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Sample records for zoarces viviparus liver

  1. Liver histopathology in Baltic eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) - A baseline study for use in marine environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Nicolai F; Stentiford, Grant D; Feist, Stephen W; Lang, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The use of liver histopathology in various fish species as a biomarker in marine monitoring programmes to assess the biological effect of exposure to anthropogenic contaminants is well established. However, although the eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) has repeatedly been recommended as an appropriate bioindicator for monitoring purposes in the Baltic Sea, information on histopathological liver alterations of this species is scarce. In order to obtain an overview, a total of 1070 eelpout, collected in the period between spring 2001 and winter 2010 from 34 sampling sites distributed over large parts of the Baltic Sea, were histologically analyzed. Liver lesions were recorded and classified according to established liver lesion categories. A high prevalence of non-specific and early toxicopathic non-neoplastic hepatic lesions was recorded. In contrast, pre-neoplastic lesions were observed only in rare cases and neoplastic changes were absent. A comparison with published data on other fish species revealed that the observed alterations may indicate effects of environmental stressors including contaminants. The results of the present study, thus, support the application of eelpout liver histopathology in environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Climate induced temperature effects on growth performance, fecundity and recruitment in marine fish: developing a hypothesis for cause and effect relationships in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) and common eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pörtner, H. O.; Berdal, B.; Blust, R.; Brix, O.; Colosimo, A.; De Wachter, B.; Giuliani, A.; Johansen, T.; Fischer, T.; Knust, R.; Lannig, G.; Naevdal, G.; Nedenes, A.; Nyhammer, G.; Sartoris, F. J.; Serendero, I.; Sirabella, P.; Thorkildsen, S.; Zakhartsev, M.

    2001-12-01

    Effects of global warming on animal distribution and performance become visible in many marine ecosystems. The present study was designed to develop a concept for a cause and effect understanding with respect to temperature changes and to explain ecological findings based on physiological processes. The concept is based on a wide comparison of invertebrate and fish species with a special focus on recent data obtained in two model species of fish. These fish species are both characterized by northern and southern distribution limits in the North Atlantic: eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus), as a typical non-migrating inhabitant of the coastal zone and the cod ( Gadus morhua), as a typical inhabitant of the continental shelf with a high importance for fisheries. Mathematical modelling demonstrates a clear significant correlation between climate induced temperature fluctuations and the recruitment of cod stocks. Growth performance in cod is optimal at temperatures close to 10°C, regardless of the population investigated in a latitudinal cline. However, temperature specific growth rates decrease at higher latitudes. Also, fecundity is less in White Sea than in North and Baltic Sea cod or eelpout populations. These findings suggest that a cold-induced shift in energy budget occurs which is unfavorable for growth performance and fecundity. Thermal tolerance limits shift depending on latitude and are characterized by oxygen limitation at both low or high temperatures. Oxygen supply to tissues is optimized at low temperature by a shift in hemoglobin isoforms and oxygen binding properties to lower affinities and higher unloading potential. Protective stimulation of heat shock protein synthesis was not observed. According to a recent model of thermal tolerance the downward shift of tolerance limits during cold adaptation is associated with rising mitochondrial densities and, thus, aerobic capacity and performance in the cold, especially in eurythermal species. At the same time

  3. Severe malformations of eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) fry are induced by maternal estrogenic exposure during early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morthorst, Jane E; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2016-02-01

    Pregnant eelpout were exposed via the water to known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) to clarify if EDCs could be causing the increased eelpout fry malformation frequencies observed in coastal areas receiving high anthropogenic input. The presence of a teratogenic window for estrogen-induced malformations was also investigated by starting the exposure at different times during eelpout pregnancy. Both 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) (17.8 ng/L) and pyrene (0.5 μg/L) significantly increased fry malformation frequency whereas 4-t-octylphenol (4-t-OP) up to 14.3 μg/L did not. Vitellogenin was significantly induced by EE2 (5.7 and 17.8 ng/L) but not by 4-t-OP and pyrene. A critical period for estrogen-induced fry malformations was identified and closed between 14 and 22 days post fertilization (dpf). Exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2) between 0 and 14 dpf caused severe malformations and severity increased the closer exposure start was to fertilization, whereas malformations were absent by exposure starting later than 14 dpf. Data on ovarian fluid volume and larval length supported the suggested teratogenic window. Larval mortality also increased when exposure started right after fertilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. No microplastics in benthic eelpout (Zoarces viviparus): An urgent need for spectroscopic analyses in microplastic detection.

    PubMed

    Wesch, Charlotte; Barthel, Anne-Kathrin; Braun, Ulrike; Klein, Roland; Paulus, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring the ingestion of microplastics is challenging and suitable detection techniques are insufficiently used. Thus, misidentifying natural for synthetic microfibres cannot be avoided. As part of a framework to monitor the ingestion of microplastics in eelpout, this short report addresses the accurate identification of microfibres. We show that, following visual inspections, putatively synthetic microfibres are indeed of natural origin, as ascertained by spectrometric analyses. Consequently, we call for an inclusion of spectroscopic techniques in standardized microplastic monitoring schemes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender related differences in the oxidative stress response to PCB exposure in an endangered goodeid fish (Girardinichthys viviparus).

    PubMed

    Vega-López, Armando; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Jiménez-Orozco, Fausto Alejandro; García-Latorre, Ethel; Domínguez-López, Maria Lilia

    2007-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent xenobiotics within aquatic environments, which elicit diverse toxic effects such as induction of oxidative stress. Despite numerous earlier studies, no detailed information exists on the toxic response by different sexes in fish. The aim of this study was to determine sex-linked differences in oxidative stress response and antioxidant defenses in Girardinichthys viviparus, an endangered fish endemic to Mexico, when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne PCBs. The biological markers evaluated were lipid peroxidation (LPOX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. Adult eight-month-old specimens born in the laboratory were exposed to (1/2) of the LC0 (0.92 mg PCBs/L) in semi-hard synthetic water and sacrificed on days 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 for biomarker assays. Sex-linked differences were observed in the control fish with respect to all three factors assayed. PCBs elicited significant (p<0.01) time- and sex-dependent LPOX levels which were higher in the case of males. In PCB-treated G. viviparus, SOD activity was depressed in both sexes and appears to return to pre-exposure levels after 16 days in males only. In contrast, CAT was significantly induced (p<0.01) in both sexes. This enzyme may be responsible for balancing oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses under experimental conditions. PCBs at sub-lethal concentrations are hazardous to both sexes of G. viviparus since these compounds are able to induce liver LPOX and changes in the antioxidant defense activities. The relationship between these biomarkers and cytochrome P450 and CYP1A induction is also discussed.

  6. Experimental determination of a Viviparus contectus thermometry equation.

    PubMed

    Bugler, Melanie J; Grimes, Stephen T; Leng, Melanie J; Rundle, Simon D; Price, Gregory D; Hooker, Jerry J; Collinson, Margaret E

    2009-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the (18)O/(16)O isotope fractionation between the biogenic aragonite of Viviparus contectus (Gastropoda) and its host freshwater were undertaken to generate a species-specific thermometry equation. The temperature dependence of the fractionation factor and the relationship between Deltadelta(18)O (delta(18)O(carb.) - delta(18)O(water)) and temperature were calculated from specimens maintained under laboratory and field (collection and cage) conditions. The field specimens were grown (Somerset, UK) between August 2007 and August 2008, with water samples and temperature measurements taken monthly. Specimens grown in the laboratory experiment were maintained under constant temperatures (15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C) with water samples collected weekly. Application of a linear regression to the datasets indicated that the gradients of all three experiments were within experimental error of each other (+/-2 times the standard error); therefore, a combined (laboratory and field data) correlation could be applied. The relationship between Deltadelta(18)O (delta(18)O(carb.) - delta(18)O(water)) and temperature (T) for this combined dataset is given by: T = - 7.43( + 0.87, - 1.13)*Deltadelta18O + 22.89(+/- 2.09) (T is in degrees C, delta(18)O(carb.) is with respect to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) and delta(18)O(water) is with respect to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW). Quoted errors are 2 times standard error).Comparisons made with existing aragonitic thermometry equations reveal that the linear regression for the combined Viviparus contectus equation is within 2 times the standard error of previously reported aragonitic thermometry equations. This suggests there are no species-specific vital effects for Viviparus contectus. Seasonal delta(18)O(carb.) profiles from specimens retrieved from the field cage experiment indicate that during shell secretion the delta(18)O(carb.) of the shell carbonate is not influenced by

  7. Dictyocaulus viviparus genome, variome and transcriptome elucidate lungworm biology and support future intervention

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Samantha N.; Strübe, Christina; Rosa, Bruce A.; Martin, John C.; Tyagi, Rahul; Choi, Young-Jun; Wang, Qi; Hallsworth Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Gasser, Robin B.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-01-01

    The bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus (order Strongylida), is an important parasite of livestock that causes substantial economic and production losses worldwide. Here we report the draft genome, variome, and developmental transcriptome of D. viviparus. The genome (161 Mb) is smaller than those of related bursate nematodes and encodes fewer proteins (14,171 total). In the first genome-wide assessment of genomic variation in any parasitic nematode, we found a high degree of sequence variability in proteins predicted to be involved host-parasite interactions. Next, we used extensive RNA sequence data to track gene transcription across the life cycle of D. viviparus, and identified genes that might be important in nematode development and parasitism. Finally, we predicted genes that could be vital in host-parasite interactions, genes that could serve as drug targets, and putative RNAi effectors with a view to developing functional genomic tools. This extensive, well-curated dataset should provide a basis for developing new anthelmintics, vaccines, and improved diagnostic tests and serve as a platform for future investigations of drug resistance and epidemiology of the bovine lungworm and related nematodes. PMID:26856411

  8. Relationship between biomarkers and endocrine-disrupting compounds in wild Girardnichthys viviparus from two lakes with different degrees of pollution.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Rubio, Hugo F; Dzul-Caamal, Ricardo; Gallegos-Rangel, María Esperanza; Madera-Sandoval, Ruth L; Domínguez-López, María Lilia; García-Latorre, Ethel; Vega-López, Armando

    2015-04-01

    Despite great efforts worldwide to evaluate the effects of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in fish, there is little information available about the interactions of EDCs with the disruption of the sexual endocrine axis in fish species with matrotrophic viviparity and intraluminal gestation. To understand these interactions, six sampling campaigns were performed within a period of 1 year in two lakes with different degrees of pollution. A battery of biomarkers of the oestrogenic response was assessed in the liver [vitellogenin, CYP 1A1, epoxide hydrolase activity, and metallothioneins (MT)] and MT in the head of Girardinichthys viviparus. Linear correlation analysis and canonical correspondence analysis were performed to explore the relationship between the oestrogenic response with EDCs and with metals. The biomarker responses were assessed using the water content of EDCs (oestrone, 17-β-oestradiol, oestriol, 17-α-ethinyl oestradiol, total phenols, bisphenol A, nonyl phenol, octyl phenol), as well as the PAHs indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, naphthalene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) and metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn). Greater disruption of the sexual endocrine axis occurred in fish of both sexes inhabiting the polluted lake whose effects were apparently influenced by CYP 1A1 activity and by 17-α-ethinyl oestradiol. In addition, non-estrogenic mechanisms in the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in male fish were observed, elicited by endogenous levels and the water concentration of Pb. In contrast, in females from the less polluted lake, VTG induction was related to exogenous oestrogens. The disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is a complex process influenced by both endogenous and exogenous factors and contributes to male feminisation by exposure to EDCs.

  9. Emergence of a new rhabdovirus associated with mass mortalities in eelpout (Zoarces viviparous) in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Axén, C; Hakhverdyan, M; Boutrup, T S; Blomkvist, E; Ljunghager, F; Alfjorden, A; Hagström, Å; Olesen, N J; Juremalm, M; Leijon, M; Valarcher, J-F

    2017-02-01

    We report the first description of a new Rhabdoviridae tentatively named eelpout rhabdovirus (EpRV genus Perhabdovirus). This virus was associated with mass mortalities in eelpout (Zoarces viviparous, Linnaeus) along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast line in 2014. Diseased fish showed signs of central nervous system infection, and brain lesions were confirmed by histology. A cytopathogenic effect was observed in cell culture, but ELISAs for the epizootic piscine viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), infectious pancreas necrosis virus (IPNV), infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) were negative. Further investigations by chloroform inactivation, indirect fluorescence antibody test and electron microscopy indicated the presence of a rhabdovirus. By deep sequencing of original tissue suspension and infected cell culture supernatant, the full viral genome was assembled and we confirmed the presence of a rhabdovirus with 59.5% nucleotide similarity to the closest relative Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus. The full-genome sequence of this new virus, eelpout rhabdovirus (EpRV), has been deposited in GenBank under accession number KR612230. An RT-PCR based on the L-gene sequence confirmed the presence of EpRV in sick/dead eelpout, but the virus was not found in control fish. Additional investigations to characterize the pathogenicity of EpRV are planned. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Genes of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus associated with transition from pasture to parasitism.

    PubMed

    Strube, C; Buschbaum, S; Schnieder, T

    2012-08-01

    Genes necessary to enable nematode parasitic life after free-living larval life are of substantial interest to understand parasitism. We investigated transcriptional changes during transition to parasitism in the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus, one of the most important parasites in cattle farming due to substantial economic losses. Upregulated transcripts in either free-living, developmentally arrested L3 or parasitic immature L5 were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) followed by differential screening and subsequent virtual Northern blot verification. From 400 sequenced clones of parasitic L5, 372 (93.0%) upregulated high quality ESTs were obtained clustering into 30 contigs and 38 singletons. Most conceptual translated peptides were SCP/TAPS "family" members also known as pathogenesis-related protein (PRP) superfamily (28.5% of total ESTs), cysteine proteases (24.5%), and H-gal-GP orthologues (9.9%). These proteins are predicted to play key roles in fundamental biological processes such as nutrition and development but also parasite-host interactions and immune defense mechanisms. Increased energy requirement of the rapidly developing L5 lungworm stage was obvious in a proportion of 12.2% upregulated ESTs being components of the respiratory chain. From the developmentally arrested L3 stage sequencing of 200 clones resulted in 195 high quality ESTs (97.0%) clustering into 7 contigs and 3 singletons only. Besides a hypothetical protein (70.1% of total ESTs) most transcripts encoded the cleavage stimulation factor subunit 2 (17.5%), which is a component of the poly(A(+)) machinery and found to be involved in gene silencing. Obtained data provide the basis for future fundamental research into genes associated with parasitic lifestyle but also applied research like vaccine and/or drug development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Failure to eradicate the lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus on dairy farms by a single mass-treatment before turnout.

    PubMed

    Ploeger, H W; Holzhauer, M

    2012-04-30

    On two dairy farms it was attempted to eradicate lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus, by means of a single mass-treatment of all cattle that had been grazed the previous year(s), before turnout in the spring. Both farms experienced two years of lungworm outbreaks in the adult dairy herd prior to this study. Following confirmation that both herds contained lungworm carriers, all animals older than approximately 6 months were treated with eprinomectin in March 2007. One week after treatment none of the animals were shedding lungworm larvae. Subsequently, animals were pastured according to normal farm routine. From August to November all first-calving heifers were coprologically and serologically monitored for lungworm infection. During 2007 both farms remained lungworm-negative and did not report any clinical sign indicative for a lungworm infection. The following year, on one of the farms replacements grazing on cow pastures, started showing signs of parasitic bronchitis which was serologically confirmed. The other herd remained free of parasitic bronchitis until at least the fourth year after the mass treatment, although some coughing was noticed in 2008 among first-lactation heifers. It was concluded that a single mass-treatment before the grazing season may be useful to break a series of annual lungworm outbreaks. However, it is not a secure method to prevent parasitic bronchitis for more than one year. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of the transcriptome of adult Dictyocaulus filaria and comparison with Dictyocaulus viviparus, with a focus on molecules involved in host-parasite interactions✰

    PubMed Central

    Mangiola, Stefano; Young, Neil D.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Strube, Christina; Korhonen, Pasi K.; Mitreva, Makedonka; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Hofmann, Andreas; Jex, Aaron R.; Gasser, Robin B.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes cause diseases of major economic importance in animals. Key representatives are species of Dictyocaulus (= lungworms), which cause bronchitis (= dictyocaulosis, commonly known as “husk”) and have a major adverse impact on the health of livestock. In spite of their economic importance, very little is known about the immunomolecular biology of these parasites. Here, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of the adult transcriptome of Dictyocaulus filaria of small ruminants and compared it with that of Dictyocaulus viviparus of bovids. We then identified a subset of highly transcribed molecules inferred to be linked to host-parasite interactions, including cathepsin B peptidases, fatty-acid and/or retinol-binding proteins, β-galactoside-binding galectins, secreted protein 6 precursors, macrophage migration inhibitory factors, glutathione peroxidases, a transthyretin-like protein and a type 2-like cystatin. We then studied homologs of D. filaria type 2-like cystatin encoded in D. viviparus and 24 other nematodes representing seven distinct taxonomic orders, with a particular focus on their proposed role in immunomodulation and/or metabolism. Taken together, the present study provides new insights into nematode-host interactions. The findings lay the foundation for future experimental studies and could have implications for designing new interventions against lungworms and other parasitic nematodes. The future characterization of the genomes of Dictyocaulus spp. should underpin these endeavors. PMID:24487001

  13. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  14. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... fully working livers after a successful transplant. The donor liver is transported in a cooled salt-water (saline) ... Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant Images Donor liver attachment Liver transplant - series References Carrion AF, Martin ...

  15. Liver Transplant

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    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  16. Liver Hemangioma

    MedlinePlus

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  17. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Delta agent (hepatitis D) Drug-induced cholestasis Fatty liver disease Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C ... abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Images Fatty liver, CT scan Liver with disproportional fattening, CT scan ...

  18. Liver Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  19. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  20. Liver anatomy.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Misih, Sherif R Z; Bloomston, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the complexities of the liver has been a long-standing challenge to physicians and anatomists. Significant strides in the understanding of hepatic anatomy have facilitated major progress in liver-directed therapies--surgical interventions, such as transplantation, hepatic resection, hepatic artery infusion pumps, and hepatic ablation, and interventional radiologic procedures, such as transarterial chemoembolization, selective internal radiation therapy, and portal vein embolization. Without understanding hepatic anatomy, such progressive interventions would not be feasible. This article reviews the history, general anatomy, and the classification schemes of liver anatomy and their relevance to liver-directed therapies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Liver spots

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    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  2. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

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    ... Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis G Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ... Primary Liver Cancer Treatment Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment Liver cancer is not common in the United States. Liver ...

  3. Benign Liver Tumors

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    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  4. Liver Function Tests

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    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  5. Progression of Liver Disease

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    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  6. Fatty Liver

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    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, ... fat to accumulate in liver cells by causing the body to synthesize more fat or by processing (metabolizing) and excreting fat more slowly. As a ...

  7. Liver biopsy

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    ... Primary biliary cirrhosis Primary biliary cholangitis Pyogenic liver abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Risks Risks may include: Collapsed lung Complications from the sedation Injury to the gallbladder ...

  8. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

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    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  9. Liver disease - resources

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    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services (C.L.A.S.S.) -- www. ...

  10. Elevated Liver Enzymes

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    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  11. Liver transplant for cholestatic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram

    2013-05-01

    Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pyogenic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many possible causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  13. Liver function tests

    MedlinePlus

    Liver function tests are common tests that are used to see how well the liver is working. Tests include: ... E, Bowne WB, Bluth MH. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  14. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  15. Fatty Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty liver disease that is not related to heavy alcohol use. There are two kinds: Simple fatty ... disease? Alcoholic fatty liver disease is due to heavy alcohol use. Your liver breaks down most of ...

  16. American Liver Foundation

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    ... Media Helpful Links Liver Cancer Information Available in Chinese Learn more about liver cancer HERE . Thanks to ... in Northern California, you can speak to a Chinese speaking agent with your liver cancer questions. Call ...

  17. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    ... fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis, ascites, choline deficiency, cirrhosis, drug-induced fatty liver, edema, encephalopathy, glycogen storage disorder, gynecomastia, hepatic steatosis, hepatomegaly, hereditary fructose intolerance, homocystinuria, hyperlipidemia, ...

  18. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 – 30 November 2011

    PubMed Central

    ABREU, ALUANA G.; ALBAINA, A.; ALPERMANN, TILMAN J.; APKENAS, VANESSA E.; BANKHEAD-DRONNET, S.; BERGEK, SARA; BERUMEN, MICHAEL L.; CHO, CHANG-HUNG; CLOBERT, JEAN; COULON, AURÉLIE; DE FERAUDY, D.; ESTONBA, A.; HANKELN, THOMAS; HOCHKIRCH, AXEL; HSU, TSAI-WEN; HUANG, TSURNG-JUHN; IRIGOIEN, X.; IRIONDO, M.; KAY, KATHLEEN M.; KINITZ, TIM; KOTHERA, LINDA; LE HÉNANFF, MAXIME; LIEUTIER, F.; LOURDAIS, OLIVIER; MACRINI, CAMILA M. T.; MANZANO, C.; MARTIN, C.; MORRIS, VERONICA R. F.; NANNINGA, GERRIT; PARDO, M. A.; PLIESKE, JÖRG; POINTEAU, S.; PRESTEGAARD, TORE; QUACK, MARKUS; RICHARD, MURIELLE; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; SCHWARCZ, KAISER D.; SHADE, JESSICA; SIMMS, ELLEN L.; SOLFERINI, VERA N.; STEVENS, VIRGINIE M.; VEITH, MICHAEL; WEN, MEI-JUAN; WICKER, FLORIAN; YOST, JENNIFER M.; ZARRAONAINDIA, I.

    2017-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. PMID:22296658

  19. Alcoholic Liver Disease and Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F; Charlton, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Excessive alcohol use is a common health care problem worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease represents the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation in North America and Europe. The pretransplant evaluation of patients with alcoholic liver disease should aim at identifying those at high risk for posttransplant relapse of alcohol use disorder, as return to excessive drinking can be deleterious to graft and patient survival. Carefully selected patients with alcoholic liver disease, including those with severe alcoholic hepatitis, will have similar short-term and long-term outcomes when compared with other indications for liver transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A.

    2015-01-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs. PMID:25713804

  1. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A; Canbay, Ali

    2015-02-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs.

  2. Liver xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Marino, I R; Tzakis, A G; Fung, J J; Todo, S; Doyle, H R; Manez, R; Starzl, T E

    1993-10-01

    During the past 30 years orthotopic liver transplantation has become a highly successful form of surgical treatments. The significant advances achieved in this field have led to an increased demand for organs and created a wide gap between organ availability and organ supply. A wider availability of organs for transplantation would allow an expansions rather than a contraction of the indications for transplantation, and, at the same time a relaxation of the patient selection criteria. All these facts clearly justify the renewed interest observed in the last decade in xenotransplantation. The original concept of xenografting, meaning the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between different species, is so ancient that it is easily recognizable in Greek and Roman mythology. The centaur Chiron, the teacher of Esculapius, and the Chimera are legendary examples of discordant xenogeneic creatures. However, it is only during this century that scientists have been able to bring this idea into the clinical arena. The early efforts were prompted by the shortage of humans organs at a time when there were few alternatives for treating end-stage organ failure.

  3. Liver fibrosis markers in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chrostek, Lech; Panasiuk, Anatol

    2014-07-07

    Alcohol is one of the main factors of liver damage. The evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis is of great value for therapeutic decision making in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Staging of liver fibrosis is essential to define prognosis and management of the disease. Liver biopsy is a gold standard as it has high sensitivity and specificity in fibrosis diagnostics. Taking into account the limitations of liver biopsy, there is an exigency to introduce non-invasive serum markers for fibrosis that would be able to replace liver biopsy. Ideal serum markers should be specific for the liver, easy to perform and independent to inflammation and fibrosis in other organs. Serum markers of hepatic fibrosis are divided into direct and indirect. Indirect markers reflect alterations in hepatic function, direct markers reflect extracellular matrix turnover. These markers should correlate with dynamic changes in fibrogenesis and fibrosis resolution. The assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease has diagnostic and prognostic implications, therefore noninvasive assessment of fibrosis remains important. There are only a few studies evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values of noninvasive biomarkers of fibrosis in patients with ALD. Several noninvasive laboratory tests have been used to assess liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease, including the hyaluronic acid, FibroTest, FibrometerA, Hepascore, Forns and APRI indexes, FIB4, an algorithm combining Prothrombin index (PI), α-2 macroglobulin and hyaluronic acid. Among these tests, Fibrotest, FibrometerA and Hepascore demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy in identifying advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, and additionally, Fibrotest was independently associated with survival. Therefore, the use of biomarkers may reduce the need for liver biopsy and permit an earlier treatment of alcoholic patients.

  4. Alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Penny, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 100,000 deaths are attributed to alcohol abuse each year. In 2009, the World Health Organization listed alcohol use as one of the leading causes of the global burden of disease and injury. Alcoholic liver disease, a direct result of chronic alcohol abuse, insidiously destroys the normal functions of the liver. The end result of the disease, cirrhosis, culminates in a dysfunctional and diffusely scarred liver. This article discusses the clinical manifestations, imaging considerations, and treatment of alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis. Normal liver function, liver hemodynamics, the disease of alcoholism, and the deleterious effects of alcohol also are reviewed.

  5. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2017-05-16

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  6. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  7. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    PubMed

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  8. Liver transplantation for metastatic liver malignancies.

    PubMed

    Foss, Aksel; Lerut, Jan P

    2014-06-01

    Liver transplantation is a validated treatment of primary hepatobiliary tumours. Over the last decade, a renewed interest for liver transplantation as a curative treatment of colorectal liver metastasis (CR-LM) and neuro-endocrine metastasis (NET-LM) has developed. The ELTR and UNOS analyses showed that liver transplantation may offer excellent disease-free survival (ranging from 30 to 77%) in case of NET-LM, on the condition that stringent selection criteria are implemented. The interest for liver transplantation in the treatment of CR-LM has been fostered by the Norwegian SECA study. Five-year A 5-year survival rate of 60% could be reached. Despite the high recurrence rate (90%), one-third of patients were disease free following pulmonary surgery for metastases. Liver transplantation will take a more prominent place in the therapeutic algorithm of CR-LM and NET-LM. Larger experiences are necessary to improve knowledge about tumour biology and to refine selection criteria. A multimodal approach adding neo and adjuvant medical treatment to the transplant procedure will be key to bring this oncologic transplant project into the clinical arena. The preserved liver function in these patients will allow a more deliberate access to split liver and living donation for these indications.

  9. Amebic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... abscess URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000211.htm Amebic liver abscess To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amebic liver abscess is a collection of pus ...

  10. Antioxidants in liver health

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Grajales, Sael; Muriel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals (FR). However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leads to deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases. PMID:26261734

  11. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... transplant and liver disease patients. Pre-Transplant Protein Malnutrition -- Many patients with end stage liver disease do ... to lose weight sensibly and slowly, without causing malnutrition (especially protein malnutrition). Losing excess weight decreases the ...

  12. Microbiota and the liver.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ting-Chin David; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos; Rustgi, Vinod K

    2018-04-01

    The gut microbiome outnumbers the human genome by 150-fold and plays important roles in metabolism, immune system education, tolerance development, and prevention of pathogen colonization. Dysbiosis has been associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) as well as cirrhosis and complications. This article provides an overview of this relationship. Liver Transplantation 24 539-550 2018 AASLD. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Stages of Childhood Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment Option Overview Go ... different types of treatment for patients with childhood liver cancer. Different types of treatments are available for children ...

  14. Effects of the brominated flame retardants hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), on hepatic enzymes and other biomarkers in juvenile rainbow trout and feral eelpout.

    PubMed

    Ronisz, D; Finne, E Farmen; Karlsson, H; Förlin, L

    2004-08-25

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) leak out in the environment, including the aquatic one. Despite this, sublethal effects of these chemicals are poorly investigated in fish. In this study, a screening of selected biomarkers in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and feral eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) was performed after exposure to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Rainbow trout was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with HBCDD or TBBPA. Two out of four short-term experiments with HBCDD showed an increase in the activity of catalase. A 40% increase in liver somatic index (LSI) could be observed after 28 days. HBCDD did also seem to have an inhibitory effect on CYP1A's activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD)). A putative peroxisome proliferating activity of the compound was investigated without giving a definite answer. HBCDD did not seem to be estrogenic or genotoxic. TBBPA increased the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) after 4, 14 and 28 days in rainbow trout suggesting a possible role of this compound in inducing oxidative stress. The compound did not seem to be estrogenic. TBBPA seemed to compete with the artificial substrate ethoxyresorufin in vitro, during the EROD assay. In eelpout, only one 5 days in vivo experiment was performed. Neither of the compounds gave rise to any effect in this fish. This was the first screening of sublethal effects of the two chemicals in fish, using high doses. Our results indicate that there is a need for further studies of long-term, low-dose effects of these two widely used flame retardants.

  15. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality.

  16. FXR and liver carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiong-fei; Zhao, Wei-yu; Huang, Wen-dong

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family and a ligand-modulated transcription factor. In the liver, FXR has been considered a multi-functional cell protector and a tumor suppressor. FXR can suppress liver carcinogenesis via different mechanisms: 1) FXR maintains the normal liver metabolism of bile acids, glucose and lipids; 2) FXR promotes liver regeneration and repair after injury; 3) FXR protects liver cells from death and enhances cell survival; 4) FXR suppresses hepatic inflammation, thereby preventing inflammatory damage; and 5) FXR can directly increase the expression of some tumor-suppressor genes and repress the transcription of several oncogenes. However, inflammation and epigenetic silencing are known to decrease FXR expression during tumorigenesis. The reactivation of FXR function in the liver may be a potential therapeutic approach for patients with liver cancer. PMID:25500874

  17. [Liver and sport].

    PubMed

    Watelet, J

    2008-11-01

    The liver is a vital organ and plays a central role in energy exchange, protein synthesis as well as the elimination of waste products from the body. Acute and chronic injury may disturb a variety of liver functions to different degrees. Over the last three decades, the effects of physical activity and competitive sport on the liver have been described by various investigators. These include viral hepatitis and drug-induced liver disorders. Herein, we review acute and chronic liver diseases potentially caused by sport. Team physicians, trainers and others, responsible for the health of athletes, should be familiar with the risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of liver diseases that occur in sports.

  18. Orchestrating liver development.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Miriam; Evans, Todd; Gouon-Evans, Valerie

    2015-06-15

    The liver is a central regulator of metabolism, and liver failure thus constitutes a major health burden. Understanding how this complex organ develops during embryogenesis will yield insights into how liver regeneration can be promoted and how functional liver replacement tissue can be engineered. Recent studies of animal models have identified key signaling pathways and complex tissue interactions that progressively generate liver progenitor cells, differentiated lineages and functional tissues. In addition, progress in understanding how these cells interact, and how transcriptional and signaling programs precisely coordinate liver development, has begun to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this complexity. Here, we review the lineage relationships, signaling pathways and transcriptional programs that orchestrate hepatogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Slack, Andy; Wendon, Julia

    2011-06-01

    ALF is a multisystem disorder necessitating both predictive and reactive management strategies to support and protect organs from the initial and subsequent insults encountered. Early referral to a specialist liver centre with the option of liver transplantation is recommended. Furthermore, a good understanding of the poor prognostic variables is necessary to determine those most at risk of developing ALF in order to facilitate timely, safe transfer and listing for liver transplantation.

  20. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  1. Autoimune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver cirrhosis or chronic active hepatitis. Risks Slight risks from having blood drawn include: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling lightheaded Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin) Infection ( ...

  2. Adipokines in Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Buechler, Christa; Haberl, Elisabeth M; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-06-29

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is considered a serious disease. The Child-Pugh score and the model of end-stage liver disease score have been established to assess residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of portal hypertension contributes to ascites, variceal bleeding and further complications in these patients. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to lower portal pressure, which represents a major improvement in the treatment of patients. Adipokines are proteins released from adipose tissue and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. These proteins affect various biological processes that are involved in liver function, including angiogenesis, vasodilation, inflammation and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The best studied adipokines are adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin protects against hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis, and leptin functions as a profibrogenic factor. These and other adipokines are supposed to modulate disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis. Consequently, circulating levels of these proteins have been analyzed to identify associations with parameters of hepatic function, portal hypertension and its associated complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. This review article briefly addresses the role of adipokines in hepatitis and liver fibrosis. Here, studies having analyzed these proteins in systemic blood in cirrhotic patients are listed to identify adipokines that are comparably changed in the different cohorts of patients with liver cirrhosis. Some studies measured these proteins in systemic, hepatic and portal vein blood or after TIPS to specify the tissues contributing to circulating levels of these proteins and the effect of portal hypertension, respectively.

  3. Adipokines in Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Elisabeth M.; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-01-01

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is considered a serious disease. The Child-Pugh score and the model of end-stage liver disease score have been established to assess residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of portal hypertension contributes to ascites, variceal bleeding and further complications in these patients. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to lower portal pressure, which represents a major improvement in the treatment of patients. Adipokines are proteins released from adipose tissue and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. These proteins affect various biological processes that are involved in liver function, including angiogenesis, vasodilation, inflammation and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The best studied adipokines are adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin protects against hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis, and leptin functions as a profibrogenic factor. These and other adipokines are supposed to modulate disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis. Consequently, circulating levels of these proteins have been analyzed to identify associations with parameters of hepatic function, portal hypertension and its associated complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. This review article briefly addresses the role of adipokines in hepatitis and liver fibrosis. Here, studies having analyzed these proteins in systemic blood in cirrhotic patients are listed to identify adipokines that are comparably changed in the different cohorts of patients with liver cirrhosis. Some studies measured these proteins in systemic, hepatic and portal vein blood or after TIPS to specify the tissues contributing to circulating levels of these proteins and the effect of portal hypertension, respectively. PMID:28661458

  4. Echinococcosis of the Liver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    and 1b. The lack of internal enhancement confirms the cystic nature of these lesions. Discussion Echinococcosis , also known as Hydatid disease... Echinococcosis of the Liver Radiology Corner Echinococcosis of the Liver Guarantor...abbreviated answer in the March 2007 issue. 1 Echinococcosis is a parasitic infection that poses a potential health threat to military members and

  5. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    Cod liver oil contains certain "fatty acids" that prevent the blood from clotting easily. These fatty acids also reduce pain and swelling. ... Morue, Huile de Poisson, Liver Oil, N-3 Fatty Acids, Omega 3, Oméga 3, Omega 3 Fatty Acids, ...

  6. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are Some Benefits of a Living-donor Liver Transplant? In the U.S., more than 17,500 patients ... 1,700 patients die each year while waiting. Liver transplants are given to patients on the basis of ...

  7. Polyploidization of liver cells.

    PubMed

    Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms usually contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. However, there are a number of exceptions. Organisms containing an increase in DNA content by whole number multiples of the entire set of chromosomes are defined as polyploid. Cells that contain more than two sets of chromosomes were first observed in plants about a century ago and it is now recognized that polyploidy cells form in many eukaryotes under a wide variety of circumstance. Although it is less common in mammals, some tissues, including the liver, show a high percentage of polyploid cells. Thus, during postnatal growth, the liver parenchyma undergoes dramatic changes characterized by gradual polyploidization during which hepatocytes of several ploidy classes emerge as a result of modified cell-division cycles. This process generates the successive appearance of tetraploid and octoploid cell classes with one or two nuclei (mononucleated or binucleated). Liver cells polyploidy is generally considered to indicate terminal differentiation and senescence and to lead both to the progressive loss of cell pluripotency and a markedly decreased replication capacity. In adults, liver polyploidization is differentially regulated upon loss of liver mass and liver damage. Interestingly, partial hepatectomy induces marked cell proliferation followed by an increase in liver ploidy. In contrast, during hepatocarcinoma (HCC), growth shifts to a nonpolyploidizing pattern and expansion of the diploid hepatocytes population is observed in neoplastic nodules. Here we review the current state of understanding about how polyploidization is regulated during normal and pathological liver growth and detail by which mechanisms hepatocytes become polyploid.

  8. Fatty liver in children

    PubMed Central

    Rafeey, Mandana; Mortazavi, Fakhrossadat; Mogaddasi, Nafiseh; Robabeh, Ghergherehchi; Ghaffari, Shamsi; Hasani, Alka

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a referral center of pediatrics in the northwest of Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study all subjects aged between six months to 15 years that were referred to the sonography unit, were investigated for fatty liver from March 2005 to August 2006. Patients with fatty liver change underwent detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation. Results: From 1500 children who were investigated, 34 subjects with sonographic evidence of fatty liver were enrolled in this study (2.3%). The mean age was 6.53 ± 3.07 years. Elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase was detected in 38.2% and 47.1% of patients, respectively. The mean level of cholesterol was 461 ± 182.23 mg/dl and 94.1% of patients had hypercholesterolemia. Total cholesterol level and serum aminotransferase levels had a significant positive correlation with severity of fatty liver (p < 0.05). Mean body mass index was significantly higher in patients with severe fatty liver (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The epidemiology of pediatric NAFLD should inform future attempts to develop evaluated screening protocols. Moreover, these data should guide efforts to delineate the pathophysiology of fatty liver in children. PMID:19536316

  9. Pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Ce; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Qiao, Liang

    2014-06-21

    Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases, and fibrosis is the precursor of cirrhosis. Many types of cells, cytokines and miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in fibrosis. Defenestration and capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are major contributing factors to hepatic dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. Activated Kupffer cells destroy hepatocytes and stimulate the activation of HSCs. Repeated cycles of apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes contribute to pathogenesis of cirrhosis. At the molecular level, many cytokines are involved in mediation of signaling pathways that regulate activation of HSCs and fibrogenesis. Recently, miRNAs as a post-transcriptional regulator have been found to play a key role in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Robust animal models of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, as well as the recently identified critical cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis will facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for these conditions.

  10. Pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Ce; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Qiao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases, and fibrosis is the precursor of cirrhosis. Many types of cells, cytokines and miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in fibrosis. Defenestration and capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are major contributing factors to hepatic dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. Activated Kupffer cells destroy hepatocytes and stimulate the activation of HSCs. Repeated cycles of apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes contribute to pathogenesis of cirrhosis. At the molecular level, many cytokines are involved in mediation of signaling pathways that regulate activation of HSCs and fibrogenesis. Recently, miRNAs as a post-transcriptional regulator have been found to play a key role in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Robust animal models of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, as well as the recently identified critical cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis will facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for these conditions. PMID:24966602

  11. Liver transplantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Soyama, Akihiko; Eguchi, Susumu; Egawa, Hiroto

    2016-10-01

    As of December 31, 2014, 7937 liver transplants (7673 living donor transplants and 264 deceased donor liver transplantations [DDLTs; 261 from heart-beating donors and 3 from non-heart-beating donors]) have been performed in 67 institutions in Japan. The revised Organ Transplant Law in Japan came into effect in July 2010, which allows organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, with family consent if the patient had not previously refused organ donation. However, the number of deceased donor organ donations has not increased as anticipated. The rate of deceased organ donations per million population (pmp) has remained at less than 1. To maximize the viability of the limited numbers of donated organs, a system has been adopted that includes the partnership of well-trained transplant consultant doctors and local doctors. For compensating for the decreased opportunity of on-site training, an educational system regarding quality organ procurement for transplant surgeons has also been established. Furthermore, experts in the field of liver transplantation are currently discussing adoption of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score for allocation, promoting split-liver transplantation, arranging in-house coordinators, and improving the frequency of proposing the option to donate organs to the families. To overcome the shortage of donors during efforts to promote organ donation, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been developed in Japan. Continuous efforts to increase DDLT in addition to the successful experience of LDLT will increase the benefits of liver transplantation for more patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1401-1407 2016 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:59-60. Carithers RL, McClain C. Alcoholic ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 86. Haines EJ, Oyama LC. ...

  13. Pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Marco; Riva, Silvia; Maggiore, Giuseppe; Cintorino, Davide; Gridelli, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In previous decades, pediatric liver transplantation has become a state-of-the-art operation with excellent success and limited mortality. Graft and patient survival have continued to improve as a result of improvements in medical, surgical and anesthetic management, organ availability, immunosuppression, and identification and treatment of postoperative complications. The utilization of split-liver grafts and living-related donors has provided more organs for pediatric patients. Newer immunosuppression regimens, including induction therapy, have had a significant impact on graft and patient survival. Future developments of pediatric liver transplantation will deal with long-term follow-up, with prevention of immunosuppression-related complications and promotion of as normal growth as possible. This review describes the state-of-the-art in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:19222089

  14. Pregnancy Complications: Liver Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... resulting from the liver disorder and decreased bile flow. A pregnant woman should call her health care provider if she has these symptoms. How common is ICP? In the United States, ICP affects less than 1 percent of women ( ...

  15. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of toxic waste products. Increasing your intake of carbohydrates to be in proportion with the amount of ... severe liver disease include: Eat large amounts of carbohydrate foods. Carbohydrates should be the major source of ...

  16. Autoimmune liver disease 2007.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Georgios; Muratori, Luigi; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune liver disease (ALD) includes a spectrum of diseases which comprises both cholestatic and hepatitic forms: autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and the so called "overlap" syndromes where hepatitic and cholestatic damage coexists. All these diseases are characterized by an extremely high heterogeneity of presentation, varying from asymptomatic, acute (as in a subset of AIH) or chronic (with aspecific symptoms such as fatigue and myalgia in AIH or fatigue and pruritus in PBC and PSC). The detection and characterization of non organ specific autoantibodies plays a major role in the diagnostic approach of autoimmune liver disease; anti nuclear reactivities (ANA) and anti smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) mark type 1 AIH, liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) and liver cytosol type 1 (LC1) are the serological markers of type 2 AIH; antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are associated with PBC, while no specific marker is found in PSC, since anticytoplasmic neutrophil antibodies with perinuclear pattern (atypical p-ANCA or p-ANNA) are also detected in a substantial proportion of type 1 AIH cases. Treatment options rely on immunosoppressive therapy (steroids and azathioprine) in AIH and on ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic conditions; in all these diseases liver transplantation remains the only therapeutical approach for the end stage of liver disease.

  17. Fortuitously discovered liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

    2013-06-07

    The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible.

  18. Perioperative management of liver surgery-review on pathophysiology of liver disease and liver failure.

    PubMed

    Gasteiger, Lukas; Eschertzhuber, Stephan; Tiefenthaler, Werner

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of patients present for liver surgery. Given the complex pathophysiological changes in chronic liver disease (CLD), it is pivotal to understand the fundamentals of chronic and acute liver failure. This review will give an overview on related organ dysfunction as well as recommendations for perioperative management and treatment of liver failure-related symptoms.

  19. Computational Modeling in Liver Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Christ, Bruno; Dahmen, Uta; Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; König, Matthias; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.; Ricken, Tim; Schleicher, Jana; Ole Schwen, Lars; Vlaic, Sebastian; Waschinsky, Navina

    2017-01-01

    The need for extended liver resection is increasing due to the growing incidence of liver tumors in aging societies. Individualized surgical planning is the key for identifying the optimal resection strategy and to minimize the risk of postoperative liver failure and tumor recurrence. Current computational tools provide virtual planning of liver resection by taking into account the spatial relationship between the tumor and the hepatic vascular trees, as well as the size of the future liver remnant. However, size and function of the liver are not necessarily equivalent. Hence, determining the future liver volume might misestimate the future liver function, especially in cases of hepatic comorbidities such as hepatic steatosis. A systems medicine approach could be applied, including biological, medical, and surgical aspects, by integrating all available anatomical and functional information of the individual patient. Such an approach holds promise for better prediction of postoperative liver function and hence improved risk assessment. This review provides an overview of mathematical models related to the liver and its function and explores their potential relevance for computational liver surgery. We first summarize key facts of hepatic anatomy, physiology, and pathology relevant for hepatic surgery, followed by a description of the computational tools currently used in liver surgical planning. Then we present selected state-of-the-art computational liver models potentially useful to support liver surgery. Finally, we discuss the main challenges that will need to be addressed when developing advanced computational planning tools in the context of liver surgery. PMID:29249974

  20. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American

  1. Gut microbiota and liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Several studies revealed that gut microbiota are associated with various human diseases, e.g., metabolic diseases, allergies, gastroenterological diseases, and liver diseases. The liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to the entry of gut bacteria or their metabolites into the liver through the portal vein, and the liver-gut axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Moreover, gut microbiota play a significant role in the development of alcoholic liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. Based on these previous findings, trials using probiotics have been performed for the prevention or treatment of liver diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the changes in gut microbiota associated with various liver diseases, and we describe the therapeutic trials of probiotics for those diseases. PMID:25684933

  2. Sampling designs for contaminant temporal trend analyses using sedentary species exemplified by the snails Bellamya aeruginosa and Viviparus viviparus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ge; Danielsson, Sara; Dahlberg, Anna-Karin; Zhou, Yihui; Qiu, Yanling; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders

    2017-10-01

    Environmental monitoring typically assumes samples and sampling activities to be representative of the population being studied. Given a limited budget, an appropriate sampling strategy is essential to support detecting temporal trends of contaminants. In the present study, based on real chemical analysis data on polybrominated diphenyl ethers in snails collected from five subsites in Tianmu Lake, computer simulation is performed to evaluate three sampling strategies by the estimation of required sample size, to reach a detection of an annual change of 5% with a statistical power of 80% and 90% with a significant level of 5%. The results showed that sampling from an arbitrarily selected sampling spot is the worst strategy, requiring much more individual analyses to achieve the above mentioned criteria compared with the other two approaches. A fixed sampling site requires the lowest sample size but may not be representative for the intended study object e.g. a lake and is also sensitive to changes of that particular sampling site. In contrast, sampling at multiple sites along the shore each year, and using pooled samples when the cost to collect and prepare individual specimens are much lower than the cost for chemical analysis, would be the most robust and cost efficient strategy in the long run. Using statistical power as criterion, the results demonstrated quantitatively the consequences of various sampling strategies, and could guide users with respect of required sample sizes depending on sampling design for long term monitoring programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Encephalopathy and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chavarria, Laia; Cordoba, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) candidates experience frequently episodic or persistent hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, these patients can exhibit neurological comorbidities that contribute to cognitive impairment in the pre-transplant period. Assessment of the respective contribution of hepatic encephalopathy or comorbidities in the cognitive manifestations is critical to estimate the neurological benefits of restoring liver function. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy are useful to assess the impact of liver failure or comorbidities. This assessment is critical to decide liver transplant in difficult cases. In the early postoperative period, LT is commonly complicated by a confusional syndrome. The possible role of persisting hepatic encephalopathy in its development has not been clearly established. The origin is usually considered multifactorial and relates to complications following LT, such as infections, rejection, primary liver dysfunction, immunosuppressors, etc.… The diagnosis and treatment is based in the recognition of comorbidities and optimal care of metabolic disturbances. Several studies have demonstrated recovery of cognitive function after LT in patients that have exhibited hepatic encephalopathy. However, some deficits may persist specifically among patients with persistent HE. Other factors present before LT that contribute to a worse neuropsychological outcome after LT are diabetes mellitus and alcohol consumption. Long-term after LT, cognitive function may worsen in relation to vascular risk factors.

  4. Transjugular Liver Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, George; Ferral, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for the evaluation of acute and chronic liver disorders. Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) was described by Dotter in 1964 and clinically performed for the first time by Hanafee in 1967. TJLB consists of obtaining liver tissue through a rigid cannula introduced into one of the hepatic veins, typically using jugular venous access. The quality of the TJLB specimens has improved so much that the samples obtained by this method are comparable with those obtained with the percutaneous technique. TJLB is indicated for patients with coagulopathy, ascites, peliosis hepatis, morbid obesity, liver transplant, or in patients undergoing a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure. The technical success rate for a TJLB procedure ranges from 87 to 97%. Sample fragmentation has been reported in 14 to 25% of the TJLB samples. The complication rates are low and range between 1.3% and 6.5%. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of the TJLB procedure, including technique, indications, contraindications, results, and complications. PMID:23729981

  5. [Deceased donor liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Seehofer, D; Schöning, W; Neuhaus, P

    2013-05-01

    Deceased donor liver transplantation is nowadays a routine procedure for the treatment of terminal liver failure and often represents the only chance of a cure. Under given optimal conditions excellent long-term results can be obtained with 15-year survival rates of well above 60 %.In Germany the outcome after liver transplantation has deteriorated since the introduction of an allocation policy, which is based on the medical urgency. At present 25 % of liver graft recipients die within the first year after transplantation. In contrast 1-year survival in most other countries, e.g. in the USA or the United Kingdom is around 90 % and therefore significantly better. Reasons for the inferior results in Germany are on the one hand an increasing number of critically ill recipients and on the other hand an unfavorable situation for organ donation. In comparison with other countries the organ donation rate is low and moreover the risk profile of these donors is above average. This combination of organ shortage and organ allocation represents a big challenge for the future orientation of liver transplantation and creates the potential for conflict. These cannot be solved on a medical basis but require a social consensus.Because of the present inferior results and because of the high expenses of the present system we suggest a discussion on future allocation policies as well as on future centre structures in Germany. In addition to the medical urgency the maximum benefit should also be considered for organ allocation.

  6. Extracorporeal Bioartificial Liver for Treating Acute Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok; Tripathi, Anuj; Jain, Shivali

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Liver is a vital organ of the human body performing myriad of essential functions. Liver-related ailments are often life-threatening and dramatically deteriorate the quality of life of patients. Management of acute liver diseases requires adequate support of various hepatic functions. Thus far, liver transplantation has been proven as the only effective solution for acute liver diseases. However, broader application of liver transplantation is limited by demand for lifelong immunosuppression, shortage of organ donors, relative high morbidity, and high cost. Therefore, research has been focused on attempting to develop alternative support systems to treat liver diseases. Earlier attempts have been made to use nonbiological therapies based on the use of conventional detoxification procedures such as filtration and dialysis. However, the absence of liver cells in such techniques reduced the overall survival rate of the patients and led to inadequate essential liver-specific functions. As a result, there has been growing interest in the development of biological therapy-based extracorporeal liver support systems as a bridge to liver transplantation or to support the ailing liver. A bioartificial liver support is an extracorporeal device through which plasma is circulated over living and functionally active hepatocytes packed in a bioreactor with the aim to aid the diseased liver until it regenerates or until a suitable graft for transplantation is available. This review article gives a brief overview of efficacy of various liver support systems that are currently available. Also, the development of advanced liver support systems, which has been analyzed for improving the important system component such as cell source and other culture and circulation conditions for the maintenance of the liver-specific functions, have been described. PMID:22416599

  7. Liver biopsy under hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Adams, P C; Stenn, P G

    1992-09-01

    Two patients underwent outpatient percutaneous liver biopsy under hypnosis without complications. One patient had severe anxiety about the procedure because of a previous adverse experience with liver biopsy and the other had a history of severe allergy to local anesthesia. Both patients had undergone a session of hypnosis at least once prior to the biopsy. One received no local anesthetic and the other received 1% lidocaine as a local anesthetic. Both patients were completely cooperative during the procedure with the required respiratory maneuvers. Both patients stated that they were aware of the procedure under hypnosis but described no pain and would be most willing to have the procedure done under hypnosis in the future. Hypnosis can be a useful method of preparing carefully selected patients for percutaneous liver biopsy.

  8. Liver natural killer cells: subsets and roles in liver immunity

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hui; Wisse, Eddie; Tian, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The liver represents a frontline immune organ that is constantly exposed to a variety of gut-derived antigens as a result of its unique location and blood supply. With a predominant role in innate immunity, the liver is enriched with various innate immune cells, among which natural killer (NK) cells play important roles in host defense and in maintaining immune balance. Hepatic NK cells were first described as ‘pit cells' in the rat liver in the 1970s. Recent studies of NK cells in mouse and human livers have shown that two distinct NK cell subsets, liver-resident NK cells and conventional NK (cNK) cells, are present in this organ. Here, we review liver NK cell subsets in different species, revisiting rat hepatic pit cells and highlighting recent progress related to resident NK cells in mouse and human livers, and also discuss the dual roles of NK cells in liver immunity. PMID:26639736

  9. Hepatic Dendritic Cells, the Tolerogenic Liver Environment, and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Dou, Lei; Ono, Yoshihiro; Chen, Yi-Fa; Thomson, Angus W; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2018-05-01

    The unique liver immune microenvironment favors resistance to inflammation that promotes normal physiological function. At the same time, it endows the liver with tolerogenic properties that may promote pathological processes. Hepatic dendritic cells (HDCs) initiate and orchestrate immune responses depending on signals they receive from the local environment and are thought to contribute to liver tolerance. Thus, HDCs facilitate impaired T cell responses that are observed in persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatocellular carcinoma progression, and liver allograft transplantation. HDCs also participate in anti-inflammatory responses in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Moreover, they promote the regression of fibrosis from various fibrogenic liver injuries. These findings suggest that HDCs regulate intrahepatic immune responses, allowing the liver to maintain homeostasis and integrity even under pathological conditions. This review focuses on the tolerogenic properties of HDCs based on recent research and in relation to liver disease pathogenesis and its therapy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Liver and chorion cytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Roels, F; De Prest, B; De Pestel, G

    1995-01-01

    Microscopic visualization of peroxisomes in chorionic villus cytotrophoblast and in biopsy and autopsy samples of liver and kidney, the presence of enlarged liver macrophages containing lipid droplets insoluble in acetone and n-hexane as well as polarizing inclusions formed by stacks of trilamellar sheets are of diagnostic value in peroxisomal disorders. Methods are presented for evaluating these structures by light microscopy; trilamellar inclusions are only detected by electron microscopy. Macrophage features are preserved in archival paraffin blocks. In adrenal cortex, insoluble lipid, polarizing inclusions and trilamellar structures should be looked for. The stains are easily reproducible, and all reagents are commercially available.

  11. The Virtual Liver: Modeling Chemical-Induced Liver Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Virtual Liver (v-Liver) project is aimed at modeling chemical-induced processes in hepatotoxicity and simulating their dose-dependent perturbations. The v-Liver embodies an emerging field of research in computational tissue modeling that integrates molecular and cellul...

  12. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  13. Plants Consumption and Liver Health

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a very important organ with a lot of functions for the host to survive. Dietary components are essential for and can be beneficial or detrimental to the healthy or diseased liver. Plants food is an essential part of the human diet and comprises various compounds which are closely related to liver health. Selected food plants can provide nutritional and medicinal support for liver disease. At the present, the knowledge of the effects of plants on the liver is still incomplete. The most urgent task at the present time is to find the best dietary and medicinal plants for liver health in an endless list of candidates. This review article updates the knowledge about the effects of plants consumption on the health of the liver, putting particular emphasis on the potential beneficial and harmful impact of dietary and medicinal plants on liver function. PMID:26221179

  14. Liver Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver disease can cause what is known as “portal hypertension,” meaning increased blood pressure in the veins that ... diagnosed? A specialist can diagnose POPH by identifying portal hypertension (high pressure in the veins of the liver), ...

  15. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy post liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vachiat, Ahmed; McCutcheon, Keir; Mahomed, Adam; Schleicher, Gunter; Brand, Liezl; Botha, Jean; Sussman, Martin; Manga, Pravin

    2016-10-23

    A patient with end-stage liver disease developed stress-induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy post liver transplantation, with haemodynamic instability requiring a left ventricular assist device. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this condition.

  16. About the Operation: Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It weighs about three pounds in adults and is made up ... for life. The liver helps process carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and stores vitamins. It processes ...

  17. Coffee and liver health.

    PubMed

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  18. Polyploidization in liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Gentric, Géraldine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2014-02-01

    Polyploidy (alias whole genome amplification) refers to organisms containing more than two basic sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy was first observed in plants more than a century ago, and it is known that such processes occur in many eukaryotes under a variety of circumstances. In mammals, the development of polyploid cells can contribute to tissue differentiation and, therefore, possibly a gain of function; alternately, it can be associated with development of disease, such as cancer. Polyploidy can occur because of cell fusion or abnormal cell division (endoreplication, mitotic slippage, or cytokinesis failure). Polyploidy is a common characteristic of the mammalian liver. Polyploidization occurs mainly during liver development, but also in adults with increasing age or because of cellular stress (eg, surgical resection, toxic exposure, or viral infections). This review will explore the mechanisms that lead to the development of polyploid cells, our current state of understanding of how polyploidization is regulated during liver growth, and its consequence on liver function. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Liver Disease and IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss, and itching. PSC may not improve with medical treatment for IBD and may ultimately require liver transplantation. The cause is not known and there is no effective medication for PSC. To correct severe narrowing of the bile ducts, a balloon-tipped tube may be inserted into the duct ...

  20. The EPA Liver Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The v-Liver is part of a broader EPA effort on Virtual Tissues (VT) aimed at reducing the magnitude and spectrum of animal testing by integrative in silico and in vitro models, which recapitulate the properties of intact organs. The other VT projects include the Virtual Embryo (...

