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Sample records for zollinger-ellison syndrome groupe

  1. Treatment of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tomassetti, Paola; Campana, Davide; Piscitelli, Lydia; Mazzotta, Elena; Brocchi, Emilio; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we have reviewed the main therapeutic measures for the treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Review of the literature was based on computer searches (Pub-Med, Index Medicus) and personal experiences. We have evaluated all the measures now available for treating patients with sporadic gastrinomas or gastrinomas associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1, (MEN 1) including medical therapy such as antisecretory drugs and somatostatin analogs (SST), chemotherapy and chemoembolization, and surgical procedures. In ZES patients, the best therapeutic procedure is surgery which, if radical, can be curative. Medical treatment can be the best palliative therapy and should be used, when possible, in association with surgery, in a multimodal therapeutic approach. PMID:16222731

  2. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: classical considerations and current controversies.

    PubMed

    Epelboym, Irene; Mazeh, Haggi

    2014-01-01

    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is an endocrinopathy characterized by gastrin-secreting tumors, responsible for causing the formation of multiple, refractory, and recurrent peptic ulcers in the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum. Two main variants have been described, sporadic and those found in association with parathyroid and pituitary tumors, a genetic disorder known as multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 (MEN-1). Biochemical serum evaluation for elevated gastrin, followed by radiological or nuclear localization of the primary lesion, is mandated for establishing diagnosis. The mainstays of treatment include management of hypersecretory state with medical suppression of gastric acid production and surgical resection of primary tumor for the prevention of malignant transformation and metastatic complications. Medical therapy with proton pump inhibitors has virtually eliminated the need for acid-reducing surgical procedures. Surgical approach to sporadic and MEN-1-associated ZES varies based on our understanding of the natural history of the condition and the probability of cure; however, resection to a negative microscopic margin is indicated in both cases. Postoperative surveillance involves measurement of gastrin level, followed by imaging if elevation is detected. Re-excision of recurrent or resection of metastatic disease is a subject of controversy; however, at the present time aggressive cytoreductive approach is favored.

  3. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: past, present and future controversies.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, R. T.

    1994-01-01

    It is fitting that the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) be included in the Lester Dragstedt Symposium because Dr. Dragstedt had a long-time interest in this disease, having been one of the five discussants of the original article and subsequently reporting with Dr. Oberhelman on nine cases. The approach to therapy of ZES has been controversial from the beginning, and a number of controversies remain. In this article, four different controversies are analyzed from the prospective of the past (Zollinger-Dragstedt era, 1955-1980), present and what may happen in the future in light of recent results. Specifically analyzed are: 1) the role of gastric surgery in the management; 2) whether gastrinoma removal without aggressive resection in patients with ZES without MEN-I is the preferred surgical therapy; 3) whether patients with MEN-I should undergo routine surgical exploration; and 4) whether most gastrinomas will be localized preoperatively. An analysis of recent advances suggests there may be marked changes in the future from our current and our past approaches. Images Figure 2 PMID:7502529

  4. Value of Surgery In Patients With Negative Imaging And Sporadic Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES)

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Jeffrey A.; Fraker, Douglas L.; Alexander, H. Richard; Jensen, Robert T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To address the value of surgery in sporadic Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) patients with negative imaging studies. Background Medical control of acid hypersecretion in patients with sporadic Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is highly effective. This has led to these patients frequently not sent to surgery, especially if preoperative imaging studies are negative, due in large part because almost no data exists on the success of surgery in this group. Methods 58 prospectively studied sporadic ZES patients (17% of total studied) had negative imaging studies and their surgical outcome was compared to 117 patients with positive imaging results. Results 35 patients had negative imaging in the pre-somatostatin receptor scintigraphy era (SRS) and 23 in the post-SRS era. The image negative patients had long disease histories prior to surgery (mean±SEM, from onset=7.9±1[range −0.25-35 yrs]) and 25% were followed ≥2yrs from diagnosis. At surgery, gastrinoma was found in 57/58 patients (98%). Tumors were small (mean=0.8cm, 60% < 1 cm). The most common primary sites were: duodenal 64%, pancreatic 17%, and lymph node (LN)(10%). 50% had a primary only, 41% primary + LN, and 7% had liver metastases. 35/58(60%) were cured immediately postoperatively and at last follow-up [mean-9.4yrs, range 0.2-22yrs], 27 patients (46%) remained cured. During follow-up 3 patients died, each was found to have liver metastases at surgery. In comparison to the image positive patients, those with negative imaging had lower preop fasting gastrin levels; a longer delay prior to surgery; more frequently had a small duodenal tumors; less frequently had a pancreatic tumor, multiple tumors or developed a new lesion postoperatively and had a longer survival. Conclusions Imaging negative sporadic ZES patients are not rare even in the post-SRS period. An experienced surgeon can find gastrinoma in almost every patient (98%) and nearly one-half (46%) are cured, a rate similar to imaging

  5. Value of surgery in patients with negative imaging and sporadic Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

    PubMed

    Norton, Jeffrey A; Fraker, Douglas L; Alexander, H Richard; Jensen, Robert T

    2012-09-01

    To address the value of surgery in patients with sporadic Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) with negative imaging studies. Medical control of acid hypersecretion in patients with sporadic ZES is highly effective. This has led to these patients frequently not being sent to surgery, especially if preoperative imaging studies are negative, due, in large part, to existence of almost no data on the success of surgery in this group. Fifty-eight prospectively studied patients with sporadic ZES (17% of total studied) had negative imaging studies, and their surgical outcome was compared with 117 patients with positive imaging results. Thirty-five patients had negative imaging studies in the pre-somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) era, and 23 patients in the post-SRS era. Patients with negative imaging studies had long disease histories before surgery [mean ± SEM (from onset) = 7.9 ± 1 [range, -0.25 to 35 years]) and 25% were followed for 2 or more years from diagnosis. At surgery, gastrinoma was found in 57 of 58 patients (98%). Tumors were small (mean = 0.8 cm, 60% <1 cm). The most common primary sites were duodenal 64%, pancreatic 17%, and lymph node (10%). Fifty percent had a primary-only, 41% primary + lymph node, and 7% had liver metastases. Thirty-five of 58 patients (60%) were cured immediately postoperatively, and at last follow-up [mean = -9.4 years; range, 0.2-22 years], 27 patients (46%) remained cured. During follow-up, 3 patients died, each had liver metastases at surgery. In comparison to positive imaging patients, those with negative imaging studies had lower preoperative fasting gastrin levels; had a longer delay before surgery; more frequently had a small duodenal tumor; less frequently had a pancreatic tumor, multiple tumors, or developed a new lesion postoperatively; and had a longer survival. Sporadic ZES patients with negative imaging studies are not rare even in the post-SRS period. An experienced surgeon can find gastrinoma in almost every

  6. Laparotomy and proximal gastric vagotomy in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: results of a 16-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    McArthur, K E; Richardson, C T; Barnett, C C; Eshaghi, N; Smerud, M J; McClelland, R N; Feldman, M

    1996-06-01

    Pharmacological control of gastric acid hypersecretion in the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome has steadily improved, but medical treatment does not address the underlying tumor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a surgical approach to both tumor and acid hypersecretion in 22 patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Patients underwent laparotomy to resect tumors, combined with vagotomy to reduce acid secretion, followed by postoperative antisecretory therapy, if necessary. No surgical mortality or serious morbidity occurred. Tumor was found at laparotomy in nine patients (41%) and during long-term follow-up in an additional two patients (9%). Ten-year survival is 81%, with a long-term cure rate of at least 14%. Most patients (86%) have had long-term inhibition of acid secretion. Eight patients have discontinued regular use of acid-inhibiting medications. Patients requiring medication need less of it, and they have an improved acid inhibitory response to medication for up to 16 yr after surgery. Cure of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is possible in a minority of patients. Acid secretion can be safely reduced in almost all patients with laparotomy/vagotomy, usually allowing discontinuation, or reduced dose, of acid-inhibiting drugs. Long-term survival and quality of life are generally excellent.

  7. Pathobiology and management of hypergastrinemia and the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hirschowitz, B I

    1992-01-01

    Gastrin is both stimulatory and trophic to the cells of the gastric fundus--parietal and peptic cells, and enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells which are major intermediaries of the gastrin effect. Gastrin (from the antrum) and acid (from the fundus) represent the interactive positive and negative limbs of a feedback loop. The nature and extent of sub-loops, perhaps involving the vagus, acetylcholine, histamine, and other peptides and cell products are at present unclear or unknown. Loss of either gastrin or acid has predictable consequences. Absent acid, as in pernicious anemia or as a result of omeprazole, leads to hypergastrinemia. In rats, such hypergastrinemia (gastrin > 1,000 pg/ml) causes fundic ECL hyperplasia and, eventually, carcinoids; in humans with pernicious anemia, hypergastrinemia causes ECL-cell hyperplasia, which may progress to carcinoids that are reversible upon withdrawal of gastrin, illustrated by three cases described here. Loss of gastrin by antrectomy for duodenal ulcer leads to fundic involution and marked reduction in basal acid output, maximal acid output, and fundic histamine. An uncontrolled excess of gastrin, as from a gastrinoma outside the negative feedback loop, causes acid and pepsin hypersecretion with upper GI mucosal damage, the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. This paper summarizes the abnormal regulation of gastrin and the biology, natural history, diagnosis, and management of ZE syndrome by medical and surgical means.

  8. Duodenal Bulb Mucosa with Hypertrophic Gastric Oxyntic Heterotopia in Patients with Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Emil; Oh, David; Wang, Hank; Hazany, Salar; Ohning, Gordon; Pisegna, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) results in hypersecretion of gastric acid (via gastrinoma) leading to peptic ulcers, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. We describe the novel discovery of hypertrophic, heterotopic gastric mucosa in the proximal duodenal bulb in patients with ZES, which we hypothesize results in an increased incidence of postbulbar ulcers in patients with ZES (a mechanism previously unreported). We determined the incidence of the novel finding of duodenal gastric oxyntic hypertrophic heterotopia (GOH) in patients with ZES. Methods. Seven patients with ZES were enrolled. The diagnosis of ZES was established by hypergastrinemia, gastric acid hypersecretion, and a positive secretin test or based on biopsy specimens (evaluated via tissue staining). Basal acid output (BAO) and baseline gastrin secretion were determined by established methods. Endoscopic examinations with methylene blue staining and biopsy of the gastric and duodenal mucosa were conducted in all patients every 3–6 months for an average of 5 years. Results. The duodenal mucosa demonstrated hypertrophic GOH in 5 out of 7 patients with ZES and an intact stomach and duodenum. Biopsies from the bowel mucosa demonstrated patchy replacement of surface epithelium by gastric-type epithelium with hypertrophic oxyntic glands in the lamina propria in 5 patients. Two of the patients had no evidence of GOH in the duodenal bulb. Patients with GOH had an average serum gastrin level of 1245 pg/mL and BAO of 2.92 mEq/hr versus 724 pg/mL and 0.8 mEq/hr in patients without GOH. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the presence of duodenal mucosa with GOH in 5 out of 7 patients with ZES and an intact stomach and duodenum. The presence of hypertrophic and heterotopic gastric mucosa is proposed to result from increased gastrin levels and may contribute to the increased incidence of postbulbar ulcers in these patients. PMID:19587828

  9. Pathophysiological responses to meals in the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: I. Paradoxical postprandial inhibition of gastric secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Malagelada, J R

    1978-01-01

    The gastric acid, pepsin, and secretory volume output in response to a mixed meal were measured in six patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome caused by a gastrin-producing tumour proved subsequently at surgery. The patients were all normocalcaemic, and none had previous abdominal surgery. In four of the six patients, ingestion of the meal markedly inhibited the gastric secretory output, which decreased to below fasting levels, returning later to basal values. In two other patients, whose fasting acid output was considerably lower, the secretory output increased after the meal, but some inhibiton of gastric secretion was also apparent for variable intervals of time. The serum gastrin concentration in all patients remained essentially unchanged or increased after the meal. Two patients were restudied after successful removal of the duodenal gastrin-producing tumour, and in each the normal gastric secretory and gastrin-releasing responses were completely restored. Our studies suggest that, in patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome caused by a gastrinoma, physiological regulatory mechanisms triggered by food reduce the continuous stimulation of gastric secretion caused by their tumoural hypergastrinaemia. PMID:25828

  10. Pathophysiological responses to meals in the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: I. Paradoxical postprandial inhibition of gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Malagelada, J R

    1978-04-01

    The gastric acid, pepsin, and secretory volume output in response to a mixed meal were measured in six patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome caused by a gastrin-producing tumour proved subsequently at surgery. The patients were all normocalcaemic, and none had previous abdominal surgery. In four of the six patients, ingestion of the meal markedly inhibited the gastric secretory output, which decreased to below fasting levels, returning later to basal values. In two other patients, whose fasting acid output was considerably lower, the secretory output increased after the meal, but some inhibiton of gastric secretion was also apparent for variable intervals of time. The serum gastrin concentration in all patients remained essentially unchanged or increased after the meal. Two patients were restudied after successful removal of the duodenal gastrin-producing tumour, and in each the normal gastric secretory and gastrin-releasing responses were completely restored. Our studies suggest that, in patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome caused by a gastrinoma, physiological regulatory mechanisms triggered by food reduce the continuous stimulation of gastric secretion caused by their tumoural hypergastrinaemia.

  11. Gastrinoma and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in canids: a literature review and a case in a Mexican gray wolf.

    PubMed

    Struthers, Jason D; Robl, Nick; Wong, Valerie M; Kiupel, Matti

    2018-06-01

    Gastrinoma, an infrequent diagnosis in middle-aged dogs, occurs with nonspecific gastrointestinal morbidity. Laboratory tests can yield a presumptive diagnosis, but definitive diagnosis depends on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. We describe a malignant pancreatic gastrinoma with lymph node metastases and corresponding Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in a Mexican gray wolf ( Canis lupus baileyi) and review this endocrine neoplasm in domestic dogs. A 12-y-old, captive, male Mexican gray wolf developed inappetence and weight loss. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a thickened duodenum and peritoneal effusion. Two duodenal perforations were noted on exploratory celiotomy and were repaired. Persisting clinical signs led to a second celiotomy that revealed a mesenteric mass, which was diagnosed histologically as a neuroendocrine carcinoma. During the following 16 mo, the wolf received a combination of H 2 -receptor antagonists, proton-pump inhibitors, gastroprotectants, and anti-emetics, but had recurrent episodes of anorexia, nausea, acid reflux, and remained underweight. Worsening clinical signs and weakness prompted euthanasia. The antemortem serum gastrin concentration of 414 ng/L (reference interval: 10-40 ng/L) corroborated hypergastrinemia. Autopsy revealed a mass expanding the right pancreatic limb; 3 parapancreatic mesenteric masses; duodenal ulcers; focal duodenal perforation with septic fibrinosuppurative peritonitis; chronic-active ulcerative esophagitis; and poor body condition. The pancreatic mass was diagnosed histologically as a neuroendocrine carcinoma and the parapancreatic masses as lymph node metastases. Immunohistochemistry of the pancreatic mass was positive for gastrin and negative for glucagon, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, serotonin, somatostatin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide.

  12. The Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: is there a role for somatostatin analogues in the treatment of the gastrinoma?

    PubMed

    Guarnotta, Valentina; Martini, Chiara; Davì, Maria Vittoria; Pizza, Genoveffa; Colao, Annamaria; Faggiano, Antongiulio

    2018-04-01

    Analyze the role of somatostatin analogues (SSAs) in the treatment of sporadic and MEN1-related gastrinomas, trying to define whether recent trials have changed the landscape of gastrinoma therapy. We evaluate the rationale of SSA use in the treatment of gastrinomas, summarize the current literature concerning the effect of SSAs on the control of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) and gastrinomas tumor progression and discuss their role in the most recent guidelines. The medical treatment of gastrinoma and related ZES is aimed at controlling acid hypersecretion and tumor progression, in inoperable patients. The use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to control the syndrome is a cornerstone in the ZES therapy. SSAs are not usually indicated for antisecretory purpose, because PPIs are considered the treatment of choice, due to their long lasting high efficacy and oral availability. The antiproliferative effect of SSAs has been established by two placebo-controlled trials that have clearly demonstrated a significant increase in progression free survival in patients affected by non-functioning well-differentiated advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The recent ENETS guidelines recommend the use of SSAs in advanced well differentiated NETs as antiproliferative agents. The high sstr-expression in gastrinomas make them highly responsive to SSAs and support the use of such drugs to counteract the tumour growth in patients not amenable to surgical cure. Unfortunately, limited data, mainly case reports or small series, support the use of SSAs in advanced gastrinomas, therefore, it is difficult to quantify their ability to control tumour growth and disease progression.

  13. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... sample during an office visit or at a commercial facility and sends the sample to a lab ... Government does not endorse or favor any specific commercial product or company. Trade, proprietary, or company names ...

  14. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... much acid. The excess acid then leads to peptic ulcers, as well as to diarrhea and other symptoms. ... much acid. The excessive acid then leads to peptic ulcers and sometimes to diarrhea. Besides causing excess acid ...

  15. Causes of death and prognostic factors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: a prospective study: comparison of 106 MEN1/Zollinger-Ellison syndrome patients with 1613 literature MEN1 patients with or without pancreatic endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Uehara, Hirotsugu; Berna, Marc J; Jensen, Robert T

    2013-05-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is classically characterized by the development of functional or nonfunctional hyperplasia or tumors in endocrine tissues (parathyroid, pancreas, pituitary, adrenal). Because effective treatments have been developed for the hormone excess state, which was a major cause of death in these patients in the past, coupled with the recognition that nonendocrine tumors increasingly develop late in the disease course, the natural history of the disease has changed. An understanding of the current causes of death is important to tailor treatment for these patients and to help identify prognostic factors; however, it is generally lacking.To add to our understanding, we conducted a detailed analysis of the causes of death and prognostic factors from a prospective long-term National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 106 MEN1 patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1/ZES patients) and compared our results to those from the pooled literature data of 227 patients with MEN1 with pancreatic endocrine tumors (MEN1/PET patients) reported in case reports or small series, and to 1386 patients reported in large MEN1 literature series. In the NIH series over a mean follow-up of 24.5 years, 24 (23%) patients died (14 MEN1-related and 10 non-MEN1-related deaths). Comparing the causes of death with the results from the 227 patients in the pooled literature series, we found that no patients died of acute complications due to acid hypersecretion, and 8%-14% died of other hormone excess causes, which is similar to the results in 10 large MEN1 literature series published since 1995. In the 2 series (the NIH and pooled literature series), two-thirds of patients died from an MEN1-related cause and one-third from a non-MEN1-related cause, which agrees with the mean values reported in 10 large MEN1 series in the literature, although in the literature the causes of death varied widely. In the NIH and pooled literature

  16. Prospective Study of Surgery for Primary Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia-type 1 (MEN1), and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES): Long-term Outcome of a More Virulent form of HPT

    PubMed Central

    Norton, JA; Venzon, DJ; Berna, MJ; Alexander, HR; Frake, DL; Libutti, SK; Marx, SJ; Gibril, F; Jensen, RT

    2009-01-01

    Background HPT in MEN1 patients with ZES is caused by parathyroid hyperplasia. Surgery for parathyroid hyperplasia is tricky and difficult. Long-term outcome in ZES/MEN1 /HPT is not well known. Methods 84 consecutive patients (49 F/35 M) with ZES/MEN1 /HPT underwent intial parathyroidectomy (PTX) and were followed at 1−3 yr intervals. Results Age at PTX was 36±2 yrs. Mean follow-up was 17±1 yrs. Prior to PTX, mean Ca=2.8 mmol/L (nl<2.5), PTHi=243 pg/ml (nl <65), and gastrin=6950 pg/ml (nl <100). 61% had nephrolithiasis. Each patient had parathyroid hyperplasia. 58% of patients had four parathyroid glands identified. 9/84 (11%) had 4 glands removed with immediate autograft, 40/84 (47%) 3−3.5 glands, while 35/84 (42%) <3 glands.removed. Persistent/recurrent HPT occurred in 42%/48% of patients with <3 glands, 12%/44% with 3−3.5 glands, and 0%/55% with 4 glands removed. Hypoparathyroidism occurred in 3%, 10% and 22%, respectively. The disease-free interval following surgery was significantly longer if >3 glands were removed. After surgery to correct the HPT, each biochemical parameter of ZES was improved and 20% of patients no longer had laboratory evidence of ZES. Conclusions HPT /MEN1/ZES is a severe form of parathyroid hyperplasia with a high rate of nephrolithiasis, persistent and recurrent HPT. Surgery to correct the hypercalcemia significantly ameliorates the ZES. Removal of less than 3 and ½ glands has an unacceptably high incidence of persistent HPT (42%), while 4 gland resection and transplant has an high rate of permanent hypoparathyroidism (22%). >3gland resection has a longer disease-free interval. 3 and ½ gland parathyroidectomy is the surgical procedure of choice for patients with HPT/MEN1/ ZES. Careful long-term follow-up is mandatory as a significant proportion will develop recurrent HPT. PMID:18376196

  17. Diagnosis of Zollinger–Ellison syndrome in the era of PPIs, faulty gastrin assays, sensitive imaging and limited access to acid secretory testing

    PubMed Central

    Metz, David C.; Cadiot, Guillaume; Poitras, Pierre; Ito, Tetsuhide; Jensen, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) has become increasingly controversial with several new approaches and criteria proposed, differing from the classical biochemical criterion of inappropriate hypergastrinemia (i.e., hypergastrinemia in the presence of hyperchlorhydria) (Table 1). These changes have come about because of the difficulty and potential dangers of stopping proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for gastric acid analysis; the recognition than many of the current assays used to assess gastrin concentrations are unreliable; the development of sensitive imaging modalities that detect neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) including an increasing number of the primary gastrinomas; the increased use of percutaneous or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-directed biopsies/cytology and the general lack of availability of acid secretory testing. In this article we will discuss the basis for these controversies, review the proposed changes in diagnostic approaches and make recommendations for supporting the diagnosis of ZES in the modern era. PMID:29326808

  18. Prostaglandins E and F in endocrine diarrheagenic syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, B M; Condon, S

    1976-01-01

    The role of prostaglandins in endocrine diarrheagenic syndromes was evaluated by measuring peripheral concentration of immunoreactive PGE and PGF in patients with non-endocrine diarrhea as well as those with the Zollinger-Ellison (Z-E) syndrome, MCT, carcinoid tumors and the WDHA syndrome. In 21 normals, PGE and PGF levels averaged 272 +/- 18 and 119 +/- 14 pg/ml, respectively. Twenty eight patients with diarrhea of non-endocrine origin (mainly inflammatory bowel disease) had levels indistinguishable from normal, i.e. 353 +/- 25 and 77 +/- 37 pg/ml, respectively. Among 29 patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (mean gastrin 6127 +/- 3267 pg/ml) only 2 had significantly elevated PGE levels; mean PGE levels, 382 +/- 32 pg/ml, were not significantly different from normal and did not correlate with either diarrhea or the serum gastrin concentration. In contrast, 18 of 22 patients with carcinoid tumors (mean blood serotonin concentration 1655 +/- 604 ng/ml; mean urinary excretion of 5 HIAA 66.8 +/- 16.7 mg/day) had elevated peripheral concentrations of PGE. The mean PGE level (1367 +/- 245 pg/ml) was significantly elevated (P less than 0.001). Nonetheless PGE levels did not correlate with diarrhea, blood concentrations of serotonin, or urinary indole excretion. MCT (mean serum calcitonin 24.5 +/- 6.3 ng/ml) was similarly associated with consistent (18/19) elevation in peripheral concentrations of PGE (mean 1922 +/- 541 pg/ml; P less than 0.001). Inthis syndrome, PGE levels were higher in patients with diarrhea and in those with markedly elevated serum thyrocalcitonin levels. Finally, 8 of 21 patients with the WDHA syndrome had increased levels of PGE. Although 13 of 17 patients had high levels of VIP (mean 8133 pg/ml), 2 patients had hyperprostaglandinemia in the face of normal peripheral concentrations of VIP. In one patient the serum PGE level was elevated prior to resection of the primary pancreatic neoplasm (9939 pg/ml) as well as the subsequent extirpation of

  19. Symptoms and Causes of Peptic Ulcer Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcer. How do H. pylori cause a peptic ulcer and peptic ulcer disease? H. pylori are spiral-shaped bacteria that ... peptic ulcer. How do tumors from ZES cause peptic ulcers? Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare disorder that ...

  20. Cimetidine

    MedlinePlus

    ... GERD), a condition in which backward flow of acid from the stomach causes heartburn and injury of ... and conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Over-the-counter ...

  1. Radioimmunoassay of gastrin

    SciT

    McGuigan, J.E.

    1976-01-26

    The use of gastrin radioimmunoassay for differentiating between the Zollinger--Ellison syndrome and common peptic ulcer is discussed. This technique makes it possible to detect the syndrome with greater certainty than measurement of gastric acid secretion. Other clinical disorders in which increased serum gastrin levels occur are pernicious anemia, chronic gastritis, achlorhydria, renal failure, and intestinal resection. (HLW)

  2. Proctitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Digestive System & How it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Proctitis View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts Proctitis is inflammation of the lining of the rectum. Proctitis may be acute or chronic. Anal sex, inflammatory bowel disease, or radiation therapy to your pelvic area or abdomen may ...

  3. Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digestive System & How it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Diverticular Disease View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts Diverticulosis is a condition that occurs when small pouches, or sacs, form and push outward through weak spots in the wall of your colon. In diverticulitis, one or a few of the ...

  4. Famotidine

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury of the esophagus [tube that connects the mouth and stomach]); and conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (tumors in the pancreas or small intestine that cause increased production of stomach acid). Over-the-counter famotidine is ...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and treatment of patients with peptic ulcer, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (peptic ulcer due to gastrin... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862....1320 Gastric acidity test system. (a) Identification. A gastric acidity test system is a device...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1320 - Gastric acidity test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and treatment of patients with peptic ulcer, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (peptic ulcer due to gastrin... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastric acidity test system. 862.1320 Section 862....1320 Gastric acidity test system. (a) Identification. A gastric acidity test system is a device...

  7. Gastrinomas associated with MEN-1 syndrome: new insights for the diagnosis and management in a series of 11 patients.

    PubMed

    Nikou, George C; Toubanakis, Christos; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Giannatou, Eleanna; Marinou, Kiriakoula; Safioleas, Michael; Karamanolis, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    Approximately, 25-30% of patients (pts) have gastrinomas, (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, ZES), as part of the inherited syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN-1). The identification of MEN-1 syndrome in these pts is always important, as there are some differences in their management and prognosis. Among 33 pts with ZES, we present in this study 11 pts with ZES and MEN-1 syndrome, describing our diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Eleven pts with ZES and MEN-1 syndrome (6 females and 5 males) were included (mean age 51.8 years). The diagnosis of ZES was based upon: a) clinical features and b) high serum gastrin levels, while in 7/11 pts diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically. A variety of other gastrointestinal peptides, as well as the general neuroendocrine tumor marker, Chromogranin-A (CgA) were also estimated. All pts underwent conventional imaging methods (CT, MRI) and OCTREOSCAN or EUS when necessary, in order to localize the primary lesion or the metastases. The diagnosis of MEN-1 was based upon the presence of the other two MEN-1 related endocrinopathies (hyperparathyroidism, pituitary adenomas), revealed by estimation of several hormones (PTH, Prolactin, ACTH etc.) and performance of imaging studies of the pituitary and parathyroid glands. When MEN-1 syndrome was established, a familiar screening of pts was also performed, when possible. The mean duration of pts' follow-up was 6.1 years (range: 2.1-8.5 years). At the time of presentation, 91% pts, had symptoms of peptic ulcer disease, refractory to treatment, while a history of colicky abdominal pain due to nephrolithiasis was also reported by 45% pts. Four of our pts had a blood relation. Serum gastrin levels at the time of diagnosis were greater than 1000pg/mL in 63.5% pts, while at the same time serum CgA levels were greater than 10 times the upper normal limit (<98ng/mL) in all pts. OCTREOSCAN and EUS revealed the primary tumor (in duodenum or pancreas) in 64% pts, in whom conventional methods

  8. Gastric neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Crosby, David A; Donohoe, Claire L; Fitzgerald, Louise; Muldoon, Cian; Hayes, Brian; O'Toole, Dermot; Reynolds, John V

    2012-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are increasingly recognised, and management decisions may be difficult due to an incomplete understanding of aetiology, natural history and optimum therapy. This article presents a current understanding based on recent advances in epidemiology, classification, molecular profiling, and treatment. Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Gastric NETs may be divided into three clinical prognostic groups: type I is associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and type III lesions are gastrin-independent, have the greatest metastatic potential and poorest prognosis. There has been an increased frequency of gastric NETs reported. Management approaches have evolved in parallel with advances in endoscopic staging and surgery, as well as improved understanding of the biology and natural history of NETs. Gastric NETs present a spectrum of activity from indolent tumours to metastatic malignancy. Treatment decisions for patients must be individualised and are best managed by a multidisciplinary team approach. The current evidence base is limited to small series and efforts to treat patients within clinical networks of expertise are warranted. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The Use of Cimetidine in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kopala, Lili

    1984-01-01

    Cimetidine is the most commonly prescribed drug in North America. A clinical review was conducted to identify physicians' prescribing habits. From September 1, 1981 to March 31, 1982, the charts were reviewed of 50 patients receiving cimetidine in an isolated coastal community hospital in British Columbia. It was discovered that physicians prescribed the drug for reasons approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) only 14% of the time. The FDA guidelines approve cimetidine for duodenal ulcer, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and other hypersecretory states. A literature review was conducted, and guidelines on prescribing cimetidine were given to all members of the hospital's medical staff. PMID:21283494

  10. The use of cimetidine in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Kopala, L

    1984-01-01

    Cimetidine is the most commonly prescribed drug in North America. A clinical review was conducted to identify physicians' prescribing habits. From September 1, 1981 to March 31, 1982, the charts were reviewed of 50 patients receiving cimetidine in an isolated coastal community hospital in British Columbia. It was discovered that physicians prescribed the drug for reasons approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) only 14% of the time. The FDA guidelines approve cimetidine for duodenal ulcer, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and other hypersecretory states. A literature review was conducted, and guidelines on prescribing cimetidine were given to all members of the hospital's medical staff.

  11. Professional Support of Self-Help Groups: A Support Group Project for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen, Benedicte

    2003-01-01

    Study follows a collaborative support group project between a team of health professionals and a Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients' group. While advantageous for professionals to decide upon the aim of a joint intervention in dialogue with participants, simply asking participants what their aims are does not guarantee actual agreement. Case study…

  12. Severe group A streptococcal infection and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baxter, F; McChesney, J

    2000-11-01

    To review the literature on group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, (STSS). Medline and EMBASE searches were conducted using the key words group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, alone and in combination with anesthesia; and septic shock, combined with anesthesia. Medline was also searched using key words intravenous immunoglobulin, (IVIG) and group A streptococcus, (GAS); and group A streptococcus and antibiotic therapy. Other references were included in this review if they addressed the history, microbiology, pathophysiology, incidence, mortality, presentation and management of invasive GAS infections. Relevant references from the papers reviewed were also considered. Articles on the foregoing topics were included regardless of study design. Non-English language studies were excluded. Literature on the efficacy of IVIG and optimal antibiotic therapy was specifically searched. Reports of invasive GAS infections have recently increased. Invasive GAS infection is associated with a toxic shock syndrome, (STSS), in 8-14% of cases. The STSS characteristically results in shock and multi-organ failure soon after the onset of symptoms, and is associated with a mortality of 33-81%. Many of these patients will require extensive soft tissue debridement or amputation in the operating room, on an emergency basis. The extent of tissue debridement required is often underestimated before skin incision. Management of STSS requires volume resuscitation, vasopressor/inotrope infusion, antibiotic therapy and supportive care in an intensive care unit, usually including mechanical ventilation. Intravenous immunoglobulin infusion has been recommended. Further studies are needed to define the role of IVIG in STSS management and to determine optimal anesthetic management of patients with septic shock.

  13. The group of epidermal nevus syndromes Part I. Well defined phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Happle, Rudolf

    2010-07-01

    The epidermal nevus syndromes represent a group of distinct disorders that can be distinguished by the type of associated epidermal nevus and by the criterion of presence or absence of heritability. Well defined syndromes characterized by organoid epidermal nevi include Schimmelpenning syndrome, phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica, nevus comedonicus syndrome, angora hair nevus syndrome, and Becker nevus syndrome. The molecular basis of these disorders has so far not been identified. By contrast, the group of syndromes characterized by keratinocytic nevi comprises three phenotypes with a known molecular etiology in the form of CHILD (congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) syndrome, type 2 segmental Cowden disease, and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 epidermal nevus syndrome (García-Hafner-Happle syndrome), whereas Proteus syndrome is still of unknown origin. From this overview, it is clear that a specific type of these disorders cannot be classified by the name "epidermal nevus syndrome" nor by the terms "organoid nevus syndrome" or "keratinocytic nevus syndrome." After completing this learning activity, participants should be able to distinguish nine different epidermal nevus syndromes by their characteristic features, understand the practical significance of avoiding terms like "epidermal nevus syndrome" or "keratinocytic nevus syndrome" to define any specific entity within this group of disorders, and differentiate between nonhereditary traits and those bearing a genetic risk because of either Mendelian or non-Mendelian inheritance. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Features of Turner syndrome among a group of Cameroonian patients.

    PubMed

    Wonkam, Ambroise; Veigne, Sandra W; Abass, Ali; Ngo Um, Suzanne; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Mbanya, Jean-Claude; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2015-06-01

    To describe the features of Turner syndrome among a group of Cameroonian patients. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with amenorrhea and/or short stature who attended the genetic unit of Yaoundé Gynecology, Obstetrics and Pediatric Hospital (Yaoundé, Cameroon) for a specialist consultation between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2008. Sociodemographic, clinical, and cytogenetic data were collected. Turner syndrome was confirmed among 11 of the 14 participants (seven had monosomy of the X chromosome; four had mosaicism involving a structural abnormality of the second X chromosome). The mean age at diagnosis was 18.4±2.8years. The reasons for consultation were delayed puberty (n=10) and short stature (n=1). Nine patients had a short neck, nine had a forearm carrying-angle deformity, eight had a low hairline, and two had a webbed neck. Abdominal ultrasonography identified a horseshoe kidney in two patients and a rudimentary uterus in nine patients. None of the patients displayed cardiac abnormalities. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism was reported among five patients. Eight patients did not receive hormonal treatment owing to advanced bone age or economic reasons. Late diagnosis and variable phenotypic expression were key features of Cameroonian patients with Turner syndrome. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phlegmonous gastritis associated with group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Masaya; Tamura, Shinobu; Hayakawa, Takahiro; Yamanishi, Hirofumi; Nakamoto, Chiaki; Nakamoto, Hiromichi; Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Nakano, Yoshio; Fujimoto, Tokuzo

    2014-01-01

    Phlegmonous gastritis (PG) is a rare, acute, severe infectious disease of the gastric wall that is often fatal due to Streptococcus spp. A 77-year-old man with diabetes and a gastric ulcer was urgently admitted due to prolonged nausea and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed widespread diffuse thickening of the gastric wall, and PG was suspected. The patient expired less than 9 hours after admission despite intensive treatments. Later, an analysis of the blood and gastric juice revealed group A streptococcus (GAS) and virulence factors associated with toxic shock syndrome (TSS). We herein diagnosed a patient with an extremely aggressive course of PG caused by GAS TSS.

  16. Bacterial phenotype variants in group B streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sendi, Parham; Johansson, Linda; Dahesh, Samira; Van-Sorge, Nina M; Darenberg, Jessica; Norgren, Mari; Sjölin, Jan; Nizet, Victor; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2009-02-01

    We conducted genetic and functional analyses of isolates from a patient with group B streptococcal (GBS) necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. Tissue cultures simultaneously showed colonies with high hemolysis (HH) and low hemolysis (LH). Conversely, the HH and LH variants exhibited low capsule (LC) and high capsule (HC) expression, respectively. Molecular analysis demonstrated that the 2 GBS variants were of the same clonal origin. Genetic analysis found a 3-bp deletion in the covR gene of the HH/LC variant. Functionally, this isolate was associated with an increased growth rate in vitro and with higher interleukin-8 induction. However, in whole blood, opsonophagocytic and intracellular killing assays, the LH/HC phenotype demonstrated higher resistance to host phagocytic killing. In a murine model, LH/HC resulted in higher levels of bacteremia and increased host mortality rate. These findings demonstrate differences in GBS isolates of the same clonal origin but varying phenotypes.

  17. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group G associated with Cockayne syndrome

    SciT

    Vermeulen, W.; Jaspers, N.G.J.; Bootsma, D.

    1993-07-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are two rare inherited disorders with a clinical and cellular hypersensitivity to the UV component of the sunlight spectrum. Although the two traits are generally considered as clinically and genetically distinct entities, on the biochemical level a defect in the nucleotide excision-repair (NER) pathway is involved in both. Classical CS patients are primarily deficient in the preferential repair of DNA damage in actively transcribed genes, whereas in most XP patients the genetic defect affects both [open quotes]preferential[close quotes] and [open quotes]overall[close quotes] NER modalities. Here the authors report a genetic study of twomore » unrelated, severely affected patients with the clinical characteristics of CS but with a biochemical defect typical of XP. By complementation analysis, using somatic cell fusion and nuclear microinjection of cloned repair genes, they assign these two patients to XP complementation group G, which previously was not associated with CS. This observation extends the earlier identification of two patients with a rare combined XP/CS phenotype within XP complementation groups B and D, respectively. It indicates that some mutations in at least three of the seven genes known to be involved in XP also can result in a picture of partial or even full-blown CS. It is concluded that the syndromes XP and CS are biochemically closely related and may be part of a broader clinical disease spectrum. The authors suggest, as a possible molecular mechanism underlying this relation, that the XPGC repair gene has an additional vital function, as shown for some other NER genes. 33 refs., 5 tabs.« less

  18. Care of girls and women with Turner syndrome: a guideline of the Turner Syndrome Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bondy, Carolyn A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide updated guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of girls and women with Turner syndrome (TS). The Turner Syndrome Consensus Study Group is a multidisciplinary panel of experts with relevant clinical and research experience with TS that met in Bethesda, Maryland, April 2006. The meeting was supported by the National Institute of Child Health and unrestricted educational grants from pharmaceutical companies. The study group used peer-reviewed published information to form its principal recommendations. Expert opinion was used where good evidence was lacking. The study group met for 3 d to discuss key issues. Breakout groups focused on genetic, cardiological, auxological, psychological, gynecological, and general medical concerns and drafted recommendations for presentation to the whole group. Draft reports were available for additional comment on the meeting web site. Synthesis of the section reports and final revisions were reviewed by e-mail and approved by whole-group consensus. We suggest that parents receiving a prenatal diagnosis of TS be advised of the broad phenotypic spectrum and the good quality of life observed in TS in recent years. We recommend that magnetic resonance angiography be used in addition to echocardiography to evaluate the cardiovascular system and suggest that patients with defined cardiovascular defects be cautioned in regard to pregnancy and certain types of exercise. We recommend that puberty should not be delayed to promote statural growth. We suggest a comprehensive educational evaluation in early childhood to identify potential attention-deficit or nonverbal learning disorders. We suggest that caregivers address the prospect of premature ovarian failure in an open and sensitive manner and emphasize the critical importance of estrogen treatment for feminization and for bone health during the adult years. All individuals with TS require continued monitoring of hearing and thyroid function

  19. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome secondary to group A Streptococcus vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Hikone, Mayu; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Washino, Takuya; Ota, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Naoya; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a systemic illness usually caused in the setting of infection by group A Streptococcus (GAS). The primary infections are often invasive infections of the respiratory tract or necrotizing infections of the skin and soft tissue, but some infections occur without relevant focus. GAS vaginitis is a rare condition among adult women and is accordingly thought to be uncommon as a cause of streptococcal TSS. Here we report the cases of two postmenopausal women with streptococcal TSS secondary to GAS vaginitis, one aged 55 and one aged 60. Both came to our emergency department with complaints or symptoms of abdominal pain, fever, hypotension, and multi-organ failure. In both cases, the relevant factor associated with streptococcal infection was a recent episode of GAS vaginitis. Both underwent fluid management and 14 days of antibiotic treatment and fully recovered without complications. Vaginitis was likely to be the primary infectious trigger of TSS in these two cases. Intrauterine device insertion, endometrial biopsy, and post-partum state have all been previously reported in TSS patients, and the female genital tract has been described as a portal of entry. GAS vaginitis warrants appropriate treatment as it may progress to severe systemic infection as described. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Group B Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome and covR/S Mutations Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Sendi, Parham; el Hay, Muad Abd; Brandt, Claudia M.

    2017-01-01

    Gene mutations in the virulence regulator CovR/S of group A Streptococcus play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. We screened 25 group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates obtained from patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and found only 1 GBS clone harboring this kind of mutation. PMID:27983484

  1. Group B Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome and covR/S Mutations Revisited.

    PubMed

    Sendi, Parham; El Hay, Muad Abd; Brandt, Claudia M; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Gene mutations in the virulence regulator CovR/S of group A Streptococcus play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. We screened 25 group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates obtained from patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and found only 1 GBS clone harboring this kind of mutation.

  2. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome predisposing to non-WNT, non-SHH, group 3 medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Bourdeaut, Franck; Miquel, Catherine; Richer, Wilfrid; Grill, Jacques; Zerah, Michel; Grison, Camille; Pierron, Gaelle; Amiel, Jeanne; Krucker, Clementine; Radvanyi, Francois; Brugieres, Laurence; Delattre, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    Medulloblastomas (MB) are classified in four subgroups: the well defined WNT and Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) subgroups, and the less defined groups 3 and 4. They occasionally occur in the context of a cancer predisposition syndrome. While germline APC mutations predispose to WNT MB, germline mutations in SUFU, PTCH1, and TP53 predispose to SHH tumors. We report on a child with a Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) due to a germline deletion in CREBBP, who developed a MB. Biological profilings demonstrate that this tumor belongs to the group 3. RTS may therefore be the first predisposition syndrome identified for non-WNT/non-SHH MB. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Caused by Group G Streptococcus, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Melissa; Morgan, Marina

    2017-01-01

    We describe successful management of 3 patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) attributable to group G Streptococcus infection. This small series supports recognition of group G Streptococcus in the etiology of STSS. We propose intravenous immunoglobulin be used in treatment as it is for STSS caused by group A Streptococcus.

  4. Munchausen syndrome masquerading as bleeding disorder in a group of pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Srivani; Shukla, Deepak; Mehta, Ritambhara; Oswal, Rajat

    2011-01-01

    This short communication is about Munchausen's syndrome in a group of pediatric patients and co morbid Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. A 7-year-old girl presented with spontaneous bleeding from forehead, eyes and scalp. The girl was investigated thoroughly by pediatricians at a tertiary care hospital in western India for all possible bleeding disorders, but there was no conclusive diagnosis. After two days, cases with similar complaints were reported among children residing in the same locality and with similar socioeconomic background. All of them were investigated in detail for possible causes of bleeding but nothing came out. There was a media reporting of the cases as a mysterious bleeding disorder. At this point of time, an expert opinion from the psychiatrist was demanded. Covert video surveillance and series of interviews revealed Munchausen's syndrome and possible Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. An in-depth literature review with special reference to Munchausen's syndrome was carried out to come to a final conclusive diagnosis.

  5. Gastrointestinal involvement in systemic mastocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, R W; Vetter, D; Deyhle, P; Tschen, H; Sulser, H; Schmid, M

    1976-01-01

    Four consecutive patients with systemic mastocytosis were studied. One patient had a malabsorption syndrome with only minor histological changes of the intestinal mucosa. Another patient with ulcer diathesis had a gastric secretory pattern resembling Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Serum gastrin and histamine levels were consistently normal in all patients. Endoscopy of stomach and colon disclosed urticaria-like papulae either spontaneously or after topical provocation in all patients. No increase of mast cells was found in multiple mucosal biopsies. A markedly increased gastric tissue content of histamine was found, however, in the three patients studied. The findings suggest that urticaria-like lesions associated with a high tissue content of histamine may be more important that hyperhistaminaemia in causing the various gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:1261881

  6. Using novel control groups to dissect the amygdala's role in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Avery, Suzanne N; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano

    2011-07-01

    Williams syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder with an intriguing behavioral phenotype-hypersociability combined with significant non-social fears. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormalities in amygdala function in individuals with Williams syndrome compared to typically-developing controls. However, it remains unclear whether the findings are related to the atypical neurodevelopment of Williams syndrome, or are also associated with behavioral traits at the extreme end of a normal continuum. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare amygdala blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses to non-social and social images in individuals with Williams syndrome compared to either individuals with inhibited temperament (high non-social fear) or individuals with uninhibited temperament (high sociability). Individuals with Williams syndrome had larger amygdala BOLD responses when viewing the non-social fear images than the inhibited temperament control group. In contrast, when viewing both fear and neutral social images, individuals with Williams syndrome did not show smaller amygdala BOLD responses relative to the uninhibited temperament control group, but instead had amygdala responses proportionate to their sociability. These results suggest heightened amygdala response to non-social fear images is characteristic of WS, whereas, variability in amygdala response to social fear images is proportionate to, and might be explained by, levels of trait sociability.

  7. Experimental and calculated 1H, 13C, 15N NMR spectra of famotidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barańska, M.; Czarniecki, K.; Proniewicz, L. M.

    2001-05-01

    Famotidine, 3-[[[2-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-4-thiazolyl]methyl]thio]- N-(aminosulfonyl), is a histamine H 2-receptor blocker that has been used mainly for the treatment of peptic ulcers and the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Its NMR spectra in different solvents were reported earlier; however, detailed interpretation has not been done thus far. In this work, experimental 1H, 13C and 15N NMR spectra of famotidine dissolved in DMSO-d 6 are shown. The assignment of observed chemical shifts is based on quantum chemical calculation at the Hartree-Fock/6-31G ∗ level. The geometry optimization of the famotidine molecule with two internal hydrogen bonds, i.e. [N(3)-H(23)⋯N(9) and N(3)⋯H(34)-N(20)], is done by using the B3LYP method with the 6-31G ∗ basis set.

  8. Veliparib, Capecitabine, and Temozolomide in Patients With Advanced, Metastatic, and Recurrent Neuroendocrine Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-26

    Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Malignant Somatostatinoma; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B; Neuroendocrine Neoplasm; Non-Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Thymic Carcinoid Tumor; VIP-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Well Differentiated Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

  9. Clinical aspects of ECL-cell abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Hirschowitz, B. I.

    1998-01-01

    ECL cell hyperplasia results from hypergastrinemia, and in man this occurs due to achlorhydria in atrophic gastritis (pernicious anemia [PA]) and gastrinoma (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome [ZES]). Progression to neoplasia, i.e., ECL cell carcinoids (usually small, multicentric and non-functional), occurs in some five to 10 percent of patients with PA where they remain gastrin-dependent and reversible by normalization of serum gastrin by antrectomy. Even if untreated, the carcinoids are almost invariably benign and do not cause death. In ZES, ECL cell hyperplasia is progressive due to hypergastrinemia. However, carcinoids develop only in the MEN-I subtype but pose no additional threat of malignancy. A conservative approach is recommended for small multicentric carcinoids, and the tumors do not need removal. By contrast, single, large, non-gastrin-dependent carcinoids represent a different biological and clinical problem and are frequently malignant. PMID:10461361

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of ECL cell tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Cadiot, G.; Cattan, D.; Mignon, M.

    1998-01-01

    The diagnosis of ECL-omas is easy to perform. In patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES), ECL-omas are almost always observed in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I. In patients without ZES, the first step is to discard non-gastrin-related sporadic ECL-omas whose prognosis is poor. By contrast, prognosis of ECL-omas in patients with ZES or chronic atrophic gastritis is good. Metastases are rare, and tumor-related deaths are exceptional. In both conditions, ECL-omas measuring less than 1 cm should be treated by endoscopic polypectomy and survey. Treatment modalities (surgery, endoscopic polypectomy) for larger tumors are still discussed. The impact of endoscopic ultrasonography on the therapeutic decision has not yet been evaluated. Considering the good prognosis of these tumors, aggressive surgery could be limited to selected patients. Multicentric studies should be undertaken to determine the best treatment modalities. PMID:10461362

  11. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of cimetidine and its metallocomplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barańska, M.; Proniewicz, L. M.

    1999-11-01

    We present vibrational spectra of three stable, well-reproducible, polymorphic forms of cimetidine ( cim), a drug which is a powerful histamine H 2-receptor antagonist used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Assignments of Raman and IR bands are made using semiempirical methods: MNDO, AM1 and PM3. We also describe the synthesis of Me( cim) 2(ClO 4) 2, where Me=Cu(II), Cd(II), Co(II) and Ni(II), and present their vibrational data. We show that the obtained complexes are isostructural, however a metal ion that occupies a center of octahedral unit introduces some distortions that can be seen in the spectra. We also make tentative assignment of metal-ligand stretching modes observed in low frequency range.

  12. [An rare complication of scarlet fever : invasive group A streptococcal infection with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome].

    PubMed

    Warnier, H; Depuis, Z; Nyamugabo, K; Desprechins, B; Seghaye, M-C

    2017-03-01

    Invasive Group A Streptococcus infections and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are rare complications of common diseases in children such as scarlet fever or impetigo. These invasive diseases are particulary challenging because of their rapid progression and the lack of predisposing factors in most cases. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are mandatory to reduce the mortality associated with these severe diseases. We report the case of an 8- year-old girl who developped an invasive group A streptococcal disease with osteomyelitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in the course of a classical scarlet fever.

  13. Dry Eye Syndrome in Menopause and Perimenopausal Age Group.

    PubMed

    Peck, Travis; Olsakovsky, Leslie; Aggarwal, Shruti

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial ocular surface disease that causes symptoms of ocular pain, discomfort, and decreased visual acuity. It significantly affects quality of life of patients. It is more prevalent in the females and is being specifically in the menopausal and postmenopausal age group. This is believed to be due to the changes in balance of sex hormones. Sex hormones - estrogens and androgens - influence production of all components of the tear film including aqueous layer, lipid, and mucin. Various mechanisms such as decrease in hormonal levels, shift in feedback mechanisms, and changes in receptor receptivity interplay to alter the ocular surface homeostasis and subsequently result in DED. Several studies have suggested potential role of hormone replacement therapy in menopause-associated dry eye symptoms. The purpose of this review is to help the non ophthalmic physicians about DED encountered commonly in menopausal age group. It is important for primary care physicians to understand DED due to its high prevalence, often debilitating symptoms and the potentially preventable and treatable nature of the condition.

  14. Schizophrenia and organic brain syndrome with trisomy 8 (group-C trisomy 8 [47, XX, 8+]).

    PubMed

    Sperber, M A

    1975-02-01

    A supernumerary autosomal syndrome in the C group of submetacentric autosomes has not yet been delineated phenotypically, although cases of an extra C-group autosome have been reported. Recent technical advances (fluorescence and Giemsa banding) now permit positive identification of each autosome. The present case reports the presence of schizophrenia and organic brain syndrome in association with trisomy 8. It is the sixth case of trisomy 8 reported to date. A stress-diathesis model is used to explain the development of the psychiatric disturbances. The patient's autosomal aberration is regarded as diathetic, and the multiple congenital anomalies, surgical interventions, infections, familial, and other environmental responses as stress. This report provides further data for the phenotypic delineation of a trisomy 8 syndrome.

  15. Experience of sleep disruption in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: A focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Vincent; Deane, Katherine HO; Newton, Julia L; Ng, Wan-Fai; Rapley, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Primary Sjögren’s syndrome is the third most common systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease, following rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, and results in dryness, fatigue, discomfort and sleep disturbances. Sleep is relatively unexplored in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. We investigated the experiences of sleep disturbances from the viewpoint of primary Sjögren’s syndrome patients and their partners and explored the acceptability of cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia. Method We used focus groups to collect qualitative data from 10 patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome and three partners of patients. The data were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Results Five themes emerged from the data: (a) Experience of sleep disturbances; (b) variation and inconsistency in sleep disturbances; (c) the domino effect of primary Sjögren’s syndrome symptoms; (d) strategies to manage sleep; (e) acceptability of evidence-based techniques. Sleep disturbances were problematic for all patients, but specific disturbances varied between participants. These included prolonged sleep onset time and frequent night awakenings and were aggravated by pain and discomfort. Patients deployed a range of strategies to try and self-manage. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was seen as an acceptable intervention, as long as a rationale for its use is given and it is tailored for primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Conclusion Primary Sjögren’s syndrome patients described a range of sleep disturbances. Applying tailored, evidence-based sleep therapy interventions may improve sleep, severity of other primary Sjögren’s syndrome symptoms and functional ability. PMID:29657352

  16. A Group Counseling and Educational Program for Students with Usher's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, McCay; Hicks, Wanda

    1983-01-01

    Group counseling for secondary students with Usher's syndrome, a genetic condition resulting in hearing impairment at birth and gradual loss of vision, was intended to provide information and opportunities for expression. Results included practical changes in school environment, increased information about deaf-blindness for the students, and help…

  17. Receiving the Initial Down Syndrome Diagnosis: A Comparison of Prenatal and Postnatal Parent Group Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Goff, Briana S.; Springer, Nicole; Foote, Laura Cline; Frantz, Courtney; Peak, Madison; Tracy, Courtney; Veh, Taylor; Bentley, Gail E.; Cross, Kayli A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the preliminary experiences of parents upon learning of their child's diagnosis of Down syndrome. Qualitative data from a web-based, national survey were analyzed based on two groups: prenatal ("n" = 46) or postnatal ("n" = 115) diagnosis. Three primary categories emerged from the data analysis:…

  18. The Impact of Tourette's Syndrome in the School and the Family: Perspectives from Three Stakeholder Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Navarro, Jesús; Cubo, Esther; Almazán, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the perceptions of Spanish health professionals, children with Tourette's Syndrome (TS) and their parents about social, school and family problems related to the disorder. A qualitative research methodology was used involving Focus Groups (FGs) made up of children with TS (× 2 FGs), parents/caregivers of persons with TS (× 2…

  19. Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oredugba, Folakemi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

  20. Experiences of parenting young people with a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Chell, Neil

    2006-05-01

    Asperger syndrome only became recognised as a distinct diagnostic category in more recent versions of ICD 10 (WHO 1992) and DSM IV (APA 1994). Whilst a great deal of work has taken place since this time, there has been little research directed at understanding the experiences of families raising children with this diagnosis (Blacher 2003). This focus group study involved engaging directly with parents of children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome in order to understand something of their experiences with particular reference to what has or might be helpful. The aim of the study is to identify parent's perspectives and insights in order to inform service development.

  1. [A postpartum woman with toxic shock syndrome: group A streptococcal infection, a much feared postpartum complication.

    PubMed

    Abbink, K; Kortekaas, J C; Buise, M P; Dokter, J; Kuppens, S M I; Hasaart, T H M

    2016-01-01

    The development of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) after an invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infection in the postpartum period is a much feared complication. The mortality rate of TSS with necrotizing fasciitis is 30 to 50%. We present the case of a woman with atypical pelvic pain which was the first symptom of toxic shock syndrome as a consequence of a GAS infection. Clinical deterioration necessitated a hysterectomy. Also a fasciotomy was performed as consequence of lower extremity compartment syndrome. After this, multiple debridement operations were necessary, followed by split skin grafts. This case illustrates the extremely serious complications of GAS infection. In some cases aggressive surgical intervention is necessary, in addition to an optimal antibiotic treatment regime. Ideally, the treatment of a GAS-induced TSS should be managed by a multidisciplinary medical team.

