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Sample records for zodiacal light brightness

  1. Pioneer 10 observations of zodiacal light brightness near the ecliptic - Changes with heliocentric distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, M. S.; Weinberg, J. L.; Beeson, D. E.; Sparrow, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Sky maps made by the Pioneer 10 Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) at sun-spacecraft distances from 1 to 3 AU have been analyzed to derive the brightness of the zodiacal light near the ecliptic at elongations greater than 90 degrees. The change in zodiacal light brightness with heliocentric distance is compared with models of the spatial distribution of the dust. Use of background starlight brightnesses derived from IPP measurements beyond the asteroid belt, where the zodiacal light is not detected, and, especially, use of a corrected calibration lead to considerably lower values for zodiacal light than those reported by us previously.

  2. Is the zodiacal light intensity steady. [cloud surface brightness and polarization from OSO-5 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, G. B.; Sparrow, J. G.; Ney, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that conclusions reported by Sparrow and Ney (1972, 1973) could be confirmed in an investigation involving the refinement of OSO-5 data on zodiacal light. It had been found by Sparrow and Ney that the absolute value of both the surface brightness and polarization of the zodiacal cloud varied by less than 10% over the 4-yr period from January 1969 to January 1973.

  3. Skylab experiment SO73: Gegenschein/zodiacal light. [electrophotometry of surface brightness and polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A 10 color photoelectric polarimeter was used to measure the surface brightness and polarization associated with zodiacal light, background starlight, and spacecraft corona during each of the Skylab missions. Fixed position and sky scanning observations were obtained during Skylab missions SL-2 and SL-3 at 10 wavelenghts between 4000A and 8200A. Initial results from the fixed-position data are presented on the spacecraft corona and on the polarized brightness of the zodiacal light. Included among the fixed position regions that were observed are the north celestial pole, south ecliptic pole, two regions near the north galactic pole, and 90 deg from the sun in the ecliptic. The polarized brightness of the zodiacal light was found to have the color of the sun at each of these positions. Because previous observations found the total brightness to have the color of the sun from the near ultraviolet out to 2.4 micrometers, the degree of polarization of the zodiacal light is independent of wavelength from 4000A to 8200A.

  4. Galactic and zodiacal light surface brightness measurements with the Atmosphere Explorer satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abreu, V. J.; Hays, P. B.; Yee, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Galactic and zodiacal light surface maps based on the Atmosphere Explorer-C, -D, and -E satellite data are presented at 7320, 6300, 5577, 5200, and 4278 A. A procedure used to generate these maps, which involves separation of the individual stars and diffuse starlight from the zodiacal light, is described in detail. The maps can be used in atmospheric emission studies to correct for galactic emissions which contaminate satellite as well as ground-based photometric observations. The zodiacal light maps show enhanced features which are important for understanding the nature of interplanetary dust.

  5. The S sub 10 /V/ unit of surface brightness. [for zodiacal light measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, J. G.; Weinberg, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Some discrepancies in the use of the unit of zodiacal light measurements - S sub 10 (V), which is the equivalent number of tenth magnitude stars of solar spectral type per square degree - are discussed. It is suggested that: (1) the S sub 10 (V) unit be understood to represent 10th magnitude solar (G2V) stars per square degree at mean solar distance, (2) the V refers to the visual color in the UBV system defined by Johnson and Morgan (1953), (3) the apparent solar visual magnitude be taken as -26.73 and the B-V index as .63, (4) the solar spectral irradiance values of Labs and Neckel (1970) be used, and (5) when using Vega as a standard to obtain brightnesses in S sub 10 (V), +.04 be used as its magnitude at all wavelengths and the irradiance values of Hayes and Latham (1975) be used.

  6. OAO-2 observations of the zodiacal light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillie, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    Photometric measurements of the night sky brightness have been obtained at twelve wavelengths between 1000 A and 4300 A from above the earth's atmosphere. A preliminary analysis of the data reveals a component of the sky brightness with ecliptic symmetry and an intensity distribution similar to that of the zodiacal light. The ultraviolet spectrum of the zodiacal light can be closely approximated with a two component model in which one component has an albedo proportional to the wavelength lambda and the other component has a scattering efficiency proportional to lambda to lbe minus 19 power.

  7. Rutgers zodiacal light experiment on OSO-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, B.

    1975-01-01

    A detector was placed in a slowly spinning wheel on OSO-6 whose axis was perpendicular to the line drawn to the sun, to measure the surface brightness and polarization at all elongations from the immediate neighborhood of the sun to the anti-solar point. Different wavelength settings and polarizations were calculated from the known order of magnitude brightness of the zodiacal light. The measuring sequence was arranged to give longer integration times for the regions of lower surface brightness. Three types of analysis to which the data on OSO-6 were subjected are outlined; (1) photometry, (2) colorimetry and (3) polarimetry.

  8. Zodiacal light as an indicator of interplanetary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, J. L.; Sparrow, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The most striking feature of the night sky in the tropics is the zodiacal light, which appears as a cone in the west after sunset and in the east before sunrise. It is caused by sunlight scattered or absorbed by particles in the interplanetary medium. The zodiacal light is the only source of information about the integrated properties of the whole ensemble of interplanetary dust. The brightness and polarization in different directions and at different colors can provide information on the optical properties and spatial distribution of the scattering particles. The zodiacal light arises from two independent physical processes related to the scattering of solar continuum radiation by interplanetary dust and to thermal emission which arises from solar radiation that is absorbed by interplanetary dust and reemitted mainly at infrared wavelengths. Attention is given to observational parameters of zodiacal light, the methods of observation, errors and absolute calibration, and the observed characteristics of zodiacal light.

  9. The Origin of the Excess Near-Infrared Diffuse Sky Brightness: Population III Stars or Zodiacal Light?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2006-01-01

    The intensity of the diffuse 1 to 5 micron sky emission from which solar system and Galactic foregrounds have been subtracted is in excess of that expected from energy released by galaxies and stars that formed during the z < 5 redshift interval. The spectral signature of this excess near-infrared background light (NIRBL) component is almost identical to that of reflected sunlight from the interplanetary dust cloud, and could therefore be the result of the incomplete subtraction of this foreground emission component from the diffuse sky maps. Alternatively, this emission component could be extragalactic. Its spectral signature is consistent with that of redshifted continuum and recombination line emission from H-II regions formed by the first generation of very massive stars. In this talk I will present the implications of this excess emission for our understanding of the zodiacal dust cloud, the formation rate of Pop III stars, and the TeV gamma-ray opacity to nearby blazars.

  10. COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND FLUCTUATIONS AND ZODIACAL LIGHT

    SciT

    Arendt, Richard G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S. H.

    We performed a specific observational test to measure the effect that the zodiacal light can have on measurements of the spatial fluctuations of the near-IR background. Previous estimates of possible fluctuations caused by zodiacal light have often been extrapolated from observations of the thermal emission at longer wavelengths and low angular resolution or from IRAC observations of high-latitude fields where zodiacal light is faint and not strongly varying with time. The new observations analyzed here target the COSMOS field at low ecliptic latitude where the zodiacal light intensity varies by factors of ∼2 over the range of solar elongations atmore » which the field can be observed. We find that the white-noise component of the spatial power spectrum of the background is correlated with the modeled zodiacal light intensity. Roughly half of the measured white noise is correlated with the zodiacal light, but a more detailed interpretation of the white noise is hampered by systematic uncertainties that are evident in the zodiacal light model. At large angular scales (≳100″) where excess power above the white noise is observed, we find no correlation of the power with the modeled intensity of the zodiacal light. This test clearly indicates that the large-scale power in the infrared background is not being caused by the zodiacal light.« less

  11. Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations and Zodiacal Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S. H.; Mather, J.

    2017-01-01

    We performed a specific observational test to measure the effect that the zodiacal light can have on measurements of the spatial fluctuations of the near-IR (near-infrared)background. Previous estimates of possible fluctuations caused by zodiacal light have often been extrapolated from observations of the thermal emission at longer wavelengths and low angular resolution or from IRAC (Infrared Array Camera) observations of high-latitude fields where zodiacal light is faint and not strongly varying with time. The new observations analyzed here target the COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey) field at low ecliptic latitude where the zodiacal light intensity varies by factors of approximately 2 over the range of solar elongations at which the field can be observed. We find that the white-noise component of the spatial power spectrum of the background is correlated with the modeled zodiacal light intensity. Roughly half of the measured white noise is correlated with the zodiacal light, but a more detailed interpretation of the white noise is hampered by systematic uncertainties that are evident in the zodiacal light model. At large angular scales (greater than or approximately equal to 100 arcseconds) where excess power above the white noise is observed, we find no correlation of the power with the modeled intensity of the zodiacal light. This test clearly indicates that the large-scale power in the infrared background is not being caused by the zodiacal light.

  12. Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations and Zodiacal Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Moseley, S. H.; Mather, J.

    2016-06-01

    We performed a specific observational test to measure the effect that the zodiacal light can have on measurements of the spatial fluctuations of the near-IR background. Previous estimates of possible fluctuations caused by zodiacal light have often been extrapolated from observations of the thermal emission at longer wavelengths and low angular resolution or from IRAC observations of high-latitude fields where zodiacal light is faint and not strongly varying with time. The new observations analyzed here target the COSMOS field at low ecliptic latitude where the zodiacal light intensity varies by factors of ˜2 over the range of solar elongations at which the field can be observed. We find that the white-noise component of the spatial power spectrum of the background is correlated with the modeled zodiacal light intensity. Roughly half of the measured white noise is correlated with the zodiacal light, but a more detailed interpretation of the white noise is hampered by systematic uncertainties that are evident in the zodiacal light model. At large angular scales (≳100″) where excess power above the white noise is observed, we find no correlation of the power with the modeled intensity of the zodiacal light. This test clearly indicates that the large-scale power in the infrared background is not being caused by the zodiacal light.

  13. A study of zodiacal light models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. A.; Craven, P. D.

    1973-01-01

    A review is presented of the basic equations used in the analysis of photometric observations of zodiacal light. A survey of the methods used to model the zodiacal light in and out of the ecliptic is given. Results and comparison of various models are presented, as well as recent results by the authors.

  14. Ten-color Gegenschein-zodiacal light photometer. [onboard Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, J. G.; Weinberg, J. L.; Hahn, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A ten-color Fabry photometer was used during Skylab missions SL-2 and SL-3 to measure sky brightness and polarization associated with zodiacal light, background starlight, F region airglow, and spacecraft corona. A brief description is given of the design, calibration, and performance of the instrument.

  15. Zodiacal light and the asteroid belt - The view from Pioneer 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, M. S.; Weinberg, J. L.; Deshields, L. M., II; Green, B. A.; Toller, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Brightnesses measured by the Pioneer 10 imaging photopolarimeter in two regions of sky were compared on sky maps at sun-spacecraft distances from 2.4 to 4.8 AU to determine the spatial extent of the zodiacal light. Data in the ecliptic at elongations greater than 90 deg show negligible contribution to the zodiacal light beyond 3.3 AU, the 2:1 Jupiter resonance. The zodiacal light brightness at 2.4 AU is less than 10% of that observed at 1 AU.

  16. Polarization of the zodiacal light - First results from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, J. G.; Weinberg, J. L.; Hahn, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A brief description is given of the Skylab ten color photoelectric photometer and the programs of measurements made during Skylab missions SL-2 and SL-3. Results obtained on the polarized brightness of zodiacal light at five points on the antisolar hemisphere are discussed and compared with other published data for the north celestial pole, south ecliptic pole, at elongation 90 degrees on the ecliptic, and at two places near the north galactic pole.

  17. A Near-Infrared Spectrometer to Measure Zodiacal Light Absorption Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyrev, A. S.; Arendt, R.; Dwek, E.; Kimble, R.; Moseley, S. H.; Rapchun, D.; Silverberg, R. F.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a high throughput infrared spectrometer for zodiacal light fraunhofer lines measurements. The instrument is based on a cryogenic dual silicon Fabry-Perot etalon which is designed to achieve high signal to noise Fraunhofer line profile measurements. Very large aperture silicon Fabry-Perot etalons and fast camera optics make these measurements possible. The results of the absorption line profile measurements will provide a model free measure of the zodiacal Light intensity in the near infrared. The knowledge of the zodiacal light brightness is crucial for accurate subtraction of zodiacal light foreground for accurate measure of the extragalactic background light after the subtraction of zodiacal light foreground. We present the final design of the instrument and the first results of its performance.

  18. Observations of the zodiacal light from the ecliptic to the poles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, J. G.; Ney, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    The brightness and polarization of the zodiacal light have been measured from the satellite OSO-5, using two photometers of effective wavelengths 4180 and 6820 A. The satellite configuration restricts the observations to ecliptic longitudes close to 90 deg, but measurements have been made from the ecliptic to the poles. On the ecliptic, the intensity of the zodiacal light was found to be 117 S10 (blue) and 315 S10 (red) with polarizations of 16.5 and 15 per cent, respectively. At the ecliptic poles the zodiacal intensity was 35 S10 (blue) with 20 per cent polarization. No temporal changes in zodiacal light have been found nor any significant differences in the intensities in the two hemispheres. The direction of polarization of the zodiacal light has been shown to be H-pass radial.

  19. Experiment S001: Zodiacal Light Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ney, E. P.; Huch, W. F.

    1971-01-01

    Observations made during the Gemini 5, 9, and 10 missions in the context of their relation to ground-based and balloon-based experiments on dim-light phenomena are reported. Zodiacal light is the visible manifestation of dust grains in orbit around the sun. The negatives that were exposed on the Gemini 9 mission were studied by the use of an isodensitracer to produce intensity isophotes. Data on the following factors were obtained: (1) intensity distribution of the zodiacal light, both morning and evening; (2) the height and intensity of the airglow at various geographic positions; and (3) intensity distribution of the Milky Way in the region of the sky near Cygnus. Also, a previously unreported phenomenon was discovered. This phenomenon appeared as an upward extension of the normal 90-kilometer airglow layer. The extension was in the form of wisps or plumes approximately 5 deg wide and extending upward approximately 5 deg. The results obtained from pictures exposed on the Gemini 10 mission were of qualitative or geometrical value only.

  20. The NGST and the Zodiacal Light in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkavyi, Nick; Ozernoy, Leonid; Mather, John; Taidakova, Tanya

    1999-01-01

    We develop a physical model of the zodiacal cloud incorporating the real dust sources of asteroidal, cometary, and kuiperoidal origin. Using the inferred distribution of the zodiacal dust, we compute its thermal emission and scattering at several wavelengths (1.25, 5, and 20 micron) as a function of NGST location assumed to be at 1 AU or 3 AU. Areas on the sky with a minimum of zodiacal light are determined.

  1. Colour dependence of zodiacal light models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giese, R. H.; Hanner, M. S.; Leinert, C.

    1973-01-01

    Colour models of the zodiacal light in the ecliptic have been calculated for both dielectric and metallic particles in the sub-micron and micron size range. Two colour ratios were computed, a blue ratio and a red ratio. The models with a size distribution proportional to s to the -2.5 power ds (where s is the particle radius) generally show a colour close to the solar colour and almost independent of elongation. Especially in the blue colour ratio there is generally no significant dependence on the lower cutoff size (0.1-1 micron). The main feature of absorbing particles is a reddening at small elongations. The models for size distributions proportional to s to the -4 power ds show larger departures from solar colour and more variation with model parameters. Colour measurements, including red and near infra-red, therefore are useful to distinguish between flat and steep size spectra and to verify the presence of slightly absorbing particles.

  2. Research studies using OSO-6 zodiacal light experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The results of research studies on the OSO-6 zodiacal light experiment, conducted during the period from May 1976 to October 1977 are described. A discussion is included of the instrument performance and the empirical calibrations developed. Main areas of the research performed, i.e., (1) zodiacal light variation analysis; (2) integrated starlight and diffuse galactic light; and (3) earth/moon libration region counterglow, are covered. Considerable data processing was performed during these studies and it is summarized. Recommendations for future research to complete the interim results are given.

  3. Dynamical Zodiacal Cloud Models Constrained by High Resolution Spectroscopy of the Zodiacal Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Madsen, G. J.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H.; Reynolds, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a set of self-consistent dynamical models of the Zodiacal cloud, following the orbital evolution of dust particles. Three populations were considered, originating from the Kuiper belt, asteroids and comets. Using the models developed, we investigated how the solar spectrum is changed by scattering by the zodiacal cloud grains and compared the obtained spectra with the observations.

  4. Clementine Observations of the Zodiacal Light and the Dust Content of the Inner Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Joseph M.; Zook, Herbert A.; Cooper, Bonnie; Sunkara, Bhaskar

    2002-01-01

    Using the Moon to occult the Sun, the Clementine spacecraft used its navigation cameras to map the inner zodiacal light at optical wavelengths over elongations of 3 approx. less than epsilon approx. less than 30 deg from the Sun. This surface brightness map is then used to infer the spatial distribution of interplanetary dust over heliocentric distances of about 10 solar radii to the orbit of Venus. The averaged ecliptic surface brightness of the zodiacal light falls off as Z(epsilon) is a member of epsilon(sup -2.45 +/- 0.05), which suggests that the dust cross-sectional density nominally falls off as sigma(r) is a member of r(sup - 1.45 +/- 0.05). The interplanetary dust also has an albedo of alpha approx. = 0.1 that is uncertain by a factor of approx. 2. Asymmetries of approx. 10% are seen in directions east-west and north-south of the Sun, and these may be due the giant planets' secular gravitational perturbations. We apply a simple model that attributes the zodiacal light as due to three dust populations having distinct inclination distributions, namely, dust from asteroids and Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) having characteristic inclinations of i approx. 7 deg, dust from Halley-type comets having i approx. 33 deg, and an isotropic cloud of dust from Oort Cloud comets. The best-fitting scenario indicates that asteroids + JFCs are the source of about 45% of the optical dust cross section seen in the ecliptic at 1 AU but that at least 89% of the dust cross section enclosed by a 1-AU-radius sphere is of a cometary origin. Each population's radial density variations can also deviate somewhat from the nominal sigma(r) is a member of r(sup -1.45). When these results are extrapolated out to the asteroid belt, we find an upper limit on the mass of the light-reflecting asteroidal dust that is equivalent to a 12-km asteroid, and a similar extrapolation of the isotropic dust cloud out to Oort Cloud distances yields a mass equivalent to a 30-km comet, although the latter

  5. High Brightness OLED Lighting

    SciT

    Spindler, Jeffrey; Kondakova, Marina; Boroson, Michael

    2016-05-25

    In this work we describe the technology developments behind our current and future generations of high brightness OLED lighting panels. We have developed white and amber OLEDs with excellent performance based on the stacking approach. Current products achieve 40-60 lm/W, while future developments focus on achieving 80 lm/W or higher.

  6. Optimization of high-inclination orbits using planetary flybys for a zodiacal light-imaging mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Gabriel; Lloyd, James; Savransky, Dmitry; Grogan, Keith; Sinha, Amlan

    2017-09-01

    The zodiacal light caused by interplanetary dust grains is the second-most luminous source in the solar system. The dust grains coalesce into structures reminiscent of early solar system formation; their composition has been predicted through simulations and some edge-on observations but better data is required to validate them. Scattered light from these dust grains presents challenges to exoplanet imaging missions: resolution of their stellar environment is hindered by exozodiacal emissions and therefore sets the size and scope of these imaging missions. Understanding the composition of this interplanetary dust in our solar system requires an imaging mission from a vantage point above the ecliptic plane. The high surface brightness of the zodiacal light requires only a small aperture with moderate sensitivity; therefore a 3cm camera is enough to meet the science goals of the mission at an orbital height of 0.1AU above the ecliptic. A 6U CubeSat is the target mass for this mission which will be a secondary payload detaching from an existing interplanetary mission. Planetary flybys are utilized to produce most of the plane change Δv deep space corrective maneuvers are implemented to optimize each planetary flyby. We developed an algorithm which determines the minimum Δv required to place the CubeSat on a transfer orbit to a planet's sphere of influence and maximizes the resultant orbital height with respect to the ecliptic plane. The satellite could reach an orbital height of 0.22 AU with an Earth gravity assist in late 2024 by boarding the Europa Clipper mission.

  7. Bright Lights, Green City

    2010-07-28

    Two extremely bright stars illuminate a greenish mist in this image from the new GLIMPSE360 survey from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. The fog is comprised of hydrogen and carbon compounds called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  8. A CMB foreground study in WMAP data: Extragalactic point sources and zodiacal light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi

    , separately, in comparison to t 0.40 from the WMAP catalogs. Our source catalogs are a good supplement to the existing WMAP source catalogs, and the method itself is proven to be both complementary to and competitive with all the current source finding techniques in WMAP maps. Scattered light and thermal emission from the interplanetary dust (IPD) within our Solar System are major contributors to the diffuse sky brightness at most infrared wavelengths. For wavelengths longer than 3.5 mm, the thermal emission of the IPD dominates over scattering, and the emission is often referred to as the Zodiacal Light Emission (ZLE). To set a limit of ZLE contribution to the WMAP data, we have performed a simultaneous fit of the yearly WMAP time-ordered data to the time variation of ZLE predicted by the DIRBE IPD model (Kelsallet al. 1998) evaluated at 240 mm, plus [cursive l] = 1 - 4 CMB components. It is found that although this fitting procedure can successfully recover the CMB dipole to a 0.5% accuracy, it is not sensitive enough to determine the ZLE signal nor the other multipole moments very accurately.

  9. The Skylab ten color photoelectric polarimeter. [sky brightness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, J. L.; Hahn, R. C.; Sparrow, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    A 10-color photoelectric polarimeter was used during Skylab missions SL-2 and SL-3 to measure sky brightness and polarization associated with zodiacal light, background starlight, and the spacecraft corona. A description is given of the instrument and observing routines together with initial results on the spacecraft corona and polarization of the zodiacal light.

  10. Bright light induces choroidal thickening in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lan, Weizhong; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Bright light is a potent inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. Because development of refractive errors has been linked to changes in choroidal thickness, we have studied in chickens whether bright light may exert its effects on myopia also through changes in choroidal thickness. Three-day-old chickens were exposed to "bright light" (15,000 lux; n = 14) from 10 AM to 4 PM but kept under "normal light" (500 lux) during the remaining time of the light phase for 5 days (total duration of light phase 8 AM to 6 PM). A control group (n = 14) was kept under normal light during the entire light phase. Choroidal thickness was measured in alert, hand-held animals with optical coherence tomography at 10 AM, 4 PM, and 8 PM every day. Complete data sets were available for 12 chicks in bright light group and nine in normal light group. The striking inter-individual variability in choroidal thickness (coefficient of variance: 23%) made it necessary to normalize changes to the individual baseline thickness of the choroid. During the 6 hours of exposure to bright light, choroidal thickness decreased by -5.2 ± 4.0% (mean ± SEM). By contrast, in the group kept under normal light, choroidal thickness increased by +15.4 ± 4.7% (difference between both groups p = 0.003). After an additional 4 hours, choroidal thickness increased also in the "bright light group" by +17.8 ± 3.5%, while there was little further change (+0.6 ± 4.0%) in the "normal light group" (difference p = 0.004). Finally, the choroid was thicker in the "bright light group" (+7.6 ± 26.0%) than in the "normal light group" (day 5: -18.6 ± 26.9%; difference p = 0.036). Bright light stimulates choroidal thickening in chickens, although the response is smaller than with experimentally imposed myopic defocus, and it occurs with some time delay. It nevertheless suggests that choroidal thickening is also involved in myopia inhibition by bright light.

  11. Bright Ideas for Measuring Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, John R.; Schuler, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive device (around $8.00) for measuring light. The circuit used includes five resistors, three small capacitors, a cadmium sulfide light sensor, two integrated circuits, and two light-emitting diodes. The unit is constructed on a small perforated circuit board and powered by a 9-V transistor radio battery. (JN)

  12. Intermittent episodes of bright light suppress myopia in the chicken more than continuous bright light.

    PubMed

    Lan, Weizhong; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8) was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux) at a 10:14 light:dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux) were super-imposed on this background as follows. Paradigm I: exposure to constant bright light for either 1 hour (n = 5), 2 hours (n = 5), 5 hours (n = 4) or 10 hours (n = 4). Paradigm II: exposure to repeated cycles of bright light with 50% duty cycle and either 60 minutes (n = 7), 30 minutes (n = 8), 15 minutes (n = 6), 7 minutes (n = 7) or 1 minute (n = 7) periods, provided for 10 hours. Refraction and axial length were measured prior to and immediately after the 5-day experiment. Relative changes were analyzed by paired t-tests, and differences among groups were tested by one-way ANOVA. Compared with the reference group, exposure to continuous bright light for 1 or 2 hours every day had no significant protective effect against deprivation myopia. Inhibition of myopia became significant after 5 hours of bright light exposure but extending the duration to 10 hours did not offer an additional benefit. In comparison, repeated cycles of 1:1 or 7:7 minutes of bright light enhanced the protective effect against myopia and could fully suppress its development. The protective effect of bright light depends on the exposure duration and, to the intermittent form, the frequency cycle. Compared to the saturation effect of continuous bright light, low frequency cycles of bright light (1:1 min) provided the strongest inhibition effect. However, our quantitative results probably might not be directly translated into humans, but rather need further amendments in clinical studies.

  13. Bright, Light and Energy Efficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The new Sharon Elementary School in Newburgh (Indiana) has a three-fuel plan that will allow selection of the most economical energy source for each heating season with an energy-efficient lighting system that includes skylights. (Author/MLF)

  14. Bright light and thermoregulatory responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, G; Barr, D; Chester, N; Drust, B; Gregson, W; Reilly, T; Waterhouse, J

    2008-03-01

    The thermoregulatory responses to morning exercise after exposure to different schedules of bright light were examined. At 07:00 h, six males ran on two occasions in an environmental chamber (temperature = 31.4 +/- 1.0 degrees C, humidity = 66 +/- 6 %) for 40 min at 60 % of maximal oxygen uptake. Participants were exposed to bright light (10,000 lux) either between 22:00 - 23:00 h (BT (low)) or 06:00 - 07:00 h (BT (high)). Otherwise, participants remained in dim light (< 50 lux). It was hypothesized that BT (low) attenuates core temperature during morning exercise via the phase-delaying properties of evening bright light and by avoiding bright light in the morning. Evening bright light in BT (low) suppressed (p = 0.037) the increase in melatonin compared to dim light (1.1 +/- 11.4 vs. 15.2 +/- 19.7 pg x ml (-1)) and delayed (p = 0.034) the core temperature minimum by 1.46 +/- 1.24 h. Core temperature was 0.20 +/- 0.17 degrees C lower in BT (low) compared to BT (high) during the hour before exercise (p = 0.036), with evidence (p = 0.075) that this difference was maintained during exercise. Conversely, mean skin temperature was 1.0 +/- 1.7 degrees C higher during the first 10 min of exercise in BT (low) than in BT (high) (p = 0.030). There was evidence that the increase in perceived exertion was attenuated in BT (low) (p = 0.056). A chronobiologically-based light schedule can lower core temperature before and during morning exercise in hot conditions.

  15. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Christopher E.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Zielinski, Mark R.; Devlin, Tina M.; Moore, Teresa A.

    2016-01-01

    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210–2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210–2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210–2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410–0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect. PMID:27103935

  16. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise.

    PubMed

    Youngstedt, Shawn D; Kline, Christopher E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Zielinski, Mark R; Devlin, Tina M; Moore, Teresa A

    2016-02-26

    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210-2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210-2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210-2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410-0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect.

  17. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix T: Experiment T027/S073 contamination measurement, photometer and Gegenschein/zodiacal light (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A series of analyses for Experiment T027/S073, contamination measurement, photometer and gegenschein/zodiacal light (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditons is presented. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  18. Intermittent Episodes of Bright Light Suppress Myopia in the Chicken More than Continuous Bright Light

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Weizhong; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. Methods Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8) was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux) at a 10∶14 light∶dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux) were super-imposed on this background as follows. Paradigm I: exposure to constant bright light for either 1 hour (n = 5), 2 hours (n = 5), 5 hours (n = 4) or 10 hours (n = 4). Paradigm II: exposure to repeated cycles of bright light with 50% duty cycle and either 60 minutes (n = 7), 30 minutes (n = 8), 15 minutes (n = 6), 7 minutes (n = 7) or 1 minute (n = 7) periods, provided for 10 hours. Refraction and axial length were measured prior to and immediately after the 5-day experiment. Relative changes were analyzed by paired t-tests, and differences among groups were tested by one-way ANOVA. Results Compared with the reference group, exposure to continuous bright light for 1 or 2 hours every day had no significant protective effect against deprivation myopia. Inhibition of myopia became significant after 5 hours of bright light exposure but extending the duration to 10 hours did not offer an additional benefit. In comparison, repeated cycles of 1∶1 or 7∶7 minutes of bright light enhanced the protective effect against myopia and could fully suppress its development. Conclusions The protective effect of bright light depends on the exposure duration and, to the intermittent form, the frequency cycle. Compared to the saturation effect of continuous bright light, low frequency cycles of bright light (1∶1 min) provided the strongest inhibition effect. However, our quantitative results probably might not be directly translated into humans, but rather need further amendments in clinical

  19. A Systematic Review of Bright Light Therapy for Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Marshall T; Lundgren, Jennifer D

    2016-10-27

    Bright light therapy is a noninvasive biological intervention for disorders with nonnormative circadian features. Eating disorders, particularly those with binge-eating and night-eating features, have documented nonnormative circadian eating and mood patterns, suggesting that bright light therapy may be an efficacious stand-alone or adjunctive intervention. The purpose of this systematic literature review, using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, was (1) to evaluate the state of the empirical treatment outcome literature on bright light therapy for eating disorders and (2) to explore the timing of eating behavior, mood, and sleep-related symptom change so as to understand potential mechanisms of bright light therapy action in the context of eating disorder treatment. A comprehensive literature search using PsycInfo and PubMed/MEDLINE was conducted in April 2016 with no date restrictions to identify studies published using bright light therapy as a treatment for eating disorders. Keywords included combinations of terms describing disordered eating (eating disorder, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating, binge, eating behavior, eating, and night eating) and the use of bright light therapy (bright light therapy, light therapy, phototherapy). After excluding duplicates, 34 articles were reviewed for inclusion. 14 published studies of bright light therapy for eating disorders met inclusion criteria (included participants with an eating disorder/disordered-eating behaviors; presented as a case study, case series, open-label clinical trial, or randomized/nonrandomized controlled trial; written in English; and published and available by the time of manuscript review). Results suggest that bright light therapy is potentially effective at improving both disordered-eating behavior and mood acutely, although the timing of symptom response and the duration of treatment effects remain unknown. Future research should

  20. Bright-light mask treatment of delayed sleep phase syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cole, Roger J; Smith, Julian S; Alcalá, Yvonne C; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Kripke, Daniel F

    2002-02-01

    We treated delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) with an illuminated mask that provides light through closed eyelids during sleep. Volunteers received either bright white light (2,700 lux, n = 28) or dim red light placebo (0.1 lux, n = 26) for 26 days at home. Mask lights were turned on (< 0.01 lux) 4 h before arising, ramped up for 1 h, and remained on at full brightness until arising. Volunteers also attempted to systematically advance sleep time, avoid naps, and avoid evening bright light. The light mask was well tolerated and produced little sleep disturbance. The acrophase of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (6-SMT) excretion advanced significantly from baseline in the bright group (p < 0.0006) and not in the dim group, but final phases were not significantly earlier in the bright group (ANCOVA ns). Bright treatment did produce significantly earlier phases, however, among volunteers whose baseline 6-SMT acrophase was later than the median of 0602 h (bright shift: 0732-0554 h, p < 0.0009; dim shift: 0746-0717 h, ns; ANCOVA p = 0.03). In this subgroup, sleep onset advanced significantly only with bright but not dim treatment (sleep onset shift: bright 0306-0145 h, p < 0.0002; dim 0229-0211 h, ns; ANCOVA p < .05). Despite equal expectations at baseline, participants rated bright treatment as more effective than dim treatment (p < 0.04). We conclude that bright-light mask treatment advances circadian phase and provides clinical benefit in DSPS individuals whose initial circadian delay is relatively severe.

  1. Exposure to bright light biases effort-based decisions.

    PubMed

    Bijleveld, Erik; Knufinke, Melanie

    2018-06-01

    Secreted in the evening and the night, melatonin suppresses activity of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, a brain pathway involved in reward processing. However, exposure to bright light diminishes-or even prevents-melatonin secretion. Thus, we hypothesized that reward processing, in the evening, is more pronounced in bright light (vs. dim light). Healthy human participants carried out three tasks that tapped into various aspects of reward processing (effort expenditure for rewards task [EEfRT]; two-armed bandit task [2ABT]; balloon analogue risk task [BART). Brightness was manipulated within-subjects (bright vs. dim light), in separate evening sessions. During the EEfRT, participants used reward-value information more strongly when they were exposed to bright light (vs. dim light). This finding supported our hypothesis. However, exposure to bright light did not significantly affect task behavior on the 2ABT and the BART. While future research is necessary (e.g., to zoom in on working mechanisms), these findings have potential implications for the design of physical work environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Imaging Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub Wesley; Bryden, Geoff; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Chen, Pin; Trauger, John

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed coronagraph on a balloon-borne platform, for the purpose of observing debris disks around nearby stars. Zodiac II will have a 1.2-m diameter telescope mounted in a balloon-borne gondola capable of arcsecond quality pointing, and with the capability to make long-duration (several week) flights. Zodiac II will have a coronagraph able to make images of debris disks, meaning that its scattered light speckles will be at or below an average contrast level of about 10(exp -7) in three narrow (7 percent) bands centered on the V band, and one broad (20%) one at I band. We will discuss the potential science to be done with Zodiac II.

  3. Light-emitting nanolattices with enhanced brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Ryan C.; Mandal, Rajib; Anthony, Rebecca J.; Greer, Julia R.

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals have potential in solid state lighting applications due to their advantages over conventional planar thin film devices. Periodicity in a photonic crystal structure enables engineering of the density of states to improve spontaneous light emission according to Fermi's golden rule. Unlike planar thin films, which suffer significantly from total internal reflection, a 3D architectured structure is distributed in space with many non-flat interfaces, which facilitates a substantial enhancement in light extraction. We demonstrate the fabrication of 3D nano-architectures with octahedron geometry that utilize luminescing silicon nanocrystals as active media with an aluminum cathode and indium tin oxide anode towards the realization of a 3D light emitting device. The developed fabrication procedure allows charge to pass through the nanolattice between two contacts for electroluminescence. These initial fabrication efforts suggest that 3D nano-architected devices are realizable and can reach greater efficiencies than planar devices.

  4. Human Adolescent Phase Response Curves to Bright White Light.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Stephanie J; Eastman, Charmane I

    2017-08-01

    Older adolescents are particularly vulnerable to circadian misalignment and sleep restriction, primarily due to early school start times. Light can shift the circadian system and could help attenuate circadian misalignment; however, a phase response curve (PRC) to determine the optimal time for receiving light and avoiding light is not available for adolescents. We constructed light PRCs for late pubertal to postpubertal adolescents aged 14 to 17 years. Participants completed 2 counterbalanced 5-day laboratory sessions after 8 or 9 days of scheduled sleep at home. Each session included phase assessments to measure the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) before and after 3 days of free-running through an ultradian light-dark (wake-sleep) cycle (2 h dim [~20 lux] light, 2 h dark). In one session, intermittent bright white light (~5000 lux; four 20-min exposures) was alternated with 10 min of dim room light once per day for 3 consecutive days. The time of light varied among participants to cover the 24-h day. For each individual, the phase shift to bright light was corrected for the free-run derived from the other laboratory session with no bright light. One PRC showed phase shifts in response to light start time relative to the DLMO and another relative to home sleep. Phase delay shifts occurred around the hours corresponding to home bedtime. Phase advances occurred during the hours surrounding wake time and later in the afternoon. The transition from delays to advances occurred at the midpoint of home sleep. The adolescent PRCs presented here provide a valuable tool to time bright light in adolescents.

  5. Bright light does not alter muscarinic receptor binding parameters.

    PubMed

    Giroux, M L; Malatynska, E; Dilsaver, S C

    1991-03-01

    Seasonal Affective Disorders (SADs) are disorders of mood characterized by recurrent episodes of illness with a fixed relationship to season. Winter depression is characterized by recurrent onset of depression in the fall or winter followed by spontaneous recovery in the spring. This syndrome is responsive to treatment with bright light. The pathophysiology of depressive disorders may involve central muscarinic mechanisms. This possibility led to a series of physiological studies. The authors now report that contrary to expectation, treatment with bright light did not decrease the density of muscarinic receptors in either the hypothalamus or striatum.

  6. Retinal network adaptation to bright light requires tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Page-McCaw, Patrick S; Chung, S Clare; Muto, Akira; Roeser, Tobias; Staub, Wendy; Finger-Baier, Karin C; Korenbrot, Juan I; Baier, Herwig

    2004-12-01

    The visual system adjusts its sensitivity to a wide range of light intensities. We report here that mutation of the zebrafish sdy gene, which encodes tyrosinase, slows down the onset of adaptation to bright light. When fish larvae were challenged with periods of darkness during the day, the sdy mutants required nearly an hour to recover optokinetic behavior after return to bright light, whereas wild types recovered within minutes. This behavioral deficit was phenocopied in fully pigmented fish by inhibiting tyrosinase and thus does not depend on the absence of melanin pigment in sdy. Electroretinograms showed that the dark-adapted retinal network recovers sensitivity to a pulse of light more slowly in sdy mutants than in wild types. This failure is localized in the retinal neural network, postsynaptic to photoreceptors. We propose that retinal pigment epithelium (which normally expresses tyrosinase) secretes a modulatory factor, possibly L-DOPA, which regulates light adaptation in the retinal circuitry.

  7. Dynamic resetting of the human circadian pacemaker by intermittent bright light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rimmer, D. W.; Boivin, D. B.; Shanahan, T. L.; Kronauer, R. E.; Duffy, J. F.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    In humans, experimental studies of circadian resetting typically have been limited to lengthy episodes of exposure to continuous bright light. To evaluate the time course of the human endogenous circadian pacemaker's resetting response to brief episodes of intermittent bright light, we studied 16 subjects assigned to one of two intermittent lighting conditions in which the subjects were presented with intermittent episodes of bright-light exposure at 25- or 90-min intervals. The effective duration of bright-light exposure was 31% or 63% compared with a continuous 5-h bright-light stimulus. Exposure to intermittent bright light elicited almost as great a resetting response compared with 5 h of continuous bright light. We conclude that exposure to intermittent bright light produces robust phase shifts of the endogenous circadian pacemaker. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that humans, like other species, exhibit an enhanced sensitivity to the initial minutes of bright-light exposure.

  8. Signatures of planets: Observations and modeling of structure in the zodiacal cloud and Kuiper disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Elizabeth Katherine

    2002-12-01

    There is a possible connection between structure in evolved circumstellar disks and the presence of planets, our own zodiacal cloud being a proven example. Asymmetries in such a disk could be diagnostic of planets which would be otherwise undetectable. Using COBE DIRBE observations, we link structure in the zodiacal cloud, namely the warp and offset of the cloud, to the presence of planets using secular perturbation theory. In addition, we obtain supplementary ISO observations and determine a scale factor for the data which we apply to calibrate the data to the observed COBE brightness. A Kuiper dust disk will have a resonant structure, with two concentrations in brightness along the ecliptic longitude arising because 10 15% of the Kuiper belt objects are in the 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune. We run numerical integrations of particles originating from source bodies trapped in the 3:2 resonance and we determine what percentage of particles remain in the resonance for a variety of particle and source body sizes. The dynamical evolution of the particles is followed from source to sink with Poynting- Robertson light drag, solar wind drag, radiation pressure, the Lorentz force, neutral interstellar gas drag, and the effects of planetary gravitational perturbations included. We then conduct an observational search in the 60 μm COBE data for the Kuiper disk, which is predicted to be, at most, a few percent of the brightness of the zodiacal cloud. By removing emission due to the background zodiacal cloud and the dust bands, we expect to see the trailing/leading signature of Earth's resonant ring. However, when subtracted from the data, we find that none of the empirical background zodiacal cloud models give the residuals predicted by theory. We conclude that a dynamical two-component (both inner and outer) zodiacal cloud model must be created to complete the search. Lastly, we extend our work outside the solar system and obtain upper limits on the flux around ten

  9. Bright-White Beetle Scales Optimise Multiple Scattering of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burresi, Matteo; Cortese, Lorenzo; Pattelli, Lorenzo; Kolle, Mathias; Vukusic, Peter; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Whiteness arises from diffuse and broadband reflection of light typically achieved through optical scattering in randomly structured media. In contrast to structural colour due to coherent scattering, white appearance generally requires a relatively thick system comprising randomly positioned high refractive-index scattering centres. Here, we show that the exceptionally bright white appearance of Cyphochilus and Lepidiota stigma beetles arises from a remarkably optimised anisotropy of intra-scale chitin networks, which act as a dense scattering media. Using time-resolved measurements, we show that light propagating in the scales of the beetles undergoes pronounced multiple scattering that is associated with the lowest transport mean free path reported to date for low-refractive-index systems. Our light transport investigation unveil high level of optimisation that achieves high-brightness white in a thin low-mass-per-unit-area anisotropic disordered nanostructure.

  10. Human responses to bright light of different durations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Santhi, Nayantara; St Hilaire, Melissa; Gronfier, Claude; Bradstreet, Dayna S; Duffy, Jeanne F; Lockley, Steven W; Kronauer, Richard E; Czeisler, Charles A

    2012-07-01

    Light exposure in the early night induces phase delays of the circadian rhythm in melatonin in humans. Previous studies have investigated the effect of timing, intensity, wavelength, history and pattern of light stimuli on the human circadian timing system. We present results from a study of the duration–response relationship to phase-delaying bright light. Thirty-nine young healthy participants (16 female; 22.18±3.62 years) completed a 9-day inpatient study. Following three baseline days, participants underwent an initial circadian phase assessment procedure in dim light (<3 lux), and were then randomized for exposure to a bright light pulse (∼10,000 lux) of 0.2 h, 1.0 h, 2.5 h or 4.0 h duration during a 4.5 h controlled-posture episode centred in a 16 h wake episode. After another 8 h sleep episode, participants completed a second circadian phase assessment. Phase shifts were calculated from the difference in the clock time of the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) between the initial and final phase assessments. Exposure to varying durations of bright light reset the circadian pacemaker in a dose-dependent, non-linear manner. Per minute of exposure, the 0.2 h duration was over 5 times more effective at phase delaying the circadian pacemaker (1.07±0.36 h) as compared with the 4.0 h duration (2.65±0.24 h). Acute melatonin suppression and subjective sleepiness also had a dose-dependent response to light exposure duration. These results provide strong evidence for a non-linear resetting response of the human circadian pacemaker to light duration.

  11. Leveraging brightness from transportation lighting systems through light source color.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    Roadway transportation lighting is installed for multiple reasons including traffic safety and pedestrian : security. Judgments of pedestrian safety and security along roadways are not strictly correlated to : specified light levels, but the color of...

  12. Progress in extremely high brightness LED-based light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelen, Christoph; Antonis, Piet; de Boer, Dick; Koole, Rolf; Kadijk, Simon; Li, Yun; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van De Voorde, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Although the maximum brightness of LEDs has been increasing continuously during the past decade, their luminance is still far from what is required for multiple applications that still rely on the high brightness of discharge lamps. In particular for high brightness applications with limited étendue, e.g. front projection, only very modest luminance values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps or lasers. With dedicated architectures, phosphor-converted green LEDs for projection may achieve luminance values up to 200-300 Mnit. In this paper we report on the progress made in the development of light engines based on an elongated luminescent concentrator pumped by blue LEDs. This concept has recently been introduced to the market as ColorSpark High Lumen Density LED technology. These sources outperform the maximum brightness of LEDs by multiple factors. In LED front projection, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green modules, we now have achieved peak luminance values of 2 Gnit, enabling LED-based projection systems with over 4000 ANSI lm. Extension of this concept to yellow and red light sources is presented. The light source efficiency has been increased considerably, reaching 45-60 lm/W for green under practical application conditions. The module architecture, beam shaping, and performance characteristics are reviewed, as well as system aspects. The performance increase, spectral range extensions, beam-shaping flexibility, and cost reductions realized with the new module architecture enable a breakthrough in LED-based projection systems and in a wide variety of other high brightness applications.

  13. Thoughts About Nursing Curricula: Dark Clouds and Bright Lights.

    PubMed

    Turkel, Marian C; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Amankwaa, Linda; Clarke, Pamela N; Dee, Vivien; Eustace, Rosemary; Hansell, Phyllis Shanley; Jones, Dorothy A; Smith, Marlaine C; Zahourek, Rothlyn

    2018-04-01

    In this essay, several nurse scholars who are particularly concerned about the contemporary state of nursing science present their concerns about the inclusion of nursing conceptual models and theories in the curricula of nursing programs (dark clouds) and ways in which the concerns have been addressed (bright lights). This essay is the second of two essays that were catalyzed by Barrett's paper, "Again, What Is Nursing Science?" The first essay was published in the previous issue of Nursing Science Quarterly.

  14. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Science from a Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; hide

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how are debris disks shaped by planets; what materials are debris disks made of; how much dust do debris disks make sa they grind down; and how long do debris disks live? In addition, Zodiac II will observe hot, young exoplanets as targets of opportunity. The Zodiac II instrument is a 1.1-m diameter SiC telescope and an imaging coronagraph on a gondola carried by a stratospheric balloon. Its data product is a set of images of each targeted debris disk in four broad visible wavelength bands. Zodiac II will address its science questions by taking high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Mid-latitude flights are considered: overnight test flights within the United States followed by half-global flights in the Southern Hemisphere. These longer flights are required to fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to Zodiac II. On these targets, it will be 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS); no existing telescope can match the Zodiac II contrast and resolution performance. A second objective of Zodiac II is to use the near-space environment to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of SiC mirrors, internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  15. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Science from a Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryden, Geoffrey; Traub, Wesley; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Bruno, Robin; Unwin, Stephen; Backovsky, Stan; Brugarolas, Paul; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Chen, Pin; Hillenbrand, Lynne; hide

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed balloon-borne science investigation of debris disks around nearby stars. Debris disks are analogs of the Asteroid Belt (mainly rocky) and Kuiper Belt (mainly icy) in our Solar System. Zodiac II will measure the size, shape, brightness, and color of a statistically significant sample of disks. These measurements will enable us to probe these fundamental questions: what do debris disks tell us about the evolution of planetary systems; how are debris disks produced; how are debris disks shaped by planets; what materials are debris disks made of; how much dust do debris disks make as they grind down; and how long do debris disks live? In addition, Zodiac II will observe hot, young exoplanets as targets of opportunity. The Zodiac II instrument is a 1.1-m diameter SiC (Silicone carbide) telescope and an imaging coronagraph on a gondola carried by a stratospheric balloon. Its data product is a set of images of each targeted debris disk in four broad visible-wavelength bands. Zodiac II will address its science questions by taking high-resolution, multi-wavelength images of the debris disks around tens of nearby stars. Mid-latitude flights are considered: overnight test flights in the US followed by half-global flights in the Southern Hemisphere. These longer flights are required to fully explore the set of known debris disks accessible only to Zodiac II. On these targets, it will be 100 times more sensitive than the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS); no existing telescope can match the Zodiac II contrast and resolution performance. A second objective of Zodiac II is to use the near-space environment to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of SiC mirrors, internal coronagraphs, deformable mirrors, and wavefront sensing and control, all potentially needed for a future space-based telescope for high-contrast exoplanet imaging.

  16. The effect of bright light on lens compensation in chicks.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Regan S; Schaeffel, Frank

    2010-10-01

    It has been shown that sunlight or bright indoor light can inhibit the development of deprivation myopia in chicks. It remains unclear whether light merely acts on deprivation myopia or, more generally, modulates the rate of emmetropization and its set point. This study was conducted to test how bright light interacts with compensation for imposed optical defocus. Furthermore, a dopamine antagonist was applied to test whether the protective effect of light is mediated by dopamine. Experiment A: Chicks monocularly wore either -7 or +7 D lenses for a period of 5 days, either under normal laboratory illuminance (500 lux, n = 12 and 16, respectively) or under high ambient illuminance (15,000 lux, n = 12 and 16). Experiment B: Chicks wore diffusers for a period of 4 days, either under normal laboratory illuminance (500 lux, n = 9) or high ambient illuminance (15,000 lux), with the bright-light group intravitreally injected daily with either the dopamine D(2) antagonist spiperone (500 μM, n = 9) or a vehicle solution (0.1% ascorbic acid, n = 9), with an untreated group serving as the control (n = 6). Axial length and refraction were measured at the commencement and cessation of all treatments. Exposure to high illuminances (15,000 lux) for 5 hours per day significantly slowed compensation for negative lenses, compared with that seen under 500 lux, although full compensation was still achieved. Compensation for positive lenses was accelerated by exposure to high illuminances but, again, the end point refraction was unchanged, compared with that of the 500-lux group. High illuminance also reduced deprivation myopia by roughly 60%, compared with that seen under 500 lux. This protective effect was abolished, however, by the daily injection of spiperone, but was unaffected by the injection of a vehicle solution. High illuminance levels reduce the rate of compensation for negative lenses and enhance the rate for positive lenses, but do not change the set point of

  17. Implementing bright light treatment for MSFC payload operations shiftworkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Benita C.; Stewart, Karen T.; Eastman, Charmane I.

    1994-01-01

    Intense light can phase-shift circadian rhythms and improve performance, sleep, and wellbeing during shiftwork simulations, but to date there have been very few attempts to administer light treatment to real shiftworkers. We have developed procedures for implementing light treatment and have conducted controlled trials of light treatment for MSFC Payload Operations staff during the USML-1 mission. We found that treatment had beneficial effects on fatigue, alertness, self-rated job performance, sleep, mood, and work attendance. Although there are portable bright light boxes commercially available, there is no testing protocol and little performance information available. We measure the illuminance of two candidate boxes for use in this study and found that levels were consistently lower than those advertised by manufacturers. A device was developed to enhance the illuminance output of such units. This device increased the illuminance by at least 60 % and provided additional improvements in visual comfort and overall exposure. Both the design of this device and some suggested procedures for evaluating light devices are presented.

  18. Effect of evening exposure to bright or dim light after daytime bright light on absorption of dietary carbohydrates the following morning.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Naoko; Sone, Yoshiaki; Tokura, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    We had previously reported on the effect of exposure to light on the human digestive system: daytime bright light exposure has a positive effect, whereas, evening bright light exposure has a negative effect on the efficiency of dietary carbohydrate absorption from the evening meal. These results prompted us to examine whether the light intensity to which subjects are exposed in the evening affects the efficiency of dietary carbohydrate absorption the following morning. In this study, subjects were exposed to either 50 lux (dim light conditions) or 2,000 lux (bright light conditions) in the evening for 9 h (from 15:00 to 24:00) after staying under bright light in the daytime (under 2,000 lux from 07:00 to 15:00). We measured unabsorbed dietary carbohydrates using the breath-hydrogen test the morning after exposure to either bright light or dim light the previous evening. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two conditions in the amount of breath hydrogen. This indicates that evening exposure to bright or dim light after bright light exposure in the daytime has no varying effect on digestion or absorption of dietary carbohydrates in the following morning's breakfast.

  19. Relationships between brightness of nighttime lights and population density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naizhuo, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Brightness of nighttime lights has been proven to be a good proxy for socioeconomic and demographic statistics. Moreover, the satellite nighttime lights data have been used to spatially disaggregate amounts of gross domestic product (GDP), fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission, and electric power consumption (Ghosh et al., 2010; Oda and Maksyutov, 2011; Zhao et al., 2012). Spatial disaggregations were performed in these previous studies based on assumed linear relationships between digital number (DN) value of pixels in the nighttime light images and socioeconomic data. However, reliability of the linear relationships was never tested due to lack of relative high-spatial-resolution (equal to or finer than 1 km × 1 km) statistical data. With the similar assumption that brightness linearly correlates to population, Bharti et al. (2011) used nighttime light data as a proxy for population density and then developed a model about seasonal fluctuations of measles in West Africa. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory used sub-national census population data and high spatial resolution remotely-sensed-images to produce LandScan population raster datasets. The LandScan population datasets have 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution which is consistent with the spatial resolution of the nighttime light images. Therefore, in this study I selected 2008 LandScan population data as baseline reference data and the contiguous United State as study area. Relationships between DN value of pixels in the 2008 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) stable light image and population density were established. Results showed that an exponential function can more accurately reflect the relationship between luminosity and population density than a linear function. Additionally, a certain number of saturated pixels with DN value of 63 exist in urban core areas. If directly using the exponential function to estimate the population density for the whole brightly

  20. Bright Lights: Big Experiments! A Public Engagement Activity for International Year of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, Jonathan; Morton, Jonathan A. S.; McCoustra, Martin R. S.

    2017-01-01

    The Bright Lights: Big Experiments! public engagement project enabled high school students Scottish S2 to prepare a short, 5 min video using their own words and in their own style to present a scientific experiment on the theme of light to their contemporaries via YouTube. This paper describes the various experiments that we chose to deliver and…

  1. [Bright light therapy in pregnant women depression--3 case studies].

    PubMed

    Krzystanek, Marek; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2006-01-01

    Bright light therapy (BLT) is a new method of biological treatment in psychiatry. Good tolerance makes it an attractive method used not only in seasonal affective disorder. An episode of depression during pregnancy may be a new indication. The study aimed to describe effects of treatment of depression in 3 pregnant women. The women were out-patients in their 6-th, 7-th and 8-th months of pregnancy and diagnosed with depression according to ICD-10 criteria. The treatment was a morning exposure to 1 hour 5 000 LUX bright light from Monday to Friday. The antidepressant effect was assessed after the 2nd and 4th week of BLT. Side effects of BLT were monitored over the whole BLT treatment period. The mean improvement of depressive symptoms after 2 and 4 weeks of BLT was 33% and 55%, respectively. Side effects were not observed in any of the patients. Morning BLT seems to be an effective and a very well tolerated mode of treatment of pregnant women suffering from non-seasonal depression. The manner and length of BLT maintenance treatment requires further studies.

  2. A Chinese Zodiac Mathematical Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John F., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Helps students identify the animal that corresponds to the year of their birth according to the Chinese zodiac. Defines the structure of the Chinese zodiac so that the subsets of compatibles and opposites form closed substructures with interesting mathematical properties. (ASK)

  3. Bright light treatment of depression for older adults [ISRCTN55452501].

    PubMed

    Loving, Richard T; Kripke, Daniel F; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Knickerbocker, Nancy C; Grandner, Michael A

    2005-11-09

    The incidence of insomnia and depression in the elder population is significant. It is hoped that use of light treatment for this group could provide safe, economic, and effective rapid recovery. In this home-based trial we treated depressed elderly subjects with bright white (8,500 Lux) and dim red (<10 Lux) light for one hour a day at three different times (morning, mid-wake and evening). A placebo response washout was used for the first week. Wake treatment was conducted prior to the initiation of treatment, to explore antidepressant response and the interaction with light treatment. Urine and saliva samples were collected during a 24-hour period both before and after treatment and assayed for aMT6s and melatonin respectively to observe any change in circadian timing. Subjects wore a wrist monitor to record light exposure and wrist activity. Daily log sheets and weekly mood (GDS) and physical symptom (SAFTEE) scales were administered. Each subject was given a SCID interview and each completed a mood questionnaire (SIGH-SAD-SR) before and after treatment. Also, Hamilton Depression Rating (SIGH-SAD version) interviews were conducted by a researcher who was blind to the treatment condition. A control group of healthy, age-matched, volunteers was studied for one day to obtain baseline data for comparison of actigraphy and hormone levels. Eighty-one volunteers, between 60 and 79 years old, completed the study. Both treatment and placebo groups experienced mood improvement. Average GDS scores improved 5 points, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) 17 scores (extracted from the self-rated SIGH-SAD-SR) improved 6 points. There were no significant treatment effects or time-by-treatment interactions. No significant adverse reactions were observed in either treatment group. The assays of urine and saliva showed no significant differences between the treatment and placebo groups. The healthy control group was active earlier and slept earlier but received less light

  4. Sources of zodiacal dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.

    2007-08-01

    The orbital evolution of dust particles produced by asteroids, comets, and trans- Neptunian objects was integrated [1-3]. Analysis of results of these integrations testify in favor of a considerable fraction of particles produced by comets among overall zodiacal dust particles, but it does not contradict to >30% of asteroidal dust needed for explanation of formation of dust bands. Fractions of asteroidal particles, particles originating beyond Jupiter's orbit (including trans-Neptunian particles), and cometary particles originating inside of Jupiter's orbit are estimated to be about 1/3 each, with a possible deviation from 1/3 up to 0.1-0.2. Comparison of the plots of the number density vs. the distance R from the Sun obtained for particles produced by different small bodies with the plots based on observations shows that asteroidal and trans- Neptunian particles alone can not explain the observed almost constant number density at R ∼3-18 AU and a lot of particles must be produced by comets at R ∼5-10 AU [2-3]. Comparison of the WHAM (Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper spectrometer) observations of spectra of zodiacal light with our models showed [4-5] that a significant fraction of particles produced by short-period comets is required to fit the observations of the width and velocity of the Mg I line. Comparison of the observations of the number density inside Jupiter's orbit with the number density of particles produced by different small bodies leads to the same conclusion about a considerable fraction of cometary particles. This comparison does not make limitations on cometary particles produced beyond Jupiter's orbit, but it shows that the fraction of particles produced by Encke-type comets (with eccentricities ∼0.8-0.9) does not exceed 0.15 of the overall population. The estimated fraction of particles produced by long-period and Halley-type comets among zodiacal dust also does not exceed 0.1-0.15. Though trans-Neptunian particles fit different observations of

  5. Inferring Sources in the Interplanetary Dust Cloud, from Observations and Simulations of Zodiacal Light and Thermal Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Lasue, J.

    2011-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles physical properties may be approached through observations of the solar light they scatter, specially its polarization, and of their thermal emission. Results, at least near the ecliptic plane, on polarization phase curves and on the heliocentric dependence of the local spatial density, albedo, polarization and temperature are summarized. As far as interpretations through simulations are concerned, a very good fit of the polarization phase curve near 1.5 AU is obtained for a mixture of silicates and more absorbing organics material, with a significant amount of fluffy aggregates. In the 1.5-0.5 AU solar distance range, the temperature variation suggests the presence of a large amount of absorbing organic compounds, while the decrease of the polarization with decreasing solar distance is indeed compatible with a decrease of the organics towards the Sun. Such results are in favor of the predominance of dust of cometary origin in the interplanetary dust cloud, at least below 1.5 AU. The implication of these results on the delivery of complex organic molecules on Earth during the LHB epoch, when the spatial density of the interplanetary dust cloud was orders of magnitude greater than today, is discussed.

  6. Single bright light exposure decreases sweet taste threshold in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shrikant; Donaldson, Lucy F; Rai, Dheeraj; Melichar, Jan K; Potokar, John

    2013-10-01

    Bright light exposure can alter circulating serotonin levels, and alteration of available serotonin by acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibition significantly lowers sweet but not salt taste recognition thresholds. We tested the hypothesis that bright light exposure would increase sweet but not salt taste sensitivity in healthy adults. Fourteen healthy volunteers were exposed to bright (10,000 lux) and dim (<20 lux) light for 30 min each, in counterbalanced order. Measures of taste perception (salt and sweet) and mood were determined at baseline, and before and after each light exposure period. Recognition thresholds for sucrose were significantly lower after bright but not dim light exposure. Thresholds for salt were unaffected by either condition. There were no significant changes in taste acuity, intensity or pleasantness for both the taste modalities and on visual analogue scales (VASs) for mood, anxiety, sleepiness and alertness, under either light condition. Brief bright light exposure reduces sweet but not salt taste recognition thresholds in healthy humans.

  7. [Observations of tolerance of bright light treatment in psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Krzystanek, Marek; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Bargiel-Matusiewicz, Kamilla

    2005-01-01

    Bright light (BL) treatment is a new biological treatment used in psychiatry. The probable mechanisms of action of BL treatment are synchronisation of biological rhythms and increase of serotonin transmission in the human brain. The main indication for BL treatment is seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Indications, tolerance and mechanism of action of BL treatment are still under exploration. To present 3 years of experience from the treatment of different psychiatric disorders with BL. The examined group consisted of 104 out-patients with different diagnoses. The mean age was 41.1 and the mean number of sessions of BL treatment was 17.2. Besides-of BL treatment (1 hour, 5000 lux) the patients were treated with psychotropic drugs. Side effects and BL tolerance were observed. Side effects were present in 34 (32.6%) patients. They were: tearsing (11.5%), headaches (6.7%), restlessness and agitation (5.7%), eyeball pain (3.8%) and eye burning (4.8%). Tearsing and eyeball pain subsided in the first 15 minutes, the other symptoms subsided by 1 hour after a session. Six patients discontinued the BL treatment due to intolerance of a side effect. BL treatment is a safe and well-tolerated form of biological treatment in psychiatry. The absence of a control group limits the specificity of these side effects. New indications for BL treatment may include psychiatric disorders with brain serotoninergic system or biological rhythms disturbances.

  8. Entrainment of oviposition in the fowl using bright and dim light cycles.

    PubMed

    Morris, T R; Bhatti, B M

    1978-05-01

    1. Nine short trial, involving 96 different treatments, were used to investigate the critical intensities and duration of bright and dim periods of lighting needed to entrain oviposition in cycles ranging from 21 to 30 h. 2. Entrainment was shown to depend upon the contrast between bright and dim lighting, and to be independent of the absolute light intensity. 3. A bright: dim ratio of 13:1 fully entrained oviposition in cycles of 25 h and 27 h. For 23-h and 28-h cycles a 30:1 ratio was required. Twenty-one-hour cycles required a ratio of 300:1 and with 30-h cycles a ratio of 1000:1 was needed to achieve full entrainment of oviposition. 4. In 24-h cycles, 1 h of bright lighting at 02.00 h was sufficient to override other environmental signals and cause eggs to be laid in the late evening, but a minimum bright period of 6 h was needed to cause full phase setting with 21-h cycles. 5. Circadian periodicity can easily be imposed on hens by providing a short exposure to bright light with a background of continuous dim light; but the signal must be increased (by providing a greater contrast between bright and dim lights and/or a longer period of bright lighting) to entrain oviposition when the cycle deviates markedly from the natural period of 24 h.

  9. Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with morning bright light, afternoon melatonin, and gradually shifted sleep: can we reduce morning bright-light duration?

    PubMed

    Crowley, Stephanie J; Eastman, Charmane I

    2015-02-01

    Efficient treatments to phase-advance human circadian rhythms are needed to attenuate circadian misalignment and the associated negative health outcomes that accompany early-morning shift work, early school start times, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase disorder. This study compared three morning bright-light exposure patterns from a single light box (to mimic home treatment) in combination with afternoon melatonin. Fifty adults (27 males) aged 25.9 ± 5.1 years participated. Sleep/dark was advanced 1 h/day for three treatment days. Participants took 0.5 mg of melatonin 5 h before the baseline bedtime on treatment day 1, and an hour earlier each treatment day. They were exposed to one of three bright-light (~5000 lux) patterns upon waking each morning: four 30-min exposures separated by 30 min of room light (2-h group), four 15-min exposures separated by 45 min of room light (1-h group), and one 30-min exposure (0.5-h group). Dim-light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) before and after treatment determined the phase advance. Compared to the 2-h group (phase shift = 2.4 ± 0.8 h), smaller phase-advance shifts were seen in the 1-h (1.7 ± 0.7 h) and 0.5-h (1.8 ± 0.8 h) groups. The 2-h pattern produced the largest phase advance; however, the single 30-min bright-light exposure was as effective as 1 h of bright light spread over 3.25 h, and it produced 75% of the phase shift observed with 2 h of bright light. A 30-min morning bright-light exposure with afternoon melatonin is an efficient treatment to phase-advance human circadian rhythms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phase advancing human circadian rhythms with morning bright light, afternoon melatonin, and gradually shifted sleep: can we reduce morning bright light duration?

