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Sample records for zona occludens-2 inhibits

  1. Phosphorylation of zona occludens-2 by protein kinase C epsilon regulates its nuclear exportation.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, David; Alarcón, Lourdes; Ponce, Arturo; Tapia, Rocio; González-Aguilar, Héctor; Robles-Flores, Martha; Mejía-Castillo, Teresa; Segovia, José; Bandala, Yamir; Juaristi, Eusebio; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2009-09-01

    Here, we have analyzed the subcellular destiny of newly synthesized tight junction protein zona occludens (ZO)-2. After transfection in sparse cells, 74% of cells exhibit ZO-2 at the nucleus, and after 18 h the value decreases to 17%. The mutation S369A located within the nuclear exportation signal 1 of ZO-2 impairs the nuclear export of the protein. Because Ser369 represents a putative protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation site, we tested the effect of PKC inhibition and stimulation on the nuclear export of ZO-2. Our results strongly suggest that the departure of ZO-2 from the nucleus is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser369 by novel PKCepsilon. To test the route taken by ZO-2 from synthesis to the plasma membrane, we devised a novel nuclear microinjection assay in which the nucleus served as a reservoir for anti-ZO-2 antibody. Through this assay, we demonstrate that a significant amount of newly synthesized ZO-2 goes into the nucleus and is later relocated to the plasma membrane. These results constitute novel information for understanding the mechanisms that regulate the intracellular fate of ZO-2.

  2. Identification of ZASP, a novel protein associated to Zona occludens-2.

    PubMed

    Lechuga, Susana; Alarcón, Lourdes; Solano, Jesús; Huerta, Miriam; Lopez-Bayghen, Esther; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2010-11-15

    With the aim of discovering new molecular interactions of the tight junction protein ZO-2, a two-hybrid screen was performed on a human kidney cDNA library using as bait the middle segment of ZO-2. Through this assay we identified a 24-kDa novel protein herein named ZASP for ZO-2 associated speckle protein. ZO-2/ZASP interaction further confirmed by pull down and immunoprecipitation experiments, requires the presence of the intact PDZ binding motif SQV of ZASP and the third PDZ domain of ZO-2. ZASP mRNA and protein are present in the kidney and in several epithelial cell lines. Endogenous ZASP is expressed primarily in nuclear speckles in co-localization with splicing factor SC-35. Nocodazole treatment and wash out reveals that ZASP disappears from the nucleus during mitosis in accordance with speckle disassembly during metaphase. ZASP amino acid sequence exhibits a canonical nuclear exportation signal and in agreement the protein exits the nucleus through a process mediated by exportin/CRM1. ZASP over-expression blocks the inhibitory activity of ZO-2 on cyclin D1 gene transcription and protein expression. The identification of ZASP helps to unfold the complex nuclear molecular arrays that form on ZO-2 scaffolds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pertussis toxin treatment does not block inhibition by atrial natriuretic factor of aldosterone secretion in cultured bovine zona glomerulosa cells

    SciT

    De Lean, A.; Cantin, M.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) potently inhibits PGE or forskolin-stimulation aldosterone secretion in bovine zona glomerulosa (ZG) by acting through specific high affinity receptors. In order to evaluate the functional role of the regulatory protein N/sub i/ and the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in ZG, the authors have studied the effect of treatment with PT on inhibition by ANF of aldosterone production. Primary cultures of ZG were treated for 18 hours in serum-free F12 medium with (0-100 ng/ml PT). No effect of PT pretreatment was observed either on basal, PGE-stimulated or ANF-inhibited levelsmore » of steroidogenesis. When membranes prepared from control ZG were ADP-ribosylated with (/sup 32/P) NAD in the presence of PT, two toxin-specific bands with 39 Kd and 41 Kd were documented on SDS gel. Cell pretreatment with as low as 1 ng/ml drastically reduced further labelling of these two bands while higher doses completely abolished them. Since PT treatment covalently modifies completely the toxin substrate without altering ANF inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis, the authors conclude that N/sub i/ is not involved in the mode of action of ANF on aldosterone production.« less

  4. Inhibitors of serine proteases decrease sperm penetration during porcine fertilization in vitro by inhibiting sperm binding to the zona pellucida and acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Beek, J; Nauwynck, H; Appeltant, R; Maes, D; Van Soom, A

    2015-11-01

    Serine proteases are involved in mammalian fertilization. Inhibitors of serine proteases can be applied to investigate at which point these enzymes exert their action. We selected two serine protease inhibitors, 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF, 100 μM) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI, 5 μM) from Glycine max, via previous dose-response IVF experiments and sperm toxicity tests. In the present study, we evaluated how these inhibitors affect porcine fertilization in vitro as calculated on total fertilization rate, polyspermy rate, and the sperm number per fertilized oocyte of cumulus-intact, cumulus-free, and zona-free oocytes. In the control group (no inhibitor), these parameters were 86%, 49%, and 2.2 for cumulus-intact oocytes and 77%, 43%, and 2.2 for cumulus-free oocytes (6-hour gamete incubation period, 1.25 × 10(5) spermatozoa/mL). 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride and STI significantly reduced total fertilization and polyspermy rate in cumulus-intact and cumulus-free oocytes (P < 0.05). Total fertilization rates were respectively 65% and 53% (AEBSF) and 36% and 17% (STI). Inhibition rates were higher in cumulus-free oocytes than in cumulus-intact oocytes, indicating that inhibitors exerted their action after sperm passage through the cumulus. 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride but not STI reduced sperm binding to the ZP. The acrosome reaction was significantly inhibited by both inhibitors. Only 40.4% (AEBSF) and 11.4% (STI) of spermatozoa completed a calcium-induced acrosome reaction compared to 86.7% of spermatozoa in the control group. There was no effect on sperm binding or fertilization parameters in zona-free oocytes. In conclusion, sperm-zona binding and acrosome reaction were inhibited by serine protease inhibitors during porcine IVF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of endothelin- and phorbol ester-stimulated tyrosine kinase activity by corticotrophin in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa.

    PubMed Central

    Kapas, S; Hinson, J P

    1996-01-01

    1. The experiments described in this study were carried out to investigate the role of tyrosine kinase in the acute adrenal response to peptide hormone stimulation, and to determine whether the activity of this kinase may be subject to regulation by other intracellular signalling mechanisms in the adrenal zona glomerulosa. 2. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that angiotensin II stimulates tyrosine kinase activity in the rat adrenal cortex. This study has shown, for the first time, that endothelin-1 also stimulates tyrosine kinase activity in this tissue. 3. Using the specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC) activity, Ro 31-8220, we have shown that stimulation of tyrosine kinase activity, in response to endothelin-1, angiotensin II or the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, is at least partly dependent on increased PKC activity. 4. The data presented also provide further evidence of cross-talk between signalling systems in the adrenal cortex. Corticotrophin and its intracellular second messenger, cyclic AMP, significantly attenuate the increment in tyrosine kinase activity seen in response to each of the effectors used. 5. The results of this study provide important new evidence for the regulation of protein kinases by other intracellular second messenger systems. PMID:8611168

  6. NEFM (Neurofilament Medium) Polypeptide, a Marker for Zona Glomerulosa Cells in Human Adrenal, Inhibits D1R (Dopamine D1 Receptor)-Mediated Secretion of Aldosterone.

    PubMed

    Maniero, Carmela; Garg, Sumedha; Zhao, Wanfeng; Johnson, Timothy Isaac; Zhou, Junhua; Gurnell, Mark; Brown, Morris J

    2017-08-01

    Heterogeneity among aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) has been highlighted by the discovery of somatic mutations. KCNJ5 mutations predominate in large zona fasciculata (ZF)-like APAs; mutations in CACNA1D , ATP1A1, ATP2B3 , and CTNNB1 are more likely to be found in small zona glomerulosa (ZG)-like APAs. Microarray comparison of KCNJ5 mutant versus wild-type APAs revealed significant differences in transcriptomes. NEFM , encoding a neurofilament subunit which is a D1R (dopamine D1 receptor)-interacting protein, was 4-fold upregulated in ZG-like versus ZF-like APAs and 14-fold more highly expressed in normal ZG versus ZF. Immunohistochemistry confirmed selective expression of NEFM (neurofilament medium) polypeptide in ZG and in ZG-like APAs. Silencing NEFM in adrenocortical H295R cells increased basal aldosterone secretion and cell proliferation; silencing also amplified aldosterone stimulation by the D1R agonist, fenoldopam, and inhibition by the D1R antagonist, SCH23390. NEFM coimmunoprecipitated with D1R, and its expression was stimulated by fenoldopam. Immunohistochemistry for D1R was mainly intracellular in ZG-like APAs but membranous in ZF-like APAs. Aldosterone secretion in response to fenoldopam in primary cells from ZF-like APAs was higher than in cells from ZG-like APAs. Transfection of mutant KCNJ5 caused a large reduction in NEFM expression in H295R cells. We conclude that NEFM is a negative regulator of aldosterone production and cell proliferation, in part by facilitating D1R internalization from the plasma membrane. Downregulation of NEFM in ZF-like APAs may contribute to a D1R/D2R imbalance underlying variable pharmacological responses to dopaminergic drugs among patients with APAs. Finally, taken together, our data point to the possibility that ZF-like APAs are in fact ZG in origin. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Inhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupperman, Joel J.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the use of the concept of inhibition in moral philosophy. Argues that there are strong practical reasons for basing moral teaching on simple moral rules and for inculcating inhibitions about breaking these rules. (Author)