  2. Munchausen Syndrome Masquerading as Bleeding Disorder in a Group of Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Srivani; Shukla, Deepak; Mehta, Ritambhara; Oswal, Rajat

    2011-01-01

    This short communication is about Munchausen's syndrome in a group of pediatric patients and co morbid Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. A 7-year-old girl presented with spontaneous bleeding from forehead, eyes and scalp. The girl was investigated thoroughly by pediatricians at a tertiary care hospital in western India for all possible bleeding disorders, but there was no conclusive diagnosis. After two days, cases with similar complaints were reported among children residing in the same locality and with similar socioeconomic background. All of them were investigated in detail for possible causes of bleeding but nothing came out. There was a media reporting of the cases as a mysterious bleeding disorder. At this point of time, an expert opinion from the psychiatrist was demanded. Covert video surveillance and series of interviews revealed Munchausen's syndrome and possible Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. An in-depth literature review with special reference to Munchausen's syndrome was carried out to come to a final conclusive diagnosis. PMID:22021962

  3. [Are members of fibromyalgia syndrome self-help groups "different"? Demographic and clinical characteristics of members and non-members of fibromyalgia syndrome self-help groups].

    PubMed

    Jung, E; Erbslöh-Möller, B; Gesmann, M; Kühn-Becker, H; Petermann, F; Langhorst, J; Weiss, T; Thoma, R; Winkelmann, A; Häuser, W

    2013-06-01

    No data were available on demographic and clinical characteristics of members of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) self-help groups in Germany. The study was carried out from November 2010 to April 2011. A set of questionnaires was distributed by the German League Against Rheumatism and the German Fibromyalgia Association to members and to all consecutive FMS patients at nine clinical centres of different levels of care. The set included a self-developed questionnaire on demographic and medical data and on previously and currently used therapies, the patient health questionnaire (PHQ 4) and the fibromyalgia survey questionnaire. Members of FMS self-help groups (N = 1,014) were older and reported a longer duration of chronic widespread pain, less anxiety and depression and a more frequent current use of aerobic exercise, relaxation training and complementary alternative medication than participants not affiliated with FMS self-help groups (N = 630). Membership in FMS self-help groups was associated with less psychological distress and a more frequent use of active self-management strategies.

  4. Event-Related Potential Patterns Associated with Hyperarousal in Gulf War Illness Syndrome Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, Gail D.; Calley, Clifford S.; Green, Timothy A.; Buhl, Virginia I.; Biggs, Melanie M.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Briggs, Richard W.; Haley, Robert W.; Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    An exaggerated response to emotional stimuli is one of several symptoms widely reported by veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Many have attributed these symptoms to post-war stress; others have attributed the symptoms to deployment-related exposures and associated damage to cholinergic, dopaminergic, and white matter systems. We collected event-related potential (ERP) data from 20 veterans meeting Haley criteria for Gulf War Syndromes 1–3 and from 8 matched Gulf War veteran controls, who were deployed but not symptomatic, while they performed an auditory three-condition oddball task with gunshot and lion roar sounds as the distractor stimuli. Reports of hyperarousal from the ill veterans were significantly greater than those from the control veterans; different ERP profiles emerged to account for their hyperarousability. Syndromes 2 and 3, who have previously shown brainstem abnormalities, show significantly stronger auditory P1 amplitudes, purported to indicate compromised cholinergic inhibitory gating in the reticular activating system. Syndromes 1 and 2, who have previously shown basal ganglia dysfunction, show significantly weaker P3a response to distractor stimuli, purported to indicate dysfunction of the dopaminergic contribution to their ability to inhibit distraction by irrelevant stimuli. All three syndrome groups showed an attenuated P3b to target stimuli, which could be secondary to both cholinergic and dopaminergic contributions or disruption of white matter integrity. PMID:22691951

  5. Metabolic syndrome and renal sodium handling in three ethnic groups living in England.

    PubMed

    Barbato, A; Cappuccio, F P; Folkerd, E J; Strazzullo, P; Sampson, B; Cook, D G; Alberti, K G M M

    2004-01-01

    Increased proximal renal sodium re-absorption is associated with central adiposity and insulin resistance in white men. Our study examined whether this association also exists in other ethnic groups with different prevalences of insulin resistance and associated metabolic abnormalities. We studied the association between fractional renal excretion of endogenous lithium (FELi) and metabolic syndrome in a population study of 1190 randomly selected men and women who where 40 to 59 years of age (426 white, 397 of African and 367 of South Asian origin). Anthropometric values, blood pressure, biochemical values, questionnaire data and timed urine collections were obtained with standardised techniques. Endogenous lithium in serum and urine was measured by absorption spectrophotometry. Metabolic markers were the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, waist circumference, serum triglycerides, serum HDL cholesterol and metabolic syndrome as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. In white men and women a higher rate of proximal sodium re-absorption was inversely associated with higher waist circumference, serum triglycerides and HOMA index, and with lower serum HDL cholesterol (all p< or =0.001). No associations were found in people of African or South Asian origin. The former had lower FELi than the other groups. White people with the metabolic syndrome had a lower FELi than those without (15.9% vs 19.0%; p=0.003). No difference was found in people of African or South Asian origin. Increased proximal sodium re-absorption is associated with the metabolic syndrome in white men and women. This relationship is not seen in people of African or South Asian origin, despite a greater degree of insulin resistance.

  6. Clinical and genetic characteristics in a group of 45 patients with Turner syndrome (monocentric study).

    PubMed

    Bucerzan, Simona; Miclea, Diana; Popp, Radu; Alkhzouz, Camelia; Lazea, Cecilia; Pop, Ioan Victor; Grigorescu-Sido, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen a shift in perspective on Turner syndrome, as it is no longer considered a significant disability due to therapeutic advances. The delay of diagnosis and the underdiagnosis are common in Turner syndrome, especially because of the great phenotypic variability and lack of firm diagnostic criteria. Our first aim was to assess the clinical and the cytogenetic characteristics and growth rate in growth hormone (GH)-treated patients as compared to those with spontaneous growth. The second aim was to analyze the Y chromosomal sequences. We analyzed 45 patients diagnosed with Turner syndrome in Genetic Pathology Centre of Cluj Emergency Children's Hospital. We carried out a study of the clinical features, the correlations between the karyotype and the phenotype, and we also made a research of Y chromosome sequences. The average age at diagnosis was 8.9±5.4 years. A significant association was observed between the number of external phenotypical abnormalities and internal malformations ( r =0.45), particularly the cardiovascular ones ( r =0.44). Patients treated with GH showed improvement in growth rate, with final stature significantly better than in untreated patients; benefits following treatment were greater if diagnosis was made before the age of 5 years. Thirteen percent of patients experienced spontaneous and complete puberty, whereas 30% experienced incomplete puberty. Patients with the 45,X genotype had a greater stature deficit and a higher incidence of cardiac malformations, compared with patients with 45,X/46,XX mosaic karyotype. Y chromosome sequences were found in only one patient, who subsequently underwent gonadectomy. The importance of this study resides, to the best of our knowledge, in the fact that the largest group of patients in Romania was analyzed and assessed. To draw firm conclusions on the most valuable clinical indicators for Turner syndrome diagnosis in clinical practice, studies on large groups of patients should be

  7. Clinical and genetic characteristics in a group of 45 patients with Turner syndrome (monocentric study)

    PubMed Central

    Bucerzan, Simona; Miclea, Diana; Popp, Radu; Alkhzouz, Camelia; Lazea, Cecilia; Pop, Ioan Victor; Grigorescu-Sido, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Recent years have seen a shift in perspective on Turner syndrome, as it is no longer considered a significant disability due to therapeutic advances. The delay of diagnosis and the underdiagnosis are common in Turner syndrome, especially because of the great phenotypic variability and lack of firm diagnostic criteria. Aim Our first aim was to assess the clinical and the cytogenetic characteristics and growth rate in growth hormone (GH)-treated patients as compared to those with spontaneous growth. The second aim was to analyze the Y chromosomal sequences. Materials and methods We analyzed 45 patients diagnosed with Turner syndrome in Genetic Pathology Centre of Cluj Emergency Children’s Hospital. We carried out a study of the clinical features, the correlations between the karyotype and the phenotype, and we also made a research of Y chromosome sequences. Results The average age at diagnosis was 8.9±5.4 years. A significant association was observed between the number of external phenotypical abnormalities and internal malformations (r=0.45), particularly the cardiovascular ones (r=0.44). Patients treated with GH showed improvement in growth rate, with final stature significantly better than in untreated patients; benefits following treatment were greater if diagnosis was made before the age of 5 years. Thirteen percent of patients experienced spontaneous and complete puberty, whereas 30% experienced incomplete puberty. Patients with the 45,X genotype had a greater stature deficit and a higher incidence of cardiac malformations, compared with patients with 45,X/46,XX mosaic karyotype. Y chromosome sequences were found in only one patient, who subsequently underwent gonadectomy. Conclusion The importance of this study resides, to the best of our knowledge, in the fact that the largest group of patients in Romania was analyzed and assessed. To draw firm conclusions on the most valuable clinical indicators for Turner syndrome diagnosis in clinical

  8. Current Diagnosis and Management of Suspected Reflux Symptoms Refractory to Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Suspected reflux symptoms that are refractory to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are rapidly becoming the most common presentation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in patients seen in gastroenterology clinics. These patients are a heterogeneous group, differing in symptom frequency and severity, PPI dosing regimens, and responses to therapy (from partial to absent). Before testing, the physician needs to question the patient carefully about PPI compliance and the timing of drug intake in relation to meals. Switching PPIs or doubling the dose is the next step, but only 20% to 25% of the group refractory to PPIs will respond. The first diagnostic test should be upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. In more than 90% of cases, the results will be normal, but persistent esophagitis may suggest pill esophagitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, or rarer diseases, such as lichen planus, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, or genotype variants of PPI metabolism. If the endoscopy results are normal, esophageal manometry and especially reflux testing should follow. Whether patients should be tested on or off PPI therapy is controversial. Most physicians prefer to test patients off PPIs to identify whether abnormal acid reflux is even present; if it is not, PPIs can be stopped and other diagnoses sought. Testing patients on PPI therapy allows nonacid reflux to be identified, but more than 50% of patients have a normal test result, leaving the clinician with a conundrum—whether to stop PPIs or continue them because the GERD is being treated adequately. Alternative diagnoses in patients with refractory GERD and normal reflux testing include achalasia, eosinophilic esophagitis, gastroparesis, rumination, and aerophagia. However, more than 50% will be given the diagnosis of functional heartburn, a visceral hypersensitivity syndrome. Treating patients with PPI-refractory GERD–like symptoms can be difficult and frustrating. Any of the following may help: a histamine-2 receptor antagonist

  9. [Invasive infection caused Streptococcus group A and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome].

    PubMed

    Danilova, T A

    2001-01-01

    Modern data on the etiology and pathogenesis of invasive streptococcal infection and the syndrome of streptococcal toxic shock are presented. In the course of the last 10-15 years essential changes in the system of interaction of group A streptococci and the macroorganism have been noted. The growth of morbidity in severe invasive forms of streptococcal infection with different clinical manifestations, including the syndrome of toxic shock, is observed. Most often this disease develops in elderly people, making up a group of risk, but sometimes affects healthy young people. Different pathogenicity factors of streptococci, capable of inducing the development of infection, are analyzed. Special attention is given to superantigens: pyrogenic toxins and M-protein. The suggestion that the development of the disease is seemingly linked with the state of specific protective immunity is substantiated. In spite of achievements in the field of the microbiology and immunology of group A streptococci, the causes of the appearance and development of invasive streptococcal infection have not yet been determined.

  10. Determinants of surgical resection for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Doi, Ryuichiro

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) include functioning and non-functional tumors. Functioning tumors consist of tumors that produce a variety of hormones and their clinical effects. Therefore, determinants of resection of pNETs should be discussed for each group of tumors. Less than 10% of insulinomas are malignant, therefore more than 90% of the cases can be cured by surgical resection. Lymphadenectomy is generally not necessary in insulinoma operation. If preoperative localization of the insulinoma is completed, enucleation from the pancreatic body or tail, and distal pancreatectomy can be performed safely by laparoscopy. When preoperative localization of a sporadic insulinoma is not confirmed, surgical exploration is needed. Intraoperative localization of a tumor, intraoperative insulin sampling and frozen section are required. The crucial purpose of surgical resection is to control inappropriate insulin secretion by removing all insulinomas. Gastrinomas are usually located in the duodenum or pancreas, which secrete gastrin and cause Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Duodenal gastrinomas are usually small, therefore they are not seen on preoperative imaging studies or endoscopic ultrasound, and can be found only at surgery if a duodenotomy is performed. In addition, lymph node metastasis is found in 40-60% of cases. Therefore, the experienced surgeons should direct operation for gastrinomas. Surgical exploration with duodenotomy should be performed at a laparotomy. Other functioning pNETs can occur in the pancreas or in other locations. Curative resection is always recommended whenever possible after optimal symptomatic control of the clinical syndrome by medical treatment. Indications for surgery depend on clinical symptom control, tumor size, location, extent, malignancy and presence of metastasis. A lot of non-functioning pNETs are found incidentally according to the quality improvement of imaging techniques. Localized, small, malignant non

  11. Possible Primary Lymph Node Gastrinoma: Occurrence, Natural History, and Predictive Factors

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Jeffrey A.; Alexander, H. Richard; Fraker, Douglas L.; Venzon, David J.; Gibril, Fathia; Jensen, Robert T.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To analyze the results of a prospective study of 176 patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) (138 sporadic, 38 MEN1) undergoing 207 operations over a 17-year period. Summary Background Data The existence of lymph node (LN) primary gastrinoma causing ZES is controversial. Methods Three groups of patients were compared: LN only resected, cured, and no relapse (likely LN primary); same criteria but relapse (unlikely LN primary); and duodenal primary and LN metastases (Duo-LN). Results Forty-five (26%) had only LN(s) as the initial tumor found. Twenty-six of the 45 (58%) fit the definition of a likely LN primary because they were apparently cured postresection. At 10.4 ± 1.2 years, 69% of the 26 patients with likely LN primary tumors have remained cured and have LN primaries. In the 8 of 26 with recurrent ZES, it occurred at 5 ± 1 years, and 3 had duodenal gastrinoma that had been missed. Ten percent (13/138) of all patients with sporadic ZES and 0% (0/38) with ZES and MEN1 remained cured with only a LN tumor removed. In patients with sporadic gastrinomas no clinical, laboratory, or radiographic localization feature differed among patients with likely LN primary (n = 16) and those with unlikely LN primary (n = 6) or those with Duo-LN (n = 37). In the likely LN primary group, the largest LN was 2.2 ± 0.2 cm, the number of LNs removed was 1.3 ± 0.1 (25% ≥1 LN), and 78% were in the gastrinoma triangle, which also did not differ from the other 2 groups. Disease-free survival was similar in the likely LN primary group, patients with Duo-LN, and those with pancreatic primaries. Conclusions These results support the conclusion that primary LN gastrinomas occur and are not rare (approximately 10% of sporadic cases). These results suggest that a proportion (25%) of these tumors are either multiple or malignant. Because no clinical, laboratory, or tumoral characteristic distinguishes patients with LN primary tumors, all patients with ZES undergoing surgery

  12. ABO-Rh blood groups distribution in cardiac syndrome X patients.

    PubMed

    Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Rasmi, Yousef; Nemati, Mohaddeseh; Mohammadzad, Mir Hossein Seyed

    2012-07-01

    Data on frequency distribution of ABO-Rh blood groups in cardiac syndrome X (CSX) patients are not available. We aimed to investigate the distribution of ABO-Rh blood groups in these patients. A total of 247 CSX patients' records were reviewed in a cross-sectional study from 2006 to 2010. One hundred forty six patients (59.1%) were female, and the mean patient age was 52 ± 11 years. The frequency of ABO-Rh blood groups was compared to the frequency of these blood groups in the West-Azerbaijan province, Iran; general population. Blood groups distribution among CSX patients showed phenotypes A, B, AB, O and Rh negative as 33.1%, 21.9%, 9.3%, 35.8%, and 7.9%, respectively. According to our results, there were no differences in ABO-Rh blood groups distribution between CSX patients and normal population. These data suggest that ABO-Rh blood groups might be unassociated with CSX.

  13. Multicenter validation study of a transplantation-specific cytogenetics grouping scheme for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Armand, P; Deeg, H J; Kim, H T; Lee, H; Armistead, P; de Lima, M; Gupta, V; Soiffer, R J

    2010-05-01

    Cytogenetics is an important prognostic factor for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, existing cytogenetics grouping schemes are based on patients treated with supportive care, and may not be optimal for patients undergoing allo-SCT. We proposed earlier an SCT-specific cytogenetics grouping scheme for patients with MDS and AML arising from MDS, based on an analysis of patients transplanted at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital. Under this scheme, abnormalities of chromosome 7 and complex karyotype are considered adverse risk, whereas all others are considered standard risk. In this retrospective study, we validated this scheme on an independent multicenter cohort of 546 patients. Adverse cytogenetics was the strongest prognostic factor for outcome in this cohort. The 4-year relapse-free survival and OS were 42 and 46%, respectively, in the standard-risk group, vs 21 and 23% in the adverse group (P<0.0001 for both comparisons). This grouping scheme retained its prognostic significance irrespective of patient age, disease type, earlier leukemogenic therapy and conditioning intensity. Therapy-related disease was not associated with increased mortality in this cohort, after taking cytogenetics into account. We propose that this SCT-specific cytogenetics grouping scheme be used for patients with MDS or AML arising from MDS who are considering or undergoing SCT.

  14. Group hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Charles D; Gerson, Jessica; Gerson, Mary-Joan

    2013-01-01

    This study tested whether group gut-focused hypnotherapy would improve irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several possible outcome predictors were also studied. Before treatment, 75 patients completed a Symptom Severity Scale, a Mind-Body attribution questionnaire, and a Quality of Relationship Inventory (QRI). The symptom scale was completed posttreatment, 3, 6, and 12 months later. There was significant symptom reduction at each data point (p < .001). Sixty percent had a reduction of more than 50 points, indicative of clinical improvement. Initial severity score (p = .0004) and QRI conflict (p = .057) were directly correlated with a response to hypnotherapy, while attribution of symptoms to mind (emotional) causation was inversely correlated (p = .0056). The authors conclude that group hypnotherapy is effective in patients with IBS.

  15. Surgery Increases Survival in Patients With Gastrinoma

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Jeffrey A.; Fraker, Douglas L.; Alexander, H R.; Gibril, Fathia; Liewehr, David J.; Venzon, David J.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the routine use of surgical exploration for gastrinoma resection/cure in 160 patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) altered survival compared with 35 ZES patients who did not undergo surgery. Summary Background Data: The role of routine surgical exploration for resection/cure in patients with ZES has been controversial since the original description of this disease in 1955. This controversy continues today, not only because medical therapy for acid hypersecretion is so effective, but also in large part because no studies have shown an effect of tumor resection on survival. Methods: Long-term follow-up of 160 ZES patients who underwent routine surgery for gastrinoma/resection/cure was compared with 35 patients who had similar disease but did not undergo surgery for a variety of reasons. All patients had preoperative CT, MRI, ultrasound; if unclear, angiography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy since 1994 to determine resectability. At surgery, all had the same standard ZES operation. All patients were evaluated yearly with imaging studies and disease activity studies. Results: The 35 nonsurgical patients did not differ from the 160 operated in clinical, laboratory, or tumor imaging results. The 2 groups did not differ in follow-up time since initial evaluation (range, 11.8–12 years). At surgery, 94% had a tumor removed, 51% were cured immediately, and 41% at last follow-up. Significantly more unoperated patients developed liver metastases (29% vs. 5%, P = 0.0002), died of any cause (54 vs. 21%, P = 0.0002), or died a disease-related death (23 vs. 1%, P < 0.00001). Survival plots showed operated patients had a better disease-related survival (P = 0.0012); however, there was no difference in non-disease-related survival. Fifteen-year disease-related survival was 98% for operated and 74% for unoperated (P = 0.0002). Conclusions: These results demonstrate that routine surgical exploration increases survival in patients with

  16. Cognitive and Affective Uses of a Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Facebook Support Group.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kimberly K

    2014-09-01

    There are currently many disease-specific groups on Facebook in which patients may take an active part (Greene, Choudhry, Kilabuk, & Shrank, 2011). Although uses and gratifications of patient-disease groups have begun to be identified for chronic diseases, rare diseases have been omitted, even though they collectively affect roughly 30 million people in the United States and 350 million people worldwide. This study is a content analysis of one Facebook rare disease patient group, the Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) Awareness group. All wall posts were recorded and content analyzed for cognitive and affective categories and subcategories between October 9, 2011 (date of site origin), and May 1, 2012. Analysis of cognitive needs indicated TOS patients used the site more to share information about their own TOS symptoms and journey with diagnosis than to seek information. Analysis of affective needs found patients were more likely to use the site to give support and encouragement to others than to express concerns and complaints. The complaints they did express were primarily related to their frustration with the general medical community's perceived inability to diagnose and understand their disease or to question a specific doctor's diagnosis/recommendation. Results point to needs specific to TOS patients that uses and gratifications research can help clarify.

  17. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) ‎.

    PubMed

    Maddineshat, Maryam; Keyvanloo, Sodabe; Lashkardoost, Hossein; Arki, Mina; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh

    2016-01-01

    Standards of care and treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) vary. Non-drug ‎psychosocial intervention therapy is recommended for women with any kind of ‎discomfort or distress caused by PMS. The current study examined the effectiveness of ‎group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the symptoms of PMS at a girls' dormitory of ‎North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences. In this quasi-experimental study, 32 female students with PMS who were majoring in ‎nursing and midwifery and residing in the dormitory were selected using the ‎convenience sampling method and were assigned to experimental and control groups. ‎The Standardized Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool was used as the research ‎tool. Eight sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy were held for the students Results: There was a significant difference in psychological symptoms before and after ‎cognitive-behavioral therapy (p=0.012). Furthermore, cognitive-behavioral therapy was ‎effective on social interferences caused by PMS symptoms (p=0.012).‎ Group cognitive-behavioral therapy effectively alleviates PMS symptoms in female ‎college students.‎.

  18. Group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome secondary to necrotizing pelvic inflammatory disease in a postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Qiwei; Douglass, Elizabeth; Moreno, Alejandro; Aydelotte, Jayson

    2016-01-01

    Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS) is well known to cause upper respiratory tract or cutaneous infections, but some more virulent species of GAS can lead to a rapidly progressive life threatening soft tissue necrotizing infection and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). In the modern era, GAS infections within the female reproductive tract leading to STSS are unusual and are often the result of retained products of conception or intrauterine devices. This report describes a case of GAS necrotizing pelvic infection in a previously healthy menopausal woman with no obvious portal of entry. Her clinical course rapidly progressed to septic shock and multiorgan failure. She required multiple surgeries in addition to targeted antimicrobials and aggressive management of shock and organ failures. After a prolonged hospital stay, she had a full recovery.

  19. Bacterial Phenotype Variants in Group B Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome1

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Linda; Dahesh, Samira; Van Sorge, Nina M.; Darenberg, Jessica; Norgren, Mari; Sjölin, Jan; Nizet, Victor; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2009-01-01

    We conducted genetic and functional analyses of isolates from a patient with group B streptococcal (GBS) necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. Tissue cultures simultaneously showed colonies with high hemolysis (HH) and low hemolysis (LH). Conversely, the HH and LH variants exhibited low capsule (LC) and high capsule (HC) expression, respectively. Molecular analysis demonstrated that the 2 GBS variants were of the same clonal origin. Genetic analysis found a 3-bp deletion in the covR gene of the HH/LC variant. Functionally, this isolate was associated with an increased growth rate in vitro and with higher interleukin-8 induction. However, in whole blood, opsonophagocytic and intracellular killing assays, the LH/HC phenotype demonstrated higher resistance to host phagocytic killing. In a murine model, LH/HC resulted in higher levels of bacteremia and increased host mortality rate. These findings demonstrate differences in GBS isolates of the same clonal origin but varying phenotypes. PMID:19193266

  20. Physiological Arousal in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Links With Pragmatic Language

    PubMed Central

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 28 with typical development (TD), aged 4–15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did not differ from boys with ASD. Dampened vagal tone predicted pragmatic impairment in ASD, and associations emerged between cardiac activity and receptive/expressive vocabulary across groups. Findings support autonomic dysfunction as a mechanism underlying pragmatic impairment in ASD and suggest that biophysiological profiles are shared in ASD and FXS, which has implications for understanding the role of fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1, the FXS gene) in the pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:24432860

  1. ABO blood group in primary antiphospholipid syndrome: influence in the site of thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Natália Mastantuono; Bydlowski, Sergio Paulo; Soares, Rosangela Paula Silva; de Andrade, Danieli Castro Oliveira; Bonfá, Eloísa; Seguro, Luciana Parente Costa; Borba, Eduardo Ferreira

    2015-10-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by vascular thrombosis and/or obstetric complications associated with presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) but additional factors would also induce thrombosis. ABO (H) blood groups are known to be closely related to thrombosis, especially non-O blood type with venous events. The aim of this study was to investigate possible role of ABO (H) blood types in the thrombotic events in primary APS (PAPS). Seventy PAPS patients were selected for the study and were divided according to ABO blood group in: O PAPS (n = 26) and non-O PAPS (n = 44). ABO blood group phenotyping was performed by indirect technique. aPL anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-βeta2 glycoprotein-1 (aβ2GPI) and the concentrations and activities of von Willebrand factor (VWF) were measured with ELISA. Lupus anticoagulant (LA) was detected by coagulation assays. A significant higher frequency of venous events was observed in non-O PAPS group (72.7 vs. 46.2 %, p = 0.040). In contrast, the frequency of arterial events was significantly higher in the O PAPS compared to the non-O PAPS group (69.2 vs. 36.4 %, respectively; p = 0.013). Frequencies of aCL, LA, aβ2GPI and triple aPL positivity were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). VWF antigen (75.54 ± 8.68 vs. 79.51 ± 7.07 IU/dl, p = 0.041) and activity (70.23 ± 11.96 vs. 77.92 ± 13.67 %, p = 0.020) were decreased in O PAPS compared to non-O blood group. VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratio was similar among groups (p > 0.05). This is the first report that confirms the role of ABO blood system in thrombosis of PAPS and suggests that non-O blood group was related with venous events and O blood group with arterial thrombosis.

  2. The relationship between group A streptococcal infections and Tourette syndrome: a study on a large service-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Martino, Davide; Chiarotti, Flavia; Buttiglione, Maura; Cardona, Francesco; Creti, Roberta; Nardocci, Nardo; Orefici, Graziella; Veneselli, Edvige; Rizzo, Renata

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between diagnosis and clinical course of Tourette syndrome and group A Streptococcus (GAS). GAS infections, anti-streptococcal, and anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) were compared between 168 patients (136 males, 32 females) with Tourette syndrome; (median [range] age [25th-75th centile] 10y [8-11y]); median Tourette syndrome duration (25th-75th centile), 3y (1y 3mo-5y 9mo) and a comparison group of 177 patients (117 males, 60 females) with epileptic or sleep disorders median age [25th-75th centile], 10y [8y-1y 6mo]). One hundred and forty-four patients with Tourette syndrome were followed up at 3-month intervals; exacerbations of tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and other psychiatric comorbidities were defined by a bootstrap procedure. The effect of new GAS infections and identification of new ABGA upon risk of exacerbation was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Cross-sectionally, patients with Tourette syndrome exhibited a higher frequency of GAS infection (8% vs 2%; p=0.009), higher anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titres (246 [108-432] vs 125 [53-269]; p<0.001), and higher ABGA frequency (25% vs 8%; p<0.001) than the comparison group. On prospective analysis, ASO titres were persistently elevated in 57% of patients with Tourette syndrome; however, new infections or newly identified ABGA did not predict clinical exacerbations (all p>0.05). Patients with Tourette syndrome might be more prone to GAS infections and develop stronger antibody responses to GAS, probably as a result of underlying immune dysregulation. New GAS infections are unlikely to exert, years after their onset, a major effect upon the severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Cost-utility of a specific collaborative group intervention for patients with functional somatic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Konnopka, Alexander; König, Hans-Helmut; Kaufmann, Claudia; Egger, Nina; Wild, Beate; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schellberg, Dieter; Schaefert, Rainer

    2016-11-01

    Collaborative group intervention (CGI) in patients with functional somatic syndromes (FSS) has been shown to improve mental quality of life. To analyse incremental cost-utility of CGI compared to enhanced medical care in patients with FSS. An economic evaluation alongside a cluster-randomised controlled trial was performed. 35 general practitioners (GPs) recruited 300 FSS patients. Patients in the CGI arm were offered 10 group sessions within 3months and 2 booster sessions 6 and 12months after baseline. Costs were assessed via questionnaire. Quality adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated using the SF-6D index, derived from the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). We calculated patients' net-monetary-benefit (NMB), estimated the treatment effect via regression, and generated cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Using intention-to-treat analysis, total costs during the 12-month study period were 5777EUR in the intervention, and 6858EUR in the control group. Controlling for possible confounders, we found a small, but significant positive intervention effect on QALYs (+0.017; p=0.019) and an insignificant cost saving resulting from a cost-increase in the control group (-10.5%; p=0.278). NMB regression showed that the probability of CGI to be cost-effective was 69% for a willingness to pay (WTP) of 0EUR/QALY, increased to 92% for a WTP of 50,000EUR/QALY and reached the level of 95% at a WTP of 70,375EUR/QALY. Subgroup analyses yielded that CGI was only cost-effective in severe somatic symptom severity (PHQ-15≥15). CGI has a high probability to be a cost-effective treatment for FSS, in particular for patients with severe somatic symptom severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hand-arm vibration syndrome among a group of construction workers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Su, Ting Anselm; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai; Masilamani, Retneswari; Awang Mahmud, Awang Bulgiba

    2011-01-01

    To determine the extent of hand transmitted vibration exposure problems, particularly hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), among construction workers in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a construction site in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 243 workers were recruited. Questionnaire interviews and hand examinations were administered to 194 respondents. Vibration magnitudes for concrete breakers, drills and grinders were measured using a 3-axis accelerometer. Clinical outcomes were compared and analysed according to vibration exposure status. Vibration total values for concrete breakers, impact drills and grinders were 10.02 ms(-2), 7.72 ms(-2) and 5.29ms(-2), respectively. The mean 8 h time-weighted hand transmitted vibration exposure, A(8), among subjects on current and previous construction sites was 7.52 (SD 2.68) ms(-2) and 9.21 (SD 2.48) ms(-2), respectively. Finger tingling, finger numbness, musculoskeletal problems of the neck, finger coldness, abnormal Phalen's test and abnormal light touch sensation were significantly more common in the high vibration exposure group (n=139) than the low-moderate vibration exposure group (n=54). Mean total lifetime vibration dose among exposed subjects was 15.2 (SD 3.2) m(2) h(3) s(-4) (ln scale). HAVS prevalence was 18% and the prevalence ratio of stage 1 and higher disease in the high vibration exposure group versus the low-moderate vibration exposure group was 4.86 (95% CI 1.19 to 19.80). Hand transmitted vibration is a recognisable problem in tropical countries including Malaysia. The current study has identified clinical symptoms and signs suggesting HAVS among construction workers exposed to hand transmitted vibration in a warm environment.

  5. Group cognitive behaviour therapy for adults with Asperger syndrome and anxiety or mood disorder: a case series.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Lunsky, Yona

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome are at increased risk for mental health problems compared with the general population, especially with regard to mood and anxiety disorders. Generic mental health services are often ill-equipped to offer psychotherapeutic treatments to this population, and specialized supports are difficult to find. This case series used a manualized cognitive behaviour therapy group programme (Mind Over Mood) with three adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, who were each unable to access psychotherapy through mainstream mental health services. This review highlights the benefits of a cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) group approach for adults with Asperger syndrome and suggests some potential modifications to traditional CBT provision.  © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. [Frequency of NAFLD in a group of patients with metabolic syndrome in Veracruz, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Roesch-Dietlen, Federico; Dorantes-Cuéllar, Alicia; Carrillo-Toledo, Maria Graciela; Martínez-Sibaja, Cristina; Rojas-Carrera, Sonia; Bonilla-Rojas, Q C Sashenka; Uchino-Higueras, Virginia; Lagunas, Teresa; Carrasco-Arróniz, Miguel Angel; Soler-Leal, Bertha; León-Valdivieso, Johnatan; Cid-Juárez, Silvia; Martínez, José Angel

    2006-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a very common disease that is being described principally in obese, diabetic and hiperlipidemic patients without significant alcohol consumption (less than 28 ethanol Units per week). Nowadays it is considered as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The frequency of Non Alcoholic Sreatohepatic (NASH) is 30 to 35% in general population, but it reaches to 70% in patients whose Body Mass Index (BMI) is above 30 kg/m2 as it occurs with diabetic patients. In Mexico there are only isolated reports about it's frequency, nearly 7.1% in general population and 18.5% in diabetic patients. To know the frequency of the Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients who receive medical attention at the city of Veracruz. We studied 337 patients, who were divided into 4 groups: Normal Weight, Overweight, Obese and Diabetes type 2 patients. The individuals who reported previous hepatitis and alcohol consumption were excluded. All patients made a test in order to determinate: age, gender, presence of hepatic stigmata and complaints. Laboratory tests were done to all patients including: Blood glucose, seric lipids, transaminases, proteins and alkaline phosphatase. In those cases with impairment in transaminases results, it was done upper abdominal ultrasound (USG) and hepatic biopsy, in patients who accepted. We identified 53 cases (15.72%) with characteristics of Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The frequency in patient with normal weight and overweight was 7.14% to 7.76%, while in obese subjects it was 14.15% and 28% in diabetic patients; 73.58% of all patients were female and the other 28.41% were males. The average age of the group was 48.11 years, it was similar the specific age of the normal weight and obese patients, in overweight patients was 61.5 years and the average age in diabetics was 56.42 years. There were significant differences in the results of blood glucose level, glycosilated hemoglobin, cholesterol, seric lipid

  7. Gelatinases and their tissue inhibitors in a group of subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hopps, Eugenia; Canino, Baldassare; Montana, Maria; Calandrino, Vincenzo; Urso, Caterina; Lo Presti, Rosalia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular events and stroke. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases involved in extracellular matrix degradation and then in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to evaluate plasma levels of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) in a group of subjects with OSAS. We enrolled 48 subjects (36 men and 12 women; mean age 49.7 ± 14.68 yrs) with OSAS diagnosed with a 1-night cardiorespiratory study and then we subdivided these subjects into two subgroups according to the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI): Low (L = 21 subjects with AHI <30) and High (H = 27 subjects with AHI >30). We measured plasma concentration of the gelatinases and their inhibitors using ELISA kits. We observed a significant increase in plasma concentration of MMP-9, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in the entire group of OSAS subjects and in the two subgroups, with higher levels in the H in comparison with the L subgroup. In the whole group of OSAS subjects we also noted a significant decrease in MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in comparison with normal controls. Only MMP-9 was significantly correlated with the severity of the disease, expressed as AHI, with the oxygen desaturation index and also with the mean oxygen saturation. MMPs pattern is altered in OSAS and significantly influenced by the severity of the disease; it probably contributes to the vascular remodeling that leads to the atherosclerotic disease and cardiovascular complications.

  8. A focus group assessment of patient perspectives on irritable bowel syndrome and illness severity.

    PubMed

    Drossman, Douglas A; Chang, Lin; Schneck, Susan; Blackman, Carlar; Norton, William F; Norton, Nancy J

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing need to understand from the patient's perspective the experience of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the factors contributing to its severity; this has been endorsed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Accordingly, we conducted focus groups to address this issue. A total of 32 patients with mostly moderate to severe IBS were recruited through advertising and were allocated into three focus groups based on predominant stool pattern. The focus groups were held using standard methodology to obtain a general assessment of the symptoms experienced with IBS, its impact, and of factors associated with self-perceived severity. Patients described IBS not only as symptoms (predominantly abdominal pain) but mainly as it affects daily function, thoughts, feelings and behaviors. Common responses included uncertainty and unpredictability with loss of freedom, spontaneity and social contacts, as well as feelings of fearfulness, shame, and embarrassment. This could lead to behavioral responses including avoidance of activities and many adaptations in routine in an effort for patients to gain control. A predominant theme was a sense of stigma experienced because of a lack of understanding by family, friends and physicians of the effects of IBS on the individual, or the legitimacy of the individual's emotions and adaptation behaviors experienced. This was a barrier to normal functioning that could be ameliorated through identifying with others who could understand this situation. Severity was linked to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and was influenced by the intensity of abdominal pain and other symptoms, interference with and restrictions relating to eating, work, and social activities, and of the unpredictability of the condition. This study confirms the heterogeneous and multi-component nature of IBS. These qualitative data can be used in developing health status and severity instruments for larger-scale studies.

  9. Effects of ICT Group Work on Interactions and Social Acceptance of a Primary Pupil with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lynda; Trushell, John; Woods, Pat

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether collaborative group work on a computer, facilitated by an adult, could provide a means for a primary schoolboy with Asperger's Syndrome (AS) -- moderately-highly affected in all areas of the "triad of impairments" -- to develop appropriate task-related interactions with his peers. Data were gathered…

  10. [Group A streptococcus-induced toxic shock syndrome in pregnancy: a case report of cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kumiko; Fukuda, Taeko; Kimura, Maiko; Hagiya, Keiichi; Danmura, Masato; Nakayama, Shin; Ogura, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Makoto

    2012-12-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS)-induced toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in pregnancy is rare, but its clinical course is fulminant. The mortality rates of mother and fetus are reported to be 58 and 66%, respectively. We report a case of GAS-TSS after cesarean section. A 38-year-old pregnant woman of 38 weeks gestation was admitted to our hospital because of vomiting, fever of 39 degrees C, and continuous abdominal pain with scanty genital bleeding. She had complained of sore throat several days before. One hour after admission, external fetal monitoring revealed periodic pulse deceleration to 90 x beats min(-1). The emergent cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia. Approximately 8 hours after the cesarean section, she developed coma, shock and respiratory insufficiency requiring intubation. Streptococcus pyogens were isolated from her blood sample and the patient met criteria for GAS-TSS. She was treated with antibiotics (penicillin and clindamycin), antithrombin III, recomodulin, catecholamins, and continuous hemodialysis with filtration of toxins. Although the patient recovered and was discharged on 63rd day, the infant died on postpartum day 4. Early recognition and intensive treatment for GAS is recommended in a late stage pregnancy with an episode of sore throat, vomiting, high fever, strong labor pain, and DIC signs.

  11. Interaction between the helicases genetically linked to Fanconi anemia group J and Bloom's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Suhasini, Avvaru N; Rawtani, Nina A; Wu, Yuliang; Sommers, Joshua A; Sharma, Sudha; Mosedale, Georgina; North, Phillip S; Cantor, Sharon B; Hickson, Ian D; Brosh, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) and Fanconi anemia (FA) are autosomal recessive disorders characterized by cancer and chromosomal instability. BS and FA group J arise from mutations in the BLM and FANCJ genes, respectively, which encode DNA helicases. In this work, FANCJ and BLM were found to interact physically and functionally in human cells and co-localize to nuclear foci in response to replication stress. The cellular level of BLM is strongly dependent upon FANCJ, and BLM is degraded by a proteasome-mediated pathway when FANCJ is depleted. FANCJ-deficient cells display increased sister chromatid exchange and sensitivity to replication stress. Expression of a FANCJ C-terminal fragment that interacts with BLM exerted a dominant negative effect on hydroxyurea resistance by interfering with the FANCJ–BLM interaction. FANCJ and BLM synergistically unwound a DNA duplex substrate with sugar phosphate backbone discontinuity, but not an ‘undamaged' duplex. Collectively, the results suggest that FANCJ catalytic activity and its effect on BLM protein stability contribute to preservation of genomic stability and a normal response to replication stress. PMID:21240188

  12. Morphological and Glucose Metabolism Abnormalities in Alcoholic Korsakoff's Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Individual Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pitel, Anne-Lise; Aupée, Anne-Marie; Chételat, Gaël; Mézenge, Florence; Beaunieux, Hélène; de la Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Baron, Jean-Claude; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2009-01-01

    Background Gray matter volume studies have been limited to few brain regions of interest, and white matter and glucose metabolism have received limited research attention in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). Because of the lack of brain biomarkers, KS was found to be underdiagnosed in postmortem studies. Methodology/Principal Findings Nine consecutively selected patients with KS and 22 matched controls underwent both structural magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography examinations. Using a whole-brain analysis, the between-group comparisons of gray matter and white matter density and relative glucose uptake between patients with KS and controls showed the involvement of both the frontocerebellar and the Papez circuits, including morphological abnormalities in their nodes and connection tracts and probably resulting hypometabolism. The direct comparison of the regional distribution and degree of gray matter hypodensity and hypometabolism within the KS group indicated very consistent gray matter distribution of both abnormalities, with a single area of significant difference in the middle cingulate cortex showing greater hypometabolism than hypodensity. Finally, the analysis of the variability in the individual patterns of brain abnormalities within our sample of KS patients revealed that the middle cingulate cortex was the only brain region showing significant GM hypodensity and hypometabolism in each of our 9 KS patients. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate widespread brain abnormalities in KS including both gray and white matter damage mainly involving two brain networks, namely, the fronto-cerebellar circuit and the Papez circuit. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the middle cingulate cortex may play a key role in the pathophysiology of KS and could be considered as a potential in vivo brain biomarker. PMID:19936229

  13. Spectrum of Aortic Valve Abnormalities Associated with Aortic Dilation Across Age Groups in Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Laura J.; Baba, Ridhwan Y.; Arai, Andrew E.; Bandettini, W. Patricia; Rosing, Douglas R.; Bakalov, Vladimir; Sachdev, Vandana; Bondy, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital aortic valve fusion is associated with aortic dilation, aneurysm and rupture in girls and women with Turner syndrome (TS). Our objective was to characterize aortic valve structure in subjects with TS, and determine the prevalence of aortic dilation and valve dysfunction associated with different types of aortic valves. Methods and Results The aortic valve and thoracic aorta were characterized by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in 208 subjects with TS in an IRB-approved natural history study. Echocardiography was used to measure peak velocities across the aortic valve, and the degree of aortic regurgitation. Four distinct valve morphologies were identified: tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) 64%(n=133), partially fused aortic valve (PF) 12%(n=25), bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) 23%(n=47), and unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) 1%(n=3). Age and body surface area (BSA) were similar in the 4 valve morphology groups. There was a significant trend, independent of age, towards larger BSA-indexed ascending aortic diameters (AADi) with increasing valve fusion. AADi were (mean +/− SD) 16.9 +/− 3.3 mm/m2, 18.3 +/− 3.3 mm/m2, and 19.8 +/− 3.9 mm/m2 (p<0.0001) for TAV, PF and BAV+UAV respectively. PF, BAV, and UAV were significantly associated with mild aortic regurgitation and elevated peak velocities across the aortic valve. Conclusions Aortic valve abnormalities in TS occur with a spectrum of severity, and are associated with aortic root dilation across age groups. Partial fusion of the aortic valve, traditionally regarded as an acquired valve problem, had an equal age distribution and was associated with an increased AADi. PMID:24084490

  14. Outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children with down syndrome-Polish pediatric leukemia and lymphoma study group report.

    PubMed

    Zawitkowska, Joanna; Odój, Teresa; Drabko, Katarzyna; Zaucha-Prażmo, Agnieszka; Rudnicka, Julia; Romiszewski, Michał; Matysiak, Michał; Kwiecińska, Kinga; Ćwiklińska, Magdalena; Balwierz, Walentyna; Owoc-Lempach, Joanna; Derwich, Katarzyna; Wachowiak, Jacek; Niedźwiecki, Maciej; Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Elżbieta; Trelińska, Joanna; Młynarski, Wojciech; Kołtan, Andrzej; Wysocki, Mariusz; Tomaszewska, Renata; Szczepański, Tomasz; Płonowski, Marcin; Krawczuk-Rybak, Maryna; Ociepa, Tomasz; Urasiński, Tomasz; Mizia-Malarz, Agnieszka; Sobol-Milejska, Grażyna; Karolczyk, Grażyna; Kowalczyk, Jerzy

    2017-05-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a 20-fold increased risk of developing leukemia compared with the general population. The aim of the study was to analyze the outcome of patients diagnosed with Down syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Poland between the years 2003 and 2010. A total of 1848 children were diagnosed with ALL (810 females and 1038 males). Of those, 41 (2.2%) had DS. The children were classified into three risk groups: a standard-risk group-14 patients, an intermediate-risk group-24, a high-risk group-3. All patients were treated according to ALLIC 2002 protocol. The median observation time of all patients was 6.1 years, and in patients with DS 5.3 years. Five-year overall survival (OS) was the same in all patients (86% vs 86%, long-rank test, p = .9). The relapse-free survival (RFS) was calculated as 73% in patients with DS and 81% in patients without DS during a median observation time (long-rank test, p = .3). No statistically significant differences were found in the incidence of nonrelapse mortality between those two groups of patients (p = .72). The study was based on children with ALL and Down syndrome who were treated with an identical therapy schedule as ALL patients without DS, according to risk group. This fact can increase the value of the presented results.

  15. Manual Physical Therapy Versus Surgery for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Parallel-Group Trial.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las Peñas, César; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana I; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Fahandezh-Saddi Díaz, Homid; Martínez-Martín, Javier; Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado-Pérez, Maria L

    2015-11-01

    This randomized clinical trial investigated the effectiveness of surgery compared with physical therapy consisting of manual therapies including desensitization maneuvers in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The setting was a public hospital and 2 physical therapy practices in Madrid, Spain. One hundred twenty women with CTS were enrolled between February 2013 and January 2014, with 1-year follow-up completed in January 2015. Interventions consisted of 3 sessions of manual therapies including desensitization maneuvers of the central nervous system (physical therapy group, n = 60) or decompression/release of the carpal tunnel (surgical group, n = 60). The primary outcome was pain intensity (mean pain and the worst pain), and secondary outcomes included functional status and symptoms severity subscales of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and the self-perceived improvement. They were assessed at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months by a blinded assessor. Analysis was by intention to treat. At 12 months, 111 (92%) women completed the follow-up (55/60 physical therapy, 56/60 surgery). Adjusted analyses showed an advantage (all, P < .01) for physical therapy at 1 and 3 months in mean pain (Δ -2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.8 to -1.2]/-1.3 [95% CI -2.1 to -.6]), the worst pain (Δ -2.9 [-4.0 to -2.0]/-2.0 [-3.0 to -.9]), and function (Δ -.8 [-1.0 to -.6]/-.3 [-.5 to -.1]), respectively. Changes in pain and function were similar between the groups at 6 and 12 months. The 2 groups had similar improvements in the symptoms severity subscale of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire at all follow-ups. In women with CTS, physical therapy may result in similar outcomes on pain and function to surgery. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01789645. This study found that surgery and physical manual therapies including desensitization maneuvers of the central nervous system were similarly effective at medium-term and long-term follow-ups for improving pain

  16. Cervical neuro-muscular syndrome: discovery of a new disease group caused by abnormalities in the cervical muscles.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takayoshi; Ii, Kunio; Hojo, Shuntaro; Sano, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    Our previous study of whiplash injury found that abnormalities in the cervical muscles cause autonomic dystonia. Further research has found that abnormalities in the cervical muscles cause headache, chronic fatigue syndrome, vertigo, and dizziness. We named this group of diseases cervical neuro-muscular syndrome. Patients treated within a 2-year period from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2004 reported good outcomes in 83.8% for headache, 88.4% for vertigo and dizziness, 84.5% for chronic fatigue syndrome, 88.0% for autonomic dystonia, and 83.7% for whiplash-associated disorder. A large number of outpatients present with general malaise, including many general physical complaints without identifiable cause. We propose that treatment of the cervical muscle is effective for general malaise.

  17. Cost analysis of plasma-exchange therapy for the treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome. French Cooperative Group on Plasma Exchange in Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Espérou, H; Jars-Guincestre, M C; Bolgert, F; Raphaël, J C; Durand-Zaleski, I

    2000-08-01

    To undertake a cost analysis of therapeutic strategies with plasma exchange (PE) for the treatment of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. A randomized clinical trial including 556 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. We demonstrated that in the group with mild disease (walking possible) two PEs were more effective than none in shortening the time to beginning motor recovery. In the groups with moderate disease (walking impossible) and or severe disease (mechanically ventilated patients) four sessions were more effective than two and no more effective than six in shortening the time to recovery of walking with assistance and for the recovery rate of full muscle strength within 1 year. Data on outcomes and costs was collected. Complete cost data were available on 546 from the 556 patients of the trial. Costs were estimated from the viewpoint of the healthcare system and computed over a 1-year period. Because the analysis of medical outcomes did not show any difference regarding mortality but only on intermediate short-term and long-term outcomes, we carried out a cost minimization analysis. In two groups a dominant strategy appeared, with greater efficacy and lower costs in the two-PE arm for the mild group: 21,353 euros vs. 38,753 euros and in the four-PE arm in the moderate group: 59,480 euros vs. 80,737 euros. In the severe group four PEs were as efficient and somewhat less expensive than six: 57,621 vs. 61,056 euros. The treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome by PE at the onset of disease appears to have medical justification. The least expensive strategies are either more or equally efficient as more expensive strategies.

  18. Detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Like, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Like Bat Coronaviruses and Group H Rotavirus in Faeces of Korean Bats.

    PubMed

    Kim, H K; Yoon, S-W; Kim, D-J; Koo, B-S; Noh, J Y; Kim, J H; Choi, Y G; Na, W; Chang, K-T; Song, D; Jeong, D G

    2016-08-01

    Bat species around the world have recently been recognized as major reservoirs of several zoonotic viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Nipah virus and Hendra virus. In this study, consensus primer-based reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) and high-throughput sequencing were performed to investigate viruses in bat faecal samples collected at 11 natural bat habitat sites from July to December 2015 in Korea. Diverse coronaviruses were first detected in Korean bat faeces, including alphacoronaviruses, SARS-CoV-like and MERS-CoV-like betacoronaviruses. In addition, we identified a novel bat rotavirus belonging to group H rotavirus which has only been described in human and pigs until now. Therefore, our results suggest the need for continuing surveillance and additional virological studies in domestic bat. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Prevalence of rheumatic regional pain syndromes in Latin-American indigenous groups: a census study based on COPCORD methodology and syndrome-specific diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Goñi, Mario; Julián-Santiago, Flor; García-García, Conrado; Quintana, Rosana; Silvestre, Adriana M R; García-Olivera, Imelda; Mathern, Nora A; Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Conti, Silvana; Sanabria, Alvaro J; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the overall and specific prevalence of the main rheumatic regional pain syndromes (RRPS) in four Latin-American indigenous groups. A Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology-based census study was performed in 4240 adults (participation rate: 78.88 %) in four indigenous groups: Chontal (Oaxaca, Mexico, n = 124), Mixteco (Oaxaca, Mexico; n = 937), Maya-Yucateco (Yucatán, Mexico; n = 1523), and Qom (Rosario, Argentina; n = 1656). Subjects with musculoskeletal pain were identified using a cross-cultural, validated COPCORD questionnaire administered by bilingual personnel, and reviewed by general practitioners or rheumatologists using standardized case definitions for the 12 most frequent RRPS. The overall prevalence of RRPS was confirmed in 239 cases (5.64 %, 95 % CI: 4.98-6.37). The prevalence in each group was Chontal n = 19 (15.32 %, 95 % CI: 10.03-22.69); Maya-Yucateco n = 165 (10.83 %, 95 % CI: 9.37-12.49); Qom n = 48 (2.90 %, 95 % CI: 2.19-3.82); and Mixteco n = 7 (0.75 %, 95 % CI: 0.36-1.53). In the whole sample, the syndrome-specific prevalence was rotator cuff tendinopathy: 1.98 % (95 % CI: 1.60-2.45); lateral epicondylalgia: 0.83 % (95 % CI: 0.59-1.15); medial epicondylalgia: 0.73 % (95 % CI: 0.52-1.04); biceps tendinopathy: 0.71 % (95 % CI: 0.50-1.01); anserine syndrome: 0.64 % (95 % CI: 0.44-0.92); inferior heel pain: 0.61 % (95 % CI: 0.42-0.90); trochanteric syndrome: 0.49 % (95 % CI: 0.25-0.64); de Quervain's tendinopathy: 0.45 % (95 % CI: 0.29-0.70); trigger finger: 0.42 % (95 % CI: 0.27-0.67); carpal tunnel syndrome: 0.28 % (95 % CI: 0.16-0.49); Achilles tendinopathy (insertional): 0.12 % (95 % CI: 0.05-0.28); and Achilles tendinopathy (non-insertional): 0.07 % (95 % CI: 0.02-0.21). Leaving aside the comparison between Maya-Yucateco and Chontal groups (p = 0.18), we found significant differences (p < 0.001) in

  20. Group A Streptococcus Toxic Shock Syndrome: An outbreak report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Al-ajmi, Jameela Alkhowaiter; Hill, Peter; O' Boyle, Carol; Garcia, Ma Leni Basco; Malkawi, Manal; George, Ancy; Saleh, Fatma; Lukose, Bency; Ali, Badriya Al; Elsheikh, Mamoun

    2012-12-01

    Group A Streptococcal (GAS) Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) is an acute, rapidly progressive, and often fatal illness. Outbreaks can occur in hospitals. However, early infection control measures may interrupt transmissions and prevent morbidity and mortality. Two cases of invasive GAS TSS were diagnosed within 48h after two uncomplicated laparoscopic surgeries that were performed in the same operating room of a women's hospital. Investigations conducted by the infection prevention and control department of the hospital identified 46 obstetrical staff members who were involved in the surgeries and/or had contact with either of the patients. All of the staff members were interviewed regarding any recent history of upper respiratory tract infections, the presence of skin lesions and vaginal or rectal symptoms. Throat, rectal, and vaginal cultures were obtained two times from all of the involved staff members. Throat colonization with GAS was detected in the cultures from one obstetrical intern who attended the 1st surgery and from one nurse who had formerly worked in the postnatal ward. These two strains were epidemiologically different from each other and from the outbreak strain. Both carriers were suspended from direct patient care and were treated with a ten-day course of oral clindamycin. The success of their decolonization status was assessed at the end of therapy and at three, six, nine and twelve months thereafter before reassigning them to routine work. Unfortunately, in spite of the extensive investigation of all involved personnel and of the environment, the mode of transmission to the second patient could not be established. However, droplet or airborne transmission could not be ruled out. Early and meticulous implementation of infection control measures was crucial and instrumental in the successful management and control of this outbreak. Furthermore, there were no subsequent GAS cases detected during the 24 months following the outbreak. Copyright © 2012

  1. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Workers by Occupational Group: Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased rapidly in South Korea over the past 10 years. However, the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in workers grouped according to the specific type of work is not well understood in Korea. In this study, we assessed the differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by occupational group and evaluated the risk of the metabolic syndrome among occupational groups. Methods From the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010), 3,303 employed participants were included in this study. The unadjusted and age-adjusted prevalences of the metabolic syndrome were estimated and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted using the presence of the metabolic syndrome as a dependent variable, and adjusting for age, education level, household income, drinking behavior, smoking status, physical activity, work hours, and work scheduling pattern. Results Among male workers, non-manual workers had the greatest age-adjusted prevalence (26.4%, 95% CI: 22.3-30.5%) among the occupational groups. In a logistic regression analysis, male manual workers had a significantly lower odds ratio for the metabolic syndrome relative to non-manual workers (0.59, 95% CI: 0.41-0.85). Conclusion Our study demonstrated differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by occupational group and identified the greatest risk for the metabolic syndrome in male non-manual workers. PMID:24472422

  2. Metabolic syndrome in family practice in Jordan: a study of high-risk groups.

    PubMed

    Yasein, N; Masa'd, D

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, and its components, as defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Jordanian patients attending a family practice clinic for management of cardiovascular risk factors. The sample was 730 randomly selected patients aged > or = 25 years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.4% (31.7% in men; 41.0% in women). The prevalence increased with age in the total sample and in both sexes. High waist circumference showed the highest prevalence in the total sample (61.6%). Among females it ranked as the first criterion (73.5%). High serum triglyceride level showed the highest prevalence in males (50.2%). Differences between the sexes were significant. Family practitioners should be alerted to the importance of multiple risk factors in the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Effectiveness of a group-based self-management program for people with chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pinxsterhuis, Irma; Sandvik, Leiv; Strand, Elin Bolle; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Sveen, Unni

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a group-based self-management program for people with chronic fatigue syndrome. A randomized controlled trial. Four mid-sized towns in southern Norway and two suburbs of Oslo. A total of 137 adults with chronic fatigue syndrome. A self-management program including eight biweekly meetings of 2.5 hours duration. The control group received usual care. Primary outcome measure: Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale. Fatigue severity scale, self-efficacy scale, physical and mental component summary of the Short Form-36, and the illness cognition questionnaire (acceptance subscale). Assessments were performed at baseline, and at six-month and one-year follow-ups. At the six-month follow-up, a significant difference between the two groups was found concerning fatigue severity ( p = 0.039) in favor of the control group, and concerning self-efficacy in favor of the intervention group ( p = 0.039). These significant differences were not sustained at the one-year follow-up. No significant differences were found between the groups concerning physical functioning, acceptance, and health status at any of the measure points. The drop-out rate was 13.9% and the median number of sessions attended was seven (out of eight). The evaluated self-management program did not have any sustained effect, as compared with receiving usual care.