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Stephanie J.; Eastman, Charmane I.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Efficient treatments to phase advance human circadian rhythms are needed to attenuate circadian misalignment and the associated negative health outcomes that accompany early morning shift work, early school start times, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase disorder. This study compared three morning bright light exposure patterns from a single light box (to mimic home treatment) in combination with afternoon melatonin. METHODS Fifty adults (27 males) aged 25.9±5.1 years participated. Sleep/dark was advanced 1 hour/day for 3 treatment days. Participants took 0.5 mg melatonin 5 hours before baseline bedtime on treatment day 1, and an hour earlier each treatment day. They were exposed to one of three bright light (~5000 lux) patterns upon waking each morning: four 30-minute exposures separated by 30 minutes of room light (2 h group); four 15-minute exposures separated by 45 minutes of room light (1 h group), and one 30-minute exposure (0.5 h group). Dim light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) before and after treatment determined the phase advance. RESULTS Compared to the 2 h group (phase shift=2.4±0.8 h), smaller phase advance shifts were seen in the 1 h (1.7±0.7 h) and 0.5 h (1.8±0.8 h) groups. The 2-hour pattern produced the largest phase advance; however, the single 30-minute bright light exposure was as effective as 1 hour of bright light spread over 3.25 h, and produced 75% of the phase shift observed with 2 hours of bright light. CONCLUSIONS A 30-minute morning bright light exposure with afternoon melatonin is an efficient treatment to phase advance human circadian rhythms. PMID:25620199

  11. Human phase response curve to a 1 h pulse of bright white light.

    PubMed

    St Hilaire, Melissa A; Gooley, Joshua J; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Kronauer, Richard E; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W

    2012-07-01

    The phase resetting response of the human circadian pacemaker to light depends on the timing of exposure and is described by a phase response curve (PRC). The current study aimed to construct a PRC for a 1 h exposure to bright white light (∼8000 lux) and to compare this PRC to a <3 lux dim background light PRC. These data were also compared to a previously completed 6.7 h bright white light PRC and a <15 lux dim background light PRC constructed under similar conditions. Participants were randomized for exposure to 1 h of either bright white light (n=18) or <3 lux dim background light (n=18) scheduled at 1 of 18 circadian phases. Participants completed constant routine (CR) procedures in dim light (<3 lux) before and after the light exposure to assess circadian phase. Phase shifts were calculated as the difference in timing of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) during pre- and post-stimulus CRs. Exposure to 1 h of bright white light induced a Type 1 PRC with a fitted peak-to-trough amplitude of 2.20 h. No discernible PRC was observed in the <3 lux dim background light PRC. The fitted peak-to-trough amplitude of the 1 h bright light PRC was ∼40% of that for the 6.7 h PRC despite representing only 15% of the light exposure duration, consistent with previous studies showing a non-linear duration–response function for the effects of light on circadian resetting.

  12. Use of bright light therapy among psychiatrists in massachusetts: an e-mail survey.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Mark A; Ciraulo, Domenic A

    2014-01-01

    Evidence on the use of bright light therapy for conditions beyond seasonal affective disorder continues to accrue; however, data on the prevalent use of bright light therapy in the community or in hospitals remain limited, particularly in the United States. We conducted a 5-minute e-mail survey of practicing psychiatrists in Massachusetts using the membership roster through the Massachusetts Psychiatric Society to evaluate prevalent use of bright light therapy as well as to solicit attitudes toward the treatment. Three e-mails were sent out over a 2-week period, and responses were obtained from March 2-24, 2013. An iPad raffle was used to incentivize survey completion. Of the 1,366 delivered e-mails, 197 responses were obtained. Of respondents, 72% indicated that they used bright light therapy in their practice, and, among these, all but 1 used bright light therapy for seasonal affective disorder. Only 55% of responding psychiatrists who use bright light therapy consider it to treat nonseasonal depression, and 11% of respondents who recommend bright light therapy would consider its use in inpatient settings. Lack of insurance coverage for light-delivery devices was identified as the largest barrier to using bright light therapy, being cited by 55% of respondents. Survey results suggest that limitations in practitioner knowledge of bright light therapy and the absence of bright light therapy in treatment algorithms are the 2 leading modifiable factors to encourage broader implementation. The principal limitation of our survey was the low response rate. As such, we consider these data preliminary. Response bias very likely led to an overestimation in prevalent use of bright light therapy; however, this bias notwithstanding, it appears that bright light therapy is used significantly less often for nonseasonal depression than for seasonal affective disorder. Further, its use in inpatient settings is significantly less than in outpatient settings. We expect that efforts

  13. Daytime exposure to bright light, as compared to dim light, decreases sleepiness and improves psychomotor vigilance performance.

    PubMed

    Phipps-Nelson, Jo; Redman, Jennifer R; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2003-09-01

    This study examined the effects of bright light exposure, as compared to dim light, on daytime subjective sleepiness, incidences of slow eye movements (SEMs), and psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance following 2 nights of sleep restriction. The study had a mixed factorial design with 2 independent variables: light condition (bright light, 1,000 lux; dim light, < 5 lux) and time of day. The dependent variables were subjective sleepiness, PVT performance, incidences of SEMs, and salivary melatonin levels. Sleep research laboratory at Monash University. Sixteen healthy adults (10 women and 6 men) aged 18 to 35 years (mean age 25 years, 3 months). Following 2 nights of sleep restriction (5 hours each night), participants were exposed to modified constant routine conditions. Eight participants were exposed to bright light from noon until 5:00 pm. Outside the bright light exposure period (9:00 am to noon, 5:00 pm to 9:00 pm) light levels were maintained at less than 5 lux. A second group of 8 participants served as controls for the bright light exposure and were exposed to dim light throughout the entire protocol. Bright light exposure reduced subjective sleepiness, decreased SEMs, and improved PVT performance compared to dim light. Bright lights had no effect on salivary melatonin. A significant positive correlation between PVT reaction times and subjective sleepiness was observed for both groups. Changes in SEMs did not correlate significantly with either subjective sleepiness or PVT performance. Daytime bright light exposure can reduce the impact of sleep loss on sleepiness levels and performance, as compared to dim light. These effects appear to be mediated by mechanisms that are separate from melatonin suppression. The results may assist in the development of treatments for daytime sleepiness.

  14. Two- and 4-hour bright-light exposures differentially effect sleepiness and performance the subsequent night.

    PubMed

    Thessing, V C; Anch, A M; Muehlbach, M J; Schweitzer, P K; Walsh, J K

    1994-03-01

    The effect of two durations of bright light upon sleepiness and performance during typical night shift hours was assessed. Thirty normal, healthy young adults participated in a 2-night protocol. On the 1st night subjects were exposed to bright or dim light beginning at 2400 hours, under one of the following three conditions: bright light for 4 hours, dim light for 2 hours followed by bright light for 2 hours or dim light for 4 hours. Following light exposure, subjects remained awake until 0800 hours in a dimly lit room and slept in the laboratory between 0800 and 1600 hours, during which time sleep was estimated with actigraphy. Throughout the 2nd night, the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), simulated assembly line task (SALT) performance, and subjective sleepiness were recorded. The single, 4-hour exposure to bright light was found to significantly increase MSLT scores and improve SALT performance during the early morning hours on the night following bright-light exposure. No significant effects were noted with a 2-hour exposure. The most likely explanation for these findings is a phase delay in the circadian rhythm of sleepiness-alertness.

  15. Extragalactic background light: a measurement at 400 nm using dark cloud shadow*†- I. Low surface brightness spectrophotometry in the area of Lynds 1642

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattila, K.; Lehtinen, K.; Väisänen, P.; von Appen-Schnur, G.; Leinert, Ch.

    2017-09-01

    We present the method and observations for the measurement of the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) utilizing the shadowing effect of a dark cloud. We measure the surface brightness difference between the opaque cloud core and its unobscured surroundings. In the difference the large atmospheric and Zodiacal light components are eliminated and the only remaining foreground component is the scattered starlight from the cloud itself. Although much smaller, its separation is the key problem in the method. For its separation we use spectroscopy. While the scattered starlight has the characteristic Fraunhofer lines and 400 nm discontinuity, the EBL spectrum is smooth and without these features. Medium resolution spectrophotometry at λ = 380-580 nm was performed with VLT/FORS at ESO of the surface brightness in and around the high-galactic-latitude dark cloud Lynds 1642. Besides the spectrum for the core with AV ≳ 15 mag, further spectra were obtained for intermediate-opacity cloud positions. They are used as proxy for the spectrum of the impinging starlight spectrum and to facilitate the separation of the scattered starlight (cf. Paper II; Mattila et al.). Our spectra reach a precision of ≲ 0.5 × 10-9 erg cm-2 s-1 sr-1 Å-1 as required to measure an EBL intensity in range of ˜1 to a few times 10-9 erg cm-2 s-1 sr-1 Å-1. Because all surface brightness components are measured using the same equipment, the method does not require unusually high absolute calibration accuracy, a condition that has been a problem for some previous EBL projects.

  16. The treatment of early-morning awakening insomnia with 2 evenings of bright light.

    PubMed

    Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kemp, Kristyn; Gibbon, Samantha

    2005-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of brief bright-light therapy for the treatment of early-morning awakening insomnia. Twenty-four healthy adults with early-morning awakening insomnia were assigned to either the bright-light condition (2,500-lux white light) or the control (dim red light) condition. The circadian phase of rectal temperature and urinary melatonin rhythms were assessed with 26-hour constant routines before and after 2 evenings of light therapy. Sleep and daytime functioning were monitored using sleep diaries, activity monitors, and mood scales before light therapy and for 4 weeks during the follow-up period. While there were no significant circadian phase changes in the dim-light control group, the bright-light group had significant 2-hour phase delays of circadian temperature and melatonin rhythm. Compared to pretreatment measures, over the 4-week follow-up period, the bright-light group had a greater reduction of time awake after sleep onset, showed a trend toward waking later, and had a greater increase of total sleep time. Participants in the bright-light condition also tended to report greater reductions of negative daytime symptoms, including significantly fewer days of feeling depressed at the 4-week follow-up, as compared with the control group. Two evenings of bright-light exposure phase delayed the circadian rhythms of early-morning awakening insomniacs. It also improved diary and actigraphy sleep measures and improved some indexes of daytime functioning for up to 1 month after light exposure. The study suggests that a brief course of evening bright-light therapy can be an effective treatment for early-morning awakening insomniacs who have relatively phase advanced circadian rhythms.

  17. Influences of diurnal bright or dim light exposure on urine volume in humans.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Ki-Ja; Nishimura, Shinya; Tokura, Hiromi

    2006-03-01

    We investigated with eight healthy females if 8 hr diurnal (0700 to 1500 h) bright rather than dim light (5,000 vs. 80 lx) influenced urine volume. Environmental illuminance was made identical at all other times besides 07:00 to 15:00 h. The participants spent time at strictly regulated schedules in a bioclimatic chamber (26 degrees C, relative humidity 60%) for 57 h. Blood was drawn (2 ml) just before lunch in order to calculate Creatinine clearance (Ccr). Urine volume was significantly higher during wakefulness and the 8-h sleep period with bright rather than dim light. Ccr was significantly higher after bright light. The results were discussed in terms of suppression of the sympathetic nerve system under the influence of diurnal bright light exposure. We also discussed these in terms of physiological polymorphisms.

  18. Effects of bright light exposure during daytime on peripheral clock gene expression in humans.

    PubMed

    Sato, Maki; Wakamura, Tomoko; Morita, Takeshi; Okamoto, Akihiko; Akashi, Makoto; Matsui, Takuya; Sato, Motohiko

    2017-06-01

    Light is the strongest synchronizer controlling circadian rhythms. The intensity and duration of light change throughout the year, thereby influencing body weight, food preferences, and melatonin secretion in humans and animals. Although the expression of clock genes has been examined using human samples, it currently remains unknown whether bright light during the daytime affects the expression of these genes in humans. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of bright light exposure during the daytime on clock gene expression in the hair follicular and root cells of the human scalp. Seven healthy men (20.4 ± 2.2 years old; 172.3 ± 5.8 cm; 64.3 ± 8.5 kg; BMI 21.7 ± 3.1 kg/m 2 , mean ± SD) participated in this study. Subjects completed 3-day experimental sessions twice in 1 month during which they were exposed to bright and dim light conditions. The mRNA expression of Per1-3, Cry1-2, Rev-erb-α (Nr1d1), Rev-erb-β (Nr1d2), and Dec1 was analyzed using branched DNA probes. No significant changes were observed in the expression of Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1, Cry2, Rev-erb-α (Nr1d1), or Dec1 following exposure to bright light conditions. However, the expression of Rev-erb-β (Nr1d2) tended to be stronger under bright light than dim light conditions. These results suggest that the bright light stimulus did not influence the expression of clock genes in humans. Long-lasting bright light exposure during the daytime may be required to change the expression of clock genes in humans.

  19. Artificial light alters natural regimes of night-time sky brightness

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Thomas W.; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.

  20. Bright Lights: Big Experiments! A public engagement activity for international year of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downie, Jonathan; Morton, Jonathan A. S.; McCoustra, Martin R. S.

    2017-01-01

    The Bright Lights: Big Experiments! public engagement project enabled high school students Scottish S2 to prepare a short, 5 min video using their own words and in their own style to present a scientific experiment on the theme of light to their contemporaries via YouTube. This paper describes the various experiments that we chose to deliver and our experiences in delivering them to our partner schools. The results of pre- and post-activity surveys of both the pupils and teachers are presented in an effort to understand the impact of the project on the students, staff and their schools. The quality of the final video product is shown to be a key factor, increasing the pupils’ likelihood of pursuing science courses and participating in further science engagement activities. Analysis of the evaluation methods used indicate the need for more sensitive tools to provide further insight into the impact of this type of engagement activity.

  1. Bright green light treatment of depression for older adults [ISRCTN69400161].

    PubMed

    Loving, Richard T; Kripke, Daniel F; Knickerbocker, Nancy C; Grandner, Michael A

    2005-11-09

    Bright white light has been successfully used for the treatment of depression. There is interest in identifying which spectral colors of light are the most efficient in the treatment of depression. It is theorized that green light could decrease the intensity duration of exposure needed. Late Wake Treatment (LWT), sleep deprivation for the last half of one night, is associated with rapid mood improvement which has been sustained by light treatment. Because spectral responsiveness may differ by age, we examined whether green light would provide efficient antidepressant treatment in an elder age group. We contrasted one hour of bright green light (1,200 Lux) and one hour of dim red light placebo (<10 Lux) in a randomized treatment trial with depressed elders. Participants were observed in their homes with mood scales, wrist actigraphy and light monitoring. On the day prior to beginning treatment, the participants self-administered LWT. The protocol was completed by 33 subjects who were 59 to 80 years old. Mood improved on average 23% for all subjects, but there were no significant statistical differences between treatment and placebo groups. There were negligible adverse reactions to the bright green light, which was well tolerated. Bright green light was not shown to have an antidepressant effect in the age group of this study, but a larger trial with brighter green light might be of value.

  2. Human phase response curve to a 1 h pulse of bright white light

    PubMed Central

    St Hilaire, Melissa A; Gooley, Joshua J; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Kronauer, Richard E; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    The phase resetting response of the human circadian pacemaker to light depends on the timing of exposure and is described by a phase response curve (PRC). The current study aimed to construct a PRC for a 1 h exposure to bright white light (∼8000 lux) and to compare this PRC to a <3 lux dim background light PRC. These data were also compared to a previously completed 6.7 h bright white light PRC and a <15 lux dim background light PRC constructed under similar conditions. Participants were randomized for exposure to 1 h of either bright white light (n= 18) or <3 lux dim background light (n= 18) scheduled at 1 of 18 circadian phases. Participants completed constant routine (CR) procedures in dim light (<3 lux) before and after the light exposure to assess circadian phase. Phase shifts were calculated as the difference in timing of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) during pre- and post-stimulus CRs. Exposure to 1 h of bright white light induced a Type 1 PRC with a fitted peak-to-trough amplitude of 2.20 h. No discernible PRC was observed in the <3 lux dim background light PRC. The fitted peak-to-trough amplitude of the 1 h bright light PRC was ∼40% of that for the 6.7 h PRC despite representing only 15% of the light exposure duration, consistent with previous studies showing a non-linear duration–response function for the effects of light on circadian resetting. PMID:22547633

  3. The effect of bright light on sleepiness among rapid-rotating 12-hour shift workers.

    PubMed

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Yazdi, Zohreh; Jahanihashemi, Hassan; Aminian, Omid

    2011-01-01

    About 20% of workers in industrialized countries are shift workers and more than half of them work on night or rotating shifts. Most night workers complain of sleepiness due to lack of adjustment of the circadian rhythm. In simulated night-work experiments, scheduled exposure to bright light has been shown to reduce these complaints. Our study assessed the effects of bright light exposure on sleepiness during night work in an industrial setting. In a cross-over design, 94 workers at a ceramic factory were exposed to either bright (2500 lux) or normal light (300 lux) during breaks on night shifts. We initiated 20-minute breaks between 24.00 and 02.00 hours. Sleepiness ratings were determined using the Stanford Sleepiness Scale at 22.00, 24.00, 02.00 and 04.00 hours. Under normal light conditions, sleepiness peaked at 02:00 hours. A significant reduction (22% compared to normal light conditions) in sleepiness was observed after workers were exposed to bright light. Exposure to bright light may be effective in reducing sleepiness among night workers.

  4. Dark goggles and bright light improve circadian rhythm adaptation to night-shift work.

    PubMed

    Eastman, C I; Stewart, K T; Mahoney, M P; Liu, L; Fogg, L F

    1994-09-01

    We compared the contributions of bright light during the night shift and dark goggles during daylight for phase shifting the circadian rhythm of temperature to realign with a 12-hour shift of sleep. After 10 baseline days there were 8 night-work/day-sleep days. Temperature was continuously recorded from 50 subjects. There were four groups in a 2 x 2 design: light (bright, dim), goggles (yes, no). Subjects were exposed to bright light (about 5,000 lux) for 6 hours on the first 2 night shifts. Dim light was < 500 lux. Both bright light and goggles were significant factors for producing circadian rhythm phase shifts. The combination of bright light plus goggles was the most effective, whereas the combination of dim light and no goggles was the least effective. The temperature rhythm either phase advanced or phase delayed when it aligned with daytime sleep. However, when subjects did not have goggles only phase advances occurred. Goggles were necessary for producing phase delays. The most likely explanation is that daylight during the travel-home window after a night shift inhibits phase-delay shifts, and goggles can prevent this inhibition. Larger temperature-rhythm phase shifts were associated with better subjective daytime sleep, less subjective fatigue and better mood.

  5. Effects of dim or bright-light exposure during the daytime on human gastrointestinal activity.

    PubMed

    Sone, Yoshiaki; Hyun, Ki-Ja; Nishimura, Shinya; Lee, Young-Ah; Tokura, Hiromi

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of our previous findings that bright-light exposure during the daytime has profound influence on physiological parameters such as melatonin secretion and tympanic temperature in humans, we proposed the hypothesis that bright vs. dim light-exposure during the daytime has a different influence on the activity of the digestive system via the endocrine and/or autonomic nervous system. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a series of counterbalanced experiments in which subjects stayed the daytime (7:00 to 15:00h) under either a dim (80 lux) or bright (5,000 lux) light condition. We measured gastrointestinal activity using a breath hydrogen (indicative of carbohydrate malabsorption) and an electrogastrography (EGG, indicative of gastric myoelectric activity) test. The results showed the postprandial breath hydrogen excretion during the following nighttime period after daytime exposure to the dim-light condition was significantly higher than under the bright-light condition (p < 0.05). In addition, the spectrum total power of the EGG recorded after taking the evening meal was significantly lower for the dim than bright-light condition (p < 0.05). These results support our hypothesis and indicate that dim-light exposure during the daytime suppresses the digestion of the evening meal, resulting in malabsorption of dietary carbohydrates in it.

  6. Bright light exposure reduces TH-positive dopamine neurons: implications of light pollution in Parkinson's disease epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Stefania; Viaggi, Cristina; Di Camillo, Daniela; Willis, Allison W; Lozzi, Luca; Rocchi, Cristina; Capannolo, Marta; Aloisi, Gabriella; Vaglini, Francesca; Maccarone, Rita; Caleo, Matteo; Missale, Cristina; Racette, Brad A; Corsini, Giovanni U; Maggio, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effect of continuous exposure to bright light on neuromelanin formation and dopamine neuron survival in the substantia nigra. Twenty-one days after birth, Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into groups and raised under different conditions of light exposure. At the end of the irradiation period, rats were sacrificed and assayed for neuromelanin formation and number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. The rats exposed to bright light for 20 days or 90 days showed a relatively greater number of neuromelanin-positive neurons. Surprisingly, TH-positive neurons decreased progressively in the substantia nigra reaching a significant 29% reduction after 90 days of continuous bright light exposure. This decrease was paralleled by a diminution of dopamine and its metabolite in the striatum. Remarkably, in preliminary analysis that accounted for population density, the age and race adjusted Parkinson's disease prevalence significantly correlated with average satellite-observed sky light pollution.

  7. Bright light exposure reduces TH-positive dopamine neurons: implications of light pollution in Parkinson's disease epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Stefania; Viaggi, Cristina; Di Camillo, Daniela; Willis, Allison W.; Lozzi, Luca; Rocchi, Cristina; Capannolo, Marta; Aloisi, Gabriella; Vaglini, Francesca; Maccarone, Rita; Caleo, Matteo; Missale, Cristina; Racette, Brad A.; Corsini, Giovanni U.; Maggio, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effect of continuous exposure to bright light on neuromelanin formation and dopamine neuron survival in the substantia nigra. Twenty-one days after birth, Sprague–Dawley albino rats were divided into groups and raised under different conditions of light exposure. At the end of the irradiation period, rats were sacrificed and assayed for neuromelanin formation and number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. The rats exposed to bright light for 20 days or 90 days showed a relatively greater number of neuromelanin-positive neurons. Surprisingly, TH-positive neurons decreased progressively in the substantia nigra reaching a significant 29% reduction after 90 days of continuous bright light exposure. This decrease was paralleled by a diminution of dopamine and its metabolite in the striatum. Remarkably, in preliminary analysis that accounted for population density, the age and race adjusted Parkinson's disease prevalence significantly correlated with average satellite-observed sky light pollution. PMID:23462874

  8. Application of high-brightness LEDs in aircraft position lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machi, Nicolo; Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey M.

    2004-10-01

    Solid state lighting devices have made their way into a number of niche markets and continue to make inroads into other markets as their price / performance ratios improve. One of these markets is aviation lighting. Although this paper will focus on the use of LEDs for aircraft position lights, much of the discussion is applicable to other installations on the interior and exterior of the aircraft. The color, light distribution and intensity levels for a position light are all closely regulated through Code of Federal Regulation (CFR; formerly Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR)) documents. These lighting requirements, along with harsh thermal and environmental requirements, drive the design. In this paper, we will look at these requirements and discuss what is required in order to use LEDs for this type of application. We will explore the optical, thermal and electrical issues associated with the use of LEDs for position lights and examine the specific case study of the Astreon forward position lights. Finally, we will discuss some of the challenges that we see with solid state lighting in current and future aircraft applications.

  9. Exposure to bright light for several hours during the daytime lowers tympanic temperature.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, S; Tokura, H

    1997-11-01

    The present study investigates the effect on thympanic temperature of exposure to different light intensities for several hours during the daytime. Nine healthy young adult volunteers (two male, seven female) were exposed to bright light of 4000 lx or dim light of 100 lx during the daytime from 0930 to 1800 hours; the light condition was then kept at 100 lx for a further hour. Tympanic temperature was measured continuously at a neutral condition (28 degrees C, 60% relative humidity) from 1000 to 1800 hours. Urinary samples were collected from 1100 to 1900 hours every 2 h, and melatonin excretion rate was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Of nine subjects, six showed clearly lower tympanic temperatures in the bright compared with the dim condition from 1400 to 1800 hours. Average tympanic temperatures were significantly lower in the bright than in the dim condition from 1645 to 1800 hours. Melatonin excretion rate tended to be higher in the bright than in the dim condition. It was concluded that exposure to bright light of 4000 lx during the daytime for several hours could reduce tympanic temperature, compared with that measured in dim light of 100 lx.

  10. Exposure to bright light for several hours during the daytime lowers tympanic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Seika; Tokura, H.

    The present study investigates the effect on thympanic temperature of exposure to different light intensities for several hours during the daytime. Nine healthy young adult volunteers (two male, seven female) were exposed to bright light of 4000 lx or dim light of 100 lx during the daytime from 0930 to 1800 hours; the light condition was then kept at 100 lx for a further hour. Tympanic temperature was measured continuously at a neutral condition (28° C, 60% relative humidity) from 1000 to 1800 hours. Urinary samples were collected from 1100 to 1900 hours every 2 h, and melatonin excretion rate was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Of nine subjects, six showed clearly lower tympanic temperatures in the bright compared with the dim condition from 1400 to 1800 hours. Average tympanic temperatures were significantly lower in the bright than in the dim condition from 1645 to 1800 hours. Melatonin excretion rate tended to be higher in the bright than in the dim condition. It was concluded that exposure to bright light of 4000 lx during the daytime for several hours could reduce tympanic temperature, compared with that measured in dim light of 100 lx.

  11. Developing a new supplemental lighting device with ultra-bright white LED for vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongguang; Li, Pingping; Jiang, Jianghai

    2007-02-01

    It has been proved that monochromatic or compound light-emitting diode (LED) or laser diode (LD) can promote the photosynthesis of horticultural crops, but the promotion of polychromatic light like white LED is unclear. A new type of ultra-bright white LED (LUW56843, InGaN, \

  12. Circadian rhythm adaptation to simulated night shift work: effect of nocturnal bright-light duration.

    PubMed

    Eastman, C I; Liu, L; Fogg, L F

    1995-07-01

    We compared bright-light durations of 6, 3 and 0 hours (i.e. dim light) during simulated night shifts for phase shifting the circadian rectal temperature rhythm to align with a 12-hour shift of the sleep schedule. After 10 baseline days there were 8 consecutive night-work, day-sleep days, with 8-hour sleep (dark) periods. The bright light (about 5,000 lux, around the baseline temperature minimum) was used during all 8 night shifts, and dim light was < 500 lux. This was a field study in which subjects (n = 46) went outside after the night shifts and slept at home. Substantial circadian adaptation (i.e. a large cumulative temperature rhythm phase shift) was produced in many subjects in the bright light groups, but not in the dim light group. Six and 3 hours of bright light were each significantly better than dim light for phase shifting the temperature rhythm, but there was no significant difference between 6 and 3 hours. Thus, durations > 3 hours are probably not necessary in similar shift-work situations. Larger temperature rhythm phase shifts were associated with better subjective daytime sleep, less subjective fatigue and better overall mood.

  13. Bright light treatment as add-on therapy for depression in 28 adolescents: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Niederhofer, Helmut; von Klitzing, Kai

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, a significant incidence of depression in the younger population has been observed. Bright light therapy, an effective therapeutic option for depressed adults, could also provide safe, economical, and effective rapid recovery in adolescents. The randomized trial included 28 inpatients (18 females and 10 males) between 14 and 17 years old with depressive complaints. The study was conducted between February and December of 2010 in Rodewisch, Germany. Half of the patients (n = 14) first received placebo (50 lux) 1 hour a day in the morning from 9:00 am to 10:00 am for 1 week and then received bright light therapy (2,500 lux) for 1 week in the morning from 9:00 am to 10:00 am. The other half (n = 14) first received bright light therapy and then received placebo. Patients were encouraged to continue ongoing treatment (fluoxetine 20 mg/day and 2 sessions of psychotherapy/week) because there were no changes in medication/dosage and psychotherapy since 1 month before the 4-week study period. For assessment of depressive symptoms, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered 1 week before and 1 day before placebo treatment, on the day between placebo and bright light treatment, and on the day after and 1 week after bright light treatment. Saliva samples of melatonin and cortisol were collected at 8:00 am and 8:00 pm 1 week before and 1 day before placebo treatment, on the day between placebo and bright light treatment, on the day after bright light treatment, and 1 week after bright light treatment and were assayed for melatonin and cortisol to observe any change in circadian timing. The BDI scores improved significantly (P = .015). The assays of saliva showed significant differences between treatment and placebo for evening melatonin (P = .040). No significant adverse reactions were observed. Antidepressant response to bright light treatment in this age group was statistically superior to placebo. World Health Organization International Clinical

  14. Effects of evening bright light exposure on melatonin, body temperature and sleep.

    PubMed

    Bunnell; Treiber; Phillips; Berger

    1992-03-01

    Five male subjects were exposed to a single 2-h period of bright (2500 lux) or dim (<100 lux) light prior to sleep on two consecutive nights. The two conditions were repeated the following week in opposite order. Bright light significantly suppressed salivary melatonin and raised rectal temperature 0.3 degrees C (which remained elevated during the first 1.5 h of sleep), without affecting tympanic temperature. Bright light also increased REM latency, NREM period length, EEG spectral power in low frequency, 0.75-8 Hz and sigma, 12-14 Hz (sleep spindle) bandwidths during the first hour of sleep, and power of all frequency bands (0.5-32 Hz) within the first NREMP. Potentiation of EEG slow wave activity (0.5-4.0 Hz) by bright light persisted through the end of the second NREMP. The enhanced low-frequency power and delayed REM sleep after bright light exposure could represent a circadian phase-shift and/or the effect of an elevated rectal temperature, possibly mediated by the suppression of melatonin.

  15. Dawn simulation and bright light in the treatment of SAD: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Avery, D H; Eder, D N; Bolte, M A; Hellekson, C J; Dunner, D L; Vitiello, M V; Prinz, P N

    2001-08-01

    Some small controlled studies have found that dawn simulation is effective in treating seasonal affective disorder (SAD). With a larger sample size and a longer duration of treatment, we compared dawn simulation with bright light therapy and a placebo condition in patients with SAD. Medication-free patients with SAD were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: bright light therapy (10,000 lux for 30 min, from 6:00 AM to 6:30 AM), dawn simulation (1.5 hour dawn signal from 4:30 AM to 6:00 AM peaking at 250 lux), and a placebo condition, a dim red light (1.5 hour dawn signal from 4:30 am to 6:00 AM peaking at 0.5 lux.) Over the subsequent 6 weeks, the subjects were blindly rated by a psychiatrist using the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating-Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD). We modeled the profiles of the remissions (SIGH-SAD < or = 8) and response (> or =50% decrease in SIGH-SAD) to treatment over time using Cox proportional hazards models. The sample consisted of 95 subjects who were randomized to the three conditions: bright light (n = 33), dawn simulation (n = 31) and placebo (n = 31). Dawn simulation was associated with greater remission (p <.05) and response (p <.001) rates compared to the placebo. Bright light did not differ significantly from the placebo. Dawn simulation was associated with greater remission (p <.01) and response (p <.001) rates compared to the bright light therapy. The mean daily hours of sunshine during the week before each visit were associated with a significant increase in likelihood of both remission (p <.001) and response (p <.001). Dawn simulation was associated with greater remission and response rates compared to the placebo and compared to bright light therapy. The hours of sunshine during the week before each assessment were associated with a positive clinical response.

  16. Afternoon nap and bright light exposure improve cognitive flexibility post lunch.

    PubMed

    Slama, Hichem; Deliens, Gaétane; Schmitz, Rémy; Peigneux, Philippe; Leproult, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of napping or bright light exposure on cognitive performance have been reported in participants exposed to sleep loss. Nonetheless, few studies investigated the effect of these potential countermeasures against the temporary drop in performance observed in mid-afternoon, and even less so on cognitive flexibility, a crucial component of executive functions. This study investigated the impact of either an afternoon nap or bright light exposure on post-prandial alterations in task switching performance in well-rested participants. Twenty-five healthy adults participated in two randomized experimental conditions, either wake versus nap (n=15), or bright light versus placebo (n=10). Participants were tested on a switching task three times (morning, post-lunch and late afternoon sessions). The interventions occurred prior to the post-lunch session. In the nap/wake condition, participants either stayed awake watching a 30-minute documentary or had the opportunity to take a nap for 30 minutes. In the bright light/placebo condition, participants watched a documentary under either bright blue light or dim orange light (placebo) for 30 minutes. The switch cost estimates cognitive flexibility and measures task-switching efficiency. Increased switch cost scores indicate higher difficulties to switch between tasks. In both control conditions (wake or placebo), accuracy switch-cost score increased post lunch. Both interventions (nap or bright light) elicited a decrease in accuracy switch-cost score post lunch, which was associated with diminished fatigue and decreased variability in vigilance. Additionally, there was a trend for a post-lunch benefit of bright light with a decreased latency switch-cost score. In the nap group, improvements in accuracy switch-cost score were associated with more NREM sleep stage N1. Thus, exposure to bright light during the post-lunch dip, a countermeasure easily applicable in daily life, results in similar beneficial effects as

  17. Afternoon Nap and Bright Light Exposure Improve Cognitive Flexibility Post Lunch

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Rémy; Peigneux, Philippe; Leproult, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of napping or bright light exposure on cognitive performance have been reported in participants exposed to sleep loss. Nonetheless, few studies investigated the effect of these potential countermeasures against the temporary drop in performance observed in mid-afternoon, and even less so on cognitive flexibility, a crucial component of executive functions. This study investigated the impact of either an afternoon nap or bright light exposure on post-prandial alterations in task switching performance in well-rested participants. Twenty-five healthy adults participated in two randomized experimental conditions, either wake versus nap (n=15), or bright light versus placebo (n=10). Participants were tested on a switching task three times (morning, post-lunch and late afternoon sessions). The interventions occurred prior to the post-lunch session. In the nap/wake condition, participants either stayed awake watching a 30-minute documentary or had the opportunity to take a nap for 30 minutes. In the bright light/placebo condition, participants watched a documentary under either bright blue light or dim orange light (placebo) for 30 minutes. The switch cost estimates cognitive flexibility and measures task-switching efficiency. Increased switch cost scores indicate higher difficulties to switch between tasks. In both control conditions (wake or placebo), accuracy switch-cost score increased post lunch. Both interventions (nap or bright light) elicited a decrease in accuracy switch-cost score post lunch, which was associated with diminished fatigue and decreased variability in vigilance. Additionally, there was a trend for a post-lunch benefit of bright light with a decreased latency switch-cost score. In the nap group, improvements in accuracy switch-cost score were associated with more NREM sleep stage N1. Thus, exposure to bright light during the post-lunch dip, a countermeasure easily applicable in daily life, results in similar beneficial effects as

  18. Volume-scalable high-brightness three-dimensional visible light source

    DOEpatents

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Fischer, Arthur J; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-02-18

    A volume-scalable, high-brightness, electrically driven visible light source comprises a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) comprising one or more direct bandgap semiconductors. The improved light emission performance of the invention is achieved based on the enhancement of radiative emission of light emitters placed inside a 3DPC due to the strong modification of the photonic density-of-states engendered by the 3DPC.

  19. Effect of dim and bright light exposure on some immunological parameters measured under thermal neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Ki-Ja; Kondo, Masayuki; Koh, Taichin; Tokura, Hiromi; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Oishi, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of ambient light conditions, under a thermoneutral environment, on selected immunological parameters of 7 healthy young women (aged 19 to 22 yrs). Subjects entered the bioclimatic chamber at 11: 00 h, controlled at 26 degrees C and 60% relative humidity, a "neutral climate". They lead a well-regulated life in the climatic chamber (pre-condition) while exposed to dim (200 lux) or, on the next day, bright (5000 lux) light between 06 : 00 to 12 : 00 h. Just before the end of each period of light exposure, a blood sample was taken for later immunological assay of white blood cell count (WBC), phagocytosis, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-4 (IL-4), CD69 T cells (CD69), CD4+CD25+ T cells (CD4+CD25+), and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). The results, when compared with the pre-condition, were as follows: 1) CD69 and IFN-gamma increased during normal conditions without thermal stress under dim light; 2) WBC increased and IL-4 decreased under bright light; 3) as shown by the highly significant decrease of TGF-beta1, the immune system was activated under bright light; 4) phagocytosis tended to increase under bright light exposure; 5) CD69 and IFN-gamma were significantly higher, and CD4+CD25+ tended to decrease under bright light; 6) phagocytosis tended to be lower and TGF-beta1 significantly higher under dim light, indicating a decline of immune system function. Taken together, this preliminary single time-point sampling study infers that some parameters are activated (CD69) while others are attenuated (phagocytosis, TGF-beta1) according to the environmental light intensity, dim vs. bright, in women adhering to a standardized routine in the absence of thermal stress. These findings are discussed in terms of inhibition of the sympathetic and excitation of the parasympathetic nervous system under the influence of life-style regularity and daytime bright light exposure.

  20. Bright-light exposure during daytime sleeping affects nocturnal melatonin secretion after simulated night work.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Shunsuke; Osawa, Madoka; Matsuyama, Hiroto; Ohoka, Wataru; Ahn, Aemi; Wakamura, Tomoko

    2018-02-01

    The guidelines for night and shift workers recommend that after night work, they should sleep in a dark environment during the daytime. However, staying in a dark environment during the daytime reduces nocturnal melatonin secretion and delays its onset. Daytime bright-light exposure after night work is important for melatonin synthesis the subsequent night and for maintaining the circadian rhythms. However, it is not clear whether daytime sleeping after night work should be in a dim- or a bright-light environment for maintaining melatonin secretion. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effect of bright-light exposure during daytime sleeping on nocturnal melatonin secretion after simulated night work. Twelve healthy male subjects, aged 24.8 ± 4.6 (mean ± SD), participated in 3-day sessions under two experimental conditions, bright light or dim light, in a random order. On the first day, the subjects entered the experimental room at 16:00 and saliva samples were collected every hour between 18:00 and 00:00 under dim-light conditions. Between 00:00 and 08:00, they participated in tasks that simulated night work. At 10:00 the next morning, they slept for 6 hours under either a bright-light condition (>3000 lx) or a dim-light condition (<50 lx). In the evening, saliva samples were collected as on the first day. The saliva samples were analyzed for melatonin concentration. Activity and sleep times were recorded by a wrist device worn throughout the experiment. In the statistical analysis, the time courses of melatonin concentration were compared between the two conditions by three-way repeated measurements ANOVA (light condition, day and time of day). The change in dim light melatonin onset (ΔDLMO) between the first and second days, and daytime and nocturnal sleep parameters after the simulated night work were compared between the light conditions using paired t-tests. The ANOVA results indicated a significant interaction (light condition and3

  1. Phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with high efficiency and brightness

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zhang, Yifan

    2015-11-12

    An organic light emitting device including a) an anode; b) a cathode; and c) an emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode, the emissive layer comprising an organic host compound and a phosphorescent compound exhibiting a Stokes Shift overlap greater than 0.3 eV. The organic light emitting device may further include a hole transport layer disposed between the emissive layer and the anode; and an electron transport layer disposed between the emissive layer and the cathode. In some embodiments, the phosphorescent compound exhibits a phosphorescent lifetime of less than 10 .mu.s. In some embodiments, the concentration of the phosphorescent compound ranges from 0.5 wt. % to 10 wt. %.

  2. Trials of bright light exposure and melatonin administration in a patient with non-24 hour sleep-wake syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, T; Kamei, Y; Urata, J; Shibui, K; Ozaki, S; Uchiyama, M; Okawa, M

    1998-04-01

    We report a patient with non-24 h sleep-wake syndrome (non-24) whose free-running sleep-wake cycle was successfully treated with both scheduled bright light exposure and melatonin treatment. In the present study, morning bright light as well as evening melatonin phase-advanced sleep-wake cycles and melatonin rhythm. Both these procedures achieved appropriate entrainment to a 24 h day. However, the patient did not continue morning bright light therapy after the discharge. Rising at appropriate times in the morning for bright light therapy was difficult for him to continue. Melatonin treatment was better tolerated because of its ease of application.

  3. The exo-zodiacal disk mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Larry; Bely, P.; Burg, R.; Wade, L.; Beichman, C.; Gay, J.; Baudoz, P.; Rabbia, Y.; Perrin, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    Zodiacal dust around neighboring stars could obscure the signal of terrestrial planets observed with the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) if that dust is similar to that in the Solar System. Unfortunately, little is known about the presence, or frequency of occurrence of zodiacal dust around stars and so the relevance of zodiacal dust to the design of the TPF, or to the TPF mission, is unknown. It is likely that direct observation of zodiacal dust disks will be necessary to confidently determine the characteristics of individual systems. A survey of a large number of stars in the solar neighborhood that could be candidates for observation with TPF should be undertaken. We present a concept for a space mission to undertake a sensitive, large-scale survey capable of characterizing solar-system-like zodiacal dust around 400 stars within 20 pc of the Sun.

  4. Interpreting the human phase response curve to multiple bright-light exposures.

    PubMed

    Strogatz, S H

    1990-01-01

    Czeisler and his colleagues have recently reported that bright light can induce strong (Type O) resetting of the human circadian pacemaker. This surprising result shows that the human clock is more responsive to light than has been previously thought. The interpretation of their results is subtle, however, because of an unconventional aspect of their experimental protocol: They measured the phase shift after three cycles of the bright-light stimulus, rather than after the usual single pulse. A natural question is whether the apparent Type O response could reflect the summation of three weaker Type 1 responses to each of the daily light pulses. In this paper I show mathematically that repeated Type 1 resetting cannot account for the observed Type O response. This finding corroborates the strong resetting reported by Czeisler et al., and supports their claim that bright light induces strong resetting by crushing the amplitude of the circadian pacemaker. Furthermore, the results indicate that back-to-back light pulses can have a cooperative effect different from that obtained by simple iteration of a phase response curve (PRC). In this sense the resetting response of humans is similar to that of Drosophila, Kalanchoe, and Culex, and is more complex than that predicted by conventional PRC theory. To describe the way in which light resets the human circadian pacemaker, one needs a theory that includes amplitude resetting, as pioneered by Winfree and developed for humans by Kronauer.

  5. Bright light exposure at night and light attenuation in the morning improve adaptation of night shift workers.

    PubMed

    Yoon, In-Young; Jeong, Do-Un; Kwon, Ki-Bum; Kang, Sang-Bum; Song, Byoung-Gun

    2002-05-01

    With practical applicability in mind, we wanted to observe whether nocturnal alertness, performance, and daytime sleep could be improved by light exposure of tolerable intensity and duration in a real work place. We also evaluated whether attenuating morning light was important in adaptation of real night shift workers. Twelve night shift nurses participated in this study. The study consisted of three different treatment procedures: Room Light (RL), Bright Light (BL), and Bright Light with Sunglasses (BL/S). In RL, room light exposure was given during the night shift and followed by 1 hr exposure to sunlight or 10,000 lux light the next morning (from 08:30 to 09:30). In BL, a 4-hour nocturnal light exposure of 4,000-6,000 lux (from 01:00 to 05:00) was applied and followed by the same morning light exposure as in RL. In BL/S, the same nocturnal light exposure as in BL was done with light attenuation in the morning. Each treatment procedure was continued for 4 days in a repeated measures, cross-over design. Nocturnal alertness was measured by a visual analog scale. Computerized performance tests were done. Daytime sleep was recorded with actigraphy. The most significant overall improvement of sleep was noted in BL/S. BL showed less improvement than BL/S but more than RL. Comparison of nocturnal alertness among the 3 treatments produced similar results: during BL/S, the subjects were most alert, followed by BL and then by RL. Real night shift workers can improve nocturnal alertness and daytime sleep by bright light exposure in their work place. These improvements can be maximized by attenuating morning light on the way home.

  6. Retinal venous blood carbon monoxide response to bright light in male pigs: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Oren, Dan A; Duda, Magdalena; Kozioł, Katarzyna; Romerowicz-Misielak, Maria; Koziorowska, Anna; Sołek, Przemysław; Nowak, Sławomir; Kulpa, Magdalena; Koziorowski, Marek

    2017-03-01

    The physical mechanism by which light is absorbed in the eye and has antidepressant and energizing effects in Seasonal Affective Disorder and other forms of psychiatric major depression is of scientific interest. This study was designed to explore one specific aspect of a proposed humoral phototransduction mechanism, namely that carbon monoxide (CO) levels increase in retinal venous blood in response to bright light. Eleven mature male pigs approximately six months of age were kept for 7days in darkness and fasted for 12h prior to surgery. Following mild sedation, anesthesia was induced. Silastic catheters were inserted into the dorsal nasal vein through the angular vein of the eye to reach the ophthalmic sinus, from which venous blood outflowing from the eye area was collected. The animals were exposed to 5000lx of fluorescent-generated white light. CO levels in the blood were analyzed by gas chromatography before and after 80min of light exposure. At baseline, mean CO levels in the retinal venous blood were 0.43±0.05(SE)nmol/ml. After bright light, mean CO levels increased to 0.54±0.06nmol/ml (two-tailed t-test p<0.05). This study provides preliminary mammalian evidence that acute bright light exposure raises carbon monoxide levels in ophthalmic venous blood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Weak evidence of bright light effects on human LH and FSH.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Parry, Barbara L; Hauger, Richard L; Rex, Katharine M

    2010-05-11

    Most mammals are seasonal breeders whose gonads grow to anticipate reproduction in the spring and summer. As day length increases, secretion increases for two gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This response is largely controlled by light. Light effects on gonadotropins are mediated through effects on the suprachiasmatic nucleus and responses of the circadian system. There is some evidence that seasonal breeding in humans is regulated by similar mechanisms, and that light stimulates LH secretion, but primate responses seem complex. To gain further information on effects of bright light on LH and FSH secretion in humans, we analyzed urine samples collected in three experiments conducted for other goals. First, volunteers ages 18-30 years and 60-75 commenced an ultra-short 90-min sleep-wake cycle, during which they were exposed to 3000 lux light for 3 hours at balanced times of day, repeated for 3 days. Urine samples were assayed to explore any LH phase response curve. Second, depressed participants 60-79 years of age were treated with bright light or dim placebo light for 28 days, with measurements of urinary LH and FSH before and after treatment. Third, women of ages 20-45 years with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) were treated to one 3-hour exposure of morning light, measuring LH and FSH in urine before and after the treatments. Two of the three studies showed significant increases in LH after light treatment, and FSH also tended to increase, but there were no significant contrasts with parallel placebo treatments and no significant time-of-day treatment effects. These results gave some support for the hypothesis that bright light may augment LH secretion. Longer-duration studies may be needed to clarify the effects of light on human LH and FSH.

  8. Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong: a city-wide light pollution assessment.

    PubMed

    Pun, Chun Shing Jason; So, Chu Wing

    2012-04-01

    Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all 18 Administrative Districts of Hong Kong. The survey shows that the environmental light pollution problem in Hong Kong is severe-the urban night skies (sky brightness at 15.0 mag arcsec(- 2)) are on average ~ 100 times brighter than at the darkest rural sites (20.1 mag arcsec(- 2)), indicating that the high lighting densities in the densely populated residential and commercial areas lead to light pollution. In the worst polluted urban location studied, the night-sky at 13.2 mag arcsec(- 2) can be over 500 times brighter than the darkest sites in Hong Kong. The observed night-sky brightness is found to be affected by human factors such as land utilization and population density of the observation sites, together with meteorological and/or environmental factors. Moreover, earlier night skies (at 9:30 p.m. local time) are generally brighter than later time (at 11:30 p.m.), which can be attributed to some public and commercial lightings being turned off later at night. On the other hand, no concrete relationship between the observed sky brightness and air pollutant concentrations could be established with the limited survey sampling. Results from this survey will serve as an important database for the public to assess whether new rules and regulations are necessary to control the use of outdoor lightings in Hong Kong.

  9. Randomized clinical trial of bright light therapy for antepartum depression: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Epperson, C Neill; Terman, Michael; Terman, Jiuan Su; Hanusa, Barbara H; Oren, Dan A; Peindl, Kathleen S; Wisner, Katherine L

    2004-03-01

    Bright light therapy was shown to be a promising treatment for depression during pregnancy in a recent open-label study. In an extension of this work, we report findings from a double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study. Ten pregnant women with DSM-IV major depressive disorder were randomly assigned from April 2000 to January 2002 to a 5-week clinical trial with either a 7000 lux (active) or 500 lux (placebo) light box. At the end of the randomized controlled trial, subjects had the option of continuing in a 5-week extension phase. The Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Scale-Seasonal Affective Disorder Version was administered to assess changes in clinical status. Salivary melatonin was used to index circadian rhythm phase for comparison with antidepressant results. Although there was a small mean group advantage of active treatment throughout the randomized controlled trial, it was not statistically significant. However, in the longer 10-week trial, the presence of active versus placebo light produced a clear treatment effect (p =.001) with an effect size (0.43) similar to that seen in antidepressant drug trials. Successful treatment with bright light was associated with phase advances of the melatonin rhythm. These findings provide additional evidence for an active effect of bright light therapy for antepartum depression and underscore the need for an expanded randomized clinical trial.

  10. A compact high brightness laser synchrotron light source for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    1999-07-01

    The present high-brightness hard X-ray sources have been developed as third generation synchrotron light sources based on large high energy electron storage rings and magnetic undulators. Recently availability of compact terawatt lasers arouses a great interest in the use of lasers as undulators. The laser undulator concept makes it possible to construct an attractive compact synchrotron radiation source which has been proposed as a laser synchrotron light source. This paper proposes a compact laser synchrotron light source for mediacal applications, such as an intravenous coronary angiography and microbeam therapy.

  11. Effect of bright light at night on core temperature, subjective alertness and performance as a function of exposure time.

    PubMed

    Foret, J; Daurat, A; Tirilly, G

    1998-01-01

    This simulated night shift study measured the effects of moderate bright light (a 4-hour pulse starting at 2000 or 0400) during the exposure night and subsequent night (dim light). Eight young males remained confined with little physical activity to a laboratory in groups of 4. After a night of reference, they were active for 24 hours; then after a morning recovery sleep, they were active again for 16 hours. Continuously measured rectal temperature proved to be immediately sensitive to 4 hours of bright light, particularly when given at the end of the night. Self-assessed alertness and also performance on a task with a high requirement for short-term memory were improved by the exposure to bright light. During the subsequent night the subjects were exposed only to dim light. Core temperature, subjective alertness and performance continued to show a time course depending on the preceding bright light exposure. Probably because evening exposure to bright light and morning sleep both had a phase-delaying effect, the effects on the circadian pacemaker were more pronounced. Thus, for practical applications in long night shifts, bright light can be considered to improve mood and alertness immediately but the possibility of modifying the circadian "clock" during subsequent nights should be taken into consideration, in particular after exposure to bright light in the evening.

  12. Light and Velocity Variability in Seven Bright Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Light and Velocity Variability in Seven Bright Proto-Planetary Nebulae R.B. McGuire, C.M. Steele, B.J. Hrivnak, W. Lu, D. Bohlender, C.D. Scarfe We present new contemporaneous light and velocity observations of seven proto-planetary nebulae obtained over the past two years. Proto-planetary nebulae are objects evolving between the AGB and planetary nebula phases. In these seven objects, the central star is bright (V= 7-10), surrounded by a faint nebula. We knew from past monitoring that the light from each of these varied by a few tenths of a magnitude over intervals of 30-150 days and that the velocity varied by 10 km/s. These appear to be due to pulsation. With these new contemporaneous observations, we are able to measure the correlation between the brightness, color, and velocity, which will constrain the pulsation models. This is an ongoing project with the light monitoring being carried out with the Valparaiso University 0.4 m telescope and CCD camera and the radial velocity observations being carried out with the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory 1.8 m telescope and spectrograph. This research is partially supported by NSF grant 0407087 and the Indiana Space Grant Consortium.

  13. Circadian phase resetting in older people by ocular bright light exposure.

    PubMed

    Klerman, E B; Duffy, J F; Dijk, D J; Czeisler, C A

    2001-01-01

    Aging is associated with frequent complaints about earlier bedtimes and waketimes. These changes in sleep timing are associated with an earlier timing of multiple endogenous rhythms, including core body temperature (CBT) and plasma melatonin, driven by the circadian pacemaker. One possible cause of the age-related shift of endogenous circadian rhythms and the timing of sleep relative to clock time is a change in the phase-shifting capacity of the circadian pacemaker in response to the environmental light-dark cycle, the principal synchronizer of the human circadian system. We studied the response of the circadian system of 24 older men and women and 23 young men to scheduled exposure to ocular bright light stimuli. Light stimuli were 5 hours in duration, administered for 3 consecutive days at an illuminance of approximately 10,000 lux. Light stimuli were scheduled 1.5 or 3.5 hours after the CBT nadir to induce shifts of endogenous circadian pacemaker to an earlier hour (phase advances) or were scheduled 1.5 hours before the CBT nadir to induce shifts to a later hour (phase delays). The rhythms of CBT and plasma melatonin assessed under constant conditions served as markers of circadian phase. Bright light stimuli elicited robust responses of the circadian timing system in older people; both phase advances and phase delays were induced. The magnitude of the phase delays did not differ significantly between older and younger individuals, but the phase advances were significantly attenuated in older people. The attenuated response to light stimuli that induce phase advances does not explain the advanced phase of the circadian pacemaker in older people. The maintained responsiveness of the circadian pacemaker to light implies that scheduled bright light exposure can be used to treat circadian phase disturbances in older people.

  14. Suppression of melatonin secretion in some blind patients by exposure to bright light.

    PubMed

    Czeisler, C A; Shanahan, T L; Klerman, E B; Martens, H; Brotman, D J; Emens, J S; Klein, T; Rizzo, J F

    1995-01-05

    Complete blindness generally results in the loss of synchronization of circadian rhythms to the 24-hour day and in recurrent insomnia. However, some blind patients maintain circadian entrainment. We undertook this study to determine whether some blind patients' eyes convey sufficient photic information to entrain the hypothalamic circadian pacemaker and suppress melatonin secretion, despite an apparently complete loss of visual function. We evaluated the input of light to the circadian pacemaker by testing the ability of bright light to decrease plasma melatonin concentrations in 11 blind patients with no conscious perception of light and in 6 normal subjects. We also evaluated circadian entrainment over time in the blind patients. Plasma melatonin concentrations decreased during exposure to bright light in three sightless patients by an average (+/- SD) of 69 +/- 21 percent and in the normal subjects by an average of 66 +/- 15 percent. When two of these blind patients were tested with their eyes covered during exposure to light, plasma melatonin did not decrease. The three blind patients reported no difficulty sleeping and maintained apparent circadian entrainment to the 24-hour day. Plasma melatonin concentrations did not decrease during exposure to bright light in seven of the remaining blind patients; in the eighth, plasma melatonin was undetectable. These eight patients reported a history of insomnia, and in four the circadian temperature rhythm was not entrained to the 24-hour day. The visual subsystem that mediates light-induced suppression of melatonin secretion remains functionally intact in some sightless patients. The absence of photic input to the circadian system thus constitutes a distinct form of blindness, associated with periodic insomnia, that afflicts most but not all patients with no conscious perception of light.

  15. Thoughts About Advancement of the Discipline: Dark Clouds and Bright Lights.

    PubMed

    Turkel, Marian; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Chinn, Peggy L; Eustace, Rosemary; Hansell, Phyllis Shanley; Smith, Marlaine C; Watson, Jean; Zahourek, Rothlyn

    2018-01-01

    In this essay, several nurse scholars who are particularly concerned about the contemporary state of nursing science present their specific concerns (dark clouds) about the advancement of our discipline and the ways in which the concerns have been addressed (bright lights). This essay is the first of two essays that were catalyzed by Barrett's paper, "Again, What Is Nursing Science?" The second essay will be published in the next issue Nursing Science Quarterly.

  16. Gamut relativity: a new computational approach to brightness and lightness perception.

    PubMed

    Vladusich, Tony

    2013-01-09

    This article deconstructs the conventional theory that "brightness" and "lightness" constitute perceptual dimensions corresponding to the physical dimensions of luminance and reflectance, and builds in its place the theory that brightness and lightness correspond to computationally defined "modes," rather than dimensions, of perception. According to the theory, called gamut relativity, "blackness" and "whiteness" constitute the perceptual dimensions (forming a two-dimensional "blackness-whiteness" space) underlying achromatic color perception (black, white, and gray shades). These perceptual dimensions are postulated to be related to the neural activity levels in the ON and OFF channels of vision. The theory unifies and generalizes a number of extant concepts in the brightness and lightness literature, such as simultaneous contrast, anchoring, and scission, and quantitatively simulates several challenging perceptual phenomena, including the staircase Gelb effect and the effects of task instructions on achromatic color-matching behavior, all with a single free parameter. The theory also provides a new conception of achromatic color constancy in terms of the relative distances between points in blackness-whiteness space. The theory suggests a host of striking conclusions, the most important of which is that the perceptual dimensions of vision should be generically specified according to the computational properties of the brain, rather than in terms of "reified" physical dimensions. This new approach replaces the computational goal of estimating absolute physical quantities ("inverse optics") with the goal of computing object properties relatively.

  17. Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Oida, Satoshi; Tulevski, George S.; Han, Shu-Jen; Hannon, James B.; Sadana, Devendra K.; Chen, Tze-Chiang

    2013-08-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes are emerging as leading technologies for both high quality display and lighting. However, the transparent conductive electrode used in the current organic light-emitting diode technologies increases the overall cost and has limited bendability for future flexible applications. Here we use single-layer graphene as an alternative flexible transparent conductor, yielding white organic light-emitting diodes with brightness and efficiency sufficient for general lighting. The performance improvement is attributed to the device structure, which allows direct hole injection from the single-layer graphene anode into the light-emitting layers, reducing carrier trapping induced efficiency roll-off. By employing a light out-coupling structure, phosphorescent green organic light-emitting diodes exhibit external quantum efficiency >60%, while phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes exhibit external quantum efficiency >45% at 10,000 cd m-2 with colour rendering index of 85. The power efficiency of white organic light-emitting diodes reaches 80 lm W-1 at 3,000 cd m-2, comparable to the most efficient lighting technologies.

  18. Research of the relationships between light dispersion and contrast of the registered image at different background brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanov, Stiliyan; Mardirossian, Garo

    2012-10-01

    The light diffraction is for telescope apparatuses an especially important characteristic which has an influence on the record image contrast from the eye observer. The task of the investigation is to determine to what degree the coefficient of light diffraction influences the record image brightness. The object of the theoretical research are experimental results provided from a telescope system experiment in the process of observation of remote objects with different brightness of the background in the fixed light diffraction coefficients and permanent contrast of the background in respect to the object. The received values and the ratio of the image contrast to the light diffraction coefficient is shown in a graphic view. It's settled that with increasing of the value of background brightness in permanent background contrast in respect to the object, the image contrast sharply decrease. The relationship between the increase of the light diffraction coefficient and the decrease of the brightness of the project image from telescope apparatuses can be observed.

  19. Bright light therapy and melatonin in motor restless behaviour in dementia: a placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Haffmans, P M; Sival, R C; Lucius, S A; Cats, Q; van Gelder, L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of bright light therapy combined with melatonin on motor restless behaviour in dementia. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial consisting of four periods. One week wash-out was followed by a 2-week period of light therapy in combination with placebo or melatonin. The second wash-out period of 1 week was followed by 2 weeks of treatment (cross-over). Twenty-four bed medium-stay psychogeriatric ward at a Dutch psychiatric teaching hospital. Ten patients, who met the criteria for dementia (DSM-IV) and motor restless behaviour (subscale 10 of the GIP), were included. Informed consent was obtained by proxy. All subjects were exposed during 2x5 consecutive days for 30 minutes to 10,000 lux bright light and randomly administered 2.5 mg melatonin or placebo at 22.00 h. Clinical Global Impression (CGI), Dutch version of the geriatric behavioural observation scale (GIP), Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale (SDAS) were assessed after each wash-out and treatment period. Outcome criteria were CGI, assessing motor restless behaviour, the SDAS, measuring extrovert aggression and the GIP, assessing social, psychomotor and emotional behaviour. Six demented inpatients completed the trial. Positive effects were found for the treatment combined with placebo. Patients were less restless and more co-operative. The condition with melatonin showed no additional positive effects, additionally, patients became more aggressive and showed the same or more disturbed behaviour. Bright light therapy has a positive effect on motor restless behaviour. Light therapy in combination with melatonin has no positive effects. The results might be explained by a possible overshoot of chronobiological synchronisation or the timing of the melatonin intake. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Suppression of melatonin secretion by bright light in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Partonen, T; Vakkuri, O; Lönnqvist, J

    1997-09-15

    Eleven patients with winter seasonal affective disorder and 10 healthy controls were exposed to light of 3300 lux for 5 min and for 1 hour respectively on consecutive evenings at 22:00 hours during winter and summer. In the winter, the measurements were undertaken both before and after the treatment with bright light for 2 weeks. In the summer, there was no treatment. Melatonin concentration in saliva and subjective sleepiness were measured at 22:00 and 23:00 hours on each test. There was no significant difference in the suppression of melatonin in response to the light tests between the patients and the controls. Exposure to light reduced the level of subjective sleepiness more among the patients compared to the control subjects. This reduction was not associated with the change in melatonin secretion nor the improvement in depressive symptoms.

  1. High brightness diode laser module development at nLIGHT Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Kirk; Karlsen, Scott; Brown, Aaron; Reynolds, Mitch; Mehl, Ron; Leisher, Paul; Patterson, Steve; Bell, Jake; Martinsen, Rob

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of ultra-high brightness laser diode modules at nLIGHT Photonics. This paper demonstrates a laser diode module capable of coupling over 100W at 976 nm into a 105 μm, 0.15 NA fiber with fiber coupling efficiency greater than 85%. The high brightness module has an optical excitation under 0.13 NA, is virtually free of cladding modes, and has been wavelength stabilized with the use of volume holographic gratings for narrow-band operation. Utilizing nLIGHT's Pearl product architecture, these modules are based on hard soldered single emitters packaged into a compact and passively-cooled package. These modules are designed to be compatible with high power 7:1 fused fiber combiners, enabling over 500W power coupled into a 220 μm, 0.22 NA fiber. These modules address the need in the market for high brightness and wavelength stabilized diode lasers for pumping fiber lasers and solid-state laser systems.

  2. A phase response curve to single bright light pulses in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S.; Jewett, Megan E.; Cajochen, Christian; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    The circadian pacemaker is differentially sensitive to the resetting effects of retinal light exposure, depending upon the circadian phase at which the light exposure occurs. Previously reported human phase response curves (PRCs) to single bright light exposures have employed small sample sizes, and were often based on relatively imprecise estimates of circadian phase and phase resetting. In the present study, 21 healthy, entrained subjects underwent pre- and post-stimulus constant routines (CRs) in dim light (approximately 2-7 lx) with maintained wakefulness in a semi-recumbent posture. The 6.7 h bright light exposure stimulus consisted of alternating 6 min fixed gaze (approximately 10 000 lx) and free gaze (approximately 5000-9000 lx) exposures. Light exposures were scheduled across the circadian cycle in different subjects so as to derive a PRC. Plasma melatonin was used to determine the phase of the onset, offset, and midpoint of the melatonin profiles during the CRs. Phase shifts were calculated as the difference in phase between the pre- and post-stimulus CRs. The resultant PRC of the midpoint of the melatonin rhythm revealed a characteristic type 1 PRC with a significant peak-to-trough amplitude of 5.02 h. Phase delays occurred when the light stimulus was centred prior to the critical phase at the core body temperature minimum, phase advances occurred when the light stimulus was centred after the critical phase, and no phase shift occurred at the critical phase. During the subjective day, no prolonged 'dead zone' of photic insensitivity was apparent. Phase shifts derived using the melatonin onsets showed larger magnitudes than those derived from the melatonin offsets. These data provide a comprehensive characterization of the human PRC under highly controlled laboratory conditions.

  3. High brightness phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes on transparent and flexible cellulose films.