  8. Differences between antigenic determinants of pig and cat zona pellucida proteins.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, K; Rohleder, M; Wegner, I

    2000-05-01

    Despite many efforts, the control of reproduction in feral cat populations is still a problem in urban regions around the world. Immunocontraception is a promising approach; thus the present study examined the suitability of the widely used pig zona pellucida proteins (pZP) for contraception in feral domestic cats. Purified zona pellucida proteins obtained from pig and cat ovaries were used to produce highly specific antisera in rabbits. Antibodies against pZP raised in rabbits or lions were not effective inhibitors of either in vitro sperm binding (cat spermatozoa to cat oocytes) or in vitro fertilization in cats, whereas antibodies against feline zona pellucida proteins (fZP) raised in rabbits showed a dose-dependent inhibition of in vitro fertilization. Immunoelectrophoresis, ELISA and immunohistology of ovaries confirmed these results, showing crossreactivity of anti-fZP sera to fZP and to a lesser extent to pZP, but no interaction of anti-pZP sera with fZP. It is concluded that cat and pig zonae pellucidae express a very small number of shared antigenic determinants, making the use of pZP vaccine in cats questionable. A contraceptive vaccine based on feline zona pellucida determinants will be a better choice for the control of reproduction in feral cats if immunogenity can be achieved.

  9. Human sperm degradation of zona pellucida proteins contributes to fertilization.

    PubMed

    Saldívar-Hernández, Analilia; González-González, María E; Sánchez-Tusié, Ana; Maldonado-Rosas, Israel; López, Pablo; Treviño, Claudia L; Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel

    2015-09-02

    The mammalian oocyte extracellular matrix known as the zona pellucida (ZP) acts as a barrier to accomplish sperm fusion with the female gamete. Although penetration of the ZP is a limiting event to achieve fertilization, this is one of the least comprehended stages of gamete interaction. Even though previous studies suggest that proteases of sperm origin contribute to facilitate the passage of sperm through the ZP, in human this process is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of human sperm to degrade recombinant human ZP (rhZPs) proteins and to characterize the proteases involved in this process. Purified rhZP2, rhZP3 and rhZP4 proteins were incubated with capacitated sperm and the proteolytic activity was determined by Western blot analysis. To further characterize the proteases involved, parallel incubations were performed in the presence of the protease inhibitors o-phenanthroline, benzamidine and MG-132 meant to block the activity of metalloproteases, serine proteases and the proteasome, respectively. Additionally, protease inhibitors effect on sperm-ZP binding was evaluated by hemizona assay. The results showed that rhZPs were hydrolyzed in the presence of capacitated sperm. O-phenanthroline inhibited the degradation of rhZP3, MG-132 inhibited the degradation of rhZP4 and benzamidine inhibited the degradation of the three proteins under investigation. Moreover, hemizona assays demonstrated that sperm proteasome inhibition impairs sperm interaction with human native ZP. This study suggests that sperm proteasomes could participate in the degradation of ZP, particularly of the ZP4 protein. Besides, metalloproteases may be involved in specific degradation of ZP3 while serine proteases may contribute to unspecific degradation of the ZP. These findings suggest that localized degradation of ZP proteins by sperm is probably involved in ZP penetration and may be of help in understanding the mechanisms of fertilization in humans.

  10. Lhx6-positive GABA-releasing neurons of the zona incerta promote sleep

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Kim, Juhyun; Kim, Dong Won; Zhang, Yi Stephanie; Bao, Hechen; Denaxa, Myrto; Lim, Szu-Aun; Kim, Eileen; Liu, Chang; Wickersham, Ian R.; Pachnis, Vassilis; Hattar, Samer; Song, Juan; Brown, Solange P.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Multiple populations of wake-promoting neurons have been characterized in mammals, but few sleep-promoting neurons have been identified1. Wake-promoting cell types include hypocretin and GABA (γ-aminobutyric-acid)-releasing neurons of the lateral hypothalamus, which promote the transition to wakefulness from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep2,3. Here we show that a subset of GABAergic neurons in the mouse ventral zona incerta, which express the LIM homeodomain factor Lhx6 and are activated by sleep pressure, both directly inhibit wake-active hypocretin and GABAergic cells in the lateral hypothalamus and receive inputs from multiple sleep–wake-regulating neurons. Conditional deletion of Lhx6 from the developing diencephalon leads to decreases in both NREM and REM sleep. Furthermore, selective activation and inhibition of Lhx6-positive neurons in the ventral zona incerta bidirectionally regulate sleep time in adult mice, in part through hypocretin-dependent mechanisms. These studies identify a GABAergic subpopulation of neurons in the ventral zona incerta that promote sleep. PMID:28847002

  11. Mechanics of sperm-egg interaction at the zona pellucida.

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, J M; Katz, D F; Cone, R A

    1988-01-01

    Mammalian sperm traverse several layers of egg vestments before fertilization can occur. The innermost vestment, the zona pellucida, is a glycoprotein shell, which captures and tethers the sperm before they penetrate it. We report here direct measurements of the force required to tether a motile human sperm as well as independent calculations of this force using flagellar beat parameters observed for sperm of several species on their homologous zonae. We have compared these sperm-generated forces with the calculated tensile strength of sperm-zona bonds, and found that a motile sperm can be tethered, at least temporarily, by a single bond. Therefore, sperm can be captured by the first bond formed and tethered permanently by a few. The sperm cannot subsequently penetrate the zona unless the bonds are first eliminated. However, premature elimination would simply allow the sperm to escape. Therefore, not only must the bonds be eliminated, but the timing of this must be regulated so that the sperm is already oriented toward the egg and beginning to penetrate as the bonds are broken. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:3224150

  12. Scintigraphy of normal mouse ovaries with monoclonal antibodies to ZP-2, the major zona pellucida protein

    SciT

    East, I.J.; Keenan, A.M.; Larson, S.M.

    1984-08-31

    The zona pellucida is an extracellular glycocalyx, made of three sulfated glycoproteins, that surrounds mammalian oocytes. Parenterally administered monoclonal antibodies specific for ZP-2, the most abundant zona protein, localize in the zona pellucida. When labeled with iodine-125, these monoclonal antibodies demonstrate a remarkably high target-to-nontarget tissue ratio and provide clear external radioimaging of ovarian tissue.

  13. The practical side of immunocontraception: zona proteins and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, J F; Rowan, A; Lamberski, N; Wallace, R; Frank, K; Lyda, R

    2009-12-01

    With shrinking habitat, the humane control of certain wildlife populations is relevant. The contraceptive vaccine based on native porcine zona pellucida (PZP) has been applied to various wildlife populations for 20 years. Prominent efforts include wild horses, urban deer, zoo animals and African elephants, among others. This approach has been successful in managing entire populations and to date, no significant debilitating short- or long-term health effects have been documented.

  14. Regulation of acrosomal exocytosis. II. The zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction of bovine spermatozoa is controlled by extrinsic positive regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Florman, H M; First, N L

    1988-08-01

    The effects of accessory sex gland secretions on the zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction of bovine spermatozoa were investigated. Soluble extracts of zonae pellucidae initiated exocytosis in ejaculated spermatozoa. This process had an ED50 of 20 ng/microliter zona pellucida protein and saturated at 50 ng/microliter (Florman and First, 1988. Dev. Biol. 128, 453-463). In epididymal sperm this dose-response relationship was shifted toward greater agonist concentrations by at least a factor of 10(3). Reconstitution of high potency agonist response was achieved in vitro by incubation of epididymal sperm with bovine seminal plasma. Reconstitution was dependent on the seminal plasma protein concentration. The ED50 of this process was 62 micrograms protein/10(8) sperm and saturation was observed with 124 micrograms protein/10(8) sperm. Agonist responses in reconstituted epididymal sperm and in ejaculated sperm were indistinguishable with regard to dependence on the zona pellucida protein concentration and the kinetics of induced acrosome reactions. Kinetic studies suggest that reconstitution is due to adsorption of regulatory factors from seminal plasma. In addition to the positive regulatory elements responsible for reconstituting activity, seminal plasma also contains negative regulatory elements which inhibit agonist response. These negative factors are inactivated during sperm capacitation, permitting the expression of positive regulators. Acting together, these regulatory elements could coordinate high affinity agonist response with the availability of eggs in vivo.