  1. Calcium signaling in liver.

    PubMed

    Gaspers, Lawrence D; Thomas, Andrew P

    2005-01-01

    In hepatocytes, hormones linked to the formation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) evoke transient increases or spikes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i), that increase in frequency with the agonist concentration. These oscillatory Ca2+ signals are thought to transmit the information encoded in the extracellular stimulus to down-stream Ca2+-sensitive metabolic processes. We have utilized both confocal and wide field fluorescence microscopy techniques to study the InsP3-dependent signaling pathway at the cellular and subcellular levels in the intact perfused liver. Typically InsP3-dependent [Ca2+]i spikes manifest as Ca2+ waves that propagate throughout the entire cytoplasm and nucleus, and in the intact liver these [Ca2+]i increases are conveyed through gap junctions to encompass entire lobular units. The translobular movement of Ca2+ provides a means to coordinate the function of metabolic zones of the lobule and thus, liver function. In this article, we describe the characteristics of agonist-evoked [Ca2+]i signals in the liver and discuss possible mechanisms to explain the propagation of intercellular Ca2+ waves in the intact organ.

  2. Endocannabinoids in Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Joseph; Liu, Jie; Mukhopadhyay, Bani; Cinar, Resat; Godlewski, Grzegorz; Kunos, George

    2010-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators of the same cannabinoid (CB) receptors that mediate the effects of marijuana. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of CB receptors, endocannabinoids, and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, and is present both in brain and peripheral tissues, including the liver. The hepatic ECS is activated in various liver diseases, which contributes to the underlying pathologies. In cirrhosis of various etiologies, activation of vascular and cardiac CB1 receptors by macrophage- and platelet-derived endocannabinoids contribute to the vasodilated state and cardiomyopathy, which can be reversed by CB1 blockade. In mouse models of liver fibrosis, activation of CB1 receptors on hepatic stellate cells is fibrogenic, and CB1 blockade slows the progression of fibrosis. Fatty liver induced by high-fat diets or chronic alcohol feeding depend on activation of peripheral, including hepatic CB1 receptors, which also contribute to insulin resistance and dyslipidemias. Although the documented therapeutic potential of CB1 blockade is limited by neuropsychiatric side effects, these may be mitigated by using novel, peripherally restricted CB1 antagonists. PMID:21254182

  3. [Robot-assisted liver resection].

    PubMed

    Aselmann, H; Möller, T; Kersebaum, J-N; Egberts, J H; Croner, R; Brunner, M; Grützmann, R; Becker, T

    2017-06-01

    Robotic liver resection can overcome some of the limitations of laparoscopic liver surgery; therefore, it is a promising tool to increase the proportion of minimally invasive liver resections. The present article gives an overview of the current literature. Furthermore, the results of a nationwide survey on robotic liver surgery among hospitals in Germany with a DaVinci system used in general visceral surgery and the perioperative results of two German robotic centers are presented.

  4. Nutrition and Liver Health.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alan A

    2017-01-01

    Good clinical practice is based on a secure and accurate diagnosis. Poor nutrition is frequently associated with disorders of the liver, and a specific nutrition diagnosis is needed for providing best care and experiencing successful outcome. There is opportunity for better-structured approaches to making secure and consistent nutritional diagnoses in patients with liver disease. Nutrition is the set of integrated processes by which cells, tissues, organs and the whole body acquire the energy and nutrients to retain normal structure and perform the required functions. At the level of the whole body, this is achieved through dietary supply and the capacity of the body to transform the substrates and cofactors necessary for metabolism. All of these domains (diet, metabolic capacity, activity of the microbiome, body composition and the level of demand for energy and nutrients) are influenced by levels of physical activity and can vary according to physiological and pathological disease states. The liver plays a central role in establishing and maintaining these regulated processes. Its capacity to achieve and maintain these functional capabilities is established during one's early life. When these capabilities are exceeded and the ability to maintain the milieu interieur is compromised, ill-health supervenes. Stress tests that assess flow through gateway pathways can be used to determine the maximal capacity and functional reserve for critical functions. The inability of the liver to reliably integrate body lipid metabolism and the accumulation of abnormal lipid are obvious manifestations of impaired regulation both in situations of weight loss, for example, the fatty liver of severe malnutrition, and in situations of energy excess, as in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The use of stable isotopic probes and the more recent definition of the variability in the metabolome in different nutritional and pathological states indicate the great potential for clinical tools

  5. Colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Ching-Wei D; Aloia, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    With modern multimodality therapy, patients with resected colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases (CLM) can experience up to 50-60 % 5-year survival. These improved outcomes have become more commonplace via achievements in multidisciplinary care, improved definition of resectability, and advances in technical skill. Even patients with synchronous and/or extensive bilateral disease have benefited from novel surgical strategies. Treatment sequencing of synchronous CRC with CLM can be simplified into the following three paradigms: (classic colorectal-first), simultaneous (combined), or reverse approach (liver-first). The decision of whether to treat the CLM or CRC first depends on which site dominates oncologically and symptomatically. Oxaliplatin with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX) and irinotecan with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFIRI) are the foundations of modern chemotherapy. Although each regimen has positively impacted survivals, both have the potential for negative effects on the non-tumor liver. Oxaliplatin is associated with vascular injury (sinusoidal ballooning, microvascular injury, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and long-term fibrosis) but not steatosis. Irinotecan has been associated with steatohepatitis, especially in patients with obesity and diabetes. Steatohepatitis from irinotecan is the only chemotherapy-associated liver injury (CALI) associated with increased mortality from postoperative hepatic insufficiency. Extended duration of preoperative chemotherapy is also associated with CALI. To determine resectability and to prevent overtreatment with systemic therapy, all patients should receive high-quality cross-sectional imaging and be evaluated by a hepatobiliary surgeon before starting chemotherapy. Even as chemotherapy improves, liver surgeons will continue to play a central role in treatment planning by offering the best chance for prolonged survival-safe R0 resection with curative intent.

  6. Alcoholic liver disease: The gut microbiome and liver crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Seebauer, Caroline T.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with alcohol abuse show quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, patients with alcoholic liver disease have increased intestinal permeability and elevated systemic levels of gut-derived microbial products. Maintaining eubiosis, stabilizing the mucosal gut barrier or preventing cellular responses to microbial products protect from experimental alcoholic liver disease. Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation appear fundamental for the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. This review highlights causes for intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation, their relationship and consequences for alcoholic liver disease. We also discuss how the liver affects the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25872593

  7. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether this condition is a

  8. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2008-06-07

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether this condition is a

  9. Probiotics in Pediatric Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Miloh, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    The gut-liver axis involves complex interaction between the intestinal microbiome and the liver parenchyma. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are used in a variety of diseases. With currently only 2 randomized-controlled studies (one with Lactobacillus GG and the other with VSL #3), data are scarce to support the clinical effect of probiotic use in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There is evidence that probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and thereby reduce the prevalence of total parenteral nutrition-induced chronic liver disease. Probiotics are used with a few reported positive outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis and familial hypercholesterolemia and may be promising in other liver conditions. Probiotics are generally safe and well tolerated in children, premature infants, and in patients after liver transplantation. Large, prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate the benefit of probiotics in children with liver diseases.

  10. The liver sieve and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Robin; Cogger, Victoria C; Dobbs, Bruce; Jamieson, Hamish; Warren, Alessandra; Hilmer, Sarah N; Le Couteur, David G

    2012-04-01

    The 'liver sieve' is a term developed to describe the appearance and the role of fenestrations in the liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC). LSECs are gossamer-thin cells that line the hepatic sinusoid and they are perforated with pores called fenestrations clustered in sieve plates. There is growing evidence that fenestrations act like a permselective ultrafiltration system which is important for the hepatic uptake of many substrates, particularly chylomicron remnant lipoproteins. The liver sieve is a very efficient exchange system, however in conditions such as hepatic cirrhosis and fibrosis, diabetes mellitus and old age, there is defenestration of the liver sieve. Such defenestration has been shown to influence the hepatic uptake of various substrates including lipoproteins. In the future, pharmacological manipulation of the liver sieve may play a number of therapeutic roles including the management of dyslipidaemia; increasing the efficiency of liver-targeted gene therapy; and improving regeneration of old livers. (C) 2012 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia.

  11. Liver Disease in Mitochondrial Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Way S.; Sokol, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Liver involvement, a common feature in childhood mitochondrial hepatopathies, particularly in the neonatal period, may manifest as neonatal acute liver failure, hepatic steatohepatitis, cholestasis, or cirrhosis with chronic liver failure of insidious onset. There are usually significant neuromuscular symptoms, multisystem involvement, and lactic acidemia. The liver disease is usually progressive and eventually fatal. Current medical therapy of mitochondrial hepatopathies is largely ineffective, and the prognosis is usually poor. The role of liver transplantation in patients with liver failure remains poorly defined because of the systemic nature of the disease that does not respond to transplantation. Several specific molecular defects (mutations in nuclear genes such as SCO1, BCS1L, POLG, DGUOK, and MPV17 and deletion or rearrangement of mitochondrial DNA) have been identified in recent years. Prospective, longitudinal multicenter studies will be needed to address the gaps in our knowledge in these rare liver diseases. PMID:17682973

  12. Drug-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    David, Stefan; Hamilton, James P

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is common and nearly all classes of medications can cause liver disease. Most cases of DILI are benign, and improve after drug withdrawal. It is important to recognize and remove the offending agent as quickly as possible to prevent the progression to chronic liver disease and/or acute liver failure. There are no definite risk factors for DILI, but pre-existing liver disease and genetic susceptibility may predispose certain individuals. Although most patients have clinical symptoms that are identical to other liver diseases, some patients may present with symptoms of systemic hypersensitivity. Treatment of drug and herbal-induced liver injury consists of rapid drug discontinuation and supportive care targeted to alleviate unwanted symptoms. PMID:21874146

  13. A bioartificial liver to treat severe acute liver failure.

    PubMed Central

    Rozga, J; Podesta, L; LePage, E; Morsiani, E; Moscioni, A D; Hoffman, A; Sher, L; Villamil, F; Woolf, G; McGrath, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the safety and efficacy of a bioartificial liver support system in patients with severe acute liver failure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The authors developed a bioartificial liver using porcine hepatocytes. The system was tested in vitro and shown to have differentiated liver functions (cytochrome P450 activity, synthesis of liver-specific proteins, bilirubin synthesis, and conjugation). When tested in vivo in experimental animals with liver failure, it gave substantial metabolic and hemodynamic support. METHODS: Seven patients with severe acute liver failure received a double lumen catheter in the saphenous vein; blood was removed, plasma was separated and perfused through a cartridge containing 4 to 6 x 10(9) porcine hepatocytes, and plasma and blood cells were reconstituted and reinfused. Each treatment lasted 6 to 7 hours. RESULTS: All patients tolerated the procedure(s) well, with neurologic improvement, decreased intracranial pressure (23.0 +/- 2.3 to 7.8 +/- 1.7 mm Hg; p < 0.005) associated with an increase in cerebral perfusion pressure, decreased plasma ammonia (163.3 +/- 21.3 to 112.2 +/- 9.8 microMoles/L; p < 0.01), and increased encephalopathy index (0.60 +/- 0.17 to 1.24 +/- 0.22; p < 0.03). All patients survived, had a liver transplant, and were discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: This bioartificial liver is safe and serves as an effective "bridge" to liver transplant in some patients. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8185403

  14. Pediatric pyogenic liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Israeli, Rafi; Jule, Jose Ernesto; Hom, Jeffrey

    2009-02-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a rare pediatric disease. Typically, PLA is found in adults with biliary disease. There are no typical physical findings or symptoms. Often, pathogenic organisms are not recovered for identification. This case illustrates a teenager presenting with prolonged episodes of fever and vomiting. With percutaneous drainage and month-long antibiotic therapy, the PLA resolved. This case illustrates that a high index of suspicion is needed for diagnosis.

  15. Liver Disease in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wijewantha, Hasitha S

    2017-01-01

    Liver disease in Sri Lanka is mainly due to alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In contrast to other South Asian countries, the prevalence of hepatitis B and C is low in Sri Lanka and prevalence of hepatitis A is intermediate. The few reported cases of hepatitis E in Sri Lanka are mainly in people who have traveled to neighboring South Asian countries. Wilson's disease, autoimmune hepatitis, hemochromatosis, drug-induced liver disease, and primary biliary cirrhosis are recognized causes of liver disease in Sri Lanka. Pyogenic and amebic liver abscesses and dengue infection are the other causes of liver disease. Some of the commonly used plants as traditional herbal medicine in Sri Lanka have been shown to have deleterious effects on the liver in animal studies. Considering the high popularity of traditional herbal medicine in the country, it is likely that herbal medicine is an etiological factor for liver disease in Sri Lanka, but no published data are available. Address reprint requests to: Wijewantha HS. Liver Disease in Sri Lanka. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(1):78-81.

  16. Liver transplantation in the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injuries

    PubMed Central

    Lauterio, Andrea; De Carlis, Riccardo; Di Sandro, Stefano; Ferla, Fabio; Buscemi, Vincenzo; De Carlis, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    The place of liver transplantation in the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injuries has not yet been widely discussed in the literature. Bile duct injuries during cholecystectomy represent the leading cause of liver transplantation in this setting, while other indications after abdominal surgery are less common. Urgent liver transplantation for the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injury may-represent a surgical challenge requiring technically difficult and time consuming procedures. A debate is ongoing on the need for centralization of complex surgery in tertiary referral centers. The early referral of patients with severe iatrogenic liver injuries to a tertiary center with experienced hepato-pancreato-biliary and transplant surgery has emerged as the best treatment of care. Despite widespread interest in the use of liver transplantation as a treatment option for severe iatrogenic injuries, reported experiences indicate few liver transplants are performed. This review analyzes the literature on liver transplantation after hepatic injury and discusses our own experience along with surgical advances and future prospects in this uncommon transplant setting. PMID:28932348

  17. Intestinal microbiota in liver disease.

    PubMed

    Haque, Tanvir R; Barritt, A Sidney

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota have emerged as a topic of intense interest in gastroenterology and hepatology. The liver is on the front line as the first filter of nutrients, toxins and bacterial metabolites from the intestines and we are becoming increasingly aware of interactions among the gut, liver and immune system as important mediators of liver health and disease. Manipulating the microbiota with therapeutic intent is a rapidly expanding field. In this review, we will describe what is known about the contribution of intestinal microbiota to liver homeostasis; the role of dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of liver disease including alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; and the therapeutic manifestations of altering intestinal microbiota via antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Folate, Alcohol, and Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Valentina; Halsted, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is typically associated with folate deficiency, which is the result of reduced dietary folate intake, intestinal malabsorption, reduced liver uptake and storage, and increased urinary folate excretion. Folate deficiency favors the progression of liver disease through mechanisms that include its effects on methionine metabolism with consequences for DNA synthesis and stability and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression involved in pathways of liver injury. This paper reviews the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease with particular focus on ethanol-induced alterations in methionine metabolism which may act in synergy with folate deficiency to decrease antioxidant defense as well as DNA stability while regulating epigenetic mechanisms of relevant gene expressions. We also review the current evidence available on potential treatments of alcoholic liver disease based on correcting abnormalities in methionine metabolism and the methylation regulation of relevant gene expressions. PMID:23136133

  19. Experimental models of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Cogliati, Bruno; Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Colle, Isabelle; van den Bossche, Bert; de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Leclercq, Isabelle; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a wound healing response to insults and as such affects the entire world population. In industrialized countries, the main causes of liver fibrosis include alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A central event in liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is triggered by a plethora of signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis can progress into more severe stages, known as cirrhosis, when liver acini are substituted by nodules, and further to hepatocellular carcinoma. Considerable efforts are currently devoted to liver fibrosis research, not only with the goal of further elucidating the molecular mechanisms that drive this disease, but equally in view of establishing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of in vivo and in vitro models used in the field of experimental liver fibrosis research.

  20. Protothecosis after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Narita, Masashi; Muder, Robert R; Cacciarelli, Thomas V; Singh, Nina

    2008-08-01

    Prototheca species are unicellular algae of low virulence that are rarely associated with human infections. We report a liver transplant recipient with disseminated protothecosis and review the literature on this unusual opportunistic infection in transplant recipients. Of 9 cases, including ours, 5 had a localized infection, and 4 had disseminated protothecosis. Seven cases were due to Prototheca wickerhamii, and 2 were due to Prototheca zopfii. Overall mortality in transplant recipients with Prototheca infections was 88% (7/8). All 4 cases of disseminated protothecosis died despite therapy with amphotericin B. Posttransplant protothecosis is a rare but significant infection that is associated with a grave prognosis.

  1. Liver transplantation around the world.

    PubMed

    Trotter, James F

    2017-04-01

    In the past few years, there have been important changes in the development of liver transplantation around the world. In particular, several emerging countries have rapidly developed transplant programs. There have also been important changes in liver allocation, utilization of donors by cardiac death, and living donors. A review of the practices in different countries around the world will help provide the reader with a better appreciation of their own program as well as the recognition of potential areas of improvement based on the experience of their colleagues. A recent series of articles has been published in the journal Liver Transplantation summarizing the practice of liver transplantation from representative countries around the world. The volume of liver transplant varies widely by country and there has been an important growth in volume in emerging countries. Most liver transplant candidates are prioritized for surgery by the Model for Endstage Liver Disease score and with the exception of Germany and the USA most patients are transplanted at Model for Endstage Liver Disease score from 18 to 20. Hepatitis C is the most common indication for liver transplant with the notable exception of several European countries. Innovative strategies to incentivize donation have been developed in several countries.

  2. Liver immunology and herbal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Yasemin H; Aka, Ceylan; Koca-Caliskan, Ufuk

    2017-01-01

    Beyond the metabolic functions, the liver recently has been defined as an organ of immune system (IS), which have central regulatory role for innate and adaptive immunity. The liver keeps a delicate balance between hepatic screening of pathogenic antigens and immune tolerance to self-antigens. Herbal treatments with immunological effects have potential to alter this hepatic immune balance towards either therapeutic side or diseases side by inducing liver injury via hepatotoxicity or initiation of autoimmune diseases. Most commonly known herbal treatments, which have therapeutic effect on liver and IS, have proven via in vitro, in vivo, and/or clinical studies were summarized in this review. PMID:28660010

  3. Gut microbiome and liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Tilg, Herbert; Cani, Patrice D; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-12-01

    The gut microbiota has recently evolved as a new important player in the pathophysiology of many intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. The liver is the organ which is in closest contact with the intestinal tract, and is exposed to a substantial amount of bacterial components and metabolites. Various liver disorders such as alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic liver disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis have been associated with an altered microbiome. This dysbiosis may influence the degree of hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis through multiple interactions with the host's immune system and other cell types. Whereas few results from clinical metagenomic studies in liver disease are available, evidence is accumulating that in liver cirrhosis an oral microbiome is overrepresented in the lower intestinal tract, potentially contributing to disease process and severity. A major role for the gut microbiota in liver disorders is also supported by the accumulating evidence that several complications of severe liver disease such as hepatic encephalopathy are efficiently treated by various prebiotics, probiotics and antibiotics. A better understanding of the gut microbiota and its components in liver diseases might provide a more complete picture of these complex disorders and also form the basis for novel therapies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Iron homeostasis in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

  5. Climate change affects marine fishes through the oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Pörtner, Hans O; Knust, Rainer

    2007-01-05

    A cause-and-effect understanding of climate influences on ecosystems requires evaluation of thermal limits of member species and of their ability to cope with changing temperatures. Laboratory data available for marine fish and invertebrates from various climatic regions led to the hypothesis that, as a unifying principle, a mismatch between the demand for oxygen and the capacity of oxygen supply to tissues is the first mechanism to restrict whole-animal tolerance to thermal extremes. We show in the eelpout, Zoarces viviparus, a bioindicator fish species for environmental monitoring from North and Baltic Seas (Helcom), that thermally limited oxygen delivery closely matches environmental temperatures beyond which growth performance and abundance decrease. Decrements in aerobic performance in warming seas will thus be the first process to cause extinction or relocation to cooler waters.

  6. Hypercapnia induced shifts in gill energy budgets of Antarctic notothenioids.

    PubMed

    Deigweiher, Katrin; Hirse, Timo; Bock, Christian; Lucassen, Magnus; Pörtner, Hans O

    2010-03-01

    Mechanisms responsive to hypercapnia (elevated CO(2) concentrations) and shaping branchial energy turnover were investigated in isolated perfused gills of two Antarctic Notothenioids (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Notothenia coriiceps). Branchial oxygen consumption was measured under normo- versus hypercapnic conditions (10,000 ppm CO(2)) at high extracellular pH values. The fractional costs of ion regulation, protein and RNA synthesis in the energy budgets were determined using specific inhibitors. Overall gill energy turnover was maintained under pH compensated hypercapnia in both Antarctic species as well as in a temperate zoarcid (Zoarces viviparus). However, fractional energy consumption by the examined processes rose drastically in G. gibberifrons (100-180%), and to a lesser extent in N. coriiceps gills (7-56%). In conclusion, high CO(2) concentrations under conditions of compensated acidosis induce cost increments in epithelial processes, however, at maintained overall rates of branchial energy turnover.

  7. Neurologic Manifestations of Chronic Liver Disease and Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sureka, Binit; Bansal, Kalpana; Patidar, Yashwant; Rajesh, S; Mukund, Amar; Arora, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    The normal functioning of brain is intimately as well as intricately interrelated with normal functioning of the liver. Liver plays a critical role of not only providing vital nutrients to the brain but also of detoxifying the splanchnic blood. Compromised liver function leads to insufficient detoxification thus allowing neurotoxins (such as ammonia, manganese, and other chemicals) to enter the cerebral circulation. In addition, portosystemic shunts, which are common accompaniments of advanced liver disease, facilitate free passage of neurotoxins into the cerebral circulation. The problem is compounded further by additional variables such as gastrointestinal tract bleeding, malnutrition, and concurrent renal failure, which are often associated with liver cirrhosis. Neurologic damage in chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis seems to be multifactorial primarily attributable to the following: brain accumulation of ammonia, manganese, and lactate; altered permeability of the blood-brain barrier; recruitment of monocytes after microglial activation; and neuroinflammation, that is, direct effects of circulating systemic proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, IL-1β, and IL-6. Radiologist should be aware of the conundrum of neurologic complications that can be encountered in liver disease, which include hepatic encephalopathy, hepatocerebral degeneration, hepatic myelopathy, cirrhosis-related parkinsonism, cerebral infections, hemorrhage, and osmotic demyelination. In addition, neurologic complications can be exclusive to certain disorders, for example, Wilson disease, alcoholism (Wernicke encephalopathy, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease, etc). Radiologist should be aware of their varied clinical presentation and radiological appearances as the diagnosis is not always straightforward. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Polycystic Liver Disease

    SciT

    Linda, Nguyen, E-mail: nguyenli@einstein.edu

    A 77-year-old African American male presented with intermittent abdominal pain for one week. He denied nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fevers, anorexia, or weight loss. He denied a family history of liver disease, recent travel, or history of intravenous drug abuse. His vital signs were normal. Labs revealed total bilirubin of 1.5 mg/dl, hypoalbuminaemia 3.0 gm/dl and prolonged prothrombin time of 14.8 sec. Computed Tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast showed multiple hepatic cysts with the largest cyst occupying the right abdomen, measuring 20.6 cm (Panel A and). This cyst had predominantly fluid attenuation, but also contained several septations.more » The patient underwent laparoscopic fenestration of the large hepatic cyst with hepatic cyst wall biopsy. Pathology revealed blood without malignant cells. The patient tolerated the procedure well with improvement of his abdominal pain and normalization of his liver function tests and coagulation profile.« less

  9. Quantitative PET of liver functions.

    PubMed

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2018-01-01

    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro- D -galactose ( 18 F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value ( SUV ) from a static liver 18 F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11 C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [ N -methyl- 11 C]cholylsarcosine ( 11 C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood ( K 1 ; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion , SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18 F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET.

  10. Quantitative PET of liver functions

    PubMed Central

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2018-01-01

    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-galactose (18F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value (SUV) from a static liver 18F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [N-methyl-11C]cholylsarcosine (11C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood (K 1; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion, SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET. PMID:29755841

  11. The Liver, Regulator of Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this theme issue is to review the basic physiological, nutritional, and pathological facts pertaining to the liver. It is an educational tool through which university teachers and people in charge of training may enhance their teaching programs. The main liver diseases seen in young children and pregnant women in tropical regions is…

  12. Management of paediatric liver trauma.

    PubMed

    van As, A B; Millar, Alastair J W

    2017-04-01

    Of all the intra-abdominal solid organs, the liver is the most vulnerable to blunt abdominal trauma. The majority of liver ruptures present in combination with other abdominal or extra-abdominal injuries. Over the last three decades, the management of blunt liver trauma has evolved from obligatory operative to non-operative management in over 90% of cases. Penetrating liver injuries more often require operative intervention and are managed according to adult protocols. The greatest clinical challenge remains the timely identification of the severely damaged liver with immediate and aggressive resuscitation and expedition to laparotomy. The operative management can be taxing and should ideally be performed in a dedicated paediatric surgical centre with experience in dealing with such trauma. Complications can occur early or late and include haemobilia, intrahepatic duct rupture with persistent biliary fistula, bilaemia, intrahepatic haematoma, post-traumatic cysts, vascular outflow obstruction, and gallstones. The prognosis is generally excellent.

  13. [Primary cancer of the liver].

    PubMed

    Orozco, H; Mercado, M A

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiologic and pathogenic aspects of primary hepatic malignancies are discussed. The role of viruses in the etiology of the disease is stressed. Imageology methods have a preponderant role for diagnosis and treatment options. Liver resection has a one years survival between 60 and 80% and a five years survival of 20 to 40%. A good surgical results is expected for tumors with no more than 5 cm in diameter, encapsulated and without vascular invasion non-cirrhotic livers, large tumors can also be removed. Surgical resection margin should be of 1 cm. For cirrhotic livers, a good liver function is needed (Child A-B) and no safe major resection can be done. History of bleeding portal hypertension has a negative role in the outcome. Liver transplantation should be limited to selected case, in which the tumors are small and asymptomatic (incidental). For larger tumors, long term results are not good with invariable recurrency of the tumor.

  14. [Surgical techniques in liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Chan, Carlos; Plata-Muñoz, Juan José; Franssen, Bernardo

    2005-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is probably the biggest surgical aggression that a patient can endure. It was considered only as a last option in the era of experimental LT, yet it evolved into the definitive treatment for some types of acute and chronic end stage liver disease. In terms of technique LT is the most complex of all types of transplantations. The surgical procedure in itself is well established and has changed little through time. Liver transplantation owes its improvement to better and more systematic anesthetic procedures and to perioperative care more than being due to improvement of the surgical technique. The first surgical procedure was described by Thomas Starzl in 1969. His initial work has been strengthened with the development of venous bypass, the refinement in vascular and biliary reconstruction technique and the development of the split liver. Up to date technical aspects of orthotopic liver transplantation are described in the present article.

  15. Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Burra, Patrizia; Zanetto, Alberto; Germani, Giacomo

    2018-02-09

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the main important causes of cancer-related death and its mortality is increasingly worldwide. In Europe, alcohol abuse accounts for approximately half of all liver cancer cases and it will become the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in the next future with the sharp decline of chronic viral hepatitis. The pathophysiology of alcohol-induced carcinogenesis involves acetaldehyde catabolism, oxidative stress and chronic liver inflammation. Genetic background plays also a significant role and specific patterns of gene mutations in alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized. Survival is higher in patients who undergo specific surveillance programmes than in patients who do not. However, patients with alcohol cirrhosis present a significantly greater risk of liver decompensation than those with cirrhosis due to other aetiologies. Furthermore, the adherence to screening program can be suboptimal. Liver transplant for patients with Milan-in hepatocellular carcinoma represents the best possible treatment in case of tumour recurrence/progression despite loco-regional or surgical treatments. Long-term result after liver transplantation for alcohol related liver disease is good. However, cardiovascular disease and de novo malignancies can significantly hamper patients' survival and should be carefully considered by transplant team. In this review, we have focused on the evolution of alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma epidemiology and risk factors as well as on liver transplantation in alcoholic patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. Propylthiouracil-Induced Acute Liver Failure: Role of Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Carrion, Andres F.; Czul, Frank; Arosemena, Leopoldo R.; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Garcia, Monica T.; Tekin, Akin; Tzakis, Andreas G.; Martin, Paul; Ghanta, Ravi K.

    2010-01-01

    Propylthiouracil- (PTU-) induced hepatotoxicity is rare but potentially lethal with a spectrum of liver injury ranging from asymptomatic elevation of transaminases to fulminant hepatic failure and death. We describe two cases of acute hepatic failure due to PTU that required liver transplantation. Differences in the clinical presentation, histological characteristics, and posttransplant management are described as well as alternative therapeutic options. Frequent monitoring for PTU-induced hepatic dysfunction is strongly advised because timely discontinuation of this drug and implementation of noninvasive therapeutic interventions may prevent progression to liver failure or even death. PMID:21234410

  17. Extracellular Matrix and Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arriazu, Elena; Ruiz de Galarreta, Marina; Cubero, Francisco Javier; Varela-Rey, Marta; Pérez de Obanos, María Pilar; Leung, Tung Ming; Lopategi, Aritz; Benedicto, Aitor; Abraham-Enachescu, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic microenvironment that undergoes continuous remodeling, particularly during injury and wound healing. Chronic liver injury of many different etiologies such as viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, drug-induced liver injury, obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic disorders, and autoimmune disease is characterized by excessive deposition of ECM proteins in response to persistent liver damage. Critical Issues: This review describes the main collagenous and noncollagenous components from the ECM that play a significant role in pathological matrix deposition during liver disease. We define how increased myofibroblasts (MF) from different origins are at the forefront of liver fibrosis and how liver cell-specific regulation of the complex scarring process occurs. Recent Advances: Particular attention is paid to the role of cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen species, and newly identified matricellular proteins in the regulation of fibrillar type I collagen, a field to which our laboratory has significantly contributed over the years. We compile data from recent literature on the potential mechanisms driving fibrosis resolution such as MF’ apoptosis, senescence, and reversal to quiescence. Future Directions: We conclude with a brief description of how epigenetics, an evolving field, can regulate the behavior of MF and of how new “omics” tools may advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which the fibrogenic response to liver injury occurs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1078–1097. PMID:24219114

  18. Size mismatch in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, Kyota; Nishida, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    Size mismatch is an unique and inevitable but critical issue in live donor liver transplantation. Unmatched metabolic demand of recipient as well as physiologic mismatch aggravates the damage to liver graft, inevitably leading to graft failure on recipient. Also, an excessive resection of liver graft for better recipient outcome in live donor liver transplant may jeopardize the healthy donor well-being and even put donor life in danger. There is a fine balance between resected graft volume required to meet the recipient's metabolic demand and residual graft volume required for donor safety. The obvious clinical necessity of finding that balance has prompted a clinical need and promoted the improvement of knowledge and development of management strategies for size-mismatched transplants. The development of the size-matching methodology has significantly improved graft outcome and recipient survival in live donor liver transplants. On the other hand, the effect of size mismatch in cadaveric transplants has never been observed as being so pronounced. The importance of matching of the donor recipient size has been unrecognized in cadaveric liver transplant. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current most updated knowledge on the subject, particularly addressing the definition and complications of size-mismatched cadaveric liver transplant, as well as management strategies. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  19. Nutritional status and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2011-12-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as 'metabolic syndrome', may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review

  20. Liver Transplantation: East versus West

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Akash; Vadeyar, Hemant; Rela, Mohamed; Shah, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) has evolved rapidly since the first successful liver transplant performed in1967. Despite a humble beginning, this procedure gained widespread acceptance in the western world as a suitable option for patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) by the beginning of the 1980s. At present, approximately 25,000 liver transplants are being performed worldwide every year with approximately 90% one year survival. The techniques of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) developed in East Asia in the 1990s to overcome the shortage of suitable grafts for children and scarcity of deceased donors. While deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) constitutes more than 90% of LT in the western world, in India and other Asian countries, most transplants are LDLT. Despite the initial disparity, outcomes following LDLT in eastern countries have been quite satisfactory when compared to the western programs. The etiologies of liver failure requiring LT vary in different parts of the world. The commonest etiology for acute liver failure (ALF) leading to LT is drugs in the west and acute viral hepatitis in Asia. The most common indication for LT due to ESLD in west is alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus (HCV), while hepatitis B virus (HBV) predominates in the east. There is a variation in prognostic models for assessing candidature and prioritizing organ allocation across the world. Model for end–stage liver disease (MELD) is followed in United States and some European centers. Other European countries rely on the Child–Turcotte–Pugh (CTP) score. Some parts of Asia still follow chronological order of listing. The debate regarding the best model for organ allocation is far from over. PMID:25755506

  1. Acute liver failure with thyrotoxicosis treated with liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cascino, Matthew D; McNabb, Brian; Gardner, David G; Woeber, Kenneth A; Fox, Alyson N; Wang, Bruce; Fix, Oren K

    2013-01-01

    We describe a young woman with previously undiagnosed thyrotoxicosis who presented with acute liver failure (ALF). We present a case report and review the relevant literature. An extensive evaluation excluded possible causes of ALF other than thyrotoxicosis. The management of thyrotoxicosis posed several unique challenges in the setting of ALF, particularly because we did not want to use potentially hepatotoxic thionamides. The patient was treated with prednisone and propranolol and was started on potassium iodide when she was listed for liver transplantation. She underwent an uncomplicated liver transplant and subsequent thyroidectomy and is doing well. This well-characterized case describes thyrotoxicosis as a possible cause of ALF after thoroughly excluding other possible causes and illustrates the challenges of simultaneously managing both disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ALF possibly resulting from untreated thyrotoxicosis that was successfully treated with liver transplantation.

  2. [Jaundice and pathological liver values].

    PubMed

    Schwarzenbach, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-06-05

    Jaundice corresponds to elevated bilirubin- levels, whereat one has to distinguish between direct and indirect serum-bilirubin. In the present Mini Review causes and differential diagnosis of jaundice are outlined. Ultrasound-diagnostic plays a major role in identifying intrahepatic or extrahepatic jaundice. Attention is given to the differential diagnosis of elevated liver enzymes in presence of jaundice, pointing out the distinction between hepatocellular and cholestatic parameters as well as the differentiation in acute or chronic increase. Moreover, the consequences of liver enzyme elevations including further diagnostic procedures, are highlighted. Finally, possibilities and limitations of modern diagnostic tests for liver fibrosis are briefly overviewed.

  3. Abacavir-induced liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pezzani, Maria Diletta; Resnati, Chiara; Di Cristo, Valentina; Riva, Agostino; Gervasoni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Abacavir-induced liver toxicity is a rare event almost exclusively occurring in HLA B*5701-positive patients. Herein, we report one case of abnormal liver function tests occurring in a young HLA B*5701-negative woman on a stable nevirapine-based regimen with no history of liver problems or alcohol abuse after switching to abacavir from tenofovir. We also investigated the reasons for abacavir discontinuation in a cohort of patients treated with abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Dr. Liver: A preoperative planning system of liver graft volumetry for living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jae Do; Yu, Hee Chul; Choi, Younggeun; Yang, Kwangho; Lee, Tae Beom; Hwang, Hong Pil; Ahn, Sungwoo; You, Heecheon

    2018-05-01

    Manual tracing of the right and left liver lobes from computed tomography (CT) images for graft volumetry in preoperative surgery planning of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is common at most medical centers. This study aims to develop an automatic system with advanced image processing algorithms and user-friendly interfaces for liver graft volumetry and evaluate its accuracy and efficiency in comparison with a manual tracing method. The proposed system provides a sequential procedure consisting of (1) liver segmentation, (2) blood vessel segmentation, and (3) virtual liver resection for liver graft volumetry. Automatic segmentation algorithms using histogram analysis, hybrid level-set methods, and a customized region growing method were developed. User-friendly interfaces such as sequential and hierarchical user menus, context-sensitive on-screen hotkey menus, and real-time sound and visual feedback were implemented. Blood vessels were excluded from the liver for accurate liver graft volumetry. A large sphere-based interactive method was developed for dividing the liver into left and right lobes with a customized cutting plane. The proposed system was evaluated using 50 CT datasets in terms of graft weight estimation accuracy and task completion time through comparison to the manual tracing method. The accuracy of liver graft weight estimation was assessed by absolute difference (AD) and percentage of AD (%AD) between preoperatively estimated graft weight and intraoperatively measured graft weight. Intra- and inter-observer agreements of liver graft weight estimation were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) using ten cases randomly selected. The proposed system showed significantly higher accuracy and efficiency in liver graft weight estimation (AD = 21.0 ± 18.4 g; %AD = 3.1% ± 2.8%; percentage of %AD > 10% = none; task completion time = 7.3 ± 1.4 min) than the manual tracing method (AD = 70

  5. Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Perla Oliveira; Ferreira, Fabio Gonçalves; Nascimento, Maria de Fátima Araújo; Vieira, Andrea; Ribeiro, Mauricio Alves; David, André Ibrahim; Szutan, Luiz Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver cancer, and NAFLD prevalence in different liver tumors. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of the clinical, laboratory and histological data of 120 patients diagnosed with primary or secondary hepatic neoplasms and treated at a tertiary center where they underwent hepatic resection and/or liver transplantation, with subsequent evaluation of the explant or liver biopsy. The following criteria were used to exclude patients from the study: a history of alcohol abuse, hepatitis B or C infection, no tumor detected in the liver tissue examined by histological analysis, and the presence of chronic autoimmune hepatitis, hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, or hepatoblastoma. The occurrence of NAFLD and the association with its known risk factors were studied. The risk factors considered were diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, body mass index, dyslipidemia, and arterial hypertension. Presence of reticulin fibers in the hepatic neoplasms was assessed by histological analysis using slide-mounted specimens stained with either hematoxylin and eosin or Masson’s trichrome and silver impregnation. Analysis of tumor-free liver parenchyma was carried out to determine the association between NAFLD and its histological grade. RESULTS: No difference was found in the association of NAFLD with the general population (34.2% and 30.0% respectively, 95%CI: 25.8-43.4). Evaluation by cancer type showed that NAFLD was more prevalent in patients with liver metastasis of colorectal cancer than in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (OR = 3.99, 95%CI: 1.78-8.94, P < 0.001 vs OR = 0.60, 95%CI: 0.18-2.01, P = 0.406 and OR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.18-2.80, P = 0.613, respectively). There was a higher prevalence of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (OR = 3.50, 95%CI: 1.06-11.57, P = 0.032). Evaluation of the

  6. 3-Tesla MRI Response to TACE in HCC (Liver Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-22

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Stage A Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Stage B Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC)

  7. Probabilistic liver atlas construction.

    PubMed

    Dura, Esther; Domingo, Juan; Ayala, Guillermo; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Goceri, E

    2017-01-13

    Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. A new method for probabilistic atlas construction that uses a generalized linear model is proposed. This method aims to improve the estimation of the probability to be covered by the liver. Furthermore, all methods to build an atlas involve previous coregistration of the sample of shapes available. The influence of the geometrical transformation adopted for registration in the quality of the final atlas has not been sufficiently investigated. The ability of an atlas to adapt to a new case is one of the most important quality criteria that should be taken into account. The presented experiments show that some methods for atlas construction are severely affected by the previous coregistration step. We show the good performance of the new approach. Furthermore, results suggest that extremely flexible registration methods are not always beneficial, since they can reduce the variability of the atlas and hence its ability to give sensible values of probability when used as an aid in segmentation of new cases.

  8. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Infections After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Mark; Seetharam, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Opportunistic infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation. Systemic immunosuppression renders the liver recipient susceptible to de novo infection with bacteria, viruses and fungi post-transplantation as well to reactivation of pre-existing, latent disease. Pathogens are also transmissible via the donor organ. The time from transplantation and degree of immunosuppression may guide the differential diagnosis of potential infectious agents. However, typical systemic signs and symptoms of infection are often absent or blunted after transplant and a high index of suspicion is needed. Invasive procedures are often required to procure tissue for culture and guide antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the incidence of opportunistic infections and is routinely employed in the care of patients after liver transplant. In this review, we survey common bacterial, fungal, and viral infections after orthotopic liver transplantation and highlight recent developments in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25755581

  10. Kava Linked to Liver Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... of these countries to remove kava from the market. Although liver damage appears to be rare, the ... are marketed to men, women, children, and the elderly. Advice to Consumers Safety is a concern for ...

  11. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  12. Energy Metabolism in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic activity is tightly controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is metabolized into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is completely oxidized to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in hepatocytes, and these complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as VLDL particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis). During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source of endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue to release nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in the liver though mitochondrial β oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver metabolic processes are tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal systems. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis, but suppresses gluconeogenesis; glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1α, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze the rate-limiting steps of liver metabolic processes, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). PMID:24692138

  13. Tuberculous pseudotumor of the liver

    SciT

    Dhekne, R.D.; Moore, W.H.; Long, S.E.

    1987-10-01

    Tuberculosis of the liver in association with generalized miliary tuberculosis is not an uncommon clinical entity. A solitary tuberculous liver abscess, however, is rare. Two such cases, in which there was no clinical evidence of extrahepatic tuberculosis, are reported. The similarities between this condition and other causes of hepatic lesions are discussed, with particular emphasis placed on the imaging patterns of various diagnostic imaging procedures.

  14. Peripheral neuropathy in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Parampreet S; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Chawla, Yogesh K; Das, Chandi P; Syal, Puneet

    2003-08-01

    Neuropathy in association with chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis, is recognized; however, there are differences in the incidence and type of neuropathy reported. The causal relationship of liver disease to neuropathy has been questioned. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence and character of peripheral neuropathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. The effect of alcohol consumption, severity of liver disease and encephalopathy on the incidence and severity of neuropathy were also studied. Patients having an identifiable cause of peripheral neuropathy, except alcohol, were excluded from the study. Patients with evidence of vitamin B12 deficiency or diabetes were also excluded from the study. In this study, 33 patients with liver cirrhosis were evaluated clinically and electrophysiologically to detect any evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies were performed in the upper and lower limbs using surface electrodes. These patients also underwent a detailed clinical examination. Clinical signs of peripheral neuropathy were found in seven (21%) patients. Nerve conduction studies were abnormal in 24 (73%) patients. The pattern of involvement was predominantly of an axonal sensory motor polyneuropathy. Neuropathy was found both in patients with alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related cirrhosis. The presence of encephalopathy did not have a significant bearing on the incidence and severity of neuropathy. The neuropathy was also not significantly related to the severity of liver disease. The present study reveals that a significant number of patients with liver cirrhosis show evidence of peripheral neuropathy, which is present regardless of the etiology of cirrhosis, and is subclinical in a majority of these patients. The cause of neuropathy was probably the liver disease itself, as the incidence and severity of neuropathy in the alcohol-related cirrhosis, although higher, was not significantly different from the neuropathy in patients

  15. Metabonomics Research Progress on Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengqian; Zhu, Ying; Cong, Qingwei; Wu, Chunyan

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics as the new omics technique develops after genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics and has rapid development at present. Liver diseases are worldwide public health problems. In China, chronic hepatitis B and its secondary diseases are the common liver diseases. They can be diagnosed by the combination of history, virology, liver function, and medical imaging. However, some patients seldom have relevant physical examination, so the diagnosis may be delayed. Many other liver diseases, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and autoimmune liver diseases, still do not have definite diagnostic markers; the diagnosis consists of history, medical imaging, and the relevant score. As a result, the clinical work becomes very complex. So it has broad prospects to explore the specific and sensitive biomarkers of liver diseases with metabolomics. In this paper, there are several summaries which are related to the current research progress and application of metabolomics on biomarkers of liver diseases.

  16. Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Our Experiences.

    PubMed

    Basturk, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Aygen; Sayar, Ersin; Dinçhan, Ayhan; Aliosmanoğlu, İbrahim; Erbiş, Halil; Aydınlı, Bülent; Artan, Reha

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate our liver transplant pediatric patients and to report our experience in the complications and the long-term follow-up results. Patients between the ages of 0 and 18 years, who had liver transplantation in the organ transplantation center of our university hospital between 1997 and 2016, were included in the study. The age, sex, indications for the liver transplantation, complications after the transplantation, and long-term follow-up findings were retrospectively evaluated. The obtained results were analyzed with statistical methods. In our organ transplantation center, 62 pediatric liver transplantations were carried out since 1997. The mean age of our patients was 7.3 years (6.5 months-17 years). The 4 most common reasons for liver transplantation were: Wilson's disease (n=10; 16.3%), biliary atresia (n=9; 14.5%), progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (n=8; 12.9%), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n=7; 11.3%). The mortality rate after transplantation was 19.6% (12 of the total 62 patients). The observed acute and chronic rejection rates were 34% and 4.9%, respectively. Thrombosis (9.6%) was observed in the hepatic artery (4.8%) and portal vein (4.8%). Bile leakage and biliary stricture rates were 31% and 11%, respectively. 1-year and 5-year survival rates of our patients were 87% and 84%, respectively. The morbidity and mortality rates in our organ transplantation center, regarding pediatric liver transplantations, are consistent with the literature.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of liver preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Alchera, Elisa; Dal Ponte, Caterina; Imarisio, Chiara; Albano, Emanuele; Carini, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury still represents an important cause of morbidity following hepatic surgery and limits the use of marginal livers in hepatic transplantation. Transient blood flow interruption followed by reperfusion protects tissues against damage induced by subsequent I/R. This process known as ischemic preconditioning (IP) depends upon intrinsic cytoprotective systems whose activation can inhibit the progression of irreversible tissue damage. Compared to other organs, liver IP has additional features as it reduces inflammation and promotes hepatic regeneration. Our present understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in liver IP is still largely incomplete. Experimental studies have shown that the protective effects of liver IP are triggered by the release of adenosine and nitric oxide and the subsequent activation of signal networks involving protein kinases such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase C δ/ε and p38 MAP kinase, and transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, nuclear factor-κB and hypoxia-inducible factor 1. This article offers an overview of the molecular events underlying the preconditioning effects in the liver and points to the possibility of developing pharmacological approaches aimed at activating the intrinsic protective systems in patients undergoing liver surgery. PMID:21182220

  18. Sexual dysfunction after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Burra, Patrizia

    2009-11-01

    1. The goal of liver transplantation is not only to ensure the survival of patients but also to offer patients the opportunity to achieve a good balance between the functional efficacy of the graft and their psychological and physical integrity. The quality of life after transplantation may be affected by unsatisfactory sexual activity and reproductive performance. 2. Sexual dysfunction and sex hormone disturbances are widely reported in men and women with chronic liver disease before liver transplantation. 3. Successful liver transplantation should lead to improvements in sexual function and sex hormone disturbances in both men and women, therefore improving reproductive performance, but immunosuppressive drugs may interfere with hormone metabolism. 4. Pregnancy is often successful after liver transplantation, despite the potentially toxic effects of immunosuppressive drug therapy, but fetal and maternal outcomes should be regularly assessed. 5. More detailed and comprehensive data are needed in the field of sexual function after transplantation, and new strategies are needed to support and inform patients on the waiting list and after liver transplantation. (c) 2009 AASLD.

  19. Validation of graft and standard liver size predictions in right liver living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chan, See Ching; Lo, Chung Mau; Chok, Kenneth S H; Sharr, William W; Cheung, Tan To; Tsang, Simon H Y; Chan, Albert C Y; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2011-12-01

    To assess the accuracy of a formula derived from 159 living liver donors to estimate the liver size of a normal subject: standard liver weight (g) = 218 + body weight (kg) × 12.3 + 51 (if male). Standard liver volume (SLV) is attained by a conversion factor of 1.19 mL/g. The total liver volume (TLV) of each of the subsequent consecutive 126 living liver donors was determined using the right liver graft weight (RGW) on the back table, right/left liver volume ratio on computed tomography, and the conversion factor. The estimated right liver graft weight (ERGW) was determined by the right liver volume on computed tomography (CT) and the conversion factor. SLV and ERGW were compared with TLV and RGW, respectively, by paired sample t test. Donor characteristics of both series were similar. SLV and TLV were 1,099.6 ± 139.6 and 1,108.5 ± 175.2 mL, respectively, ( R 2  = 0.476) ( p  = 0.435). The difference between SLV and TLV was only -8.9 ± 128.2 mL (-1.0 ± 11.7%). ERGW and RGW were 601.5 ± 104.1 and 597.1 ± 102.2 g, respectively ( R 2  = 0.781) ( p  = 0.332). The conversion factor from liver weight to volume for this series was 1.20 mL/g. The difference between ERGW and RGW was 4.3 ± 49.8 g (0.3 ± 8.8%). ERGW was smaller than RGW for over 10% (range 0.21-40.66 g) in 18 of the 126 donors. None had the underestimation of RGW by over 20%. SLV and graft weight estimations were accurate using the formula and conversion factor.

  20. Toward surface quantification of liver fibrosis progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuting; Kang, Chiang Huen; Xu, Shuoyu; Tuo, Xiaoye; Trasti, Scott; Tai, Dean C. S.; Raja, Anju Mythreyi; Peng, Qiwen; So, Peter T. C.; Rajapakse, Jagath C.; Welsch, Roy; Yu, Hanry

    2010-09-01

    Monitoring liver fibrosis progression by liver biopsy is important for certain treatment decisions, but repeated biopsy is invasive. We envision redefinition or elimination of liver biopsy with surface scanning of the liver with minimally invasive optical methods. This would be possible only if the information contained on or near liver surfaces accurately reflects the liver fibrosis progression in the liver interior. In our study, we acquired the second-harmonic generation and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy images of liver tissues from bile duct-ligated rat model of liver fibrosis. We extracted morphology-based features, such as total collagen, collagen in bile duct areas, bile duct proliferation, and areas occupied by remnant hepatocytes, and defined the capsule and subcapsular regions on the liver surface based on image analysis of features. We discovered a strong correlation between the liver fibrosis progression on the anterior surface and interior in both liver lobes, where biopsy is typically obtained. The posterior surface exhibits less correlation with the rest of the liver. Therefore, scanning the anterior liver surface would obtain similar information to that obtained from biopsy for monitoring liver fibrosis progression.

  1. Impact of Estimated Liver Volume and Liver Weight on Gender Disparity in Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Emre, Sukru H.; Magder, Laurence S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES While lower Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores due to lower levels of serum creatinine in women might account for some gender disparity in liver transplant (LT) rates, even within MELD scores, women are transplanted at lower rates than men. It is unclear what causes this disparity, but transplant candidate-donor liver size mismatch may be a factor. METHODS We analyzed Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data for patients with end-stage liver disease on the waiting list. Pooled conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between gender and LT and determine the degree to which this association was explained by lower MELD scores or liver size. RESULTS A total of 28,866 patients and 424,001 person-months were included in the analysis. Median estimated liver volume (eLV) and liver weight (eLW) were significantly lower in women than in men on the LT waiting list (P<0.0001). Controlling for region and blood type, women were 25% less likely to receive LT in a given month compared to men (P<0.0001). When MELD was included in the model, the odds ratio (OR) for gender increased to 0.84 suggesting that 9 percentage points of the 25% gender disparity was due to MELD score. When eLV was added to the model, there was an additional 3% increase in OR of gender suggesting that transplant candidate-donor liver size mismatch is an underlying factor for lower LT rates in women compared to men (OR=0.87, P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Lower LT rates among women on the waiting list can be explained in part by lower MELD scores, eLV and eLW than those of men. However; at least half of the gender disparity still remains unexplained. PMID:23008117

  2. Impact of liver volume and liver function on posthepatectomy liver failure after portal vein embolization- A multivariable cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Alizai, Patrick H; Haelsig, Annabel; Bruners, Philipp; Ulmer, Florian; Klink, Christian D; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Neumann, Ulf P; Schmeding, Maximilian

    2018-01-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening complication after liver resection, and is difficult to predict preoperatively. This retrospective cohort study evaluated different preoperative factors in regard to their impact on posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) after extended liver resection and previous portal vein embolization (PVE). Patient characteristics, liver function and liver volumes of patients undergoing PVE and subsequent liver resection were analyzed. Liver function was determined by the LiMAx test (enzymatic capacity of cytochrome P450 1A2). Factors associated with the primary end point PHLF (according to ISGLS definition) were identified through multivariable analysis. Secondary end points were 30-day mortality and morbidity. 95 patients received PVE, of which 64 patients underwent major liver resection. PHLF occurred in 7 patients (11%). Calculated postoperative liver function was significantly lower in patients with PHLF than in patients without PHLF (67 vs. 109 μg/kg/h; p = 0.01). Other factors associated with PHLF by univariable analysis were age, future liver remnant, MELD score, ASA score, renal insufficiency and heart insufficiency. By multivariable analysis, future liver remnant was the only factor significantly associated with PHLF (p = 0.03). Mortality and morbidity rates were 4.7% and 29.7% respectively. Future liver remnant is the only preoperative factor with a significant impact on PHLF. Assessment of preoperative liver function may additionally help identify patients at risk for PHLF.

  3. Hepatic inflammation and progressive liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Albert J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic liver inflammation drives hepatic fibrosis, and current immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral therapies can weaken this driver. Hepatic fibrosis is reversed, stabilized, or prevented in 57%-79% of patients by conventional treatment regimens, mainly by their anti-inflammatory actions. Responses, however, are commonly incomplete and inconsistently achieved. The fibrotic mechanisms associated with liver inflammation have been clarified, and anti-fibrotic agents promise to improve outcomes as adjunctive therapies. Hepatitis C virus and immune-mediated responses can activate hepatic stellate cells by increasing oxidative stress within hepatocytes. Angiotensin can be synthesized by activated hepatic stellate cells and promote the production of reactive oxygen species. Anti-oxidants (N-acetylcysteine, S-adenosyl-L-methionine, and vitamin E) and angiotensin inhibitors (losartin) have had anti-fibrotic actions in preliminary human studies, and they may emerge as supplemental therapies. Anti-fibrotic agents presage a new era of supplemental treatment for chronic liver disease. PMID:24627588

  4. [Kidney function and liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Gámán, György; Gelley, Fanni; Gerlei, Zsuzsa; Dabasi, Eszter; Görög, Dénes; Fehérvári, Imre; Kóbori, László; Lengyel, Gabriella; Zádori, Gergely; Fazakas, János; Doros, Attila; Sárváry, Enikő; Nemes, Balázs

    2013-06-30

    In liver cirrhosis renal function decreases as well. Hepatorenal syndrome is the most frequent cause of the decrease, but primary kidney failure, diabetes mellitus and some diseases underlying endstage liver failure (such as hepatitis C virus infection) can also play an important role. In liver transplantation several further factors (total cross-clamping of vena cava inferior, polytransfusion, immunosuppression) impair the renal function, too. The aim of this study was to analyse the changes in kidney function during the first postoperative year after liver transplantation. Retrospective data analysis was performed after primary liver transplantations (n = 319). impaired preoperative renal function increased the devepolment of postoperative complications and the first year cumulative patient survival was significantly worse (91,7% vs 69,9%; p<0,001) in this group. If renal function of the patients increased above 60 ml/min/1,73 m2 after the first year, patient survival was better. Independently of the preoperative kidney function, 76% of the patients had impaired kidney function at the first postoperative year. In this group, de novo diabetes mellitus was more frequently diagnosed (22,5% vs 9,5%; p = 0,023). Selection of personalized immunosuppressive medication has a positive effect on renal function.

  5. Shared liver-like transcriptional characteristics in liver metastases and corresponding primary colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Song, Xuekun; Ao, Lu; Chen, Rou; Chi, Meirong; Guo, You; Zhang, Jiahui; Li, Hongdong; Zhao, Wenyuan; Guo, Zheng; Wang, Xianlong

    2018-01-01

    Background & Aims : Primary tumors of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with liver metastasis might gain some liver-specific characteristics to adapt the liver micro-environment. This study aims to reveal potential liver-like transcriptional characteristics associated with the liver metastasis in primary colorectal carcinoma. Methods: Among the genes up-regulated in normal liver tissues versus normal colorectal tissues, we identified "liver-specific" genes whose expression levels ranked among the bottom 10% ("unexpressed") of all measured genes in both normal colorectal tissues and primary colorectal tumors without metastasis. These liver-specific genes were investigated for their expressions in both the primary tumors and the corresponding liver metastases of seven primary CRC patients with liver metastasis using microdissected samples. Results: Among the 3958 genes detected to be up-regulated in normal liver tissues versus normal colorectal tissues, we identified 12 liver-specific genes and found two of them, ANGPTL3 and CFHR5 , were unexpressed in microdissected primary colorectal tumors without metastasis but expressed in both microdissected liver metastases and corresponding primary colorectal tumors (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.05). Genes co-expressed with ANGPTL3 and CFHR5 were significantly enriched in metabolism pathways characterizing liver tissues, including "starch and sucrose metabolism" and "drug metabolism-cytochrome P450". Conclusions: For primary CRC with liver metastasis, both the liver metastases and corresponding primary colorectal tumors may express some liver-specific genes which may help the tumor cells adapt the liver micro-environment.

  6. Clinical uses of liver stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dan, Yock Young

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation offers a definitive cure for many liver and metabolic diseases. However, the complex invasive procedure and paucity of donor liver graft organs limit its clinical applicability. Liver stem cells provide a potentially limitless source of cells that would be useful for a variety of clinical applications. These stem cells or hepatocytes generated from them can be used in cellular transplantation, bioartificial liver devices and drug testing in the development of new drugs. In this chapter, we review the technical aspects of clinical applications of liver stem cells and the progress made to date in the clinical setting. The difficulties and challenges of realizing the potential of these cells are discussed.

