) high. The depression measures 6.44 millimeters (0.25 inch) deep and about 4.5 centimeters (1.7 inches) across. The grinding procedure took place on the rover's 66th sol on Mars and lasted 2 hours and 15 minutes. A combination of limited solar power, added safety measures and the rock's jagged texture led the rock abrasion tool team to set more aggressive grinding parameters to ensure that the end result was a full circle, suitable for a thorough read from the rover's spectrometers.

    Bounce's outer ring consists of the cuttings from the rock, pushed out by the brushes on the grinding instrument. The small impressions filled with red dust on the outer ring were caused by the instrument's contact mechanism, which serves to stabilize it while grinding.

    This image was created using the panoramic camera's blue, green and red filters.

  11. A regional analysis of elements at risk exposed to mountain hazards in the Eastern European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to quantify the number and value of buildings exposed to torrents and snow avalanches in the Austrian Alps, as well as the number of exposed people. Based on a unique population and building register dataset, a relational SQL database was developed that allows in combination with GIS data a rule-based nation-wide automated analysis. Furthermore, possibilities and challenges are discussed with respect to the use of such data in vulnerability assessment and with respect to resilience measures. We comprehensively address the challenge of data accuracy, scale and uncertainties. From the total of approximately 2.4 million buildings with a clearly attributable geographical location, around 120,000 are exposed to torrent processes (5 %) and snow avalanches (0.4 %); exposition was defined here as located within the digitally available hazard maps of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control Service. Around 5 % of the population (360,000 out of 8.5 million inhabitants), based on those people being compulsory listed in the population register, are located in these areas. The analysis according to the building category resulted in 2.05 million residential buildings in Austria (85 %), 93,000 of which (4.5 %) are exposed to these hazards. In contrast, 37,300 buildings (1.6 %) throughout the country belong to the category of accommodation facilities, 5,600 of which are exposed (15 %). Out of the 140,500 commercial buildings, 8,000 (5 %) are exposed. A considerable spatial variation was detectable within the communities and Federal States. In general, an above-average exposition of buildings to torrent process and snow avalanches was detectable in communities located in the Federal State of Salzburg, Styria and Vorarlberg (torrents), and Tyrol and Vorarlberg (snow avalanches). In the alpine part of Austria, the share of exposed accommodation buildings was two times (Salzburg) and three times (Vorarlberg) higher than the regional average of exposed buildings

  12. Cervical screening and general physical examination behaviors of women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Camp, Elizabeth A; Coker, Ann L; Troisi, Rebecca; Robboy, Stanley J; Noller, Kenneth L; Goodman, Karen J; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda T; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Herbst, Arthur L; Kaufman, Raymond H; Adam, Ervin

    2008-04-01

    To estimate whether women exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES) report receiving more cervical and general physical examinations compared to unexposed women. 1994 Diethylstilbestrol Adenosis cohort data are used to assess the degree of recommended compliance of cervical screenings found in 3,140 DES-exposed and 826 unexposed women. Participants were enrolled at 4 sites: Houston, Boston, Rochester, and Los Angeles. Logistic regression modeling was used to analyze mailed questionnaire data, which included reported frequency over the preceding 5 years (1990-1994) of Papanicolaou smears and general physical examinations. Diethylstilbestrol-exposed women exceeded the recommended frequency of Papanicolaou smear screenings [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.15, 95% CI (confidence interval) = 1.60-2.88] compared to the unexposed. This association held among those without a history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (aOR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.35-2.62). Diethylstilbestrol-exposed women exceeded annual recommendations for physical examinations (aOR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.16-4.43) among women without a history of chronic disease when compared to unexposed women. Most DES-exposed women are receiving cervical cancer screening at least at recommended intervals, but one third of the women are not receiving annual Papanicolaou smear examinations.

  13. Fracture behaviour of the 14Cr ODS steel exposed to helium and liquid lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojna, Anna; Di Gabriele, Fosca; Hadraba, Hynek; Husak, Roman; Kubena, Ivo; Rozumova, Lucia; Bublikova, Petra; Kalivodova, Jana; Matejicek, Jiri

    2017-07-01

    This work describes the fracture behaviour of the 14Cr ODS steel produced by mechanical alloying process, after high temperature exposures. Small specimens were exposed to helium gas in a furnace at 720 °C for 500 h. Another set of specimens was exposed to flowing liquid lead in the COLONRI II loop at 650 °C for 1000 h. All specimens were tested for the impact and tensile behaviour. The impact test results are compared to other sets of specimens in the as received state and after isothermal annealing at 650 °C for 1000 h. The impact curves of the exposed materials showed positive shifts on the transition temperature. While the upper shelf value did not change in the Pb exposed ODS steel, it significantly increased in the He exposed one. The differences are discussed in terms of surface and subsurface microscopy observation. The embrittlement can be explained as the effect of a slight change in the grain boundary and size distribution combined with the depletion of sub-surface region from alloying elements forming oxide scale on the surface.

  14. [Respiratory symptoms and obstructive ventilatory disorder in Tunisian woman exposed to biomass].

    PubMed

    Kwas, H; Rahmouni, N; Zendah, I; Ghedira, H

    2017-04-01

    In some Tunisian cities, especially semi-urbanized, the exposure to the smoke produced during combustion of the biomass, main source of pollution of indoor air, remains prevalent among non-smoking women. To assess the relationship between exposure to biomass smoke and the presence of obstructive ventilatory disorder in the non-smoking women in semi-urban areas of Tunisia. Cross etiological study, using a questionnaire, including 140 non-smoking women responsible for cooking and/or exposed during heating by traditional means with objective measurement of their respiratory functions. We found 81 women exposed to biomass for a period of≥20 hours-years and 59 unexposed women. Exposed women reported more respiratory symptoms namely exertional dyspnea and/or chronic cough than unexposed. Of the 140 women, 14 women have an FEV/FEV6<70% of which 13 are exposed to biomass. We found a correlation between respiratory symptoms and obstructive ventilatory disorder in exposed women. The air pollution inside the home during the traditional activities of cooking and/or heating is a respiratory risk factor for non-smoking women over the age of 30 years. Exposure to biomass smoke can cause chronic respiratory symptoms and persistent obstructive ventilatory disorder that can consistent with COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [Respiratory symptoms and obstructive ventilatory disorder in Tunisian woman exposed to biomass].

    PubMed

    Kwas, H; Rahmouni, N; Zendah, I; Ghédira, H

    2017-06-01

    In some Tunisian cities, especially semi-urbanized, the exposure to the smoke produced during combustion of the biomass, main source of pollution of indoor air, remains prevalent among non-smoking women. To assess the relationship between exposure to biomass smoke and the presence of obstructive ventilatory disorder in the non-smoking women in semi-urban areas of Tunisia. Cross etiological study, using a questionnaire, including 140 non-smoking women responsible for cooking and/or exposed during heating by traditional means with objective measurement of their respiratory functions. We found 81 women exposed to biomass for a period > or equal to 20 hours-years and 59 unexposed women. Exposed women reported more respiratory symptoms namely exertional dyspnea and/or chronic cough than unexposed. Of the 140 women, 14 women have an FEV/FEV6 <70 % of which 13 are exposed to biomass. We found a correlation between respiratory symptoms and obstructive ventilatory disorder in exposed women. The air pollution inside the home during the traditional activities of cooking and/or heating is a respiratory risk factor for non-smoking women over the age of 30 years. Exposure to biomass smoke can cause chronic respiratory symptoms and persistent obstructive ventilatory disorder that can be consistent with COPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Visual selective attention is impaired in children prenatally exposed to opioid agonist medication.