  15. Transfer of bovine demi-embryos with and without the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Warfield, S J; Seidel, G E; Elsden, R P

    1987-09-01

    Bisected bovine embryos with or without the zona pellucida were transferred to recipients nonsurgically in five field trials. Embryos were collected from superovulated donors 6.5 to 7.5 d after estrus; only embryos of good and excellent quality were bisected. Demi-embryos were transferred either within a zona pellucida, without a zona pellucida, without a zona pellucida, or in the third and fourth trials, without a zona but embedded in 7% gelatin. Pregnancies were diagnosed at 44 to 68 d of gestation. In a preliminary trial, 9/29 zona pellucida-intact demi-embryos developed into fetuses compared with 1/10 zona pellucida-free demi-embryos (P greater than .1). The proportion of zona-free demi-embryos developing to fetuses was not significantly different from the zona-intact group in the second trial either, 24/49 and 5/19, respectively. In trial 3, the proportion of zona pellucida-free demi-embryos developing was 8/25; of zona-enclosed embryos, 29/88; and of zona-free demi-embryos embedded in gelatin, 8/22 (P greater than .1). Similarly, in the fourth trial the rate of development of zona-free demi-embryos to fetuses was 5/12, that of zona-enclosed embryos was 32/81, and that of zona-free demi-embryos embedded in gelatin was 3/12 (P greater than .1). In trial 5, survival of zona-enclosed demi-embryos to fetuses was 40/105, and of zona-free demi-embryos, 46/109 (P greater than .1). Except for trial 2, half of the demi-embryos were twinned, one to each uterine horn; twinning did not significantly affect the proportion developing to fetuses for any of the demi-embryo groups. It is concluded that placing post-compaction demi-embryos into the zona pellucida for transfer does not improve pregnancy rates significantly.

  16. Viscous forces are predominant in the zona pellucida mechanical resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papi, Massimiliano; Maiorana, Alessandro; Douet, Cécile; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Parasassi, Tiziana; Brunelli, Roberto; Goudet, Ghylène; De Spirito, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is a multilayer glycoprotein spherical shell surrounding mammalian eggs. The ZP's mechanical response plays a crucial role in mammalian fertilization and is a parameter commonly adopted in "in vitro fertilization" to characterize the oocytes quality. While it is assumed that ZP mechanical response is purely elastic, here we prove that dissipative forces cannot be neglected. Physiologically, this evidence implies that an increase in the spermatozoa motility can induce dramatic changes on the ZP reaction force turning ZP shell in an impenetrable barrier leading to fertility impairments.

  17. Knockdown of long non-coding RNA XIST increases blood–tumor barrier permeability and inhibits glioma angiogenesis by targeting miR-137

    PubMed Central

    Yu, H; Xue, Y; Wang, P; Liu, X; Ma, J; Zheng, J; Li, Z; Li, Z; Cai, H; Liu, Y

    2017-01-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy plays a significant role in combined glioma treatment. However, poor permeability of the blood–tumor barrier (BTB) limits the transport of chemotherapeutic agents, including antiangiogenic drugs, into tumor tissues. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in various diseases, especially malignant tumors. The present study found that lncRNA X-inactive-specific transcript (XIST) was upregulated in endothelial cells that were obtained in a BTB model in vitro. XIST knockdown increased BTB permeability and inhibited glioma angiogenesis. The analysis of the mechanism of action revealed that the reduction of XIST inhibited the expression of the transcription factor forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) and zonula occludens 2 (ZO-2) by upregulating miR-137. FOXC1 decreased BTB permeability by increasing the promoter activity and expression of ZO-1 and occludin, and promoted glioma angiogenesis by increasing the promoter activity and expression of chemokine (C–X–C motif) receptor 7b (CXCR7). Overall, the present study demonstrates that XIST plays a pivotal role in BTB permeability and glioma angiogenesis, and the inhibition of XIST may be a potential target for the clinical management of glioma. PMID:28287613

  18. Targeting the zona pellucida for immunocontraception: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Tesarik, J

    1995-12-01

    This minireview summarizes the main data relevant to the development of contraceptive vaccines based on zona pellucida (ZP) antigens, as well as the pros and the cons of this immunocontraceptive strategy. Even though the antifertility efficacy of anti-ZP antibodies in humans is not corroborated by a clear relationship between spontaneous autoimmunization against the ZP and infertility, passive and active immunization studies in laboratory animals have provided convincing results. The contraceptive action of anti-ZP antibodies, targeting events situated upstream of gamete fusion, is devoid of potential ethical concerns related to the destruction of early embryos. The high protein content of the mammalian ZP, knowledge of the complete amino acid sequence of the major ZP proteins, and the high degree of sequence homology between individual species all favour the rapid advancement of anti-ZP vaccine projects. However, certain sequences of ZP proteins, when incorporated into the vaccine construct, activate CD4+ T cells of the recipient organism to direct a cellular immune attack (autoimmune oophoritis) to other functionally relevant ovarian components (primordial follicles, steroidogenic cells). The search for the optimal combination of B cell and T cell epitopes in the vaccine construct will hopefully overcome this problem.

  19. Characterization of oocyte retrieval cycles with empty zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Oride, Aki; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Hara, Tomomi; Ohta, Hiroko; Kyo, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    To identify the factors that characterize cycles with empty zona pellucida (EZP). Thirty-six oocyte retrieval cycles from which EZP were collected and another 36 cycles from which no EZP was collected were compared. The patients were divided into three groups: those with no EZP collected during any cycle, those with EZP collected during all cycles, and those experiencing cycles both with and without EZP. The mean number of oocytes collected per cycle was higher in the cycles with EZP than without EZP. The fertilization rate of the collected oocytes and the rate of good embryo formation were significantly lower in the cycles with EZP. No significant difference was observed between the three groups in terms of age, number of oocytes collected, or hormone levels before and after the oocyte retrieval. The fertilization and pregnancy rates were highest in the patients with no EZP being collected during any cycle, followed by those experiencing cycles both with and without EZP, and then by those with EZP collected during all cycles. The observation of lower fertilization, poor embryo formation, and a low pregnancy rate in the patients with EZP suggests the poor quality of oocytes that were collected with EZP in the same cycle.

  20. Microanatomical diversification of the zona pellucida in aplochelioid killifishes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A W; Furness, A I; Stone, C; Rade, C M; Ortí, G

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates zona pellucida (ZP) ultrastructure in fertilized eggs of annual killifishes (suborder Aplocheiloidei), a group of highly specialized fishes that are able to survive desiccation for several weeks to months before they hatch. Little is known about ZP or chorionic ultrastructure sustaining these life-history modes, so scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to describe this trait in a large number of aplocheiloids with a focus on the family Rivulidae and the genus Hypsolebias. New images of ZP ultrastructure for 52 aplocheiloid species are provided, more than doubling the number characterized thus far. The evolution of chorionic structure within this group is studied using these new data. Characters were coded into a morphological matrix and optimized onto a consensus phylogeny to assess phylogenetic signal and reconstruct ancestral character states. Although ZP characters seem highly homoplastic and exhibit a large amount of structural convergence among lineages, aplocheiloid killifishes have evolved a number of unique structures associated with the chorion. Some annual species seem to have lost long filaments because eggs are deposited in the soil instead of being adhered to aquatic plants. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Swallowing Quality of Life After Zona Incerta Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sundstedt, Stina; Nordh, Erik; Linder, Jan; Hedström, Johanna; Finizia, Caterina; Olofsson, Katarina

    2017-02-01

    The management of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been improved, but management of signs like swallowing problems is still challenging. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) alleviates the cardinal motor symptoms and improves quality of life, but its effect on swallowing is not fully explored. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life before and after caudal zona incerta DBS (cZI DBS) in comparison with a control group. Nine PD patients (2 women and 7 men) completed the self-report Swallowing Quality of Life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) before and 12 months after cZI DBS surgery. The postoperative data were compared to 9 controls. Median ages were 53 years (range, 40-70 years) for patients and 54 years (range, 42-72 years) for controls. No significant differences were found between the pre- or postoperative scores. The SWAL-QOL total scores did not differ significantly between PD patients and controls. The PD patients reported significantly lower scores in the burden subscale and the symptom scale. Patients with PD selected for cZI DBS showed good self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life, in many aspects equal to controls. The cZI DBS did not negatively affect swallowing-specific quality of life in this study.

  2. Zona-free oocyte fertilized with intracytoplasmic sperm injection and underwent further division: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Y Y; Chang, C C; Tsai, H D

    2001-09-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) plays a protective role during fertilization and early embryonic development. It is related to sperm binding, the acrosome reaction, prevention of polyspermic fertilization, and holding blastomeres together before the morular stage. Zona-free oocytes are accidentally encountered. If these oocytes are healthy, they can be fertilized normally by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We reported on a couple with male infertility undergoing oocyte retrieval after ovarian hyperstimulation. Before the ICSI procedure, cumulus cells surrounding the oocytes were removed, which resulted in one oocyte escaping from its ZP. The zona-free oocyte was fertilized normally with ICSI and developed to the 8-cell stage. We observed that the zona-free zygote had the ability to further divide, despite its loose contact. The zona-free embryo was transferred with other zona-intact embryos, but the implantation failed. We conclude that zona-free oocytes can be rescued, fertilized with ICSI, and cultured for further transfer or cryopreservation.