  7. Microbiota, immunity and the liver.

    PubMed

    Vaikunthanathan, T; Safinia, N; Lombardi, G; Lechler, R I

    2016-03-01

    The gut harbors a complex community of over 100 trillion microbial cells known to exist in symbiotic harmony with the host influencing human physiology, metabolism, nutrition and immune function. It is now widely accepted that perturbations of this close partnership results in the pathogenesis of several major diseases with increasing evidence highlighting their role outside of the intestinal tract. The intimate proximity and circulatory loop of the liver and the gut has attracted significant attention regarding the role of the microbiota in the development and progression of liver disease. Here we give an overview of the interaction between the microbiota and the immune system and focus on their convincing role in both the propagation and treatment of liver disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Our Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Basturk, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Aygen; Sayar, Ersin; Dinçhan, Ayhan; Aliosmanoğlu, İbrahim; Erbiş, Halil; Aydınlı, Bülent; Artan, Reha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate our liver transplant pediatric patients and to report our experience in the complications and the long-term follow-up results. Materials and Methods: Patients between the ages of 0 and 18 years, who had liver transplantation in the organ transplantation center of our university hospital between 1997 and 2016, were included in the study. The age, sex, indications for the liver transplantation, complications after the transplantation, and long-term follow-up findings were retrospectively evaluated. The obtained results were analyzed with statistical methods. Results: In our organ transplantation center, 62 pediatric liver transplantations were carried out since 1997. The mean age of our patients was 7.3 years (6.5 months–17 years). The 4 most common reasons for liver transplantation were: Wilson’s disease (n=10; 16.3%), biliary atresia (n=9; 14.5%), progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (n=8; 12.9%), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n=7; 11.3%). The mortality rate after transplantation was 19.6% (12 of the total 62 patients). The observed acute and chronic rejection rates were 34% and 4.9%, respectively. Thrombosis (9.6%) was observed in the hepatic artery (4.8%) and portal vein (4.8%). Bile leakage and biliary stricture rates were 31% and 11%, respectively. 1-year and 5-year survival rates of our patients were 87% and 84%, respectively. Conclusion: The morbidity and mortality rates in our organ transplantation center, regarding pediatric liver transplantations, are consistent with the literature. PMID:28149148

  9. Energy metabolism in the liver.

    PubMed

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic function is controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is converted into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is subsequently oxidized in the mitochondria to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and/or cholesterol esters in hepatocytes. These complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as very low-density lipoprotein particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source for endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue, resulting in release of nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in hepatic mitochondria though β-oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver energy metabolism is tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal signals. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis but suppresses gluconeogenesis, and glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1α, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze key steps of metabolic pathways, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  10. Octogenarian Donors in Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gastaca, M; Guerra, M; Alvarez Martinez, L; Ruiz, P; Ventoso, A; Palomares, I; Prieto, M; Matarranz, A; Valdivieso, A; Ortiz de Urbina, J

    2016-11-01

    Due to the disparity between the number of patients on the list for liver transplantation and the availability of organs, the use of older donors has become necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of liver transplantation using octogenarian donors. From December 2003 to February 2016, 777 liver transplantations were performed at our institution, 33 of them (4.2%) with donors 80 years old and above. Our policy for the acceptance of these donors is based on preoperative liver function tests, donor hemodynamic stability, and intraoperative normal gross aspect. Octogenarian grafts were deliberately not assigned to retransplantations or to recipients with multiple previous surgical procedures or extensive portal thrombosis. Mean donor age was 82.7 ± 2.1 years, with a range between 80 and 88. Only 12.1% suffered hemodynamic instability during the intensive care unit stay. Three donors (9.1%) had a history of diabetes mellitus. The mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score among recipients was 14.7 ± 5.6. Mean cold ischemia time was 302 ± 61 minutes. After a median follow-up of 18.5 months (range 7.5 to 47.5), no graft developed primary nonfunction. We observed hepatic artery thrombosis in 1 patient (3%) and biliary complications in 4 patients (12.5%). There was 1 case of ischemic-type biliary lesion, although it was related to hepatic artery thrombosis. Patient survival at 1 and 3 years was 90.3%, whereas graft survival was 92.6% and 86.4%, respectively. Excellent mid-term results can be obtained after liver transplantation with octogenarian donors with strict donor selection and adequate graft allocation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Operative risks of domino liver transplantation for the FAP liver donor and the FAP liver recipient.

    PubMed

    Azoulay, Daniel; Salloum, Chady; Samuel, Didier; Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the operative risks of domino liver transplantation (LT). Two retrospective analyses were conducted (comparison of familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) liver donors [61 patients] versus FAP nondonors [39 patients] and FAP liver recipients [61 patients] versus cadaveric liver recipients [61 patients]). First analysis showed a 60-day mortality of 6.6% for FAP donors and 7.7% for FAP nondonors (p = 1.0). Both groups had similar vascular and biliary complication rates. Both groups had similar 1- and 5-year patient and graft survival rates (83.4 % versus 87.2%, and 79.8 % versus 71.8%, p = 0.7) and (83.3% versus 87.2%, and 79.1% versus 71.8%, p = 0.7). The second analysis showed a 1.6% mortality for FAP liver recipients versus 3.2% of the control group (p = 1). Both groups had similar morbidity and technical complication rates (18.0% versus 13.1%, p = 0.45) and (0.18 versus 0.15, p = 0.65). Domino procedure doesn't add any risk to FAP donor or recipient. It increases the organ pool allowing transplantation of marginal recipients who otherwise are denied cadaveric LT.

  12. Hepatitis C and liver transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert S.

    2005-08-01

    Liver transplantation is a life-saving therapy to correct liver failure, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma arising from hepatitis C infection. But despite the successful use of living donors and improvements in immunosuppression and antiviral therapy, organ demand continues to outstrip supply and recurrent hepatitis C with accelerated progression to cirrhosis of the graft is a frequent cause of graft loss and the need for retransplantation. Appropriate selection of candidates and timing of transplantation, coupled with better pre- and post-transplant antiviral therapy, are needed to improve outcomes.

  13. Ablative therapy for liver tumours

    PubMed Central

    Dick, E A; Taylor-Robinson, S D; Thomas, H C; Gedroyc, W M W

    2002-01-01

    Established ablative therapies for the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumours, including percutaneous ethanol injection, cryotherapy, and radiofrequency ablation, are discussed. Newer techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging guided laser interstitial thermal therapy of liver tumours has produced a median survival rate of 40.8 months after treatment. The merits of this newly emerging technique are discussed, together with future developments, such as focused ultrasound therapy, which holds the promise of non-invasive thermoablation treatment on an outpatient basis. PMID:11950826

  14. Imaging of the transplant liver.

    PubMed

    Babyn, Paul Sheppard

    2010-04-01

    As the number of patients with liver transplants continues to increase, radiologists need to be aware of the normal post-operative appearance of the different liver transplants currently performed along with the wide variety of complications encountered. The complications commonly affect the biliar and vascular systems and can include anastomotic bile leakage and biliary stenosis along with stenosis or obstruction of the hepatic artery, portal or hepatic veins and IVC. Other complications include parenchymal abnormalities such as hepatic infarction, organ rejection, localized collections and post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. This article reviews and illustrates the role of imaging for pediatric transplantation including the role of interventional radiology.

  15. Recellularization of Rat Liver Scaffolds by Human Liver Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Tableros, Victor; Herrera Sanchez, Maria Beatriz; Figliolini, Federico; Romagnoli, Renato; Tetta, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rat liver acellular scaffolds were used as biological support to guide the differentiation of human liver stem-like cells (HLSC) to hepatocytes. Once recellularized, the scaffolds were maintained for 21 days in different culture conditions to evaluate hepatocyte differentiation. HLSC lost the embryonic markers (alpha-fetoprotein, nestin, nanog, sox2, Musashi1, Oct 3/4, and pax2), increased the expression of albumin, and acquired the expression of lactate dehydrogenase and three subtypes of cytochrome P450. The presence of urea nitrogen in the culture medium confirmed their metabolic activity. In addition, cells attached to tubular remnant matrix structures expressed cytokeratin 19, CD31, and vimentin. The rat extracellular matrix (ECM) provides not only a favorable environment for differentiation of HLSC in functional hepatocytes (hepatocyte like) but also promoted the generation of some epithelial-like and endothelial-like cells. When fibroblast growth factor–epidermal growth factor or HLSC-derived conditioned medium was added to the perfusate, an improvement of survival rate was observed. The conditioned medium from HLSC potentiated also the metabolic activity of hepatocyte-like cells repopulating the acellular liver. In conclusion, HLSC have the potential, in association with the natural ECM, to generate in vitro a functional “humanized liver-like tissue.” PMID:25794768

  16. Epigenetic Events in Liver Cancer Resulting From Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    French, Samuel W.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms play an extensive role in the development of liver cancer (i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) as well as in liver disease associated with other conditions. For example, epigenetic mechanisms, such as changes in the methylation and/or acetylation pattern of certain DNA regions or of the histone proteins around which the DNA is wrapped, contribute to the reversion of normal liver cells into progenitor and stem cells that can develop into HCC. Chronic exposure to beverage alcohol (i.e., ethanol) can induce all of these epigenetic changes. Thus, ethanol metabolism results in the formation of compounds that can cause changes in DNA methylation and interfere with other components of the normal processes regulating DNA methylation. Alcohol exposure also can alter histone acetylation/deacetylation and methylation patterns through a variety of mechanisms and signaling pathways. Alcohol also acts indirectly on another molecule called toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) that is a key component in a crucial regulatory pathway in the cells and whose dysregulation is involved in the development of HCC. Finally, alcohol use regulates an epigenetic mechanism involving small molecules called miRNAs that control transcriptional events and the expression of genes important to ALD. PMID:24313165

  17. Pinworm infection masquerading as colorectal liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K J; Hubscher, S; Mangat, K; Sutcliffe, R; Marudanayagam, R

    2012-09-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is responsible for a variety of diseases but rarely affects the liver. Accurate characterisation of suspected liver metastases is essential to avoid unnecessary surgery. In the presented case, following a diagnosis of rectal cancer, a solitary liver nodule was diagnosed as a liver metastasis due to typical radiological features and subsequently resected. At pathological assessment, however, a necrotic nodule containing E. vermicularis was identified. Solitary necrotic nodules of the liver are usually benign but misdiagnosed frequently as malignant due to radiological features. It is standard practice to diagnose colorectal liver metastases solely on radiological evidence. Without obtaining tissue prior to liver resection, misdiagnosis of solitary necrotic nodules of the liver will continue to occur.

  18. Pinworm infection masquerading as colorectal liver metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, KJ; Hubscher, S; Mangat, K; Sutcliffe, R; Marudanayagam, R

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is responsible for a variety of diseases but rarely affects the liver. Accurate characterisation of suspected liver metastases is essential to avoid unnecessary surgery. In the presented case, following a diagnosis of rectal cancer, a solitary liver nodule was diagnosed as a liver metastasis due to typical radiological features and subsequently resected. At pathological assessment, however, a necrotic nodule containing E vermicularis was identified. Solitary necrotic nodules of the liver are usually benign but misdiagnosed frequently as malignant due to radiological features. It is standard practice to diagnose colorectal liver metastases solely on radiological evidence. Without obtaining tissue prior to liver resection, misdiagnosis of solitary necrotic nodules of the liver will continue to occur. PMID:22943320

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Primary Liver Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... adult primary liver cancer may include the following: Total hepatectomy and liver transplant . Partial hepatectomy . Ablation Transarterial chemoembolization and targeted therapy with sorafenib , as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . A clinical trial of a new ...

  20. Treatment Options for Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... adult primary liver cancer may include the following: Total hepatectomy and liver transplant . Partial hepatectomy . Ablation Transarterial chemoembolization and targeted therapy with sorafenib , as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . A clinical trial of a new ...

  1. Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... adult primary liver cancer may include the following: Total hepatectomy and liver transplant . Partial hepatectomy . Ablation Transarterial chemoembolization and targeted therapy with sorafenib , as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . A clinical trial of a new ...

  2. General Information about Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition or to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer ... PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  3. Nonacetaminophen Drug-Induced Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Arul M; Lewis, James H

    2018-05-01

    Acute liver failure of all causes is diagnosed in between 2000 and 2500 patients annually in the United States. Drug-induced acute liver failure is the leading cause of acute liver failure, accounting for more than 50% of cases. Nonacetaminophen drug injury represents 11% of all cases in the latest registry from the US Acute Liver Failure Study Group. Although rare, acute liver failure is clinically dramatic when it occurs, and requires a multidisciplinary approach to management. In contrast with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure, non-acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure has a more ominous prognosis with a lower liver transplant-free survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Urea Biosynthesis Using Liver Slices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a practical scheme to enable introductory biology students to investigate the mechanism by which urea is synthesized in the liver. The tissue-slice technique is discussed, and methods for the quantitative analysis of metabolites are presented. (Author/SL)

  5. Liver transplantation for Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Catana, Andreea M; Medici, Valentina

    2012-01-27

    The aim of this paper is to review the current status of liver transplantation (LT) for Wilson disease (WD), focusing on indications and controversies, especially in patients with neuropsychiatric disease, and on identification of acute liver failure (ALF) cases related to WD. LT remains the treatment of choice for patients with ALF, as initial presentation of WD or when anti-copper agents are stopped, and for patients with chronic liver disease progressed to cirrhosis, unresponsive to chelating medications or not timely treated with copper chelating agents. The indication for LT in WD remains highly debated in patients with progressive neurological deterioration and failure to improve with appropriate medical treatment. In case of Wilsonian ALF, early identification is key as mortality is 100% without emergency LT. As many of the copper metabolism parameters are believed to be less reliable in ALF, simple biochemical tests have been proposed for diagnosis of acute WD with good sensitivity and specificity. LT corrects copper metabolism and complications resulting from WD with excellent 1 and 5 year survival. Living related liver transplantation represents an alternative to deceased donor LT with excellent long-term survival, without disease recurrence. Future options may include hepatocyte transplantation and gene therapy. Although both of these have shown promising results in animal models of WD, prospective human studies are much needed to demonstrate their long-term beneficial effects and their potential to replace the need for medical therapy and LT in patients with WD.

  6. Liver transplantation for Wilson disease

    PubMed Central

    Catana, Andreea M; Medici, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the current status of liver transplantation (LT) for Wilson disease (WD), focusing on indications and controversies, especially in patients with neuropsychiatric disease, and on identification of acute liver failure (ALF) cases related to WD. LT remains the treatment of choice for patients with ALF, as initial presentation of WD or when anti-copper agents are stopped, and for patients with chronic liver disease progressed to cirrhosis, unresponsive to chelating medications or not timely treated with copper chelating agents. The indication for LT in WD remains highly debated in patients with progressive neurological deterioration and failure to improve with appropriate medical treatment. In case of Wilsonian ALF, early identification is key as mortality is 100% without emergency LT. As many of the copper metabolism parameters are believed to be less reliable in ALF, simple biochemical tests have been proposed for diagnosis of acute WD with good sensitivity and specificity. LT corrects copper metabolism and complications resulting from WD with excellent 1 and 5 year survival. Living related liver transplantation represents an alternative to deceased donor LT with excellent long-term survival, without disease recurrence. Future options may include hepatocyte transplantation and gene therapy. Although both of these have shown promising results in animal models of WD, prospective human studies are much needed to demonstrate their long-term beneficial effects and their potential to replace the need for medical therapy and LT in patients with WD. PMID:22312450

  7. Imaging biomarkers in liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Berzigotti, A; França, M; Martí-Aguado, D; Martí-Bonmatí, L

    There is a need for early identification of patients with chronic liver diseases due to their increasing prevalence and morbidity-mortality. The degree of liver fibrosis determines the prognosis and therapeutic options in this population. Liver biopsy represents the reference standard for fibrosis staging. However, given its limitations and complications, different non-invasive methods have been developed recently for the in vivo quantification of fibrosis. Due to their precision and reliability, biomarkers' measurements derived from Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance stand out. This article reviews the different acquisition techniques and image processing methods currently used in the evaluation of liver fibrosis, focusing on their diagnostic performance, applicability and clinical value. In order to properly interpret their results in the appropriate clinical context, it seems necessary to understand the techniques and their quality parameters, the standardization and validation of the measurement units and the quality control of the methodological problems. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolating Lysosomes from Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    This protocol describes the generation of a fraction enriched in lysosomes from rat liver. The lysosomes are rapidly isolated using density-gradient centrifugation with gradient media that retain the osmolarity of the lysosomes such that they are functional and can be used in in vitro assays. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Hepatitis C and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Martini, Silvia

    2018-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease represents the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the USA and Europe and HCV recurrence is universal in recipients who are viremic at LT. Until a few years ago, pegylated-interferon in association with ribavirin was the only therapeutic strategy, usable only in compensated cirrhotic patients, in order to prevent post-LT viral recurrence. The recent advent of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has dramatically increased the chances of curative treatment for the transplant population and the debate about which should be the best time for treating the infection is still open: whether to pursue HCV eradication 1) before LT, in order to improve liver function, delist some patients and prevent graft infection; or 2) as early as possible after LT, rather than 3) waiting for hepatitis C recurrence before starting treatment. In addition, in the DAA era, the use of HCV-positive donors may represent a potential approach to safely expanding the donor pool. As more HCV patients achieve cure with DAA regimens, the LT trend for HCV in the future would be expected to mimic the trend observed for hepatitis B virus in the past decade and in the United States, during the DAA-period 2014-2015, the rate of LT wait-listing for HCV complicated by decompensated cirrhosis has already decreased by 32%. This review summarizes the published data and emphasizes DAA treatment applicability to patients with decompensated cirrhosis and to liver transplant recipients.

  11. Management in Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Shalimar; Acharya, Subrat K.

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare, potentially fatal complication of severe hepatic illness resulting from various causes. In a clinical setting, severe hepatic injury is usually recognised by the appearance of jaundice, encephalopathy and coagulopathy. The central and most important clinical event in ALF is occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and cerebral edema which is responsible for most of the fatalities in this serious clinical syndrome. The pathogenesis of encephalopathy and cerebral edema in ALF is unique and multifactorial. Ammonia plays a central role in the pathogenesis. The role of newer ammonia lowering agents is still evolving. Liver transplant is the only effective therapy that has been identified to be of promise in those with poor prognostic factors, whereas in the others, aggressive intensive medical management has been documented to salvage a substantial proportion of patients. A small fraction of patients undergo liver transplant and the remaining are usually treated with medical therapy. Therefore, identification of the complications and causes of death in such patients, and use of appropriate prognostic models to identify those who need liver transplant and those who can be managed with medical treatment is a vital component of therapeutic strategy. In this review, we discuss the various pathogenetic mechanisms and treatment options available. PMID:26041950

  12. Kupffer Cells in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Laura J.; Barnes, Mark; Tang, Hui; Pritchard, Michele T.; Nagy, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Kupffer cells are a critical component of the mononuclear phagocytic system and are central to both the hepatic and systemic response to pathogens. Kupffer cells are reemerging as critical mediators of both liver injury and repair. Kupffer cells exhibit a tremendous plasticity; depending on the local metabolic and immune environment, then can express a range of polarized phenotypes, from the proinflammatory M1 phenotype to the alternative/M2 phenotype. Multiple M2 phenotypes can be distinguished, each involved in the resolution of inflammation and wound healing. Here, we have provided an update on recent research that has contributed to the developing delineation of the contribution of Kupffer cells to different types of liver injury, with an emphasis on alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver diseases. These recent advances in our understanding of Kupffer cell function and regulation will likely provide new insights into the potential for therapeutic manipulation of Kupffer cells to promote the resolution of inflammation and enhance wound healing in liver disease. PMID:23720329

  13. Predictive Models of Liver Cancer

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive models of chemical-induced liver cancer face the challenge of bridging causative molecular mechanisms to adverse clinical outcomes. The latent sequence of intervening events from chemical insult to toxicity are poorly understood because they span multiple levels of bio...

  14. Current approach to liver traumas.

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, Levent; Kurt, Necmi; Sikar, Hasan Ediz

    2017-03-01

    Liver injuries remain major obstacle for successful treatment, due to size and location of the liver. Requirement for surgery should be determined by clinical factors, most notably hemodynamical state. In this present study we tried to declare our approach to liver traumas. We also tried to emphasize the importance of conservative treatment, since surgeries for liver traumas carry high mortality rates. Patients admitted to the Department of Emergency Surgery at Kartal Research and Education Hospital, due to liver trauma were retrospectively analyzed between 2003 and 2013. Patient demographics, hepatic panel, APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time), PT (prothrombin time), INR (international normalized ratio), fibrinogen, biochemistry panel were recorded. Hemodynamic instability was the most prominent factor for surgery decision, in the lead of current Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols. Operation records and imaging modalities revealed liver injuries according to the Organ Injury Scale of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. 300 patients admitted to emergency department were included in our study (187 males and 113 females). Mean age was 47 years (range, 12-87). The overall mortality rate was 13% (40 out of 300). Major factor responsible for mortality rates and outcome was stability of cases on admission. 188 (% 63) patients were counted as stable, whereas 112 (% 37) cases were found unstable (blood pressure ≤ 90, after massive resuscitation). 192 patients were observed conservatively, whereas 108 cases received abdominal surgery. High levels of AST, ALT, LDH, INR, creatinine and low levels of fibrinogen and low platelet counts on admission were found to be associated with mortality and these cases also had Grade 4 and 5 injuries. Hemodynamic instability on admission and the type and grade of injury played major role in mortality rates). Packing was performed in 35 patients, with Grade 4 and 5 injuries. Mortality rate was %13 (40

  15. Transcriptional Ontogeny of the Developing Liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    During embryogenesis the liver is derived from endodermal cells lining the digestive tract. These endodermal progenitor cells contribute to forming the parenchyma of a number of organs including the liver and pancreas. Early in organogenesis the fetal liver is populated by hemato...

  16. Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swastik; Dhiman, Radha K; Limdi, Jimmy K

    2016-04-01

    Incidentally detected abnormality in liver function tests is a common situation encountered by physicians across all disciplines. Many of these patients do not have primary liver disease as most of the commonly performed markers are not specific for the liver and are affected by myriad factors unrelated to liver disease. Also, many of these tests like liver enzyme levels do not measure the function of the liver, but are markers of liver injury, which is broadly of two types: hepatocellular and cholestatic. A combination of a careful history and clinical examination along with interpretation of pattern of liver test abnormalities can often identify type and aetiology of liver disease, allowing for a targeted investigation approach. Severity of liver injury is best assessed by composite scores like the Model for End Stage Liver Disease rather than any single parameter. In this review, we discuss the interpretation of the routinely performed liver tests along with the indications and utility of quantitative tests. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Campylobacter prevalence in retail chicken liver

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been linked to undercooked chicken liver. It is unknown how commonly chicken livers are contaminated with Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken livers available at retail. For each of five weeks, t...

  18. Liver Transplantation for Budd-Chiari Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Charles W.; Porter, Kendrick A.; Well, Richard; Reid, H. A. S.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation was accomplished in a 22-year-old woman dying of the Budd-Chiarl syndrome. She Is well and has normal liver function 16 months postoperatively. In view of the good early result, it will be appropriate to consider liver replacement for this disease in further well-selected cases. PMID:781334

  19. Chronic hepatitis C and liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sebastiani, Giada; Gkouvatsos, Konstantinos; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide and predisposes to liver fibrosis and end-stage liver complications. Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen, and is considered as a wound healing response to chronic liver injury. Its staging is critical for the management and prognosis of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, whose number is expected to rise over the next decades, posing a major health care challenge. This review provides a brief update on HCV epidemiology, summarizes basic mechanistic concepts of HCV-dependent liver fibrogenesis, and discusses methods for assessment of liver fibrosis that are routinely used in clinical practice. Liver biopsy was until recently considered as the gold standard to diagnose and stage liver fibrosis. However, its invasiveness and drawbacks led to the development of non-invasive methods, which include serum biomarkers, transient elastography and combination algorithms. Clinical studies with CHC patients demonstrated that non-invasive methods are in most cases accurate for diagnosis and for monitoring liver disease complications. Moreover, they have a high prognostic value and are cost-effective. Non-invasive methods for assessment of liver fibrosis are gradually being incorporated into new guidelines and are becoming standard of care, which significantly reduces the need for liver biopsy. PMID:25170193

  20. Autoimmune liver disease in children.

    PubMed

    Mieli-Vergani, G; Vergani, D

    2003-03-01

    Autoimmune liver disorders are characterised by an inflammatory liver histology, circulating non-organ specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the absence of a known aetiology. They respond to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC). Two types of AIH are recognised according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1-positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalisation of biochemical parameters and decreased inflammatory activity on follow-up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress and there may be an evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. Whether the juvenile autoimmune form of sclerosing cholangitis and AIH are 2 distinct entities, or different aspects of the same condition, remains to be elucidated.

  1. Oncologic results of laparoscopic liver resection for malignant liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Akyuz, Muhammet; Yazici, Pinar; Yigitbas, Hakan; Dural, Cem; Okoh, Alexis; Aliyev, Shamil; Aucejo, Federico; Quintini, Cristiano; Fung, John; Berber, Eren

    2016-02-01

    There are scant data regarding oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR). The aim of this study is to analyze the oncologic outcomes of LLR for malignant liver tumors (MLT). This was a prospective IRB-approved study of 123 patients with MLT undergoing LLR. Kaplan-Meier disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was calculated. Tumor type was colorectal in 61%, hepatocellular cancer in 21%, neuroendocrine in 5% and others in 13%. Mean tumor size was 3.2 ± 1.9 cm and number of tumors 1.6 ± 1.2. A wedge resection or segmentectomy was performed in 63.4%, bisegmentectomy in 24.4%, and hemihepatectomy in 12.2%. Procedures were totally laparoscopic in 67% and hand-assisted in 33%. Operative time was 235.2 ± 94.3 min, and conversion rate 7.3%. An R0 resection was achieved in 90% of patients and 94% of tumors. Median hospital stay was 3 days. Morbidity was 22% and mortality 0.8%. For patients with colorectal liver metastasis, DFS and OS at 2 years was 47% and 88%, respectively. This study shows that LLR is a safe and efficacious treatment for selected patients with MLT. Complete resection and margin recurrence rate are comparable to open series in the literature. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Paracetamol, alcohol and the liver

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Laurie F

    2000-01-01

    It is claimed that chronic alcoholics are at increased risk of paracetamol (acetaminophen) hepatotoxicity not only following overdosage but also with its therapeutic use. Increased susceptibility is supposed to be due to induction of liver microsomal enzymes by ethanol with increased formation of the toxic metabolite of paracetamol. However, the clinical evidence in support of these claims is anecdotal and the same liver damage after overdosage occurs in patients who are not chronic alcoholics. Many alcoholic patients reported to have liver damage after taking paracetamol with ‘therapeutic intent’ had clearly taken substantial overdoses. No proper clinical studies have been carried out to investigate the alleged paracetamol–alcohol interaction and acute liver damage has never been produced by therapeutic doses of paracetamol given as a challenge to a chronic alcoholic. The paracetamol–alcohol interaction is complex; acute and chronic ethanol have opposite effects. In animals, chronic ethanol causes induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes and increases paracetamol hepatotoxicity as expected (ethanol primarily induces CYP2E1 and this isoform is important in the oxidative metabolism of paracetamol). However, in man, chronic alcohol ingestion causes only modest (about twofold) and short-lived induction of CYP2E1, and there is no corresponding increase (as claimed) in the toxic metabolic activation of paracetamol. The paracetamol–ethanol interaction is not specific for any one isoform of cytochrome P450, and it seems that isoenzymes other than CYP2E1 are primarily responsible for the oxidative metabolism of paracetamol in man. Acute ethanol inhibits the microsomal oxidation of paracetamol both in animals and man. This protects against liver damage in animals and there is evidence that it also does so in man. The protective effect disappears when ethanol is eliminated and the relative timing of ethanol and paracetamol intake is critical. In many of the reports

  3. Segmentation of liver region with tumorous tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Lee, Gobert; Tajima, Tetsuji; Kitagawa, Teruhiko; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Zhou, Xiangrong; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kondo, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Nawano, Shigeru; Shinozaki, Kenji

    2007-03-01

    Segmentation of an abnormal liver region based on CT or MR images is a crucial step in surgical planning. However, precisely carrying out this step remains a challenge due to either connectivities of the liver to other organs or the shape, internal texture, and homogeneity of liver that maybe extensively affected in case of liver diseases. Here, we propose a non-density based method for extracting the liver region containing tumor tissues by edge detection processing. False extracted regions are eliminated by a shape analysis method and thresholding processing. If the multi-phased images are available then the overall outcome of segmentation can be improved by subtracting two phase images, and the connectivities can be further eliminated by referring to the intensity on another phase image. Within an edge liver map, tumor candidates are identified by their different gray values relative to the liver. After elimination of the small and nonspherical over-extracted regions, the final liver region integrates the tumor region with the liver tissue. In our experiment, 40 cases of MDCT images were used and the result showed that our fully automatic method for the segmentation of liver region is effective and robust despite the presence of hepatic tumors within the liver.

  4. Quantification of liver fat: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Goceri, Evgin; Shah, Zarine K; Layman, Rick; Jiang, Xia; Gurcan, Metin N

    2016-04-01

    Fat accumulation in the liver causes metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia by affecting insulin resistance, and increasing the risk of cardiac complications and cardiovascular disease mortality. Fatty liver diseases are often reversible in their early stage; therefore, there is a recognized need to detect their presence and to assess its severity to recognize fat-related functional abnormalities in the liver. This is crucial in evaluating living liver donors prior to transplantation because fat content in the liver can change liver regeneration in the recipient and donor. There are several methods to diagnose fatty liver, measure the amount of fat, and to classify and stage liver diseases (e.g. hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis): biopsy (the gold-standard procedure), clinical (medical physics based) and image analysis (semi or fully automated approaches). Liver biopsy has many drawbacks: it is invasive, inappropriate for monitoring (i.e., repeated evaluation), and assessment of steatosis is somewhat subjective. Qualitative biomarkers are mostly insufficient for accurate detection since fat has to be quantified by a varying threshold to measure disease severity. Therefore, a quantitative biomarker is required for detection of steatosis, accurate measurement of severity of diseases, clinical decision-making, prognosis and longitudinal monitoring of therapy. This study presents a comprehensive review of both clinical and automated image analysis based approaches to quantify liver fat and evaluate fatty liver diseases from different medical imaging modalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surgical anatomy of segmental liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R R; Heaton, N D; Rela, M

    2002-09-01

    The emergence of split and living donor liver transplantation has necessitated re-evaluation of liver anatomy in greater depth and from a different perspective than before. Early attempts at split liver transplantation were met with significant numbers of vascular and biliary complications. Technical innovations in this field have evolved largely by recognizing anatomical anomalies and variations at operation, and devising novel ways of dealing with them. This has led to increasing acceptance of these procedures and decreased morbidity and mortality rates, similar to those observed with whole liver transplantation. The following review is based on clinical experience of more than 180 split and living related liver transplantations in adults and children, performed over a 7-year period from 1994 to 2001. A comprehensive understanding and application of surgical anatomy of the liver is essential to improve and maintain the excellent results of segmental liver transplantation.

  6. [Liver ultrasound: focal lesions and diffuse diseases].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Valero López, I; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    Liver ultrasound is frequently used as a first-line technique for the detection and characterization of the most common liver lesions, especially those incidentally found focal liver lesions, and for monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Ultrasound is not only used in the Bmode, but also with Doppler and, more recently, contrast-enhanced ultrasound. It is mainly used in the diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases, such as steatosis or cirrhosis. This article presents a practical approach for diagnosis workup, in which the different characteristics of the main focal liver lesions and diffuse liver diseases are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. The history of liver transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage liver diseases. The first successful liver transplant was performed in the United States by Thomas Starzl in 1967. The first successful solid organ transplant in Turkey was a living-related kidney transplant performed by Dr. Haberal in 1975. After much effort by Dr. Haberal, the Turkish parliament enacted a law about organ transplantation in 1979. After clinical and experimental studies, the first liver transplant in Turkey was performed by Dr. Haberal in 1988. The first successful partial living-donor liver transplant in children in Turkey was performed by the same team on March 15, 1990. On April 24, 1990, the first living-donor liver transplant was performed on a child in Turkey using a left lateral segment by Dr. Haberal and coworkers. On May 16, 1992, Dr. Haberal performed a simultaneous living-donor liver and kidney transplantation to an adult from the same donor. There currently are 30 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there presently are 2065 patients in Turkey who are waiting for a liver transplantation. From January 2002 to June 2013, there were 6091 liver transplants performed in Turkey (4020 living-donor [66% ] and 2071 deceased donor liver transplants [34% ]). From January 2011 to June 2013, there were 2514 patients who had liver transplants in Turkey, and 437 patients (17%) died. The number of liver transplants per year in Turkey reached 1000 transplants in 2012 and more than 1150 transplants in 2013 (15.1/million/y). Therefore, Turkey has one of the highest volumes of liver transplantation per population worldwide, with 90% survival within 1 year after transplantation.

  8. Split liver transplantation in adults.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Fujiki, Masato; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico N; Uso, Teresa Diago; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M

    2016-09-07

    Split liver transplantation (SLT), while widely accepted in pediatrics, remains underutilized in adults. Advancements in surgical techniques and donor-recipient matching, however, have allowed expansion of SLT from utilization of the right trisegment graft to now include use of the hemiliver graft as well. Despite less favorable outcomes in the early experience, better outcomes have been reported by experienced centers and have further validated the feasibility of SLT. Importantly, more than two decades of experience have identified key requirements for successful SLT in adults. When these requirements are met, SLT can achieve outcomes equivalent to those achieved with other types of liver transplantation for adults. However, substantial challenges, such as surgical techniques, logistics, and ethics, persist as ongoing barriers to further expansion of this highly complex procedure. This review outlines the current state of SLT in adults, focusing on donor and recipient selection based on physiology, surgical techniques, surgical outcomes, and ethical issues.

  9. Evolving therapies for liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Schuppan, Detlef; Kim, Yong Ook

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis is an intrinsic response to chronic injury, maintaining organ integrity when extensive necrosis or apoptosis occurs. With protracted damage, fibrosis can progress toward excessive scarring and organ failure, as in liver cirrhosis. To date, antifibrotic treatment of fibrosis represents an unconquered area for drug development, with enormous potential but also high risks. Preclinical research has yielded numerous targets for antifibrotic agents, some of which have entered early-phase clinical studies, but progress has been hampered due to the relative lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers to measure fibrosis progression or reversal. Here we focus on antifibrotic approaches for liver that address specific cell types and functional units that orchestrate fibrotic wound healing responses and have a sound preclinical database or antifibrotic activity in early clinical trials. We also touch upon relevant clinical study endpoints, optimal study design, and developments in fibrosis imaging and biomarkers. PMID:23635787

  10. Lipid flopping in the liver.

    PubMed

    Linton, Kenneth J

    2015-10-01

    Bile is synthesized in the liver and is essential for the emulsification of dietary lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins. It is a complex mixture of amphiphilic bile acids (BAs; which act as detergent molecules), the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesterol and a variety of endogenous metabolites and waste products. Over the last 20 years, the combined effort of clinicians, geneticists, physiologists and biochemists has shown that each of these bile components is transported across the canalicular membrane of the hepatocyte by its own specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. The bile salt export pump (BSEP) ABCB11 transports the BAs and drives bile flow from the liver, but it is now clear that two lipid transporters, ABCB4 (which flops PC into the bile) and the P-type ATPase ATP8B1/CDC50 (which flips a different phospholipid in the opposite direction) play equally critical roles that protect the biliary tree from the detergent activity of the bile acids. Understanding the interdependency of these lipid floppases and flippases has allowed the development of an assay to measure ABCB4 function. ABCB4 harbours numerous mis-sense mutations which probably reflects the spectrum of liver disease rooted in ABCB4 aetiology. Characterization of the effect of these mutations at the protein level opens the possibility for the development of personalized prognosis and treatment. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  11. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    Patients with liver cirrhosis exhibit several features of gut dysfunction which may contribute to the development of cirrhosis complications as well as have an impact on nutritional status and health-related quality of life. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in cirrhosis and their pathophysiology probably involves factors related to liver disease severity, psychological distress, and gut dysfunction (e.g., increased gastric sensitivity to distension and delayed gut transit). They may lead to reduced food intake and, thus, may contribute to the nutritional status deterioration in cirrhotic patients. Although tense ascites appears to have a negative impact on meal-induced accommodation of the stomach, published data on gastric accommodation in cirrhotics without significant ascites are not unanimous. Gastric emptying and small bowel transit have generally been shown to be prolonged. This may be related to disturbances in postprandial glucose, insulin, and ghrelin levels, which, in turn, appear to be associated to insulin resistance, a common finding in cirrhosis. Furthermore, small bowel manometry disturbances and delayed gut transit may be associated with the development of small bowel bacterial overgrowth. Finally, several studies have reported intestinal barrier dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis (especially those with portal hypertension), which is related to bacterial translocation and permeation of intestinal bacterial products, e.g., endotoxin and bacterial DNA, thus potentially being involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis. PMID:25356031

  12. Decellularized human liver as a natural 3D-scaffold for liver bioengineering and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Giuseppe; Rombouts, Krista; Rennie Hall, Andrew; Urbani, Luca; Vinh Luong, Tu; Al-Akkad, Walid; Longato, Lisa; Brown, David; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Dhillon, Amar P.; Fuller, Barry; Davidson, Brian; Moore, Kevin; Dhar, Dipok; De Coppi, Paolo; Malago, Massimo; Pinzani, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Liver synthetic and metabolic function can only be optimised by the growth of cells within a supportive liver matrix. This can be achieved by the utilisation of decellularised human liver tissue. Here we demonstrate complete decellularization of whole human liver and lobes to form an extracellular matrix scaffold with a preserved architecture. Decellularized human liver cubic scaffolds were repopulated for up to 21 days using human cell lines hepatic stellate cells (LX2), hepatocellular carcinoma (Sk-Hep-1) and hepatoblastoma (HepG2), with excellent viability, motility and proliferation and remodelling of the extracellular matrix. Biocompatibility was demonstrated by either omental or subcutaneous xenotransplantation of liver scaffold cubes (5 × 5 × 5 mm) into immune competent mice resulting in absent foreign body responses. We demonstrate decellularization of human liver and repopulation with derived human liver cells. This is a key advance in bioartificial liver development. PMID:26248878

  13. [Are non-invasive tests going to replace liver biopsy for diagnosis of liver fibrosis?].

    PubMed

    Restellini, Sophie; Spahr, Laurent

    2012-06-27

    Liver fibrosis is associated with chronic liver diseases, and may evolve into cirrhosis that may be complicated by liver failure and portal hypertension. Detection and quantification of liver fibrosis is a key point in the follow-up of patients with chronic liver diseases. Liver biopsy is the gold standard method to assess and quantify fibrosis, but its invasiveness is a limiting factor in everyday clinical practice. Non invasive markers using either biological or radiological parameters have been developed and may decrease the need for liver biopsy in some cases. However, information is limited to fibrosis, and cut-offs values and diagnostic accuracies for significant fibrosis may vary according to the etiology of liver disease. Liver biopsy allows the assessment of intermediate stages of fibrosis and describes accompanying lesions.

  14. Cirrhosis and autoimmune liver disease: Current understanding

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Grant, Charlotte R

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) constitute the classic autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs). While AIH target the hepatocytes, in PBC and PSC the targets of the autoimmune attack are the biliary epithelial cells. Persistent liver injury, associated with chronic AILD, leads to un-resolving inflammation, cell proliferation and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts. Liver cirrhosis, and the resultant loss of normal liver function, inevitably ensues. Patients with cirrhosis have higher risks or morbidity and mortality, and that in the decompensated phase, complications of portal hypertension and/or liver dysfunction lead to rapid deterioration. Accurate diagnosis and monitoring of cirrhosis is, therefore of upmost importance. Liver biopsy is currently the gold standard technique, but highly promising non-invasive methodology is under development. Liver transplantation (LT) is an effective therapeutic option for the management of end-stage liver disease secondary to AIH, PBC and PSC. LT is indicated for AILD patients who have progressed to end-stage chronic liver disease or developed intractable symptoms or hepatic malignancy; in addition, LT may also be indicated for patients presenting with acute liver disease due to AIH who do not respond to steroids. PMID:27729952

  15. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis promotes liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sarmistha; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Moffitt, Andrea; Ndungu, Joan; Dellinger, Ryan W; Davis, James G; Agarwal, Beamon; Baur, Joseph A

    2017-02-01

    The regenerative capacity of the liver is essential for recovery from surgical resection or injuries induced by trauma or toxins. During liver regeneration, the concentration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) falls, at least in part due to metabolic competition for precursors. To test whether NAD availability restricts the rate of liver regeneration, we supplied nicotinamide riboside (NR), an NAD precursor, in the drinking water of mice subjected to partial hepatectomy. NR increased DNA synthesis, mitotic index, and mass restoration in the regenerating livers. Intriguingly, NR also ameliorated the steatosis that normally accompanies liver regeneration. To distinguish the role of hepatocyte NAD levels from any systemic effects of NR, we generated mice overexpressing nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, a rate-limiting enzyme for NAD synthesis, specifically in the liver. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase overexpressing mice were mildly hyperglycemic at baseline and, similar to mice treated with NR, exhibited enhanced liver regeneration and reduced steatosis following partial hepatectomy. Conversely, mice lacking nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase in hepatocytes exhibited impaired regenerative capacity that was completely rescued by administering NR. NAD availability is limiting during liver regeneration, and supplementation with precursors such as NR may be therapeutic in settings of acute liver injury. (Hepatology 2017;65:616-630). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. Alcoholic Liver Disease: Pathogenesis and Current Management

    PubMed Central

    Osna, Natalia A.; Donohue, Terrence M.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.

    2017-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a global healthcare problem. The liver sustains the greatest degree of tissue injury by heavy drinking because it is the primary site of ethanol metabolism. Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption produces a wide spectrum of hepatic lesions, the most characteristic of which are steatosis, hepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Steatosis is the earliest response to heavy drinking and is characterized by the deposition of fat in hepatocytes. Steatosis can progress to steatohepatitis, which is a more severe, inflammatory type of liver injury. This stage of liver disease can lead to the development of fibrosis, during which there is excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The fibrotic response begins with active pericellular fibrosis, which may progress to cirrhosis, characterized by excessive liver scarring, vascular alterations, and eventual liver failure. Among problem drinkers, about 35 percent develop advanced liver disease because a number of disease modifiers exacerbate, slow, or prevent alcoholic liver disease progression. There are still no FDA-approved pharmacological or nutritional therapies for treating patients with alcoholic liver disease. Cessation of drinking (i.e., abstinence) is an integral part of therapy. Liver transplantation remains the life-saving strategy for patients with end-stage alcoholic liver disease. PMID:28988570

  17. Assessment of liver size by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Patzak, Monika; Porzner, Marc; Oeztuerk, Suemeyra; Mason, Richard Andrew; Wilhelm, Manfred; Graeter, Tilmann; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Haenle, Mark Martin; Akinli, Atilla Serif

    2014-09-01

    To determine liver span sonographically in a randomly selected population sample and identify factors that affect liver size. A total of 1,789 subjects (963 females, 826 males; mean age 41.8 ± 12.8 years) underwent sonographic examination of the liver in the midclavicular line to determine liver span. Subjects underwent physical examination and blood tests and completed a standardized interview questionnaire. The average liver span in the midclavicular line for the overall collective was 15.0 ± 1.5 cm; the average for females was 14.9 ± 1.6 cm and 15.1 ± 1.5 cm for males. Liver span exceeded 16 cm in 24.3% of subjects. Results of the multivariate analysis showed that, of the factors potentially influencing liver span, gender, age, body mass index, body height, fatty liver (p < 0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.015), and metabolic syndrome (p = 0.032) are significant. By contrast, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumption, physical activity, and laboratory findings showed no influence. Sonographic measurement of liver span in the midclavicular line is a simple method for routine clinical use. Gender, age, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, body height, hepatic steatosis, and metabolic syndrome are factors associated with liver span. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  19. Sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and liver injury.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jian-li; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Bao-yuan

    2010-01-05

    A general review was made of studies involving: (1) the relationship between sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome/sleep apnea style intermittent hypoxia and liver injury and (2) the mechanism that causes the liver injury. The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English from 1993 to February 2009. The search term was "sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome". (1) Clinical and laboratory evidence that sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and sleep apnea style intermittent hypoxia leads to liver injury; (2) the mechanism that causes the liver injury. The effect of sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and sleep apnea style intermittent hypoxia on the liver function is characterized by serum aminotransferase elevation. The liver histological injury includes hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, lobular inflammation, lobular necrosis, and liver fibrosis. Sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and sleep apnea style intermittent hypoxia can cause insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and sleep apnea style intermittent hypoxia can lead to chronic liver injury, which, in most cases, is shown as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance and oxidative stress caused by sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and sleep apnea style intermittent hypoxia play an important role in the mechanism of chronic liver disease development.

  20. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    PubMed

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-05

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response.

  1. Liver transplantation: history, outcomes and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles, Roberto Ferreira; Salvalaggio, Paolo; de Rezende, Marcelo Bruno; Evangelista, Andréia Silva; Guardia, Bianca Della; Matielo, Celso Eduardo Lourenço; Neves, Douglas Bastos; Pandullo, Fernando Luis; Felga, Guilherme Eduardo Gonçalves; Alves, Jefferson André da Silva; Curvelo, Lilian Amorim; Diaz, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Rusi, Marcela Balbo; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Pedroso, Pamella Tung; Rocco, Rodrigo Andrey; Meira, Sérgio Paiva

    2015-01-01

    In 1958 Francis Moore described the orthotopic liver transplantation technique in dogs. In 1963, Starzl et al. performed the first liver transplantation. In the first five liver transplantations no patient survived more than 23 days. In 1967, stimulated by Calne who used antilymphocytic serum, Starzl began a successful series of liver transplantation. Until 1977, 200 liver transplantations were performed in the world. In that period, technical problems were overcome. Roy Calne, in 1979, used the first time cyclosporine in two patients who had undergone liver transplantation. In 1989, Starzl et al. reported a series of 1,179 consecutives patients who underwent liver transplantation and reported a survival rate between one and five years of 73% and 64%, respectively. Finally, in 1990, Starzl et al. reported successful use of tacrolimus in patents undergoing liver transplantation and who had rejection despite receiving conventional immunosuppressive treatment. Liver Transplantation Program was initiated at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein in 1990 and so far over 1,400 transplants have been done. In 2013, 102 deceased donors liver transplantations were performed. The main indications for transplantation were hepatocellular carcinoma (38%), hepatitis C virus (33.3%) and alcohol liver cirrhosis (19.6%). Of these, 36% of patients who underwent transplantation showed biological MELD score > 30. Patient and graft survival in the first year was, 82.4% and 74.8%, respectively. A major challenge in liver transplantation field is the insufficient number of donors compared with the growing demand of transplant candidates. Thus, we emphasize that appropriated donor/receptor selection, allocation and organ preservation topics should contribute to improve the number and outcomes in liver transplantation. PMID:25993082

  2. Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Acute Liver Failure : Comparing Guidelines on the Prediction of Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Umeda, Yuzo; Takaki, Akinobu; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryuichi; Nobuoka, Daisuke; Kuise, Takashi; Takagi, Kosei; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Takahito; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2017-10-01

    Determining the indications for and timing of liver transplantation (LT) for acute liver failure (ALF) is essential. The King's College Hospital (KCH) guidelines and Japanese guidelines are used to predict the need for LT and the outcomes in ALF. These guidelines' accuracy when applied to ALF in different regional and etiological backgrounds may differ. Here we compared the accuracy of new (2010) Japanese guidelines that use a simple scoring system with the 1996 Japanese guidelines and the KCH criteria for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We retrospectively analyzed 24 adult ALF patients (18 acute type, 6 sub-acute type) who underwent LDLT in 1998-2009 at our institution. We assessed the accuracies of the 3 guidelines' criteria for ALF. The overall 1-year survival rate was 87.5%. The new and previous Japanese guidelines were superior to the KCH criteria for accurately predicting LT for acute-type ALF (72% vs. 17%). The new Japanese guidelines could identify 13 acute-type ALF patients for LT, based on the timing of encephalopathy onset. Using the previous Japanese guidelines, although the same 13 acute-type ALF patients (72%) had indications for LT, only 4 patients were indicated at the 1st step, and it took an additional 5 days to decide the indication at the 2nd step in the other 9 cases. Our findings showed that the new Japanese guidelines can predict the indications for LT and provide a reliable alternative to the previous Japanese and KCH guidelines.

  3. Using old liver grafts for liver transplantation: where are the limits?

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Caso Maestro, Oscar; Cambra Molero, Félix; Justo Alonso, Iago; Alegre Torrado, Cristina; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Calvo Pulido, Jorge; Loinaz Segurola, Carmelo; Moreno González, Enrique

    2014-08-21

    The scarcity of ideal liver grafts for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has led transplant teams to investigate other sources of grafts in order to augment the donor liver pool. One way to get more liver grafts is to use marginal donors, a not well-defined group which includes mainly donors > 60 years, donors with hypernatremia or macrosteatosis > 30%, donors with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus positive serologies, cold ischemia time > 12 h, non-heart-beating donors, and grafts from split-livers or living-related donations. Perhaps the most practical and frequent measure to increase the liver pool, and thus to reduce waiting list mortality, is to use older livers. In the past years the results of OLT with old livers have improved, mainly due to better selection and maintenance of donors, improvements in surgical techniques in donors and recipients, and intra- and post-OLT management. At the present time, sexagenarian livers are generally accepted, but there still exists some controversy regarding the use of septuagenarian and octogenarian liver grafts. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the aging process of the liver and reported experiences using old livers for OLT. Fundamentally, the series of septuagenarian and octogenarian livers will be addressed to see if there is a limit to using these aged grafts.

  4. Using old liver grafts for liver transplantation: Where are the limits?

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Caso Maestro, Oscar; Cambra Molero, Félix; Justo Alonso, Iago; Alegre Torrado, Cristina; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Calvo Pulido, Jorge; Loinaz Segurola, Carmelo; Moreno González, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The scarcity of ideal liver grafts for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has led transplant teams to investigate other sources of grafts in order to augment the donor liver pool. One way to get more liver grafts is to use marginal donors, a not well-defined group which includes mainly donors > 60 years, donors with hypernatremia or macrosteatosis > 30%, donors with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus positive serologies, cold ischemia time > 12 h, non-heart-beating donors, and grafts from split-livers or living-related donations. Perhaps the most practical and frequent measure to increase the liver pool, and thus to reduce waiting list mortality, is to use older livers. In the past years the results of OLT with old livers have improved, mainly due to better selection and maintenance of donors, improvements in surgical techniques in donors and recipients, and intra- and post-OLT management. At the present time, sexagenarian livers are generally accepted, but there still exists some controversy regarding the use of septuagenarian and octogenarian liver grafts. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the aging process of the liver and reported experiences using old livers for OLT. Fundamentally, the series of septuagenarian and octogenarian livers will be addressed to see if there is a limit to using these aged grafts. PMID:25152573

  5. Platelets: No longer bystanders in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Adams, David H.; Watson, Steve P.; Lalor, Patricia F.

    2016-01-01

    Growing lines of evidence recognize that platelets play a central role in liver homeostasis and pathobiology. Platelets have important roles at every stage during the continuum of liver injury and healing. These cells contribute to the initiation of liver inflammation by promoting leukocyte recruitment through sinusoidal endothelium. They can activate effector cells, thus amplifying liver damage, and by modifying the hepatic cellular and cytokine milieu drive both hepatoprotective and hepatotoxic processes. Conclusion: In this review we summarize how platelets drive such pleiotropic actions and attempt to reconcile the paradox of platelets being both deleterious and beneficial to liver function; with increasingly novel methods of manipulating platelet function at our disposal, we highlight avenues for future therapeutic intervention in liver disease. (Hepatology 2016;64:1774‐1784) PMID:26934463

  6. Optimized Mouse Models for Liver Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Ook; Popov, Yury; Schuppan, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    Fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix components due to chronic injury, with collagens as predominant structural components. Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is characterized by a severe distortion of the delicate hepatic vascular architecture, the shunting of the blood supply away from hepatocytes and the resultant functional liver failure. Cirrhosis is associated with a highly increased morbidity and mortality and represents the major hard endpoint in clinical studies of chronic liver diseases. Moreover, cirrhosis is a strong cofactor of primary liver cancer. In vivo models are indispensable tools to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis and to develop specific antifibrotic therapies towards clinical translation. Here, we provide a detailed description of select optimized mouse models of liver fibrosis and state-of-the-art fibrosis readouts.

  7. Salvage liver transplantation for hepatic gas gangrene.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, David Jérémie; Grégoire, Emilie; Hardwigsen, Jean; Le Treut, Yves Patrice

    2012-09-01

    Hepatic gas gangrene is an uncommon situation mainly due to bacterial infection by Clostridium perfringens. It remains a life-threatening condition associated with a high mortality rate. Quick diagnosis and aggressive therapy including liver transplantation should be proposed to improve the outcome. This report describes a rare case of hepatic gas gangrene on native liver, secondary to iatrogenic hepatic artery thrombosis and instrumental biliary tree infection, which was successfully treated by liver transplantation.

  8. Cell and Tissue Engineering for Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Underhill, Gregory H.; Zaret, Kenneth S.; Fox, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the tremendous hurdles presented by the complexity of the liver’s structure and function, advances in liver physiology, stem cell biology and reprogramming, and the engineering of tissues and devices are accelerating the development of cell-based therapies for treating liver disease and liver failure. This State of the Art Review discusses both the near and long-term prospects for such cell-based therapies and the unique challenges for clinical translation. PMID:25031271

  9. A Mechanistic Pharmacokinetic Model for Liver Transporter Substrates Under Liver Cirrhosis Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, R; Barton, HA; Maurer, TS

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a disease characterized by the loss of functional liver mass. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was applied to interpret and predict how the interplay among physiological changes in cirrhosis affects pharmacokinetics. However, previous PBPK models under cirrhotic conditions were developed for permeable cytochrome P450 substrates and do not directly apply to substrates of liver transporters. This study characterizes a PBPK model for liver transporter substrates in relation to the severity of liver cirrhosis. A published PBPK model structure for liver transporter substrates under healthy conditions and the physiological changes for cirrhosis are combined to simulate pharmacokinetics of liver transporter substrates in patients with mild and moderate cirrhosis. The simulated pharmacokinetics under liver cirrhosis reasonably approximate observations. This analysis includes meta-analysis to obtain system-dependent parameters in cirrhosis patients and a top-down approach to improve understanding of the effect of cirrhosis on transporter-mediated drug disposition under cirrhotic conditions. PMID:26225262

  10. Liver glucose metabolism in humans

    PubMed Central

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Pérez-Felpete, Noemi; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Pazos-García, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Information about normal hepatic glucose metabolism may help to understand pathogenic mechanisms underlying obesity and diabetes mellitus. In addition, liver glucose metabolism is involved in glycosylation reactions and connected with fatty acid metabolism. The liver receives dietary carbohydrates directly from the intestine via the portal vein. Glucokinase phosphorylates glucose to glucose 6-phosphate inside the hepatocyte, ensuring that an adequate flow of glucose enters the cell to be metabolized. Glucose 6-phosphate may proceed to several metabolic pathways. During the post-prandial period, most glucose 6-phosphate is used to synthesize glycogen via the formation of glucose 1-phosphate and UDP–glucose. Minor amounts of UDP–glucose are used to form UDP–glucuronate and UDP–galactose, which are donors of monosaccharide units used in glycosylation. A second pathway of glucose 6-phosphate metabolism is the formation of fructose 6-phosphate, which may either start the hexosamine pathway to produce UDP-N-acetylglucosamine or follow the glycolytic pathway to generate pyruvate and then acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA may enter the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to be oxidized or may be exported to the cytosol to synthesize fatty acids, when excess glucose is present within the hepatocyte. Finally, glucose 6-phosphate may produce NADPH and ribose 5-phosphate through the pentose phosphate pathway. Glucose metabolism supplies intermediates for glycosylation, a post-translational modification of proteins and lipids that modulates their activity. Congenital deficiency of phosphoglucomutase (PGM)-1 and PGM-3 is associated with impaired glycosylation. In addition to metabolize carbohydrates, the liver produces glucose to be used by other tissues, from glycogen breakdown or from de novo synthesis using primarily lactate and alanine (gluconeogenesis). PMID:27707936

  11. Intracardiac tromboembolism during liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Longo, S; Palacios, M; Tinti, M E; Siri, J; de Brahi, J I; Cabrera Shulmeyer, M C

    2018-03-20

    We describe a case of intraoperative cardiac trombosis during orthotopic liver transplant surgery that resulted in intraoperative death. By using transesophageal echocardiography, the cause of the descompensation of the patient could be determined and the mechanism of trombus migration from thrombi from the venous circulation to the left heart was accurately observed. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Infections Complicating Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Schröter, Gerhard P. J.; Hoelscher, Manfred; Putnam, Charles W.; Porter, Kendrick A.; Hansbrough, John F.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    In 93 recipients of 102 orthotopic liver homografts, the incidence of bacteremia or fungemia exceeded 70%. The graft itself was usually an entry site for systemic infection after both immunologic and nonimmunologic parenchymal injury, especially if there was defective biliary drainage. The role of the homograft itself as the special infectious risk factor has prompted increased use of defunctionalized jejunal Roux limbs to reduce graft contamination. It has also stimulated very aggressive postoperative diagnostic efforts to rule out remedial mechanical complications of the transplant. PMID:793568

  13. Endocannabinoids in liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Magen, Iddo; Avraham, Yosefa; Berry, Elliot; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    Chronic liver disease results from a variety of causes such as hepatitis virus infections, autoimmune processes and alcohol consumption. Its complications include fat deposition, hemodynamic changes and fibrosis. Clinically there may be progression to portal-hypertension and porto-systemic encephalopathy. Pioneering research from the laboratory of Kunos at NIH has stressed the importance of endocannabinoids (ECs) as mediators of some of the pathological processes in chronic liver disease. The present review summarizes the literature on the association between ECs and liver disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of ECs and exogenous cannabinoids in liver disease with emphasis on hepatic encephalopathy.