    PubMed

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Melinder, Annika

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether prenatal exposure to opioid agonist medication is associated with visual selective attention and general attention problems in early childhood. Twenty-two children (mean age = 52.17 months, SD = 1.81) prenatally exposed to methadone, 9 children (mean age = 52.41 months, SD = 1.42) prenatally exposed to buprenorphine and 25 nonexposed comparison children (mean age = 51.44 months, SD = 1.31) were tested. Visual selective attention was measured with a Tobii 1750 Eye Tracker using a spatial negative priming paradigm. Attention problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist. The comparison group demonstrated a larger spatial negative priming effect (mean = 23.50, SD = 45.50) than the exposed group [mean = -6.84, SD = 86.39, F(1,50) = 5.91, p = 0.019, η(2) = 0.11]. No difference in reported attention problems was found [F(1,51) = 1.63, p = 0.21, η(2) = 0.03]. Neonatal abstinence syndrome and prenatal exposure to marijuana were found to predict slower saccade latencies in the exposed group (b = 54.55, SE = 23.56, p = 0.03 and b = 88.86, SE = 32.07, p = 0.01, respectively). Although exposed children did not appear to have attention deficits in daily life, lower performance on the SNP task indicates subtle alteration in the attention system. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Estimation of cytogenetic risk among coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, Shanmugam; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Devi, Subramaniam Mohana; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Karthickkumar, Alagamuthu; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanian; Sankar, Kathannan; Mustaqahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan; Dharwadkar, Shanwaz N; Sasikala, Keshavarao; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) result from the incomplete combustion of natural or synthetic organic materials. The working environment at a coke plant can negatively affect the employed workers who were exposed to coke oven emissions containing PAHs, which formed and released into the environment by the process of pyrolysis of coke. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the exposure of PAHs and the risk of genetic damages such as chromosomal alteration (CA), micronucleus (MN), and DNA damage (PCR-RFLP) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 27 coke oven workers and equal number of control subjects. The exposed subjects and controls were divided into two groups based on their age (group I<35 years and group II ≥35 years). The exposed subjects were further classified into two groups based on the exposure period (<12 years and ≥12 years). The frequencies of CA and MN in exposed subjects are relatively high with respect to controls. The XRCC1 399 Arg/gln polymorphism showed a substantial smaller difference in allele frequencies between exposed and control subjects. Based on present data, it was concluded that coke oven workers under risk should be monitored for adverse effects of the any long-term exposure.

  18. Evaluation of oxidative stress and genotoxicity in battery manufacturing workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Singh, Zorawar; Chadha, Pooja; Sharma, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Battery manufacturing workers are occupationally exposed to lead (Pb), which is a highly toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to investigate the blood lead levels (BLL) of 30 battery manufacturing workers and find the correlation between BLL, micronucleated cell (MNC) frequency, binucleated cell (BNC) frequency in buccal mucosal cells and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum. 30 subjects of the BMW group, exposed to lead, and 30 control subjects, matched with the exposed subjects with respect to age, socio-economic status, sex, diet, smoking and drinking habits, were monitored for this study. BLL was found to have highly significant difference between both the groups (P < 0.001). The serum MDA levels were observed at significantly higher levels (6.76 ± 3.26) for the exposed group as compared to the control group (2.10 ± 1.02; P < 0.001). Buccal micronucleus test showed that both MNC and BNC frequencies were higher among the workers, in comparison to the control subjects. A positive correlation has been found between BLL and all the parameters. Our results indicate an increased health associated risk for workers occupationally exposed to lead.

  19. Comparing genotoxic signatures in cord blood cells from neonates exposed in utero to zidovudine or tenofovir

    PubMed Central

    Vivanti, Alexandre; Soheili, Tayebeh S.; Cuccuini, Wendy; Luce, Sonia; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Lechenadec, Jerome; Cordier, Anne-Gael; Azria, Elie; Soulier, Jean; Cavazzana, Marina; Blanche, Stéphane; André-Schmutz, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Zidovudine and tenofovir are the two main nucleos(t)ide analogs used to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In vitro, both drugs bind to and integrate into human DNA and inhibit telomerase. The objective of the present study was to assess the genotoxic effects of either zidovudine or tenofovir-based combination therapies on cord blood cells in newborns exposed in utero. Design: We compared the aneuploid rate and the gene expression profiles in cord blood samples from newborns exposed either to zidovudine or tenofovir-based combination therapies during pregnancy and from unexposed controls (n = 8, 9, and 8, respectively). Methods: The aneuploidy rate was measured on the cord blood T-cell karyotype. Gene expression profiles of cord blood T cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were determined with microarrays, analyzed in a gene set enrichment analysis and confirmed by real-time quantitative PCRs. Results: Aneuploidy was more frequent in the zidovudine-exposed group (26.3%) than in the tenofovir-exposed group (14.2%) or in controls (13.3%; P < 0.05 for both). The transcription of genes involved in DNA repair, telomere maintenance, nucleotide metabolism, DNA/RNA synthesis, and the cell cycle was deregulated in samples from both the zidovudine and the tenofovir-exposed groups. Conclusion: Although tenofovir has a lower clastogenic impact than zidovudine, gene expression profiling showed that both drugs alter the transcription of DNA repair and telomere maintenance genes. PMID:25513819

  20. Comparing genotoxic signatures in cord blood cells from neonates exposed in utero to zidovudine or tenofovir.

    PubMed

    Vivanti, Alexandre; Soheili, Tayebeh S; Cuccuini, Wendy; Luce, Sonia; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Lechenadec, Jerome; Cordier, Anne-Gael; Azria, Elie; Soulier, Jean; Cavazzana, Marina; Blanche, Stéphane; André-Schmutz, Isabelle

    2015-07-17

    Zidovudine and tenofovir are the two main nucleos(t)ide analogs used to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In vitro, both drugs bind to and integrate into human DNA and inhibit telomerase. The objective of the present study was to assess the genotoxic effects of either zidovudine or tenofovir-based combination therapies on cord blood cells in newborns exposed in utero. We compared the aneuploid rate and the gene expression profiles in cord blood samples from newborns exposed either to zidovudine or tenofovir-based combination therapies during pregnancy and from unexposed controls (n = 8, 9, and 8, respectively). The aneuploidy rate was measured on the cord blood T-cell karyotype. Gene expression profiles of cord blood T cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were determined with microarrays, analyzed in a gene set enrichment analysis and confirmed by real-time quantitative PCRs. Aneuploidy was more frequent in the zidovudine-exposed group (26.3%) than in the tenofovir-exposed group (14.2%) or in controls (13.3%; P < 0.05 for both). The transcription of genes involved in DNA repair, telomere maintenance, nucleotide metabolism, DNA/RNA synthesis, and the cell cycle was deregulated in samples from both the zidovudine and the tenofovir-exposed groups. Although tenofovir has a lower clastogenic impact than zidovudine, gene expression profiling showed that both drugs alter the transcription of DNA repair and telomere maintenance genes.