  4. Major Depression in a Small Group of Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Beverly A.; Pueschel, Siegfried M.

    1995-01-01

    The clinical histories and treatment of 9 individuals with Down syndrome and major depression are presented, as are clinical characteristics of an additional 13 individuals. Vegetative symptoms of disinterest, withdrawal, mutism, psychomotor retardation, decreased appetite, and insomnia were prominent. Preoccupations with suicide, death,…

  5. Physiological Arousal in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Links with Pragmatic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 27 with typical development (TD), aged 4-15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did…

  6. Hypothermia in the sepsis syndrome and clinical outcome. The Methylprednisolone Severe Sepsis Study Group.

    PubMed

    Clemmer, T P; Fisher, C J; Bone, R C; Slotman, G J; Metz, C A; Thomas, F O

    1992-10-01

    To evaluate the consequences of clinical hypothermia associated with sepsis syndrome and septic shock. Analysis of data from a multi-institutional, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study with predetermined end-point analysis of development of shock, recovery from shock, hospital length of stay, and death. Multi-institutional medical and surgical ICUs. Patients meeting predetermined criteria for severe sepsis syndrome. Appropriate sepsis and shock care with 50% of patients receiving methylprednisolone and 50% receiving placebo. The occurrence rate of hypothermia (< 35.5 degrees C) is 9% in this population. When compared with febrile patients, hypothermic patients had a higher frequency of central nervous system dysfunction (88% vs. 60%), increased serum bilirubin concentration (35% vs. 15%), prolonged prothrombin times (50% vs. 23%), shock (94% vs. 61%), failure to recover from shock (66% vs. 26%), and death (62% vs. 26%). The hypothermic patients were also more likely to be classified as having a rapidly or ultimately fatal disease upon study admission. This prospective study confirms that hypothermia associated with sepsis syndrome has a significant relationship to outcome manifest by increased frequency of shock and death from shock. This finding is in sharp contrast to the protective effects of induced hypothermia in septic animals and perhaps man.

  7. Effects of a statin group drug, pravastatin, on the insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Güçlü, Feyzullah; Ozmen, Bilgin; Hekimsoy, Zeliha; Kirmaz, Cengiz

    2004-12-01

    In West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS), development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) was found to decrease by 30% in pravastatin-treated patients. In the study, it is suggested that pleiotropic effects of pravastatin may be responsible too as well as its lipid lowering effect. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of pravastatin treatment on the insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) test, insulin sensitivity indices and glucose half activation time (glucose t1/2). Study population consisted of 25 women who were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. At baseline and 10 weeks after the 20 mg/daily tablet pravastatin treatment, waist/hip circumference, body weight and arterial blood pressure measurements, plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, transaminases, glycosylated haemoglobin (A1C) and insulin level measurements were obtained along with HOMA test and insulin tolerance test after 12 h of fasting. Insulin sensitivity indices and glucose t1/2 were assessed. After the treatment, a statistically significant decrease was observed in arterial blood pressure values (P < 0.0001). While plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were found to decrease significantly and HDL-cholesterol levels increased significantly, a decrease in baseline insulin levels, an increase in insulin sensitivity levels were observed along with an decrease in glucose t1/2. Related to the improvement in aforementioned parameters, statistically significant decreases were noted in HOMA, postprandial and fasting glucose levels and A1C values (P < 0.0001). Our study suggests that using pravastatin in the dyslipidemia treatment of metabolic syndrome with IGT may be an effective approach by its advantageous effects on insulin resistance. Based on this result, it is possible to say

  8. Surveillance of group B streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in nonpregnant adults and characterization of the strains in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bin; Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Wada, Akihito; Ogata, Kikuyo; Tomita, Masaaki; Katsukawa, Chihiro; Kawahara, Ryuji; Suzuki, Rieko; Endo, Miyoko; Isobe, Junko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Hirasawa, Kyoko; Watanabe, Haruo

    2006-06-01

    Nine group B streptococci (GBS) strains were isolated from five toxic shock-like syndrome cases of nonpregnant adults in Japan from 2001 to 2005. All of them were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae. The serotypes of these strains were Ib, III, V, and VII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the patterns of the strains isolated from the different patients were variable. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that all of the strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, cefotaxime, clindamycin, and telithromycin. One strain showed intermediate resistance to erythromycin.

  9. A YAC contig spanning the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, Fanconi anaemia group C, and xeroderma pigmentosum group A loci on chromosome 9q

    SciT

    Morris, D.J.; Reis, A.

    1994-09-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, Gorlin syndrome) is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized primarily by multiple basal cell carcinomas, epithelium-lined jaw cysts, and palmar and plantar pits, as well as various other features. Loss of heterozygosity studies and linkage analysis have mapped the NBCCS gene to chromosome 9q and suggested that it is a tumor suppressor. The apparent sensitivity of NBCCS patients to UV and X-irradiation raises the possibility of hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging reagents or defective DNA repair being etiological in the disorder. The recent mapping of the Fanconi anaemia group C (FACC) and xeroderma pigmentosum complementing group Amore » (XPAC) genes to the same region on 9q has led us to begin the molecular dissection of the 9q22-q31 region. PCR analysis of the presence or absence of 10 microsatellite markers and exons 3 and 4 of the XPAC and FACC genes, respectively, allowed us to order 12 YACs into an overlapping contig and to order the markers as follows: D9S151/D9S12P1-D9S12P2-D9S197-D9S196-D9S280-FACC-D9S287/XPAC-D9S180-D9S6-D9S176. Sizing of the YACs has provided an initial estimate of the size of the NBCCS candidate region between D9S12 and D9S180 to be less than 1.65 Mb. 45 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.« less

  10. Habit reversal training and educational group treatments for children with tourette syndrome: A preliminary randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yates, Rachel; Edwards, Katie; King, John; Luzon, Olga; Evangeli, Michael; Stark, Daniel; McFarlane, Fiona; Heyman, Isobel; İnce, Başak; Kodric, Jana; Murphy, Tara

    2016-05-01

    Quality of life of children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) is impacted greatly by its symptoms and their social consequences. Habit Reversal Training (HRT) is effective but has not, until now, been empirically evaluated in groups. This randomised controlled trial evaluated feasibility and preliminary efficacy of eight HRT group sessions compared to eight Education group sessions. Thirty-three children aged 9-13 years with TS or Chronic Tic Disorder took part. Outcomes evaluated were tic severity and quality of life (QoL). Tic severity improvements were found in both groups. Motor tic severity (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale) showed greatest improvements in the HRT group. Both groups showed a strong tendency toward improvements in patient reported QoL. In conclusion, group-based treatments for TS are feasible and exposure to other children with tics did not increase tic expression. HRT led to greater reductions in tic severity than Education. Implications, such as cost-effectiveness of treatment delivery, are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of Brief Group-Administered Instruction for Parents to Prevent or Minimize Sleep Problems in Young Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stores, Rebecca; Stores, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    Background: The study concerns the unknown value of group instruction for mothers of young children with Down syndrome (DS) in preventing or minimizing sleep problems. Method: (1) Children with DS were randomly allocated to an Instruction group (given basic information about children's sleep) and a Control group for later comparison including…

  12. Comparison of childhood myelodysplastic syndrome, AML FAB M6 or M7, CCG 2891: report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Dorothy R; Alonzo, Todd A; Gerbing, Robert B; Lange, Beverly; Woods, William G

    2007-07-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute erythroleukemia (FAB M6), and acute megakaryocytic leukemia (FAB M7) have overlapping features. Children without Down syndrome or acute promyelocytic leukemia who were newly diagnosed with primary myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M6 or M7 were compared to children with de novo AML M0-M5. All children were entered on the Children's Cancer Group therapeutic research study CCG 2891. The presentation and outcomes of the 132 children diagnosed with MDS (60 children), AML FAB M6 (19 children), or AML FAB M7 (53 children) were similar. Children with AML FAB M7 were diagnosed at a significantly younger age (P = 0.001). Children with MDS, M6, or M7 had significantly lower white blood cell (WBC) counts (P = 0.001), lower peripheral blast counts (P < 0.001), and an increased frequency of -7/7q- (P = 0.003) at presentation. All three groups had significantly inferior overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001) and event free survival (P < 0.001) compared with the 748 children diagnosed with AML FAB M0-M5 when assessed from entry on study. This poor survival was largely attributable to induction death and failure. However, when assessed from successful completion of induction therapy, the 5-year OS (P = 0.090)(49.1 vs. 56.9%) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.113)(38.0 vs. 46.3%) therapy were not significantly different from other children with AML. Childhood AML FAB M6 and AML M7 resemble MDS in presentation, poor induction success rates, and outcomes.

  13. Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors: Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Metz, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) have long fascinated clinicians and investigators despite their relative rarity. Their clinical presentation varies depending upon whether the tumor is functional or not and also according to the specific hormonal syndrome produced. Tumors may be sporadic or inherited but little is known about their molecular pathology, especially the sporadic forms. Chromogranin A appears to be the most useful serum marker for diagnosis, staging and monitoring. Initially, therapy should be directed at the hormonal syndrome as this has the major initial impact on the patient's health. Most PETs are relatively indolent but ultimately malignant, except for insulinomas which are predominantly benign. Surgery is the only modality that offers the possibility of cure although it is generally noncurative in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or nonfunctional PETs with MEN1. Preoperative staging of disease extent is necessary to determine the likelihood of complete resection though debulking surgery is often felt to be useful in unresectable patients. Once metastatic, biotherapy is usually the first modality employed because it is generally well tolerated. Systemic or regional therapies are generally reserved until symptoms occur or tumor growth is rapid. Recently a number of newer agents, as well as receptor-directed radiotherapy, are being evalulated for patients with advanced disease. This review addresses a number of recent advances regarding the molecular pathology, diagnosis, localization and management of PETs including discussion of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy and other novel antitumor approaches. We conclude with a discussion of future directions and unsettled problems in the field. PMID:18703061

  14. Carpal tunnel syndrome and work organisation in repetitive work: a cross sectional study in France. Study Group on Repetitive Work

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, A.; Franchi, P.; Cristofari, M. F.; Delemotte, B.; Mereau, P.; Teyssier-Cotte, C.; Touranchet, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the determinants of signs of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in repetitive industrial work, with special attention to occupational constraints at group level and management practices of the companies. METHOD: A cross sectional study was conducted in three sectors: assembly line; clothing and shoe industry; food industry. A total of 1210 workers in repetitive work, from 53 different companies, was compared with a control group of 337 workers. Constraints at the workplace were partly self declared, and partly assessed by the occupational physicians in charge of the employees of the company. The definition of CTS was based on a standardised clinical examination. RESULTS: CTS was associated with repetitive work, especially packaging. It was more frequent among subjects who declared psychological and psychosomatic problems and those with a body mass index > or = 27. Dissatisfaction with work, lack of job control, short cycle time, and having to press repeatedly with the hand were associated with the syndrome. An odds ratio (OR) of 2.24 was found for "just in time" production. CONCLUSION: The results emphasise the complexity of the determinants of CTS, the role of psychosocial factors at work and the potentially negative effects of some practices of the companies aimed at enhancing their competitiveness.   PMID:9624269

  15. Memory in intellectually matched groups of young participants with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and those with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kravariti, Eugenia; Jacobson, Clare; Morris, Robin; Frangou, Sophia; Murray, Robin M; Tsakanikos, Elias; Habel, Alex; Shearer, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) and schizophrenia have genetic and neuropsychological similarities, but are likely to differ in memory profile. Confirming differences in memory function between the two disorders, and identifying their genetic determinants, can help to define genetic subtypes in both syndromes, identify genetic risk factors for the emergence of psychosis, and develop pharmacological interventions for cognitive dysfunction. However, no study has compared memory function between 22qDS and schizophrenia, while indirect comparisons are confounded by marked differences in IQ between the two populations. We compared verbal and visual memory in 29 children and adolescents with 22qDS and 15 intellectually matched youths with schizophrenia using age-appropriate, directly comparable, Wechsler scales. Verbal memory was markedly superior in the 22qDS group by 21 points. There were no group differences in visual memory. The inherently low COMT activity in 22qDS merits investigation as a potential protective factor for verbal memory. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnostic Approach to Viral Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in Paediatric Age Group: A Study from New Delhi.

    PubMed

    Goel, Shipra; Chakravarti, Anita; Mantan, Mukta; Kumar, Surinder; Ashraf, Md Anzar

    2017-09-01

    Acute Encephalitis Syndrome has heralded the emergence of multiple virulent pathogens, which may result in severe morbidity and mortality. In India, encephalitis is not notified and there has been a dearth of analysis for trends in encephalitis death rates and causation. A downward trend has been observed in encephalitis deaths, due to 'known' causes, which can be largely explained by improvement in diagnostic, treatment, and prevention methods. There is still a very high proportion of encephalitis deaths in developing countries, where the aetiological diagnosis of the pathogen is not established and thus, lies the importance of monitoring encephalitis morbidity and mortality with a view to improve pathogen diagnosis and identify emerging infectious diseases. To formulate a diagnostic approach to viral acute encephalitis syndrome in paediatric age group. A cross-sectional study including 50 paediatric patients, clinically diagnosed with acute encephalitis syndrome using WHO criteria was conducted. The CSF of all the patients was evaluated to diagnose the aetiology for viral pathogens. ELISA was used for diagnosing Japanese encephalitis and dengue encephalitis; and multiplex real time PCR was used for detecting HSV-1, HSV-2, Varicella zoster virus, Mumps virus, Enterovirus and Parechovirus. Confirmed diagnosis was established in 11 (22%) of 50 cases. A confirmed or probable viral agent of encephalitis was found in 7 (14%), bacterial agent was found in 2 (4%), non-infectious aetiology was found in 2 (4%). Fatal outcome was independently associated with patient age. Despite extensive testing, the aetiologies of more than three fourth of the cases remains elusive. Nevertheless the result from the present study may be useful for future design of early diagnosis and treatment of the disease. New strategies for pathogen identification and continued analysis of clinical features and case histories should help us improve our ability to diagnose, treat and prevent

  17. Congenital Abnormalities and Acute Leukemia among Children with Down Syndrome: A Children’s Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Linabery, Amy M.; Blair, Cindy K.; Gamis, Alan S.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Ross, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome, due to their heightened risk of leukemia and increased prevalence of congenital abnormalities, comprise a valuable population in which to study etiology. A Children’s Oncology Group study investigated the causes of childhood leukemia in children with Down syndrome diagnosed at ages 0 to 19 years during the period 1997–2002. Telephone interviews were completed with mothers of 158 cases [n = 97 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and n = 61 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)] and 173 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed via unconditional logistic regression to evaluate the association between congenital abnormalities and acute leukemia overall, and ALL and AML analyzed separately. The results do not provide evidence for an association among the index children (ORCombined, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.45–1.23; ORALL, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.38–1.20; ORAML,1.03; 95% CI, 0.49–2.16) or their siblings (ORCombined, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.71–2.13; ORALL, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.60–2.09; ORAML, 1.60; 95% CI, 0.66–3.86), suggesting congenital malformations do not confer additional risk of leukemia beyond the risk attributable to trisomy 21 in this population. PMID:18829445

  18. Group A Streptococcal Peritonitis and Toxic Shock Syndrome in a Postmenopausal Woman.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Yuri; Iwase, Shigeru

    2017-09-15

    We herein report the case of a 66-year-old woman presenting with symptoms of gastroenteritis. Computed tomography showed small-bowel dilation without ischemic signs. After admission, she went into shock and was treated for sepsis of unknown origin. She was later diagnosed with group A streptococcal peritonitis due to an ascending vaginal infection. This case highlights the importance of considering Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection as a cause of peritonitis in postmenopausal women.

  19. Effects of exercise and group counselling on body composition and VO2max in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roessler, Kirsten K; Birkebaek, Camilla; Ravn, Pernille; Andersen, Marianne S; Glintborg, Dorte

    2013-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is often associated with an increased waist circumference and with lower cardio-respiratory fitness as a consequence of obesity, which may be improved by physical activity. To investigate the effect of high-intensity aerobic training combined with group counselling sessions on anthropometry and cardio-respiratory fitness in women with PCOS. Seventeen sedentary, overweight women with PCOS were randomized in a cross-over design to 16 weeks of intervention: eight weeks high-intensity aerobic exercise was followed by eight weeks of group counselling (n = 8) or vice versa (n = 9). Fourteen of the women completed the tests. Waist circumference, body mass index and maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max) ) were measured at baseline, cross-over and post-intervention. There was a decrease in waist circumference (119.9 vs. 106.5 cm) and body mass index (34.9 vs. 34.4 kg/m(2) ) and an increase in VO(2max) (2554.9 vs. 2807.9 mL/min) during the intervention period (t = 16 weeks, n = 14), all p < 0.05. Weight loss tended to be highest in the group which started with group counselling (2.9 vs. 0.6 kg, t = 16 weeks, n = 14, p = 0.055). Exercise in groups followed by counselling or vice versa had beneficial effects on waist circumference, weight, and VO(2max) in women with PCOS. Future studies should examine possible beneficial effects of combined group counselling and exercise on weight loss and adherence to exercise protocols among women with PCOS. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Psychosocial Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome among Latino Groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Manuel S.; Myers, Hector F.; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine the contribution of psychological variables to risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Latinos enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), and to investigate whether social support moderates these associations, and whether inflammatory markers mediate the association between psychological variables and MetS. Research design and methods Cross-sectional analyses at study baseline were conducted with a national Latino cohort (n = 1,388) that included Mexican Americans, Dominican Americans, Puerto Rican Americans and Central/South Americans. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the effects of psychosocial variables (chronic stress, depressive symptoms, and social support) on MetS. In addition, separate subgroup-specific models, controlling for nationality, age, gender, socioeconomic position, language spoken at home, exercise, smoking and drinking status, and testing for the effects of chronic stress, depressive symptoms and inflammation (IL-6, CRP, fibrinogen) in predicting risk for MetS were conducted. Results In the overall sample, high chronic stress independently predicted risk for MetS, however this association was found to be significant only in Mexican Americans and Puerto Rican Americans. Social support did not moderate the associations between chronic stress and MetS for any group. Chronic stress was not associated with inflammatory markers in either the overall sample or in each group. Conclusions Our results suggest a differential contribution of chronic stress to the prevalence of MetS by national groups. PMID:25906072

  1. [Effect of group psychotherapy on changes in symptoms and personality traits in patients with anxiety syndromes].

    PubMed

    Kamiński, R

    2001-01-01

    Psychotherapy remains the most efficient form of treatment in neurotic and personality disorders. It is a process whereby the therapist can influence and change the patient's personality. As a result, patients are able to better understand their experiences and behavior and are given a chance to be freed from symptoms. The goal of the present study was to establish the relationship between group psychotherapy and specific symptom clusters, and to follow changes in the personality structure of patients of both genders diagnosed according to ICD-10 classification. The Symptoms Questionnaire and the Personality Factor test were used to determine the severity of symptoms and study personality traits. The study group consisted of 115 patients (76 women and 39 men) with neurotic or personality disorders, participating in group therapy at the Day Care Unit of the Department of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Academy of Medicine in Szczecin between 1992 and 1998. Four groups were formed depending on the diagnosis according to ICD-10 classification: anxiety disorders--F41; somatic disorders--F45; neurotic disorders--F48; and personality disorders--F60 (Table 1). Treatment started and ended with a CV Questionnaire, Symptoms Questionnaire and Personality Factor test. Group psychotherapy was in the open form and the duration of treatment was 12 weeks with 2 sessions per day. In order to detect any improvement in mental health and symptoms, patients were given the Symptoms Questionnaire on a weekly basis. Statistics were done with the SPSS software package. It was found that the global intensity of symptoms before treatment was highest in patients with somatic form of the disorder. In this group after therapy, the intensity of symptoms was lowest, probably because of conversion of primary to secondary anxiety. A considerable decrease in the intensity of symptoms may also be explained by stronger motivation of these patients to benefit from therapy because of their severe symptoms. A

  2. Review article: Pathogenesis and management of gastric carcinoid tumours.

    PubMed

    Burkitt, M D; Pritchard, D M

    2006-11-01

    Gastric carcinoid tumours are rare, but are increasing in incidence. To discuss tumour pathogenesis and outline current approaches to patient management. Review of published articles following a Pubmed search. Although interest in gastric carcinoids has increased since it was recognized that they are associated with achlorhydria, to date there is no definite evidence that humans taking long-term acid suppressing medication are at increased risk. Type I tumours are associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II are associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 and hypergastrinaemia and sporadic type III carcinoids are gastrin-independent and carry the worst prognosis. Careful investigation of these patients is required, particularly to identify the tumour type, the source of hypergastrinaemia and the presence of metastases. Treatment can be directed at the source of hypergastrinaemia if type I or II tumours are still gastrin responsive and not growing autonomously. Type III tumours should be treated surgically. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoids have led to recent improvements in investigation and management. Challenges remain in identifying the genetic and environmental factors, in addition to hypergastrinaemia, that are responsible for tumour development in susceptible patients.

  3. Endocrine tumors of the duodenum. A study of 55 cases relative to clinicopathological features and hormone content.

    PubMed

    Heymann, M F; Hamy, A; Triau, S; Miraillé, E; Toquet, C; Chomarat, H; Cohen, C; Maitre, F; Le Bodie, M F

    2004-01-01

    Study of prognosis of duodenal endocrine tumors. Retrospective study concerned 55 duodenal endocrine tumors discovered in biopsy or surgical specimens. Follow-up records available for 49 patients indicated that inconspicuous associated clinical manifestations were often found subsequently. Seven patients were classified as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and seven as multiple endocrine neoplasia (6 MEN I and 1 MEN II). Tumors were small (mean 1.28cm) and located preferentially in the first and second part of the duodenum. Fifty-four were well-differentiated and one poorly differentiated. Immunochemistry revealed 30 G-cell tumors (54.6%), 15 D-cell (27.3%), two plurihormonal (EC cell and G cell), and one GRH-cell, whereas seven could not be classified. Fifteen patients died (five in relation to their disease). Twenty-one had metastases (liver, nodes, lung), eight of whom are still alive. Eighty-eight percent of duodenal endocrine tumors were gastrinomas, small plurifocal tumors and somatostatinomas preferentially located in the ampullar region and diagnosed because of hematemesis or icterus. Size is an important prognostic factor in determining whether surgery is required. The prognosis is better for D- and G-cell tumors than pancreatic endocrine tumors. Duodenal endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia have a good prognosis, but can be associated with pancreatic plurihormonal tumors and metastases.

  4. Development of a group-based self-management programme for individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pinxsterhuis, Irma; Hellum, Live Lange; Aannestad, Hilde Hassum; Sveen, Unni

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a group-based self-management programme for individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) by using the participants' experiences with the initial version of the programme, which intends to promote coping with the illness in a primary healthcare setting. An initial programme was developed, based on self-efficacy theory and the concepts of client-centred practice and empowerment. Subsequently, the programme was tested and further developed by drawing on the participants' experiences with the programme. Focus-group interviews were applied. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. The initial programme was found to be feasible, although several modifications regarding the content and practical organization of the programme were proposed. In line with the participants' experiences, the final self-management programme was developed, which includes short presentations of eight topics, exchange of experiences among participants, goal-setting, construction of action plans, and relaxation exercises, in addition to a meeting for relatives. The programme will be provided in eight biweekly sessions and be led by juxtaposed peer counsellors and occupational therapists. The effects of the final programme will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  5. Perceived motor problems in daily life: Focus group interviews with people with Noonan syndrome and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Croonen, Ellen A; Harmsen, Mirjam; Van der Burgt, Ineke; Draaisma, Jos M; Noordam, Kees; Essink, Marlou; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-09-01

    Studies from a patient perspective on motor performance problems in Noonan syndrome in daily life are lacking. The aims of this study were to provide insight into the motor performance problems that people with Noonan syndrome and/or their relatives experienced, the major consequences they suffered, the benefits of interventions they experienced, and the experiences with healthcare professionals they mentioned. We interviewed 10 adults with Noonan syndrome (two were joined by their parent), and 23 mothers (five of whom had Noonan syndrome), nine fathers (one of whom had Noonan syndrome) and one cousin who reported on 28 children with Noonan syndrome. People with Noonan syndrome reported particular problems related to pain, decreased muscle strength, fatigue, and clumsiness, which had an evident impact on functioning in daily life. Most participants believed that problems with motor performance improved with exercise, appropriate physiotherapy guidance, and other supportive interventions. Nevertheless, people with Noonan syndrome and/or their relatives did not feel heard and supported and experienced no understanding of their problems by healthcare professionals. This was the first study from a patient perspective that described the motor performance problems in people with Noonan syndrome, the major consequences in daily life, the positive experiences of interventions and the miscommunication with healthcare professionals. To achieve optimal support, healthcare professionals, as well as people with Noonan syndrome and/or their relatives themselves, should be aware of these frequently presented problems with motor performance. Research on these different aspects is needed to better understand and support people with Noonan syndrome.© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Survey of Genes Encoding Staphylococcal Enterotoxins, Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1, and Exfoliative Toxins in Members of the Staphylococcus sciuri Group

    PubMed Central

    Dakić, Ivana; Vuković, Dragana; Stepanović, Srdjan; Hauschild, Tomasz; Ježek, Petr; Petráš, Petr; Morrison, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea to see, seg, and seh), toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (tst), and exfoliative toxins (eta and etb) were not detected in a large panel of 48 Staphylococcus sciuri group isolates tested. This strongly suggests that production of the staphylococcal exotoxins by these bacteria is highly unlikely. PMID:16145164

  7. Memory in Intellectually Matched Groups of Young Participants with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome and Those with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravariti, Eugenia; Jacobson, Clare; Morris, Robin; Frangou, Sophia; Murray, Robin M.; Tsakanikos, Elias; Habel, Alex; Shearer, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) and schizophrenia have genetic and neuropsychological similarities, but are likely to differ in memory profile. Confirming differences in memory function between the two disorders, and identifying their genetic determinants, can help to define genetic subtypes in both syndromes, identify genetic risk factors…

  8. Increased prevalence of group A streptococcus isolates in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome cases in Japan from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Ikebe, T; Tominaga, K; Shima, T; Okuno, R; Kubota, H; Ogata, K; Chiba, K; Katsukawa, C; Ohya, H; Tada, Y; Okabe, N; Watanabe, H; Ogawa, M; Ohnishi, M

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe invasive infection characterized by the sudden onset of shock, multi-organ failure, and high mortality. In Japan, appropriate notification measures based on the Infectious Disease Control law are mandatory for cases of STSS caused by β-haemolytic streptococcus. STSS is mainly caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Although an average of 60-70 cases of GAS-induced STSS are reported annually, 143 cases were recorded in 2011. To determine the reason behind this marked increase, we characterized the emm genotype of 249 GAS isolates from STSS patients in Japan from 2010 to 2012 and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The predominant genotype was found to be emm1, followed by emm89, emm12, emm28, emm3, and emm90. These six genotypes constituted more than 90% of the STSS isolates. The number of emm1, emm89, emm12, and emm28 isolates increased concomitantly with the increase in the total number of STSS cases. In particular, the number of mefA-positive emm1 isolates has escalated since 2011. Thus, the increase in the incidence of STSS can be attributed to an increase in the number of cases associated with specific genotypes.

  9. [Necrotizing fasciitis, myositis, arthritis, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by group G Streptococcus. Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Ayala-Gaytán, Juan Jacobo; Martínez-Vela, Ángel; Náñez-Terreros, Homero; Guajardo-Lara, Claudia Elena; Valdovinos-Chávez, Salvador Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), myositis, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) associated with group G ß-hemolytic streptococcus (GGS) occasionally coincide. We describe a case of GGS simultaneously occurring with NF, myositis, arthritis, and STSS in an 83-year-old woman with sequelae of cerebrovascular disease, hospitalized after two days of fever and with a painful swollen left foot. She was hypotensive, her foot had purplish discoloration, which showed blisters spreading to the lower third of the leg, and no crepitus was present. Fluid, vasopressive support, tigecyclin, and clindamycin were used. Debrided tissue and fluid aspirated from the knee joint revealed Gram-positive cocci. The patient developed renal and respiratory failure on the fifth day, requiring support. She underwent amputation above the knee of the left leg, after which her condition improved. She was discharged one month later. GGS can cause life-threatening infections such as NF, myositis, and/or STSS. GGS usually afflicts aging patients with comorbid states, and occasionally healthy subjects.

  10. Repetition, response mobilization, and face: Analysis of group interactions with a 19-year-old with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Louick, Rebecca; White, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    This Conversation Analytic study examined the talk of an adolescent with Asperger syndrome (under previously used diagnostic criteria), Nathan, as he interacts with peers in a small group setting. We focused on Nathan's repetition aimed at pursuing response, and rely on analytical frameworks including response mobilization, face-work, and agreement preference. We found that while Nathan's repetitions resembled 'topic perseveration' previously described in the literature, they showed evidence of interactional awareness as they were employed when peers offered little or no response to his original utterance. However, we also found that while much of Nathan's talk was sophisticatedly structured, his repetition to pursue response eschewed interaction rituals that work to maintain social cohesion. As a result, Nathan's interactional priorities appeared mis-aligned with those of his peers, and failed to produce extended interactions in most cases. Readers will be able to describe features of conversational interaction, including response mobilization, agreement preference, and face work. They will understand the relevance of conversation analysis to the study of interaction in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Lastly, they will be able to describe the conditions under which the subject used repetition within peer interactions, and the effects of his repetition on interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A cross sectional study on hand-arm vibration syndrome among a group of tree fellers in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Su, Anselm Ting; Maeda, Setsuo; Fukumoto, Jin; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Isahak, Marzuki; Yoshioka, Atsushi; Nakajima, Ryuichi; Bulgiba, Awang; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics of hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) in a group of tree fellers in a tropical environment. We examined all tree fellers and selected control subjects in a logging camp of central Sarawak for vibration exposure and presence of HAVS symptoms utilizing vibrotactile perception threshold test (VPT) and cold water provocation test (CWP). None of the subjects reported white finger. The tree fellers reported significantly higher prevalence of finger coldness as compared to the control subjects (OR=10.32, 95%CI=1.21-87.94). A lower finger skin temperature, longer fingernail capillary return time and higher VPT were observed among the tree fellers as compared to the control subjects in all fingers (effect size >0.5). The VPT following CWP of the tree fellers was significantly higher (repeated measures ANOVA p=0.002, partial η(2)=0.196) than the control subject. The A (8) level was associated with finger tingling, numbness and dullness (effect size=0.983) and finger coldness (effect size=0.524) among the tree fellers. Finger coldness and finger tingling, numbness and dullness are important symptoms for HAVS in tropical environment that may indicate vascular and neurological damage due to hand-transmitted vibration exposure.

  12. Not all glucocorticoid-induced obesity is the same: differences in adiposity among various diagnostic groups of Cushing syndrome.

    PubMed

    London, E; Lodish, M; Keil, M; Lyssikatos, C; de la Luz Sierra, M; Nesterova, M; Stratakis, C A

    2014-11-01

    The cAMP signaling pathway is implicated in bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias (BAHs), which are often associated with ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (CS). Although CS is invariably associated with obesity and is frequently associated with PKA signaling defects, we recently reported that its different forms appear to also present with variable weight gain and adiposity. The present study was aimed at characterizing further the phenotypic and molecular differences in periadrenal adipose tissue (PAT) among patients with subtypes of CS, by anthropometric/biochemical analyses and quantification of PKA expression and activity in BAHs in comparison to a non-CS group with aldosterone producing adenomas (APAs). Glucocorticoid levels, serum parameters, and BMI were analyzed among a larger patient cohort including those with different forms of CS, APAs, and Cushing disease. Abdominal CT scans were available for a small subset of patients examined for fat distribution. PAT collected during adrenalectomy was assayed for PKA activity, cAMP, and PKA expression. BMI and BMI z-score were lower in adults with PPNAD with PRKAR1A mutations and in pediatric patients with PPNAD with and without PRKAR1A mutations, respectively. Patients with PPNAD had higher cAMP levels in PAT and different fat distribution. Thus, PKA activity in PAT differed between CS diagnostic groups. Increased cAMP and PKA activity may have contributed to phenotypic differences among subtypes of CS. In agreement with the known roles of cAMP signaling in the regulation of adiposity, patients with PPNAD were less obese than other patients with CS. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Defining constant versus variable phenotypic features of women with polycystic ovary syndrome using different ethnic groups and populations.

    PubMed

    Welt, C K; Arason, G; Gudmundsson, J A; Adams, J; Palsdóttir, H; Gudlaugsdóttir, G; Ingadóttir, G; Crowley, W F

    2006-11-01

    The phenotype of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is variable, depending on the ethnic background. The phenotypes of women with PCOS in Iceland and Boston were compared. The study was observational with a parallel design. Subjects were studied in an outpatient setting. Women, aged 18-45 yr, with PCOS defined by hyperandrogenism and fewer than nine menses per year, were examined in Iceland (n = 105) and Boston (n = 262). PCOS subjects underwent a physical exam, fasting blood samples for androgens, gonadotropins, metabolic parameters, and a transvaginal ultrasound. The phenotype of women with PCOS was compared between Caucasian women in Iceland and Boston and among Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian women in Boston. Androstenedione (4.0 +/- 1.3 vs. 3.5 +/- 1.2 ng/ml; P < 0.01) was higher and testosterone (54.0 +/- 25.7 vs. 66.2 +/- 35.6 ng/dl; P < 0.01), LH (23.1 +/- 15.8 vs. 27.6 +/- 16.2 IU/liter; P < 0.05), and Ferriman Gallwey score were lower (7.1 +/- 6.0 vs. 15.4 +/- 8.5; P < 0.001) in Caucasian Icelandic compared with Boston women with PCOS. There were no differences in fasting blood glucose, insulin, or homeostasis model assessment in body mass index-matched Caucasian subjects from Iceland or Boston or in different ethnic groups in Boston. Polycystic ovary morphology was demonstrated in 93-100% of women with PCOS in all ethnic groups. The data demonstrate differences in the reproductive features of PCOS without differences in glucose and insulin in body mass index-matched populations. These studies also suggest that measuring androstenedione is important for the documentation of hyperandrogenism in Icelandic women. Finally, polycystic ovary morphology by ultrasound is an almost universal finding in women with PCOS as defined by hyperandrogenism and irregular menses.

  14. Clinical characteristics of children with group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome admitted to pediatric intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Nuñez, Antonio; Dosil-Gallardo, Silvia; Jordan, Iolanda

    2011-05-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a very rare and severe form of group A streptococcal infection whose clinical characteristics, therapy, morbidity, and mortality in children are not well known. Our objective was to describe the clinical characteristics of STSS in a series of children admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICU). A multicenter, retrospective study of children with STSS admitted to 14 PICUs between January 1998 and December 2009 was conducted. Clinical information was obtained retrospectively by chart review. Data from 41 children were collected, 90% corresponding to the second half of the study period. Initial symptoms and signs were nonspecific. All patients developed shock and organ dysfunction, 78.0% developed coagulopathy, 70.7% neurologic dysfunction, and 68.3% respiratory failure. Rapid pharyngeal test for Streptococcus was positive in 78.0%. Initial leukocyte count was quite variable, with leukopenia present in 51.2% of patients and leukocytosis in 31.7%. Children were treated with antibiotics against group A Streptococcus (GAS), usually G penicillin or cephalosporin plus clindamycin. After a median PICU stay of 7 days (range 0-41), 65.8% of patients survived, 26.8% with sequelae. The cause of death of the 11 non-survivors was refractory shock and multi-organ failure. STSS is a very severe condition secondary to invasive GAS infection. It can occur at any age, but especially in young children. Due to the lack of specific symptoms and signs and its very rapid progression to shock and organ dysfunction, pediatricians and emergency physicians must be aware of this possibility and immediately initiate aggressive treatment when suspected.

  15. Systemic inflammatory mediators in post-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I) - longitudinal investigations and differences to control groups.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, Christian; Scherens, A; Köller, M; Roellecke, G; Muhr, G; Maier, C

    2009-03-17

    The Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (CRPS I) is a disease that might affect an extremity after trauma or operation. The pathogenesis remains yet unclear. It has clinical signs of severe local inflammation as a result of an exaggerated inflammatory response but neurogenic dysregulation also contributes to it. Some studies investigated the role inflammatory mediators and cytokines; however, few longitudinal studies exist and control groups except healthy controls were not investigated yet. To get further insights into the role of systemic inflammatory mediators in CRPS I, we investigated a variety of pro-, anti-, or neuro-inflammatory mediators such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), White Blood Cell Count (WBC), Interleukins 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 (p70), Interferon gamma, Tumor-Necrosis-Factor alpha (TNF-a) and its soluble Receptors I/II, soluble Selectins (E,L,P), Substance-P (SP), and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) at different time points in venous blood from patients with acute (AC) and chronic (CC) CRPS I, patients with forearm fractures (FR), with neuralgia (NE), and from healthy volunteers (C). No significant changes for serum parameters investigated in CRPS compared to control groups were found except for CC/C (CGRP p = 0.007), FR/C (CGRP p = 0.048) and AC/CC (IL-12 p = 0.02; TNFRI/II p = 0.01; SP p = 0.049). High interindividual variations were observed. No intra- or interindividual correlation of parameters with clinical course (e.g. chronification) or outcome was detectable. Although clinically appearing as inflammation in acute stages, local rather than systemic inflammatory responses seem to be relevant in CRPS. Variable results from different studies might be explained by unpredictable intermittent release of mediators from local inflammatory processes into the blood combined with high interindividual variabilities. A clinically relevant difference to various control groups was not notable in this pilot study. Determination of systemic inflammatory

  16. European survey of diagnosis and management of the polycystic ovary syndrome: results of the ESE PCOS Special Interest Group's Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Conway, Gerard; Dewailly, Didier; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Escobar-Morreale, Hector F; Franks, Steven; Gambineri, Alessandra; Kelestimur, Fahrettin; Macut, Djuro; Micic, Dragan; Pasquali, Renato; Pfeifer, Marija; Pignatelli, Duarte; Pugeat, Michel; Yildiz, Bulent

    2014-10-01

    There is evidence for differences between endocrinologists and other specialists in their approach to diagnosis and management of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A mailed survey consisting of a simple questionnaire aiming to understand current practice for diagnosis and management of the PCOS by specialists across Europe. The questionnaire consisted of 23 questions grouped to achieve information on i) the general characteristics of the respondents, ii) patients with PCOS seen by endocrinologists, iii) the main diagnostic criteria, iv) biochemical parameters used in the differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism, v) long-term concerns, and, finally vi) treatment choices. A total of 357 questionnaires representing 13.3% of the members of European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) were available for final analysis; 93% of the respondents were endocrinologists In relation to the diagnostic criteria, respondents were most likely to select menstrual irregularity as the most frequent criteria used for the diagnosis of PCOS although very high rates were achieved for the use of hirsutism and biochemical hyperandrogenism. It therefore appears that the NIH criteria were followed by the majority of respondents. The most frequent biochemical parameters in the differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism were total testosterone or free androgen index. Obesity and type 2 diabetes were regarded as the principal long-term concerns for PCOS. The most common treatments for patients with PCOS were metformin (33%), lifestyle modification (25%), and oral contraceptives (22%). More direct treatments of infertility include clomiphene citrate alone or in combination with metformin, prescribed by 9 and 23%, respectively, whereas only 6% used other methods for induction of ovulation. The survey produced by ESE is a good start for evaluating the perspective in the diagnosis and treatment of PCOS by endocrinologists in Europe. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children with Down syndrome: a retrospective analysis from the Ponte di Legno study group

    PubMed Central

    Buitenkamp, Trudy D.; Izraeli, Shai; Zimmermann, Martin; Forestier, Erik; Heerema, Nyla A.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Pieters, Rob; Korbijn, Carin M.; Silverman, Lewis B.; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Liang, Der-Cheng; Horibe, Keizo; Arico, Maurizio; Biondi, Andrea; Basso, Giuseppe; Rabin, Karin R.; Schrappe, Martin; Cario, Gunnar; Mann, Georg; Morak, Maria; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Mondelaers, Veerle; Lammens, Tim; Cavé, Hélène; Stark, Batia; Ganmore, Ithamar; Moorman, Anthony V.; Vora, Ajay; Hunger, Stephen P.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Mullighan, Charles G.; Manabe, Atsushi; Escherich, Gabriele; Kowalczyk, Jerzy R.; Whitlock, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased risk of B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The prognostic factors and outcome of DS-ALL patients treated in contemporary protocols are uncertain. We studied 653 DS-ALL patients enrolled in 16 international trials from 1995 to 2004. Non-DS BCP-ALL patients from the Dutch Child Oncology Group and Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster were reference cohorts. DS-ALL patients had a higher 8-year cumulative incidence of relapse (26% ± 2% vs 15% ± 1%, P < .001) and 2-year treatment-related mortality (TRM) (7% ± 1% vs 2.0% ± <1%, P < .0001) than non-DS patients, resulting in lower 8-year event-free survival (EFS) (64% ± 2% vs 81% ± 2%, P < .0001) and overall survival (74% ± 2% vs 89% ± 1%, P < .0001). Independent favorable prognostic factors include age <6 years (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58, P = .002), white blood cell (WBC) count <10 × 109/L (HR = 0.60, P = .005), and ETV6-RUNX1 (HR = 0.14, P = .006) for EFS and age (HR = 0.48, P < .001), ETV6-RUNX1 (HR = 0.1, P = .016) and high hyperdiploidy (HeH) (HR = 0.29, P = .04) for relapse-free survival. TRM was the major cause of death in ETV6-RUNX1 and HeH DS-ALLs. Thus, while relapse is the main contributor to poorer survival in DS-ALL, infection-associated TRM was increased in all protocol elements, unrelated to treatment phase or regimen. Future strategies to improve outcome in DS-ALL should include improved supportive care throughout therapy and reduction of therapy in newly identified good-prognosis subgroups. PMID:24222333

  18. Group-based developmental BMI trajectories, polycystic ovary syndrome, and gestational diabetes: a community-based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kakoly, Nadira Sultana; Earnest, Arul; Moran, Lisa J; Teede, Helena J; Joham, Anju E

    2017-11-06

    Obesity is common in young women, increasing insulin resistance (IR) and worsening pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes (GDM). Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are commonly obese, which aggravates the severity of PCOS clinical expression. Relationships between these common insulin-resistant conditions, however, remain unclear. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) database, including data from 8009 women aged 18-36 years across six surveys. We used latent-curve growth modelling to identify distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectories and multinomial logistic regression to explore sociodemographic and health variables characterizing BMI group membership. Logistic regression was used to assess independent risk of GDM. A total of 662 women (8.29%, 95% CI 7.68-8.89) reported PCOS. Three distinct BMI trajectories emerged, namely low stable (LSG) (63.8%), defined as an average trajectory remaining at ~25 kg/m 2 ; moderately rising (MRG) (28.8%), a curvilinear trajectory commencing in a healthy BMI and terminating in the overweight range; and high-rising (HRG) (7.4%), a curvilinear trajectory starting and terminating in the obese range. A high BMI in early reproductive life predicted membership in higher trajectories. The HRG BMI trajectory was independently associated with GDM (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.80-3.48) and was a stronger correlate than PCOS (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.41-2.54), maternal age, socioeconomic status, or parity. Our results suggest heterogeneity in BMI change among Australian women of reproductive age, with and without PCOS. Reducing early adult life weight represents an ideal opportunity to intervene at an early stage of reproductive life and decreases the risk of long-term metabolic complications such as GDM.

  19. A case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome due to Group G streptococci identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.

    PubMed

    Nei, Takahito; Akutsu, Koichi; Shima, Ayaka; Tsuboi, Ippei; Suzuki, Hiroomi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tanaka, Keiji; Shinoyama, Akihiro; Kojima, Yoshiko; Washio, Yohei; Okawa, Sakina; Sonobe, Kazunari; Norose, Yoshihiko; Saito, Ryoichi

    2012-12-01

    A 79-year-old man with a 3-month history of lymphedema of the lower limbs, and diabetes mellitus, was admitted to our hospital for suspected deep venous thrombosis. Several hours after admission, leg pain and purpura-like skin color appeared. On the 2nd hospital day, he was referred to our department for possible acute occlusive peripheral artery disease (PAD) and skin necrosis with blisters; however, computed tomography with contrast showed no occlusive lesions. He had already developed shock and necrotizing deep soft-tissue infections of the left lower leg. Laboratory findings revealed renal dysfunction and coagulation system collapse. Soon after PAD was ruled out, clinical findings suggested necrotizing deep soft-tissue infections, shock state, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and multiple organ failure. These symptoms led to a high suspicion of the well-recognized streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). With a high suspicion of STSS, we detected Group G β-hemolytic streptococci (GGS) from samples aspirated from the leg bullae, and the species was identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) by 16S-ribosomal RNA sequencing. However, unfortunately, surgical debridement was impossible due to the broad area of skin change. Despite adequate antimicrobial therapy and intensive care, the patient died on the 3rd hospital day. The M-protein gene (emm) typing of the isolated SDSE was revealed to be stG6792. This type of SDSE is the most frequent cause of STSS due to GGS in Japan. We consider it to be crucial to rapidly distinguish STSS from acute occlusive PAD to achieve life-saving interventions in patients with severe soft-tissue infections.

  20. Prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome in ambulatory patients according to the American-European Consensus Group criteria.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guerrero, J; Pérez-Dosal, M R; Cárdenas-Velázquez, F; Pérez-Reguera, A; Celis-Aguilar, E; Soto-Rojas, A E; Avila-Casado, C

    2005-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in ambulatory patients attending a tertiary care centre, according to the American-European Consensus Group criteria, using a structured approach. Three hundred patients from rheumatology and internal medicine clinics were randomly chosen. During the screening phase, a face-to-face interview, a screening questionnaire, a Schirmer-I test and a wafer test were carried out in all patients. During the second phase, patients with positive screening had confirmatory tests including fluorescein staining test, non-stimulated whole salivary flow and autoantibody testing. Confirmatory tests were also done in 13 patients with negative screening. In the last phase, lip biopsy was proposed to those patients who met pre-established criteria. Females constituted 79% of the study population. The mean age of the subjects was 42.8+/-15.7 yr. Two hundred and twenty patients (73%) had positive screening. Fifty-five (27%) out of 204 patients evaluated showed keratoconjunctivitis sicca and 28 (13%) out of 215 patients xerostomia. One hundred and sixty-eight patients met criteria for lip biopsy and it was performed in 80 subjects who accepted the procedure. Focal sialoadenitis was demonstrated in 39 patients (49%), but only 28 of them met criteria for SS. In total, 40 patients were classified as SS. The minimum prevalence of SS in the population studied was 13.3% (95% CI 9.5-17.1%). The structured approach used in this study allowed 24 (60%) undiagnosed cases of SS to be identified. SS is common among ambulatory patients attending a tertiary care centre and in most of them it is undiagnosed.

  1. Physiotherapy management of joint hypermobility syndrome--a focus group study of patient and health professional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Palmer, S; Terry, R; Rimes, K A; Clark, C; Simmonds, J; Horwood, J

    2016-03-01

    To develop an understanding of patient and health professional views and experiences of physiotherapy to manage joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS). An explorative qualitative design. Seven focus groups were convened, audio recorded, fully transcribed and analysed using a constant comparative method to inductively derive a thematic account of the data. Four geographical areas of the U.K. 25 people with JHS and 16 health professionals (14 physiotherapists and two podiatrists). Both patients and health professionals recognised the chronic heterogeneous nature of JHS and reported a lack of awareness of the condition amongst health professionals, patients and wider society. Diagnosis and subsequent referral to physiotherapy services for JHS was often difficult and convoluted. Referral was often for acute single joint injury, failing to recognise the long-term multi-joint nature of the condition. Health professionals and patients felt that if left undiagnosed, JHS was more difficult to treat because of its chronic nature. When JHS was treated by health professionals with knowledge of the condition patients reported satisfactory outcomes. There was considerable agreement between health professionals and patients regarding an 'ideal' physiotherapy service. Education was reported as an overarching requirement for patients and health care professionals. Physiotherapy should be applied holistically to manage JHS as a long-term condition and should address injury prevention and symptom amelioration rather than cure. Education for health professionals and patients is needed to optimise physiotherapy provision. Further research is required to explore the specific therapeutic actions of physiotherapy for managing JHS. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of metabolic syndrome on arterial function in different age groups: the Advanced Approach to Arterial Stiffness study.

    PubMed

    Topouchian, Jirar; Labat, Carlos; Gautier, Sylvie; Bäck, Magnus; Achimastos, Apostolos; Blacher, Jacques; Cwynar, Marcin; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pall, Denes; Fantin, Francesco; Farkas, Katalin; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis; Hakobyan, Zoya; Jankowski, Piotr; Jelakovic, Ana; Kobalava, Zhanna; Konradi, Alexandra; Kotovskaya, Yulia; Kotsani, Marina; Lazareva, Irina; Litvin, Alexander; Milyagin, Viktor; Mintale, Iveta; Persson, Oscar; Ramos, Rafael; Rogoza, Anatoly; Ryliskyte, Ligita; Scuteri, Angelo; Sirenko, Yuriy; Soulis, Georges; Tasic, Nebojsa; Udovychenko, Maryna; Urazalina, Saule; Wohlfahrt, Peter; Zelveian, Parounak; Benetos, Athanase; Asmar, Roland

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the Advanced Approach to Arterial Stiffness study was to compare arterial stiffness measured simultaneously with two different methods in different age groups of middle-aged and older adults with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). The specific effects of the different MetS components on arterial stiffness were also studied. This prospective, multicentre, international study included 2224 patients aged 40 years and older, 1664 with and 560 without MetS. Patients were enrolled in 32 centres from 18 European countries affiliated to the International Society of Vascular Health & Aging. Arterial stiffness was evaluated using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV) in four prespecified age groups: 40-49, 50-59, 60-74, 75-90 years. In this report, we present the baseline data of this study. Both CF-PWV and CAVI increased with age, with a higher correlation coefficient for CAVI (comparison of coefficients P < 0.001). Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted values of CF-PWV and CAVI were weakly intercorrelated (r = 0.06, P < 0.001). Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted values for CF-PWV but not CAVI were higher in presence of MetS (CF-PWV: 9.57 ± 0.06 vs. 8.65 ± 0.10, P < 0.001; CAVI: 8.34 ± 0.03 vs. 8.29 ± 0.04, P = 0.40; mean ± SEM; MetS vs. no MetS). The absence of an overall effect of MetS on CAVI was related to the heterogeneous effects of the components of MetS on this parameter: CAVI was positively associated with the high glycaemia and high blood pressure components, whereas lacked significant associations with the HDL and triglycerides components while exhibiting a negative association with the overweight component. In contrast, all five MetS components showed positive associations with CF-PWV. This large European multicentre study reveals a differential impact of MetS and age on CAVI and CF-PWV and suggests that age may have a more pronounced effect on CAVI, whereas Met

  3. Cytogenic and molecular analyses of 46,XX male syndrome with clinical comparison to other groups with testicular azoospermia of genetic origin.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Han-Sun; Wu, Yi-No; Wu, Chien-Chih; Hwang, Jiann-Loung

    2013-02-01

    XX male is a rare sex chromosomal disorder in infertile men. The purpose of this study was to distinguish the clinical and genetic features of the 46,XX male syndrome from other more frequent, testicular-origin azoospermic causes of male infertility. To study 46,XX male syndrome, we compared clinical and endocrinological parameters to other groups with testicular-origin azoospermia, and to an age-matched group of healthy males and females as normal control. Fluorescent in situ hybridization for detection and localization of the sex-determining region of the Y gene (SRY), array-based comparative genomic hybridization screening, and real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction of FGF9, WT1, NR5A1, and SPRY2 genes were performed in this genetic investigation. Our three patients with 46,XX male syndrome had a much higher follicular-stimulating hormone level, lower body height, lower testosterone level, and ambiguous external genitalia. One of the three patients with 46,XX male syndrome was SRY-negative. A further genetic study, including a comparative genomic hybridization array and real-time polymerase chain reaction, showed a gain of FGF9 copy numbers only in the SRY-negative 46,XX male. The genetic copy number of the FGF9 gene was duplicated in that case compared to the normal female control and was significantly lower than that of the normal male control. No such genomic gain was observed in the case of the two SRY-positive 46,XX males. Similar to clinical manifestations of 46,XX male syndrome, genetic evidence in this study suggests that FGF9 may contribute to sex reversal, but additional confirmation with more cases is still needed. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The effects of growth hormone therapy on the somatic development of a group of Polish children with Silver-Russell syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sienko, Magdalena; Petriczko, Elżbieta; Zajaczek, Stanislaw; Zygmunt-Gorska, Agata; Starzyk, Jerzy; Korpysz, Alicja; Petriczko, Jan; Walczak, Alicja; Walczak, Mieczysław

    2017-12-01

    Silver-Russell Syndrome is both clinically and genetically a heterogeneous syndrome. Among the most important dysmorphic features of this condition are: a triangular shaped face with a small mandible, a prominent frontal eminence, a thin vermilion border with downward-pointing lip corners, clino- and brachydactyly of the 5th fingers as well as body asymmetry. The most well-known genetic mutations in this syndrome are: the 11p15 epimutation (20-60% patients) and the maternal uniparental chromosome 7 disomy present in 7% to 15% of patients. Children with SRS have severely impaired physical growth - intrauterine and after birth. This, together with the aforementioned dysmorphic features, forms the main diagnostic criteria. The study group consisted of 12 children treated with growth hormone, aged 2 to 17 (8.9±4.0 years), therein, all of whom met the phenotype diagnostic criteria by Wollmann and Price. The effects of growth hormone therapy on somatic development of these children are also presented. Height and weight improved as a result of growth hormone treatment, but the effects were significantly worse than in children with IUGR. Children from the study group presented also a smaller an improvement in growth velocity than children from the control group, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Growth hormone therapy accelerates the growth of children with SRS but to a smaller extent than the growth of children born with intrauterine growth retardation without dysmorphic features.