  14. Liver regenerative medicine: advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the standard care for many end-stage liver diseases. However, donor organs are scarce and some people succumb to liver failure before a donor is found. Liver regenerative medicine is a special interdisciplinary field of medicine focused on the development of new therapies incorporating stem cells, gene therapy and engineered tissues in order to repair or replace the damaged organ. In this review we consider the emerging progress achieved in the hepatic regenerative medicine within the last decade. The review starts with the characterization of liver organogenesis, fetal and adult stem/progenitor cells. Then, applications of primary hepatocytes, embryonic and adult (mesenchymal, hematopoietic and induced pluripotent) stem cells in cell therapy of liver diseases are considered. Current advances and challenges in producing mature hepatocytes from stem/progenitor cells are discussed. A section about hepatic tissue engineering includes consideration of synthetic and natural biomaterials in engineering scaffolds, strategies and achievements in the development of 3D bioactive matrices and 3D hepatocyte cultures, liver microengineering, generating bioartificial liver and prospects for fabrication of the bioengineered liver. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Revisiting liver anatomy and terminology of hepatectomies.

    PubMed

    Bismuth, Henri

    2013-03-01

    Since the development of liver surgery, several descriptions of liver anatomical division and hepatectomies have been made, causing some confusion among surgeons. The initial anatomical description according to Couinaud is reviewed and corrected taking into account the descriptions made in the following decades. It seems that by reviewing the description of the different authors, a precise anatomical division of the liver may be achieved and a simple terminology of hepatectomies may be proposed. It is hoped that the proposal of this anatomical description and this terminology of hepatectomies may find a consensus among the liver surgical community from America, Asia, and Europe.

  16. Microbiota-Liver Axis in Hepatic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chassaing, Benoit; Etienne-Mesmin, Lucie; Gewirtz, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota, long appreciated to be a key determinant of intestinal inflammation, is also playing a key role in chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. Such studies have yielded a general central hypothesis whereby microbiota products activate the innate immune system to drive pro-inflammatory gene expression thus promoting chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. This article reviews the background supporting this hypothesis, outlines how it can potentially explain classic and newly emerging epidemiological chronic inflammatory liver disease, and discusses potential therapeutic means to manipulate the microbiota so as to prevent and/or treat liver disease. PMID:23703735

  17. Liver fibrosis markers of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Hirayuki; Bando, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Hideji; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Koga, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major causes of chronic liver injury. NAFLD includes a wide range of clinical conditions from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced fibrosis, and liver cirrhosis. The histological findings of NASH indicate hepatic steatosis and inflammation with characteristic hepatocyte injury (e.g., ballooning degeneration), as is observed in the patients with alcoholic liver disease. NASH is considered to be a potentially health-threatening disease that can progress to cirrhosis. A liver biopsy remains the most reliable diagnostic method to appropriately diagnose NASH, evaluate the severity of liver fibrosis, and determine the prognosis and optimal treatment. However, this invasive technique is associated with several limitations in routine use, and a number of biomarkers have been developed in order to predict the degree of liver fibrosis. In the present article, we review the current status of noninvasive biomarkers available to estimate liver fibrosis in the patients with NASH. We also discuss our recent findings on the use of the glycated albumin-to-glycated hemoglobin ratio, which is a new index that correlates to various chronic liver diseases, including NASH. PMID:26139988

  18. Liver fibrosis markers of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Hirayuki; Bando, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Hideji; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Koga, Masafumi

    2015-06-28

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major causes of chronic liver injury. NAFLD includes a wide range of clinical conditions from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced fibrosis, and liver cirrhosis. The histological findings of NASH indicate hepatic steatosis and inflammation with characteristic hepatocyte injury (e.g., ballooning degeneration), as is observed in the patients with alcoholic liver disease. NASH is considered to be a potentially health-threatening disease that can progress to cirrhosis. A liver biopsy remains the most reliable diagnostic method to appropriately diagnose NASH, evaluate the severity of liver fibrosis, and determine the prognosis and optimal treatment. However, this invasive technique is associated with several limitations in routine use, and a number of biomarkers have been developed in order to predict the degree of liver fibrosis. In the present article, we review the current status of noninvasive biomarkers available to estimate liver fibrosis in the patients with NASH. We also discuss our recent findings on the use of the glycated albumin-to-glycated hemoglobin ratio, which is a new index that correlates to various chronic liver diseases, including NASH.

  19. Liver failure in total artificial heart therapy.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Alexandros Merkourios; Dapunt, Otto; Knez, Igor; Wasler, Andrae; Oberwalder, Peter; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero; Spiliopoulos, Sotirios

    2016-07-01

    Congestive hepatopathy (CH) and acute liver failure (ALF) are common among biventricular heart failure patients. We sought to evaluate the impact of total artificial heart (TAH) therapy on hepatic function and associated clinical outcomes. A total of 31 patients received a Syncardia Total Artificial Heart. Preoperatively 17 patients exhibited normal liver function or mild hepatic derangements that were clinically insignificant and did not qualify as acute or chronic liver failure, 5 patients exhibited ALF and 9 various hepatic derangements owing to CH. Liver associated mortality and postoperative course of liver values were prospectively documented and retrospectively analyzed. Liver associated mortality in normal liver function, ALF and CH cases was 0%, 20% (P=0.03) and 44.4% (P=0.0008) respectively. 1/17 (5.8%) patients with a normal liver function developed an ALF, 4/5 (80%) patients with an ALF experienced a markedly improvement of hepatic function and 6/9 (66.6%) patients with CH a significant deterioration. TAH therapy results in recovery of hepatic function in ALF cases. Patients with CH prior to surgery form a high risk group with increased liver associated mortality.

  20. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis promotes liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sarmistha; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Moffitt, Andrea; Ndungu, Joan; Dellinger, Ryan W.; Davis, James G.; Agarwal, Beamon; Baur, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of the liver is essential for recovery from surgical resection or injuries induced by trauma or toxins. During liver regeneration, the concentration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) falls, at least in part due to metabolic competition for precursors. To test whether NAD availability restricts the rate of liver regeneration, we supplied nicotinamide riboside (NR), an NAD precursor, in the drinking water of mice subjected to partial hepatectomy. NR increased DNA synthesis, mitotic index, and mass restoration in the regenerating livers. Intriguingly, NR also ameliorated the steatosis that normally accompanies liver regeneration. To distinguish the role of hepatocyte NAD levels from any systemic effects of NR, we generated mice overexpressing Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), a rate-limiting enzyme for NAD synthesis, specifically in the liver. Nampt overexpressing mice were mildly hyperglycemic at baseline and, similarly to the mice treated with NR, exhibited enhanced liver regeneration and reduced steatosis following partial hepatectomy. Conversely, mice lacking Nampt in hepatocytes exhibited impaired regenerative capacity that was completely rescued by administering NR. Conclusion NAD availability is limiting during liver regeneration and supplementation with precursors such as NR may be therapeutic in settings of acute liver injury. PMID:27809334

  1. Imaging follow-up after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Massimo; Mennini, Gianluca; Melandro, Fabio; Anzidei, Michele; De Vizio, Silvia; Koryukova, Kameliya; Catalano, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) represents the best treatment for end-stage chronic liver disease, acute liver failure and early stages of hepatocellular carcinoma. Radiologists should be aware of surgical techniques to distinguish a normal appearance from pathological findings. Imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, CT and MR, provide for rapid and reliable detection of vascular and biliary complications after LT. The role of imaging in the evaluation of rejection and primary graft dysfunction is less defined. This article illustrates the main surgical anastomoses during LT, the normal appearance and complications of the liver parenchyma and vascular and biliary structures. PMID:27188846

  2. Liver sharing and organ procurement organization performance.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Sommer E; Chow, Eric K H; Massie, Allan; Luo, Xun; Zaun, David; Snyder, Jon J; Israni, Ajay K; Kasiske, Bert; Segev, Dorry L

    2015-03-01

    Whether the liver allocation system shifts organs from better performing organ procurement organizations (OPOs) to poorer performing OPOs has been debated for many years. Models of OPO performance from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients make it possible to study this question in a data-driven manner. We investigated whether each OPO's net liver import was correlated with 2 performance metrics [observed to expected (O:E) liver yield and liver donor conversion ratio] as well as 2 alternative explanations [eligible deaths and incident listings above a Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score of 15]. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that the allocation system transfers livers from better performing OPOs to centers with poorer performing OPOs. Also, having fewer eligible deaths was not associated with a net import. However, having more incident listings was strongly correlated with the net import, both before and after Share 35. Most importantly, the magnitude of the variation in OPO performance was much lower than the variation in demand: although the poorest performing OPOs differed from the best ones by less than 2-fold in the O:E liver yield, incident listings above a MELD score of 15 varied nearly 14-fold. Although it is imperative that all OPOs achieve the best possible results, the flow of livers is not explained by OPO performance metrics, and instead, it appears to be strongly related to differences in demand. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Current Management of Neonatal Liver Tumors.

    PubMed

    Langham, Max R; Furman, Wayne L; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel

    2015-01-01

    This review is focused on the special issues and challenges confronting physicians and surgeons caring for an unborn child, or a newborn with a liver tumor. Liver tumors at this age are very rare and they make it difficult for pediatric surgeons to gain experience necessary to obtain good results. On the other hand, adult hepatobiliary surgeons faced with a fetus or infant with a liver mass are ill equipped to care for the patient even if they have done a high volume of adult liver surgery and are expert in the field. Often a team approach is the best solution.

  4. Changes in nutritional status after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Giusto, Michela; Lattanzi, Barbara; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Merli, Manuela

    2014-08-21

    Chronic liver disease has an important effect on nutritional status, and malnourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. During recent decades, a trend has been reported that shows an increase in number of patients with end-stage liver disease and obesity in developed countries. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognised. Cirrhotic patients with depleted lean body mass (sarcopenia) and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk; malnutrition may further impact morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. After transplantation and liver function is restored, many metabolic alterations are corrected, dietary intake is progressively normalised, and lifestyle changes may improve physical activity. Few studies have examined the modifications in body composition that occur in liver recipients. During the first 12 mo, the fat mass progressively increases in those patients who had previously depleted body mass, and the muscle mass recovery is subtle and non-significant by the end of the first year. In some patients, unregulated weight gain may lead to obesity and may promote metabolic disorders in the long term. Careful monitoring of nutritional changes will help identify the patients who are at risk for malnutrition or over-weight after liver transplantation. Physical and nutritional interventions must be investigated to evaluate their potential beneficial effect on body composition and muscle function after liver transplantation.

  5. Bile produced in the liver (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... duct system that creates, transports, stores, and releases bile into the duodenum for digestion includes the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts (named the cystic, hepatic, common, and pancreatic ...

  6. Herbal and Dietary Supplement Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Ynto S.; Sherker, Averell H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The increase in the use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) over the last decades has been accompanied with an increase in the reports of HDS associated hepatotoxicity. The spectrum of HDS induced liver injury is diverse and the outcome may vary from transient liver test elevations to fulminant hepatic failure resulting in death or requiring liver transplantation. There are no validated standardized tools to establish the diagnosis, but some HDS products do have a typical clinical signature that may help to identify HDS induced liver injury. PMID:27842768

  7. Outcomes in liver transplantation: Does sex matter?

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Monika; Watt, Kymberly D.; Terrault, Norah; Berenguer, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Summary A growing literature has highlighted important differences in transplant-related outcomes between men and women. In the United States there are fewer women than men on the liver transplant waitlist and women are two times less likely to receive a deceased or living-related liver transplant. Sex-based differences exist not only in waitlist but also in post-transplant outcomes, particularly in some specific liver diseases, such as hepatitis C. In the era of individualized medicine, recognition of these differences in the approach to pre and post-liver transplant care may impact short and long-term outcomes. PMID:25433162

  8. Tuberculosis and liver disease: management issues.

    PubMed

    Sonika, Ujjwal; Kar, Premashis

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most common diseases in India and has attained epidemic proportions. Tuberculosis and liver are related in many ways. Liver disease can occur due to hepatic tuberculosis or the treatment with various anti-tubercular drugs may precipitate hepatic injury or patients with chronic liver disease may develop tuberculosis and pose special management problems. Tuberculosis per se can affect liver in three forms. The most common form is the diffuse hepatic involvement, seen along with pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis. The second is granulomatous hepatitis and the third, much rarer form presents as focal/local tuberculoma or abscess. Tubercular disease of liver occurring along with pulmonary involvement as in disseminated tuberculosis is treated with standard regimen for pulmonary tuberculosis. Granulomatous hepatitis and tubercular liver abscess are treated like any other extra-pulmonary tubercular lesions without any extra risk of hepatotoxicity by anti-tubercular drugs. Treatment of tuberculosis in patients who already have a chronic liver disease poses various clinical challenges. There is an increased risk of drug induced hepatitis in these patients and its implications are potentially more serious in these patients as their hepatic reserve is already depleted. However, hepatotoxic anti-tubercular drugs can be safely used in these patients if the number of drugs used is adjusted appropriately. Thus, the main principle is to closely monitor the patient for signs of worsening liver disease and to reduce the number of hepatotoxic drugs in the anti-tubercular regimen according to the severity of underlying liver disease.

  9. Apoptosis and necrosis in the liver.

    PubMed

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L; Gores, Gregory J

    2013-04-01

    Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of "programmed" necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article.

  10. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Kapp, Daniel S.; Xing, Lei

    2015-09-01

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems. The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours. The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  11. Liver Masses: What Physicians Need to Know About Ordering and Interpreting Liver Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sheybani, Arman; Gaba, Ron C; Lokken, R Peter; Berggruen, Senta M; Mar, Winnie A

    2017-10-18

    This paper reviews diagnostic imaging techniques used to characterize liver masses and the imaging characteristics of the most common liver masses. The role of recently adopted ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents will be emphasized. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is an inexpensive exam which can confirm benignity of certain liver masses without ionizing radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging using hepatocyte-specific gadolinium-based contrast agents can help confirm or narrow the differential diagnosis of liver masses.

  12. A Bioartificial Liver-State of the Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strain, Alastair J.; Neuberger, James M.

    2002-02-01

    End-stage liver disease is treated by liver transplantation, but donor organ shortages remain a serious problem. This has prompted the design of bioartificial liver devices to ``bridge'' patients until they either recover or receive a liver transplant. In these devices, patient plasma is circulated extracorporeally through a bioreactor that houses liver cells (hepatocytes) sandwiched between artificial plates or capillaries.

  13. Stopping Liver Cancer's Rogue COP | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Liver cancer is the fourth most common cancer type and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Many liver tumors are actually metastases, tumors seeded in the liver by cancer cells from another organ, but hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), the most common liver tumors, are a heterogeneous family of cancers that arise in hepatocytes, the functional cells of the liver.

  14. Liver Biopsy in Chronic Liver Diseases: Is There a Favorable Benefit: Risk Balance?

    PubMed

    Larrey, Dominique; Meunier, Lucy; Ursic-Bedoya, José

    2017-01-01

    Liver biopsy is still useful in selected clinical situations in which it is the only tool to obtain information necessary for the diagnosis, the prognosis, and the decision for treatment. Main examples are viral hepatitis with confounding co-morbidities, non alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune liver diseases.

  15. Role of innate immunity and the microbiota in liver fibrosis: crosstalk between the liver and gut

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Ekihiro; Schnabl, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Liver fibrosis occurs as a wound-healing scar response following chronic liver inflammation including alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, viral hepatitis, cholestatic liver disease and autoimmune liver diseases. The liver has a unique vascular system within the gastrointestinal tract, as the majority of the liver's blood supply comes from the intestine through the portal vein. When the intestinal barrier function is disrupted, an increase in intestinal permeability leads to the translocation of intestine-derived bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and unmethylated CpG containing DNA to the liver via the portal vein. These gut-derived bacterial products stimulate innate immune receptors, namely Toll-like receptors (TLRs), in the liver. TLRs are expressed on Kupffer cells, endothelial cells, dendritic cells, biliary epithelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, and hepatocytes. TLRs activate these cells to contribute to acute and chronic liver diseases. This review summarizes recent studies investigating the role of TLRs, intestinal microbiota and bacterial translocation in liver fibrosis, alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:22124143

  16. Liver of the "visible man".

    PubMed

    Fasel, J H; Gingins, P; Kalra, P; Magnenat-Thalmann, N; Baur, C; Cuttat, J F; Muster, M; Gailloud, P

    1997-01-01

    Endoscopic surgery, also called minimally invasive surgery, is presumed drastically to reduce postoperative morbidity and thus to offer both human and economic benefits. For the surgeon, however, this approach leads to a number of gestural challenges that require extensive training to be mastered. In order to replace experimentation on animals and patients, we developed a simulator for endoscopic surgery. To achieve this goal, a first step was to develop a working prototype, a "standard patient," on which the informatic and microengineering tools could be validated. We used the visible man dataset for this purpose. The external shape of the visible man's liver, his biliary passages, and his extrahepatic portal system turned out to be fully within the standard pattern of normal anatomy. Anatomic variations were observed in the intrahepatic right portal vein, the hepatic veins, and the arterial blood supply to the liver. Thus, the visible man dataset reveals itself to be well suited for the simulation of minimally invasive surgical operation such as endoscopic cholecystectomy.

  17. [Liver involvement in coeliac disease].

    PubMed

    Riestra, S; Fernández, E; Rodrigo, L

    1999-12-01

    Coeliac disease is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy in which, genetic, immunologic and environmental factors are implied. Several extradigestive diseases have been described in association with coeliac disease, which share most of the times an immunologic mechanism. The liver is damaged in coeliac disease, and it has been considered by some authors as an extraintestinal manifestation of the disease. In the present revision we discuss the different hepatic diseases related with the coeliac disease, as well as the best approach to diagnosis and therapy of choice. At diagnosis, it is very frequent to find an asymptomatic hipertransaminasemia, which frequently disappears after gluten suppression; the morphological substratum found in this alteration is a non-specific reactive hepatitis in the majority of cases. Coeliac disease is a demonstrated cause of cryptogenic hipertransaminasemia. In a small percentage of patient with coeliac disease an association has been found with other immunological liver diseases, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis. Few studies exist that include a large number of patient, and the results on occasions are discordant. Nevertheless, the strongest association is with autoimmune hepatitis and with primary biliary cirrhosis. Several communications of isolated cases of rare hepatic diseases, which probably, only reflect a fortuitous association, have been cited in the literature.

  18. Depression and Liver Transplant Survival.

    PubMed

    Meller, William; Welle, Nicole; Sutley, Kristen; Thurber, Steven

    Patients who underwent liver transplantation and experienced clinical depression have heretofore evinced lower survival rates when compared to nondepressed counterparts. To investigate the hypothesis that transplant patients who seek and obtain medical treatment for depression would circumvent the prior reduced survival findings. A total of 765 patients with liver transplants were scrutinized for complications following transplantation. Further, 104 patients experienced posttransplant depression as manifested by diagnosis and treatment by medical personnel. Survival analyses were conducted comparing hazard and survival curves for these selected individuals and the remainder of transplant patients. Contrary to prior data and consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis, median survival durations, survival curves, and hazard functions (controlling for age and prolonged posttransplant survival for the depressed patients were better. The improved survival for the depressed patients may simply be related to an amelioration of depressed symptoms via antidepressant medications. However, this interpretation would only be congruent with reduced hazard, not elevated survival, beyond the norm (median) for other transplant participants. Assuming the reliability and generalization of our findings, perhaps a reasonable and compelling interpretation is that combined with the effectiveness of antidepressant medications, the seeking and receiving treatment for depression is a type of proxy measure of a more global pattern of adherence to recommended posttransplant medical regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ENDOCYTOSIS IN CHANG LIVER CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Roger; Rosenberg, Murray; Estensen, Richard

    1971-01-01

    The addition of 0.08 M sucrose to a culture medium containing Chang-strain human liver cells causes intense cytoplasmic vacuolation. Electron microscopy of these cells grown inferritin, time-lapse cinematography, and radioautography reveal that the vacuoles arise by endocytosis and that the sucrose is taken into the cell and localized in the vacuoles. Tracer studies demonstrate that sucrose-3H provides a marker for quantitation of endocytosis and that it neither induces nor stimulates endocytosis. Electron micrographs of vacuolated liver cells show microfilaments in close proximity to the inside of the plasma membrane, in the pseudopodia, and to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane surrounding endocytosis vacuoles. Cytochalasin B (CB), a mold metabolite that inhibits various types of cell motility, has a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the uptake of sucrose-3H by these cells. This inhibition is accompanied by a cessation of the movement of ruffles and pseudopodia on the surface of the cells and the formation of blebs which arise from the cell's surface. These morphological changes are quickly reversible upon removal of CB. Alterations in the appearance and location of microfilaments are also observed in CB-treated cells. PMID:4329157

  20. [Hepatocellular carcinoma in undamaged liver].

    PubMed

    Feketé, F; Belghiti, J; Flejou, J F; Panis, Y; Molas, G

    1991-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma mainly affects patients with cirrhosis or with various degrees of fibrosis. From 1979 to 1990, among 87 patients who underwent hepatic resection for non fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, 12 (14%) had a non fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma developed in a normal liver. There were 8 men and 4 women, aged 29 to 74 years. In 7 patients (58%) hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with clinical manifestations. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen were absent in all patients. Serum alphafetoprotein level was less than 100 mg/ml in 10 (83%), size of the tumor was greater than or less than 5 cm in 10 (83%) and capsule was present in 10 (83%). Resections included removal of 2 segments or more in 11 (91%). One patient died postoperatively. Actuarial survival rate at 3 and 5 years were respectively 57% and 38%. Intra or extrahepatic recurrence was recognized in 8 (67%), 2 patients were alive respectively 28 and 16 months after treatment of their intrahepatic recurrence (resection in one and intra-arterial embolisation in one). In conclusion, our results suggest that aggressive surgical efforts are justified in non fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma arising in normal liver.

  1. Platelets in liver disease, cancer and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Tomohiro; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2017-05-14

    Although viral hepatitis treatments have evolved over the years, the resultant liver cirrhosis still does not completely heal. Platelets contain proteins required for hemostasis, as well as many growth factors required for organ development, tissue regeneration and repair. Thrombocytopenia, which is frequently observed in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis, can manifest from decreased thrombopoietin production and accelerated platelet destruction caused by hypersplenism; however, the relationship between thrombocytopenia and hepatic pathogenesis, as well as the role of platelets in CLD, is poorly understood. In this paper, experimental evidence of platelets improving liver fibrosis and accelerating liver regeneration is summarized and addressed based on studies conducted in our laboratory and current progress reports from other investigators. In addition, we describe our current perspective based on the results of these studies. Platelets improve liver fibrosis by inactivating hepatic stellate cells, which decreases collagen production. The regenerative effect of platelets in the liver involves a direct effect on hepatocytes, a cooperative effect with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and a collaborative effect with Kupffer cells. Based on these observations, we ascertained the direct effect of platelet transfusion on improving several indicators of liver function in patients with CLD and liver cirrhosis. However, unlike the results of our previous clinical study, the smaller incremental changes in liver function in patients with CLD who received eltrombopag for 6 mo were due to patient selection from a heterogeneous population. We highlight the current knowledge concerning the role of platelets in CLD and cancer and anticipate a novel application of platelet-based clinical therapies to treat liver disease.

  2. Anatomic Peculiarities of Pig and Human Liver.

    PubMed

    Nykonenko, Andriy; Vávra, Petr; Zonča, Pavel

    2017-02-01

    Many investigations on surgical methods and medical treatment are currently done on pigs. This is possible because the pig is sufficiently close genetically to humans. In recent years, progress in liver surgery has opened new possibilities in surgical treatment of liver diseases. Because the methods are relatively novel, various improvements are still needed, and it is thus helpful to conduct experimental surgeries on pig livers. We reviewed the literature to compare the anatomic and functional features of pig and human livers, information that will be of great importance for improving surgical techniques. During the literature review, we used various sources, such as PubMed, Scopus, and veterinary journals. Our results were summarized in diagrams to facilitate understanding of the vascular structure and biliary systems. We conclude that, although the shapes of the human and pig livers are quite different, the pig liver is divided into the same number of segments as the human liver, which also shows a common structure of the vascular system. Thus, with the anatomic and structural features of the pig liver taken into account, this animal model can be used in experimental hepatic surgery.

  3. Effects of cortisone on regenerating rat liver.

    PubMed

    EINHORN, S L; HIRSCHBERG, E; GELLHORN, A

    1954-03-01

    The effects of continuous administration of cortisone on the metabolism of regenerating rat liver have been studied. Whereas the restoration of the weight of the liver after partial hepatectomy was not markedly affected by cortisone, the multiplication of cells was reduced to a significant degree after the first 2 days of regeneration. Liver restoration in terms of nucleic acids was similarly inhibited by cortisone. The results are consistent with the interpretation that the inhibition of cell multiplication in this system is dependent on and keeps pace with the inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis by this drug. At almost any time after hepatectomy, the nucleic acid content of the liver cells was the same in treated and in untreated animals. In ancillary studies, it was shown that cortisone caused the cells of regenerating liver to be increased in size and weight through the increased infiltration of lipids. Changes in water, protein, and carbohydrate content of the liver cells did not contribute to this increase in the weight of the cells. Since all animals were treated with cortisone for 5 days before hepatectomy, data were also obtained on the effect of this agent on the resting liver. This course of treatment brought about a significant decrease in the number of cells per unit wet weight and in the water content of the livers. The nucleic acid content of the cells at hepatectomy, on the other hand, was unchanged.

  4. An Organotypic Liver System for Tumor Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    a physiologically relevant microreactor that has proved suitable for organotypic liver culture to investigate metastatic seeding. The sub-millimeter...metastasis. Our objective is to utilize a physiologically relevant microreactor that has proved suitable for organotypic liver culture (3) to...C Yates, D B Stolz, L Griffith, A Wells (2004) Direct Visualization of Prostate Cancer Progression Utilizing a Bioreactor. American Association

  5. Liver Function Assessment by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Emre; Akata, Deniz; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2016-12-01

    Liver function assessment by hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is becoming a new biomarker. Liver function can be assessed by T1 mapping (reduction rate) and signal intensity measurement (relative enhancement ratio) before and after GD-EOB-DTPA (gadoxetic acid) administration, as alternative to Tc-99m galactosyl serum albumin scintigraphy, 99m Tc-labeled mebrofenin scintigraphy, and indocyanine green clearance test. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of liver function can enable diagnosis of cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated fibrosis and steatohepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, toxic hepatitis, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy-related changes, which may be only visible on hepatobiliary phase images. Simple visual assessment of signal intensity at hepatobiliary phase images is important for the diagnosis of different patterns of liver dysfunction including diffuse, lobar, segmental, and subsegmental forms. Furthermore, preoperative assessment of liver function is feasible before oncologic hepatic surgery, which may be important to prevent posthepatectomy liver failure and to estimate future remnant volume. Functional magnetic resonance cholangiography obtained by T1-weighted images at hepatobiliary phase can allow diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis, biliary leakage, bile reflux to the stomach, sphincter of oddi dysfunction, and lesions with communication to biliary tree. Functional information can be easily obtained when Gd-EOB-DTPA is used for liver magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Liver transection using vascular stapler: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Helge; Weitz, Jürgen; Schmidt, Jan; Büchler, Markus W.

    2008-01-01

    The clinical experience using a novel technique of liver resection with vascular staplers for dissection of hepatic parenchyma, was documented most recently in a prospective manner. These data have clearly demonstrated for the first time that stapler hepatectomy is a safe and fast dissection technique in major liver surgery (e.g. hepatectomy) which is feasible in a routine clinical setting. PMID:18773103

  7. [MRT of the liver in Wilson's disease].

    PubMed

    Vogl, T J; Steiner, S; Hammerstingl, R; Schwarz, S; Kraft, E; Weinzierl, M; Felix, R

    1994-01-01

    To show that Wilson's disease is one likely cause of multiple low-intensity nodules of the liver we obtained MR images in 16 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Wilson's disease. Corresponding to morphological changes MRI enabled the subdivision of the patients into two groups. Using a T2-weighted spin-echo sequence (TR/TE = 2000/45-90) liver parenchyma showed multiple tiny low-intensity-nodules surrounded by high-intensity septa in 10 out of 16 patients. 5 patients had also low-intensity nodules in T1-weighted images (TR/TE = 600/20). In patients of this group histopathology revealed liver cirrhosis (n = 7) and fibrosis (n = 2). Common feature of this patient group was marked inflammatory cell infiltration into fibrous septa, increase of copper concentration in liver parenchyma and distinct pathological changes of laboratory data. In the remaining 6 patients no pathological change of liver morphology was demonstrated by MRI corresponding to slight histopathological changes of parenchyma and normal laboratory data. As low-intensity nodules surrounded by high intensity septa can be demonstrated in patients with marked inflammatory infiltration of liver parenchyma MRI may help to define Wilson patients with poorer prognosis. In patients with low-intensity nodules of the liver and unknown cause of liver cirrhosis laboratory data and histopathology should be checked when searching for disorders of copper metabolism.

  8. Angiostatin inhibits experimental liver fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Vogten, J Mathys; Drixler, Tamas A; te Velde, Elisabeth A; Schipper, Marguerite E; van Vroonhoven, Theo J M V; Voest, Emile E; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M

    2004-07-01

    Liver fibrosis is a response to chronic hepatic damage, which ultimately leads to liver failure and necessitates liver transplantation. A characteristic of fibrosis is pathological vessel growth. This type of angiogenesis may contribute to the disturbance of hepatocyte perfusion dynamics and lead to aggravation of disease. We hypothesized that angiostatin can inhibit pathological vessel growth and, consequently, the development of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis was induced by injection of carbon tetrachloride for 5 weeks. Angiostatin mice received carbon tetrachloride for 5 weeks and angiostatin during weeks 4 and 5. After 5 weeks, immunohistochemistry for endothelial cell marker von Willebrand factor and for cell proliferation was performed. Angiogenesis was quantified by counting the number of immunopositive microvessels. Also, the relative fibrotic surface was determined using Sirius Red histostaining and computer image analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression for von Willebrand factor in fibrotic livers. Immunopositive microvessels were localized in fibrotic areas surrounding larger vessels and in emerging fibrotic septa. Angiostatin reduced the number of immunopositive microvessels by 69% (p<0.001). In addition, angiostatin reduced the relative fibrotic area in the liver by 63+/-0.1% (p<0.001). Finally, angiostatin treatment was not associated with differences in cell proliferation. Angiostatin inhibits the development of pathological angiogenesis and liver fibrosis in mice. These results warrant further evaluation of angiostatin as an antifibrotic agent, potentially contributing to the deferment of liver transplantation and reduced recurrence of fibrotic disease in the transplanted liver.

  9. [Schizophrenia and Liver Transplantation: Case Report].

    PubMed

    Diana, Restrepo B; Marle, Duque G; Carlos, Cardeño C

    2012-09-01

    Liver transplantation is a treatment available for many patients with liver cirrhosis who find in this treatment a way to improve life expectancy and quality of life. Paranoid schizophrenia affects 1% of the general population, produces psychotic symptoms, and runs a chronic course in some cases with significant deterioration in all areas of life. To discuss the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia during the evaluation protocol for liver transplantation. Case report. We report the case of a 47-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis whose only alternative to improve life expectancy and quality of life was access to liver transplantation. During routine evaluations the liaison psychiatrist observed first-order psychotic symptoms and documented a life story that confirmed the presence of paranoid schizophrenia. Paranoid schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder common in the general population that can be a part of the medical comorbidities of patients requiring liver transplantation and is not an absolute contraindication to its completion. We are unaware of similar cases of liver transplantation in patients with schizophrenia in our country. We believe this is a big step on the road to overcome the stigma that mental illness imposes on patients. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Gut Microbiota in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Brenner, David A; Paik, Yong-Han; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Many lines of research have established a relationship between the gut microbiome and patients with liver disease. For example, patients with cirrhosis have increased bacteremia, increased blood levels of lipopolysaccharide, and increased intestinal permeability. Patients with cirrhosis have bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine. Selective intestinal decontamination with antibiotics is beneficial for patients with decompensated cirrhosis. In experimental models of chronic liver injury with fibrosis, several toll-like receptors (TLR) are required to make mice sensitive to liver fibrosis. The presumed ligand for the TLRs are bacterial products derived from the gut microbiome, and TLR knockout mice are resistant to liver inflammation and fibrosis. We and others have characterized the association between preclinical models of liver disease in mice with the microbial diversity in their gut microbiome. In each model, including intragastric alcohol, bile duct ligation, chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), administration, and genetic obesity, there is a significant change in the gut microbiome from normal control mice. However, there is not a single clear bacterial strain or pattern that distinguish mice with liver injury from controlled mice. So how can the gut microbiota affect liver disease? We can identify at least 6 changes that would result in liver injury, inflammation, and/or fibrosis. These include: (1) changes in caloric yield of diet; (2) regulation of gut permeability to release bacterial products; (3) modulation of choline metabolism; (4) production of endogenous ethanol; (5) regulation of bile acid metabolism; and (6) regulation in lipid metabolism.

  11. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Treatment for pediatric liver cancer depends on many factors, including the type of cancer and whether it has spread. When possible, liver cancer is removed by surgery. Learn about the types of treatment options for childhood liver cancers.

  12. Left Lobe Auxiliary Liver Transplantation for End-stage Hepatitis B Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, S-F; Chen, X-P; Chen, Z-S; Wei, L; Dong, S-L; Guo, H; Jiang, J-P; Teng, W-H; Huang, Z-Y; Zhang, W-G

    2017-06-01

    Auxiliary liver transplantation (ALT) for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis previously showed poor results, because the native liver was a significant source of HBV recurrence and the graft could be rapidly destroyed by HBV infection in an immunosuppressive condition. Four patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis were unable to undergo orthotopic liver transplantation because the only available grafts of left lobe were too small. Under entecavir-based anti-HBV treatment, they underwent ALT in which the recipient left liver was removed and the small left lobe graft was implanted in the corresponding space. The mean graft weight/recipient weight was 0.49% (range, 0.38%-0.55%). One year after transplantation, the graft sizes were increased to 273% and the remnant livers were decreased to 44%. Serum HBV DNA was persistently undetectable. Periodic graft biopsy showed no signs of tissue injury and negative immunostaining for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen. After a mean follow-up period of 21 months, all patients live well with normal graft function. Our study suggests that ALT for HBV-related liver cirrhosis is feasible under entecavir-based anti-HBV treatment. Successful application of small left livers in end-stage liver cirrhosis may significantly increase the pool of left liver grafts for adult patients. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. Clamp-crushing vs. radiofrequency-assisted liver resection:changes in liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Palibrk, Ivan; Milicic, Biljana; Stojiljkovic, Ljuba; Manojlovic, Nebojsa; Dugalic, Vladimir; Bumbasirevic, Vesna; Kalezic, Nevena; Zuvela, Marinko; Milicevic, Miroslav

    2012-05-01

    Liver resection is the gold standard in managing patients with metastatic or primary liver cancer. The aim of our study was to compare the traditional clamp-crushing technique to the radiofrequency- assisted liver resection technique in terms of postoperative liver function. Liver function was evaluated preoperatively and on postoperative days 3 and 7. Liver synthetic function parameters (serum albumin level, prothrombin time and international normalized ratio), markers of hepatic injury and necrosis (serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin level) and microsomal activity (quantitative lidocaine test) were compared. Forty three patients completed the study (14 had clamp-crushing and 29 had radiofrequency assisted liver resection). The groups did not differ in demographic characteristics, pre-operative liver function, operative time and perioperative transfusion rate. In postoperative period, there were similar changes in monitored parameters in both groups except albumin levels, that were higher in radiofrequency-assisted liver resection group (p=0.047). Both, traditional clamp-crushing technique and radiofrequency assisted liver resection technique, result in similar postoperative changes of most monitored liver function parameters.

  14. Liver Transplantation in the Mouse: Insights Into Liver Immunobiology, Tissue Injury and Allograft Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Osamu; Ono, Yoshihiro; Geller, David A.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2016-01-01

    The surgically-demanding mouse orthotopic liver transplant model was first described in 1991. It has proved a powerful research tool for investigation of liver biology, tissue injury, the regulation of alloimmunity and tolerance induction and the pathogenesis of specific liver diseases. Liver transplantation in mice has unique advantages over transplantation of the liver in larger species, such as the rat or pig, since the mouse genome is well-characterized and there is much greater availability of both genetically-modified animals and research reagents. Liver transplant experiments using various transgenic or gene knockout mice has provided valuable mechanistic insights into the immuno- and pathobiology of the liver and the regulation of graft rejection and tolerance over the past 25 years. The molecular pathways identified in regulation of tissue injury and promotion of liver transplant tolerance provide new potential targets for therapeutic intervention to control adverse inflammatory responses/ immune-mediated events in the hepatic environment and systemically. Conclusion: Orthotopic liver transplantation in the mouse is a valuable model for gaining improved insights into liver biology, immunopathology and allograft tolerance that may result in therapeutic innovation in liver and other diseases. PMID:26709949

  15. Neonatal liver cell donation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Kathleen; Kish, Mary Z

    2014-01-01

    Traditional organ transplant options for newborns have been rare. There continues to be an increasing need for organs for transplant and a limited number of available organs, especially for small children. Liver cell transplantation is a promising alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation to treat liver-based inborn errors of metabolism.1 The procedure is minimally invasive and can be performed repeatedly. The safety of the procedure has been well established, and the clinical results are encouraging.1 The liver cell donation process is an option for families who experience the loss of a newborn and offers them a legacy for their child by providing life for others. The purpose of this article is to discuss the neonatal liver cell donation process and present a case report of an anencephalic infant whose parents chose to participate in this unique program.

  16. The liver in regulation of iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Gautam; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2017-09-01

    The liver is one of the largest and most functionally diverse organs in the human body. In addition to roles in detoxification of xenobiotics, digestion, synthesis of important plasma proteins, gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, and storage, the liver also plays a significant role in iron homeostasis. Apart from being the storage site for excess body iron, it also plays a vital role in regulating the amount of iron released into the blood by enterocytes and macrophages. Since iron is essential for many important physiological and molecular processes, it increases the importance of liver in the proper functioning of the body's metabolism. This hepatic iron-regulatory function can be attributed to the expression of many liver-specific or liver-enriched proteins, all of which play an important role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. This review focuses on these proteins and their known roles in the regulation of body iron metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. SHEAR WAVE DISPERSION MEASURES LIVER STEATOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Christopher T.; Mills, Bradley; Hah, Zaegyoo; Mooney, Robert A.; Ryan, Charlotte K.; Rubens, Deborah J.; Parker, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Crawling waves, which are interfering shear wave patterns, can be generated in liver tissue over a range of frequencies. Some important biomechanical properties of the liver can be determined by imaging the crawling waves using Doppler techniques and analyzing the patterns. We report that the dispersion of shear wave velocity and attenuation, that is, the frequency dependence of these parameters, are strongly correlated with the degree of steatosis in a mouse liver model, ex vivo. The results demonstrate the possibility of assessing liver steatosis using noninvasive imaging methods that are compatible with color Doppler scanners and, furthermore, suggest that liver steatosis can be separated from fibrosis by assessing the dispersion or frequency dependence of shear wave propagations. PMID:22178165

  18. HAART and the liver: friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The overall effect of HAART on the liver is the result of the balance between hepatotoxicity and the consequences of immunoreconstitution on the evolution of HIV-associated liver diseases, particularly viral hepatitis. HAART may lead to the emergence of acute toxic hepatitis, steatosis, steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, and noncirrhotic portal hypertension. On the other hand, HAART use has been associated with slower fibrosis progression in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients in most studies dealing with this issue. As well, an improvement of the clinical outcome of liver disease has been reported in patients taking HAART. For these reasons, the short- and mid-term effects of HAART on the liver are mostly beneficial. PMID:20452892

  19. Innate Immune Cells in Liver Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liaskou, Evaggelia; Wilson, Daisy V.; Oo, Ye H.

    2012-01-01

    Innate immune system is the first line of defence against invading pathogens that is critical for the overall survival of the host. Human liver is characterised by a dual blood supply, with 80% of blood entering through the portal vein carrying nutrients and bacterial endotoxin from the gastrointestinal tract. The liver is thus constantly exposed to antigenic loads. Therefore, pathogenic microorganism must be efficiently eliminated whilst harmless antigens derived from the gastrointestinal tract need to be tolerized in the liver. In order to achieve this, the liver innate immune system is equipped with multiple cellular components; monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells which coordinate to exert tolerogenic environment at the same time detect, respond, and eliminate invading pathogens, infected or transformed self to mount immunity. This paper will discuss the innate immune cells that take part in human liver inflammation, and their roles in both resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. PMID:22933833

  20. Fatal methanol poisoning: features of liver histopathology.

    PubMed

    Akhgari, Maryam; Panahianpour, Mohammad Hadi; Bazmi, Elham; Etemadi-Aleagha, Afshar; Mahdavi, Amirhosein; Nazari, Saeed Hashemi

    2013-03-01

    Methanol poisoning has become a considerable problem in Iran. Liver can show some features of poisoning after methanol ingestion. Therefore, our concern was to examine liver tissue histopathology in fatal methanol poisoning cases in Iranian population. In this study, 44 cases of fatal methanol poisoning were identified in a year. The histological changes of the liver were reviewed. The most striking features of liver damage by light microscopy were micro-vesicular steatosis, macro-vesicular steatosis, focal hepatocyte necrosis, mild intra-hepatocyte bile stasis, feathery degeneration and hydropic degeneration. Blood and vitreous humor methanol concentrations were examined to confirm the proposed history of methanol poisoning. The majority of cases were men (86.36%). In conclusion, methanol poisoning can cause histological changes in liver tissues. Most importantly in cases with mean blood and vitreous humor methanol levels greater than 127 ± 38.9 mg/dL more than one pathologic features were detected.

  1. Tityus: a forgotten myth of liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tiniakos, Dina G; Kandilis, Apostolos; Geller, Stephen A

    2010-08-01

    The ancient Greek myth of Tityus is related to liver regeneration in the same way as the well known myth of Prometheus is. Depictions of the punishment of Prometheus are frequently used by lecturers on liver regeneration; however, Tityus remains unknown despite the fact that he received the same punishment and his myth could also be used as a paradigm for the organ's extraordinary ability to regenerate. Nevertheless, there is no convincing evidence that ancient Greeks had any specific knowledge about liver regeneration, a concept introduced in the early 19th century. We describe and analyze the myth of Tityus and compare it to the myth of Prometheus. We also explore artistic and literary links and summarize recent scientific data on the mechanisms of liver regeneration. Finally, we highlight links of the legend of Tityus with other sciences. Copyright 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fulminant liver failure: clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Slapak, M.

    1975-01-01

    Clinical experience of some newer methods of hepatic support is described. The results are unpredictable and far from satisfactory. The need for an animal model in which potential therapeutic methods can be studied is emphasized. Such a model based on carefully imposed ischaemic insult to the liver in the absence of portacaval shunting is described. It is suggested that bacterial presence in the bowel together with a depression of the liver reticuloendothelial function plays an important part in the early and rapid mortality of acute liver failure. Temporary auxiliary liver transplantation using an allograft or a closely related primate heterograft seem to be the 2 best available methods of hepatic support for potentially reversible acute liver failure. Images Fig. 8 PMID:812415

  3. Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess and endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Hamid, Ayeshah; Bailey, Sarah-Jane

    2013-01-01

    A 36-year-old man was referred to the general medical team with endophthalmitis. He was noted to have raised inflammatory markers and deranged liver function tests on admission. Subsequent abdominal ultrasound scan revealed a liver abscess requiring percutaneous drainage. A common human pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae, was cultured from multiple sites. K pneumoniae has virulent serotypes (K1 and K2) that can cause primary liver abscess with metastatic infections. Cases have previously been predominantly reported in Southeast Asia but are increasing in prevalence in Europe and North America. The main known risk factor for the disease is diabetes mellitus. Swift antibiotic therapy, ophthalmology review and percutaneous drainage of any liver abscess are essential. Early recognition of the syndrome, despite potentially few initial symptoms, can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. The authors report the first recorded case of K pneumoniae liver abscess with endophthalmitis in the UK. PMID:23559652

  4. The Role of Akt in Chronic Liver Disease and Liver Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ruiz, Manuel; Santel, Ansgar; Ribera, Jordi; Jiménez, Wladimiro

    2017-02-01

    The liver is continuously exposed to diverse insults, which may culminate in pathological processes causing liver disease. An effective therapeutic strategy for chronic liver disease should control the causal factors of the disease and stimulate functional liver regeneration. Preclinical studies have shown that interventions aimed at maintaining Akt activity in a dysfunctional liver meet most of the criteria. Although the central function of Akt is cell survival, other cellular aspects such as glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, cell-cycle progression, and lipid metabolism have been shown to be prominent functions of Akt in the context of hepatic physiology. In this review, the authors describe the benefits of the Akt signaling pathway, emphasizing its importance in coordinating proper cellular growth and differentiation during liver regeneration, hepatic function, and liver disease. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Plasmodium vivax liver stage development and hypnozoite persistence in human liver-chimeric mice

    PubMed Central

    Mikolajczak, Sebastian A.; Vaughan, Ashley M.; Kangwanrangsan, Niwat; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Yimamnuaychok, Narathatai; Rezakhani, Nastaran; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Singh, Naresh; Kaushansky, Alexis; Camargo, Nelly; Baldwin, Michael; Lindner, Scott E.; Adams, John H.; Prachumsri, Jetsumon; Kappe, Stefan H.I.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is characterized by periodic relapses of symptomatic blood stage parasite infections likely initiated by activation of dormant liver stage parasites -hypnozoites. The lack of tractable animal models for P. vivax constitutes a severe obstacle to investigate this unique aspect of its biology and to test drug efficacy against liver stages. We show that the FRG KO huHep liver-humanized mice support P. vivax sporozoite infection, development of liver stages, and the formation of small non-replicating hypnozoites. Cellular characterization of P. vivax liver stage development in vivo demonstrates complete maturation into infectious exo-erythrocytic merozoites and continuing persistence of hypnozoites. Primaquine prophylaxis or treatment prevents and eliminates liver stage infection. Thus, the P. vivax/FRG KO huHep mouse infection model constitutes an important new tool to investigate the biology of liver stage development and dormancy and might aid in the discovery of new drugs for the prevention of relapsing malaria. PMID:25800544

  6. Anesthesia for Patients With Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rahimzadeh, Poupak; Safari, Saeid; Faiz, Seyed Hamid Reza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2014-01-01

    Context: Liver plays an important role in metabolism and physiological homeostasis in the body. This organ is unique in its structure and physiology. So it is necessary for an anesthesiologist to be familiar with various hepatic pathophysiologic conditions and consequences of liver dysfunction. Evidence Acquisition: We searched MEDLINE (Pub Med, OVID, MD Consult), SCOPUS and the Cochrane database for the following keywords: liver disease, anesthesia and liver disease, regional anesthesia in liver disease, epidural anesthesia in liver disease and spinal anesthesia in liver disease, for the period of 1966 to 2013. Results: Although different anesthetic regimens are available in modern anesthesia world, but anesthetizing the patients with liver disease is still really tough. Spinal or epidural anesthetic effects on hepatic blood flow and function is not clearly investigated, considering both the anesthetic drug-induced changes and outcomes. Regional anesthesia might be used in patients with advanced liver disease. In these cases lower drug dosages are used, considering the fact that locally administered drugs have less systemic effects. In case of general anesthesia it seems that using inhalation agents (Isoflurane, Desflurane or Sevoflurane), alone or in combination with small doses of fentanyl can be considered as a reasonable regimen. When administering drugs, anesthetist must realize and consider the substantially changed pharmacokinetics of some other anesthetic drugs. Conclusions: Despite the fact that anesthesia in chronic liver disease is a scary and pretty challenging condition for every anesthesiologist, this hazard could be diminished by meticulous attention on optimizing the patient’s condition preoperatively and choosing appropriate anesthetic regimen and drugs in this setting. Although there are paucity of statistics and investigations in this specific group of patients but these little data show that with careful monitoring and considering the above

  7. Effect of airplane transport of donor livers on post-liver transplantation survival

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; MacQuillan, Gerry; Adams, Leon A; Garas, George; Collins, Megan; Nwaba, Albert; Mou, Linjun; Bulsara, Max K; Delriviere, Luc; Jeffrey, Gary P

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of long haul airplane transport of donor livers on post-transplant outcomes. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of patients who received a liver transplantation was performed in Perth, Australia from 1992 to 2012. Donor and recipient characteristics information were extracted from Western Australian liver transplantation service database. Patients were followed up for a mean of six years. Patient and graft survival were evaluated and compared between patients who received a local donor liver and those who received an airplane transported donor liver. Predictors of survival were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using cox regression. RESULTS One hundred and ninety-three patients received a local donor liver and 93 patients received an airplane transported donor liver. Airplane transported livers had a significantly lower alanine transaminase (mean: 45 U/L vs 84 U/L, P = 0.035), higher donor risk index (mean: 1.88 vs 1.42, P < 0.001) and longer cold ischemic time (CIT) (mean: 10.1 h vs 6.4 h, P < 0.001). There was a weak correlation between CIT and transport distance (r2 = 0.29, P < 0.001). Mean follow up was six years and 93 patients had graft failure. Multivariate analysis found only airplane transport retained significance for graft loss (HR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.16-3.17). One year graft survival was 0.88 for those with a local liver and was 0.71 for those with an airplane transported liver. One year graft loss was due to primary graft non-function or associated with preservation injury in 20.8% of recipients of an airplane transported liver compared with 4.6% in those with a local liver (P = 0.027). CONCLUSION Airplane transport of donor livers was independently associated with reduced graft survival following liver transplantation. PMID:27895402

  8. Effect of airplane transport of donor livers on post-liver transplantation survival.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; MacQuillan, Gerry; Adams, Leon A; Garas, George; Collins, Megan; Nwaba, Albert; Mou, Linjun; Bulsara, Max K; Delriviere, Luc; Jeffrey, Gary P

    2016-11-07

    To evaluate the effect of long haul airplane transport of donor livers on post-transplant outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of patients who received a liver transplantation was performed in Perth, Australia from 1992 to 2012. Donor and recipient characteristics information were extracted from Western Australian liver transplantation service database. Patients were followed up for a mean of six years. Patient and graft survival were evaluated and compared between patients who received a local donor liver and those who received an airplane transported donor liver. Predictors of survival were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using cox regression. One hundred and ninety-three patients received a local donor liver and 93 patients received an airplane transported donor liver. Airplane transported livers had a significantly lower alanine transaminase (mean: 45 U/L vs 84 U/L, P = 0.035), higher donor risk index (mean: 1.88 vs 1.42, P < 0.001) and longer cold ischemic time (CIT) (mean: 10.1 h vs 6.4 h, P < 0.001). There was a weak correlation between CIT and transport distance ( r 2 = 0.29, P < 0.001). Mean follow up was six years and 93 patients had graft failure. Multivariate analysis found only airplane transport retained significance for graft loss (HR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.16-3.17). One year graft survival was 0.88 for those with a local liver and was 0.71 for those with an airplane transported liver. One year graft loss was due to primary graft non-function or associated with preservation injury in 20.8% of recipients of an airplane transported liver compared with 4.6% in those with a local liver ( P = 0.027). Airplane transport of donor livers was independently associated with reduced graft survival following liver transplantation.

  9. Magnetic resonance elastography is as accurate as liver biopsy for liver fibrosis staging.

    PubMed

    Morisaka, Hiroyuki; Motosugi, Utaroh; Ichikawa, Shintaro; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kondo, Tetsuo; Funayama, Satoshi; Matsuda, Masanori; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Liver MR elastography (MRE) is available for the noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis; however, no previous studies have compared the diagnostic ability of MRE with that of liver biopsy. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of liver fibrosis staging between MRE-based methods and liver biopsy using the resected liver specimens as the reference standard. A retrospective study at a single institution. In all, 200 patients who underwent preoperative MRE and subsequent surgical liver resection were included in this study. Data from 80 patients were used to estimate cutoff and distributions of liver stiffness values measured by MRE for each liver fibrosis stage (F0-F4, METAVIR system). In the remaining 120 patients, liver biopsy specimens were obtained from the resected liver tissues using a standard biopsy needle. 2D liver MRE with gradient-echo based sequence on a 1.5 or 3T scanner was used. Two radiologists independently measured the liver stiffness value on MRE and two types of MRE-based methods (threshold and Bayesian prediction method) were applied. Two pathologists evaluated all biopsy samples independently to stage liver fibrosis. Surgically resected whole tissue specimens were used as the reference standard. The accuracy for liver fibrosis staging was compared between liver biopsy and MRE-based methods with a modified McNemar's test. Accurate fibrosis staging was achieved in 53.3% (64/120) and 59.1% (71/120) of patients using MRE with threshold and Bayesian methods, respectively, and in 51.6% (62/120) with liver biopsy. Accuracies of MRE-based methods for diagnoses of ≥F2 (90-91% [108-9/120]), ≥F3 (79-81% [95-97/120]), and F4 (82-85% [98-102/120]) were statistically equivalent to those of liver biopsy (≥F2, 79% [95/120], P ≤ 0.01; ≥F3, 88% [105/120], P ≤ 0.006; and F4, 82% [99/120], P ≤ 0.017). MRE can be an alternative to liver biopsy for fibrosis staging. 3. Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:1268-1275. © 2017

  10. Identification Of Inequalities In The Selection Of Liver Surgery For Colorectal Liver Metastases In Sweden.

    PubMed

    Norén, A; Sandström, P; Gunnarsdottir, K; Ardnor, B; Isaksson, B; Lindell, G; Rizell, M

    2018-04-01

    Liver resection for colorectal liver metastases offers a 5-year survival rate of 25%-58%. This study aimed to analyze whether patients with colorectal liver metastases undergo resection to an equal extent and whether selection factors play a role in the selection process. Data were retrieved from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry (2007-2011) for colorectal cancer and colorectal liver metastases. The patients identified were linked to the Swedish Registry of Liver and Bile surgery and the National Patient Registry to identify whether liver surgery or ablative treatment was performed. Analyses for age, sex, type of primary tumor and treating hospital (university, county, or district), American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and radiology for detection of metastatic disease were performed. Of 28,355 patients with colorectal cancer, 21.6% (6127/28,355) presented with liver metastases. Of the patients with liver metastases, 18.5% (1134/6127) underwent liver resection or ablation. The cumulative proportion of liver resection/ablation was 4% (1134/28,355) of all colorectal cancer. If "not bowel resected" were excluded, the proportion slightly increased to 4.7% (1134/24,262). Around 15% of the patients with metastases were registered as referrals for liver surgery. In a multivariable analysis patients treated at a university hospital for primary tumor were more frequently surgically treated for liver metastases (p < 0.0001). Patients with liver metastases from rectal cancer (p < 0.0001) and men more often underwent liver resection (p = 0.006). A difference was found between health-care regions for the frequency of liver surgery (p < 0.0001). Patients >70 years and those with American Society of Anesthesiologists class >2 underwent liver resection less frequently. Magnetic resonance imaging of the liver was more often used in diagnostic work-up in men. Patients with colorectal liver metastases are unequally treated in Sweden, as indicated by the

  11. Inflammation in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H. Joe; Gao, Bin; Zakhari, Samir; Nagy, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Frank Burr Mallory’s landmark observation in 1911 on the histopathology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) was the first identification of a link between an inflammation and ALD. In this review, we summarize recent advances regarding the origins and roles of various inflammatory components in ALD. Metabolism of ethanol generates a number of metabolites, including acetate, reactive oxygen species, acetaldehyde, and epigenetic changes, that can induce inflammatory responses. Alcohol and its metabolites can also initiate and aggravate inflammatory conditions by promoting gut leakiness of microbial products, by sensitizing immune cells to stimulation and by activating innate immune pathways, such as complement. Chronic alcohol consumption also sensitizes non-immune cells, e.g., hepatocytes, to inflammatory signals and impairs their ability to respond to protective signals. Based on these advances, a number of inflammatory targets have been identified with potential for therapeutic intervention in ALD, presenting new opportunities and challenges for translational research. PMID:22524187

  12. Blood use in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, J. H.; Bontempo, F. A.; Cornell, F.; Ki̋ss, J. E.; Larson, P.; Ragni, M. V.; Rice, E. O.; Spero, J. A.; Starzl, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    During the first 5 years (1981–1985) of the liver transplantation program in Pittsburgh, a total (preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative) of 18,668 packed red cell units, 23,627 fresh-frozen plasma units, 20,590 platelet units, and 4241 cryoprecipitate units was transfused for the procedures. This represents 3 to 9 percent of the total of blood products supplied by the Central Blood Bank to its 32 member hospitals. Six hundred thirty-six (636) transplants were performed on 485 patients in two hospitals: the Presbyterian University Hospital (564 beds) and Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh (236 beds). All of the blood components used in the operations were procured and released by the Central Blood Bank. This report describes some of these findings. PMID:3296340

  13. Liquid biopsy in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Labgaa, Ismail; Villanueva, Augusto

    2015-04-01

    Liver cancer has become the second cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most patients are still diagnosed at intermediate or advanced stage, where potentially curative treatment options are not recommended. Unlike other solid tumors, there are no validated oncogenic addiction loops and the only systemic agent to improve survival in advanced disease is sorafenib. All phase 3 clinical trials testing molecular therapies after sorafenib have been negative, none of which selected patients based on predictive biomarkers of response. Theoretically, analysis of circulating cancer byproducts (e.g., circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acids), namely "liquid biopsy," could provide easy access to molecular tumor information, improve patients' stratification and allow to assess tumor dynamics over time. Recent technical developments and preliminary data from other malignancies indicate that liquid biopsy might have a role in the future management of cancer patients.