  1. Dendritic cells exposed in vitro to TGF-β1 ameliorate experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    YARILIN, D; DUAN, R; HUANG, Y-M; XIAO, B-G

    2002-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) is an animal model for human myasthenia gravis (MG), characterized by an autoaggressive T-cell-dependent antibody-mediated immune response directed against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) of the neuromuscular junction. Dendritic cells (DC) are unique antigen-presenting cells which control T- and B-cell functions and induce immunity or tolerance. Here, we demonstrate that DC exposed to TGF-β1 in vitro mediate protection against EAMG. Freshly prepared DC from spleen of healthy rats were exposed to TGF-β1 in vitro for 48 h, and administered subcutaneously to Lewis rats (2 × 106DC/rat) on day 5 post immunization with AChR in Freund’s complete adjuvant. Control EAMG rats were injected in parallel with untreated DC (naive DC) or PBS. Lewis rats receiving TGF-β1-exposed DC developed very mild symptoms of EAMG without loss of body weight compared with control EAMG rats receiving naive DC or PBS. This effect of TGF-β1-exposed DC was associated with augmented spontaneous and AChR-induced proliferation, IFN-γ and NO production, and decreased levels of anti-AChR antibody-secreting cells. Autologous DC exposed in vitro to TGF-β1 could represent a new opportunity for DC-based immunotherapy of antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:11876742

  2. Semen quality of Indian welders occupationally exposed to nickel and chromium.

    PubMed

    Danadevi, K; Rozati, Roya; Reddy, P P; Grover, Paramjit

    2003-01-01

    The semen quality of 57 workers from a welding plant in South India and 57 controls was monitored. Blood nickel and chromium concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. Analysis of semen samples was performed in accordance with World Health Organization criteria. The blood level of nickel and chromium for the 28 exposed workers was 123.3 +/- 35.2 and 131.0 +/- 52.6 microg/l, resepctively, which was significantly higher than the 16.7 +/- 5.8 and 17.4 +/- 8.9 microg/l for the control group (n=27). Sperm concentrations of exposed workers were 14.5 +/- 24.0 millions/ml and those of the control group were 62.8 +/- 43.7 millions/ml. Rapid linear sperm motility was decreased in exposed workers compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between the percentage of tail defects and blood nickel concentration in exposed workers. The sperm concentration showed a negative correlation with blood chromium content in workers. More abnormal characteristics were found in the semen of exposed workers. Semen abnormalities correlated with the number of years of exposure to welding fumes containing nickel and chromium.

  3. Is diagnosing exposed dentine a suitable tool for grading erosive loss?

    PubMed Central

    Ganss, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying tooth wear in general and erosion in particular mostly is made by distinguishing between lesions restricted to enamel and lesions reaching the underlying dentine. Various scores for grading have been used, but in all systems, higher scores are given in cases of exposed dentine, thus, indicating a more severe stage of the condition. Clinical diagnosis of exposed dentine is made by assessing changes in colour or optical properties of the hard tissues. This paper aims to review the literature and discuss critically problems arising form this approach. It appears that classifying the severity of erosion by the area or depth of exposed dentine is difficult and poorly reproducible, and taking into account the variation of enamel thickness, the amount of tissue lost often is not related simply to the area of exposed dentine. There has still been very little longitudinal investigation of the significance of exposed dentine as a prognostic indicator. Further work and discussion is needed to reevaluate the explanative power of current grading procedures. PMID:18228063

  4. The persistent microbicidal effect in water exposed to the corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Julák, Jaroslav; Scholtz, Vladimír; Kotúčová, Soňa; Janoušková, Olga

    2012-07-01

    This article describes and particularly explains a new phenomenon of persistent microbicidal effect of water previously exposed to the low-temperature plasma, which cannot be attributed to the acidification only. The direct microbicidal action of plasma is well documented, being mediated by number of reactive particles with a short lifetime. However, we observed the microbicidal effect also in exposed water stored for a month, where it must be mediated by stable particles. In water and in phosphate-buffered saline, the formation of NO(x) and corresponding acids, H(2)O(2) and O(3) was confirmed after exposition to the low-temperature plasma generated in air by DC negative glow corona and positive streamer discharge. The time course of acidification, H(2)O(2) and O(3) formation were deremined. Except uncertain traces of HCN, SIFT-MS analysis of exposed liquids reveals no additional reactive compounds. The microbicidal effect persists almost unchanged during 4 weeks of storage, although O(3) completely and H(2)O(2) almost disappears. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli were inactivated within 10 min of incubation in exposed liquids, Candida albicans needs at least 1 h. The solutions prepared by artificial mixing of reactive compounds mimic the action of exposed water, but in lesser extent. The acid milieu is the main cause of the microbicidal effect, but the possibility of still unidentified additional compound remains open. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mortality among Canadian military personnel exposed to low-dose radiation.

    PubMed

    Raman, S; Dulberg, C S; Spasoff, R A; Scott, T

    1987-05-15

    We carried out a cohort study of mortality among 954 Canadian military personnel exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation during nuclear reactor clean-up operations at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ont., and during observation of atomic test blasts in the United States and Australia in the 1950s. Two controls matched for age, service, rank and trade were selected for each exposed subject. Mortality among the exposed and control groups was ascertained by means of record linkage with the Canadian Mortality Data Base. Survival analysis with life-table techniques did not reveal any difference in overall mortality between the exposed and control groups. Analysis of cause-specific mortality showed similar mortality patterns in the two groups; there was no elevation in the exposed group in the frequency of death from leukemia or thyroid cancer, the causes of death most often associated with radiation exposure. Analysis of survival by recorded gamma radiation dose also did not show any effect of radiation dose on mortality. The findings are in agreement with the current scientific literature on the risk of death from exposure to low-dose radiation.

  6. Hepatitis E, Helicobacter pylori, and gastrointestinal symptoms in workers exposed to waste water

    PubMed Central

    Jeggli, S; Steiner, D; Joller, H; Tschopp, A; Steffen, R; Hotz, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: Workers exposed to sewage may have an increased risk of infection by Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Aims: To assess the prevalence of clinical hepatitis E (HE) and peptic ulcer disease as well as the seroprevalence of antibodies to H pylori and HEV in workers with and without sewage exposure and to look for symptoms due to exposure to endotoxin. Methods: In the first year of a prospective cohort study 349 sewage exposed workers and 429 municipal manual workers (participation: 61%) underwent a complete medical examination. Travelling to endemic areas, socioeconomic level, age, country in which childhood was spent, and number of siblings were considered as the main confounding factors. Results: Peptic ulcer disease and clinical HE did not occur more often in workers exposed to sewage. Prevalence of antibodies to HEV was 3.3% and overall prevalence of IgG antibodies to H pylori was 42% with large differences between subgroups. Logistic regression did not show an increased risk of seropositivity or antibodies to parietal cells in sewage exposed workers, but disentangling the effect of exposure from that of confounders was extremely difficult. No increase of symptoms due to exposure to endotoxin was found in sewage workers, with the exception of diarrhoea. Conclusions: No clear increased risk of infection by H pylori or by HEV in workers exposed to sewage was found in this cross-sectional study, but these results need to be confirmed by follow up. PMID:15208379

  7. Scanning electron microscopic and X-ray micro analysis on tooth enamel exposed to alkaline agents.

    PubMed

    Taubee, Fabian; Steiniger, Frank; Nietzsche, Sandor; Norén, Jörgen G

    2010-01-01

    The background of this study comprises two clinical cases, where patients exposed to aerosols of an alkaline and surface active cleaning agent developed loss of enamel substance on their teeth, further resulting in loss of teeth and partially destroyed soft tissues. The alkaline cleaning agent consisted of potassium hydroxide and various surfactants. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible changes in morphology and composition in human teeth enamel exposed to alkaline solutions, by means of X-ray micro analysis (XRMA), FTIR-spectroscopic analyses and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Extracted premolars, exposed to potassium hydroxide solutions and alkaline cleaning solution,were analyzed by means of XRMA and SEM. Enamel powder, exposed to cleaning solution, was analyzed by means of FTIR. The SEM analysis revealed an increased porosity of the enamel surface and partially loss of enamel substance after exposure to alkaline solutions. The XRMA analyses revealed a decrease in carbon concentration while phosphorous and calcium showed no marked changes. The FTIR analyses showed no significant changes in peak heights or peak positions for phosphate, carbonate or hydroxide. It was concluded that human teeth enamel exposed to alkaline solutions showed loss of organic substance, marked pores in enamel surface and loss of substance in the enamel surface.