  3. The anatomy of the caudal zona incerta in rodents and primates

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Charles; Lind, Christopher R P; Thomas, Meghan G

    2014-01-01

    The caudal zona incerta is the target of a recent modification of established procedures for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease and tremor. The caudal zona incerta contains a number of neuronal populations that are distinct in terms of their cytoarchitecture, connections, and pattern of immunomarkers and is located at a position where a number of major tracts converge before turning toward their final destination in the forebrain. However, it is not clear which of the anatomical features of the region are related to its value as a target for DBS. This paper has tried to identify features that distinguish the caudal zona incerta of rodents (mouse and rat) and primates (marmoset, rhesus monkey, and human) from the remainder of the zona incerta. We studied cytoarchitecture, anatomical relationships, the pattern of immunomarkers, and gene expression in both of these areas. We found that the caudal zona incerta has a number of histological and gene expression characteristics that distinguish it from the other subdivisions of the zona incerta. Of particular note are the sparse population of GABA neurons and the small but distinctive population of calbindin neurons. We hope that a clearer appreciation of the anatomy of the region will in the end assist the interpretation of cases in which DBS is used in human patients. PMID:24138151

  4. Effects of porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptives in zoo felids.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Munson, Linda; Chassy, Lisa M; Liu, Irwin K M; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2004-09-01

    Methods of contraception are necessary for management of zoo felids; however, the most commonly used contraceptive (melengestrol acetate implant) is associated with serious adverse reactions with long-term use. Porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccines are promising as contraceptives, but their safety in zoo felids has not been tested. pZP vaccine was administered to 27 female felids representing 10 species, including African lion (Panthera leo), Asian leopard (P. pardus), jaguar (P. onca), tiger (P. tigris), snow leopard (P. uncia), cougar (Felis concolor), Siberian lynx (F. lynx), Canada lynx (F. canadensis), serval (F. serval), and bobcat (F. rufus), in 15 facilities. Over 6 wk, each animal received three i.m. injections of 65 microg pZP with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant, or carbopol as the adjuvant. Behavioral signs of estrus were seen in 14 of the vaccinated felids. An unacceptably high incidence of adverse reactions was seen including injection site swelling, lameness, limb swelling, or abscessation (or all) in five felids after injection with FCA as the initial adjuvant. Adverse behavioral signs, including increased irritability and aggression, were seen in four felids. Six of the felids were assayed for antibodies against pZP during the 12 mo after vaccination; all showed antibody production. Antibody levels appeared to peak 1-4 mo after vaccination began, although elevated antibody levels persisted in two animals for > 12 mo after the first injection. All vaccinated felids were ovariohysterectomized 3-13 mo after vaccination. Folliculogenesis was present in all treated animals, and there was no histopathologic evidence of inflammatory damage to ovaries. Contraceptive efficacy was not specifically evaluated in this study; however, two of the three felids housed with an intact male became pregnant during the study, one of which gave birth to healthy cubs.

  5. The formation of zona radiata in Pseudosciaena crocea revealed by light and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Xin; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-02-01

    The egg envelope is an essential structure occurring during oogenesis. It plays an important role during the process of fertilization in the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea. Elucidation of egg envelope formation helps us to understand fertilization mechanisms in teleosts. In the present work, we studied the formation of egg envelope in P. crocea by light microscopy, as well as by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Four layers exist outside the oocyte plasmalemma, i.e., theca cell layer, basal membrane, granulosa cell layer and zona radiata. According to our observation, zona radiata is a multilaminar structure just like the same structure reported in teleosts, but the origin of this structure is a little different. Before it is formed, a peripheral space filled with different density of vesicles is the place where zona radiata is formed. Zona radiata (Z1) is secreted only by oocyte itself, it belongs to the primary envelope; zona radiata 2 (Z2) and zona radiata 3 (Z3) belong to the secondary envelope, because the two layers are formed after granulosa cells appear, and microvilli participate this process. It is very interesting that Z2 and Z3 are situated between Z1 and the granulosa cell first, but they translocate to the other side of Z1. This microanatomy difference may due to the participation of microvilli. The new finding about egg envelope formation in P. crocea will help us to do further investigation on fertilization mechanisms and will make artificial breeding possible which may contribute to the resource recovery of this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thalamic inhibition: diverse sources, diverse scales

    PubMed Central

    Halassa, Michael M.; Acsády, László

    2016-01-01

    The thalamus is the major source of cortical inputs shaping sensation, action and cognition. Thalamic circuits are targeted by two major inhibitory systems: the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and extra-thalamic inhibitory (ETI) inputs. A unifying framework of how these systems operate is currently lacking. Here, we propose that TRN circuits are specialized to exert thalamic control at different spatiotemporal scales. Local inhibition of thalamic spike rates prevails during attentional selection whereas global inhibition more likely during sleep. In contrast, the ETI (arising from basal ganglia, zona incerta, anterior pretectum and pontine reticular formation) provides temporally-precise and focal inhibition, impacting spike timing. Together, these inhibitory systems allow graded control of thalamic output, enabling thalamocortical operations to dynamically match ongoing behavioral demands. PMID:27589879

  7. Involvement of adenosine monophosphate activated kinase in interleukin-6 regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme in the bovine zona fasciculata and zona reticularis.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Matharage S I; Dayton, Adam W; Rhoten, Lance R; Mallett, John W; Reese, Jared C; Squires, Mathieu D; Dalley, Andrew P; Porter, James P; Judd, Allan M

    2018-06-01

    In bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (ZF) and NCI-H295R cells, interleukin-6 (IL-6) increases cortisol release, increases expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) (increases steroidogenic proteins), and decreases the expression of adrenal hypoplasia congenita-like protein (DAX-1) (inhibits steroidogenic proteins). In contrast, IL-6 decreases bovine adrenal zona reticularis (ZR) androgen release, StAR, P450scc, and SF-1 expression, and increases DAX-1 expression. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) activated kinase (AMPK) regulates steroidogenesis, but its role in IL-6 regulation of adrenal steroidogenesis is unknown. In the present study, an AMPK activator (AICAR) increased (P < 0.01) NCI-H295R StAR promoter activity, StAR and P450scc expression, and the phosphorylation of AMPK (PAMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (PACC) (indexes of AMPK activity). In ZR (decreased StAR, P450scc, SF-1, increased DAX-1) (P < 0.01) and ZF tissues (increased StAR, P450scc, SF-1, decreased DAX-1) (P < 0.01), AICAR modified StAR, P450scc, SF-1 and DAX-1 mRNAs/proteins similar to the effects of IL-6. The activity (increased PAMPK and PACC) (P < 0.01) of AMPK in the ZF and ZR was increased by AICAR and IL-6. In support of an AMPK role in IL-6 ZF and ZR effects, the AMPK inhibitor compound C blocked (P < 0.01) the effects of IL-6 on the expression of StAR, P450scc, SF-1, and DAX-1. Therefore, IL-6 modification of the expression of StAR and P450scc in the ZF and ZR may involve activation of AMPK and these changes may be related to changes in the expression of SF-1 and DAX-1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Laser assisted zona hatching does not lead to immediate impairment in human embryo quality and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Uppangala, Shubhashree; D'Souza, Fiona; Pudakalakatti, Shivanand; Atreya, Hanudatta S; Raval, Keyur; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Laser assisted zona hatching (LAH) is a routinely used therapeutic intervention in assisted reproductive technology for patients with poor prognosis. However, results are not conclusive in demonstrating the benefits of zona hatching in improving the pregnancy rate. Recent observations on LAH induced genetic instability in animal embryos prompted us to look into the effects of laser assisted zona hatching on the human preimplantation embryo quality and metabolic uptake using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. This experimental prospective study included fifty embryos from twenty-five patients undergoing intra cytoplasmic sperm injection. Embryo quality assessment followed by profiling of spent media for the non-invasive evaluation of metabolites was performed using NMR spectroscopy 24 hours after laser treatment and compared with that of non-treated sibling embryos. Both cell number and embryo quality on day 3 of development did not vary significantly between the two groups at 24 hours post laser treatment interval. Time lapse monitoring of the embryos for 24 hours did not reveal blastomere fragmentation adjacent to the point of laser treatment. Similarly, principal component analysis of metabolites did not demonstrate any variation across the groups. These results suggest that laser assisted zona hatching does not affect human preimplantation embryo morphology and metabolism at least until 24 hours post laser assisted zona hatching. However, studies are required to elucidate laser induced metabolic and developmental changes at extended time periods. AH: assisted hatching; ART: assisted reproductive technology; DNA: deoxy-ribo nucleic acid; LAH: laser assisted hatching; MHz: megahertz; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; PCA: principal component analysis; PGD: preimplantation genetic diagnosis; TLM: time lapse monitoring.