    PubMed

    Purandare, Sumit; Gomez, Eliot F; Steckl, Andrew J

    2014-03-07

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) were fabricated on flexible and transparent reconstituted cellulose obtained from wood pulp. Cellulose is naturally available, abundant, and biodegradable and offers a unique substrate alternative for the fabrication of flexible OLEDs. Transparent cellulose material was formed by dissolution of cellulose in an organic solvent (dimethyl acetamide) at elevated temperature (165 °C) in the presence of a salt (LiCl). The optical transmission of 40-μm thick transparent cellulose sheet averaged 85% over the visible spectrum. High brightness and high efficiency thin film OLEDs were fabricated on transparent cellulose films using phosphorescent Ir(ppy)3 as the emitter material. The OLEDs achieved current and luminous emission efficiencies as high as 47 cd A(-1) and 20 lm W(-1), respectively, and a maximum brightness of 10,000 cd m(-2).

  4. High brightness phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes on transparent and flexible cellulose films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purandare, Sumit; Gomez, Eliot F.; Steckl, Andrew J.

    2014-03-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) were fabricated on flexible and transparent reconstituted cellulose obtained from wood pulp. Cellulose is naturally available, abundant, and biodegradable and offers a unique substrate alternative for the fabrication of flexible OLEDs. Transparent cellulose material was formed by dissolution of cellulose in an organic solvent (dimethyl acetamide) at elevated temperature (165 °C) in the presence of a salt (LiCl). The optical transmission of 40-μm thick transparent cellulose sheet averaged 85% over the visible spectrum. High brightness and high efficiency thin film OLEDs were fabricated on transparent cellulose films using phosphorescent Ir(ppy)3 as the emitter material. The OLEDs achieved current and luminous emission efficiencies as high as 47 cd A-1 and 20 lm W-1, respectively, and a maximum brightness of 10 000 cd m-2.

  5. Bright light therapy decreases winter binge frequency in women with bulimia nervosa: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Braun, D L; Sunday, S R; Fornari, V M; Halmi, K A

    1999-01-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of winter bright light therapy on binge and purge frequencies and depressive symptoms in subjects with bulimia nervosa. Thirty-four female bulimic outpatients were treated with either 10,000 lux bright white light or 50 lux dim red light (placebo control) during the winter months. In this double-blind study, the placebo group (n = 18) and the bright light group (n = 16) were matched for age, degree of seasonality (measured by the Seasonal Patterns Assessment Questionnaire [SPAQ]), and concurrent depression (measured by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV [SCID]). Three weeks of baseline data collection were followed by 3 weeks of half-hour daily morning light treatment and 2 weeks of follow-up evaluation. There was a significant light-treatment by time interaction (Wilks' lambda = .81, F(2,28) = 3.31, P = .05). The mean binge frequency decreased significantly more from baseline to the end of treatment for the bright light group (F(1,29) = 6.41, P = .017) than for the placebo group. The level of depression (measured by daily Beck Depression Inventory [BDI] scores) did not significantly differ between the groups during any phase, and neither depression nor seasonality affected the response to light treatment. In this double-blind study, bulimic women who received 3 weeks of winter bright light treatment reported a reduced binge frequency between baseline and the active treatment period in comparison to subjects receiving dim red light.

  6. Photosynthetically supplemental lighting for vegetable crop production with super-bright laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongguang; Li, Pingping; Shi, Jintong

    2007-02-01

    Although many artificial light sources like high-pressure sodium lamp, metal halide lamp, fluorescent lamp and so on are commonly used in horticulture, they are not widely applied because of the disadvantages of unreasonable spectra, high cost and complex control. Recently new light sources of light-emitting diode (LED) and laser diode (LD) are becoming more and more popular in the field of display and illumination with the improvement of material and manufacturing, long life-span and increasingly low cost. A new type of super-bright red LD (BL650, central wavelength is 650 nm) was selected to make up of the supplemental lighting panel, on which LDs were distributed with regular hexagon array. Drive circuit was designed to power it and adjust light intensity. System performance including temperature rise and light intensity distribution under different vertical/horizontal distances were tested. Photosynthesis of sweet pepper and eggplant leaf under LD was measured with LI-6400 to show the supplemental lighting effects. The results show that LD system can supply the maximum light intensity of 180 μmol/m2 •s at the distance of 50 mm below the panel and the temperature rise is little within 1 °C. Net photosynthetic rate became faster when LD system increased light intensity. Compared with sunlight and LED supplemental lighting system, LD's promotion on photosynthesis is in the middle. Thus it is feasible for LD light source to supplement light for vegetable crops. Further study would focus on the integration of LD and other artificial light sources.

  7. A Global, Multi-Waveband Model for the Zodiacal Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogan, Keith; Dermott, Stanley F.; Kehoe, Thomas J. J.

    2003-01-01

    This recently completed three-year project was undertaken by the PI at the University of Florida, NASA Goddard and JPL, and by the Co-I and Collaborator at the University of Florida. The funding was used to support a continuation of research conducted at the University of Florida over the last decade which focuses on the dynamics of dust particles in the interplanetary environment. The main objectives of this proposal were: To produce improved dynamical models of the zodiacal cloud by performing numerical simulations of the orbital evolution of asteroidal and cometary dust particles. To provide visualizations of the results using our visualization software package, SIMUL, simulating the viewing geometries of IRAS and COBE and comparing the model results with archived data. To use the results to provide a more accurate model of the brightness distribution of the zodiacal cloud than existing empirical models. In addition, our dynamical approach can provide insight into fundamental properties of the cloud, including but not limited to the total mass and surface area of dust, the size-frequency distribution of dust, and the relative contributions of asteroidal and cometary material. The model can also be used to provide constraints on trace signals from other sources, such as dust associated with the "Plutinos" , objects captured in the 2:3 resonance with Neptune.

  8. Randomized placebo-controlled field study of the effects of bright light and melatonin in adaptation to night work.

    PubMed

    Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Stangenes, Kristine; Oyane, Nicolas; Forberg, Knut; Lowden, Arne; Holsten, Fred; Akerstedt, Torbjørn

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of bright light and melatonin on adaptation to night work on an oil rig in the North Sea. Seventeen persons working a schedule of 2 weeks on a 12-hour shift, with the first week on night shift and the second week on day shift (ie, the swing shift schedule) participated. In a randomized controlled crossover design, the shift workers received a placebo, melatonin (3 mg, 1 hour before bedtime), or bright light (30-minute exposure, individually scheduled) during the first 4 days on the night shift and during the first 4 days on the day shift. Subjective and objective measures of sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and a simple serial reaction-time test) and sleep (diary and actigraphy) were recorded. Subjective measures indicated that melatonin modestly reduced sleepiness at work during the day shift and increased sleep by 15-20 minutes per day. Bright light gave values in between those of melatonin and the placebo, but with few significant results. According to the objective measures, bright light improved sleep to a minor degree during the night shift. Hardly any side-effects were reported. Melatonin and bright light modestly improved sleep and sleepiness in this field study. In well-controlled simulated nightwork studies, both melatonin and bright light are more effective in alleviating sleepiness and sleep problems. The less effect in this field study may be due to competing or conflicting factors present in real life or to an inoptimal timing and duration of the treatments.

  9. All-sky brightness monitoring of light pollution with astronomical methods.

    PubMed

    Rabaza, O; Galadí-Enríquez, D; Estrella, A Espín; Dols, F Aznar

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a mobile prototype and a protocol to measure light pollution based on astronomical methods. The prototype takes three all-sky images using BVR filters of the Johnson-Cousins astronomical photometric system. The stars are then identified in the images of the Hipparcos and General Catalogue of Photometric Data II astronomical catalogues, and are used as calibration sources. This method permits the measurement of night-sky brightness and facilitates an estimate of which fraction is due to the light up-scattered in the atmosphere by a wide variety of man-made sources. This is achieved by our software, which compares the sky background flux to that of many stars of known brightness. The reduced weight and dimensions of the prototype allow the user to make measurements from virtually any location. This prototype is capable of measuring the sky distribution of light pollution, and also provides an accurate estimate of the background flux at each photometric band. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bright colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes enabled by efficient chlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiyan; Zhao, Yong-Biao; Fan, Fengjia; Levina, Larissa; Liu, Min; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Gong, Xiwen; Quan, Li Na; Fan, James; Yang, Zhenyu; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Sargent, Edward H.

    2018-03-01

    The external quantum efficiencies of state-of-the-art colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) are now approaching the limit set by the out-coupling efficiency. However, the brightness of these devices is constrained by the use of poorly conducting emitting layers, a consequence of the present-day reliance on long-chain organic capping ligands. Here, we report how conductive and passivating halides can be implemented in Zn chalcogenide-shelled colloidal quantum dots to enable high-brightness green QLEDs. We use a surface management reagent, thionyl chloride (SOCl2), to chlorinate the carboxylic group of oleic acid and graft the surfaces of the colloidal quantum dots with passivating chloride anions. This results in devices with an improved mobility that retain high external quantum efficiencies in the high-injection-current region and also feature a reduced turn-on voltage of 2.5 V. The treated QLEDs operate with a brightness of 460,000 cd m-2, significantly exceeding that of all previously reported solution-processed LEDs.

  11. The Dynamic Community of Interest and Its Realization in ZODIAC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    the ZODIAC project. ZODIAC is a network architecture that puts security first and foremost, with security broken down into confidentiality, integrity...hosts, a unified solution for MANETs will work for hosts or routers as well. DYNAMIC COMMUNITIES OF INTEREST The basis of the ZODIAC design is a new dis...narrow scope of each DCoI limits attack propagation, and supports confidentiality ABSTRACT The ZODIAC project has been exploring a security first

  12. Effect of evening exposure to dim or bright light on the digestion of carbohydrate in the supper meal.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Naoko; Sone, Yoshiaki; Tokura, Hiromi

    2003-09-01

    In a previous study we found that daytime exposure to bright as compared to dim light exerted a beneficial effect on the digestion of the evening meal. This finding prompted us to examine whether the digestion of the evening meal is also affected by evening light intensity. Subjects lived in light of 200 lux during the daytime (08:00-17:00 h) and took their evening meal at 17:00 h under 20 lux (evening dim-light condition: 17:00-02:00 h) or 2000 lux (evening bright-light condition: 17:00-02:00 h) until retiring at 02:00 h. Assessment of carbohydrate digestion of the evening meal was accomplished by a breath hydrogen test that is indicative of the malabsorption of dietary carbohydrate. Hydrogen excretion in the breath in the evening under the dim-light condition was significantly less than under the bright-light condition (p < 0.05). This finding is the opposite to that obtained in previous experiments in which subjects were exposed to the different intensities of light during the daytime, and indicates that the exposure to dim light in the evening exerts a better effect on carbohydrate digestion in the evening meal than does the exposure to bright light.

  13. Exposure to bright light modifies HRV responses to mental tasks during nocturnal sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Mari; Aoki, Ken; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Iwanaga, Koichi; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2006-03-01

    This study was intended to determine the effects of continuous bright light exposure on cardiovascular responses, particularly heart rate variability (HRV), at rest and during performance of mental tasks with acute nocturnal sleep deprivation. Eight healthy male subjects stayed awake from 21.00 to 04.30 hours under bright (BL, 2800 lux) or dim (DL, 120 lux) light conditions. During sleep deprivation, mental tasks (Stroop color-word conflict test: CWT) were performed for 15 min each hour. Blood pressure, electrocardiogram, respiratory rate, urinary melatonin concentrations and rectal temperature were measured. During sleep deprivation, BL exposure depressed melatonin secretion in comparison to DL conditions. During sleep deprivation, exposure to BL delayed the decline in heart rate (HR) for 4 h in resting periods. A significant increment of HR induced by each CWT was detected, especially at 03.00 h and later, under DL conditions only. In addition, at 04.00 h, an index of sympathetic activity and sympatho-vagal balance on HRV during CWT increased significantly under DL conditions. In contrast, an index of parasympathetic activity during CWT decreased significantly under DL conditions. However, the indexes of HRV during CWT did not change throughout sleep deprivation under BL conditions. Our results suggest that BL exposure not only delays the nocturnal decrease in HR at rest but also maintains HR and balance of cardiac autonomic modulation to mental tasks during nocturnal sleep deprivation.

  14. Retinotopic Distribution of Structural and Functional Damages following Bright Light Exposure of Juvenile Rats

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Anna; Liu, Wenwen; Lachapelle, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed at better understanding the short (acute) and long term (chronic) degenerative processes characterizing the juvenile rat model of light-induced retinopathy. Electroretinograms, visual evoked potentials (VEP), retinal histology and western blots were obtained from juvenile albino Sprague-Dawley rats at preselected postnatal ages (from P30 to P400) following exposure to 10,000 lux from P14 to P28. Our results show that while immediately following the cessation of exposure, photoreceptor degeneration was concentrated within a well delineated area of the superior retina (i.e. the photoreceptor hole), with time, this hole continued to expand to form an almost photoreceptor-free region covering most of superior-inferior axis. By the end of the first year of life, only few photoreceptors remained in the far periphery of the superior hemiretina. Interestingly, despite a significant impairment of the outer retinal function, the retinal output (VEP) was maintained in the early phase of this retinopathy. Our findings thus suggest that postnatal exposure to a bright luminous environment triggers a degenerative process that continues to impair the retinal structure and function (mostly at the photoreceptor level) long after the cessation of the exposure regimen (more than 1 year documented herein). Given the slow degenerative process triggered following postnatal bright light exposure, we believe that our model represents an attractive alternative (to other more genetic models) to study the pathophysiology of photoreceptor-induced retinal degeneration as well as therapeutic strategies to counteract it. PMID:26784954

  15. Bright lights, big city: influences of ecological light pollution on reciprocal stream-riparian invertebrate fluxes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Lars A; Sullivan, S Mazeika P

    2013-09-01

    Cities produce considerable ecological light pollution (ELP), yet the effects of artificial night lighting on biological communities and ecosystem function have not been fully explored. From June 2010 to June 2011, we surveyed aquatic emergent insects, riparian arthropods entering the water, and riparian spiders of the family Tetragnathidae at nine stream reaches representing common ambient ELP levels of Columbus, Ohio, USA, streams (low, 0.1-0.5 lux; moderate, 0.6-2.0 lux; high, 2.1-4.0 lux). In August 2011, we experimentally increased light levels at the low- and moderate-treatment reaches to 10-12 lux to represent urban streams exposed to extremely high levels of ELP. Although season exerted the dominant influence on invertebrate fluxes over the course of the year, when analyzed by season, we found that light strongly influenced multiple invertebrate responses. The experimental light addition resulted in a 44% decrease in tetragnathid spider density (P = 0.035), decreases of 16% in family richness (P = 0.040) and 76% in mean body size (P = 0.022) of aquatic emergent insects, and a 309% increase in mean body size of terrestrial arthropods (P = 0.015). Our results provide evidence that artificial light sources can alter community structure and ecosystem function in streams via changes in reciprocal aquatic-terrestrial fluxes of invertebrates.

  16. Observations and Modelling of the Zodiacal Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsall, T.

    1994-12-01

    The DIRBE instrument on the COBE satellite performed a full-sky survey in ten bands covering the spectral range from 1.25 to 240 microns, and made measurements of the polarization from 1.25 to 3.5 microns. These observations provide a wealth of data on the radiations from the interplanetary dust cloud (IPD). The presentation covers the observations, the model-independent findings, and the results from the extensive efforts of the DIRBE team to model the IPD. Emphasis is placed on describing the importance of correctly accounting for the IPD contribution to the observed-sky signal for the purpose of detecting the cosmic infrared background. (*) The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is responsible for the design, development, and operation of the COBE mission. GSFC is also responsible for the development of the analysis software and for the production of the mission data sets. Scientific guidance is provided by the COBE Science Working Group. The COBE program is supported by the Astrophysics Division of NASA's Office of Space Science.

  17. Effect of bright light on EEG activities and subjective sleepiness to mental task during nocturnal sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Mari; Aoki, Ken; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Iwanaga, Koichi; Katsuura, Tetsuo; Shiomura, Yoshihiro

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the exposure to bright light on EEG activity and subjective sleepiness at rest and at the mental task during nocturnal sleep deprivation. Eight male subjects lay awake in semi-supine in a reclining seat from 21:00 to 04:30 under the bright (BL; >2500 lux) or the dim (DL; <150 lux) light conditions. During the sleep deprivation, the mental task (Stroop color-word conflict test: CWT) was performed each 15 min in one hour. EEG, subjective sleepiness, rectal and mean skin temperatures and urinary melatonin concentrations were measured. The subjective sleepiness increased with time of sleep deprivation during both rest and CWT under the DL condition. The exposure to bright light delayed for 2 hours the increase in subjective sleepiness at rest and suppressed the increase in that during CWT. The bright light exposure also delayed the increase in the theta and alpha wave activities in EEG at rest. In contrast, the effect of the bright light exposure on the theta and alpha wave activities disappeared by CWT. Additionally, under the BL condition, the entire theta activity during CWT throughout nocturnal sleep deprivation increased significantly from that in a rest condition. Our results suggest that the exposure to bright light throughout nocturnal sleep deprivation influences the subjective sleepiness during the mental task and the EEG activity, as well as the subjective sleepiness at rest. However, the effect of the bright light exposure on the EEG activity at the mental task diminishes throughout nocturnal sleep deprivation.

  18. Bright versus dim ambient light affects subjective well-being but not serotonin-related biological factors.

    PubMed

    Stemer, Bettina; Melmer, Andreas; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Kemmler, Georg; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A

    2015-10-30

    Light falling on the retina is converted into an electrical signal which stimulates serotonin synthesis. Previous studies described an increase of plasma and CNS serotonin levels after bright light exposure. Ghrelin and leptin are peptide hormones which are involved in the regulation of hunger/satiety and are related to serotonin. Neopterin and kynurenine are immunological markers which are also linked to serotonin biosynthesis. In this study, 29 healthy male volunteers were exposed to bright (5000lx) and dim (50lx) light conditions for 120min in a cross-over manner. Subjective well-being and hunger as well as various serotonin associated plasma factors were assessed before and after light exposure. Subjective well-being showed a small increase under bright light and a small decrease under dim light, resulting in a significant interaction between light condition and time. Ghrelin concentrations increased significantly under both light conditions, but there was no interaction between light and time. Correspondingly, leptin decreased significantly under both light conditions. Hunger increased significantly with no light-time interaction. We also found a significant decrease of neopterin, tryptophan and tyrosine levels, but no interaction between light and time. In conclusion, ambient light was affecting subjective well-being rather than serotonin associated biological factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Assessment of the broca-sulzer phenomenon via inter- and intra-modality matching procedures : studies of signal-light brightness.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1968-10-01

    Signal lights are presented to an observer as flashes with finite duration; thus, the effect of flash duration on the apparent brightness of the signal is important. The relation of effective signal brightness to flash duration and luminance finds ex...

  20. Structural, electrical and optical characterization of high brightness phosphor-free white light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omiya, Hiromasa

    Much interest currently exists in GaN and related materials for applications such as light-emitting devices operating in the amber to ultraviolet range. Solid-state lighting (SSL) using these materials is widely being investigated worldwide, especially due to their high-energy efficiency and its impact on environmental issues. A new approach for solid-state lighting uses phosphor-free white light emitting diodes (LEDs) that consist of blue, green, and red quantum wells (QW), all in a single device. This approach leads to improved color rendering, and directionality, compared to the conventional white LEDs that use yellow phosphor on blue or ultraviolet emitters. Improving the brightness of these phosphor-free white LEDs should enhance and accelerate the development of SSL technology. The main objective of the research reported in this dissertation is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the multiple quantum wells used in phosphor-free white LEDs. This dissertation starts with an introduction to lighting history, the fundamental concepts of nitride semiconductors, and the evolution of LED technology. Two important challenges in LED technology today are metal-semiconductor contacts and internal piezoelectric fields present in quantum well structures. Thus, the main portion of this dissertation consists of three parts dealing with metal-semiconductor interfaces, single quantum well structures, and multiple quantum well devices. Gold-nickel alloys are widely used as contacts to the p-region of LEDs. We have performed a detailed study for its evolution under standard annealing steps. The atomic arrangement of gold at its interface with GaN gives a clear explanation for the improved ohmic contact performance. We next focus on the nature of InGaN QWs. The dynamic response of the QWs was studied with electron holography and time-resolved cathodoluminescence. Establishing the correlation between energy band structure and the light emission spectra

  1. High-Brightness Blue Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled by a Directly Grown Graphene Buffer Layer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaolong; Zhang, Xiang; Dou, Zhipeng; Wei, Tongbo; Liu, Zhiqiang; Qi, Yue; Ci, Haina; Wang, Yunyu; Li, Yang; Chang, Hongliang; Yan, Jianchang; Yang, Shenyuan; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Junxi; Gao, Peng; Li, Jinmin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-06-08

    Single-crystalline GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high efficiency and long lifetime are the most promising solid-state lighting source compared with conventional incandescent and fluorescent lamps. However, the lattice and thermal mismatch between GaN and sapphire substrate always induces high stress and high density of dislocations and thus degrades the performance of LEDs. Here, the growth of high-quality GaN with low stress and a low density of dislocations on graphene (Gr) buffered sapphire substrate is reported for high-brightness blue LEDs. Gr films are directly grown on sapphire substrate to avoid the tedious transfer process and GaN is grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The introduced Gr buffer layer greatly releases biaxial stress and reduces the density of dislocations in GaN film and In x Ga 1- x N/GaN multiple quantum well structures. The as-fabricated LED devices therefore deliver much higher light output power compared to that on a bare sapphire substrate, which even outperforms the mature process derived counterpart. The GaN growth on Gr buffered sapphire only requires one-step growth, which largely shortens the MOCVD growth time. This facile strategy may pave a new way for applications of Gr films and bring several disruptive technologies for epitaxial growth of GaN film and its applications in high-brightness LEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High-efficient and brightness white organic light-emitting diodes operated at low bias voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Junsheng; Yuan, Kai; Jian, Yadong

    2010-10-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) used for display application and lighting need to possess high efficiency, high brightness, and low driving voltage. In this work, white OLEDs consisted of ambipolar 9,10-bis 2-naphthyl anthracene (ADN) as a host of blue light-emitting layer (EML) doped with tetrabutyleperlene (TBPe) and a thin codoped layer consisted of N, N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) as a host of yellow light-emitting layer doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) were investigated. With appropriate tuning in the film thickness, position, and dopant concentration of the co-doped layer, a white OLED with a luminance yield of 10.02 cd/A with the CIE coordinates of (0.29, 0.33) has been achieved at a bias voltage of 9 V and a luminance level of over 10,000 cd/m2. By introducing the PIN structure with both HIL and bis(10- hydroxybenzo-quinolinato)-beryllium (BeBq2) ETL, the power efficiency of white OLED was improved.

  3. Can short-wavelength depleted bright light during single simulated night shifts prevent circadian phase shifts?

    PubMed

    Regente, J; de Zeeuw, J; Bes, F; Nowozin, C; Appelhoff, S; Wahnschaffe, A; Münch, M; Kunz, D

    2017-05-01

    In single night shifts, extending habitual wake episodes leads to sleep deprivation induced decrements of performance during the shift and re-adaptation effects the next day. We investigated whether short-wavelength depleted (=filtered) bright light (FBL) during a simulated night shift would counteract such effects. Twenty-four participants underwent a simulated night shift in dim light (DL) and in FBL. Reaction times, subjective sleepiness and salivary melatonin concentrations were assessed during both nights. Daytime sleep was recorded after both simulated night shifts. During FBL, we found no melatonin suppression compared to DL, but slightly faster reaction times in the second half of the night. Daytime sleep was not statistically different between both lighting conditions (n = 24) and there was no significant phase shift after FBL (n = 11). To conclude, our results showed positive effects from FBL during simulated single night shifts which need to be further tested with larger groups, in more applied studies and compared to standard lighting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of bright light exposure on human fear conditioning, extinction, and associated prefrontal activation.

    PubMed

    Yoshiike, Takuya; Honma, Motoyasu; Yamada, Naoto; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi

    2018-06-18

    Bright light (BL) not only regulates human emotion and circadian physiology but can also directly modulate emotional memories. Impaired fear extinction and enhanced fear acquisition and consolidation are hallmarks of fear-circuitry disorders; thus, we tested whether BL facilitates fear extinction and inhibits fear acquisition. We randomly exposed 29 healthy humans to high- (9000 lx) or low-intensity light (<500 lx) for 15 min, near the nadir of the phase response to light, in a single-blind manner. Simultaneously with the light exposure, subjects performed fear extinction training and second fear acquisition, where a visual conditioned stimulus (CS), previously paired with an electric shock unconditioned stimulus (US), was presented without the US, while another CS was newly paired with the US. Conditioned responses (CRs) and changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity were determined during encoding and delayed recall sessions. BL-exposed subjects exhibited lower extinction-related PFC activity and marginally higher acquisition-related PFC activity during light exposure than subjects exposed to control light. Twenty-four hours later, BL reduced CRs to both the extinguished and non-extinguished CSs with marginally lower extinction-related PFC activation, suggesting that BL enhanced fear extinction, while suppressing fear acquisition. Further, BL sustained tolerance to fear re-conditioning. Our results demonstrate that a single and brief BL exposure, synchronized with fear extinction and acquisition, instantaneously influences prefrontal hemodynamic responses and alleviates fear expression after 24 h. Although the specificity of BL effects deems further investigation, our findings indicate the clinical relevance of adjunctive BL intervention in exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for fear-circuitry disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bright light during nighttime: effects on the circadian regulation of alertness and performance.

    PubMed

    Daurat, A; Foret, J; Benoit, O; Mauco, G

    2000-01-01

    The present studies evaluated to what extent duration (all-night or 4-hour exposures) and timing of nocturnal bright light (BL) (beginning or end of the night) modulate effects on vigilance. The results showed that all-night BL exposure is able to alleviate the nocturnal decrements in alertness and performance. However, under certain circumstances, this continuous BL exposure may induce adverse effects on mood and finally reveal to be counterproductive. Shorter BL exposure (4 h) during nighttime helps improve mood and performance, although the effects of short BL pulses were less efficacious than all-night BL exposure. The latter part of the night appears the best time for using the alerting effect of BL. The immediate alerting effect of BL seems to be mediated by a global activation of the central nervous system. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Bright luminescence from pure DNA-curcumin–based phosphors for bio hybrid light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, M. Siva Pratap; Park, Chinho

    2016-01-01

    Recently, significant advances have occurred in the development of phosphors for bio hybrid light-emitting diodes (Bio-HLEDs), which have created brighter, metal-free, rare-earth phosphor-free, eco-friendly, and cost-competitive features for visible light emission. Here, we demonstrate an original approach using bioinspired phosphors in Bio-HLEDs based on natural deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-curcumin complexes with cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) in bio-crystalline form. The curcumin chromophore was bound to the DNA double helix structure as observed using field emission tunnelling electron microscopy (FE-TEM). Efficient luminescence occurred due to tightly bound curcumin chromophore to DNA duplex. Bio-HLED shows low luminous drop rate of 0.0551 s−1. Moreover, the solid bio-crystals confined the activating bright luminescence with a quantum yield of 62%, thereby overcoming aggregation-induced quenching effect. The results of this study herald the development of commercially viable large-scale hybrid light applications that are environmentally benign. PMID:27572113

  7. Ultra-bright and highly efficient inorganic based perovskite light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liuqi; Yang, Xiaolei; Jiang, Qi; Wang, Pengyang; Yin, Zhigang; Zhang, Xingwang; Tan, Hairen; Yang, Yang (Michael); Wei, Mingyang; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Sargent, Edward H.; You, Jingbi

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic perovskites such as CsPbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) have attracted attention due to their excellent thermal stability and high photoluminescence quantum efficiency. However, the electroluminescence quantum efficiency of their light-emitting diodes was <1%. We posited that this low efficiency was a result of high leakage current caused by poor perovskite morphology, high non-radiative recombination at interfaces and perovskite grain boundaries, and also charge injection imbalance. Here, we incorporated a small amount of methylammonium organic cation into the CsPbBr3 lattice and by depositing a hydrophilic and insulating polyvinyl pyrrolidine polymer atop the ZnO electron-injection layer to overcome these issues. As a result, we obtained light-emitting diodes exhibiting a high brightness of 91,000 cd m−2 and a high external quantum efficiency of 10.4% using a mixed-cation perovskite Cs0.87MA0.13PbBr3 as the emitting layer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the brightest and most-efficient green perovskite light-emitting diodes reported to date. PMID:28589960

  8. Ultra-bright and highly efficient inorganic based perovskite light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liuqi; Yang, Xiaolei; Jiang, Qi; Wang, Pengyang; Yin, Zhigang; Zhang, Xingwang; Tan, Hairen; Yang, Yang (Michael); Wei, Mingyang; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Sargent, Edward H.; You, Jingbi

    2017-06-01

    Inorganic perovskites such as CsPbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) have attracted attention due to their excellent thermal stability and high photoluminescence quantum efficiency. However, the electroluminescence quantum efficiency of their light-emitting diodes was <1%. We posited that this low efficiency was a result of high leakage current caused by poor perovskite morphology, high non-radiative recombination at interfaces and perovskite grain boundaries, and also charge injection imbalance. Here, we incorporated a small amount of methylammonium organic cation into the CsPbBr3 lattice and by depositing a hydrophilic and insulating polyvinyl pyrrolidine polymer atop the ZnO electron-injection layer to overcome these issues. As a result, we obtained light-emitting diodes exhibiting a high brightness of 91,000 cd m-2 and a high external quantum efficiency of 10.4% using a mixed-cation perovskite Cs0.87MA0.13PbBr3 as the emitting layer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the brightest and most-efficient green perovskite light-emitting diodes reported to date.

  9. Bright luminescence from pure DNA-curcumin-based phosphors for bio hybrid light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. Siva Pratap; Park, Chinho

    2016-08-01

    Recently, significant advances have occurred in the development of phosphors for bio hybrid light-emitting diodes (Bio-HLEDs), which have created brighter, metal-free, rare-earth phosphor-free, eco-friendly, and cost-competitive features for visible light emission. Here, we demonstrate an original approach using bioinspired phosphors in Bio-HLEDs based on natural deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-curcumin complexes with cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) in bio-crystalline form. The curcumin chromophore was bound to the DNA double helix structure as observed using field emission tunnelling electron microscopy (FE-TEM). Efficient luminescence occurred due to tightly bound curcumin chromophore to DNA duplex. Bio-HLED shows low luminous drop rate of 0.0551 s-1. Moreover, the solid bio-crystals confined the activating bright luminescence with a quantum yield of 62%, thereby overcoming aggregation-induced quenching effect. The results of this study herald the development of commercially viable large-scale hybrid light applications that are environmentally benign.

  10. Subjective time runs faster under the influence of bright rather than dim light conditions during the forenoon.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takeshi; Fukui, Tomoe; Morofushi, Masayo; Tokura, Hiromi

    2007-05-16

    The study investigated if 6 h morning bright light exposure, compared with dim light exposure, could influence time sense (range: 5-15 s). Eight women served as participants. The participant entered a bioclimatic chamber at 10:00 h on the day before the test day, where an ambient temperature and relative humidity were controlled at 25 degrees C and 60%RH. She sat quietly in a sofa in 50 lx until 22:00 h, retired at 22:00 h and then slept in total darkness. She rose at 07:00 h the following morning and again sat quietly in a sofa till 13:00 h, either in bright (2500 lx) or dim light (50 lx), the order of light intensities between the two occasions being randomized. The time-estimation test was performed from 13:00 to 13:10 h in 200 lx. The participant estimated the time that had elapsed between two buzzers, ranging over 5-15 s, and inputting the estimate into a computer. The test was carried out separately upon each individual. Results showed that the participants estimated higher durations of the given time intervals after previous exposure to 6 h of bright rather than dim light. The finding is discussed in terms of different load errors (difference between the actual core temperature and its thermoregulatory set-point) following 6-h exposure to bright or dim light in the morning.

  11. Circadian rhythm of acute phase proteins under the influence of bright/dim light during the daytime.

    PubMed

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Hyun, Ki-Ja; Tokura, Hiromi; Azama, Takashi; Nishimura, Shinya

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the influence of two different light intensities, dim (100 lx) and bright (5000 lx), during the daytime on the circadian rhythms of selected acute phase proteins of C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT), transfferin (TF), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-m), haptoglobin (HP), and ceruloplasmin (CP). Serum samples were collected from 7 healthy volunteers at 4 h intervals during two separate single 24 h spans during which they were exposed to the respective light intensity conditions. A circadian rhythm was detected only in ACT concentration in the bright light condition. The concentration of ACT, a positive acute phase protein (APP), increased (significantly significant differences in the ACT concentration were detected at 14:00 and 22:00 h) and AGP showed a tendency to be higher under the daytime bright compared to dim light conditions. There were no significant differences between the time point means under daytime dim and bright light conditions for alpha2-M, AGP, Tf, Cp, or Hp. The findings suggest that some, but not all, APP may be influenced by the environmental light intensity.

  12. Effect of morning bright light on body temperature, plasma cortisol and wrist motility measured during 24 hour of constant conditions.

    PubMed

    Foret, J; Aguirre, A; Touitou, Y; Clodoré, M; Benoit, O

    1993-06-11

    Using 24 h constant conditions, time course of body temperature, plasma cortisol and wrist motility was measured in response to a 3 day morning 2 h bright light pulse. This protocol demonstrated that a 2000 lux illumination was sufficient to elicit a shift of about 2 h of temperature minimum and cortisol peak. In reference session, actimetric recordings showed a circadian time course, closely in relation with core temperature. Bright light pulse resulted in a decrease of amplitude and a disappearance of circadian pattern of actimetry.

  13. Dim nighttime illumination interacts with parametric effects of bright light to increase the stability of circadian rhythm bifurcation in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer A; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Gorman, Michael R

    2011-07-01

    The endogenous circadian pacemaker of mammals is synchronized to the environmental day by the ambient cycle of relative light and dark. The present studies assessed the actions of light in a novel circadian entrainment paradigm where activity rhythms are bifurcated following exposure to a 24-h light:dark:light:dark (LDLD) cycle. Bifurcated entrainment under LDLD reflects the temporal dissociation of component oscillators that comprise the circadian system and is facilitated when daily scotophases are dimly lit rather than completely dark. Although bifurcation can be stably maintained in LDLD, it is quickly reversed under constant conditions. Here the authors examine whether dim scotophase illumination acts to maintain bifurcated entrainment under LDLD through potential interactions with the parametric actions of bright light during the two daily photophases. In three experiments, wheel-running rhythms of Syrian hamsters were bifurcated under LDLD with dimly lit scotophases, and after several weeks, dim scotophase illumination was either retained or extinguished. Additionally, "full" and "skeleton" photophases were employed under LDLD cycles with dimly lit or completely dark scotophases to distinguish parametric from nonparametric effects of bright light. Rhythm bifurcation was more stable in full versus skeleton LDLD cycles. Dim light facilitated the maintenance of bifurcated entrainment under full LDLD cycles but did not prevent the loss of rhythm bifurcation in skeleton LDLD cycles. These studies indicate that parametric actions of bright light maintain the bifurcated entrainment state; that dim scotophase illumination increases the stability of the bifurcated state; and that dim light interacts with the parametric effects of bright light to increase the stability of rhythm bifurcation under full LDLD cycles. A further understanding of the novel actions of dim light may lead to new strategies for understanding, preventing, and treating chronobiological

  14. Excitation and desensitization of mouse rod photoreceptors in vivo following bright adapting light

    PubMed Central

    Kang Derwent, Jennifer J; Qtaishat, Nasser M; Pepperberg, David R

    2002-01-01

    Electroretinographic (ERG) methods were used to determine response properties of mouse rod photoreceptors in vivo following adapting illumination that produced a significant extent of rhodopsin bleaching. Bleaching levels prevailing at ∼10 min and ∼20 min after the adapting exposure were on average 14% and 9%, respectively, based on the analysis of visual cycle retinoids in the eye tissues. Recovery of the rod response to the adapting light was monitored by analysing the ERG a-wave response to a bright probe flash presented at varying times during dark adaptation. A paired-flash procedure, in which the probe flash was presented at defined times after a weak test flash of fixed strength, was used to determine sensitivity of the rod response to the test flash. Recovery of the response to the adapting light was 80% complete at 13.5 ± 3.0 min (mean ± s.d.; n = 7) after adapting light offset. The adapting light caused prolonged desensitization of the weak-flash response derived from paired-flash data. By comparison with results obtained in the absence of the adapting exposure, desensitization determined with a test-probe interval of 80 ms was ∼fourfold after 5 min of dark adaptation and ∼twofold after 20 min. The results indicate, for mouse rods in vivo, that the time scale for recovery of weak-flash sensitivity substantially exceeds that for the recovery of circulating current following significant rhodopsin bleaching. The lingering desensitization may reflect a reduced efficiency of signal transmission in the phototransduction cascade distinct from that due to residual excitation. PMID:12015430

  15. Pretreatment with Pyridoxamine Mitigates Isolevuglandin-associated Retinal Effects in Mice Exposed to Bright Light*

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Casey D.; Saadane, Aicha; Wang, Meiyao; Salomon, Robert G.; Brunengraber, Henri; Turko, Illarion V.; Pikuleva, Irina A.

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of antioxidant therapy for treating age-related macular degeneration, a devastating retinal disease, are limited. Perhaps species other than reactive oxygen intermediates should be considered as therapeutic targets. These could be lipid peroxidation products, including isolevuglandins (isoLGs), prototypical and extraordinarily reactive γ-ketoaldehydes that avidly bind to proteins, phospholipids, and DNA and modulate the properties of these biomolecules. We found isoLG adducts in aged human retina but not in the retina of mice kept under dim lighting. Hence, to test whether scavenging of isoLGs could complement or supplant antioxidant therapy, we exposed mice to bright light and found that this insult leads to retinal isoLG-adduct formation. We then pretreated mice with pyridoxamine, a B6 vitamer and efficient scavenger of γ-ketoaldehydes, and found that the levels of retinal isoLG adducts are decreased, and morphological changes in photoreceptor mitochondria are not as pronounced as in untreated animals. Our study demonstrates that preventing the damage to biomolecules by lipid peroxidation products, a novel concept in vision research, is a viable strategy to combat oxidative stress in the retina. PMID:23970548

  16. How Bright are Planet-induced Spiral Arms in Scattered Light?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruobing; Fung, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Recently, high angular resolution imaging instruments such as SPHERE and GPI have discovered many spiral-arm-like features in near-infrared scattered-light images of protoplanetary disks. Theory and simulations have suggested that these arms are most likely excited by planets forming in the disks; however, a quantitative relation between the arm-to-disk brightness contrast and planet mass is still missing. Using 3D hydrodynamics and radiative transfer simulations, we examine the morphology and contrast of planet-induced arms in disks. We find a power-law relation for the face-on arm contrast (δmax) as a function of planet mass ({M}{{p}}) and disk aspect ratio (h/r): {δ }\\max ≈ {({({M}{{p}}/{M}{{J}})/(h/r)}1.38)}0.22. With current observational capabilities, at a 30 au separation, the minimum planet mass for driving detectable arms in a disk around a 1 Myr, 1 {M}ȯ star at 140 pc at low inclinations is around Saturn mass. For planets more massive than Neptune masses, they typically drive multiple arms. Therefore, in observed disks with spirals, it is unlikely that each spiral arm originates from a different planet. We also find that only massive perturbers with at least multi-Jupiter masses are capable of driving bright arms with {δ }\\max ≳ 2 as found in SAO 206462, MWC 758, and LkHα 330, and these arms do not follow linear wave propagation theory. Additionally, we find that the morphology and contrast of the primary and secondary arms are largely unaffected by a modest level of viscosity with α ≲ 0.01. Finally, the contrast of the arms in the SAO 206462 disk suggests that the perturber SAO 206462 b at ∼100 au is about 5{--}10 {M}{{J}} in mass.

  17. A randomized controlled trial with bright light and melatonin for delayed sleep phase disorder: effects on subjective and objective sleep.

    PubMed

    Saxvig, Ingvild West; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Pallesen, Ståle; Vedaa, Oystein; Nordhus, Inger Hilde; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2014-02-01

    Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) is assumed to be common amongst adolescents, with potentially severe consequences in terms of school attendance and daytime functioning. The most common treatment approaches for DSPD are based on the administration of bright light and/or exogenous melatonin with or without adjunct behavioural instructions. Much is generally known about the chronobiological effects of light and melatonin. However, placebo-controlled treatment studies for DSPD are scarce, in particular in adolescents and young adults, and no standardized guidelines exist regarding treatment. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the short- and long-term effects on sleep of a DSPD treatment protocol involving administration of timed bright light and melatonin alongside gradual advancement of rise time in adolescents and young adults with DSPD in a randomized controlled trial and an open label follow-up study. A total of 40 adolescents and young adults (age range 16-25 years) diagnosed with DSPD were recruited to participate in the study. The participants were randomized to receive treatment for two weeks in one of four treatment conditions: dim light and placebo capsules, bright light and placebo capsules, dim light and melatonin capsules or bright light and melatonin capsules. In a follow-up study, participants were re-randomized to either receive treatment with the combination of bright light and melatonin or no treatment in an open label trial for approximately three months. Light and capsules were administered alongside gradual advancement of rise times. The main end points were sleep as assessed by sleep diaries and actigraphy recordings and circadian phase as assessed by salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). During the two-week intervention, the timing of sleep and DLMO was advanced in all treatment conditions as seen by about 1 h advance of bed time, 2 h advance of rise time and 2 h advance of DLMO in all four groups. Sleep

  18. Night Sky Brightness at San Pedro Martir Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Richer, M. G.; Colorado, E.; Herrera, J.; Córdova, A.; Ceseña, U.; Ávila, F.

    2017-03-01

    We present optical UBVRI zenith night sky brightness measurements collected on 18 nights during 2013 to 2016 and SQM measurements obtained daily over 20 months during 2014 to 2016 at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (OAN-SPM) in México. The UBVRI data is based upon CCD images obtained with the 0.84 m and 2.12 m telescopes, while the SQM data is obtained with a high-sensitivity, low-cost photometer. The typical moonless night sky brightness at zenith averaged over the whole period is U = 22.68, B = 23.10, V = 21.84, R = 21.04, I = 19.36, and SQM = 21.88 {mag} {{arcsec}}-2, once corrected for zodiacal light. We find no seasonal variation of the night sky brightness measured with the SQM. The typical night sky brightness values found at OAN-SPM are similar to those reported for other astronomical dark sites at a similar phase of the solar cycle. We find a trend of decreasing night sky brightness with decreasing solar activity during period of the observations. This trend implies that the sky has become darker by Δ U = 0.7, Δ B = 0.5, Δ V = 0.3, Δ R=0.5 mag arcsec-2 since early 2014 due to the present solar cycle.

  19. [Signs of the zodiac and personality].

    PubMed

    Angst, J; Scheidegger, P

    1976-01-01

    3074 young men resident in the canton of Zurich, representing 50% of the 19 year old male population, form the fully representative sample of our large scale investigation. We investigated whether personality traits measured by means of the differentiated "Freiburger personality inventory" (FPI) could in any way be correlated to the signs of the zodiac under which the young men were born. The statistical analysis did not reveal any correlation between signs of the zodiac and personality. The claim made by astrologers that people can be characterized according to their sign of the zodiac (sagitarius, taurus, cancer, scorpion) must be refuted. Of course the astrologically founded description of human personality does not base itself on the position of the sun only, however the latter does form a very essential part of the astrological evaluation of people. This, at any rate has been shown to be without any scientific basis. The fact that astrological evaluation of human personality is so popular nowadays can be explained by the fact that even modern people are inclined towards magical thinking.

  20. Psychophysiological Effects of a Single, Short, and Moderately Bright Room Light Exposure on Mildly Depressed Geriatric Inpatients: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Canazei, Markus; Pohl, Wilfried; Bauernhofer, Kathrin; Papousek, Ilona; Lackner, Helmut K; Bliem, Harald R; Marksteiner, Josef; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2017-01-01

    Light interventions typically exert their mood-related effects during morning bright light exposures over several weeks. Evidence about immediate ambient room light effects on depressed individuals is still sparse. The present study aimed at examining the acute effects of a single moderately bright room light exposure on mood, and behavioural and cardiac stress reactions of mildly depressed geriatric inpatients during a short cognitive stimulation and while resting. Twenty-one inpatients were tested in a balanced cross-over design on 2 consecutive days under either conventional room light (standard light) or artificial sunlight conditions for 30 min. Room illumination was implemented with an artificial skylight, which perfectly imitated solar indoor illumination (e.g., cloudless sky and bright artificial sun). Light-induced changes of mood, heart rate, and heart rate variability were recorded while performing a perseveration test (acted as cognitive stimulation) twice. Additionally, light-related behaviour was observed during a resting period between the cognitive tests and various subjective ratings were obtained. Compared to standard light, exposure to artificial sunlight had a subjective calming effect over time (p = 0.029) as well as decreased heart rate and increased vagal tone (root mean squared of successive inter-beat intervals), both under cognitive workload and in resting conditions. Effect sizes of reported cardiac reactions were large. Cognitive variables were not influenced by light. Additionally, under the higher corneal illuminance of the artificial sunlight, patients perceived stronger glare (p = 0.030) and kept their eyes closed for longer times (p = 0.033) during the resting period. However, patients did not avoid bright light exposure while resting but voluntarily stayed within the area directly lit by the artificial sun nearly all the time (97%). To our knowledge, this study for the first time demonstrated immediate psychophysiological effects

  1. Gamma-Ray Light Curves And Variability Of Bright Fermi -Detected Blazars

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.

    2010-09-22

    This paper presents light curves as well as the first systematic characterization of variability of the 106 objects in the high-confidence Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). Weekly light curves of this sample, obtained during the first 11 months of the Fermi survey (2008 August 4-2009 July 4), are tested for variability and their properties are quantified through autocorrelation function and structure function analysis. For the brightest sources, 3 or 4 day binned light curves are extracted in order to determine power density spectra (PDSs) and to fit the temporal structure of major flares. More than 50% ofmore » the sources are found to be variable with high significance, where high states do not exceed 1/4 of the total observation range. Variation amplitudes are larger for flat spectrum radio quasars and low/intermediate synchrotron frequency peaked BL Lac objects. Autocorrelation timescales derived from weekly light curves vary from four to a dozen of weeks. Variable sources of the sample have weekly and 3-4 day bin light curves that can be described by 1/f α PDS, and show two kinds of gamma-ray variability: (1) rather constant baseline with sporadic flaring activity characterized by flatter PDS slopes resembling flickering and red noise with occasional intermittence and (2)—measured for a few blazars showing strong activity—complex and structured temporal profiles characterized by long-term memory and steeper PDS slopes, reflecting a random walk underlying mechanism. The average slope of the PDS of the brightest 22 FSRQs and of the 6 brightest BL Lacs is 1.5 and 1.7, respectively. The study of temporal profiles of well-resolved flares observed in the 10 brightest LBAS sources shows that they generally have symmetric profiles and that their total duration vary between 10 and 100 days. Results presented here can assist in source class recognition for unidentified sources and can serve as reference for more detailed analysis of the

  2. High-brightness blue organic light emitting diodes with different types of guest-host systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Jing-shuang; Peng, Cui-yun; Guo, Kun-ping; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate high-brightness blue organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) using two types of guest-host systems. A series of blue OLEDs were fabricated using three organic emitters of dibenz anthracene (perylene), di(4-fluorophenyl) amino-di (styryl) biphenyl (DSB) and 4,4'-bis[2-(9-ethyl-3-carbazolyl)vinyl]biphenyl (BCzVBi) doped into two hosting materials of 4,4'-bis(9-carbazolyl) biphenyl (CBP) and 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5(4-tert-butyl-phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) as blue emitting layers, respectively. We achieve three kinds of devices with colors of deep-blue, pure-blue and sky-blue with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.16, 0.10), (0.15, 0.15) and (0.17, 0.24), respectively, by employing PBD as host material. In addition, we present a microcavity device using the PBD guest-host system and achieve high-purity blue devices with narrowed spectrum.

  3. High brightness nonpolar a-plane (11-20) GaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sukkoo; Chang, Younghak; Bang, Kyu-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Gu; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Hwang, Sung-Min; Baik, Kwang Hyeon

    2012-02-01

    We report on high brightness nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN LEDs using patterned lateral overgrowth (PLOG) epitaxy. High crystal-quality and smooth surfaces for a-plane GaN (a-GaN) films were achieved using PLOG with an array of hexagonal SiO2 patterns. The XRC FWHMs of as-grown PLOG a-GaN films were found to be 414 and 317 arcsec (450 and 455 arcsec for planar a-GaN films) along the c-axis and m-axis directions, respectively. Plan-view CL clearly reveals the periodic hexagonal patterns with higher band edge emission intensity, implying that the luminescence properties of a-GaN films lying above the SiO2 mask are improved. The light output powers of a-InGaN/GaN PLOG LEDs were measured to be 7.5 mW and 20 mW at drive currents of 20 mA and 100 mA, respectively. A negligible blue-shift was observed in the peak emission wavelength with increasing drive current up to 100 mA, indicating that there are no strong internal fields in nonpolar a-InGaN/GaN LEDs. We believe that nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN LEDs hold promise for efficient nitride emitters if the growth conditions are further optimized.

  4. Effect of timed bright light treatment for rest-activity disruption in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Glenna A; Mastick, Judy; Hubbard, Erin M; Luxenberg, Jay S; Burr, Robert L

    2005-08-01

    Disturbances in rest-activity rhythm are prominent and disabling symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nighttime sleep is severely fragmented and daytime activity is disrupted by multiple napping episodes. In most institutional environments, light levels are very low and may not be sufficient to entrain the circadian clock to the 24-hour day. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to test the effectiveness of timed bright light therapy in reducing rest-activity (circadian) disruption in institutionalized patients with AD. The experimental groups received either morning (9.30-10.30 am) or afternoon (3.30-4.30 pm) bright light exposure ( > or = 2500 lux in gaze direction) Monday through Friday for 10 weeks. The control group received usual indoor light (150-200 lux). Nighttime sleep, daytime wake, and rest-activity parameters were determined by actigraphy. Repeated measures analysis of variance was employed to test the primary study hypotheses. Seventy institutionalized subjects with AD (mean age 84) completed the study. No significant differences in actigraphy-based measures of nighttime sleep or daytime wake were found between groups. Subjects in either experimental light condition evidenced a significantly (p < 0.01) more stable rest-activity rhythm acrophase over the 10-week treatment period compared to the control subjects whose rhythm phase delayed by over two hours. One hour of bright light, administered to subjects with AD either in the morning or afternoon, did not improve nighttime sleep or daytime wake compared to a control group of similar subjects. However, exposure to one-hour of bright light in either the morning or afternoon may provide sufficient additional input to the circadian pacemaker to facilitate entrainment to the 24-hour day. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effect of timed bright light treatment for rest-activity disruption in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Glenna A.; Mastick, Judy; Hubbard, Erin M.; Luxenberg, Jay S.; Burr, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Disturbances in rest-activity rhythm are prominent and disabling symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Nighttime sleep is severely fragmented and daytime activity is disrupted by multiple napping episodes. In most institutional environments, light levels are very low and may not be sufficient to entrain the circadian clock to the 24-hour day. Method The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to test the effectiveness of timed bright light therapy in reducing rest-activity (circadian) disruption in institutionalized patients with AD. The experimental groups received either morning (9.30–10.30 am) or afternoon (3.30–4.30 pm) bright light exposure (≥ 2500 lux in gaze direction) Monday through Friday for 10 weeks. The control group received usual indoor light (150–200 lux). Nighttime sleep, daytime wake, and rest-activity parameters were determined by actigraphy. Repeated measures analysis of variance was employed to test the primary study hypotheses. Results Seventy institutionalized subjects with AD (mean age 84) completed the study. No significant differences in actigraphy-based measures of nighttime sleep or daytime wake were found between groups. Subjects in either experimental light condition evidenced a significantly (p < 0.01) more stable rest-activity rhythm acrophase over the 10-week treatment period compared to the control subjects whose rhythm phase delayed by over two hours. Conclusions One hour of bright light, administered to subjects with AD either in the morning or afternoon, did not improve nighttime sleep or daytime wake compared to a control group of similar subjects. However, exposure to one-hour of bright light in either the morning or afternoon may provide sufficient additional input to the circadian pacemaker to facilitate entrainment to the 24-hour day. PMID:16035127

  6. Driving home from the night shift: a bright light intervention study.

    PubMed

    Weisgerber, Denise M; Nikol, Maria; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2017-02-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) impairs vigilance and increases the risk of driving accidents during the commute home after night work. Bright light (BL) can enhance alertness and cognitive performance. We examined the effects of BL (5600 lux) versus dim light (DL, 35 lux) at the end of a night awake on driving performance. Subjects (N = 19, 22.8 ± 4 ya) completed three conditions, counterbalanced for order at >1 week intervals. The two overnight SD conditions began in the lab at usual bedtime. After six hours in DL, subjects were exposed to 45 min BL or continued DL, and then completed a 44 min driving test (two lap circuit) in a high fidelity simulator. In the rested condition, subjects slept at home until habitual wakeup time, were transported to the lab and ∼45 min after wakeup, received BL and then the driving test. Oral temperature decreased while reaction time and sleepiness increased across both SD nights. BL suppressed salivary melatonin but had little or no effect on sleepiness or reaction time. SD markedly increased incidents and accidents. Five subjects (26%) sustained a terminal accident (eg, car flip) in the SD-DL condition, but none did so in the SD-BL or rested-BL conditions. Compared to SD-DL, SD-BL was associated with fewer incidents and accidents overall, and with better performance on the second lap of the circuit on several performance measures. BL at the end of a night shift may have potential as a countermeasure to improve driving following night work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling the effects of an offset of the center of symmetry in the zodiacal cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, E. K.; Dermott, S. F.; Xu, Y. L.; Wyatt, M.; Jayaraman, S.

    1998-04-01

    There is a possible connection between structure in circumstellar dust clouds and the presence of planets, our own zodiacal cloud being the prime example. Asymmetries in such clouds could be diagnostic of planets which would be otherwise undetectable. One such feature is an offset of the center of symmetry of the disk with respect to the central star. The offset is caused by the forced eccentricities (ef) of particles in the cloud. The orbit of a particle can be described by a set of five orbital elements: the semi-major axis (a), eccentricity (e), inclination (I), longitude of ascending node (Omega) and the argument of pericenter (omega). In low order secular perturbation theory, osculating elements of small bodies are decomposed into proper and forced elements. The proper elements are dependent on initial conditions while the forced elements are imposed on the particle's orbit by the gravitational perturbations of the planets. This decomposition is still applicable in the presence of drag forces. We compare COBE observations of the variation in average polar brightness of the background cloud, (N + S)/2, with ecliptic longitude of Earth with those of a model cloud made of asteroidal particles which populate the inner solar system according to a 1/rgamma where (gamma) = 1 (Poynting Robertson light drag) distribution. The variation with ecliptic longitude of Earth in mean polar brightness is shown in for the 25 micron waveband. Sine curves are fit to both the COBE observations and the model. The variation in (N+S)/2 with ecliptic longitude of Earth can be represented as a superposition of two sine curves: one for the variation in (N + S)/2 due to the Earth's eccentric orbit and the other for the variation in (N + S)/2 due to the forced eccentricities of particles in the cloud. If the cloud were symmetric about the Sun (i.e., if there were no offset), the maximum and minimum brightnesses of the cloud would occur at perihelion and aphelion, respectively. Looking at

  8. Effect of a single 3-hour exposure to bright light on core body temperature and sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Dijk, D J; Cajochen, C; Borbély, A A

    1991-01-02

    Seven human subjects were exposed to bright light (BL, approx. 2500 lux) and dim light (DL, approx. 6 lux) during 3 h prior to nocturnal sleep, in a cross-over design. At the end of the BL exposure period core body temperature was significantly higher than at the end of the DL exposure period. The difference in core body temperature persisted during the first 4 h of sleep. The latency to sleep onset was increased after BL exposure. Rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS) and slow-wave sleep (SWS; stage 3 + 4 of non-REMS) were not significantly changed. Eight subjects were exposed to BL from 20.30 to 23.30 h while their eyes were covered or uncovered. During BL exposure with uncovered eyes, core body temperature decreased significantly less than during exposure with covered eyes. We conclude that bright light immediately affects core body temperature and that this effect is mediated via the eyes.

  9. Sleep-wake behavior in the rat: ultradian rhythms in a light-dark cycle and continuous bright light.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Richard; Lim, Joonbum; Famina, Svetlana; Caron, Aimee M; Dowse, Harold B

    2012-12-01

    Ultradian rhythms are a prominent but little-studied feature of mammalian sleep-wake and rest-activity patterns. They are especially evident in long-term records of behavioral state in polyphasic animals such as rodents. However, few attempts have been made to incorporate ultradian rhythmicity into models of sleep-wake dynamics, and little is known about the physiological mechanisms that give rise to ultradian rhythms in sleep-wake state. This study investigated ultradian dynamics in sleep and wakefulness in rats entrained to a 12-h:12-h light-dark cycle (LD) and in rats whose circadian rhythms were suppressed and free-running following long-term exposure to uninterrupted bright light (LL). We recorded sleep-wake state continuously for 7 to 12 consecutive days and used time-series analysis to quantify the dynamics of net cumulative time in each state (wakefulness [WAKE], rapid eye movement sleep [REM], and non-REM sleep [NREM]) in each animal individually. Form estimates and autocorrelation confirmed the presence of significant ultradian and circadian rhythms; maximum entropy spectral analysis allowed high-resolution evaluation of multiple periods within the signal, and wave-by-wave analysis enabled a statistical evaluation of the instantaneous period, peak-trough range, and phase of each ultradian wave in the time series. Significant ultradian periodicities were present in all 3 states in all animals. In LD, ultradian range was approximately 28% of circadian range. In LL, ultradian range was slightly reduced relative to LD, and circadian range was strongly attenuated. Ultradian rhythms were found to be quasiperiodic in both LD and LL. That is, ultradian period varied randomly around a mean of approximately 4 h, with no relationship between ultradian period and time of day.

  10. A study of extended zodiacal structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, Mark V.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of cometary dust trails and zodiacal dust bands, discovered by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) were analyzed in a continuing effort to understand their nature and relationship to comets, asteroids, and processes effecting those bodies. A survey of all trails observed by IRAS has been completed, and analysis of this phenomenon continues. A total of 8 trails have been associated with known short-period comets (Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Encke, Gunn, Kopff, Pons-Winnecke, Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, Tempel 1, and Tempel 2), and a few faint trails have been detected which are not associated with any known comet. It is inferred that all short-period comets may have trails, and that the trails detected were seen as a consequence of observational selection effects. Were IRAS launched today, it would likely observe a largely different set of trails. The Tempel 2 trail exhibits a small but significant excess in color temperature relative to a blackbody at the same heliocentric distance. This excess may be due to the presence of a population of small, low-beta particles deriving from large particles within the trail, or a temperature gradient over the surface of large trail particles. Trails represent the very first stage in the formation and evolution of a meteor stream, and may also be the primary mechanism by which comets contribute to the interplanetary dust complex. A mathematical model of the spatial distribution of orbitally evolved collisional debris was developed which reproduces the zodiacal dust band phenomena and was used in the analysis of dust band observations made by IRAS. This has resulted in the principal zodiacal dust bands being firmly related to the principal Hirayama asteroid families. In addition, evidence for the collisional diffusion of the orbital elements of the dust particles has been found in the case of dust generated in the Eos asteroid family.

  11. An unusually very bright dust light mass (?) observed in the vicinity (?) of á Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanopoulos, G.

    2009-04-01

    There are not many written worldwide references regarding unusual phenomena such as dust, unusual lights or unexplained objects orbiting the earth or the solar and extra solar systems. Regarding the external space few references exist . Regarding the a Lyrae many scientists were involve in the eighties with the possible existence of a planet next to this star. Structure in the Dusty Debris around Vega, D. J. Wilner et al 2002 ApJ 569.Near-infrared observations of Vega, at 2006 Philip M. Hinz et al. refers to possible companion planet round this star .In constellations Lyrae and Eridani,some authors refer to possible initial formation of planets and they mention the presence of dust formations orbiting around those stars.(A. N. Heinze, Philip M. Hinz, Deep L' and M-band Imaging for Planets Around Vega and epsilon Eridani,The Astrophysical Journal 688 (2008) 583. This paper is concerned with an unexplained or perhaps portion of dust, in the constellation of Lyrae, which appears and have been observed only in conventional photographic plaque.For this observation , simple equipment and amateur instruments are use.In the night of April the 2002, during an amatory observation in variable stars, in the RR Lyrae, pictures were taken in the mentioned deep space area as a normal weekly study procedure. The instruments used are, telescope Meade 10΄΄, illuminate reticle guiding, 12mm, photo camera Nikon F -100, and lenses,70mm, f =1,8.The film used was a Kodak X-pro,BW 400 ASA.The equatorial mount was motorized. A total of six pictures with an exposure 5-10 min were taken. While developing the film, on the fifth photogram, a bright (object?) - dust light appear which seems to be in adhesion with the Vega star . On consecutive months more pictures were taken, with conventional and digital exposures, without any repetition of the event. What is provoke illumination of this dust portion to have been present in a simple photographic film? This simple observation study is

  12. Impact of a single, short morning bright light exposure on tryptophan pathways and visuo- and sensorimotor performance: a crossover study.

    PubMed

    Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Blank, Cornelia; Hanser, Friedrich; Griesmacher, Andrea; Canazei, Markus; Leichtfried, Veronika

    2018-04-23

    Bright light (BL) has been shown to be effective in enhancing both cognitive and physical performances. Alterations in nighttime melatonin levels have also been observed. However, evaluations of light-induced changes in the preceding biochemical processes are absent. Therefore, the impact of a single morning BL exposure on sensorimotor and visuomotor performance, as well as tryptophan (trp) and trp metabolites, was evaluated in this study. In a crossover design, 33 healthy volunteers were randomly exposed to 30 min of < 150 lx at eye level (office light, OL) and 5000 lx at eye level (bright light, BL) of 6500 K in the morning hours. Trp, sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), and kynurenine (kyn) courses over the morning hours were analyzed, and changes in sensori- and visuomotor measures were examined. Motoric performance increased in both setups, independent of light intensity. aMT6s and kyn decreased equally under both lighting conditions. Trp levels decreased from a mean (95% confidence interval) of 82.0 (77.2-86.9) to 66.5 (62.5-70.1) in the OL setup only. These data suggest that BL in the morning hours has a limited effect on visuo- and sensorimotor performance. Nevertheless, trp degradation pathways in the morning show diverse courses after OL and BL exposure. This suggests that trp courses can potentially be altered by BL exposure.

  13. Effect of morning bright light treatment for rest-activity disruption in institutionalized patients with severe Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Glenna A; Hubbard, Erin M; Mastick, Judy; Luxenberg, Jay S; Burr, Robert L; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2005-06-01

    Disturbances in rest-activity rhythm are prominent and disabling symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nighttime sleep is severely fragmented and daytime activity is disrupted by multiple napping episodes. In most institutional environments, light levels are very low and may not be sufficient to enable the circadian clock to entrain to the 24-hour day. The purpose of this randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was to test the effectiveness of morning bright light therapy in reducing rest-activity (circadian) disruption in institutionalized patients with severe AD. Subjects (n = 46, mean age 84 years) meeting the NINCDS-ADRDA (National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke--the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association) AD diagnostic criteria were recruited from two large, skilled nursing facilities in San Francisco, California. The experimental group received one hour (09:30-10:30) of bright light exposure (> or = 2500 lux in gaze direction) Monday through Friday for 10 weeks. The control group received usual indoor light (150-200 lux). Nighttime sleep efficiency, sleep time, wake time and number of awakenings and daytime wake time were assessed using actigraphy. Circadian rhythm parameters were also determined from the actigraphic data using cosinor analysis and nonparametric techniques. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the primary study hypotheses. Although significant improvements were found in subjects with aberrant timing of their rest-activity rhythm, morning bright light exposure did not induce an overall improvement in measures of sleep or the rest-activity in all treated as compared to control subjects. The results indicate that only subjects with the most impaired rest-activity rhythm respond significantly and positively to a brief (one hour) light intervention.