  8. Evaluation of Dynamic Disulphide/Thiol Homeostasis in Silica Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Gündüzöz, Meşide; Bal, Ceylan; Büyükşekerci, Murat; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Nadir Öziş, Türkan; İritaş, Servet; Kara, Halil; Erel, Özcan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress is implicated as one of the main molecular mechanism underlying silicosis. Aims: In this study, our aim was to asses the redox status in occupationally silica-exposed workers, by evaluating the dynamic thiol-disulphide homeostasis. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Thirty-six male workers occupationally exposed to silica particles and 30 healthy volunteers, working as office workers were included to the study. Posteroanterior chest radiographs and pulmonary function tests of both groups were evaluated. Also serum thiol disulphide levels were measured using the spectrophotometric method described by Erel and Neşelioğlu. Results: Among the 36 workers that underwent pulmonary function tests 6 (17%) had obstructive, 7 (19%) had restrictive, 6 (17%) had obstructive and restrictive signs whereas 17 (47%) had no signs. The mean PFTs results of silica-exposed workers were significantly lower than control subjects. The serum disulphide levels of silica-exposed workers were significantly higher than control subjects (23.84±5.89 μmol/L and 21.18±3.44 μmol/L, respectively p=0.02). Conclusion: The serum disulphide levels, a biomarker of oxidative stress, are found to be higher in silica-exposed workers. PMID:28418335

  9. Earth's youngest exposed granite and its tectonic implications: the 10-0.8 Ma Kurobegawa Granite.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Yamada, Ryuji; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji; Horie, Kenji; Hokada, Tomokazu

    2013-01-01

    Although the quest for Earth's oldest rock is of great importance, identifying the youngest exposed pluton on Earth is also of interest. A pluton is a body of intrusive igneous rock that crystallized from slowly cooling magma at depths of several kilometers beneath the surface of the Earth. Therefore, the youngest exposed pluton represents the most recent tectonic uplift and highest exhumation. The youngest exposed pluton reported to date is the Takidani Granodiorite (~ 1.4 Ma) in the Hida Mountain Range of central Japan. Using LA-ICP-MS and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating methods, this study demonstrates that the Kurobegawa Granite, also situated in the Hida Mountain Range, is as young as ~ 0.8 Ma. In addition, data indicate multiple intrusion episodes in this pluton since 10 Ma with a ~ 2-million-year period of quiescence; hence, a future intrusion event is likely within 1 million years.

  10. Micronucleus analysis in a Portuguese population exposed to pesticides: preliminary survey.

    PubMed

    Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Coelho, Patrícia; Roma-Torres, Joana; Teixeira, João Paulo; Mayan, Olga

    2007-05-01

    The general population is exposed in their everyday life to different chemicals namely to pesticides. Many of these compounds are capable of inducing mutations in DNA and lead to several diseases including cancer. With this study we intended to evaluate DNA damage inflicted by pesticide exposure in a population occupationally exposed to those chemicals by means of the micronucleus (MN) test. The obtained results showed a significant increase in MN frequency in occupationally exposed individuals (p<0.001) compared with the control group. Higher frequencies of MN were associated with a specific workplace (greenhouses) and the lack of protective measures (gloves) during labour activities. These results reinforce that conditions in workplace should be improved to minimize exposure to these chemicals. This study also emphasizes the need to reinforce the good practices campaigns in order to enlighten those who work with pesticides on the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures.

  11. Atomic friction at exposed and buried graphite step edges: Experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Zhijiang; Martini, Ashlie, E-mail: amartini@ucmerced.edu

    2015-06-08

    The surfaces of layered materials such as graphite exhibit step edges that affect friction. Step edges can be exposed, where the step occurs at the outmost layer, or buried, where the step is underneath another layer of material. Here, we study friction at exposed and buried step edges on graphite using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and complementary molecular dynamics simulations of the AFM tip apex. Exposed and buried steps exhibit distinct friction behavior, and the friction on either step is affected by the direction of sliding, i.e., moving up or down the step, and the bluntness of the tip.more » These trends are analyzing in terms of the trajectory of the AFM tip as it moves over the step, which is a convolution of the topography of the surface and the tip shape.« less

  12. [Studies on semen quality in workers exposed to manganese and electric welding].

    PubMed

    Wu, W; Zhang, Y; Zhang, F

    1996-09-01

    Three hundred and ten workers were selected to study the effects of manganese and electric welding on male reproductive function, with 211 occupationally exposed to manganess and electric welding fume and 99 controls. Concentrations of manganese and welding fume in the air of the workplace were 0.14-5.5 mg/m3 and 6.5-82.3 mg/m3, respectively. Semen concentrations of manganese, copper, chromium, nickel, and iron in workers employed in electric welding were significantly higher than those in controls. Time from ejaculation to liquefaction of semen in exposed workers was longer than that in controls, and volume of semen, sperm count, viable sperm count and percentage were significantly lower in the exposed workers than in the controls. Stepwise regression analysis suggests a direct toxic effect of manganese on sperm production.

  13. Mother-infant interaction at 12 months in prenatally cocaine-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Ukeje, I; Bendersky, M; Lewis, M

    2001-05-01

    This study examined mother-infant interactions of 12-month-old African-American prenatally cocaine-exposed infants and their mothers. Videotaped observations were made during a free-play dyadic interaction, a brief separation, and a reunion period. Videotapes were coded for maternal and child behaviors during each phase of the procedure. Although there were few differences in interactive behaviors between prenatally cocaine-exposed and nonexposed children and their mothers, children who were prenatally exposed to cocaine ignored their mother's departure (odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, p < .05) during separation significantly more often than nonexposed subjects. In addition, mothers who abused cocaine engaged in significantly more verbal behavior (F(2,104) = 7.00, p < .001) with their children than mothers of nonexposed children. These findings indicate that women who used cocaine during pregnancy may not differ from nonusers in their interactions with their 12-month-old infants.

  14. Quantitating Organoleptic Volatile Phenols in Smoke-Exposed Vitis vinifera Berries.

    PubMed

    Noestheden, Matthew; Thiessen, Katelyn; Dennis, Eric G; Tiet, Ben; Zandberg, Wesley F

    2017-09-27

    Accurate methods for quantitating volatile phenols (i.e., guaiacol, syringol, 4-ethylphenol, etc.) in smoke-exposed Vitis vinifera berries prior to fermentation are needed to predict the likelihood of perceptible smoke taint following vinification. Reported here is a complete, cross-validated analytical workflow to accurately quantitate free and glycosidically bound volatile phenols in smoke-exposed berries using liquid-liquid extraction, acid-mediated hydrolysis, and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The reported workflow addresses critical gaps in existing methods for volatile phenols that impact quantitative accuracy, most notably the effect of injection port temperature and the variability in acid-mediated hydrolytic procedures currently used. Addressing these deficiencies will help the wine industry make accurate, informed decisions when producing wines from smoke-exposed berries.

  15. Composite Materials With Uncured Epoxy Matrix Exposed in Stratosphere During NASA Stratospheric Balloon Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela; de Groh, Kim K.