  9. Most fertilizing mouse spermatozoa begin their acrosome reaction before contact with the zona pellucida during in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Mayuko; Fujiwara, Eiji; Kakiuchi, Yasutaka; Okabe, Masaru; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Baba, Shoji A.; Chiba, Kazuyoshi; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2011-01-01

    To fuse with oocytes, spermatozoa of eutherian mammals must pass through extracellular coats, the cumulus cell layer, and the zona pellucida (ZP). It is generally believed that the acrosome reaction (AR) of spermatozoa, essential for zona penetration and fusion with oocytes, is triggered by sperm contact with the zona pellucida. Therefore, in most previous studies of sperm–oocyte interactions in the mouse, the cumulus has been removed before insemination to facilitate the examination of sperm–zona interactions. We used transgenic mouse spermatozoa, which enabled us to detect the onset of the acrosome reaction using fluorescence microscopy. We found that the spermatozoa that began the acrosome reaction before reaching the zona were able to penetrate the zona and fused with the oocyte's plasma membrane. In fact, most fertilizing spermatozoa underwent the acrosome reaction before reaching the zona pellucida of cumulus-enclosed oocytes, at least under the experimental conditions we used. The incidence of in vitro fertilization of cumulus-free oocytes was increased by coincubating oocytes with cumulus cells, suggesting an important role for cumulus cells and their matrix in natural fertilization. PMID:21383182

  10. Fine structure and morphogenesis of spironolactone bodies in the zona glomerulosa of the human adrenal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, K.; Horvath, E.; Singer, W.

    1973-01-01

    Numerous spironolactone bodies have been detected in the zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex of a 36-year-old spironolactone-treated woman whose non-tumorous right adrenal gland was removed surgically because of primary hyperaldosteronism. Electron microscopy revealed spherical laminated whorls which consisted of a central core composed of an amorphous electron-dense material surrounded by numerous smooth-walled concentric membranes. Continuous with and deriving from the endoplasmic reticulum, they were present in viable cells and were not associated with ultrastructural features indicating cellular injury. Cytoplasmic inclusions similar to spironolactone bodies can be detected in other organs after the administration of various compounds. Thus, they can be regarded as neither specific to spironolactone treatment nor exclusively inducible in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Images PMID:4131694

  11. Body mass index is not associated with sperm-zona pellucida binding ability in subfertile males.

    PubMed

    Sermondade, Nathalie; Dupont, Charlotte; Faure, Céline; Boubaya, Marouane; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Sifer, Christophe; Lévy, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    Lifestyle factors, such as weight and nutritional status may affect male fertility, including sperm fertilization ability. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and sperm-zona pellucida binding ability assessed according to the zona binding (ZB) test, which has been described to be a relevant diagnostic tool for the prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) ability. Three hundred and six male patients from couples diagnosed with primary idiopathic or mild male factor infertility were included. Correlations between BMI and semen parameters according to ZB test indices were assessed, together with frequencies of positive and negative tests across the BMI categories. In this selected population, BMI was not related to conventional semen parameters or sperm quality assessed according to the ability of spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida. The previously described poor outcomes of IVF procedures in cases of male obesity could be due to other sperm defects, such as alterations of sperm capacitation or acrosome reaction. The link between male BMI and biological outcomes during IVF procedures, such as fertilization rates, should be further evaluated.

  12. Zinc sparks induce physiochemical changes in the egg zona pellucida that prevent polyspermy

    DOE PAGES

    Que, Emily L.; Duncan, Francesca E.; Bayer, Amanda R.; ...

    2017-01-19

    During fertilization or chemically-induced egg activation, the mouse egg releases billions of zinc atoms in brief bursts known as ‘zinc sparks.’ The zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein matrix surrounding the egg, is the first structure zinc ions encounter as they diffuse away from the plasma membrane. Following fertilization, the ZP undergoes changes described as ‘hardening’, which prevent multiple sperm from fertilizing the egg and thereby establish a block to polyspermy. A major event in zona hardening is cleavage of ZP2 proteins by ovastacin; however, the overall physiochemical changes contributing to zona hardening are not well understood. Using x-ray fluorescence microscopy,more » transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and biological function assays, we tested the hypothesis that zinc release contributes to ZP hardening. We found that the zinc content in the ZP increases by 300% following activation and that zinc exposure modulates the architecture of the ZP matrix. Importantly, zinc-induced structural changes of the ZP have a direct biological consequence; namely, they reduce the ability of sperm to bind to the ZP. These results provide a paradigm-shifting model in which fertilization-induced zinc sparks contribute to the polyspermy block by altering conformations of the ZP matrix. Finally, this adds a previously unrecognized factor, namely zinc, to the process of ZP hardening.« less

  13. Zinc sparks induce physiochemical changes in the egg zona pellucida that prevent polyspermy

    SciT

    Que, Emily L.; Duncan, Francesca E.; Bayer, Amanda R.

    During fertilization or chemically-induced egg activation, the mouse egg releases billions of zinc atoms in brief bursts known as ‘zinc sparks.’ The zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein matrix surrounding the egg, is the first structure zinc ions encounter as they diffuse away from the plasma membrane. Following fertilization, the ZP undergoes changes described as ‘hardening’, which prevent multiple sperm from fertilizing the egg and thereby establish a block to polyspermy. A major event in zona hardening is cleavage of ZP2 proteins by ovastacin; however, the overall physiochemical changes contributing to zona hardening are not well understood. Using x-ray fluorescence microscopy,more » transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and biological function assays, we tested the hypothesis that zinc release contributes to ZP hardening. We found that the zinc content in the ZP increases by 300% following activation and that zinc exposure modulates the architecture of the ZP matrix. Importantly, zinc-induced structural changes of the ZP have a direct biological consequence; namely, they reduce the ability of sperm to bind to the ZP. These results provide a paradigm-shifting model in which fertilization-induced zinc sparks contribute to the polyspermy block by altering conformations of the ZP matrix. Finally, this adds a previously unrecognized factor, namely zinc, to the process of ZP hardening.« less

  14. Thermal effects in laser-assisted pre-embryo zona drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, Diarmaid H.; Conia, Jerome D.

    2001-04-01

    Diode lasers ((lambda) equals 1480 nm) are used with in vitro fertilization to dissect the zone pellucida (shell) of pre- embryos. A focused laser beam is applied in vitro to form a channel or trench in the zona pellucida. The procedure is used to facilitate biopsy or as a promoter of embryo hatching. We present examples and measurements of zona pellucida ablation using animal models. In using the laser it is vital not to damage pre-embryo cells, e.g., by overheating. In order to define safe regimes we have derived some thermal side effects of zona pellucida removal. The temperature profile in the beam and vicinity is predicted as function of laser pulse duration and power. In a crossed- beam experiment a HeNe laser probe is used to detect the temperature-induced change in the refractive index of an aqueous solution, and estimate local thermal gradient. We find that the diode laser beam produces superheated water approaching 200 degree(s)C on the beam axis. Thermal histories during and following the laser pulse are given for regions in the neighborhood of the beam. We conclude that an optimum regime exists with pulse duration

  15. Episodic Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racsmany, Mihaly; Conway, Martin A.

    2006-01-01

    Six experiments examined the proposal that an item of long-term knowledge can be simultaneously inhibited and activated. In 2 directed forgetting experiments items to-be-forgotten were found to be inhibited in list-cued recall but activated in lexical decision tasks. In 3 retrieval practice experiments, unpracticed items from practiced categories…

  16. Laser-assisted zona pellucida thinning does not facilitate hatching and may disrupt the in vitro hatching process: a morphokinetic study in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Tim; Cohen, Jacques; Saunders, Helen; Alikani, Mina

    2014-12-01

    Does laser-assisted zona thinning of cleavage stage mouse embryos facilitate hatching in vitro? No, unlike laser zona opening, zona thinning does not facilitate embryo hatching. Artificial opening of the zona pellucida facilitates hatching of mouse and human embryos. Laser-assisted zona thinning has also been used for the purpose of assisted hatching of human embryos but it has not been properly investigated in an animal model; thinning methods have produced inconsistent clinical results. Time-lapse microscopy was used to study the hatching process in the mouse after zona opening and zona thinning; a control group of embryos was not zona-manipulated but exposed to the same laser energy. Eight-cell CB6F1/J mouse embryos were pooled and allocated to three groups (n = 56 per group): A control group of embryos that were exposed to a dose of laser energy focused outside the zona pellucida (zona intact); one experimental group of embryos in which the zona pellucida was opened by complete ablation using the same total number of pulses as the control group; a second experimental group of embryos in which the zona pellucida was thinned to establish a smooth lased area using the same number of pulses as used in the other two groups. The width of the zona opening was 25 μm and width of the thinned area was 35 μm. Development was monitored by time-lapse microscopy. Overall treatment differences for continuous variables were analyzed by analysis of variance and pairwise comparisons using the Student t-test allowing for unequal variances, while for categorical data, a standard chi-squared test was utilized for all pairwise comparisons. The frequency of complete hatching was 33.9% in the control group, 94.4% after zona opening, and 39.3% after zona thinning (overall group comparison, P < 0.0001). Overall, 60.7% of the zona-thinned embryos did not complete the hatching process and remained trapped within the zona; when they did hatch, they did not necessarily hatch from the zona