  5. Pharmacological reversal of synaptic plasticity deficits in the mouse model of fragile X syndrome by group II mGluR antagonist or lithium treatment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Catherine H; Schoenfeld, Brian P; Bell, Aaron J; Hinchey, Paul; Kollaros, Maria; Gertner, Michael J; Woo, Newton H; Tranfaglia, Michael R; Bear, Mark F; Zukin, R Suzanne; McDonald, Thomas V; Jongens, Thomas A; McBride, Sean M J

    2011-03-22

    Fragile X syndrome is the leading single gene cause of intellectual disabilities. Treatment of a Drosophila model of Fragile X syndrome with metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists or lithium rescues social and cognitive impairments. A hallmark feature of the Fragile X mouse model is enhanced mGluR-dependent long-term depression (LTD) at Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal synapses of the hippocampus. Here we examine the effects of chronic treatment of Fragile X mice in vivo with lithium or a group II mGluR antagonist on mGluR-LTD at CA1 synapses. We find that long-term lithium treatment initiated during development (5-6 weeks of age) and continued throughout the lifetime of the Fragile X mice until 9-11 months of age restores normal mGluR-LTD. Additionally, chronic short-term treatment beginning in adult Fragile X mice (8 weeks of age) with either lithium or an mGluR antagonist is also able to restore normal mGluR-LTD. Translating the findings of successful pharmacologic intervention from the Drosophila model into the mouse model of Fragile X syndrome is an important advance, in that this identifies and validates these targets as potential therapeutic interventions for the treatment of individuals afflicted with Fragile X syndrome. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serotypes, surface proteins, and clinical syndromes of invasive Group B streptococcal infections in northern Taiwan, 1998-2009.

    PubMed

    Wong, Swee Siang; Tsui, Kochung; Liu, Qin-Dong; Lin, Li-Chen; Tsai, Chim Ren; Chen, Li-Chun; Huang, Cheng Hua

    2011-02-01

    The incidence of invasive Group B streptococcal (GBS) infections is increasing in the elderly and immunocompromised adults in many countries worldwide. There are, however, few reports regarding the current status of the infection in northern Taiwan. This study investigated retrospectively the molecular epidemiology and clinical syndromes of the invasive GBS diseases in a tertiary care hospital in northern Taiwan over the past decade. One hundred twenty episodes of invasive GBS disease were recorded at Cathay General Hospital, a tertiary care, teaching hospital in northern Taiwan, from January 1998 to June 2009. Clinical information was acquired from medical records. Capsular serotypes and alpha family of surface proteins were genotyped with multiplex and specific polymerase chain reaction. Of all episodes, 58.3% was found in the elderly (age ≥ 65), 36.1% in nonpregnant women and young adults (age 18-64), and 5.9% in the neonates (0-90 days). Case-fatality rate was 6.7%. Eighty-three (69%) of the invasive isolates were available for genotyping. In sharp contrast to the studies in southern Taiwan (1991-2004), Type Ib (26.5%) was the most frequent invasive isolate, followed by V (22.9%), III (18.1%), VI (12%), Ia (10.8%), II (6%), VIII (2.4%), and nontypable strain (1.2%). In particular, Serotype VI, which had been rarely implicated in invasive infection, emerged as a significant pathogen. A significant trend of increase in incidence was observed for the infection (p<0.0001), with concurrent increase of cases in the elderly and of Serotype Ib and VI. There was significant association with young adults of Type II and III and chronic skin conditions and older adults with Type Ia and V and chronic cardiovascular diseases. Type V was closely associated with skin and soft tissue infection. Recurrent episodes (10%) occurred most often in patients with concomitant malignancy, with an average of 314 days for recurrence. The incidence of GBS invasive infection among

  7. Metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes in a group of adult patients with Turner's syndrome under hormonal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Roberta; Forno, Daniela; Lanfranco, Fabio; Manieri, Chiara; Ghizzoni, Lucia; Ghigo, Ezio

    2011-05-01

    Turner's syndrome (TS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by complete or partial X chromosome monosomy in a phenotypic female, and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular diseases, impaired glucose tolerance, and dyslipidemia. In 30 adult TS patients under chronic hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), 17β-estradiol (E(2)), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fasting glucose and insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, serum lipids, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and intima-media thickness (IMT) were evaluated and compared with those in 30 age- and sex-matched controls (CS). No difference was found between TS and CS in E(2) and BMI, whereas waist circumference was higher (P<0.05) in TS (77.7±2.5 cm) than in CS (69.8±1.0 cm). Fasting glucose in TS and in CS was similar, whereas fasting insulin, HOMA index, and 2 h glucose after OGTT were higher (P<0.0005) in TS (13.2±0.8 mUI/l, 2.5±0.2, and 108.9±5.5 mg/dl respectively) than in CS (9.1±0.5 mUI/l, 1.8±0.1, and 94.5 ± 3.8 mg/dl respectively). Total cholesterol was higher (P<0.05) in TS (199.4 ± 6.6 mg/dl) than in CS (173.9±4.6 mg/dl), whereas no significant differences in high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides were found between the two groups. In 13% of TS, ABPM showed arterial hypertension, whereas IMT was <0.9 mm in all TS and CS. A negative correlation between insulin levels, HOMA index, or 2 h glucose after OGTT and E(2) was present in TS. Our results indicate that adult patients with TS under HRT are connoted by higher frequency of central obesity, insulin resistance, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension.

  8. The prognostic significance of smoking cessation after acute coronary syndromes: an observational, multicentre study from the Melbourne interventional group registry.

    PubMed

    Yudi, Matias B; Farouque, Omar; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Ajani, Andrew E; Kalten, Katie; Brennan, Angela L; Lefkovits, Jeffrey; Hiew, Chin; Oqueli, Ernesto; Reid, Christopher M; Duffy, Stephen J; Clark, David J

    2017-10-06

    We aim to ascertain the prognostic significance of persistent smoking and smoking cessation after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the era of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and optimal secondary prevention pharmacotherapy. Consecutive patients from the Melbourne Interventional Group registry (2005-2013) who were alive at 30 days post-ACS presentation were included in our observational cohort study. Patients were divided into four categories based on their smoking status: non-smoker; ex-smoker (quit >1 month before ACS); recent quitter (smoker at presentation but quit by 30 days) and persistent smoker (smoker at presentation and at 30 days). The primary endpoint was survival ascertained through the Australian National Death Index linkage. A Cox-proportional hazards model was used to estimate the adjusted HR and 95% CI for survival. Of the 9375 patients included, 2728 (29.1%) never smoked, 3712 (39.6%) were ex-smokers, 1612 (17.2%) were recent quitters and 1323 (14.1%) were persistent smokers. Cox-proportional hazard modelling revealed, compared with those who had never smoked, that persistent smoking (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.32, p<0.001) was an independent predictor of increased hazard (mean follow-up 3.9±2.2 years) while being a recent quitter (HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.68, p=0.10) or an ex-smoker (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.22, p=0.72) were not. In a contemporary cohort of patients with ACS, those who continued to smoke had an 80% risk of lower survival while those who quit had comparable survival to lifelong non-smokers. This underscores the importance of smoking cessation in secondary prevention despite the improvement in management of ACS with PCI and pharmacotherapy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Molecular defects of the growth hormone receptor gene, including a new mutation, in Laron syndrome patients in Israel: relationship between defects and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Shevah, Orit; Rubinstein, Menachem; Laron, Zvi

    2004-10-01

    Laron Syndrome, first described in Israel, is a form of dwarfism similar to isolated growth hormone deficiency caused by molecular defects in the GH receptor gene. To characterize the molecular defects of the GH-R in Laron syndrome patients followed in our clinic. Of the 63 patients in the cohort, we investigated 31 patients and 32 relatives belonging to several ethnic origins. Molecular analysis of the GH-R gene was performed using the single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing techniques. Eleven molecular defects including a novel mutation were found. Twenty-two patients carried mutations in the extracellular domain, one in the transmembrane domain, and 3 siblings with typical Laron syndrome presented a normal GH-R. Of interest are, on one hand, different mutations within the same ethnic groups: W-15X and 5, 6 exon deletion in Jewish-Iraqis, and E180 splice and 5, 6 exon deletion in Jewish-Moroccans; and on the other hand, identical findings in patients from distinct regions: the 785-1 G to T mutation in an Israeli-Druze and a Peruvian patient. A polymorphism in exon 6, Gly168Gly, was found in 15 probands. One typical Laron patient from Greece was heterozygous for R43X in exon 4 and heterozygous for Gly168Gly. In addition, a novel mutation in exon 5: substitution of T to G replacing tyrosine 86 for aspartic acid (Y86D) is described. This study demonstrates: a) an increased focal incidence of Laron syndrome in different ethnic groups from our area with a high incidence of consanguinity; and b) a relationship between molecular defects of the GH-R, ethnic group and geographic area.

  10. Coping Strategies of Patients with Haemophilia as a Risk Group for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Brief Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naji, Simon; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Plans are described for a 2-year project whose major focus is the identification of ways in which patients with hemophilia and their families assimilate, interpret, and act on information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Findings will be related to perceived risk, anxiety levels, and the development of coping strategies.…

  11. Seckel syndrome: an overdiagnosed syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E; Pembrey, M

    1985-01-01

    Five children in whom a diagnosis of Seckel syndrome had previously been made were re-examined in the genetic unit. One child had classical Seckel syndrome, a sib pair had the features of the syndrome with less severe short stature, and in two children the diagnosis was not confirmed. Seckel syndrome is only one of a group of low birth weight microcephalic dwarfism and careful attention should be paid to fulfillment of the major criteria defined by Seckel before the diagnosis is made. There remains a heterogeneous group of low birth weight microcephalic dwarfism yet to be defined. Images PMID:4040172

  12. [Degree of physical activity and metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study among the Khisêdjê group in the Xingu Indigenous Park, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos, Kennedy Maia Dos; Tsutsui, Mario Luiz da Silva; Galvão, Patrícia Paiva de Oliveira; Mazzucchetti, Lalucha; Rodrigues, Douglas; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to verify the existence of an association between degree of physical activity and presence of metabolic syndrome in the Khisêdjê indigenous group. The authors evaluated 170 individuals 20 years or older, based on demographic data, physical examination, and laboratory tests. The data were analyzed with the chi-square test (p < 0.05), crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (point and 95% confidence intervals), and Student's t-test. Satisfactory results were observed in relation to cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, bending of arms and trunk, and measurement of physical activity according to the number of steps/day. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.8% and was higher in women, the 39-49-year and ≥ 50-year age groups, and in individuals with lower performance on the cardiorespiratory endurance test, horizontal impulse, and number of steps/day. The results indicate the need for greater surveillance in the control and prevention of risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

  13. Cockayne syndrome group A and B proteins converge on transcription-linked resolution of non-B DNA.

    PubMed

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Tseng, Anne; Borch Jensen, Martin; Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Fang, Evandro Fei; Iyama, Teruaki; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Marosi, Krisztina; Froetscher, Lynn; Kassahun, Henok; Eckley, David Mark; Maul, Robert W; Bastian, Paul; De, Supriyo; Ghosh, Soumita; Nilsen, Hilde; Goldberg, Ilya G; Mattson, Mark P; Wilson, David M; Brosh, Robert M; Gorospe, Myriam; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2016-11-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a neurodegenerative accelerated aging disorder caused by mutations in the CSA or CSB genes. Although the pathogenesis of Cockayne syndrome has remained elusive, recent work implicates mitochondrial dysfunction in the disease progression. Here, we present evidence that loss of CSA or CSB in a neuroblastoma cell line converges on mitochondrial dysfunction caused by defects in ribosomal DNA transcription and activation of the DNA damage sensor poly-ADP ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1). Indeed, inhibition of ribosomal DNA transcription leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in a number of cell lines. Furthermore, machine-learning algorithms predict that diseases with defects in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription have mitochondrial dysfunction, and, accordingly, this is found when factors involved in rDNA transcription are knocked down. Mechanistically, loss of CSA or CSB leads to polymerase stalling at non-B DNA in a neuroblastoma cell line, in particular at G-quadruplex structures, and recombinant CSB can melt G-quadruplex structures. Indeed, stabilization of G-quadruplex structures activates PARP1 and leads to accelerated aging in Caenorhabditis elegans In conclusion, this work supports a role for impaired ribosomal DNA transcription in Cockayne syndrome and suggests that transcription-coupled resolution of secondary structures may be a mechanism to repress spurious activation of a DNA damage response.

  14. KIAA1530 Protein Is Recruited by Cockayne Syndrome Complementation Group Protein A (CSA) to Participate in Transcription-coupled Repair (TCR)

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Jia; Chen, Junjie

    2012-01-01

    Transcription-coupled repair (TCR) is the major pathway involved in the removal of UV-induced photolesions from the transcribed strand of active genes. Two Cockayne syndrome (CS) complementation group proteins, CSA and CSB, are important for TCR repair. The molecular mechanisms by which CS proteins regulate TCR remain elusive. Here, we report the characterization of KIAA1530, an evolutionarily conserved protein that participates in this pathway through its interaction with CSA and the TFIIH complex. We found that UV irradiation led to the recruitment of KIAA1530 onto chromatin in a CSA-dependent manner. Cells lacking KIAA1530 were highly sensitive to UV irradiation and displayed deficiency in TCR. In addition, KIAA1530 depletion abrogated stability of the CSB protein following UV irradiation. More excitingly, we found that a unique CSA mutant (W361C), which was previously identified in a patient with UVsS syndrome, showed defective KIAA1530 binding and resulted in a failure of recruiting KIAA1530 and stabilizing CSB after UV treatment. Together, our data not only reveal that KIAA1530 is an important player in TCR but also lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying UVsS syndrome. PMID:22902626

  15. The People with Asperger syndrome and anxiety disorders (PAsSA) trial: a pilot multicentre, single-blind randomised trial of group cognitive–behavioural therapy

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Glynis H.; Shepstone, Lee; Wilson, Edward C.F.; Fowler, David; Heavens, David; Malovic, Aida; Russell, Alexandra; Rose, Alice; Mullineaux, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in using cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) with people who have Asperger syndrome and comorbid mental health problems. Aims To examine whether modified group CBT for clinically significant anxiety in an Asperger syndrome population is feasible and likely to be efficacious. Method Using a randomised assessor-blind trial, 52 individuals with Asperger syndrome were randomised into a treatment arm or a waiting-list control arm. After 24 weeks, those in the waiting-list control arm received treatment, while those initially randomised to treatment were followed up for 24 weeks. Results The conversion rate for this trial was high (1.6:1), while attrition was 13%. After 24 weeks, there was no significant difference between those randomised to the treatment arm compared with those randomised to the waiting-list control arm on the primary outcome measure, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety. Conclusions Trials of psychological therapies with this population are feasible. Larger definitive trials are now needed. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence. PMID:27703772

  16. The People with Asperger syndrome and anxiety disorders (PAsSA) trial: a pilot multicentre, single-blind randomised trial of group cognitive-behavioural therapy.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Peter E; Murphy, Glynis H; Shepstone, Lee; Wilson, Edward C F; Fowler, David; Heavens, David; Malovic, Aida; Russell, Alexandra; Rose, Alice; Mullineaux, Louise

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing interest in using cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) with people who have Asperger syndrome and comorbid mental health problems. To examine whether modified group CBT for clinically significant anxiety in an Asperger syndrome population is feasible and likely to be efficacious. Using a randomised assessor-blind trial, 52 individuals with Asperger syndrome were randomised into a treatment arm or a waiting-list control arm. After 24 weeks, those in the waiting-list control arm received treatment, while those initially randomised to treatment were followed up for 24 weeks. The conversion rate for this trial was high (1.6:1), while attrition was 13%. After 24 weeks, there was no significant difference between those randomised to the treatment arm compared with those randomised to the waiting-list control arm on the primary outcome measure, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety. Trials of psychological therapies with this population are feasible. Larger definitive trials are now needed. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence.

  17. A standard for terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes: A report from the chronic pelvic pain working group of the international continence society.

    PubMed

    Doggweiler, Regula; Whitmore, Kristene E; Meijlink, Jane M; Drake, Marcus J; Frawley, Helena; Nordling, Jørgen; Hanno, Philip; Fraser, Matthew O; Homma, Yukio; Garrido, Gustavo; Gomes, Mario J; Elneil, Sohier; van de Merwe, Joop P; Lin, Alex T L; Tomoe, Hikaru

    2017-04-01

    Terms used in the field of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) are poorly defined and often confusing. An International Continence Society (ICS) Standard for Terminology in chronic pelvic pain syndromes (CPPS) has been developed with the aim of improving diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by chronic pelvic pain syndromes. The standard aims to facilitate research, enhance therapy development and support healthcare delivery, for healthcare providers, and patients. This document looks at the whole person and all the domains (organ systems) in a systematic way. A dedicated working group (WG) was instituted by the ICS Standardisation Steering Committee according to published procedures. The WG extracted information from existing relevant guidelines, consensus documents, and scientific publications. Medline and other databases were searched in relation to each chronic pelvic pain domain from 1980 to 2014. Existing ICS Standards for terminology were utilized where appropriate to ensure transparency, accessibility, flexibility, and evolution. Consensus was based on majority agreement. The multidisciplinary CPPS Standard reports updated consensus terminology in nine domains; lower urinary tract, female genital, male genital, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, neurological aspects, psychological aspects, sexual aspects, and comorbidities. Each is described in terms of symptoms, signs and further evaluation. The document presents preferred terms and definitions for symptoms, signs, and evaluation (diagnostic work-up) of female and male patients with chronic pelvic pain syndromes, serving as a platform for ongoing development in this field. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:984-1008, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Group training in interpersonal problem-solving skills for workplace adaptation of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study describes preliminary data from a group format manual-based intervention, the Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme, aimed at improving the cognitive and metacognitive process of social problem-solving skills focusing on typical social situations in the workplace based on mediation as the main strategy. A total of 50 adults with Asperger syndrome received the programme and were compared with a control group of typical development. The feasibility and effectiveness of the treatment were explored. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment on a task of social problem-solving skills and two secondary measures of socialisation and work profile using self- and caregiver-report. Using a variety of methods, the results showed that scores were significantly higher at post-treatment in the social problem-solving task and socialisation skills based on reports by parents. Differences in comparison to the control group had decreased after treatment. The treatment was acceptable to families and subject adherence was high. The Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme appears to be a feasible training programme. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Efficacy and safety of rotigotine in Japanese patients with restless legs syndrome: a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Hirata, Koichi; Uchimura, Naohisa; Ishigooka, Jun; Oka, Yasunori; Ikeda, Junji; Tomida, Takayuki; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to ascertain the efficacy and safety of transdermal rotigotine (2 and 3mg/24h) in Japanese patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS). In our double-blind placebo-controlled study, 284 Japanese patients with idiopathic RLS were randomly assigned to receive rotigotine 2mg/24h or 3mg/24h, or placebo, for 13 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group rating scale (IRLS) total score. The placebo-subtracted decreases in IRLS total score for rotigotine 2 mg/24 h and 3 mg/24 h were -2.8±1.3 and -3.1±1.3, respectively, which were significant (P<0.05). The interaction between baseline Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and treatment group for the change in IRLS total score was significant, indicating greater improvements in IRLS total score in patients with severe insomnia. Overall, 80.0%, 86.2%, and 51.6% of patients in the rotigotine 2 mg/24 h, 3 mg/24 h, and placebo groups, respectively, experienced adverse events (AEs) including application site reactions in 42.1%, 50.0%, and 7.4% of patients, respectively. None of the AEs were severe. Our results showed that rotigotine was effective without major safety concerns at doses of up to 3 mg/24 h in Japanese patients with RLS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytogenetic Investigation in a Group of Ten Infertile Men with Non-Obstructive Azoospermia: First Algerian 46, XX Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    BAZIZ, Meriem; HAMOULI-SAID, Zohra; RATBI, Ilham; HABEL, Mohamed; GUAOUA, Soukaina; SBITI, Aziza; SEFIANI, Abdelaziz

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Algeria, the data on infertility and its various causes are rare. Recently, the introduction of assisted reproduction has allowed expecting that 300000 couples, which represent 7% of couples of reproductive age, face difficulty conceiving a child. Knowing that most idiopathic cases are likely to be due to chromosomal abnormalities, we aimed to investigate genetic defects by karyotype analysis in Algerian infertile men, using peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods: A cytogenetic study was conducted on 10 men from infertile couples by Karyotype analysis of R-banding performed by lymphocyte culture technique. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed and molecular abnormalities were investigated by polymerase chain reaction. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were evaluated by immunoradiometric method. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 30% of the patients. We identified a homogenous Klinefelter syndrome patient with 47, XXY karyotype, a mosaic Klinefelter syndrome patient with 47, XXY/46, XY karyotype and a 46, XX male. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the sex-determining region Y was translocated to the short arm of the X chromosome in patient with 46, XX chromosomal constitution and the presence of the SRY gene was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and electrophoresis. Conclusion: The occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in 30% of the infertile men strongly supports the inclusion of routine cytogenetic testing for diagnostic establishment and suitable counseling for couples seeking for assisted reproduction technologies. PMID:27648416

  1. Haplotype frequency distribution for 7 microsatellites in chromosome 8 and 11 in relation to the metabolic syndrome in four ethnic groups: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Hosseinzadeh, Nima; Zarkesh, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-03-01

    Different variants of haplotype frequencies may lead to various frequencies of the same variants in individuals with drug resistance and disease susceptibility at the population level. In this study, the haplotype frequencies of 4 STR loci including the D8S1132, D8S1779, D8S514 and D8S1743, and 3 STR loci including D11S1304, D11S1998 and D11S934 were investigated in 563 individuals of four Iranian ethnic groups in the capital city of Iran, Tehran. One hundred thirty subjects had the metabolic syndrome. Haplotype frequencies of all markers were calculated. There were significant differences in the haplotype frequencies in short and long alleles between the metabolic affected subjects and controls. In addition, haplotype frequencies were significant in the four ethnic groups in both chromosomes 8 and 11. Our findings show a relation between the short allele of D8S1743 in all related haplotype frequencies of subjects with metabolic syndrome. These findings may require more studies of some candidate genes, including the lipoprotein lipase gene, in this chromosomal region. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Persistence survey of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 producing Staphylococcus aureus and serum antibodies to this superantigen in five groups of menstruating women.

    PubMed

    Parsonnet, Jeffrey; Hansmann, Melanie A; Seymour, Jon L; Delaney, Mary L; Dubois, Andrea M; Modern, Paul A; Jones, Michaelle B; Wild, John E; Onderdonk, Andrew B

    2010-08-23

    Menstrual Toxic Shock Syndrome (mTSS) is thought to be associated with the vaginal colonization with specific strains of Staphylococcus aureus TSST-1 in women who lack sufficient antibody titers to this toxin. There are no published studies that examine the seroconversion in women with various colonization patterns of this organism. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the persistence of Staphylococcus aureus colonization at three body sites (vagina, nares, and anus) and serum antibody to toxic shock syndrome toxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus among a small group of healthy, menstruating women evaluated previously in a larger study. One year after the completion of that study, 311 subjects were recalled into 5 groups. Four samples were obtained from each participant at several visits over an additional 6-11 month period: 1) an anterior nares swab; 2) an anal swab; 3) a vagina swab; and 4) a blood sample. Gram stain, a catalase test, and a rapid S. aureus-specific latex agglutination test were performed to phenotypically identify S. aureus from sample swabs. A competitive ELISA was used to quantify TSST-1 production. Human TSST-1 IgG antibodies were determined from the blood samples using a sandwich ELISA method. We found only 41% of toxigenic S. aureus and 35.5% of non-toxigenic nasal carriage could be classified as persistent. None of the toxigenic S. aureus vaginal or anal carriage could be classified as persistent. Despite the low persistence of S. aureus colonization, subjects colonized with a toxigenic strain were found to display distributions of antibody titers skewed toward higher titers than other subjects. Seven percent (5/75) of subjects became seropositive during recall, but none experienced toxic shock syndrome-like symptoms. Nasal carriage of S. aureus appears to be persistent and the best predicator of subsequent colonization, whereas vaginal and anal carriage appear to be more transient. From these findings, it appears that antibody titers

  3. Restricted versus continued standard caloric intake during the management of refeeding syndrome in critically ill adults: a randomised, parallel-group, multicentre, single-blind controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Doig, Gordon S; Simpson, Fiona; Heighes, Philippa T; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Chesher, Douglas; Caterson, Ian D; Reade, Michael C; Harrigan, Peter W J

    2015-12-01

    Equipoise exists regarding the benefits of restricting caloric intake during electrolyte replacement for refeeding syndrome, with half of intensive care specialists choosing to continue normal caloric intake. We aimed to assess whether energy restriction affects the duration of critical illness, and other measures of morbidity, compared with standard care. We did a randomised, multicentre, single-blind clinical trial in 13 hospital intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia (11 sites) and New Zealand (two sites). Adult critically ill patients who developed refeeding syndrome within 72 h of commencing nutritional support in the ICU were enrolled and allocated to receive continued standard nutritional support or protocolised caloric restriction. 1:1 computer-based randomisation was done in blocks of variable size, stratified by enrolment serum phosphate concentration (>0·32 mmol/L vs ≤0·32 mmol/L) and body-mass index (BMI; >18 kg/m(2)vs ≤18 kg/m(2)). The primary outcome was the number of days alive after ICU discharge, with 60 day follow-up, in a modified intention-to-treat population of all randomly allocated patients except those mistakenly enrolled. Days alive after ICU discharge was a composite outcome based on ICU length of stay, overall survival time, and mortality. The Refeeding Syndrome Trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR number 12609001043224). Between Dec 3, 2010, and Aug 13, 2014, we enrolled 339 adult critically ill patients: 170 were randomly allocated to continued standard nutritional support and 169 to protocolised caloric restriction. During the 60 day follow-up, the mean number of days alive after ICU discharge in 165 assessable patients in the standard care group was 39·9 (95% CI 36·4-43·7) compared with 44·8 (95% CI 40·9-49·1) in 166 assessable patients in the caloric restriction group (difference 4·9 days, 95% CI -2·3 to 13·6, p=0·19). Nevertheless, protocolised caloric

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Bartter syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Bartter syndrome Bartter syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Bartter syndrome is a group of very similar kidney disorders ...

  5. When gender matters: restless legs syndrome. Report of the "RLS and woman" workshop endorsed by the European RLS Study Group.

    PubMed

    Manconi, Mauro; Ulfberg, Jan; Berger, Klaus; Ghorayeb, Imad; Wesström, Jan; Fulda, Stephany; Allen, Richard P; Pollmächer, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Sleep is an essential human behavior that shows prominent gender differences. Disturbed sleep, in particular, is much more prevalent in females than males. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) as one cause of disturbed sleep was observed to be somewhat more common among women than men in Ekbom's 1945 seminal series of clinical cases with the disease. He, however, reported this gender difference mainly for those with more severe symptoms. Since then numerous studies have reported that women are affected by RLS about twice as often as males for mild as well as moderate to severe RLS. The present review focuses on RLS in females from the perspectives of both epidemiology and pathophysiology. RLS will generally become worse or might appear for the first time during pregnancy. Parity increases the risk of RLS later in life suggesting that pregnancy is a specific behavioral risk factor for developing RLS. Some evidence suggests that dysfunction in iron metabolism and high estrogen levels might contribute to RLS during pregnancy. But, menopause does not lower the incidence of RLS nor does hormone replacement therapy lead to an increase, suggesting a quite complex uncertain role of hormones in the pathophysiology of RLS. Therefore, further, preferably longitudinal studies are needed to unravel the factors causing RLS in women. These studies should include genetic, clinical and polysomnographic variables, as well as hormonal measures and variables assessing iron metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral health in a group of patients with Rett syndrome in the regions of Valencia and Murcia (Spain): A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Fuertes-González, María C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Rett syndrome (RS) is a rare disease with oral manifestations that have not been described in detail or in a standardized manner in the literature. The present study describes the oral health of the population with RS in two Spanish regions, following the protocol of the World Health Organization for conducting common oral health surveys. Study Design: A prospective, observational case-control study was carried out, involving a group of patients with RS (n1=41) and a mean age of 13.37±3.19 years, and an age- and gender-matched control group without RS (n0=82). The data referred to oral health and habits were recorded by means of a questionnaire and oral examination was used to document caries indicators (prevalence of caries, df(t), df(s), DMF(T), DMF(S) and indices referred to dental loss, morbidity, restoration), the Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and the most characteristic oral manifestations. Results: The most frequent oral habit in the patients with RS was diurnal bruxism, followed by stereotyped tongue movements and oral breathing. The caries scores were lower in the RS population than in the control group, but patients with RS showed greater periodontal alterations and a greater prevalence of drooling, dental wear, high-arched palate and anterior open bite. Conclusions: The population with RS exhibits characteristic and early oral habits and alterations, and periodontal problems that are more notorious than caries disease, so that our efforts should focus on the diagnosis and early correction of the parafunctional habits, promoting restorative treatment, and providing instructions on correct oral hygiene. Key words:Rett syndrome, oral habits, bruxism, caries. PMID:25350594

  7. [Successful continuous renal replacement therapy in a neonate with early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome].

    PubMed

    von Schnakenburg, C; Hufnagel, M; Superti-Furga, A; Rieger-Fackeldey, E; Berner, R

    2009-01-01

    Group B streptococcal early-onset sepsis (GBS EOS) in neonates has a mortality rate of approximately 5%, particularly in the presence of multi-organ dysfunction. Fluid management is crucial in these patients, and continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH) should be considered a therapeutic option even in newborn babies. After an uneventful pregnancy within hours after birth, a female term infant presented with dyspnoea, irritability and cyanosis. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) progressed to multi-organ dysfunction with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), impaired myocardial contractility, pulmonary hypertension and fluid overload. The maximum PRISM score was 51. The child required maximal respiratory and inotropic support with high volume intravenous fluid administration. However, only by using of CVVH from day 5 to 14, we successfully resolved progressive pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunction. The child improved directly after initiation of fluid removal, was extubated on day 17 and discharged without obvious sequelae on day 57. All microbiology studies revealed GBS. Perinatal GBS-infections remain a major life-threatening event for newborn babies. CVVH should be considered an option for reversing fluid overload even in neonates with overwhelming SIRS. Alternatively, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is discussed.

  8. Standardized reporting of bleeding complications for clinical investigations in acute coronary syndromes: a proposal from the academic bleeding consensus (ABC) multidisciplinary working group.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sunil V; Eikelboom, John; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Lincoff, A Michael; Weintraub, William S; Bassand, Jean-Pierre; Rao, A Koneti; Gibson, C Michael; Petersen, John L; Mehran, Roxana; Manoukian, Steven V; Charnigo, Richard; Lee, Kerry L; Moscucci, Mauro; Harrington, Robert A

    2009-12-01

    Clinical trials of antithrombotic agents for the treatment of ACS routinely assess bleeding as a safety endpoint, but variation in bleeding definitions makes comparison of the relative safety of these agents difficult. The ABC Multidisciplinary Working Group, an informal working group comprising clinical researchers and representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and the pharmaceutical industry, sought to develop a consensus approach to measuring the incidence and severity of bleeding complications during clinical trials of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). A meeting of the ABC was convened in April 2008 in Washington, DC, with the goal of developing a consensus approach to measuring the incidence and severity of hemorrhagic complications during clinical trials of ACS. Relevant literature on bleeding was reviewed through a series of short lectures and intensive group discussion. Using existing evidence on bleeding and outcomes as well as clinical judgment, criteria for the assessment of bleeding were developed through expert consensus. This consensus statement divides bleeding-related data elements into three categories: essential, recommended, and optional. The ABC Group recommendations for collection and reporting of bleeding complications provide a framework for consistency in the collection of information on hemorrhagic complications in trials of ACS. Widespread adoption of the statement recommendations will facilitate understanding of the mechanisms of adverse outcomes after bleeding and comparisons of the relative safety of antithrombotic agents, as well as the interpretation of safety results from future studies.

  9. Treatment results in children with myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome in Saudi Arabia: A multicenter SAPHOS leukemia group study.

    PubMed

    Jastaniah, Wasil; Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Al Daama, Saad; Ballourah, Walid; Bayoumy, Mohammad; Al-Anzi, Faisal; Al Shareef, Omar; Abrar, Mohammed Burhan; Al Sudairy, Reem; Al Ghemlas, Ibrahim

    2017-07-01

    Despite the high incidence of Down syndrome (DS) in Arab countires, the incidence and outcomes of myeloid leukemia of DS (ML-DS) have not been studied. We evaluated 206 pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2012 and identified 31 (15%) ML-DS. The incidence of ML-DS was 48 per 100,000 compared to 0.6 per 100,000 for AML in non-DS children. Thus, patients with DS had 80-fold increased risk of ML-DS compared to AML in non-DS children. The median age at diagnosis was 1.8 years, male/female ratio was 1.2, majority (84%) of patients had FAB-M7 subtype, and the cytogenetic abnormalities were normal karyotype (constitutional trisomy 21) in 48%, additional trisomy in 23%, and other aberrations in 29%. Complete remission, cumulative incidences of relapse (CIR), toxic-death, and 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rates were 96.8%, 19.4%, 13.1%, and 67.7±8.4%; respectively. In the present study, multivariate analysis revealed favorable outcome (5-year EFS 86.7±8.8%) for patients with normal karyotype. The incidence and clinical characteristics of ML-DS in Saudi patients were comparable to other reports. However, there is a need to optimize risk stratification and treatment intensity to reduce CIR and toxic death rates to further improve outcomes of patients with ML-DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome: clinical analysis, outcome, and prognosis in 105 children. French-Speaking Group of Pediatric Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Faure, C; Goulet, O; Ategbo, S; Breton, A; Tounian, P; Ginies, J L; Roquelaure, B; Despres, C; Scaillon, M; Maurage, C; Paquot, I; Hermier, M; De Napoli, S; Dabadie, A; Huet, F; Baudon, J J; Larchet, M

    1999-05-01

    Our aim was to collect a large number of cases to characterize clinical presentation, outcome, and prognosis of chronic intestinal pseusoobstruction in children. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study that included children treated for chronic intestinal pseusoobstruction defined as recurrent episodes of intestinal obstruction with no mechanical obstruction, excluding Hirschsprung's disease. In all, 105 children, 57 boys and 48 girls, were studied, including five familial forms. Prenatal diagnosis was made in 18 patients. Eighty patients were less than 12 months old at onset; the disease began at birth for 37 patients. The most frequent signs were abdominal distension, vomiting, and constipation. Megacystis was noted in myopathies (7 cases), neuropathies (10 cases) and unclassified forms (13 cases). For all but three cases (two patients with CMV infection, one with Munchhausen-by-proxy syndrome), the associated diseases and disorders could not account for chronic intestinal pseusoobstruction as a secondary disorder. At least one full-thickness biopsy from the digestive tract was studied for 99 patients. The diagnosis recorded was visceral neuropathy in 58 cases, visceral myopathy in 17 cases, and uncertain or normal biopsy results in 24 cases. Seventy-eight children were fed intravenously, and only 18 were able to be fed orally throughout their illness. Seventy-one patients underwent surgery during their illness, and 217 surgical procedures, a mean of 3 per patient, were performed. Ostomy was the most performed procedure. Follow-up continued in 89 patients for 3 months to 16 years (mean 85 months). Forty-two patients were still fed by parenteral (39 patients) or enteral nutrition (3 patients) at the time of the study. Eleven patients died between the age of 1 month and 14 years 7 months.

  11. Prune belly syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat or help prevent urinary tract infections. Support Groups The following resources can provide more information on prune belly syndrome: Prune Belly Syndrome Network -- www.prunebelly.org National Organization for Rare Disorders -- ...

  12. Coping with the Usual Family Diet: Eating Behaviour and Food Choices of Children with Down's Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders or Cri du Chat Syndrome and Comparison Groups of Siblings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Margaret S. R.; Kyle, Rosalind; Smith, Suzanne; Laverty, Anne; Roberts, Sylvia; Eaton-Evans, Jill

    2003-01-01

    A study of 405 Irish children (ages 2-18) with Down syndrome, autism, and cri du chat syndrome, and 280 siblings found most had some level of self-feeding skills. Chewing problems were reported for some children, including siblings of children with Down syndrome and autism. Behavioral problems at meals were common. (Contains references.)…

  13. Pearson Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study from the Marrow Failure Study Group of A.I.E.O.P. (Associazione Italiana Emato-Oncologia Pediatrica).

    PubMed

    Farruggia, Piero; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Pinto, Rita M; Palmisani, Elena; Macaluso, Alessandra; Valvo, Laura Lo; Cantarini, Maria E; Tornesello, Assunta; Corti, Paola; Fioredda, Francesca; Varotto, Stefania; Martire, Baldo; Moroni, Isabella; Puccio, Giuseppe; Russo, Giovanna; Dufour, Carlo; Pillon, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Pearson syndrome (PS) is a very rare and often fatal multisystemic mitochondrial disorder involving the liver, kidney, pancreas, and hematopoietic and central nervous system. It is characterized principally by a transfusion-dependent anemia that usually improves over time, a tendency to develop severe infections, and a high mortality rate. We describe a group of 11 PS patients diagnosed in Italy in the period 1993-2014. The analysis of this reasonably sized cohort of patients contributes to the clinical profile of the disease and highlights a rough incidence of 1 case/million newborns. Furthermore, it seems that some biochemical parameters like increased serum alanine and urinary fumaric acid can help to address an early diagnosis.

  14. [Marital status and place of living as social determinants of vertebral pain syndrome and disturbance of life quality in women of older age groups.

    PubMed

    Orlyk, T V; Grygorieva, N V

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the role of the marital status and place of residence, as the social determinants of the development of vertebral pain syndrome and related disorders of life activity, the results of a survey of 148 postmenopausal women aged 50-69 years were analyzed. Respondents were divided into groups depending on their marital status (living in a family with husbands and other relatives, only with husbands or alone) and places of residence (in rural or urban areas). The results of this study suggest that family status and place of residence in women of older age groups do not directly influence on the back pain, however they contribute to impairment of vital functions associated with back pain, in particular, psychological state, general activity, working capacity, and also stipulate a higher frequency of requests for medical care and hospitalizations. In single women the level of disruption of daily activity is significantly higher, although the incidence of disability in doing household chores is significantly lower than in married women. Single women reliably seek medical help more often and are hospitalized throught back pain. It was also found the significant correlations between the place of residence and the frequency of health problems related to back pain, psychological and mood disorders, general activity, relationships with others, daily disability in work, impaired ability to move and the frequency of medical help seeking throught back pain. In conclusion, ite should be taken into account in planning of treatment and rehabilitation of women of older age groups with back pain.

  15. 'Exercise to me is a scary word': perceptions of fatigue, sleep dysfunction, and exercise in people with fibromyalgia syndrome-a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Russell, D; Álvarez Gallardo, I C; Wilson, I; Hughes, C M; Davison, G W; Sañudo, B; McVeigh, J G

    2018-03-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a common and complex chronic pain condition. Exercise is recommended in the management of the FMS; however, people with FMS often find exercise exacerbates their condition and causes overwhelming fatigue. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions of fatigue and sleep dysfunction, and exercise in people with FMS. Three, 60-90 min focus groups were conducted with people with FMS (n = 14). Participants were recruited from patient support groups who had experienced therapeutic exercise in the management of their condition. Focus groups were video and audio recorded and transcriptions analysed for thematic content by three independent evaluators. Fatigue, sleep dysfunction, and pain were universally reported by participants. The over-arching theme to emerge was a lack of understanding of the condition by others. A huge sense of loss was a major sub-theme and participants felt that they had fundamentally changed since the onset of FMS. Participants reported that they were unable to carry out their normal activities, including physical activity and exercise. The invisibility of FMS was associated with the lack of understanding by others, the sense of loss, and the impact of FMS. People with FMS perceive that there is a lack of understanding of the condition among health care professionals and the wider society. Those with FMS expressed a profound sense of loss of their former 'self'; part of this loss was the ability to engage in normal physical activity and exercise.

  16. The Effect of Interactions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of APOA1/APOC3 with Food Group Intakes on the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Daneshpour, Maryam S; Mottaghi, Azadeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of dietary food groups and genetic variants of APOA1/APOC3, relative to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) risk in adults. In this matched nested case-control study, 414 MetS subjects and 414 controls were selected from among participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a valid and reliable semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), APOA1 (rs670, -75G>A and rs5069, +83C>T/APOC3 rs5128 C3238>G) were genotyped by the conventional polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The mean (SD) of age was 40.7 (13) and 41.2 (13) years in male cases and controls versus 44.0 (11) and 44.0 (12) years in female case and controls. A significant interaction between intake quartiles of the sugar group and APOA1 combined group (GA+AA/CT+TT) SNPs was found; The ORs for these genotype carriers were (1, 0.44, 0.36, 0.23; P trend<0.001) in quartiles of intake, relative to other combined genotypes (P interaction=0.02). MetS risk appeared to be increased significantly in higher quartiles of sweet beverages and fish intakes in the GA+AA/CT+TT/CC genotypes of APOA1/APOC3 SNPs, compared to other genotypes (P interaction=0.01). The combined effect of genotypes of APOC3/APOA1 showed further decrease in MetS risk in higher quartiles of sugar group intakes (OR: 1, 0.24, 0.26, 0.14, P trend=0.001) relative to other combinations (P interaction=0.008). Results obtained demonstrate that some dietary food groups (sugar, fish, and sweet beverages) modulate the effect of APOA1/APOC3 SNPs in relation to MetS risk.

  17. Effects of subconjunctival administration of anti-high mobility group box 1 on dry eye in a mouse model of Sjӧgren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Hwan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Hyun Jeong; Ryu, Jin Suk; Kim, Yu Jeong; Oh, Joo Youn; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) acts as a damage associated molecular pattern molecule through the Toll-like receptor to promote autoreactive B cell activation, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of Sjӧgren's syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subconjunctival administration of anti-HMGB1 on dry eye in a mouse model of Sjӧgren's syndrome. Ten weeks-old NOD.B10.H2b mice were subconjunctivally injected with 0.02 to 2 μg of anti-HMGB1 antibodies or PBS twice a week for two consecutive weeks. Tear volume and corneal staining scores were measured and compared between before- and after-treatment. Goblet cell density was counted in PAS stained forniceal conjunctiva and inflammatory foci score (>50 cells/focus) was measured in extraorbital glands. Flow cytometry was performed to evaluate the changes in BrdU+ cells, IL-17-, IL-10-, or IFNγ-secreting cells, functional B cells, and IL-22 secreting innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) in cervical lymph nodes. The level of IL-22 in intraorbital glands was measured by ELISA. Injection of 2 μg or 0.02 μg anti-HMGB1 attenuated corneal epithelial erosions and increased tear secretion (p<0.05). Goblet cell density was increased in 0.2 μg and 2 μg anti-HMGB1-treated-mice with marginal significance. The inflammatory foci score, and the number of BrdU+ cells, IL-17-, IL-10-, IFNγ-secreting cells, and functional B cells did not significantly change following anti-HMGB1 treatment. Surprisingly, the percentage of ILC3s was significantly increased in the draining lymph nodes (p<0.05), and the expression of IL-22 was significantly increased in the intraorbital glands (p<0.05) after administration of 2 μg anti-HMGB1. This study shows that subconjunctival administration of anti-HMGB1 attenuates clinical manifestations of dry eye. The improvement of dry eye may involve an increase of ILC3s, rather than modulation of B or plasma cells, as shown using a mouse model of Sjӧgren's syndrome.

  18. Diagnostic standards for dopaminergic augmentation of restless legs syndrome: report from a World Association of Sleep Medicine-International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group consensus conference at the Max Planck Institute.

    PubMed

    García-Borreguero, Diego; Allen, Richard P; Kohnen, Ralf; Högl, Birgit; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Oertel, Wolfgang; Hening, Wayne A; Paulus, Walter; Rye, David; Walters, Arthur; Winkelmann, Juliane; Earley, Christopher J

    2007-08-01

    Augmentation of symptom severity is the main complication of dopaminergic treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). The current article reports on the considerations of augmentation that were made during a European Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (EURLSSG)-sponsored Consensus Conference in April 2006 at the Max Planck Institute (MPI) in Munich, Germany, the conclusions of which were endorsed by the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) and the World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM). The Consensus Conference sought to develop a better understanding of augmentation and generate a better operational definition for its clinical identification. Current concepts of the pathophysiology, clinical features, and therapy of RLS augmentation were evaluated by subgroups who presented a summary of their findings for general consideration and discussion. Recent data indicating sensitivity and specificity of augmentation features for identification of augmentation were also evaluated. The diagnostic criteria of augmentation developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conference in 2002 were reviewed in light of current data and theoretical understanding of augmentation. The diagnostic value and criteria for each of the accepted features of augmentation were considered by the group. A consensus was then developed for a revised statement of the diagnostic criteria for augmentation. Five major diagnostic features of augmentation were identified: usual time of RLS symptom onset each day, number of body parts with RLS symptoms, latency to symptoms at rest, severity of the symptoms when they occur, and effects of dopaminergic medication on symptoms. The quantitative data available relating the time of RLS onset and the presence of other features indicated optimal augmentation criteria of either a 4-h advance in usual starting time for RLS symptoms or a combination of the occurrence of other features. A paradoxical response to changes in medication dose also indicates

  19. Management of gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Mizuno, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Manabu; Terai, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are rare neoplasms, like all NETs. However, the incidence of GI-NETS has been increasing in recent years. Gastric NETs (G-NETs) and duodenal NETs (D-NETs) are the common types of upper GI-NETs based on tumor location. G-NETs are classified into three distinct subgroups: type I, II, and III. Type I G-NETs, which are the most common subtype (70%-80% of all G-NETs), are associated with chronic atrophic gastritis, including autoimmune gastritis and Helicobacter pylori associated atrophic gastritis. Type II G-NETs (5%-6%) are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1-ZES). Both type I and II G-NETs are related to hypergastrinemia, are small in size, occur in multiple numbers, and are generally benign. In contrast, type III G-NETs (10%-15%) are not associated with hypergastrinemia, are large-sized single tumors, and are usually malignant. Therefore, surgical resection and chemotherapy are generally necessary for type III G-NETs, while endoscopic resection and follow-up, which are acceptable for the treatment of most type I and II G-NETs, are only acceptable for small and well differentiated type III G-NETs. D-NETs include gastrinomas (50%-60%), somatostatin-producing tumors (15%), nonfunctional serotonin-containing tumors (20%), poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (< 3%), and gangliocytic paragangliomas (< 2%). Most D-NETs are located in the first or second part of the duodenum, with 20% occurring in the periampullary region. Therapy for D-NETs is based on tumor size, location, histological grade, stage, and tumor type. While endoscopic resection may be considered for small nonfunctional D-NETs (G1) located in the higher papilla region, surgical resection is necessary for most other D-NETs. However, there is no consensus regarding the ideal treatment of D-NETs. PMID:27570419

  20. MRI of normal and abnormal duodenum using Half-Fourier Single-Shot RARE and gadolinium-enhanced spoiled gradient echo sequences.

    PubMed

    Marcos, H B; Semelka, R C; Noone, T C; Woosley, J T; Lee, J K

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this research was two-fold: First, to describe the normal and abnormal MR appearances of the duodenum using combined Half-Fourier Acquisition Single Shot RARE (HASTE) and gadolinium-enhanced standard and fat suppressed spoiled gradient echo (SGE) sequences. The second objective was to assess the ability of these combined sequences to detect and characterize duodenal diseases. MR examinations were performed on fifty consecutive patients with no clinical history of duodenal diseases, who were 1) imaged with HASTE and gadolinium-enhanced standard and fat suppressed SGE sequences and 2) referred to MR examination for reasons other than duodenal diseases, and were reviewed retrospectively to determine the normal MR appearances of the duodenum. A second population of patients with abnormal duodenum who were imaged with the same MR sequences were included in the second part of this study. This population was composed of 20 consecutive patients with subsequently proven duodenal abnormalities, including: malrotation (2), diverticula (4), intussusception (1), sprue (1), polyps (2), neurofibroma (1), lymphoma (1), Zollinger Ellison syndrome (1), metastatic disease (1), Crohn's disease (1), and wall thickening and duodenitis (5). Normal measurements of the duodenum are described. Abnormalities of wall thickness and duodenal masses required combined HASTE and gadolinium-enhanced SGE images to evaluate well. Abnormalities of the bowel lumen (e.g., diverticula and intussusception), and developmental variants (e.g., malrotation), were sufficiently visualized on HASTE images alone. Bowel inflammation was best shown on gadolinium-enhanced fat suppressed SGE images. HASTE and gadolinium-enhanced fat suppressed SGE sequences are complementary techniques for the demonstration of normal and abnormal duodenum. The combined use of both sequences allows evaluation of different aspects of bowel diseases; abnormalities of position, lumen, and contents are well shown on HASTE

  1. Occupational contact allergy to omeprazole and ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Mozo, Inmaculada; Sanz-Gallen, Pere; Martí-Amengual, Gabriel

    2017-05-16

    Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibition and ranitidine is an H2 histamine receptor antagonist widely used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflex disease, peptic ulcer disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and as a protector of the gastric mucosae. We report a case of occupational contact allergy to omeprazole and ranitidine. A 48-year-old man, with no pre-existing history of atopy or lifestyle factors. He neither had any medical history of consumption of drugs such as ranitidine and omeprazole. He worked for 19 months in the pharmaceutical company that manufactured ranitidine base. He presented rash in the face and eczema on the dorsum of the hands with itching. The study by prick tests with ranitidine gave negative response. Patch testing with ranitidine base and ranitidine hydrochloride gave positive response. A month later, when the patient was asymptomatic he returned to the pharmaceutical company, being switched from this previous job to the reactor manufacturing omeprazole. A few days after that, he presented erythematous eruptions involving face and neck with itching. Prick tests, path tests and in vitro laboratories studies with omeprazole gave positives. In this case the patient presented hypersensitivity type I at omeprazole and hypersensitivity type IV at omeprazole and ranitidine. Our aportation indicates the importance of careful analysis of the occupational exposure histories of patients with the suspected type I or type IV hypersensitivity to allergens, to determine whether work exposure is the cause. Med Pr 2017;68(3):433-435. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Beyond the GIST: Mesenchymal Tumors of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Menias, Christine O.; Gaballah, Ayman H.; Shroff, Stuti; Taggart, Melissa W.; Garg, Naveen; Elsayes, Khaled M.

    2013-01-01

    Intramural gastric masses arise in the wall of the stomach (generally within the submucosa or muscularis propria), often with intact overlying mucosa. These tumors are typically mesenchymal in origin and have overlapping radiologic appearances. A combination of features such as location, attenuation, enhancement, and growth pattern may suggest one diagnosis over another. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) account for the majority of intramural tumors and can vary widely in appearance, from small intraluminal lesions to exophytic masses that protrude into the peritoneal cavity, commonly with areas of hemorrhage or necrosis. A well-circumscribed mass measuring −70 to −120 HU is a lipoma. Leiomyomas usually manifest as low-attenuation masses at the gastric cardia. Homogeneous attenuation is a noteworthy characteristic of schwannomas, particularly for larger lesions that might otherwise be mistaken for GISTs. A hypervascular mass in the antrum is a common manifestation of glomus tumors. Hemangiomas are also hypervascular but often manifest in childhood. Inflammatory fibroid polyps usually arise as a polypoid mass in the antrum. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are infiltrative neoplasms with a propensity for local recurrence. Plexiform fibromyxomas are rare, usually antral tumors. Carcinoid tumors are epithelial in origin, but often submucosal in location, and therefore should be distinguished from other intramural lesions. Multiple carcinoid tumors are associated with hypergastrinemia, either in the setting of chronic atrophic gastritis or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Sporadic solitary carcinoid tumors not associated with hypergastrinemia have a higher rate of metastasis. Histopathologic analysis, including immunohistochemistry, is usually required for diagnosis of intramural masses. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:24108557

  3. Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the German Hodgkin Study Group.

    PubMed

    Eichenauer, Dennis A; Thielen, Indra; Haverkamp, Heinz; Franklin, Jeremy; Behringer, Karolin; Halbsguth, Teresa; Klimm, Beate; Diehl, Volker; Sasse, Stephanie; Rothe, Achim; Fuchs, Michael; Böll, Boris; von Tresckow, Bastian; Borchmann, Peter; Engert, Andreas

    2014-03-13

    Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes (t-AML/MDS) represent severe late effects in patients treated for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Because more recent data are scarce, we retrospectively analyzed incidence, outcome, and risk factors for the development of t-AML/MDS after HL. A total of 11,952 patients treated for newly diagnosed HL within German Hodgkin Study Group trials between 1993 and 2009 were considered. At a median follow-up of 72 months, t-AML/MDS was diagnosed in 106/11,952 patients (0.9%). Median time from HL treatment to t-AML/MDS was 31 months. The median age of patients with t-AML/MDS was higher than in the whole patient group (43 vs 34 years, P < .0001). Patients who received 4 or more cycles of BEACOPP(escalated) had an increased risk to develop t-AML/MDS when compared with patients treated with less than 4 cycles of BEACOPP(escalated) or no BEACOPP chemotherapy (1.7% vs 0.7% vs 0.3%, P < .0001). The median overall survival (OS) for all t-AML/MDS patients was 7.2 months. However, t-AML/MDS patients proceeding to allogeneic stem cell transplantation had a significantly better outcome with a median OS not reached after a median follow-up of 41 months (P < .001).

  4. Asperger syndrome and anxiety disorders (PAsSA) treatment trial: a study protocol of a pilot, multicentre, single-blind, randomised crossover trial of group cognitive behavioural therapy

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Peter E; Murphy, Glynis H; Wilson, Edward; Shepstone, Lee; Fowler, David; Heavens, David; Malovic, Aida; Russell, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A number of studies have established that children, adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) have significant problems with anxiety. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for anxiety in a variety of clinical populations. There is a growing interest in exploring the effectiveness of CBT for people with AS who have mental health problems, but currently there are no known clinical trials involving adults with AS or HFA. Studies with children who have AS have reported some success. The current study aims to examine whether modified group CBT for clinically significant anxiety in an AS population is likely to be efficacious. Methods and analysis This study is a randomised, single-blind crossover trial. At least 36 individuals will be recruited and randomised into a treatment arm or a waiting-list control arm. During treatment, individuals will receive 3 sessions of individual CBT, followed by 21 sessions of group CBT. Primary outcome measures focus on anxiety. Secondary outcome measures focus on everyday social and psychiatric functioning, additional measures of anxiety and fear, depression, health-related quality of life and treatment cost. Assessments will be administered at pregroup and postgroup and at follow-up by researchers who are blinded to group allocation. The trial aims to find out whether or not psychological treatments for anxiety can be adapted and used to successfully treat the anxiety experienced by people with AS. Furthermore, we aim to determine whether this intervention represents good value for money. Ethics and dissemination The trial received a favourable ethical opinion from a National Health Service (NHS) Research Ethics Committee. All participants provided written informed consent. Findings will be shared with all trial participants, and the general public, as well as the scientific community. Trial Registration ISRCTN 30265294 (DOI: 10.1186/ISRCTN30265294), UKCRN

  5. Randomized controlled GH trial: effects on anthropometry, body composition and body proportions in a large group of children with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Festen, Dederieke A M; de Lind van Wijngaarden, Roderick; van Eekelen, Marielle; Otten, Barto J; Wit, Jan M; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2008-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) children have impaired growth, and abnormal body composition. Previous 1-year controlled studies showed improvement of height and body composition during GH-treatment. To evaluate growth, body composition and body proportions during GH-treatment in a large group of PWS children. We performed a randomized controlled GH trial in 91 prepubertal PWS children (42 infants, 49 children, aged 3-14 years). After stratification for age, infants were randomized to GH-treatment (GH-group; 1 mg/m(2)/day; n = 20), or no treatment (control group; n = 22) for 1 year. In the second year all infants were treated with GH. After stratification for BMI, children > 3 years of age were randomized to GH-treatment (GH-group; 1 mg/m(2)/day; n = 27) or no treatment (control group; n = 22) for 2 years. Anthropometric parameters were assessed once in every 3 months. Body composition was measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Median (interquartile range, iqr) height SDS increased during 2 years of GH in infants from -2.3 (-2.8 to -0.7) to -0.4 (-1.1-0.0) and in prepubertal children from -2.0 (-3.1 to -1.7) to -0.6 (-1.1 to -0.1). In non-GH-treated children height SDS did not increase. Head circumference completely normalized during 1 and 2 years of GH in infants and children, respectively. Body fat percentage and body proportions improved in GH-treated children, but did not completely normalize. Lean body mass SDS improved compared to the control group. Serum IGF-I increased to levels above the normal range in most GH-treated children. Our randomized study shows that GH-treatment in PWS children significantly improves height, BMI, head circumference, body composition and body proportions. PWS children are highly sensitive to GH, suggesting that monitoring of serum IGF-I is indicated.