    2013-01-01

    A cassette of uncured composite materials with epoxy resin matrixes was exposed in the stratosphere (40 km altitude) over three days. Temperature variations of -76 to 32.5C and pressure up to 2.1 torr were recorded during flight. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the polymer matrix exposed in the stratosphere becomes crosslinked, while the ground control materials react by way of polymerization reaction of epoxy groups. The space irradiations are considered to be responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The composites were cured on Earth after landing. Analysis of the cured composites showed that the polymer matrix remains active under stratospheric conditions. The results can be used for predicting curing processes of polymer composites in a free space environment during an orbital space flight.

  16. Exposed and embedded corrections in aphasia therapy: issues of voice and identity.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S

    2008-01-01

    Because communication after the onset of aphasia can be fraught with errors, therapist corrections are pervasive in therapy for aphasia. Although corrections are designed to improve the accuracy of communication, some corrections can have social and emotional consequences during interactions. That is, exposure of errors can potentially silence the 'voice' of a speaker by orienting to an utterance as unacceptable. Although corrections can marginalize speakers with aphasia, the practice has not been widely investigated. A qualitative study of corrections during aphasia therapy was undertaken to describe corrections in therapy, identify patterns of occurrence, and develop hypotheses regarding the potential effects of corrections. Videotapes of six individual and five group aphasia therapy sessions were analysed. Sequences consistent with a definition of a therapist 'correction' were identified. Corrections were defined as instances when the therapist offered a 'fix' for a perceived error in the client's talk even though the intent was apparent. Two categories of correction were identified and were consistent with Jefferson's (1987) descriptions of exposed and embedded corrections. Exposed corrections involved explicit correcting by the therapist, while embedded corrections occurred implicitly within the ongoing talk. Patterns of occurrence appeared consistent with philosophical orientations of therapy sessions. Exposed corrections were more prevalent in sessions focusing on repairing deficits, while embedded corrections were prevalent in sessions focusing on natural communication events (e.g. conversation). In addition, exposed corrections were sometimes used when client offerings were plausible or appropriate, but were inconsistent with therapist expectations. The observation that some instances of exposed corrections effectively silenced the voice or self-expression of the person with aphasia has significant implications for outcomes from aphasia therapy. By

  17. Cosmic radiation exposure of biological test systems during the EXPOSE-E mission.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas; Hajek, Michael; Bilski, Pawel; Körner, Christine; Vanhavere, Filip; Reitz, Günther

    2012-05-01

    In the frame of the EXPOSE-E mission on the Columbus external payload facility EuTEF on board the International Space Station, passive thermoluminescence dosimeters were applied to measure the radiation exposure of biological samples. The detectors were located either as stacks next to biological specimens to determine the depth dose distribution or beneath the sample carriers to determine the dose levels for maximum shielding. The maximum mission dose measured in the upper layer of the depth dose part of the experiment amounted to 238±10 mGy, which relates to an average dose rate of 408±16 μGy/d. In these stacks of about 8 mm height, the dose decreased by 5-12% with depth. The maximum dose measured beneath the sample carriers was 215±16 mGy, which amounts to an average dose rate of 368±27 μGy/d. These values are close to those assessed for the interior of the Columbus module and demonstrate the high shielding of the biological experiments within the EXPOSE-E facility. Besides the shielding by the EXPOSE-E hardware itself, additional shielding was experienced by the external structures adjacent to EXPOSE-E, such as EuTEF and Columbus. This led to a dose gradient over the entire exposure area, from 215±16 mGy for the lowest to 121±6 mGy for maximum shielding. Hence, the doses perceived by the biological samples inside EXPOSE-E varied by 70% (from lowest to highest dose). As a consequence of the high shielding, the biological samples were predominantly exposed to galactic cosmic heavy ions, while electrons and a significant fraction of protons of the radiation belts and solar wind did not reach the samples.

  18. Characteristics of young children exposed to violence: the safe start demonstration project.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joy S; Ortega, Sandra; Schewe, Paul A; Kracke, Kristen

    2011-07-01

    The Safe Start demonstration projects, funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) under the first phase of the Safe Start initiative, are primarily designed to influence change at the systems or macrolevels to reduce the incidence of and impact of exposure to violence for children aged birth to 6 years; direct services are also provided to young children and their families who were exposed to violence. The data presented in this article come from 10 communities that submitted data regarding the characteristics of young children exposed to violence to OJJDP. These data represent families who are typically not represented in the databases of state child protective services programs but instead have been identified by domestic violence advocates, early care and education providers, family members, court personnel, police, and other social service personnel as families with young children in need of intervention due to violence exposure.The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics of young children and their parents who seek help for psychosocial problems related to exposure to family and community violence. Results indicate that one quarter of the children and nearly half of their parents evidenced clinical levels of stress, suggesting the need to intervene at the family level as well as at the individual level when working with young children exposed to violence. The information presented, including the extent of exposure to violence, the multiple types of violence to which children are exposed, the impact of this exposure on young children and their families, and the multiple ways in which families exposed to violence come to the attention of service providers is useful for policy makers and service providers who are interested in breaking the cycle of violence by meeting the needs of the children exposed to violence and their families.

  19. RIG-I overexpression decreases mortality of cigarette smoke exposed mice during influenza A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Wenxin; Zhang, Wei; Leland Booth, J; Duggan, Elizabeth S; Tian, Lili; More, Sunil; Zhao, Yan D; Sawh, Ravindranauth N; Liu, Lin; Zou, Ming-Hui; Metcalf, Jordan P

    2017-09-02

    Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important regulator of virus-induced antiviral interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines which participate in clearing viral infections. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure increases the frequency and severity of respiratory tract infections. We generated a RIG-I transgenic (TG) mouse strain that expresses the RIG-I gene product under the control of the human lung specific surfactant protein C promoter. We compared the mortality and host immune responses of RIG-I TG mice and their litter-matched wild type (WT) mice following challenge with influenza A virus (IAV). RIG-I overexpression increased survival of IAV-infected mice. CS exposure increased mortality in WT mice infected with IAV. Remarkably, the effect of RIG-I overexpression on survival during IAV infection was enhanced in CS-exposed animals. CS-exposed IAV-infected WT mice had a suppressed innate response profile in the lung compared to sham-exposed IAV-infected WT mice in terms of the protein concentration, total cell count and inflammatory cell composition in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. RIG-I overexpression restored the innate immune response in CS-exposed mice to that seen in sham-exposed WT mice during IAV infection, and is likely responsible for enhanced survival in RIG-I TG mice as restoration preceded death of the animals. Our results demonstrate that RIG-I overexpression in mice is protective for CS enhanced susceptibility of smokers to influenza infection, and that CS mediated RIG-I suppression may be partially responsible for the increased morbidity and mortality of the mice exposed to IAV. Thus, optimizing the RIG-I response may be an important treatment strategy for CS-enhanced lung infections, particularly those due to IAV.