  17. Sperm Proteasomes Degrade Sperm Receptor on the Egg Zona Pellucida during Mammalian Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Shawn W.; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Yi, Young-Joo; Gupta, Satish K.; Sutovsky, Miriam; Odhiambo, John F.; Powell, Michael D.; Miller, David J.; Sutovsky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the mechanism by which the fertilizing spermatozoon penetrates the mammalian vitelline membrane, the zona pellucida (ZP) remains one of the unexplained fundamental events of human/mammalian development. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the 26S proteasome as a candidate for echinoderm, ascidian and mammalian egg coat lysin. Monitoring ZP protein degradation by sperm during fertilization is nearly impossible because those few spermatozoa that penetrate the ZP leave behind a virtually untraceable residue of degraded proteins. We have overcome this hurdle by designing an experimentally consistent in vitro system in which live boar spermatozoa are co-incubated with ZP-proteins (ZPP) solubilized from porcine oocytes. Using this assay, mimicking sperm-egg interactions, we demonstrate that the sperm-borne proteasomes can degrade the sperm receptor protein ZPC. Upon coincubation with motile spermatozoa, the solubilized ZPP, which appear to be ubiquitinated, adhered to sperm acrosomal caps and induced acrosomal exocytosis/formation of the acrosomal shroud. The degradation of the sperm receptor protein ZPC was assessed by Western blotting band-densitometry and proteomics. A nearly identical pattern of sperm receptor degradation, evident already within the first 5 min of coincubation, was observed when the spermatozoa were replaced with the isolated, enzymatically active, sperm-derived proteasomes. ZPC degradation was blocked by proteasomal inhibitors and accelerated by ubiquitin-aldehyde(UBAL), a modified ubiquitin protein that stimulates proteasomal proteolysis. Such a degradation pattern of ZPC is consistent with in vitro fertilization studies, in which proteasomal inhibitors completely blocked fertilization, and UBAL increased fertilization and polyspermy rates. Preincubation of intact zona-enclosed ova with isolated active sperm proteasomes caused digestion, abrasions and loosening of the exposed zonae, and significantly reduced

  18. Identification of alpha-enolase as a nuclear DNA-binding protein in the zona fasciculata but not the zona reticularis of the human adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiye; Wang, Lishan; Endoh, Akira; Hummelke, Geoffrey; Hawks, Christina L; Hornsby, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    In order to establish whether there are differences in DNA-binding proteins between zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR) cells of the human adrenal cortex, we prepared nuclear extracts from separated ZF and ZR cells. The formation of DNA-protein complexes was studied using an element in the first intron of the type I and type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase genes (HSD3B1 and HSD3B2). Using the element in the HSD3B2 gene as a probe, a complex (C1) was formed with extracts from ZF cells but was formed only at a low level with ZR cell extracts. Another pair of complexes (C2/C3) was formed with both ZF and ZR cell extracts. The ZF-specific protein forming C1 was enriched by column chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and carboxymethyl-Sepharose. Oligonucleotide competition analysis on the enriched fraction gave results consistent with those obtained on the unfractionated material. A further enrichment was brought about by passing the protein over an oligonucleotide affinity column based on the HSD3B2 element. The protein bound to the column was identified as alpha-enolase by mass spectrometry. Although alpha-enolase is a glycolytic enzyme, it binds to specific DNA sequences and has been found to be present in nuclei of various cell types. We performed immunohistochemistry on sections of adult human adrenal cortex and found alpha-enolase to be located in nuclei of ZF cells but to be predominantly cytoplasmic in ZR cells. Transfection of an alpha-enolase expression vector into NCI-H295R human adrenocortical cells increased HSD3B2 promoter activity, suggesting a possible functional role for this protein in regulation of HSD3B2 expression.

  19. Pentoxifylline increases sperm penetration into zona-free hamster oocytes without increasing the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Morales, P; Llanos, M; Yovich, J L; Cummins, J M; Vigil, P

    1993-01-01

    Several drugs have been used to stimulate human sperm motility, including 3-deoxy-adenosine, caffeine, and pentoxifylline. Pentoxifylline is an inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase and may stimulate sperm motility by increasing the intracellular levels of cAMP. In this study we have evaluated the effect of pentoxifylline in the outcome of the sperm penetration assay into zona-free hamster oocytes. Twenty-seven semen samples, obtained for diagnostic purposes, were used. After the motile sperm were selected by the swim-up technique, the samples were divided into two aliquots. One aliquot was incubated with 1 mg ml-1 of pentoxifylline at 37 degrees C, 5% CO2 for 30 min. The control aliquot was incubated with culture medium. The samples were then washed and resuspended in fresh, pentoxifylline-free medium, at a sperm concentration of 10 x 10(6) cells ml-1. One hundred microlitres of each sperm suspension was then deposited under oil and 30-40 zona-free hamster oocytes were added. After 6 h of gamete coincubation, the percentage of penetrated oocytes and the number of decondensed sperm heads were evaluated. The percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm was evaluated using the Pisum sativum lectin. The percentage of zona-free hamster oocytes penetrated was increased after pentoxifylline-treatment. The percentage of acrosome reacted sperm and the number of decondensed sperm heads per egg were not different between the control and the pentoxifylline-treated groups. The results suggest that the beneficial effect of pentoxifylline upon the sperm cells is not mediated by stimulation of the acrosome reaction.

  20. Human sperm bind to the N-terminal domain of ZP2 in humanized zonae pellucidae in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Baibakov, Boris; Boggs, Nathan A.; Yauger, Belinda; Baibakov, Galina

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization requires taxon-specific gamete recognition, and human sperm do not bind to zonae pellucidae (ZP1–3) surrounding mouse eggs. Using transgenesis to replace endogenous mouse proteins with human homologues, gain-of-function sperm-binding assays were established to evaluate human gamete recognition. Human sperm bound only to zonae pellucidae containing human ZP2, either alone or coexpressed with other human zona proteins. Binding to the humanized matrix was a dominant effect that resulted in human sperm penetration of the zona pellucida and accumulation in the perivitelline space, where they were unable to fuse with mouse eggs. Using recombinant peptides, the site of gamete recognition was located to a defined domain in the N terminus of ZP2. These results provide experimental evidence for the role of ZP2 in mediating sperm binding to the zona pellucida and support a model in which human sperm–egg recognition is dependent on an N-terminal domain of ZP2, which is degraded after fertilization to provide a definitive block to polyspermy. PMID:22734000

  1. Altered expression of zonula occludens-2 precedes increased blood-brain barrier permeability in a murine model of fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Shimojima, Naoki; Eckman, Christopher B; McKinney, Michael; Sevlever, Daniel; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Lin, Wenlang; Dickson, Dennis W; Nguyen, Justin H

    2008-01-01

    Brain edema secondary to increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is a lethal complication in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Intact tight junctions (TJ) between brain capillary endothelial cells are critical for normal BBB function. However, the role of TJ in FHF has not been explored. We hypothesized that alterations in the composition of TJ proteins would result in increased BBB permeability in FHF. In this study, FHF was induced in C57BL/6J mice by using azoxymethane. BBB permeability was assessed with sodium fluorescein. Expression of TJ proteins was determined by Western blot, and their cellular distribution was examined using immunofluorescent microscopy. Comatose FHF mice had significant cerebral sodium fluorescein extravasation compared with control and precoma FHF mice, indicating increased BBB permeability. Western blot analysis showed a significant decrease in zonula occludens (ZO)-2 expression starting in the precoma stage. Immunofluorescent microscopy showed a significantly altered distribution pattern of ZO-2 in isolated microvessels from precoma FHF mice. These changes were more prominent in comatose FHF animals. Significant alterations in ZO-2 expression and distribution in the tight junctions preceded the increased BBB permeability in FHF mice. These results suggest that ZO-2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of brain edema in FHF.