  14. PET-CT in Determining the Radioembolization Dose Delivered to Patients With Liver Metastasis, Primary Liver Cancer, or Biliary Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-08

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Stage D Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  15. Mild Hypothermia and Acute Kidney Injury in Liver Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-18

    Cirrhosis; End Stage Liver Disease; Acute Kidney Injury; Liver Transplant; Complications; Chronic Kidney Diseases; Hepatitis c; Hepatitis B; NASH - Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis; Alcoholic Cirrhosis; Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  16. Hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging in patients with liver disease: correlation of liver enhancement with biochemical liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Kukuk, Guido M; Schaefer, Stephanie G; Fimmers, Rolf; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R; Ezziddin, Samer; Spengler, Ulrich; Schild, Hans H; Willinek, Winfried A

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA in relation to various liver function tests in patients with liver disorders. Fifty-one patients with liver disease underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI. Based on region-of-interest (ROI) analysis, liver signal intensity was calculated using the spleen as reference tissue. Liver-spleen contrast ratio (LSCR) and relative liver enhancement (RLE) were calculated. Serum levels of total bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin level (AL), prothrombin time (PT), creatinine (CR) as well as international normalised ratio (INR) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score were tested for correlation with LSCR and RLE. Pre-contrast LSCR values correlated with total bilirubin (r = -0.39; p = 0.005), GGT (r = -0.37; p = 0.009), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), ALT (r = -0.29; p = 0.046), PT (r = 0.52; p < 0.001), GLDH (r = -0.55; p = 0.044), INR (r = -0.42; p = 0.003), and MELD Score (r = -0.53; p < 0.001). After administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA bilirubin (r = -0.45; p = 0.001), GGT (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), PT (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), AST (r = -0.46; p = 0.002), ALT (r = -0.31; p = 0.030), INR (r = -0.45; p = 0.001) and MELD Score (r = -0.56; p < 0.001) significantly correlated with LSCR. RLE correlated with bilirubin (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), PT (r = 0.42; p = 0.003), GGT (r = -0.33; p = 0.020), INR (r = -0.36; p = 0.011) and MELD Score (r = -0.43; p = 0.003). Liver-spleen contrast ratio and relative liver enhancement using Gd-EOB-DTPA correlate with a number of routinely used biochemical liver function tests, suggesting that hepatobiliary MRI may serve as a

  17. Nutritional support for liver disease.

    PubMed

    Koretz, Ronald L; Avenell, Alison; Lipman, Timothy O

    2012-05-16

    Weight loss and muscle wasting are commonly found in patients with end-stage liver disease. Since there is an association between malnutrition and poor clinical outcome, such patients (or those at risk of becoming malnourished) are often given parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, or oral nutritional supplements. These interventions have costs and adverse effects, so it is important to prove that their use results in improved morbidity or mortality, or both. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, and oral nutritional supplements on the mortality and morbidity of patients with underlying liver disease. The following computerised databases were searched: the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded (January 2012). In addition, reference lists of identified trials and review articles and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched. Trials identified in a previous systematic handsearch of Index Medicus were also considered. Handsearches of a number of medical journals, including abstracts from annual meetings, were done. Experts in the field and manufacturers of nutrient formulations were contacted for potential references. Randomised clinical trials (parallel or cross-over design) comparing groups of patients with any underlying liver disease who received, or did not receive, enteral or parenteral nutrition or oral nutritional supplements were identified without restriction on date, language, or publication status. Six categories of trials were separately considered: medical or surgical patients receiving parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, or supplements. The following data were sought in each report: date of publication; geographical location; inclusion and exclusion criteria; the type of nutritional support and constitution of the nutrient formulation; duration of

  18. Role of ischaemic preconditioning in liver regeneration following major liver resection and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, D; Homer-Vanniasinkam, S; Graham, AM; Prasad, KR

    2007-01-01

    Liver ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) is known to protect the liver from the detrimental effects of ischaemic-reperfusion injury (IRI), which contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality following major liver surgery. Recent studies have focused on the role of IPC in liver regeneration, the precise mechanism of which are not completely understood. This review discusses the current understanding of the mechanism of liver regeneration and the role of IPC in this setting. Relevant articles were reviewed from the published literature using the Medline database. The search was performed using the keywords “liver”, “ischaemic reperfusion”, “ischaemic preconditioning”, “regeneration”, “hepatectomy” and “transplantation”. The underlying mechanism of liver regeneration is a complex process involving the interaction of cytokines, growth factors and the metabolic demand of the liver. IPC, through various mediators, promotes liver regeneration by up-regulating growth-promoting factors and suppresses growth-inhibiting factors as well as damaging stresses. The increased understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in IPC will enable the development of alternative treatment modalities aimed at promoting liver regeneration following major liver resection and transplantation. PMID:17278187

  19. Increase of infiltrating monocytes in the livers of patients with chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Yong; Yang, Chenchen; Pan, Zhiyun; Xia, Juan; Xiong, Yali; Wang, Guiyang; Sun, Zhenhua; Chen, Jun; Yan, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhaoping; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Infiltrating monocytes have been demonstrated to contribute to tissue damage in experimental models of liver injury and fibrosis. However, less is known about monocyte infiltration in the livers of patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). In the present study, we demonstrated that CD68+ hepatic macrophages and MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes were significantly increased in the livers of CLD patients with different etiologies as compared with normal liver tissue. In addition, CLD patients with higher inflammatory grading scores had more CD68+ macrophages and MAC387+ monocytes infiltration in their livers compared to those with lower scores. Significantly more MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes were found in the liver tissue of CLD patients with higher fibrotic staging scores compared to those with lower scores. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression was significantly increased in the livers of CLD patients with different etiologies. MCP-1 staining scores were significantly positively associated with the numbers of MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes in CLD patients. Taken together, our results demonstrate that infiltrating monocytes may play a pathological role in exacerbating chronic liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD. MCP-1 may be involved in the monocyte infiltration and progression of liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD.

  20. Impaired lipid accumulation in the liver of Tsc2-heterozygous mice during liver regeneration

    SciT

    Obayashi, Yoko, E-mail: youko_oobayashi@ajinomoto.com; Campbell, Jean S.; Fausto, Nelson

    Highlights: •Tuberin phosphorylation correlated with mTOR activation in early liver regeneration. •Liver regeneration in the Tsc2+/− mice was not enhanced. •The Tsc2+/− livers failed to accumulate lipid bodies during liver regeneration. •Mortality rate increased in Tsc2+/− mice after partial hepatectomy. •Tuberin plays a critical role in hepatic lipid accumulation to support regeneration. -- Abstract: Tuberin is a negative regulator of mTOR pathway. To investigate the function of tuberin during liver regeneration, we performed 70% hepatectomy on wild-type and Tsc2+/− mice. We found the tuberin phosphorylation correlated with mTOR activation during early liver regeneration in wild-type mice. However, liver regeneration inmore » the Tsc2+/− mice was not enhanced. Instead, the Tsc2+/− livers failed to accumulate lipid bodies, and this was accompanied by increased mortality. These findings suggest that tuberin plays a critical role in liver energy balance by regulating hepatocellular lipid accumulation during early liver regeneration. These effects may influence the role of mTORC1 on cell growth and proliferation.« less

  1. Quantification of liver fibrosis via second harmonic imaging of the Glisson's capsule from liver surface.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuoyu; Kang, Chiang Huen; Gou, Xiaoli; Peng, Qiwen; Yan, Jie; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Cheng, Chee Leong; He, Yuting; Kang, Yuzhan; Xia, Wuzheng; So, Peter T C; Welsch, Roy; Rajapakse, Jagath C; Yu, Hanry

    2016-04-01

    Liver surface is covered by a collagenous layer called the Glisson's capsule. The structure of the Glisson's capsule is barely seen in the biopsy samples for histology assessment, thus the changes of the collagen network from the Glisson's capsule during the liver disease progression are not well studied. In this report, we investigated whether non-linear optical imaging of the Glisson's capsule at liver surface would yield sufficient information to allow quantitative staging of liver fibrosis. In contrast to conventional tissue sections whereby tissues are cut perpendicular to the liver surface and interior information from the liver biopsy samples were used, we have established a capsule index based on significant parameters extracted from the second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy images of capsule collagen from anterior surface of rat livers. Thioacetamide (TAA) induced liver fibrosis animal models was used in this study. The capsule index is capable of differentiating different fibrosis stages, with area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) up to 0.91, making it possible to quantitatively stage liver fibrosis via liver surface imaging potentially with endomicroscopy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Pediatric Liver Transplant: Techniques and Complications.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Natally; Marcelino, Antonio Sergio Zafred; Horvat, Joao Vicente; Yamanari, Tássia Regina; Batista Araújo-Filho, Jose de Arimateia; Panizza, Pedro; Seda-Neto, Joao; Antunes da Fonseca, Eduardo; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Mendes de Oliveira Cerri, Luciana; Chapchap, Paulo; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2017-10-01

    Liver transplant is considered to be the last-resort treatment approach for pediatric patients with end-stage liver disease. Despite the remarkable advance in survival rates, liver transplant remains an intricate surgery with significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of complications is crucial for patient survival but is challenging given the lack of specificity in clinical presentation. Knowledge of the liver and vascular anatomy of the donor and the recipient or recipients before surgery is also important to avoid complications. In this framework, radiologists play a pivotal role on the multidisciplinary team in both pre- and postoperative scenarios by providing a road map to guide the surgery and by assisting in diagnosis of complications. The most common complications after liver transplant are (a) vascular, including the hepatic artery, portal vein, hepatic veins, and inferior vena cava; (b) biliary; (c) parenchymal; (d) perihepatic; and (e) neoplastic. The authors review surgical techniques, the role of each imaging modality, normal posttransplant imaging features, types of complications after liver transplant, and information required in the radiology report that is critical to patient care. They present an algorithm for an imaging approach for pediatric patients after liver transplant and describe key points that should be included in radiologic reports in the pre- and postoperative settings. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2017.

  3. BIOCONJUGATION OF OLIGONUCLEOTIDES FOR TREATING LIVER FIBROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhaoyang; Hajj Houssein, Houssam S.; Mahato, Ram I.

    2009-01-01

    Liver fibrosis results from chronic liver injury due to hepatitis B and C, excessive alcohol ingestion, and metal ion overload. Fibrosis culminates in cirrhosis and results in liver failure. Therefore, a potent antifibrotic therapy is in urgent need to reverse scarring and eliminate progression to cirrhosis. Although activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) remains the principle cell type responsible for liver fibrosis, perivascular fibroblasts of portal and central veins as well as periductular fibroblasts are other sources of fibrogenic cells. This review will critically discuss various treatment strategies for liver fibrosis, including prevention of liver injury, reduction of inflammation, inhibition of HSC activation, degradation of scar matrix, and inhibition of aberrant collagen synthesis. Oligonucleotides (ODNs) are short, single-stranded nucleic acids, which disrupt expression of target protein by binding to complementary mRNA or forming triplex with genomic DNA. Triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) provide an attractive strategy for treating liver fibrosis. A series of TFOs have been developed for inhibiting the transcription of α1(I) collagen gene, which opens a new area for antifibrotic drugs. There will be in depth discussion on the use of TFOs and how different bioconjugation strategies can be utilized for their site-specific delivery to HSCs or hepatocytes for enhanced antifibrotic activities. Various insights developed in individual strategy and the need for multipronged approaches will also be discussed. PMID:18154454

  4. Genetics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Dongiovanni, Paola; Valenti, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological, familial, and twin studies indicate that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, now the leading cause of liver damage in developed countries, has a strong heritability. The common I148M variant of PNPLA3 impairing hepatocellular lipid droplets remodeling is the major genetic determinant of hepatic fat content. The I148M variant has a strong impact on the full spectrum of liver damage related to fatty liver, encompassing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and influences the response to therapeutic approaches. Common variants in GCKR enhance de novo hepatic lipogenesis in response to glucose and liver inflammation. Furthermore, the low-frequency E167K variant of TM6SF2 and rare mutations in APOB, which impair very low-density lipoproteins secretion, predispose to progressive fatty liver. These and other recent findings reviewed here indicate that impaired lipid handling by hepatocytes has a major role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by triggering inflammation, fibrogenesis, and carcinogenesis. These discoveries have provided potential novel biomarkers for clinical use and have revealed intriguing therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplant

    PubMed Central

    deLemos, Andrew S; Schmeltzer, Paul A; Russo, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    End stage liver disease from hepatitis C is the most common indication for liver transplantation in many parts of the world accounting for up to 40% of liver transplants. Antiviral therapy either before or after liver transplantation is challenging due to side effects and lower efficacy in patients with cirrhosis and liver transplant recipients, as well as from drug interactions with immunosuppressants. Factors that may affect recurrent hepatitis C include donor age, immunosuppression, IL28B genotype, cytomegalovirus infection, and metabolic syndrome. Older donor age has persistently been shown to have the greatest impact on recurrent hepatitis C. After liver transplantation, distinguishing recurrent hepatitis C from acute cellular rejection may be difficult, although the development of molecular markers may help in making the correct diagnosis. The advent of interferon free regimens with direct acting antiviral agents that include NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5B polymerase inhibitors and NS5A inhibitors holds great promise in improving outcomes for liver transplant candidates and recipients. PMID:25152571

  6. Technical aspects of virtual liver resection planning.

    PubMed

    Glombitza, G; Lamadé, W; Demiris, A M; Göpfert, M R; Mayer, A; Bahner, M L; Meinzer, H P; Richter, G; Lehnert, T; Herfarth, C

    1998-01-01

    Operability of a liver tumor is depending on its three dimensional relation to the intrahepatic vascular trees which define autonomously functioning liver (sub-)segments. Precise operation planning is complicated by anatomic variability, distortion of the vascular trees by the tumor or preceding liver resections. Because of the missing possibility to track the deformation of the liver during the operation an integration of the resection planning system into an intra-operative navigation system is not feasible. So the main task of an operation planning system in this domain is a quantifiable patient selection by exact prediction of post-operative liver function and a quantifiable resection proposal. The system quantifies the organ structures and resection volumes by means of absolute and relative values. It defines resection planes depending on security margins and the vascular trees and presents the data in visualized form as a 3D movie. The new 3D operation planning system offers quantifiable liver resection proposals based on individualized liver anatomy. The results are visualized in digital movies as well as in quantitative reports.

  7. TWEAK induces liver progenitor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Aniela; Ambrose, Christine; Parr, Michael; Lincecum, John M.; Wang, Monica Z.; Zheng, Timothy S.; Browning, Beth; Michaelson, Jennifer S.; Baestcher, Manfred; Wang, Bruce; Bissell, D. Montgomery; Burkly, Linda C.

    2005-01-01

    Progenitor (“oval”) cell expansion accompanies many forms of liver injury, including alcohol toxicity and submassive parenchymal necrosis as well as experimental injury models featuring blocked hepatocyte replication. Oval cells can potentially become either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells and may be critical to liver regeneration, particularly when hepatocyte replication is impaired. The regulation of oval cell proliferation is incompletely understood. Herein we present evidence that a TNF family member called TWEAK (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis) stimulates oval cell proliferation in mouse liver through its receptor Fn14. TWEAK has no effect on mature hepatocytes and thus appears to be selective for oval cells. Transgenic mice overexpressing TWEAK in hepatocytes exhibit periportal oval cell hyperplasia. A similar phenotype was obtained in adult wild-type mice, but not Fn14-null mice, by administering TWEAK-expressing adenovirus. Oval cell expansion induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) was significantly reduced in Fn14-null mice as well as in adult wild-type mice with a blocking anti-TWEAK mAb. Importantly, TWEAK stimulated the proliferation of an oval cell culture model. Finally, we show increased Fn14 expression in chronic hepatitis C and other human liver diseases relative to its expression in normal liver, which suggests a role for the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in human liver injury. We conclude that TWEAK has a selective mitogenic effect for liver oval cells that distinguishes it from other previously described growth factors. PMID:16110324

  8. Acute liver failure and self-medication.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, André Vitorio Câmara; Rocha, Frederico Theobaldo Ramos; Abreu, Sílvio Romero de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Not responsible self-medication refers to drug use in high doses without rational indication and often associated with alcohol abuse. It can lead to liver damage and drug interactions, and may cause liver failure. To warn about how the practice of self-medication can be responsible for acute liver failure. Were used the Medline via PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and Lilacs, and additional information on institutional sites of interest crossing the headings acute liver failure [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND acetaminophen [tiab]; acute liver failure [tiab] AND dietary supplements [tiab]; self-medication [tiab] AND liver failure [tiab] and self-medication [tiab] AND green tea [tiab]. In Lilacs and SciELO used the descriptor self medication in Portuguese and Spanish. From total surveyed were selected 27 articles and five sites specifically related to the purpose of this review. Legislation and supervision disabled and information inaccessible to people, favors the emergence of cases of liver failure drug in many countries. In the list of released drugs that deserve more attention and care, are some herbal medicines used for the purpose of weight loss, and acetaminophen. It is recommended that institutes of health intensify supervision and better orient their populations on drug seemingly harmless, limiting the sale of products or requiring a prescription for release them.

  9. Hyaluronic acid concentration in liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Gudowska, Monika; Gruszewska, Ewa; Panasiuk, Anatol; Cylwik, Bogdan; Flisiak, Robert; Świderska, Magdalena; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Chrostek, Lech

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liver diseases of different etiologies and clinical severity of liver cirrhosis on the serum level of hyaluronic acid. The results were compared with noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis: APRI, GAPRI, HAPRI, FIB-4 and Forn's index. Serum samples were obtained from 20 healthy volunteers and patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis (AC)-57 patients, non-alcoholic cirrhosis (NAC)-30 and toxic hepatitis (HT)-22. Cirrhotic patients were classified according to Child-Pugh score. Hyaluronic acid concentration was measured by the immunochemical method. Non-patented indicators were calculated using special formulas. The mean serum hyaluronic acid concentration was significantly higher in AC, NAC and HT group in comparison with the control group. There were significant differences in the serum hyaluronic acid levels between liver diseases, and in AC they were significantly higher than those in NAC and HT group. The serum hyaluronic acid level differs significantly due to the severity of cirrhosis and was the highest in Child-Pugh class C. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values and the area under the ROC curve for hyaluronic acid and all non-patented algorithms were high and similar to each other. We conclude that the concentration of hyaluronic acid changes in liver diseases and is affected by the severity of liver cirrhosis. Serum hyaluronic acid should be considered as a good marker for noninvasive diagnosis of liver damage, but the combination of markers is more useful.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Liver Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Ozmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Akata, Deniz; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2016-12-01

    Liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming the gold standard in liver metastasis detection and treatment response assessment. The most sensitive magnetic resonance sequences are diffusion-weighted images and hepatobiliary phase images after Gd-EOB-DTPA. Peripheral ring enhancement, diffusion restriction, and hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images are hallmarks of liver metastases. In patients with normal ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT findings and high clinical suspicion of metastasis, MRI should be performed for diagnosis of unseen metastasis. In melanoma, colon cancer, and neuroendocrine tumor metastases, MRI allows confident diagnosis of treatment-related changes in liver and enables differential diagnosis from primary liver tumors. Focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules in patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy, hypersteatosis, and focal fat can mimic metastasis. In cancer patients with fatty liver, MRI should be preferred to CT. Although the first-line imaging for metastases is CT, MRI can be used as a problem-solving method. MRI may be used as the first-line method in patients who would undergo curative surgery or metastatectomy. Current limitation of MRI is low sensitivity for metastasis smaller than 3mm. MRI fingerprinting, glucoCEST MRI, and PET-MRI may allow simpler and more sensitive diagnosis of liver metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interaction between periodontitis and liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Pengyu; Sun, Dianxing; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an oral disease that is highly prevalent worldwide, with a prevalence of 30–50% of the population in developed countries, but only ~10% present with severe forms. It is also estimated that periodontitis results in worldwide productivity losses amounting to ~54 billion USD yearly. In addition to the damage it causes to oral health, periodontitis also affects other types of disease. Numerous studies have confirmed the association between periodontitis and systemic diseases, such as diabetes, respiratory disease, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence also indicated that periodontitis may participate in the progression of liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as affecting liver transplantation. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are currently no reviews elaborating upon the possible links between periodontitis and liver diseases. Therefore, the current review summarizes the human trials and animal experiments that have been conducted to investigate the correlation between periodontitis and liver diseases. Furthermore, in the present review, certain mechanisms that have been postulated to be responsible for the role of periodontitis in liver diseases (such as bacteria, pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress) are considered. The aim of the review is to introduce the hypothesis that periodontitis may be important in the progression of liver disease, thus providing dentists and physicians with an improved understanding of this issue. PMID:27588170

  12. Umbilical hernia management during liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    de Goede, B; van Kempen, B J H; Polak, W G; de Knegt, R J; Schouten, J N L; Lange, J F; Tilanus, H W; Metselaar, H J; Kazemier, G

    2013-08-01

    Patients with liver cirrhosis scheduled for liver transplantation often present with a concurrent umbilical hernia. Optimal management of these patients is not clear. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients who underwent umbilical hernia correction during liver transplantation through a separate infra-umbilical incision with those who underwent correction through the same incision used to perform the liver transplantation. In the period between 1990 and 2011, all 27 patients with umbilical hernia and liver cirrhosis who underwent hernia correction during liver transplantation were identified in our hospital database. In 17 cases, umbilical hernia repair was performed through a separate infra-umbilical incision (separate incision group) and 10 were corrected from within the abdominal cavity without a separate incision (same incision group). Six patients died during follow-up; no deaths were attributable to intraoperative umbilical hernia repair. All 21 patients who were alive visited the outpatient clinic to detect recurrent umbilical hernia. One recurrent umbilical hernia was diagnosed in the separate incision group (6 %) and four (40 %) in the same incision group (p = 0.047). Two patients in the same incision group required repair of the recurrent umbilical hernia; one of whom underwent emergency surgery for bowel incarceration. The one recurrent hernia in the separate incision group was corrected electively. In the event of liver transplantation, umbilical hernia repair through a separate infra-umbilical incision is preferred over correction through the same incision used to perform the transplantation.

  13. Effects of the liver volume and donor steatosis on errors in the estimated standard liver volume.

    PubMed

    Siriwardana, Rohan Chaminda; Chan, See Ching; Chok, Kenneth Siu Ho; Lo, Chung Mau; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2011-12-01

    An accurate assessment of donor and recipient liver volumes is essential in living donor liver transplantation. Many liver donors are affected by mild to moderate steatosis, and steatotic livers are known to have larger volumes. This study analyzes errors in liver volume estimation by commonly used formulas and the effects of donor steatosis on these errors. Three hundred twenty-five Asian donors who underwent right lobe donor hepatectomy were the subjects of this study. The percentage differences between the liver volumes from computed tomography (CT) and the liver volumes estimated with each formula (ie, the error percentages) were calculated. Five popular formulas were tested. The degrees of steatosis were categorized as follows: no steatosis [n = 178 (54.8%)], ≤ 10% steatosis [n = 128 (39.4%)], and >10% to 20% steatosis [n = 19 (5.8%)]. The median errors ranged from 0.6% (7 mL) to 24.6% (360 mL). The lowest was seen with the locally derived formula. All the formulas showed a significant association between the error percentage and the CT liver volume (P < 0.001). Overestimation was seen with smaller liver volumes, whereas underestimation was seen with larger volumes. The locally derived formula was most accurate when the liver volume was 1001 to 1250 mL. A multivariate analysis showed that the estimation error was dependent on the liver volume (P = 0.001) and the anthropometric measurement that was used in the calculation (P < 0.001) rather than steatosis (P ≥ 0.07). In conclusion, all the formulas have a similar pattern of error that is possibly related to the anthropometric measurement. Clinicians should be aware of this pattern of error and the liver volume with which their formula is most accurate. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Liver regeneration in donors and adult recipients after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Haga, Junko; Shimazu, Motohide; Wakabayashi, Go; Tanabe, Minoru; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Fuchimoto, Yasushi; Hoshino, Ken; Morikawa, Yasuhide; Kitajima, Masaki; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2008-12-01

    In living donor liver transplantation, the safety of the donor operation is the highest priority. The introduction of the right lobe graft was late because of concerns about donor safety. We investigated donor liver regeneration by the types of resected segments as well as recipients to assess that appropriate regeneration was occurring. Eighty-seven donors were classified into 3 groups: left lateral section donors, left lobe donors, and right lobe donors. Forty-seven adult recipients were classified as either left or right lobe grafted recipients. Volumetry was retrospectively performed at 1 week, 1, 2, 3, and 6 months, and 1 year after the operation. In the right lobe donor group, the remnant liver volume was 45.4%, and it rapidly increased to 68.9% at 1 month and 89.8% at 6 months. At 6 months, the regeneration ratios were almost the same in all donor groups. The recipient liver volume increased rapidly until 2 months, exceeding the standard liver volume, and then gradually decreased to 90% of the standard liver volume. Livers of the right lobe donor group regenerated fastest in the donor groups, and the recipient liver regenerated faster than the donor liver. Analyzing liver regeneration many times with a large number of donors enabled us to understand the normal liver regeneration pattern. Although the donor livers did not reach their initial volume, the donors showed normal liver function at 1 year. The donors have returned to their normal daily activities. Donor hepatectomy, even right hepatectomy, can be safely performed with accurate preoperative volumetry and careful decision-making concerning graft-type selection.

  15. Physicians’ practices for diagnosing liver fibrosis in chronic liver diseases: A nationwide, Canadian survey

    PubMed Central

    Sebastiani, Giada; Ghali, Peter; Wong, Philip; Klein, Marina B; Deschenes, Marc; Myers, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine practices among physicians in Canada for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases. METHODS: Hepatologists, gastroenterologists, infectious diseases specialists, members of the Canadian Gastroenterology Association and/or the Canadian HIV Trials Network who manage patients with liver diseases were invited to participate in a web-based, national survey. RESULTS: Of the 237 physicians invited, 104 (43.9%) completed the survey. Routine assessment of liver fibrosis was requested by the surveyed physicians mostly for chronic hepatitis C (76.5%), followed by autoimmune/cholestatic liver disease (59.6%) and chronic hepatitis B (52.9%). Liver biopsy was the main diagnostic tool for 46.2% of the respondents, Fibroscan (Echosens, France) for 39.4% and Fibrotest (LabCorp, USA) for 7.7%. Etiology-specific differences were observed: noninvasive methods were mostly used for hepatitis C (63% versus 37% liver biopsy) and hepatitis B (62.9% versus 37.1% liver biopsy). For 42.7% of respondents, the use of noninvasive methods reduced the need for liver biopsy by >50%. Physicians’ characteristics associated with higher use of noninvasive methods were older age and being based at a university hospital or in private practice versus community hospital. Physicians’ main concerns regarding noninvasive fibrosis assessment methods were access/availability (42.3%), lack of guidelines for clinical use (26.9%) and cost/lack of reimbursement (14.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Physicians who manage patients with chronic liver diseases in Canada require routine assessment of liver fibrosis stage. Although biopsy remains the primary diagnostic tool for almost one-half of respondents, noninvasive methods, particularly Fibroscan, have significantly reduced the need for liver biopsy in Canada. Limitations in access to and availability of the noninvasive methods represent a significant barrier. Finally, there is a need for clinical guidelines and a better

  16. Diagnosis and Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Dugum, Mohannad; McCullough, Arthur

    2015-06-28

    Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several factors, including the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, affect the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD represents a spectrum of liver pathology ranging from fatty change to fibrosis to cirrhosis. Early diagnosis of ALD is important to encourage alcohol abstinence, minimize the progression of liver fibrosis, and manage cirrhosis-related complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of questionnaires and laboratory tests are available to screen for alcohol intake. Liver biopsy remains the gold-standard diagnostic tool for ALD, but noninvasive accurate alternatives, including a number of biochemical tests as well as liver stiffness measurement, are increasingly being utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected ALD. The management of ALD depends largely on complete abstinence from alcohol. Supportive care should focus on treating alcohol withdrawal and providing enteral nutrition while managing the complications of liver failure. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a devastating acute form of ALD that requires early recognition and specialized tertiary medical care. Assessment of AH severity using defined scoring systems is important to allocate resources and initiate appropriate therapy. Corticosteroids or pentoxifylline are commonly used in treating AH but provide a limited survival benefit. Liver transplantation represents the ultimate therapy for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, with most transplant centers mandating a 6 month period of abstinence from alcohol before listing. Early liver transplantation is also emerging as a therapeutic measure in specifically selected patients with severe AH. A number of novel targeted therapies for ALD are currently being evaluated in clinical trials.

  17. Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337

  18. Monitoring of Total and Regional Liver Function after SIRT.

    PubMed

    Bennink, Roelof J; Cieslak, Kasia P; van Delden, Otto M; van Lienden, Krijn P; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Jansen, Peter L; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is a promising treatment modality for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma or metastatic liver cancer. SIRT is usually well tolerated. However, in most patients, SIRT will result in a (temporary) decreased liver function. Occasionally patients develop radioembolization-induced liver disease (REILD). In case of a high tumor burden of the liver, it could be beneficial to perform SIRT in two sessions enabling the primary untreated liver segments to guarantee liver function until function in the treated segments has recovered or functional hypertrophy has occurred. Clinically used liver function tests provide evidence of only one of the many liver functions, though all of them lack the possibility of assessment of segmental (regional) liver function. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) has been validated as a tool to assess total and regional liver function in liver surgery. It is also used to assess segmental liver function before and after portal vein embolization. HBS is considered as a valuable quantitative liver function test enabling assessment of segmental liver function recovery after regional intervention and determination of future remnant liver function. We present two cases in which HBS was used to monitor total and regional liver function in a patient after repeated whole liver SIRT complicated with REILD and a patient treated unilaterally without complications.

  19. Gut Microbiota of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Reham M; Zhu, Lixin; Baker, Robert D; Baker, Susan S

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been rapidly increasing worldwide. It has become a leading cause of liver transplantation. Accumulating evidence suggests a significant role for gut microbiota in its development and progression. Here we review the effect of gut microbiota on developing hepatic fatty infiltration and its progression. Current literature supports a possible role for gut microbiota in the development of liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. We also review the literature on possible interventions for NAFLD that target the gut microbiota.

  20. Managing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ngu, Jing Hieng; Goh, George Boon Bee; Poh, Zhongxian; Soetikno, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing rapidly with the obesity and diabetes mellitus epidemics. It is rapidly becoming the most common cause of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD can progress to serious complications such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Therefore, it is important to recognise this condition so that early intervention can be implemented. Lifestyle modifications and strict control of metabolic risk factors are the mainstay of treatment. As disease progression is slow in the majority of NAFLD patients, most can be managed well by primary care physicians. NAFLD patients with advanced liver fibrosis should be referred to specialist care for further assessment. PMID:27439352

  1. Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

    2014-01-01

    The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT. PMID:24876742

  2. When can nutritional therapy impact liver disease?

    PubMed

    Bozeman, Matthew C; Benns, Matthew V; McClave, Stephen A; Miller, Keith R; Jones, Christopher M

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews the current literature regarding nutritional therapy in liver disease, with an emphasis on patients progressing to liver failure as well as surgical patients. Mechanisms of malnutrition and sarcopenia in liver failure patients as well as nutritional assessment, nutritional requirements of this patient population, and goals and methods of therapy are discussed. Additionally, recommendations for feeding, micronutrient, branched chain amino acid supplementation, and the use of pre- and probiotics are included. The impact of these methods can have on patients with advanced disease and those undergoing surgical procedures will be emphasized.

  3. Perioperative Care of the Liver Transplant Patient.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Mark T; Kramer, David J

    2016-07-01

    With the evolution of surgical and anesthetic techniques, liver transplantation has become "routine," allowing for modifications of practice to decrease perioperative complications and costs. There is debate over the necessity for intensive care unit admission for patients with satisfactory preoperative status and a smooth intraoperative course. Postoperative care is made easier when the liver graft performs optimally. Assessment of graft function, vigilance for complications after the major surgical insult, and optimization of multiple systems affected by liver disease are essential aspects of postoperative care. The intensivist plays a vital role in an integrated multidisciplinary transplant team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Advances in bioartificial liver assist devices.

    PubMed

    Patzer, J F

    2001-11-01

    Rapid advances in development of bioartificial liver assist devices (BLADs) are exciting clinical interest in the application of BLAD technology for support of patients with acute liver failure. Four devices (Circe Biomedical HepatAssist, Vitagen ELAD, Gerlach BELS, and Excorp Medical BLSS) that rely on hepatocytes cultured in hollow-fiber membrane technology are currently in various stages of clinical evaluation. Several alternative approaches for culture and perfusion of hepatocytes have been evaluated in preclinical, large animal models of liver failure, or at a laboratory scale. Engineering design issues with respect to xenotransplantation, BLAD perfusion, hepatocyte functionality and culture maintenance, and ultimate distribution of a BLAD to a clinical site are delineated.

  5. Demystifying liver iron concentration measurements with MRI.

    PubMed

    Henninger, B

    2018-06-01

    This Editorial comment refers to the article: Non-invasive measurement of liver iron concentration using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging: validation against biopsy. D'Assignies G, et al. Eur Radiol Nov 2017. • MRI is a widely accepted reliable tool to determine liver iron concentration. • MRI cannot measure iron directly, it needs calibration. • Calibration curves for 3.0T are rare in the literature. • The study by d'Assignies et al. provides valuable information on this topic. • Evaluation of liver iron overload should no longer be restricted to experts.

  6. Liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gallinger, S.; Biagi, J.J.; Fletcher, G.G.; Nhan, C.; Ruo, L.; McLeod, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    Questions Should surgery be considered for colorectal cancer (crc) patients who have liver metastases plus (a) pulmonary metastases, (b) portal nodal disease, or (c) other extrahepatic metastases (ehms)? What is the role of chemotherapy in the surgical management of crc with liver metastases in (a) patients with resectable disease in the liver, or (b) patients with initially unresectable disease in the liver that is downsized with chemotherapy (“conversion”)? What is the role of liver resection when one or more crc liver metastases have radiographic complete response (rcr) after chemotherapy? Perspectives Advances in chemotherapy have improved survival in crc patients with liver metastases. The 5-year survival with chemotherapy alone is typically less than 1%, although two recent studies with folfox or folfoxiri (or both) reported rates of 5%–10%. However, liver resection is the treatment that is most effective in achieving long-term survival and offering the possibility of a cure in stage iv crc patients with liver metastases. This guideline deals with the role of chemotherapy with surgery, and the role of surgery when there are liver metastases plus ehms. Because only a proportion of patients with crc metastatic disease are considered for liver resection, and because management of this patient population is complex, multidisciplinary management is required. Methodology Recommendations in the present guideline were formulated based on a prepublication version of a recent systematic review on this topic. The draft methodology experts, and external review by clinical practitioners. Feedback was incorporated into the final version of the guideline. Practice Guideline These recommendations apply to patients with liver metastases from crc who have had or will have a complete (R0) resection of the primary cancer and who are being considered for resection of the liver, or liver plus specific and limited ehms, with curative intent. 1(a). Patients with liver and lung

  7. Cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation of liver volume and total liver fat burden in adults with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, An; Chen, Joshua; Le, Thuy-Anh; Changchien, Christopher; Hamilton, Gavin; Middleton, Michael S.; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between fractional liver fat content, liver volume, and total liver fat burden. Methods In 43 adults with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis participating in a clinical trial, liver volume was estimated by segmentation of magnitude-based low-flip-angle multiecho GRE images. The liver mean proton density fat fraction (PDFF) was calculated. The total liver fat index (TLFI) was estimated as the product of liver mean PDFF and liver volume. Linear regression analyses were performed. Results Cross-sectional analyses revealed statistically significant relationships between TLFI and liver mean PDFF (R2 = 0.740 baseline/0.791 follow-up, P < 0.001 baseline/P < 0.001 follow-up), and between TLFI and liver volume (R2 = 0.352/0.452, P < 0.001/< 0.001). Longitudinal analyses revealed statistically significant relationships between liver volume change and liver mean PDFF change (R2 = 0.556, P < 0.001), between TLFI change and liver mean PDFF change (R2 = 0.920, P < 0.001), and between TLFI change and liver volume change (R2 = 0.735, P < 0.001). Conclusion Liver segmentation in combination with MRI-based PDFF estimation may be used to monitor liver volume, liver mean PDFF, and TLFI in a clinical trial. PMID:25015398

  8. Mechanistic insights of rapid liver regeneration after associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for stage hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Moris, Demetrios; Vernadakis, Spyridon; Papalampros, Alexandros; Vailas, Michail; Dimitrokallis, Nikolaos; Petrou, Athanasios; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-07

    To highlight the potential mechanisms of regeneration in the Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy models (clinical and experimental) that could unlock the myth behind the extraordinary capability of the liver for regeneration, which would help in designing new therapeutic options for the regenerative drive in difficult setup, such as chronic liver diseases. Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy has been recently advocated to induce rapid future liver remnant hypertrophy that significantly shortens the time for the second stage hepatectomy. The introduction of Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy in the surgical armamentarium of therapeutic tools for liver surgeons represented a real breakthrough in the history of liver surgery. A comprehensive literature review of Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy and its utility in liver regeneration is performed. Liver regeneration after Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy is a combination of portal flow changes and parenchymal transection that generate a systematic response inducing hepatocyte proliferation and remodeling. Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy represents a real breakthrough in the history of liver surgery because it offers rapid liver regeneration potential that facilitate resection of liver tumors that were previously though unresectable. The jury is still out though in terms of safety, efficacy and oncological outcomes. As far as Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy -induced liver regeneration is concerned, further research on the field should focus on the role of non-parenchymal cells in liver regeneration as well as on the effect of Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy in liver regeneration in the setup of

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Is the Liver Another Target?

    PubMed Central

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is recurrent obstruction of the upper airway during sleep leading to intermittent hypoxia (IH). OSA has been associated with all components of the metabolic syndrome as well as with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a common condition ranging in severity from uncomplicated hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of NAFLD is liver biopsy. Obesity and insulin resistance lead to liver steatosis, but the causes of the progression to NASH are not known. Emerging evidence suggests that OSA may play a role in the progression of hepatic steatosis and the development of NASH. Several cross-sectional studies showed that the severity of IH in patients with OSA predicted the severity of NAFLD on liver biopsy. However, neither prospective nor interventional studies with continuous positive airway pressure treatment have been performed. Studies in a mouse model showed that IH causes triglyceride accumulation in the liver and liver injury as well as hepatic inflammation. The mouse model provided insight in the pathogenesis of liver injury showing that (1) IH accelerates the progression of hepatic steatosis by inducing adipose tissue lipolysis and increasing free fatty acids (FFA) flux into the liver; (2) IH up-regulates lipid biosynthetic pathways in the liver; (3) IH induces oxidative stress in the liver; (4) IH up-regulates hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha and possibly HIF-2 alpha, which may increase hepatic steatosis and induce liver inflammation and fibrosis. However, the role of FFA and different transcription factors in the pathogenesis of IH-induced NAFLD is yet to be established. Thus, multiple lines of evidence suggest that IH of OSA may contribute to the progression of NAFLD but definitive clinical studies and experiments in the mouse model have yet to be done. PMID:23087670

  10. Augmenter of Liver Regeneration (alr) Promotes Liver Outgrowth during Zebrafish Hepatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Farooq, Muhammad; Sheng, Donglai; Chandramouli, Chanchal; Lan, Tian; Mahajan, Nilesh K.; Kini, R. Manjunatha; Hong, Yunhan; Lisowsky, Thomas; Ge, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    Augmenter of Liver Regeneration (ALR) is a sulfhydryl oxidase carrying out fundamental functions facilitating protein disulfide bond formation. In mammals, it also functions as a hepatotrophic growth factor that specifically stimulates hepatocyte proliferation and promotes liver regeneration after liver damage or partial hepatectomy. Whether ALR also plays a role during vertebrate hepatogenesis is unknown. In this work, we investigated the function of alr in liver organogenesis in zebrafish model. We showed that alr is expressed in liver throughout hepatogenesis. Knockdown of alr through morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO) leads to suppression of liver outgrowth while overexpression of alr promotes liver growth. The small-liver phenotype in alr morphants results from a reduction of hepatocyte proliferation without affecting apoptosis. When expressed in cultured cells, zebrafish Alr exists as dimer and is localized in mitochondria as well as cytosol but not in nucleus or secreted outside of the cell. Similar to mammalian ALR, zebrafish Alr is a flavin-linked sulfhydryl oxidase and mutation of the conserved cysteine in the CxxC motif abolishes its enzymatic activity. Interestingly, overexpression of either wild type Alr or enzyme-inactive AlrC131S mutant promoted liver growth and rescued the liver growth defect of alr morphants. Nevertheless, alr C131S is less efficacious in both functions. Meantime, high doses of alr MOs lead to widespread developmental defects and early embryonic death in an alr sequence-dependent manner. These results suggest that alr promotes zebrafish liver outgrowth using mechanisms that are dependent as well as independent of its sulfhydryl oxidase activity. This is the first demonstration of a developmental role of alr in vertebrate. It exemplifies that a low-level sulfhydryl oxidase activity of Alr is essential for embryonic development and cellular survival. The dose-dependent and partial suppression of alr expression through MO

  11. Vascular Complications After Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wozney, Paul; Bron, Klaus M.; Point, Stuart; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    During the past 5 years, 104 angiographic studies were performed in 87 patients (45 children and 42 adults) with 92 transplanted livers for evaluation of possible vascular complications. Seventy percent of the studies were abnormal. Hepatic artery thrombosis was the most common complication (seen in 42% of children studied, compared with only 12% of adults) and was a major complication that frequently resulted in graft failure, usually necessitating retransplantation. In six children, reconstitution of the intrahepatic arteries by collaterals was seen. Three survived without retransplant. Arterial stenosis at the anastomosis or in the donor hepatic artery was observed in 11% of patients. Portal vein thrombosis or stenosis occurred in 13% of patients. Two children and one adult with portal vein thrombosis demonstrated hepatopetal collaterals that reconstituted the intrahepatic portal vessels. Uncommon complications included anastomotic and donor hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms, a hepatic artery–dissecting aneurysm, pancreaticoduodenal mycotic aneurysms, hepatic artery–portal vein fistula, biliary–portal vein fistula, hepatic vein occlusion, and inferior vena cava thrombosis. PMID:3529892

  12. Clinical heterogeneity in autoimmune acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Tapia, Norberto C; Martinez-Salgado, Julio; Granados, Julio; Uribe, Misael; Tellez-Avila, Felix I

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To describe the outcome and prognosis in a cohort of patients with acute liver failure due to autoimmune hepatitis without liver transplantation. METHODS: A retrospective trial was conducted in 11 patients with acute liver failure due to autoimmune hepatitis who attended the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubiran. Demographic, biochemical and severity indexes, and treatment and outcome were assessed. RESULTS: Among the 11 patients, with a median age of 31 years, 72% had inflammatory response syndrome, and six patients received corticosteroids. The mortality rate within four weeks was 56%, and the one-year survival was 27%. In the survivors, severity indexes were lower and 83% received corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: We observed a relatively high survival rate in patients with acute liver failure due to autoimmune hepatitis. This survival rate could be influenced by severity of the disease and/or use of corticosteroids. PMID:17465474

  13. Adrenergic receptors in human fetal liver membranes

    SciT

    Falkay, G.; Kovacs, L.

    1990-01-01

    The adrenergic receptor binding capacities in human fetal and adult livers were measured to investigate the mechanism of the reduced alpha-1 adrenoreceptor response of the liver associated with a reciprocal increase in beta-adrenoreceptor activity in a number of conditions. Alpha-1 and beta-adrenoreceptor density were determined using {sup 3}H-prazosin and {sup 3}H-dihydroalprenolol, respectively, as radioligand. Heterogeneous populations of beta-adrenoreceptors were found in fetal liver contrast to adult. Decreased alpha-1 and increased beta-receptor density were found which may relate to a decreased level in cellular differentiation. These findings may be important for the investigation of perinatal hypoglycemia of newborns after treatment ofmore » premature labor with beta-mimetics. This is the first demonstration of differences in the ratio of alpha-1 and beta-adrenoceptors in human fetal liver.« less

  14. Gut Microbiota and Complications of Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Chathur; Bajaj, Jasmohan

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis The epidemic of chronic liver disease and how to combat its complications has been a challenging aspect for many years. New laboratory techniques have made analysis of the human intestinal microbiome easier and also more detailed. With insight into dysbiosis and how this dysbiosis impacts liver disease, scientists have new targets in the intestine and liver. Dysbiosis is associated with endotoxemia and propagates liver injury in NASH and alcoholic cirrhosis. The composition of the microbiota changes with the development of cirrhosis and decompensation Apart from microbes, the role that bile acids play in this arena are also being discovered and newer treatments like FXR receptor agonists are coming into the picture. Altered gut microbiota plays an important role in cirrhosis and its modulation to prevent disease progression changes, and concomitantly bile acid physiology must be regulated or augmented to help prevent cirrhosis and its complications. PMID:28164848

  15. Pulmonary Vascular Complications of Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Jason S.; Fallon, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension are two pulmonary vascular complications of liver disease. The pathophysiology underlying each disorder is distinct, but patients with either condition may be limited by dyspnea. A careful evaluation of concomitant symptoms, the physical examination, pulmonary function testing and arterial blood gas analysis, and echocardiographic, imaging, and hemodynamic studies is crucial to establishing (and distinguishing) these diagnoses. Our understanding of the pathobiology, natural history, and treatment of these disorders has advanced considerably over the past decade; however, the presence of either still increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with underlying liver disease. There is no effective medical treatment for hepatopulmonary syndrome. Although liver transplantation can resolve hepatopulmonary syndrome, there appears to be worse survival even with transplantation. Liver transplantation poses a very high risk of death in those with significant portopulmonary hypertension, where targeted medical therapies may improve functional status and allow successful transplantation in a small number of select patients. PMID:23155142

  16. Cytokines and STATs in Liver Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiaoni; Horiguchi, Norio; Mori, Masatomo; Gao, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Liver fibrosis, or cirrhosis, is a common end-stage condition of many chronic liver diseases after incomplete recovery from hepatocyte damage. During fibrosis progression, hepatocellular damage and inflammation trigger complex cellular events that result in collagen deposition and the disruption of the normal liver architecture. Hepatic stellate cell activation and transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts are key events in liver fibrogenesis. Research findings from cell culture and animal models have revealed that the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak-STAT) signaling pathway, which can be activated by many cytokines, growth factors, and hormones, plays a critical role in hepatic fibrogenesis. This review summarizes the biological significance of diverse cytokines and their downstream signaling protein STATs in hepatic fibrogenesis.

  17. Cytokines and STATs in Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiaoni; Horiguchi, Norio; Mori, Masatomo; Gao, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Liver fibrosis, or cirrhosis, is a common end-stage condition of many chronic liver diseases after incomplete recovery from hepatocyte damage. During fibrosis progression, hepatocellular damage and inflammation trigger complex cellular events that result in collagen deposition and the disruption of the normal liver architecture. Hepatic stellate cell activation and transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts are key events in liver fibrogenesis. Research findings from cell culture and animal models have revealed that the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak-STAT) signaling pathway, which can be activated by many cytokines, growth factors, and hormones, plays a critical role in hepatic fibrogenesis. This review summarizes the biological significance of diverse cytokines and their downstream signaling protein STATs in hepatic fibrogenesis. PMID:22493582

  18. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of liver tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reistad, Nina; Nilsson, Jan; Vilhelmsson Timmermand, Oskar; Sturesson, Christian; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) with a fiber-optic contact probe is a cost-effective, rapid, and non-invasive optical method used to extract diagnosis information of tissue. By combining commercially available VIS- and NIR-spectrometers with various fiber-optic contact-probes, we have access to the full wavelength range from around 400 to 1600 nm. Using this flexible and portable spectroscopy system, we have acquired ex-vivo DRS-spectra from murine, porcine, and human liver tissue. For extracting the tissue optical properties from the measured spectra, we have employed and compared predictions from two models for light propagation in tissue, diffusion theory model (DT) and Monte Carlo simulations (MC). The focus in this work is on the capacity of this DRS-technique in discriminating metastatic tumor tissue from normal liver tissue as well as in assessing and characterizing damage to non-malignant liver tissue induced by preoperative chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases.

  19. Polycystic liver disease with right pleural effusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggreini, A. Y.; Dairi, L. B.

    2018-03-01

    Polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is a condition in which multiple cysts form in the hepatic parenchyma. The polycystic liver disease is also an autosomal dominant disorder (ADPLD) caused by a mutation in a gene that encodes a protein hepatocystin. PCLD has a prevalence count of 1:200,000 people in the people of America. PCLD occurs ± 24% of patients in the third decade of age to 80% by the sixth decade. Women tend to get larger cysts and more and correlated with the number of pregnancies. The following case report of a woman, 51-years-old who was treated at Haji Adam Malik hospital Medan with a diagnosis of polycystic liver disease with right pleural effusion. Some literature has reported complications of the polycystic liver disease but rarely reported with pleural effusion presentation. The patient had already undergone a puncture of pleural fluid and after three weeks of treatment condition of the patient improved and permitted to be outgoing patient.

  20. Effects of hypergravity on rat liver regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of centrifugation on liver regrowth were examined by measuring mitotic activity. The results indicate that the increased gravity caused a delay in the onset of mitotic activity and a significant decrease in overall mitotic activity.

  1. Nuclear Receptor Variants in Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Müllenbach, Roman; Weber, Susanne N.; Lammert, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This review aims to provide a snapshot of the actual state of knowledge on genetic variants of nuclear receptors (NR) involved in regulating important aspects of liver metabolism. It recapitulates recent evidence for the application of NR in genetic diagnosis of monogenic (“Mendelian”) liver disease and their use in clinical diagnosis. Genetic analysis of multifactorial liver diseases such as viral hepatitis or fatty liver disease identifies key players in disease predisposition and progression. Evidence from these analyses points towards a role of NR polymorphisms in common diseases, linking regulatory networks to complex and variable phenotypes. The new insights into NR variants also offer perspectives and cautionary advice for their use as handles towards diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22523693

  2. [Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: an uncommon liver tumor].

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Rayon, Miguel; Moya, Angel; Mir, Jose

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a female patient who was referred to our unit because of a solid liver tumor, suggestive of metastasis. After biopsy, the patient was diagnosed with epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare entity with an unpredictable, potentially fatal, clinical course and outcome. Due to its rarity, this entity should be considered when a solitary hepatic lesion is detected and should be included in the differential diagnosis with liver metastases. We highlight the infrequency of this tumor, its presentation as a solitary hepatic lesion and the indication of surgical treatment. We describe the clinical and pathological characteristics of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver and report a new case of this entity. The distinct therapeutic options are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronological protein synthesis in regenerating rat liver.

    PubMed

    He, Jinjun; Hao, Shuai; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Fuzheng; Huang, Lingyun; Xiao, Xueyuan; He, Dacheng

    2015-07-01

    Liver regeneration has been studied for decades; however, its regulation remains unclear. In this study, we report a dynamic tracing of protein synthesis in rat regenerating liver with a new proteomic technique, (35) S in vivo labeling analysis for dynamic proteomics (SiLAD). Conventional proteomic techniques typically measure protein alteration in accumulated amounts. The SiLAD technique specifically detects protein synthesis velocity instead of accumulated amounts of protein through (35) S pulse labeling of newly synthesized proteins, providing a direct way for analyzing protein synthesis variations. Consequently, protein synthesis within short as 30 min was visualized and protein regulations in the first 8 h of regenerating liver were dynamically traced. Further, the 3.5-5 h post partial hepatectomy (PHx) was shown to be an important regulatory turning point by acute regulation of many proteins in the initiation of liver regeneration. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Childhood liver cancer has two major histologic subgroups: hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Less common histologies are undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver, infantile choriocarcinoma, and vascular liver tumors. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood liver cancers including tumor biology, presentation, prognosis, staging, and treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  5. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver...

  6. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver...

  7. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver...

  8. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver...

  9. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section 319.881 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver...

  10. BMS-247550 in Treating Patients With Liver or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-13

    Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Localized Gallbladder Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  11. Drug Metabolism, Drug Interactions, and Drug-Induced Liver Injury in Living Donor Liver Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Swaytha; Almazroo, Omar Abdulhameed; Tevar, Amit; Humar, Abhinav; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2017-02-01

    Living donor liver transplant (LDLT) fills a critically needed gap in the number of livers available for transplant. However, little is known about the functional recovery of the liver in the donor and in the recipient after surgery. Given that both donor and recipients are treated with several drugs, it is important to characterize the time course of recovery of hepatic synthetic, metabolic, and excretory function in these patients. In the absence of data from LDLT, information on the effect of liver disease on the pharmacokinetics of medications can be used as guidance for drug dosing in LDLT patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-invasive Markers of Liver Fibrosis: Adjuncts or Alternatives to Liver Biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Jun L.; Pavlides, Michael; Moolla, Ahmad; Ryan, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis reflects sustained liver injury often from multiple, simultaneous factors. Whilst the presence of mild fibrosis on biopsy can be a reassuring finding, the identification of advanced fibrosis is critical to the management of patients with chronic liver disease. This necessity has lead to a reliance on liver biopsy which itself is an imperfect test and poorly accepted by patients. The development of robust tools to non-invasively assess liver fibrosis has dramatically enhanced clinical decision making in patients with chronic liver disease, allowing a rapid and informed judgment of disease stage and prognosis. Should a liver biopsy be required, the appropriateness is clearer and the diagnostic yield is greater with the use of these adjuncts. While a number of non-invasive liver fibrosis markers are now used in routine practice, a steady stream of innovative approaches exists. With improvement in the reliability, reproducibility and feasibility of these markers, their potential role in disease management is increasing. Moreover, their adoption into clinical trials as outcome measures reflects their validity and dynamic nature. This review will summarize and appraise the current and novel non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, both blood and imaging based, and look at their prospective application in everyday clinical care. PMID:27378924

  13. Chronic inflammation-elicited liver progenitor cell conversion to liver cancer stem cell with clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Cheng; Xiang, Dai-Min; Qu, Le; Sun, Wen; Lu, Xin-Yuan; Zhou, Teng-Fei; Chen, Shu-Zhen; Ning, Bei-Fang; Cheng, Zhuo; Xia, Ming-Yang; Shen, Wei-Feng; Yang, Wen; Wen, Wen; Lee, Terence Kin Wah; Cong, Wen-Ming; Wang, Hong-Yang; Ding, Jin

    2017-12-01

    The substantial heterogeneity and hierarchical organization in liver cancer support the theory of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs). However, the relationship between chronic hepatic inflammation and LCSC generation remains obscure. Here, we observed a close correlation between aggravated inflammation and liver progenitor cell (LPC) propagation in the cirrhotic liver of rats exposed to diethylnitrosamine. LPCs isolated from the rat cirrhotic liver initiated subcutaneous liver cancers in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice, suggesting the malignant transformation of LPCs toward LCSCs. Interestingly, depletion of Kupffer cells in vivo attenuated the LCSC properties of transformed LPCs and suppressed cytokeratin 19/Oval cell 6-positive tumor occurrence. Conversely, LPCs cocultured with macrophages exhibited enhanced LCSC properties. We further demonstrated that macrophage-secreted tumor necrosis factor-α triggered chromosomal instability in LPCs through the deregulation of ubiquitin D and checkpoint kinase 2 and enhanced the self-renewal of LPCs through the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1/Src/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway, which synergistically contributed to the conversion of LPCs to LCSCs. Clinical investigation revealed that cytokeratin 19/Oval cell 6-positive liver cancer patients displayed a worse prognosis and exhibited superior response to sorafenib treatment. Our results not only clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammation-mediated LCSC generation but also provide a molecular classification for the individualized treatment of liver cancer. (Hepatology 2017;66:1934-1951). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Long-term Survivors After Liver Resection for Breast Cancer Liver Metastases.