  14. Effect of morning bright light treatment for rest–activity disruption in institutionalized patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Glenna A.; Hubbard, Erin M.; Mastick, Judy; Luxenberg, Jay S.; Burr, Robert L.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Disturbances in rest–activity rhythm are prominent and disabling symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Nighttime sleep is severely fragmented and daytime activity is disrupted by multiple napping episodes. In most institutional environments, light levels are very low and may not be sufficient to enable the circadian clock to entrain to the 24-hour day. The purpose of this randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was to test the effectiveness of morning bright light therapy in reducing rest–activity (circadian) disruption in institutionalized patients with severe AD. Method Subjects (n = 46, mean age 84 years) meeting the NINCDS-ADRDA (National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke –the Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association) AD diagnostic criteria were recruited from two large, skilled nursing facilities in San Francisco, California. The experimental group received one hour (09:30–10:30) of bright light exposure (≥ 2500 lux in gaze direction) Monday through Friday for 10 weeks. The control group received usual indoor light (150–200 lux). Nighttime sleep efficiency, sleep time, wake time and number of awakenings and daytime wake time were assessed using actigraphy. Circadian rhythm parameters were also determined from the actigraphic data using cosinor analysis and nonparametric techniques. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the primary study hypotheses. Results and conclusion Although significant improvements were found in subjects with aberrant timing of their rest–activity rhythm, morning bright light exposure did not induce an overall improvement in measures of sleep or the rest–activity in all treated as compared to control subjects. The results indicate that only subjects with the most impaired rest–activity rhythm respond significantly and positively to a brief (one hour) light intervention. PMID:16050432

  15. Ultrahigh 6D-brightness electron beams for the light sources of the next generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Fahim; Manahan, Grace G.; Scherkl, Paul; Heinemann, Thomas; Sheng, Z. M.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Cary, J. R.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Hidding, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    The plasma photocathode mechanism (aka Trojan Horse) enables a path towards electron beams with nm-level normalized emittance and kA range peak currents, hence ultrahigh 5D-brightness. This ultrahigh 5D-brightness beams hold great prospects to realize laboratory scale free-electron-lasers. However, the GV/m-accelerating gradient in plasma accelerators leads to substantial energy chirp and spread. The large energy spread is a major show-stopper towards key application such as the free-electron-laser. Here we present a novel method for energy chirp compensation which takes advantage of tailored beam loading due to a second ``escort'' bunch released via plasma photocathode. The escort bunch reverses the accelerating field locally at the trapping position of the ultrahigh 5D-brightness beam. This induces a counter-clockwise rotation within the longitudinal phase space and allows to compensate the chirp completely. Analytical scaling predicts energy spread values below 0.01 percentage level. Ultrahigh 5D-brightness combined with minimized energy spread opens a path towards witness beams with unprecedented ultrahigh 6D-brightness.

  16. The brightness of lights on Earth at night, digitally recorded by DMSP satellite

    Croft, Thomas A.

    1979-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force has operated its Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) for nearly a decade, and film images from the system have been openly available since 1973. Films are well suited for the study of weather, and users of such films have derived much useful data. For many potential remote sensing applications, however, a quantitative measurement of the brightness of the imaged light patterns is needed, and it cannot be extracted with adequte accuracy from the films. Such information is contained in the telemetry from the spacecraft and is retained on digital tapes, which store the images for a few days while they await filming. For practical reasons, it has not heretofore been feasible for the Air Force to provide a remote-sensing user with these digital data, and the quantitative brightness information has been lost with the erasure of tapes for re-use. For the purpose of evaluation of tapes as a means for remote sensing, the Air Force recently did provide to the author six examples containing records of nighttime DMSP imagery similar to that which has previously 1 been evaluated by SRI International in a film format. The digital data create many new applications for these images, owing to a combination of several factors, the most important of which are the preservation of photometric information and of full spatial resolution. In this evaluation, stress has been placed upon determination of the broad potential value of the data rather than the full exploitation of any one aspect of it. The effort was guided by an objective to develop handling methods for the vast body of numbers--methods which will be practical for use in a research or engineering environment where budgets are limited, and specialized capabilities and image reproduction equipment has not already been developed. We report the degree of success obtained in this effort, pointing out the relative strengths and the relative limitations, as compared to the sophisticated, weather

  17. Influence of periodic vs continuous daily bright light exposure on development of experimental myopia in the chick.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, Simon; Collins, Andrew V; Phillips, John R

    2013-09-01

    In children, time spent outdoors has a protective effect against myopia development. In animal models, bright light reduces the development of experimental myopia. This study investigates how an increase in daily light exposure, presented either continuously during the day or periodically at different times of day, influences the development of experimental myopia in the chick. Myopia was induced in Cobb Chicks (Gallus domesticus) by monocular deprivation (MD) of form vision with a translucent diffuser for 3 days (from 4 days of age) under a 12:12 light: dark cycle. MD control chicks were exposed to constant 300 lux (n = 11) during the light period. MD treatment groups received either constant 2000 lux (n = 11) during the light period or 300 lux for 10 h with a 2 h period of bright light (10 000 lux), either in the morning (n = 10), midday (n = 10) or evening (n = 10), giving the same total daily light exposure as the 2000 lux group. After 3 days of MD, refractive status, corneal curvature and axial eye dimensions were measured for all eyes under anaesthesia. Myopia in the constant 2000 lux group (-4.94 ± 1.21 D) was significantly less than in the 300 lux control group (-9.73 ± 0.96 D; p = 0.022). However, compared to the 300 lux control group, 2 h periods of 10 000 lux did not produce significant effects on refraction when presented either in the morning (-9.98 ± 0.85; p = 1.00), midday (-8.00 ± 1.26; p = 0.80), or evening (-13.14 ± 1.16 D; p = 0.20), although significantly less myopia was induced in the midday group compared to the evening group (p = 0.018). Orthogonal regression showed that myopia development was matched by changes in vitreous chamber depth (R(2)  = 0.69; p < 0.0001). In chicks, an increase in daily light exposure continuously during the day is more effective at inhibiting myopia than adding an equivalent dose within a 2 h period of bright light. A weak time-of-day effect also appears

  18. Acute effects of bright light and caffeine on nighttime melatonin and temperature levels in women taking and not taking oral contraceptives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. P. Jr; Myers, B. L.; Plenzler, S. C.; Drake, C. L.; Badia, P.; Czeisler, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Caffeine and bright light effects on nighttime melatonin and temperature levels in women were tested during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (n=30) or the pseudo luteal phase for oral contraceptive users (n=32). Participants were randomly assigned to receive either bright (5000 lux) or dim room light (<88 lux) between 20:00 and 08:00 h under a modified constant routine protocol. Half the subjects in each lighting condition were administered either caffeine (100 mg) or placebo in a double-blind manner at 20:00, 23:00, 02:00 and 05:00 h. Results showed that the combination of bright light and caffeine enhanced nighttime temperature levels to a greater extent than did either caffeine or bright light alone. Both of the latter groups had higher temperature levels relative to the dim light placebo condition and the two groups did not differ. Temperature levels in the bright light caffeine condition were maintained at near peak circadian levels the entire night in the luteal and pseudo luteal phase. Melatonin levels were reduced throughout the duration of bright light exposure for all women. Caffeine reduced the onset of melatonin levels for women in the luteal phase, but it had little effect on melatonin levels for oral contraceptive users. The results for women in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle are consistent with our previous findings in men. The results also suggest that oral contraceptives may alter the effects of caffeine on nighttime melatonin levels.

  19. The effects of low-intensity narrow-band blue-light treatment compared to bright white-light treatment in sub-syndromal seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Ybe; Winthorst, Wim H; Duijzer, Wianne B; Hommes, Vanja

    2016-02-18

    The discovery of a novel photoreceptor in the retinal ganglion cells with a highest sensitivity of 470-490 nm blue light has led to research on the effects of short-wavelength light in humans. Several studies have explored the efficacy of monochromatic blue or blue-enriched light in the treatment of SAD. In this study, a comparison has been made between the effects of broad-wavelength light without ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths compared to narrow-band blue light in the treatment of sub-syndromal seasonal affective disorder (Sub-SAD). In a 15-day design, 48 participants suffering from Sub-SAD completed 20-minute sessions of light treatment on five consecutive days. 22 participants were given bright white-light treatment (BLT, broad-wavelength light without UV 10 000 lux, irradiance 31.7 Watt/m(2)) and 26 participants received narrow-band blue light (BLUE, 100 lux, irradiance 1.0 Watt/m(2)). All participants completed daily and weekly questionnaires concerning mood, activation, sleep quality, sleepiness and energy. Also, mood and energy levels were assessed by means of the SIGH-SAD, the primary outcome measure. On day 15, SIGH-SAD ratings were significantly lower than on day 1 (BLT 54.8 %, effect size 1.7 and BLUE 50.7 %, effect size 1.9). No statistically significant differences were found on the main outcome measures. Light treatment is an effective treatment for Sub-SAD. The use of narrow-band blue-light treatment is equally effective as bright white-light treatment. This study was registered in the Dutch Trial Register (Nederlands Trial Register TC =  4342 ) (20-12-2013).

  20. Shedding light on emotional perception: Interaction of brightness and semantic content in extrastriate visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Schettino, Antonio; Keil, Andreas; Porcu, Emanuele; Müller, Matthias M

    2016-06-01

    The rapid extraction of affective cues from the visual environment is crucial for flexible behavior. Previous studies have reported emotion-dependent amplitude modulations of two event-related potential (ERP) components - the N1 and EPN - reflecting sensory gain control mechanisms in extrastriate visual areas. However, it is unclear whether both components are selective electrophysiological markers of attentional orienting toward emotional material or are also influenced by physical features of the visual stimuli. To address this question, electrical brain activity was recorded from seventeen male participants while viewing original and bright versions of neutral and erotic pictures. Bright neutral scenes were rated as more pleasant compared to their original counterpart, whereas erotic scenes were judged more positively when presented in their original version. Classical and mass univariate ERP analysis showed larger N1 amplitude for original relative to bright erotic pictures, with no differences for original and bright neutral scenes. Conversely, the EPN was only modulated by picture content and not by brightness, substantiating the idea that this component is a unique electrophysiological marker of attention allocation toward emotional material. Complementary topographic analysis revealed the early selective expression of a centro-parietal positivity following the presentation of original erotic scenes only, reflecting the recruitment of neural networks associated with sustained attention and facilitated memory encoding for motivationally relevant material. Overall, these results indicate that neural networks subtending the extraction of emotional information are differentially recruited depending on low-level perceptual features, which ultimately influence affective evaluations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 72. 451 MADISON AVENUE, GRAND STAIR, ZODIAC CLOCK WITH DECORATIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. 451 MADISON AVENUE, GRAND STAIR, ZODIAC CLOCK WITH DECORATIVE CARVING BY STANFORD WHITE AND AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York County, NY

  2. The Primeval Zodiac: Its Social, Religious, and Mythological Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verderame, L.

    2009-08-01

    In this brief paper we try to draw the lines of the possible development of the originary iconographic and symbolic repertoire of the Mesopotamian zodiac, which through the Greeks was adopted in the Western world.

  3. Experimental observation of spatial quantum noise reduction below the standard quantum limit with bright twin beams of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Nunley, Hayden; Marino, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Quantum noise reduction (QNR) below the standard quantum limit (SQL) has been a subject of interest for the past two to three decades due to its wide range of applications in quantum metrology and quantum information processing. To date, most of the attention has focused on the study of QNR in the temporal domain. However, many areas in quantum optics, specifically in quantum imaging, could benefit from QNR not only in the temporal domain but also in the spatial domain. With the use of a high quantum efficiency electron multiplier charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, we have observed spatial QNR below the SQL in bright narrowband twin light beams generated through a four-wave mixing (FWM) process in hot rubidium atoms. Owing to momentum conservation in this process, the twin beams are momentum correlated. This leads to spatial quantum correlations and spatial QNR. Our preliminary results show a spatial QNR of over 2 dB with respect to the SQL. Unlike previous results on spatial QNR with faint and broadband photon pairs from parametric down conversion (PDC), we demonstrate spatial QNR with spectrally and spatially narrowband bright light beams. The results obtained will be useful for atom light interaction based quantum protocols and quantum imaging. Work supported by the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  4. The effects of low-intensity narrow-band blue-light treatment compared to bright white-light treatment in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Ybe; Duijzer, Wianne B; Hommes, Vanja

    2018-05-01

    Ever since a new photoreceptor was discovered with a highest sensitivity to 470-490 nm blue light, it has been speculated that blue light has some advantages in the treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) over more traditional treatments. In this study we compared the effects of exposure to narrow-band blue light (BLUE) to those of broad-wavelength white light (BLT) in the treatment of SAD. In a 15-day design, 45 patients suffering from SAD completed 30-min sessions of light treatment on 5 consecutive days. 21 subjects received white-light treatment (BLT, broad-wavelength without UV, 10 000 lx, irradiance 31.7 W/m 2 ), 24 subjects received narrow-band blue light (BLUE, 100 lx, irradiance 1.0 W/m 2 ). All participants completed weekly questionnaires concerning mood and energy levels, and were also assessed by means of the SIGH-SAD, which is the primary outcome measure. On day 15, SIGH-SAD ratings were significantly lower than on day 1 (BLT 73.2%, effect size 3.37; BLUE 67%, effect size 2.63), which outcomes were not statistically significant different between both conditions. Small sample size. Light treatment is an effective treatment for SAD. The use of narrow-band blue light is equally effective as a treatment using bright white-light. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of bright and blue light on acoustic reaction time and maximum handgrip strength in male athletes: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Knaier, Raphael; Schäfer, Juliane; Rossmeissl, Anja; Klenk, Christopher; Hanssen, Henner; Höchsmann, Christoph; Cajochen, Christian; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2017-08-01

    To assess which type of evening light exposure has the greatest effect on reaction time and maximum handgrip strength. These were pre-specified secondary outcomes in a trial which primarily investigated the influence of light on cycling performance. Seventy-four male athletes were allocated at random to either bright light (BRIGHT), monochromatic blue light (BLUE), or a control condition (CONTROL). Light exposure lasted for 60 min and started 17 h after the individual midpoint of sleep. Reaction time, handgrip strength, and melatonin levels were measured before and after the light exposure. We used analysis of covariance to compare the groups with respect to the investigated outcomes. Two participants had to be excluded retrospectively. The remaining 72 participants had a median age of 23 years. The adjusted difference in reaction time was -1 ms [95% confidence interval (CI) -8, 6] for participants in BRIGHT and 2 ms (95% CI -5, 9) for participants in BLUE, both relative to participants in CONTROL. The adjusted difference in handgrip strength was 0.9 kg (95% CI -1.5, 3.3) for participants in BRIGHT and -0.3 kg (95% CI -2.7, 2.0) for participants in BLUE, both relative to participants in CONTROL. After the light exposure, 17% of participants in BRIGHT, 22% in BLUE, and 29% in CONTROL showed melatonin concentrations of 2 pg/ml or higher. The results suggest that bright light might reduce melatonin levels but neither bright nor blue light exposure in the evening seem to improve reaction time or handgrip strength in athletes.

  6. Smart light random memory sprays Retinex: a fast Retinex implementation for high-quality brightness adjustment and color correction.

    PubMed

    Banić, Nikola; Lončarić, Sven

    2015-11-01

    Removing the influence of illumination on image colors and adjusting the brightness across the scene are important image enhancement problems. This is achieved by applying adequate color constancy and brightness adjustment methods. One of the earliest models to deal with both of these problems was the Retinex theory. Some of the Retinex implementations tend to give high-quality results by performing local operations, but they are computationally relatively slow. One of the recent Retinex implementations is light random sprays Retinex (LRSR). In this paper, a new method is proposed for brightness adjustment and color correction that overcomes the main disadvantages of LRSR. There are three main contributions of this paper. First, a concept of memory sprays is proposed to reduce the number of LRSR's per-pixel operations to a constant regardless of the parameter values, thereby enabling a fast Retinex-based local image enhancement. Second, an effective remapping of image intensities is proposed that results in significantly higher quality. Third, the problem of LRSR's halo effect is significantly reduced by using an alternative illumination processing method. The proposed method enables a fast Retinex-based image enhancement by processing Retinex paths in a constant number of steps regardless of the path size. Due to the halo effect removal and remapping of the resulting intensities, the method outperforms many of the well-known image enhancement methods in terms of resulting image quality. The results are presented and discussed. It is shown that the proposed method outperforms most of the tested methods in terms of image brightness adjustment, color correction, and computational speed.

  7. Effectiveness of recycling light in ultra-bright short-arc discharge lamps.

    PubMed

    Malul, Asher; Nakar, Doron; Feuermann, Daniel; Gordon, Jeffrey M

    2007-10-17

    Recycling light back into a plasma lamp's radiant zone can enhance its radiance. Measurements are reported for the effectiveness, spectral properties and modified plasma radiance maps that result from light recycling with a specular hemispherical mirror in commercial 150 W ultrabright Xenon short-arc discharge lamps, motivated by projection, biomedical and high-temperature furnace applications. For certain spectral windows and plasma arc regions, radiance can be heightened by up to 70%. However, the overall light recycling efficiency is reduced to about half this value due to lamp geometry. The manner in which light-plasma interactions affect light recycling efficacy is also elucidated.

  8. Effects of bright light on sleepiness, melatonin, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in winter seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Partonen, T; Vakkuri, O; Lamberg-Allardt, C; Lonnqvist, J

    1996-05-15

    Sixteen patients with winter seasonal affective disorder and 13 healthy controls were exposed to 3300 lx of cool-white fluorescent light for either 1 hour or 15 min in the morning for 2 weeks during the winter. Subjective sleepiness, melatonin concentration in saliva, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentration were measured before and after the 2-week trial as well as the following summer when the patients were well. There were no significant differences in the baseline values between the patients and healthy subjects. No significant differences in the outcome measures were observed in the patients or the controls in the two groups of each after the trial. The exposure to bright light resulted in a significant decrease in subjective sleepiness early in the evening in the patients but not in the control subjects. The reduction of depressive symptoms was associated with the decrease in subjective sleepiness but not with the changes in the melatonin or vitamin D concentrations.

  9. A Correlation Between Intrinsic Brightness and Average Decay Rate of Swift UVOT GRB Optical/UV Light Curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oates, S. R.; Page, M. J.; De Pasquale, M.; Schady, P.; Breeveld, A. A.; Holland, S. T.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Marshall, F. E.

    2012-01-01

    We examine a sample of 48 Swift/UVOT long Gamma-ray Burst light curves and find a correlation between the logarithmic luminosity at 200s and average decay rate determined from 200s onwards, with a Spearman rank coefficient of -0.58 at a significance of 99.998% (4.2 sigma ). We discuss the causes of the log L200s - alpha (greater than) 200s correlation, finding it to be an intrinsic property of long GRBs, and not resulting from the selection criteria. We find two ways to produce the correlation. One possibility is that there is some property of the central engine, outflow or external medium that affects the rate of energy release so that the bright afterglows release their energy more quickly and decay faster than the fainter afterglows. Alternatively, the correlation may be produced by variation of the observers viewing angle, with observers at large viewing angles observing fainter and slower decaying light curves.

  10. Bright-light effects on cognitive performance in elderly persons working simulated night shifts: psychological well-being as a mediator?

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Veronika; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut; Griefahn, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined whether the relationship between light exposure and cognitive functioning is mediated by psychological well-being in elderly persons working night shifts. The role of psychological well-being has been neglected so far in the relationship between bright light and cognitive performance. Sleepiness and mood were applied as indicators of psychological well-being. Cognitive functioning was examined in terms of concentration, working memory, and divided attention. A total of thirty-two test persons worked in three consecutive simulated night shifts, 16 under bright light (3,000 lux) and 16 under room light (300 lux). Concentration, working memory, and divided attention were measured by computerised tasks. The hypothesised mediators were recorded by questionnaires. Mediation analyses were conducted for estimating direct, total, and indirect effects in simple mediation models. Results indicate that sleepiness and mood did not function as mediators in the prediction of concentration, working memory, and/or divided attention by light exposure. Sleepiness led to an underestimation of the positive bright-light effect on concentration performance. Mood showed only a random effect due to the positive bright-light effect on working memory. Sleepiness and mood could completely be excluded as mediators in the relationship between light exposure and cognitive functioning. This study underlines that psychological well-being of elderly persons is not a critical component in the treatment of bright light on cognitive performance in the night shift workplace. In summary, it becomes evident that bright light has a strong direct and independent effect on cognitive performance, particularly on working memory and concentration.

  11. Bright ideas. Some rules of thumb for interior lighting design and selection.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Claudia M

    2002-07-01

    Interior lighting design and selection can be a demanding assignment for a health facilities manager or department head. It requires a balance between conflicting needs, such as providing good task lighting for a nursing station while also shielding luminaires that are visible from patients' rooms to avoid glare.

  12. From dark to bright: novel daylighting applications in solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Helmar G.

    2011-10-01

    The term "daylighting" is used in various ways, on one hand in a more architectural sense, i.e. using existing daylight to illuminate spaces, and on the other, more recently, for using light sources to replicate daylight. The emergence of solid state lighting (SSL) opens up a large number of new avenues for daylighting. SSL allows innovative controllability of intensity and color for artificial light sources that can be advantageously applied to daylighting. With the assistance of these new technologies the combination of natural and artificial lighting could lead to improvements in energy savings and comfort of living beings. Thus it is imperative to revisit or even improve daylighting research so that building networks of the future with their sensor, energy (e.g. HVAC) and lighting requirements can benefit from the emerging capabilities. This paper will briefly review existing daylighting concepts and technology and discuss new ideas. An example of a tunable multi-color SSL system will be shown.

  13. The Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time (ZEIT) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Andrew; Gaidos, Eric; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Mace, Gregory N.; Kraus, Adam L.

    2017-01-01

    Planets and their host stars evolve with time, and the first few hundred million years are thought to be the most formative. However, the majority of known exoplanets orbit stars older than the timescales of interest (>1 Gyr). We have launched the Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time (ZEIT) survey with the goal of identifying and characterizing young (<1 Gyr) transiting planets. To this end, we have utilized high-precision photometry of nearby young clusters and stellar associations taken as part of the K2 mission. Thus far we have discovered transiting planets in the Hyades and Praesepe clusters (˜800 Myr), and the Upper Scorpius OB association (˜11 Myr), but interestingly none in the Pleiades (˜125 Myr). These discoveries can be used to set limits on the migration timescale, estimate atmosphere loss around young planets, and provide independent tests of pre-main sequence stellar models. Here I overview some key science results from our survey and briefly discuss our plans to identify more young planetary systems.

  14. Bright Light Delights: Effects of Daily Light Exposure on Emotions, Restactivity Cycles, Sleep and Melatonin Secretion in Severely Demented Patients.

    PubMed

    Münch, Mirjam; Schmieder, Michael; Bieler, Katharina; Goldbach, Rolf; Fuhrmann, Timo; Zumstein, Naomi; Vonmoos, Petra; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Cajochen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We tested whether the effects of a dynamic lighting system are superior to conventional lighting on emotions, agitation behaviour, quality of life, melatonin secretion and circadian restactivity cycles in severely demented patients. As a comparison, an age matched control patient group was exposed to conventional lighting. For none of the output measures were significant differences between the two lighting conditions found during the 8 study weeks in fall/winter. Thus, we divided the patient cohort (n = 89) into two groups, solely based on the median of their daily individual light exposure. Patients with higher average daily light exposure (>417 lx) showed significantly longer emotional expressions of pleasure and alertness per daily observations than patients with lower daily light exposure. Moreover, they had a higher quality of life, spent less time in bed, went to bed later and initiated their sleep episodes later, even though the two groups did not differ with respect to age, severity of cognitive impairment and mobility. In general, men were more agitated, had shorter sleep with more wake episodes, had a lower circadian amplitude of relative rest-wake activity and interdaily circadian stability than women. In particular, lower daily light exposures significantly predicted lower circadian amplitudes of rest-activity cycles in men but not in women. This may indicate sex specific susceptibility to daily light exposures for rest-activity regulation in older demented patients. Our results provide evidence that a higher daily light exposure has beneficial effects on emotions and thus improved quality of life in a severely demented patient group. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Investigating the contribution of short wavelengths in the alerting effect of bright light.

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Alexandre; Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Houle, Jérôme; Hébert, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Short-wavelengths can have an acute impact on alertness, which is allegedly due to their action on intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Classical photoreceptors cannot, however, be excluded at this point in time as contributors to the alerting effect of light. The objective of this study was to compare the alerting effect at night of a white LED light source while wearing blue-blockers or not, in order to establish the contribution of short-wavelengths. 20 participants stayed awake under dim light (< 5 lx) from 23:00 h to 04:00 h on two consecutive nights. On the second night, participants were randomly assigned to one light condition for 30 min starting at 3:00 h. Group A (5M/5F) was exposed to 500 μW/cm(2) of unfiltered LED light, while group B (4M/6F) was required to wear blue-blocking glasses, while exposed to 1500 μW/cm(2) from the same light device in order to achieve 500 μW/cm(2) at eye level (as measured behind the glasses). Subjective alertness, energy, mood and anxiety were assessed for both nights at 23:30 h, 01:30 h and 03:30 h using a visual analog scale (VAS). Subjective sleepiness was assessed with the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS). Subjects also performed the Conners' Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II) in order to assess objective alertness. Mixed model analysis was used to compare VAS, SSS and CPT-II parameters. No difference between group A and group B was observed for subjective alertness, energy, mood, anxiety and sleepiness, as well as CPT-II parameters. Subjective alertness (p < 0.001), energy (p < 0.001) and sleepiness (p < 0.05) were, however improved after light exposure on the second night independently of the light condition. The current study shows that when sleepiness is high, the alerting effect of light can still be triggered at night in the absence of short-wavelengths with a 30 minute light pulse of 500 μW/cm(2). This suggests that the underlying mechanism by which a brief polychromatic light exposure

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Plus Bright Light Therapy for Adolescent Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Gardner, Greg; Paine, Sarah; Starkey, Karina; Menne, Annemarie; Slater, Amy; Wright, Helen; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Edward; Trenowden, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cognitive-behavior therapy plus bright light therapy (CBT plus BLT) for adolescents diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Design: Randomized controlled trial of CBT plus BLT vs. waitlist (WL) control with comparisons at pre- and post-treatment. There was 6-month follow-up for the CBT plus BLT group only. Setting: Flinders University Child & Adolescent Sleep Clinic, Adelaide, South Australia. Patients: 49 adolescents (mean age 14.6 ± 1.0 y, 53% males) diagnosed with DSPD; mean chronicity 4 y 8 months; 16% not attending school. Eighteen percent of adolescents dropped out of the study (CBT plus BLT: N = 23 vs WL: N = 17). Interventions: CBT plus BLT consisted of 6 individual sessions, including morning bright light therapy to advance adolescents' circadian rhythms, and cognitive restructuring and sleep education to target associated insomnia and sleep hygiene. Measurements and Results: DSPD diagnosis was performed via a clinical interview and 7-day sleep diary. Measurements at each time-point included online sleep diaries and scales measuring sleepiness, fatigue, and depression symptoms. Compared to WL, moderate-to-large improvements (d = 0.65-1.24) were found at post-treatment for CBT plus BLT adolescents, including reduced sleep latency, earlier sleep onset and rise times, total sleep time (school nights), wake after sleep onset, sleepiness, and fatigue. At 6-month follow-up (N = 15), small-to-large improvements (d = 0.24-1.53) continued for CBT plus BLT adolescents, with effects found for all measures. Significantly fewer adolescents receiving CBT plus BLT met DPSD criteria at post-treatment (WL = 82% vs. CBT plus BLT = 13%, P < 0.0001), yet 13% still met DSPD criteria at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions: CBT plus BLT for adolescent DSPD is effective for improving multiple sleep and daytime impairments in the immediate and long-term. Studies evaluating the treatment effectiveness of each treatment component are needed

  17. Reduced Phase-Advance of Plasma Melatonin after Bright Morning Light in the Luteal, but not Follicular, Menstrual Cycle Phase in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: An Extended Study

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Barbara L.; Meliska, Charles J.; Sorenson, Diane L.; Martínez, L. Fernando; López, Ana M.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Hauger, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    We previously observed blunted phase-shift responses to morning bright light in women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). The aim of this study was to determine if we could replicate these findings using a higher intensity, shorter duration light pulse and to compare these results with the effects of an evening bright light pulse. In 17 PMDD patients and 14 normal control (NC) subjects, we measured plasma melatonin at 30 minute intervals from 18:00–10:00 h in dim (< 30 lux) or dark conditions the night before (night 1) and after (night 3) a bright light pulse (administered on night 2) in both follicular and luteal menstrual cycle phases. The bright light (either 3,000 lux for 6 h or 6,000 lux for 3 h) was given either in the AM, 7 h after the Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) measured the previous month, or in the PM, 3 h after the DLMO. In the luteal, but not in the follicular, phase, AM light advanced melatonin offset between night 1 and night 3 significantly less in PMDD than in NC subjects. The effects of PM light were not significant, nor were there significant effects of the light pulse on melatonin measures of onset, duration, peak or area under the curve. These findings replicated our previous finding of a blunted phase-shift response to morning bright light in the luteal, but not the follicular, menstrual cycle phase in PMDD compared with NC women, using a brighter (6,000 vs. 3,000 lux) light pulse for a shorter duration (3 vs. 6 h). As the effect of PM bright light on melatonin phase-shift responses did not differ between groups or significantly alter other melatonin measures, these results suggest that in PMDD there is a luteal phase subsensitivity or an increased resistance to morning bright light cues which are critical in synchronizing human biological rhythms. The resulting circadian rhythm malsynchonization may contribute to the occurrence of luteal phase depressive symptoms in women with PMDD. PMID:21721857

  18. Bright ambient light conditions reduce the effect of tryptophan depletion in healthy females.

    PubMed

    Defrancesco, Michaela; Niederstätter, Harald; Parson, Walther; Kemmler, Georg; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Marksteiner, Josef; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A

    2013-11-30

    Tryptophan depletion (TD) is an established method to influence the serotonergic system and mood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TD under different ambient light conditions, measured through serotonin-associated plasma levels and a visual analog scale (VAS), on healthy females. Thirty-eight healthy female s-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) were administered a TD under dim light conditions (75 lx). A sub-group of 8 participants repeated the procedure randomized in two additional light conditions (585 lx and 1530 lx respectively). Prior to, and 5h following administration of TD, various variables (serotonin-associated plasma levels, VAS) were measured. Due to not normal distributed data, non-parametric statistical tests were used. Overall analysis showed a significant mood lowering effect of TD. Moreover, TD decreased all measured serotonin-associated plasma levels significantly. Significant differences in varying light conditions were found for the VAS and plasma tryptophan, with the greatest effect of TD in the 75 lx condition. Results of our study showed an influence of even slight differences in ambient light intensity on the effect of TD concerning mood as well as on the serotonergic system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of a two-hour early awakening and of bright light exposure on plasma patterns of cortisol, melatonin, prolactin and testosterone in man.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Y; Benoit, O; Foret, J; Aguirre, A; Bogdan, A; Clodoré, M; Touitou, C

    1992-03-01

    Bright light is a synchronizing agent that entrains human circadian rhythms and modifies various endocrine and neuroendocrine functions. The aim of the present study was to determine whether and how the exposure to a bright light stimulus during the 2 h following a 2 h earlier awakening could modify the disturbance induced by the the sleep deprivation on the plasma patterns of hormones whose secretion is sensitive to light and/or sleep, namely melatonin, prolactin, cortisol and testosterone. Six healthy and synchronized (lights on: 07.00-23.00) male students (22.5 +/- 1.1 years) with normal psychological profiles volunteered for the study in winter. The protocol consisted of a baseline control night (customary sleep schedule) followed by three shortened nights with a rising at 05.00 and a 2 h exposure to either dim light (50 lux; one week) or bright light (2000 lux; other week). Our study showed a phase advance of the circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol without significant modifications of the hormone mean or peak concentration. Plasma melatonin concentration decreased following bright light exposure, whereas no obvious modifications of plasma testosterone or prolactin patterns could be observed in this protocol.

  20. Delayed detonation models for normal and subluminous type Ia sueprnovae: Absolute brightness, light curves, and molecule formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoflich, P.; Khokhlov, A. M.; Wheeler, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    We compute optical and infrared light curves of the pulsating class of delayed detonation models for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia's) using an elaborate treatment of the Local Thermodynamic Equilbrium (LTE) radiation transport, equation of state and ionization balance, expansion opacity including the cooling by CO, Co(+), and SiO, and a Monte Carlo gamma-ray deposition scheme. The models have an amount of Ni-56 in the range from approximately or equal to 0.1 solar mass up to 0.7 solar mass depending on the density at which the transition from a deflagration to a detonation occurs. Models with a large nickel production give light curves comparable to those of typical Type Ia supernovae. Subluminous supernovae can be explained by models with a low nickel production. Multiband light curves are presented in comparison with the normally bright event SN 1992bc and the subluminous events Sn 1991bg and SN 1992bo to establish the principle that the delayed detonation paradigm in Chandrasekhar mass models may give a common explosion mechanism accounting for both normal and subluminous SN Ia's. Secondary IR-maxima are formed in the models of normal SN Ia's as a photospheric effect if the photospheric radius continues to increase well after maximum light. Secondary maxima appear later and stronger in models with moderate expansion velocities and with radioactive material closer to the surface. Model light curves for subluminous SN Ia's tend to show only one 'late' IR-maximum. In some delayed detonation models shell-like envelopes form, which consist of unburned carbon and oxygen. The formation of molecules in these envelopes is addressed. If the model retains a C/O-envelope and is subluminous, strong vibration bands of CO may appear, typically several weeks past maximum light. CO should be very weak or absent in normal Sn Ia's.

  1. High efficiency and brightness fluorescent organic light emitting diode by triplet-triplet fusion

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen; Zhang, Yifan

    2015-02-10

    A first device is provided. The first device further comprises an organic light emitting device. The organic light emitting device further comprises an anode, a cathode, and an emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode. The emissive layer may include an organic host compound and at least one organic emitting compound capable of fluorescent emission at room temperature. Various configurations are described for providing a range of current densities in which T-T fusion dominates over S-T annihilation, leading to very high efficiency fluorescent OLEDs.

  2. Ordered polymer nanofibers enhance output brightness in bilayer light-emitting field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ben B Y; Seifter, Jason; Takacs, Christopher J; Zhong, Chengmei; Tseng, Hsin-Rong; Samuel, Ifor D W; Namdas, Ebinazar B; Bazan, Guillermo C; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong; Heeger, Alan J

    2013-03-26

    Polymer light emitting field effect transistors are a class of light emitting devices that reveal interesting device physics. Device performance can be directly correlated to the most fundamental polymer science. Control over surface properties of the transistor dielectric can dramatically change the polymer morphology, introducing ordered phase. Electronic properties such as carrier mobility and injection efficiency on the interface can be promoted by ordered nanofibers in the polymer. Moreover, by controlling space charge in the polymer interface, the recombination zone can be spatially extended and thereby enhance the optical output.

  3. Bright light therapy for depression: A review of its effects on chronobiology and the autonomic nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Mark A.; Ciraulo, Domenic A.

    2017-01-01

    Bright light therapy (BLT) is considered among the first-line treatments for seasonal affective disorder (SAD), yet a growing body of literature supports its use in other neuropsychiatric conditions including non-seasonal depression. Despite evidence of its antidepressant efficacy, clinical use of BLT remains highly variable internationally. In this article, we explore the autonomic effects of BLT and suggest that such effects may play a role in its antidepressant and chronotherapeutic properties. After providing a brief introduction on the clinical application of BLT, we review the chronobiological effects of BLT on depression and on the autonomic nervous system in depressed and non-depressed individuals with an emphasis on non-seasonal depression. Such a theory of autonomic modulation via BLT could serve to integrate aspects of recent work centered on alleviating allostatic load, the polyvagal theory, the neurovisceral integration model and emerging evidence on the roles of glutamate and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GABA). PMID:24397276

  4. Bright light therapy for depression: a review of its effects on chronobiology and the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Mark A; Ciraulo, Domenic A

    2014-04-01

    Bright light therapy (BLT) is considered among the first-line treatments for seasonal affective disorder (SAD), yet a growing body of literature supports its use in other neuropsychiatric conditions including non-seasonal depression. Despite evidence of its antidepressant efficacy, clinical use of BLT remains highly variable internationally. In this article, we explore the autonomic effects of BLT and suggest that such effects may play a role in its antidepressant and chronotherapeutic properties. After providing a brief introduction on the clinical application of BLT, we review the chronobiological effects of BLT on depression and on the autonomic nervous system in depressed and non-depressed individuals with an emphasis on non-seasonal depression. Such a theory of autonomic modulation via BLT could serve to integrate aspects of recent work centered on alleviating allostatic load, the polyvagal theory, the neurovisceral integration model and emerging evidence on the roles of glutamate and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GABA).

  5. Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W

    2012-05-06

    Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr(-1) m(-2)) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH(2) groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.

  6. Bright light therapy as part of a multicomponent management program improves sleep and functional outcomes in delirious older hospitalized adults.

    PubMed

    Chong, Mei Sian; Tan, Keng Teng; Tay, Laura; Wong, Yoke Moi; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is associated with poor outcomes following acute hospitalization. A specialized delirium management unit, the Geriatric Monitoring Unit (GMU), was established. Evening bright light therapy (2000-3000 lux; 6-10 pm daily) was added as adjunctive treatment, to consolidate circadian activity rhythms and improve sleep. This study examined whether the GMU program improved sleep, cognitive, and functional outcomes in delirious patients. A total of 228 patients (mean age = 84.2 years) were studied. The clinical characteristics, delirium duration, delirium subtype, Delirium Rating Score (DRS), cognitive status (Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination), functional status (modified Barthel Index [MBI]), and chemical restraint use during the initial and predischarge phase of the patient's GMU admission were obtained. Nurses completed hourly 24-hour patient sleep logs, and from these, the mean total sleep time, number of awakenings, and sleep bouts (SB) were computed. The mean delirium duration was 6.7 ± 4.6 days. Analysis of the delirium subtypes showed that 18.4% had hypoactive delirium, 30.2% mixed delirium, and 51.3% had hyperactive delirium. There were significant improvements in MBI scores, especially for the hyperactive and mixed delirium subtypes (P < 0.05). Significant improvements were noted on the DRS sleep-wake disturbance subscore, for all delirium-subtypes. The mean total sleep time (7.7 from 6.4 hours) (P < 0.05) and length of first SB (6.0 compared with 5.3 hours) (P < 0.05) improved, with decreased mean number of SBs and awakenings. The sleep improvements were mainly seen in the hyperactive delirium subtype. This study shows initial evidence for the clinical benefits (longer total sleep time, increased first SB length, and functional gains) of incorporating bright light therapy as part of a multicomponent delirium management program. The benefits appear to have occurred mainly in patients with hyperactive delirium, which merits further in

  7. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavior therapy plus bright light therapy for adolescent delayed sleep phase disorder.

    PubMed

    Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Gardner, Greg; Paine, Sarah; Starkey, Karina; Menne, Annemarie; Slater, Amy; Wright, Helen; Hudson, Jennifer L; Weaver, Edward; Trenowden, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate cognitive-behavior therapy plus bright light therapy (CBT plus BLT) for adolescents diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Randomized controlled trial of CBT plus BLT vs. waitlist (WL) control with comparisons at pre- and post-treatment. There was 6-month follow-up for the CBT plus BLT group only. Flinders University Child & Adolescent Sleep Clinic, Adelaide, South Australia. 49 adolescents (mean age 14.6 ± 1.0 y, 53% males) diagnosed with DSPD; mean chronicity 4 y 8 months; 16% not attending school. Eighteen percent of adolescents dropped out of the study (CBT plus BLT: N = 23 vs. WL: N = 17). CBT plus BLT consisted of 6 individual sessions, including morning bright light therapy to advance adolescents' circadian rhythms, and cognitive restructuring and sleep education to target associated insomnia and sleep hygiene. DSPD diagnosis was performed via a clinical interview and 7-day sleep diary. Measurements at each time-point included online sleep diaries and scales measuring sleepiness, fatigue, and depression symptoms. Compared to WL, moderate-to-large improvements (d = 0.65-1.24) were found at post-treatment for CBT plus BLT adolescents, including reduced sleep latency, earlier sleep onset and rise times, total sleep time (school nights), wake after sleep onset, sleepiness, and fatigue. At 6-month follow-up (N = 15), small-to-large improvements (d = 0.24-1.53) continued for CBT plus BLT adolescents, with effects found for all measures. Significantly fewer adolescents receiving CBT plus BLT met DPSD criteria at post-treatment (WL = 82% vs. CBT plus BLT = 13%, P < 0.0001), yet 13% still met DSPD criteria at the 6-month follow-up. CBT plus BLT for adolescent DSPD is effective for improving multiple sleep and daytime impairments in the immediate and long-term. Studies evaluating the treatment effectiveness of each treatment component are needed. Australia-New Zealand Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12610001041044.

  8. Colours in black and white: the depiction of lightness and brightness in achromatic engravings before the invention of photography.

    PubMed

    Zavagno, Daniele; Massironi, Manfredo

    2006-01-01

    What is it like to see the world in black and white? In the pioneer days of cinema, when movies displayed grey worlds, was it true that no 'colours' were actually seen? Did every object seen in those projections appear grey in the same way? The answer is obviously no--people in those glorious days were seeing a world full of light, shadows, and objects in which colours were expressed in terms of lightness. But the marvels of grey worlds have not always been so richly displayed. Before the invention of photography, the depiction of scenes in black-and-white had to face some technical and perceptual challenges. We have studied the technical and perceptual constraints that XV-XVIII century engravers had to face in order to translate actual colours into shades of grey. An indeterminacy principle is considered, according to which artists had to prefer the representation of some object or scene features over others (for example brightness over lightness). The reasons for this lay between the kind of grey scale technically available and the kind of information used in the construction of 3-D scenes. With the invention of photography, photomechanical reproductions, and new printing solutions, artists had at their disposal a continuous grey scale that greatly reduces the constraints of the indeterminacy principle.

  9. Two-Dimensional Metal-Organic Layers as a Bright and Processable Phosphor for Fast White-Light Communication.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuefu; Wang, Zi; Lin, Bangjiang; Zhang, Cankun; Cao, Lingyun; Wang, Tingting; Zhang, Jingzheng; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Wenbin

    2017-06-22

    A metal-organic layer (MOL) is a new type of 2D material that is derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by reducing one dimension to a single layer or a few layers. Tetraphenylethylene-based tetracarboxylate ligands (TCBPE), with aggregation-induced emission properties, were assembled into the first luminescent MOL by linking with Zr 6 O 4 (OH) 6 (H 2 O) 2 (HCO 2 ) 6 clusters. The emissive MOL can replace the lanthanide phosphors in white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) with remarkable processability, color rendering, and brightness. Importantly, the MOL-WLED exhibited a physical switching speed three times that of commercial WLEDs, which is crucial for visible-light communication (VLC), an alternative wireless communication technology to Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, by using room lighting to carry transmitted signals. The short fluorescence lifetime (2.6 ns) together with high quantum yield (50 %) of the MOL affords fast switching of the assembled WLEDs for efficient information encoding and transmission. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Circadian phase-shifting effects of a laboratory environment: a clinical trial with bright and dim light.

    PubMed

    Youngstedt, Shawn D; Kripke, Daniel F; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Rex, Katharine M

    2005-09-09

    Our aims were to examine the influence of different bright light schedules on mood, sleep, and circadian organization in older adults (n = 60, ages 60-79 years) with insomnia and/or depression, contrasting with responses of young, healthy controls (n = 30, ages 20-40 years). Volunteers were assessed for one week in their home environments. Urine was collected over two 24-hour periods to establish baseline acrophase of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) excretion. Immediately following home recording, volunteers spent five nights and four days in the laboratory. Sleep periods were fixed at eight hours in darkness, consistent with the volunteers' usual sleep periods. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three light treatments (four hours per day) within the wake period: (A) two hours of 3,000 lux at 1-3 hours and 13-15 hours after arising; (B) four hours of 3,000 lux at 6-10 hours after arising; (C) four hours of dim placebo light at 6-10 hours after arising. Lighting was 50 lux during the remainder of wakefulness. The resulting aMT6s acrophase was determined during the final 30 hours in the laboratory. Neither mood nor total melatonin excretion differed significantly by treatment. For the three light treatments, significant and similar phase-response plots were found, indicating that the shift in aMT6s acrophase was dependent upon the circadian time of treatment. The changes in circadian timing were not significantly correlated to changes in sleep or mood. The trial failed to demonstrate photoperiodic effects. The results suggest that even low levels of illumination and/or fixed timing of behavior had significant phase-shifting effects.

  11. Melatonin and bright-light treatment for rest-activity disruption in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Glenna A; Burr, Robert L; Van Someren, Eus J W; Hubbard, Erin M; Luxenberg, Jay S; Mastick, Judy; Cooper, Bruce A

    2008-02-01

    To test whether the addition of melatonin to bright-light therapy enhances the efficacy in treating rest-activity (circadian) disruption in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Randomized, controlled trial. Two nursing homes in San Francisco, California. Fifty subjects (mean age 86) with AD. Experimental subjects received 1 hour of morning light exposure (> or = 2,500 lux in gaze direction) Monday to Friday for 10 weeks and 5 mg melatonin (LM, n=16) or placebo (LP, n=17) in the evening. Control subjects (n=17) received usual indoor light (150-200 lux). Nighttime sleep variables, day sleep time, day activity, day:night sleep ratio, and rest-activity parameters were determined using actigraphy. Linear mixed models were employed to test the primary study hypotheses. No significant differences in nighttime sleep variables were found between groups. At the end of the intervention, the LM group showed significant improvement in daytime somnolence as indicated by a reduction in the duration of daytime sleep, an increase in daytime activity, and an improvement in day:night sleep ratio. The LM group also evidenced a significant increase in rest-activity rhythm amplitude and goodness of fit to the cosinor model. Light treatment alone did not improve nighttime sleep, daytime wake, or rest-activity rhythm. Light treatment plus melatonin increased daytime wake time and activity levels and strengthened the rest-activity rhythm. Future studies should resolve the question of whether these improvements can be attributed to melatonin or whether the two zeitgebers interact to amplify efficacy.

  12. Melatonin and Bright-Light Treatment for Rest–Activity Disruption in Institutionalized Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Glenna A.; Burr, Robert L.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Hubbard, Erin M.; Luxenberg, Jay S.; Mastick, Judy; Cooper, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To test whether the addition of melatonin to bright-light therapy enhances the efficacy in treating rest–activity (circadian) disruption in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). DESIGN Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING Two nursing homes in San Francisco, California. PARTICIPANTS Fifty subjects (mean age 86) with AD. INTERVENTION Experimental subjects received 1 hour of morning light exposure (≥2,500 lux in gaze direction) Monday to Friday for 10 weeks and 5 mg melatonin (LM, n = 16) or placebo (LP, n = 17) in the evening. Control subjects (n = 17) received usual indoor light (150–200 lux). MEASUREMENTS Nighttime sleep variables, day sleep time, day activity, day:night sleep ratio, and rest–activity parameters were determined using actigraphy. RESULTS Linear mixed models were employed to test the primary study hypotheses. No significant differences in nighttime sleep variables were found between groups. At the end of the intervention, the LM group showed significant improvement in daytime somnolence as indicated by a reduction in the duration of daytime sleep, an increase in daytime activity, and an improvement in day:night sleep ratio. The LM group also evidenced a significant increase in rest–activity rhythm amplitude and goodness of fit to the cosinor model. CONCLUSION Light treatment alone did not improve nighttime sleep, daytime wake, or rest–activity rhythm. Light treatment plus melatonin increased daytime wake time and activity levels and strengthened the rest–activity rhythm. Future studies should resolve the question of whether these improvements can be attributed to melatonin or whether the two zeitgebers interact to amplify efficacy. PMID:18070004

  13. Teeth and numerology from zodiac signs. A correlative study.

    PubMed

    Kudva, S; Bhat, A P

    2000-01-01

    Comparative anatomical descriptions have been time and again mentioned in the literature. Based on these aspects, an attempt is made to correlate the morphological features of the human teeth, the zodiac sun signs and numerology. This unique study (first ever of its kind) is also done with a purpose as to whether a particular 'Zodiac Sunsign' or numerology can predict about an individual dental health, the same way the future predictions are being made. It was quite interesting to note that there are few definite attributable dental morphological traits and health to the specific sun signs and numerology.

  14. Synoptic maps constructed from brightness observations of Thomson scattering by heliospheric electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B.; Schwenn, R.

    1991-01-01

    Observations of the Thomson scattering brightness by electrons in the inner heliosphere provide a means of probing the heliospheric electron distributions. An extensive data base of Thomson scattering observations, stretching over many years, is available from the zodiacal light photometers on board the two Helios spacecraft. A survey of these data is in progress, presenting these scattering intensities in the form of synoptic maps for successive Carrington rotations. The Thomson scattering maps reflect conditions at typically several tenths of an astronomical unit from the sun. Some representative examples from the survey in comparison with other solar/heliospheric data, such as in situ observations of the Helios plasma experiment and synoptic maps constructed from magnetic field, H alpha and K-coronameter data are presented. The comparison will provide some information about the extension of solar surface features into the inner heliosphere.

  15. High-brightness organic light-emitting diodes for optogenetic control of Drosophila locomotor behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Andrew; Murawski, Caroline; Pulver, Stefan R.; Gather, Malte C.

    2016-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are in widespread use in today’s mobile phones and are likely to drive the next generation of large area displays and solid-state lighting. Here we show steps towards their utility as a platform technology for biophotonics, by demonstrating devices capable of optically controlling behaviour in live animals. Using devices with a pin OLED architecture, sufficient illumination intensity (0.3 mW.mm−2) to activate channelrhodopsins (ChRs) in vivo was reliably achieved at low operating voltages (5 V). In Drosophila melanogaster third instar larvae expressing ChR2(H134R) in motor neurons, we found that pulsed illumination from blue and green OLEDs triggered robust and reversible contractions in animals. This response was temporally coupled to the timing of OLED illumination. With blue OLED illumination, the initial rate and overall size of the behavioural response was strongest. Green OLEDs achieved roughly 70% of the response observed with blue OLEDs. Orange OLEDs did not produce contractions in larvae, in agreement with the spectral response of ChR2(H134R). The device configuration presented here could be modified to accommodate other small model organisms, cell cultures or tissue slices and the ability of OLEDs to provide patterned illumination and spectral tuning can further broaden their utility in optogenetics experiments. PMID:27484401

  16. High-brightness organic light-emitting diodes for optogenetic control of Drosophila locomotor behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Andrew; Murawski, Caroline; Pulver, Stefan R.; Gather, Malte C.

    2016-08-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are in widespread use in today’s mobile phones and are likely to drive the next generation of large area displays and solid-state lighting. Here we show steps towards their utility as a platform technology for biophotonics, by demonstrating devices capable of optically controlling behaviour in live animals. Using devices with a pin OLED architecture, sufficient illumination intensity (0.3 mW.mm-2) to activate channelrhodopsins (ChRs) in vivo was reliably achieved at low operating voltages (5 V). In Drosophila melanogaster third instar larvae expressing ChR2(H134R) in motor neurons, we found that pulsed illumination from blue and green OLEDs triggered robust and reversible contractions in animals. This response was temporally coupled to the timing of OLED illumination. With blue OLED illumination, the initial rate and overall size of the behavioural response was strongest. Green OLEDs achieved roughly 70% of the response observed with blue OLEDs. Orange OLEDs did not produce contractions in larvae, in agreement with the spectral response of ChR2(H134R). The device configuration presented here could be modified to accommodate other small model organisms, cell cultures or tissue slices and the ability of OLEDs to provide patterned illumination and spectral tuning can further broaden their utility in optogenetics experiments.

  17. Morning bright light exposure has no influence on self-chosen exercise intensity and mood in overweight individuals - A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Knaier, Raphael; Klenk, Christopher; Königstein, Karsten; Hinrichs, Timo; Rossmeissl, Anja; Infanger, Denis; Cajochen, Christian; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2018-04-01

    Overweight is a worldwide increasing public health issue. Physical exercise is a useful countermeasure. Overweight individuals choose rather low exercise intensities, but especially high exercise intensities lead to higher energy expenditure and show beneficial health effects compared to lower exercise intensities. However, especially in the morning higher exercise intensities are likely to be avoided due to higher subjective effort. Bright light exposure has shown to increase maximum performance. The aim of this study was to investigate if bright light exposure can also increase self-chosen exercise intensity. We hypothesized that morning bright light exposure increases self-chosen exercise intensity of subsequent exercise through increased mood and reduced sleepiness in overweight individuals. In this randomized controlled single-blind parallel group design, 26 overweight individuals (11 males, 15 females; age 25 ± 5.7 years; body mass index 28.9 ± 2.1 kg/m 2 ) underwent three measurement appointments. On the first appointment, subjects performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test to measure maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Two days later a 30-min exercise session with self-chosen exercise intensity was performed for familiarization. Then subjects were randomly allocated to bright light (~4400 lx) or a control light (~230 lx) condition. Three to seven days later, subjects were exposed to light for 30 min starting at 8:00 am, immediately followed by a 30-min exercise session with persisting light exposure. Multidimensional mood questionnaires were filled out before and after the light exposure and after the exercise session. The primary outcome was the mean power output during the exercise session and the secondary outcome the rating on the three domains (i.e. good-bad; awake-tired; calm-nervous) of the multidimensional mood questionnaire. Mean power output during the exercise session was 92 ± 19 W in bright light and 80 ± 37 W in control light

  18. Examination of the melatonin hypothesis in women exposed at night to EMF or bright light.

    PubMed

    Graham, C; Cook, M R; Gerkovich, M M; Sastre, A

    2001-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that the increased incidence of breast cancer in industrial societies is related to greater exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) and/or the presence of high levels of light at night (LAN). EMF and LAN are said to reduce circulating levels of the hormone melatonin which, in turn, allows estrogen levels to rise and stimulate the turnover of breast epithelial stem cells and increase the risk for malignant transformation. Three laboratory-based studies, in which a total of 53 healthy young women were exposed at night to EMF or to LAN under controlled exposure conditions, were performed to determine whether such exposures reduce melatonin and are associated with further alterations in estrogen. All-night exposure to industrial-strength magnetic fields (60 Hz, 28.3 microT) had no effect on the blood levels of melatonin or estradiol. In contrast, nocturnal melatonin levels were profoundly suppressed, and the time of peak concentration was significantly delayed in women exposed to LAN, regardless of whether they were in the follicular or luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. These changes, however, were not associated with alterations in point-for-point matching measures of estradiol. Women who chronically secrete high or low amounts of melatonin each night (area-under-curve range: 86-1,296 pg/mL) also did not differ in their blood levels of estradiol. Taken together, these results are consistent with a growing body of evidence which generally suggests that environmental EMF exposure has little or no effect on the parameters measured in this report.

  19. Chandra Takes In The Bright Lights, Big City Of The Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has made a stunning, high-energy panorama of the central regions of our Milky Way galaxy. The findings are an important step toward understanding the most active area of the Milky Way as well as other galaxies throughout the universe. Like a sprawling megalopolis, the new Chandra images show hundreds of white dwarf stars, neutron stars and black holes bathed in an incandescent fog of multimillion-degree gas around a supermassive black hole. "The center of the galaxy is where the action is," said Q. Daniel Wang of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. "With these images, we get a new perspective of the interplay between stars, gas and dust, as well as the magnetic fields and gravity in the region. We can see how such forces affect the immediate vicinity and may influence other aspects of the galaxy." Wang presented the montage of 30 separate Chandra images today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Washington, and in a paper published in the Jan. 10, 2002, issue of the journal Nature. The images, made with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) July 16-21, 2001, covered a 400- by 900-light-year swath of the center of the galaxy. One immediate result was that the team could separate out the individual X-ray sources from the diffuse glow produced by hot gas. "We can now see that the sources are responsible for most of the X-rays from highly ionized iron previously attributed to the diffuse glow," said Eric Gotthelf, of Columbia University in New York, a co-author. "So we must now revise our notion of the hot gas, which appears to be about 10 times cooler than previously thought. It's only a relatively mild 10 million degrees!" The diffuse X-ray emission seems to be related to the turmoil and density of matter in the inner Milky Way. Stars are forming there at a much more rapid rate than in the galactic "suburbs." Many of the most massive stars in the galaxy are located in the galactic center and are furiously

  20. A randomized, controlled trial of bright light therapy for agitated behaviors in dementia patients residing in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Lyketsos, C G; Lindell Veiel, L; Baker, A; Steele, C

    1999-07-01

    Agitated behaviors are common in dementia patients residing in chronic care settings. Their occurrence may be associated with lack of adequate exposure to sunlight and with circadian rhythm disturbances. Prior research has suggested that bright light therapy (BLT) may reduce agitated behaviors in dementia patients. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of BLT in a randomized, controlled, crossover clinical trial. Fifteen patients with dementia and agitated behaviors residing in a chronic care facility were randomized in a crossover design to morning BLT for 1 hour per day or to a control condition with dim light exposure. Patients were treated in either condition for 4 weeks, followed by 1 week on no treatment, prior to being crossed over to the other condition. Eight out of 15 patients completed the entire study. The rest completed at least 2 weeks of study. Patients randomized to the BLT condition exhibited a statistically significant improvement in nocturnal sleep from a mean of 6.4 hours/night to 8.1 hours/night 4 weeks later (p<0.05). The sleep of patients in the control condition did not improve significantly. There were no other significant differences between baseline and follow-up, nor between BLT and control treated patients on the other outcome measures, which included the Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer Disease scale (Behave-AD) and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Patients with dementia in chronic care who exhibit agitated behaviors sleep more hours at night when administered morning BLT. However, BLT does not lead to improvements in agitated behaviors in institutionalized patients with dementia with non-disturbed sleep-wake cycles. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effect of bright light therapy on delayed sleep/wake cycle and reaction time of athletes participating in the Rio 2016 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Rosa, João Paulo P; Silva, Andressa; Rodrigues, Dayane F; Simim, Mário Antônio; Narciso, Fernanda V; Tufik, Sergio; Bichara, Jorge J; Pereira, Sebastian Rafael D; Da Silva, Sidney C; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2018-04-16

    This study investigated the effect of using an artificial bright light on the entrainment of the sleep/wake cycle as well as the reaction times of athletes before the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. A total of 22 athletes from the Brazilian Olympic Swimming Team were evaluated, with the aim of preparing them to compete at a time when they would normally be about to go to bed for the night. During the 8-day acclimatization period, their sleep/wake cycles were assessed by actigraphy, with all the athletes being treated with artificial light therapy for between 30 and 45 min (starting at day 3). In addition, other recommendations to improve sleep hygiene were made to the athletes. In order to assess reaction times, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test was performed before (day 1) and after (day 8) the bright light therapy. As a result of the intervention, the athletes slept later on the third (p = 0.01), seventh (p = 0.01) and eighth (p = 0.01) days after starting bright light therapy. Regarding reaction times, when tested in the morning the athletes showed improved average (p = 0.01) and minimum reaction time (p = 0.03) when comparing day 8 to day 1. When tested in the evening, they showed improved average (p = 0.04), minimum (p = 0.03) and maximum reaction time (p = 0.02) when comparing day 8 to day 1. Light therapy treatment delayed the sleep/wake cycles and improved reaction times of members of the swimming team. The use of bright light therapy was shown to be effective in modulating the sleep/wake cycles of athletes who had to perform in competitions that took place late at night.

  2. GLOBE at Night: a Worldwide Citizen-Science Program to Increase Awareness of Light Pollution by Measuring Night Sky Brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has contributed to its success? Foundational resources are available to facilitate the public's participation in promoting dark skies awareness. The GLOBE at Night website explains clearly the simple-to-participate-in 5 step program and offers background information and interactive games on key concepts. To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. The program has been expanded to include trainings of the general public, but especially educators in schools, museums and science centers, in unique ways. Education kits for dark skies awareness have been distributed at the training workshops. The kit includes material for a light shielding demonstration, a digital Sky Quality Meter and "Dark Skies Rangers" activities. The activities are on how unshielded light wastes energy, how light pollution affects wildlife and how one can participate in a citizen-science star-hunt like GLOBE at Night. To increase participation in the 2011 campaign, children and adults submitted their sky brightness measurements in real time with smart phones or tablets using the web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. With smart phones and tablets, the location, date and time register automatically. For those without smart mobile devices, user-friendly tools on the GLOBE at Night report page were reconfigured to determine latitude and longitude more easily and accurately. As a proto-type for taking multiple measurements, people in Tucson found it easy to adopt a street and take measurements every mile for the length of the street. The grid of measurements

  3. "Star Light, Star Bright..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gil; Doop, Skip; Millson, David

    1998-01-01

    Describes Student-Tracked Atmospheric Research Satellite for Heuristic International Networking Experiment (STARSHINE), which enables students to explore optical astronomy, orbital dynamics, space and atmospheric physics, mathematics and international cooperation by tracking a satellite. (Author)

  4. Bright up-conversion white light emission from Er3+ doped lithium fluoro zinc borate glasses for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayalakshmi, L.; Naveen Kumar, K.; Rao, K. Srinivasa; Hwang, Pyung

    2018-03-01

    Various concentrations of Er3+ (0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mol %) doped lithium fluoro zinc borate glasses were synthesized by a traditional melt quenching method. XRD, FTIR and FESEM have been employed to analyze the structural, compositional and morphological analysis respectively. Judd-Ofelt theory has been employed to analyze the intensity parameters (Ωλ, λ = 2, 4 and 6) which can be used to estimate the radiative properties of fluorescent levels of Er3+. We have been observed a strong NIR emission peak at 1.53 μm (4I13/2 → 4I15/2) under the excitation of 980 nm from Er3+: LBZ glasses. Nevertheless, the NIR emission is remarkably enhanced by increasing the Er3+ ions concentration until the optimized concentration of 0.5 mol%. The lifetime of the excited level of 4I13/2 in the NIR emission transition is evaluated and it is found to be1.22 ms from the decay analysis of 0.5 mol% Er3+: LBZ glass. Apart from the NIR emission, a bright up-conversion green emission is observed at 544 nm (4S3/2 → 4I15/2) along with an intense red emission at 659 nm (4F9/2 → 4I15/2) and a weak blue emission (2H9/2 → 4I15/2) under the excitation of 980 nm. Up-conversion emission features were significantly enhanced with increasing the Er3+ concentration up to 1.0 mol%. The combination of the obtained up-conversion emission colors of green, red and blue could generate white light emission. The cool white-light emission from the optimized glass sample has been confirmed from the Commission International de I'Echairage (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram analysis and their correlated color temperature (CCT) values. Based on the NIR and up-conversion emission features, Er3+: LBZ glasses could be suggested as promising candidates for optical amplifiers, optical telecommunication windows and white light photonic applications.

  5. Bright Light Suppresses Form-Deprivation Myopia Development With Activation of Dopamine D1 Receptor Signaling in the ON Pathway in Retina.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Zhi, Zhina; Ruan, Qingqing; Liu, Qingxia; Li, Fen; Wan, Fen; Reinach, Peter S; Chen, Jiangfan; Qu, Jia; Zhou, Xiangtian

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) signaling pathway activation by bright light (BL) in specific retinal neuronal cell types contributes to inhibiting form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in mice. Mice (3-weeks old) were raised under either normal light (NL: 100-200 lux) or BL (2500-5000 lux) conditions with or without form deprivation. Refraction changes were evaluated with an eccentric infrared photorefractor, and ocular axial components with optical coherence tomography. The D1R antagonist, SCH39166, was intraperitoneally injected daily to evaluate if BL mediates declines in FDM development through D1R activation. Six different biomarkers of retinal neuronal types delineated differential distribution of D1R expression. c-Fos and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (p-TH) immunofluorescent staining evaluated D1R receptor activation and dopamine synthesis, respectively. Bright light exposure for 4 weeks (6 hours per day) inhibited FDM development by reducing ocular elongation and shifting refraction toward hyperopia compared with changes occurring in NL. SCH39166 injections completely reversed the inhibitory effects of BL on both refraction and ocular elongation. Bright light increased the number of cells expressing p-TH and c-fos. Increases in c-fos+ cells occurred mainly in D1R+ bipolar cells (BCs), especially D1R+ ON-BCs. Bright light increases D1R activity in the BCs of the ON pathway, which is associated with less myopic shift and ocular elongation than those occurring in NL. These declines suggest that increased D1R activity in the ON pathway contributes to the BL suppression of FDM development in mice.