  2. Automation and Optimization of Multipulse Laser Zona Drilling of Mouse Embryos During Embryo Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher Yee; Mills, James K

    2017-03-01

    Laser zona drilling (LZD) is a required step in many embryonic surgical procedures, for example, assisted hatching and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. LZD involves the ablation of the zona pellucida (ZP) using a laser while minimizing potentially harmful thermal effects on critical internal cell structures. Develop a method for the automation and optimization of multipulse LZD, applied to cleavage-stage embryos. A two-stage optimization is used. The first stage uses computer vision algorithms to identify embryonic structures and determines the optimal ablation zone farthest away from critical structures such as blastomeres. The second stage combines a genetic algorithm with a previously reported thermal analysis of LZD to optimize the combination of laser pulse locations and pulse durations. The goal is to minimize the peak temperature experienced by the blastomeres while creating the desired opening in the ZP. A proof of concept of the proposed LZD automation and optimization method is demonstrated through experiments on mouse embryos with positive results, as adequately sized openings are created. Automation of LZD is feasible and is a viable step toward the automation of embryo biopsy procedures. LZD is a common but delicate procedure performed by human operators using subjective methods to gauge proper LZD procedure. Automation of LZD removes human error to increase the success rate of LZD. Although the proposed methods are developed for cleavage-stage embryos, the same methods may be applied to most types LZD procedures, embryos at different developmental stages, or nonembryonic cells.

  3. Dynamic regulation of sperm interactions with the zona pellucida prior to and after fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Gadella, B M

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings have refined our thinking on sperm interactions with the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) and our understanding of how, at the molecular level, the sperm cell fertilises the oocyte. Proteomic analyses has identified a capacitation-dependent sperm surface reordering that leads to the formation of functional multiprotein complexes involved in zona-cumulus interactions in several mammalian species. During this process, multiple docking of the acrosomal membrane to the plasma membrane takes place. In contrast with the dogma that the acrosome reaction is initiated when spermatozoa bind to the zona pellucida (ZP), it has been established recently that, in mice, the fertilising spermatozoon initiates its acrosome reaction during its voyage through the cumulus before it reaches the ZP. In fact, even acrosome-reacted mouse spermatozoa collected from the perivitelline space can fertilise another ZP-intact oocyte. The oviduct appears to influence the extracellular matrix properties of the spermatozoa as well as the COC. This may influence sperm binding and penetration of the cumulus and ZP, and, in doing so, increase monospermic while decreasing polyspermic fertilisation rates. Structural analysis of the ZP has shed new light on how spermatozoa bind and penetrate this structure and how the cortical reaction blocks sperm-ZP interactions. The current understanding of sperm interactions with the cumulus and ZP layers surrounding the oocyte is reviewed with a special emphasis on the lack of comparative knowledge on this topic in humans, as well as in most farm mammals.

  4. Functional TASK-3-Like Channels in Mitochondria of Aldosterone-Producing Zona Glomerulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junlan; McHedlishvili, David; McIntire, William E; Guagliardo, Nick A; Erisir, Alev; Coburn, Craig A; Santarelli, Vincent P; Bayliss, Douglas A; Barrett, Paula Q

    2017-08-01

    Ca 2+ drives aldosterone synthesis in the cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments of the adrenal zona glomerulosa cell. Membrane potential across each of these compartments regulates the amplitude of the Ca 2+ signal; yet, only plasma membrane ion channels and their role in regulating cell membrane potential have garnered investigative attention as pathological causes of human hyperaldosteronism. Previously, we reported that genetic deletion of TASK-3 channels (tandem pore domain acid-sensitive K + channels) from mice produces aldosterone excess in the absence of a change in the cell membrane potential of zona glomerulosa cells. Here, we report using yeast 2-hybrid, immunoprecipitation, and electron microscopic analyses that TASK-3 channels are resident in mitochondria, where they regulate mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential, and aldosterone production. This study provides proof of principle that mitochondrial K + channels, by modulating inner mitochondrial membrane morphology and mitochondrial membrane potential, have the ability to play a pathological role in aldosterone dysregulation in steroidogenic cells. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Zona pellucida gene mRNA expression in human oocytes is related to oocyte maturity, zona inner layer retardance and fertilization competence.

    PubMed

    Canosa, S; Adriaenssens, T; Coucke, W; Dalmasso, P; Revelli, A; Benedetto, C; Smitz, J

    2017-05-01

    Do the mRNA expression levels of zona pellucida (ZP) genes, ZP1, 2, 3 and 4 in oocyte and cumulus cells (CC) reveal relevant information on the oocyte? The ZP mRNA expression in human oocytes is related to oocyte maturity, zona inner layer (IL) retardance and fertilization capacity. ZP structure and birefringence provide useful information on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation, developmental competence for embryonic growth, blastocyst formation and pregnancy. In order to understand the molecular basis of morphological changes in the ZP, in the current study, the polarized light microscopy (PLM) approach was combined with analysis of the expression of the genes encoding ZP1, 2, 3 and 4, both in the oocytes and in the surrounding CC. This is a retrospective study comprising 98 supernumerary human cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) [80 Metaphase II (MII), 10 Metaphase I (MI) and 8 germinal vesicle (GV)] obtained from 39 patients (median age 33.4 years, range 22-42) after controlled ovarian stimulation. Single oocytes and their corresponding CC were analysed. Oocytes were examined using PLM, and quantitative RT-PCR was performed for ZP1, 2, 3 and 4 in these individual oocytes and their CC. Ephrin-B2 (EFNB2) mRNA was measured in CC as a control. Presence of ZP3 protein in CC and oocytes was investigated using immunocytochemistry. Data were analysed using one-parametric and multivariate analysis and were corrected for the potential impact of patient and cycle characteristics. Oocytes contained ZP1/2/3 and 4 mRNA while in CC only ZP3 was quantifiable. Also ZP3 protein was detected in human CC. When comparing mature (MII) and immature oocytes (MI/GV) or their corresponding CC, ZP1/2 and 4 expression was lower in mature oocytes compared to the expression in immature oocytes (all P < 0.05) and ZP3 expression was lower in the CC of mature oocytes compared to the expression in CC of immature oocytes (P < 0.05). This coincided with a significantly smaller IL-ZP area and thickness in

  6. Rapid binge-like eating and body weight gain driven by zona incerta GABA neuron activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobing; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2017-05-26

    The neuronal substrate for binge eating, which can at times lead to obesity, is not clear. We find that optogenetic stimulation of mouse zona incerta (ZI) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons or their axonal projections to paraventricular thalamus (PVT) excitatory neurons immediately (in 2 to 3 seconds) evoked binge-like eating. Minimal intermittent stimulation led to body weight gain; ZI GABA neuron ablation reduced weight. ZI stimulation generated 35% of normal 24-hour food intake in just 10 minutes. The ZI cells were excited by food deprivation and the gut hunger signal ghrelin. In contrast, stimulation of excitatory axons from the parasubthalamic nucleus to PVT or direct stimulation of PVT glutamate neurons reduced food intake. These data suggest an unexpected robust orexigenic potential for the ZI GABA neurons. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Specific antibodies to porcine zona pellucida detected by quantitative radioimmunoassay in both fertile and infertile women

    SciT

    Kurachi, H.; Wakimoto, H.; Sakumoto, T.

    1984-02-01

    The specific radioimmunoassay system was developed for the titration of the antibodies to porcine zona pellucida (ZP) in human sera by using /sup 125/I-labeled purified porcine ZP as antigen, which is known to have cross-reactivity with human ZP. The antibodies in human sera were detected in 3 of 11 (27%) women with unexplained infertility, in 16 of 48 (33%) amenorrheic patients, in 4 of 12 (33%) fertile women, and in 3 of 10 (30%) men. Moreover, antibody titers in infertile women were no higher than those in fertile women and in men. These results seem to suggest that the antibodiesmore » in human sera that cross-react with porcine ZP may not be an important factor in causing infertility in women.« less

  8. Structural Analysis of Peptide-Analogues of Human Zona Pellucida ZP1 Protein with Amyloidogenic Properties: Insights into Mammalian Zona Pellucida Formation

    PubMed Central

    Louros, Nikolaos N.; Iconomidou, Vassiliki A.; Giannelou, Polina; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.

    2013-01-01

    Zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular matrix surrounding and protecting mammalian and fish oocytes, which is responsible for sperm binding. Mammalian ZP consists of three to four glycoproteins, called ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, ZP4. These proteins polymerize into long interconnected filaments, through a common structural unit, known as the ZP domain, which consists of two domains, ZP-N and ZP-C. ZP is related in function to silkmoth chorion and in an evolutionary fashion to the teleostean fish chorion, also fibrous structures protecting the oocyte and embryo, that both have been proven to be functional amyloids. Two peptides were predicted as ‘aggregation-prone’ by our prediction tool, AMYLPRED, from the sequence of the human ZP1-N domain. Here, we present results from transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Congo red staining and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), of two synthetic peptide-analogues of these predicted ‘aggregation-prone’ parts of the human ZP1-N domain, that we consider crucial for ZP protein polymerization, showing that they both self-assemble into amyloid-like fibrils. Based on our experimental data, we propose that human ZP (hZP) might be considered as a novel, putative, natural protective amyloid, in close analogy to silkmoth and teleostean fish chorions. Experiments are in progress to verify this proposal. We also attempt to provide insights into ZP formation, proposing a possible model for hZP1-N domain polymerization. PMID:24069181

  9. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  11. INDUCTION OF ZONA RADIATA PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENINS IN ESTRADIOL AND NONYLPHENOL EXPOSED MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knoebl, Iris, Michael J. Hemmer and Nancy D. Denslow. 2004. Induction of Zona Radiata Proteins and Vitellogenins in Estradiol and Nonylphenol Exposed Male Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar. Environ. Res. 58(2-5):547-551. (ERL,GB X1059).