    PubMed

    BacalbaȘa, Nicolae; Balescu, Irina; Dima, Simona; Popescu, Irinel

    2015-12-01

    Although breast cancer liver metastases are considered a sign of systemic recurrence and are considered a poor prognostic factor that transforms the patient into a candidate for palliative chemotherapy, surgery might be performed with good results. Success reported after liver resection for colorectal hepatic metastases encouraged the oncological surgeon to apply similar protocols in breast cancer liver metastases. Data of patients submitted to hepatectomies for breast cancer liver metastases in the "Dan Setlacec" Center of Gastrointestinal Disease and Liver Transplantation, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest were retrospectively reviewed. Among five cases survival after liver surgery surpassed 5 years and was considered long-term survival. One of the five cases was submitted to a second liver resection. Most often long-term survivors were reported among patients with single, metachronous and smaller than 5-cm lesions. In selected cases liver resection for breast cancer liver metastases can be associated with a significant increase in survival. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Utility of pre-procurement bedside liver biopsy in the deceased extended-criteria liver donor.

    PubMed

    Mangus, Richard S; Borup, Tim C; Popa, Sam; Saxena, Romil; Cummings, Oscar; Tector, A Joseph

    2014-12-01

    The Indiana Organ Procurement Organization (IOPO) utilizes preoperative bedside liver biopsies in certain extended-criteria donors (ECDs), obtained by the on-site coordinator, to determine the utility of pursuing donation. This study reports the clinical and financial outcomes for this management strategy. All bedside liver biopsies obtained in ECDs over a five-yr period were reviewed. Study variables included the following: indication for biopsy, biopsy results, taking the case to the operating room, transplantation of the donor liver, and graft survival. All biopsies were processed at a single university center. There were 110 donors biopsied. Primary indications included the following: old age (29%), extensive/current alcohol abuse (26%), hepatitis C-positive serology (21%), obesity (25%), and severely elevated liver function enzymes (18%). Biopsy results demonstrated a potentially transplantable liver in 73 cases (66%), all of whom were taken to the OR (while 37 ruled out for donation based upon liver biopsy [34%]). Of all biopsied livers, 49 ultimately were transplanted (45%). Intra-operative decisions included the following: transplant 51/73 (70%), surgeon decision to exclude 20/73 (27%), nonuse due to finding of malignancy two (3%). Bedside liver biopsy may be a valuable tool to determine the utility in pursuing donation in ECDs, particularly with liver-only donors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Feasibility of using marginal liver grafts in living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xiang; Zhang, Hua; Li, Hong-Yu; Chen, Ke-Fei; Liu, Fei; Wei, Yong-Gang; Li, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is one of the most effective treatments for end-stage liver disease caused by related risk factors when liver resection is contraindicated. Additionally, despite the decrease in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) over the past two decades, the absolute number of HBsAg-positive people has increased, leading to an increase in HBV-related liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Consequently, a large demand exists for LT. While the wait time for patients on the donor list is, to some degree, shorter due to the development of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), there is still a shortage of liver grafts. Furthermore, recipients often suffer from emergent conditions, such as liver dysfunction or even hepatic encephalopathy, which can lead to a limited choice in grafts. To expand the pool of available liver grafts, one option is the use of organs that were previously considered “unusable” by many, which are often labeled “marginal” organs. Many previous studies have reported on the possibilities of using marginal grafts in orthotopic LT; however, there is still a lack of discussion on this topic, especially regarding the feasibility of using marginal grafts in LDLT. Therefore, the present review aimed to summarize the feasibility of using marginal liver grafts for LDLT and discuss the possibility of expanding the application of these grafts. PMID:29930466

  17. Appropriate donor size for porcine liver xenotransplant.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Mehrdad; Fonouni, Hamidreza; Esmaeilzadeh, Majid; Kashfi, Arash; Fani Yazdi, Seyed Hashem; Golriz, Mohammad; Hafezi, Mohammadreza; Rahbari, Nuh N; Schmidt, Jan; Mehrabi, Arianeb

    2012-04-01

    Owing to an imbalance between demand and supply, which is more prominent in pediatric transplant, every year more patients lose their lives on waiting lists. In addition to the use of deceased-donor split and living-donor organs, xenotransplant could provide a solution if associated problems, such as immunologic and physiologic ones, are solved. This study sought to analyze the surgical aspects for liver xenotransplant in a porcine model. Landrace pigs (n=22, 23 to 37 kg) underwent a laparotomy under general anesthesia. The hepatic hilum was prepared and the common bile ducts, common hepatic artery, portal vein, supra- and infrahepatic inferior vena cava were identified. The length and diameter of each vessel and bile duct and the weight of the liver were measured. Pearson tests showed a clear correlation between the increase of the pigs' weight and the livers' weight, and the length of the vessels and the bile ducts. We did not find a clear correlation between the increase of the pigs' liver weight and the diameters of the vessels and the bile duct. As the first reporting, this study on xenotransplants from the surgical point of view, we postulate that it could be possible to estimate the size of the liver and the proper length of its vessels and bile duct by weighing only the pigs. It was not feasible to match the diameter of mentioned structures by the livers' weight. However, the weight of pig's liver as well as vascular anatomy of pigs appeared to be suitable alternative for the human liver.

  18. Liver injury from herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Khan, Ikhlas; Björnsson, Einar; Seeff, Leonard B; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are used increasingly both in the United States and worldwide, and HDS-induced liver injury in the United States has increased proportionally. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of HDS-induced liver injury were the focus of a 2-day research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health. HDS-induced liver injury now accounts for 20% of cases of hepatotoxicity in the United States based on research data. The major implicated agents include anabolic steroids, green tea extract, and multi-ingredient nutritional supplements. Anabolic steroids marketed as bodybuilding supplements typically induce a prolonged cholestatic but ultimately self-limiting liver injury that has a distinctive serum biochemical as well as histological phenotype. Green tea extract and many other products, in contrast, tend to cause an acute hepatitis-like injury. Currently, however, the majority of cases of HDS-associated liver injury are due to multi-ingredient nutritional supplements, and the component responsible for the toxicity is usually unknown or can only be suspected. HDS-induced liver injury presents many clinical and research challenges in diagnosis, identification of the responsible constituents, treatment, and prevention. Also important are improvements in regulatory oversight of nonprescription products to guarantee their constituents and ensure purity and safety. The confident identification of injurious ingredients within HDS will require strategic alignments among clinicians, chemists, and toxicologists. The ultimate goal should be to prohibit or more closely regulate potentially injurious ingredients and thus promote public safety. (Hepatology 2017;65:363-373). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Mechanisms of fibrosis in acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    He, Yingli; Jin, Li; Wang, Jing; Yan, Zhi; Chen, Tianyan; Zhao, Yingren

    2015-07-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a condition with high mortality and morbidity. Fibrosis in chronic liver disease was extensively researched, whereas fibrosis and underlying mechanism in acute liver failure remains unclear. Hepatitis B virus related ALF patients were recruited to investigate if there was ongoing fibrosis by liver histology and liver stiffness measurement(LSM) analysis as well as fibrosis markers assay. Sera HMGB1 were kinetically detected in progression and remission stage of ALF. Hepatic stellate cell(HSC) activation by HMGB1 was explored by testing mRNA and protein level of α-SMA and collagen 1a1 by using qPCR and western blot. Autophagy induction by HMGB1 was explored by LC3-II conversion, autophagy flux and fluorescence. Firstly, ongoing fibrosis in progression stage of ALF was confirmed by histological analysis, LS measurement as well as fibrosis markers detection. HSC activation and autophagy induction in explanted liver tissue also revealed. Next, kinetic monitoring sera HMGB1 revealed elevated HMGB1 in progression stage of ALF vs HBsAg carrier, and drop back to base level in remission stage. Thirdly, rHMGB1 dose dependently activated HSCs, as indicated by increased mRNA and proteins level in α-SMA and collagen 1a1. Moreover, autophagy was induced in HSC treated with rHMGB1, as illustrated by increased LC3 lipidation, elevated autophagy flux and GFP-LC3 puncta. Acute liver failure is accompanied by ongoing fibrosis, HSC activation and autophagy induction. Increased HMGB1 activates HSC via autophagy induction. Those findings integrate HMGB1, HSCs activation, autophagy into a common framework that underlies the fibrosis in ALF. © 2014 The Authors. Liver International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. PNPLA3 gene in liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Trépo, Eric; Romeo, Stefano; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Nahon, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in the field of liver diseases have revealed previously unknown pathogenic loci and generated new biological hypotheses. In 2008, a GWAS performed in a population-based sample study, where hepatic liver fat content was measured by magnetic spectroscopy, showed a strong association between a variant (rs738409 C>G p.I148M) in the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Further replication studies have shown robust associations between PNPLA3 and steatosis, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma on a background of metabolic, alcoholic, and viral insults. The PNPLA3 protein has lipase activity towards triglycerides in hepatocytes and retinyl esters in hepatic stellate cells. The I148M substitution leads to a loss of function promoting triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes. Although PNPLA3 function has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms leading to hepatic fibrosis and carcinogenesis remain unclear. This unsuspected association has highlighted the fact that liver fat metabolism may have a major impact on the pathophysiology of liver diseases. Conversely, alone, this locus may have limited predictive value with regard to liver disease outcomes in clinical practice. Additional studies at the genome-wide level will be required to identify new variants associated with liver damage and cancer to explain a greater proportion of the heritability of these phenotypes. Thus, incorporating PNPLA3 and other genetic variants in combination with clinical data will allow for the development of tailored predictive models. This attractive approach should be evaluated in prospective cohorts. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic intermittent hypoxia predisposes to liver injury.

    PubMed

    Savransky, Vladimir; Nanayakkara, Ashika; Vivero, Angelica; Li, Jianguo; Bevans, Shannon; Smith, Philip L; Torbenson, Michael S; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2007-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). OSA is associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CIH on the liver in the absence of obesity. Lean C57BL/6J mice (n = 15) on a regular chow diet were exposed to CIH for 12 weeks and compared with pair-fed mice exposed to intermittent air (IA, n = 15). CIH caused liver injury with an increase in serum ALT (224 +/- 39 U/l versus 118 +/- 22 U/l in the IA group, P < 0.05), whereas AST and alkaline phosphatase were unchanged. CIH also induced hyperglycemia, a decrease in fasting serum insulin levels, and mild elevation of fasting serum total cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). Liver TG content was unchanged, whereas cholesterol content was decreased. Histology showed swelling of hepatocytes, no evidence of hepatic steatosis, and marked accumulation of glycogen in hepatocytes. CIH led to lipid peroxidation of liver tissue with a malondialdehyde (MDA)/free fatty acids (FFA) ratio of 0.54 +/- 0.07 mmol/mol versus 0.30 +/- 0.01 mmol/mol in control animals (P < 0.01), and increased levels of active nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in the nuclear fraction of hepatocytes, suggesting that CIH induced oxidative stress in the liver. Finally, CIH greatly exacerbated acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity, causing fulminant hepatocellular injury. In the absence of obesity, CIH leads to mild liver injury via oxidative stress and excessive glycogen accumulation in hepatocytes and sensitizes the liver to a second insult, whereas NASH does not develop.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Liver Iron

    PubMed Central

    Sirlin, Claude B.; Reeder, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    Iron overload is the histological hallmark of genetic hemochromatosis and transfusional hemosiderosis but also may occur in chronic hepatopathies. This article provides an overview of iron deposition and diseases where liver iron overload is clinically relevant. Next, this article reviews why quantitative non-invasive biomarkers of liver iron would be beneficial. Finally, we describe current state of the art methods for quantifying iron with MRI and review remaining challenges and unsolved problems, PMID:21094445

  3. Macrophage heterogeneity in liver injury and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Zimmermann, Henning W

    2014-05-01

    Hepatic macrophages are central in the pathogenesis of chronic liver injury and have been proposed as potential targets in combatting fibrosis. Recent experimental studies in animal models revealed that hepatic macrophages are a remarkably heterogeneous population of immune cells that fulfill diverse functions in homeostasis, disease progression, and regression from injury. These range from clearance of pathogens or cellular debris and maintenance of immunological tolerance in steady state conditions; central roles in initiating and perpetuating inflammation in response to injury; promoting liver fibrosis via activating hepatic stellate cells in chronic liver damage; and, finally, resolution of inflammation and fibrosis by degradation of extracellular matrix and release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Cellular heterogeneity in the liver is partly explained by the origin of macrophages. Hepatic macrophages can either arise from circulating monocytes, which are recruited to the injured liver via chemokine signals, or from self-renewing embryo-derived local macrophages, termed Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells appear essential for sensing tissue injury and initiating inflammatory responses, while infiltrating Ly-6C(+) monocyte-derived macrophages are linked to chronic inflammation and fibrogenesis. In addition, proliferation of local or recruited macrophages may possibly further contribute to their accumulation in injured liver. During fibrosis regression, monocyte-derived cells differentiate into Ly-6C (Ly6C, Gr1) low expressing 'restorative' macrophages and promote resolution from injury. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate hepatic macrophage heterogeneity, either by monocyte subset recruitment, by promoting restorative macrophage polarization or by impacting distinctive macrophage effector functions, may help to develop novel macrophage subset-targeted therapies for liver injury and fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver

  4. [Utility of Fibroscan in the evaluation of liver fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Carrión, José A

    2009-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases produce a progressive accumulation of collagenous fiber in the liver parenchyma. For years, liver biopsy has been the gold standard to quantify liver fibrosis. Currently, non-invasive alternatives are available to quantify fibrosis. Transient elastography (TE) or Fibroscan quantifies liver rigidity, which is proportional to the grade of liver fibrosis. Studies are available that have evaluated the reliability and limitations of TE in healthy individuals, in patients with acute hepatitis, in distinct chronic liver diseases and in liver transplant recipients. TE is reliable for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis (F4) and significant fibrosis (F2) but its values may vary according to the patient's characteristics and the etiology of the disease. TE can avoid liver biopsy in 90% of patients with cirrhosis and in up to 70% of those with significant fibrosis when combined with other non-invasive methods.

  5. Gut microbiota in cirrhotic liver transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Grąt, Michał; Hołówko, Wacław; Gałecka, Mirosława; Grąt, Karolina; Szachtaz, Patrycja; Lewandowsk, Zbigniew; Kosińska, Irena; Schmidts, Marcin; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka; Krawczyk, Marek

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gut microflora of liver transplant candidates. Fecal microflora of 20 cirrhotic liver transplant candidates was analyzed basing on prospectively collected stool samples. The results were compared with those of 20 non-cirrhotic patients with liver disease and/or abnormal liver function tests, 20 patients with Crohn’s disease, and 20 patients without any gastrointestinal disease. Moreover, correlations between particular counts of microbiota, as well as between microbial counts and stool pH were examined. The pattern of fecal microbiota of liver transplant candidates was characterized by increased counts of lactobacilli (p=0.001), including hydrogen peroxide producing strains (p=0.008). In these patients, lactobacilli were positively correlated to enterococci (p=0.006) and bifidobacteria (p=0.004). No correlations other than those observed for lactobacilli in general were observed between hydrogen peroxide producing lactobacilli and the remaining microbiota. Increased yeast and Escherichia coli counts were associated with a tendency towards lower (p=0.095) and higher (p=0.072) stool pH, respectively. Surprisingly, gut microflora of liver transplant candidates with cirrhosis is particularly enriched with lactobacilli, including hydrogen peroxide producing strains. Thus, the use of other potentially beneficial microorganisms, such as particular yeast strains, might be more appropriate for these patients.

  6. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Burroughs, Andrew K.

    2012-01-01

    The presence and degree of hepatic fibrosis is crucial in order to make therapeutic decisions and predict clinical outcomes. Currently, the place of liver biopsy as the standard of reference for assessing liver fibrosis has been challenged by the increasing awareness of a number of drawbacks related to its use (invasiveness, sampling error, inter-/intraobserver variability). In parallel with this, noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis has experienced explosive growth in recent years and a wide spectrum of noninvasive methods ranging from serum assays to imaging techniques have been developed. Some are validated methods, such as the Fibrotest/ Fibrosure and transient elastography in Europe, and are gaining a growing role in routine clinical practice, especially in chronic hepatitis C. Large-scale validation is awaited in the setting of other chronic liver diseases. However, noninvasive tests used to detect significant fibrosis and cirrhosis, the two major clinical endpoints, are not yet at a level of performance suitable for routine diagnostic tests, and there is still no perfect surrogate or method able to completely replace an optimal liver biopsy. This article aims to review current noninvasive tests for the assessment of liver fibrosis and the perspectives for their rational use in clinical practice. PMID:24714123

  7. Acute liver damage and ecstasy ingestion.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, A J; Wendon, J A; Portmann, B; Williams, R

    1996-01-01

    Eight cases of ecstasy related acute liver damage referred to a specialised liver unit are described. Two patients presented after collapse within six hours of ecstasy ingestion with hyperthermia, hypotension, fitting, and subsequently disseminated intravascular coagulation with rhabdomyolysis together with biochemical evidence of severe hepatic damage. One patient recovered and the other with evidence of hyperacute liver failure was transplanted but subsequently died, histological examination showing widespread microvesicular fatty change. Four patients presented with acute liver failure without hyperthermia. All four fulfilled criteria for transplantation, one died before a donor organ became available, and two died within one month post-transplantation of overwhelming sepsis. Histological examination showed submassive lobular collapse. Two patients presented with abdominal pain and jaundice and recovered over a period of three weeks; histological examination showed a lobular hepatitis with cholestasis. Patients developing jaundice or with evidence of hepatic failure particularly encephalopathy and prolongation of the international normalised ratio, or both, whether or not preceded by hyperthermia, should be referred to a specialised liver unit as liver transplantation probably provides the only chance of recovery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8675102

  8. Liver - guardian, modifier and target of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Strnad, Pavel; Tacke, Frank; Koch, Alexander; Trautwein, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are characterized by life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The liver has a central role during sepsis, and is essential to the regulation of immune defence during systemic infections by mechanisms such as bacterial clearance, acute-phase protein or cytokine production and metabolic adaptation to inflammation. However, the liver is also a target for sepsis-related injury, including hypoxic hepatitis due to ischaemia and shock, cholestasis due to altered bile metabolism, hepatocellular injury due to drug toxicity or overwhelming inflammation, as well as distinct pathologies such as secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients. Hence, hepatic dysfunction substantially impairs the prognosis of sepsis and serves as a powerful independent predictor of mortality in the intensive care unit. Sepsis is particularly problematic in patients with liver cirrhosis (who experience increased bacterial translocation from the gut and impaired microbial defence) as it can trigger acute-on-chronic liver failure - a syndrome with high short-term mortality. Here, we review the importance of the liver as a guardian, modifier and target of sepsis, the factors that contribute to sepsis in patients with liver cirrhosis and new therapeutic strategies.

  9. Emerging concepts in liver graft preservation

    PubMed Central

    Bejaoui, Mohamed; Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Baptista, Pedro M; García-Gil, Agustín; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The urgent need to expand the donor pool in order to attend to the growing demand for liver transplantation has obliged physicians to consider the use of suboptimal liver grafts and also to redefine the preservation strategies. This review examines the different methods of liver graft preservation, focusing on the latest advances in both static cold storage and machine perfusion (MP). The new strategies for static cold storage are mainly designed to increase the fatty liver graft preservation via the supplementation of commercial organ preservation solutions with additives. In this paper we stress the importance of carrying out effective graft washout after static cold preservation, and present a detailed discussion of the future perspectives for dynamic graft preservation using MP at different temperatures (hypothermia at 4 °C, normothermia at 37 °C and subnormothermia at 20 °C-25 °C). Finally, we highlight some emerging applications of regenerative medicine in liver graft preservation. In conclusion, this review discusses the “state of the art” and future perspectives in static and dynamic liver graft preservation in order to improve graft viability. PMID:25593455

  10. Liver surgery in cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Christina; Schlitt, Hans J; Renner, Philipp; Lang, Sven A

    2016-03-07

    The prevalence of hepatic cirrhosis in Europe and the United States, currently 250 patients per 100000 inhabitants, is steadily increasing. Thus, we observe a significant increase in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension needing liver resections for primary or metastatic lesions. However, extended liver resections in patients with underlying hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension still represent a medical challenge in regard to perioperative morbidity, surgical management and postoperative outcome. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification recommends to restrict curative liver resections for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients to early tumor stages in patients with Child A cirrhosis not showing portal hypertension. However, during the last two decades, relevant improvements in preoperative diagnostic, perioperative hepatologic and intensive care management as well as in surgical techniques during hepatic resections have rendered even extended liver resections in higher-degree cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension possible. However, there are few standard indications for hepatic resections in cirrhotic patients and risk stratifications have to be performed in an interdisciplinary setting for each individual patient. We here review the indications, the preoperative risk-stratifications, the morbidity and the mortality of extended resections for primary and metastatic lesions in cirrhotic livers. Furthermore, we provide a review of literature on perioperative management in cirrhotic patients needing extrahepatic abdominal surgery and an overview of surgical options in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis.

  11. Liver surgery in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hackl, Christina; Schlitt, Hans J; Renner, Philipp; Lang, Sven A

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatic cirrhosis in Europe and the United States, currently 250 patients per 100000 inhabitants, is steadily increasing. Thus, we observe a significant increase in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension needing liver resections for primary or metastatic lesions. However, extended liver resections in patients with underlying hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension still represent a medical challenge in regard to perioperative morbidity, surgical management and postoperative outcome. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification recommends to restrict curative liver resections for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients to early tumor stages in patients with Child A cirrhosis not showing portal hypertension. However, during the last two decades, relevant improvements in preoperative diagnostic, perioperative hepatologic and intensive care management as well as in surgical techniques during hepatic resections have rendered even extended liver resections in higher-degree cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension possible. However, there are few standard indications for hepatic resections in cirrhotic patients and risk stratifications have to be performed in an interdisciplinary setting for each individual patient. We here review the indications, the preoperative risk-stratifications, the morbidity and the mortality of extended resections for primary and metastatic lesions in cirrhotic livers. Furthermore, we provide a review of literature on perioperative management in cirrhotic patients needing extrahepatic abdominal surgery and an overview of surgical options in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:26973411

  12. MAIT cells: new guardians of the liver.

    PubMed

    Kurioka, Ayako; Walker, Lucy J; Klenerman, Paul; Willberg, Christian B

    2016-08-01

    The liver is an important immunological organ that remains sterile and tolerogenic in homeostasis, despite continual exposure to non-self food and microbial-derived products from the gut. However, where intestinal mucosal defenses are breached or in the presence of a systemic infection, the liver acts as a second 'firewall', because of its enrichment with innate effector cells able to rapidly respond to infections or tissue dysregulation. One of the largest populations of T cells within the human liver are mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a novel innate-like T-cell population that can recognize a highly conserved antigen derived from the microbial riboflavin synthesis pathway. MAIT cells are emerging as significant players in the human immune system, associated with an increasing number of clinical diseases of bacterial, viral, autoimmune and cancerous origin. As reviewed here, we are only beginning to investigate the potential role of this dominant T-cell subset in the liver, but the reactivity of MAIT cells to both inflammatory cytokines and riboflavin derivatives suggests that MAIT cells may have an important role in first line of defense as part of the liver firewall. As such, MAIT cells are promising targets for modulating the host defense and inflammation in both acute and chronic liver diseases.

  13. MAIT cells: new guardians of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Kurioka, Ayako; Walker, Lucy J; Klenerman, Paul; Willberg, Christian B

    2016-01-01

    The liver is an important immunological organ that remains sterile and tolerogenic in homeostasis, despite continual exposure to non-self food and microbial-derived products from the gut. However, where intestinal mucosal defenses are breached or in the presence of a systemic infection, the liver acts as a second 'firewall', because of its enrichment with innate effector cells able to rapidly respond to infections or tissue dysregulation. One of the largest populations of T cells within the human liver are mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a novel innate-like T-cell population that can recognize a highly conserved antigen derived from the microbial riboflavin synthesis pathway. MAIT cells are emerging as significant players in the human immune system, associated with an increasing number of clinical diseases of bacterial, viral, autoimmune and cancerous origin. As reviewed here, we are only beginning to investigate the potential role of this dominant T-cell subset in the liver, but the reactivity of MAIT cells to both inflammatory cytokines and riboflavin derivatives suggests that MAIT cells may have an important role in first line of defense as part of the liver firewall. As such, MAIT cells are promising targets for modulating the host defense and inflammation in both acute and chronic liver diseases. PMID:27588203

  14. Xenotransplantation of neonatal porcine liver cells.

    PubMed

    Garkavenko, O; Emerich, D F; Muzina, M; Muzina, Z; Vasconcellos, A V; Ferguson, A B; Cooper, I J; Elliott, R B

    2005-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of porcine liver cell types may provide a means of overcoming the shortage of suitable donor tissues to treat hepatic diseases characterized by inherited inborn errors of metabolism or protein production. Here we report the successful isolation, culture, and xenotransplantation of liver cells harvested from 7- to 10-day-old piglets. Liver cells were isolated and cultured immediately after harvesting. Cell viability was excellent (>90%) over the duration of the in vitro studies (3 weeks) and the cultured cells continued to significantly proliferate. These cells also retained their normal secretory and metabolic capabilities as determined by continued release of albumin, factor 8, and indocyanin green (ICG) uptake. After 3 weeks in culture, porcine liver cells were loaded into immunoisolatory macro devices (Theracyte devices) and placed into the intraperitoneal cavity of immunocompetant CD1 mice. Eight weeks later, the devices were retrieved and the cells analyzed for posttransplant determinations of survival and function. Post mortem analysis confirmed that the cell-loaded devices were biocompatible, and were well-tolerated without inducing any notable inflammatory reaction in the tissues immediately surrounding the encapsulated cells. Finally, the encapsulated liver cells remained viable and functional as determined by histologic analyses and ICG uptake/release. The successful harvesting, culturing, and xenotransplantation of functional neonatal pig liver cells support the continued development of this approach for treating a range of currently undertreated or intractable hepatic diseases.

  15. Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Osaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of three major nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis (LC) results from different mechanisms of liver injury that lead to necroinflammation and fibrosis. LC has been seen to be not a single disease entity but one that can be graded into distinct clinical stages related to clinical outcome. Several noninvasive methods have been developed for assessing liver fibrosis and these methods have been used for predicting prognosis in patients with LC. On the other hand, subjects with LC often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and poor physical activity. These conditions often result in sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictive factors for poorer survival in patients with LC. Based on these backgrounds, several methods for evaluating nutritional status in patients with chronic liver disease have been developed and they have been preferably used in the clinical field practice. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge in the field of LC from the viewpoints of diagnostic method, nutritional status, and clinical outcomes. PMID:26494949

  16. Quality measurement and improvement in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Amit K; Talwalkar, Jayant

    2018-06-01

    There is growing interest in the quality of health care delivery in liver transplantation. Multiple stakeholders, including patients, transplant providers and their hospitals, payers, and regulatory bodies have an interest in measuring and monitoring quality in the liver transplant process, and understanding differences in quality across centres. This article aims to provide an overview of quality measurement and regulatory issues in liver transplantation performed within the United States. We review how broader definitions of health care quality should be applied to liver transplant care models. We outline the status quo including the current regulatory agencies, public reporting mechanisms, and requirements around quality assurance and performance improvement (QAPI) activities. Additionally, we further discuss unintended consequences and opportunities for growth in quality measurement. Quality measurement and the integration of quality improvement strategies into liver transplant programmes hold significant promise, but multiple challenges to successful implementation must be addressed to optimise value. Copyright © 2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Liver transplantation: Current status and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Jadlowiec, Caroline C; Taner, Timucin

    2016-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the field of liver transplantation over the past two decades. This progress, however, also brings up the next set of challenges: First, organ shortage remains a major limitation, and accounts for a large proportion of wait list mortality. While living donation has successfully increased the total number of liver transplants done in Asian countries, the total number of such transplants has been stagnant in the western hemisphere. As such, there has been a significant effort over the past decade to increase the existing deceased donor pool. This effort has resulted in a greater use of liver allografts following donation after cardiac death (DCD) along with marginal and extended criteria donors. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of liver allografts procured after circulatory arrest has not only resulted in better selection and management of DCD donors, but has also helped in the development of mechanical perfusion strategies. Early outcomes demonstrating the clinical applicability of both hypothermic and normothermic perfusion and its potential to impact patient survival and allograft function have generated much interest. Second, long-term outcomes of liver transplant recipients have not improved significantly, as recipients continue to succumb to complications of long-term immunosuppression, such as infection, malignancy and renal failure. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that chronic immune-mediated injury to the liver may also impact graft function. PMID:27182155

  18. Intention of donors to re-donate livers after living donor liver transplantation in a liver transplant center in Asia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Min; Chung, Kuo-Piao; Chen, Teng-Wei; Hsieh, Chung-Bao

    2014-08-25

    The aim of this study was to examine donor complications, satisfaction with the liver donation process, and factors associated with re-donation. To address these issues, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess donor complications and used questionnaires (including the Likert scale for donation satisfaction and simple yes/no responses for willingness to re-donate) in 110 adults who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) at Tri-Service General Hospital. The following clinical characteristics were determined: donation volume; first-degree relative; education; duration of hospital stay; occupation (donor-associated); MELD score; Child classification; complications; outcome (recipient-associated); and graft/recipient weight ratio (donor-recipient-associated). Descriptive statistics and mean values were compared using t-tests and p values <0.05 were considered significant. Twelve donors among 110 participants experienced complications above Clavien grade II. No surgical mortalities were observed. There were no differences in age, gender, left/right liver graft, donation volume, length of hospital stay, or satisfaction in donor complications. Ninety-four donors had satisfaction (score=4 and 5) about the donation process and no dissatisfaction was reported (score=1). Based on multivariate analysis, the intention to re-donate among liver donors was related to first-degree relatives, donor satisfaction, and recipient complications (P<0.05). Factors associated with a willingness to re-donate included first-degree relatives of the recipient, donor satisfaction with the donation process, and recipient complications. This study not only showed the safety of liver donation, but also had a positive effect on the intention to re-donate to enhance motivation for liver donation and increase the recruitment of living liver donors.

  19. Review fantastic medical implications of 3D-printing in liver surgeries, liver regeneration, liver transplantation and drug hepatotoxicity testing: A review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Xiong, Nan-Yan; Zhao, Li-Zhen; Hu, Jin-Tian; Kong, De-Cheng; Yuan, Jiang-Yong

    2018-06-07

    The epidemiological trend in liver diseases becomes more serious worldwide. Several recent articles published by International Journal of Surgery in 2018 particularly emphasized the encouraging clinical benefits of hepatectomy, liver regeneration and liver transplantation, however, there are still many technical bottlenecks underlying these therapeutic approaches. Remarkably, a few preliminary studies have shown some clues to the role of three-dimensional (3D) printing in improving traditional therapy for liver diseases. Here, we concisely elucidated the curative applications of 3D-printing (no cells) and 3D Bio-printing (with hepatic cells), such as 3D-printed patient-specific liver models and devices for medical education, surgical simulation, hepatectomy and liver transplantation, 3D Bio-printed hepatic constructs for liver regeneration and artificial liver, 3D-printed liver tissues for evaluating drug's hepatotoxicity, and so on. Briefly, 3D-printed liver models and bioactive tissues may facilitate a lot of key steps to cure liver disorders, predictably bringing promising clinical benefits. This work further provides novel insights into facilitating treatment of hepatic carcinoma, promoting liver regeneration both in vivo and in vitro, expanding transplantable liver resources, maximizing therapeutic efficacy as well as minimizing surgical complications, medical hepatotoxicity, operational time, economic costs, etc. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Association between macroscopic appearance of liver lesions and liver histology in dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma: 79 cases (2004-2009).

    PubMed

    Clendaniel, Daphne C; Sivacolundhu, Ramesh K; Sorenmo, Karin U; Donovan, Taryn A; Turner, Avenelle; Arteaga, Theresa; Bergman, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Medical records for 79 dogs with confirmed splenic hemangiosarcoma (HSA) following splenectomy were reviewed for information regarding either the presence or absence of macroscopic liver lesions and the histopathological characteristics of the liver. Only 29 of 58 dogs (50%) with grossly abnormal livers had HSA metastasis. No dogs with grossly normal livers had metastasis detected on liver pathology. Gross lesions in the liver such as multiple nodules, dark-colored nodules, and active bleeding nodules were highly associated with malignancy. For the dogs in this study, performing biopsy in a grossly normal liver was a low-yield procedure in dogs with splenic HSA.

  1. Liver-fat and liver-function indices derived from Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI for prediction of future liver remnant growth after portal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Barth, Borna K; Fischer, Michael A; Kambakamba, Patryk; Lesurtel, Mickael; Reiner, Caecilia S

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the use of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived fat- and liver function-measurements for prediction of future liver remnant (FLR) growth after portal vein occlusion (PVO) in patients scheduled for major liver resection. Forty-five patients (age, 59 ± 13.9 y) who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI within 24 ± 18 days prior to PVO were included in this study. Fat-Signal-Fraction (FSF), relative liver enhancement (RLE) and corrected liver-to-spleen ratio (corrLSR) of the FLR were calculated from in- and out-of-phase (n=42) as well as from unenhanced T1-weighted, and hepatocyte-phase images (n=35), respectively. Kinetic growth rate (KGR, volume increase/week) of the FLR after PVO was the primary endpoint. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to determine cutoff values for prediction of impaired FLR-growth. FSF (%) showed significant inverse correlation with KGR (r=-0.41, p=0.008), whereas no significant correlation was found with RLE and corrLSR. FSF was significantly higher in patients with impaired FLR-growth than in those with normal growth (%FSF, 8.1 ± 9.3 vs. 3.0 ± 5.9, p=0.02). ROC-analysis revealed a cutoff-FSF of 4.9% for identification of patients with impaired FLR-growth with a specificity of 82% and sensitivity of 47% (AUC 0.71 [95%CI:0.54-0.87]). Patients with impaired FLR-growth according to the FSF-cutoff showed a tendency towards higher postoperative complication rates (posthepatectomy liver failure in 50% vs. 19%). Liver fat-content, but not liver function derived from Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI is a predictor of FLR-growth after PVO. Thus, liver MRI could help in identifying patients at risk for insufficient FLR-growth, who may need re-evaluation of the therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PROLACTIN REGULATES LIVER GROWTH DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT IN MICE.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Bravo-Manríquez, Marco; Baez, Arelí; Ledesma-Colunga, María G; Ruiz-Herrera, Xarubet; Reyes-Ortega, Pamela; De Los Ríos, Ericka A; Macotela, Yazmín; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2018-02-21

    The liver grows during the early postnatal period first at slower and then at faster rates than the body to achieve the adult liver-to-body weight ratio (LBW), a constant reflecting liver health. The hormone prolactin (PRL) stimulates adult liver growth and regeneration and its levels are high in the circulation of newborn infants, but whether PRL plays a role on neonatal liver growth is unknown. Here, we show that the liver produces PRL and upregulates the PRL receptor in mice during the first 2 weeks after birth, when liver growth lags behind body growth. At postnatal week 4, the production of PRL by the liver ceases coinciding with the elevation of circulating PRL and the faster liver growth that catches up with body growth. PRL receptor null mice (Prlr-/-) show a significant decrease in the LBW at 1, 4, 6, and 10 postnatal weeks and reduced liver expression of proliferation (cyclin D1, Ccnd1) and angiogenesis (platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1, Pecam1) markers relative to Prlr+/+ mice. However, the LBW increases in Prlr-/- mice at postnatal week 2 concurring with the enhanced liver expression of Igf-1 and the liver upregulation and downregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (Socs2) and Socs3, respectively. These findings indicate that PRL acts locally and systemically to restrict and stimulate postnatal liver growth. PRL inhibits liver and body growth by attenuating growth hormone-induced Igf-1 liver expression via Socs2 and Socs3-related mechanisms.

  3. Bacterial microflora of normal and telangiectatic livers in cattle.

    PubMed

    Stotland, E I; Edwards, J F; Roussel, A J; Simpson, R B

    2001-07-01

    To identify potential bacterial pathogens in normal and telangiectatic livers of mature cattle at slaughter and to identify consumer risk associated with hepatic telangiectasia. 50 normal livers and 50 severely telangiectatic livers. Normal and telangiectatic livers were collected at slaughter for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture. Isolates were identified, and patterns of isolation were analyzed. Histologic examination of all livers was performed. Human pathogens isolated from normal and telangiectatic livers included Escherichia coli O157:H7 and group-D streptococci. Most livers in both groups contained bacteria in low numbers; however, more normal livers yielded negative culture results. More group-D streptococci were isolated from the right lobes of telangiectatic livers than from the left lobes, and more gram-negative anaerobic bacteria were isolated from left lobes of telangiectatic livers than from right lobes. All telangiectatic lesions were free of fibrosis, active necrotizing processes, and inflammation. The USDA regulation condemning telangiectatic livers is justified insofar as these livers contain more bacteria than normal livers do; however, normal livers contain similar species of microflora. Development of telangiectasia could not be linked to an infectious process. The finding of E coli O157:H7 in bovine livers suggests that information regarding bacterial content of other offal and muscle may identify sources of this and other potential foodborne pathogens and assist in establishing critical control points for the meat industry.

  4. Hepatic protoporphyrin metabolism in patients with advanced protoporphyric liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Protoporphyria is a genetic disorder in which liver damage is caused by the toxic effect of protoporphyrin accumulation in the liver. In this study protoporphyrin was measured in the resected livers of 7 patients who had liver transplantation and an additional patient from whom liver tissue was obtained post mortem. Comparison of liver, erythrocyte and serum protoporphyrin levels demonstrated a marked gradient between these compartments: erythrocyte, 5781 +/- 655 micrograms/dl; serum, 384 +/- 102 micrograms/dl; liver 377,238 +/- 55,568 micrograms/100 gm wet weight, (mean +/- SE). Protoporphyrin levels in bile of 3 patients were 55,559, and 1,153 micrograms/dl, indicating a gradient between liver and bile as well. Examination of the livers by polarization microscopy and electron microscopy demonstrated protoporphyrin pigment crystals. In one patient who had recurrent liver disease after transplantation, the protoporphyrin concentration in the graft at the time of death was similar to that in the resected liver. These data indicate that liver protoporphyrin levels in patients with advanced protoporphyric liver disease are much higher than levels in blood and bile, in part because protoporphyrin forms crystalline deposits in liver tissue. Thus, progressive hepatic accumulation of protoporphyrin occurs in the face of impaired biliary excretion. An intrinsic defect in hepatic excretion of protoporphyrin is probably not necessary for this condition to develop because liver disease can occur in the graft following transplantation. PMID:9626752

  5. Recent Advancements in Diagnosis and Therapy of Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Roberto Giulio; Stasi, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhosis is a diffuse pathophysiological state of the liver considered to be the final stage of various liver injuries, characterized by chronic necroinflammatory and fibrogenetic processes, with subsequent conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules, dense fibrotic septa, concomitant parenchymal exaustment and collapse of the liver tissue. Alcoholic liver disease and chronic infections due to HBV and/or HCV constitute the main causes of liver cirrhosis worldwide. During a lag time of 15 to 30 years, chronic liver diseases can lead to liver cirrhosis and its complications. Active hepatic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the inflammation- necrosis-regeneration process, which eventually leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Prognosis of liver cirrhosis is highly variable and influenced by several variables, such as etiology, severity of liver disease, presence of complications and comorbidities. In advanced cirrhosis, survival decreases to one or two years. Correct advanced diagnosis and selected treatment with different molecules may help in understanding mechanisms of fibrogenesis, the driving forces of cirrhosis's pathogenesis, and the scrupulous approach to more effective therapeutic procedures. Prevention of fibrosis with further deterioration of liver function through specific treatments is always required, through the removal of the underlying causes of liver disease. Advanced liver disease, with subsequent complications, requires targeted treatment. Therefore, the aim of this review is to assess the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis on the pathophysiological bases, searching for relevant studies published in English using the PubMed database from 2011 to the present.

  6. Plasma cholesterol-lowering and transient liver dysfunction in mice lacking squalene synthase in the liver[S

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Shuichi; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Tozawa, Ryuichi; Tazoe, Fumiko; Takahashi, Manabu; Kitamine, Tetsuya; Yamamuro, Daisuke; Sakai, Kent; Sekiya, Motohiro; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Osuga, Jun-ichi; Honda, Akira; Ishibashi, Shun

    2015-01-01

    Squalene synthase (SS) catalyzes the biosynthesis of squalene, the first specific intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. To test the feasibility of lowering plasma cholesterol by inhibiting hepatic SS, we generated mice in which SS is specifically knocked out in the liver (L-SSKO) using Cre-loxP technology. Hepatic SS activity of L-SSKO mice was reduced by >90%. In addition, cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver slices was almost eliminated. Although the hepatic squalene contents were markedly reduced in L-SSKO mice, the hepatic contents of cholesterol and its precursors distal to squalene were indistinguishable from those of control mice, indicating the presence of sufficient centripetal flow of cholesterol and/or its precursors from the extrahepatic tissues. L-SSKO mice showed a transient liver dysfunction with moderate hepatomegaly presumably secondary to increased farnesol production. In a fed state, the plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly reduced in L-SSKO mice, primarily owing to reduced hepatic VLDL secretion. In a fasted state, the hypolipidemic effect was lost. mRNA expression of liver X receptor α target genes was reduced, while that of sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 target genes was increased. In conclusion, liver-specific ablation of SS inhibits hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis and induces hypolipidemia without increasing significant mortality. PMID:25755092

  7. Correlation of serum liver fibrosis markers with severity of liver dysfunction in liver cirrhosis: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cuihong; Qi, Xingshun; Li, Hongyu; Peng, Ying; Dai, Junna; Chen, Jiang; Xia, Chunlian; Hou, Yue; Zhang, Wenwen; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), amino-terminal pro-peptide of type III pro-collagen (PIIINP), and collagen IV (CIV) are four major serum markers of liver fibrosis. This retrospective cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the correlations of the four serum markers with the severity of liver dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. Between January 2013 and June 2014, a total of 228 patients with a clinical diagnosis with liver cirrhosis and without malignancy underwent the tests of HA, LN, PIIINP, and CIV levels. Laboratory data were collected. Child-Pugh and model for the end-stage of liver diseases (MELD) scores were calculated. Of them, 32%, 40%, and 18% had Child-Pugh class A, B, and C, respectively. MELD score was 7.58±0.50. HA (coefficient r: 0.1612, P=0.0203), LN (coefficient r: 0.2445, P=0.0004), and CIV (coefficient r: 0.2361, P=0.0006) levels significantly correlated with Child-Pugh score, but not PIIINP level. Additionally, LN (coefficient r: 0.2588, P=0.0002) and CIV (coefficient r: 0.1795, P=0.0108) levels significantly correlated with MELD score, but not HA or PIIINP level. In conclusions, HA, LN, and CIV levels might be positively associated with the severity of liver dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. However, given a relatively weak correlation between them, our findings should be cautiously interpreted and further validated. PMID:26131195

  8. Liver Injury from Herbal and Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Victor; Khan, Ikhlas; Björnsson, Einar; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

    2017-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are used increasingly both in the United States and worldwide and HDS induced liver injury in the U.S. has increased proportionally. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of HDS-induced liver injury were the focus of a 2-day research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health. HDS-induced liver injury now accounts for 20% of cases of hepatotoxicity in the United States based on research data. The major implicated agents include anabolic steroids, green tea extract, and multi-ingredient nutritional supplements (MINS). Anabolic steroids marketed as bodybuilding supplements typically induce a prolonged cholestatic, but ultimately self-limiting liver injury that has a distinctive serum biochemical as well as histological phenotype. Green tea extract and many other products, in contrast, tend to cause an acute-hepatitis like injury. Currently, however, the majority of cases of HDS-associated liver injury are due to MINS, and the component responsible for the toxicity is usually unknown or can only be suspected. HDS-induced liver injury presents many clinical and research challenges, in diagnosis, identification of the responsible constituents, treatment and prevention. Also important are improvements in regulatory oversight of non-prescription products to guarantee their constituents and insure purity and safety. The confident identification of injurious ingredients within HDS will require strategic alignments among clinicians, chemists, and toxicologists. The ultimate goal should be to prohibit or more closely regulate potentially injurious ingredients and thus promote public safety. PMID:27677775

  9. Acute-on-chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Shiv Kumar; Choudhury, Ashok

    2016-12-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a distinct entity that differs from acute liver failure and decompensated cirrhosis in timing, presence of treatable acute precipitant, and course of disease, with a potential for self-recovery. The core concept is acute deterioration of existing liver function in a patient of chronic liver disease with or without cirrhosis in response to an acute insult. The insult should be a hepatic one and presentation in the form of liver failure (jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy, ascites) with or without extrahepatic organ failure in a defined time frame. ACLF is characterized by a state of deregulated inflammation. Initial cytokine burst presenting as SIRS, progression to CARS and associated immunoparalysis leads to sepsis and multi-organ failure. Early identification of the acute insult and mitigation of the same, use of nucleoside analogue in HBV-ACLF, steroid in severe alcoholic hepatitis, steroid in severe autoimmune hepatitis and/or bridging therapy lead to recovery, with a 90-day transplant-free survival rate of up to 50 %. First-week presentation is crucial concerning SIRS/sepsis, development, multiorgan failure and consideration of transplant. A protocol-based multi-disciplinary approach including critical care hepatology, early liver transplant before multi-organ involvement, or priority for organ allocation may improve the outcome. Presentation with extrahepatic organ involvement or inclusion of sepsis as an acute insult in definition restricts the therapy, i.e., liver transplant or bridging therapy, and needs serious consideration. Augmentation of regeneration, cell-based therapy, immunotherapy, and gut microbiota modulation are the emerging areas and need further research.

  10. Robotic liver surgery: results for 70 resections.

    PubMed

    Giulianotti, Pier Cristoforo; Coratti, Andrea; Sbrana, Fabio; Addeo, Pietro; Bianco, Francesco Maria; Buchs, Nicolas Christian; Annechiarico, Mario; Benedetti, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Robotic surgery is gaining popularity for digestive surgery; however, its use for liver surgery is reported scarcely. This article reviews a surgeon's experience with the use of robotic surgery for liver resections. From March 2002 to March 2009, 70 robotic liver resections were performed at 2 different centers by a single surgeon. The surgical procedure and postoperative outcome data were reviewed retrospectively. Malignant tumors were indications for resections in 42 (60%) patients, whereas benign tumors were indications in 28 (40%) patients. The median age was 60 years (range, 21-84) and 57% of patients were female. Major liver resections (≥ 3 liver segments) were performed in 27 (38.5%) patients. There were 4 conversions to open surgery (5.7%). The median operative time for a major resection was 313 min (range, 220-480) and 198 min (range, 90-459) for minor resection. The median blood loss was 150 mL (range, 20-1,800) for minor resection and 300 mL (range, 100-2,000) for major resection. The mortality rate was 0%, and the overall rate of complications was 21%. Major morbidity occurred in 4 patients in the major hepatectomies group (14.8%) and in 4 patients in the minor hepatectomies group (9.3%). All complications were managed conservatively and none required reoperation. This preliminary experience shows that robotic surgery can be used safely for liver resections with a limited conversion rate, blood loss, and postoperative morbidity. Robotics offers a new technical option for minimally invasive liver surgery. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Liver Transplantation Results by Donor Age.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, A V; Bastante, M D; Raya, A M; Méndez, C S M; Ramirez, A R G; Suarez, Y F

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare liver transplantation outcomes as a function of donor age. We performed 212 liver transplantations between 2008 and 2014. We described a prospective cohort study and grouped the patients by liver donor age. We compared quantitative and categorical variables using statistical analysis. No statistically significant differences were found among any graft age groups in gender (always more males), time on waiting list, age, height, Child Pugh Turcotte (CHILD) score, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, need for intraoperative blood products, or intensive care unit stay. The most frequent etiology of liver failure was alcohol. A brain-dead donor was the most frequent type in all groups. The whole graft was used except in 4 cases. No statistically significant differences were found among groups in the surgical technique, postreperfusion syndrome, arterial complications, biliary complications, venous complications, acute rejection, and retransplantation. The 3-year patient survival rate was 64% in the <60-year graft age group, 48% in the 60- to 69-year group, 64% in the 70- to 79-year group, and 40% in the ≥80-year group (P = .264). The 3-year graft survival rate was 62% in the <60-year graft age group, 47% in the 60- to 69-year group, 65% in the 70- to 79-year group, and 40% in the ≥80-year group (P = .295). Given the need to increase the pool of liver donors, older donors should be considered as a source for liver transplantation, although careful selection is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiologic evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Soo; Park, Seong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent cause of chronic liver diseases, ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related liver cirrhosis. Although liver biopsy is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of NAFLD, especially for the diagnosis of NASH, imaging methods have been increasingly accepted as noninvasive alternatives to liver biopsy. Ultrasonography is a well-established and cost-effective imaging technique for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, especially for screening a large population at risk of NAFLD. Ultrasonography has a reasonable accuracy in detecting moderate-to-severe hepatic steatosis although it is less accurate for detecting mild hepatic steatosis, operator-dependent, and rather qualitative. Computed tomography is not appropriate for general population assessment of hepatic steatosis given its inaccuracy in detecting mild hepatic steatosis and potential radiation hazard. However, computed tomography may be effective in specific clinical situations, such as evaluation of donor candidates for hepatic transplantation. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging are now regarded as the most accurate practical methods of measuring liver fat in clinical practice, especially for longitudinal follow-up of patients with NAFLD. Ultrasound elastography and magnetic resonance elastography are increasingly used to evaluate the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD and to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. This article will review current imaging methods used to evaluate hepatic steatosis, including the diagnostic accuracy, limitations, and practical applicability of each method. It will also briefly describe the potential role of elastography techniques in the evaluation of patients with NAFLD. PMID:24966609

  13. [Management of synchronous colorectal liver metastases].

    PubMed

    Dupré, Aurélien; Gagnière, Johan; Chen, Yao; Rivoire, Michel

    2013-04-01

    At time of diagnosis, 10 to 25% of patients with colorectal cancer present synchronous liver metastases. The treatment of such patients remains controversial without any evidence based organization. Therapeutic sequences are discussed including chemotherapy, colorectal surgery, liver resection and even radio-chemotherapy for some rectal cancers. In case of resectable liver metastases, preoperative chemotherapy offers the advantage of earlier treatment of micro-metastases as well as evaluation of tumor responsiveness, which can help shape future therapy. In this setting, different surgical strategies can be chosen (classical staged procedures with colorectal surgery followed by liver surgery, simultaneous resections or liver first approach) depending on the importance of the primary and metastatic tumors. The literature remains limited, but the results of these strategies seem identical in term of postoperative morbidity and long-term survival. Staged procedures are preferred in case of major liver resection. Location of the primary tumor on the low or mid rectum will necessitate preoperative long course chemoradiotherapy and a more complex multidisciplinary organization. For patients with extensive liver metastases, non-resectability must be assessed by experienced surgeon and radiologist before treatment and during chemotherapy. In this group of patients, improved chemotherapy regimen associated with targeted therapies and new surgical strategies (portal vein embolization, ablation, staged hepatectomies…) have improved resection rate (15 to 30-40%) and long-term survival. Treatment organization for the primary tumor remains controversial. Resection of the primary to manage symptoms such as obstruction, perforation or bleeding is advocated. For patients with asymptomatic primary a non-surgical approach permits to begin rapidly chemotherapy and obtain a better control of the disease. On the other hand, initial resection of the primary may avoid complications and

  14. Simultaneous Liver-Kidney Transplantation: Impact on Liver Transplant Patients and the Kidney Transplant Waiting List.

    PubMed

    Miles, Clifford D; Westphal, Scott; Liapakis, AnnMarie; Formica, Richard

    2018-01-01

    The number of simultaneous liver-kidney transplants (SLKT) performed in the USA has been rising. The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network implemented a new policy governing SLKT that specifies eligibility criteria for candidates to receive a kidney with a liver, and creates a kidney waitlist "safety net" for liver recipients with persistent renal failure after transplant. This review explores potential impacts for liver patients and the kidney waitlist. Factors that have contributed to the rise in SLKT including Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD)-based allocation, regional sharing for high MELD candidates, and the rising incidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis will continue to increase the number of liver transplant candidates with concurrent renal insufficiency. The effect of center behavior based on the new policy is harder to predict, given wide historic variability in SLKT practice. Continued increase in combined liver/kidney failure is likely, and SLKT and kidney after liver transplant may both increase. Impact of the new policy should be carefully monitored, but influences beyond the policy need to be accounted for.

  15. Outcome of 1000 liver cancer patients evaluated at the UPMC Liver Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Geller, David A; Tsung, Allan; Marsh, J Wallis; Dvorchik, Igor; Gamblin, T Clark; Carr, Brian I

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated 1000 consecutive patients with liver tumors at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Liver Cancer Center over the 4-year period from August 2000 to August 2004. Of the 1000 patients seen, 573 had primary liver cancer and 427 had metastatic cancer to the liver. The mean age of the patients evaluated was 62.2 years, and 61% were male. Treatment consisted of a liver surgical procedure (resection or radiofrequency ablation) in 369 cases (36.9%), hepatic intra-arterial regional therapy (transarterial chemoembolization or (90)yttrium microspheres) in 524 cases (52.4%), systemic chemotherapy in 35 cases (3.5%), and palliative care in 72 patients (7.2%). For treated patients, median survival was 884 days for those undergoing resection/radiofrequency ablation, compared to 295 days with regional therapy. These data indicate that over 90% of patients with liver cancer evaluated at a tertiary referral center can be offered some form of therapy. Survival rates are superior with a liver resection or ablation procedure, which is likely consistent with selection bias. Hepatocellular carcinoma was the most common tumor seen due to referral pattern and screening of hepatitis patients at a major liver transplant center. The most common reason for offering palliative care was hepatic insufficiency usually associated with cirrhosis.

  16. Digital liver biopsy: Bio-imaging of fatty liver for translational and clinical research.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Marcello; Summers, Paul; Faita, Francesco; Brunetto, Maurizia R; Callea, Francesco; De Nicola, Andrea; Di Lascio, Nicole; Farinati, Fabio; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Gridelli, Bruno; Mirabelli, Peppino; Neri, Emanuele; Salvadori, Piero A; Rebelos, Eleni; Tiribelli, Claudio; Valenti, Luca; Salvatore, Marco; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2018-02-27

    The rapidly growing field of functional, molecular and structural bio-imaging is providing an extraordinary new opportunity to overcome the limits of invasive liver biopsy and introduce a "digital biopsy" for in vivo study of liver pathophysiology. To foster the application of bio-imaging in clinical and translational research, there is a need to standardize the methods of both acquisition and the storage of the bio-images of the liver. It can be hoped that the combination of digital, liquid and histologic liver biopsies will provide an innovative synergistic tri-dimensional approach to identifying new aetiologies, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the optimization of personalized therapy of liver diseases and liver cancer. A group of experts of different disciplines (Special Interest Group for Personalized Hepatology of the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, Institute for Biostructures and Bio-imaging of the National Research Council and Bio-banking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure) discussed criteria, methods and guidelines for facilitating the requisite application of data collection. This manuscript provides a multi-Author review of the issue with special focus on fatty liver.

  17. Hot topics in liver transplantation: organ allocation--extended criteria donor--living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Müllhaupt, Beat; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Gerlach, J Tilman; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplantation has become the mainstay for the treatment of end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular cancer and some metabolic disorders. Its main drawback, though, is the disparity between the number of donors and the patients needing a liver graft. In this review we will discuss the recent changes regarding organ allocation, extended donor criteria, living donor liver transplantation and potential room for improvement. The gap between the number of donors and patients needing a liver graft forced the transplant community to introduce an objective model such as the modified model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) in order to obtain a transparent and fair organ allocation system. The use of extended criteria donor livers such as organs from older donors or steatotic grafts is one possibility to reduce the gap between patients on the waiting list and available donors. Finally, living donor liver transplantation has become a standard procedure in specialized centers as another possibility to reduce the donor shortage. Recent data clearly indicate that center experience is of major importance in achieving good results. Great progress has been made in recent years. However, further research is needed to improve results in the future.