  6. Bilateral reading performance of 4 multifocal intraocular lens models and a monofocal intraocular lens under bright lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Rasp, Max; Bachernegg, Alexander; Seyeddain, Orang; Ruckhofer, Josef; Emesz, Martin; Stoiber, Josef; Grabner, Günther; Dexl, Alois K

    2012-11-01

    To compare changes in reading performance parameters after implantation of 4 multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) models and a monofocal IOL. Department of Ophthalmology, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria. Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients with bilateral cataract without additional ocular pathology were scheduled for bilateral implantation of Acri.Smart 48S monofocal, Acrysof Restor SN6AD3 apodized multifocal, AT LISA 366D diffractive multifocal, Tecnis ZMA00 diffractive multifocal, or Rezoom refractive multifocal IOLs. Bilateral corrected and uncorrected reading acuity, reading distance, mean and maximum reading speeds, and smallest log-scaled print size of a Radner reading chart were evaluated under bright lighting conditions (500 lux) using the Salzburg Reading Desk. Pupil size was not measured throughout the trial. The minimum follow-up was 12 months. The diffractive multifocal groups had significantly better uncorrected reading acuity and uncorrected smallest print size than the monofocal and refractive multifocal groups 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The diffractive IOL groups had comparable uncorrected reading distance of approximately 32 cm, which was larger in the monofocal group (38.9 ± 8.4 cm) and refractive multifocal group (37.1 ± 7.3 cm) at the last visit. Patients with diffractive IOLs could read print sizes of approximately 0.74 to 0.87 mm, which was much better than in the monofocal and refractive multifocal groups. The diffractive AT LISA IOL provided the best reading speed values (mean and maximum, corrected and uncorrected). Multifocal IOLs with a diffractive component provided good reading performance that was significantly better than that obtained with a refractive multifocal or monofocal IOL. Drs. Grabner and Dexl were patent owners of the Salzburg Reading Desk technology (now owned by SRD-Vision, LLC). No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned

  7. Synoptic maps of heliospheric Thomson scattering brightness from 1974-1985 as observed by the Helios photometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B. V.; Schwenn, R.

    1992-01-01

    We display the electron Thomson scattering intensity of the inner heliosphere as observed by the zodiacal light photometers on board the Helios spacecraft in the form of synoptic maps. The technique extrapolates the brightness information from each photometer sector near the Sun and constructs a latitude/longitude map at a given solar height. These data are unique in that they give a determination of heliospheric structures out of the ecliptic above the primary region of solar wind acceleration. The spatial extent of bright, co-rotating heliospheric structures is readily observed in the data north and south of the ecliptic plane where the Helios photometer coverage is most complete. Because the technique has been used on the complete Helios data set from 1974 to 1985, we observe the change in our synoptic maps with solar cycle. Bright structures are concentrated near the heliospheric equator at solar minimum, while at solar maximum bright structures are found at far higher heliographic latitudes. A comparison of these maps with other forms of synoptic data are shown for two available intervals.

  8. The Chevroches zodiacal cap and its Burgundy relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devevey, Frédéric; Vernou, Christian; Rousseau, Aurélie

    2011-06-01

    The excavation of an unexplored secondary agglomeration in Chevroches (France), from 2001 to 2002 has led to the discovery of a bronze dome of a type unknown in the Ancient world. It is inscribed with three lines in Greek transcribing Egyptian and Roman months, and the twelve signs of the Zodiac. This paper presents the first observations and some other finds from similar objects in Burgundy.

  9. Bright light treatment in elderly patients with nonseasonal major depressive disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lieverse, Ritsaert; Van Someren, Eus J W; Nielen, Marjan M A; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Smit, Jan H; Hoogendijk, Witte J G

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) in elderly individuals is prevalent and debilitating. It is accompanied by circadian rhythm disturbances associated with impaired functioning of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the biological clock of the brain. Circadian rhythm disturbances are common in the elderly. Suprachiasmatic nucleus stimulation using bright light treatment (BLT) may, therefore, improve mood, sleep, and hormonal rhythms in elderly patients with MDD. To determine the efficacy of BLT in elderly patients with MDD. Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Home-based treatment in patients recruited from outpatient clinics and from case-finding using general practitioners' offices in the Amsterdam region. Eighty-nine outpatients 60 years or older who had MDD underwent assessment at baseline (T0), after 3 weeks of treatment (T1), and 3 weeks after the end of treatment (T2). Intervention Three weeks of 1-hour early-morning BLT (pale blue, approximately 7500 lux) vs placebo (dim red light, approximately 50 lux). Mean improvement in Hamilton Scale for Depression scores at T1 and T2 using parameters of sleep and cortisol and melatonin levels. Intention-to-treat analysis showed Hamilton Scale for Depression scores to improve with BLT more than placebo from T0 to T1 (7%; 95% confidence interval, 4%-23%; P = .03) and from T0 to T2 (21%; 7%-31%; P = .001). At T1 relative to T0, get-up time after final awakening in the BLT group advanced by 7% (P < .001), sleep efficiency increased by 2% (P = .01), and the steepness of the rise in evening melatonin levels increased by 81% (P = .03) compared with the placebo group. At T2 relative to T0, get-up time was still advanced by 3% (P = .001) and the 24-hour urinary free cortisol level was 37% lower (P = .003) compared with the placebo group. The evening salivary cortisol level had decreased by 34% in the BLT group compared with an increase of 7% in the placebo group (P = .02). In elderly patients with MDD, BLT

  10. Detection of stably bright squeezed light with the quantum noise reduction of 12.6  dB by mutually compensating the phase fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenhai; Shi, Shaoping; Wang, Yajun; Ma, Weiguang; Zheng, Yaohui; Peng, Kunchi

    2017-11-01

    We present a mutual compensation scheme of three phase fluctuations, originating from the residual amplitude modulation (RAM) in the phase modulation process, in the bright squeezed light generation system. The influence of the RAM on each locking loop is harmonized by using one electro-optic modulator (EOM), and the direction of the phase fluctuation is manipulated by positioning the photodetector (PD) that extracts the error signal before or after the optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Therefore a bright squeezed light with non-classical noise reduction of π is obtained. By fitting the squeezing and antisqueezing measurement results, we confirm that the total phase fluctuation of the system is around 3.1 mrad. The fluctuation of the noise suppression is 0.2 dB for 3 h.

  11. Two hours of evening reading on a self-luminous tablet vs. reading a physical book does not alter sleep after daytime bright light exposure.

    PubMed

    Rångtell, Frida H; Ekstrand, Emelie; Rapp, Linnea; Lagermalm, Anna; Liethof, Lisanne; Búcaro, Marcela Olaya; Lingfors, David; Broman, Jan-Erik; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The use of electronic devices emitting blue light during evening hours has been associated with sleep disturbances in humans, possibly due to the blue light-mediated suppression of the sleep-promoting hormone melatonin. However, experimental results have been mixed. The present study therefore sought to investigate if reading on a self-luminous tablet during evening hours would alter sleepiness, melatonin secretion, nocturnal sleep, as well as electroencephalographic power spectral density during early slow-wave sleep. Following a constant bright light exposure over 6.5 hours (~569 lux), 14 participants (six females) read a novel either on a tablet or as physical book for two hours (21:00-23:00). Evening concentrations of saliva melatonin were repeatedly measured. Sleep (23:15-07:15) was recorded by polysomnography. Sleepiness was assessed before and after nocturnal sleep. About one week later, experiments were repeated; participants who had read the novel on a tablet in the first experimental session continued reading the same novel in the physical book, and vice versa. There were no differences in sleep parameters and pre-sleep saliva melatonin levels between the tablet reading and physical book reading conditions. Bright light exposure during daytime has previously been shown to abolish the inhibitory effects of evening light stimulus on melatonin secretion. Our results could therefore suggest that exposure to bright light during the day - as in the present study - may help combat sleep disturbances associated with the evening use of electronic devices emitting blue light. However, this needs to be validated by future studies with larger sample populations. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Morning Versus Evening Bright Light Treatment at Home to Improve Function and Pain Sensitivity for Women with Fibromyalgia: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Helen J; Park, Margaret; Ong, Jason C; Shakoor, Najia; Williams, David A; Burns, John

    2017-01-01

    To test the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of a home-based morning versus evening bright light treatment on function and pain sensitivity in women with fibromyalgia. A single blind randomized study with two treatment arms: 6 days of a 1 hour morning light treatment or 6 days of a 1 hour evening light treatment. Function, pain sensitivity, and circadian timing were assessed before and after treatment. Participants slept at home, except for two nights in Sleep Center. Ten women meeting the American College of Rheumatology's diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia, including normal blood test results. Self-reported function was assessed with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Pain sensitivity was assessed using a heat stimulus that gave measures of threshold and tolerance. Circadian timing was assessed with the dim light melatonin onset. Both morning and evening light treatments led to improvements in function and pain sensitivity. However, only the morning light treatment led to a clinically meaningful improvement in function (>14% reduction from baseline FIQ) and morning light significantly increased pain threshold more than evening light ( P  < 0.05). Phase advances in circadian timing were associated with an increase in pain tolerance (r = 0.67, P  < 0.05). Bright light treatment appears to be a feasible and acceptable adjunctive treatment to women with fibromyalgia. Those who undergo morning light treatment may show improvements in function and pain sensitivity. Advances in circadian timing may be one mechanism by which morning light improves pain sensitivity. Findings can inform the design of a randomized controlled trial. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Apigenin-7-diglucuronide protects retinas against bright light-induced photoreceptor degeneration through the inhibition of retinal oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bian, Minjuan; Zhang, Yong; Du, Xiaoye; Xu, Jing; Cui, Jingang; Gu, Jiangping; Zhu, Weiliang; Zhang, Teng; Chen, Yu

    2017-05-15

    Vision impairment in retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration is primarily associated with photoreceptor degeneration, in which oxidative stress and inflammatory responses are mechanistically involved as central players. Therapies with photoreceptor protective properties remain to be developed. Apigenin-7-diglucuronide (A7DG), a flavonoid glycoside, is present in an assortment of medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory or ant-oxidant activities. However, the pharmacological significance of A7DG remains unknown in vivo. The current study isolated A7DG from Glechoma longituba (Nakai) Kuprian and investigated the retinal protective effect A7DG in mice characterized by bright light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. The results showed that A7DG treatment led to remarkable photoreceptor protection in bright light-exposed BALB/c mice. Moreover, A7DG treatment alleviated photoreceptor apoptosis, mitigated oxidative stress, suppressed reactive gliosis and microglial activation and attenuated the expression of proinflammatory genes in bright light-exposed retinas. The results demonstrated for the first time remarkable photoreceptor protective activities of A7DG in vivo. Inhibition of bright light-induced retinal oxidative stress and retinal inflammatory responses was associated with the retinal protection conferred by A7DG. The work here warrants further evaluation of A7DG as a pharmacological candidate for the treatment of vision-threatening retinal degenerative disorders. Moreover, given the general implication of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, A7DG could be further tested for the treatment of other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined caffeine and bright light reduces dangerous driving in sleep-deprived healthy volunteers: a pilot cross-over randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hartley, S L; Barbot, F; Machou, M; Lejaille, M; Moreau, B; Vaugier, I; Lofaso, F; Quera-Salva, M A

    2013-06-01

    To explore the effects of caffeine and bright light therapy on simulated nighttime driving in sleep-deprived healthy volunteers. Twelve male healthy volunteers aged 20 to 50 years participated in a randomized cross-over study of simulated nighttime driving at a sleep laboratory, followed by recovery sleep with polysomnography at home. The volunteers received variable combinations of caffeine 200mg (C+), caffeine placebo (C-), bright light 10,000 lux (L+), and bright light placebo<50 lux (L-), in four sessions (C+L+, C+L-, C-L+, C-L-), in random order with a wash-out period of 7 days. Treatments were given at 1 a.m. and testing was performed at 1:30 a.m., 3 a.m., 4 a.m., and 6 a.m. Lane drifting was the primary outcome measure. Other measures were reaction times, self-rated fatigue, sleepiness and recovery sleep. Without treatment, lane drifting increased throughout the night, and objective and subjective vigilance declined. Paired comparisons showed that lane drifting was significantly worse at 6 a.m. and at 4 a.m. than at 1:30 a.m. There was a global treatment effect on lane drifting. Lane drifting at 6 a.m. was significantly decreased with C+L+ compared to C-L-. Bright light therapy combined with caffeine administered at 1 a.m. decreased lane drifting by healthy volunteers during simulated nighttime driving. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. An optical to IR sky brightness model for the LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoachim, Peter; Coughlin, Michael; Angeli, George Z.; Claver, Charles F.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Cook, Kem; Daniel, Scott; Ivezić, Željko; Jones, R. Lynne; Petry, Catherine; Reuter, Michael; Stubbs, Christopher; Xin, Bo

    2016-07-01

    To optimize the observing strategy of a large survey such as the LSST, one needs an accurate model of the night sky emission spectrum across a range of atmospheric conditions and from the near-UV to the near-IR. We have used the ESO SkyCalc Sky Model Calculator1, 2 to construct a library of template spectra for the Chilean night sky. The ESO model includes emission from the upper and lower atmosphere, scattered starlight, scattered moonlight, and zodiacal light. We have then extended the ESO templates with an empirical fit to the twilight sky emission as measured by a Canon all-sky camera installed at the LSST site. With the ESO templates and our twilight model we can quickly interpolate to any arbitrary sky position and date and return the full sky spectrum or surface brightness magnitudes in the LSST filter system. Comparing our model to all-sky observations, we find typical residual RMS values of +/-0.2-0.3 magnitudes per square arcsecond.

  16. Polarization of the diffuse galactic light.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, J. G.; Ney, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    Polarization measurements made from the satellite OSO-5 show that the polarized intensity in the direction of the Scutum arm of the Galaxy is different in intensity and direction of the polarization from that observed due to the zodiacal light. The observations are consistent with polarized diffuse galactic light superposed on the zodiacal light. The results are interpreted in terms of a model in which the galactic starlight is scattered by interstellar dust.

  17. Intranasal administration of dopamine attenuates unconditioned fear in that it reduces restraint-induced ultrasound vocalizations and escape from bright light.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Teddy; Mattern, Claudia; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2017-06-01

    Although substantial evidence suggests that dopamine (DA) enhances conditioned fear responses, few studies have examined the role of DA in unconditioned fear states. Whereas DA does not cross the blood-brain barrier, intranasally-applied dopamine reaches the brain directly via the nose-brain pathways in rodents, providing an alternative means of targeting DA receptors. Intranasal dopamine (IN-DA) has been demonstrated to bind to DA transporters and to increase extracellular DA in the striatum as well as having memory-promoting effects in rats. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of IN-DA in three tests of fear/anxiety. The three doses of DA hydrochloride (0.03, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg) were applied in a viscous castor oil gel in a volume of 5 µl to each of both nostrils of adult Wistar rats prior to testing of (a) escape from a bright light, using a two-chamber procedure, (b) restraint-induced 22 kHz ultrasound vocalizations (USVs), and (c) exploratory behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). IN-DA dose-dependently reduced escape from bright light and the number of USV responses to restraint. It had no influence on the exploratory behavior in the EPM. IN-DA application reduced escape behavior in two tests of unconditioned fear (escape from bright light and USV response to immobilization). These findings may be interpreted in light of the known antidepressant action of IN-DA and DA reuptake blockers. The results also confirm the promise of the nasal route as an alternative means for targeting the brain's dopaminergic receptors with DA.

  18. Zodiacal emission. III - Dust near the asteroid belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reach, William T.

    1992-01-01

    Properties of the zodiacal dust bands are derived from fits to Infrared Astronomical Satellite profiles of the ecliptic. Three observations lead to the conclusion that the dust-band material is spread over a range of heliocentric distances between the asteroid belt and the sun: parallax, color temperature, and wavelength dependence of the band latitudes. The orientations of the midplanes of the bands are found to be typical of asteroids. A model of 'migrating bands', wherein dust is produced near the asteroid belt and spirals into the sun under the influence of Poynting-Robertson drag, is used to explain the range of heliocentric distances of dust-band material.

  19. Effects of electromagnetic radiation (bright light, extremely low-frequency magnetic fields, infrared radiation) on the circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis, rectal temperature, and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Griefahn, Barbara; Künemund, Christa; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Lerchl, Alexander; Degen, Gisela H

    2002-10-01

    Electromagnetic spectra reduce melatonin production and delay the nadirs of rectal temperature and heart rate. Seven healthy men (16-22 yrs) completed 4 permuted sessions. The control session consisted of a 24-hours bedrest at < 30 lux, 18 degrees C, and < 50 dBA. In the experimental sessions, either light (1500 lux), magnetic field (16.7 Hz, 0.2 mT), or infrared radiation (65 degrees C) was applied from 5 pm to 1 am. Salivary melatonin level was determined hourly, rectal temperature and heart rate were continuously recorded. Melatonin synthesis was completely suppressed by light but resumed thereafter. The nadirs of rectal temperature and heart rate were delayed. The magnetic field had no effect. Infrared radiation elevated rectal temperature and heart rate. Only bright light affected the circadian rhythms of melatonin synthesis, rectal temperature, and heart rate, however, differently thus causing a dissociation, which might enhance the adverse effects of shiftwork in the long run.

  20. Effects of Melatonin and Bright Light Treatment in Childhood Chronic Sleep Onset Insomnia With Late Melatonin Onset: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    van Maanen, Annette; Meijer, Anne Marie; Smits, Marcel G; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Oort, Frans J

    2017-02-01

    Chronic sleep onset insomnia with late melatonin onset is prevalent in childhood, and has negative daytime consequences. Melatonin treatment is known to be effective in treating these sleep problems. Bright light therapy might be an alternative treatment, with potential advantages over melatonin treatment. In this study, we compare the effects of melatonin and bright light treatment with a placebo condition in children with chronic sleep onset insomnia and late melatonin onset. Eighty-four children (mean age 10.0 years, 61% boys) first entered a baseline week, after which they received melatonin (N = 26), light (N = 30), or placebo pills (N = 28) for 3 to 4 weeks. Sleep was measured daily with sleep diaries and actigraphy. Before and after treatment children completed a questionnaire on chronic sleep reduction, and Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) was measured. Results were analyzed with linear mixed model analyses. Melatonin treatment and light therapy decreased sleep latency (sleep diary) and advanced sleep onset (sleep diary and actigraphy), although for sleep onset the effects of melatonin were stronger. In addition, melatonin treatment advanced DLMO and had positive effects on sleep latency and sleep efficiency (actigraphy data), and sleep time (sleep diary and actigraphy data). However, wake after sleep onset (actigraphy) increased with melatonin treatment. No effects on chronic sleep reduction were found. We found positive effects of both melatonin and light treatment on various sleep outcomes, but more and stronger effects were found for melatonin treatment. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. An hour of bright white light in the early morning improves performance and advances sleep and circadian phase during the Antarctic winter.

    PubMed

    Corbett, R W; Middleton, B; Arendt, J

    2012-09-13

    Previous work has demonstrated that exposure to an hour of bright light in the morning and the evening during the Polar winter has beneficial effects on circadian phase. This study investigated the effect of a single hour of bright white morning light on circadian phase, sleep, alertness and cognitive performance. Nine individuals (eight male, one female, median age 30 years), wintering at Halley Research Station (75°S), Antarctica from 7th May until 6th August 2007, were exposed to bright white light for a fortnight from 08:30 to 09:30 h, with two fortnight control periods on either side. This sequence was performed twice, before and following Midwinter. Light exposure, sleep and alertness were assessed daily by actigraphy, sleep diaries and subjective visual analogue scales. Circadian phase (assessed by urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm) and cognitive performance were evaluated at the end of each fortnight. During light exposure circadian phase was advanced from 4.97 ± 0.96 decimal hours (dh) (mean ± SD) to 4.08 ± 0.68 dh (p = 0.003). Wake-up time was shifted by a similar margin from 8.45 ± 1.83 dh to 7.59 ± 0.78 dh (p < 0.001). Sleep start time was also advanced (p = 0.047) but by a lesser amount, consequently, actual sleep time was slightly reduced. There was no change in objective or subjective measures of sleep quality or subjective measures of alertness. An improvement in cognitive performance was found with both the Single Letter Cancellation Test (p < 0.001) and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (p = 0.026) with preserved circadian variation. These beneficial effects of a single short duration light treatment may have implications not only for the Antarctic but other remote environments where access to natural light and delayed circadian phase, is problematic. These results require validation in larger studies at varying locations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A multicenter study of sleep-wake rhythm disorders: therapeutic effects of vitamin B12, bright light therapy, chronotherapy and hypnotics.

    PubMed

    Yamadera, H; Takahashi, K; Okawa, M

    1996-08-01

    One hundred and six subjects with primary sleep-wake rhythm disorders [13 non-24 hour sleep-wake syndrome (non-24), 76 delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS), 11 irregular sleep-wake pattern (irregular) and six long sleepers] were treated with vitamin B12, bright light, chronotherapy and/or hypnotics. These therapies caused moderate or remarkable improvement in 32% of the non-24, 42% of DSPS, 45% of irregular and 67% of long sleepers. A lack of adequate sleep, unpleasant feelings at waking and daytime drowsiness were also improved in DSPS.

  3. There is nothing paranormal about near-death experiences: how neuroscience can explain seeing bright lights, meeting the dead, or being convinced you are one of them.

    PubMed

    Mobbs, Dean; Watt, Caroline

    2011-10-01

    Approximately 3% of Americans declare to have had a near-death experience. These experiences classically involve the feeling that one's soul has left the body, approaches a bright light and goes to another reality, where love and bliss are all encompassing. Contrary to popular belief, research suggests that there is nothing paranormal about these experiences. Instead, near-death experiences are the manifestation of normal brain function gone awry, during a traumatic, and sometimes harmless, event. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prehistory of Zodiac Dating: Three Strata of Upper Paleolithic Constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurshtein, Alex A.

    A pattern of archaic proto-constellations is extracted from Aratus' "The Phaenomena" didactic poem list according to a size criterion elaborated earlier, and their symbolism is analyzed. As a result of this approach three celestial symbolical strata are discovered to be probably a reflection of the symbols for the Lower, the Middle and the Upper Worlds; the Under-World creatures have a water character, the Middle World ones are mostly anthropomorphic and flying beings are for the Upper World. The strata excerpted from Aratus' sky seems to be in agreement with the well-known Babylonian division into three god pathways for Ea (Enki), Anu and Enlil. There is a possibility of dating the pattern discovered because of precession's strong influence as far back as 16 thousand years, the result being supported by the comparison of different star group mean sizes. The archaic constellation pattern under consideration is a reasonable background of symbolical meanings for the first Zodiacal generation quartet (7.5 thousand years old) examined by the author previously. The enormous size of the Argo constellation (Ship of Argo and his Argonauts) as well as the large sizes of other southern constellations are explained as due to the existence of an accumulation zone near the South celestial pole. Some extra correlations between the reconstruction proposed and cultural data available are discussed. The paper is the second part of the investigation "On the Origin of the Zodiacal constellations" published in Vistas in Astronomy, vol.36, pp.171-190, 1993.

  5. Bright Enceladus

    2011-02-14

    Saturn moon Enceladus reflects sunlight brightly while the planet and its rings fill the background in this view from NASA Cassini spacecraft. Enceladus is one of the most reflective bodies in the solar system.

  6. A randomised controlled trial of bright light therapy and morning activity for adolescents and young adults with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder.

    PubMed

    Richardson, C; Cain, N; Bartel, K; Micic, G; Maddock, B; Gradisar, M

    2018-05-01

    A randomised controlled trial evaluated bright light therapy and morning activity for the treatment of Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) in young people. 60 adolescents and young adults (range = 13-24 years, mean = 15.9 ± 2.2 y, 63% f) diagnosed with DSWPD were randomised to receive three weeks of post-awakening Green Bright Light Therapy (∼507 nm) and Sedentary Activity (sitting, watching TV), Green Bright Light Therapy and Morning Activity (standing, playing motion-sensing videogame), Red Light Therapy (∼643 nm) and Sedentary Activity or Red Light Therapy and Morning Activity. Sleep (ie sleep onset time, wake up time, sleep onset latency, total sleep time) and daytime functioning (ie morning alertness, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, functional impairment) were measured pre-treatment, post-treatment and at one and three month follow-up. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant differences in outcomes between treatment groups; and interaction effects between treatment group and time for all outcome variables were not statistically significant. However, adolescents and young adults in morning activity conditions did not meaningfully increase their objective activity (ie movement frequency). Overall, adolescents reported significantly improved sleep timing (d = 0.30-0.46), sleep onset latency (d = 0.32) and daytime functioning (d = 0.45-0.87) post-treatment. Improvements in sleep timing (d = 0.53-0.61), sleep onset latency (d = 0.57), total sleep time (d = 0.51), and daytime functioning (d = 0.52-1.02) were maintained, or improved upon, at the three month follow-up. However, relapse of symptomology was common and 38% of adolescents and young adults requested further treatment in addition to the three weeks of light therapy. Although there is convincing evidence for the short-term efficacy of chronobiological treatments for DSWPD, long-term treatment outcomes can be improved. To address this gap in our current knowledge

  7. The effect of a change in sleep-wakefulness timing, bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Iskra-Golec, I; Fafrowicz, M; Marek, T; Costa, G; Folkard, S; Foret, J; Kundi, M; Smith, L

    2001-12-01

    Experiments consisting of baseline, bright light and physical exercise studies were carried out to compare the effect of a 9-hour delay in sleep-wakefulness timing, and the effects of bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature were examined. Each study comprised a 24-hour constant routine at the beginning followed by 3 night shifts and 24-hour constant routine at the end. Performance on tasks differing in cognitive load, mood and body temperature was measured during each constant routine and the interventions were applied during the night shifts. The 24-hour pattern of alertness and performance on the tasks with low cognitive load in post-treatment conditions followed the change in sleep-wakefulness timing while more cognitively loaded tasks tended to show a reverse trend when compared to pre-treatment conditions. There was a phase delay around 4 hours in circadian rhythms of body temperature in post-treatment conditions.

  8. Can the season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia be prevented by bright light treatment for the second trimester mother around the winter solstice?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Paul J

    2014-12-01

    The season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia exerts a pervasive effect on the global population, particularly at northerly latitudes. The winter infection hypothesis and the low vitamin D hypothesis are both compelling but lack conclusive clinical data. The present work develops a maternal-fetal chronobiological hypothesis for this season of birth risk factor and its prevention by maternal bright light treatment. Around the winter solstice, due to decreased sunlight, the chronobiological apparatus of the at-risk second trimester mother is characterized by a reduced amplitude circadian pacemaker, and a reduced maximum of her nocturnal plasma melatonin concentrations (MTmax) and an increased minimum of her nocturnal core body temperatures (Tmin)--both of which exert adverse effects on the fetal hippocampus and dorsal striatum. The consequences for the fetus include reduced volume and increased excitability of the hippocampus, ventral striatal dysfunction, increased presynaptic nigrostriatal dopamine transmission, and increased propensity for pathological nigrostriatal neuronal phasic firing. Thus, the maternal-fetal chronobiological hypothesis fully accounts for the fetal precursors of the major pathognomonic abnormalities in adults with schizophrenia. Bright light treatment for the second trimester mother around the winter solstice, by increasing maternal circadian amplitude, could possibly prevent the fetal hippocampal and striatal abnormalities and eliminate the season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Brightness variation distributions among main belt asteroids from sparse light-curve sampling with Pan-STARRS 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, A.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Jedicke, R.; Wainscoat, R.; Denneau, L.; Vereš, P.; Magnier, E.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Waters, C.

    2016-07-01

    The rotational state of asteroids is controlled by various physical mechanisms including collisions, internal damping and the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack effect. We have analysed the changes in magnitude between consecutive detections of ˜60 000 asteroids measured by the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (PanSTARRS) 1 survey during its first 18 months of operations. We have attempted to explain the derived brightness changes physically and through the application of a simple model. We have found a tendency towards smaller magnitude variations with decreasing diameter for objects of 1 < D < 8 km. Assuming the shape distribution of objects in this size range to be independent of size and composition our model suggests a population with average axial ratios 1 : 0.85 ± 0.13 : 0.71 ± 0.13, with larger objects more likely to have spin axes perpendicular to the orbital plane.

  10. Transverse emittance-preserving arc compressor for high-brightness electron beam-based light sources and colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.; Cornacchia, M.

    2015-03-01

    Bunch length magnetic compression is used in high-brightness linacs driving free-electron lasers (FELs) and particle colliders to increase the peak current of the injected beam. To date, it is performed in dedicated insertions made of few degrees bending magnets and the compression factor is limited by the degradation of the beam transverse emittance owing to emission of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). We reformulate the known concept of CSR-driven optics balance for the general case of varying bunch length and demonstrate, through analytical and numerical results, that a 500 pC charge beam can be time-compressed in a periodic 180 deg arc at 2.4 GeV beam energy and lower, by a factor of up to 45, reaching peak currents of up to 2 kA and with a normalized emittance growth at the 0.1 μ \\text{m} rad level. The proposed solution offers new schemes of beam longitudinal gymnastics; an application to an energy recovery linac driving FEL is discussed.

  11. Si III OV Bright Line of Scattering Polarized Light That Has Been Observed in the CLASP and Its Center-to-Limb Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Kano, Ryohei; Kubo, Masahito; Noriyuki, Narukage; Kisei, Bando; Hara, Hirohisa; Yoshiho, Suematsu; Goto, Motouji; Ishikawa, Shinnosuke; hide

    2017-01-01

    The CLASP (Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro- Polarimeter) rocket experiment, in addition to the ultraviolet region of the Ly alpha emission line (121.57 nm), emission lines of Si III (120.65 nm) and OV (121.83 nm) is can be observed. These are optically thin line compared to a Ly alpha line, if Rarere captured its polarization, there is a possibility that dripping even a new physical diagnosis chromosphere-transition layer. In particular, OV bright light is a release from the transition layer, further, three P one to one S(sub 0) is a forbidden line (cross-triplet transition between lines), it was not quite know whether to polarization.

  12. Bright Visible-Infrared Light Emitting Diodes Based on Hybrid Halide Perovskite with Spiro-OMeTAD as a Hole-Injecting Layer.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Quintero, Oscar A; Sanchez, Rafael S; Rincon, Marina; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2015-05-21

    Hybrid halide perovskites that are currently intensively studied for photovoltaic applications, also present outstanding properties for light emission. Here, we report on the preparation of bright solid state light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on a solution-processed hybrid lead halide perovskite (Pe). In particular, we have utilized the perovskite generally described with the formula CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) and exploited a configuration without electron or hole blocking layer in addition to the injecting layers. Compact TiO2 and Spiro-OMeTAD were used as electron and hole injecting layers, respectively. We have demonstrated a bright combined visible-infrared radiance of 7.1 W·sr(-1)·m(-2) at a current density of 232 mA·cm(-2), and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 0.48%. The devices prepared surpass the EQE values achieved in previous reports, considering devices with just an injecting layer without any additional blocking layer. Significantly, the maximum EQE value of our devices is obtained at applied voltages as low as 2 V, with a turn-on voltage as low as the Pe band gap (V(turn-on) = 1.45 ± 0.06 V). This outstanding performance, despite the simplicity of the approach, highlights the enormous potentiality of Pe-LEDs. In addition, we present a stability study of unsealed Pe-LEDs, which demonstrates a dramatic influence of the measurement atmosphere on the performance of the devices. The decrease of the electroluminescence (EL) under continuous operation can be attributed to an increase of the non-radiative recombination pathways, rather than a degradation of the perovskite material itself.

  13. Daytime bright light exposure, metabolism, and individual differences in wake and sleep energy expenditure during circadian entrainment and misalignment

    PubMed Central

    Melanson, Edward L.; Ritchie, Hannah K.; Dear, Tristan B.; Catenacci, Victoria; Shea, Karen; Connick, Elizabeth; Moehlman, Thomas M.; Stothard, Ellen R.; Higgins, Janine; McHill, Andrew W.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2018-01-01

    Daytime light exposure has been reported to impact or have no influence on energy metabolism in humans. Further, whether inter-individual differences in wake, sleep, 24 h energy expenditure, and RQ during circadian entrainment and circadian misalignment are stable across repeated 24 h assessments is largely unknown. We present data from two studies: Study 1 of 15 participants (7 females) exposed to three light exposure conditions: continuous typical room ~100 lx warm white light, continuous ~750 lx warm white light, and alternating hourly ~750 lx warm white and blue-enriched white light on three separate days in a randomized order; and Study 2 of 14 participants (8 females) during circadian misalignment induced by a simulated night shift protocol. Participants were healthy, free of medical disorders, medications, and illicit drugs. Participants maintained a consistent 8 h per night sleep schedule for one week as an outpatient prior to the study verified by wrist actigraphy, sleep diaries, and call-ins to a time stamped recorder. Participants consumed an outpatient energy balance research diet for three days prior to the study. The inpatient protocol for both studies consisted of an initial sleep disorder screening night. For study 1, this was followed by three standard days with 16 h scheduled wakefulness and 8 h scheduled nighttime sleep. For Study 2, it was followed by 16 h scheduled wake and 8 h scheduled sleep at habitual bedtime followed by three night shifts with 8 h scheduled daytime sleep. Energy expenditure was measured using whole-room indirect calorimetry. Constant posture bedrest conditions were maintained to control for energy expenditure associated with activity and the baseline energy balance diet was continued with the same exact meals across days to control for thermic effects of food. No significant impact of light exposure was observed on metabolic outcomes in response to daytime light exposure. Inter-individual variability in energy expenditure

  14. Daytime bright light exposure, metabolism, and individual differences in wake and sleep energy expenditure during circadian entrainment and misalignment.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Ritchie, Hannah K; Dear, Tristan B; Catenacci, Victoria; Shea, Karen; Connick, Elizabeth; Moehlman, Thomas M; Stothard, Ellen R; Higgins, Janine; McHill, Andrew W; Wright, Kenneth P

    2018-01-01

    Daytime light exposure has been reported to impact or have no influence on energy metabolism in humans. Further, whether inter-individual differences in wake, sleep, 24 h energy expenditure, and RQ during circadian entrainment and circadian misalignment are stable across repeated 24 h assessments is largely unknown. We present data from two studies: Study 1 of 15 participants (7 females) exposed to three light exposure conditions: continuous typical room ~100 lx warm white light, continuous ~750 lx warm white light, and alternating hourly ~750 lx warm white and blue-enriched white light on three separate days in a randomized order; and Study 2 of 14 participants (8 females) during circadian misalignment induced by a simulated night shift protocol. Participants were healthy, free of medical disorders, medications, and illicit drugs. Participants maintained a consistent 8 h per night sleep schedule for one week as an outpatient prior to the study verified by wrist actigraphy, sleep diaries, and call-ins to a time stamped recorder. Participants consumed an outpatient energy balance research diet for three days prior to the study. The inpatient protocol for both studies consisted of an initial sleep disorder screening night. For study 1, this was followed by three standard days with 16 h scheduled wakefulness and 8 h scheduled nighttime sleep. For Study 2, it was followed by 16 h scheduled wake and 8 h scheduled sleep at habitual bedtime followed by three night shifts with 8 h scheduled daytime sleep. Energy expenditure was measured using whole-room indirect calorimetry. Constant posture bedrest conditions were maintained to control for energy expenditure associated with activity and the baseline energy balance diet was continued with the same exact meals across days to control for thermic effects of food. No significant impact of light exposure was observed on metabolic outcomes in response to daytime light exposure. Inter-individual variability in energy expenditure

  15. Low-intensity blue-enriched white light (750 lux) and standard bright light (10,000 lux) are equally effective in treating SAD. A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Ybe; Dekker, Vera; Schlangen, Luc J M; Bos, Elske H; Ruiter, Martine J

    2011-01-28

    Photoreceptor cells containing melanopsin play a role in the phase-shifting effects of short-wavelength light. In a previous study, we compared the standard light treatment (SLT) of SAD with treatment using short-wavelength blue-enriched white light (BLT). Both treatments used the same illuminance (10,000 lux) and were equally highly effective. It is still possible, however, that neither the newly-discovered photoreceptor cells, nor the biological clock play a major role in the therapeutic effects of light on SAD. Alternatively, these effects may at least be partly mediated by these receptor cells, which may have become saturated as a result of the high illuminances used in the therapy. This randomized controlled study compares the effects of low-intensity BLT to those of high-intensity SLT. In a 22-day design, 22 patients suffering from a major depression with a seasonal pattern (SAD) were given light treatment (10,000 lux) for two weeks on workdays. Subjects were randomly assigned to either of the two conditions, with gender and age evenly distributed over the groups. Light treatment either consisted of 30 minutes SLT (5000 °K) with the EnergyLight® (Philips, Consumer Lifestyle) with a vertical illuminance of 10,000 lux at eye position or BLT (17,000 °K) with a vertical illuminance of 750 lux using a prototype of the EnergyLight® which emitted a higher proportion of short-wavelengths. All participants completed questionnaires concerning mood, activation and sleep quality on a daily basis. Mood and energy levels were also assessed on a weekly basis by means of the SIGH-SAD and other assessment tools. On day 22, SIGH-SAD ratings were significantly lower than on day 1 (SLT 65.2% and BLT 76.4%). On the basis of all assessments no statistically significant differences were found between the two conditions. With sample size being small, conclusions can only be preliminary. Both treatment conditions were found to be highly effective. The therapeutic effects of low

  16. Extra-Zodiacal-Cloud Astronomy via Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Scott W.; Falck, Robert D.; Oleson, Steven R.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Thronson, Harley A.; Vaughn, Frank J.; Fixsen, Dale J.

    2011-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is often considered as primary propulsion for robotic planetary missions, providing the opportunity to deliver more payload mass to difficult, high-delta-velocity destinations. However, SEP application to astrophysics has not been well studied. This research identifies and assesses a new application of SEP as primary propulsion for low-cost high-performance robotic astrophysics missions. The performance of an optical/infrared space observatory in Earth orbit or at the Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) is limited by background emission from the Zodiacal dust cloud that has a disk morphology along the ecliptic plane. By delivering an observatory to a inclined heliocentric orbit, most of this background emission can be avoided, resulting in a very substantial increase in science performance. This advantage enabled by SEP allows a small-aperture telescope to rival the performance of much larger telescopes located at SEL2. In this paper, we describe a novel mission architecture in which SEP technology is used to enable unprecedented telescope sensitivity performance per unit collecting area. This extra-zodiacal mission architecture will enable a new class of high-performance, short-development time, Explorer missions whose sensitivity and survey speed can rival flagship-class SEL2 facilities, thus providing new programmatic flexibility for NASA's astronomy mission portfolio. A mission concept study was conducted to evaluate this application of SEP. Trajectory analyses determined that a 700 kg-class science payload could be delivered in just over 2 years to a 2 AU mission orbit inclined 15 to the ecliptic using a 13 kW-class NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) SEP system. A mission architecture trade resulted in a SEP stage architecture, in which the science spacecraft separates from the stage after delivery to the mission orbit. The SEP stage and science spacecraft concepts were defined in collaborative engineering environment studies. The

  17. 1.9 W yellow, CW, high-brightness light from a high efficiency semiconductor laser-based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. K.; Christensen, M.; Noordegraaf, D.; Heist, P.; Papastathopoulos, E.; Loyo-Maldonado, V.; Jensen, O. B.; Stock, M. L.; Skovgaard, P. M. W.

    2017-02-01

    Semiconductor lasers are ideal sources for efficient electrical-to-optical power conversion and for many applications where their small size and potential for low cost are required to meet market demands. Yellow lasers find use in a variety of bio-related applications, such as photocoagulation, imaging, flow cytometry, and cancer treatment. However, direct generation of yellow light from semiconductors with sufficient beam quality and power has so far eluded researchers. Meanwhile, tapered semiconductor lasers at near-infrared wavelengths have recently become able to provide neardiffraction- limited, single frequency operation with output powers up to 8 W near 1120 nm. We present a 1.9 W single frequency laser system at 562 nm, based on single pass cascaded frequency doubling of such a tapered laser diode. The laser diode is a monolithic device consisting of two sections: a ridge waveguide with a distributed Bragg reflector, and a tapered amplifier. Using single-pass cascaded frequency doubling in two periodically poled lithium niobate crystals, 1.93 W of diffraction-limited light at 562 nm is generated from 5.8 W continuous-wave infrared light. When turned on from cold, the laser system reaches full power in just 60 seconds. An advantage of using a single pass configuration, rather than an external cavity configuration, is increased stability towards external perturbations. For example, stability to fluctuating case temperature over a 30 K temperature span has been demonstrated. The combination of high stability, compactness and watt-level power range means this technology is of great interest for a wide range of biological and biomedical applications.

  18. Effect of bright light and melatonin on cognitive and noncognitive function in elderly residents of group care facilities: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Riemersma-van der Lek, Rixt F; Swaab, Dick F; Twisk, Jos; Hol, Elly M; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2008-06-11

    Cognitive decline, mood, behavioral and sleep disturbances, and limitations of activities of daily living commonly burden elderly patients with dementia and their caregivers. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with these symptoms. To determine whether the progression of cognitive and noncognitive symptoms may be ameliorated by individual or combined long-term application of the 2 major synchronizers of the circadian timing system: bright light and melatonin. A long-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 x 2 factorial randomized trial performed from 1999 to 2004 with 189 residents of 12 group care facilities in the Netherlands; mean (SD) age, 85.8 (5.5) years; 90% were female and 87% had dementia. Random assignment by facility to long-term daily treatment with whole-day bright (+/- 1000 lux) or dim (+/- 300 lux) light and by participant to evening melatonin (2.5 mg) or placebo for a mean (SD) of 15 (12) months (maximum period of 3.5 years). Standardized scales for cognitive and noncognitive symptoms, limitations of activities of daily living, and adverse effects assessed every 6 months. Light attenuated cognitive deterioration by a mean of 0.9 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-1.71) on the Mini-Mental State Examination or a relative 5%. Light also ameliorated depressive symptoms by 1.5 points (95% CI, 0.24-2.70) on the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia or a relative 19%, and attenuated the increase in functional limitations over time by 1.8 points per year (95% CI, 0.61-2.92) on the nurse-informant activities of daily living scale or a relative 53% difference. Melatonin shortened sleep onset latency by 8.2 minutes (95% CI, 1.08-15.38) or 19% and increased sleep duration by 27 minutes (95% CI, 9-46) or 6%. However, melatonin adversely affected scores on the Philadelphia Geriatric Centre Affect Rating Scale, both for positive affect (-0.5 points; 95% CI, -0.10 to -1.00) and negative affect (0.8 points; 95% CI, 0.20-1.44). Melatonin

  19. Clinical efficacy, onset time and safety of bright light therapy in acute bipolar depression as an adjunctive therapy: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian-Hang; Dang, Wei-Min; Ma, Yan-Tao; Hu, Chang-Qing; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Guo-Yi; Wang, Gang; Shi, Chuan; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Bin; Zhou, Shu-Zhe; Feng, Lei; Geng, Shu-Xia; Tong, Yu-Zhen; Tang, Guan-Wen; He, Zhong-Kai; Zhen, Long; Yu, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Bright light therapy (BLT) is an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder and non- seasonal depression. The efficacy of BLT in treating patients with bipolar disorder is still unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy, onset time and clinical safety of BLT in treating patients with acute bipolar depression as an adjunctive therapy (trial registration at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02009371). This was a multi-center, single blind, randomized clinical trial. Seventy-four participants were randomized in one of two treatment conditions: BLT and control (dim red light therapy, dRLT). Sixty-three participants completed the study (33 BLT, 30 dRLT). Light therapy lasted for two weeks, one hour every morning. All participants were required to complete several scales assessments at baseline, and at the end of weeks 1 and 2. The primary outcome measures were the clinical efficacy of BLT which was assessed by the reduction rate of HAMD-17 scores, and the onset time of BLT which was assessed by the reduction rate of QIDS-SR16 scores. The secondary outcome measures were rates of switch into hypomania or mania and adverse events. 1) Clinical efficacy: BLT showed a greater ameliorative effect on bipolar depression than the control, with response rates of 78.19% vs. 43.33% respectively (p < 0.01). 2) Onset day: Median onset day was 4.33 days in BLT group. 3) BLT-emergent hypomania: No participants experienced symptoms of hypomania. 4) Side effects: No serious adverse events were reported. BLT can be considered as an effective and safe adjunctive treatment for patients with acute bipolar depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The young and bright Type Ia supernova ASASSN-14lp: Discovery, early-time observations, first-light time, distance to NGC 4666, and progenitor constraints

    DOE PAGES

    Shappee, B. J.; Piro, A. L.; Holoien, T. W. -S.; ...

    2016-07-27

    On 2014 December 9.61, the All-sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") discovered ASASSN-14lp just ~2 days after first light using a global array of 14 cm diameter telescopes. ASASSN-14lp went on to become a bright supernova (V = 11.94 mag), second only to SN 2014J for the year. We present prediscovery photometry (with a detection less than a day after first light) and ultraviolet through near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic data covering the rise and fall of ASASSN-14lp for more than 100 days. We find that ASASSN-14lp had a broad light curve (more » $${\\rm{\\Delta }}{m}_{15}(B)=0.80\\pm 0.05$$), a B-band maximum at 2457015.82 ± 0.03, a rise time of $${16.94}_{-0.10}^{+0.11}$$ days, and moderate host-galaxy extinction ($$E{(B-V)}_{\\mathrm{host}}=0.33\\pm 0.06$$). Using ASASSN-14lp, we derive a distance modulus for NGC 4666 of $$\\mu =30.8\\pm 0.2$$, corresponding to a distance of 14.7 ± 1.5 Mpc. However, adding ASASSN-14lp to the calibrating sample of Type Ia supernovae still requires an independent distance to the host galaxy. Lastly, using our early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations, we rule out red giant secondaries and, assuming a favorable viewing angle and explosion time, any nondegenerate companion larger than 0.34 $${R}_{\\odot }$$.« less

  1. Release from the cone ribbon synapse under bright light conditions can be controlled by the opening of only a few Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Bartoletti, Theodore M.; Jackman, Skyler L.; Babai, Norbert; Mercer, Aaron J.; Kramer, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    Light hyperpolarizes cone photoreceptors, causing synaptic voltage-gated Ca2+ channels to open infrequently. To understand neurotransmission under these conditions, we determined the number of L-type Ca2+ channel openings necessary for vesicle fusion at the cone ribbon synapse. Ca2+ currents (ICa) were activated in voltage-clamped cones, and excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded from horizontal cells in the salamander retina slice preparation. Ca2+ channel number and single-channel current amplitude were calculated by mean-variance analysis of ICa. Two different comparisons—one comparing average numbers of release events to average ICa amplitude and the other involving deconvolution of both EPSCs and simultaneously recorded cone ICa—suggested that fewer than three Ca2+ channel openings accompanied fusion of each vesicle at the peak of release during the first few milliseconds of stimulation. Opening fewer Ca2+ channels did not enhance fusion efficiency, suggesting that few unnecessary channel openings occurred during strong depolarization. We simulated release at the cone synapse, using empirically determined synaptic dimensions, vesicle pool size, Ca2+ dependence of release, Ca2+ channel number, and Ca2+ channel properties. The model replicated observations when a barrier was added to slow Ca2+ diffusion. Consistent with the presence of a diffusion barrier, dialyzing cones with diffusible Ca2+ buffers did not affect release efficiency. The tight clustering of Ca2+ channels, along with a high-Ca2+ affinity release mechanism and diffusion barrier, promotes a linear coupling between Ca2+ influx and vesicle fusion. This may improve detection of small light decrements when cones are hyperpolarized by bright light. PMID:21880934

  2. Release from the cone ribbon synapse under bright light conditions can be controlled by the opening of only a few Ca(2+) channels.

    PubMed

    Bartoletti, Theodore M; Jackman, Skyler L; Babai, Norbert; Mercer, Aaron J; Kramer, Richard H; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2011-12-01

    Light hyperpolarizes cone photoreceptors, causing synaptic voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels to open infrequently. To understand neurotransmission under these conditions, we determined the number of L-type Ca(2+) channel openings necessary for vesicle fusion at the cone ribbon synapse. Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca)) were activated in voltage-clamped cones, and excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded from horizontal cells in the salamander retina slice preparation. Ca(2+) channel number and single-channel current amplitude were calculated by mean-variance analysis of I(Ca). Two different comparisons-one comparing average numbers of release events to average I(Ca) amplitude and the other involving deconvolution of both EPSCs and simultaneously recorded cone I(Ca)-suggested that fewer than three Ca(2+) channel openings accompanied fusion of each vesicle at the peak of release during the first few milliseconds of stimulation. Opening fewer Ca(2+) channels did not enhance fusion efficiency, suggesting that few unnecessary channel openings occurred during strong depolarization. We simulated release at the cone synapse, using empirically determined synaptic dimensions, vesicle pool size, Ca(2+) dependence of release, Ca(2+) channel number, and Ca(2+) channel properties. The model replicated observations when a barrier was added to slow Ca(2+) diffusion. Consistent with the presence of a diffusion barrier, dialyzing cones with diffusible Ca(2+) buffers did not affect release efficiency. The tight clustering of Ca(2+) channels, along with a high-Ca(2+) affinity release mechanism and diffusion barrier, promotes a linear coupling between Ca(2+) influx and vesicle fusion. This may improve detection of small light decrements when cones are hyperpolarized by bright light.

  3. BRIGHTNESS AND FLUCTUATION OF THE MID-INFRARED SKY FROM AKARI OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE NORTH ECLIPTIC POLE

    SciT

    Pyo, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2012-12-01

    We present the smoothness of the mid-infrared sky from observations by the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. AKARI monitored the north ecliptic pole (NEP) during its cold phase with nine wave bands covering from 2.4 to 24 {mu}m, out of which six mid-infrared bands were used in this study. We applied power-spectrum analysis to the images in order to search for the fluctuation of the sky brightness. Observed fluctuation is explained by fluctuation of photon noise, shot noise of faint sources, and Galactic cirrus. The fluctuations at a few arcminutes scales at short mid-infrared wavelengths (7, 9, and 11 {mu}m)more » are largely caused by the diffuse Galactic light of the interstellar dust cirrus. At long mid-infrared wavelengths (15, 18, and 24 {mu}m), photon noise is the dominant source of fluctuation over the scale from arcseconds to a few arcminutes. The residual fluctuation amplitude at 200'' after removing these contributions is at most 1.04 {+-} 0.23 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} or 0.05% of the brightness at 24 {mu}m and at least 0.47 {+-} 0.14 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} or 0.02% at 18 {mu}m. We conclude that the upper limit of the fluctuation in the zodiacal light toward the NEP is 0.03% of the sky brightness, taking 2{sigma} error into account.« less

  4. Bright Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Phil

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how to upgrade lighting technology in schools to reduce energy consumption and cut operating costs. Explores fixture efficiency using ballast and lamp upgrades and compact fluorescent lights. Other ideas include changing exit signs to ones that use less wattage, improving luminary efficiency through use of reflectors and shielding…

  5. Voyages of the Zodiac, an Impenitent Traveller across Lands and Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2015-05-01

    The zodiac is one of humankind's oldest astronomical heritages. Indeed, it has a long history and had an impressive cultural influence in the past that could be traced from the steppes of Mesopotamia to the wilderness of the Roman frontiers in Great Britain. In the present essay, we will discuss the origin of the zodiacal constellations in ancient Mesopotamia from their possible prehistoric ancestors in the pre-ceramic context of the 10,000-year-old site of Göbleki Tepe. Later on, we will discuss the role that the zodiac played in the development of the new cult established by King Antiochos I of Commagene in his hierothesion at Nemrud Dag, where a planetary conjunction in Leo has played a role in the clues to understand the enigmas of such an impressive monument. This will be followed by the analysis of its southwards travel to the Valley of the Nile, where we will study the famous Zodiac of Dendera. Then we will travel westwards to discuss the astronomical aspects of a new religion where astronomical eras and the zodiac ought to play a most relevant role, Mithraism. Finally, new ideas for future research in this most interesting topic will briefly be sketched.

  6. Single-Layer Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes with Sub-Band Gap Turn-On Voltage and High Brightness.

    PubMed

    Li, Junqiang; Shan, Xin; Bade, Sri Ganesh R; Geske, Thomas; Jiang, Qinglong; Yang, Xin; Yu, Zhibin

    2016-10-03

    Charge-carrier injection into an emissive semiconductor thin film can result in electroluminescence and is generally achieved by using a multilayer device structure, which requires an electron-injection layer (EIL) between the cathode and the emissive layer and a hole-injection layer (HIL) between the anode and the emissive layer. The recent advancement of halide perovskite semiconductors opens up a new path to electroluminescent devices with a greatly simplified device structure. We report cesium lead tribromide light-emitting diodes (LEDs) without the aid of an EIL or HIL. These so-called single-layer LEDs have exhibited a sub-band gap turn-on voltage. The devices obtained a brightness of 591 197 cd m -2 at 4.8 V, with an external quantum efficiency of 5.7% and a power efficiency of 14.1 lm W -1 . Such an advancement demonstrates that very high efficiency of electron and hole injection can be obtained in perovskite LEDs even without using an EIL or HIL.

  7. Dynamical Model for the Zodiacal Cloud and Sporadic Meteors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesvorny, David; Janches, Diego; Vokrouhlicky, David; Pokorny, Petr; Bottke, William F.; Jenniskens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The solar system is dusty, and would become dustier over time as asteroids collide and comets disintegrate, except that small debris particles in interplanetary space do not last long. They can be ejected from the solar system by Jupiter, thermally destroyed near the Sun, or physically disrupted by collisions. Also, some are swept by the Earth (and other planets), producing meteors. Here we develop a dynamical model for the solar system meteoroids and use it to explain meteor radar observations. We find that the Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) are the main source of the prominent concentrations of meteors arriving to the Earth from the helion and antihelion directions. To match the radiant and orbit distributions, as measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) and Advanced Meteor Orbit Radar (AMOR), our model implies that comets, and JFCs in particular, must frequently disintegrate when reaching orbits with low perihelion distance. Also, the collisional lifetimes of millimeter particles may be longer (approx. > 10(exp 5) yr at 1 AU) than postulated in the standard collisional models (approx 10(exp 4) yr at 1 AU), perhaps because these chondrule-sized meteoroids are stronger than thought before. Using observations of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) to calibrate the model, we find that the total cross section and mass of small meteoroids in the inner solar system are (1.7-3.5) 10(exp 11) sq km and approx. 4 10(exp 19) g, respectively, in a good agreement with previous studies. The mass input required to keep the Zodiacal Cloud (ZC) in a steady state is estimated to be approx. 10(exp 4)-10(exp 5) kg/s. The input is up to approx 10 times larger than found previously, mainly because particles released closer to the Sun have shorter collisional lifetimes, and need to be supplied at a faster rate. The total mass accreted by the Earth in particles between diameters D = 5 micron and 1 cm is found to be approx 15,000 tons/yr (factor of 2 uncertainty), which is

  8. Dynamical Model for the Zodiacal Cloud and Sporadic Meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David; Janches, Diego; Vokrouhlický, David; Pokorný, Petr; Bottke, William F.; Jenniskens, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The solar system is dusty, and would become dustier over time as asteroids collide and comets disintegrate, except that small debris particles in interplanetary space do not last long. They can be ejected from the solar system by Jupiter, thermally destroyed near the Sun, or physically disrupted by collisions. Also, some are swept by the Earth (and other planets), producing meteors. Here we develop a dynamical model for the solar system meteoroids and use it to explain meteor radar observations. We find that the Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) are the main source of the prominent concentrations of meteors arriving at the Earth from the helion and antihelion directions. To match the radiant and orbit distributions, as measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) and Advanced Meteor Orbit Radar (AMOR), our model implies that comets, and JFCs in particular, must frequently disintegrate when reaching orbits with low perihelion distance. Also, the collisional lifetimes of millimeter particles may be longer (gsim 105 yr at 1 AU) than postulated in the standard collisional models (~104 yr at 1 AU), perhaps because these chondrule-sized meteoroids are stronger than thought before. Using observations of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite to calibrate the model, we find that the total cross section and mass of small meteoroids in the inner solar system are (1.7-3.5) × 1011 km2 and ~4 × 1019 g, respectively, in a good agreement with previous studies. The mass input required to keep the zodiacal cloud in a steady state is estimated to be ~104-105 kg s-1. The input is up to ~10 times larger than found previously, mainly because particles released closer to the Sun have shorter collisional lifetimes and need to be supplied at a faster rate. The total mass accreted by the Earth in particles between diameters D = 5 μm and 1 cm is found to be ~15,000 tons yr-1 (factor of two uncertainty), which is a large share of the accretion flux measured by the Long Term Duration

  9. Little Bright Spot

    2015-01-12

    A bright spot can be seen on the left side of Rhea in this image. The spot is the crater Inktomi, named for a Lakota spider spirit. Inktomi is believed to be the youngest feature on Rhea (949 miles or 1527 kilometers across). The relative youth of the feature is evident by its brightness. Material that is newly excavated from below the moon's surface and tossed across the surface by a cratering event, appears bright. But as the newly exposed surface is subjected to the harsh space environment, it darkens. This is one technique scientists use to date features on surfaces. This view looks toward the trailing hemisphere of Rhea. North on Rhea is up and rotated 21 degrees to the left. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on July 29, 2013. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.0 million miles (1.6 million kilometers) fro http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18300

  10. Bright Loops at 171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    STEREO was able to capture bright loops in exquisite detail as they were arcing above an active region (May 26, 2007) over an 18 hour period. What we are actually seeing are charged particles spinning along magnetic field lines that extend above the Sun's surface. Active regions are areas of intense magnetic activity and often the source of solar storms. In fact, the clip ends with a flourish in which a small coronal mass ejection (CME) blows out into space. This is from the STEREO Ahead spacecraft at the 171 Angstroms wavelength in extreme ultraviolet light.

  11. The Brightness of Colour

    PubMed Central

    Corney, David; Haynes, John-Dylan; Rees, Geraint; Lotto, R. Beau

    2009-01-01

    Background The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour) appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK) effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this ‘illusion’ to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies. Results Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1), if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance) accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI. Conclusions The data suggest that perceptions of brightness

  12. The influence of the Chinese zodiac on fertility in Hong Kong SAR.

    PubMed

    Yip, Paul S F; Lee, Joseph; Cheung, Y B

    2002-11-01

    The annual total of births in Hong Kong SAR fell substantially in the past 20 years; hence the total fertility rate (TFR) followed the downward trend and dropped to a low of 0.9 below replacement level in 2000. Despite the long-term downward trend, short-run increases in the annual total of births and the TFR were exhibited. Such temporary fertility increases are identified in the Dragon Years of 1988 and 2000. The phenomenon of fertility changes associated with zodiacal animal years is examined in this paper with a view to gaining some insight into whether Chinese cultural preferences and folklore beliefs might have influenced prospective parents' reproductive behaviour. The paper explains the underlying philosophy of the Chinese astrological tradition and discusses how zodiacal preferences affect fertility between 1976 and 2000. The paper also explores why zodiacal influences on Chinese fertility before 1976 did not exist. It is unquestionable that the Dragon Year preference exerts an influence on fertility of modern Chinese populations through zodiacal birth-timing motivations. Birth rate rise in the Dragon Year is due to changes in timing of births that will have little effect on cumulative fertility.

  13. Bright light therapy in pregnant women with major depressive disorder: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bais, Babette; Kamperman, Astrid M; van der Zwaag, Marjolein D; Dieleman, Gwen C; Harmsen van der Vliet-Torij, Hanneke W; Bijma, Hilmar H; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Lambregtse-van den Berg, Mijke P

    2016-11-08

    Depression during pregnancy is a common and high impact disease. Generally, 5-10 % of pregnant women suffer from depression. Children who have been exposed to maternal depression during pregnancy have a higher risk of adverse birth outcomes and more often show cognitive, emotional and behavioural problems. Therefore, early detection and treatment of antepartum depression is necessary. Both psychotherapy and antidepressant medication, first choice treatments in a non-pregnant population, have limitations in treating depression during pregnancy. Therefore, it is urgent and relevant to investigate alternative treatments for antepartum depression. Bright light therapy (BLT) is a promising treatment for pregnant women with depressive disorder, for it combines direct availability, sufficient efficacy, low costs and high safety, taking the safety for the unborn child into account as well. In this study, 150 pregnant women (12-18 weeks pregnant) with a DSM-V diagnosis of depressive disorder will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to one of the two treatment arms: treatment with BLT (9.000 lux) or treatment with dim red light therapy (100 lux). Both groups will be treated for 6 weeks at home on a daily basis for 30 min, within 30 min of habitual wake-up time. Follow-up will take place after 6 weeks of therapy, 3 and 10 weeks after end of therapy, at birth and 2, 6 and 18 months postpartum. Primary outcome will be the average change in depressive symptoms between the two groups, as measured by the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Scale - Seasonal Affective Disorder version and the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale. Changes in rating scale scores of these questionnaires over time will be analysed using generalized linear mixed models. Secondary outcomes will be the changes in maternal cortisol and melatonin levels, in maternal sleep quality and gestational age, birth weight, infant behaviour, infant cortisol exposure and infant cortisol stress

  14. DYNAMICAL MODEL FOR THE ZODIACAL CLOUD AND SPORADIC METEORS

    SciT

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David; Pokorny, Petr

    2011-12-20

    The solar system is dusty, and would become dustier over time as asteroids collide and comets disintegrate, except that small debris particles in interplanetary space do not last long. They can be ejected from the solar system by Jupiter, thermally destroyed near the Sun, or physically disrupted by collisions. Also, some are swept by the Earth (and other planets), producing meteors. Here we develop a dynamical model for the solar system meteoroids and use it to explain meteor radar observations. We find that the Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) are the main source of the prominent concentrations of meteors arriving atmore » the Earth from the helion and antihelion directions. To match the radiant and orbit distributions, as measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) and Advanced Meteor Orbit Radar (AMOR), our model implies that comets, and JFCs in particular, must frequently disintegrate when reaching orbits with low perihelion distance. Also, the collisional lifetimes of millimeter particles may be longer ({approx}> 10{sup 5} yr at 1 AU) than postulated in the standard collisional models ({approx}10{sup 4} yr at 1 AU), perhaps because these chondrule-sized meteoroids are stronger than thought before. Using observations of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite to calibrate the model, we find that the total cross section and mass of small meteoroids in the inner solar system are (1.7-3.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} km{sup 2} and {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} g, respectively, in a good agreement with previous studies. The mass input required to keep the zodiacal cloud in a steady state is estimated to be {approx}10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} kg s{sup -1}. The input is up to {approx}10 times larger than found previously, mainly because particles released closer to the Sun have shorter collisional lifetimes and need to be supplied at a faster rate. The total mass accreted by the Earth in particles between diameters D = 5 {mu}m and 1 cm is found to be {approx

  15. Prediction of outcome of bright light treatment in patients with seasonal affective disorder: Discarding the early response, confirming a higher atypical balance, and uncovering a higher body mass index at baseline as predictors of endpoint outcome.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Tzvetelina D; Reeves, Gloria M; Snitker, Soren; Lapidus, Manana; Sleemi, Aamar R; Balis, Theodora G; Manalai, Partam; Tariq, Muhammad M; Cabassa, Johanna A; Karim, Naila N; Johnson, Mary A; Langenberg, Patricia; Rohan, Kelly J; Miller, Michael; Stiller, John W; Postolache, Teodor T

    2017-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the early improvement in mood after the first hour of bright light treatment compared to control dim-red light would predict the outcome at six weeks of bright light treatment for depressed mood in patients with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). We also analyzed the value of Body Mass Index (BMI) and atypical symptoms of depression at baseline in predicting treatment outcome. Seventy-eight adult participants were enrolled. The first treatment was controlled crossover, with randomized order, and included one hour of active bright light treatment and one hour of control dim-red light, with one-hour washout. Depression was measured on the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-SAD version (SIGH-SAD). The predictive association of depression scores changes after the first session. BMI and atypical score balance with treatment outcomes at endpoint were assessed using multivariable linear and logistic regressions. No significant prediction by changes in depression scores after the first session was found. However, higher atypical balance scores and BMI positively predicted treatment outcome. Absence of a control intervention for the six-weeks of treatment (only the first session in the laboratory was controlled). Exclusion of patients with comorbid substance abuse, suicidality and bipolar I disorder, and patients on antidepressant medications, reducing the generalizability of the study. Prediction of outcome by early response to light treatment was not replicated, and the previously reported prediction of baseline atypical balance was confirmed. BMI, a parameter routinely calculated in primary care, was identified as a novel predictor, and calls for replication and then exploration of possible mediating mechanisms. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Sources of background light on space based laser communications links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Thomas C.