  6. The Effect of Interactions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of APOA1/APOC3 with Food Group Intakes on the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Daneshpour, Maryam S.; Mottaghi, Azadeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of dietary food groups and genetic variants of APOA1/APOC3, relative to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) risk in adults. Methods: In this matched nested case-control study, 414 MetS subjects and 414 controls were selected from among participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a valid and reliable semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), APOA1 (rs670, −75G>A and rs5069, +83C>T/APOC3 rs5128 C3238>G) were genotyped by the conventional polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: The mean (SD) of age was 40.7 (13) and 41.2 (13) years in male cases and controls versus 44.0 (11) and 44.0 (12) years in female case and controls. A significant interaction between intake quartiles of the sugar group and APOA1 combined group (GA+AA/CT+TT) SNPs was found; The ORs for these genotype carriers were (1, 0.44, 0.36, 0.23; P trend<0.001) in quartiles of intake, relative to other combined genotypes (P interaction=0.02). MetS risk appeared to be increased significantly in higher quartiles of sweet beverages and fish intakes in the GA+AA/CT+TT/CC genotypes of APOA1/APOC3 SNPs, compared to other genotypes (P interaction=0.01). The combined effect of genotypes of APOC3/APOA1 showed further decrease in MetS risk in higher quartiles of sugar group intakes (OR: 1, 0.24, 0.26, 0.14, P trend=0.001) relative to other combinations (P interaction=0.008). Conclusion: Results obtained demonstrate that some dietary food groups (sugar, fish, and sweet beverages) modulate the effect of APOA1/APOC3 SNPs in relation to MetS risk. PMID:28496949

  7. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Standard Reporting and Evaluation Guidelines: Results of a National Institutes of Health Working Group.

    PubMed

    Maverakis, Emanual; Wang, Elizabeth A; Shinkai, Kanade; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Margolis, David J; Avigan, Mark; Chung, Wen-Hung; Goldman, Jennifer; La Grenade, Lois; Pirmohamed, Munir; Shear, Neil H; Tassaeeyakul, Wichittra; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Rerkpattanapipat, Ticha; Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Yasuda, Sally Usdin; Sharon, Victoria R; Sukhov, Andrea; Micheletti, Robert; Struewing, Jeff; French, Lars E; Cheng, Michelle Y

    2017-06-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) are rare, acute, life-threatening dermatologic disorders involving the skin and mucous membranes. Research into these conditions is hampered by a lack of standardization of case reporting and data collection. To establish a standardized case report form to facilitate comparisons and maintain data quality based on an international panel of SJS/TEN experts who performed a Delphi consensus-building exercise. The elements presented for committee scrutiny were adapted from previous case report forms and from PubMed literature searches of highly cited manuscripts pertaining to SJS/TEN. The expert opinions and experience of the members of the consensus group were included in the discussion. Overall, 21 out of 29 experts who were invited to participate in the online Delphi exercise agreed to participate. Surveys at each stage were administered via an online survery software tool. For the first 2 Delphi rounds, results were analyzed using the Interpercentile Range Adjusted for Symmetry method and statements that passed consensus formulated a new case report form. For the third Delphi round, the case report form was presented to the committee, who agreed that it was "appropriate and useful" for documenting cases of SJS/TEN, making it more reliable and valuable for future research endeavors. With the consensus of international experts, a case report form for SJS/TEN has been created to help standardize the collection of patient information in future studies and the documentation of individual cases.

  8. Differences of the oral colonization by Streptococcus of the mutans group in children and adolescents with Down syndrome, mental retardation and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Linossier, Alfredo G; Valenzuela, Carlos Y; Toledo, Héctor

    2008-09-01

    to compare the concentration and serotype of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of Down syndrome (DS), mental retarded (MR) and healthy control (C) individuals of the Región Metropolitana Sur of Santiago of Chile. Hundred and seventy nine male and females children and adolescents, aged between 5 to 19 years, 59 DS, 60 MR and 60 C were studied. Saliva samples were cultured in TYCSB agar for quantification, biochemical and serological tests. ANOVA and Chi-square for homogeneity tests were applied. C, DS and MR presented Streptococcus mutans (serotypes c, e, f) and Streptococcus sobrinus (d, g, h), but only among DS and MR non-typifiable (No-tip) Streptococcus mutans were found. MR and DS showed higher bacteria concentration scores than C (P=0.001). Serotypes showed a significant heterogeneity of concentration scores: d, g, h showed the highest and No-tip the lowest one (P = 0.037). No-tip bacteria were absent in C and present in MR and DS; this result indicates different immune and ecological conditions among these human groups. The score of Streptococcus mutans in saliva was higher in DS and MR than in C.

  9. Case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by rapidly progressive group A hemolytic streptococcal infection during postoperative chemotherapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Nogami, Yuya; Tsuji, Kousuke; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Katakura, Satomi; Kisu, Iori; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe infectious disease caused by group A hemolytic streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). This condition is a serious disease that involves rapidly progressive septic shock. We experienced a case of STSS caused by primary peritonitis during treatment with paclitaxel and cisplatin (TP therapy) as postoperative chemotherapy for cervical cancer. STSS mostly develops after extremity pain, but initial influenza-like symptoms of fever, chill, myalgia and gastrointestinal symptoms may also occur. TP therapy is used to treat many cancers, including gynecological cancer, but may cause adverse reactions of neuropathy and nephrotoxicity and sometimes fever, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain and general malaise. The case reported here indicates that development of STSS can be delayed after chemotherapy and that primary STSS symptoms may be overlooked because they may be viewed as adverse reactions to chemotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of STSS during chemotherapy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Developmental origins of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a case control study comparing birth weight in women with PCOS and control group.

    PubMed

    Sadrzadeh, Sheda; Painter, Rebecca C; Lambalk, Cornelis B

    2016-10-01

    Evidence from various epidemiological studies and experimental animal studies has linked adverse intrauterine circumstances with health problems in adult life. This field of investigation is known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Studies investigating the relation between developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adulthood and birth weight have yielded inconsistent results: PCOS is described more often in women with low birth weight and high birth weight, while other studies have failed to establish any relation. In this retrospective case-control study, we evaluated whether women diagnosed with PCOS had lower birth weight compared to women with a regular menstrual cycle (controls). Binary logistic regression models were used to analyze the data and correct for known confounders. About 65 women with PCOS and 96 controls were recruited for this purpose. The average birth weight of PCOS women (3357 g) did not differ from the average birth weight of controls (3409 g). Mean age at menarche differed significantly between groups, 13.7  years and 12.8  years (p = 0.006), respectively, for PCOS women and controls. In conclusion, we could not confirm the effect of adverse intrauterine conditions, reflected in birth weight, on developing PCOS.

  11. Duane Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... is Duane Syndrome? Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), is a congenital and non-progressive ... Is Duane syndrome congenital (present from birth)? Duane retraction syndrome is present from birth, even if it ...

  12. A content analysis of cognitive and affective uses of patient support groups for rare and uncommon vascular diseases: comparisons of may thurner, thoracic outlet, and superior mesenteric artery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kimberly K

    2015-01-01

    Rare disease patients are the predominant group of patients who are now connecting online to patient support groups, yet research on their uses of support groups has received little attention. This is a content analysis of three vascular diseases of differing degrees of rarity. Wall posts from Facebook patient support groups for May Thurner syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, and superior mesenteric artery syndrome were analyzed over a period of two years. Using Uses and Gratifications as the theoretical framework, the study purpose was to assess how variations in health condition and rarity of condition affect online support group user needs. Results indicated common main cognitive and affective uses across conditions, indicating a consistent pattern of needs communicated by all patients. However, there were nuanced differences in subcategories of cognitive and affective uses between the most and least rare disorders, which inform areas for tailored support mechanisms. Additionally, these vascular patients used their respective support groups primarily for cognitive reasons, especially for the rarest conditions, which informs of basic medical informational needs these patients face related to tests, treatment, surgery, and diagnoses.

  13. To compare the efficacy of two kinds of Zhizhu pills in the treatment of functional dyspepsia of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome:a randomized group sequential comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, functional dyspepsia (FD) can be divided into different syndromes according to different clinical symptoms and signs, and the most common one is spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome that can be treated by Chinese traditional patent medicine ---- two kinds of Zhizhu pills, between which the primary difference in ingredients is that one contains immature orange fruit of Citrus aurantium L.(IFCA) and the other contains that of Citrus sinensis Osbeck (IFCS). The trial's objective was to compare the efficacy of two kinds of Zhizhu pills on symptom changes in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome. Methods A randomized, group sequential, double-blinded, multicenter trial was conducted in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome at 3 hospitals in Beijing between June 2003 and May 2005. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups (IFCA group and IFCS group) in a 1:1 ratio, and respectively took one of the two kinds of Zhizhu pills orally, 6 g each time, 3 times a day, for 4 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed with use of a group sequential method, the triangular test (TT). Results A total of 163 patients were randomized, and 3 patients were excluded from analysis because of early dropouts, leaving 160 patients (IFCA group: n = 82; IFCS group: n = 78) for statistical analysis. Three interim analyses were done after 62, 116, and 160 patients had completed their 4-week treatment, respectively. At the third interim analysis, the sample path crossed the upper boundary and the trial was stopped, the cure-markedly effective rates were 45% for IFCS group and 67% for IFCA group, respectively, the one-sided p-value was 0.0036, the median unbiased estimate of the odds ratio (OR) for the benefit of IFCA relative to IFCS was 2.91 with 95%CI: 1.40 to 6.06. No adverse events were observed in the two groups. Conclusions Zhizhu pills containing IFCA was superior

  14. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of a Lancefield group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) causes invasive streptococcal infections, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), as does Lancefield group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). We sequenced the entire genome of SDSE strain GGS_124 isolated from a patient with STSS. Results We found that GGS_124 consisted of a circular genome of 2,106,340 bp. Comparative analyses among bacterial genomes indicated that GGS_124 was most closely related to GAS. GGS_124 and GAS, but not other streptococci, shared a number of virulence factor genes, including genes encoding streptolysin O, NADase, and streptokinase A, distantly related to SIC (DRS), suggesting the importance of these factors in the development of invasive disease. GGS_124 contained 3 prophages, with one containing a virulence factor gene for streptodornase. All 3 prophages were significantly similar to GAS prophages that carry virulence factor genes, indicating that these prophages had transferred these genes between pathogens. SDSE was found to contain a gene encoding a superantigen, streptococcal exotoxin type G, but lacked several genes present in GAS that encode virulence factors, such as other superantigens, cysteine protease speB, and hyaluronan synthase operon hasABC. Similar to GGS_124, the SDSE strains contained larger numbers of clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) spacers than did GAS, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer via streptococcal phages between SDSE and GAS is somewhat restricted, although they share phage species. Conclusion Genome wide comparisons of SDSE with GAS indicate that SDSE is closely and quantitatively related to GAS. SDSE, however, lacks several virulence factors of GAS, including superantigens, SPE-B and the hasABC operon. CRISPR spacers may limit the horizontal transfer of phage encoded GAS virulence genes into SDSE. These findings may provide clues for dissecting the pathological roles of the virulence factors

  15. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of a Lancefield group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS).

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yumi; Okumura, Kayo; Murayama, Somay Yamagata; Yagi, Junji; Ubukata, Kimiko; Kirikae, Teruo; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru

    2011-01-11

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) causes invasive streptococcal infections, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), as does Lancefield group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). We sequenced the entire genome of SDSE strain GGS_124 isolated from a patient with STSS. We found that GGS_124 consisted of a circular genome of 2,106,340 bp. Comparative analyses among bacterial genomes indicated that GGS_124 was most closely related to GAS. GGS_124 and GAS, but not other streptococci, shared a number of virulence factor genes, including genes encoding streptolysin O, NADase, and streptokinase A, distantly related to SIC (DRS), suggesting the importance of these factors in the development of invasive disease. GGS_124 contained 3 prophages, with one containing a virulence factor gene for streptodornase. All 3 prophages were significantly similar to GAS prophages that carry virulence factor genes, indicating that these prophages had transferred these genes between pathogens. SDSE was found to contain a gene encoding a superantigen, streptococcal exotoxin type G, but lacked several genes present in GAS that encode virulence factors, such as other superantigens, cysteine protease speB, and hyaluronan synthase operon hasABC. Similar to GGS_124, the SDSE strains contained larger numbers of clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) spacers than did GAS, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer via streptococcal phages between SDSE and GAS is somewhat restricted, although they share phage species. Genome wide comparisons of SDSE with GAS indicate that SDSE is closely and quantitatively related to GAS. SDSE, however, lacks several virulence factors of GAS, including superantigens, SPE-B and the hasABC operon. CRISPR spacers may limit the horizontal transfer of phage encoded GAS virulence genes into SDSE. These findings may provide clues for dissecting the pathological roles of the virulence factors in SDSE and GAS that cause

  16. Combined Microsatellite Instability, MLH1 Methylation Analysis, and Immunohistochemistry for Lynch Syndrome Screening in Endometrial Cancers From GOG210: An NRG Oncology and Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Paul J; Billingsley, Caroline C; Lankes, Heather A; Ali, Shamshad; Cohn, David E; Broaddus, Russell J; Ramirez, Nilsa; Pritchard, Colin C; Hampel, Heather; Chassen, Alexis S; Simmons, Luke V; Schmidt, Amy P; Gao, Feng; Brinton, Louise A; Backes, Floor; Landrum, Lisa M; Geller, Melissa A; DiSilvestro, Paul A; Pearl, Michael L; Lele, Shashikant B; Powell, Matthew A; Zaino, Richard J; Mutch, David

    2015-12-20

    The best screening practice for Lynch syndrome (LS) in endometrial cancer (EC) remains unknown. We sought to determine whether tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) typing along with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and MLH1 methylation analysis can help identify women with LS. ECs from GOG210 patients were assessed for MSI, MLH1 methylation, and mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression. Each tumor was classified as having normal MMR, defective MMR associated with MLH1 methylation, or probable MMR mutation (ie, defective MMR but no methylation). Cancer family history and demographic and clinical features were compared for the three groups. Lynch mutation testing was performed for a subset of women. Analysis of 1,002 ECs suggested possible MMR mutation in 11.8% of tumors. The number of patients with a family history suggestive of LS was highest among women whose tumors were classified as probable MMR mutation (P = .001). Lynch mutations were identified in 41% of patient cases classified as probable mutation (21 of 51 tested). One of the MSH6 Lynch mutations was identified in a patient whose tumor had intact MSH6 expression. Age at diagnosis was younger for mutation carriers than noncarriers (54.3 v 62.3 years; P < .01), with five carriers diagnosed at age > 60 years. Combined MSI, methylation, and IHC analysis may prove useful in Lynch screening in EC. Twenty-four percent of mutation carriers presented with ECs at age > 60 years, and one carrier had an MSI-positive tumor with no IHC defect. Restricting Lynch testing to women diagnosed at age < 60 years or to women with IHC defects could result in missing a substantial fraction of genetic disease. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. Combined Microsatellite Instability, MLH1 Methylation Analysis, and Immunohistochemistry for Lynch Syndrome Screening in Endometrial Cancers From GOG210: An NRG Oncology and Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, Paul J.; Billingsley, Caroline C.; Lankes, Heather A.; Ali, Shamshad; Cohn, David E.; Broaddus, Russell J.; Ramirez, Nilsa; Pritchard, Colin C.; Hampel, Heather; Chassen, Alexis S.; Simmons, Luke V.; Schmidt, Amy P.; Gao, Feng; Brinton, Louise A.; Backes, Floor; Landrum, Lisa M.; Geller, Melissa A.; DiSilvestro, Paul A.; Pearl, Michael L.; Lele, Shashikant B.; Powell, Matthew A.; Zaino, Richard J.; Mutch, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The best screening practice for Lynch syndrome (LS) in endometrial cancer (EC) remains unknown. We sought to determine whether tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) typing along with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and MLH1 methylation analysis can help identify women with LS. Patients and Methods ECs from GOG210 patients were assessed for MSI, MLH1 methylation, and mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression. Each tumor was classified as having normal MMR, defective MMR associated with MLH1 methylation, or probable MMR mutation (ie, defective MMR but no methylation). Cancer family history and demographic and clinical features were compared for the three groups. Lynch mutation testing was performed for a subset of women. Results Analysis of 1,002 ECs suggested possible MMR mutation in 11.8% of tumors. The number of patients with a family history suggestive of LS was highest among women whose tumors were classified as probable MMR mutation (P = .001). Lynch mutations were identified in 41% of patient cases classified as probable mutation (21 of 51 tested). One of the MSH6 Lynch mutations was identified in a patient whose tumor had intact MSH6 expression. Age at diagnosis was younger for mutation carriers than noncarriers (54.3 v 62.3 years; P < .01), with five carriers diagnosed at age > 60 years. Conclusion Combined MSI, methylation, and IHC analysis may prove useful in Lynch screening in EC. Twenty-four percent of mutation carriers presented with ECs at age > 60 years, and one carrier had an MSI-positive tumor with no IHC defect. Restricting Lynch testing to women diagnosed at age < 60 years or to women with IHC defects could result in missing a substantial fraction of genetic disease. PMID:26552419

  18. A randomized, open-label, standard controlled, parallel group study of efficacy and safety of baclofen, and chlordiazepoxide in uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Girish, K; Vikram Reddy, K; Pandit, Lakshmi V; Pundarikaksha, H P; Vijendra, R; Vasundara, K; Manjunatha, R; Nagraj, Moulya; Shruthi, R

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a distressing condition, generally controlled by benzodiazepines (BZD's). Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-B (GABAB) agonist, has also shown promising results in controlling AWS. As there are few studies comparing the efficacy and tolerability of chlordiazepoxide with baclofen, the present study was taken up. The objective of this study was to compare efficacy and tolerability of baclofen with chlordiazepoxide in uncomplicated AWS. Sixty subjects with uncomplicated AWS were randomized into two groups of 30 each, to receive baclofen (30 mg) or chlordiazepoxide (75 mg) in decremented fixed dose regime for 9 days. Clinical efficacy was assessed by Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol-Revised Scale (CIWA-Ar) and tolerability by the nature and severity of adverse events. Lorazepam was used as rescue medication. Secondary efficacy parameters were Clinical Global Impression scores, symptom-free days, and subject satisfaction as assessed by visual analog scale. This study was registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (CTRI/2013/04/003588), also subsequently registered with WHO's ICTRP clinical trial portal. Both baclofen and chlordiazepoxide showed a consistent reduction in the total CIWA-Ar scores. However, chlordiazepoxide showed a faster and a more effective control of anxiety and agitation requiring lesser lorazepam supplementation, and also showed a better subject satisfaction compared to baclofen. Both the drugs showed good tolerability with mild self-limiting adverse events. The present study demonstrates that baclofen is not as good as chlordiazepoxide in the treatment of uncomplicated AWS. However, baclofen might be considered as an alternative. Copyright © 2016 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Heritage characteristics reported by a group of African-Americans who exhibit the pigment dispersion syndrome: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D K; Ho, L A; Beedle, N L; Flynn, F M; Gable, E M

    2000-11-01

    To investigate the racial heritage of a group of African-Americans who exhibit the pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS). Ten unrelated African-American PDS patients (age range 13-59) from a primary eye care population in Chicago, Illinois, USA, were interviewed to determine their racial heritage. Since Caucasian and Native American heritage were commonly reported, 101 unaffected African-American control subjects (age range 18-55) were also interviewed to determine the reported frequency of these specific racial heritage characteristics. Some degree of Caucasian heritage was reported by 100% of the PDS subjects and by 46.5% of controls. Native American heritage was reported by 90% of the PDS subjects and by 71.3% of controls. Based on these data, the PDS subjects were significantly more likely to report Caucasian heritage (Fisher's exact test, P=0.001) but they were not significantly more likely to report Native American heritage (P=0.282). In addition, the PDS subjects were significantly more likely to report Caucasian heritage from both parents (P=0.024) and more likely to report a combination of both Caucasian and Native American heritage (P=0.0006) than corresponding controls. In general, the PDS subjects had 'light' or 'medium' complexions. Results from this analysis are consistent with the hypothesis that non-African heritage, particularly Caucasian, is likely to be prevalent in the background of African-Americans who exhibit PDS. It is suggested that non-African heritage may not only be important for the transference of PDS causing genes, but it may also influence factors such as degree of iris pigmentation and rigidity which could influence iris contour and the subsequent expression of PDS in those who are genetically predisposed. Further investigation is needed to study the factors that influence the expression and severity of PDS among African-Americans, a population which traditionally has been considered to be rarely affected by this condition.

  20. LEOPARD syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple lentigines syndrome; Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines ... Genetics Home Reference -- ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/noonan-syndrome-with-multiple-lentigines National Organization for Rare Disorders -- ...

  1. Cushing syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hypercortisolism; Cortisol excess; Glucocorticoid excess - Cushing syndrome ... The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is taking too much ... Cushing syndrome . Prednisone, dexamethasone, and prednisolone ...

  2. Erythropoietin plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. Identification of a subgroup of responders. The Spanish Erythropathology Group.

    PubMed

    Remacha, A F; Arrizabalaga, B; Villegas, A; Manteiga, R; Calvo, T; Julià, A; Fernández Fuertes, I; González, F A; Font, L; Juncà, J; del Arco, A; Malcorra, J J; Equiza, E P; de Mendiguren, B P; Romero, M

    1999-12-01

    Anemia leading to transfusion is probably the most important problem in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEpo) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) have been used to treat patients with anemia of MDS, but fewer than 50% respond. The aim of this work was to evaluate the benefit of rHuEpo +/- G-CSF treatment and to isolate the response predictive variables in a group of selected patients with MDS. A non-randomized multicenter trial was carried out in 32 patients with MDS. The inclusion criteria were age >= 18 years, refractory anemia (RA) or refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts, Hb <= 100 g/L or receiving transfusions and serum erythropoietin <= 250 U/L. These patients were treated with subcutaneous rHuEpo (300 U/kg) three times a week for 8 weeks. In the case of partial response (PR) or no response (NR) subcutaneosly administered G-CSF (1 microg/kg) three times a week was added to the rHuEpo for 8 more weeks. If the patient achieved complete response (CR) or PR in the second phase, he was included in a follow-up phase of 24 weeks in which the dose of growth factors was tapered down. Several variables, including the score published by the Scandinavian-American group, were used as possible predictive variables. An erythroid response was observed in 16 patients (50%); in 12 it was a CR and in 4 it was a PR. During the period of rHuEpo administration, 7 CR and 4 PR (34.4%) were documented. Of the 14 patients in whom G-CSF was added to rHuEpo, 7 (50%) responded (3 CR and 4 PR). No major side-effects associated with growth factors were observed. The multivariate analysis showed that of the different variables evaluated only the Scandinavian-American response score was significant with a relative probability of response of 11.8 (95% confident intervals: 2.5-53) when this score was > +1 (77% of cases responded). In contrast, when this score was <= 1 only 15 % of the cases responded. Use of the Scandinavian

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Winchester syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... because Winchester syndrome and MONA are caused by mutations in different genes, they are now thought to ... groups? Genetic Changes Winchester syndrome is caused by mutations in the MMP14 gene (also known as MT1- ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Tietz syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... groups? Genetic Changes Tietz syndrome is caused by mutations in the MITF gene. This gene provides instructions ... development of the retinal pigment epithelium. MITF gene mutations that cause Tietz syndrome either delete or change ...

  5. Cardiac rehabilitation following an acute coronary syndrome: Trends in referral, predictors and mortality outcome in a multicenter national registry between years 2006-2013: Report from the Working Group on Cardiac Rehabilitation, the Israeli Heart Society.

    PubMed

    Chernomordik, Fernando; Sabbag, Avi; Tzur, Boaz; Kopel, Eran; Goldkorn, Ronen; Matetzky, Shlomi; Goldenberg, Ilan; Shlomo, Nir; Klempfner, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background Utilization of cardiac rehabilitation is suboptimal. The aim of the study was to assess referral trends over the past decade, to identify predictors for referral to a cardiac rehabilitation program, and to evaluate the association with one-year mortality in a large national registry of acute coronary syndrome patients. Design and methods Data were extracted from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey national surveys between 2006-2013. A total of 6551 patients discharged with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome were included. Results Referral to cardiac rehabilitation following an acute coronary syndrome increased from 38% in 2006 to 57% in 2013 ( p for trend < 0.001). Multivariate modeling identified the following independent predictors for non-referral: 2006 survey, older age, female sex, past stroke, heart or renal failure, prior myocardial infarction, minority group, and lack of in-hospital cardiac rehabilitation center (all p < 0.01). Kaplan-Meier survival analyses showed one-year survival rates of 97% vs 92% in patients referred for cardiac rehabilitation as compared to those not referred (log-rank p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that referral for cardiac rehabilitation was associated with a 27% mortality risk reduction at one-year follow-up ( p = 0.03). Consistently, a 32% lower one-year mortality risk was evident in a propensity score matched group of 3340 patients (95% confidence interval 0.48-0.95, p = 0.02). Conclusions Over the past decade there was a significant increase in cardiac rehabilitation referral following an acute coronary syndrome. However, cardiac rehabilitation is still under-utilized in important high-risk subsets of this population. Patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation have a lower adjusted mortality risk.

  6. Variations in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents according to different criteria used for diagnosis: which definition should be chosen for this age group?

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Gloria M; Bedoya, Gabriel; Estrada, Alejandro; Patiño, Fredy A; Muñoz, Angelica M; Velásquez, Claudia M

    2014-05-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents, there is no consensus for its diagnosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents by different definitions, evaluate their concordance, and suggest which definition to apply in this population. A total of 851 adolescents between 10 and 18 years of age were evaluated. Anthropometric (weight, height, waist circumference), biochemical (glucose, lipid profile), and blood pressure data were taken. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was determined by the definitions of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and four published studies by Cook et al., de Ferranti et al., Agudelo et al., and Ford et al. Concordance was determined according to the kappa index. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 0.9%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 10.5%, and 11.4%, according to the IDF, Cook et al., Ford et al., Agudelo et al., and de Ferranti et al. definitions, respectively. The most prevalent components were hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas the least prevalent components were abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia. The highest concordance was found between the definitions by Cook et al. and Ford et al. (kappa=0.92), whereas the greatest discordance was between the de Ferranti et al. and IDF definitions (kappa=0.14). Metabolic syndrome and its components were conditions present in the adolescents of this study. In this population, with a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia, the recommendation to diagnose metabolic syndrome would be that used by Ford et al.

  7. Fanconi syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    De Toni-Fanconi syndrome ... Fanconi syndrome can be caused by faulty genes, or it may result later in life due to kidney damage. Sometimes the cause of Fanconi syndrome is unknown. Common causes of Fanconi syndrome in ...

  8. A Comparison between Older Persons with Down Syndrome and a Control Group: Clinical Characteristics, Functional Status and Sensori-Motor Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Eli; Kessel, Shlomo; Merrick, Joav; Bar-Chad, Shmuel

    2004-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy within the general population has resulted in an increasing number of elderly adults with intellectual disability, and this is reflected in the increased life expectancy in persons with Down syndrome, currently about 56 years. The aim of this study was to study the clinical characteristics, the functional status and…

  9. Group Training in Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills for Workplace Adaptation of Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study…

  10. Taking Each Day as It Comes: Staff Experiences of Supporting People with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease in Group Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacono, T.; Bigby, C.; Carling-Jenkins, R.; Torr, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disability staff are being increasingly required to support adults with Down syndrome who develop Alzheimer's disease. They have little understanding of the nature of care required, and may lack input from aged care and dementia services, which lack knowledge of intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to report on the…

  11. Central sensitivity syndromes: a new paradigm and group nosology for fibromyalgia and overlapping conditions, and the related issue of disease versus illness.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Muhammad B

    2008-06-01

    To discuss the current terminologies used for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and related overlapping conditions, to examine if central sensitivity syndromes (CSS) is the appropriate nosology for these disorders, and to explore the issue of disease versus illness. A literature search was performed through PubMed, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect using a number of keywords, eg, functional somatic syndromes, somatoform disorders, medically unexplained symptoms, organic and nonorganic, and diseases and illness. Relevant articles were then reviewed and representative ones cited. Terminologies currently used for CSS conditions predominantly represent a psychosocial construct and are inappropriate. On the other hand, CSS seems to be the logical nosology based on a biopsychosocial model. Such terms as "medically unexplained symptoms," "somatization," "somatization disorder," and "functional somatic syndromes" in the context of CSS should be abandoned. Given current scientific knowledge, the concept of disease-illness dualism has no rational basis and impedes proper patient-physician communication, resulting in poor patient care. The concept of CSS is likely to promote research, education, and proper patient management. CSS seems to be a useful paradigm and an appropriate terminology for FMS and related conditions. The disease-illness, as well as organic/non-organic dichotomy, should be rejected.

  12. Effects of static stretching of knee musculature on patellar alignment and knee functional disability in male patients diagnosed with knee extension syndrome: A single-group, pretest-posttest trial.

    PubMed

    Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Hesampour, Kazem; Shah-Hosseini, Gholam Reza; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Shamsi, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-04-01

    Knee extension (Kext) syndrome is based on movement system impairments and is described as knee pain associated with quadriceps stiffness. To investigate the effects of 3 times per week for 4 weeks static stretching of knee musculature on patellar alignment and knee functional disability in male Kext syndrome patients. A single-group, pretest-posttest clinical trial. Hazrat-e-Rasoul Akram Hospital. Forty-six male Kext syndrome patients aged 18-35 years. Knee functional disability was assessed by the Kujala questionnaire. Patellar tilt was assessed using the skyline view X-ray. In addition, patella alta was assessed by X-ray using the Insall-Salvati ratio. After intervention, changes in knee flexion-extension range of motion (ROM) and hip adduction were assessed by goniometer and inclinometer. Changes in patellar tilt and patella alta were evaluated. Correlations between muscles length, patellar tilt and knee functional disability were also evaluated. The mean of patellar tilt in male Kext syndrome patients was 15.19°. Only the correlation between rectus femoris shortness and patellar tilt (P = 0.002) and the correlation between rectus femoris shortness and knee functional disability (P = 0.037) were significant. Patella alta was not severe in male Kext syndrome patients (1.28 ± 0.10). Knee flexion-extension ROM and femoral adduction increased significantly after a 12-session stretching programme (P < 0.0001). The results demonstrated that rectus femoris shortness had higher correlation with patellar tilt and knee functional disability than iliotibial band and hamstring shortness. Stretching was effective in reducing patellar tilt, patella alta, knee functional disability, increasing knee ROM and hip adduction in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rivaroxaban for Preventing Atherothrombotic Events in People with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Elevated Cardiac Biomarkers: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Pandor, Abdullah; Pollard, Daniel; Chico, Tim; Henderson, Robert; Stevenson, Matt

    2016-05-01

    As part of its Single Technology Appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company that manufactures rivaroxaban (Xarelto, Bayer) to submit evidence of the clinical and cost effectiveness of rivaroxaban for the prevention of adverse outcomes in patients after the acute management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a critical review of the evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of the technology, based upon the company's submission to NICE. The evidence was derived mainly from a randomised, double-blind, phase III, placebo-controlled trial of rivaroxaban (either 2.5 or 5 mg twice daily) in patients with recent ACS [unstable angina, non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)]. In addition, all patients received antiplatelet therapy [aspirin alone or aspirin and a thienopyridine either as clopidogrel (approximately 99 %) or ticlopidine (approximately 1 %) according to national or local guidelines]. The higher dose of rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily) did not form part of the marketing authorisation. A post hoc subgroup analysis of the licensed patients who had ACS with elevated cardiac biomarkers (that is, patients with STEMI and NSTEMI) without prior stroke or transient ischaemic stroke showed that compared with standard care, the addition of rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) to existing antiplatelet therapy reduced the composite endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction or stroke, but increased the risk of major bleeding and intracranial haemorrhage. However, there were a number of limitations in the evidence base that warrant caution in its interpretation. In particular, the evidence may be confounded because of the post hoc subgroup

  14. Evaluation of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome caused by group B streptococcus in adults in Japan between 2009 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Chiba, Kazuki; Shima, Tomoko; Masuda, Chieko; Okuno, Rumi; Ohya, Hitomi; Ogata, Kikuyo; Katsukawa, Chihiro; Kawahara, Ryuji; Tominaga, Kiyoshi; Yabata, Junko; Tada, Yuki; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Haruo; Chang, Bin; Ogawa, Michinaga; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    Infection with Streptococcus agalactiae has long been recognized in infants. In recent years, S. agalactiae is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among adults and among those with underlying medical condition. Several cases of GBS infection and more fulminant disease similar to streptococcal toxic shock syndrome have recently been reported. We report here that 19 S. agalactiae strains were isolated from streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome cases involving adult patients in Japan between 2009 and 2013. The average age of the patients was 66.3 years. At least one underlying disease was present in 47.4% (9/19) of the patients. The most prevalent serotype among these strains was Ib. All serotype Ib strains belonged to clonal complex 10 and were ciprofloxacin resistant. In contrast, all strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, imipenem, panipenem, and linezolid. The characteristic type distributions of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome isolates differed between isolates obtained from vaginal swabs of women and infants with invasive infections. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of enteral feeding with eicosapentaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidants in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Enteral Nutrition in ARDS Study Group.

    PubMed

    Gadek, J E; DeMichele, S J; Karlstad, M D; Pacht, E R; Donahoe, M; Albertson, T E; Van Hoozen, C; Wennberg, A K; Nelson, J L; Noursalehi, M

    1999-08-01

    Recent studies in animal models of sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have shown that a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet combining the anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory properties of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; fish oil), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; borage oil) (EPA+GLA), and antioxidants improves lung microvascular permeability, oxygenation, and cardiopulmonary function and reduces proinflammatory eicosanoid synthesis and lung inflammation. These findings suggest that enteral nutrition with EPA+GLA and antioxidants may reduce pulmonary inflammation and may improve oxygenation and clinical outcomes in patients with ARDS. Prospective, multicentered, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Intensive care units of five academic and teaching hospitals in the United States. We enrolled 146 patients with ARDS (as defined by the American-European Consensus Conference) caused by sepsis/pneumonia, trauma, or aspiration injury in the study. Patients meeting entry criteria were randomized and continuously tube-fed either EPA+GLA or an isonitrogenous, isocaloric standard diet at a minimum caloric delivery of 75% of basal energy expenditure x 1.3 for at least 4-7 days. Arterial blood gases were measured, and ventilator settings were recorded at baseline and study days 4 and 7 to enable calculation of PaO2/FIO2, a measure of gas exchange. Pulmonary neutrophil recruitment was assessed by measuring the number of neutrophils and the total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at the same time points. Clinical outcomes were recorded. Baseline characteristics of 98 evaluable patients revealed that key demographic, physiologic, and ventilatory variables were similar at entry between both groups. Multiple bronchoalveolar lavages revealed significant decreases (approximately 2.5-fold) in the number of total cells and neutrophils per mL of recovered lavage fluid during the study with EPA+GLA compared with patients fed the control diet. Significant

  16. Streptococcal Toxic Shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Vidya; Sankaranarayan, Shuba; Sivaraman, Rajakumar Padur; Prabaharan, Krithika

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcal Toxic Shock syndrome (STSS) is a serious complication caused by exotoxins of Group A Streptococcus (GAS). It presents with fulminant shock and rash, is rapidly progressive with Multi-Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) and requires aggressive therapy with fluids, antibiotics and source control.

  17. Syndrome by Any Other Name. . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Drew

    2008-01-01

    The word "syndrome" is one of those words that has slipped into one's vocabulary with few realizing what exactly it means or all the implications it carries. The word "syndrome" can be defined as "a group of signs and symptoms that occur together and characterize a particular abnormality or condition." Typically, a syndrome will be defined by…

  18. Paraneoplastic syndromes

    SciT

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) comprise a diverse group of disorders that are associated with cancer but unrelated to the size, location, metastases, or physiologic activities of the mature tissue of origin. They are remote effects of tumors that may appear as signs, symptoms, or syndromes which can mimic other disease conditions encountered in veterinary medicine. Recognition of PNS is valuable for several reasons: the observed abnormalities may represent tumor cell markers and facilitate early diagnosis of the tumor; they may allow assessment of premalignant states; they may aid in the search metastases; they may help quantify and monitor response to therapy;more » and, they may provide insight into the study of malignant transformation and oncogene expression. This review will concentrate on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of some of the common PNS encountered in veterinary medicine.« less

  19. The Capgras syndrome in paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Silva, J A; Leong, G B

    1992-01-01

    Capgras syndrome is characterized by a delusion of impostors who are thought to be physically similar but psychologically distinct from the misidentified person. This syndrome is generally thought to be relatively rare. Most of our knowledge about Capgras syndrome derives from single case studies and small series of cases usually from diagnostically heterogeneous groups. In this article, a series of 31 patients suffering from both paranoid schizophrenia and Capgras syndrome is described. Issues pertaining to the phenomenology of Capgras syndrome, the possible relation between Capgras syndrome and other delusional misidentification syndromes, and a neurobiological hypothesis aimed at explaining Capgras syndrome are discussed.

  20. Aarskog syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Aarskog disease; Aarskog-Scott syndrome; AAS; Faciodigitogenital syndrome; Gaciogenital dysplasia ... Aarskog syndrome is a genetic disorder that is linked to the X chromosome. It affects mainly males, but females ...

  1. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, blood vessels, ... A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, and ...

  2. Malabsorption Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods you eat. If you have a malabsorption syndrome, your small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from foods. Causes of malabsorption syndromes include Celiac disease Lactose intolerance Short bowel syndrome. ...

  3. Williams syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Williams syndrome may show: A flattened nasal bridge with small upturned nose Long ridges in the ... Alternative Names Williams-Beuren syndrome Images Low nasal bridge Chromosomes and DNA References Morris CA. Williams syndrome. ...

  4. [PHACES syndrome].

    PubMed

    Morcillo Azcárate, J; Bernabeu-Wittel, J; Fernández-Pineda, I; Conejo-Mir, M D; Tuduri Limousin, I; Aspiazu Salinas, D A; de Agustín Asensio, J C

    2010-04-01

    PHACES syndrome associates a segmental facial hemangioma with cerebral malformations, aortic branches/cranial arteries anomalies, cardiac defects, eye anomalies or ventral wall defects. The aim of this study is to analyze our experience with this syndrome. Retrospective study of the cases seen at our unit in the last year. We treat 4 cases; 3 girls and 1 child. Besides the segmental hemangioma they presented: 3 vascular cerebral malformations; 2 structural cardiopathies; 2 cerebral malformations, 1 microftalmia. We did not find ventral wall defects. A case received treatment with two cycles of metilprednisolone i.v. and oral prednisone, with favourable course; two cases received initial treatment with oral prednisone continued of oral propanolol in rising pattern up to 2 mg/kg/day, Obtaining both the detention of the tumour growth and regression of the lesion, with very good tolerance. A 7-year-old patient has been treated with colouring pulse laser for her residual lesions. When we see a segmental facial hemangioma we must perform a wide diagnostic study in order to discard a PHACES syndrome. Multidisciplinar approach to the patient by a wide expert's group gets an earlier diagnose and improves the outcome. Propranolol is a promising therapeutic alternative.

  5. Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviour Profiles in Williams syndrome: Cross Syndrome Comparisons with Prader-Willi and Down syndromes.

    PubMed

    Royston, R; Oliver, C; Moss, J; Adams, D; Berg, K; Burbidge, C; Howlin, P; Nelson, L; Stinton, C; Waite, J

    2018-01-01

    This study describes the profile of repetitive behaviour in individuals with Williams syndrome, utilising cross-syndrome comparisons with people with Prader-Willi and Down syndromes. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire was administered to caregivers of adults with Williams (n = 96), Prader-Willi (n = 103) and Down (n = 78) syndromes. There were few group differences, although participants with Williams syndrome were more likely to show body stereotypies. Individuals with Williams syndrome also showed more hoarding and less tidying behaviours than those with Down syndrome. IQ and adaptive ability were negatively associated with repetitive questioning in people with Williams syndrome. The profile of repetitive behaviour amongst individuals with Williams syndrome was similar to the comparison syndromes. The cognitive mechanisms underlying these behaviours in genetic syndromes warrant further investigation.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: brain-lung-thyroid syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Brain-lung-thyroid syndrome Brain-lung-thyroid syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Brain-lung-thyroid syndrome is a group of conditions ...

  7. Psychosomatic syndromes and anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of the role of some psychosomatic factors as alexithymia, mood intolerance, and somatization in both pathogenesis and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN), few studies have investigated the prevalence of psychosomatic syndromes in AN. The aim of this study was to use the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) to assess psychosomatic syndromes in AN and to evaluate if psychosomatic syndromes could identify subgroups of AN patients. Methods 108 AN inpatients (76 AN restricting subtype, AN-R, and 32 AN binge-purging subtype, AN-BP) were consecutively recruited and psychosomatic syndromes were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DCPR. Participants were asked to complete psychometric tests: Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory–2, and Temperament and Character Inventory. Data were submitted to cluster analysis. Results Illness denial (63%) and alexithymia (54.6%) resulted to be the most common syndromes in our sample. Cluster analysis identified three groups: moderate psychosomatic group (49%), somatization group (26%), and severe psychosomatic group (25%). The first group was mainly represented by AN-R patients reporting often only illness denial and alexithymia as DCPR syndromes. The second group showed more severe eating and depressive symptomatology and frequently DCPR syndromes of the somatization cluster. Thanatophobia DCPR syndrome was also represented in this group. The third group reported longer duration of illness and DCPR syndromes were highly represented; in particular, all patients were found to show the alexithymia DCPR syndrome. Conclusions These results highlight the need of a deep assessment of psychosomatic syndromes in AN. Psychosomatic syndromes correlated differently with both severity of eating symptomatology and duration of illness: therefore, DCPR could be effective to achieve tailored treatments. PMID:23302180

  8. Treatment of good-prognosis polyarteritis nodosa and Churg-Strauss syndrome: comparison of steroids and oral or pulse cyclophosphamide in 25 patients. French Cooperative Study Group for Vasculitides.

    PubMed

    Gayraud, M; Guillevin, L; Cohen, P; Lhote, F; Cacoub, P; Deblois, P; Godeau, B; Ruel, M; Vidal, E; Piontud, M; Ducroix, J P; Lassoued, S; Christoforov, B; Babinet, P

    1997-12-01

    Twenty-five patients with good-prognosis polyarteritis nodosa or Churg-Strauss syndrome entered a prospective, randomized, multicentre study comparing two treatments: either oral corticosteroids and oral cyclophosphamide (CY; 2 mg/kg/day) for 1 yr (group A), or oral corticosteroids and monthly i.v. CY pulses (0.6 g/m2) (group B) for 1 yr. The objective was to determine the optimal CY regimen. Judgement criteria were the efficacy of the treatment in controlling the disease and the development of side-effects. Among the 25 patients who could be analysed, complete recovery was achieved with the experimental treatment in 9/12 patients in group A and 10/13 patients in group B. Two patients in each group relapsed after the end of therapy and were well controlled by corticosteroids or other drugs. One failure occurred in each group. The mean follow-up was 60.8 +/- 14.5 months after the beginning of the treatment. Side-effects associated with the administration of CY and steroids were noted 27 times in group A vs 14 times in group B (not significant). The oldest patient in these series (group B) died of pneumonia. No superiority in terms of efficacy could be established between the two regimens; however, the number of patients included was too small to conclude definitively. Toxic side-effects were significantly more frequent in women (P < 0.02). The high number of adverse effects leads us to recommend pulse over oral CY and an overall lowering of the doses of immunosuppression.

  9. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaviarasan, P K; Prasad, P V S; Shradda; Viswanathan, P

    2005-01-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with skin fragility. It is characterized by blistering in infancy, photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. The syndrome involves the skin and mucous membrane with radiological changes. The genetic defect has been identified on the short arm of chromosome 20. This report describes an 18-year-old patient with classical features like blistering and photosensitivity in childhood and the subsequent development of poikiloderma. The differential diagnosis of Kindler syndrome includes diseases like Bloom syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, epidermolysis bullosa, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum. Our patient had classical cutaneous features of Kindler syndrome with phimosis as a complication.

  10. Association of Amelogenesis Imperfecta and Bartter's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A C V; Alekya, V; Krishna, M S V V; Alekya, K; Aruna, M; Reddy, M H K; Sangeetha, B; Ram, R; Kumar, V S

    2017-01-01

    Bartter's syndrome is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalemia, hypochloremia, metabolic alkalosis, and hyperreninemia with normal blood pressure. Bartter's syndrome is associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of hereditary disorders that affect dental enamel. AI could be part of several syndromes. The enamel renal syndrome is the association of AI and nephrocalcinosis. We report two patients of AI with Bartter's syndrome.

  11. [Psychopharmacology and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Guerreiro, Diogo F; Coentre, Ricardo; Coentre, Rui; Góis, C; Figueira, Luísa

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome consists in a group of metabolic changes, being the most important problem insulin resistence. Other important components of this syndrome are abdominal obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidemia /hypercholestrolemia. It was demonstrated that psychiatric patients have a greater risk to develop metabolic syndrome with a prevalence of 41%. Prevalence of this syndrome in psychiatric male patients is 138% higher than in general population and in female patients 251% higher. Some of the factors that can explain this increase of metabolic risk in psychiatric patients are psychiatric drugs. We preformed a systematic review of literature published until June, 2007, by means of MEDLINE. Studies reviewed include clinical cases, reviews, analytic and observational studies. We selected 72 articles. Authors pretend to understand the mechanisms, by which, different psychiatric drugs can influence metabolic syndrome, and strategies for prevention of this situation.

  12. [Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gvozdenović, Ljiljana; Pasternak, Janko; Milovanović, Stanislav; Ivanov, Dejan; Milić, Sasa

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is now recognized as a toxin-mediated, multisystem illness. It is characterized by an early onset of shock with multiorgan failure and continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality, caused by group A Streptococcus pyogenes. The symptoms for staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are similar. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was not well described until 1993, when children who had suffered from varicella presented roughly 2-4 weeks later with a clinical syndrome highly suggestive of toxic shock syndrome. It is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches and rash. It can rapidly progress to severe and intractable hypotension and multisystem dysfunction. Almost every organ system can he involved. Complications of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome may include kidney failure, liver failure (and even death. Crystalloids and inotropic agents are used to treat the hypovolemic shock aggressively, with close monitoring of the patient's mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure. An immediate and aggressive management of hypovolemic shock is essential in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Targeted antibiotics are indicated: penicillin or a beta-lactam antibiotic is used for treating group A streptococci, and clindamycin has emerged as a key portion of the standard treatment.

  13. Red ear syndrome.

    PubMed

    Purdy, R Allan; Dodick, David W

    2007-08-01

    The red ear syndrome is a rare syndrome originally described by Lance in 1994. It involves pain in and around the ear and associated autonomic phenomena, the most significant of which is cutaneous erythema of the ear ipsilateral to the pain and obvious to the patient and examiner during the attack. It may well represent an auriculo-autonomic cephalgia and/or be part of the group of disorders recognized as trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. As a syndrome, it still lacks specificity in regard to etiology, mechanisms, and treatment but is important to recognize clinically because of its associations.

  14. Sirt1 suppresses RNA synthesis after UV irradiation in combined xeroderma pigmentosum group D/Cockayne syndrome (XP-D/CS) cells.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Cruz, Renier; Zadorin, Anton S; Coin, Frédéric; Egly, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-15

    Specific mutations in the XPD subunit of transcription factor IIH result in combined xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)/Cockayne syndrome (CS), a severe DNA repair disorder characterized at the cellular level by a transcriptional arrest following UV irradiation. This transcriptional arrest has always been thought to be the result of faulty transcription-coupled repair. In the present study, we showed that, following UV irradiation, XP-D/CS cells displayed a gross transcriptional dysregulation compared with "pure" XP-D cells or WT cells. Furthermore, global RNA-sequencing analysis showed that XP-D/CS cells repressed the majority of genes after UV, whereas pure XP-D cells did not. By using housekeeping genes as a model, we demonstrated that XP-D/CS cells were unable to reassemble these gene promoters and thus to restart transcription after UV irradiation. Furthermore, we found that the repression of these promoters in XP-D/CS cells was not a simple consequence of deficient repair but rather an active heterochromatinization process mediated by the histone deacetylase Sirt1. Indeed, RNA-sequencing analysis showed that inhibition of and/or silencing of Sirt1 changed the chromatin environment at these promoters and restored the transcription of a large portion of the repressed genes in XP-D/CS cells after UV irradiation. Our work demonstrates that a significant part of the transcriptional arrest displayed by XP-D/CS cells arises as a result of an active repression process and not simply as a result of a DNA repair deficiency. This dysregulation of Sirt1 function that results in transcriptional repression may be the cause of various severe clinical features in patients with XP-D/CS that cannot be explained by a DNA repair defect.

  15. Multidimensional assessment of patient condition and mutational analysis in peripheral blood, as tools to improve outcome prediction in myelodysplastic syndromes: A prospective study of the Spanish MDS group.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Fernando; Robledo, Cristina; Pereira, Arturo; Pedro, Carmen; Benito, Rocío; de Paz, Raquel; Del Rey, Mónica; Insunza, Andrés; Tormo, Mar; Díez-Campelo, María; Xicoy, Blanca; Salido, Eduardo; Sánchez-Del-Real, Javier; Arenillas, Leonor; Florensa, Lourdes; Luño, Elisa; Del Cañizo, Consuelo; Sanz, Guillermo F; María Hernández-Rivas, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    The International Prognostic Scoring System and its revised form (IPSS-R) are the most widely used indices for prognostic assessment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), but can only partially account for the observed variation in patient outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the relative contribution of patient condition and mutational status in peripheral blood when added to the IPSS-R, for estimating overall survival and the risk of leukemic transformation in patients with MDS. A prospective cohort (2006-2015) of 200 consecutive patients with MDS were included in the study series and categorized according to the IPSS-R. Patients were further stratified according to patient condition (assessed using the multidimensional Lee index for older adults) and genetic mutations (peripheral blood samples screened using next-generation sequencing). The change in likelihood-ratio was tested in Cox models after adding individual covariates. The addition of the Lee index to the IPSS-R significantly improved prediction of overall survival [hazard ratio (HR) 3.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-4.66, P < 0.001), and mutational analysis significantly improved prediction of leukemic evolution (HR 2.64, 1.56-4.46, P < 0.001). Non-leukemic death was strongly linked to patient condition (HR 2.71, 1.72-4.25, P < 0.001), but not to IPSS-R score (P = 0.35) or mutational status (P = 0.75). Adjustment for exposure to disease-modifying therapy, evaluated as a time-dependent covariate, had no effect on the proposed model's predictive ability. In conclusion, patient condition, assessed by the multidimensional Lee index and patient mutational status can improve the prediction of clinical outcomes of patients with MDS already stratified by IPSS-R. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lai-Cheong, Joey E; McGrath, John A

    2010-01-01

    Kindler syndrome (MIM173650) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by poikiloderma, trauma-induced skin blistering, mucosal inflammation, and photosensitivity. Loss-of-function mutations in the FERMT1 gene are the cause of Kindler syndrome. Kindler syndrome is categorized as a subtype of epidermolysis bullosa (EB). During infancy and childhood, there is clinical overlap between Kindler syndrome and dystrophic EB. Unlike other forms of EB, Kindler syndrome is characterized by impaired actin cytoskeleton-extracellular matrix interactions and a variable plane of blister formation at or close to the dermal-epidermal junction. This article reviews clinicopathologic and molecular features of Kindler syndrome and discusses patient management.

  17. Multi-Family Psychoeducational Support Group Therapy for Families with a Member Afflicted with Irreversible Brain Syndrome (Alzheimer's Disease): Report of a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Evelyn S.; And Others

    Alzheimers Disease (AD), an incurable disability which afflicts older adults, can have devastating emotional consequences for the victim and the family. In an attempt to determine the effectiveness of multifamily psychoeducational support, group therapy (MFPSGT), 22 persons (13 families) from the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders…

  18. From Chaos and Insecurity to Understanding and Coping: Experienced Benefits of a Group-Based Education Programme for People with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinxsterhuis, Irma; Strand, Elin Bolle; Stormorken, Eva; Sveen, Unni

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elicit participants' experiences with a multidisciplinary patient education programme and their views regarding the usefulness of the programme. Focus group interviews were conducted with 10 participants immediately and nine months following participation in the programme and analysed using thematic analysis.…

  19. Elsberg syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Savoldi, Filippo; Kaufmann, Timothy J.; Flanagan, Eoin P.; Toledano, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Elsberg syndrome (ES) is an established but often unrecognized cause of acute lumbosacral radiculitis with myelitis related to recent herpes virus infection. We defined ES, determined its frequency in patients with cauda equina syndrome (CES) with myelitis, and evaluated its clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic features and outcomes. Methods: We searched the Mayo Clinic medical records for ES and subsequently for combinations of index terms to identify patients with suspected CES and myelitis. Results: Our search yielded 30 patients, 2 diagnosed with ES and an additional 28 with clinical or radiologic evidence of CES retrospectively suspected of having ES. We classified patients in 5 groups according to diagnostic certainty. MRI and EMG confirmed that 2 had only myelitis, 5 only radiculitis, and 16 both. Two had preceding sacral herpes infection and 1 oral herpes simplex. Spinal cord lesions were commonly multiple, discontinuous, not expansile, and centrally or ventrally positioned. Lesions generally spared the distal conus. Nerve root enhancement was occasionally prominent and was smooth rather than nodular. Lymphocytic CSF pleocytosis was common. Thirteen patients (43%) had viral isolation studies, which were commonly delayed; the delay may have accounted for the low rate of viral detection. Acyclovir was administered to 6 patients. Most patients recovered with sequelae; 1 patient experienced encephalomyelitis and died. Conclusion: ES is a definable condition likely responsible for 10% of patients with combined CES and myelitis. Radiologic findings are not entirely specific but may help in differentiating ES from some competing diagnostic considerations. We propose criteria to facilitate diagnosis. PMID:28534040

  20. Piriformis syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Pseudosciatica; Wallet sciatica; Hip socket neuropathy; Pelvic outlet syndrome; Low back pain - piriformis ... Sciatica is the main symptom of piriformis syndrome. Other symptoms include: Tenderness or a dull ache in ...