  18. Digital liver biopsy: Bio-imaging of fatty liver for translational and clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Marcello; Summers, Paul; Faita, Francesco; Brunetto, Maurizia R; Callea, Francesco; De Nicola, Andrea; Di Lascio, Nicole; Farinati, Fabio; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Gridelli, Bruno; Mirabelli, Peppino; Neri, Emanuele; Salvadori, Piero A; Rebelos, Eleni; Tiribelli, Claudio; Valenti, Luca; Salvatore, Marco; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2018-01-01

    The rapidly growing field of functional, molecular and structural bio-imaging is providing an extraordinary new opportunity to overcome the limits of invasive liver biopsy and introduce a “digital biopsy” for in vivo study of liver pathophysiology. To foster the application of bio-imaging in clinical and translational research, there is a need to standardize the methods of both acquisition and the storage of the bio-images of the liver. It can be hoped that the combination of digital, liquid and histologic liver biopsies will provide an innovative synergistic tri-dimensional approach to identifying new aetiologies, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the optimization of personalized therapy of liver diseases and liver cancer. A group of experts of different disciplines (Special Interest Group for Personalized Hepatology of the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, Institute for Biostructures and Bio-imaging of the National Research Council and Bio-banking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure) discussed criteria, methods and guidelines for facilitating the requisite application of data collection. This manuscript provides a multi-Author review of the issue with special focus on fatty liver. PMID:29527259

  19. The Origin of New-Onset Diabetes After Liver Transplantation: Liver, Islets, or Gut?

    PubMed

    Ling, Qi; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Baohong; Li, Lanjuan; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-04-01

    New-onset diabetes is a frequent complication after solid organ transplantation. Although a number of common factors are associated with the disease, including recipient age, body mass index, hepatitis C infection, and use of immunosuppressive drugs, new-onset diabetes after liver transplantation (NODALT) has the following unique aspects and thus needs to be considered its own entity. First, a liver graft becomes the patient's primary metabolic regulator after liver transplantation, but this would not be the case for kidney or other grafts. The metabolic states, as well as the genetics of the graft, play crucial roles in the development of NODALT. Second, dysfunction of the islets of Langerhans is common in cirrhotic patients and would be exacerbated by immunosuppressive agents, particularly calcineurin inhibitors. On the other hand, minimized immunosuppressive protocols have been widely advocated in liver transplantation because of liver tolerance (immune privilege). Third and last, through the "gut-liver axis," graft function is closely linked to gut microbiota, which is now considered an important metabolic organ and known to independently influence the host's metabolic homeostasis. Liver transplant recipients present with specific gut microbiota that may be prone to trigger metabolic disorders. In this review, we proposed 3 possible sites for the origin of NODALT, which are liver, islets, and gut, to help elucidate the underlying mechanism of NODALT.

  20. Detection of liver cancer and abnormal liver tissue by Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Ding, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiujun; Lin, Junxiu; Wang, Deli

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, laser induced human serum Raman spectra of liver cancer are measured. The spectra differences in serum from normal people and liver disease patients are analyzed. For the typical spectrum of normal serum, there are three sharp Raman peaks and relative intensity of Raman peaks excited by 514.5nm is higher than that excited by 488.0nm. For the Raman spectrum of liver cancer serum there are no peaks or very weak Raman peaks at the same positions. Results from more than two hundred case measurements show that clinical diagnostic accuracy is 92.86%. And then, the liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis are studied applying the technology of LIF. To liver cirrhosis, the shape of Raman peak is similar to normal and fluorescence spectrum is similar to that of liver cancer from statistic data. The experiment indicates that there is notable fluorescence difference between the abnormal and normal liver tissue and have blue shift in fluorescence peak. Except for human serum, we use rats serum for researching either. Compared with results of path al examination, we analyze the spectra of normal cases, hepatic fibrosis and hepatocirrhosis respectively in an attempt to find some difference between them. Red shift of fluorescence peak is observed with disease evolution using 514.5nm excitation of an Ar-ion laser. However, no distinct changes happen with 488.0nm excitation. These results have important reference values to explore the method of laser spectrum diagnosis.

  1. Living Donor Liver Transplantation Using a Liver Graft With Congenital Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Kamei, Hideya; Imai, Hisashi; Onishi, Yasuharu; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Kojiro; Ogura, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite of recent development of imaging modalities, congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IPSS) is rarely diagnosed. Therefore, living donor liver transplantation using a liver graft with IPSS has not been previously published. Materials and Methods We report a 28-year-old male patient with end-stage liver disease secondary to Wilson disease. His 26-year-old brother was a potential living donor, who had an IPSS of 25 mm in diameter at segment 6 as shown by computed tomography. Liver function tests were normal, and blood ammonia concentration was in the upper limit of normal. Results Living donor liver transplantation was uneventfully performed. After surgery, a recipient liver function tests showed a quick recovery, and serum ammonia levels were consistently normal. Although thrombosis inside the IPSS was confirmed by computed tomography on postoperative day 21, this thrombosis disappeared at 3 months posttransplant with anticoagulants. Currently (12 months posttransplant), the patient has fully recovered, and the IPSS is still the same size. Conclusions Based on our experience, liver allografts with IPSS can be accepted as potential liver allografts. PMID:27500240

  2. Functional characterization of liver-associated lymphocytes in patients with liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Winnock, M; Garcia-Barcina, M; Huet, S; Bernard, P; Saric, J; Bioulac-Sage, P; Gualde, N; Balabaud, C

    1993-10-01

    The liver-associated lymphocytes (LAL) population is mainly composed of cells with natural killer (NK) activity expressing the CD3+/-CD56+ phenotype. No evident difference has been found in the phenotypic data between patients with benign or malignant liver disease. In this study, the cytotoxic pattern of this population has been characterized from patients who underwent an operation for benign or metastatic liver disease. LAL were isolated by sinusoidal high-pressure lavage from partial hepatectomies. Phenotype was characterized by flow cytometry, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by standard 4-hour 51Cr release assays against NK and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK)-sensitive targets. In patients with benign liver disease, LAL showed spontaneous high levels of NK activity and LAK activity compared with peripheral blood lymphocytes. In patients with metastatic liver disease, no difference was observed in the levels of NK activity between LAL and peripheral blood, and the level of LAK activity was far lower than that expressed in patients with benign liver disease. These results show that the cytotoxic pattern of peripheral blood lymphocytes does not mirror that of LAL. In patients with benign liver disease, LAL are in a state of activation, whereas the decreased level of LAL cytotoxicity in patients with metastatic liver disease suggests that the cytotoxic activity of these cells could be inhibited by the presence of suppressive factors.

  3. Non-invasive evaluation of liver stiffness after splenectomy in rabbits with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Jun; Ling, Wen-Wu; Wang, Hong; Meng, Ling-Wei; Cai, He; Peng, Bing

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the diagnostic performance of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) in animal models and determine the longitudinal changes in liver stiffness by ElastPQ after splenectomy at different stages of fibrosis. METHODS Liver stiffness was measured in sixty-eight rabbits with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis at different stages and eight healthy control rabbits by ElastPQ. Liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained at scheduled time points to assess liver function and degree of fibrosis. Thirty-one rabbits with complete data that underwent splenectomy at different stages of liver fibrosis were then included for dynamic monitoring of changes in liver stiffness by ElastPQ and liver function according to blood tests. RESULTS LSM by ElastPQ was significantly correlated with histologic fibrosis stage (r = 0.85, P < 0.001). The optimal cutoff values by ElastPQ were 11.27, 14.89, and 18.21 kPa for predicting minimal fibrosis, moderate fibrosis, and cirrhosis, respectively. Longitudinal monitoring of the changes in liver stiffness by ElastPQ showed that early splenectomy (especially F1) may delay liver fibrosis progression. CONCLUSION ElastPQ is an available, convenient, objective and non-invasive technique for assessing liver stiffness in rabbits with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. In addition, liver stiffness measurements using ElastPQ can dynamically monitor the changes in liver stiffness in rabbit models, and in patients, after splenectomy. PMID:28028365

  4. Non-invasive evaluation of liver stiffness after splenectomy in rabbits with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Jun; Ling, Wen-Wu; Wang, Hong; Meng, Ling-Wei; Cai, He; Peng, Bing

    2016-12-14

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) in animal models and determine the longitudinal changes in liver stiffness by ElastPQ after splenectomy at different stages of fibrosis. Liver stiffness was measured in sixty-eight rabbits with CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis at different stages and eight healthy control rabbits by ElastPQ. Liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained at scheduled time points to assess liver function and degree of fibrosis. Thirty-one rabbits with complete data that underwent splenectomy at different stages of liver fibrosis were then included for dynamic monitoring of changes in liver stiffness by ElastPQ and liver function according to blood tests. LSM by ElastPQ was significantly correlated with histologic fibrosis stage ( r = 0.85, P < 0.001). The optimal cutoff values by ElastPQ were 11.27, 14.89, and 18.21 kPa for predicting minimal fibrosis, moderate fibrosis, and cirrhosis, respectively. Longitudinal monitoring of the changes in liver stiffness by ElastPQ showed that early splenectomy (especially F1) may delay liver fibrosis progression. ElastPQ is an available, convenient, objective and non-invasive technique for assessing liver stiffness in rabbits with CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis. In addition, liver stiffness measurements using ElastPQ can dynamically monitor the changes in liver stiffness in rabbit models, and in patients, after splenectomy.

  5. Incidence and Risk Factors for Liver Abscess After Thermal Ablation of Liver Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiu-Feng; Li, Na; Chen, Xu-Fang; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave ablation (MWA) are the most frequently used thermal ablation methods for the treatment of liver cancer. Liver abscess is a common and severe complication of thermal ablation treatment. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of liver abscess formation after thermal ablation of liver cancer. Materials and Methods The clinical data of 423 patients who underwent 691 thermal ablation procedures for liver cancer were collected in order to retrospectively analyze the basic characteristics, incidence, and risk factors associated with liver abscess formation. Patients with multiple risk factors for liver abscess formation were enrolled in a risk factor group, and patients with no risk factors were enrolled in a control group. The chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the relationship between the occurrence of liver abscesses and potential risk factors. Results Two hundred and eight patients underwent 385 RFA procedures, and 185 patients underwent 306 MWA procedures. The total incidence of liver abscesses was 1.7%, while the rates in the RFA group (1.8%) and MWA groups (1.6%) were similar (P > 0.05). The rates of liver abscesses in patients who had child-pugh class B and class C cirrhosis (P = 0.0486), biliary tract disease (P = 0.0305), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.0344), and porta hepatis tumors (P = 0.0123) were 4.0%, 6.7%, 6.5%, and 13.0%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between these four groups and the control group (all P < 0.05). The incidence of liver abscesses in the combined ablation and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) group (P = 0.0026) was significantly lower than that of the ablation group (P < 0.05). Conclusions The incidence of liver abscesses after liver cancer thermal ablation is low. Child-Pugh Class B and Class C cirrhosis, biliary tract disease, diabetes mellitus, and porta hepatis

  6. Perioperative liver and spleen elastography in patients without chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Sam; Borsiin, Hanna; Öberg, Carl-Fredrik; Brange, Hannes; Mijovic, Zoran; Sturesson, Christian

    2018-02-27

    To investigate changes in hepatic and splenic stiffness in patients without chronic liver disease during liver resection for hepatic tumors. Patients scheduled for liver resection for hepatic tumors were considered for enrollment. Tissue stiffness measurements on liver and spleen were conducted before and two days after liver resection using point shear-wave elastography. Histological analysis of the resected liver specimen was conducted in all patients and patients with marked liver fibrosis were excluded from further study analysis. Patients were divided into groups depending on size of resection and whether they had received preoperative chemotherapy or not. The relation between tissue stiffness and postoperative biochemistry was investigated. Results are presented as median (interquartile range). 35 patients were included. The liver stiffness increased in patients undergoing a major resection from 1.41 (1.24-1.63) m/s to 2.20 (1.72-2.44) m/s ( P = 0.001). No change in liver stiffness in patients undergoing a minor resection was found [1.31 (1.15-1.52) m/s vs 1.37 (1.12-1.77) m/s, P = 0.438]. A major resection resulted in a 16% (7%-33%) increase in spleen stiffness, more ( P = 0.047) than after a minor resection [2 (-1-13) %]. Patients who underwent preoperative chemotherapy ( n = 20) did not differ from others in preoperative right liver lobe [1.31 (1.16-1.50) vs 1.38 (1.12-1.56) m/s, P = 0.569] or spleen [2.79 (2.33-3.11) vs 2.71 (2.37-2.86) m/s, P = 0.515] stiffness. Remnant liver stiffness on the second postoperative day did not show strong correlations with maximum postoperative increase in bilirubin ( R 2 = 0.154, Pearson's r = 0.392, P = 0.032) and international normalized ratio ( R 2 = 0.285, Pearson's r = 0.534, P = 0.003). Liver and spleen stiffness increase after a major liver resection for hepatic tumors in patients without chronic liver disease.

  7. Perioperative liver and spleen elastography in patients without chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Sam; Borsiin, Hanna; Öberg, Carl-Fredrik; Brange, Hannes; Mijovic, Zoran; Sturesson, Christian

    2018-01-01

    AIM To investigate changes in hepatic and splenic stiffness in patients without chronic liver disease during liver resection for hepatic tumors. METHODS Patients scheduled for liver resection for hepatic tumors were considered for enrollment. Tissue stiffness measurements on liver and spleen were conducted before and two days after liver resection using point shear-wave elastography. Histological analysis of the resected liver specimen was conducted in all patients and patients with marked liver fibrosis were excluded from further study analysis. Patients were divided into groups depending on size of resection and whether they had received preoperative chemotherapy or not. The relation between tissue stiffness and postoperative biochemistry was investigated. RESULTS Results are presented as median (interquartile range). 35 patients were included. The liver stiffness increased in patients undergoing a major resection from 1.41 (1.24-1.63) m/s to 2.20 (1.72-2.44) m/s (P = 0.001). No change in liver stiffness in patients undergoing a minor resection was found [1.31 (1.15-1.52) m/s vs 1.37 (1.12-1.77) m/s, P = 0.438]. A major resection resulted in a 16% (7%-33%) increase in spleen stiffness, more (P = 0.047) than after a minor resection [2 (-1-13) %]. Patients who underwent preoperative chemotherapy (n = 20) did not differ from others in preoperative right liver lobe [1.31 (1.16-1.50) vs 1.38 (1.12-1.56) m/s, P = 0.569] or spleen [2.79 (2.33-3.11) vs 2.71 (2.37-2.86) m/s, P = 0.515] stiffness. Remnant liver stiffness on the second postoperative day did not show strong correlations with maximum postoperative increase in bilirubin (R2 = 0.154, Pearson’s r = 0.392, P = 0.032) and international normalized ratio (R2 = 0.285, Pearson’s r = 0.534, P = 0.003). CONCLUSION Liver and spleen stiffness increase after a major liver resection for hepatic tumors in patients without chronic liver disease. PMID:29492187

  8. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, to struggle with the strangle: Oxygen availability in fatty livers.

    PubMed

    Anavi, Sarit; Madar, Zecharia; Tirosh, Oren

    2017-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. Oxygen is a central component of the cellular microenvironment, which participate in the regulation of cell survival, differentiation, functions and energy metabolism. Accordingly, sufficient oxygen supply is an important factor for tissue durability, mainly in highly metabolic tissues, such as the liver. Accumulating evidence from the past few decades provides strong support for the existence of interruptions in oxygen availability in fatty livers. This outcome may be the consequence of both, impaired systemic microcirculation and cellular membrane modifications which occur under steatotic conditions. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the main factors which can affect oxygen supply in fatty liver. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. How Effective Are Percutaneous Liver-Directed Therapies in Patients with Non-Colorectal Liver Metastases?

    PubMed Central

    Vogl, Thomas J.; Emam, Ahmed; Naguib, Nagy N.; Eichler, Katrin; Zangos, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the clinical indications, technical developments, and outcome of liver-directed therapies in interventional oncology of non-colorectal liver metastases. Methods Liver-directed therapies are classified into vascular transarterial techniques such as chemoperfusion (TACP), chemoembolization (TACE), radioembolization (selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT)), and chemosaturation, as well as thermal ablation techniques like microwave ablation (MWA), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), cryotherapy, and irreversible electroporation (IRE). The authors searched the database PubMed using the following terms: ‘image-guided tumor ablation’, ‘thermal ablation therapies’, ‘liver metastases of uveal melanoma’, ‘neuroendocrine carcinoma’, ‘breast cancer’, and ‘non-colorectal liver metastases’. Results Various combinations of the above-mentioned therapy protocols are possible. In neuroendocrine carcinomas, oligonodular liver metastases are treated successfully via thermal ablation like RFA, LITT, or MWA, and diffuse involvement via TACE or SIRT. Although liver involvement in breast cancer is a systemic disease, non-responding nodular metastases can be controlled via RFA or LITT. In ocular or cutaneous melanoma, thermal ablation is rarely considered as an interventional treatment option, as opposed to TACE, SIRT, or chemosaturation. Rarely liver-directed therapies are used in pancreatic cancer, most likely due to problems such as biliary digestive communications after surgery and the risk of infections. Rare indications for thermal ablation are liver metastases of other primary cancers like non-small cell lung, gastric, and ovarian cancer. Conclusion Interventional oncological techniques play a role in patients with liver-dominant metastases. PMID:26889144

  10. Causal relationship of hepatic fat with liver damage and insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Dongiovanni, P; Stender, S; Pietrelli, A; Mancina, R M; Cespiati, A; Petta, S; Pelusi, S; Pingitore, P; Badiali, S; Maggioni, M; Mannisto, V; Grimaudo, S; Pipitone, R M; Pihlajamaki, J; Craxi, A; Taube, M; Carlsson, L M S; Fargion, S; Romeo, S; Kozlitina, J; Valenti, L

    2018-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is epidemiologically associated with hepatic and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether hepatic fat accumulation has a causal role in determining liver damage and insulin resistance. We performed a Mendelian randomization analysis using risk alleles in PNPLA3, TM6SF2, GCKR and MBOAT7, and a polygenic risk score for hepatic fat, as instruments. We evaluated complementary cohorts of at-risk individuals and individuals from the general population: 1515 from the liver biopsy cohort (LBC), 3329 from the Swedish Obese Subjects Study (SOS) and 4570 from the population-based Dallas Heart Study (DHS). Hepatic fat was epidemiologically associated with liver damage, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The impact of genetic variants on liver damage was proportional to their effect on hepatic fat accumulation. Genetically determined hepatic fat was associated with aminotransferases, and with inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis in the LBC. Furthermore, in the LBC, the causal association between hepatic fat and fibrosis was independent of disease activity, suggesting that a causal effect of long-term liver fat accumulation on liver disease is independent of inflammation. Genetically determined hepatic steatosis was associated with insulin resistance in the LBC and SOS. However, this association was dependent on liver damage severity. Genetically determined hepatic steatosis was associated with liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and with a small increase in risk of type 2 diabetes in publicly available databases. These data suggest that long-term hepatic fat accumulation plays a causal role in the development of chronic liver disease. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  11. Predisposing Factors of Liver Necrosis after Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization in Liver Metastases from Neuroendocrine Tumor

    SciT

    Joskin, Julien, E-mail: j.joskin@gmail.com; Baere, Thierry de, E-mail: Thierry.DEBAERE@igr.fr; Auperin, Anne, E-mail: Anne.AUPERIN@igr.fr

    PurposeTo investigate predictive factors for liver necrosis after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) of neuroendocrine liver metastases.MethodsA total of 164 patients receiving 374 TACE were reviewed retrospectively to analyze predictive factors of liver necrosis. We analyzed patient age and sex; metastasis number and location; percentage of liver involvement; baseline liver function test; and pretreatment imaging abnormalities such as bile duct dilatation (BDD), portal vein narrowing (PVN), and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). We analyzed TACE technique such as Lipiodol or drug-eluting beads (DEB) as the drug’s vector; dose of chemotherapy; diameter of DEB; and number, frequency, and selectivity of TACE.ResultsLiver necrosis developedmore » after 23 (6.1 %) of 374 TACE. In multivariate analysis, DEB > 300 μm in size induced more liver necrosis compared to Lipiodol (odds ratio [OR] 35.20; p < 0.0001) or with DEB < 300 μm in size (OR 19.95; p < 0.010). Pretreatment BDD (OR 119.64; p < 0.0001) and PVT (OR 9.83; p = 0.030) were predictive of liver necrosis. BDD or PVT responsible for liver necrosis were present before TACE in 59 % (13 of 22) and were induced by a previous TACE in 41 % (9 of 22) of cases.ConclusionDEB > 300 μm in size, BDD, and PVT are responsible for increased rate of liver necrosis after TACE. Careful analysis of BDD or PVT on pretreatment images as well as images taken between two courses can help avoid TACE complications.« less

  12. Resolution of donor non-alcoholic fatty liver disease following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Posner, Andrew D; Sultan, Samuel T; Zaghloul, Norann A; Twaddell, William S; Bruno, David A; Hanish, Steven I; Hutson, William R; Hebert, Laci; Barth, Rolf N; LaMattina, John C

    2017-09-01

    Transplant surgeons conventionally select against livers displaying high degrees (>30%) of macrosteatosis (MaS), out of concern for primary non-function or severe graft dysfunction. As such, there is relatively limited experience with such livers, and the natural history remains incompletely characterized. We present our experience of transplanted livers with high degrees of MaS and microsteatosis (MiS), with a focus on the histopathologic and clinical outcomes. Twenty-nine cases were identified with liver biopsies available from both the donor and the corresponding liver transplant recipient. Donor liver biopsies displayed either MaS or MiS ≥15%, while all recipients received postoperative liver biopsies for cause. The mean donor MaS and MiS were 15.6% (range 0%-60%) and 41.3% (7.5%-97.5%), respectively. MaS decreased significantly from donor (M=15.6%) to recipient postoperative biopsies (M=0.86%), P<.001. Similarly, MiS decreased significantly from donor biopsies (M=41.3%) to recipient postoperative biopsies (M=1.8%), P<.001. At a median of 68 days postoperatively (range 4-384), full resolution of MaS and MiS was observed in 27 of 29 recipients. High degrees of MaS and MiS in donor livers resolve in recipients following liver transplantation. Further insight into the mechanisms responsible for treating fatty liver diseases could translate into therapeutic targets. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Kinetic analysis of contralateral liver hypertrophy after radioembolization of primary and metastatic liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Orcutt, Sonia T; Abuodeh, Yazan; Naghavi, Arash; Frakes, Jessica; Hoffe, Sarah; Kis, Bela; Anaya, Daniel A

    2018-05-01

    Radioembolization induces liver hypertrophy, although the extent and rate of hypertrophy are unknown. Our goal was to examine the kinetics of contralateral liver hypertrophy after transarterial radioembolization. A retrospective study (2010-2014) of treatment-naïve patients with primary/secondary liver malignancies undergoing right lobe radioembolization was performed. Computed tomography volumetry was performed before and 1, 3, and 6 months after radioembolization. Outcomes of interest were left lobe (standardized future liver remnant) degree of hypertrophy, kinetic growth rate, and ability to reach goal standardized future liver remnant ≥40%. Medians were compared with the Kruskall-Wallis test. Time to event analysis was used to estimate time to reach goal standardized future liver remnant. In the study, 25 patients were included. At 1, 3, and 6 months, median degree of hypertrophy was 4%, 8%, and 12% (P < .001), degree of hypertrophy relative to baseline future liver remnants was 11%, 17%, and 31% (P = .015), and kinetic growth rate was 0.8%, 0.5%, and 0.4%/week (P = .002). In patients with baseline standardized future liver remnant <40% (N= 16), median time to reach standardized future liver remnant ≥40% was 7.3 months, with 75% accomplishing standardized future liver remnant ≥40% at 8.2 months. Radioembolization induces hypertrophy of the contralateral lobe to a similar extent as existing methods, although at a lower rate. The role of radioembolization as a dual therapy (neoadjuvant and hypetrophy-inducing) for selected patients needs to be studied. (Surgery 2017;160:XXX-XXX.). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Point-shear wave elastography predicts liver hypertrophy after portal vein embolization and postoperative liver failure.

    PubMed

    Hocquelet, A; Frulio, N; Gallo, G; Laurent, C; Papadopoulos, P; Salut, C; Denys, A; Trillaud, H

    2018-06-01

    To correlate point-shear wave elastography (SWE) with liver hypertrophy after right portal vein embolization (RPVE) and to determine its usefulness in predicting postoperative liver failure in patients undergoing partial liver resection. Point-SWE was performed the day before RPVE in 56 patients (41 men) with a median age of 66 years. The percentage (%) of future remnant liver (FRL) volume increase was defined as: %FRL post -%FRL pre %FRL pre ×100 and assessed on computed tomography performed 4 weeks after RPVE. Median (range) %FRL pre and %FRL post was respectively, 31.5% (12-48%) and 41% (23-61%) (P<0.001), with a median %FRL volume increase of 25.6% (-8; 123%). SWE correlated with %FRL volume increase (P=-0.510; P<0.001). SWV (P=0.003) and %FRL pre (P<0.001) were associated with %FRL volume increase at multivariate regression analysis. Forty-three patients (77%) were operated. Postoperative liver failure occurred in 14 patients (32.5%). Median SWE was different between the group with (1.68m/s) and without liver failure (1.07m/s) (P=0.018). The AUROC of SWE predicting liver failure was 0.724 with a best cut-off of 1.31m/s, corresponding to a sensitivity of 21%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value 75% and negative predictive value of 72%. SWE was the single independent preoperative variable associated with liver failure. SWE assessed by point-SWE is a simple and useful tool to predict the FRL volume increase and postoperative liver failure in a population of patients with liver tumor. Copyright © 2018 Société française de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Gut microbial balance and liver transplantation: alteration, management, and prediction.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinyao; Yang, Zhe; Luo, Fangzhou; Zheng, Shusen

    2018-04-01

    Liver transplantation is a conventional treatment for terminal stage liver diseases. However, several complications still hinder the survival rate. Intestinal barrier destruction is widely observed among patients receiving liver transplant and suffering from ischemia-reperfusion or rejection injuries because of the relationship between the intestine and the liver, both in anatomy and function. Importantly, the resulting alteration of gut microbiota aggravates graft dysfunctions during the process. This article reviews the research progress for gut microbial alterations and liver transplantation. Especially, this work also evaluates research on the management of gut microbial alteration and the prediction of possible injuries utilizing microbial alteration during liver transplantation. In addition, we propose possible directions for research on gut microbial alteration during liver transplantation and offer a hypothesis on the utilization of microbial alteration in liver transplantation. The aim is not only to predict perioperative injuries but also to function as a method of treatment or even inhibit the rejection of liver transplantation.

  16. Cell Patterning for Liver Tissue Engineering via Dielectrophoretic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yahya, Wan Nurlina Wan; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the most common treatment for patients with end-stage liver failure. However, liver transplantation is greatly limited by a shortage of donors. Liver tissue engineering may offer an alternative by providing an implantable engineered liver. Currently, diverse types of engineering approaches for in vitro liver cell culture are available, including scaffold-based methods, microfluidic platforms, and micropatterning techniques. Active cell patterning via dielectrophoretic (DEP) force showed some advantages over other methods, including high speed, ease of handling, high precision and being label-free. This article summarizes liver function and regenerative mechanisms for better understanding in developing engineered liver. We then review recent advances in liver tissue engineering techniques and focus on DEP-based cell patterning, including microelectrode design and patterning configuration. PMID:24991941

  17. Nutrition management in chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Bavdekar, Ashish; Bhave, Sheila; Pandit, Anand

    2002-05-01

    Liver has a central role in nutritional homeostasis and any liver disease leads to abnormalities in nutrient metabolism and subsequent malnutrition. All children with chronic liver disease (CLD) must undergo a periodic nutritional assessment--medical history, anthropometry esp. skinfold thickness and mid-arm circumference, and biochemical estimation of body nutrients. Nutritional rehabilitation is catered to the individual child but generally the caloric intake is increased to 130% of RDA by adding glucose polymers and/or MCT oil (coconut oil) with essential fatty acid supplementation (sunflower oil). The enteral route is preferred and occasionally nasogastric and/or nocturnal feeding are required to ensure an adequate intake. Proteins rich in branched chain amino acids are given in moderation (2-3 gm/kg/day) in compensated cirrhotics unless encephalopathy occurs when protein restriction may be necessary (1 gm/kg/day). Fat-soluble vitamins are supplemented in large quantities esp. in cholestasis along with other vitamins and minerals. Dietary therapy is the mainstay of management of some metabolic liver diseases and may be curative in disorders like galactosemia, fructosemia and glycogen storage disorders. Pre and postoperative nutritional support is an important factor in improving survival after liver transplantation.

  18. Update on the Mechanisms of Liver Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, Morgan E; Monga, Satdarshan P

    2017-05-01

    Liver possesses many critical functions such as synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism. It continually receives nutrient-rich blood from gut, which incidentally is also toxin-rich. That may be why liver is uniquely bestowed with a capacity to regenerate. A commonly studied procedure to understand the cellular and molecular basis of liver regeneration is that of surgical resection. Removal of two-thirds of the liver in rodents or patients instigates alterations in hepatic homeostasis, which are sensed by the deficient organ to drive the restoration process. Although the exact mechanisms that initiate regeneration are unknown, alterations in hemodynamics and metabolism have been suspected as important effectors. Key signaling pathways are activated that drive cell proliferation in various hepatic cell types through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Once the prehepatectomy mass is regained, the process of regeneration is adequately terminated. This review highlights recent discoveries in the cellular and molecular basis of liver regeneration. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Sarcopenia in patients with advanced liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2017-04-28

    Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and function, affecting up to 70% of patients with advanced liver disease. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by an altered glucose metabolism, lipid oxidation, ketogenesis and protein catabolism, leading to the loss of adipose and muscle tissue. The gastrointestinal dysfunction of cirrhotic patients results in inadequate nutrients intake and is responsible for muscle weakness thus limiting physical exercise and perpetuating the reduction of muscle mass. Recently, alterations of hormonal pathways involved in muscle growth, increased intestinal permeability and changes in the gut microbiota composition have been reported in cirrhotic patients. Interestingly, a role of intestinal bacteria in maintaining muscle health has been hypothesized through the translocation of bacteria and bacterial products into the bloodstream triggering the production of muscle wasting-associated cytokines. Sarcopenia is associated with severe outcomes in patients with liver cirrhosis, mostly due to the incidence of disease complications. Furthermore, sarcopenia may represent an important prognostic factor for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and for those undergoing liver transplantation and can be considered a useful additional tool in the global assessment of patients with advanced liver disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Metabolic syndrome after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kosola, Silja; Lampela, Hanna; Makisalo, Heikki; Lohi, Jouko; Arola, Johanna; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko

    2014-10-01

    Half of adult liver transplantation (LT) recipients develop metabolic syndrome, but the prevalence after childhood LT remains unknown. We conducted a national cross-sectional study of all living patients who had undergone LT between 1987 and 2007 at an age less than 18 years. We gathered information on blood pressure, body composition, serum lipids, glucose metabolism, and histological liver fat content. The diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome of the American Heart Association and the International Diabetes Federation were used. After a median post-LT follow-up time of 12 years, half of all patients had no components of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 20%, and the prevalence of hypertension was 24%. Serum triglycerides were high in 9%, and high-density lipoprotein levels were low in 23%. Fasting glucose levels were impaired in 14%, but none had diabetes. Altogether, 9 patients (14%) had metabolic syndrome. Moderate liver steatosis found in protocol liver biopsy samples was associated with the accumulation of metabolic syndrome features (P = 0.01). No significant associations were found between immunosuppressive medications and metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome after childhood LT is similar to the prevalence in the general population of the same age. Guidelines for the general population, therefore, seem valid for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome after pediatric LT as well. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Obesity, fatty liver disease and intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Nur

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disorder that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The term NAFLD describes a spectrum of liver pathology ranges from simple steatosis to steatosis with inflammation nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. Metabolic syndrome and NAFLD also predict hepatocellular carcinoma. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and NAFLD, but the exact mechanisms are not known. Intestinal ecosystem contains trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, Archaea, yeasts and viruses. Several studies support the relationship between the intestinal microbial changes and obesity and also its complications, including insulin resistance and NAFLD. Given that the gut and liver are connected by the portal venous system, it makes the liver more vulnerable to translocation of bacteria, bacterial products, endotoxins or secreted cytokines. Altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) may stimulate hepatic fat deposition through several mechanisms: regulation of gut permeability, increasing low-grade inflammation, modulation of dietary choline metabolism, regulation of bile acid metabolism and producing endogenous ethanol. Regulation of intestinal microbial ecosystem by diet modifications or by using probiotics and prebiotics as a treatment for obesity and its complications might be the issue of further investigations. PMID:25469013

  2. Fatal liver gas gangrene after biliary surgery.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Yui; Kashiwagi, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Kazuya; Kawachi, Jun; Kudo, Madoka; Teshima, Shinichi; Isogai, Naoko; Miyake, Katsunori; Shimoyama, Rai; Fukai, Ryota; Ogino, Hidemitsu

    2017-01-01

    Liver gas gangrene is a rare condition with a highly mortality rate. It is mostly associated with host factors, such as malignancy and immunosuppression. A 57-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with abnormalities of her serum hepato-biliary enzymes. She had a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cerebral infarction, and chronic renal failure. She was diagnosed with bile duct cancer of the liver hilum and a left hepatectomy was carried out, with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Initially her post-operative state was uneventful. However, she suddenly developed melena with anemia on post-operative day (POD) 18. A Computed tomography (CT) examination on POD 19 revealed a massive build up of gas and portal gas formation in the anterior segment of the liver. Although we immediately provided the drainage and a probe laparotomy, she died on POD 20 due to shock with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Liver gas gangrene is rare and has a high mortality rate. This case seems to have arisen from an immunosuppressive state after major surgery with biliary reconstruction for bile duct cancer and subsequent gastrointestinal bleeding, leading to gas gangrene of the liver. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Ursodeoxycholic acid in chronic liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    de Caestecker, J S; Jazrawi, R P; Petroni, M L; Northfield, T C

    1991-01-01

    The hydrophilic bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid has recently been shown to reduce biochemical markers of both cholestasis and hepatocellular damage in patients with chronic liver diseases. The most compelling evidence available is for chronic cholestatic liver diseases, in particular primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and cholestasis associated with cystic fibrosis. The effects may be less beneficial in patients with advanced liver disease from these conditions. Data from placebo controlled trials are now available in support of earlier uncontrolled observations, but it is not yet clear whether short term benefit results in an improvement in longterm prognosis. The mechanism of action of the compound seems to reside in its displacement of toxic hydrophobic bile acids from both the bile acid pool and hepatocellular membranes. There may be an independent effect on bile flow, which could be of particular importance in cystic fibrosis, and possibly an effect on the immune system. Ursodeoxycholic acid should now be regarded as occupying a central place in the medical management of chronic cholestatic liver diseases, in particular primary biliary cirrhosis, because it improves cholestasis and reduces hepatocellular damage and it is not toxic. Research should now be targeted on whether treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, initiated early in cholestatic liver conditions, improves the long-term outcome. PMID:1916492

  4. Preparation and analysis of fetal liver extracts.

    PubMed

    Zwicky, C; Gerber, S; Gasparini, D; Forestier, F; Hohlfeld, P; Tissot, J D; Schneider, P

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the techniques that have been used for preparation and analysis of whole fetal liver extracts destined for in utero transplantation. Nine fetal livers between 12 and 17 weeks of gestation were prepared: cell counts and assessment of the hematopoietic cell viability were performed on cell suspensions. Hepatocytes represented 40 to 80% of the whole cell population. The remaining cells were constituted by hematopoietic cells (mainly erythroblasts), as well as by endothelial cells. The latter expressed CD34 on their surface, interfering with the assessment of CD34+ hematopoietic cells by flow cytometry. Direct visual morphologic control using alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase techniques was needed to differentiate hematopoietic from extra-hematopoietic CD34+ cells. Between 3.0 and 34.6 x 10(6) CD34+ viable hematopoietic cells were collected per fetal liver. Adequate differentiation of these cells into burst-forming units erythroid (BFU-E), colony-forming units granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), and colony-forming units granulocyte erythroid macrophage megakaryocyte (CFU-GEMM) has been shown for each sample in clonogeneic cultures. In conclusion, fetal liver is a potential source of hematopoietic stem cells. Their numeration, based on the presence of CD34, is hampered by the expression of this antigen on other cells contained in the liver cell extract, in particular endothelial cells.

  5. ISOLATION AND PROPERTIES OF LIVER CELL NUCLEOLI

    PubMed Central

    Monty, K. J.; Litt, M.; Kay, E. R. M.; Dounce, A. L.

    1956-01-01

    1. The significance of the term nucleolus has been discussed. 2. A detailed method for the isolation of nucleoli from already isolated rat or cat liver nuclei has been presented. 3. The presence of DNA in isolated liver cell nucleoli has been indicated by histochemical methods. 4. The percentages of DNA and RNA in the isolated nucleoli have been determined by chemical analysis. 5. The specific activities of aldolase, arginase, and catalase have been determined for two subnuclear fractions and for the isolated nucleoli of rat and cat liver, and the relative amounts of these enzymes in the same subnuclear fractions and nucleoli of rat liver have been measured. 6. The significance of the above findings has been discussed and consideration has been given to what types of isolated nuclei might best serve as starting material for the isolation of nucleoli. 7. A new hypothesis has been presented that nucleoli of the liver cell type may function primarily in furnishing (directly or indirectly) templates for the synthesis of the particular enzymes that must govern the chemistry of mitosis. PMID:13319377

  6. Digitalis metabolism and human liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Frey, W A; Vallee, B L

    1980-01-01

    Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol: NAD" oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) catalyzes the oxidation of the 3 beta-OH group of digitoxigenin, digoxigenin, and gitoxigenin to their 3-keto derivatives, which have been characterized by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. These studies have identified human liver alcohol dehydrogenase as the unknown NAD(H)-dependent liver enzyme specific for the free hydroxyl group at C3 of the cardiac genins; this hydroxyl is the critical site of the genins' enzymatic oxidation and concomitant pharmacological inactivation in humans. Several kinetic approaches have demonstrated that ethanol and the pharmacologically active components of the digitalis glycosides are oxidized with closely similar kcat/Km values at the same site on human liver alcohol dehydrogenase, for which they compete. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase thereby becomes an important biochemical link in the metabolism, pharmacology, and toxicology of ethanol and these glycosides, structurally unrelated agents that are both used widely. Both the competition of ethanol with these cardiac sterols and the narrow margin of safety in the therapeutic use of digitalis derivatives would seem to place at increased risk those individuals who receive digitalis and simultaneously consume large amounts of ethanol or whose alcohol dehydrogenase function is impaired. PMID:6987673

  7. [Liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Silvany Neto, Annibal Muniz; Mendes, João Luiz Barberino; Cotrim, Helma Pinchemel; Nascimento, Ana Lísia Cunha; Lima Júnior, Alberto Soares; Cunha, Tatiana Oliveira Bernardo da

    2006-02-01

    Occupational exposure typical of an oil refinery may alter liver function among the workers. Thus, the objective of the study was to identify risk factors for liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers. The workers at an oil refinery in Northeastern Brazil underwent routine annual medical examination from 1982 to 1998. This case-control study investigated all the 150 cases of individuals with simultaneous gamma-glutamyltransferase and alanine aminotransferase abnormalities of at least 10% above reference levels. As controls, 150 workers without any liver enzyme or bilirubin abnormalities since starting to work there were selected. Odds ratios and the respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated from logistic regression models. In all the production sectors, the risk of liver enzyme abnormalities was significantly higher than in the administrative sector (OR=5.7; 95% CI: 1.7-18.4), even when the effects of alcohol, obesity and medical history of hepatitis were controlled for. During the period from 1992 to 1994, 88 out of the 89 cases occurred among workers from the various production sectors. Occupational exposure plays an important role in causing liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers. This is in addition to the specifically biological and/or behavioral risk factors such as obesity and alcohol consumption.

  8. Volvulus of the liver with intrathoracic herniation.

    PubMed

    Moussa, G; Thomson, P M; Bohra, A

    2014-10-01

    We present a rare case of a liver volvulus, stomach and transverse colon herniating through the diaphragm. This scenario has not been reported previously. We discuss the presentation and management of this interesting case. A 65-year-old woman with a history of sarcoidosis and recurrent pericardial effusions, treated previously with a subxiphoid pericardial oval window fenestration, presented with acute upper abdominal pain radiating to the chest. High contrast computed tomography showed a volvulus of the liver with consequent venous congestion, and herniation of the liver, stomach and transverse colon through an anterior diaphragmatic defect. With liver perfusion threatened, an urgent laparoscopic repair was performed. The stomach and transverse colon were reduced, and the twisted left lobe of the liver was unrotated and reduced into the abdominal cavity. A double-sided synthetic mesh was used to repair the defect. The patient made an uneventful recovery. This is a novel complication of a patient presenting with abdominal pain with a previous history of pericardial window fenestration. A laparoscopic reduction and repair can be performed safely with excellent postoperative results.

  9. Acute Liver Failure: Summary of a Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Lee, William M.; Squires, Robert H.; Nyberg, Scott L.; Doo, Edward; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

    2011-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare but challenging clinical syndrome with multiple causes; a specific etiology cannot be identified in 15% of adult and 50% of pediatric cases. The course of ALF is variable and the mortality rate is high. Liver transplantation is the only therapy of proven benefit, but the rapidity of progression and the variable course of ALF limit its use. Currently in the United States, spontaneous survival occurs in approximately 45%, liver transplantation in 25%, and death without transplantation in 30% of adults with ALF. Higher rates of spontaneous recovery (56%) and transplantation (31%) with lower rates of death (13%) occur in children. The outcome of ALF varies by etiology, favorable prognoses being found with acetaminophen overdose, hepatitis A, and ischemia (≈60% spontaneous survival), and poor prognoses with drug-induced ALF, hepatitis B, and indeterminate cases (≈25% spontaneous survival). Excellent intensive care is critical in management of patients with ALF. Nonspecific therapies are of unproven benefit. Future possible therapeutic approaches include N-acetylcysteine, hypothermia, liver assist devices, and hepatocyte transplantation. Advances in stem cell research may allow provision of cells for bioartificial liver support. ALF presents many challenging opportunities in both clinical and basic research. PMID:18318440

  10. Ultrasound elastographic techniques in focal liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Clara Benedetta; Cavalcoli, Federica; Fraquelli, Mirella; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Elastographic techniques are new ultrasound-based imaging techniques developed to estimate tissue deformability/stiffness. Several ultrasound elastographic approaches have been developed, such as static elastography, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force imaging methods, which include point shear wave and shear wave imaging elastography. The application of these methods in clinical practice aims at estimating the mechanical tissues properties. One of the main settings for the application of these tools has been liver stiffness assessment in chronic liver disease, which has been studied mainly using transient elastography. Another field of application for these techniques is the assessment of focal lesions, detected by ultrasound in organs such as pancreas, prostate, breast, thyroid, lymph nodes. Considering the frequency and importance of the detection of focal liver lesions through routine ultrasound, some studies have also aimed to assess the role that elestography can play in studying the stiffness of different types of liver lesions, in order to predict their nature and thus offer valuable non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of liver masses. PMID:26973405

  11. Ultrasound elastographic techniques in focal liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Conti, Clara Benedetta; Cavalcoli, Federica; Fraquelli, Mirella; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2016-03-07

    Elastographic techniques are new ultrasound-based imaging techniques developed to estimate tissue deformability/stiffness. Several ultrasound elastographic approaches have been developed, such as static elastography, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force imaging methods, which include point shear wave and shear wave imaging elastography. The application of these methods in clinical practice aims at estimating the mechanical tissues properties. One of the main settings for the application of these tools has been liver stiffness assessment in chronic liver disease, which has been studied mainly using transient elastography. Another field of application for these techniques is the assessment of focal lesions, detected by ultrasound in organs such as pancreas, prostate, breast, thyroid, lymph nodes. Considering the frequency and importance of the detection of focal liver lesions through routine ultrasound, some studies have also aimed to assess the role that elestography can play in studying the stiffness of different types of liver lesions, in order to predict their nature and thus offer valuable non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of liver masses.

  12. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-03-14

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies.

  13. Autophagy in alcohol-induced liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dolganiuc, Angela; Thomes, Paul G.; Ding, Wen-Xing; Lemasters, John J.; Donohue, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is the most abused substance worldwide and a significant source of liver injury; the mechanisms of alcohol-induced liver disease are not fully understood. Significant cellular toxicity and impairment of protein synthesis and degradation occur in alcohol-exposed liver cells, along with changes in energy balance and modified responses to pathogens. Autophagy is the process of cellular catabolism through the lysosomal-dependent machinery, which maintains a balance among protein synthesis, degradation, and recycling of self. Autophagy is part of normal homeostasis and it can be triggered by multiple factors that threaten cell integrity including starvation, toxins, or pathogens. Multiple factors regulate autophagy; survival and preservation of cellular integrity at the expense of inadequately-folded proteins and damaged high energy-generating intracellular organelles are prominent targets of autophagy in pathologic conditions. Coincidentally, inadequately-folded proteins accumulate and high energy-generating intracellular organelles, such as mitochondria, are damaged by alcohol abuse; these alcohol-induced pathological findings prompted investigation of the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver damage. Our review summarizes the current knowledge about the role and implications of autophagy in alcohol-induced liver disease. PMID:22551004

  14. Native fluorescence characterization of human liver abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Suchitra, S.; Srinivasan, T. G.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules has been extensively used in biology and medicine for the past several decades. In the present study, we report the native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma from normal human subjects and patients with different liver abnormalities such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, jaundice, cirrhosis and liver cell failure. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma -- acetone extract were measured at 405 nm excitation. The average spectrum of normal blood plasma has a prominent emission peak around 464 nm whereas in the case of liver diseased subjects, the primary peak is red shifted with respect to normal. In addition, liver diseased cases show distinct secondary emission peak around 615 nm, which may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The red shift of the prominent emission peak with respect to normal is found to be maximum for hepatitis and minimum for cirrhosis whereas the secondary emission peak around 615 nm was found to be more prominent in the case of cirrhosis than the rest. The ratio parameter I465/I615 is found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.001) in discriminating liver abnormalities from normal.

  15. Non-Invasive Assessment of Liver Function

    PubMed Central

    Helmke, Steve; Colmenero, Jordi; Everson, Gregory T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review It is our opinion that there is an unmet need in Hepatology for a minimally- or noninvasive test of liver function and physiology. Quantitative liver function tests (QLFTs) define the severity and prognosis of liver disease by measuring the clearance of substrates whose uptake or metabolism is dependent upon liver perfusion or hepatocyte function. Substrates with high affinity hepatic transporters exhibit high “first-pass” hepatic extraction and their clearance measures hepatic perfusion. In contrast, substrates metabolized by the liver have low first-pass extraction and their clearance measures specific drug metabolizing pathways. Recent Findings We highlight one QLFT, the dual cholate test, and introduce the concept of a disease severity index (DSI) linked to clinical outcome that quantifies the simultaneous processes of hepatocyte uptake, clearance from the systemic circulation, clearance from the portal circulation, and portal-systemic shunting. Summary It is our opinion that dual cholate is a relevant test for defining disease severity, monitoring the natural course of disease progression, and quantifying the response to therapy. PMID:25714706

  16. Update on liver transplants in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Walid; Haydar, Ali; Nounou, Ghina El; Naaj, Abdallah Abou El; Khoury, Ghattas; Jabbour, Samar; Khalife, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    Objective-To review all liver transplants performed at the American University of Beirut Medical Center from 1998 to present. Materials and Methods-From 1998 to present, 21 liver transplants (15 into adults and 6 into children) were performed at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. Of the 21 transplants, 5 were living related liver transplants. Results-Patient survival was 76% at 1, 5, and 10 years. Five recipients died at a median of 9 (range, 1-56) days after transplant. Causes of death included 1 case of severe cellular rejection, 1 case of portal and hepatic artery thrombosis, 1 case of intraoperative cardiac arrest, and 2 cases of primary nonfunction. Two biliary complications and 2 major vascular complications also occurred. All 16 survivors are well, with normal findings on liver function tests at a median follow-up time of 93 (range, 10-185) months after transplant. Conclusions-Although our numbers are small, the 10-year survival rate is comparable to reported rates for other series around the world. Deceased organ donations must be encouraged so that we can perform more transplants. As a source of organs, living related liver transplant is important; however, it cannot replace deceased donation.

  17. Methodology to assess clinical liver safety data.

    PubMed

    Merz, Michael; Lee, Kwan R; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Brueckner, Andreas; Watkins, Paul B

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of liver safety data has to be multivariate by nature and needs to take into account time dependency of observations. Current standard tools for liver safety assessment such as summary tables, individual data listings, and narratives address these requirements to a limited extent only. Using graphics in the context of a systematic workflow including predefined graph templates is a valuable addition to standard instruments, helping to ensure completeness of evaluation, and supporting both hypothesis generation and testing. Employing graphical workflows interactively allows analysis in a team-based setting and facilitates identification of the most suitable graphics for publishing and regulatory reporting. Another important tool is statistical outlier detection, accounting for the fact that for assessment of Drug-Induced Liver Injury, identification and thorough evaluation of extreme values has much more relevance than measures of central tendency in the data. Taken together, systematical graphical data exploration and statistical outlier detection may have the potential to significantly improve assessment and interpretation of clinical liver safety data. A workshop was convened to discuss best practices for the assessment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in clinical trials.

  18. Targeted delivery of drugs for liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Wang, Ji-yao

    2009-05-01

    Liver fibrosis and its end stage disease cirrhosis are a major cause of mortality and morbidity around the world. There is no effective pharmaceutical intervention for liver fibrosis at present. Many drugs that show potent antifibrotic activities in vitro often show only minor effects in vivo because of insufficient concentrations of drugs accumulating around the target cell and their adverse effects as a result of affecting other non-target cells. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a critical role in the fibrogenesis of liver, so they are the target cells of antifibrotic therapy. Several kinds of targeted delivery system that could target the receptors expressed on HSC have been designed, and have shown an attractive targeted potential in vivo. After being carried by these delivery systems, many agents showed a powerful antifibrotic effect in animal models of liver fibrosis. These targeted delivery systems provide a new pathway for the therapy of liver fibrosis. The characteristics of theses targeted carriers are reviewed in this paper.

  19. Anatomical basis of the liver hanging maneuver.

    PubMed

    Trotovsek, Blaz; Belghiti, Jacques; Gadzijev, Eldar M; Ravnik, Dean; Hribernik, Marija

    2005-01-01

    The anterior approach to right hepatectomy using the liver hanging maneuver without liver mobilization claims to be anatomically evaluated. During this procedure a 4 to 6-cm blind dissection between the inferior vena cava and the liver is performed. Short subhepatic veins, entering the inferior vena cava could be torn and a hemorrhage, difficult to control, could occur. On 100 corrosive casts of livers the anterior surface of the inferior vena cava was studied to evaluate the position, diameter and draining area of short subhepatic veins and inferior right hepatic vein. The width of the narrowest point on the planned route of blind dissection was determined. The average value of the narrowest point on the planned route of blind dissection was 8.7+/-2.3mm (range 2-15mm). The ideal angle of dissection being 0 degrees was found in 93% of cases. In 7% we found the angle of 5 degrees toward the right border of inferior vena cava to be the better choice. Our results show that liver hanging maneuver is a safe procedure. With the dissection in the proposed route the risk of disrupting short subhepatic veins is low (7%).

  20. Bile Acid Metabolism in Liver Pathobiology

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, John Y. L.; Ferrell, Jessica M.

    2018-01-01

    Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism. The gut-to-liver axis plays a critical role in the regulation of enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, bile acid pool size, and bile acid composition. Bile acids control gut bacteria overgrowth, and gut bacteria metabolize bile acids to regulate host metabolism. Alteration of bile acid metabolism by high-fat diets, sleep disruption, alcohol, and drugs reshapes gut microbiome and causes dysbiosis, obesity, and metabolic disorders. Gender differences in bile acid metabolism, FXR signaling, and gut microbiota have been linked to higher prevalence of fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in males. Alteration of bile acid homeostasis contributes to cholestatic liver diseases, inflammatory diseases in the digestive system, obesity, and diabetes. Bile acid-activated receptors are potential therapeutic targets for developing drugs to treat metabolic disorders. PMID:29325602

  1. Spaceflight Activates Lipotoxic Pathways in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Jonscher, Karen R.; Alfonso-Garcia, Alba; Suhalim, Jeffrey L.; Orlicky, David J.; Potma, Eric O.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Bateman, Ted A.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Levi, Moshe; Friedman, Jacob E.; Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Spaceflight affects numerous organ systems in the body, leading to metabolic dysfunction that may have long-term consequences. Microgravity-induced alterations in liver metabolism, particularly with respect to lipids, remain largely unexplored. Here we utilize a novel systems biology approach, combining metabolomics and transcriptomics with advanced Raman microscopy, to investigate altered hepatic lipid metabolism in mice following short duration spaceflight. Mice flown aboard Space Transportation System -135, the last Shuttle mission, lose weight but redistribute lipids, particularly to the liver. Intriguingly, spaceflight mice lose retinol from lipid droplets. Both mRNA and metabolite changes suggest the retinol loss is linked to activation of PPARα-mediated pathways and potentially to hepatic stellate cell activation, both of which may be coincident with increased bile acids and early signs of liver injury. Although the 13-day flight duration is too short for frank fibrosis to develop, the retinol loss plus changes in markers of extracellular matrix remodeling raise the concern that longer duration exposure to the space environment may result in progressive liver damage, increasing the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27097220

  2. The increasing burden of potentially preventable liver disease among adult liver transplant recipients: A comparative analysis of liver transplant indication by era in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Howell, Jessica; Balderson, Glenda; Hellard, Margaret; Gow, Paul; Strasser, Simone; Stuart, Katherine; Wigg, Alan; Jeffrey, Gary; Gane, Ed; Angus, Peter W

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), and non-alcohol-related fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are leading indications for adult liver transplantation in Australia and New Zealand. However, these diseases are potentially preventable through effective primary and/or secondary prevention strategies. This study evaluates the relative contribution of potentially preventable liver diseases to liver transplant numbers in Australia and New Zealand over time. Prospectively recorded clinical, demographic, and outcome data were collected from the Australian and New Zealand Liver Transplant Registry for all primary adult liver transplants performed in Australia and New Zealand from 1 January 1985 until 31 December 2012. Potentially preventable liver disease was defined as HBV, HCV, NAFLD, ALD, and HCC. The etiology of liver disease leading to liver transplantation and the proportion of preventable liver disease-related liver transplantation was compared between Era 1 (1985-1993), Era 2 (1994-2003), and Era 3 (2004-2012). Overall, 1252 of 3266 adult primary liver transplants (38.3%) were performed for potentially preventable liver disease. There was a significant increase in the proportion of liver transplants because of preventable liver disease from 21.2% (93 of 439) in Era 1, to 49.8% (623 of 1252) in Era 2 and 63.5% (1000 of 1575) in Era 3 (P < 0.0001). Over time, there was a significant increase in HCV (P < 0.0001), ALD (P = 0.002), and NAFLD (P < 0.0001) as a primary indication for adult liver transplant, whereas HBV has significantly decreased from Era 1 to Era 3 as an indication for transplant (P < 0.0001). The number of transplants performed for HCC also increased across Eras (P < 0.0001), with 84% due to underlying potentially preventable liver disease. Since 2004, the majority of primary adult liver transplants within Australia and New Zealand have been because of potentially preventable liver diseases and the

  3. Interfraction Liver Shape Variability and Impact on GTV Position During Liver Stereotactic Radiotherapy Using Abdominal Compression

    SciT

    Eccles, Cynthia L., E-mail: cynthia.eccles@rob.ox.ac.uk; Dawson, Laura A.; Moseley, Joanne L.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: For patients receiving liver stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), abdominal compression can reduce organ motion, and daily image guidance can reduce setup error. The reproducibility of liver shape under compression may impact treatment delivery accuracy. The purpose of this study was to measure the interfractional variability in liver shape under compression, after best-fit rigid liver-to-liver registration from kilovoltage (kV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans to planning computed tomography (CT) scans and its impact on gross tumor volume (GTV) position. Methods and Materials: Evaluable patients were treated in a Research Ethics Board-approved SBRT six-fraction study with abdominal compression. Kilovoltage CBCTmore » scans were acquired before treatment and reconstructed as respiratory sorted CBCT scans offline. Manual rigid liver-to-liver registrations were performed from exhale-phase CBCT scans to exhale planning CT scans. Each CBCT liver was contoured, exported, and compared with the planning CT scan for spatial differences, by use of in house-developed finite-element model-based deformable registration (MORFEUS). Results: We evaluated 83 CBCT scans from 16 patients with 30 GTVs. The mean volume of liver that deformed by greater than 3 mm was 21.7%. Excluding 1 outlier, the maximum volume that deformed by greater than 3 mm was 36.3% in a single patient. Over all patients, the absolute maximum deformations in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior directions were 10.5 mm (SD, 2.2), 12.9 mm (SD, 3.6), and 5.6 mm (SD, 2.7), respectively. The absolute mean predicted impact of liver volume displacements on GTV by use of center of mass displacements was 0.09 mm (SD, 0.13), 0.13 mm (SD, 0.18), and 0.08 mm (SD, 0.07) in the left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. Conclusions: Interfraction liver deformations in patients undergoing SBRT under abdominal compression after rigid

  4. Quantification of Liver Fat with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Scott B.; Sirlin, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular fat accumulation is common feature of liver disease. Intracellular fat (steatosis) is the histological hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) but also may occur with alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis, HIV and genetic lipodystrophies, and chemotherapy. This article reviews emerging magnetic resonance imaging techniques that attempt to quantify liver fat. The content provides an overview of fatty liver disease and diseases where fat is an important disease feature. Also discussed is the current use and limitation of non-targeted biopsy in diffuse liver disease, and why quantitative non-invasive biomarkers of liver fat would be beneficial. PMID:21094444

  5. Cancer and liver cirrhosis: implications on prognosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, Matthias; Trauner, Michael; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Sieghart, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis, the end-stage of every chronic liver disease, is not only the major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma but also a limiting factor for anticancer therapy of liver and non-hepatic malignancies. Liver cirrhosis may limit surgical and interventional approaches to cancer treatment, influence pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs, increase side effects of chemotherapy, render patients susceptible for hepatotoxicity, and ultimately result in a competitive risk for morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide a concise overview about the impact of liver cirrhosis on the management and prognosis of patients with primary liver cancer or non-hepatic malignancies. PMID:27843598

  6. Stopping Liver Cancer's Rogue COP | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Liver cancer is the fourth most common cancer type and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Many liver tumors are actually metastases, tumors seeded in the liver by cancer cells from another organ, but hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), the most common liver tumors, are a heterogeneous family of cancers that arise in hepatocytes, the functional cells of the liver. HCCs are often associated with cirrhosis or liver scarring. Because of the variation in tumor phenotypes, the poor understanding of the molecular origins of these tumors, and the increasing number of diagnoses especially in the US, HCC is a major clinical challenge.