    2018-05-01

    We discuss the sources and levels of background light that should be expected on space based laser communication (lasercom) crosslinks and uplinks, as well as on downlinks to ground stations. The analyses are valid for both Earth orbiting satellites and inter-planetary links. Fundamental equations are derived suitable for first order system engineering analyses of potential lasercom systems. These divide sources of background light into two general categories: extended sources which fill the field of view of a receiver's optics, and point sources which cannot be resolved by the optics. Specific sources of background light are discussed, and expected power levels are estimated. For uplinks, reflected sunlight and blackbody radiation from the Earth dominates. For crosslinks, depending on specific link geometry, sources of background light may include the Sun in the field of view (FOV), reflected sunlight and blackbody radiation from planets and other bodies in the solar system, individual bright stars in the FOV, the amalgam of dim stars in the FOV, zodiacal light, and reflected sunlight off of the transmitting spacecraft. For downlinks, all of these potentially come into play, and the effects of the atmosphere, including turbulence, scattering, and absorption contribute as well. Methods for accounting for each of these are presented. Specific examples are presented to illustrate the relative contributions of each source for various link geometries.

  17. Just How Bright Is a Laser?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Baak, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to quantify the subjective sensation of brightness of the spot projected by a helium-neon laser and compares this with conventional sources of light. Provides an exercise in using the blackbody radiation formulas. (JRH)

  18. Mid-Infrared Spectrum of the Zodiacal Emission: Detection of Crystalline Silicates in Interplanetary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ootsubo, T.; Onaka, T.; Yamamura, I.; Ishihara, D.; Tanabe, T.; Roellig, T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Within a few astronomical units of the Sun the solar system is filled with interplanetary dust, which is believed to be dust of cometary and asteroidal origin. Spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission with moderate resolution provide key information on the composition and size distribution of the dust in the interplanetary space. They can be compared directly to laboratory measurements of candidate materials, meteorites, and dust particles collected in the stratosphere. Recently mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission have been made by two instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory; the camera (ISOCAM) and the spectrophotometer (ISOPHOT-S). A broad excess emission feature in the 9-11 micron range is reported in the ISOCAM spectrum, whereas the ISOPHOT-S spectra in 6-12 microns can be well fitted by a blackbody radiation without spectral features.

  19. World cup soccer players tend to be born with sun and moon in adjacent zodiacal signs

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, J

    2000-01-01

    The ecliptic elongation of the moon with respect to the sun does not show uniform distribution on the birth dates of the 704 soccer players selected for the 1998 World Cup. However, a uniform distribution is expected on astronomical grounds. The World Cup players show a very pronounced tendency (p = 0.00001) to be born on days when the sun and moon are in adjacent zodiacal signs. Key Words: soccer; World Cup; astrology; moon PMID:11131239

  20. The Zodiacal Emission Spectrum as Determined by COBE and its Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Dwek, Eli; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We combine observations from the DIRBE and FIRAS instruments on the COBE satellite to derive an annually-averaged spectrum of the zodiacal cloud in the 10 to 1000 micron wavelength region. The spectrum exhibits a break at approx. 150 microns which indicates a sharp break in the dust size distribution at a radius of about 30 microns The spectrum can be fit with a single blackbody with a lambda(exp -2) emissivity law beyond 150 microns and a temperature of 240 K. We also used a more realistic characterization of the cloud to fit the spectrum, including a distribution of dust temperatures, representing different dust compositions and distances from the sun, as well as a realistic representation of the spatial distribution of the dust. We show that amorphous carbon and silicate dust with respective temperatures of 280 and 274 K at 1 AU, and size distributions with a break at grain radii of 14 and 32 microns, can provide a good fit to the average zodiacal dust spectrum. The total mass of the zodiacal cloud is 2 to 11 Eg (Eg=10(exp 18) g), depending on the grain composition. The lifetime of the cloud, against particle loss by Poynting- Robertson drag and the effects of solar wind, is about 10(exp 5) yr. The required replenishment rate is approx. 10(exp 14) g/yr. If this is provided by asteroid belt alone, the asteroids lifetime would be approx. 3 x 10(exp 10) yr. But comets and Kuiper belt objects may also contribute to the zodiacal cloud.

  1. Faint Ring, Bright Arc

    2010-01-12

    In this image taken by NASA Cassini spacecraft, the bright arc in Saturn faint G ring contains a little something special. Although it cant be seen here, the tiny moonlet Aegaeon orbits within the bright arc.

  2. Plasmonic EIT-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junxue; Wang, Pei; Chen, Chuncong; Lu, Yonghua; Ming, Hai; Zhan, Qiwen

    2011-03-28

    In this paper we report the study of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in the bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators. It is demonstrated that the interferences between the dark plasmons excited by two bright plasmon resonators can be controlled by the incident light polarization. The constructive interference strengthens the coupling between the bright and dark resonators, leading to a more prominent EIT-like transparency window of the metamaterial. In contrary, destructive interference suppresses the coupling between the bright and dark resonators, destroying the interference pathway that forms the EIT-like transmission. Based on this observation, the plasmonic EIT switching can be realized by changing the polarization of incident light. This phenomenon may find applications in optical switching and plasmon-based information processing.

  3. A low level of extragalactic background light as revealed by gamma-rays from blazars.

    PubMed

    Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Breitling, F; Brown, A M; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L-M; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Feinstein, F; Fontaine, G; Fuchs, Y; Funk, S; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Gillessen, S; Glicenstein, J F; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Khélifi, B; Klages, S; Komin, Nu; Konopelko, A; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Leroy, N; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; McComb, T J L; de Naurois, M; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ouchrif, M; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Raux, J; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V; Saugé, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schuster, C; Schwanke, U; Siewert, M; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Théoret, C G; Tluczykont, M; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J

    2006-04-20

    The diffuse extragalactic background light consists of the sum of the starlight emitted by galaxies through the history of the Universe, and it could also have an important contribution from the 'first stars', which may have formed before galaxy formation began. Direct measurements are difficult and not yet conclusive, owing to the large uncertainties caused by the bright foreground emission associated with zodiacal light. An alternative approach is to study the absorption features imprinted on the gamma-ray spectra of distant extragalactic objects by interactions of those photons with the background light photons. Here we report the discovery of gamma-ray emission from the blazars H 2356 - 309 and 1ES 1101 - 232, at redshifts z = 0.165 and z = 0.186, respectively. Their unexpectedly hard spectra provide an upper limit on the background light at optical/near-infrared wavelengths that appears to be very close to the lower limit given by the integrated light of resolved galaxies. The background flux at these wavelengths accordingly seems to be strongly dominated by the direct starlight from galaxies, thus excluding a large contribution from other sources-in particular from the first stars formed. This result also indicates that intergalactic space is more transparent to gamma-rays than previously thought.

  4. Using the Larval Zebrafish Locomotor Asssay in Functional Neurotoxicity Screening: Light Brightness and the Order of Stimulus Presentation Affect the Outcome

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are evaluating methods to screen/prioritize large numbers of chemicals using 6 day old zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an alternative model for detecting neurotoxic effects. Our behavioral testing paradigm simultaneously tests individual larval zebrafish under sequential light and...

  5. Bright Basin on Tethys

    2015-07-27

    With the expanded range of colors visible to Cassini's cameras, differences in materials and their textures become apparent that are subtle or unseen in natural color views. Here, the giant impact basin Odysseus on Saturn's moon Tethys stands out brightly from the rest of the illuminated icy crescent. This distinct coloration may result from differences in either the composition or structure of the terrain exposed by the giant impact. Odysseus (280 miles, or 450 kilometers, across) is one of the largest impact craters on Saturn's icy moons, and may have significantly altered the geologic history of Tethys. Tethys' dark side (at right) is faintly illuminated by reflected light from Saturn. Images taken using ultraviolet, green and infrared spectral filters were combined to create this color view. North on Tethys (660 miles or 1,062 kilometers across) is up in this view. The view was acquired on May 9, 2015 at a distance of approximately 186,000 miles (300,000 kilometers) from Tethys. Image scale is 1.1 mile (1.8 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18329

  6. Speckle Free, Low Coherency, High Brightness, and High Pulse Speed Infrared Collimated Light Sources for Mid-IR Target Designator and Hyperspectral Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-31

    designator and hyperspectral imaging 6. AUfHOR(S) Yee-LoyLam 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION DenseLight...DenseLight Semiconductors CONTENTS 1. Introduction 3 1.1 Overview of Project 3 1.2 Organization of Project 4 1.3 Target...Performance 4 2. SLED Chip Design and Fabrication Development 5 2.1 Organization of Design Stages 5 2.2 SLED Chip Design 6 2.3

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XZ Catalog of Zodiacal Stars (XZ80Q) (Herald, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herald, D.

    2003-11-01

    The XZ catalog was created at the U.S. Naval Observatory in 1977 by Richard Schmidt and Tom Van Flandern, primarily for the purpose of generating predictions of lunar occultations, and for analyzing timings of these events. It was designed to include all stars within 6d 40' of the ecliptic (the "Zodiac"), which is as far as the Moon's limb can ever get as seen from anywhere on the Earth's surface, leaving some margin for stellar proper motions and change in the obliquity of the ecliptic over the course of three centuries. The original version contained 32,221 entries; since that time, many changes have been made in succeeding versions, including better positions and proper motions, and the elimination and addition of stars. Details about the history of XZ catalog can be found in the "doc.txt" file. The XZ80Q revision has been developed from XZ80P, which was created by Mitsuru Soma. It is now complete over the Zodiac for stars down to visual magnitude 12.0. The "xz80q.dat" file contains the list of stars making the catalog; additional files provide details about double and variable stars included in the XZ80Q. The catalog includes also lists of the various existing names of the stars. (11 data files).

  8. The evolution of the zodiac in the context of ancient oriental history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurshtein, Alex A.

    The dates for the second (ca. 2700 B.C. to within 250 years) and the third ecliptical quartets (ca. 1200 B.C. to within 400 years) evaluated earlier are considered in the context of ancient Egyptian history. The origin of the second quartet coincides with the Great Pyramids and the initiation of the Egyptian solar, or so-called "civil" calendar, the first of such a type in the world. The third quartet is concurrent with the solar conversion of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) and takes place at the finale of the great Sothic period of 1461 years after the initiation of the solar calendar. It is argued that the Great Pyramids seem to be monuments to the Sun-god built in honor of the Egyptians having reached an understanding of the Sun's track upon the starry background, Akhenaton's conversion being in a direct connection with the original Pyramids' ideology. This paper is the third part of a single investigation. The first two parts "On the Origin of the Zodiacal Constellations" and "Prehistory of Zodiac Dating: Three Strata of Upper Paleolithic Constellations" were published in Vistas in Astronomy in 1993 and 1995.

  9. New Spectral Evidence of an Unaccounted Component of the Near-infrared Extragalactic Background Light from the CIBER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Shuji; Arai, Toshiaki; Bock, James J.; Cooray, Asantha; Korngut, Phillip M.; Kim, Min Gyu; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Dae Hee; Levenson, Louis R.; Matsumoto, Toshio; Onishi, Yosuke; Shirahata, Mai; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Zemcov, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) captures the total integrated emission from stars and galaxies throughout the cosmic history. The amplitude of the near-infrared EBL from space absolute photometry observations has been controversial and depends strongly on the modeling and subtraction of the zodiacal light (ZL) foreground. We report the first measurement of the diffuse background spectrum at 0.8-1.7 μm from the CIBER experiment. The observations were obtained with an absolute spectrometer over two flights in multiple sky fields to enable the subtraction of ZL, stars, terrestrial emission, and diffuse Galactic light. After subtracting foregrounds and accounting for systematic errors, we find the nominal EBL brightness, assuming the Kelsall ZL model, is {42.7}-10.6+11.9 nW m-2 sr-1 at 1.4 μm. We also analyzed the data using the Wright ZL model, which results in a worse statistical fit to the data and an unphysical EBL, falling below the known background light from galaxies at λ < 1.3 μm. Using a model-independent analysis based on the minimum EBL brightness, we find an EBL brightness of {28.7}-3.3+5.1 nWm-2 sr-1 at 1.4 μm. While the derived EBL amplitude strongly depends on the ZL model, we find that we cannot fit the spectral data to ZL, Galactic emission, and EBL from solely integrated galactic light from galaxy counts. The results require a new diffuse component, such as an additional foreground or an excess EBL with a redder spectrum than that of ZL.

  10. Astronomical photography. Part A: Gum nebula, galactic cluster, and zodiacal light photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, R. D.; Dunkelman, L.; Mattingly, T. K.

    1972-01-01

    It is reported that the Apollo 16 command module astronomical photography was performed with the specific objective of capitalizing on the uniqueness of the double umbra as a vantage point to collect astronomical data that are obtainable only near our Moon. For this reason, these data will be compared directly to analogous photography performed from Earth orbit during Project Mercury and the Gemini Program as well as to the Apollo-duplicated photography taken from sites on the Earth surface. Comparison with Earth-based photography should yield direct information on the Earth airglow layer and on atmospheric scattering and extinction.

  11. Early focal expression of the chemokine Ccl2 by Müller cells during exposure to damage-inducing bright continuous light.

    PubMed

    Rutar, Matt; Natoli, Riccardo; Valter, Krisztina; Provis, Jan M

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the time course and localization of Ccl2 expression and recruitment of inflammatory cells associated with light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to 1000 lux light for up to 24 hours, after which some animals were allowed to recover in dim light (5 lux) for 3 or 7 days. During and after exposure to light, the animals were euthanatized and the retinas processed. Ccl2 expression was assessed by qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization at each time point. Counts were made of perivascular monocytes/microglia immunolabeled with ED1, and photoreceptor apoptosis was assessed with TUNEL. Upregulation of Ccl2 expression was evident in the retina by 12 hours of exposure and correlated with increased photoreceptor death. Ccl2 expression reached its maximum at 24 hours, coinciding with peak cell death. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed that Ccl2 is expressed by Müller cells from 12 hours of exposure, most intensely in the superior retina, in the region of the incipient light-induced lesion. After the Müller cell-driven expression of Ccl2, there was a substantial recruitment of monocytes to the local retina and choroidal vasculature. This coincided spatially with the expression of Ccl2 in the superior retina. Peak monocyte infiltration followed maximum Ccl2 expression by up to 3 days. Furthermore, Ccl2 immunoreactivity was observed in many infiltrating monocytes after a 24-hour exposure. The data indicate that photoreceptor death promotes region-specific expression of Ccl2 by Müller cells, which facilitates targeting of monocytes to sites of injury. The data suggest that recruitment of monocytes to developing lesions is secondary to signaling events in the retina. Copyright 2011 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  12. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia?

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Nys, Gudrun M S; van der Smagt, Maarten J; de Haan, Edward H F

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level sensory impairments. The patient was not able to indicate the darker or the lighter of two grey squares, even though she was able to see that they differed. In addition, she could not indicate whether the lights in a room were switched on or off, nor was she able to differentiate between normal greyscale images and inverted greyscale images. As the patient recognised objects, colours, and shapes correctly, the impairment is specific for brightness. As low-level, sensory processing is normal, this specific deficit in the recognition and appreciation of brightness appears to be of a higher, cognitive level, the level of semantic knowledge. This appears to be the first report of 'brightness agnosia'.

  13. Stunningly bright optical emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinke, Craig O.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of bright, rapid optical pulsations from pulsar PSR J1023+0038 have provided a surprise for researchers working on neutron stars. This discovery poses more questions than it answers and will spur on future work and instrumentation.

  14. A Correlation Between the Intrinsic Brightness and Average Decay Rate of Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Afterglow Light Curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, J. L.; Oates, S. R.; De Pasquale, M.; Kocevski, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a correlation between the average temporal decay (alpha X,avg, greater than 200 s) and early-time luminosity (LX,200 s) of X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts as observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope. Both quantities are measured relative to a rest-frame time of 200 s after the gamma-ray trigger. The luminosity â€" average decay correlation does not depend on specific temporal behavior and contains one scale-independent quantity minimizing the role of selection effects. This is a complementary correlation to that discovered by Oates et al. in the optical light curves observed by the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope. The correlation indicates that, on average, more luminous X-ray afterglows decay faster than less luminous ones, indicating some relative mechanism for energy dissipation. The X-ray and optical correlations are entirely consistent once corrections are applied and contamination is removed. We explore the possible biases introduced by different light-curve morphologies and observational selection effects, and how either geometrical effects or intrinsic properties of the central engine and jet could explain the observed correlation.

  15. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB.

  16. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications

    PubMed Central

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-01-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB. PMID:27069645

  17. Bright Spokes, Dark Shadow

    2010-04-06

    Bright spokes and the shadow of a moon grace Saturn B ring in this NASA Cassini spacecraft image. Spokes are radial markings scientists continue to study, and they can be seen here stretching from the far left to upper right of the image.

  18. A Bright Shining Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurowitz, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes students come up with crazy ideas. When this author first started teaching at Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology in Virginia five years ago, she had a sophomore share such an idea with her. He wanted to put solar panels on the school's roof as a way to reduce the school's carbon footprint and set a bright clean…

  19. Bright ZTF transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremling, C.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Taggart, K.; Perley, D.

    2018-05-01

    As a part of ongoing commissioning of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF; ATel #11266) Alert Infrastructure, here we report bright probable supernovae identified in the raw alert stream resulting from the public ZTF Northern Sky Survey ("Celestial Cinematagrophy"; see Bellm & Kulkarni, Nature Astronomy 1, 71, 2017).

  20. The influence of lunar phases and zodiac sign 'Leo' on perioperative complications and outcome in elective spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Joswig, Holger; Stienen, Martin N; Hock, Carolin; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Surbeck, Werner

    2016-06-01

    Many people believe that the moon has an influence on daily life, and some even request elective surgery dates depending on the moon calendar. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of 'unfavorable' lunar or zodiac constellations on perioperative complications and outcome in elective surgery for degenerative disc disease. Retrospective database analysis including 924 patients. Using uni- and multivariate logistic regression, the likelihood for intraoperative complications and re-do surgeries as well as the clinical outcomes at 4 weeks was analyzed for surgeries performed during the waxing moon, full moon, and dates when the moon passed through the zodiac sign 'Leo.' In multivariate analysis, patients operated on during the waxing moon were 1.54 times as likely as patients who were operated on during the waning moon to suffer from an intraoperative complication (OR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.07-2.21, p = 0.019). In contrast, there was a trend toward fewer re-do surgeries for surgery during the waxing moon (OR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.23-1.16, p = 0.109), while the 4-week responder status was similar (OR 0.73, 95 % CI 0.47-1.14, p = 0.169). A full moon and the zodiac sign Leo did not increase the likelihood for complications, re-do surgeries or unfavorable outcomes. We found no influence of 'unfavorable' lunar or zodiac constellations on the 4-week responder status or the revision rate that would justify a moon calendar-based selection approach to elective spine surgery dates. However, the fact that patients undergoing surgery during the waxing moon were more likely to suffer from an intraoperative complication is a surprising curiosity and defies our ability to find a rational explanation.

  1. Total magnitudes of Virgo galaxies - III. Scale errors in the Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies T system and light-profile distortion by resolution-degrading and differential-distance effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Christopher Ke-shih

    2004-11-01

    We investigate the BT magnitude scales of the Second and Third Reference Catalogues of Bright Galaxies, finding both scales to be reasonably reliable for 11.5 <~Bt<~ 14.0. However, large-scale errors of 0.26 and 0.24mag per unit mag interval respectively are uncovered for early-type galaxies at the bright ends, whilst even larger ones of 0.74 and 0.36mag per unit mag interval are found for galaxies of all morphological types at the faint ends. We attribute this situation to several effects already discussed by Young et al. and Young (Paper I), including the application of relatively inflexible growth-curve models that are only in a few specific cases appropriate to the galaxies concerned. Of particular interest to this study though, we find that the apparent profile shapes of giant galaxies in the Virgo direction of cz < 15000 km s-1 tend to be less centrally concentrated the greater their distance. This demonstrates that even for relatively nearby galaxies, the distortion of the overall shapes of light profiles by resolution-degrading effects such as seeing and data smoothing, as originally predicted and modelled by Young & Currie and Young et al., is a significant effect. It is, therefore, not good practice simply to extrapolate the profiles of galaxies of identical intrinsic size and intrinsic profile shape (i.e. identical morphology) by means of the same growth-curve model, unless the galaxies are known a priori to be at the same distance and unless their photometry is of the same angular resolution. We also investigate the total-magnitude scale of the catalogue of photometric types of Prugniel & Héraudeau, finding it to be much more reliable than the BT one. However, we argue that photometric type is really a measure of apparent profile shape (i.e. intrinsic profile shape after scale reduction on account of distance followed by convolution with a seeing disc and often a smoothing function as well). Strictly, it should therefore only be applicable to

  2. Telerehabilitation robotics: bright lights, big future?

    PubMed

    Carignan, Craig R; Krebs, Hermano I

    2006-01-01

    The potential for remote diagnosis and treatment over the Internet using robotics is now a reality. The state of the art is exemplified by several Internet applications, and we explore the current trends in developing new systems. We review the technical challenges that lie ahead, along with some potential solutions. Some promising results for a new bilateral system involving two InMotion2 robots are presented. Finally, we discuss the future direction and commercial outlook for rehabilitation robots over the next 15 years.

  3. Bright Lights and Questions: Using Mutual Interrogation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Aishikin; Alangui, Willy; Barton, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Mutual Interrogation is a research methodology for ethnomathematics proposed by Alangui in 2006 in an attempt to avoid the potential inequality set up when a restricted cultural practice is viewed through the lens of the near-universal and highly developed research domain of mathematics. Using three significant examples of mutual interrogation in…

  4. LED-technologies for bright light therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukhta, M. S.; Sidorenko, E. V.; Simutkin, G. G.; Khomushku, O. M.; Glushkov, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    The significance of the LED-based medical equipment design is caused by the need to make up for the sunshine shortfall in many areas of Russia (Siberia, the Far East, the Extreme North) that will allow reducing dramatically the risk of seasonal affective disorders. The sunshine is the essential synchronizer of the human biological rhythms, the abnormality of which plays an important role in the seasonal affective disorder nature. The study allows proving the object database development able to meet the human demand for a comfortable and high-quality placemaking as well as the health potential recoverability.

  5. Thailand: poverty, bright lights, dark alleys.

    PubMed

    1995-11-06

    Some rural farmers in northern Thailand earn as little as 500 Bahts (US$20) per month, while a factory worker earns an average of 3500 Bahts (US$140) and a private sector executive up to 200,000 Bahts (US$8000) per month. Millions of rural poor individuals in Thailand and elsewhere in Asia are flocking to urban centers in search of survival and better lives. Many, however, wind up working as prostitutes. More than one million children work as prostitutes in Asia, with possibly as many as 200,000 in Thailand alone. These men, women, boys, and girls are at high risk of contracting HIV. An estimated 2.5 million Asians have tested seropositive for infection with HIV, and the World Health Organization estimates that by the year 2000, one-third of the projected HIV cases worldwide will be in Asia, with India and Thailand taking the lead. Existing social services cannot handle the current influx of rural poor to urban areas. In the process, huge tracts of agricultural land are being abandoned, levels of rural and urban poverty are increasing, the extent of homelessness is increasing, and the gap between urban and rural areas grows wider. Thailand has the most inequitable distribution of wealth on the Asian continent.

  6. Bright Solar Flare

    2017-12-08

    A bright solar flare is captured by the EIT 195Å instrument on 1998 May 2. A solar flare (a sudden, rapid, and intense variation in brightness) occurs when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released, launching material outward at millions of km per hour. The Sun’s magnetic fields tend to restrain each other and force the buildup of tremendous energy, like twisting rubber bands, so much that they eventually break. At some point, the magnetic lines of force merge and cancel in a process known as magnetic reconnection, causing plasma to forcefully escape from the Sun. Credit: NASA/GSFC/SOHO/ESA To learn more go to the SOHO website: sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/home.html To learn more about NASA's Sun Earth Day go here: sunearthday.nasa.gov/2010/index.php

  7. Bright to Dim Oscillatory Response of the Neurospora Circadian Oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Gooch, Van D.; Johnson, Alicia E.; Larrondo, Luis F.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2014-01-01

    The fungus Neurospora crassa constitutes an important model system extensively used in chronobiology. Several studies have addressed how environmental cues, such as light, can reset or synchronize a circadian system. By means of an optimized firefly luciferase reporter gene and a controllable lighting system, we show that Neurospora can display molecular circadian rhythms in dim light when cultures receive bright light prior to entering dim light conditions. We refer to this behavior as the “bright to dim oscillatory response” (BDOR). The bright light treatment can be applied up to 76 h prior to dim exposure, and it can be as short as 15 min in duration. We have characterized this response in respect to the duration of the light pulse, the time of the light pulse before dim, the intensity of dim light, and the oscillation dynamics in dim light. Although the molecular mechanism that drives the BDOR remains obscure, these findings suggest that a long-term memory of bright light exists as part of the circadian molecular components. It is important to consider the ecological significance of such dim light responses in respect to how organisms naturally maintain their timing mechanism in moonlight. PMID:24492882

  8. Bright to dim oscillatory response of the Neurospora circadian oscillator.

    PubMed

    Gooch, Van D; Johnson, Alicia E; Larrondo, Luis F; Loros, Jennifer J; Dunlap, Jay C

    2014-02-01

    The fungus Neurospora crassa constitutes an important model system extensively used in chronobiology. Several studies have addressed how environmental cues, such as light, can reset or synchronize a circadian system. By means of an optimized firefly luciferase reporter gene and a controllable lighting system, we show that Neurospora can display molecular circadian rhythms in dim light when cultures receive bright light prior to entering dim light conditions. We refer to this behavior as the "bright to dim oscillatory response" (BDOR). The bright light treatment can be applied up to 76 h prior to dim exposure, and it can be as short as 15 min in duration. We have characterized this response in respect to the duration of the light pulse, the time of the light pulse before dim, the intensity of dim light, and the oscillation dynamics in dim light. Although the molecular mechanism that drives the BDOR remains obscure, these findings suggest that a long-term memory of bright light exists as part of the circadian molecular components. It is important to consider the ecological significance of such dim light responses in respect to how organisms naturally maintain their timing mechanism in moonlight.

  9. Brightness and transparency in the early visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Salmela, Viljami R; Vanni, Simo

    2013-06-24

    Several psychophysical studies have shown that transparency can have drastic effects on brightness and lightness. However, the neural processes generating these effects have remained unresolved. Several lines of evidence suggest that the early visual cortex is important for brightness perception. While single cell recordings suggest that surface brightness is represented in the primary visual cortex, the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have been discrepant. In addition, the location of the neural representation of transparency is not yet known. We investigated whether the fMRI responses in areas V1, V2, and V3 correlate with brightness and transparency. To dissociate the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to brightness from the response to local border contrast and mean luminance, we used variants of White's brightness illusion, both opaque and transparent, in which luminance increments and decrements cancel each other out. The stimuli consisted of a target surface and a surround. The surround luminance was always sinusoidally modulated at 0.5 Hz to induce brightness modulation to the target. The target luminance was constant or modulated in counterphase to null brightness modulation. The mean signal changes were calculated from the voxels in V1, V2, and V3 corresponding to the retinotopic location of the target surface. The BOLD responses were significantly stronger for modulating brightness than for stimuli with constant brightness. In addition, the responses were stronger for transparent than for opaque stimuli, but there was more individual variation. No interaction between brightness and transparency was found. The results show that the early visual areas V1-V3 are sensitive to surface brightness and transparency and suggest that brightness and transparency are represented separately.

  10. Improvement in Brightness Uniformity by Compensating for the Threshold Voltages of Both the Driving Thin-Film Transistor and the Organic Light-Emitting Diode for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching-Lin Fan,; Hui-Lung Lai,; Jyu-Yu Chang,

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel pixel design and driving method for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM-OLED) displays using low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs). The proposed threshold voltage compensation circuit, which comprised five transistors and two capacitors, has been verified to supply uniform output current by simulation work using the automatic integrated circuit modeling simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (AIM-SPICE) simulator. The driving scheme of this voltage programming method includes four periods: precharging, compensation, data input, and emission. The simulated results demonstrate excellent properties such as low error rate of OLED anode voltage variation (<1%) and high output current. The proposed pixel circuit shows high immunity to the threshold voltage deviation characteristics of both the driving poly-Si TFT and the OLED.

  11. Large, Bright Wind Ripples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-397, 20 June 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows large, relatively bright ripples of windblown sediment in the Sinus Sabaeus region south of Schiaparelli Basin. The surrounding substrate is thickly mantled by very dark material, possibly windblown silt that settled out of the atmosphere. The picture is located near 7.1oS, 343.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  12. Large Bright Ripples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    3 February 2004 Wind is the chief agent of change on Mars today. Wind blows dust and it can move coarser sediment such as sand and silt. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows bright ripples or small dunes on the floors of troughs northeast of Isidis Planitia near 31.1oN, 244.6oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  13. Nonlinear Brightness Optimization in Compton Scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Hartemann, Fred V.; Wu, Sheldon S. Q.

    2013-07-26

    In Compton scattering light sources, a laser pulse is scattered by a relativistic electron beam to generate tunable x and gamma rays. Because of the inhomogeneous nature of the incident radiation, the relativistic Lorentz boost of the electrons is modulated by the ponderomotive force during the interaction, leading to intrinsic spectral broadening and brightness limitations. We discuss these effects, along with an optimization strategy to properly balance the laser bandwidth, diffraction, and nonlinear ponderomotive force.

  14. Possible Bright Starspots on TRAPPIST-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brett M.; Agol, Eric; Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    2018-04-01

    The M8V star TRAPPIST-1 hosts seven roughly Earth-sized planets and is a promising target for exoplanet characterization. Kepler/K2 Campaign 12 observations of TRAPPIST-1 in the optical show an apparent rotational modulation with a 3.3-day period, though that rotational signal is not readily detected in the Spitzer light curve at 4.5 μm. If the rotational modulation is due to starspots, persistent dark spots can be excluded from the lack of photometric variability in the Spitzer light curve. We construct a photometric model for rotational modulation due to photospheric bright spots on TRAPPIST-1 that is consistent with both the Kepler and Spitzer light curves. The maximum-likelihood model with three spots has typical spot sizes of R spot/R ⋆ ≈ 0.004 at temperature T spot ≳ 5300 ± 200 K. We also find that large flares are observed more often when the brightest spot is facing the observer, suggesting a correlation between the position of the bright spots and flare events. In addition, these flares may occur preferentially when the spots are increasing in brightness, which suggests that the 3.3-day periodicity may not be a rotational signal, but rather a characteristic timescale of active regions.

  15. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER): A Sounding Rocket Payload to Study the near Infrared Extragalactic Background Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemcov, M.; Arai, T.; Battle, J.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Keating, B.; Kim, M. G.; Lee, D. H.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U. W.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Suzuki, K.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.

    2013-08-01

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, and electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.

  16. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): A SOUNDING ROCKET PAYLOAD TO STUDY THE NEAR INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    SciT

    Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Hristov, V.

    2013-08-15

    The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER) is a suite of four instruments designed to study the near infrared (IR) background light from above the Earth's atmosphere. The instrument package comprises two imaging telescopes designed to characterize spatial anisotropy in the extragalactic IR background caused by cosmological structure during the epoch of reionization, a low resolution spectrometer to measure the absolute spectrum of the extragalactic IR background, and a narrow band spectrometer optimized to measure the absolute brightness of the zodiacal light foreground. In this paper we describe the design and characterization of the CIBER payload. The detailed mechanical, cryogenic, andmore » electrical design of the system are presented, including all system components common to the four instruments. We present the methods and equipment used to characterize the instruments before and after flight, and give a detailed description of CIBER's flight profile and configurations. CIBER is designed to be recoverable and has flown four times, with modifications to the payload having been informed by analysis of the first flight data. All four instruments performed to specifications during the subsequent flights, and the scientific data from these flights are currently being analyzed.« less

  17. The Zodiacal Cloud Model applied to the Martian atmosphere. Diurnal variations in meteoric ion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Withers, P.; Fallows, K.; Nesvorny, D.; Pokorný, P.

    2016-12-01

    Sporadic metal layers have been detected in the Martian atmosphere by radio occultation measurements using the Mars Express Orbiter and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. More recently, metallic ion layers produced by the meteor storm event following the close encounter between Comet Siding Spring (C/2013 A1) and Mars were identified by the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) and the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft. Work is now in progress to detect the background metal layers produced by the influx of sporadic meteors. In this study we predict the likely appearance of these layers. The Zodiacal Dust Cloud (ZDC) model for particle populations released by asteroids (AST), and dust grains from Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) and Halley-Type Comets (HTCs) has been combined with a Monte Carlo sampling method and the Chemical ABlation MODel (CABMOD) to predict the ablation rates of Na, K, Fe, Si, Mg, Ca and Al above 40 km altitude in the Martian atmosphere. CABMOD considers the standard treatment of meteor physics, including the balance of frictional heating by radiative losses and the absorption of heat energy through temperature increases, melting phase transitions and vaporization, as well as sputtering by inelastic collisions with the air molecules. The vertical injection profiles are input into the Leeds 1-D Mars atmospheric model which includes photo-ionization, and gas-phase ion-molecule and neutral chemistry, in order to explore the evolution of the resulting metallic ions and atoms. We conclude that the dominant contributor in the Martian's atmosphere is the JFCs over other sources. Finally, we explore the changes of the neutral and ionized Na, Mg and Fe layers over a diurnal cycle.

  18. Alanine aminotransferase and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-38).

    PubMed

    Deetman, Petronella E; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Landman, Gijs W D; Groenier, Klaas H; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E; Navis, Gerjan; Bilo, Henk J G; Kleefstra, Nanne; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2015-08-01

    Combined data suggest a bimodal association of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with mortality in the general population. Little is known about the association of ALT with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. We therefore investigated the association of ALT with all-cause, cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. A prospective study was performed in patients with type 2 diabetes, treated in primary care, participating in the Zwolle Outpatient Diabetes project Integrating Available Care (ZODIAC) study. Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the associations of log2 -transformed baseline ALT with all-cause, cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality. In 1187 patients with type 2 diabetes (67 ± 12 years, 45% female), ALT levels were 11 (8-16) U/L. During median follow-up for 11.1 (6.1-14.0) years, 553 (47%) patients died, with 238 (20%) attributable to cardiovascular causes. Overall, ALT was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.92), independently of potential confounders. This was less attributable to cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.72-1.05), than to noncardiovascular mortality (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.65-0.90). Despite the overall inverse association of ALT with mortality, it appeared that a bimodal association with all-cause mortality was present with increasing risk for levels of ALT above normal (P = 0.003). In patients with type 2 diabetes, low levels of ALT are associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, in particular noncardiovascular mortality, compared to normal levels of ALT, while risk again starts to increase when levels are above normal. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  19. A Characterization of the Hot Infrared Background: The Infrared Cirrus, Zodiacal Dust Bands, and Solar System Dust Trails

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    AD-A239 132 PL -TR-91-2065 A CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HOT INFRARED BACKGROUND: THE INFRARED CIRRUS, ZODIACAL DUST BANDS, AND SOLAR SYSTEM DUST TRAILS F...addressee is no longer employed by your organization, please notify OL-AA PL /IMA, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731. This will assist us in maintaining a current...DECLASSIFICATION /DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Distribution unlimited 4 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) S MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) PL -TR-91-2065 6a

  20. The US Naval Observatory Zodiacal Zone Catalog (Douglas and Harrington 1990): Documentation for the machine-readable version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The machine readable version of the catalog, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center, is described. The Zodiacal Zone Catalog is a catalog of positions and proper motions for stars in the magnitude range where m sub v is between 4 and 10, lying within 16 deg of the ecliptic and north of declination -30 deg. The catalog contains positions and proper motions, at epoch, for equator and equinox J2000.0, magnitudes and spectral types taken mostly from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog, and reference positions and proper motions for equinox and epoch B1950.0.

  1. How Bright Can Supernovae Get?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Supernovae enormous explosions associated with the end of a stars life come in a variety of types with different origins. A new study has examined how the brightest supernovae in the Universe are produced, and what limits might be set on their brightness.Ultra-Luminous ObservationsRecent observations have revealed many ultra-luminous supernovae, which haveenergies that challenge our abilities to explain them usingcurrent supernova models. An especially extreme example is the 2015 discovery of the supernova ASASSN-15lh, which shone with a peak luminosity of ~2*1045 erg/s, nearly a trillion times brighter than the Sun. ASASSN-15lh radiated a whopping ~2*1052 erg in the first four months after its detection.How could a supernova that bright be produced? To explore the answer to that question, Tuguldur Sukhbold and Stan Woosley at University of California, Santa Cruz, have examined the different sources that could produce supernovae and calculated upper limits on the potential luminosities ofeach of these supernova varieties.Explosive ModelsSukhbold and Woosley explore multiple different models for core-collapse supernova explosions, including:Prompt explosionA stars core collapses and immediately explodes.Pair instabilityElectron/positron pair production at a massive stars center leads to core collapse. For high masses, radioactivity can contribute to delayed energy output.Colliding shellsPreviously expelled shells of material around a star collide after the initial explosion, providing additional energy release.MagnetarThe collapsing star forms a magnetar a rapidly rotating neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field at its core, which then dumps energy into the supernova ejecta, further brightening the explosion.They then apply these models to different types of stars.Setting the LimitThe authors show that the light curve of ASASSN-15lh (plotted in orange) can be described by a model (black curve) in which a magnetar with an initial spin period of 0.7 ms

  2. Light Reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-01-01

    Ultra Sales, Inc.'s fluorescent lighting fixture gets a boost in reflectivity through installation of Lightdriver, a thin tough thermoplastic film plated with aluminum, capable of reflecting 95 percent of visible light striking it. Lightdriver increases brightness without adding bulbs, and allows energy savings by removing some bulbs because the mirrorlike surface cuts light loss generally occasioned by conventional low reflectivity white painted surface above the bulbs in many fluorescent fixtures. Forty-five percent reduction in lighting electricity is attainable.

  3. Lighting

    SciT

    McKay, H.N.

    The lighting section of ASHRAE standard 90.1 is discussed. It applies to all new buildings except low-rise residential, while excluding specialty lighting applications such as signage, art exhibits, theatrical productions, medical and dental tasks, and others. In addition, lighting for indoor plant growth is excluded if designed to operate only between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. Lighting allowances for the interior of a building are determined by the use of the system performance path unless the space functions are not fully known, such as during the initial stages of design or for speculative buildings. In such cases, the prescriptive pathmore » is available. Lighting allowances for the exterior of all buildings are determined by a table of unit power allowances. A new addition the exterior lighting procedure is the inclusion of facade lighting. However, it is no longer possible to trade-off power allotted for the exterior with the interior of a building or vice versa. A significant change is the new emphasis on lighting controls.« less

  4. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  5. Map of Ceres' Bright Spots

    2017-12-12

    This map from NASA's Dawn mission shows locations of bright material on dwarf planet Ceres. There are more than 300 bright areas, called "faculae," on Ceres. Scientists have divided them into four categories: bright areas on the floors of crater (red), on the rims or walls of craters (green), in the ejecta blankets of craters (blue), and on the flanks of the mountain Ahuna Mons (yellow). https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21914

  6. Light and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Addresses how to integrate various types of light within the context of library design. Discusses light basics; the light spectrum; light measurement; reflectance; glare and brightness ratio; daylighting; electric lighting; and computer screens and lighting. Includes a checklist for plan review. (Author/LRW)

  7. Coronal bright points in microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Nitta, N.

    1988-01-01

    An excellent map of the quiet sun showing coronal bright points at 20-cm wavelength was produced using the VLA on February 13, 1987. The locations of bright points (BPs) were studied relative to features on the photospheric magnetogram and Ca K spectroheliogram. Most bright points appearing in the full 5-hour synthesized map are associated with small bipolar structures on the photospheric magnetogram; and the brightest part of a BP tends to lie on the boundary of a supergranulation network. The bright points exhibit rapid variations in intensity superposed on an apparently slow variation.

  8. Spatial Model of Sky Brightness Magnitude in Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redzuan Tahar, Mohammad; Kamarudin, Farahana; Umar, Roslan; Khairul Amri Kamarudin, Mohd; Sabri, Nor Hazmin; Ahmad, Karzaman; Rahim, Sobri Abdul; Sharul Aikal Baharim, Mohd

    2017-03-01

    Sky brightness is an essential topic in the field of astronomy, especially for optical astronomical observations that need very clear and dark sky conditions. This study presents the spatial model of sky brightness magnitude in Langkawi Island, Malaysia. Two types of Sky Quality Meter (SQM) manufactured by Unihedron are used to measure the sky brightness on a moonless night (or when the Moon is below the horizon), when the sky is cloudless and the locations are at least 100 m from the nearest light source. The selected locations are marked by their GPS coordinates. The sky brightness data obtained in this study were interpolated and analyzed using a Geographic Information System (GIS), thus producing a spatial model of sky brightness that clearly shows the dark and bright sky areas in Langkawi Island. Surprisingly, our results show the existence of a few dark sites nearby areas of high human activity. The sky brightness of 21.45 mag arcsec{}-2 in the Johnson-Cousins V-band, as the average of sky brightness equivalent to 2.8 × {10}-4{cd} {{{m}}}-2 over the entire island, is an indication that the island is, overall, still relatively dark. However, the amount of development taking place might reduce the number in the near future as the island is famous as a holiday destination.

  9. Apparatus Would Position Bright Spot On Projection Screen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayman, Marc D.

    1996-01-01

    Proposed apparatus aims beam of visible light at wavelength lambda(2) to create bright spot at desired position in image on projection screen. Intended to replace handheld laser and flashlight pointers lecturers sometimes use to indicate features in projected images. Beam of light cannot be inadvertently aimed toward audience.

  10. Bright Comet ISON

    2013-11-22

    Comet ISON shines brightly in this image taken on the morning of 19 Nov. 2013. This is a 10-second exposure taken with the Marshall Space Flight Center 20" telescope in New Mexico. The camera there is black and white, but the smaller field of view allows for a better "zoom in" on the comet's coma, which is essentially the head of the comet. Credit: NASA/MSFC/MEO/Cameron McCarty -------- More details on Comet ISON: Comet ISON began its trip from the Oort cloud region of our solar system and is now travelling toward the sun. The comet will reach its closest approach to the sun on Thanksgiving Day -- 28 Nov 2013 -- skimming just 730,000 miles above the sun's surface. If it comes around the sun without breaking up, the comet will be visible in the Northern Hemisphere with the naked eye, and from what we see now, ISON is predicted to be a particularly bright and beautiful comet. Catalogued as C/2012 S1, Comet ISON was first spotted 585 million miles away in September 2012. This is ISON's very first trip around the sun, which means it is still made of pristine matter from the earliest days of the solar system’s formation, its top layers never having been lost by a trip near the sun. Comet ISON is, like all comets, a dirty snowball made up of dust and frozen gases like water, ammonia, methane and carbon dioxide -- some of the fundamental building blocks that scientists believe led to the formation of the planets 4.5 billion years ago. NASA has been using a vast fleet of spacecraft, instruments, and space- and Earth-based telescope, in order to learn more about this time capsule from when the solar system first formed. The journey along the way for such a sun-grazing comet can be dangerous. A giant ejection of solar material from the sun could rip its tail off. Before it reaches Mars -- at some 230 million miles away from the sun -- the radiation of the sun begins to boil its water, the first step toward breaking apart. And, if it survives all this, the intense radiation

  11. Bright Electroluminescence from Single Graphene Nanoribbon Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Michael C.; Afshar-Imani, Nasima; Scheurer, Fabrice; Cardoso, Claudia; Ferretti, Andrea; Prezzi, Deborah; Schull, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    Thanks to their highly tunable band gaps, graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with atomically precise edges are emerging as mechanically and chemically robust candidates for nanoscale light emitting devices of modulable emission color. While their optical properties have been addressed theoretically in depth, only few experimental studies exist, limited to ensemble measurements and without any attempt to integrate them in an electronic-like circuit. Here we report on the electroluminescence of individual GNRs suspended between the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and a Au(111) substrate, constituting thus a realistic opto-electronic circuit. Emission spectra of such GNR junctions reveal a bright and narrow band emission of red light, whose energy can be tuned with the bias voltage applied to the junction, but always lying below the gap of infinite GNRs. Comparison with {\\it ab initio} calculations indicate that the emission involves electronic states localized at the GNR termini. Our results shed light on unpredicted optical transitions in GNRs and provide a promising route for the realization of bright, robust and controllable graphene-based light emitting devices.

  12. Measuring night sky brightness: methods and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänel, Andreas; Posch, Thomas; Ribas, Salvador J.; Aubé, Martin; Duriscoe, Dan; Jechow, Andreas; Kollath, Zoltán; Lolkema, Dorien E.; Moore, Chadwick; Schmidt, Norbert; Spoelstra, Henk; Wuchterl, Günther; Kyba, Christopher C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the brightness of the night sky has become an increasingly important topic in recent years, as artificial lights and their scattering by the Earth's atmosphere continue spreading around the globe. Several instruments and techniques have been developed for this task. We give an overview of these, and discuss their strengths and limitations. The different quantities that can and should be derived when measuring the night sky brightness are discussed, as well as the procedures that have been and still need to be defined in this context. We conclude that in many situations, calibrated consumer digital cameras with fisheye lenses provide the best relation between ease-of-use and wealth of obtainable information on the night sky. While they do not obtain full spectral information, they are able to sample the complete sky in a period of minutes, with colour information in three bands. This is important, as given the current global changes in lamp spectra, changes in sky radiance observed only with single band devices may lead to incorrect conclusions regarding long term changes in sky brightness. The acquisition of all-sky information is desirable, as zenith-only information does not provide an adequate characterization of a site. Nevertheless, zenith-only single-band one-channel devices such as the "Sky Quality Meter" continue to be a viable option for long-term studies of night sky brightness and for studies conducted from a moving platform. Accurate interpretation of such data requires some understanding of the colour composition of the sky light. We recommend supplementing long-term time series derived with such devices with periodic all-sky sampling by a calibrated camera system and calibrated luxmeters or luminance meters.

  13. Dark and bright blocker soliton interaction in defocusing waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Eugene; Rüter, Christian E; Stepić, Milutin; Shandarov, Vladimir; Kip, Detlef

    2006-11-13

    We experimentally demonstrate the interaction of an optical probe beam with both bright and dark blocker solitons formed with low optical light power in a saturable defocusing waveguide array in photorefractive lithium niobate. A phase insensitive interaction of the beams is achieved by means of counterpropagating light waves. Partial and full reflection (blocking) of the probe beam on the positive or negative light-induced defect is obtained, respectively, in good agreement with numerical simulations.

  14. Stellar Surface Brightness Profiles of Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A.; LITTLE THINGS Team

    2012-01-01

    Radial stellar surface brightness profiles of spiral galaxies can be classified into three types: (I) single exponential, (II) truncated: the light falls off with one exponential out to a break radius and then falls off more steeply, and (III) anti-truncated: the light falls off with one exponential out to a break radius and then falls off less steeply. Stellar surface brightness profile breaks are also found in dwarf disk galaxies, but with an additional category: (FI) flat-inside: the light is roughly constant or increasing and then falls off beyond a break. We have been re-examining the multi-wavelength stellar disk profiles of 141 dwarf galaxies, primarily from Hunter & Elmegreen (2006, 2004). Each dwarf has data in up to 11 wavelength bands: FUV and NUV from GALEX, UBVJHK and H-alpha from ground-based observations, and 3.6 and 4.5 microns from Spitzer. In this talk, I will highlight results from a semi-automatic fitting of this data set, including: (1) statistics of break locations and other properties as a function of wavelength and profile type, (2) color trends and radial mass distribution as a function of profile type, and (3) the relationship of the break radius to the kinematics and density profiles of atomic hydrogen gas in the 41 dwarfs of the LITTLE THINGS subsample. We gratefully acknowledge funding for this research from the National Science Foundation (AST-0707563).

  15. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOEpatents

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  16. Popular belief meets surgical reality: impact of lunar phases, Friday the 13th and zodiac signs on emergency operations and intraoperative blood loss.

    PubMed

    Schuld, Jochen; Slotta, Jan E; Schuld, Simone; Kollmar, Otto; Schilling, Martin K; Richter, Sven

    2011-09-01

    The influence of superstition, moon calendars, and popular belief on evidence-based medicine is stunning. More than 40% of medical staff is convinced that lunar phases can affect human behavior. The idea that Friday the 13th is associated with adverse events and bad luck is deep-rooted in the population of Western industrial countries. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that these myths are transferable to real-life surgery. We analyzed the extent to which moon phases, zodiac signs, and Friday the 13th influence blood loss, emergency frequency, and intestinal perforations by evaluating the operation records of all 27,914 consecutive patients of our institution undergoing general, visceral, or vascular surgery between August 2001 and August 2010. Dates of surgery were allocated to lunar phases and to zodiac signs, as well as to Friday the 13th. A total of 111 lunar cycles and 15 Fridays the 13th occurred within the 3,281-day observation period. Patients' characteristics did not differ in lunar phases, zodiac signs, or Fridays the 13th. Full moon phases, the presence of Friday the 13th, and zodiac signs influenced neither intraoperative blood loss nor emergency frequency. No statistical peaks regarding perforated aortic aneurysms and gastrointestinal perforations were found on full moon or Friday the 13th. Scientific analysis of our data does not support the belief that moon phases, zodiac signs, or Friday 13th influence surgical blood loss and emergency frequency. Our data indicate that such beliefs are myths far beyond reality.

  17. Lunar phases and zodiac signs do not influence quality of radical cystectomy--a statistical analysis of 452 patients with invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    May, Matthias; Braun, Kay-Patrick; Helke, Christian; Richter, Willi; Vogler, Horst; Hoschke, Bernd; Siegsmund, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To determine the influence of the lunar phases and the position of the moon in the zodiac on the frequency of complications and the survival of bladder cancer patients after radical cystectomy. It has been postulated that radical cystectomy performed during the waxing moon, or particularly at full moon, or at the zodiac sign Libra is associated with a poorer outcome. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the progression-free survival, the complication rate and the re-operation rate for 452 consecutive patients after radical cystectomy. In this retrospective review, the dates of surgery were allocated to the lunar phases and the zodiac signs. Based on these classifications, the patients were placed in groups which combined the lunar phase laws and differentiated between evidently unfavorable (full moon or waxing moon and/or the zodiac sign Libra; assigned to group 1) and favorable periods for surgery (new moon or waning moon and other signs of the zodiac apart from Libra; assigned to group 2). The mean follow-up was 49 months (range 0-158 months). A total of 244 patients (54%) were operated during an unfavorable period (group 1) and 208 (46%) patients during the auspicious period (group 2). The mean age, gender and kind of urinary derivation did not differ significantly in the two groups. Pathological tumor stages were evenly distributed according to the lunar phase groups (P = 0.713). We found no significant differences in the perioperative mortality rates, early re-operation rates, early complications, and late complications across the two groups. No significant differences in progression-free survival were observed when timing of cystectomy during the lunar cycle was considered (P = 0.231). Our analysis demonstrated no predictable influence of the lunar phase on survival or complications. Although this was not a prospective randomized trial, the statistical magnitude of the results do not support any recommendations for scheduling patients for radical

  18. Individual Differences in Chromatic Brightness Matching.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-03

    very unreliable..." More recently, Boynton (15) has written, "Consider... a 555-nm green light on one side of a bi-partite field with a 4 6 5-nm blue...field immediately adjacent to it... We ask an observer to adjust the intensity of the blue field until it looks ’equally bright’ as the green one. This...clearly being blue, blue- green , green , yellow- green , yellow, and red. Their spectral transmittance curves are shown in Fig. 2. All were broad-band filters

  19. Zernike analysis of all-sky night brightness maps.

    PubMed

    Bará, Salvador; Nievas, Miguel; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Zamorano, Jaime

    2014-04-20

    All-sky night brightness maps (calibrated images of the night sky with hemispherical field-of-view (FOV) taken at standard photometric bands) provide useful data to assess the light pollution levels at any ground site. We show that these maps can be efficiently described and analyzed using Zernike circle polynomials. The relevant image information can be compressed into a low-dimensional coefficients vector, giving an analytical expression for the sky brightness and alleviating the effects of noise. Moreover, the Zernike expansions allow us to quantify in a straightforward way the average and zenithal sky brightness and its variation across the FOV, providing a convenient framework to study the time course of these magnitudes. We apply this framework to analyze the results of a one-year campaign of night sky brightness measurements made at the UCM observatory in Madrid.

  20. The ZTF Bright Transient Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremling, C.; Sharma, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Miller, A. A.; Taggart, K.; Perley, D. A.; Gooba, A.

    2018-06-01

    As a supplement to the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF; ATel #11266) public alerts (ATel #11685) we plan to report (following ATel #11615) bright probable supernovae identified in the raw alert stream from the ZTF Northern Sky Survey ("Celestial Cinematography"; see Bellm & Kulkarni, 2017, Nature Astronomy 1, 71) to the Transient Name Server (https://wis-tns.weizmann.ac.il) on a daily basis; the ZTF Bright Transient Survey (BTS; see Kulkarni et al., 2018; arXiv:1710.04223).

  1. Lighting

    SciT

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} inmore » EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.« less

  2. Visualizing individual microtubules by bright field microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio; Block, Steven M.

    2010-11-01

    Microtubules are slender (˜25 nm diameter), filamentous polymers involved in cellular structure and organization. Individual microtubules have been visualized via fluorescence imaging of dye-labeled tubulin subunits and by video-enhanced, differential interference-contrast microscopy of unlabeled polymers using sensitive CCD cameras. We demonstrate the imaging of unstained microtubules using a microscope with conventional bright field optics in conjunction with a webcam-type camera and a light-emitting diode illuminator. The light scattered by microtubules is image-processed to remove the background, reduce noise, and enhance contrast. The setup is based on a commercial microscope with a minimal set of inexpensive components, suitable for implementation in a student laboratory. We show how this approach can be used in a demonstration motility assay, tracking the gliding motions of microtubules driven by the motor protein kinesin.

  3. Soft-X-Ray Prefilter for Hot, Bright Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. M.; Ortendahl, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Prefilters consisting of beryllium foil supported on conductive silver mesh transmit soft x-rays but are nearly opaque to visible and infrared light. New Be/AG filters protect imaging X-ray detectors from damage by visible and longer wavelength radiation when viewing such hot, bright emitters as Sun or possibly certain industrial processes.

  4. Light Pollution | CTIO

    important product so far is Cinzano et al.'s 'First World Atlas of the Artificial Night-Sky Brightness reduction of a factor of two in artificial night-sky brightness will extend the current lifetime of any again reached. A pragmatic, more pessimistic estimate of 7%/annum growth in artificial light pollution

  5. Bright Soil Near 'McCool'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    While driving eastward toward the northwestern flank of 'McCool Hill,' the wheels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit churned up the largest amount of bright soil discovered so far in the mission. This image from Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam), taken on the rover's 788th Martian day, or sol, of exploration (March 22, 2006), shows the strikingly bright tone and large extent of the materials uncovered.

    Several days earlier, Spirit's wheels unearthed a small patch of light-toned material informally named 'Tyrone.' In images from Spirit's panoramic camera, 'Tyrone' strongly resembled both 'Arad' and 'Paso Robles,' two patches of light-toned soils discovered earlier in the mission. Spirit found 'Paso Robles' in 2005 while climbing 'Cumberland Ridge' on the western slope of 'Husband Hill.' In early January 2006, the rover discovered 'Arad' on the basin floor just south of 'Husband Hill.' Spirit's instruments confirmed that those soils had a salty chemistry dominated by iron-bearing sulfates. Spirit's Pancam and miniature thermal emission spectrometer examined this most recent discovery, and researchers will compare its properties with the properties of those other deposits.

    These discoveries indicate that salty, light-toned soil deposits might be widely distributed on the flanks and valley floors of the 'Columbia Hills' region in Gusev Crater on Mars. The salts, which are easily mobilized and concentrated in liquid solution, may record the past presence of water. So far, these enigmatic materials have generated more questions than answers, however, and as Spirit continues to drive across this region in search of a safe winter haven, the team continues to formulate and test hypotheses to explain the rover's most fascinating recent discovery.

    This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines separate images taken through the Pancam's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  6. Sky Brightness During Eclipses: A Compendium from the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-05

    86 25. Absolute Values of Luminance of the Terrain and the Sky 88 26. Sky Brightness From Film No. 1 89 27. Sky Brightness From Film No. 2 89 28...these twilight equivalents when dust is present in the r.tmosphere are also difficult. Both involve the passage of light through long path lengths...purposes." Ilford-Selo, HP-3 isopan film with a sensitivity of 800 H & D was used. The measurement of the photographs was performed by means of a

  7. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, <0.08 numerical aperture (NA) output fiber at a single center wavelength was demonstrated. Our TeraBlade industrial platform achieves world-record brightness levels for direct diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  8. StarBright Learning Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article features StarBright Learning Exchange, a program that provides a cross-cultural exchange between Australian and South African early childhood educators. The program was originated when its president, Carol Allen, and her colleague, Karen Williams, decided that they could no longer sit by and watch the unfolding social catastrophe that…

  9. F Ring Bright Core Clumps

    2010-07-20

    Bright clumps of ring material and a fan-like structure appear near the core of Saturn tenuous F ring in this mosaic of images from NASA Cassini spacecraft. Such features suggest the existence of additional objects in the F ring.

  10. Bright Beginnings. WWC Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Bright Beginnings is an early childhood curriculum, based in part on High/Scope[R] and Creative Curriculum[R], with an additional emphasis on literacy skills. The curriculum consists of nine thematic units designed to enhance children's cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development, and each unit includes concept maps, literacy lessons,…

  11. ZTF Bright Transient Survey classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremling, C.; Sharma, Y.; Skulkarni, S. R.; Walters, R.; Blagorodnova, N.; Neill, J. D.; Miller, A. A.; Taggart, K.; Perley, D. A.; Goobar, A.; Graham, M. L.

    2018-06-01

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF; ATel #11266) Bright Transient Survey (BTS; ATel #11688) reports classifications of the following targets. Spectra have been obtained with the Spectral Energy Distribution Machine (SEDM) (range 350-950nm, spectral resolution R 100) mounted on the Palomar 60-inch (P60) telescope (Blagorodnova et. al. 2018, PASP, 130, 5003).

  12. Network based sky Brightness Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Dan; Pulvermacher, R.; Davis, D. R.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed and are currently testing an autonomous 2 channel photometer designed to measure the night sky brightness in the visual wavelengths over a multi-year campaign. The photometer uses a robust silicon sensor filtered with Hoya CM500 glass. The Sky brightness is measured every minute at two elevation angles typically zenith and 20 degrees to monitor brightness and transparency. The Sky Brightness monitor consists of two units, the remote photometer and a network interface. Currently these devices use 2.4 Ghz transceivers with a free space range of 100 meters. The remote unit is battery powered with day time recharging using a solar panel. Data received by the network interface transmits data via standard POP Email protocol. A second version is under development for radio sensitive areas using an optical fiber for data transmission. We will present the current comparison with the National Park Service sky monitoring camera. We will also discuss the calibration methods used for standardization and temperature compensation. This system is expected to be deployed in the next year and be operated by the International Dark Sky Association SKYMONITOR project.

  13. Spatiotemporal analysis of brightness induction

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Brightness induction refers to a class of visual illusions in which the perceived intensity of a region of space is influenced by the luminance of surrounding regions. These illusions are significant because they provide insight into the neural organization of the visual system. A novel quadrature-phase motion cancelation technique was developed to measure the magnitude of the grating induction brightness illusion across a wide range of spatial frequencies, temporal frequencies and test field heights. Canceling contrast is greatest at low frequencies and declines with increasing frequency in both dimensions, and with increasing test field height. Canceling contrast scales as the product of inducing grating spatial frequency and test field height (the number of inducing grating cycles per test field height). When plotted using a spatial axis which indexes this product, the spatiotemporal induction surfaces for four test field heights can be described as four partially overlapping sections of a single larger surface. These properties of brightness induction are explained in the context of multiscale spatial filtering. The present study is the first to measure the magnitude of grating induction as a function of temporal frequency. Taken in conjunction with several other studies (Blakeslee & McCourt, 2008; Robinson & de Sa, 2008; Magnussen & Glad, 1975) the results of this study illustrate that at least one form of brightness induction is very much faster than that reported by DeValois et al. (1986) and Rossi and Paradiso (1996), and are inconsistent with the proposition that brightness induction results from a slow “filling in” process. PMID:21763339

  14. At Bright Band Inside Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A layer of light-toned rock exposed inside Victoria Crater in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars appears to mark where the surface was at the time, many millions of years ago, when an impact excavated the crater. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drove to this bright band as the science team's first destination for the rover during investigations inside the crater.

    Opportunity's left front hazard-identification camera took this image just after the rover finished a drive of 2.25 meters (7 feet, 5 inches) during the rover's 1,305th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 25, 2007). The rocks beneath the rover and its extended robotic arm are part of the bright band.

    Victoria Crater has a scalloped shape of alternating alcoves and promontories around the crater's circumference. Opportunity descended into the crater two weeks earlier, within an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' Counterclockwise around the rim, just to the right of the arm in this image, is a promontory called 'Cabo Frio.'

  15. Perceiving the Intensity of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Dale; Williams, S. Mark; Nundy, Surajit; Lotto, R. Beau

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between luminance (i.e., the photometric intensity of light) and its perception (i.e., sensations of lightness or brightness) has long been a puzzle. In addition to the mystery of why these perceptual qualities do not scale with luminance in any simple way, "illusions" such as simultaneous brightness contrast, Mach bands,…

  16. A superior architecture of brightness enhancement for display backlighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, William A.; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Miñano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo; Alvarez, Roberto

    2006-08-01

    Brightness enhancement of backlighting for displays is typically achieved via crossed micro prismatic films that are introduced between a backlight unit and a transmissive (LCD) display. Prismatic films let pass light only into a restricted angular range, while, in conjunction with other reflective elements below the backlight, all other light is recycled within the backlight unit, thereby increasing the backlight luminance. This design offers no free parameters to influence the resulting light distribution and suffers from insufficient stray light control. A novel strategy of light recycling is introduced, using a microlens array in conjunction with a hole array in a reflective surface, that can provide higher luminance, superior stray light control, and can be designed to meet almost any desired emission pattern. Similar strategies can be applied to mix light from different colored LEDs being mounted upside down to shine into a backlight unit.