  1. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. The cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone that ... your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper body obesity ...

  2. Usher Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder that causes ... and vision. There are three types of Usher syndrome: People with type I are deaf from birth ...

  3. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental and nervous system problems, mostly in girls. It's related to autism spectrum disorder. Babies with Rett syndrome seem to grow and develop normally at first. ...

  4. Reye Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Reye syndrome is a rare illness that can affect the blood, liver, and brain of someone who has recently ... a viral illness, seek medical attention immediately. Reye syndrome can lead to a coma and brain death, ...

  5. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... with blood clotting. If you have a myelodysplastic syndrome, the stem cells do not mature into healthy ... lead to infection, anemia, or easy bleeding. Myelodysplastic syndromes often do not cause early symptoms and are ...

  6. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  7. Felty syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA); Felty's syndrome ... The cause of Felty syndrome is unknown. It is more common in people who have had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for a long time. People with ...

  8. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as tobacco, benzene and pesticides, or to heavy metals, such as lead. Types of myelodysplastic syndromes The ... and industrial chemicals, such as benzene. Exposure to heavy metals. Heavy metals linked to myelodysplastic syndromes include lead ...

  9. Angelman Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... heads, jerky movements, protruding tongues, and bouts of laughter." Infants with Angelman syndrome appear normal at birth, ... heads, jerky movements, protruding tongues, and bouts of laughter." Infants with Angelman syndrome appear normal at birth, ...

  10. Zellweger Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institutes of Health (NIH), conduct research exploring the molecular and genetic basis of Zellweger syndrome and the other PBDs, ... Institutes of Health (NIH), conduct research exploring the molecular and genetic basis of Zellweger syndrome and the other PBDs, ...

  11. Reye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome has occurred in children who were given aspirin when they had chickenpox or the flu. Reye syndrome has become very rare. This is because aspirin is no longer recommended for routine use in ...

  12. The Clinical, Symptom, and Quality-of-Life Characterization of a Well-Defined Group of Patients with Posttreatment Lyme Disease Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rebman, Alison W; Bechtold, Kathleen T; Yang, Ting; Mihm, Erica A; Soloski, Mark J; Novak, Cheryl B; Aucott, John N

    2017-01-01

    The increased incidence and geographic expansion of Lyme disease has made it the most common vector-borne infection in North America. Posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS) represents a subset of patients who remain ill following standard antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease. The spectrum of symptoms and their impact on quality of life remain largely unexplored among patients with well-documented PTLDS. To characterize a case series of patients with well-documented PTLDS compared to a sample of healthy controls. Sixty-one participants met the proposed case definition for PTLDS. Twenty-six healthy controls had neither a clinical history of Lyme disease nor current antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi . Participants with PTLDS and controls were evaluated by physical exam, clinical laboratory testing, standardized questionnaires, and a 36-item current symptom list. Compared to controls, participants with PTLDS reported significantly greater fatigue, pain, sleep disturbance, and depression (Fatigue Severity Scale: 50.0 ± 10.6 vs. 19.8 ± 8.6; Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire: 13.7 ± 8.3 vs. 0.8 ± 1.9; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: 10.1 ± 4.7 vs. 4.1 ± 2.1; Beck Depression Inventory-II: 15.1 ± 7.7 vs. 2.2 ± 3.2; p  < 0.001 for each), and significantly lower quality of life (SF-36 Physical Component Score: 33.9 ± 9.7 vs. 55.1 ± 6.2; Mental Component Score: 42.9 ± 10.1 vs. 54.2 ± 5.4; p  < 0.001 for each). Nineteen non-PTLDS-defining symptoms were found to be significantly more severe among participants with PTLDS than controls, including sleep difficultly and visual complaints. Initial delayed or misdiagnosis was characterized in 59.0% of participants with PTLDS, and 32.2% had abnormal vibratory sense. Although physical exam and clinical laboratory tests showed few objective abnormalities, standardized symptom questionnaires revealed that patients with PTLDS are highly and clinically significantly

  13. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Down syndrome increases as a woman gets older. Down syndrome cannot be cured. Early treatment programs can help improve skills. They may include ... occupational, and/or educational therapy. With support and treatment, many ... Down syndrome live happy, productive lives. NIH: National Institute of ...

  14. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the…

  15. [Hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome].

    PubMed

    Drenth, J P; Denecker, N E; Prieur, A M; Van der Meer, J W

    1995-09-16

    The hyper-IgD syndrome is a rare entity characterized by early onset of attacks of periodic fever. All patients have an elevated serum IgD (> 100 U/ml). Symptoms during attacks include joint involvements (arthralgias/arthritis), abdominal complaints (vomiting, pain, diarrhoea), skin lesions, swollen lymph nodes, and headache. In 1992 an International hyper-IgD study group was established, and to date the diagnosis has been made in 60, mainly European patients; 14 come from France. The disorder occurs in families and is transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance. Linkage studies indicate that the gene encoding for familial Mediterranean fever is different from the gene for the hyper-IgD syndrome. In children the hyper-IgD syndrome should be distinguished from two other periodic febrile disorders. CINCA (chronic inflammatory, neurological, cutaneous and articular syndrome) and FAPA (periodic fever, adenopathies, pharyngitis, and aphtous stomatitis) share some symptoms with the hyper-IgD syndrome but in these syndromes serum IgD is normal. The pathogenesis remains to be elucidated but during attacks all patients have an acute-phase response with elevated C-reactive protein concentrations. During the febrile episodes, the inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 TNF alpha, IFN gamma are increased together with natural occurring inhibitors such as IL-1ra and sTNFr. There is no therapy for the syndrome and patients will experience attacks during their entire life although frequency and severity tend to diminish with age.

  16. [Asthenic syndrome in patients with burnout syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chutko, L S; Surushkina, S Iu; Rozhkova, A V; Nikishena, I S; Iakovenko, E A

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the results of a survey of 103 patients aged 25 to 45 years with burnout syndrom. The results showed that most patients with the syndrome of burnout have clinical manifestations of asthenia, varying degrees of severity. According to psychological and psychophysiological examination in this group of patients were found attention and memory dysfunction. This study evaluated the efficacy of memoplant in the treatment of this pathology. The high efficiency of memoplant (improvement in 69.7% of cases) was detected, confirmed by the data of the clinical, psychological and neuropsychological research.

  17. Refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernández López, M T; López Otero, M J; Alvarez Vázquez, P; Arias Delgado, J; Varela Correa, J J

    2009-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a complex syndrome that occurs as a result of reintroducing nutrition (oral, enteral or parenteral) to patients who are starved or malnourished. Patients can develop fluid-balance abnormalities, electrolyte disorders (hypophosphataemia, hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia), abnormal glucose metabolism and certain vitamin deficiencies. Refeeding syndrome encompasses abnormalities affecting multiple organ systems, including neurological, pulmonary, cardiac, neuromuscular and haematological functions. Pathogenic mechanisms involved in the refeeding syndrome and clinical manifestations have been reviewed. We provide suggestions for the prevention and treatment of refeeding syndrome. The most important steps are to identify patients at risk, reintroduce nutrition cautiously and correct electrolyte and vitamin deficiencies properly.

  18. Cell-Free DNA, High-Mobility Group Box-1, and Procalcitonin Concentrations in Dogs With Gastric Dilatation–Volvulus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo; Calipa, Stefano; Goggs, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Canine gastric dilatation–volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening disease characterized by extensive tissue ischemia, tissue hypoperfusion, and systemic inflammation. Biomarkers that better reflect the severity of gastric necrosis and systemic inflammation would aid clinicians in the management of these patients. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), and procalcitonin (PCT) in dogs with GDV. Concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT were measured in citrated plasma samples collected from 29 dogs with GDV at hospital admission. Additional data collected included baseline lactate concentrations, APPLEfast score, evidence of gastric necrosis, occurrence of postoperative complications, and outcome. Twenty-four healthy dogs were sampled as controls. Continuous variables between groups were compared with the Mann–Whitney U and correlations between continuous variables were assessed by calculation of Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Alpha was set at 0.05. Dogs with GDV had significantly greater concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT compared to controls (P = 0.0009, P = 0.004, and P = 0.009, respectively). PCT concentrations were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors (P = 0.008). Dogs with gastric necrosis had significantly greater lactate concentrations compared to dogs without gastric necrosis (P = 0.0005). The APPLEfast score was not prognostic. Lactate and PCT concentrations were moderately, positively correlated (rs 0.51, P = 0.0005). Concentrations of the inflammatory biomarkers cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT are increased in canine GDV. Only lactate and PCT concentrations were prognostic in this population of GDV dogs and were predictive of the presence of gastric necrosis and of non-survival to hospital discharge, respectively. PMID:29686994

  19. Cell-Free DNA, High-Mobility Group Box-1, and Procalcitonin Concentrations in Dogs With Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo; Calipa, Stefano; Goggs, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Canine gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening disease characterized by extensive tissue ischemia, tissue hypoperfusion, and systemic inflammation. Biomarkers that better reflect the severity of gastric necrosis and systemic inflammation would aid clinicians in the management of these patients. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), and procalcitonin (PCT) in dogs with GDV. Concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT were measured in citrated plasma samples collected from 29 dogs with GDV at hospital admission. Additional data collected included baseline lactate concentrations, APPLE fast score, evidence of gastric necrosis, occurrence of postoperative complications, and outcome. Twenty-four healthy dogs were sampled as controls. Continuous variables between groups were compared with the Mann-Whitney U and correlations between continuous variables were assessed by calculation of Spearman's correlation coefficient. Alpha was set at 0.05. Dogs with GDV had significantly greater concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT compared to controls ( P  = 0.0009, P  = 0.004, and P  = 0.009, respectively). PCT concentrations were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors ( P  = 0.008). Dogs with gastric necrosis had significantly greater lactate concentrations compared to dogs without gastric necrosis ( P  = 0.0005). The APPLE fast score was not prognostic. Lactate and PCT concentrations were moderately, positively correlated ( r s 0.51, P  = 0.0005). Concentrations of the inflammatory biomarkers cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT are increased in canine GDV. Only lactate and PCT concentrations were prognostic in this population of GDV dogs and were predictive of the presence of gastric necrosis and of non-survival to hospital discharge, respectively.

  20. A Cross-Syndrome Study of the Development of Holistic Face Recognition in Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annaz, Dagmara; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Thomas, Michael S. C.

    2009-01-01

    We report a cross-syndrome comparison of the development of holistic processing in face recognition in school-aged children with developmental disorders: autism, Down syndrome, and Williams syndrome. The autism group was split into two groups: one with high-functioning children and one with low-functioning children. The latter group has rarely…

  1. Mammalian-target of rapamycin inhibition with temsirolimus in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients is associated with considerable toxicity: results of the temsirolimus pilot trial by the German MDS Study Group (D-MDS).

    PubMed

    Wermke, Martin; Schuster, Claudia; Nolte, Florian; Al-Ali, Haifa-Kathrin; Kiewe, Philipp; Schönefeldt, Claudia; Jakob, Christiane; von Bonin, Malte; Hentschel, Leopold; Klut, Ina-Maria; Ehninger, Gerhard; Bornhäuser, Martin; Baretton, Gustavo; Germing, Ulrich; Herbst, Regina; Haase, Detelef; Hofmann, Wolf K; Platzbecker, Uwe

    2016-12-01

    The mammalian-target of rapamycin (also termed mechanistic target of rapamycin, mTOR) pathway integrates various pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic stimuli and is involved in regulatory T-cell (TREG) development. As these processes contribute to the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), we hypothesized that mTOR modulation with temsirolimus (TEM) might show activity in MDS. This prospective multicentre trial enrolled lower and higher risk MDS patients, provided that they were transfusion-dependent/neutropenic or relapsed/refractory to 5-azacitidine, respectively. All patients received TEM at a weekly dose of 25 mg. Of the 9 lower- and 11 higher-risk patients included, only 4 (20%) reached the response assessment after 4 months of treatment and showed stable disease without haematological improvement. The remaining patients discontinued TEM prematurely due to adverse events. Median overall survival (OS) was not reached in the lower-risk group and 296 days in the higher-risk group. We observed a significant decline of bone marrow (BM) vascularisation (P = 0·006) but were unable to demonstrate a significant impact of TEM on the balance between TREG and pro-inflammatory T-helper-cell subsets within the peripheral blood or BM. We conclude that mTOR-modulation with TEM at a dose of 25 mg per week is accompanied by considerable toxicity and has no beneficial effects in elderly MDS patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Tactile Sensitivity in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Tavassoli, Teresa; Calo, Susana; Thomas, Richard M.; Catmur, Caroline; Frith, Uta; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    People with autism and Asperger syndrome are anecdotally said to be hypersensitive to touch. In two experiments, we measured tactile thresholds and suprathreshold tactile sensitivity in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome. In the first experiment, tactile perceptual thresholds were measured. Two frequencies of vibrotactile stimulation were…

  3. A modified technique for esophagojejunostomy or esophagogastrostomy after laparoscopic gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Chong-Wei, Ke; Dan-Lei, Chen; Dan, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Reconstruction of the digestive tract involving esophageal anastomosis after laparoscopic gastrectomy is a surgically difficult procedure. In this study, a newly developed transoral pretilted circular anvil, a "the oral to the abdomen" method, was proven to be effective. A total of 34 consecutive patients underwent esophageal anastomosis using the OrVil in our hospital from July 2009 to February 2011. The esophagus was transected and a small hole was then made in the esophageal stump through which the nasogastric tube of the OrVil was passed to insert the anvil into the abdominal cavity. After fixation with a stapler and a glove at the jejunal loop or the remnant stomach, the abdominal cavity was entered through the minilaparotomy. Pneumoperitoneum and airtightness were reestablished after the glove edge was turned over to seal off the protector. Eventually, intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy or esophagogastrostomy was accomplished under the guidance of laparoscopy. There were 34 patients in the study: 1 with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, 7 with stromal tumors in cardia, 23 with adenocarcinoma in the stomach, and 3 with cardia adenocarcinoma involving the lower esophagus. The surgical margins for all tumor patients were negative for tumor cells. The mean operative time was 175.0 minutes (90 to 240 min) and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 195.6 mL (50 to 800 mL). The 34 patients underwent successful laparoscopic surgeries with no open conversions. For 32 patients, there were no technological complications in the transoral insertion of the anvil to the esophageal stump. There were no anastomotic leaks after the surgery. The use of the OrVil device, a "the oral to the abdomen" method, changes the direction of the anvil insertion and significantly decreases both difficulty and duration of the laparoscopic surgery. More importantly, if the mass is at a higher position, this approach can achieve a higher surgical margin compared with the hand-sewn purse

  4. [Pseudo-Bartter syndrome--2 cases].

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak, Lucyna; Jaroszyński, Andrzej; Baranowicz-Gaszczyk, Iwona; Borowicz, Ewa; Ksiazek, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Bartter syndrome represents the group of renal disturbances characterized by hypokaliemia and metabolic alkalosis. Some diseases could display hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis without primary tubular dysfunction. These disorders are called pseudo-Bartter syndrome. In this paper we present 2 cases of pseudo-Bartter syndrome related among to other things to overuse of diuretic drugs.

  5. Formant Amplitude of Children with Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentz, Arthur L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The sustained vowel sounds of 14 noninstitutionalized 7- to 10-year-old children with Down's syndrome were analyzed acoustically for vowel formant amplitude levels. The subjects with Down's syndrome had formant amplitude intensity levels significantly lower than those of a similar group of speakers without Down's syndrome. (Author/DB)

  6. Cross Syndrome Comparison of Sleep Problems in Children with Down Syndrome and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2013-01-01

    Based on previous findings of frequent sleep problems in children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS), the present study aimed to expand our knowledge by using parent report and actigraphy to define sleep problems more precisely in these groups. Twenty-two school-aged children with DS, 24 with WS and 52 typically developing (TD)…

  7. The developmental trajectory of disruptive behavior in Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rice, Lauren J; Gray, Kylie M; Howlin, Patricia; Taffe, John; Tonge, Bruce J; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of verbal aggression, physical aggression, and temper tantrums in four genetic syndrome groups. Participants were part of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study (ACAD), which collected information from a cohort of individuals with an intellectual disability at five time points over 18 years. Data were examined from a total of 248 people with one of the four following syndromes: Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, or Williams syndrome. Changes in behaviors were measured using validated items from the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC). The results indicate that, while verbal aggression shows no evidence of diminishing with age, physical aggression, and temper tantrums decline with age before 19 years for people with Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, and William syndrome; and after 19 years for people with Prader-Willi syndrome. These findings offer a somewhat more optimistic outlook for people with an intellectual disability than has previously been suggested. Research is needed to investigate the mechanisms predisposing people with PWS to persistence of temper tantrums and physical aggression into adulthood. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Devi, Basanti; Behera, Binodini; Patro, Sibasish; Pattnaik, Subhransu S; Puhan, Manas R

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Sotos syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... gene are the primary cause of Sotos syndrome , accounting for up to 90 percent of cases. Other ... molecule called a methyl group to histones (a process called methylation), histone methyltransferases regulate the activity of ...

  10. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... high-risk group, or who have a family history of EVC syndrome. Alternative Names ... In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  11. Proteus syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Ritha de Cássia Capelato; Estrella, Mariani Paulino Soriano; do Amaral, Danielle Mechereffe; Barbosa, Angela Marques; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2017-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by disproportionate overgrowth of limbs, multiple hamartomas, and vascular malformations. The cerebriform connective tissue nevi, also called cerebriform plantar hyperplasia, are present in most patients, and is the main characteristic of the syndrome. If present, even alone, they can be considered as a pathognomonic sign. This article reports a classic case of Proteus syndrome in a 2-year-old male patient who began to show a discrete asymmetry of the right hemibody in relation to the left one after birth, which increased over the months. He also showed cerebriform plantar hyperplasia and Port-wine stains, among other alterations. PMID:29166516

  12. Goodpasture syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... pulmonary hemorrhage; Pulmonary renal syndrome; Glomerulonephritis - pulmonary hemorrhage Images Kidney blood supply References Appel GB, Radhakrishnan J, D'Agati V. Secondary glomerular disease. In: Skorecki ...

  13. Marfan Syndrome (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic disorder called Marfan syndrome. What Is Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome is named after Antoine Marfan, the French ... immediately. What's Life Like for Teens With Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome affects people differently, so life is not ...

  14. Timing of intervention in high-risk non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes in PCI versus non-PCI centres : Sub-group analysis of the ELISA-3 trial.

    PubMed

    Badings, E A; Remkes, W S; Dambrink, J-H E; The, S H K; Van Wijngaarden, J; Tjeerdsma, G; Rasoul, S; Timmer, J R; van der Wielen, M L J; Lok, D J A; van 't Hof, A W J

    2016-03-01

    To compare the effect of timing of intervention in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus non-PCI centres. A post-hoc sub-analysis was performed of the ELISA III trial, a randomised multicentre trial investigating outcome of early (< 12 h) versus late (> 48 h) angiography and revascularisation in 542 patients with high-risk NSTE-ACS. 90 patients were randomised in non-PCI centres and tended to benefit more from an early invasive strategy than patients included in the PCI centre (relative risk 0.23 vs. 0.85 [p for interaction = 0.089] for incidence of the combined primary endpoint of death, reinfarction and recurrent ischaemia after 30 days of follow-up). This was largely driven by reduction in recurrent ischaemia. In non-PCI centres, patients randomised to the late group had a 4 and 7 day longer period until PCI or coronary artery bypass grafting, respectively. This difference was less pronounced in the PCI centre. This post-hoc analysis from the ELISA-3 trial suggests that NSTE-ACS patients initially hospitalised in non-PCI centres show the largest benefit from early angiography and revascularisation, associated with a shorter waiting time to revascularisation. Improved patient logistics and transfer between non-PCI and PCI centres might therefore result in better clinical outcome.

  15. Identification of individuals at risk for Lynch syndrome using targeted evaluations and genetic testing: National Society of Genetic Counselors and the Collaborative Group of the Americas on Inherited Colorectal Cancer joint practice guideline.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Scott M; Burt, Randall; Church, James; Erdman, Steve; Hampel, Heather; Holter, Spring; Jasperson, Kory; Kalady, Matt F; Haidle, Joy Larsen; Lynch, Henry T; Palaniappan, Selvi; Wise, Paul E; Senter, Leigha

    2012-08-01

    Identifying individuals who have Lynch syndrome (LS) involves a complex diagnostic work up that includes taking a detailed family history and a combination of various genetic and immunohistochemical tests. The National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) and the Collaborative Group of the Americas on Inherited Colorectal Cancer (CGA-ICC) have come together to publish this clinical practice testing guideline for the evaluation of LS. The purpose of this practice guideline is to provide guidance and a testing algorithm for LS as well as recommendations on when to offer testing. This guideline does not replace a consultation with a genetics professional. This guideline includes explanations in support of this and a summary of background data. While this guideline is not intended to serve as a review of LS, it includes a discussion of background information on LS, and cites a number of key publications which should be reviewed for a more in-depth understanding of LS. These guidelines are intended for genetic counselors, geneticists, gastroenterologists, surgeons, medical oncologists, obstetricians and gynecologists, nurses and other healthcare providers who evaluate patients for LS.

  16. Analysis of 133 meioses places the genes for nevoid basal cell carcinoma (gorlin) syndrome and fanconi anemia group C in a 2.6-cM interval and contributes to the fine map of 9q22.3

    SciT

    Farndon, P.A.; Hardy, C.; Kilpatrick, M.W.

    1994-09-15

    Four disease genes (NBCCS, ESS1, XPAC, FACC) map to 9q22.3-q31. A fine map of this region was produced by linkage and haplotype analysis using 12 DNA markers. The gene for nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, Gorlin) has an important role in congenital malformations and carcinogenesis. Phase-known recombinants in a study of 133 meioses place NBCCS between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S176. Haplotype analysis in a two-generation family suggests that NBCCS lies in a smaller interval of 2.6 cM centromeric to D9S287. These flanking markers will be useful clinically for gene tracking. Recombinants also map FACC (Fanconi anemia, group C) to themore » same region, between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S287. The recombination rate between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S53 in males is 8.3% and 13.2% in females, giving a sex-specific male:female ratio of 1:1.6 and a sex-averaged map distance of 10.4 cM. No double recombinants were detected, in agreement with the apparently complete level of interference predicted from the male chiasmata map. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  17. Molecular and cellular analysis of the DNA repair defect in a patient in Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D who has the clinical features of Xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome

    SciT

    Broughton, B.C.; Thompson, A.F.; Harcourt, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) are quite distinct genetic disorders that are associated with defects in excision repair of UV-induced DNA damage. A few patients have been described previously with the clinical features of both disorders. In this paper we describe an individual in this category who has unusual cellular responses to UV light. We show that his cultured fibroblasts and lymphocytes are extremely sensitive to irradiation with UV-C, despite a level of nucleotide excision repair that is 30%-40% that of normal cells. The deficiency is assigned to the XP-D complementation group, and we have identified two causativemore » mutations in the XPD gene: a gly{yields}arg change at amino acid 675 in the allele inherited from the patient`s mother and a -1 frameshift at amino acid 669 in the allele inherited from his father. These mutations are in the C-terminal 20% of the 760-amino-acid XPD protein, in a region where we have recently identified several mutations in patients with trichothiodystrophy. 44 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  18. Annotation: The Savant Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Pamela; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Whilst interest has focused on the origin and nature of the savant syndrome for over a century, it is only within the past two decades that empirical group studies have been carried out. Methods: The following annotation briefly reviews relevant research and also attempts to address outstanding issues in this research area.…

  19. Cardiopulmonary Syndrome Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Cancer Off-Label Drug Use Access to Experimental Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) CAM for Patients ... pressure on the heart. Treatment may be to control the symptoms of ... vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is a group of signs and symptoms that occur when the ...

  20. Pilocarpine tablets for the treatment of dry mouth and dry eye symptoms in patients with Sjögren syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, multicenter trial. P92-01 Study Group.

    PubMed

    Vivino, F B; Al-Hashimi, I; Khan, Z; LeVeque, F G; Salisbury, P L; Tran-Johnson, T K; Muscoplat, C C; Trivedi, M; Goldlust, B; Gallagher, S C

    1999-01-25

    Patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) experience slowly progressive infiltration of lacrimal and salivary glands by mononuclear cells. This leads to diminished secretions, with resultant symptoms of xerostomia and xerophthalmia. Although pilocarpine hydrochloride tablets are currently indicated for the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia, their effects on dry mouth or dry eyes in patients with SS are unclear. To assess the safety and efficacy of pilocarpine (Salagen) tablets as symptomatic treatment for dry mouth and dry eyes caused by SS in a multicenter, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial. After providing written informed consent, 373 patients with primary or secondary SS and clinically significant dry mouth and dry eyes were randomized to receive 2.5-mg pilocarpine, 5-mg pilocarpine, or placebo tablets 4 times daily for 12 weeks. Symptoms were assessed by questionnaires with visual analog scales or categorical checkboxes. Whole-mouth salivary flow rates were measured. A significantly greater proportion of patients in the 5-mg pilocarpine group showed improvement compared with the placebo group (P< or =.01) in global assessments of dry mouth, dry eyes, and other symptoms of dryness (P< or =.05). Salivary flow was significantly increased 2- to 3-fold (P<.001) after administration of the first dose and was maintained throughout the 12-week study. The most common adverse effect was sweating, and no serious drug-related adverse experiences were reported. Administration of 5-mg pilocarpine tablets 4 times daily (20 mg/d) was well tolerated and produced significant improvement in symptoms of dry mouth and dry eyes and other xeroses in patients with SS.

  1. Prognostic factors in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia (excluding children with Down syndrome and acute promyelocytic leukemia): univariate and recursive partitioning analysis of patients treated on Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) Study 8821.

    PubMed

    Chang, M; Raimondi, S C; Ravindranath, Y; Carroll, A J; Camitta, B; Gresik, M V; Steuber, C P; Weinstein, H

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the paper was to define clinical or biological features associated with the risk for treatment failure for children with acute myeloid leukemia. Data from 560 children and adolescents with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia who entered the Pediatric Oncology Group Study 8821 from June 1988 to March 1993 were analyzed by univariate and recursive partitioning methods. Children with Down syndrome or acute promyelocytic leukemia were excluded from the study. Factors examined included age, number of leukocytes, sex, FAB morphologic subtype, cytogenetic findings, and extramedullary disease at the time of diagnosis. The overall event-free survival (EFS) rate at 4 years was 32.7% (s.e. = 2.2%). Age > or =2 years, fewer than 50 x 10(9)/I leukocytes, and t(8;21) or inv(16), and normal chromosomes were associated with higher rates of EFS (P value = 0.003, 0.049, 0.0003, 0.031, respectively), whereas the M5 subtype of AML (P value = 0.0003) and chromosome abnormalities other than t(8;21) and inv(16) were associated with lower rates of EFS (P value = 0.0001). Recursive partitioning analysis defined three groups of patients with widely varied prognoses: female patients with t(8;21), inv(16), or a normal karyotype (n = 89) had the best prognosis (4-year EFS = 55.1%, s.e. = 5.7%); male patients with t(8;21), inv(16) or normal chromosomes (n = 106) had an intermediate prognosis (4-year EFS = 38.1%, s.e. = 5.3%); patients with chromosome abnormalities other than t(8;21) and inv(16) (n = 233) had the worst prognosis (4-year EFS = 27.0%, s.e. = 3.2%). One hundred and thirty-two patients (24%) could not be grouped because of missing cytogenetic data, mainly due to inadequate marrow samples. The results suggest that pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia can be categorized into three potential risk groups for prognosis and that differences in sex and chromosomal abnormalities are associated with differences in estimates of EFS. These results are tentative and

  2. Audiological findings in Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tokgoz-Yilmaz, Suna; Turkyilmaz, Meral Didem; Cengiz, Filiz Basak; Sjöstrand, Alev Pektas; Kose, Serdal Kenan; Tekin, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate audiologic properties of patients with Noonan syndrome and compare these findings with those of unaffected peers. The study included 17 children with Noonan syndrome and 20 typically developing children without Noonan syndrome. Pure tone and speech audiometry, immitancemetric measurement, otoacoustic emissions measurement and auditory brainstem response tests were applied to all (n = 37) children. Hearing thresholds of children with Noonan syndrome were higher (poorer) than those observed unaffected peers, while the hearing sensitivity of the both groups were normal limits (p = 0.013 for right, p = 0.031 for left ear). Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions amplitudes of the children with Noonan syndrome were lower than the children without Noonan syndrome (p = 0.005 for right, p = 0.002 for left ear). Middle ear pressures and auditory brainstem response values were within normal limits and there was no difference between the two groups (p > 0.05). General benefit of the present study is to characterize the audiologic findings of children with Noonan syndrome, which is beneficial in clinics evaluating children with Noonan syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    If you have Tourette syndrome, you make unusual movements or sounds, called tics. You have little or no control over them. Common tics are throat- ... spin, or, rarely, blurt out swear words. Tourette syndrome is a disorder of the nervous system. It ...

  4. Postthrombotic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rondina MT. Contemporary issues in the prevention and management of postthrombotic syndrome. Ann Pharmacother . 2009 ; 43 : 1824 –1835. OpenUrl CrossRef PubMed ↵ Kahn SR, Ginsberg JS. Relationship between deep venous thrombosis and the postthrombotic syndrome. ...

  5. Aicardi Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aicardi Syndrome Foundation P.O. Box 3202 St. Charles IL St. Charles, IL 60174 web@aicardisyndrome.org http://www.aicardisyndrome. ... Aicardi Syndrome Foundation P.O. Box 3202 St. Charles IL St. Charles, IL 60174 web@aicardisyndrome.org ...

  6. Sjogren's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. Symptoms The two main symptoms of Sjogren's syndrome are: Dry eyes. Your eyes might burn, itch or feel gritty — ... mouth is dry. Yeast infections. People with Sjogren's syndrome are much ... Vision problems. Dry eyes can lead to light sensitivity, blurred vision and ...

  7. [Cotard syndrome].

    PubMed

    Simovici, G; Bauer, A

    1996-01-01

    We describe a schizophrenic paranoid patient, who developed a unique clinical state that fits the Cotard syndrome. The article deals with the course of the disease, the clinical characteristics, the difficulties of treatment. The process of diagnosis and its difficulties, and the rareness of the symptoms are emphasized. Various etiological causes of the syndrome are discussed.

  8. Poland syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Chandra Madhur; Kumar, Shrawan; Meghwani, Manoj K.; Agrawal, Ravi P.

    2014-01-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India. PMID:24959021

  9. Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandra Madhur; Kumar, Shrawan; Meghwani, Manoj K; Agrawal, Ravi P

    2014-01-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  10. Horner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... at birth Tumor of the hormonal and nervous systems (neuroblastoma) Unknown causes In some cases the cause of Horner syndrome cannot be identified. This is known as idiopathic Horner syndrome. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of this site ...

  11. Prostatitis Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. Curtis

    1991-01-01

    The many prostatitis syndromes remain a frustrating enigma to family physicians as well as specialists. An understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of these syndromes and a rigorous diagnostic plan to properly classify the patients at first presentation are essential to a successful treatment outcome. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21229071

  12. Brugada Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... A telltale abnormality — called a type 1 Brugada ECG pattern — is detected by an electrocardiogram (ECG) test. Brugada syndrome is much more common in ... syndrome is an abnormal pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called a type 1 Brugada ECG pattern. You ...

  13. TAFRO Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Takuro; Sato, Yasuharu

    2018-02-01

    TAFRO syndrome is a newly recognized variant of idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) that involves a constellation of syndromes: thrombocytopenia (T), anasarca (A), fever (F), reticulin fibrosis (R), and organomegaly (O). Thrombocytopenia and severe anasarca accompanied by relatively low serum immunoglobulin levels are characteristic clinical findings of TAFRO syndrome that are not present in iMCD-not otherwise specified (iMCD-NOS). Lymph node biopsy is recommended to exclude other diseases and to diagnose TAFRO syndrome, which reveals characteristic histopathological findings similar to hyaline vascular-type CD. TAFRO syndrome follows a more aggressive course, compared with iMCD-NOS, and there is no standard treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of the International Prognostic Scoring System cytogenetic risk groups on the outcome of patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings: a retrospective analysis of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation-Chronic Malignancies Working Party.

    PubMed

    Onida, Francesco; Brand, Ronald; van Biezen, Anja; Schaap, Michel; von dem Borne, Peter A; Maertens, Johan; Beelen, Dietrich W; Carreras, Enric; Alessandrino, Emilio P; Volin, Liisa; Kuball, Jürgen H E; Figuera, Angela; Sierra, Jorge; Finke, Jürgen; Kröger, Nicolaus; de Witte, Theo

    2014-10-01

    Acquired chromosomal abnormalities are important prognostic factors in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with supportive care and with disease-modifying therapeutic interventions, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To assess the prognostic impact of cytogenetic characteristics after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation accurately, we investigated a homogeneous group of 523 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes who have received stem cells from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings. Overall survival at five years from transplantation in good, intermediate, and poor cytogenetic risk groups according to the International Prognostic Scoring System was 48%, 45% and 30%, respectively (P<0.01). Both the disease status (complete remission vs. not in complete remission) and the morphological classification at transplant in the untreated patients were significantly associated with probability of overall survival and relapse-free survival (P<0.01). The cytogenetic risk groups have no prognostic impact in untreated patients with refractory anemia ± ringed sideroblasts (P=0.90). However, combining the good and intermediate cytogenetic risk groups and comparing them to the poor-risk group showed within the other three disease-status-at-transplant groups a hazard ratio of 1.86 (95%CI: 1.41-2.45). In conclusion, this study shows that, in a large series of patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes, poor-risk cytogenetics as defined by the standard International Prognostic Scoring System is associated with a relatively poor survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings except in patients who are transplanted in refractory anemia/refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts stage before progression to higher myelodysplastic syndrome stages. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  15. [Practical update of Tsaktubo syndrome].

    PubMed

    Núñez-Gil, Iván J; Mejía-Rentería, Hernán D; Martínez-Losas, Pedro

    2016-03-04

    Takotsubo syndrome, apical ballooning or «broken heart» syndrome, is a growing diagnostic entity which clinically mimics an acute coronary syndrome. Included into the stress cardiomyopathy group of cardiopathies, this condition is characterized by the absence of potentially responsible coronary lesions, while displaying a transient abnormal ventricular motion, usually affecting various coronary territories. It is generally observed in postmenopausal women and frequently seen in the presence of a stressful situation, both physical and emotional. With a prevalence of 1.2% among patients undergoing a cardiac catheterization with a suspected diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes, Takotsubo syndrome usually has a good prognosis. However, complications can occur in the acute phase, generally heart failure, which can even lead to death. In this review we discuss the latest available information on this disease and present it in a practical and useful way for the attending physician. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Joubert syndrome and related disorders].

    PubMed

    Paprocka, Justyna; Jamroz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum plays a role not only in motor control but also in motor learning and cognition. Joubert syndrome is a rare heterogeneous inherited genetic disorder characterized by ataxia, hypotonia, developmental delay, and at least one of the following features: neonatal respiratory disturbances or abnormal eye movement. The estimated frequency of Joubert syndrome in the United States is around 1 : 100 000. The term Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD) has been recently coined to describe all disorders presenting with molar tooth sign on brain neuroimaging. Joubert syndrome is believed to be a representative of a new group of disorders named ciliopathies. The identification of seven causal genes (NPHP1, AHI1, CEP290, RPGRIP1L, TMEM67/MKS3, ARL13B, CC2D2A) has led to substantial progress in the understanding of the genetic basis of Joubert syndrome. The authors focus on clinical presentation of JSRD, differential diagnosis and molecular background.

  17. Psychological treatments delivered by community health workers in low-resource government health systems: effectiveness of group interpersonal psychotherapy for caregivers of children affected by nodding syndrome in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mutamba, Byamah B; Kane, Jeremy C; de Jong, Joop T V M; Okello, James; Musisi, Seggane; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2018-02-15

    Despite increasing evidence for the benefits of psychological treatments (PTs) in low- and middle-income countries, few national health systems have adopted PTs as standard care. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-G) intervention, when delivered by lay community health workers (LCHWs) in a low-resource government health system in Uganda. The intended outcome was reduction of depression among caregivers of children with nodding syndrome, a neuropsychiatric condition with high morbidity, mortality and social stigma. A non-randomized trial design was used. Caregivers in six villages (n = 69) received treatment as usual (TAU), according to government guidelines. Caregivers in seven villages (n = 73) received TAU as well as 12 sessions of IPT-G delivered by LCHWs. Primary outcomes were caregiver and child depression assessed at 1 and 6 months post-intervention. Caregivers who received IPT-G had a significantly greater reduction in the risk of depression from baseline to 1 month [risk ratio (RR) 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.62] and 6 months (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.95) post-intervention compared with caregivers who received TAU. Children of caregivers who received IPT-G had significantly greater reduction in depression scores than children of TAU caregivers at 1 month (Cohen's d = 0.57, p = 0.01) and 6 months (Cohen's d = 0.54, p = 0.03). Significant effects were also observed for psychological distress, stigma and social support among caregivers. IPT-G delivered within a low-resource health system is an effective PT for common mental health problems in caregivers of children with a severe neuropsychiatric condition and has psychological benefits for the children as well. This supports national health policy initiatives to integrate PTs into primary health care services in Uganda.

  18. Hand-arm vibration syndrome and dose-response relation for vibration induced white finger among quarry drillers and stonecarvers. Italian Study Group on Physical Hazards in the Stone Industry.

    PubMed Central

    Bovenzi, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate the occurrence of disorders associated with the hand arm vibration syndrome in a large population of stone workers in Italy. The dose-response relation for vibration induced white finger (VWF) was also studied. METHODS--The study population consisted of 570 quarry drillers and stonecarvers exposed to vibration and 258 control stone workers who performed only manual activity. Each subject was interviewed with health and workplace assessment questionnaires. Sensorineural and VWF disorders were staged according to the Stockholm workshop scales. Vibration was measured on a representative sample of percussive and rotary tools. The 8 h energy equivalent frequency weighted acceleration (A (8)) and lifetime vibration doses were calculated for each of the exposed stone workers. RESULTS--Sensorineural and musculoskeletal symptoms occurred more frequently in the workers exposed to vibration than in the controls, but trend statistics did not show a linear exposure-response relation for these disorders. The prevalence of VWF was found to be 30.2% in the entire group exposed to vibration. Raynaud's phenomenon was discovered in 4.3% of the controls. VWF was strongly associated with exposure to vibration and a monotonic dose-response relation was found. According to the exposure data of this study, the expected percentage of stone workers affected with VWF tends to increase roughly in proportion to the square root of A(8) (for a particular exposure period) or in proportion to the square root of the duration of exposure (for a constant magnitude of vibration). CONCLUSION--Even although limited to a specific work situation, the dose-response relation for VWF estimated in this study suggests a time dependency such that halving the years of exposure allows a doubling of the energy equivalent vibration. According to these findings, the vibration exposure levels currently under discussion within the European Community seem to represent reasonable exposure

  19. Marfan syndrome: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pepe, Guglielmina; Giusti, Betti; Sticchi, Elena; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Nistri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a pleiotropic connective tissue disease inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, due to mutations in the FBN1 gene encoding fibrillin 1. It is an important protein of the extracellular matrix that contributes to the final structure of a microfibril. Few cases displaying an autosomal recessive transmission are reported in the world. The FBN1 gene, which is made of 66 exons, is located on chromosome 15q21.1. This review, after an introduction on the clinical manifestations that leads to the diagnosis of MFS, focuses on cardiovascular manifestations, pharmacological and surgical therapies of thoracic aortic aneurysm and/or dissection (TAAD), mechanisms underlying the progression of aneurysm or of acute dissection, and biomarkers associated with progression of TAADs. A Dutch group compared treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II receptor-1 blocker, vs no other additional treatment (COMPARE clinical trial). They observed that losartan reduces the aortic dilatation rate in patients with Marfan syndrome. Later on, they also reported that losartan exerts a beneficial effect on patients with Marfan syndrome carrying an FBN1 mutation that causes haploinsufficiency (quantitative mutation), while it has no significant effect on patients displaying dominant negative (qualitative) mutations. Moreover, a French group in a 3-year trial compared the administration of losartan vs placebo in patients with Marfan syndrome under treatment with beta-receptor blockers. They observed that losartan decreases blood pressure but has no effect on aortic diameter progression. Thus, beta-receptor blockers remain the gold standard therapy in patients with Marfan syndrome. Three potential biochemical markers are mentioned in this review: total homocysteine, serum transforming growth factor beta, and lysyl oxidase. Moreover, markers of oxidative stress measured in plasma, previously correlated with clinical features of Marfan syndrome, may be explored as potential

  20. Marfan syndrome: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Guglielmina; Giusti, Betti; Sticchi, Elena; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Nistri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a pleiotropic connective tissue disease inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, due to mutations in the FBN1 gene encoding fibrillin 1. It is an important protein of the extracellular matrix that contributes to the final structure of a microfibril. Few cases displaying an autosomal recessive transmission are reported in the world. The FBN1 gene, which is made of 66 exons, is located on chromosome 15q21.1. This review, after an introduction on the clinical manifestations that leads to the diagnosis of MFS, focuses on cardiovascular manifestations, pharmacological and surgical therapies of thoracic aortic aneurysm and/or dissection (TAAD), mechanisms underlying the progression of aneurysm or of acute dissection, and biomarkers associated with progression of TAADs. A Dutch group compared treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II receptor-1 blocker, vs no other additional treatment (COMPARE clinical trial). They observed that losartan reduces the aortic dilatation rate in patients with Marfan syndrome. Later on, they also reported that losartan exerts a beneficial effect on patients with Marfan syndrome carrying an FBN1 mutation that causes haploinsufficiency (quantitative mutation), while it has no significant effect on patients displaying dominant negative (qualitative) mutations. Moreover, a French group in a 3-year trial compared the administration of losartan vs placebo in patients with Marfan syndrome under treatment with beta-receptor blockers. They observed that losartan decreases blood pressure but has no effect on aortic diameter progression. Thus, beta-receptor blockers remain the gold standard therapy in patients with Marfan syndrome. Three potential biochemical markers are mentioned in this review: total homocysteine, serum transforming growth factor beta, and lysyl oxidase. Moreover, markers of oxidative stress measured in plasma, previously correlated with clinical features of Marfan syndrome, may be explored as potential

  1. Targets to treat metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome is comprised of a combination of the following states: increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and increased abdominal obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the course of their lives. Metabolic syndrome increases risk of major cardiovascular events, morbidity, quality of life, and overall health care costs. Though metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS is an area of great concern, there is no effective individual medical therapeutic to adequately treat this issue. Areas Covered This article will review key aspects of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. We will discuss classic and novel therapeutics to address metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. We will conclude with the importance of developing strategic interventions to increase the compliance to lifestyle and dietary modification, in addition to appreciation of the emerging pharmaceutical therapeutics available. Expert Opinion Innovation in lifestyle modification, including diet, exercise, with and without dedicated stress reduction techniques is the future in treatment of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Application of novel interventions, such as group medical care, may improve future adherence to lifestyle modification recommendations, in addition to or in combination with pharmaceutical therapeutics. PMID:26488852

  2. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... become irregular or stop. Men may have decreased fertility with lowered interest in sex and may have ... but don’t develop the long-term health effects of Cushing's syndrome. These people may have pseudo- ...

  3. Behcet's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Behcet's syndrome is a disease that involves vasculitis, which is inflammation of the blood vessels. It causes problems in many parts of the body. The ... National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

  4. Carcinoid syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... things such as blue cheese, chocolate, or red wine. Exams and Tests Most of these tumors are ... outlook is more favorable thanks to new treatment methods. Possible Complications Complications of carcinoid syndrome may include: ...

  5. Lynch Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... child is a son or daughter. How gene mutations cause cancer The genes affected in Lynch syndrome ... children have a risk of inheriting your genetic mutations. If one parent carries a genetic mutation for ...

  6. Noonan syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray , or echocardiogram Hearing tests Growth hormone levels Genetic testing can help diagnose this syndrome. ... Problems with the structure of the heart Short height Social problems due to physical symptoms

  7. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone your body produces to help ... into energy for your body. If you are insulin resistant, too much sugar builds up in your ...

  8. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... like he's in pain or needs help. These tics are symptoms of Luke's Tourette syndrome. What Is ... the body's brain and nervous system by causing tics — sudden, repetitive movements or sounds that some people ...

  9. Hurler Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... del paciente Transplant process Diseases treated by transplant Acute myeloid leukemia Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) ... SCID) Sickle cell disease (SCD) Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Other diseases Treatment decisions Learn ...

  10. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... trials, epidemiology, neurophysiology, neuroimmunology, and descriptive/diagnostic clinical science. Findings from these studies will provide clues for more effective therapies. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Tourette Syndrome × What research is ...

  11. Apert syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... by ridging along sutures (craniosynostosis) Frequent ear infections Fusion or severe webbing of the 2nd, 3rd, and ... midface Skeletal (limb) abnormalities Short height Webbing or fusion of the toes Several other syndromes can lead ...

  12. [Refeeding syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ševela, Stanislav; Novák, František; Kazda, Antonín; Brodská, Helena

    Despite being known more than 60 years, refeeding syndrome (RS) still bears many uncertainties. For example, its definition is not clear and definite, and the attitude to it varies from the complete neglect to over-prevention.The term "refeeding syndrome" refers to electrolyte and metabolic changes occurring in malnourished patients after the readministration of nutrition. These changes concern especially to phosphates and ions. Potassium, magnesium, naturism and fluids balance are involved. The changes lead to cell energetic metabolism and electric potential disturbances, with related clinical symptoms.Fully developed refeeding syndrome is quite rare; nevertheless it can be fatal for the patient. However, even its development can lead to many complications increasing the patient's morbidity and the length of stay in the hospital. Yet the refeeding syndrome is more or less predictable and if kept in mind also preventable.The aim of this article is to get the reader to know more about this metabolic phenomenon and possible attitudes towards it.

  13. Stickler Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children who have Stickler syndrome often have distinctive facial features — prominent eyes, a small nose with a scooped ... develop ear infections than are children with normal facial features. Deafness. Hearing loss may worsen with time and ...

  14. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? In the more severely affected cases of Brown ... acquired and congenital cases. In congenital cases, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  15. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased risk of developing weak, brittle bones (osteoporosis). Learning disabilities. Girls and women with Turner syndrome usually have normal intelligence. However, there is increased risk of learning disabilities, particularly with learning that involves spatial concepts, math, ...

  16. Aase syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Aase-Smith syndrome; Hypoplastic anemia - triphalangeal thumbs, Aase-Smith type ... Jones KL, Jones MC, Del Campo M, eds. Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation . 7th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  17. Alagille Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  18. Reye Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  19. Tourette syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... had many motor tics and 1 or more vocal tics, although these tics may not have occurred ... symptoms of Tourette syndrome. A type of talk therapy (coginitive behavioral therapy) called habit-reversal may help ...

  20. HELLP syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is considered to be a variant of preeclampsia. Sometimes the presence of HELLP syndrome is due ... out of 1,000 pregnancies. In women with preeclampsia or eclampsia , the condition develops in 10% to ...

  1. Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tagra, Sunita; Talwar, Amrita Kaur; Walia, Rattan Lal Singh; Sidhu, Puneet

    2006-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare inherited and genetically heterogenous disorder of neural crest cell development. Four distinct subtypes showing marked interfamilial and intrafamilial variability have been described. We report a girl showing constellation of congenital hearing impairment with 110 dB and 105 dB loss in right and left ear respectively, hypoplastic blue iridis, white forelock, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal root. Other affected relatives of the family, with variable features of the syndrome, have been depicted in the pedigree.

  2. Noonan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Amy E; Allanson, Judith E; Tartaglia, Marco; Gelb, Bruce D

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a genetic multisystem disorder characterised by distinctive facial features, developmental delay, learning difficulties, short stature, congenital heart disease, renal anomalies, lymphatic malformations, and bleeding difficulties. Mutations that cause Noonan syndrome alter genes encoding proteins with roles in the RAS–MAPK pathway, leading to pathway dysregulation. Management guidelines have been developed. Several clinically relevant genotype–phenotype correlations aid risk assessment and patient management. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease could help development of pharmacogenetic treatments. PMID:23312968

  3. [Poland's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Slezak, R; Sasiadek, M

    2000-08-01

    Poland's syndrome consists of the variable clinical features, but always includes unilateral aplasia of the chest wall muscles and ipsilateral anomalies of upper extremity. The incidence of Poland's syndrome, reported by different authors ranges from 1:10,000 to 1:100,000 and is observed more frequently in males than in females with the right side of the body affected more often than the left. The etiology of this syndrome is still discussed. However most of described cases were sporadic, rare familial incidence of Poland's syndrome were also presented. Therefore different etiologic factors of the Poland's syndrome are taken into account: genetic, vascular compromise during early stages of embriogenesis but also teratogenic effect of environmental xenobiotics (e.g. cigarette smoking by pregnant women). The authors present also the case of 20-years old man with inherited bilateral syndactyly with the right side aplasia of major pectoralis muscle and face asymmetry. The familial history was negative in respect to the features, associated with Poland's syndrome.

  4. Diagnosis of antenatal Bartter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Narayan, R; Peres, M; Kesby, G

    2016-01-01

    Bartter syndrome is a rare heterogeneous group of autosomal-recessive salt-losing renal tubular disorders that can present in fetal life (antenatal Bartter syndrome; ABS) as "unexplained" early-onset polyhydramnios, often associated with growth restriction. Prenatal diagnosis of the condition involves assessment of amniotic fluid biochemistry in a setting of polyuric polyhydramnios; with elevated chloride levels considered a consistent and diagnostic finding. Other amniotic fluid biochemical markers have been described, notably increased aldosterone levels, and low total protein levels. NOVEL INSIGHT: Antenatal Bartter syndrome is a heterogeneous group of renal disorders. While certain biochemical features in amniotic fluid might heighten suspicion, final diagnosis can only be made in the postnatal setting. In the setting of unexplained severe polyhydramnios, clinicians should continue to entertain the diagnosis of antenatal Bartter Syndrome and maintain neonatal surveillance, even if amniotic fluid markers do not support the diagnosis.

  5. [Myelodysplastic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Thol, F; Heuser, M; Ganser, A

    2015-04-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases originating in hematopoietic stem cells and is characterized by inefficient hematopoiesis and dysplastic changes in the bone marrow. In peripheral blood patients show anemia (mostly macrocytic), frequently accompanied by neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Thus, clinically the patients suffer from fatigue (anemia), increased bleeding (thrombocytopenia) and infectious complications (neutropenia). Approximately one quarter of MDS patients develop acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the course of the disease, which is characterized by a 20 % or more increase of blasts in the bone marrow. The estimated overall survival as well as the risk for AML transformation can be calculated with the international prognostic scoring system (IPSS) as well as the revised IPSS score (IPSS-R). Novel sequencing methods (e.g. next generation sequencing) allow the detection of recurrent gene mutations in MDS patients. Genes of the splicing machinery as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation (e.g. ASXL1 and TET2) are most frequently mutated in MDS. Therapy is selected based on the patient risk profile (IPSS). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a curative approach for high risk patients (i.e. IPSS int-2 and higher) with a good performance status and a biological age below 70 years. Otherwise, high risk patients are treated with demethylating agents (e.g. decitabine and azacitidine). Low risk patients (IPSS low and int-1) mainly receive supportive therapy including iron chelation. An exceptional position is presented by MDS with an isolated 5q deletion as it can be treated with lenalidomide with good success. Enrolling patients in clinical trials is strongly recommended to improve the prospects of this disease.

  6. Learning about WAGR Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... children who have WAGR syndrome may have normal intelligence. Other symptoms of WAGR syndrome may also include: ... mild. Some individuals with WAGR syndrome have normal intelligence. Children with WAGR syndrome should be referred for ...

  7. Exogenous Cushing syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Cushing syndrome - corticosteroid induced; Corticosteroid-induced Cushing syndrome; Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome ... Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a higher than normal level of the hormone ...

  8. Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other FAQs Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs Basic information for topics, such as " ... been diagnosed with Turner syndrome. Now what? Is Turner syndrome inherited? Turner syndrome is usually not inherited, but ...

  9. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Also known as Pickwickian Syndrome What ... your neck is larger than normal. Complications of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome When left untreated, OHS can cause ...

  10. Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the signs and symptoms of Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Marfan syndrome is different from Loeys-Dietz syndrome in that the gene mutation which causes Marfan syndrome is in fibrillin-1 (FBN-1), a protein ...

  11. National Down Syndrome Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... individuals with Down syndrome. Help us fix the law and end #LawSyndrome. Law Syndrome affects 100% of people with Down syndrome. It’s a series of antiquated laws that impede the pursuit of a career or ...

  12. World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM) 2016 standards for recording and scoring leg movements in polysomnograms developed by a joint task force from the International and the European Restless Legs Syndrome Study Groups (IRLSSG and EURLSSG).

    PubMed

    Ferri, R; Fulda, S; Allen, R P; Zucconi, M; Bruni, O; Chokroverty, S; Ferini-Strambi, L; Frauscher, B; Garcia-Borreguero, D; Hirshkowitz, M; Högl, B; Inoue, Y; Jahangir, A; Manconi, M; Marcus, C L; Picchietti, D L; Plazzi, G; Winkelman, J W; Zak, R S

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the results of the work by a joint task force of the International and European Restless Legs Syndrome Study Groups and World Association of Sleep Medicine that revised and updated the current standards for recording and scoring leg movements (LM) in polysomnographic recordings (PSG). First, the background of the decisions made and the explanations of the new rules are reported and then specific standard rules are presented for recording, detecting, scoring and reporting LM activity in PSG. Each standard rule has been classified with a level of evidence. At the end of the paper, Appendix 1 provides algorithms to aid implementation of these new standards in software tools. There are two main changes introduced by these new rules: 1) Candidate LM (CLM), are any monolateral LM 0.5-10 s long or bilateral LM 0.5-15 s long; 2) periodic LM (PLM) are now defined by runs of at least four consecutive CLM with an intermovement interval ≥10 and ≤ 90 s without any CLM preceded by an interval <10 s interrupting the PLM series. There are also new options defining CLM associated with respiratory events. The PLM rate may now first be determined for all CLM not excluding any related to respiration (providing a consistent number across studies regardless of the rules used to define association with respiration) and, subsequently, the PLM rate should also be calculated without considering the respiratory related events. Finally, special considerations for pediatric studies are provided. The expert visual scoringof LM has only been altered by the new standards to require accepting all LM > 0.5 s regardless of duration, otherwise the technician scores the LM as for the old standards. There is a new criterion for the morphology of LM that applies only to computerized LM detection to better match expert visual detection. Available automatic scoring programs will incorporate all the new rules so that the new standards should reduce technician burden for

  13. Uptake and efficacy of a systematic intensive smoking cessation intervention using motivational interviewing for smokers hospitalised for an acute coronary syndrome: a multicentre before-after study with parallel group comparisons.