  20. Abnormal emotional learning in a rat model of autism exposed to valproic acid in utero

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Anwesha; Engineer, Crystal T.; Sauls, Bethany L.; Morales, Anna A.; Kilgard, Michael P.; Ploski, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by repetitive behavior and impaired social communication and interactions. Apart from these core symptoms, a significant number of ASD individuals display higher levels of anxiety and some ASD individuals exhibit impaired emotional learning. We therefore sought to further examine anxiety and emotional learning in an environmentally induced animal model of ASD that utilizes the administration of the known teratogen, valproic acid (VPA) during gestation. Specifically we exposed dams to one of two different doses of VPA (500 and 600 mg/kg) or vehicle on day 12.5 of gestation and examined the resultant progeny. Our data indicate that animals exposed to VPA in utero exhibit enhanced anxiety in the open field test and normal object recognition memory compared to control animals. Animals exposed to 500 mg/kg of VPA displayed normal acquisition of auditory fear conditioning, and exhibited reduced extinction of fear memory and normal litter survival rates as compared to control animals. We observed that animals exposed to 600 mg/kg of VPA exhibited a significant reduction in the acquisition of fear conditioning, a significant reduction in social interaction and a significant reduction in litter survival rates as compared to control animals. VPA (600 mg/kg) exposed animals exhibited similar shock sensitivity and hearing as compared to control animals indicating the fear conditioning deficit observed in these animals was not likely due to sensory deficits, but rather due to deficits in learning or memory retrieval. In conclusion, considering that progeny from dams exposed to rather similar doses of VPA exhibit striking differences in emotional learning, the VPA model may serve as a useful tool to explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms that contribute to not only ASD, but also emotional learning. PMID:25429264

  1. Reduced sensitivity to MDMA-induced facilitation of social behaviour in MDMA pre-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Murray R; Callaghan, Paul D; Hunt, Glenn E; McGregor, Iain S

    2008-05-15

    The acute effects of the party drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") in humans include feelings of love, closeness towards other people and an increased acceptance of others views and feelings. Some evidence suggests that regular MDMA users develop a subsensitivity to the positive effects of the drug and escalate their intake of the drug over time as a result. The current study investigated whether brief exposure to relatively high doses of MDMA in rats produces a subsequent attenuation in the ability of MDMA to enhance social interaction. Male Wistar rats were exposed to either MDMA (4 x 5 mg/kg over 4 h) or vehicle on two consecutive days. Twelve weeks later, MDMA pre-exposed rats displayed a significantly shorter period of time spent in social interaction than controls when tested in the drug-free state. MDMA pre-exposed rats also showed a blunted prosocial response to MDMA (2.5 mg/kg) relative to controls. This difference was overcome by increasing the MDMA dose to 5 mg/kg. The 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT (250 microg/kg but not 125 microg/kg) increased social interaction and this effect did not differ in MDMA and vehicle pre-exposed rats. HPLC analysis showed a small but significant depletion of prefrontal 5-HT and 5-HIAA in MDMA pre-exposed rats. Prefrontal 5-HIAA concentrations were also reduced in the subset of vehicle and MDMA pre-exposed rats that received additional testing with MDMA. These results indicate that treatment with MDMA not only causes lasting reductions in social interaction in rats but causes an attenuation of the prosocial effects of subsequent MDMA administration. The lack of a differential response to 8-OH-DPAT agrees with other findings that the 5-HT(1A) receptor system remains functionally intact following MDMA pre-exposure and suggests that other neuroadaptations may underlie the lasting social deficits caused by MDMA.

  2. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. Results The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Conclusions Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. PMID:26892792

  3. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-02-18

    Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Cross-sectional study. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Possible cause for altered spatial cognition of prepubescent rats exposed to chronic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Karun, Kalesh M; Nayak, Satheesha B; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2015-10-01

    The effects of chronic and repeated radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) exposure on spatial cognition and hippocampal architecture were investigated in prepubescent rats. Four weeks old male Wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz; SAR-1.15 W/kg with peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2)) for 1 h/day, for 28 days. Followed by this, spatial cognition was evaluated by Morris water maze test. To evaluate the hippocampal morphology; H&E staining, cresyl violet staining, and Golgi-Cox staining were performed on hippocampal sections. CA3 pyramidal neuron morphology and surviving neuron count (in CA3 region) were studied using H&E and cresyl violet stained sections. Dendritic arborization pattern of CA3 pyramidal neuron was investigated by concentric circle method. Progressive learning abilities were found to be decreased in RF-EMR exposed rats. Memory retention test performed 24 h after the last training revealed minor spatial memory deficit in RF-EMR exposed group. However, RF-EMR exposed rats exhibited poor spatial memory retention when tested 48 h after the final trial. Hirano bodies and Granulovacuolar bodies were absent in the CA3 pyramidal neurons of different groups studied. Nevertheless, RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. RF-EMR exposure influenced dendritic arborization pattern of both apical and basal dendritic trees in RF-EMR exposed rats. Structural changes found in the hippocampus of RF-EMR exposed rats could be one of the possible reasons for altered cognition.

  5. A neurological evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents.

    PubMed Central

    Maizlish, N A; Fine, L J; Albers, J W; Whitehead, L; Langolf, G D

    1987-01-01

    Workers with long term exposure to mixtures of organic solvents below regulatory limits have been reported to experience mild, but clinically detectable, sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathies. In conjuction with a cross sectional study of behavioural performance a clinical neurological evaluation was conducted among printers and spray painters to examine dose response relations. All 240 subjects completed an occupational history and symptom questionnaire and underwent a clinical neurological examination. On average, subjects had been employed on their current job for six years. Classification of solvent exposure for each subject was based on exposed versus non-exposed job titles and observations during an industrial hygiene walk-through or on the measured concentration of solvents in full shift personal air samples. The average full shift solvent concentration was 302 ppm for printing plant workers and 6-13 ppm for workers at other plants. Isopropanol and hexane were the major constituents. Neurological abnormalities consistent with mild polyneuropathy were found in 16% of subjects; none was clinically significant. Exposed/non-exposed comparisons showed slightly higher frequency of symptoms in the exposed subjects which was not related to solvent level. Subjects categorised as exposed during the walk- through survey also had poorer vibratory sensation measured at the foot and diminished ankle reflexes. In multiple linear regression models, however, controlling for age, sex, alcohol intake, and examiner, no significant (p less than 0.05) relation was found between solvent concentration and poor neurological function except for two point discrimination measured at the foot. This investigation has not provided evidence for dose related adverse neurological effects from exposure to moderately low levels of solvent mixtures for a relatively short duration, although this may be due to the shortness of exposure duration, the type of solvent exposure, or to selection

  6. Effects of Circadian Disruption on Methamphetamine Consumption in Methamphetamine-Exposed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Susan E.; Feng, Hanting; Garber, Garrett; Menaker, Michael; Lynch, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale A substantial number of clinical studies indicate associations between sleep abnormalities and drug abuse; however, the role played by the circadian system in the development of addiction is largely unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of experimentally induced chronic jet lag on methamphetamine consumption in a rat model of methamphetamine drinking. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=32) were housed in running wheel cages in a 12:12 light:dark cycle. One group of rats (n=16) was given two weeks of forced methamphetamine consumption (0.01% in drinking water; meth pre-exposed) while a second group (n=16, not pre-exposed) received water only. This was followed by a two week abstinence period during which half of the animals from each group were exposed to 4 consecutive 6-hr advancing phase shifts of the light:dark cycle, while the other half remained on the original light:dark cycle. Methamphetamine consumption was assessed in all rats following the deprivation period using a two-bottle choice paradigm. Results Methamphetamine consumption was initially lower in methamphetamine pre-exposed vs. not pre-exposed rats. However, during the second week following abstinence, consumption was significantly higher in phase shifted rats of the methamphetamine pre-exposed group compared to all other groups. Conclusions These data reveal an effect of circadian rhythm disturbance on methamphetamine consumption, and suggest that dysregulation of the circadian system be considered in the etiology of relapse and addiction. PMID:25543849

  7. Effects of circadian disruption on methamphetamine consumption in methamphetamine-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Susan E; Feng, Hanting; Garber, Garrett; Menaker, Michael; Lynch, Wendy J