  17. Brightness and magnetic evolution of solar coronal bright points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte Urra, Ignacio

    This thesis presents a study of the brightness and magnetic evolution of several Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal bright points (hereafter BPs). The study was carried out using several instruments on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, supported by the high resolution imaging from the Transition Region And Coronal Explorer. The results confirm that, down to 1" resolution, BPs are made of small loops with lengths of [approximate]6 Mm and cross-sections of ≈2 Mm. The loops are very dynamic, evolving in time scales as short as 1 - 2 minutes. This is reflected in a highly variable EUV response with fluctuations highly correlated in spectral lines at transition region temperatures, but not always at coronal temperatures. A wavelet analysis of the intensity variations reveals the existence of quasi-periodic oscillations with periods ranging 400--1000s, in the range of periods characteristic of the chromospheric network. The link between BPs and network bright points is discussed, as well as the interpretation of the oscillations in terms of global acoustic modes of closed magnetic structures. A comparison of the magnetic flux evolution of the magnetic polarities to the EUV flux changes is also presented. Throughout their lifetime, the intrinsic EUV emission of BPs is found to be dependent on the total magnetic flux of the polarities. In short time scales, co-spatial and co-temporal coronal images and magnetograms, reveal the signature of heating events that produce sudden EUV brightenings simultaneous to magnetic flux cancellations. This is interpreted in terms of magnetic reconnection events. Finally, a electron density study of six coronal bright points produces values of ≈1.6×10 9 cm -3 , closer to active region plasma than to quiet Sun. The analysis of a large coronal loop (half length of 72 Mm) introduces the discussion on the prospects of future plasma diagnostics of BPs with forthcoming solar missions.

  18. Bright Stuff on Ceres = Sulfates and Carbonates on CI Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Fries, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of the DAWN spacecraft's observations of the surface of Ceres indicate that there are bright areas, which can be explained by large amounts of the Mg sulfate hexahydrate (MgSO4•6(H2O)), although the identification appears tenuous. There are preliminary indications that water is being evolved from these bright areas, and some have inferred that these might be sites of contemporary hydro-volcanism. A heat source for such modern activity is not obvious, given the small size of Ceres, lack of any tidal forces from nearby giant planets, probable age and presumed bulk composition. We contend that observations of chondritic materials in the lab shed light on the nature of the bright spots on Ceres

  19. Ultrashort high-brightness pulses from storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shaukat

    2017-09-01

    The brightness of short-wavelength radiation from accelerator-based sources can be increased by coherent emission in which the radiation intensity scales with the number of contributing electrons squared. This requires a microbunched longitudinal electron distribution, which is the case in free-electron lasers. The brightness of light sources based on electron storage rings was steadily improved, but could profit further from coherent emission. The modulation of the electron energy by a continuous-wave laser field may provide steady-state microbunching in the infrared regime. For shorter wavelengths, the energy modulation can be converted into a temporary density modulation by a dispersive chicane. One particular goal is coherent emission from a very short "slice" within an electron bunch in order to produce ultrashort radiation pulses with high brightness.

  20. A high brightness probe of polymer nanoparticles for biological imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Sirong; Zhu, Jiarong; Li, Yaping; Feng, Liheng

    2018-03-01

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) with high brightness in long wavelength region were prepared by the nano-precipitation method. Based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism, the high brightness property of the CPNs was realized by four different emission polymers. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed that the CPNs possessed a spherical structure and an average diameter of 75 nm. Analysis assays showed that the CPNs had excellent biocompatibility, good photostability and low cytotoxicity. The CPNs were bio-modified with a cell penetrating peptide (Tat, a targeted element) through covalent link. Based on the entire wave fluorescence emission, the functionalized CPNs1-4 can meet multichannel and high throughput assays in cell and organ imaging. The contribution of the work lies in not only providing a new way to obtain a high brightness imaging probe in long wavelength region, but also using targeted cell and organ imaging.

  1. Global City Lights

    2000-11-09

    The Eastern U.S., Europe, and Japan are brightly lit by their cities, while interiors of Africa, Asia, Australia, and South America are dark and lightly populated in this image created in 2000 by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  2. Effectiveness of angiotensin II receptor antagonists in a cohort of Dutch patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (ZODIAC-14).

    PubMed

    van Hateren, Kornelis J J; Landman, Gijs W D; Groenier, Klaas H; Bilo, Henk J G; Kleefstra, Nanne

    2015-04-01

    There is limited evidence with respect to the between-group effects of various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on blood pressure and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of differing ARBs on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the albumin-creatinine ratio after 1 year in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In 2007, 24 940 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in the Zwolle Outpatient Diabetes project Integrating Available Care (ZODIAC) study, a prospective observational cohort study. Patients were included in the current study if they were prescribed an ARB in 2007 and if 1-year follow-up data were available. The final study population comprised 3610 patients. Multivariate mixed-model analyses were performed to estimate effects of the various ARBs on SBP and albuminuria. Stratified subgroup analyses were performed according to baseline hypertension and albuminuria. SBP decreased in all groups, the largest decrease being observed in the group receiving telmisartan. No significant or relevant changes over time were observed among groups for SBP and albuminuria. In the subgroup (n=1225) of normotensive patients, telmisartan was associated with a larger decrease in SBP after 1 year compared to other ARBs, without different effects on the albumin-creatinine ratio. We observed no differences in effects on SBP and the albumin-creatinine ratio among differing ARBs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sky brightness and twilight measurements at Jogyakarta city, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani

    2016-11-01

    The sky brightness measurements were performed using a portable photometer. A pocket-sized and low-cost photometer has 20 degree area measurement, and spectral ranges between 320-720 nm with output directly in magnitudes per arc second square (mass) unit. The sky brightness with 3 seconds temporal resolutions was recorded at Jogyakarta city (110° 25’ E; 70° 52’ S; elevation 100 m) within 136 days in years from 2014 to 2016. The darkest night could reach 22.61 mpass only in several seconds, with mean value 18.8±0.7 mpass and temperature variation 23.1±1.2 C. The difference of mean sky brightness between before and after midnight was about -0.76 mpass or 2.0 times brighter. Moreover, the sky brightness and temperature fluctuations were more stable in after midnight than in before midnight. It is suggested that city light pollution affects those variations, and subsequently duration of twilight. By comparing twilight brightness for several places, we also suggest a 17° solar dip or about 66 minutes before sunrise for new time of Fajr prayer.

  4. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Alka; Kantharia, Nimisha G.; Das, Mousumi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present radio observations of the giant low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies made using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). LSB galaxies are generally large, dark matter dominated spirals that have low star formation efficiencies and large HI gas disks. Their properties suggest that they are less evolved compared to high surface brightness galaxies. We present GMRT emission maps of LSB galaxies with an optically-identified active nucleus. Using our radio data and archival near-infrared (2MASS) and near-ultraviolet (GALEX) data, we studied morphology and star formation efficiencies in these galaxies. All the galaxies show radio continuum emission mostly associated with the centre of the galaxy.

  5. A New Sky Brightness Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, David L.; McKenna, D.

    2006-12-01

    A good estimate of sky brightness and its variations throughout the night, the months, and even the years is an essential bit of knowledge both for good observing and especially as a tool in efforts to minimize sky brightness through local action. Hence a stable and accurate monitor can be a valuable and necessary tool. We have developed such a monitor, with the financial help of Vatican Observatory and Walker Management. The device is now undergoing its Beta test in preparation for production. It is simple, accurate, well calibrated, and automatic, sending its data directly to IDA over the internet via E-mail . Approximately 50 such monitors will be ready soon for deployment worldwide including most major observatories. Those interested in having one should enquire of IDA about details.

  6. Iapetus Bright and Dark Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Saturn's outermost large moon, Iapetus, has a bright, heavily cratered icy terrain and a dark terrain, as shown in this Voyager 2 image taken on August 22, 1981. Amazingly, the dark material covers precisely the side of Iapetus that leads in the direction of orbital motion around Saturn (except for the poles), whereas the bright material occurs on the trailing hemisphere and at the poles. The bright terrain is made of dirty ice, and the dark terrain is surfaced by carbonaceous molecules, according to measurements made with Earth-based telescopes. Iapetus' dark hemisphere has been likened to tar or asphalt and is so dark that no details within this terrain were visible to Voyager 2. The bright icy hemisphere, likened to dirty snow, shows many large impact craters. The closest approach by Voyager 2 to Iapetus was a relatively distant 600,000 miles, so that our best images, such as this, have a resolution of about 12 miles. The dark material is made of organic substances, probably including poisonous cyano compounds such as frozen hydrogen cyanide polymers. Though we know a little about the dark terrain's chemical nature, we do not understand its origin. Two theories have been developed, but neither is fully satisfactory--(1) the dark material may be organic dust knocked off the small neighboring satellite Phoebe and 'painted' onto the leading side of Iapetus as the dust spirals toward Saturn and Iapetus hurtles through the tenuous dust cloud, or (2) the dark material may be made of icy-cold carbonaceous 'cryovolcanic' lavas that were erupted from Iapetus' interior and then blackened by solar radiation, charged particles, and cosmic rays. A determination of the actual cause, as well as discovery of any other geologic features smaller than 12 miles across, awaits the Cassini Saturn orbiter to arrive in 2004.

  7. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time: Searching for Young Stars in K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Nathan; Mann, Andrew W.

    2017-06-01

    Nearby young, open clusters such as the Hyades, Pleiades, and Praesepe provide an important reference point for the properties of stellar systems in general. In each cluster, all stars are of the same known age. As such, observations of planetary systems around these stars can be used to gain insight into the early stages of planetary system formation. K2, the revived Kepler mission, has provided a vast number of light curves for young stars in the and elsewhere in the K2 field. We aim to compute rotational periods from sunspot patterns for all K2 target stars and use gyrochronometric relationships derived from cluster stars to determine their ages. From there, we will search for planets around young stars outside the clusters with the ultimate goal of shedding light on how planets and planetary systems evolve with time.

  8. Death of Darkness: Artificial Sky Brightness in the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Many species (including ours) need darkness to survive and thrive yet light pollution in the anthropocene has received scant attention in Earth System Models (ESMs). Anthropogenic aerosols can brighten background sky brightness and reduce the contrast between skylight and starlight. These are both aesthetic and health-related issues due to their accompanying disruption of circadian rhythms. We quantify aerosol contributions to light pollution using a single-column night sky model, NiteLite, suitable for implementation in ESMs. NiteLite accounts for physiologcal (photopic and scotopic vision, retinal diameter/age), anthropogenic (light and aerosol pollution properties), and natural (surface albedo, trace gases) effects on background brightness and threshold visibility. We find that stratospheric aerosol injection contemplated as a stop-gap measure to counter global warming would increase night-sky brightness by about 25%, and thus eliminate last pristine dark sky areas on Earth. Our results suggest that ESMs incorporate light pollution so that associated societal impacts can be better quantified and included in policy deliberations.

  9. Brightness and magnetic evolution of solar coronal bright points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte-Urra, I.

    2004-12-01

    This thesis presents a study of the brightness and magnetic evolution of several Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal bright points (hereafter BPs). BPs are loop-like features of enhanced emission in the coronal EUV and X-ray images of the Sun, that are associated to the interaction of opposite photospheric magnetic polarities with magnetic fluxes of ≈1018 - 1019 Mx. The study was carried out using several instruments on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO): the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EIT), the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) and the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), supported by the high resolution imaging from the Transition Region And Coronal Explorer (TRACE). The results confirm that, down to 1'' (i.e. ~715 km) resolution, BPs are made of small loops with lengths of ~6 Mm and cross-sections of ~2 Mm. The loops are very dynamic, evolving in time scales as short as 1 - 2 minutes. This is reflected in a highly variable EUV response with fluctuations highly correlated in spectral lines at transition region temperatures (in the range 3.2x10^4 - 3.5x10^5 K), but not always at coronal temperatures. A wavelet analysis of the intensity variations reveals, for the first time, the existence of quasi-periodic oscillations with periods ranging 400 -- 1000 s, in the range of periods characteristic of the chromospheric network. The link between BPs and network bright points is discussed, as well as the interpretation of the oscillations in terms of global acoustic modes of closed magnetic structures. A comparison of the magnetic flux evolution of the magnetic polarities to the EUV flux changes is also presented. Throughout their lifetime, the intrinsic EUV emission of BPs is found to be dependent on the total magnetic flux of the polarities. In short time scales, co-spatial and co-temporal TRACE and MDI images, reveal the signature of heating events that produce sudden EUV brightenings simultaneous to magnetic flux cancellations. This is interpreted in

  10. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time: Searching for Young Stars in K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Nathan Ryan; Mann, Andrew; Rizzuto, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Observations of planetary systems around young stars provide insight into the early stages of planetary system formation. Nearby young open clusters such as the Hyades, Pleiades, and Praesepe provide important benchmarks for the properties of stellar systems in general. These clusters are all known to be less than 1 Gyr old, making them ideal targets for a survey of young planetary systems. Few transiting planets have been detected around clusters stars, however, so this alone is too small of a sample. K2, the revived Kepler mission, has provided a vast number of light curves for young stars in clusters and elsewhere in the K2 field. This provides us with the opportunity to extend the sample of young systems to field stars while calibrating with cluster stars. We compute rotational periods from starspot patterns for ~36,000 K2 targets and use gyrochronological relationships derived from cluster stars to determine their ages. From there, we have begun searching for planets around young stars outside the clusters with the ultimate goal of shedding light on how planets and planetary systems evolve in their early, most formative years.

  11. ZTF Bright Transient Survey classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, M. L.; Bellm, E.; Bektesevic, D.; Eadie, G.; Huppenkothen, D.; Davenport, J. R. A.; Fremling, C.; Sharma, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Walters, R.; Blagorodnova, N.; Neill, J.; Miller, A. A.; Taddia, F.; Lunnan, R.; Taggart, K.; Perley, D. A.; Goobar, A.

    2018-06-01

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF; ATel #11266) Bright Transient Survey (BTS; ATel #11688) reports classifications of the following targets. Spectra have been obtained with the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (range 340-1000nm, spectral resolution R 1000) mounted on the 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the Spectral Energy Distribution Machine (SEDM) (range 350-950nm, spectral resolution R 100) mounted on the Palomar 60-inch (P60) telescope (Blagorodnova et. al. 2018, PASP, 130, 5003), or the Andalucia Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (ALFOSC) on the 2.5m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT).

  12. Adaptive Optics For Imaging Bright Objects Next To Dim Ones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Yu, Jeffrey W.; Malbet, Fabien

    1996-01-01

    Adaptive optics used in imaging optical systems, according to proposal, to enhance high-dynamic-range images (images of bright objects next to dim objects). Designed to alter wavefronts to correct for effects of scattering of light from small bumps on imaging optics. Original intended application of concept in advanced camera installed on Hubble Space Telescope for imaging of such phenomena as large planets near stars other than Sun. Also applicable to other high-quality telescopes and cameras.

  13. Stellar Surface Brightness Profiles of Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, K. A.

    2014-03-01

    Radial stellar surface brightness profiles of spiral galaxies can be classified into three types: (I) single exponential, or the light falls off with one exponential out to a break radius and then falls off (II) more steeply (“truncated”), or (III) less steeply (“anti-truncated”). Why there are three different radial profile types is still a mystery, including why light falls off as an exponential at all. Profile breaks are also found in dwarf disks, but some dwarf Type IIs are flat or increasing (FI) out to a break before falling off. I have been re-examining the multi-wavelength stellar disk profiles of 141 dwarf galaxies, primarily from Hunter & Elmegreen (2004, 2006). Each dwarf has data in up to 11 wavelength bands: FUV and NUV from GALEX, UBVJHK and Hα from ground-based observations, and 3.6 and 4.5μm from Spitzer. Here I highlight some results from a semi-automatic fitting of this data set including: (1) statistics of break locations and other properties as a function of wavelength and profile type, (2) color trends and radial mass distribution as a function of profile type, and (3) the relationship of the break radius to the kinematics and density profiles of atomic hydrogen gas in the 40 dwarfs of the LITTLE THINGS subsample.

  14. Bright compact bulges at intermediate redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Sonali; Saha, Kanak

    2018-07-01

    Studying bright (MB < -20), intermediate-redshift (0.4 < z< 1.0), disc-dominated (nB < 2.5) galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3 in Chandra Deep Field-South, in rest-frame B and I band, we found a new class of bulges that is brighter and more compact than ellipticals. We refer to them as `bright, compact bulges' (BCBs) - they resemble neither classical nor pseudo-bulges and constitute ˜12 per cent of the total bulge population at these redshifts. Examining free-bulge + disc decomposition sample and elliptical galaxy sample from Simard et al., we find that only ˜0.2 per cent of the bulges can be classified as BCBs in the local Universe. Bulge to total light ratio of disc galaxies with BCBs is (at ˜0.4) a factor of ˜2 and ˜4 larger than for those with classical and pseudo-bulges. BCBs are ˜2.5 and ˜6 times more massive than classical and pseudo-bulges. Although disc galaxies with BCBs host the most massive and dominant bulge type, their specific star formation rate is 1.5-2 times higher than other disc galaxies. This is contrary to the expectations that a massive compact bulge would lead to lower star formation rates. We speculate that our BCB host disc galaxies are descendant of massive, compact, and passive elliptical galaxies observed at higher redshifts. Those high-redshift ellipticals lack local counterparts and possibly evolved by acquiring a compact disc around them. The overall properties of BCBs support a picture of galaxy assembly in which younger discs are being accreted around massive pre-existing spheroids.

  15. Addition of sulphonylurea to metformin does not relevantly change body weight: a prospective observational cohort study (ZODIAC-39).

    PubMed

    Schrijnders, Dennis; Wever, Raiza; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastiaan T; van Hateren, Kornelis J J; de Bock, Geertruida H; Bilo, Henk J G; Groenier, Klaas H; Landman, Gijs W D

    2016-10-01

    To investigate changes in body weight trajectories after the addition of individual sulphonylureas (SUs) to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study, in a primary care setting in the Netherlands. Patients aged ≥18 years with type 2 diabetes who were included in the ZODIAC cohort between 1998 and 2012 and who received metformin monotherapy at inclusion (n = 29 195), and had used metformin as monotherapy for at least 1 year before receiving dual therapy through the addition of an SU for at least 1 year were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome was within-drug yearly change in body weight after receiving add-on therapy with individual SUs during 5 years of follow-up. The secondary outcome was within-drug yearly change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Annual changes in weight and HbA1c were estimated with linear mixed models, adjusted for age, gender and diabetes duration. A total of 2958 patients were included. No significant weight changes were observed within and between any of the individual SUs after treatment intensification (p = 0.24). In addition, no significant difference in weight between the add-on therapy combinations was observed (p = 0.26). The average HbA1c the year before intensification was 7.2% (55 mmol/mol) and dropped below 7.0% (53 mmol/mol) the year after. In patients with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care, strict glycaemic control can be maintained with SUs used as add-on therapy to metformin, without the offset of relevant weight changes. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time (ZEIT). IV. Seven Transiting Planets in the Praesepe Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Andrew W.; Gaidos, Eric; Vanderburg, Andrew; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Ansdell, Megan; Medina, Jennifer Vanessa; Mace, Gregory N.; Kraus, Adam L.; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2017-02-01

    Open clusters and young stellar associations are attractive sites to search for planets and to test theories of planet formation, migration, and evolution. We present our search for, and characterization of, transiting planets in the 800 Myr old Praesepe (Beehive, M44) Cluster from K2 light curves. We identify seven planet candidates, six of which we statistically validate to be real planets, the last of which requires more data. For each host star, we obtain high-resolution NIR spectra to measure its projected rotational broadening and radial velocity, the latter of which we use to confirm cluster membership. We combine low-resolution spectra with the known cluster distance and metallicity to provide precise temperatures, masses, radii, and luminosities for the host stars. Combining our measurements of rotational broadening, rotation periods, and our derived stellar radii, we show that all planetary orbits are consistent with alignment to their host star’s rotation. We fit the K2 light curves, including priors on stellar density to put constraints on the planetary eccentricities, all of which are consistent with zero. The difference between the number of planets found in Praesepe and Hyades (8 planets, ≃ 800 Myr) and a similar data set for Pleiades (0 planets, ≃125 Myr) suggests a trend with age, but may be due to incompleteness of current search pipelines for younger, faster-rotating stars. We see increasing evidence that some planets continue to lose atmosphere past 800 Myr, as now two planets at this age have radii significantly larger than their older counterparts from Kepler.

  17. A case study on large-scale dynamical influence on bright band using cloud radar during the Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Ambuj K.; Kalapureddy, M. C. R.; Devisetty, Hari Krishna; Deshpande, Sachin M.; Pandithurai, G.

    2018-02-01

    The present study is a first of its kind attempt in exploring the physical features (e.g., height, width, intensity, duration) of tropical Indian bright band using a Ka-band cloud radar under the influence of large-scale cyclonic circulation and attempts to explain the abrupt changes in bright band features, viz., rise in the bright band height by 430 m and deepening of the bright band by about 300 m observed at around 14:00 UTC on Sep 14, 2016, synoptically as well as locally. The study extends the utility of cloud radar to understand how the bright band features are associated with light precipitation, ranging from 0 to 1.5 mm/h. Our analysis of the precipitation event of Sep 14-15, 2016 shows that the bright band above (below) 3.7 km, thickness less (more) than 300 m can potentially lead to light drizzle of 0-0.25 mm/h (drizzle/light rain) at the surface. It is also seen that the cloud radar may be suitable for bright band study within light drizzle limits than under higher rain conditions. Further, the study illustrates that the bright band features can be determined using the polarimetric capability of the cloud radar. It is shown that an LDR value of - 22 dB can be associated with the top height of bright band in the Ka-band observations which is useful in the extraction of the bright band top height and its width. This study is useful for understanding the bright band phenomenon and could be potentially useful in establishing the bright band-surface rain relationship through the perspective of a cloud radar, which would be helpful to enhance the cloud radar-based quantitative estimates of precipitation.

  18. Manakins can produce iridescent and bright feather colours without melanosomes.

    PubMed

    Igic, Branislav; D'Alba, Liliana; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2016-06-15

    Males of many species often use colourful and conspicuous ornaments to attract females. Among these, male manakins (family: Pipridae) provide classic examples of sexual selection favouring the evolution of bright and colourful plumage coloration. The highly iridescent feather colours of birds are most commonly produced by the periodic arrangement of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) within barbules. Melanin increases the saturation of iridescent colours seen from optimal viewing angles by absorbing back-scattered light; however, this may reduce the wide-angle brightness of these signals, contributing to a dark background appearance. We examined the nanostructure of four manakin species (Lepidothrix isidorei, L. iris, L. nattereri and L. coeruleocapilla) to identify how they produce their bright plumage colours. Feather barbs of all four species were characterized by dense and fibrous internal spongy matrices that likely increase scattering of light within the barb. The iridescent, yet pale or whitish colours of L. iris and L. nattereri feathers were produced not by periodically arranged melanosomes within barbules, but by periodic matrices of air and β-keratin within barbs. Lepidothrix iris crown feathers were able to produce a dazzling display of colours with small shifts in viewing geometry, likely because of a periodic nanostructure, a flattened barb morphology and disorder at a microstructural level. We hypothesize that iridescent plumage ornaments of male L. iris and L. nattereri are under selection to increase brightness or luminance across wide viewing angles, which may potentially increase their detectability by females during dynamic and fast-paced courtship displays in dim light environments. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Automated Adaptive Brightness in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Using Image Segmentation and Sigmoid Function.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Ravi; Mohammed, Shahed K; Hasan, Md Mehedi; Zhang, Xuechao; Wahid, Khan A

    2016-08-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) plays an important role in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases by capturing images of human small intestine. Accurate diagnosis of endoscopic images depends heavily on the quality of captured images. Along with image and frame rate, brightness of the image is an important parameter that influences the image quality which leads to the design of an efficient illumination system. Such design involves the choice and placement of proper light source and its ability to illuminate GI surface with proper brightness. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are normally used as sources where modulated pulses are used to control LED's brightness. In practice, instances like under- and over-illumination are very common in WCE, where the former provides dark images and the later provides bright images with high power consumption. In this paper, we propose a low-power and efficient illumination system that is based on an automated brightness algorithm. The scheme is adaptive in nature, i.e., the brightness level is controlled automatically in real-time while the images are being captured. The captured images are segmented into four equal regions and the brightness level of each region is calculated. Then an adaptive sigmoid function is used to find the optimized brightness level and accordingly a new value of duty cycle of the modulated pulse is generated to capture future images. The algorithm is fully implemented in a capsule prototype and tested with endoscopic images. Commercial capsules like Pillcam and Mirocam were also used in the experiment. The results show that the proposed algorithm works well in controlling the brightness level accordingly to the environmental condition, and as a result, good quality images are captured with an average of 40% brightness level that saves power consumption of the capsule.

  20. Coronal bright points at 6cm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Qijun; Kundu, M. R.; Schmahl, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from observations of bright points at a wavelength of 6-cm using the VLA with a spatial resolution of 1.2 arcsec. During two hours of observations, 44 sources were detected with brightness temperatures between 2000 and 30,000 K. Of these sources, 27 are associated with weak dark He 10830 A features at distances less than 40 arcsecs. Consideration is given to variations in the source parameters and the relationship between ephemeral regions and bright points.

  1. Utilizing typical color appearance models to represent perceptual brightness and colorfulness for digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Rui; Wang, Qing; Shao, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Conghao

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to expand the applications of color appearance models to representing the perceptual attributes for digital images, which supplies more accurate methods for predicting image brightness and image colorfulness. Two typical models, i.e., the CIELAB model and the CIECAM02, were involved in developing algorithms to predict brightness and colorfulness for various images, in which three methods were designed to handle pixels of different color contents. Moreover, massive visual data were collected from psychophysical experiments on two mobile displays under three lighting conditions to analyze the characteristics of visual perception on these two attributes and to test the prediction accuracy of each algorithm. Afterward, detailed analyses revealed that image brightness and image colorfulness were predicted well by calculating the CIECAM02 parameters of lightness and chroma; thus, the suitable methods for dealing with different color pixels were determined for image brightness and image colorfulness, respectively. This study supplies an example of enlarging color appearance models to describe image perception.

  2. Circadian light

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The present paper reflects a work in progress toward a definition of circadian light, one that should be informed by the thoughtful, century-old evolution of our present definition of light as a stimulus for the human visual system. This work in progress is based upon the functional relationship between optical radiation and its effects on nocturnal melatonin suppression, in large part because the basic data are available in the literature. Discussed here are the fundamental differences between responses by the visual and circadian systems to optical radiation. Brief reviews of photometry, colorimetry, and brightness perception are presented as a foundation for the discussion of circadian light. Finally, circadian light (CLA) and circadian stimulus (CS) calculation procedures based on a published mathematical model of human circadian phototransduction are presented with an example. PMID:20377841

  3. The bright-bright and bright-dark mode coupling-based planar metamaterial for plasmonic EIT-like effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Meng, Hongyun; Chen, Zhangjie; Li, Xianping; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Faqiang; Wei, Zhongchao; Tan, Chunhua; Huang, Xuguang; Li, Shuti

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel planar metamaterial structure for the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like effect, which consists of a split-ring resonator (SRR) and a pair of metal strips. The simulated results indicate that a single transparency window can be realized in the symmetry situation, which originates from the bright-bright mode coupling. Further, a dual-band EIT-like effect can be achieved in the asymmetry situation, which is due to the bright-bright mode coupling and bright-dark mode coupling, respectively. Different EIT-like effect can be simultaneously achieved in the proposed structure with the different situations. It is of certain significance for the study of EIT-like effect.

  4. High-brightness and high-color purity red-emitting Ca3Lu(AlO)3(BO3)4:Eu3+ phosphors with internal quantum efficiency close to unity for near-ultraviolet-based white-light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Shaoying; Li, Bin; Sun, Qi; Guo, Heng

    2018-03-15

    In this work, we reported on high-brightness Eu 3+ -activated Ca 3 Lu(AlO) 3 (BO 3 ) 4 (CLAB) red-emitting phosphors. Under 397 nm excitation, the CLAB:Eu 3+ phosphors showed intense red emissions at around 621 nm with CIE coordinates of (0.657, 0.343). The optimal doping concentration of Eu 3+ ions was found to be 30 mol. %, and the CLAB:0.3Eu 3+ sample possessed high-color purity of 93% and ultra-high internal quantum efficiency as great as 98.5%. Importantly, the CLAB:0.3Eu 3+ also had good thermal stability. Finally, a white-light-emitting diode (WLED) lamp with good color-rendering index was fabricated by using a 365 nm ultraviolet chip and the phosphor blends of CLAB:0.3Eu 3+ red-emitting phosphors, (Ba,Sr) 2 SiO 4 :Eu 2+ green-emitting phosphors, and BaMgAl 10 O 7 :Eu 2+ blue-emitting phosphors.

  5. Fifty shades of white: how white feather brightness differs among species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igic, Branislav; D'Alba, Liliana; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2018-04-01

    White colouration is a common and important component of animal visual signalling and camouflage, but how and why it varies across species is poorly understood. White is produced by wavelength-independent and diffuse scattering of light by the internal structures of materials, where the degree of brightness is related to the amount of light scattered. Here, we investigated the morphological basis of brightness differences among unpigmented pennaceous regions of white body feathers across 61 bird species. Using phylogenetically controlled comparisons of reflectance and morphometric measurements, we show that brighter white feathers had larger and internally more complex barbs than duller white feathers. Higher brightness was also associated with more closely packed barbs and barbules, thicker and longer barbules, and rounder and less hollow barbs. Larger species tended to have brighter white feathers than smaller species because they had thicker and more complex barbs, but aquatic species were not significantly brighter than terrestrial species. As similar light scattering principals affect the brightness of chromatic signals, not just white colours, these findings help broaden our general understanding of the mechanisms that affect plumage brightness. Future studies should examine how feather layering on a bird's body contributes to differences between brightness of white plumage patches within and across species.

  6. Bright triplet excitons in caesium lead halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Michael A.; Vaxenburg, Roman; Nedelcu, Georgian; Sercel, Peter C.; Shabaev, Andrew; Mehl, Michael J.; Michopoulos, John G.; Lambrakos, Samuel G.; Bernstein, Noam; Lyons, John L.; Stöferle, Thilo; Mahrt, Rainer F.; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Norris, David J.; Rainò, Gabriele; Efros, Alexander L.

    2018-01-01

    Nanostructured semiconductors emit light from electronic states known as excitons. For organic materials, Hund’s rules state that the lowest-energy exciton is a poorly emitting triplet state. For inorganic semiconductors, similar rules predict an analogue of this triplet state known as the ‘dark exciton’. Because dark excitons release photons slowly, hindering emission from inorganic nanostructures, materials that disobey these rules have been sought. However, despite considerable experimental and theoretical efforts, no inorganic semiconductors have been identified in which the lowest exciton is bright. Here we show that the lowest exciton in caesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, with X = Cl, Br or I) involves a highly emissive triplet state. We first use an effective-mass model and group theory to demonstrate the possibility of such a state existing, which can occur when the strong spin-orbit coupling in the conduction band of a perovskite is combined with the Rashba effect. We then apply our model to CsPbX3 nanocrystals, and measure size- and composition-dependent fluorescence at the single-nanocrystal level. The bright triplet character of the lowest exciton explains the anomalous photon-emission rates of these materials, which emit about 20 and 1,000 times faster than any other semiconductor nanocrystal at room and cryogenic temperatures, respectively. The existence of this bright triplet exciton is further confirmed by analysis of the fine structure in low-temperature fluorescence spectra. For semiconductor nanocrystals, which are already used in lighting, lasers and displays, these excitons could lead to materials with brighter emission. More generally, our results provide criteria for identifying other semiconductors that exhibit bright excitons, with potential implications for optoelectronic devices.

  7. Emergency Lighting Technology Evolves To Save Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Explores the benefits of including high-brightness Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) for emergency systems and its use in residence halls. LED emergency lighting options and their qualifications are also highlighted.(GR)

  8. Is light pollution getting better or worse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyba, Christopher C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Awareness of light pollution is spreading, but with changing lighting technologies, emissions are shifting to wavelengths our current measuring devices cannot assess well. Community involvement is essential to evaluate changes in sky brightness.

  9. Infrared-Bright Interacting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas Ruiz, Sofia; Murphy, Eric Joseph; Armus, Lee; Smith, John-David; Bradford, Charles Matt; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2018-01-01

    We present the mid-infrared spectral mapping of eight LIRG-class interacting galaxies: NGC 6670, NGC 7592, IIZw 96, IIIZw 35, Arp 302, Arp 236, Arp 238, Arp 299. The properties of galaxy mergers, which are bright and can be studied at high resolutions at low-z, provide local analogs for sources that may be important contributors to the Far Infrared Background (FIRB.) In order to study star formation and the physical conditions in the gas and dust in our sample galaxies, we used the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) to map the galaxies over the 5-35 μm window to trace the PAH, molecular hydrogen, and atomic fine structure line emission on scales of 1.4 – 5.3 kpc. Here we present the reduction for low and high-resolution data, and preliminary results in the analysis of fine structure line ratios and dust features in the two nuclei and interacting regions from one of our sample galaxies, NGC 6670.

  10. Intrinsic Brightness Temperatures of AGN Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, D. C.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lister, M. L.; Ros, E.; Kellermann, K. I.; Cohen, M. H.; Vermeulen, R. C.; Zensus, J. A.; Kadler, M.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new method for studying the intrinsic brightness temperatures of the parsec-scale jet cores of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our method uses observed superluminal motions and observed brightness temperatures for a large sample of AGNs to constrain the characteristic intrinsic brightness temperature of the sample as a whole. To study changes in intrinsic brightness temperature, we assume that the Doppler factors of individual jets are constant in time, as justified by their relatively small changes in observed flux density. We find that in their median-low brightness temperature state, the sources in our sample have a narrow range of intrinsic brightness temperatures centered on a characteristic temperature, Tint~=3×1010 K, which is close to the value expected for equipartition, when the energy in the radiating particles equals the energy stored in the magnetic fields. However, in their maximum brightness state, we find that sources in our sample have a characteristic intrinsic brightness temperature greater than 2×1011 K, which is well in excess of the equipartition temperature. In this state, we estimate that the energy in radiating particles exceeds the energy in the magnetic field by a factor of ~105. We suggest that the excess of particle energy when sources are in their maximum brightness state is due to injection or acceleration of particles at the base of the jet. Our results suggest that the common method of estimating jet Doppler factors by using a single measurement of observed brightness temperature, the assumption of equipartition, or both may lead to large scatter or systematic errors in the derived values.

  11. Galaxies Burn Bright Like High-Wattage Light Bulbs

    2012-08-29

    NASA WISE has identified about 1,000 extremely obscured objects over the sky, as marked by the magenta symbols. These hot dust-obscured galaxies, or hot DOGs, are turning out to be among the most luminous.

  12. Bright Sparks of Our Future!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordan, Naoimh

    2016-04-01

    My name is Naoimh Riordan and I am the Vice Principal of Rockboro Primary School in Cork City, South of Ireland. I am a full time class primary teacher and I teach 4th class, my students are aged between 9-10 years. My passion for education has developed over the years and grown towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. I believe these subjects are the way forward for our future. My passion and beliefs are driven by the unique after school programme that I have developed. It is titled "Sparks" coming from the term Bright Sparks. "Sparks" is an after school programme with a difference where the STEM subjects are concentrated on through lessons such as Science, Veterinary Science Computer Animation /Coding, Eco engineering, Robotics, Magical Maths, Chess and Creative Writing. All these subjects are taught through activity based learning and are one-hour long each week for a ten-week term. "Sparks" is fully inclusive and non-selective which gives all students of any level of ability an opportunity to engage into these subjects. "Sparks" is open to all primary students in County Cork. The "Sparks" after school programme is taught by tutors from the different Universities and Colleges in Cork City. It works very well because the tutor brings their knowledge, skills and specialised equipment from their respective universities and in turn the tutor gains invaluable teaching practise, can trial a pilot programme in a chosen STEM subject and gain an insight into what works in the physical classroom.

  13. Galaxy Selection and the Surface Brightness Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaugh, Stacy S.; Bothun, Gregory D.; Schombert, James M.

    1995-08-01

    Optical surveys for galaxies are biased against the inclusion of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Disney [Nature, 263,573(1976)] suggested that the constancy of disk central surface brightness noticed by Freeman [ApJ, 160,811(1970)] was not a physical result, but instead was an artifact of sample selection. Since LSB galaxies do exist, the pertinent and still controversial issue is if these newly discovered galaxies constitute a significant percentage of the general galaxy population. In this paper, we address this issue by determining the space density of galaxies as a function of disk central surface brightness. Using the physically reasonable assumption (which is motivated by the data) that central surface brightness is independent of disk scale length, we arrive at a distribution which is roughly flat (i.e., approximately equal numbers of galaxies at each surface brightness) faintwards of the Freeman (1970) value. Brightwards of this, we find a sharp decline in the distribution which is analogous to the turn down in the luminosity function at L^*^. An intrinsically sharply peaked "Freeman law" distribution can be completely ruled out, and no Gaussian distribution can fit the data. Low surface brightness galaxies (those with central surface brightness fainter than 22 B mag arcsec^-2^) comprise >~ 1/2 the general galaxy population, so a representative sample of galaxies at z = 0 does not really exist at present since past surveys have been insensitive to this component of the general galaxy population.

  14. Lunar and Venusian radar bright rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Saunders, R. S.; Weissman, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one lunar craters have radar bright ring appearances which are analogous to eleven complete ring features in the earth-based 12.5 cm observations of Venus. Radar ring diameters and widths for the lunar and Venusian features overlap for sizes from 45 to 100 km. Radar bright areas for the lunar craters are associated with the slopes of the inner and outer rim walls, while level crater floors and level ejecta fields beyond the raised portion of the rim have average radar backscatter. It is proposed that the radar bright areas of the Venusian rings are also associated with the slopes on the rims of craters. The lunar craters have evolved to radar bright rings via mass wasting of crater rim walls and via post-impact flooding of crater floors. Aeolian deposits of fine-grained material on Venusian crater floors may produce radar scattering effects similar to lunar crater floor flooding. These Venusian aeolian deposits may preferentially cover blocky crater floors producing a radar bright ring appearance. It is proposed that the Venusian features with complete bright ring appearances and sizes less than 100 km are impact craters. They have the same sizes as lunar craters and could have evolved to radar bright rings via analogous surface processes.

  15. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  16. Ocular hazards of light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The eye is protected against bright light by the natural aversion response to viewing bright light sources. The aversion response normally protects the eye against injury from viewing bright light sources such as the sun, arc lamps and welding arcs, since this aversion limits the duration of exposure to a fraction of a second (about 0.25 s). The principal retinal hazard resulting from viewing bright light sources is photoretinitis, e.g., solar retinitis with an accompanying scotoma which results from staring at the sun. Solar retinitis was once referred to as 'eclipse blindness' and associated 'retinal burn'. Only in recent years has it become clear that photoretinitis results from a photochemical injury mechanism following exposure of the retina to shorter wavelengths in the visible spectrum, i.e., violet and blue light. Prior to conclusive animal experiments at that time, it was thought to be a thermal injury mechanism. However, it has been shown conclusively that an intense exposure to short-wavelength light (hereafter referred to as 'blue light') can cause retinal injury. The product of the dose-rate and the exposure duration always must result in the same exposure dose (in joules-per-square centimeter at the retina) to produce a threshold injury. Blue-light retinal injury (photoretinitis) can result from viewing either an extremely bright light for a short time, or a less bright light for longer exposure periods. This characteristic of photochemical injury mechanisms is termed reciprocity and helps to distinguish these effects from thermal burns, where heat conduction requires a very intense exposure within seconds to cause a retinal coagulation otherwise, surrounding tissue conducts the heat away from the retinal image. Injury thresholds for acute injury in experimental animals for both corneal and retinal effects have been corroborated for the human eye from accident data. Occupational safety limits for exposure to UVR and bright light are based upon this

  17. Dark-Bright Soliton Dynamics Beyond the Mean-Field Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsimiga, Garyfallia; Koutentakis, Georgios; Mistakidis, Simeon; Kevrekidis, Panagiotis; Schmelcher, Peter; Theory Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of dark bright solitons beyond the mean-field approximation is investigated. We first examine the case of a single dark-bright soliton and its oscillations within a parabolic trap. Subsequently, we move to the setting of collisions, comparing the mean-field approximation to that involving multiple orbitals in both the dark and the bright component. Fragmentation is present and significantly affects the dynamics, especially in the case of slower solitons and in that of lower atom numbers. It is shown that the presence of fragmentation allows for bipartite entanglement between the distinguishable species. Most importantly the interplay between fragmentation and entanglement leads to the decay of each of the initial mean-field dark-bright solitons into fast and slow fragmented dark-bright structures. A variety of excitations including dark-bright solitons in multiple (concurrently populated) orbitals is observed. Dark-antidark states and domain-wall-bright soliton complexes can also be observed to arise spontaneously in the beyond mean-field dynamics. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.

  18. Melanopsin-based brightness discrimination in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy M; Tsujimura, Sei-Ichi; Allen, Annette E; Wynne, Jonathan; Bedford, Robert; Vickery, Graham; Vugler, Anthony; Lucas, Robert J

    2012-06-19

    Photoreception in the mammalian retina is not restricted to rods and cones but extends to a small number of intrinsically photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), expressing the photopigment melanopsin. ipRGCs are known to support various accessory visual functions including circadian photoentrainment and pupillary reflexes. However, despite anatomical and physiological evidence that they contribute to the thalamocortical visual projection, no aspect of visual discrimination has been shown to rely upon ipRGCs. Based on their currently known roles, we hypothesized that ipRGCs may contribute to distinguishing brightness. This percept is related to an object's luminance-a photometric measure of light intensity relevant for cone photoreceptors. However, the perceived brightness of different sources is not always predicted by their respective luminance. Here, we used parallel behavioral and electrophysiological experiments to first show that melanopsin contributes to brightness discrimination in both retinally degenerate and fully sighted mice. We continued to use comparable paradigms in psychophysical experiments to provide evidence for a similar role in healthy human subjects. These data represent the first direct evidence that an aspect of visual discrimination in normally sighted subjects can be supported by inner retinal photoreceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. On correct evaluation techniques of brightness enhancement effect measurement data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukačka, Leoš; Dupuis, Pascal; Motomura, Hideki; Rozkovec, Jiří; Kolář, Milan; Zissis, Georges; Jinno, Masafumi

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to establish confidence intervals of the quantification of brightness enhancement effects resulting from the use of pulsing bright light. It is found that the methods used so far may yield significant bias in the published results, overestimating or underestimating the enhancement effect. The authors propose to use a linear algebra method called the total least squares. Upon an example dataset, it is shown that this method does not yield biased results. The statistical significance of the results is also computed. It is concluded over an observation set that the currently used linear algebra methods present many patterns of noise sensitivity. Changing algorithm details leads to inconsistent results. It is thus recommended to use the method with the lowest noise sensitivity. Moreover, it is shown that this method also permits one to obtain an estimate of the confidence interval. This paper neither aims to publish results about a particular experiment nor to draw any particular conclusion about existence or nonexistence of the brightness enhancement effect.

  20. Studying the Fine Structure and Temporal Variations of the Zodiacal Cloud and Asteroidal Dust Bands Using the 3-Year Near-IR COBE-DIRBE Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaraman, Sumita

    1999-01-01

    The report presents the results of the data analyses of the DIRBE-COBE data set to study the structure of the zodiacal cloud in the near-infrared wavebands at 1.2, 2.2, and 3.4 microns. The cloud has been divided into two components which have been analyzed and studied separately. The annual variation of the flux in the smooth or low frequency component has been measured in all three bands and the presence of any asymmetries due to the Earth's resonant ring have been studied. The high frequency component which primarily consisted of the asteroidal dust bands. Extensive and careful co-addition was done to extract the central bands in all three wavebands. The ten-degree bands are present in the 1.2 and 2.2 microns but not in the 3.4 micron waveband.

  1. Colour cues proved to be more informative for dogs than brightness.

    PubMed

    Kasparson, Anna A; Badridze, Jason; Maximov, Vadim V

    2013-09-07

    The results of early studies on colour vision in dogs led to the conclusion that chromatic cues are unimportant for dogs during their normal activities. Nevertheless, the canine retina possesses two cone types which provide at least the potential for colour vision. Recently, experiments controlling for the brightness information in visual stimuli demonstrated that dogs have the ability to perform chromatic discrimination. Here, we show that for eight previously untrained dogs colour proved to be more informative than brightness when choosing between visual stimuli differing both in brightness and chromaticity. Although brightness could have been used by the dogs in our experiments (unlike previous studies), it was not. Our results demonstrate that under natural photopic lighting conditions colour information may be predominant even for animals that possess only two spectral types of cone photoreceptors.

  2. Dark Lakes on a Bright Landscape

    2013-10-23

    Ultracold hydrocarbon lakes and seas dark shapes near the north pole of Saturn moon Titan can be seen embedded in some kind of bright surface material in this infrared mosaic from NASA Cassini mission.

  3. Occator Bright Spots in 3-D

    2017-03-09

    This 3-D image, or anaglyph, shows the center of Occator Crater, the brightest area on dwarf planet Ceres, using data from NASA's Dawn mission. The bright central area, including a dome that is 0.25 miles (400 meters) high, is called Cerealia Facula. The secondary, scattered bright areas are called Vinalia Faculae. A 2017 study suggests that the central bright area is significantly younger than Occator Crater. Estimates put Cerealia Facula at 4 million years old, while Occator Crater is approximately 34 million years old. The reflective material that appears so bright in this image is made of carbonate salts, according to Dawn researchers. The Vinalia Faculae seem to be composed of carbonates mixed with dark material. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21398

  4. BrightStat.com: free statistics online.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Powerful software for statistical analysis is expensive. Here I present BrightStat, a statistical software running on the Internet which is free of charge. BrightStat's goals, its main capabilities and functionalities are outlined. Three different sample runs, a Friedman test, a chi-square test, and a step-wise multiple regression are presented. The results obtained by BrightStat are compared with results computed by SPSS, one of the global leader in providing statistical software, and VassarStats, a collection of scripts for data analysis running on the Internet. Elementary statistics is an inherent part of academic education and BrightStat is an alternative to commercial products.

  5. Time-resolved brightness measurements by streaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrance, Joshua S.; Speirs, Rory W.; McCulloch, Andrew J.; Scholten, Robert E.

    2018-03-01

    Brightness is a key figure of merit for charged particle beams, and time-resolved brightness measurements can elucidate the processes involved in beam creation and manipulation. Here we report on a simple, robust, and widely applicable method for the measurement of beam brightness with temporal resolution by streaking one-dimensional pepperpots, and demonstrate the technique to characterize electron bunches produced from a cold-atom electron source. We demonstrate brightness measurements with 145 ps temporal resolution and a minimum resolvable emittance of 40 nm rad. This technique provides an efficient method of exploring source parameters and will prove useful for examining the efficacy of techniques to counter space-charge expansion, a critical hurdle to achieving single-shot imaging of atomic scale targets.

  6. Winter sky brightness & cloud cover over Dome A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Moore, A. M.; Fu, J.; Ashley, M.; Cui, X.; Feng, L.; Gong, X.; Hu, Z.; Laurence, J.; LuongVan, D.; Riddle, R. L.; Shang, Z.; Sims, G.; Storey, J.; Tothill, N.; Travouillon, T.; Wang, L.; Yang, H.; Yang, J.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.; Burton, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    At the summit of the Antarctic plateau, Dome A offers an intriguing location for future large scale optical astronomical Observatories. The Gattini DomeA project was created to measure the optical sky brightness and large area cloud cover of the winter-time sky above this high altitude Antarctic site. The wide field camera and multi-filter system was installed on the PLATO instrument module as part of the Chinese-led traverse to Dome A in January 2008. This automated wide field camera consists of an Apogee U4000 interline CCD coupled to a Nikon fish-eye lens enclosed in a heated container with glass window. The system contains a filter mechanism providing a suite of standard astronomical photometric filters (Bessell B, V, R), however, the absence of tracking systems, together with the ultra large field of view 85 degrees) and strong distortion have driven us to seek a unique way to build our data reduction pipeline. We present here the first measurements of sky brightness in the photometric B, V, and R band, cloud cover statistics measured during the 2009 winter season and an estimate of the transparency. In addition, we present example light curves for bright targets to emphasize the unprecedented observational window function available from this ground-based location. A ~0.2 magnitude agreement of our simultaneous test at Palomar Observatory with NSBM(National Sky Brightness Monitor), as well as an 0.04 magnitude photometric accuracy for typical 6th magnitude stars limited by the instrument design, indicating we obtained reasonable results based on our ~7mm effective aperture fish-eye lens.

  7. New Observations of Subarcsecond Photospheric Bright Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Scharmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an interference filter centered at 4305 A within the bandhead of the CH radical (the 'G band') and real-time image selection at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma to produce very high contrast images of subarcsecond photospheric bright points at all locations on the solar disk. During the 6 day period of 1993 September 15-20 we observed active region NOAA 7581 from its appearance on the East limb to a near-disk-center position on September 20. A total of 1804 bright points were selected for analysis from the disk center image using feature extraction image processing techniques. The measured Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) distribution of the bright points in the image is lognormal with a modal value of 220 km (0 sec .30) and an average value of 250 km (0 sec .35). The smallest measured bright point diameter is 120 km (0 sec .17) and the largest is 600 km (O sec .69). Approximately 60% of the measured bright points are circular (eccentricity approx. 1.0), the average eccentricity is 1.5, and the maximum eccentricity corresponding to filigree in the image is 6.5. The peak contrast of the measured bright points is normally distributed. The contrast distribution variance is much greater than the measurement accuracy, indicating a large spread in intrinsic bright-point contrast. When referenced to an averaged 'quiet-Sun' area in the image, the modal contrast is 29% and the maximum value is 75%; when referenced to an average intergranular lane brightness in the image, the distribution has a modal value of 61% and a maximum of 119%. The bin-averaged contrast of G-band bright points is constant across the entire measured size range. The measured area of the bright points, corrected for pixelation and selection effects, covers about 1.8% of the total image area. Large pores and micropores occupy an additional 2% of the image area, implying a total area fraction of magnetic proxy features in the image of 3.8%. We discuss the implications of this

  8. New Observations of Subarcsecond Photospheric Bright Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, T. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Shine, R. A.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Scharmer, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have used an interference filter centered at 4305 A within the bandhead of the CH radical (the 'G band') and real-time image selection at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma to produce very high contrast images of subarcsecond photospheric bright points at all locations on the solar disk. During the 6 day period of 15-20 Sept. 1993 we observed active region NOAA 7581 from its appearance on the East limb to a near-disk-center position on 20 Sept. A total of 1804 bright points were selected for analysis from the disk center image using feature extraction image processing techniques. The measured FWHM distribution of the bright points in the image is lognormal with a modal value of 220 km (0.30 sec) and an average value of 250 km (0.35 sec). The smallest measured bright point diameter is 120 km (0.17 sec) and the largest is 600 km (O.69 sec). Approximately 60% of the measured bright points are circular (eccentricity approx. 1.0), the average eccentricity is 1.5, and the maximum eccentricity corresponding to filigree in the image is 6.5. The peak contrast of the measured bright points is normally distributed. The contrast distribution variance is much greater than the measurement accuracy, indicating a large spread in intrinsic bright-point contrast. When referenced to an averaged 'quiet-Sun' area in the image, the modal contrast is 29% and the maximum value is 75%; when referenced to an average intergranular lane brightness in the image, the distribution has a modal value of 61% and a maximum of 119%. The bin-averaged contrast of G-band bright points is constant across the entire measured size range. The measured area of the bright points, corrected for pixelation and selection effects, covers about 1.8% of the total image area. Large pores and micropores occupy an additional 2% of the image area, implying a total area fraction of magnetic proxy features in the image of 3.8%. We discuss the implications of this area fraction measurement in the context of

  9. Magnetic topological analysis of coronal bright points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galsgaard, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Huang, Z.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2017-10-01

    Context. We report on the first of a series of studies on coronal bright points which investigate the physical mechanism that generates these phenomena. Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand the magnetic-field structure that hosts the bright points. Methods: We use longitudinal magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope with the Narrowband Filter Imager. For a single case, magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were added to the analysis. The longitudinal magnetic field component is used to derive the potential magnetic fields of the large regions around the bright points. A magneto-static field extrapolation method is tested to verify the accuracy of the potential field modelling. The three dimensional magnetic fields are investigated for the presence of magnetic null points and their influence on the local magnetic domain. Results: In nine out of ten cases the bright point resides in areas where the coronal magnetic field contains an opposite polarity intrusion defining a magnetic null point above it. We find that X-ray bright points reside, in these nine cases, in a limited part of the projected fan-dome area, either fully inside the dome or expanding over a limited area below which typically a dominant flux concentration resides. The tenth bright point is located in a bipolar loop system without an overlying null point. Conclusions: All bright points in coronal holes and two out of three bright points in quiet Sun regions are seen to reside in regions containing a magnetic null point. An as yet unidentified process(es) generates the brigh points in specific regions of the fan-dome structure. The movies are available at http://www.aanda.org

  10. A Calibrated Measurement of the Near-IR Continuum Sky Brightness Using Magellan/FIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Peter W.; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2012-12-01

    We characterize the near-IR sky background from 308 observations with the Folded-port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) spectrograph at Magellan. A subset of 105 observations selected to minimize lunar and thermal effects gives a continuous, median spectrum from 0.83 to 2.5 μm, which we present in Table 2. The data are used to characterize the broadband continuum emission between atmospheric OH features and correlate its properties with observing conditions such as lunar angle and time of night. We find that the Moon contributes significantly to the inter-line continuum in Y and J bands, whereas the observed H-band continuum is dominated by the blended Lorentzian wings of multiple OH line profiles, even at R = 6000. Lunar effects may be mitigated in Y and J through careful scheduling of observations, but the most ambitious near-IR programs will benefit from allocation during dark observing time if those observations are not limited by read noise. In Y and J, our measured continuum exceeds space-based average estimates of the zodiacal light, but it is not readily identified with known terrestrial foregrounds. If further measurements confirm such a fundamental background, it would impact requirements for OH-suppressed instruments operating in this regime.

  11. Synoptic maps for the heliospheric Thomson scattering brightness as observed by the Helios photometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B. V.; Schwenn, R.

    1991-01-01

    A method for displaying the electron Thomson scattering intensity in the inner heliosphere as observed by the zodiacal light photometers on board the Helios spacecraft in the form of synoptic maps is presented. The method is based on the assumption that the bulk of the scattering electrons along the line of sight is located near the point closest to the sun. Inner-heliospheric structures will generally be represented properly in these synoptic maps only if they are sufficiently long-lived (that is, a significant fraction of a solar rotation period). The examples of Helios synoptic maps discussed (from data in April 1976 and November 1978), indicate that it is possible to identify large-scale, long-lived density enhancements in the inner heliosphere. It is expected that the Helios synoptic maps will be particularly useful in the study of corotating structures (e.g., streamers), and the maps will be most reliable during periods when few transient featurs are present in the corona, i.e., during solar minimum.

  12. Brightness masking is modulated by disparity structure.

    PubMed

    Pelekanos, Vassilis; Ban, Hiroshi; Welchman, Andrew E

    2015-05-01

    The luminance contrast at the borders of a surface strongly influences surface's apparent brightness, as demonstrated by a number of classic visual illusions. Such phenomena are compatible with a propagation mechanism believed to spread contrast information from borders to the interior. This process is disrupted by masking, where the perceived brightness of a target is reduced by the brief presentation of a mask (Paradiso & Nakayama, 1991), but the exact visual stage that this happens remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether brightness masking occurs at a monocular-, or a binocular-level of the visual hierarchy. We used backward masking, whereby a briefly presented target stimulus is disrupted by a mask coming soon afterwards, to show that brightness masking is affected by binocular stages of the visual processing. We manipulated the 3-D configurations (slant direction) of the target and mask and measured the differential disruption that masking causes on brightness estimation. We found that the masking effect was weaker when stimuli had a different slant. We suggest that brightness masking is partly mediated by mid-level neuronal mechanisms, at a stage where binocular disparity edge structure has been extracted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiwavelength Study of Gamma-Ray Bright Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Larionov, V. M.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Troitskii, I. S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate total intensity radio images of 6 gamma-ray bright blazars (BL Lac, 3C 279, 3C 273, W Com, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A) and their optical and gamma-ray light curves to study connections between gamma-ray and optical brightness variations and changes in the parsec-scale radio structure. We use high-resolution maps obtained by the BU group at 43 GHz with the VLBA, optical light curves constructed by the St.Petersburg State U. (Russia) team using measurements with the 0.4 m telescope of St.Petersburg State U. (LX200) and the 0.7 m telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (AZT-8), and gamma-ray light curves, which we have constructed with data provided by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Over the period from August 2008 to November 2009, superluminal motion is found in all 6 objects with apparent speed ranging from 2c to 40c. The blazars with faster apparent speeds, 3C 273, 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A, exhibit stronger variability of the gamma-ray emission. There is a tendency for sources with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares to have faster jet speed than sources with gamma-ray light curves with no sharp peaks. Gamma-ray light curves with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares possess a stronger gamma-ray/optical correlations. The research at St.Petersburg State U. was funded by the Minister of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (state contract N#P123). The research at BU was funded in part by NASA Fermi Guest Investigator grant NNX08AV65G and by NSF grant AST-0907893. The VLBA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  14. Future Looks Bright for Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    First Light for the PRIMA instrument The PRIMA instrument [1] of the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) recently saw "first light" at its new home atop Cerro Paranal in Chile. When fully operational, PRIMA will boost the capabilities of the VLTI to see sources much fainter than any previous interferometers, and enable astrometric precision unmatched by any other existing astronomical facility. PRIMA will be a unique tool for the detection of exoplanets. First Light of the PRIMA Instrument ESO PR Photo 29a/08 Preparing for PRIMA "PRIMA is specifically designed to see if one star 'wobbles' to and fro because it is has unseen planetary companions", says instrument scientist Gerard van Belle. "This allows us to not only detect exoplanets, but to measure their mass." PRIMA's expected astrometric precision of tens of micro-arcseconds is unmatched by any other existing astronomical facility, whether on the ground or in orbit [2]. In addition to taking astrometric measurements PRIMA will be the key to the imaging of faint sources with the VLTI using the science instruments AMBER and MIDI. Interferometry combines the light received by two or more telescopes, concentrating on tiny differences between the signals to measure angles with exquisite precision. Using this technique PRIMA can pick out details as sharply as a single telescope with a diameter equivalent to the largest distance between the telescopes. For the VLTI, the distance between the two telescope elements is about 200 metres. The PRIMA instrument is unique amongst the VLTI instruments, in that it is effectively two interferometers in one. PRIMA will take data from two sources on the sky simultaneously: the brighter source can be used for tracking, allowing the interferometer to "stare" at the fainter source for longer than is now possible with conventional interferometers. Although there have been earlier pathfinder experiments to test this technique, PRIMA represents the first facility

  15. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness

    PubMed Central

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Duriscoe, Dan; Kyba, Christopher C. M.; Elvidge, Christopher D.; Baugh, Kimberly; Portnov, Boris A.; Rybnikova, Nataliya A.; Furgoni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution—artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world’s land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights. PMID:27386582

  16. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Duriscoe, Dan; Kyba, Christopher C M; Elvidge, Christopher D; Baugh, Kimberly; Portnov, Boris A; Rybnikova, Nataliya A; Furgoni, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    Artificial lights raise night sky luminance, creating the most visible effect of light pollution-artificial skyglow. Despite the increasing interest among scientists in fields such as ecology, astronomy, health care, and land-use planning, light pollution lacks a current quantification of its magnitude on a global scale. To overcome this, we present the world atlas of artificial sky luminance, computed with our light pollution propagation software using new high-resolution satellite data and new precision sky brightness measurements. This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans. Moreover, 23% of the world's land surfaces between 75°N and 60°S, 88% of Europe, and almost half of the United States experience light-polluted nights.

  17. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, R; Manikandan, N; Aravinthan, K

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  18. Red-emission phosphor's brightness deterioration by x-ray and brightness recovery phenomenon by heating.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masaaki; Chida, Koichi; Inaba, Yohei; Kobayashi, Ryota; Zuguchi, Masayuki

    2017-06-26

    There are no feasible real-time and direct skin dosimeters for interventional radiology. One would be available if there were x-ray phosphors that had no brightness change caused by x-ray irradiation, but the emission of the Y 2 O 3 :Eu, (Y, Gd, Eu)BO 3 , and YVO 4 :Eu phosphors investigated in our previous study was reduced by x-ray irradiation. We found that the brightness of those phosphors recovered, and the purpose of this study is to investigate their recovery phenomena. It is expected that more kinds of phosphors could be used in x-ray dosimeters if the brightness changes caused by x-rays are elucidated and prevented. Three kinds of phosphors-Y 2 O 3 :Eu, (Y, Gd, Eu)BO 3 , and YVO 4 :Eu-were irradiated by x-rays (2 Gy) to reduce their brightness. After the irradiation, brightness changes occurring at room temperature and at 80 °C were investigated. The irradiation reduced the brightness of all the phosphors by 5%-10%, but the brightness of each recovered immediately both at room temperature and at 80 °C. The recovery at 80 °C was faster than that at room temperature, and at both temperatures the recovered brightness remained at 95%-98% of the brightness before the x-ray irradiation. The brightness recovery phenomena of Y 2 O 3 :Eu, (Y, Gd, Eu)BO 3 , and YVO 4 :Eu phosphors occurring after brightness deterioration due to x-ray irradiation were found to be more significant at 80 °C than at room temperature. More kinds of phosphors could be used in x-ray scintillation dosimeters if the reasons for the brightness changes caused by x-rays were elucidated.

  19. An Ultraviolet/Optical Atlas of Bright Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcum, Pamela M.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Fanelli, Michael N.; Cornett, Robert H.; Waller, William H.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Neff, Susan G.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Cheng, K.-P.; Collins, Nicholas R.; Hennessy, Gregory S.; Hill, Jesse K.; Hill, Robert S.; Hintzen, Paul; Landsman, Wayne B.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Parise, Ronald A.; Smith, Eric P.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Kuchinski, Leslie E.; Madore, Barry; Angione, Ronald; Palma, Christopher; Talbert, Freddie; Stecher, Theodore P.

    2001-02-01

    We present wide-field imagery and photometry of 43 selected nearby galaxies of all morphological types at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. The ultraviolet (UV) images, in two broad bands at 1500 and 2500 Å, were obtained using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) during the Astro-1 Spacelab mission. The UV images have ~3" resolution, and the comparison sets of ground-based CCD images (in one or more of B, V, R, and Hα) have pixel scales and fields of view closely matching the UV frames. The atlas consists of multiband images and plots of UV/optical surface brightness and color profiles. Other associated parameters, such as integrated photometry and half-light radii, are tabulated. In an appendix, we discuss the sensitivity of different wavebands to a galaxy's star formation history in the form of ``history weighting functions'' and emphasize the importance of UV observations as probes of evolution during the past 10-1000 Myr. We find that UV galaxy morphologies are usually significantly different from visible band morphologies as a consequence of spatially inhomogeneous stellar populations. Differences are quite pronounced for systems in the middle range of Hubble types, Sa through Sc, but less so for ellipticals or late-type disks. Normal ellipticals and large spiral bulges are fainter and more compact in the UV. However, they typically exhibit smooth UV profiles with far-UV/optical color gradients which are larger than any at optical/IR wavelengths. The far-UV light in these cases is probably produced by extreme horizontal branch stars and their descendants in the dominant, low-mass, metal-rich population. The cool stars in the large bulges of Sa and Sb spirals fade in the UV while hot OB stars in their disks brighten, such that their Hubble classifications become significantly later. In the far-UV, early-type spirals often appear as peculiar, ringlike systems. In some spiral disks, UV-bright structures closely outline the spiral pattern; in others, the

  20. Microwave Brightness Temperatures of Tilted Convective Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Ye; Haferman, Jeffrey L.; Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft and ground-based radar data from the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled-Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) show that convective systems are not always vertical. Instead, many are tilted from vertical. Satellite passive microwave radiometers observe the atmosphere at a viewing angle. For example, the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) on the TRMM satellite have an incident angle of about 50deg. Thus, the brightness temperature measured from one direction of tilt may be different than that viewed from the opposite direction due to the different optical depth. This paper presents the investigation of passive microwave brightness temperatures of tilted convective systems. To account for the effect of tilt, a 3-D backward Monte Carlo radiative transfer model has been applied to a simple tilted cloud model and a dynamically evolving cloud model to derive the brightness temperature. The radiative transfer results indicate that brightness temperature varies when the viewing angle changes because of the different optical depth. The tilt increases the displacements between high 19 GHz brightness temperature (Tb(sub 19)) due to liquid emission from lower level of cloud and the low 85 GHz brightness temperature (Tb(sub 85)) due to ice scattering from upper level of cloud. As the resolution degrades, the difference of brightness temperature due to the change of viewing angle decreases dramatically. The dislocation between Tb(sub 19) and Tb(sub 85), however, remains prominent.