    PubMed

    Auer, Reto; Gencer, Baris; Tango, Rodrigo; Nanchen, David; Matter, Christian M; Lüscher, Thomas Felix; Windecker, Stephan; Mach, François; Cornuz, Jacques; Humair, Jean-Paul; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-09-20

    To compare the efficacy of a proactive approach with a reactive approach to offer intensive smoking cessation intervention using motivational interviewing (MI). Before-after comparison in 2 academic hospitals with parallel comparisons in 2 control hospitals. Academic hospitals in Switzerland. Smokers hospitalised for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In the intervention hospitals during the intervention phase, a resident physician trained in MI systematically offered counselling to all smokers admitted for ACS, followed by 4 telephone counselling sessions over 2 months by a nurse trained in MI. In the observation phase, the in-hospital intervention was offered only to patients whose clinicians requested a smoking cessation intervention. In the control hospitals, no intensive smoking cessation intervention was offered. The primary outcome was 1 week smoking abstinence (point prevalence) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of smokers who received the in-hospital smoking cessation intervention and the duration of the intervention. In the intervention centres during the intervention phase, 87% of smokers (N=193/225) received a smoking cessation intervention compared to 22% in the observational phase (p<0.001). Median duration of counselling was 50 min. During the intervention phase, 78% received a phone follow-up for a median total duration of 42 min in 4 sessions. Prescription of nicotine replacement therapy at discharge increased from 18% to 58% in the intervention phase (risk ratio (RR): 3.3 (95% CI 2.4 to 4.3; p≤0.001). Smoking cessation at 12-month increased from 43% to 51% comparing the observation and intervention phases (RR=1.20, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.46; p=0.08; 97% with outcome assessment). In the control hospitals, the RR for quitting was 1.02 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.25; p=0.8, 92% with outcome assessment). A proactive strategy offering intensive smoking cessation intervention based on MI to all smokers hospitalised for ACS significantly

  14. Cognitive and behavioral heterogeneity in genetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pegoraro, Luiz F L; Steiner, Carlos E; Celeri, Eloisa H R V; Banzato, Claudio E M; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    this study aimed to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles, as well as the psychiatric symptoms and disorders in children with three different genetic syndromes with similar sociocultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. thirty-four children aged 6 to 16 years, with Williams-Beuren syndrome (n=10), Prader-Willi syndrome (n=11), and Fragile X syndrome (n=13) from the outpatient clinics of Child Psychiatry and Medical Genetics Department were cognitively assessed through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). Afterwards, a full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), verbal IQ, performance IQ, standard subtest scores, as well as frequency of psychiatric symptoms and disorders were compared among the three syndromes. significant differences were found among the syndromes concerning verbal IQ and verbal and performance subtests. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that vocabulary and comprehension subtest scores were significantly higher in Williams-Beuren syndrome in comparison with Prader-Willi and Fragile X syndromes, and block design and object assembly scores were significantly higher in Prader-Willi syndrome compared with Williams-Beuren and Fragile X syndromes. Additionally, there were significant differences between the syndromes concerning behavioral features and psychiatric symptoms. The Prader-Willi syndrome group presented a higher frequency of hyperphagia and self-injurious behaviors. The Fragile X syndrome group showed a higher frequency of social interaction deficits; such difference nearly reached statistical significance. the three genetic syndromes exhibited distinctive cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric patterns. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Are ECG abnormalities in Noonan syndrome characteristic for the syndrome?

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, R; Noordam, C; Noonan, J A; Croonen, E A; van der Burgt, C J A M; Draaisma, J M T

    2008-12-01

    Of all patients with Noonan syndrome, 50-90% have one or more congenital heart defects. The most frequent occurring are pulmonary stenosis (PS) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The electrocardiogram (ECG) of a patient with Noonan syndrome often shows a characteristic pattern, with a left axis deviation, abnormal R/S ratio over the left precordium, and an abnormal Q wave. The objective of this study was to determine if these ECG characteristics are an independent feature of the Noonan syndrome or if they are related to the congenital heart defect. A cohort study was performed with 118 patients from two university hospitals in the United States and in The Netherlands. All patients were diagnosed with definite Noonan syndrome and had had an ECG and echocardiography. Sixty-nine patients (58%) had characteristic abnormalities of the ECG. In the patient group without a cardiac defect (n = 21), ten patients had a characteristic ECG abnormality. There was no statistical relationship between the presence of a characteristic ECG abnormality and the presence of a cardiac defect (p = 0.33). Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had more ECG abnormalities in total (p = 0.05), without correlation with a specific ECG abnormality. We conclude that the ECG features in patients with Noonan syndrome are characteristic for the syndrome and are not related to a specific cardiac defect. An ECG is very useful in the diagnosis of Noonan syndrome; every child with a Noonan phenotype should have an ECG and echocardiogram for evaluation.

  16. Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chee, Siew-Yin; Wanga, Chung-Hsing; Lina, Wei-De; Tsaia, Fuu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndrome comprises a large, heterogeneous group of inherited disorders that are defined by primary defects in the development of 2 or more tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. The tissues primarily involved are the skin and its appendages (including hair follicles, eccrine glands, sebaceous glands, nails) and teeth. The clinical features include sparse hair, abnormal or missing teeth, and an inability to sweat due to lack of sweat glands. One such case report of ectodermal dysplasia is presented here.

  17. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic condition. The gene linked to the syndrome is known as PTCH (" ...

  18. What Is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or rheumatic (ru-MAT-ik) disorders, such as lupus . ("Rheumatic" refers to disorders that affect the joints, ... aCL syndrome Antiphospholipid syndrome aPL syndrome Hughes syndrome Lupus anticoagulant syndrome Causes Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) occurs ...

  19. Development and characteristics of children with Usher syndrome and CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-09-01

    Individuals with Usher syndrome or CHARGE syndrome are faced with a number of difficulties concerning hearing, vision, balance, and language development. The aim of the study is to describe the developmental characteristics of children with Usher syndrome and CHARGE syndrome, respectively. Data about the developmental characteristics of 26 children with Usher syndrome and 17 children with CHARGE syndrome was obtained. Associations between deafblindness (dual sensory loss), motor development (age of walking), language abilities, and intellectual outcome of these children were explored for each group independently. Both groups of children face a number of difficulties associated with vision, hearing, language, balance and intellectual outcome. Intellectual disability and/or language delay was found among 42% of the children with Usher syndrome and among 82% of the children with CHARGE syndrome. Intellectual disability was associated with language delay and age of walking for both groups. Even though Usher and CHARGE are two different genetic syndromes, both groups are challenged with a number of similar developmental delays. Clinicians need to be aware of several developmental issues in order to offer adequate support to children with Usher or CHARGE syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic syndromes associated with overgrowth in childhood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Overgrowth syndromes comprise a diverse group of conditions with unique clinical, behavioral and molecular genetic features. While considerable overlap in presentation sometimes exists, advances in identification of the precise etiology of specific overgrowth disorders continue to improve clinicians' ability to make an accurate diagnosis. Among them, this paper introduces two classic genetic overgrowth syndromes: Sotos syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Historically, the diagnosis was based entirely on clinical findings. However, it is now understood that Sotos syndrome is caused by a variety of molecular genetic alterations resulting in haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene at chromosome 5q35 and that Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is caused by heterogeneous abnormalities in the imprinting of a number of growth regulatory genes within chromosome 11p15 in the majority of cases. Interestingly, the 11p15 imprinting region is also associated with Russell-Silver syndrome which is a typical growth retardation syndrome. Opposite epigenetic alterations in 11p15 result in opposite clinical features shown in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Russell-Silver syndrome. Although the exact functions of the causing genes have not yet been completely understood, these overgrowth syndromes can be good models to clarify the complex basis of human growth and help to develop better-directed therapies in the future. PMID:24904861

  1. Mathematics Learning Disability in Girls with Turner Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Gerner, Gwendolyn; Henry, Anne E.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to examine the persistence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of mathematics learning disability (MLD) in girls with Turner syndrome or fragile X during the primary school years (ages 5-9 years). In Study 1, the rate of MLD for each syndrome group exceeded the rate observed in a grade-matched comparison group,…

  2. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ramesh Chander; Mahajan, Vikram; Sharma, Nand Lal; Sharma, Ashok K

    2003-09-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare genodermatosis characterized by acral bullae and photosensitivity. The photosensitivity improves with advancing age and results in progressive poikiloderma and cutaneous atrophy, and many additional features have also been described. This report describes two male Kindler syndrome patients with classical features of acral blistering and photosensitivity in childhood, and subsequent development of poikiloderma, leukokeratosis of oro-ano-genital mucosae, phimosis and meatal stenosis. The first patient had additional ophthalmic features of chronic simple conjunctivitis caused by persistent irritation, multiple stromal nebular corneal opacities and thickened corneal nerves. The second patient showed skeletal changes, namely a dome-shaped skull (turri-cephaly), bifid fourth rib, missing fifth rib, short fourth and fifth metacarpals and mandibular abnormalities. This is the first report of such ophthalmic and skeletal features of Kindler syndrome.

  3. Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhambhani, Vikas; Muenke, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a common genetic disorder that causes multiple congenital abnormalities and a large number of potential health conditions. Most affected individuals have characteristic facial features that evolve with age; a broad, webbed neck; increased bleeding tendency; and a high incidence of congenital heart disease, failure to thrive, short stature, feeding difficulties, sternal deformity, renal malformation, pubertal delay, cryptorchidism, developmental or behavioral problems, vision problems, hearing loss, and lymphedema. Familial recurrence is consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, but most cases are due to de novo mutations. Diagnosis can be made on the basis of clinical features, but may be missed in mildly affected patients. Molecular genetic testing can confirm diagnosis in 70% of cases and has important implications for genetic counseling and management. Most patients with Noonan syndrome are intellectually normal as adults, but some may require multidisciplinary evaluation and regular follow-up care. Age-based Noonan syndrome-specific growth charts and treatment guidelines are available.

  4. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  5. Refeeding syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Swagata; Mishra, Padmini; Dash, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a fifty-year-old male who was admitted with a three month history of increasing weakness, prostration, decreasing appetite and inability to swallow. The patient was a chronic alcoholic, unemployed, and of very poor socioeconomic background. The patient was initially investigated for upper GI malignancy, Addisons disease, bulbar palsy and other endocrinopathies. Concurrent management was started for severe electrolyte abnormalities and enteral nutritional supplementation was begun. By the fourth day of feeding patient developed severe hypophosphatemia and other life-threatening features suggesting refeeding syndrome. The patient was managed for the manifestations of refeeding syndrome. A final diagnosis of chronic alcoholic malnutrition with refeeding syndrome was made. Refeeding of previously starving patients may lead to a variety of complications including sudden death. PMID:19742256

  6. Eagle's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves; Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Ferreira, Denise Bastos Lage; Raymundo, Igor Teixeira; Nascimento, Luiz Augusto; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT) of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical. PMID:25992033

  7. Proactive Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galassi, John P., Ed.

    Several authors describe group counseling programs provided by a university counseling center to meet student needs for developing interpersonal communication skills and self-assertion behavior. In response to these needs, the counseling center provided personal growth groups, a proactive black group, a women's group, a marriage growth group, and…

  8. Postpolio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Winters, R

    1991-01-01

    The recurrence of symptoms many years after the rehabilitation of individuals who survived the acute illness, poliomyelitis, is a major concern. The purpose of this article is to provide information to the nurse practitioner (NP), who, as a primary health care provider, may be the first health professional to encounter persons with such complaints. Although no cure has been identified, diagnosis and treatment is available and is important to the psychosocial well-being of those who suffer from postpolio syndrome. This article reviews research on the syndrome including etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms and management, psychological issues, and the role of the aging process. Some areas where further research is indicated are also identified.

  9. Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Srivastava, Rohit

    2005-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a rare, progressive, neurodevelopmental disorder that has been reported only in the girl child. We describe the case of a 6.9-year-old girl with Rett syndrome. She had normal development till the age of 2 years. However, over the next 4–5 months, she lost her acquired, purposeful hand skills; expressive and receptive language; and reciprocal social interaction; and gradually developed a broad-based gait and typical midline stereotyped hand movements (mouthing, rubbing). PMID:20711295

  10. [Elsberg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kristine Esbjerg; Knudsen, Troels Bygum

    2013-12-16

    A syndrome involving acute urinary retention in combination with sacral radiculitis and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis was first described by the American neurosurgeon Charles Elsberg in 1931. In many instances the aetiology is herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivation from sensory neurons. In this case report we present a 34-year-old pregnant woman with previous undiagnosed sensory lumbosacral symptoms. She was hospitalized with HSV-2 meningitis and lumbosacral radiculitis but no genital rash. A week after the onset of symptoms she developed acute urinary retention, thus indicating Elsberg syndrome.

  11. Reiter's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Savant, S S; Fernandez, J C; Dhurandhar, M W; Fernandez, R J

    1979-01-01

    A case of Reiter's syndrome occurring in a young mate aged 20 years having extensive skin lesions of keratoderina blenoffhagica is presented along with a review of literature. Although urethritis was absent, other clinical and histopathological features of the cutaneous lesions led us to the diagnosis. The-possible relationship of postural psoriasis to Reiter's syndrome is discussed. Failure of the patient to respond satisfactorily to steroids, antibiotics etc, prompted the use of rnethotrexate in the case. The result was dramatic, as the patient completely recovered within ten days of starting treatment.

  12. Worldwide distribution of Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Chetan S; Isaacson, Glenn

    2003-09-01

    To clarify the multiracial occurrence of Waardenburg syndrome, we present a case series and literature review. A computerized review of the English-language literature was conducted to assess the distribution of reported occurrences of Waardenburg syndrome in populations around the world. We detail the clinical features of 2 family cohorts: one of Western European origin and the other from South Asia. A computerized literature review found sporadic cases of the syndrome in many ethnic groups, including Japanese, Taiwanese, and Middle Eastern families. The highest reported incidence is among Kenyan Africans. Waardenburg syndrome accounts for between 2% and 5% of cases of congenital deafness. It was first described in Northern European cohorts and is widely identified in fair-skinned populations. We hope to raise awareness of the worldwide distribution of this important cause of hearing loss.

  13. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Blei, Francine

    2015-04-01

    Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies encompass entities with a vascular anomaly as the predominant feature vs those syndromes with predominant somatic overgrowth and a vascular anomaly as a more minor component. The focus of this article is to categorize these syndromes phenotypically, including updated clinical criteria, radiologic features, evaluation, management issues, pathophysiology, and genetic information. A literature review was conducted in PubMed using key words "overgrowth syndromes and vascular anomalies" as well as specific literature reviews for each entity and supportive genetic information (e.g., somatic mosaicism). Additional searches in OMIM and Gene Reviews were conducted for each syndrome. Disease entities were categorized by predominant clinical features, known genetic information, and putative affected signaling pathway. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, often with variable clinical expression, due to germline or somatic mutations. Overgrowth can be focal (e.g., macrocephaly) or generalized, often asymmetrically (and/or mosaically) distributed. All germ layers may be affected, and the abnormalities may be progressive. Patients with overgrowth syndromes may be at an increased risk for malignancies. Practitioners should be attentive to patients having syndromes with overgrowth and vascular defects. These patients require proactive evaluation, referral to appropriate specialists, and in some cases, early monitoring for potential malignancies. Progress in identifying vascular anomaly-related overgrowth syndromes and their genetic etiology has been robust in the past decade and is contributing to genetically based prenatal diagnosis and new therapies targeting the putative causative genetic mutations. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Six controversial issues on subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Albani, Adriana; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Campo, Michela; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Marcelli, Giorgia; Morelli, Valentina; Zampetti, Benedetta; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario

    2017-05-01

    Subclinical Cushing's syndrome is a condition of hypercortisolism in the absence of signs specific of overt cortisol excess, and it is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, fragility fractures, cardiovascular events and mortality. The subclinical Cushing's syndrome is not rare, being estimated to be between 0.2-2 % in the adult population. Despite the huge number of studies that have been published in the recent years, several issues remain controversial for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome screening, diagnosis and treatment. The Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome Group was founded in 2012 for bringing together the leading Italian experts in the hypercortisolism-related diseases. This document represents the Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome viewpoint regarding the following controversial issues on Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS): (1) Who has to be screened for subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (2) How to screen the populations at risk? (3) How to diagnose subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma? (4) Which consequence of subclinical Cushing's syndrome has to be searched for? (5) How to address the therapy of choice in AI patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (6) How to follow-up adrenal incidentaloma patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome surgically or conservatively treated? Notwithstanding the fact that most studies that faced these points may have several biases (e.g., retrospective design, small sample size, different criteria for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome diagnosis), we believe that the literature evidence is sufficient to affirm that the subclinical Cushing's syndrome condition is not harmless and that the currently available diagnostic tools are reliable for identifying the majority of individuals with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

  15. [Waardenburg's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gimñenez, F; Carbonell, R; Pérez, F; Lozano, I

    1994-01-01

    Reporting one case of this condition type-2 with heterochromia iridis and cochlear deafness. The AA. review the syndrome's components and it nomenclature as well. They discuss about the convenience of including this deviation in the chapter of "diseases of the embryonic neural crest". The specific place of the gene responsibly in the chromosome-2 and the possibilities of genetic counselling are considered.

  16. Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ashton, G H S

    2004-03-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive skin fragility disorder characterized by blistering in infancy, followed by photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. Ultrastructural examination reveals marked basement membrane reduplication and variable levels of cleavage at the dermal-epidermal junction. The molecular pathology underlying Kindler syndrome has recently been shown to involve loss-of-function mutations in a novel gene, KIND1, encoding kindlin-1. Immunofluorescence, gene expression and cell biology studies have shown that kindlin-1 is expressed mainly in basal keratinocytes and plays a role in the attachment of the actin cytoskeleton via focal contacts to the extracellular matrix. Thus, Kindler syndrome is the first genodermatosis caused by a defect in actin-extracellular matrix linkage rather than the classic keratin-extracellular matrix linkage underlying the pathology of other inherited skin fragility disorders such as epidermolysis bullosa. This article reviews the clinical features as well as the molecular and cellular pathology of Kindler syndrome and highlights the importance of the new protein, kindlin-1, in cell-matrix adhesion and its intriguing link to photosensitivity.

  17. Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbert, Linda A.

    This pamphlet reviews the historical process involved in initially recognizing Rett Syndrome as a specific disorder in girls. Its etiology is unknown, but studies have considered factors as hyperammonemia, a two-step mutation, a fragile X chromosome, metabolic disorder, environmental causation, dopamine deficiency, and an inactive X chromosome.…

  18. Pendred Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... weigh the medical, emotional, and ethical considerations of testing. A genetic counselor is a health professional who provides information and support to people (and their families) who have a genetic disorder or who are at risk for a genetic disorder. How is Pendred syndrome ...

  19. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... with movement and coordination, and a loss of social interaction and communication. Stage III: plateau. The third stage usually begins between the ages of 2 and 10 years and can last for many years. ... social functioning Shortened life span — people with Rett syndrome ...

  20. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin. What health problems can occur with Turner syndrome? Girls and women with TS are at risk for congenital (present at birth) abnormalities of the heart and kidneys, high blood pressure, chronic or repeated middle ear infections, hearing loss, diabetes, underactive thyroid gland, bowel ...

  1. Sotos syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baujat, Geneviève; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth condition characterized by cardinal features including excessive growth during childhood, macrocephaly, distinctive facial gestalt and various degrees of learning difficulty, and associated with variable minor features. The exact prevalence remains unknown but hundreds of cases have been reported. The diagnosis is usually suspected after birth because of excessive height and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), advanced bone age, neonatal complications including hypotonia and feeding difficulties, and facial gestalt. Other inconstant clinical abnormalities include scoliosis, cardiac and genitourinary anomalies, seizures and brisk deep tendon reflexes. Variable delays in cognitive and motor development are also observed. The syndrome may also be associated with an increased risk of tumors. Mutations and deletions of the NSD1 gene (located at chromosome 5q35 and coding for a histone methyltransferase implicated in transcriptional regulation) are responsible for more than 75% of cases. FISH analysis, MLPA or multiplex quantitative PCR allow the detection of total/partial NSD1 deletions, and direct sequencing allows detection of NSD1 mutations. The large majority of NSD1 abnormalities occur de novo and there are very few familial cases. Although most cases are sporadic, several reports of autosomal dominant inheritance have been described. Germline mosaicism has never been reported and the recurrence risk for normal parents is very low (<1%). The main differential diagnoses are Weaver syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedeman syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome and 22qter deletion syndrome. Management is multidisciplinary. During the neonatal period, therapies are mostly symptomatic, including phototherapy in case of jaundice, treatment of the feeding difficulties and gastroesophageal reflux, and detection and treatment of hypoglycemia. General pediatric follow-up is important during the first years of life to allow detection

  2. [Dialysis and ultrafiltration therapy in patients with cardio-renal syndrome: recommendations of the working group "heart-kidney" of the German Cardiac Society and the German Society of Nephrology].

    PubMed

    Schwenger, V; Remppis, B A; Westenfeld, R; Weinreich, T; Brunkhorst, R; Schieren, G; Krumme, B; Haller, H; Schmieder, R; Schlieper, G; Frye, B; Hoppe, U C; Hoyer, J; Keller, T; Blumenstein, M; Schunkert, H; Mahfoud, F; Rump, L C

    2014-02-01

    Renal failure is common in patients with severe heart failure. This complex pathophysiological interaction has been classified as cardio-renal syndrome. In these patients hydropic decompensation is the main cause of hospitalization. In patients with refractory heart failure, characterized by diuretic resistance and congestion due to volume overload, ultrafiltration has to be considered. In acute decompensated heart failure with worsening of renal function, extracorporeal ultrafiltration is the preferred treatment modality. On the other hand, patients suffering from chronic decompensated heart failure, particularly patients with ascites, will profit from the treatment specific advantages of peritoneal ultrafiltration. Prerequisite for an optimized care of patients with cardio-renal syndrome is the close collaboration among intensive care doctors, cardiologists and nephrologists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: 47,XYY syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of developmental conditions that affect communication and social interaction. Enlarge Frequency This condition occurs in about 1 in 1,000 newborn boys. Five to 10 boys with 47,XYY syndrome are born in the United States each ... Kushner H, Zinn AR, Reiss A, Bardsley MZ, McCauley E, Tartaglia N. Behavioral and social phenotypes in boys with 47,XYY syndrome or ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Li-Fraumeni syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... are some genetic conditions more common in particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes The CHEK2 and TP53 genes are associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome . More than half of all families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome have inherited mutations in ...

  5. Communication Profiles of Adolescents with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosin, Margaret M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study compared communication patterns of male adolescents with Down Syndrome with males matched for chronological age and mental age. The Down Syndrome group was significantly different for mean length of utterance, comprehension of syntax, single word articulation, selected diadochokinetic tasks, and some aerodynamic tasks. (Author/JDD)

  6. Pendred syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Kopp, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder that is classically defined by the combination of sensorineural deafness/hearing impairment, goiter, and an abnormal organification of iodide with or without hypothyroidism. The hallmark of the syndrome is the impaired hearing, which is associated with inner ear malformations such as an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). The thyroid phenotype is variable and may be modified by the nutritional iodine intake. Pendred syndrome is caused by biallelic mutations in the SLC26A4/PDS gene, which encodes the multifunctional anion exchanger pendrin. Pendrin has affinity for chloride, iodide, and bicarbonate, among other anions. In the inner ear, pendrin functions as a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger that is essential for maintaining the composition and the potential of the endolymph. In the thyroid, pendrin is expressed at the apical membrane of thyroid cells facing the follicular lumen. Functional studies have demonstrated that pendrin can mediate iodide efflux in heterologous cells. This, together with the thyroid phenotype observed in humans (goiter, impaired iodine organification) suggests that pendrin could be involved in iodide efflux into the lumen, one of the steps required for thyroid hormone synthesis. Iodide efflux can, however, also occur in the absence of pendrin suggesting that other exchangers or channels are involved. It has been suggested that Anoctamin 1 (ANO1/TMEM16A), a calcium-activated anion channel, which is also expressed at the apical membrane of thyrocytes, could participate in mediating apical efflux. In the kidney, pendrin is involved in bicarbonate secretion and chloride reabsorption. While there is no renal phenotype under basal conditions, severe metabolic alkalosis has been reported in Pendred syndrome patients exposed to an increased alkali load. This review provides an overview on the clinical spectrum of Pendred syndrome, the functional data on pendrin with a focus on its potential role in

  7. Language and Literacy Development of Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2009-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused by deletion of approximately 25 genes on chromosome 7q11.23. Children with the syndrome evidence large individual differences in both broad language and reading abilities. Nevertheless, as a group, children with this syndrome show a consistent pattern characterized by relative…

  8. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome following total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Hung, J A Z; Rajeev, P

    2013-10-01

    Group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome following clean surgery is a rare occurrence. Its incidence following thyroid surgery has not been described in the literature. We report on the presentation and management of severe streptococcal toxic shock syndrome following a total thyroidectomy for a multinodular goitre in a patient with Cowden syndrome. This report presents an overview of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome with a focus on the management issues to consider so as to improve patient outcome. All surgeons must maintain a high index of suspicion for this rare but dangerous entity.

  9. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome following total thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hung, J AZ

    2013-01-01

    Group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome following clean surgery is a rare occurrence. Its incidence following thyroid surgery has not been described in the literature. We report on the presentation and management of severe streptococcal toxic shock syndrome following a total thyroidectomy for a multinodular goitre in a patient with Cowden syndrome. This report presents an overview of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome with a focus on the management issues to consider so as to improve patient outcome. All surgeons must maintain a high index of suspicion for this rare but dangerous entity. PMID:24112488

  10. [Leigh syndrome: case report].

    PubMed

    Roma, Adriano de Carvalho; Pereira, Paula Resende Aquino de Assis; Dantas, Adalmir Morterá

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe for the first time in the Country a case of a 10-year-old female child, assisted at the Ophthalmology Clinic of the Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho UFRJ, with Leigh's syndrome that is part of a metabolic disease group known as mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. It is an hereditary disease transmitted by a different mode of inheritance: mitochondrial, X-linked recessive and autosomal recessive. The beginning of clinical manifestations is varied and occurs usually in the first two years of life, with progressive and insidious evolution and exacerbation periods. Diagnosis is difficult because pleomorphic presentation, based on clinical findings and complementary study related to mitochondrial production of ATP and cytochrome c oxidase deficiencies. Considering that there is no specific treatment, this is based on a palliative procedure. So, the identification of this syndrome is very important to keep it under control, since its evolution is progressive.

  11. Alice in Wonderland syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose of review: To summarize the literature on Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS), a disorder characterized by distortions of visual perception, the body schema, and the experience of time. Recent findings: On the basis of 169 published case descriptions, the etiology of AIWS is divided into 8 main groups, with neurologic disorders affecting mostly adults and elderly patients and encephalitides affecting mostly patients aged ≤18 years. Symptoms of AIWS are also experienced in the general population, with up to 30% of adolescents reporting nonclinical symptoms. Summary: In clinical cases of AIWS, auxiliary investigations (including blood tests, EEG, and brain MRI) are strongly advised. Treatment should be directed at the suspected underlying condition, although reassurance that the symptoms themselves are not harmful seems to suffice in about 50% of the cases. International classifications such as the DSM and ICD should consider placing the syndrome on their research agenda. PMID:27347442

  12. [Visual diagnosis: Waardenburg syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hager, T; Walter, H-S; Seitz, B; Käsmann-Kellner, B

    2010-07-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare disease characterized by a sensorineural hearing loss and pigment anomalies of the iris, skin and hair due to mutations in PAX3. WS can be subdivided into four groups according to major and minor clinical signs. We report the case of a 2 1/2-year-old coloured patient who presented in our department of paediatric ophthalmology for a syndrome search. The patient presented with hearing loss, brilliant blue iris colour and dystopia canthorum. The patient was slightly hypermetropic. Visual acuity was within normal limits according to the Cardiff acuity test. The ocular fundus examination revealed no abnormalities. According to the major and minor criteria defined by the Waardenburg consortium our patient showed the major criteria of WS1, i.e. hearing loss, hypopigmentation of the pigment epithelium of the iris and dystopic canthi. Diagnosis of WS is usually based on the clinical presentation. An additional molecular genetic analysis is possible.

  13. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  14. The Source for Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Hoge, Debra Reichert

    Designed for practicing speech-language pathologists, this book discusses different syndrome disabilities, pertinent speech-language characteristics, and goals and strategies to begin intervention efforts at a preschool level. Chapters address: (1) Angelman syndrome; (2) Asperger syndrome; (3) Down syndrome; (4) fetal alcohol syndrome; (5) fetal…

  15. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Irritable Bowel Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Irritable Bowel Syndrome What's in ... intestinal disorder called irritable bowel syndrome. What Is Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common intestinal ...

  16. Group X

    SciT

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for themore » purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.« less

  17. Group Flow and Group Genius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  18. Gait Development during Lifespan in Subjects with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Albertini, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    In this work we studied and evaluated the effects of aging in a group of individuals with Down syndrome, using gait analysis as tool of investigation. 32 individuals suffering from Down syndrome (DS) were enrolled in this study as group of pathological participants. The control group (CG) was composed by 36 healthy subjects (10 children, 15…

  19. Overtraining Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kreher, Jeffrey B.; Schwartz, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Fatigue and underperformance are common in athletes. Understanding overtraining syndrome (OTS) is helpful in the evaluation, management, and education of athletes. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles in English were searched with OVID (1948-2011) and PubMed using the following keywords: overtraining syndrome, overtraining, overreaching, unexplained underperformance, staleness, pathophysiology, management, treatment, evaluation. Bibliographies were reviewed for additional resources. Results: OTS appears to be a maladapted response to excessive exercise without adequate rest, resulting in perturbations of multiple body systems (neurologic, endocrinologic, immunologic) coupled with mood changes. Many hypotheses of OTS pathogenesis are reviewed, and a clinical approach to athletes with possible OTS (including history, testing, and prevention) is presented. Conclusions: OTS remains a clinical diagnosis with arbitrary definitions per the European College of Sports Science’s position statement. History and, in most situations, limited serologies are helpful. However, much remains to be learned given that most past research has been on athletes with overreaching rather than OTS. PMID:23016079

  20. Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farruggia, Piero; Di Marco, Floriana; Dufour, Carlo

    2018-03-01

    Pearson syndrome (PS) is a sporadic and very rare syndrome classically associated with single large-scale deletions of mitochondrial DNA and characterized by refractory sideroblastic anemia during infancy. Areas covered: This review presents an analysis and interpretation of the published data that forms the basis for our understanding of PS. PubMed, Google Scholarand Thompson ISI Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant data. Expert commentary: PS is a very rare mitochodrial disease that involves different organs and systems. Clinical phenotype is extremely variable and may change over the course of disease itself with the possibility both of worsenings and improvements. Outcome is invariably lethal and at the moment no cure is available. Accurate supportive treatment and follow up program in centres with experience in mitochondrial diseases and marrow failure may positively influence quality and duration of life.

  1. Isopermutation group

    SciT

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  2. Further delineation of Malan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Priolo, Manuela; Schanze, Denny; Tatton-Brown, Katrin; Mulder, Paul A; Tenorio, Jair; Kooblall, Kreepa; Acero, Inés Hernández; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Arias, Pedro; Bernardini, Laura; Bijlsma, Emilia K; Cole, Trevor; Coubes, Christine; Dapia, Irene; Davies, Sally; Di Donato, Nataliya; Elcioglu, Nursel H; Fahrner, Jill A; Foster, Alison; González, Noelia García; Huber, Ilka; Iascone, Maria; Kaiser, Ann-Sophie; Kamath, Arveen; Liebelt, Jan; Lynch, Sally Ann; Maas, Saskia M; Mammì, Corrado; Mathijssen, Inge B; McKee, Shane; Menke, Leonie A; Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Montgomery, Tara; Neubauer, Dorothee; Neumann, Thomas E; Pintomalli, Letizia; Pisanti, Maria Antonietta; Plomp, Astrid S; Price, Sue; Salter, Claire; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Sarda, Pierre; Segovia, Mabel; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Smithson, Sarah; Suri, Mohnish; Valdez, Rita Maria; Van Haeringen, Arie; Van Hagen, Johanna M; Zollino, Marcela; Lapunzina, Pablo; Thakker, Rajesh V; Zenker, Martin; Hennekam, Raoul C

    2018-06-13

    Malan syndrome is an overgrowth disorder described in a limited number of individuals. We aim to delineate the entity by studying a large group of affected individuals. We gathered data on 45 affected individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis through an international collaboration and compared data to the 35 previously reported individuals. Results indicate that height is > 2 SDS in infancy and childhood but in only half of affected adults. Cardinal facial characteristics include long, triangular face, macrocephaly, prominent forehead, everted lower lip, and prominent chin. Intellectual disability is universally present, behaviorally anxiety is characteristic. Malan syndrome is caused by deletions or point mutations of NFIX clustered mostly in exon 2. There is no genotype-phenotype correlation except for an increased risk for epilepsy with 19p13.2 microdeletions. Variants arose de novo, except in one family in which mother was mosaic. Variants causing Malan and Marshall-Smith syndrome can be discerned by differences in the site of stop codon formation. We conclude that Malan syndrome has a well recognizable phenotype that usually can be discerned easily from Marshall-Smith syndrome but rarely there is some overlap. Differentiation from Sotos and Weaver syndrome can be made by clinical evaluation only. © 2018 The Authors. Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Charles Bonnet syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Schadlu, Anita P; Schadlu, Ramin; Shepherd, J Banks

    2009-05-01

    The aging of the population and the resultant increase in the number of patients with low vision due to age-related macular degeneration and other ocular diseases necessitate an increase in awareness of the Charles Bonnet syndrome among ophthalmic care providers. The clinical features of Charles Bonnet syndrome have been described by several different authors as formed visual hallucinations due to disturbances of the visual system in patients who are otherwise mentally normal. Theories regarding the causes underlying the Charles Bonnet syndrome are multifaceted and offer insight into the function of the visual system. The incidence of the Charles Bonnet syndrome varies among different population groups, but is underdiagnosed in most settings. Recent case reports of treatment options involve varied pharmacologic interventions, but visual improvement and patient reassurance remain the mainstays of treatment. As Charles Bonnet syndrome becomes more prevalent as the population ages, all physicians who care for low vision or elderly patients should be aware of its clinical characteristics and treatment options. Understanding of this syndrome by caregivers will lead to decreased anxiety among the patients who experience it. Further exploration of treatment options will be necessary in the future.

  4. Cochlear implants in Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Robert D; Zdanski, Carlton; Roush, Patricia; Brown, Carolyn; Teagle, Holly; Pillsbury, Harold C; Buchman, Craig

    2006-07-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is an autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by dystopia canthorum, hyperplasia of the eyebrows, heterochromia irides, a white forelock, and sensorineural hearing loss in 20% to 55% of patients. This patient population accounts for approximately 2% of congenitally deaf children. The purpose of this retrospective case review was to describe the outcomes for those children with Waardenburg syndrome who have undergone cochlear implantation. Pediatric cochlear implant recipients with documented evidence of Waardenburg syndrome underwent retrospective case review. All patients received their cochlear implants at the study institution followed by outpatient auditory habilitation. Charts were reviewed for etiology and duration of deafness, age at time of cochlear implantation, perioperative complications, duration of use, and performance outcomes. Results of standard tests batteries for speech perception and production administered as a part of the patients' auditory habilitation were reviewed. Seven patients with Waardenburg syndrome and cochlear implants were identified. The average age at implantation was 37 months (range, 18-64 months) and the average duration of use was 69 months (range, 12-143 months). All of these patients are active users of their devices and perform very well after implantation. There were no major complications in this small group of patients. Children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss without other comorbidities (e.g., developmental delay, inner ear malformations) perform well when they receive cochlear implantation and auditory habilitation. Patients with Waardenburg syndrome can be expected to have above-average performance after cochlear implantation.

  5. Hot Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot group"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by group decision making and employee empowerment, hot groups can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived,…

  6. Fluency Disorders in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Tetnowski, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of various genetic syndromes have included "stuttering" as a primary symptom associated with that syndrome. Specifically, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome all list "stuttering" as a characteristic of that syndrome. An extensive review of…

  7. [Usher syndrome].

    PubMed

    Preda, Mirela; Damian, Carmen; Irimia, Anca; Sollosy, Mihaela; Ciuca, Cristi Adelina; Totolin, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    We present the case report of two brothers, PF-21 years old and PN-19 years old, to whom the fundus examination, perimetry and dark adaptation established the diagnosis of Retinitis Pigmentosa. The otorhinolaryngology exam and the audiogram revealed, in both cases, bilateral sensorineural deafness. The simultaneous presence of these two conditions completes the clinical findings of Usher syndrome. The common ectodermic origin of the retina and the inner ear could explain this pathological association.

  8. Short stature in genetic syndromes: Selected issues.

    PubMed

    Łaczmańska, Izabela; Kuliczkowska-Płaksej, Justyna; Stembalska, Agnieszka

    2018-03-14

    Short stature, which is defined as height below 2 standard deviations of the mean height for the age and sex, is one of the most frequent reasons for medical consultations in children. Short stature may occur due to a constitutional delay in growth, familial short stature or chronic diseases, including many genetic syndromes, metabolic and endocrine disorders. In this article the authors provide a mini-review of the most frequent genetic syndromes associated with short stature that should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis process. Syndromes caused by chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations were divided into 2 main groups: syndromes that are associated with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and those in which IUGR does not occur in the natural history of the patient. The authors described the most important anomalies in each syndrome. Metabolic diseases and skeletal dysplasias were omitted, as they are major separate groups of diseases involving growth delay.

  9. [Crush syndrome].

    PubMed

    Scapellato, S; Maria, S; Castorina, G; Sciuto, G

    2007-08-01

    Crush injuries and crush syndrome are common after natural (e.g. earthquake, land-slide, tornadoes, tsunami) or man-made catastrophes (e.g. wars, terrorist attacks), in fact the history of this disease is well reported both in earthquake rescue reviews and in military literature. However, there are instances due to conventional causes, such as building collapses, road traffic accident, accident at work or altered level of consciousness after stroke or drug overdose. These situations of ''big or small'' catastrophes can occur at any time and anywhere, for this reason every clinician should be prepared to address issues of crush syndrome quickly and aggressively. The treatment has to manage and to predict clinical conditions before they present themselves. In particular, acute renal failure is one of the few life-threatening complications that can be reversed. This article reviews the various evidences and summarizes the treatment strategies available. Fundamental targets in crush syndrome management are early aggressive hydration, urine alkalinization and, when possible, forced diuresis. Since electrolyte imbalance may be fatal due to arrhythmias secondary to hyperkalemia (especially associated with hypocalcemia), it's necessary to correct these abnormalities using insulin-glucose solution and/or potassium binders, and if nevertheless serum potassium levels remain high this serious disease will necessitate dialysis, which is often a vital procedure.

  10. Gorlin Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Álvarez, I; González-Sarmiento, R; Fernández-López, E

    2018-04-01

    Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. Of particular importance is the PTCH1 gene. The disease is characterized by the development of multiple basal cell carcinomas at young ages. These tumors may present with other skin manifestations such as palmoplantar pits and with extracutaneous manifestations such as odontogenic keratocysts and medulloblastoma. Although the dermatologist may be key for recognizing clinical suspicion of the syndrome, a multidisciplinary team is usually necessary for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Skin treatment may be complicated due to the large number of basal cell carcinomas and the extent of involvement. In recent years, new drugs that inhibit targets in the sonic hedgehog pathway have been developed. Although these agents appear promising options for patients with Gorlin syndrome, their efficacy is limited by adverse effects and the development of resistance. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Anserine syndrome.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein, Milton; Kuromoto, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Knee pain is a common complaint in clinical practice, and pes anserinus tendino-bursitis syndrome (PATB) has been frequently diagnosed based only on clinical features that may cause equivocal interpretations. Patients complain of characteristic spontaneous medial knee pain with tenderness in the inferomedial aspect of the joint. Studies with different imaging modalities have been undertaken during the last years to identify whether these patients suffer from bursitis, tendinitis, or both. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the structural defect responsible for this disturbance. Due to these problems and some controversies, we suggest the term "anserine syndrome" for this condition. Diabetes Mellitus is a known predisposing factor for this syndrome. Overweight and osteoarthritis seem to represent additional risk factors; however, their role in the pathophysiology of the disease is not yet understood. Treatment includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, and injections of corticosteroid, with highly variable responses, from 10 days to 36 months to achieve recovery. The lack of knowledge about its epidemiological, etiological, and pathophysiological aspects requires future studies for this common and intriguing disorder.

  12. Learning about Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the mothers of infants with Down syndrome. Intelligence in individuals with Down syndrome ranges from low ... is not possible to tell the level of intelligence a baby with Down syndrome will have. All ...

  13. Toxic shock syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  14. Reye syndrome - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Reye syndrome ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Reye Syndrome : National Reye's Syndrome Foundation, Inc. -- www.reyessyndrome.org National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke -- www. ...

  15. Facts about Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Down syndrome is a condition in which a person has an extra chromosome. What is Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is a condition in which a person has an extra chromosome. Chromosomes are small “packages” ...

  16. What Is Usher Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and usually appears during adolescence or early adulthood. Balance may also be affected in people with Usher syndrome. Symptoms and disease progression vary from person to person. There are three general categories of Usher syndrome. People with Usher syndrome ...

  17. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  18. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... toxic shock syndrome results from toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria, but the condition may also be ... a skin or wound infection. Causes Most commonly, Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria cause toxic shock syndrome. The syndrome ...

  19. TPMT and MTHFR genotype is not associated with altered risk of thioguanine-related sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Wray, Lisa; Vujkovic, Marijana; McWilliams, Thomas; Cannon, Shannon; Devidas, Meenakshi; Stork, Linda; Aplenc, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome is a complication of therapy for pediatric ALL and may be modified by thiopurine methyltransferase activity as well as by MTHFR genotype. We assessed TPMT *3A, *3B, *3C, and MTHFR C677T and A1298C germline genetic polymorphisms among 351 patients enrolled in the thioguanine treatment arm of CCG-1952 clinical trial. TPMT and MTHFR C677T genotypes were not associated with SOS risk. The combination of MTHFR and TPMT variant genotypes was not associated with SOS risk. These suggest that germline genetic variation in TPMT and MTHFR do not significantly alter SOS risk in patients exposed to thioguanine. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Insulin resistance syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Ten, Svetlana; Maclaren, Noel

    2004-06-01

    The insulin resistance syndrome (syndrome X, metabolic syndrome) has become the major health problem of our times. Associated obesity, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes conspire to shorten life spans, while hyperandrogenism with polycystic ovarian syndrome affect the quality of life and fertility of increasing numbers of women. Whereas a growing number of single genetic diseases affecting satiety or energy metabolism have been found to produce the clinical phenotype, strong familial occurrences, especially in racially prone groups such as those from the Indian subcontinent, or individuals of African, Hispanic, and American Indian descents, together with emerging genetic findings, are revealing the polygenetic nature of the syndrome. However, the strong lifestyle factors of excessive carbohydrate and fat consumption and lack of exercise are important keys to the phenotypic expression of the syndrome. The natural history includes small for gestational age birth weight, excessive weight gains during childhood, premature pubarche, an allergic diathesis, acanthosis nigricans, striae compounded by gynecomastia, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis, premature atherosclerosis, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and focal glomerulonephritis appearing increasingly through adolescence into adulthood. Type 2 diabetes, which develops because of an inherent and/or an acquired failure of an insulin compensatory response, is increasingly seen from early puberty onward, as is atheromatous disease leading to coronary heart disease and stroke. A predisposition to certain cancers and Alzheimer's disease is also now recognized. The looming tragedy from growing numbers of individuals affected by obesity/insulin resistance syndrome requires urgent public health approaches directed at their early identification and intervention during childhood. Such measures include educating the public on the topic, limiting the consumption of sucrose

  1. Genetics Home Reference: androgen insensitivity syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes Mutations in the AR gene cause androgen insensitivity syndrome . This gene provides ... hair growth and sex drive. Mutations in the AR gene prevent androgen receptors from working properly, which ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: ring chromosome 14 syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Support Group) Chromosome Disorder Outreach Citizens United for Research ... Giustina E, Zollino M, Neri G, Gobbi G. Epilepsy in ring 14 syndrome: a clinical and EEG study of 22 patients. Epilepsia. 2013 Dec;54(12): ...

  3. Down Syndrome in Adults: Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... benefit from a local Down syndrome group or mentor. It helps to see what life is like ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life ...

  4. Who is at Risk for Down Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the Scientific Director (OSD) Affinity Groups & Labs (AG&L) Scientists Emeriti National Center for Medical Rehabilitation ... at https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/downsyndrome/data.html . CDC. (2012). World Down syndrome day . Retrieved ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: isodicentric chromosome 15 syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition duplication/inversion 15q11 idic(15) inv dup(15) inverted duplication ... syndrome March of Dimes: Chromosomal Conditions Orphanet: Duplication/inversion 15q11 Unique Rare Chromosome Disorder Support Group: Idic( ...

  6. Galaxy groups

    SciT

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{supmore » 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.« less

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Alagille syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition Alagille-Watson Syndrome Alagille's syndrome arteriohepatic dysplasia (AHD) cardiovertebral syndrome ... hypoplasia hepatofacioneurocardiovertebral syndrome paucity of interlobular bile ducts Watson-Miller syndrome Related Information How are genetic conditions ...

  8. Mathematics learning disability in girls with Turner syndrome or fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Melissa M; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Gerner, Gwendolyn; Henry, Anne E

    2006-07-01

    Two studies were carried out to examine the persistence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of mathematics learning disability (MLD) in girls with Turner syndrome or fragile X during the primary school years (ages 5-9 years). In Study 1, the rate of MLD for each syndrome group exceeded the rate observed in a grade-matched comparison group, although the likelihood of MLD persisting through the primary school years was comparable for all three groups. In Study 2, formal and informal math skills were compared across the syndrome groups, a normative group, and children from the normative group who had MLD. Few differences were observed between the Turner syndrome and normative groups. Despite having rote counting and number representation skills comparable to those in the normative group, girls with fragile X had difficulty with counting rules (e.g., cardinality, number constancy). However, this difficulty did not distingush them from the MLD group. Overall, counting skills appear to distinguish the Turner syndrome and fragile X groups, suggesting that the specificity of math deficits emerges earlier for fragile X than Turner syndrome.

  9. Acute nephritic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute Images Kidney anatomy References Appel GB, Radhakrishnan J. Glomerular disorders and nephrotic syndromes. In: Goldman L, ...

  10. GROUP INEQUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C.; Sethi, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications. PMID:25554727

  11. GROUP INEQUALITY.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C; Sethi, Rajiv

    2014-02-01

    We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications.

  12. About the group - ATLAS group

    ATLAS group Studies of particle collisions at highest energy frontiers Home • About the group About the group Welcom to the home page of the ATLAS group of High-Energy Physics division of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS is one of the two general purpose detectors for the Large Hadron

  13. Annotation: the savant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Pamela; Wallace, Gregory L

    2004-07-01

    Whilst interest has focused on the origin and nature of the savant syndrome for over a century, it is only within the past two decades that empirical group studies have been carried out. The following annotation briefly reviews relevant research and also attempts to address outstanding issues in this research area. Traditionally, savants have been defined as intellectually impaired individuals who nevertheless display exceptional skills within specific domains. However, within the extant literature, cases of savants with developmental and other clinical disorders, but with average intellectual functioning, are increasingly reported. We thus propose that focus should diverge away from IQ scores to encompass discrepancies between functional impairments and unexpected skills. It has long been observed that savant skills are more prevalent in individuals with autism than in those with other disorders. Therefore, in this annotation we seek to explore the parameters of the savant syndrome by considering these skills within the context of neuropsychological accounts of autism. A striking finding amongst those with savant skills, but without the diagnosis of autism, is the presence of cognitive features and behavioural traits associated with the disorder. We thus conclude that autism (or autistic traits) and savant skills are inextricably linked and we should therefore look to autism in our quest to solve the puzzle of the savant syndrome. Copyright 2004 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry

  14. Laparoscopic management of Bouveret syndrome.

    PubMed

    Newton, Richard Charles; Loizides, Sofronis; Penney, Nicholas; Singh, Krishna Kumar

    2015-04-22

    Bouveret syndrome is a proximal form of gallstone ileus where a large gallstone lodges in the pylorus or proximal duodenum, having passed through a bilioenteric fistula that has formed secondary to previous cholecystitis. We describe the laparoscopic extraction of a giant 'Bouveret' gallstone from the duodenum of an elderly man with morbid obesity. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Fryns syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... are some genetic conditions more common in particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes The cause of Fryns syndrome is unknown. The disorder is thought to be genetic because it tends to run in families and has features similar to those of other ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Bloom syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... are some genetic conditions more common in particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes Mutations in the BLM gene cause Bloom syndrome . The BLM gene provides instructions for making a member of a protein family called RecQ helicases. Helicases are enzymes that attach ( ...

  17. Metabolic syndrome and risk of acute coronary syndromes in patients younger than 45 years of age.

    PubMed

    Milionis, Haralampos J; Kalantzi, Kallirroi J; Papathanasiou, Athanasios J; Kosovitsas, Athanasios A; Doumas, Michael T; Goudevenos, John A

    2007-06-01

    There is a paucity of data with regard to the association of the metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular risk in young adults. We investigated the association of the metabolic syndrome with acute coronary syndrome in adults aged 45 years or younger. A total of 136 consecutive patients (128 men and eight women; mean age, 41.2+/-3.7 years) presenting with a first-ever acute coronary syndrome, and 136 age-matched and sex-matched controls were evaluated. The diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome was established according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the patients' group compared with the control group (40.4 versus 23.5%; P=0.003). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that smoking, positive family history of premature coronary artery disease, and the metabolic syndrome were associated with odds ratios 4.46 (95% confidence interval, 2.30-8.66; P<0.001), 3.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.71-5.66; P<0.001), and 1.97 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.56; P=0.02) higher odds, respectively, of having an acute coronary syndrome, after taking into account the matching for age and sex and controlling for potential confounders. Moreover, a 10-mg/dl increase in total cholesterol was associated with 1.06 higher odds of having an acute coronary syndrome. Analysis of interaction showed that smoking and a positive family history of premature coronary artery disease in young individuals with metabolic syndrome had an incremental effect on the odds of suffering an acute coronary syndrome (odds ratio, 7.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.42-20.96; P<0.001). The metabolic syndrome is highly associated with acute coronary syndrome in patients younger than 45 years of age, indicating the need for early and intensive preventive measures.

  18. Colorectal cancer risk in hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world, and approximately 5% of them develop in a context of inherited mutations leading to some form of familial colon cancer syndromes. Recognition and characterization of these patients have contributed to elucidate the genetic basis of CRC. Polyposis Syndromes may be categorized by the predominant histological structure found within the polyps. The aim of the present paper is to review the most important clinical features of the Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes, a rare group of genetic disorders formed by the peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenil polyposis syndrome and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalacaba and Cowden Syndromes). A literature search was performed in order to retrieve the most recent and important papers (articles, reviews, clinical cases and clinical guidelines) regarding the studied subject. We searched for terms such as “hamartomatous polyposis syndromes”, “Peutz-Jeghers syndrome”, “juvenile polyposis syndrome”, “juvenile polyp”, and “PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome” (Cowden syndrome, Bananyan-Riley-Ruvalcaba). The present article reports the wide spectrum of disease severity and extraintestinal manifestations, with a special focus on their potential to develop colorectal and other neoplasia. In the literature, the reported colorectal cancer risk for Juvenile Polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers and PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes are 39%-68%, 39%-57% and 18%, respectively. A review regarding cancer surveillance recommendations is also presented. PMID:25848489

  19. Antithyroid arthritis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Modi, Anar; Amin, Hari; Morgan, Farah

    2017-02-27

    Antithyroid arthritis syndrome is a constellation of symptoms of myalgia, arthralgia, arthritis, fever and rash associated with the use of antithyroid medications. We report a case of a patient with severe hyperthyroidism likely secondary to Graves' disease who presented with the abovementioned symptoms after being treated with methimazole (antithyroid medication). Our aim is to increase awareness regarding this uncommon but disabilitating and life-threatening adverse effect of antithyroid medications among clinicians. We also discuss the proposed pathophysiology for this immunological reaction as well as management options in these patients. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Cognitive, Environmental, and Linguistic Predictors of Syntax in Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estigarribia, Bruno; Martin, Gary E.; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine which cognitive, environmental, and speech-language variables predict expressive syntax in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), boys with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing (TD) boys, and whether predictive relationships differed by group. Method: We obtained Index of Productive Syntax ( Scarborough, 1990) scores for…

  1. Articulation and Noncomprehension Signaling in Adolescent and Adult Males with Down Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedak, Larissa Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not decreased articulation of speech played a role in the ability of an individual with Down syndrome or Fragile X syndrome to signal noncomprehension and whether the two groups differed in their levels of articulation of speech and noncomprehension signaling ability. The research was conducted…

  2. Discriminating Down Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome Based on Language Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Sterling, Audra M.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the receptive and expressive language profiles of verbally expressive children and adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS) and those with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and examined the extent to which these profiles reliably differentiate the diagnostic groups. A total of twenty-four verbal participants with DS (mean age: 12 years),…

  3. Self Concept in People with Williams Syndrome and Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plesa-Skwerer, Daniela; Sullivan, Kate; Joffre, Kristen; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This study explored self concepts in matched groups of adolescents and adults with Williams syndrome (WS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), using Damon and Hart's [Self-understanding in Childhood and Adolescence, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1988] semi-structured interview. The main findings were that the WS participants were more…

  4. Imitation inhibition in children with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Valerie Cathérine; Moczydlowski, Agnes; Jonas, Melanie; Boelmans, Kai; Bäumer, Tobias; Brass, Marcel; Münchau, Alexander

    2017-08-12

    Echopraxia, that is, the open and automatic imitation of other peoples' actions, is common in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, and also those with frontal lobe lesions. While systematic reaction time tasks have confirmed increased automatic imitation in the latter two groups, adult patients with Tourette syndrome appear to compensate for automatic imitation tendencies by an overall slowing in response times. However, whether children with Tourette syndrome are already able to inhibit automatic imitation tendencies has not been investigated. Fifteen children with Tourette syndrome and 15 healthy children (aged 7-12 years) performed an imitation inhibition paradigm. Participants were asked to respond to an auditory cue by lifting their index finger or their little finger. Participants were simultaneously presented with either compatible or incompatible visual stimuli. Overall responses in children with Tourette syndrome were slower than in healthy children. Although responses were faster in compatible than in incompatible trials in both groups, this 'interference effect' was smaller in children with Tourette syndrome. Children with Tourette syndrome have a smaller interference effect than healthy children, indicating an enhanced ability to behaviourally control automatic imitation tendencies at the cost of reacting slower. The results suggest that children with Tourette syndrome already employ different or additional inhibition strategies compared to healthy children. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Morvan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Maskery, Mark; Chhetri, Suresh K.; Dayanandan, Rejith; Gall, Claire

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old gentleman was admitted to the regional neurosciences center with encephalopathy, myokymia, and dysautonomia. Chest imaging had previously identified an incidental mass in the anterior mediastinum, consistent with a primary thymic tumor. Antivoltage-gated potassium channel (anti-VGKC) antibodies were positive (titer 1273 pmol/L) and he was hypokalemic. Electromyogram and nerve conduction studies were in keeping with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome, and an electroencephalogram was consistent with encephalopathy. A diagnosis of Morvan syndrome was made, for which he was initially treated with high-dose steroids, followed by a 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. He also underwent thymectomy, followed by a postexcision flare of his symptoms requiring intensive care management. Further steroids, plasmapheresis, and IVIG achieved stabilization of his clinical condition, enabling transfer for inpatient neurorehabilitation. He was commenced on azathioprine and a prolonged oral steroid taper. A subsequent presumed incipient relapse responded well to further IVIG treatment. This case report documents a thymoma-associated presentation of anti-VGKC-positive Morvan syndrome supplemented by patient and carer narrative and video, both of which provide valuable further insights into this rare disorder. There are a limited number of publications surrounding this rare condition available in the English literature. This, combined with the heterogenous presentation, association with underlying malignancy, response to treatment, and prognosis, provides a diagnostic challenge. However, the association with anti-VGKC antibody-associated complexes and 2 recent case series have provided some scope for both accurate diagnosis and management. PMID:26740856

  6. Group Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Brian

    The group interpretation approach to theatre production is defined as a method that will lead to production of plays that will appeal to "all the layers of the conscious and unconscious mind." In practice, it means that the group will develop and use resources of the theatre that orthodox companies too often ignore. The first two chapters of this…

  7. Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J.