    2015-06-01

    A substantial number of clinical studies indicate associations between sleep abnormalities and drug abuse; however, the role played by the circadian system in the development of addiction is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of experimentally induced chronic jet lag on methamphetamine consumption in a rat model of methamphetamine drinking. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32) were housed in running wheel cages in a 12:12 h light:dark cycle. One group of rats (n = 16) was given 2 weeks of forced methamphetamine consumption (0.01 % in drinking water; meth pre-exposed) while a second group (n = 16, not pre-exposed) received water only. This was followed by a 2-week abstinence period during which half of the animals from each group were exposed to four consecutive 6-h advancing phase shifts of the light:dark cycle, while the other half remained on the original light:dark cycle. Methamphetamine consumption was assessed in all rats following the deprivation period using a two-bottle choice paradigm. Methamphetamine consumption was initially lower in methamphetamine pre-exposed versus not pre-exposed rats. However, during the second week following abstinence, consumption was significantly higher in phase-shifted rats of the methamphetamine pre-exposed group compared to all other groups. These data reveal an effect of circadian rhythm disturbance on methamphetamine consumption and suggest that dysregulation of the circadian system be considered in the etiology of relapse and addiction.

  8. Lysosomal responses to heat-shock of seasonal temperature extremes in Cd-exposed mussels.

    PubMed

    Múgica, M; Izagirre, U; Marigómez, I

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effect of temperature extremes on lysosomal biomarkers in mussels exposed to a model toxic pollutant (Cd) at different seasons. For this purpose, temperature was elevated 10°C (from 12°C to 22°C in winter and from 18°C to 28°C in summer) for a period of 6h (heat-shock) in control and Cd-exposed mussels, and then returned back to initial one. Lysosomal membrane stability and lysosomal structural changes in digestive gland were investigated. In winter, heat-shock reduced the labilisation period (LP) of the lysosomal membrane, especially in Cd-exposed mussels, and provoked transient lysosomal enlargement. LP values recovered after the heat-shock cessation but lysosomal enlargement prevailed in both experimental groups. In summer, heat-shock induced remarkable reduction in LP and lysosomal enlargement (more markedly in Cd-exposed mussels), which recovered within 3 days. Besides, whilst heat-shock effects on LP were practically identical for Cd-exposed mussels in winter and summer, the effects were longer-lasting in summer than in winter for control mussels. Thus, lysosomal responsiveness after heat-shock was higher in summer than in winter but recovery was faster as well, and therefore the consequences of the heat shock seem to be more decisive in winter. In contrast, inter-season differences were attenuated in the presence of Cd. Consequently, mussels seem to be better prepared in summer than in winter to stand short periods of abrupt temperature change; this is, however, compromised when mussels are exposed to pollutants such as Cd. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging of frontal white matter and executive functioning in cocaine-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Behnke, Marylou; Eyler, Fonda Davis; Padgett, Kyle; Leonard, Christiana; Hou, Wei; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Schmalfuss, Ilona M; Blackband, Stephen J

    2006-11-01

    Although animal studies have demonstrated frontal white matter and behavioral changes resulting from prenatal cocaine exposure, no human studies have associated neuropsychological deficits in attention and inhibition with brain structure. We used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate frontal white matter integrity and executive functioning in cocaine-exposed children. Six direction diffusion tensor images were acquired using a Siemens 3T scanner with a spin-echo echo-planar imaging pulse sequence on right-handed cocaine-exposed (n = 28) and sociodemographically similar non-exposed children (n = 25; mean age: 10.6 years) drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study. Average diffusion and fractional anisotropy were measured in the left and right frontal callosal and frontal projection fibers. Executive functioning was assessed using two well-validated neuropsychological tests (Stroop color-word test and Trail Making Test). Cocaine-exposed children showed significantly higher average diffusion in the left frontal callosal and right frontal projection fibers. Cocaine-exposed children were also significantly slower on a visual-motor set-shifting task with a trend toward lower scores on a verbal inhibition task. Controlling for gender and intelligence, average diffusion in the left frontal callosal fibers was related to prenatal exposure to alcohol and marijuana and an interaction between cocaine and marijuana exposure. Performance on the visual-motor set-shifting task was related to prenatal cocaine exposure and an interaction between cocaine and tobacco exposure. Significant correlations were found between test performance and fractional anisotropy in areas of the frontal white matter. Prenatal cocaine exposure, alone and in combination with exposure to other drugs, is associated with slightly poorer executive functioning and subtle microstructural changes suggesting less mature development of frontal white matter pathways. The relative contribution of postnatal

  10. Populations potentially exposed to traffic-related air pollution in seven world cities.

    PubMed

    Su, Jason G; Apte, Joshua S; Lipsitt, Jonah; Garcia-Gonzales, Diane A; Beckerman, Bernardo S; de Nazelle, Audrey; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Jerrett, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) likely exerts a large burden of disease globally, and in many places, traffic is increasing dramatically. The impact, however, of urban form on the portion of population potentially exposed to TRAP remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimate portions of population potentially exposed to TRAP across seven global cities of various urban forms. Data on population distributions and road networks were collected from the best available sources in each city and from remote sensing analysis. Using spatial mapping techniques, we first overlaid road buffers onto population data to estimate the portions of population potentially exposed for four plausible impact zones. Based on a most likely scenario with impacts from highways up to 300meters and major roadways up to 50meters, we identified that the portions of population potentially exposed for the seven cities ranged from 23 to 96%. High-income North American cities had the lowest potential exposure portions, while those in Europe had the highest. Second, we adjusted exposure zone concentration levels based on a literature suggested multiplier for each city using corresponding background concentrations. Though Beijing and Mexico City did not have the highest portion of population exposure, those in their exposure zones had the highest levels of exposure. For all seven cities, the portion of population potentially exposed was positively correlated with roadway density and, to a lesser extent, with population density. These analyses suggest that urban form may influence the portion of population exposed to TRAP and vehicle emissions and other factors may influence the exposure levels. Greater understanding of urban form and other factors influencing potential exposure to TRAP may help inform interventions that protect public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeted aerosolized delivery of ascorbate in the lungs of chlorine-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Bracher, Andreas; Doran, Stephen F; Squadrito, Giuseppe L; Postlethwait, Edward M; Bowen, Larry; Matalon, Sadis

    2012-12-01

    Chlorine (Cl(2))-induced lung injury is a serious public health threat that may result from industrial and household accidents. Post-Cl(2) administration of aerosolized ascorbate in rodents decreased lung injury and mortality. However, the extent to which aerosolized ascorbate augments depleted ascorbate stores in distal lung compartments has not been assessed. We exposed rats to Cl(2) (300 ppm for 30 min) and returned them to room air. Within 15-30 min postexposure, rats breathed aerosolized ascorbate and desferal or vehicle (mean particle size 3.3 μm) through a nose-only exposure system for 60 min and were euthanized. We measured the concentrations of reduced ascorbate in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), plasma, and lung tissues with high-pressure liquid chromatography, protein plasma concentration in the BAL, and the volume of the epithelia lining fluid (ELF). Cl(2)-exposed rats that breathed aerosolized vehicle had lower values of ascorbate in their BAL, ELF, and lung tissues compared to air-breathing rats. Delivery of aerosolized ascorbate increased reduced ascorbate in BAL, ELF, lung tissues, and plasma of both Cl(2) and air-exposed rats without causing lung injury. Based on mean diameter of aerosolized particles and airway sizes we calculated that approximately 5% and 1% of inhaled ascorbate was deposited in distal lung regions of air and Cl(2)-exposed rats, respectively. Significantly higher ascorbate levels were present in the BAL of Cl(2)-exposed rats when aerosol delivery was initiated 1 h post-Cl(2). Aerosol administration is an effective, safe, and noninvasive method for the delivery of low molecular weight antioxidants to the lungs of Cl(2)-exposed individuals for the purpose of decreasing morbidity and mortality. Delivery is most effective when initiated 1 h postexposure when the effects of Cl(2) on minute ventilation subside.