  1. TIGER Burned Brightly in JAMIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    The Transition From Ignition to Flame Growth Under External Radiation in 3D (TIGER- 3D) experiment, which is slated to fly aboard the International Space Station, conducted a series of highly successful tests in collaboration with the University of Hokkaido using Japan's 10-sec JAMIC drop tower. The tests were conducted to test engineering versions of advanced flight diagnostics such as an infrared camera for detailed surface temperature measurements and an infrared spectroscopic array for gas-phase species concentrations and temperatures based on detailed spectral emissions in the near infrared. Shown in the top figure is a visible light image and in the bottom figure is an infrared image at 3.8 mm obtained during the microgravity tests. The images show flames burning across cellulose samples against a slow wind of a few centimeters per second (wind is from right to left). These flow velocities are typical of spacecraft ventilation systems that provide fresh air for the astronauts. The samples are ignited across the center with a hot wire, and the flame is allowed to spread upwind and/or downwind. As these images show, the flames prefer to spread upwind, into the fresh air, which is the exact opposite of flames on Earth, which spread much faster downwind, or with the airflow, as in forest fires.

  2. High-Brightness Lasers with Spectral Beam Combining on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Eric John

    Modern implementations of absorption spectroscopy and infrared-countermeasures demand advanced performance and integration of high-brightness lasers, especially in the molecular fingerprint spectral region. These applications, along with others in communication, remote-sensing, and medicine, benefit from the light source comprising a multitude of frequencies. To realize this technology, a single multi-spectral optical beam of near-diffraction-limited divergence is created by combining the outputs from an array of laser sources. Full integration of such a laser is possible with direct bonding of several epitaxially-grown chips to a single silicon (Si) substrate. In this platform, an array of lasers is defined with each gain material, creating a densely spaced set of wavelengths similar to wavelength division multiplexing used in communications. Scaling the brightness of a laser typically involves increasing the active volume to produce more output power. In the direction transverse to the light propagation, larger geometries compromise the beam quality. Lengthening the cavity provides only limited scaling of the output power due to the internal losses. Individual integrated lasers have low brightness due to combination of thermal effects and high optical intensities. With heterogeneous integration, many lasers can be spectrally combined on a single integrated chip to scale brightness in a compact platform. Recent demonstrations of 2.0-microm diode and 4.8-microm quantum cascade lasers on Si have extended this heterogeneous platform beyond the telecommunications band to the mid-infrared. In this work, low-loss beam combining elements spanning the visible to the mid-infrared are developed and a high-brightness multi-spectral laser is demonstrated in the range of 4.6-4.7-microm wavelengths. An architecture is presented where light is combined in multiple stages: first within the gain-bandwidth of each laser material and then coarsely between each spectral band to a

  3. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time (ZEIT). VI. A Three-planet System in the Hyades Cluster Including an Earth-sized Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Andrew W.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Kraus, Adam L.; Berlind, Perry; Bieryla, Allyson; Calkins, Michael L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Latham, David W.; Mace, Gregory N.; Morris, Nathan R.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Stefanik, Robert P.

    2018-01-01

    Planets in young clusters are powerful probes of the evolution of planetary systems. Here we report the discovery of three planets transiting EPIC 247589423, a late-K dwarf in the Hyades (≃800 Myr) cluster, and robust detection limits for additional planets in the system. The planets were identified from their K2 light curves as part of our survey of young clusters and star-forming regions. The smallest planet has a radius comparable to Earth ({0.99}-0.04+0.06{R}\\oplus ), making it one of the few Earth-sized planets with a known, young age. The two larger planets are likely a mini-Neptune and a super-Earth, with radii of {2.91}-0.10+0.11{R}\\oplus and {1.45}-0.08+0.11{R}\\oplus , respectively. The predicted radial velocity signals from these planets are between 0.4 and 2 m s-1, achievable with modern precision RV spectrographs. Because the target star is bright (V = 11.2) and has relatively low-amplitude stellar variability for a young star (2-6 mmag), EPIC 247589423 hosts the best known planets in a young open cluster for precise radial velocity follow-up, enabling a robust test of earlier claims that young planets are less dense than their older counterparts.

  4. A list of some bright objects which S-052 can observe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquire, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    In order to find out the precise orientation of the photographs obtained by the High Altitude Observatory's ATM white light coronagraph, celestial objects must appear on each roll of film. A list of such bright objects and the times during which they can be observed is presented.

  5. Lighting for Our Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, John C.

    In this speech, the author traces the history of lighting in schools, discusses the variables affecting the amount of illuminance needed, and provides a table of illuminances recommended for Ontario schools. Other factors that affect vision--glare, veiling reflection, color, and brightness balance--are outlined. Planners are admonished to…

  6. Bright perspectives for nuclear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.

    2014-05-01

    With the advent of new high-power, short-pulse laser facilities in combination with novel technologies for the production of highly brilliant, intense γ beams (like, e.g., Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Bucharest, MEGaRay in Livermore or a planned upgrade of the HIγS facility at Duke University), unprecedented perspectives will open up in the coming years for photonuclear physics both in basic sciences as in various fields of applications. Ultra-high sensitivity will be enabled by an envisaged increase of the γ-beam spectral density from the presently typical 102γ/eVs to about 104γ/eVs, thus enabling a new quality of nuclear photonics [1], assisted by new γ-optical elements [2]. Photonuclear reactions with highly brilliant γ beams will allow to produce radioisotopes for nuclear medicine with much higher specific activity and/or more economically than with conventional methods. This will open the door for completely new clinical applications of radioisotopes [3]. The isotopic, state-selective sensitivity of the well-established technique of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) will be boosted by the drastically reduced energy bandwidth (<0.1%) of the novel γ beams. Together with a much higher intensity of these beams, this will pave the road towards a γ-beam based non-invasive tomography and microscopy, assisting the management of nuclear materials, such as radioactive waste management, the detection of nuclear fissile material in the recycling process or the detection of clandestine fissile materials. Moreover, also secondary sources like low-energy, pulsed, polarized neutron beams of high intensity and high brilliance [4] or a new type of positron source with significantly increased brilliance, for the first time fully polarized [5], can be realized and lead to new applications in solid state physics or material sciences.

  7. Color constancy using bright-neutral pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanfang; Luo, Yupin

    2014-03-01

    An effective illuminant-estimation approach for color constancy is proposed. Bright and near-neutral pixels are selected to jointly represent the illuminant color and utilized for illuminant estimation. To assess the representing capability of pixels, bright-neutral strength (BNS) is proposed by combining pixel chroma and brightness. Accordingly, a certain percentage of pixels with the largest BNS is selected to be the representative set. For every input image, a proper percentage value is determined via an iterative strategy by seeking the optimal color-corrected image. To compare various color-corrected images of an input image, image color-cast degree (ICCD) is devised using means and standard deviations of RGB channels. Experimental evaluation on standard real-world datasets validates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  8. Twilight sky brightness measurements as a useful tool for stratospheric aerosol investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateshvili, Nina; Fussen, Didier; Vanhellemont, Filip; Bingen, Christine; KyröLä, Erkki; Mateshvili, Iuri; Mateshvili, Giuli

    2005-05-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how twilight sky brightness measurements can be used to obtain information about stratospheric aerosols. Beside this, the measurements of the distribution and the variability of the twilight sky brightness may help to understand how the stratospheric aerosols affect the radiation field, which is important for correct calculations of photodissociation rates. Multispectral measurements of twilight sky brightness were carried out in Abastumani Observatory (41.8°N, 42.8°E), Georgia, South Caucasus, during the period (1991-1993) when the level of stratospheric aerosols was substantially enhanced after the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption. The twilight sky brightness was measured at 9 wavelengths (422, 474, 496, 542, 610, 642, 678, 713, and 820 nm) for solar zenith angles from 89° to 107°. There are clear indications of a growth of the stratospheric aerosol layer after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo that manifests itself by "humps" in twilight sky brightness dependences versus solar zenith angle. Similar features were obtained using a radiative transfer code constrained by the SAGE II aerosol optical thicknesses. It is shown how an enhancement of stratospheric aerosol loading perturbs the twilight sky brightness due to light scattering and absorption in the aerosol layer. The influence of ozone variations and background stratospheric aerosols on twilight sky brightness has also been analyzed. The optical thicknesses of the stratospheric aerosol layer obtained from the twilight measurements of 1990-1993 show a good agreement with SAGE II results. The spectral variations of the stratospheric aerosol extinction for pre-Pinatubo and post-Pinatubo measurements reflect the aerosol growth after the eruption. Finally, the utilization of twilight sky brightness measurements for validation of satellite-based measurements of the stratospheric aerosol is proposed.

  9. A brightness exceeding simulated Langmuir limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasuji, Mamoru

    2013-08-01

    When an excitation of the first lens determines a beam is parallel beam, a brightness that is 100 times higher than Langmuir limit is measured experimentally, where Langmuir limits are estimated using a simulated axial cathode current density which is simulated based on a measured emission current. The measured brightness is comparable to Langmuir limit, when the lens excitation is such that an image position is slightly shorter than a lens position. Previously measured values of brightness for cathode apical radii of curvature 20, 60, 120, 240, and 480 μm were 8.7, 5.3, 3.3, 2.4, and 3.9 times higher than their corresponding Langmuir limits, respectively, in this experiment, the lens excitation was such that the lens and the image positions were 180 mm and 400 mm, respectively. From these measured brightness for three different lens excitation conditions, it is concluded that the brightness depends on the first lens excitation. For the electron gun operated in a space charge limited condition, some of the electrons emitted from the cathode are returned to the cathode without having crossed a virtual cathode. Therefore, method that assumes a Langmuir limit defining method using a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities may need to be revised. For the condition in which the values of the exceeding the Langmuir limit are measured, the simulated trajectories of electrons that are emitted from the cathode do not cross the optical axis at the crossover, thus the law of sines may not be valid for high brightness electron beam systems.

  10. Quantum noise in bright soliton matterwave interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, Simon A.

    2018-03-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in matterwave interferometry with bright solitons in quantum gases with attractive interactions, for applications such as rotation sensing. We model the quantum dynamics of these systems and find that the attractive interactions required for the presence of bright solitons causes quantum phase-diffusion, which severely impairs the sensitivity. We propose a scheme that partially restores the sensitivity, but find that in the case of rotation sensing, it is still better to work in a regime with minimal interactions if possible.

  11. Comet brightness parameters: Definition, determination, and correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meisel, D. D.; Morris, C. S.

    1976-01-01

    The power-law definition of comet brightness is reviewed and possible systematic influences are discussed that can affect the derivation of m sub o and n values from visual magnitude estimates. A rationale for the Bobrovnikoff aperture correction method is given and it is demonstrated that the Beyer extrafocal method leads to large systematic effects which if uncorrected by an instrumental relationship result in values significantly higher than those derived according to the Bobrovnikoff guidelines. A series of visual brightness parameter sets are presented which have been reduced to the same photometric system. Recommendations are given to insure that future observations are reduced to the same system.

  12. Two bright fireballs over Great Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukal, Jakub; Káčerek, Richard

    2018-02-01

    On November 24, 2017 shortly before midnight and on November 25, 2017 shortly before sunrise, two very bright fireballs lit up the sky over the United Kingdom. The UKMON (United Kingdom Meteor Observation Network) cameras and onboard cameras in the automobiles recorded their flight. The fireballs paths in the Earth's atmosphere were calculated, as well as the orbits of bodies in the Solar System. The flight of both bodies, the absolute magnitude of which approached the brightness of the full Moon, was also observed by numerous random observers from the public in Great Britain, Ireland and France.

  13. VEGAS-SSS: A VST Programme to Study the Satellite Stellar Systems around Bright Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantiello, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Napolitano, N.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Paolillo, M.; Iodice, E.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Forbes, D. A.; Raimondo, G.; Spavone, M.; La Barbera, F.; Puzia, T. H.; Schipani, P.

    2015-03-01

    The VEGAS-SSS programme is devoted to studying the properties of small stellar systems (SSSs) in and around bright galaxies, built on the VLT Survey Telescope early-type galaxy survey (VEGAS), an ongoing guaranteed time imaging survey distributed over many semesters (Principal Investigator: Capaccioli). On completion, the VEGAS survey will have collected detailed photometric information of ~ 100 bright early-type galaxies to study the properties of diffuse light (surface brightness, colours, surface brightness fluctuations, etc.) and the distribution of clustered light (compact ''small'' stellar systems) out to previously unreached projected galactocentric radii. VEGAS-SSS will define an accurate and homogeneous dataset that will have an important legacy value for studies of the evolution and transformation processes taking place in galaxies through the fossil information provided by SSSs.

  14. But for the Bad, There Would Not Be Good: Grounding Valence in Brightness through Shared Relational Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakens, Daniel; Semin, Gun R.; Foroni, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Light and dark are used pervasively to represent positive and negative concepts. Recent studies suggest that black and white stimuli are automatically associated with negativity and positivity. However, structural factors in experimental designs, such as the shared opposition in the valence (good vs. bad) and brightness (light vs. dark) dimensions…

  15. Bright Soil Near 'McCool' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    While driving eastward toward the northwestern flank of 'McCool Hill,' the wheels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit churned up the largest amount of bright soil discovered so far in the mission. This image from Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam), taken on the rover's 788th Martian day, or sol, of exploration (March 22, 2006), shows the strikingly bright tone and large extent of the materials uncovered.

    Several days earlier, Spirit's wheels unearthed a small patch of light-toned material informally named 'Tyrone.' In images from Spirit's panoramic camera, 'Tyrone' strongly resembled both 'Arad' and 'Paso Robles,' two patches of light-toned soils discovered earlier in the mission. Spirit found 'Paso Robles' in 2005 while climbing 'Cumberland Ridge' on the western slope of 'Husband Hill.' In early January 2006, the rover discovered 'Arad' on the basin floor just south of 'Husband Hill.' Spirit's instruments confirmed that those soils had a salty chemistry dominated by iron-bearing sulfates. Spirit's Pancam and miniature thermal emission spectrometer examined this most recent discovery, and researchers will compare its properties with the properties of those other deposits.

    These discoveries indicate that salty, light-toned soil deposits might be widely distributed on the flanks and valley floors of the 'Columbia Hills' region in Gusev Crater on Mars. The salts, which are easily mobilized and concentrated in liquid solution, may record the past presence of water. So far, these enigmatic materials have generated more questions than answers, however, and as Spirit continues to drive across this region in search of a safe winter haven, the team continues to formulate and test hypotheses to explain the rover's most fascinating recent discovery.

    This image is a false-color rendering using using Pancam's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  16. Bright Soil Near 'McCool' (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    While driving eastward toward the northwestern flank of 'McCool Hill,' the wheels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit churned up the largest amount of bright soil discovered so far in the mission. This image from Spirit's panoramic camera (Pancam), taken on the rover's 788th Martian day, or sol, of exploration (March 22, 2006), shows the strikingly bright tone and large extent of the materials uncovered.

    Several days earlier, Spirit's wheels unearthed a small patch of light-toned material informally named 'Tyrone.' In images from Spirit's panoramic camera, 'Tyrone' strongly resembled both 'Arad' and 'Paso Robles,' two patches of light-toned soils discovered earlier in the mission. Spirit found 'Paso Robles' in 2005 while climbing 'Cumberland Ridge' on the western slope of 'Husband Hill.' In early January 2006, the rover discovered 'Arad' on the basin floor just south of 'Husband Hill.' Spirit's instruments confirmed that those soils had a salty chemistry dominated by iron-bearing sulfates. Spirit's Pancam and miniature thermal emission spectrometer examined this most recent discovery, and researchers will compare its properties with the properties of those other deposits.

    These discoveries indicate that salty, light-toned soil deposits might be widely distributed on the flanks and valley floors of the 'Columbia Hills' region in Gusev Crater on Mars. The salts, which are easily mobilized and concentrated in liquid solution, may record the past presence of water. So far, these enigmatic materials have generated more questions than answers, however, and as Spirit continues to drive across this region in search of a safe winter haven, the team continues to formulate and test hypotheses to explain the rover's most fascinating recent discovery.

    This stereo view combines images from the two blue (430-nanometer) filters in the Pancam's left and right 'eyes.' The image should be viewed using red-and-blue stereo glasses, with the red over your left

  17. Characterizing bars in low surface brightness disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Wesley; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we use B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm azimuthal light profiles of four low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs; UGC 628, F568-1, F568-3, F563-V2) to characterize three bar parameters: length, strength, and corotation radius. We employ three techniques to measure the radius of the bars, including a new method using the azimuthal light profiles. We find comparable bar radii between the I-band and 3.6 μm for all four galaxies when using our azimuthal light profile method, and that our bar lengths are comparable to those in high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs). In addition, we find the bar strengths for our galaxies to be smaller than those for HSBs. Finally, we use Fourier transforms of the B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm images to characterize the bars as either `fast' or `slow' by measuring the corotation radius via phase profiles. When using the B- and I-band phase crossings, we find three of our galaxies have faster than expected relative bar pattern speeds for galaxies expected to be embedded in centrally dense cold dark matter haloes. When using the B-band and 3.6 μm phase crossings, we find more ambiguous results, although the relative bar pattern speeds are still faster than expected. Since we find a very slow bar in F563-V2, we are confident that we are able to differentiate between fast and slow bars. Finally, we find no relation between bar strength and relative bar pattern speed when comparing our LSBs to HSBs.

  18. Silicon coupled with plasmon nanocavities generates bright visible hot luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Chang-Hee; Aspetti, Carlos O.; Park, Joohee; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2013-04-01

    To address the limitations in device speed and performance in silicon-based electronics, there have been extensive studies on silicon optoelectronics with a view to achieving ultrafast optical data processing. The biggest challenge has been to develop an efficient silicon-based light source, because the indirect bandgap of silicon gives rise to extremely low emission efficiencies. Although light emission in quantum-confined silicon at sub-10 nm length scales has been demonstrated, there are difficulties in integrating quantum structures with conventional electronics. It is desirable to develop new concepts to obtain emission from silicon at length scales compatible with current electronic devices (20-100 nm), which therefore do not utilize quantum-confinement effects. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new method to achieve bright visible light emission in `bulk-sized' silicon coupled with plasmon nanocavities at room temperature, from non-thermalized carrier recombination. The highly enhanced emission (internal quantum efficiency of >1%) in plasmonic silicon, together with its size compatibility with current silicon electronics, provides new avenues for developing monolithically integrated light sources on conventional microchips.

  19. Bright Soil Near 'McCool': Salty Deja Vu?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    While driving eastward toward the northwestern flank of 'McCool Hill,' the wheels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit churned up the largest amount of bright soil discovered so far in the mission. This image from Spirit's navigation camera, taken on the rover's 787th Martian day, or sol, of exploration (March 21, 2006), shows the strikingly light tone and large extent of the deposit.

    A few days earlier, Spirit's wheels unearthed a small patch of light-toned material informally named 'Tyrone.' In images from Spirit's panoramic camera, 'Tyrone' strongly resembled both 'Arad' and 'Paso Robles,' two patches of light-toned soils discovered earlier in the mission. Spirit found 'Paso Robles' in 2005 while climbing 'Cumberland Ridge' on the western slope of 'Husband Hill.' In early January 2006, the rover discovered 'Arad' on the basin floor just south of 'Husband Hill.' Spirit's instruments confirmed that those soils had a salty chemistry dominated by iron-bearing sulfates. Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer is analyzing this most recent discovery, and researchers will compare it with those other deposits.

    These discoveries indicate that light-toned soil deposits might be widely distributed on the flanks and valley floors of the 'Columbia Hills' region in Gusev Crater on Mars. The salts may record the past presence of water, as they are easily mobilized and concentrated in liquid solution.

  20. A 5-micron-bright spot on Titan: evidence for surface diversity.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jason W; Brown, Robert H; Turtle, Elizabeth P; McEwen, Alfred S; Lorenz, Ralph D; Janssen, Michael; Schaller, Emily L; Brown, Michael E; Buratti, Bonnie J; Sotin, Christophe; Griffith, Caitlin; Clark, Roger; Perry, Jason; Fussner, Stephanie; Barbara, John; West, Richard; Elachi, Charles; Bouchez, Antonin H; Roe, Henry G; Baines, Kevin H; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Cerroni, Priscilla; Combes, Michel; Coradini, Angioletta; Cruikshank, Dale P; Drossart, Pierre; Formisano, Vittorio; Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Matson, Dennis L; McCord, Thomas B; Nicholson, Phillip D; Sicardy, Bruno

    2005-10-07

    Observations from the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer show an anomalously bright spot on Titan located at 80 degrees W and 20 degrees S. This area is bright in reflected light at all observed wavelengths, but is most noticeable at 5 microns. The spot is associated with a surface albedo feature identified in images taken by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem. We discuss various hypotheses about the source of the spot, reaching the conclusion that the spot is probably due to variation in surface composition, perhaps associated with recent geophysical phenomena.

  1. Current development and patents on high-brightness white LED for illumination.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wen-Yuan; Lo, Ikai; Hsieh, Chia-Ho; Hsu, Yu-Chi; Chou, Ming-Chi; Shih, Cheng-Hung

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the current development and patents for the application of high-brightness and high-efficiency white light-emitting diode (LED). The high-efficiency GaN nanostructures, such as disk, pyramid, and rod were grown on LiAlO(2) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy, and a model was developed to demonstrate the growth of the GaN nanostructures. Based on the results, the GaN disk p-n junction was designed for the application of high brightness and high efficiency white LED.

  2. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

  3. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Luigi; Rosenzweig, J.; Serafini, Luca

    2007-09-01

    brightness photoinjector / M. Ferrario, V. Fusco, M. Migliorati and L. Palumbo. Simulations of coherent synchroton radiation effects in electron machines / M. Migliorati, A, Schiavi and G. Dattoli. QFEL: A numerical code for multi-dimensional simulation of free electron lasers in the quantum regime / A. Schiavi ... [et al.]. First simulations results on laser pulse jitter and microbunching instability at Saprxino / M. Boscolo ... [et al.]. -- Working Group 4. Working group 4 summary: applications of high brightness beams to advanced accelerators and light sources / M. Uesaka and A. Rossi. Study of transverse effects in the production of X-rays with free-electron laser based on an optical ondulator / A. Bacci ... [et al.]. Channeling projects at LNF: from crystal undulators to capillary waveguides / S.B. Dabagov ... [et al.]. Mono-Energetic electron generation and plasma diagnosis experiments in a laser plasma cathode / K. Kinoshita ... [et al.]. A high-density electron beam and quad-scan measurements at Pleiades Thompson X-ray source / J.K. Lim ... [et al.]. Laser pulse circulation system for compact monochromatic tunable hard X-ray source / H. Ogino ... [et al.]. Limits on production of narrow band photons from inverse compton scattering / J. Rosenzweig and O. Williams. Preliminary results from the UCLA/SLAC ultra-high gradient Cerenkov wakefield accelerator experiment / M.C. Thompson ... [et al.]. Status of the polarized nonlinear inverse compton scattering experiment at UCLA / O. Williams... [et al.]. Coupling laser power into a slab-symmetric accelerator structure / R.B. Yoder and J.B. Rosenzweig.

  4. The nature of solar brightness variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. I.; Solanki, S. K.; Krivova, N. A.; Cameron, R. H.; Yeo, K. L.; Schmutz, W. K.

    2017-09-01

    Determining the sources of solar brightness variations1,2, often referred to as solar noise3, is important because solar noise limits the detection of solar oscillations3, is one of the drivers of the Earth's climate system4,5 and is a prototype of stellar variability6,7—an important limiting factor for the detection of extrasolar planets. Here, we model the magnetic contribution to solar brightness variability using high-cadence8,9 observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Spectral And Total Irradiance REconstruction (SATIRE)10,11 model. The brightness variations caused by the constantly evolving cellular granulation pattern on the solar surface were computed with the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS)/University of Chicago Radiative Magnetohydrodynamics (MURaM)12 code. We found that the surface magnetic field and granulation can together precisely explain solar noise (that is, solar variability excluding oscillations) on timescales from minutes to decades, accounting for all timescales that have so far been resolved or covered by irradiance measurements. We demonstrate that no other sources of variability are required to explain the data. Recent measurements of Sun-like stars by the COnvection ROtation and planetary Transits (CoRoT)13 and Kepler14 missions uncovered brightness variations similar to that of the Sun, but with a much wider variety of patterns15. Our finding that solar brightness variations can be replicated in detail with just two well-known sources will greatly simplify future modelling of existing CoRoT and Kepler as well as anticipated Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite16 and PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO)17 data.

  5. Theoretical and Computational Investigation of High-Brightness Beams

    SciT

    Chen, Chiping

    Theoretical and computational investigations of adiabatic thermal beams have been carried out in parameter regimes relevant to the development of advanced high-brightness, high-power accelerators for high-energy physics research and for various applications such as light sources. Most accelerator applications require high-brightness beams. This is true for high-energy accelerators such as linear colliders. It is also true for energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and free electron lasers (FELs) such as x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The breakthroughs and highlights in our research in the period from February 1, 2013 to November 30, 2013 were: a) Completion of a preliminary theoretical and computationalmore » study of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flow (Mok, 2013); and b) Presentation of an invited paper entitled ?Adiabatic Thermal Beams in a Periodic Focusing Field? at Space Charge 2013 Workshop, CERN, April 16-19, 2013 (Chen, 2013). In this report, an introductory background for the research project is provided. Basic theory of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flow is reviewed. Results of simulation studies of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flows are discussed.« less

  6. High-brightness 9xxnm fiber coupled diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui; Jiang, Xiaochen; Yang, Thomas; He, Xiaoguang; Gao, Yanyan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Tujia; Guo, Weirong; Wang, Baohua; Guo, Zhijie; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Louisa

    2015-03-01

    We developed a high brightness fiber coupled diode laser module providing more than 140W output power from a 105μm NA 0.15 fiber at the wavelength of 915nm.The high brightness module has an electrical to optical efficiency better than 45% and power enclosure more than 90% within NA 0.13. It is based on multi-single emitters using optical and polarization beam combining and fiber coupling technique. With the similar technology, over 100W of optical power into a 105μm NA 0.15 fiber at 976nm is also achieved which can be compatible with the volume Bragg gratings to receive narrow and stabilized spectral linewidth. The light within NA 0.12 is approximately 92%. The reliability test data of single and multiple single emitter laser module under high optical load are also presented and analyzed using a reliability model with an emitting aperture optimized for coupling into 105μm core fiber. The total MTTF shows exceeding 100,000 hours within 60% confidence level. The packaging processes and optical design are ready for commercial volume production.

  7. Some Activities with Polarized Light from a Laptop LCD Screen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakhruddin, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    The LCD screen of a laptop computer provides a broad, bright, and extended source of polarized light. A number of demonstrations on the properties of polarized light from a laptop computer screens are presented here.

  8. Radar Detectability Studies of Slow and Small Zodiacal Dust Cloud Particles. III. The Role of Sodium and the Head Echo Size on the Probability of Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janches, D.; Swarnalingam, N.; Carrillo-Sanchez, J. D.; Gomez-Martin, J. C.; Marshall, R.; Nesvorný, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Pokorný, P.

    2017-07-01

    We present a path forward on a long-standing issue concerning the flux of small and slow meteoroids, which are believed to be the dominant portion of the incoming meteoric mass flux into the Earth’s atmosphere. Such a flux, which is predicted by dynamical dust models of the Zodiacal Cloud, is not evident in ground-based radar observations. For decades this was attributed to the fact that the radars used for meteor observations lack the sensitivity to detect this population, due to the small amount of ionization produced by slow-velocity meteors. Such a hypothesis has been challenged by the introduction of meteor head echo (HE) observations with High Power and Large Aperture radars, in particular the Arecibo 430 MHz radar. Janches et al. developed a probabilistic approach to estimate the detectability of meteors by these radars and initially showed that, with the current knowledge of ablation and ionization, such particles should dominate the detected rates by one to two orders of magnitude compared to the actual observations. In this paper, we include results in our model from recently published laboratory measurements, which showed that (1) the ablation of Na is less intense covering a wider altitude range; and (2) the ionization probability, {β }{ip}, for Na atoms in the air is up to two orders of magnitude smaller for low speeds than originally believed. By applying these results and using a somewhat smaller size of the HE radar target we offer a solution that reconciles these observations with model predictions.

  9. Radar Detectability Studies of Slow and Small Zodiacal Dust Cloud Particles. III. The Role of Sodium and the Head Echo Size on the Probability of Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janches, D.; Swarnalingam, N.; Carrillo-Sanchez, J. D.; Gomez-Martin, J. C.; Marshall, R.; Nesvorny, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Pokorny, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present a path forward on a long-standing issue concerning the flux of small and slow meteoroids, which are believed to be the dominant portion of the incoming meteoric mass flux into the Earth's atmosphere. Such a flux, which is predicted by dynamical dust models of the Zodiacal Cloud, is not evident in ground-based radar observations. For decades this was attributed to the fact that the radars used for meteor observations lack the sensitivity to detect this population, due to the small amount of ionization produced by slow-velocity meteors. Such a hypothesis has been challenged by the introduction of meteor head echo (HE) observations with High Power and Large Aperture radars, in particular the Arecibo 430 MHz radar. Janches et al. developed a probabilistic approach to estimate the detectability of meteors by these radars and initially showed that, with the current knowledge of ablation and ionization, such particles should dominate the detected rates by one to two orders of magnitude compared to the actual observations. In this paper, we include results in our model from recently published laboratory measurements, which showed that (1) the ablation of Na is less intense covering a wider altitude range; and (2) the ionization probability, Beta ip, for Na atoms in the air is up to two orders of magnitude smaller for low speeds than originally believed. By applying these results and using a somewhat smaller size of the HE radar target we offer a solution that reconciles these observations with model predictions.

  10. Radar detectability studies of slow and small Zodiacal Dust Cloud Particles: I. The case of Arecibo 430 MHz meteor head echo observations

    PubMed Central

    Janches, D.; Plane, J.M.C.; Nesvorný, D.; Feng, W.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Nicolls, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent model development of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud (ZDC) model (Nesvorný et al. 2010, 2011b) argue that the incoming flux of meteoric material into the Earth’s upper atmosphere is mostly undetected by radars because they cannot detect small extraterrestrial particles entering the atmosphere at low velocities due to the relatively small production of electrons. In this paper we present a new methodology utilizing meteor head echo radar observations that aims to constrain the ZDC physical model by ground-based measurements. In particular, for this work, we focus on Arecibo 430 MHz observations since this is the most sensitive radar utilized for this type of observations to date. For this, we integrate and employ existing comprehensive models of meteoroid ablation, ionization and radar detection to enable accurate interpretation of radar observations and show that reasonable agreement in the hourly rates is found between model predictions and Arecibo observations when: 1) we invoke the lower limit of the model predicted flux (~16 t/d) and 2) we estimate the ionization probability of ablating metal atoms using laboratory measurements of the ionization cross sections of high speed metal atom beams, resulting in values up to two orders of magnitude lower than the extensively utilized figure reported by Jones (1997) for low speeds meteors. However, even at this lower limit the model over predicts the slow portion of the Arecibo radial velocity distributions by a factor of 3, suggesting the model requires some revision. PMID:27642186

  11. Radar Detectability Studies of Slow and Small Zodiacal Dust Cloud Particles: I. The Case of Arecibo 430 MHz Meteor Head Echo Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janches, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Nesvorny, D.; Feng, W.; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent model development of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud (ZDC) model (Nesvorny et al. 2010, 2011b) argue that the incoming flux of meteoric material into the Earth's upper atmosphere is mostly undetected by radars because they cannot detect small extraterrestrial particles entering the atmosphere at low velocities due to the relatively small production of electrons. In this paper we present a new methodology utilizing meteor head echo radar observations that aims to constrain the ZDC physical model by ground-based measurements. In particular, for this work, we focus on Arecibo 430 MHz observations since this is the most sensitive radar utilized for this type of observations to date. For this, we integrate and employ existing comprehensive models of meteoroid ablation, ionization and radar detection to enable accurate interpretation of radar observations and show that reasonable agreement in the hourly rates is found between model predictions and Arecibo observations when: 1) we invoke the lower limit of the model predicted flux (approximately 16 t/d) and 2) we estimate the ionization probability of ablating metal atoms using laboratory measurements of the ionization cross sections of high speed metal atom beams, resulting in values up to two orders of magnitude lower than the extensively utilized figure reported by Jones (1997) for low speeds meteors. However, even at this lower limit the model over predicts the slow portion of the Arecibo radial velocity distributions by a factor of 3, suggesting the model requires some revision.

  12. Radar detectability studies of slow and small zodiacal dust cloud particles. I. The case of Arecibo 430 MHz meteor head echo observations

    SciT

    Janches, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.

    2014-11-20

    Recent model development of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud (ZDC) argues that the incoming flux of meteoric material into the Earth's upper atmosphere is mostly undetected by radars because they cannot detect small extraterrestrial particles entering the atmosphere at low velocities due to the relatively small production of electrons. In this paper, we present a new methodology utilizing meteor head echo radar observations that aims to constrain the ZDC physical model by ground-based measurements. In particular, for this work, we focus on Arecibo 430 MHz observations since this is the most sensitive radar utilized for this type of observations to date.more » For this, we integrate and employ existing comprehensive models of meteoroid ablation, ionization, and radar detection to enable accurate interpretation of radar observations and show that reasonable agreement in the hourly rates is found between model predictions and Arecibo observations when (1) we invoke the lower limit of the model predicted flux (∼16 t d{sup –1}) and (2) we estimate the ionization probability of ablating metal atoms using laboratory measurements of the ionization cross sections of high-speed metal atom beams, resulting in values up to two orders of magnitude lower than the extensively utilized figure reported by Jones for low-speed meteors. However, even at this lower limit, the model overpredicts the slow portion of the Arecibo radial velocity distributions by a factor of three, suggesting that the model requires some revision.« less

  13. Identifying Bright X-Ray Beasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are astronomical sources of X-rays that, while dimmer than active galactic nuclei, are nonetheless brighter than any known stellar process. What are these beasts and why do they shine so brightly?Exceeding the LimitFirst discovered in the 1980s, ULXs are rare sources that have nonetheless been found in all types of galaxies. Though the bright X-ray radiation seems likely to be coming from compact objects accreting gas, theres a problem with this theory: ULXs outshine the Eddington luminosity for stellar-mass compact objects. This means that a stellar-mass object couldnt emit this much radiation isotropically without blowing itself apart.There are two alternative explanations commonly proposed for ULXs:Rather than being accreting stellar-mass compact objects, they are accreting intermediate-mass black holes. A hypothetical black hole of 100 solar masses or more would have a much higher Eddington luminosity than a stellar-mass black hole, making the luminosities that we observe from ULXs feasible.An example of one of the common routes the authors find for a binary system to become a ULX. In this case, the binary begins as two main sequence stars. As one star evolves off the main sequence, the binary undergoes a common envelope phase and a stage of mass transfer. The star ends its life as a supernova, and the resulting neutron star then accretes matter from the main sequence star as a ULX. [Wiktorowicz et al. 2017]They are ordinary X-ray binaries (a stellar-mass compact object accreting matter from a companion star), but they are undergoing a short phase of extreme accretion. During this time, their emission is beamed into jets, making them appear brighter than the Eddington luminosity.Clues from a New DiscoveryA few years ago, a new discovery shed some light on ULXs: M82 X-2, a pulsing ULX. Two more pulsing ULXs have been discovered since then, demonstrating that at least some ULXs contain pulsars i.e., neutron stars as the

  14. Types and Distribution of Bright Materials in 4 Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Li, Jian-Yang; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Schroder, S. E.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Yingst, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    A strong case can be made that Vesta is the parent asteroid of the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites [1]. As such, we have over a century of detailed sample analysis experience to call upon when formulating hypotheses regarding plausible lithologic diversity on Vesta. It thus came as a surprise when Dawn s Framing Camera (FC) first revealed distinctly localized materials of exceptionally low and high albedos, often closely associated. To understand the nature and origin of these materials, and how they inform us of the geological evolution of Vesta, task forces began their study. An initial step of the scientific endeavor is to develop a descriptive, non-genetic classification of objects to use as a basis for developing hypotheses and observational campaigns. Here we present a catalog of the types of light-toned deposits and their distribution across Vesta. A companion abstract [2] discusses possible origins of bright materials and the constraints they suggest for vestan geology.

  15. Improving sodium laser guide star brightness by polarization switching

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Tingwei; Zhou, Tianhua; Feng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Optical pumping with circularly polarized light has been used to enhance the brightness of sodium laser guide star. But the benefit is reduced substantially due to the precession of sodium atoms in geomagnetic field. Switching the laser between left and right circular polarization at the Larmor frequency is proposed to improve the return. With ESO’s laser guide star system at Paranal as example, numerical simulation shows that the return flux is increased when the angle between geomagnetic field and laser beam is larger than 60°, as much as 50% at 90°. The proposal is significant since most astronomical observation is at angle between 60° and 90° and it only requires a minor addition to the delivery optics of present laser system. PMID:26797503

  16. Polarization switching of sodium guide star laser for brightness enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Tingwei; Zhou, Tianhua; Feng, Yan

    2016-07-01

    The efficiency of optical pumping that enhances the brightness of sodium laser guide star with circularly polarized light is reduced substantially due to the precession of sodium atoms in geomagnetic field. Switching the laser between left and right circular polarization at the Larmor frequency is proposed to improve the photon return. With ESO's cw laser guide star system at Paranal as example, numerical simulation for both square-wave and sine-wave polarization modulation is conducted. For the square-wave switching case, the return flux is increased when the angle between geomagnetic field and laser beam is larger than 60°, as much as 40% at 90°. The method can also be applied for remote measurement of magnetic field with available cw guide star laser.

  17. Differential color brightness as a body orientation cue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbour, Christopher G.; Coss, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Ninety male and female college students reclining on their backs in the dark were disoriented when positioned on a rotating platform under a slowly rotating disk that filled their entire visual field. Half of the disk was painted with a brighter value (about 69 percent higher luminance level) of the color on the other half. The effects of red, blue, and yellow were examined. Subjects wearing frosted goggles viewed the illuminated disk for three rotations. The disk was stopped when the subjects felt that they were right side up. A significant proportion of subjects selected the disk position in which the brighter side of each of the three colors filled their upper visual field. These results suggest that color brightness as well as lighting variation could provide Space Station crew members with body orientation cues as they move around.

  18. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-09-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  19. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    SciT

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo, E-mail: b.cervantes@irya.unam.mx, E-mail: o.sanchez@irya.unam.mx

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness ismore » mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.« less

  20. Strong pollinator-mediated selection for increased flower brightness and contrast in a deceptive orchid.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Trunschke, Judith; Smit, Mart; Verbeek, Jeffrey; Ågren, Jon

    2016-03-01

    Contrasting flower color patterns that putatively attract or direct pollinators toward a reward are common among angiosperms. In the deceptive orchid Anacamptis morio, the lower petal, which makes up most of the floral display, has a light central patch with dark markings. Within populations, there is pronounced variation in petal brightness, patch size, amount of dark markings, and contrast between patch and petal margin. We tested whether pollinators mediate selection on these color traits and on morphology (plant height, number of flowers, corolla size, spur length), and whether selection is consistent with facilitated or negative frequency-dependent pollination. Pollinators mediated strong selection for increased petal brightness (Δβpoll = 0.42) and contrast (Δβpoll = 0.51). Pollinators also tended to mediate stabilizing selection on brightness (Δγpoll = -0.27, n.s.) favoring the most common phenotype in the population. Selection for reduced petal brightness among hand-pollinated plants indicated a fitness cost associated with brightness. The results demonstrate that flower color traits influence pollination success and seed production in A. morio, indicating that they affect attractiveness to pollinators, efficiency of pollen transfer, or both. The documented selection is consistent with facilitated pollination and selection for color convergence toward cooccurring rewarding species. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Brightness discrimination and contrast sensitivity in chronic glaucoma--a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Teoh, S L; Allan, D; Dutton, G N; Foulds, W S

    1990-04-01

    The visual acuity, the difference in sensitivity of the two eyes to light (brightness ratio), and contrast sensitivity were assessed in 28 patients with chronic open angle glaucoma and compared with those of 41 normal controls of similar ages and visual acuity. The results obtained were related to the results of Tübingen visual field analysis in patients with glaucoma. Twenty-four of the 28 glaucoma patients (86%) had a significant disparity in brightness ratio between the two eyes. This was found to match the frequency of visual field loss. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the interocular differences in brightness sense and the difference in the degree of visual field loss between the two eyes. Of the glaucoma patients 39% had sum contrast sensitivities outside the normal range for age-matched normal controls. No significant correlation was found between the interocular difference in brightness sense and the visual acuity or the interocular difference in sum contrast sensitivity. It is concluded that, in the presence of a normal visual acuity, the brightness ratio test warrants evaluation as a potential screening test for chronic open angle glaucoma.

  2. Brightness discrimination and contrast sensitivity in chronic glaucoma--a clinical study.

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, S L; Allan, D; Dutton, G N; Foulds, W S

    1990-01-01

    The visual acuity, the difference in sensitivity of the two eyes to light (brightness ratio), and contrast sensitivity were assessed in 28 patients with chronic open angle glaucoma and compared with those of 41 normal controls of similar ages and visual acuity. The results obtained were related to the results of Tübingen visual field analysis in patients with glaucoma. Twenty-four of the 28 glaucoma patients (86%) had a significant disparity in brightness ratio between the two eyes. This was found to match the frequency of visual field loss. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the interocular differences in brightness sense and the difference in the degree of visual field loss between the two eyes. Of the glaucoma patients 39% had sum contrast sensitivities outside the normal range for age-matched normal controls. No significant correlation was found between the interocular difference in brightness sense and the visual acuity or the interocular difference in sum contrast sensitivity. It is concluded that, in the presence of a normal visual acuity, the brightness ratio test warrants evaluation as a potential screening test for chronic open angle glaucoma. PMID:2186795

  3. Bright Feature Appears in Titan Kraken Mare

    2014-11-10

    Two Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from the radar experiment on NASA's Cassini spacecraft show that, between May 2013 and August 2014, a bright feature appeared in Kraken Mare, the largest hydrocarbon sea on Saturn's moon Titan. Researchers think the bright feature is likely representative of something on the hydrocarbon sea's surface, such as waves or floating debris. A similar feature appeared in Ligea Mare, another Titan sea, and was seen to evolve in appearance between 2013 and 2014 (see PIA18430). The image at left was taken on May 23, 2013 at an incidence angle of 56 degrees; the image at right was taken on August 21, 2014 at an incidence angle of 5 degrees. Incidence angle refers to the angle at which the radar beam strikes the surface. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19047

  4. Microwave brightness temperature of a windblown sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, F. G.

    1972-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for the apparent temperature of the sea at all microwave frequencies. The model is a numerical model in which both the clear water structure and white water are accounted for as a function of wind speed. The model produces results similar to Stogryn's model at 19.35 GHz for wind speeds less than 8 m/sec; it can use radiosonde data to calculate atmospheric effects and can incorporate an empirically determined antenna gain pattern. The corresponding computer program is of modular design and the logic of the main program is capable of treating a horizontally inhomogeneous surface or atmosphere. It is shown that a variation of microwave brightness temperature with zenith angle is necessary to produce the wind sensitivity of the horizontally polarized brightness temperature; the variation of sky temperature with frequency is sufficient to produce a frequency dependent wind sensitivity.

  5. Australia 31-GHz brightness temperature exceedance statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor radiometer measurements were made at DSS 43 during an 18 month period. Brightness temperatures at 31 GHz were subjected to a statistical analysis which included correction for the effects of occasional water on the radiometer radome. An exceedance plot was constructed, and the 1 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 120 K. The 5 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 70 K, compared with 75 K in Spain. These values are valid for all of the three month groupings that were studied.

  6. iPTF report of bright transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannella, Chris; Kuesters, Daniel; Ferretti, Raphael; Blagorodnova, Nadejda; Adams, Scott; Kupfer, Thomas; Neill, James D.; Walters, Richard; Yan, Lin; Kulkarni, Shri

    2017-02-01

    The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF; ATel #4807) reports the following bright ( Our automated candidate vetting to distinguish a real astrophysical source (1.0) from bogus artifacts (0.0) is powered by three generations of machine learning algorithms: RB2 (Brink et al. 2013MNRAS.435.1047B), RB4 (Rebbapragada et al. 2015AAS...22543402R), and RB5 (Wozniak et al. 2013AAS...22143105W).

  7. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Bright Source List

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malina, Roger F.; Marshall, Herman L.; Antia, Behram; Christian, Carol A.; Dobson, Carl A.; Finley, David S.; Fruscione, Antonella; Girouard, Forrest R.; Hawkins, Isabel; Jelinsky, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Initial results from the analysis of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey (58-740 A) and deep survey (67-364 A) are presented through the EUVE Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL contains 356 confirmed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) point sources with supporting information, including positions, observed EUV count rates, and the identification of possible optical counterparts. One-hundred twenty-six sources have been detected longward of 200 A.

  8. City Lights of Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Growth in 'mega-cities' is altering the landscape and the atmosphere in such a way as to curtail normal photosynthesis. By using data from The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System, researchers have been able to look at urban sprawl by monitoring the emission of light from cities at night. By overlaying these 'light maps' onto other data such as soil and vegetation maps, the research shows that urbanization can have a variable but measurable impact on photosynthetic productivity. For more information, read Bright Lights, Big City Image by the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio

  9. Bright Ray Craters in Ganymede's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    GANYMEDE COLOR PHOTOS: This color picture as acquired by Voyager 1 during its approach to Ganymede on Monday afternoon (the 5th of March). At ranges between about 230 to 250 thousand km. The images show detail on the surface with a resolution of four and a half km. This picture is of a region in the northern hemisphere near the terminator. It shows a variety of impact structures, including both razed and unrazed craters, and the odd, groove-like structures discovered by Voyager in the lighter regions. The most striking features are the bright ray craters which have a distinctly 'bluer' color appearing white against the redder background. Ganymede's surface is known to contain large amounts of surface ice and it appears that these relatively young craters have spread bright fresh ice materials over the surface. Likewise, the lighter color and reflectivity of the grooved areas suggests that here, too, there is cleaner ice. We see ray craters with all sizes of ray patterns, ranging from extensive systems of the crater in the southern part of this picture, which has rays at least 300-500 kilometers long, down to craters which have only faint remnants of bright ejects patterns (such as several of the craters in the southern half of PIA01516; P21262). This variation suggests that, as on the Moon, there are processes which act to darken ray material, probably 'gardening' by micrometeoroid impact. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  10. Dark and Bright Terrains of Pluto

    2015-07-10

    These circular maps shows the distribution of Pluto's dark and bright terrains as revealed by NASA's New Horizons mission prior to July 4, 2015. Each map is an azimuthal equidistant projection centered on the north pole, with latitude and longitude indicated. Both a gray-scale and color version are shown. The gray-scale version is based on 7 days of panchromatic imaging from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), whereas the color version uses the gray-scale base and incorporates lower-resolution color information from the Multi-spectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), part of the Ralph instrument. The color version is also shown in a simple cylindrical projection in PIA19700. In these maps, the polar bright terrain is surrounded by a somewhat darker polar fringe, one whose latitudinal position varies strongly with longitude. Especially striking are the much darker regions along the equator. A broad dark swath ("the whale") stretches along the equator from approximately 20 to 160 degrees of longitude. Several dark patches appear in a regular sequence centered near 345 degrees of longitude. A spectacular bright region occupies Pluto's mid-latitudes near 180 degrees of longitude, and stretches southward over the equator. New Horizons' closest approach to Pluto will occur near this longitude, which will permit high-resolution visible imaging and compositional mapping of these various regions. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19706

  11. Bright and Dark Slopes on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Ridges on the edge of Ganymede's north polar cap show bright east-facing slopes and dark west-facing slopes with troughs of darker material below the larger ridges. North is to the top. The bright slopes may be due to grain size differences, differences in composition between the original surface and the underlying material, frost deposition, or illumination effects. The large 2.4 kilometer (1.5 mile) diameter crater in this image shows frost deposits located on the north-facing rim slope, away from the sun. A smaller 675 meter (2200 foot) diameter crater in the center of the image is surrounded by a bright deposit which may be ejecta from the impact. Ejecta deposits such as this are uncommon for small craters on Ganymede. This image measures 18 by 19 kilometers (11 by 12 miles) and has a resolution of 45 meters (148 feet) per pixel. NASA's Galileo spacecraft obtained this image on September 6, 1996 during its second orbit around Jupiter.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  12. High brightness electrodeless Z-Pinch EUV source for mask inspection tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Stephen F.; Partlow, Matthew J.; Gustafson, Deborah S.; Besen, Matthew M.; Smith, Donald K.; Blackborow, Paul A.

    2012-03-01

    Energetiq Technology has been shipping the EQ-10 Electrodeless Z-pinchTM light source since 1995. The source is currently being used for metrology, mask inspection, and resist development. Energetiq's higher brightness source has been selected as the source for pre-production actinic mask inspection tools. This improved source enables the mask inspection tool suppliers to build prototype tools with capabilities of defect detection and review down to 16nm design rules. In this presentation we will present new source technology being developed at Energetiq to address the critical source brightness issue. The new technology will be shown to be capable of delivering brightness levels sufficient to meet the HVM requirements of AIMS and ABI and potentially API tools. The basis of the source technology is to use the stable pinch of the electrodeless light source and have a brightness of up to 100W/mm(carat)2-sr. We will explain the source design concepts, discuss the expected performance and present the modeling results for the new design.

  13. PePSS - A portable sky scanner for measuring extremely low night-sky brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Kómar, Ladislav; Kundracik, František

    2018-05-01

    A new portable sky scanner designed for low-light-level detection at night is developed and employed in night sky brightness measurements in a rural region. The fast readout, adjustable sensitivity and linear response guaranteed in 5-6 orders of magnitude makes the device well suited for narrow-band photometry in both dark areas and bright urban and suburban environments. Quasi-monochromatic night-sky brightness data are advantageous in the accurate characterization of spectral power distribution of scattered and emitted light and, also allows for the possibility to retrieve light output patterns from whole-city light sources. The sky scanner can operate in both night and day regimes, taking advantage of the complementarity of both radiance data types. Due to its inherent very high sensitivity the photomultiplier tube could be used in night sky radiometry, while the spectrometer-equipped system component capable of detecting elevated intensities is used in daylight monitoring. Daylight is a source of information on atmospheric optical properties that in turn are necessary in processing night sky radiances. We believe that the sky scanner has the potential to revolutionize night-sky monitoring systems.

  14. Active Processes: Bright Streaks and Dark Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    In a region of the south pole known informally as 'Ithaca' numerous fans of dark frost form every spring. HiRISE collected a time lapse series of these images, starting at Ls = 185 and culminating at Ls = 294. 'Ls' is the way we measure time on Mars: at Ls = 180 the sun passes the equator on its way south; at Ls = 270 it reaches its maximum subsolar latitude and summer begins.

    In the earliest image (figure 1) fans are dark, but small narrow bright streaks can be detected. In the next image (figure 2), acquired at Ls = 187, just 106 hours later, dramatic differences are apparent. The dark fans are larger and the bright fans are more pronounced and easily detectable. The third image in the sequence shows no bright fans at all.

    We believe that the bright streaks are fine frost condensed from the gas exiting the vent. The conditions must be just right for the bright frost to condense.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_002622_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 16-Feb-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.2 degrees latitude, 181.5 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 246.9 km (154.3 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.4 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 148 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 05:46 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 88 degrees, thus the sun was about 2 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 185.1 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  15. Observation of a rapid decrease in the brightness of the coma of 2060 Chiron in 1990 January

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.; Dunbar, R. Scott

    1991-01-01

    Photometric observations of 2060 Chiron in the V and R filters were obtained with the 1.5-m telescope on Palomar Mountain during a 7-hr period on January 20, 1990 (UT). A general decrease of about 10 percent in integrated brightness occurred in both filters. No color dependence to the decrease was observed. A small (about 0.02 mag) rotational light curve, far smaller than the 0.09 mag (peak-to-peak) one observed by Bus et al. (1989) is superposed on the general decrease. On January 29, 1990, Luu and Jewitt (1990) observed an impulsive brightening of Chiron of approximately the same magnitude and time scale as the presently observed decrease in brightness. The combined results provide evidence that Chiron is currently exhibiting short-term fluctuations in the brightness of its coma, in addition to its well-established general decrease in brightness.

  16. Observation of a rapid decrease in the brightness of the coma of 2060 Chiron in 1990 January

    SciT

    Buratti, B.J.; Dunbar, R.S.

    Photometric observations of 2060 Chiron in the V and R filters were obtained with the 1.5-m telescope on Palomar Mountain during a 7-hr period on January 20, 1990 (UT). A general decrease of about 10 percent in integrated brightness occurred in both filters. No color dependence to the decrease was observed. A small (about 0.02 mag) rotational light curve, far smaller than the 0.09 mag (peak-to-peak) one observed by Bus et al. (1989) is superposed on the general decrease. On January 29, 1990, Luu and Jewitt (1990) observed an impulsive brightening of Chiron of approximately the same magnitude and timemore » scale as the presently observed decrease in brightness. The combined results provide evidence that Chiron is currently exhibiting short-term fluctuations in the brightness of its coma, in addition to its well-established general decrease in brightness. 14 refs.« less

  17. Lifestyle and emotional well-being in men and women with type 2 diabetes (e-VitaDM-4; ZODIAC-48).

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Steven H; van Soldt, Evelien G W; van Vugt, Michael; Groenier, Klaas H; Roelofsen, Yvonne; Maas, Angela H E M; Bilo, Henk J G; Kleefstra, Nanne; van Hateren, Kornelis J J

    2017-12-01

    Whether lifestyle is associated with well-being in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is largely unknown. Uncovering and clarifying associations between these constructs may lead to new strategies for improving both. The aim was to investigate the relationship between lifestyle and well-being, focussing on gender differences. This cross-sectional study included 1085 patients with T2D that participated in the e-Vita part of the Zwolle outpatient diabetes project integrating available care (ZODIAC) study. Patients were included from May 2012 until September 2014 from 52 general practices. Emotional well-being was assessed with the World Health Organization-5 well-being index (WHO-5). Lifestyle information on body mass index, smoking, physical activity and alcohol use was extracted from self-reported questionnaires. Multiple linear regression analyses were used. After adjustment for other lifestyle factors, physical activity, smoking and drinking 22-35 alcohol consumptions per week were associated with the WHO-5 score in men and physical activity and smoking were associated with the WHO-5 score in women. In the fully adjusted analyses for the total study population, physical activity and smoking were still associated with the WHO-5 score (b = 1.1, P < .001 and b =-3.1, P = .018, respectively). In the fully adjusted analyses stratified to gender only physical activity was associated with the WHO-5 score (in men: b =0.8, P = .006, in women: b = 1.4, P = .001). This study shows a negative, non-clinically relevant association between smoking and emotional well-being in the total population with T2D and a positive, non-clinically relevant association between physical activity and emotional well-being in both men and women with T2D.

  18. Sign of the Zodiac as a predictor of survival for recipients of an allogeneic stem cell transplant for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML): an artificial association.

    PubMed

    Szydlo, R M; Gabriel, I; Olavarria, E; Apperley, J

    2010-10-01

    Astrological or Zodiac (star) sign has been shown to be a statistically significant factor in the outcome of a variety of diseases, conditions, and phenomena. To investigate its relevance in the context of a stem cell transplant (SCT), we examined its influence in chronic myeloid leukaemia, a disease with well-established prognostic factors. Data were collected on 626 patients who received a first myeloablative allogeneic SCT between 1981 and 2006. Star sign was determined for each patient. Univariate analyses comparing all 12 individual star signs showed considerable variation of 5-year probabilities of survival, 63% for Arians, to 45% for Aquarians, but without significance (P=.65). However, it was possible to pool together star signs likely to provide dichotomous results. Thus, grouping together Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Leo, Scorpio, and Capricorn (group A; n=317) versus others (group B; n=309) resulted in a highly significant difference (58% vs 48%; P=.007). When adjusted for known prognostic factors in a multivariate analysis, group B was associated with an increased risk of mortality when compared with group A (relative risk [RR], 1.37; P=.005). In this study, we show that, providing adequate care is taken, a significant relationship between patient star sign and survival post SCT for CML can be observed. This is, however, a completely erroneous result, and is based on the pooling together of observations to artificially create a statistically significant result. Statistical analyses should thus be carried out on a priori hypotheses and not to find a meaningful or significant result. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Time-related aspects of suicides - suicide frequency related to birthday, major holidays, day of the week, season, month of birth and zodiac signs].

    PubMed

    Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Stiglbauer, Christoph; Kemmler, Georg

    2018-06-01

    Suicides are generally the consequence of overchallenged coping strategies of individual for psychological, social or internal and external biological strain factors. Timing of the suicide, too, may be influenced by external factors. Studies so far have yielded in part inconsistent results concerning the association of suicides with particular days or periods of the year. Even less is known regarding a potential effect of the time of birth on suicide risk. The Tyrol Suicide Register (TSR) provides data on suicides occurring in the Austrian State of Tyrol including birthday of the suicide victim and day of the suicide. In the present study the frequency of suicides was analyzed with regard to birthday, day of the week, major holidays and season over a period of 17 years. Further, a potential association with month of birth and zodiac signs was studied. We found a significant variation in suicide frequency concerning day of the week with a peak on Mondays and Tuesdays and seasonality with increased numbers in spring and summer months. The increase of suicide numbers at the beginning of the week may be explained by the "broken-promise effect" which has been described as the consequence of frustrated expectations concerning the weekend. Possible explanations for the suicide peaks in spring and summer may be biological, specifically serotonergic alterations as well as the experience of depressed patients perceiving the social and emotional contrast to people who are able to enjoy these periods of pleasure and outdoor activities.

  20. Zodiacal exoplanets in time (ZEIT) - II. A `super-Earth' orbiting a young K dwarf in the Pleiades Neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidos, E.; Mann, A. W.; Rizzuto, A.; Nofi, L.; Mace, G.; Vanderburg, A.; Feiden, G.; Narita, N.; Takeda, Y.; Esposito, T. M.; De Rosa, R. J.; Ansdell, M.; Hirano, T.; Graham, J. R.; Kraus, A.; Jaffe, D.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a `super-Earth'-size (2.30 ± 0.16 R⊕) planet transiting an early K-type dwarf star in the Campaign 4 field observed by the K2 mission. The host star, EPIC 210363145, was identified as a candidate member of the approximately 120 Myr-old Pleiades cluster based on its kinematics and photometric distance. It is rotationally variable and exhibits near-ultraviolet emission consistent with a Pleiades age, but its rotational period is ≈20 d and its spectrum contains no Hα emission nor the Li I absorption expected of Pleiades K dwarfs. Instead, the star is probably an interloper that is unaffiliated with the cluster, but younger (≲1.3 Gyr) than the typical field dwarf. We ruled out a false positive transit signal produced by confusion with a background eclipsing binary by adaptive optics imaging and a statistical calculation. Doppler radial velocity measurements limit the companion mass to <2 times that of Jupiter. Screening of the light curves of 1014 potential Pleiades candidate stars uncovered no additional planets. An injection-and-recovery experiment using the K2 Pleiades light curves with simulated planets, assuming a planet population like that in the Kepler prime field, predicts only 0.8-1.8 detections (versus ˜20 in an equivalent Kepler sample). The absence of Pleiades planet detections can be attributed to the much shorter monitoring time of K2 (80 d versus 4 yr), increased measurement noise due to spacecraft motion, and the intrinsic noisiness of the stars.

  1. Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiaoui, R.; Burrow, J. A.; Mekonen, S. M.; Sarangan, A.; Mathews, J.; Agha, I.; Searles, T. A.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a highly flexible planar terahertz metamaterial (MM) comprised of three-gap split-ring resonators. The keys to achieve EIT in this system are the frequency detuning and hybridization processes between two bright modes coexisting in the same unit cell as opposed to bright-dark modes. We present experimental verification of two bright modes coupling for a terahertz EIT-MM in the context of numerical results and theoretical analysis based on a coupled Lorentz oscillator model. In addition, a hybrid variation of the EIT-MM is proposed and implemented numerically to dynamically tune the EIT window by incorporating photosensitive silicon pads in the split gap region of the resonators. As a result, this hybrid MM enables the active optical control of a transition from the on state (EIT mode) to the off state (dipole mode).

  2. Calculation of gyrosynchrotron radiation brightness temperature for outer bright loop of ICME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiying; Wu, Ji; Wang, C. B.; Wang, S.

    :Solar polar orbit radio telescope (SPORT) is proposed to detect the high density plasma clouds of outer bright loop of ICMEs from solar orbit with large inclination. Of particular interest is following the propagation of the plasma clouds with remote sensor in radio wavelength band. Gyrosynchrotron emission is a main radio radiation mechanism of the plasma clouds and can provide information of interplanetary magnetic field. In this paper, we statistically analyze the electron density, electron temperature and magnetic field of background solar wind in time of quiet sun and ICMEs propagation. We also estimate the fluctuation range of the electron density, electron temperature and magnetic field of outer bright loop of ICMEs. Moreover, we calculate and analyze the emission brightness temperature and degree of polarization on the basis of the study of gyrosynchrotron emission, absorption and polarization characteristics as the optical depth is less than or equal to 1.

  3. The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minqi; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yingying; Su, Ying-Chu; Chen, Qingwei; Hsiao, Fan-Chi; Ji, Yanran; Yang, Chien-Ming; Zhou, Guofu

    2018-03-15

    Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K) alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K) three times); continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure. Each light exposure was conducted during the three hours before bedtime. Fifteen healthy volunteers (20 ± 3.4 years; seven males) were scheduled to stay in the sleep laboratory for four separated nights (one for adaptation and the others for the light exposures) with a period of at least one week between nights. The results showed that when compared with dim light, both intermittent light and continuous bright light significantly increased subjective alertness and decreased sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep time (TST). Intermittent light significantly increased objective alertness than dim light did during the second half of the light-exposure period. Our results suggested that intermittent light was as effective as continuous bright light in their acute effects in enhancing subjective and objective alertness and in negatively impacting subsequent sleep.

  4. Investigating the Bright End of LSST Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojala, Elle; Pepper, Joshua; LSST Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will begin operations in 2022, conducting a wide-field, synoptic multiband survey of the southern sky. Some fraction of objects at the bright end of the magnitude regime observed by LSST will overlap with other wide-sky surveys, allowing for calibration and cross-checking between surveys. The LSST is optimized for observations of very faint objects, so much of this data overlap will be comprised of saturated images. This project provides the first in-depth analysis of saturation in LSST images. Using the PhoSim package to create simulated LSST images, we evaluate saturation properties of several types of stars to determine the brightness limitations of LSST. We also collect metadata from many wide-field photometric surveys to provide cross-survey accounting and comparison. Additionally, we evaluate the accuracy of the PhoSim modeling parameters to determine the reliability of the software. These efforts will allow us to determine the expected useable data overlap between bright-end LSST images and faint-end images in other wide-sky surveys. Our next steps are developing methods to extract photometry from saturated images.This material is based upon work supported in part by the National Science Foundation through Cooperative Agreement 1258333 managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), and the Department of Energy under C