    2018-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal group work in their courses. Implementing group work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by…

  8. Metabolic syndrome: its features in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome as compared with obese women without ovarian dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihaela; Nitu, R; Navolan, D; Dumitru, C; Craina, M

    2013-01-01

    OVARIAN DYSFUNCTIOBJECTIVE: The study assesses the frequency of metabolic changes in overweight patients with or without polycystic ovary syndrome. The study group was made up by 148 patients of whom 99 patients without polycystic ovary syndrome (group A, control group) and 49 with polycystic ovary syndrome (group B), that came in our endocrine unit for a weight loss program, in the September 2008 March 2009 period. Morphometric parameters (height, weight, body mass index), biological parameters (cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin) and body composition analysis by measuring the electrical bioimpedance, were evaluated. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have a higher percentage of total fat (38.22+/-7.2) than patients without polycystic ovary syndrome (36.316+/-5.65) (p<0.05), for the same characteristics. Glycated hemoglobin, blood glucose and triglycerides were found higher in group B patients. Furthermore, the amount of free testosterone is higher in group B patients compared to those in group A. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in polycystic ovary syndrome cases (26.13%) comparative with overweight cases (16.16%, p<0.01). In the group of overweight patients, the group of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome is a particular group showing more severe metabolic changes.

  9. Refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fuentebella, Judy; Kerner, John A

    2009-10-01

    Refeeding syndrome (RFS) is the result of aggressive enteral or parenteral feeding in a malnourished patient, with hypophosphatemia being the hallmark of this phenomenon. Other metabolic abnormalities, such as hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia, may also occur, along with sodium and fluid retention. The metabolic changes that occur in RFS can be severe enough to cause cardiorespiratory failure and death. This article reviews the pathophysiology, the clinical manifestations, and the management of RFS. The key to prevention is identifying patients at risk and being aware of the potential complications involved in rapidly reintroducing feeds to a malnourished patient.

  10. Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Murray, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (Gilles de la Tourette disease) is a disorder of involuntary muscular tics, vocalizations and compulsive behavior. The tics and muscle movements vary in form and course; the complex repetitive patterns are eventually replaced by other patterns. The vocalization may be in the form of sounds, words or profanities and sometimes echolalia, echopraxia and palilalia. The onset may be from age two to 15 but is usually between ages eight and 12. Recent studies suggest that there is a hypersensitivity of dopamine receptors. Most patients respond well to haloperidol, but other drugs that may be of value include clonidine, pimozide, fluphenazine and trifluoroperazine. PMID:21286050

  11. [Williams-Beuren syndrome (Williams syndrome). Case report].

    PubMed

    Miklós, Györgyi; Fekete, György; Haltrich, Irén; Tóth, Miklós; Reismann, Péter

    2017-11-01

    Williams syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, that occurs equally in all ethnic groups and both sexes. The diagnosis might be missed during childhood in mild cases. However, establishing the diagnosis is important, not only to find the cause of intellectual disability but to look for cardiovascular, endocrine, psychiatry, urology and other conditions, which can occur at any age in the patients' lifetime. This case report presents the story of 47-year-old woman, who was admitted with haematemesis. During her stay on the ward, in the light of the distinctive facial features, mental retardation, and social behaviour patterns, the possibility of Williams syndrome emerged. Later, the diagnosis was confirmed by genetic analysis. This female is the oldest living patient with Williams syndrome in Hungary. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(47): 1883-1888.

  12. Allergy and acute leukaemia in children with Down syndrome: a population study. Report from the Mexican inter-institutional group for the identification of the causes of childhood leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Enríquez, J C; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, A; Buchán-Durán, E P; Bernáldez-Ríos, R; Medina-Sansón, A; Jiménez-Hernández, E; Amador-Sanchez, R; Peñaloza-Gonzalez, J G; Paredes-Aguilera, R; Alvarez-Rodriguez, F J; Bolea-Murga, V; de Diego Flores-Chapa, J; Flores-Lujano, J; Bekker-Mendez, V C; Rivera-Luna, R; del Carmen Rodriguez-Zepeda, M; Rangel-López, A; Dorantes-Acosta, E M; Núñez-Villegas, N; Velazquez-Aviña, M M; Torres-Nava, J R; Reyes-Zepeda, N C; Cárdenas-Cardos, R; Flores-Villegas, L V; Martinez-Avalos, A; Salamanca-Gómez, F; Gorodezky, C; Arellano-Galindo, J; Mejía-Aranguré, J M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Allergies have been described as protective factors against the development of childhood acute leukaemia (AL). Our objective was to investigate the associations between allergy history and the development of AL and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children with Down syndrome (DS). Methods: A case–control study was performed in Mexico City. The cases (n=97) were diagnosed at nine public hospitals, and the controls (n=222) were recruited at institutions for children with DS. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Results: Asthma was positively associated with AL development (OR=4.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47–11.87), whereas skin allergies were negatively associated (OR=0.42; 95% CI: 0.20–0.91). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that allergies and AL in children with DS share biological and immune mechanisms. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting associations between allergies and AL in children with DS. PMID:23695017

  13. Allergy and acute leukaemia in children with Down syndrome: a population study. Report from the Mexican inter-institutional group for the identification of the causes of childhood leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Enríquez, J C; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, A; Buchán-Durán, E P; Bernáldez-Ríos, R; Medina-Sansón, A; Jiménez-Hernández, E; Amador-Sanchez, R; Peñaloza-Gonzalez, J G; Paredes-Aguilera, R; Alvarez-Rodriguez, F J; Bolea-Murga, V; de Diego Flores-Chapa, J; Flores-Lujano, J; Bekker-Mendez, V C; Rivera-Luna, R; Del Carmen Rodriguez-Zepeda, M; Rangel-López, A; Dorantes-Acosta, E M; Núñez-Villegas, N; Velazquez-Aviña, M M; Torres-Nava, J R; Reyes-Zepeda, N C; Cárdenas-Cardos, R; Flores-Villegas, L V; Martinez-Avalos, A; Salamanca-Gómez, F; Gorodezky, C; Arellano-Galindo, J; Mejía-Aranguré, J M

    2013-06-11

    Allergies have been described as protective factors against the development of childhood acute leukaemia (AL). Our objective was to investigate the associations between allergy history and the development of AL and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children with Down syndrome (DS). A case-control study was performed in Mexico City. The cases (n=97) were diagnosed at nine public hospitals, and the controls (n=222) were recruited at institutions for children with DS. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Asthma was positively associated with AL development (OR=4.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47-11.87), whereas skin allergies were negatively associated (OR=0.42; 95% CI: 0.20-0.91). Our findings suggest that allergies and AL in children with DS share biological and immune mechanisms. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting associations between allergies and AL in children with DS.

  14. Behavioral Phenotype of Fragile X Syndrome in Adolescence and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Leann E.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Abbeduto, Leonard; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the behavioral profile of individuals with fragile X syndrome during adolescence and adulthood. Individuals with both fragile X syndrome and autism (n = 30) were compared with (a) individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (but not autism; n = 106) and (b) individuals diagnosed with autism (but not fragile X syndrome; n = 135) on measures of autism symptoms, adaptive functioning, behavior problems, and psychological symptoms. Results indicated that individuals dually diagnosed with fragile X syndrome and autism displayed greater communication and social reciprocity impairments than individuals with fragile X syndrome only. Individuals in the dually diagnosed group also exhibited higher levels of repetitive and challenging behaviors than either comparison group, suggesting a unique profile of vulnerability for those diagnosed with both fragile X syndrome and autism. PMID:22264109

  15. Alice in Wonderland Syndrome, Burning Mouth Syndrome, Cold Stimulus Headache, and HaNDL: Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Valença, Marcelo M; de Oliveira, Daniella A; Martins, Hugo André de L

    2015-10-01

    Unusual headache syndromes are not as infrequent in clinical practice as was generally believed. About three fourths of the classified headache disorders found in the ICHD-II can be considered rare. The aim of this narrative review was to perform a literature review of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and treatment of the following unusual headache disorders: Alice in Wonderland syndrome, burning mouth syndrome, cold stimulus headache, and the syndrome of transient headache and neurologic deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. A literature review was performed using PubMed for each of the abovementioned headache disorders. The unusual headache syndromes as a distinct group of disorders are not as infrequent in clinical practice as was generally believed. Some of them, albeit considered as unusual, may occur with relative frequency, such as cold stimulus headache and burning mouth syndrome. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sherling, Dawn Harris; Perumareddi, Parvathi; Hennekens, Charles H

    2017-07-01

    The United States is experiencing its greatest life expectancy ever. Nonetheless, the general health of the US population is far from at an all-time high. An important contributor to the pandemic of cardiovascular disease is that overweight and obesity are also the major determinants of metabolic syndrome, an all too common and all too serious clinical and public health challenge. Clinicians have traditionally evaluated each of the major risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome on an individual basis. There is evidence, however, that the risk factors are more than additive. The overlap of these factors in each disease state, resulting in increased atherogenic risks, is worth examining as a broader entity rather than separately. While therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) should be strongly recommended, clinicians should not let the perfect be the enemy of the possible. Evidence-based doses of statins, aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor blockers should be prescribed as adjuncts, not alternatives, to TLCs. In fact, there is cogent evidence that the benefits of these pharmacologic therapies may also be at least additive.

  17. [Schnitzler's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Henry, B; Néel, A; Barbarot, S; Masseau, A; Hamidou, M

    2013-04-01

    Schnitzler syndrome (SS) is a rare clinical entity, which belongs to the spectrum of monoclonal gammapathy-associated systemic disorders. Its pathophysiology remains elusive, even if it is tempting to consider it as a late onset and probably acquired auto-inflammatory syndrome. SS mainly occurs in the fifth and sixth decade, and present with an urticariform rash with periodic fever and/or osteoarticular pain. Systemic inflammation and monoclonal gammapathy (overwhelmingly IgM kappa) are constant features. SS is a chronic disease, which can severely impair quality of life of the affected individuals. Many drugs have been used and proved disappointing. In the last few years, accumulating reports provided evidence for the dramatic efficacy of anakinra, which has revolutionized the management of most severe cases. The main long-term threat to these patients is to develop a lymphoproliferative disorder (mainly Waldenström's macroglobulinemia). The mechanisms underlying the different facets of the disease remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. Cotard Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dieguez, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Cotard's syndrome is often described as the delusional belief that one is dead or non-existent. However, Jules Cotard's initial description (1880) of the "delusion of negations" was much richer and also involved delusions and claims of immortality and enormity, feelings of damnation, and illusions of bodily dissolution and transformation. Alternatively conceived as an extreme case of depression, hypochondria, or psychosis, the condition is considered rare and remains poorly understood. Cotard himself provided a taxonomy and several explanations for the condition, focusing on its distinction from classical persecutory delusions and suggesting that it could be a kind of reversed grandiosity. He proposed a psychosensory basis in the dissolution of mental imagery, which he then extended to a more general psychomotor impairment of volition. Other early authors highlighted a disorder of the bodily self, and more recent theories postulated an impairment of right hemispheric functions, leading to perceptual and somatosensory feelings of unreality, which coupled with reasoning impairments and an internalized attributional style led in turn to beliefs of non-existence. However, despite its striking presentation and its relevance to our understanding of self-awareness, Cotard's syndrome remains an elusive condition, rarely reported and poorly researched. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Turner Syndrome (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Turner Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Turner Syndrome What's in this ... en español El síndrome de Turner What Is Turner Syndrome? Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic condition found ...

  20. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Danlos syndrome care at Mayo Clinic Symptoms Classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Signs and symptoms of the most common form ... but few or none of the skin symptoms. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vascular type People who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, ...

  1. Group Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  2. Recurrent short rib polydactyly syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriades, M; Iavazzo, C; Manolakos, E; Hassiakos, D; Botsis, D; Petersen, M; Konstantinidou, A

    2013-01-01

    We present three consecutive cases of skeletal dysplasias of a non-consanguineous couple with five pregnancies. The diagnosis of short-rib polydactyly syndrome (SRPS) was feasible by ultrasound during the 1st trimester of pregnancy. SRPS represents a heterogeneous group of lethal skeletal dysplasias. It is characterised by short limb dwarfism complicated by thoracic hypoplasia, polydactyly and different anomalies of major organs such as congenital heart defects and renal dysplasia. Four major types of the SRPS have been described: type I (Saldino-Noonan); type II (Majewski); type III (Verma-Naumoff) and type IV (Beemar-Langer). However, there is phenotypic overlapping between four types and with those of non-lethal skeletal dysplasias (i.e. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome and Jeune syndrome). Our cases show the importance of the nuchal translucency (NT) scan that offers the opportunity to examine fetal anatomy in the 1st trimester and diagnose rare skeletal abnormalities early in pregnancy.

  3. [Sexuality in Down syndrome individuals].

    PubMed

    Castelão, Talita Borges; Schiavo, Márcio Ruiz; Jurberg, Pedro

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate parents and health professionals' opinions on the sexuality of Down syndrome individuals and to describe how these individuals see their own sexuality. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses have been applied in the study. A total of 809 questionnaires were to parents and health professionals (348). Twelve focal groups' sessions were carried out separately with parents, professionals and DS individuals. Chi-square test was performed in the analysis. Parents see their children as eternal kids as they are afraid of the utmost outcome of their children's sexual life: unwanted pregnancy, and risk of syndrome recurrence. Health professionals revealed to be unprepared to provide sexual advice for DS individuals and adequate parents' attitude to their children's sexual drive. Down syndrome sexuality develops similarly to other individuals, but DS individuals experience restrictions depending on their social context.

  4. Burnout Syndrome During Residency.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Namigar; Karacalar, Serap; Polat, Cengiz; Kıran, Özlem; Gültop, Fethi; Kalyon, Seray Türkmen; Sinoğlu, Betül; Zincirci, Mehmet; Kaya, Ender

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is identified the degree of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) and find out its correlation with years of recidency and sociodemograpfic chareacteristics, training, sleeping habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. After approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, First, second, third, fourth and fifth year of recidency staff (n=127) working in our hospital were involved in this study. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in this study. Fifty six male (44.1%) and seventy one female (55.9%) residents were enroled in this study (Coranbach Alfa(α)=0.873). 57% of the first year residents smokes cigaret and 54% of them use alcohol. 2% of them gets one day off after hospital night shift, 61% of them suffers from disturbed sleep. 60% of them had been stated that they willingly selected their profession. 61% of them prefers talking to friends and 32% of them prefers shopping to overcome stress. There were statistical difference acording to years of recidency in MBI, Emotional Burnout (EB) and desensitisation scale (DS) points. EB scale points of the second year of residency group was statisticaly higher than fourth year of residency group. DS points of second year of residency group was also statisticaly higher than the third and fourth year of residency group. There was no statistical difference between any groups in Personal Success. BOS is a frequent problem during residency in anaesthesia. Appropriate definition and awareness are the first important steps to prevent this syndrome. Further administrative approaches should be evaluated with regard to their effects.

  5. Caplan syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... not clear how RP develops. There are two theories: When people breathe in inorganic dust, it affects ... than treating any lung and joint disease. Support Groups Attending a support group with people who have ...

  6. Prolapse of all cardiac valves in Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Otikunta, Adikesava Naidu; Subbareddy, Y V; Polamuri, Praneeth; Thakkar, Ashok

    2015-02-25

    Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with genetically heterogeneous inheritance. The incidence of cardiac abnormalities is higher in patients with Noonan syndrome and approximately 80% patients with Noonan syndrome are reported to have cardiac abnormalities during their lifetimes. However, polyvalvular disease in Noonan syndrome is rare. In this case-report, we describe a case of a young man whose features were strongly suggestive of Noonan syndrome and who was diagnosed with prolapse of all four cardiac valves after 22 years of uneventful survival. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Understanding Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fremont, Oliver T; Chan, James C M

    2012-02-01

    We aim to review the clinical features of two renal tubular disorders characterized by sodium and potassium wasting: Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome. Selected key references concerning these syndromes were analyzed, together with a PubMed search of the literature from 2000 to 2011. The clinical features common to both conditions and those which are distinct to each syndrome were presented. The new findings on the genetics of the five types of Bartter syndrome and the discrete mutations in Gitelman syndrome were reviewed, together with the diagnostic workup and treatment for each condition. Patients with Bartter syndrome types 1, 2 and 4 present at a younger age than classic Bartter syndrome type 3. They present with symptoms, often quite severe in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome type 3 present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. The severe, steady-state hypokalemia in Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome may abruptly become life-threatening under certain aggravating conditions. Clinicians need to be cognizant of such renal tubular disorders, and promptly treat at-risk patients.

  8. Dry eye syndrome. Etiological and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Apostol, Silvia; Filip, M; Dragne, Carmen; Filip, A

    2003-01-01

    "Dry eye syndrome" is a common disorder of the tear film that results from inadequate tear production, excessive tear evaporation or abnormality in mucin or lipid components of the tear film. A number of 53 patients suffering from dry eye syndrome were followed up for a period of 18 months. The study group was heterogeneous, including a lot of conditions accompanied by dry eye syndrome: Syogren's syndrome, lupus erythematous, ocular rosacea, patients with systemic treatments with antidepressants, betablockers, diuretics, oral contraceptives, glaucomatous patients with topical beta-blockers, postmenopausal women, aging people, computer users and long-term contact lens wearers. The therapeutical options were dictated by the severity of the syndrome: substitution therapy, treatment of the underlying eyelid diseases, modifying of the environmental conditions and treatment of the complications in the most severe cases. The new pathological approach is innovative and it may provide a real therapeutical measure for this condition: topical A Cyclosporine and androgen drops.

  9. Genetic analysis in Bartter syndrome from India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pradeep Kumar; Saikia, Bhaskar; Sharma, Rachna; Ankur, Kumar; Khilnani, Praveen; Aggarwal, Vinay Kumar; Cheong, Hae

    2014-10-01

    Bartter syndrome is a group of inherited, salt-losing tubulopathies presenting as hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with normotensive hyperreninemia and hyperaldosteronism. Around 150 cases have been reported in literature till now. Mutations leading to salt losing tubulopathies are not routinely tested in Indian population. The authors have done the genetic analysis for the first time in the Bartter syndrome on two cases from India. First case was antenatal Bartter syndrome presenting with massive polyuria and hyperkalemia. Mutational analysis revealed compound heterozygous mutations in KCNJ1(ROMK) gene [p(Leu220Phe), p(Thr191Pro)]. Second case had a phenotypic presentation of classical Bartter syndrome however, genetic analysis revealed only heterozygous novel mutation in SLC12A gene p(Ala232Thr). Bartter syndrome is a clinical diagnosis and genetic analysis is recommended for prognostication and genetic counseling.

  10. Destination Memory in Korsakoff's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Kessels, Roy P C; Matton, Christian; Bacquet, Jean-Eudes; Urso, Laurent; Cool, Gaëlle; Guidez, Florence; Potier, Stéphanie; Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Antoine, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    Context memory, or the ability to remember the context in which an episodic event has occurred (e.g., where and when an event took place), has been found to be compromised in Korsakoff's syndrome. This study examined whether a similar deficit would be observed for destination memory, that is, the ability to remember to whom an information was previously transmitted. Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and healthy controls were instructed to tell proverbs to pictures of celebrities. In a subsequent recognition test, they had to indicate to which celebrity they had previously told the proverbs. Participants also completed a neuropsychological battery including a binding task in which they were required to associate letters with their correspondent locations to assess context memory. Results showed worse binding and destination memory in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome than in controls. In the Korsakoff group, destination memory was significantly correlated with and predicted by performances on the binding task. The binding process seems to be impaired in Korsakoff's syndrome, a deficit that may account for the destination memory compromise in the syndrome, and probably, for the difficulty to retrieve the "where and when" of an encountered event. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Paraneoplastic syndromes and autoimmune encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Myrna R.; Titulaer, Maarten J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We review novel findings in paraneoplastic syndromes including the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, and then focus on the novel disorders associated with antibodies against cell surface antigens, discussing the importance and caveats of antibody testing, and providing an algorithm for interpretation of results. In anti-NMDAR encephalitis 2 novel findings include the recognition of a characteristic EEG pattern (“extreme delta brush”) in 30% of patients and the demonstration of a fronto-temporo-occipital gradient of glucose metabolism that correlates with disease activity. In limbic encephalitis, antibodies to GABA(B) receptor are the most frequently detected in patients with small-cell lung cancer who are anti-Hu negative, and antibodies to mGluR5 distinctively associate with Hodgkin lymphoma (Ophelia syndrome). We also address the syndromes associated with “VGKC-complex antibodies,” a problematic term that groups well-characterized immune-mediated disorders (LGI1, Caspr2) with others that lack syndrome specificity, are less responsive to treatment, and for which the target antigens are unknown. PMID:23634368

  12. [Jerusalem syndrome - a case report].

    PubMed

    Poleszczyk, Anna; Swiecicki, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to present the case of a patient who developed acute psychotic symptoms on her visit to Jerusalem. The analysis of the clinical case and medical history. The presented 62-year-old women with a history of previous psychiatric disorder arrived with her husband to Jerusalem as a part of organised touristic group. She developed acute psychotic reaction through some stages characteristic for the third type of Jerusalem syndrome. Symptoms resolved completely soon after returning to Poland and admission to the hospital where an antipsychotic treatment was performed. Despite the rare occurrence of this phenomenon, it is worth noting that we can divide Jerusalem syndrome into three types depending on its clinical course, patient's history of previous psychiatric disorders and this division has some clinical implications. This syndrome can be also considered in the context of some factors connected with travelling in general which may be responsible for psychiatric disturbances occurring among travelers. The course of psychiatric disturbances in the presented patient resembled the third type of Jerusalem syndrome despite her past psychiatric history and probably travelling caused her decompensations. In clinical practice we have to remember that in case of the patients with a known psychiatric history, clinical evaluation may be useful before travelling. In previously healthy patients developing the third type of the Jerusalem syndrome early intervention and separation from Jerusalem and its holy places and their contact with family are crucial for soon recovery.

  13. Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

  14. Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…

  15. Theory of Mind in Adults with HFA and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind was assessed in 32 adults with HFA, 29 adults with Asperger syndrome and 32 neurotypical adults. The HFA and Asperger syndrome groups were impaired in performance of the Strange stories test and the Faux-pas test and reported more theory of mind problems than the neurotypical adults. The three groups did not differ in performance of…

  16. Group dynamics.

    PubMed

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  17. Perinatal features of the RASopathies: Noonan syndrome, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome and Costello syndrome.

    PubMed

    Myers, Angela; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Brennan, Marie-Luise; Curry, Cynthia; Esplin, Edward D; Fisher, Jamie; Homeyer, Margaret; Manning, Melanie A; Muller, Eric A; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Seaver, Laurie H; Hintz, Susan R; Hudgins, Louanne

    2014-11-01

    The RASopathies are a family of developmental disorders caused by heritable defects of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. While the postnatal presentation of this group of disorders is well known, the prenatal and neonatal findings are less widely recognized. We report on the perinatal presentation of 10 patients with Noonan syndrome (NS), nine with Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFCS) and three with Costello syndrome (CS), in conjunction with the results of a comprehensive literature review. The majority of perinatal findings in NS, CS, and CFCS are shared: polyhydramnios; prematurity; lymphatic dysplasia; macrosomia; relative macrocephaly; respiratory distress; hypotonia, as well as cardiac and renal anomalies. In contrast, fetal arrhythmia and neonatal hypoglycemia are relatively specific to CS. NS, CS, and CFCS should all be considered as a possible diagnosis in pregnancies with a normal karyotype and ultrasound findings of a RASopathy. Recognition of the common perinatal findings of these disorders should facilitate both their prenatal and neonatal diagnosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  19. Mathematics Learning Disabilities in Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome during Late Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on math and related skills among 32 girls with fragile X (n = 14) or Turner (n = 18) syndrome during late elementary school. Performance in each syndrome group was assessed relative to Full Scale IQ-matched comparison groups of girls from the general population (n = 32 and n = 89 for fragile X syndrome and Turner…

  20. Divorce in Families of Children with Down Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the nature, timing, and correlates of divorce in families of children with Down syndrome (647), other birth defects (10,283) and no identified disability (361,154). Divorce rates among families of children with Down syndrome were lower than in the other two groups. When divorce did occur in the Down syndrome group,…

  1. Syndromes with supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Lubinsky, Mark; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik

    2016-10-01

    While most supernumerary teeth are idiopathic, they can be associated with a number of Mendelian syndromes. However, this can also be a coincidental finding, since supernumerary teeth occur in 6% or more of the normal population. To better define this relationship, we analyzed the evidence for specific associations. We excluded conditions with a single affected patient reported, supernumerary teeth adjacent to clefts or other forms of alveolar disruption (as secondary rather than primary findings), and natal teeth, which can involve premature eruption of a normal tooth. Since, the cause of supernumerary teeth shows considerable heterogeneity, certain findings are less likely to be coincidental, such as five or more supernumerary teeth in a single patient, or locations outside of the premaxilla. We found only eight genetic syndromes with strong evidence for an association: cleidocranial dysplasia; familial adenomatous polyposis; trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I; Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome; Nance-Horan syndrome; Opitz BBB/G syndrome; oculofaciocardiodental syndrome; and autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome. There is also suggestive evidence of an association with two uncommon disorders, Kreiborg-Pakistani syndrome (craniosynostosis and dental anomalies), and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosisnigricans. An association of a Mendelian disorder with a low frequency manifestation of supernumerary teeth is difficult to exclude without large numbers, but several commonly cited syndromes lacked evidence for clear association, including Hallermann-Streiff syndrome, Fabry disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Apert and Crouzon syndromes, Zimmermann-Laband syndrome, and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Relationship between two blood stasis syndromes and inflammatory factors in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cai-Yun; Liu, Jing-Hua; Liu, Jian-Xun; Shi, Da-Zhuo; Xu, Zhen-Ye; Wang, Shao-Ping; Jia, Min; Zhao, Fu-Hai; Jiang, Yue-Rong; Ma, Qin; Peng, Hong-Yu; Lu, Yuan; Zheng, Ze; Ren, Feng-Xue

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory factors and two Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome types of qi stagnation and blood stasis (QSBS) and qi deficiency and blood stasis (QDBS) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Sixty subjects with ACS, whose pathogenesis changes belongs to qi disturbance blood stasis syndrome, were divided into 2 groups: 30 in the QSBS group and 30 in the QDBS group. The comparative analysis on them was carried out through comparing general information, coronary angiography and inflammatory factors including intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2). Compared with the QSBS group, Lp-PLA2 and YKL-40 levels in the QDBS group showed no-significant difference (P>0.05); ICAM-1 was significantly higher in the QDBS group than in the QSBS group in the pathological processes of qi disturbance and blood stasis syndrome of ACS (P<0.05). Inflammatory factor ICAM-1 may be an objective basis for syndrome typing of QSBS and QDBS, which provides a research direction for standardization research of CM syndrome types.

  3. Gorlin's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, R T; Barrett, A

    1975-06-01

    The uncommon familial syndrome of multiple odontogenic keratocysts, basal cell naevi and skeletal anomalies is reviewed, and seven cases are described, including one patient who developed squamous cell carcinoma in a previous odontogenic keratocyst of the maxilla. We wish to thank Consultants from the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, The Middlesex Hospital and the Eastman Dental Hospital, who allowed us access to their patients; Mr. D. Garfield Davies, Dr. M. F. Spittle, Mr. D. Winstock, Mr. H. P. Cook, Professor H. C. Killey and Mr. L. W. Kay. We are grateful to Professor L. Michaels and Mr. D. J. Connolly for preparation of the illustrations and to Mrs. A. Matthews for the typescript.

  4. Phacoemulsification in pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akinci, Arsen; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2008-01-01

    To compare the incidence of intraoperative and early postoperative complications (IEPC), visual outcomes, and change in intraocular pressure (IOP) between eyes with and without pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) having cataract extraction by phacoemulsification. 800 eyes with PEX and 1,600 eyes without PEX having cataract extraction by phacoemulsification were included in this retrospective study. Evaluated parameters were incidence of IEPC, visual outcomes and change in IOP. chi2 and Student's t test were used for statistical analysis. There were no significant differences in the incidence of IEPC and visual acuity gain between the two groups (p > 0.05). Rise in IOP in the early postoperative period was significantly higher in the PEX group (p < 0.02). Patients with PEX who have phacoemulsification can achieve results similar to patients without PEX. IOP control in the early postoperative period seems to be more important in patients with PEX. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Breast cancer survivors suffer from persistent postmastectomy pain syndrome and posttraumatic stress disorder (ORTHUS study): a study of the palliative care working committee of the Turkish Oncology Group (TOG).

    PubMed

    Alkan, Ali; Guc, Zeynep Gulsum; Senler, Filiz Cay; Yavuzsen, Tugba; Onur, Handan; Dogan, Mutlu; Karci, Ebru; Yasar, Arzu; Koksoy, Elif Berna; Tanriverdi, Ozgur; Turhal, Serdar; Urun, Yuksel; Ozkan, Asiye; Mizrak, Dilsa; Akbulut, Hakan

    2016-09-01

    Persistent postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is one of the most important disturbing symptoms. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder which is characterized by reactions to reminders of the trauma that has been experienced. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictors of PMPS and PTSD in Turkish breast cancer survivors and the correlation between PMPS and PTSD. The study is designed as a multicenter survey study. Breast cancer patients in remission were evaluated. Patients were evaluated with structured questionnaires to assess the PMPS and clinical parameters associated with it. The Turkish version of the posttraumatic stress disorder checklist-civilian version (PCL-C) was used. Between February 2015 and October 2015, 614 breast cancer survivors in outpatient clinics were evaluated. The incidence of PMPS documented is 45.1 %. In the multivariate analysis low income, presence of PTSD and <46 months after surgery were associated with increased risk of PMPS. PTSD was documented in 75 %, and the mean PCL-C score was 32.4 ± 11.1. PMPS and being married at the time of the evaluation were linked with PTSD. It is the first data about the association between PMPS and PTSD. The clinicians should be aware of PMPS and PTSD in breast cancer survivors.

  6. Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that cooperative learning works best when students are first taught group-processing skills, such as leadership, decision making, communication, trust building, and conflict management. Inadequate teacher training and boring assignments can torpedo cooperative learning efforts. Administrators should reassure teachers with…

  7. Family Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Vivienne; Reich, Carol

    This report describes an observational study of one family-grouped classroom, a system in which elementary school children remain with the same teacher for two or more years. The class was composed of junior kindergarten, senior kindergarten, and grade 1 pupils. Each child was observed over a period of one year. A detailed observation schedule,…

  8. Conversational behaviour of children with Asperger syndrome and conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Adams, Catherine; Green, Jonathan; Gilchrist, Anne; Cox, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    Social communication problems in individuals who have Asperger syndrome constitute one of the most significant problems in the syndrome. This study makes a systematic analysis of the difficulties demonstrated with the use of language (pragmatics) in adolescents who have Asperger syndrome. Recent advances in discourse analysis were applied to conversational samples from a group of children with Asperger syndrome and a matched control group of children with severe conduct disorder. Two types of conversation were sampled from each group, differing in emotional content. The results showed that in these contexts children with Asperger syndrome were no more verbose as a group than controls, though they showed a tendency to talk more in more emotion-based conversations. Children with Asperger syndrome, as a group, performed similarly to control subjects in ability to respond to questions and comments. However, they were more likely to show responses which were problematic in both types of conversation. In addition, individuals with Asperger syndrome showed more problems in general conversation than during more emotionally and socially loaded topics. The group with Asperger syndrome was found to contain a small number of individuals with extreme verbosity but this was not a reliable characteristic of the group as a whole.

  9. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Job Rank.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Moradi, Mahboubeh

    2018-01-01

    The occupation of the people can influence the development of metabolic syndrome. To determine the association between metabolic syndrome and its determinants with the job rank in workers of a large car factory in Iran. 3989 male workers at a large car manufacturing company were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Demographic and anthropometric data of the participants, including age, height, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured. Blood samples were taken to measure lipid profile and blood glucose level. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in each participant based on ATPIII 2001 criteria. The workers were categorized based on their job rank into 3 groups of (1) office workers, (2) workers with physical exertion, and (3) workers with chemical exposure. The study characteristics, particularly the frequency of metabolic syndrome and its determinants were compared among the study groups. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our study was 7.7% (95% CI 6.9 to 8.5). HDL levels were significantly lower in those who had chemical exposure (p=0.045). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in those who had mechanical exertion (p=0.026). The frequency of metabolic syndrome in the office workers, workers with physical exertion, and workers with chemical exposure was 7.3%, 7.9%, and 7.8%, respectively (p=0.836). Seemingly, there is no association between metabolic syndrome and job rank.

  10. Macular structural characteristics in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Scott; Wang, Jingyun; Smith, Heather A; Donaldson, Dana L; Haider, Kathryn M; Roberts, Gavin J; Sprunger, Derek T; Neely, Daniel E; Plager, David A

    2015-12-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate macular structural characteristics in children with Down syndrome compared to those in healthy children. Two groups of children (aged 6-16 years) were enrolled: children with Down syndrome (Down syndrome group, N = 17) and age-matched healthy children who were full-term at birth (control group, N = 18). Eligible patients had visual acuity of 20/100 or better and gestational age at birth of ≥ 36 weeks. Fourier domain optical coherence tomography was used for imaging of the macular retinal structure, and retinal volume scans centered on the macula were obtained. Central subfield thickness (CST) and the thickness of the inner and outer retinal layer regions were analyzed using the instrument's segmentation software. The analysis of data is provided for the right eye only, since there was no significant difference between right and left eyes for either the Down syndrome or control groups. Children in the Down syndrome group generally had identifiable retinal structure. The CST for the full retina and inner and outer retinal layers were all significantly greater in the Down syndrome group than the control group (independent t test, all p < 0.05). Despite the significantly thicker macula, only about 29 % (5 of 17) of the right eyes of patients with Down syndrome had macular thickness outside the normal range. Visual acuity in the Down syndrome group was not directly correlated with increased CST (t = 1.288, r = 0.326, p = 0.202). On average, CST in the Down syndrome group was greater than that in the control group, suggesting abnormal macular development in children with Down syndrome.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome in adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Key points Adults with Down syndrome are predisposed to obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) due to overlap between the Down syndrome phenotype and OSAHS risk factors. The prevalence of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome is estimated at 35–42%. This is up to ten-times higher than in the general adult population. Symptoms of OSAHS, including behavioural and emotional disturbances as well as standard symptoms such as sleepiness, should be monitored as part of regular health surveillance in adults with Down syndrome. There is evidence that the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in adults with Down syndrome and comorbid OSAHS can lead to significant improvements in subjective sleepiness, behaviour and cognitive function, though further large-scale trials are required. Educational aims To discuss the relationship between the phenotypic features of Down syndrome and the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). To examine the prevalence of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome. To review recent research into the effectiveness of treatment of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterised by repeated cycles of upper airway obstruction during sleep, leading to diurnal symptoms. Individuals with Down syndrome are predisposed to OSAHS due to overlap between the Down syndrome phenotype and OSAHS risk factors. Recent large studies using subjective and objective measures estimate that OSAHS affects around 40% of adults with Down syndrome, in contrast to 2–4% of the general adult population. The “double-hit” of comorbid Down syndrome and OSAHS may accelerate cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome. However, with the appropriate care and support, OSAHS can be treated effectively in this group using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, improving daytime function and behaviour

  12. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hill, Elizabeth A

    2016-12-01

    Adults with Down syndrome are predisposed to obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) due to overlap between the Down syndrome phenotype and OSAHS risk factors.The prevalence of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome is estimated at 35-42%. This is up to ten-times higher than in the general adult population.Symptoms of OSAHS, including behavioural and emotional disturbances as well as standard symptoms such as sleepiness, should be monitored as part of regular health surveillance in adults with Down syndrome.There is evidence that the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in adults with Down syndrome and comorbid OSAHS can lead to significant improvements in subjective sleepiness, behaviour and cognitive function, though further large-scale trials are required. To discuss the relationship between the phenotypic features of Down syndrome and the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS).To examine the prevalence of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome.To review recent research into the effectiveness of treatment of OSAHS in adults with Down syndrome using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) is characterised by repeated cycles of upper airway obstruction during sleep, leading to diurnal symptoms. Individuals with Down syndrome are predisposed to OSAHS due to overlap between the Down syndrome phenotype and OSAHS risk factors. Recent large studies using subjective and objective measures estimate that OSAHS affects around 40% of adults with Down syndrome, in contrast to 2-4% of the general adult population. The "double-hit" of comorbid Down syndrome and OSAHS may accelerate cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome. However, with the appropriate care and support, OSAHS can be treated effectively in this group using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, improving daytime function and behaviour. Symptoms of OSAHS should be routinely

  13. Cantor Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Ben; Dow, Chris; Livshits, Leo

    2011-01-01

    The Cantor subset of the unit interval [0, 1) is "large" in cardinality and also "large" algebraically, that is, the smallest subgroup of [0, 1) generated by the Cantor set (using addition mod 1 as the group operation) is the whole of [0, 1). In this paper, we show how to construct Cantor-like sets which are "large" in cardinality but "small"…

  14. Underrepresented groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem with the shortage of under represented groups in science and engineering is absolutely crucial, especially considering that U.S. will experience a shortage of 560,000 science and engineering personnel by the year 2010. Most studies by the National Science Foundation also concluded that projected shortages cannot be alleviated without significant increases in the involvement of Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, handicapped persons, and women.

  15. The association between the metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score and pulmonary function in non-smoking adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun; Gi, Mi Young; Cha, Ju Ae; Yoo, Chan Uk; Park, Sang Muk

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the association of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score with the predicted forced vital capacity and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s) values in Korean non-smoking adults. We analysed data obtained from 6684 adults during the 2013-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjustment for related variables, metabolic syndrome ( p < 0.001) and metabolic syndrome score ( p < 0.001) were found to be inversely associated with the predicted forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values. The odds ratios of restrictive pulmonary disease (the predicted forced vital capacity < 80.0% with forced expiratory volume in 1 s/FVC ⩾ 70.0%) by metabolic syndrome score with metabolic syndrome score 0 as a reference group showed no significance for metabolic syndrome score 1 [1.061 (95% confidence interval, 0.755-1.490)] and metabolic syndrome score 2 [1.247 (95% confidence interval, 0.890-1.747)], but showed significant for metabolic syndrome score 3 [1.433 (95% confidence interval, 1.010-2.033)] and metabolic syndrome score ⩾ 4 [1.760 (95% confidence interval, 1.216-2.550)]. In addition, the odds ratio of restrictive pulmonary disease of the metabolic syndrome [1.360 (95% confidence interval, 1.118-1.655)] was significantly higher than those of non-metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score were inversely associated with the predicted forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values in Korean non-smoking adults. In addition, metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score were positively associated with the restrictive pulmonary disease.

  16. Social Anxiety in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Caroline; Moss, Jo; O'Farrell, Laura; Kaur, Gurmeash; Oliver, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In this study we assessed the behavioral presentation of social anxiety in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) using a contrast group of Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS). Behaviors indicative of social anxiety were recorded in twelve children with CdLS (mean age = 11.00; SD = 5.15) and twelve children with CdCS (8.20; SD = 2.86) during social…

  17. Moebius Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... by small or absent brain stem nuclei that control the cranial nerves; Group II, characterized by loss and degeneration of neurons ... by small or absent brain stem nuclei that control the cranial nerves; Group II, characterized by loss and degeneration of neurons ...

  18. Gorlin-goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pandeshwar, Padma; Jayanthi, K; Mahesh, D

    2012-01-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) (the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome-NBCCS) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused due to mutations in the PTCH (patched) gene found on chromosome arm 9q. The syndrome, characterized by increased predisposition to develop basal cell carcinoma and associated multiorgan anomalies, has a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. GGS is a multidisciplinary problem, early diagnosis of which allows introduction of secondary prophylaxis and following an appropriate treatment to delay the progress of the syndrome. The following report emphasizes the need for awareness of the diagnostic criteria of this syndrome in cases with no typical skin lesions.

  19. Psychiatric and autistic comorbidity in fragile X syndrome across ages.

    PubMed

    Gabis, Lidia V; Baruch, Yael Kesner; Jokel, Ariela; Raz, Raanan

    2011-08-01

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansion within the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene, when repeat number exceeds 200. The typical psychiatric profile of fragile X syndrome patients includes cognitive and behavioral deficits, psychiatric comorbidity, and autistic characteristics. Specific psychiatric features have not yet been clarified, specifically in relationship to age and genetic characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterize psychiatric comorbidities in subjects with fragile X syndrome at different ages. Subjects with fragile X syndrome and their unaffected siblings were recruited and their parents filled out functional-behavioral and psychiatric comorbidities questionnaires. Adolescents with fragile X syndrome showed decreased prevalence of functional-behavioral deficits. Incidence and severity of most psychiatric comorbidities were lower in older subjects. Incidence of generalized anxiety disorder increased with age in the fragile X syndrome group. The typical profile of patients with fragile X syndrome changes with age. Unaffected siblings exhibit anxiety and motor tics.

  20. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  1. The metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Essah, P A; Nestler, J E

    2006-03-01

    Much overlap is present between the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the metabolic syndrome. This article reviews the existing data regarding the prevalence, characteristics, and treatment of the metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS is approximately 43-47%, a rate 2-fold higher than that for women in the general population. High body mass index and low serum HDL cholesterol are the most frequently occurring components of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS. The pathogenic link between the metabolic syndrome and PCOS is most likely insulin resistance. Therefore, the presence of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS suggests a greater degree of insulin resistance compared to PCOS without the metabolic syndrome. Obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance, and vascular abnormalities are all common metabolic abnormalities present in PCOS. Lifestyle modification has proven benefit and pharmacological therapy with insulin-sensitizing agents has potential benefit in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome Risk Profiles Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Lai, Betty S.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Golden, Sherita H.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although African American adolescents have the highest prevalence of obesity, they have the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome across all definitions used in previous research. To address this paradox, we sought to develop a model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2010) of 822 nonpregnant, nondiabetic, African American adolescents (45% girls; aged 12 to 17 years) who underwent physical examinations and fasted at least 8 h were analyzed. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to model metabolic syndrome and then used latent profile analysis to identify metabolic syndrome risk groups among African American adolescents. We compared the risk groups on probability of prediabetes. RESULTS The best-fitting metabolic syndrome model consisted of waist circumference, fasting insulin, HDL, and systolic blood pressure. We identified three metabolic syndrome risk groups: low, moderate, and high risk (19% boys; 16% girls). Thirty-five percent of both boys and girls in the high-risk groups had prediabetes, a significantly higher prevalence compared with boys and girls in the low-risk groups. Among adolescents with BMI higher than the 85th percentile, 48 and 36% of boys and girls, respectively, were in the high-risk group. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide a plausible model of the metabolic syndrome specific to African American adolescents. Based on this model, approximately 19 and 16% of African American boys and girls, respectively, are at high risk for having the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23093663

  3. Hepatorenal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Papper, S

    1980-01-01

    Renal failure without apparent cause (the hepatorenal syndrome) may develop in the course of cirrhosis of the liver. While the development of renal failure bears a poor prognosis, spontaneous recovery can occur. The data suggest that for the most part patients die in rather than of renal failure. The latter seems to be only part of a broader more fundamental disturbance. The pathogenesis of HRS is unknown, but the evidence supports an impairment of effective renal perfusion. The two major hypotheses concerning the nature of the impaired perfusion are that it is a physiologic response to alterations in the extrarenal circulation, and that there is an unidentified humoral agent(s) produced by or inadequately inactivated by or bypassing the diseased liver and causing circulatory changes in the kidney as well as in other organs. It is possible that both mechanisms are operative. Treatment is unsatisfactory and emphasis is presently best placed upon searching for more treatable causes of renal functional impairment in individual patients.

  4. Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    Noonan syndrome is a common autosomal dominant condition, readily recognisable in childhood. It is characterised by a pattern of typical facial dysmorphism and malformations including congenital cardiac defects, short stature, abnormal chest shape, broad or webbed neck, and a variable learning disability. Mildly affected adults may not be diagnosed until the birth of a more obviously affected child. The phenotype is highly variable. Important progress in understanding the molecular basis of this and other related conditions was made in 2001 when germline mutations in the PTPN11 gene were found to account for ∼50% of cases. Since then, mutations in additional genes in the rat sarcoma (RAS) pathway have been identified in a proportion of the remainder. Molecular confirmation of diagnosis is now possible for many families and has become increasingly important in guiding management. Increased awareness by paediatricians will lead to earlier diagnosis, and provide patients and their families with accurate genetic counselling, including options when planning pregnancy. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. [Pseudoexfoliation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Esmail, F

    1991-05-01

    The Frequency of the Pseudoexfoliation-Syndrom (= PES) was investigated about two months in a prospective study of 1069 patients in the university eye hospital of Zurich. 7.35% of these patients had a PES with or without glaucoma. Among the clinic patients there were 9.9% and among the policlinic patients 6.26%. All our patients were elder than 60 years old, 58.9% between 70-85 years. There were 33.37% men and 66.63% women. 33% of the PES-patients had a tension over 22 mmHg. 42.86% of the patients had the highest tension over 30 mmHg. 33.33% (= 26 patients) had a PES without glaucoma and 66.66% (= 52 patients) a PES with glaucoma. 56.42% of the patients (= 44 patients) had in one eye PES and 43.58% (34 patients) in both eyes. 9.61% (= 5 pat.) had an absolute PES-glaucoma in one eye.

  6. Premenstrual syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yonkers, Kimberly Ann; O’Brien, P M Shaughn; Eriksson, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Most women of reproductive age have some physical discomfort or dysphoria in the weeks before menstruation. Symptoms are often mild, but can be severe enough to substantially affect daily activities. About 5–8% of women thus suffer from severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS); most of these women also meet criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Mood and behavioural symptoms, including irritability, tension, depressed mood, tearfulness, and mood swings, are the most distressing, but somatic complaints, such as breast tenderness and bloating, can also be problematic. We outline theories for the underlying causes of severe PMS, and describe two main methods of treating it: one targeting the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis, and the other targeting brain serotonergic synapses. Fluctuations in gonadal hormone levels trigger the symptoms, and thus interventions that abolish ovarian cyclicity, including long-acting analogues of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or oestradiol (administered as patches or implants), effectively reduce the symptoms, as can some oral contraceptives. The effectiveness of serotonin reuptake inhibitors, taken throughout the cycle or during luteal phases only, is also well established. PMID:18395582

  7. Pseudohypopituitary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Heinze, E; Holl, R W

    1992-07-01

    In a child with short stature, the finding of normal or elevated GH levels in the presence of low concentrations of IGF-I raises the following possibilities. (1) A modification of the GH molecule, which is still detected by RIA, but inactive biologically. Therefore, an RRA or bioassay for hGH should result in considerably lower GH measurements compared with RIA determinations in the same sample. As both bioassays as well as RRAs are not widely available and are hampered by several difficulties, few children with this presumptive diagnosis have been described. So far, it has not been possible to define a specific molecular defect in one of these patients. (2) Abnormalities of the GH receptor or postreceptor mechanisms lead to a GH insensitivity syndrome. Laron-type dwarfism is usually due to a deletion in the gene for hepatic GH receptors: the serum binding protein for GH is absent. In three additional populations, the Pygmies of Zaire, the little women of Loja in Ecuador and the Mountain Ok people in Papua New Guinea, alterations of GH receptor function have been described. Finally, some reports describe patients with normal or elevated serum levels of both growth hormone and IGF-I in whom resistance to IGF has been implied in the pathogenesis of small stature.

  8. Unravelling the NERDS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Achintya Dinesh; Suri, Tejas Menon; Jagdish, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Uma

    2018-05-12

    A 22-year-old man presented with symmetric polyarthritis, pruritus and deviation of angle of mouth to the right side since the last 7 years. His symptoms were persistent despite receiving ayurvedic medications and symptomatic therapy. Examination revealed dry skin, cutaneous nodules, xanthelasma, periarticular non-tender swellings, pitting oedema of hands and feet and lower motor neuron type right facial palsy. Haematological investigations revealed eosinophilia and skin biopsy had cutaneous eosinophilic infiltration. The constellation of above findings comprises the nodules, eosinophilia, rheumatism, dermatitis and swelling syndrome. It a rare syndrome with few reported cases in literature. The patient was started on oral corticosteroids which was subsequently tapered and methotrexate therapy. His polyarthritis and skin rashes resolved with therapy. He has been followed-up for 2 years and is presently asymptomatic for the last 1 year. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Dermatology facing autoinflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alecu, Mihail; Coman, Gabriela; Muşetescu, Alina; Cojoacă, Marian Emanuel; Coman, Oana Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous symptoms are characteristic for the autoinflammatory disorders (AIDs), both in the classical autoinflammatory phenotype and in most disorders included in this syndrome, but they are not specific and inconstant. Several skin disorders (pyoderma gangrenosum and pustular acne) may be encountered either isolate or associated with autoinflammatory symptoms, forming well-defined clinical entities within the autoinflammatory syndrome. The high prevalence of cutaneous manifestations is an important characteristic of AIDs. The presence of cutaneous symptoms in AIDs opens the perspective of understanding the contribution of innate immunity mechanisms involved in skin pathology. It is possible that many diseases present the alteration, in various degrees, of the innate immune mechanisms. Recently, dermatology faced two challenges connected to AIDs. The first involves the diagnosis of skin symptoms in a clinical autoinflammatory setting and the investigative approach to identify a disorder classified as AID. The second is to identify the altered mechanisms of inborn immunity among the pathogenetic mechanisms of known dermatological diseases (e.g., neutrophilic dermatoses). On the other hand, cutaneous symptoms are in certain cases regarded as a criterion to asses the efficacy of specific or non-specific therapies with monoclonal antibodies in disorders included in AIDs. Dermatology mostly benefits from the identification and knowledge of AIDs due to the role of innate immunity in skin pathogeny and also due to the large extent of clinical forms resulting from the association of skin symptoms with other disorders included in this group.

  10. The safety and pharmacokinetics of single-agent and combination therapy with megestrol acetate and dronabinol for the treatment of HIV wasting syndrome. The DATRI 004 Study Group. Division of AIDS Treatment Research Initiative.

    PubMed

    Timpone, J G; Wright, D J; Li, N; Egorin, M J; Enama, M E; Mayers, J; Galetto, G

    1997-03-01

    This randomized, open-labeled, multicenter study was designed to assess safety and pharmacokinetics of dronabinol (Marinol) tablets and megestrol acetate (Megace) micronized tablets, alone and in combination, for treatment of HIV wasting syndrome. Weight and quality of life data were also collected. Fifty-two patients (mean CD4+ count, 59 cells/microliter) were randomized to one of four treatment arms: dronabinol 2.5 mg twice/day (D); megestrol acetate 750 mg/day (M750); megestrol acetate 750 mg/day+dronabinol 2.5 mg twice/day (M750+D); or megestrol acetate 250 mg/day+dronabinol 2.5 mg twice/day (M250+D). After therapy initiation, 47 patients returned for at least one visit, and 39 completed the planned 12 weeks of study visits. Occurrence of adverse events, drug discontinuation, new AIDS-defining conditions, or CD4+ T lymphocyte changes were not statistically significantly different among arms. Serious adverse events assessed as related to dronabinol included CNS events (e.g., confusion, anxiety, emotional lability, euphoria, hallucinations) and those assessed as related to megestrol acetate included dyspnea, liver enzyme changes, and hyperglycemia. The mean weight change +/- SE over 12 weeks was as follows: D, -2.0 +/- 1.3 kg; M750, +6.5 +/- 1.1 kg; M750+D, +6.0 +/- 1.0 kg; and M250+D, -0.3 +/- 1.0 kg (difference among treatment arms, p = 0.0001). Pharmacokinetic parameters measured after 2 weeks of therapy for M750 were Cmax = 985 ng/ml and AUC = 22,487 ng x hr/ml, and for dronabinol and its active metabolite (HO-THC), respectively, were Cmax = 2.01; 4.61 ng/ml and AUC = 5.3; 23.7 ng x hr/ml. For megestrol acetate, but not dronabinol, there was a positive correlation at week 2 between both Cmax and AUC with each of the following: (1) weight change, (2) breakfast visual analog scale for hunger (VASH) score, and (3) dinner VASH score.

  11. Psycholinguistic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Natalia F.; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal; Giacheti, Celia M.; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Sampaio, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the psycholinguistic abilities of children with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing children using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). Performance on the ITPA was analysed in a group with WS (N=20, mean age=8.5 years, SD=1.62) and two typically developing groups,…

  12. Cognitive Control of Movement in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunamonti, Emiliano; Pani, Pierpaolo; Papazachariadis, Odysseas; Onorati, Paolo; Albertini, Giorgio; Ferraina, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of inappropriate responses allows to shape the motor behavior accordingly to the context in which a subject acts and is an essential executive function. Inhibition has been poorly investigated in Down Syndrome (DS) patients. We tested, using a countermanding task, the inhibitory control in a group of DS patients and in a group of…

  13. Reye's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... in children and teenagers who have an underlying fatty acid oxidation disorder. Fatty acid oxidation disorders are a group of inherited metabolic ... which the body is unable to break down fatty acids because an enzyme is missing or not working ...

  14. Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis syndrome: Case series of rare syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Preetha; Balaji, S M

    2017-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis syndrome is an extremely rare genetic condition characterized by profound overgrowth of hair and gums, as well as other variable features. Gingival fibromatosis is characterized by a large increase in the gingival dimension which extends above the dental crowns, covering them partially or completely. They were found to have a genetic origin, may also occur in isolation or be part of a syndrome, or acquired origin, due to specific drugs administered systemically. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with continuing excessive growth of terminal hair without androgenic stimulation. It has informally been called werewolf syndrome because the appearance is similar to that of a werewolf. Various syndromes have been associated with these features such as epilepsy, mental retardation, cardiomegaly, or osteochondrodysplasia. As so far very few cases have been reported in literature, we are reporting a series of three cases with management of the same. The excess gingival tissues, in these cases, were removed by conventional gingivectomy under general anesthesia. The postoperative result was uneventful and the patient's appearance improved significantly. Good esthetic result was achieved to allow patient to practice oral hygiene measures. Though this is not a serious condition clinically, psychosocial trauma cannot be neglected owing to the cosmetic disfigurement it produces.

  15. Central Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... cord. This syndrome can be caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, tumors, epilepsy, brain or spinal cord trauma, or ... cord. This syndrome can be caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, tumors, epilepsy, brain or spinal cord trauma, or ...

  16. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... including rotator cuff injuries, cervical disc disorders, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, complex regional pain syndrome, and tumors of the ... including rotator cuff injuries, cervical disc disorders, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, complex regional pain syndrome, and tumors of the ...

  17. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) happens when a woman's ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. PCOS causes cysts ( ... PCOS are at higher risk of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and high blood pressure. PCOS is ...

  18. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... a passing cramp? It could be carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway of ... three times more likely to have carpal tunnel syndrome than men. Early diagnosis and treatment are important ...

  19. Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Guillain-Barre syndrome is a rare disorder that causes your immune system to attack your peripheral nervous system (PNS). The PNS ... your brain. No one knows what causes the syndrome. Sometimes it is triggered by an infection, surgery, ...

  20. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...