  12. Ovarian stimulation by exogenous gonadotrophins in fetal ethanol-exposed immature rats.

    PubMed

    Rudeen, P K; Hagaman, J

    1988-08-15

    Adult pregnant rats were given either an ad libitum liquid diet containing 5% ethanol, a pair fed liquid diet or an ad libitum diet of rat chow and water administered throughout pregnancy and during the nursing period. The female offspring received either pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) or PMSG followed by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) at 30 days of age. The ovaries of fetal ethanol-exposed animals responded greater to the exogenous gonadotrophins with enhanced ovarian weights, increased numbers of ova shed, greater numbers of corpora lutea and antral follicles, and higher serum progesterone levels than in animals exposed to the control diets during gestation.

  13. [Medical and biological assessment of preventive drinks use among workers exposed to adverse working conditions].

    PubMed

    Nikanov, A N; Markova, O L; Frolova, N M; Kulikova, K S

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the assessment of the effect of treatment-and-preventive drinks, i.e. "Leovit" dietary kissels, and "Zosterin-Ultra" biologically active food additive, on copper, nickel and cobalt ion concentrations in urine and on lead blood concentrations in workers employed at the "Kola Mining Company" limited liability joint-stock company and exposed to long-term metal aerosol effects, were carried out. Dependence of ion concentrations of these metals in biological media on exposure duration was reported. The study findings reveal the advisability of use of the above-mentioned food additives, having detoxication properties, while carrying out preventive measures among workers exposed to heavy metals.

  14. Exposed versus buried intramedullary implants for pediatric forearm fractures: a comparison of complications.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian A; Miller, Patricia; Shore, Benjamin J; Waters, Peter M; Bae, Donald S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of complications between buried and exposed intramedullary implants after fixation of pediatric forearm fractures. A retrospective comparative cohort study of 339 children treated with intramedullary fixation for displaced forearm fractures between 2004 and 2009 was performed. Implants were left exposed in 128 patients (37.8%) and buried beneath the skin in 208 patients (61.4%); 3 patients had buried and exposed hardware (0.9%). Data on demographics, injury, surgical technique, and complications were analyzed. The buried implant group was older (mean 10.3 vs. 8.5 y; P < 0.001), heavier (mean 38.6 vs. 31.9 kg; P < 0.001), and had fewer open injuries (23% vs. 41%; P < 0.001) than the exposed implant group. The buried group had their implants removed later than the exposed group (median 3.5 vs. 1.2 mo; P < 0.001). There was no difference between time to removal for patients with refracture and those without (median 1.3 vs. 2.0 mo; P = 0.78). A total of 36.2% of exposed implants were successfully removed in the office. Complications were seen in 56 patients (16.5%). There were 16 patients (4.7%) with refracture and 12 patients (3.5%) with infection. The buried and exposed implant groups did not differ significantly with respect to refracture (3.1% vs. 7.0%; P = 0.20), infection (3.5% vs. 2.3%; P = 0.66), or overall complications (14.5% vs. 17.2%; P = 0.87). There was also no difference between groups with respect to loss of reduction, nondelayed or delayed union, loss of motion, hypertrophic granuloma, or tendon rupture. Buried implants were also associated with penetration through the skin (3.9%). Injury to the dominant arm and need for open reduction were significant predictors of complication (OR = 1.01; 95% CI, 1.001-1.012; P = 0.02 and OR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.264-0.974; P = 0.04, respectively). There were no significant differences seen in number of infections, refractures, or overall complications based on whether

  15. Investigating early stages of biocorrosion with XPS: AISI 304 stainless steel exposed to Burkholderia species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Saastamoinen, Tuomas

    1999-04-01

    We have investigated the interactions of an exopolymer-producing bacteria, Burkholderia sp. with polished AISI 304 stainless steel substrates using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Steel coupons were exposed to the pure bacteria culture in a specially designed flowcell for 6 h during which the experiment was monitored in situ with an optical microscope. XPS results verified the formation of biofilm containing extracellular polymer on all the samples exposed to bacteria. Sputter results indicated that some ions needed for metabolic processes were trapped within the biofilm. Changes in the relative Fe concentration and Fe 2p peak shape indicated that also iron had accumulated into the biofilm.

  16. Melatonin and puberty in female lambs exposed to EMF: A replicate study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.M. Jr.; Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    In an earlier study, the authors found no effects of 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (EMF) from a 500 kV transmission line on serum melatonin patterns or on puberty in ten female Suffolk lambs (Ovis aries). The authors conducted a larger replicate study of 15 lambs exposed to a mean electric field of 6.3 kV/m and a mean magnetic field of 3.77 {mu}T and 15 controls exposed to EMF two orders of magnitude weaker than in the line area. The replicate produced essentially the same results as their previous study.

  17. Historical perspective on HIV‐exposed seronegative individuals: has nature done the experiment for us?

    PubMed

    Shearer, Gene; Clerici, Mario

    2010-11-01

    Multiple and frequent exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not necessarily result in HIV infection. Approximately 15% of HIV exposed seronegative individuals repeatedly resist infection, a phenomenon that has been observed in all investigated HIV‐exposed cohorts. This brief report provides a limited historic perspective of the discovery of these cohorts and outlines some of the immunologic and genetic parameters that are associated with resistance. We raise the possibility that assessing immunologic parameters of the phenomenon might provide insights that might be relevant for effective AIDS vaccine design.

  18. Characterization of material surfaces exposed to atomic oxygen on space shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    Material samples prepared for exposure to ambient atomic oxygen encountered during space shuttle flights in low Earth orbit were characterized by the experimental techniques of ELLIPSOMETRY, ESCA, PIXE, and RBS. The first group of samples, which were exposed during the STS-8 mission, exhibited some very interesting results. The second group of samples, which are to be exposed during the upcoming STS-17 mission, have been especially prepared to yield quantitative information on the optical changes, oxygen solution, and surface layer formation on metal films of silver, gold, nickel, chromium, aluminum, platinum, and palladium evaporated onto optically polished silicon wafers.

  19. Study of the effects of the outer space environment on dormant forms of microorganisms, fungi and plants in the `Expose-R' experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, N.; Deshevaya, E.; Levinskikh, M.; Polikarpov, N.; Poddubko, S.; Gusev, O.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of the effects of solar radiation combined with the spaceflight factors on biological objects were performed in the «EXPOSE-R» experiment on the outer surface of ISS. After more than 1 year of outer space exposure, the spores of microorganisms and fungi, as well as two species of plant seeds were analysed for viability and the set of biological properties. The experiment provided evidence that not only bacterial and fungal spores but also dormant forms of plants had the capability to survive a long-term exposure to outer space.

  20. Children Exposed to Cocaine: Characteristics and Implications for Research and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Betty Fry; Howard, Vikki F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines physiological and ecological issues involved in the deficits and disabilities of children prenatally exposed to cocaine. It discusses the extent of the problem, physiological effects of cocaine, risks to pregnant women and their babies, long-term effects, and implications for research and intervention. (Author/JDD)