  7. Radiocolloid liver imaging in tuberculous hepatitis

    SciT

    Essop, A.R.; Posen, J.A.; Savitch, I.

    1984-02-01

    Twenty of 22 patients with tuberculous hepatitis had abnormal Tc-99m tin colloid liver scans. However, in the majority of the patients the changes were mild and nonspecific. The most frequent scintigraphic picture was a decreased uptake of the radiocolloid by the liver, with shunting to the spleen and bone marrow. The decreased hepatic uptake was usually mildly heterogeneous, but it was sometimes homogeneous, and in five patients obvious defects were present. The liver was enlarged in six patients and the spleen in six patients. Increased extrahepatic uptake of the radiocolloid was the only abnormality in five patients. The severity ofmore » the scintigraphic changes did not correlate with the following histologic findings: number of granulomas, degree of associated fibrosis, degree of hepatocyte swelling, or extent of fatty change.« less

  8. Therapeutic Oligonucleotides Targeting Liver Disease: TTR Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Niemietz, Christoph; Chandhok, Gursimran; Schmidt, Hartmut

    2015-09-30

    The liver has become an increasingly interesting target for oligonucleotide therapy. Mutations of the gene encoding transthyretin (TTR), expressed in vast amounts by the liver, result in a complex degenerative disease, termed familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP). Misfolded variants of TTR are linked to the establishment of extracellular protein deposition in various tissues, including the heart and the peripheral nervous system. Recent progress in the chemistry and formulation of antisense (ASO) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) designed for a knockdown of TTR mRNA in the liver has allowed to address the issue of gene-specific molecular therapy in a clinical setting of FAP. The two therapeutic oligonucleotides bind to RNA in a sequence specific manner but exploit different mechanisms. Here we describe major developments that have led to the advent of therapeutic oligonucleotides for treatment of TTR-related disease.

  9. Steatorrhea in patients with liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C. N.; Sidorov, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Intestinal function was studied in 26 patients with seven types of acute and chronic liver disease, documented by liver biopsy. Steatorrhea, defined by a stool fat higher than 6 g. per day, was present in 18 of 23 consecutive patients studied, an incidence of 78.3%. Two patients with infectious hepatitis associated with steatorrhea studied previously were added and the 20 cases were analyzed. The malabsorption found was confined to fat and fat-soluble vitamins; stool excretion varied from 6.1 to 22 g. per day in the seven groups studied. No histological abnormality was seen on jejunal biopsy, serum vitamin B12, D-xylose and Schilling tests were normal, and no radiological findings associated with malabsorption were detected in the small bowel. It is concluded that steatorrhea is a common finding in a wide variety of acute and chronic liver diseases and cannot be attributed to a primary defect of the small bowel. PMID:5150072

  10. Epithelioid Haemangioendothelioma (EHE) of the Liver.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abidullah; Humayun, Mohammad; Haider, Iqbal; Khan, Wazir Muhammad; Ajmal, Fahad; Ayub, Maimoona

    2016-06-01

    A45-year previously known hypertensive lady presented with 2-year history of upper abdominal pain, heaviness, and weight loss. Her radiological assessment suggested the possibility of hepatoma or liver metastases. Considering her age, overall good health and absence of cirrhosis, a liver biopsy was taken which showed hepatic epithelioidhaemangioendothelioma (HEHE), a rare and unusual intermediate grade vascular tumor which can easily be confused with hepatoma or metastatic liver disease. To the best of their knowledge, the authors are most probably reporting the first ever case of HEHE from Pakistan with special emphasis on its clinical presentations, clinico-radiological diagnostic clues, and the management options in the light of the limited retrospective studies.

  11. Liver protective effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni).

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Nowicki, Diane; Anderson, Gary; Jensen, Jarakae; West, Brett

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of Noni fruit juice on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Liver damage (micro-centrilobular necrosis) was observed in animals pretreated with 20% placebo (drinking water) + CCl(4). However, pretreatment with 20% Noni juice in drinking water + CCl(4) resulted in markedly decreased hepatotoxic lesions. Furthermore, serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in the Noni group than the placebo group. In a correlative time-dependent study, one dose of CCl(4) (0.25 mL/kg in corn oil, p.o.) in female SD rats, pretreated with 10% placebo for 12 days, caused sequential progressive hepatotoxic lesions over a 24 h period, while a protective effect from 10% Noni juice pretreatment was observed. These results suggest that Noni juice is effective in protecting the liver from extrinsic toxin exposure.

  12. Liver Protective Effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Diane; Anderson, Gary; Jensen, Jarakae; West, Brett

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of Noni fruit juice on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Liver damage (micro-centrilobular necrosis) was observed in animals pretreated with 20% placebo (drinking water) + CCl4. However, pretreatment with 20% Noni juice in drinking water + CCl4 resulted in markedly decreased hepatotoxic lesions. Furthermore, serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in the Noni group than the placebo group. In a correlative time-dependent study, one dose of CCl4 (0.25 mL/kg in corn oil, p.o.) in female SD rats, pretreated with 10% placebo for 12 days, caused sequential progressive hepatotoxic lesions over a 24 h period, while a protective effect from 10% Noni juice pretreatment was observed. These results suggest that Noni juice is effective in protecting the liver from extrinsic toxin exposure. PMID:18317933

  13. [Brain oedema and acute liver failure].

    PubMed

    Spahr, L

    2003-04-01

    Brain oedema leading to intracranial hypertension occurs in a significant proportion of patients with acute liver failure in whom it is a leading cause of death. Although precise pathogenic mechanisms associated to this severe complication remain incompletely understood, increasing evidence points to gut-derived neurotoxins including ammonia as key mediators in cerebral osmotic and perfusion disturbances. The management of brain oedema and intracranial hypertension requires a multidisciplinar approach in a center where liver transplantation is available, as this option is the only treatment modality that provides improvement in outcome. This article reviews the most common causes of acute liver failure and the standard of supportive care management, and describes future potential therapeutic aspects of brain oedema and intracranial hypertension.

  14. Acute Liver Failure including Acetaminophen Overdose

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Acute liver failure (ALF) is a dramatic and highly unpredictable clinical syndrome defined by the sudden onset of coagulopathy and encephalopathy. Although many disease processes can cause ALF, acetaminophen overdose is the leading cause in the United States, and has a 66% chance of recovery with early N-acetylcysteine treatment and supportive care. Cerebral edema and infectious complications are notoriously difficult to detect and treat in ALF patients and may lead to irreversible brain damage and multi-organ failure. Emergency liver transplantation is associated with a 70% 1-year patient survival but 20% of listed patients die, highlighting the importance of early referral of ALF patients with a poor prognosis to a liver transplant center. PMID:18570942

  15. Novel Potent Metallocenes against Liver Stage Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Joana; da Cruz, Filipa P.; Cabrita, Élia; Gut, Jiri; Nogueira, Fátima; do Rosário, Virgílio E.; Moreira, Rui; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Prudêncio, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Novel conjugates of the antimalarial drug primaquine (compound 1) with ferrocene, named primacenes, have been synthesized and screened for their activities against blood stage and liver stage malaria in vitro and host-vector transmission in vivo. Both transmission-blocking and blood-schizontocidal activities of the parent drug were conserved only in primacenes bearing a basic aliphatic amine group. Liver stage activity did not require this structural feature, and all metallocenes tested were comparable to or better than primaquine in this regard. Remarkably, the replacement of primaquine's aliphatic chain by hexylferrocene, as in compound 7, led to a ∼45-fold-higher level activity against liver stage parasitemia than that of primaquine. PMID:22155838

  16. Anatomy of liver arteries for interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Favelier, S; Germain, T; Genson, P-Y; Cercueil, J-P; Denys, A; Krausé, D; Guiu, B

    2015-06-01

    The availability of intra-arterial hepatic therapies (radio and/or chemo-embolisation, intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy) has convinced radiologists to perfect their knowledge of the anatomy of the liver arteries. These sometimes, complex procedures most often require selective arterial catheterization. Knowledge of the different arteries in the liver and the peripheral organs is therefore essential to optimize the procedure and avoid eventual complications. This paper aims to describe the anatomy of the liver arteries and the variants, applying it to angiography images, and to understand the implications of such variations in interventional radiological procedures. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Liver Abscess Formation Following Transarterial Chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wei-Fu; Lu, Dong; He, Yu-Sheng; Xiao, Jing-Kun; Zhou, Chun-Ze; Cheng, De-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the clinical features, risk factors, and bacterial spectrum of liver abscess following transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and evaluate the therapeutic effect of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) on the abscesses. A retrospective review of patient charts was performed in 3613 patients who suffered from liver malignancies (2832 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 781 with metastatic hepatic tumor) and had undergone 11,054 TACE procedures from January 2005 to October 2013. Liver abscesses were found in 21 patients. PCD was performed in all abscess patients. The clinical features, risk factors, and bacterial spectrum of liver abscess following TACE were investigated and the therapeutic effect of PCD was evaluated. The incidence of liver abscess was 0.58% per patient and 0.19% per procedure. Approximately 57.1% of the patients had a medical history of bilioenteric anastomosis or biliary stent implantation. On computed tomography scans, the abscesses appeared as low-attenuation lesions and high-density iodinate oil scattered in the abscesses. The ultrasound showed the well defined, heterogeneously hypoechoic lesions. Positive microbiological isolates were obtained in all pus cultures and in 47.6% of blood cultures. The most common bacterium was Escherichia coli (52.4%). Twenty patients (95.2%) were cured from abscesses by using PCD, and 1 died of sepsis. Patients with predisposing factors are prone to an increased risk of liver abscess following TACE. Bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity tests on pus and blood help on the antibiotics selection. PCD combined with aggressive antibiotics can be recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen. PMID:27124055

  18. Carbohydrate metabolism of the perfused rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Ross, B. D.; Hems, R.; Freedland, R. A.; Krebs, H. A.

    1967-01-01

    1. The rates of gluconeogenesis from most substrates tested in the perfused livers of well-fed rats were about half of those obtained in the livers of starved rats. There was no difference for glycerol. 2. A diet low in carbohydrate increased the rates of gluconeogenesis from some substrates but not from all. In general the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on rat liver are less marked than those on rat kidney cortex. 3. Glycogen was deposited in the livers of starved rats when the perfusion medium contained about 10mm-glucose. The shedding of glucose from the glycogen stores by the well-fed liver was greatly diminished by 10mm-glucose and stopped by 13·3mm-glucose. Livers of well-fed rats that were depleted of their glycogen stores by treatment with phlorrhizin and glucagon synthesized glycogen from glucose. 4. When two gluconeogenic substrates were added to the perfusion medium additive effects occurred only when glycerol was one of the substrates. Lactate and glycerol gave more than additive effects owing to an increased rate of glucose formation from glycerol. 5. Pyruvate also accelerated the conversion of glycerol into glucose, and the accelerating effect of lactate can be attributed to a rapid formation of pyruvate from lactate. 6. Butyrate and oleate at 2mm, which alone are not gluconeogenic, increased the rate of gluconeogenesis from lactate. 7. The acceleration of gluconeogenesis from lactate by glucagon was also found when gluconeogenesis from lactate was stimulated by butyrate and oleate. This finding is not compatible with the view that the primary action of glucagon in promoting gluconeogenesis is an acceleration of lipolysis. 8. The rate of gluconeogenesis from pyruvate at 10mm was only 70% of that at 5mm. This `inhibition' was abolished by oleate or glucagon. PMID:5584023

  19. GSK3β and aging liver

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingling; Wang, Guo-Li; Timchenko, Lubov; Timchenko, and Nikolai A

    2009-01-01

    The loss of regenerative capacity of tissues is one of the major characteristics of aging. Liver represents a powerful system for investigations of mechanisms by which aging reduces regenerative capacity of tissues. The studies within last five years revealed critical role of epigenetic silencing in the inhibition of liver proliferation in old mice. These studies have shown that a number of cell cycle proteins are silenced in livers of old mice by C/EBPα-HDAC1-Brm complex and that old liver fails to reduce the complex and activate these genes in response to proliferative stimulus such as partial hepatectomy. The complex modifies histone H3 on the promoters of c-myc and FoxM1B in the manner which prevents expression of these genes. Despite this progress, little is known about mechanisms by which aging causes this epigenetic silencing. We have recently discovered signal transduction pathways which operate upstream of the C/EBPα-HDAC1-Brm complex. These pathways involve communications of growth hormone, GSK3β and cyclin D3. In addition to the liver, GH-GSK3β-cyclin D3 pathway is also changed with age in lung, brain and adipose tissues. We suggest that other age-associated alterations in these tissues might be mediated by the reduced levels of GSK3β and by elevation of cyclin D3. In this review, we summarize these new data and discuss the role of such alterations in the development of aging phenotype in the liver and in other tissues. PMID:20157540

  20. Hybrid procedure in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Soyama, A; Takatsuki, M; Hidaka, M; Adachi, T; Kitasato, A; Kinoshita, A; Natsuda, K; Baimakhanov, Z; Kuroki, T; Eguchi, S

    2015-04-01

    We have previously reported a hybrid procedure that uses a combination of laparoscopic mobilization of the liver and subsequent hepatectomy under direct vision in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We present the details of this hybrid procedure and the outcomes of the procedure. Between January 1997 and August 2014, 204 LDLTs were performed at Nagasaki University Hospital. Among them, 67 recent donors underwent hybrid donor hepatectomy. Forty-one donors underwent left hemihepatectomy, 25 underwent right hemihepatectomy, and 1 underwent posterior sectionectomy. First, an 8-cm subxiphoid midline incision was made; laparoscopic mobilization of the liver was then achieved with a hand-assist through the midline incision under the pneumoperitoneum. Thereafter, the incision was extended up to 12 cm for the right lobe and posterior sector graft and 10 cm left lobe graft procurement. Under direct vision, parenchymal transection was performed by means of the liver-hanging maneuver. The hybrid procedure for LDLT recipients was indicated only for selected cases with atrophic liver cirrhosis without a history of upper abdominal surgery, significant retroperitoneal collateral vessels, or hypertrophic change of the liver (n = 29). For total hepatectomy and splenectomy, the midline incision was sufficiently extended. All of the hybrid donor hepatectomies were completed without an extra subcostal incision. No significant differences were observed in the blood loss or length of the operation compared with conventional open procedures. All of the donors have returned to their preoperative activity level, with fewer wound-related complaints compared with those treated with the use of the conventional open procedure. In recipients treated with the hybrid procedure, no clinically relevant drawbacks were observed compared with the recipients treated with a regular Mercedes-Benz-type incision. Our hybrid procedure was safely conducted with the same quality as the conventional

  1. Prostate Cancer in Deceased Liver Donors.

    PubMed

    Skalski, M; Gierej, B; Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, B; Hołówko, W; Krawczyk, M

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common malignant tumor (13%) among male subjects in Poland. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of prostate cancer in a group of deceased liver donors. A total of 784 liver procurement attempts from deceased donors were performed in the Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, from January 1, 2012, to April 1, 2015; 700 grafts were actually used in a liver transplant. A retrospective analysis was performed based on these data. Among male donors (n = 486 [62%]), there were 30 (6.2%) cases of a frozen biopsy of the prostate performed before making the decision regarding liver graft utilization. In the group of 30 donors who underwent prostate examination, 3 (10%) were diagnosed as having prostate cancer of a moderate invasive stage. In 2 other cases, fresh frozen section suggested prostate cancer; however, this fact was not confirmed in routine section. liver transplantation was not performed in these cases of suspicion of prostate cancer (5 of 30 [17%]) in the frozen biopsy specimens. The difference between groups of donors with prostate cancer and benign pathology of the prostate gland according to prostate-specific antigen serum concentration (P = .578) or age (P = .730) was not statistically significant. Increased prostate-specific antigen serum concentrations without a diagnosis of prostate cancer in histopathologic examinations should not be an independent contraindication for performing organ transplantation. Nevertheless, for recipient safety, even when prostate cancer is only suspected in the frozen biopsy sample, the procured organ should not be used for transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - A multisystem disease?

    PubMed Central

    Mikolasevic, Ivana; Milic, Sandra; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Grgic, Ivana; Jakopcic, Ivan; Stimac, Davor; Wensveen, Felix; Orlic, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common comorbidities associated with overweight and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Importantly, NAFLD is one of its most dangerous complications because it can lead to severe liver pathologies, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatic cellular carcinoma. Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity, NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease and therefore is a major global health problem. Currently, NAFLD is predominantly regarded as a hepatic manifestation of MetS. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver and are negatively associated with a range of chronic diseases, most notably cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is becoming increasingly clear that these diseases are the result of the same underlying pathophysiological processes associated with MetS, such as insulin resistance, chronic systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia. As a result, they have been shown to be independent reciprocal risk factors. In addition, recent data have shown that NAFLD actively contributes to aggravation of the pathophysiology of CVD, T2DM, and CKD, as well as several other pathologies. Thus, NAFLD is a direct cause of many chronic diseases associated with MetS, and better detection and treatment of fatty liver disease is therefore urgently needed. As non-invasive screening methods for liver disease become increasingly available, detection and treatment of NAFLD in patients with MetS should therefore be considered by both (sub-) specialists and primary care physicians. PMID:27920470

  3. Liver transplantation in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, James

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) services in the United Kingdom are provided by 7 designated transplant centers for a population of approximately 64 million. The number of deceased organ donors has grown, and in 2014-2015 it was 1282 (570 donation after circulatory death and 772 donation after brain death). Donor risk is increasing. In 2014-2015, there were 829 LTs from deceased and 38 from living donors. The common causes for transplantation are liver cell cancer, viral hepatitis, and alcohol-related liver disease. Livers are allocated first nationally to super-urgent listed patients and then on a zonal basis. The United Kingdom will be moving toward a national allocation scheme. The median interval between listing and transplantation is 152 days for adults awaiting their first elective transplant. Of the adults listed for the first elective transplant, 68% underwent transplantation at < 1 year; 17% are waiting; and 4% and 11% were removed or died, respectively. The 1- and 5-year adult patient survival rate from listing is 81% and 68%, respectively, and from transplantation is 92% and 80%, respectively. The transplant program is funded through general taxation and is free at the point of care to those who are eligible for National Health Service (NHS) treatment; some have to pay for medication (up to a maximum payment of US $151/year). The competent authority is the Human Tissue Authority which licenses donor characterization, retrieval, and implantation; transplant units are commissioned by NHS England and NHS Scotland. National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) promotes organ donation, maintains the organ donor register, obtains consent, and undertakes donor characterization and offering. NHSBT also maintains the national waiting list, develops and applies selection and allocation policies, monitors outcomes, and maintains the UK National Transplant Registry and commissions a national organ retrieval service. Liver Transplantation 22 1129-1135 2016 AASLD

  4. Challenges in transplantation for alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Berlakovich, Gabriela A

    2014-07-07

    Transplantation for the treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis is more controversially discussed than it is for any other indication. The crucial aspect in this setting is abstinence before and after liver transplantation. We established pre-transplant selection criteria for potential transplant candidates. Provided that the underlying disease can be treated, there is no reason to withhold liver transplantation in a patient suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Evaluation of the patient by a multidisciplinary team, including an addiction specialist, is considered to be the gold standard. However, several centers demand a specified period of abstinence - usually 6 mo- irrespective of the specialist's assessment. The 6-mo rule is viewed critically because liver transplantation was found to clearly benefit selected patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis; the benefit was similar to that achieved for other acute indications. However, the discussion may well be an academic one because the waiting time for liver transplantation exceeds six months at the majority of centers. The actual challenge in liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis may well be the need for lifelong post-transplant follow-up rather than the patient's pre-transplant evaluation. A small number of recipients experience a relapse of alcoholism; these patients are at risk for organ damage and graft-related death. Post-transplant surveillance protocols should demonstrate alcohol relapse at an early stage, thus permitting the initiation of adequate treatment. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis are at high risk of developing head and neck, esophageal, or lung cancer. The higher risk of malignancies should be considered in the routine assessment of patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Tumor surveillance protocols for liver transplant recipients, currently being developed, should become a part of standard care; these will improve survival by permitting diagnosis at an early stage. In conclusion, the key

  5. A comprehensive review of noninvasive liver fibrosis tests in pediatric nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Sana; Collyer, Elizabeth; Alkhouri, Naim

    2015-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis have been increasing in the pediatric population. The presence and severity of fibrosis in patients with NAFLD are important prognostic factors for the risk of disease progression to cirrhosis. The gold standard for staging liver fibrosis is a liver biopsy. However, given the risks of this procedure, especially in the pediatric population, the development of noninvasive markers to diagnose and monitor progression of NAFLD is desirable. This paper will review recently developed noninvasive methods for diagnosing liver fibrosis in children with NAFLD. These include simple fibrosis scores, advanced biochemical markers, and radiologic imaging studies. Simple fibrosis scores use readily available laboratory tests; available one include AST/ALT ratio, AST to platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis (FIB)-4 index, NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), pediatric NAFLD fibrosis index (PNFI), and pediatric NALFD fibrosis score (PNFS). Advanced biochemical markers include biomarkers of hepatocyte cell death such as cytokeratin 18 fragment levels, and markers of extracellular matrix turnover such as the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) test and hyaluronic acid. Radiologic imaging studies estimate liver stiffness as a surrogate for liver fibrosis; these include transient elastography (TE), magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI).

  6. Liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - diagnostic challenge with prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Stål, Per

    2015-10-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world, with a prevalence of 20%. In a subgroup of patients, inflammation, ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes and a varying degree of fibrosis may develop, a condition named non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Advanced liver fibrosis (stage F3) and cirrhosis (stage F4) are histologic features that most accurately predict increased mortality in both liver-related and cardiovascular diseases. Patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis are at risk for complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and esophageal varices and should therefore be included in surveillance programs. However, liver disease and fibrosis are often unrecognized in patients with NAFLD, possibly leading to a delayed diagnosis of complications. The early diagnosis of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD is therefore crucial, and it can be accomplished using serum biomarkers (e.g., the NAFLD Fibrosis Score, Fib-4 Index or BARD) or non-invasive imaging techniques (transient elastography or acoustic radiation force impulse imaging). The screening of risk groups, such as patients with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, for NAFLD development with these non-invasive methods may detect advanced fibrosis at an early stage. Additionally, patients with a low risk for advanced fibrosis can be identified, and the need for liver biopsies can be minimized. This review focuses on the diagnostic challenge and prognostic impact of advanced liver fibrosis in NAFLD.

  7. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Rosa; Buzzetti, Elena; Roccarina, Davide; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) consists of a broad spectrum of disorders, ranging from simple steatosis to alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Fatty liver develops in more than 90% of heavy drinkers, however only 30%-35% of them develop more advanced forms of ALD. Therefore, even if the current “gold standard” for the assessment of the stage of alcohol-related liver injury is histology, liver biopsy is not reasonable in all patients who present with ALD. Currently, although several non-invasive fibrosis markers have been suggested as alternatives to liver biopsy in patients with ALD, none has been sufficiently validated. As described in other liver disease, the diagnostic accuracy of such tests in ALD is acceptable for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis or cirrhosis but not for lesser fibrosis stages. Existing data suggest that the use of non-invasive tests could be tailored to first tier screening of patients at risk, in order to diagnose early patients with progressive liver disease and offer targeted interventions for the prevention of decompensation. We review these tests and critically appraise the existing evidence. PMID:26494961

  8. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Rosa; Buzzetti, Elena; Roccarina, Davide; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A

    2015-10-21

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) consists of a broad spectrum of disorders, ranging from simple steatosis to alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Fatty liver develops in more than 90% of heavy drinkers, however only 30%-35% of them develop more advanced forms of ALD. Therefore, even if the current "gold standard" for the assessment of the stage of alcohol-related liver injury is histology, liver biopsy is not reasonable in all patients who present with ALD. Currently, although several non-invasive fibrosis markers have been suggested as alternatives to liver biopsy in patients with ALD, none has been sufficiently validated. As described in other liver disease, the diagnostic accuracy of such tests in ALD is acceptable for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis or cirrhosis but not for lesser fibrosis stages. Existing data suggest that the use of non-invasive tests could be tailored to first tier screening of patients at risk, in order to diagnose early patients with progressive liver disease and offer targeted interventions for the prevention of decompensation. We review these tests and critically appraise the existing evidence.

  9. Liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - diagnostic challenge with prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    Stål, Per

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world, with a prevalence of 20%. In a subgroup of patients, inflammation, ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes and a varying degree of fibrosis may develop, a condition named non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Advanced liver fibrosis (stage F3) and cirrhosis (stage F4) are histologic features that most accurately predict increased mortality in both liver-related and cardiovascular diseases. Patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis are at risk for complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and esophageal varices and should therefore be included in surveillance programs. However, liver disease and fibrosis are often unrecognized in patients with NAFLD, possibly leading to a delayed diagnosis of complications. The early diagnosis of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD is therefore crucial, and it can be accomplished using serum biomarkers (e.g., the NAFLD Fibrosis Score, Fib-4 Index or BARD) or non-invasive imaging techniques (transient elastography or acoustic radiation force impulse imaging). The screening of risk groups, such as patients with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, for NAFLD development with these non-invasive methods may detect advanced fibrosis at an early stage. Additionally, patients with a low risk for advanced fibrosis can be identified, and the need for liver biopsies can be minimized. This review focuses on the diagnostic challenge and prognostic impact of advanced liver fibrosis in NAFLD. PMID:26494963

  10. Liver metabolomics study reveals protective function of Phyllanthus urinaria against CCl4-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Hong-Cong; Zhang, Zun-Jian; Liu, Bu-Ming; Xu, Feng-Guo

    2017-07-01

    Phyllanthus Urinaria L. (PUL) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat hepatic and renal disorders. However, the mechanism of its hepatoprotective action is not fully understood. In the present study, blood biochemical indexes and liver histopathological changes were used to estimate the extent of hepatic injury. GC/MS and LC/MS-based untargeted metabolomics were used in combination to characterize the potential biomarkers associated with the protective activity of PUL against CCl 4 -induced liver injury in rats. PUL treatment could reverse the increase in ALT, AST and ALP induced by CCl 4 and attenuate the pathological changes in rat liver. Significant changes in liver metabolic profiling were observed in PUL-treated group compared with liver injury model group. Seventeen biomarkers related to the hepatoprotective effects of PUL against CCl 4 -induced liver injury were screened out using nonparametric test and Pearson's correlation analysis (OPLS-DA). The results suggested that the potential hepatoprotective effects of PUL in attenuating CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity could be partially attributed to regulating L-carnitine, taurocholic acid, and amino acids metabolism, which may become promising targets for treatment of liver toxicity. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the mechanism of the hepatoprotection of Phyllanthus Urinaria. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fraction from human and rat liver which is inhibitory for proliferation of liver cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, T S; Ottenweller, J; Luke, A; Santos, S; Keeting, P; Cuy, R; Lea, M A

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken with human and rat liver of a fraction reported to have growth inhibitory activity when prepared from rat liver. Fractions which were soluble in 70% ethanol and insoluble in 87% ethanol were prepared from liver cytosols. Electrophoretic analysis under denaturing conditions indicated that there were several quantitative or qualitative differences in the fractions from the two species. Fractions from both human and rat liver were found to be inhibitory for the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA of foetal chick hepatocytes. Under conditions in which the rat fraction inhibited precursor incorporation into DNA of rat liver epithelial cells there was not a significant inhibitory effect with the fraction from human liver. DNA synthesis in a rat hepatoma cell line was not significantly inhibited by preparations from either species. The data suggested that corresponding fractions from both rat and human liver could have inhibitory effects on precursor incorporation into DNA but the magnitude of the effects and target cell specificity may differ.

  12. The nutritional geometry of liver disease including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David; Cogger, Victoria C; Macia, Laurence; Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Le Couteur, David G; George, Jacob

    2018-02-01

    Nutrition has a profound effect on chronic liver disease, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Most observational studies and clinical trials have focussed on the effects of total energy intake, or the intake of individual macronutrients and certain micronutrients, such as vitamin D, on liver disease. Although these studies have shown the importance of nutrition on hepatic outcomes, there is not yet any unifying framework for understanding the relationship between diet and liver disease. The Geometric Framework for Nutrition (GFN) is an innovative model for designing nutritional experiments or interpreting nutritional data that can determine the effects of nutrients and their interactions on animal behaviour and phenotypes. Recently the GFN has provided insights into the relationship between dietary energy and macronutrients on obesity and ageing in mammals including humans. Mouse studies using the GFN have disentangled the effects of macronutrients on fatty liver and the gut microbiome. The GFN is likely to play a significant role in disentangling the effects of nutrients on liver disease, especially NAFLD, in humans. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intestinal lymphangiectasia and reversible high liver stiffness.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Laura; Peri, Anna Maria; Lodi, Lucia; Gubertini, Guido; Ridolfo, Anna Lisa; Antinori, Spinello

    2014-08-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a protein-losing enteropathy characterized by tortuous and dilated lymph channels of the small bowel. The main symptoms are bilateral lower limb edema, serosal effusions, and vitamin D malabsorption resulting in osteoporosis. We report here a case of long-lasting misdiagnosed PIL with a peculiar liver picture, characterized by a very high stiffness value at transient elastography, which decreased with clinical improvement. The complex interplay between lymphatic and hepatic circulatory system is discussed. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Treatment options for nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chitturi, Shivakumar

    2008-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease comprises a range of disorders from steatosis and steatohepatitis through to cirrhosis. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis can progress to cirrhosis and liver-related death. Therefore, managing this common disorder is becoming an important public health issue. Lifestyle measures are commonly suggested but robust data are lacking. Trials with antioxidants (vitamin E, betaine) as well as cytoprotectants (ursodeoxycholic acid) have been disappointing. While data for insulin sensitizers such as metformin are less conclusive, thiazolidinediones appear promising. However, not all patients respond to thiazolidinediones. Moreover, issues related to weight gain, cardiovascular risk need to be addressed. The use of endocannabinoid antagonists and insulin secretagogues are novel strategies to combat this disorder.

  15. [Prophylaxis of alcoholic disease of the liver].

    PubMed

    Beliakin, S A

    2009-08-01

    Military doctors should have a uniform position to the use of alcohol. Now alcohol is the basic pathogenic factor in development of a lethal cirrhosis of a liver. The most known sayings justifying the use of alcohol, are insolvent. Useful doses of alcohol does not exist. The quantity of used alcohol has the great value. Only at achievement of age 21 year it is possible to use safe doses of alcohol. A safe dose of pure alcohol (ethanol) less than 30,0 in day. In a basis of prophylaxis of a cirrhosis of a liver there is a medical educational activity.

  16. Differential Patterns of Vasculature to Liver Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Assa, J.

    1970-01-01

    An angiographic study of the vasculature of Vx2 tumour deposits in the rabbit's liver is described. Tumours transplanted from donor rabbits within less than 2 weeks incubation, developed into an amorphic infiltrating tumour, characterized by a rich arterial network. Tumours harvested after 3 weeks growth in donors, became cystic and had a scanty arterial supply. In both groups there was no portal circulation to the tumours' deposits. It is suggested that prior to intra-arterial treatment of cancer in the liver, the morphology of the tumour should be assessed. ImagesFigs. 3-4Figs. 5-6Figs. 7-8Figs. 1-2 PMID:5451574

  17. Educational intervention for liver transplantation candidates.

    PubMed

    Dal Sasso Mendes, Karina; de Castro e Silva Junior, Orlando; da Costa Ziviani, Luciana; Rossin, Fabiana Murad; Fontão Zago, Márcia Maria; Galvão, Cristina Maria

    2013-02-01

    The objective in this study was to analyze candidates' knowledge on the liver transplantation process before and after putting in practice an educational intervention. A quasi-experimental, one-group pretest-posttest research design was adopted. The final sample included 15 subjects. Research data were collected between January and March 2010 in three phases, which were: pretest, implementation of the educational intervention (two meetings) and posttest. The results evidenced significant cognitive gains after the intervention, with improvements in the participants' performance . The research presents evidence that putting in practice a patient education strategy can enhance candidates' knowledge on the liver transplantation process and consequently contribute to a successful treatment.

  18. Acute liver failure in Cuban children.

    PubMed

    Silverio, César E; Smithen-Romany, Chleo Y; Hondal, Norma I; Díaz, Hetzel O; Castellanos, Marlen I; Sosa, Oramis

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure is rare in pediatric patients and is one of the most challenging medical emergencies due to its prognostic and therapeutic implications. The best scientific evidence worldwide comes from multicenter studies in developed countries. In Cuba, there are no prior studies of this disorder in children. Describe the main clinical features of Cuban children treated at a national referral center for acute liver failure, as defined by recognized diagnostic criteria for pediatric patients. A case series study was conducted comprising patients diagnosed with acute liver failure treated from 2005 to 2011 in the hepatology and liver transplant service at Havana's William Soler University Children's Hospital. Variables were age group, etiology of acute liver failure, grade of hepatic encephalopathy, blood chemistry variables, and clinical outcome (whether or not spontaneous recovery of liver function occurred). Associations between variables were assessed using contingency tables, and case fatality was calculated, as well as relative risk with its 95% confidence interval. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare means of laboratory test results. Median age of the 31 patients studied (14 boys and 17 girls) was 24 months (range 1-180). Time between symptom onset and diagnosis of acute liver failure was 25.1 days (SD 16.8). Infection was the most common etiology, present in 61.3% of cases (19/31); nonhepatotropic viruses, especially cytomegalovirus, predominated in infants. Spontaneous recovery occurred in 15 patients (48.4%), 3 (9.7%) received transplants, and 13 died, for a case fatality of 41.9%. Outcome was not associated with etiology (p = 0.106), but was statistically associated with degree of hepatic encephalopathy (p <0.01): 77.8% of patients (7/9) with grades III-IV encephalopathy died, for a relative risk of 4.0 (95% CI 1.15-13.8), versus 11.1% (1/9) with grade II or less encephalopathy. Cholesterol levels were significantly lower in patients who

  19. Extended Criteria Donors in Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vodkin, Irine; Kuo, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    Mortality rates on the liver transplant waiting list are increasing. The shortage of organs has resulted in higher utilization of extended criteria donors (ECDs), with centers pushing the limits of what is acceptable for transplantation. Donor quality is more appropriately represented as a continuum of risk, and careful selection and matching of ECD grafts with recipients may lead to excellent outcomes. Although there is no precise definition for what constitutes an ECD liver, this review focuses on frequently cited characteristics, including donor age, steatosis, donation after cardiac death, and donors with increased risk of disease transmission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictors of Cardiovascular Events After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F; Charlton, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    Indications for liver transplant have been extended, and older and sicker patients are undergoing transplantation. Infectious, malignant, and cardiovascular diseases account for the most posttransplant deaths. Cirrhotic patients can develop heart disease through systemic diseases affecting the heart and the liver, cirrhosis-specific heart disease, or common cardiovascular. No single factor can predict posttransplant cardiovascular complications. Patients with history of cardiovascular disease, and specific abnormalities on echocardiography, electrocardiography, or serum markers of heart disease seem to be at increased risk of complications. Pretransplant cardiovascular evaluation is essential to detecting these risk factors so their effects can be mitigated through appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Ocular toxoplasmosis developed after liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Avkan Oğuz, Vildan; Koçak, Nilüfer; Köse, Hatice; Unek, Tarkan; Ozbilgin, Mücahit; Karademir, Sedat; Kaynak, Süleyman

    2012-10-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis after solid organ transplantation occurs usually within the first three months of primary infection or reactivation of latent infection. There are a few reports of ocular toxoplasmosis following liver transplantation in the literature, however, no reports were detected in the national data. In this report a 35-year-old female patient diagnosed as ocular toxoplasmosis following reactivation in the second year after liver transplantation, was presented. The case was successfully treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin. This case was presented to emphasize late presentation of toxoplasmosis in transplantation patients and to withdraw attention to the importance of serological investigations done before transplantation.

  2. [Hepatocellular tumours in noncirrhotic liver tissue].

    PubMed

    Goltz, D; Fischer, H-P

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the spectrum of tissue-based diagnostics of hepatocellular tumours has changed due to novel molecular pathological findings. Innovative radiographics filter out small lesions and ambiguous tumours for bioptical sampling. The spectrum of these tumours includes hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatocellular adenomas, focal nodular hyperplasia and macroregenerative nodules. Primarily, morphological analysis should identify the dignity of a lesion. After exclusion of HCC and reactive liver cell nodules, hepatocellular adenomas should be further subclassified based on immunohistochemical/molecular pathological criteria according to the WHO classification of liver tumours. This procedure provides significant additional information regarding the prognosis and therapeutic implications of hepatocellular adenomas.

  3. Outcomes of liver-first strategy and classical strategy for synchronous colorectal liver metastases in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Valdimarsson, Valentinus T; Syk, Ingvar; Lindell, Gert; Norén, Agneta; Isaksson, Bengt; Sandström, Per; Rizell, Magnus; Ardnor, Bjarne; Sturesson, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Patients with synchronous colorectal liver metastases (sCRLM) are increasingly operated with liver resection before resection of the primary cancer. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes in patients following the liver-first strategy and the classical strategy (resection of the bowel first) using prospectively registered data from two nationwide registries. Clinical, pathological and survival outcomes were compared between the liver-first strategy and the classical strategy (2008-2015). Overall survival was calculated. A total of 623 patients were identified, of which 246 were treated with the liver-first strategy and 377 with the classical strategy. The median follow-up was 40 months. Patients chosen for the classical strategy more often had T4 primary tumours (23% vs 14%, P = 0.012) and node-positive primaries (70 vs 61%, P = 0.015). The liver-first patients had a higher liver tumour burden score (4.1 (2.5-6.3) vs 3.6 (2.2-5.1), P = 0.003). No difference was seen in five-year overall survival between the groups (54% vs 49%, P = 0.344). A majority (59%) of patients with rectal cancer were treated with the liver-first strategy. The liver-first strategy is currently the dominant strategy for sCRLM in patients with rectal cancer in Sweden. No difference in overall survival was noted between strategies. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyclin D1 in the Liver: Role of Noncanonical Signaling in Liver Steatosis and Hormone Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Kelley G.; Gonzalez-Rosario, Janet; Thevenot, Paul T.; Cohen, Ari J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cyclin D1 is an important protein for cell cycle progression; however, functions independent of the cell cycle have been described in the liver. Cyclin D1 is also involved in DNA repair, is overexpressed in many cancers, and functions as a proto-oncogene. The lesser-known roles of Cyclin D1, specifically in hepatocytes, impact liver steatosis and hormone regulation in the liver. Methods: A comprehensive search of PubMed was conducted using the keywords Cyclin D1, steatosis, lipogenesis, and liver transplantation. In this article, we review the results from this literature search, with a focus on the role of Cyclin D1 in hepatic lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis, as well as the impact and function of this protein in hepatic steatosis. Results: Cyclin D1 represses carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) and results in a decrease in transcription of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC). Cyclin D1 also inhibits peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) which is involved in hepatic lipogenesis. Cyclin D1 inhibits both hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α) and represses transcription of lipogenic genes FAS and liver-type pyruvate kinase (Pklr), along with the gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Conclusion: Cyclin D1 represses multiple proteins involved in both lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Targeting Cyclin D1 to decrease hepatic steatosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or alcoholic fatty liver disease may help improve patient health and the quality of the donor liver pool. PMID:28331449

  5. Liver-brain interactions in inflammatory liver diseases: implications for fatigue and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    D'Mello, Charlotte; Swain, Mark G

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory liver diseases are often accompanied by behavior alterations including fatigue, mood disorders, cognitive dysfunction and sleep disturbances. These altered behaviors can adversely affect patient quality of life. The communication pathways between the inflamed liver and the brain that mediate changes in central neural activity leading to behavior alterations during liver inflammation are poorly understood. Neural and humoral communication pathways have been most commonly implicated as driving peripheral inflammation to brain signaling. Classically, the cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 have received the greatest scientific attention as potential mediators of this communication pathway. In mice with liver inflammation we have identified a novel immune-mediated liver-to-brain communication pathway whereby CCR2(+) monocytes found within the peripheral circulation transmigrate into the brain parenchyma in response to MCP-1/CCL2 expressing activated microglia. Inhibition of cerebral monocyte infiltration in these mice significantly improved liver inflammation associated sickness behaviors. Importantly, in recent work we have found that at an earlier time point, when cerebral monocyte infiltration is not evident in mice with liver inflammation, increased monocyte:cerebral endothelial cell adhesive interactions are observed using intravital microscopy of the brain. These monocyte:cerebral endothelial cell adhesive interactions are P-selectin mediated, and inhibition of these interactions attenuated microglial activation and sickness behavior development. Delineating the pathways that the periphery uses to communicate with the brain during inflammatory liver diseases, and the central neurotransmitter systems that are altered through these communication pathways (e.g., serotonin, corticotrophin releasing hormone) to give rise to liver inflammation-associated sickness behaviors, will allow for the identification of novel therapeutic targets to decrease the

  6. Liver injury from Herbals and Dietary Supplements in the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Victor J.; Barnhart, Huiman; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Davern, Timothy; Fontana, Robert J.; Grant, Lafaine; Reddy, K. Rajender; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Sherker, Averell H.; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Vega, Maricruz; Vuppalanchi, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity due to conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). Rationale To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight US referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury due to HDS. Hepatotoxicity due to HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments including death and liver transplantation were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury due to bodybuilding HDS, 85 due to non-bodybuilding HDS, and 709 due to medications. Main Results Liver injury due to HDS increased from 7% to 20% (p < 0.001) during the study period. Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median 91 days) in young men but did not result in any fatalities or liver transplantation. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women and more frequently led to death or transplantation compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%, p < 0.05). Conclusions The proportion of liver injury cases attributed to HDS in DILIN has increased significantly. Liver injury from non-bodybuilding HDS is more severe than from bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes; death and transplantation. PMID:25043597

  7. Multiplex transcriptional analysis of paraffin-embedded liver needle biopsy from patients with liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The possibility of extracting RNA and measuring RNA expression from paraffin sections can allow extensive investigations on stored paraffin samples obtained from diseased livers and could help with studies of the natural history of liver fibrosis and inflammation, and in particular, correlate basic mechanisms to clinical outcomes. Results To address this issue, a pilot study of multiplex gene expression using branched-chain DNA technology was conducted to directly measure mRNA expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded needle biopsy samples of human liver. Twenty-five genes were selected for evaluation based on evidence obtained from human fibrotic liver, a rat BDL model and in vitro cultures of immortalized human hepatic stellate cells. The expression levels of these 25 genes were then correlated with liver fibrosis and inflammation activity scores. Statistical analysis revealed that three genes (COL3A1, KRT18, and TUBB) could separate fibrotic from non-fibrotic samples and that the expression of ten genes (ANXA2, TIMP1, CTGF, COL4A1, KRT18, COL1A1, COL3A1, ACTA2, TGFB1, LOXL2) were positively correlated with the level of liver inflammation activity. Conclusion This is the first report describing this multiplex technique for liver fibrosis and has provided the proof of concept of the suitability of RNA extracted from paraffin sections for investigating the modulation of a panel of proinflammatory and profibrogenic genes. This pilot study suggests that this technique will allow extensive investigations on paraffin samples from diseased livers and possibly from any other tissue. Using identical or other genes, this multiplex expression technique could be applied to samples obtained from extensive patient cohorts with stored paraffin samples in order to correlate gene expression with valuable clinically relevant information. This method could be used to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of liver fibrosis and inflammation, its progression

  8. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  9. Liver Sharing and Organ Procurement Organization Performance under Redistricted Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Sommer E.; Chow, Eric KH.; Massie, Allan; Luo, Xun; Shteyn, Eugene; Pyke, Joshua; Zaun, David; Snyder, Jon J.; Israni, Ajay K.; Kasiske, Bert; Segev, Dorry L.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been raised that optimized redistricting of liver allocation areas might have the unintended result of shifting livers from better-performing to poorer-performing OPOs. We used the Liver Simulated Allocation Model to simulate a 5-year period of liver sharing within either 4 or 8 optimized districts. We investigated whether each OPO’s net liver import under redistricting would be correlated with two OPO performance metrics (observed to expected liver yield and liver donor conversion ratio), along with two other potential correlates (eligible deaths and incident listings above MELD 15). We found no evidence that livers would flow from better-performing OPOs to poorer-performing OPOs in either redistricting scenario. Instead, under these optimized redistricting plans, our simulations suggest that livers would flow from OPOs with more-than-expected eligible deaths toward those with fewer-than-expected eligible deaths, and that livers would flow from OPOs with fewer-than-expected incident listings to those with more-than-expected incident listings, the latter a pattern already established in the current allocation system. Redistricting liver distribution to reduce geographic inequity is expected to align liver allocation across the country with the distribution of supply and demand, rather than transferring livers from better-performing OPOs to poorer-performing OPOs. PMID:25990089

  10. Drug-induced liver injury due to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Björnsson, Einar S

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important differential diagnosis in patients with abnormal liver tests and normal hepatobiliary imaging. Of all known liver diseases, the diagnosis of DILI is probably one of the most difficult one to be established. In all major studies on DILI, antibiotics are the most common type of drugs that have been reported. The clinical phenotype of different types of antibiotics associated with liver injury is highly variable. Some widely used antibiotics such as amoxicillin-clavulanate have been shown to have a delayed onset on liver injury and recently cefazolin has been found to lead to liver injury 1-3 weeks after exposure of a single infusion. The other extreme is the nature of nitrofurantoin-induced liver injury, which can occur after a few years of treatment and lead to acute liver failure (ALF) or autoimmune-like reaction. Most patients with liver injury associated with use of antibiotics have a favorable prognosis. However, patients with jaundice have approximately 10% risk of death from liver failure and/or require liver transplantation. In rare instances, the hepatoxicity can lead to chronic injury and vanishing bile duct syndrome. Given, sometimes very severe consequences of the adverse liver reactions, it cannot be over emphasized that the indication for the different antibiotics should be evidence-based and symptoms and signs of liver injury from the drugs should lead to prompt cessation of therapy.

  11. [Correlation between red blood cell count and liver function status].

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaomeng; Wang, Leijie; Yao, Mingjie; Wen, Xiajie; Chen, Xiangmei; You, Hong; Jia, Jidong; Zhao, Jingmin; Lu, Fengmin

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the changes in red blood cell count in patients with different liver diseases and the correlation between red blood cell count and degree of liver damage. The clinical data of 1427 patients with primary liver cancer, 172 patients with liver cirrhosis, and 185 patients with hepatitis were collected, and the Child-Pugh class was determined for all patients. The differences in red blood cell count between patients with different liver diseases were retrospectively analyzed, and the correlation between red blood cell count and liver function status was investigated. The Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, rank sum test, Spearman rank sum correlation test, and chi-square test were performed for different types of data. Red blood cell count showed significant differences between patients with chronic hepatitis, liver cancer, and liver cirrhosis and was highest in patients with chronic hepatitis and lowest in patients with liver cirrhosis (P < 0.05). In the patients with liver cirrhosis, red blood cell count tended to decrease in patients with a higher Child-Pugh class (P < 0.05). For patients with liver cirrhosis, red blood cell count can reflect the degree of liver damage, which may contribute to an improved liver function prediction model for these patients.

  12. Bioengineered transplantable porcine livers with re-endothelialized vasculature.

    PubMed

    Ko, In Kap; Peng, Li; Peloso, Andrea; Smith, Charesa J; Dhal, Abritee; Deegan, Daniel B; Zimmerman, Cindy; Clouse, Cara; Zhao, Weixin; Shupe, Thomas D; Soker, Shay; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    Donor shortage remains a continued challenge in liver transplantation. Recent advances in tissue engineering have provided the possibility of creating functional liver tissues as an alternative to donor organ transplantation. Small bioengineered liver constructs have been developed, however a major challenge in achieving functional bioengineered liver in vivo is the establishment of a functional vasculature within the scaffolds. Our overall goal is to bioengineer intact livers, suitable for transplantation, using acellular porcine liver scaffolds. We developed an effective method for reestablishing the vascular network within decellularized liver scaffolds by conjugating anti-endothelial cell antibodies to maximize coverage of the vessel walls with endothelial cells. This procedure resulted in uniform endothelial attachment throughout the liver vasculature extending to the capillary bed of the liver scaffold and greatly reduced platelet adhesion upon blood perfusion in vitro. The re-endothelialized livers, when transplanted to recipient pigs, were able to withstand physiological blood flow and maintained for up to 24 h. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that vascularized bioengineered livers, of clinically relevant size, can be transplanted and maintained in vivo, and represents the first step towards generating engineered livers for transplantation to patients with end-stage liver failure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Liver manipulation during liver surgery in humans is associated with hepatocellular damage and hepatic inflammation.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Maartje A J; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Schreurs, Joris J W; Bloemen, Johanne G; Bieghs, Veerle; Rensen, Sander S; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Olde Damink, Steven W M

    2013-04-01

    Manipulation of the liver during liver surgery results in profound hepatocellular damage. Experimental data show that mobilization-induced hepatocellular damage is related to hepatic inflammation. To date, information on this link in humans is lacking. As it is possible to modulate inflammation, it is clinically relevant to unravel this relationship. This observational study aimed to establish the association between liver mobilization and hepatic inflammation in humans. Consecutive patients requiring mobilization of the right hemi-liver during liver surgery were studied. Plasma samples and liver biopsies were collected prior to and directly after mobilization and after transection of the liver. Hepatocellular damage was assayed by liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and aminotransferase levels. Hepatic inflammation was determined by (a) immunohistochemical identification of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and CD68- positive cells and (b) hepatic gene expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1). A total of 25 patients were included. L-FABP levels increased significantly during mobilization (301 ± 94 ng/ml to 1599 ± 362 ng/ml, P = 0.008), as did ALAT levels (36 ± 5 IU/L to 167 ± 21 IU/L, P < 0.001). A significant increase in MPO (P = 0.001) and CD68 (P = 0.002) positive cells was noticed in the liver after mobilization. The number of MPO-positive cells correlated with the duration of mobilization (Pearson correlation=0.505, P = 0.033). Hepatic gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, chemo-attractant IL-8 and adhesion molecule ICAM-1 increased significantly during liver manipulation. Liver mobilization is associated with hepatocellular damage and liver inflammation, as shown by infiltration of inflammatory cells and upregulation of genes involved in acute inflammation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis protects liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in acute liver injured mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Yang, Tao; Tao, Yanyan; Lu, Xiong; Liu, Chenghai

    2014-03-01

    Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) was widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury, the current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in acute injury liver and related action mechanisms. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN). 39 male BABL/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model control, CMCS treatment and 1,10-phenanthroline treatment groups. The Serum liver function parameters including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were assayed with the commercial kit. The inflammation and scaffold structure in liver were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and silver staining respectively. The LSECs and sub-endothelial basement membrane were observed with the scanning and transmission electronic microscope. The protein expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in liver were analyzed with Western blotting. Expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) was investigated with immunofluorescence staining. The lipid peroxidation indicators including antisuperoxideanion (ASAFR), hydroxyl free radical (·OH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were determined with kits, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) activities in liver were analyzed with gelatin zymography and in situ fluorescent zymography respectively. The model mice had much higher serum levels of ALT and AST than the normal mice. Compared to that in the normal control, more severe liver inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis, worse hepatic lipid peroxidation demonstrated by the increased ASAFR, ·OH and MDA, but decreased SOD and GST, increased MMP-2/9 activities and VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and vWF expressions, which revealed obvious LSEC injury and scaffold structure broken, were shown in the model

  15. Liver membrane antibodies in alcoholic liver disease: 1. prevalence and immunoglobulin class.

    PubMed Central

    Burt, A D; Anthony, R S; Hislop, W S; Bouchier, I A; MacSween, R N

    1982-01-01

    Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique liver membrane antibodies of IgG and IgA class have been demonstrated in a statistically significant proportion of sera from patients with alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis. IgG and IgA class antibodies were found respectively in 23 and 25% of 48 patients with alcoholic hepatitis, in 27 and 33% of 84 with active cirrhosis, and 67 and 58% of 12 with inactive cirrhosis. These results provide evidence of a humoral immune response in alcoholic liver disease which is directed against, as yet undefined, liver-cell membrane antigens. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7040177

  16. Liver transplant outcomes using ideal donation after circulatory death livers are superior to using older donation after brain death donor livers.

    PubMed

    Scalea, Joseph R; Redfield, Robert R; Foley, David P

    2016-09-01

    Multiple reports have demonstrated that liver transplantation following donation after circulatory death (DCD) is associated with poorer outcomes when compared with liver transplantation from donation after brain death (DBD) donors. We hypothesized that carefully selected, underutilized DCD livers recovered from younger donors have excellent outcomes. We performed a retrospective study of the United Network for Organ Sharing database to determine graft survivals for patients who received liver transplants from DBD donors of age ≥ 60 years, DBD donors < 60 years, and DCD donors < 50 years of age. Between January 2002 and December 2014, 52,271 liver transplants were performed in the United States. Of these, 41,181 (78.8%) underwent transplantation with livers from DBD donors of age < 60 years, 8905 (17.0%) from DBD donors ≥ 60 years old, and 2195 (4.2%) livers from DCD donors < 50 years of age. DCD livers of age < 50 years with < 6 hours of cold ischemia time (CIT) had superior graft survival when compared with DBD livers ≥ age 60 years (P < 0.001). In 2014, there were 133 discarded DCD livers; of these, 111 (83.4%) were from donors < age 50 years old. Young DCD donor livers (age < 50 years old) with short CITs yield results better than that seen with DBD livers > 60 years old. Careful donor organ and recipient selection can lead to excellent results, despite previous reports suggesting otherwise. Increased acceptance of these DCD livers would lead to shorter wait list times and increased national liver transplant rates. Liver Transplantation 22 1197-1204 2016 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  17. Gut microbiome can control antitumor immune function in liver

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI study in mice that found a connection between gut bacteria and antitumor immune responses in the liver has implications for understanding mechanisms that lead to liver cancer and for potential treatments. The study was published in Science.

  18. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Liver (hepatocellular) cancer screening, even in high risk individuals, has not been shown to be beneficial. Get detailed information about liver cancer screening, potential screening modalities, and research directions in this summary for clinicians.

  19. Nutritional Needs and Support for Children with Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Christine H.; Yoo, Eric R.; Kerner, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition has become a dangerously common problem in children with chronic liver disease, negatively impacting neurocognitive development and growth. Furthermore, many children with chronic liver disease will eventually require liver transplantation. Thus, this association between malnourishment and chronic liver disease in children becomes increasingly alarming as malnutrition is a predictor of poorer outcomes in liver transplantation and is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Malnutrition requires aggressive and appropriate management to correct nutritional deficiencies. A comprehensive review of the literature has found that infants with chronic liver disease (CLD) are particularly susceptible to malnutrition given their low reserves. Children with CLD would benefit from early intervention by a multi-disciplinary team, to try to achieve nutritional rehabilitation as well as to optimize outcomes for liver transplant. This review explains the multifactorial nature of malnutrition in children with chronic liver disease, defines the nutritional needs of these children, and discusses ways to optimize their nutritional. PMID:29035331

  20. Metabolism of 7-ethyoxycoumarin by Isolated Perfused Rainbow Trout Livers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isolated trout livers were perfused using methods designed to preserve tissue viability and function. Liver performance was evaluated by measuring O2 consumption, vascular resistance, K+ leakage, glucose flux, lactate flux, alanine aminotransferase leakage, and metabolic clearanc...