    Several genes normall...

  12. The pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation in human sperm in response to binding to zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Delpiano, Elena; Sakkas, Denny; Huszar, Gabor

    2014-05-01

    In mammalian species, acquisition of sperm fertilization competence is dependent on the phenomenon of sperm capacitation. One of the key elements of capacitation is protein tyrosine phosphorylation (TP) in various sperm membrane regions. In previous studies performed, the pattern of TP was examined in human sperm bound to zona pellucida of oocytes. In the present comparative study, TP patterns upon sperm binding to the zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid (HA) were investigated in spermatozoa arising from the same semen samples. Tyrosine phosphorylation, visualized by immunofluorescence, was localized within the acrosomal cap, equatorial head region, neck, and the principal piece. Tyrosine phosphorylation has increased in a time-related manner as capacitation progressed, and the phosphorylation pattern was identical within the principal piece and neck, regardless of the sperm bound to the zona pellucida or HA. Thus, the data demonstrated that the patterns of sperm activation-related TP were similar regardless of the spermatozoa bound to zona pellucida or HA. Further, sperm with incomplete development, as detected by excess cytoplasmic retention, failed to exhibit TP.

  13. The Pattern of Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Human Sperm in Response to Binding to Zona Pellucida or Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Delpiano, Elena; Sakkas, Denny

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian species, acquisition of sperm fertilization competence is dependent on the phenomenon of sperm capacitation. One of the key elements of capacitation is protein tyrosine phosphorylation (TP) in various sperm membrane regions. In previous studies performed, the pattern of TP was examined in human sperm bound to zona pellucida of oocytes. In the present comparative study, TP patterns upon sperm binding to the zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid (HA) were investigated in spermatozoa arising from the same semen samples. Tyrosine phosphorylation, visualized by immunofluorescence, was localized within the acrosomal cap, equatorial head region, neck, and the principal piece. Tyrosine phosphorylation has increased in a time-related manner as capacitation progressed, and the phosphorylation pattern was identical within the principal piece and neck, regardless of the sperm bound to the zona pellucida or HA. Thus, the data demonstrated that the patterns of sperm activation-related TP were similar regardless of the spermatozoa bound to zona pellucida or HA. Further, sperm with incomplete development, as detected by excess cytoplasmic retention, failed to exhibit TP. PMID:24077441

  14. Roles of the zona pellucida and functional exposure of the sperm-egg fusion factor 'IZUMO' during in vitro fertilization in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Nakai, Michiko; Men, Nguyen Thi; Kato, Noriko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Junko; Otoi, Takeshige; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is considered to play important roles in the prevention of polyspermy in mammalian oocytes. However, in pigs we have shown that the presence of the ZP accelerates sperm penetration into the ooplasm during in vitro fertilization (IVF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ZP on sperm binding, acrosomal status, and functional exposure of IZUMO, a critical factor involved in sperm-egg fusion, during IVF in pigs. We evaluated the numbers and acrosomal statuses of sperm binding to the ZP and oolemma, and being present in the ZP and perivitelline space (PVS) using ZP-intact and ZP-free oocytes. More sperm bound to the ZP than to the oolemma. The average number of sperm present in the PVS was 0.44-0.51 per oocyte, and all sperm had lost their acrosomes. The proportion of sperm that were immunopositive for anti-IZUMO antibody was significantly higher after they were passing or had passed through the ZP. Furthermore, addition of anti-IZUMO antibody to the fertilization medium significantly inhibited the penetration of sperm into ZP-free oocytes. These results suggest that, in pigs, the ZP induces the acrosome reaction, which is associated with the functional exposure of IZUMO, resulting in completion of fertilization. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Recombinant mouse sperm ZP3-binding protein (ZP3R/sp56) forms a high order oligomer that binds eggs and inhibits mouse fertilization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Buffone, Mariano G; Zhuang, Tiangang; Ord, Teri S; Hui, Ling; Moss, Stuart B; Gerton, George L

    2008-05-02

    Many candidates have been proposed as zona pellucida-binding proteins. Without precluding a role for any of those candidates, we focused on mouse sperm protein ZP3R/sp56, which is localized in the acrosomal matrix. The objective of this study was to analyze the role of ZP3R/sp56 in mouse fertilization. We expressed recombinant ZP3R/sp56 as a secreted protein in HEK293 cells and purified it from serum-free, conditioned medium. In the presence of reducing agents, the recombinant ZP3R/sp56 exhibited a molecular weight similar to that observed for the native ZP3R/sp56. Reminiscent of the native protein, recombinant ZP3R/sp56 formed a high molecular weight, disulfide cross-linked oligomer consisting of six or more monomers under non-reducing conditions. Recombinant ZP3R/sp56 bound to the zona pellucida of unfertilized eggs but not to 2-cell embryos, indicating that the changes that take place in the zona pellucida at fertilization affected the interaction of this protein with the zona pellucida. The extent of in vitro fertilization was reduced in a dose-dependent manner when unfertilized eggs were preincubated with recombinant ZP3R/sp56 (74% drop at the maximum concentrations assayed). Eggs incubated with the recombinant protein showed an absence of or very few sperm in the perivitelline space, suggesting that the reduction in the fertilization rate is caused by the inhibition of sperm binding and/or penetration through the zona pellucida. These results indicate that sperm ZP3R/sp56 is important for sperm-zona interactions during fertilization and support the concept that the acrosomal matrix plays an essential role in mediating the binding of sperm to the zona pellucida.

  16. Intracellular activation of ovastacin mediates pre-fertilization hardening of the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Körschgen, Hagen; Kuske, Michael; Karmilin, Konstantin; Yiallouros, Irene; Balbach, Melanie; Floehr, Julia; Wachten, Dagmar; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Stöcker, Walter

    2017-09-01

    How and where is pro-ovastacin activated and how does active ovastacin regulate zona pellucida hardening (ZPH) and successful fertilization? Ovastacin is partially active before exocytosis and pre-hardens the zona pellucida (ZP) before fertilization. The metalloproteinase ovastacin is stored in cortical granules, it cleaves zona pellucida protein 2 (ZP2) upon fertilization and thereby destroys the ZP sperm ligand and triggers ZPH. Female mice deficient in the extracellular circulating ovastacin-inhibitor fetuin-B are infertile due to pre-mature ZPH. We isolated oocytes from wild-type and ovastacin-deficient (Astlnull) FVB mice before and after fertilization (in vitro and in vivo) and quantified ovastacin activity and cleavage of ZP2 by immunoblot. We assessed ZPH by measuring ZP digestion time using α-chymotrypsin and by determining ZP2 cleavage. We determined cellular distribution of ovastacin by immunofluorescence using domain-specific ovastacin antibodies. Experiments were performed at least in triplicate with a minimum of 20 oocytes. Data were pre-analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk test. In case of normal distribution, significance was determined via two-sided Student's t-test, whereas in case of non-normal distribution via Mann-Whitney U-test. Metaphase II (MII) oocytes contained both inactive pro-ovastacin and activated ovastacin. Immunoblot and ZP digestion assays revealed a partial cleavage of ZP2 even before fertilization in wild-type mice. Partial cleavage coincided with germinal-vesicle breakdown and MII, despite the presence of fetuin-B protein, an endogenous ovastacin inhibitor, in the follicular and oviductal fluid. Upon exocytosis, part of the C-terminal domain of ovastacin remained attached to the plasmalemma, while the N-terminal active ovastacin domain was secreted. This finding may resolve previously conflicting data showing that ovastacin acts both as an oolemmal receptor termed SAS1B (sperm acrosomal SLLP1 binding protein; SLLP, sperm lysozyme like

  17. Mapping the potential beverage quality of coffee produced in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Samuel de Assis; de Queiroz, Daniel Marçal; Ferreira, Williams Pinto Marques; Corrêa, Paulo Cesar; Rufino, José Luis Dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    Detailed knowledge of coffee production systems enables optimization of crop management, harvesting and post-harvest techniques. In this study, coffee quality is mapped as a function of coffee variety, altitude and terrain aspect attributes. The work was performed in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A large range of coffee quality grades was observed for the Red Catuai variety. For the Yellow Catuai variety, no quality grades lower than 70 were observed. Regarding the terrain aspect, samples from the southeast-facing slope (SEFS) and the northwest-facing slope (NWFS) exhibited distinct behaviors. The SEFS samples had a greater range of quality grades than did the NWFS samples. The highest grade was obtained from an NWFS point. The lowest quality values and the largest range of grades were observed at lower altitudes. The extracts from the highest-altitude samples did not produce any low-quality coffee. The production site's position and altitude are the primary variables that influenced the coffee quality. The study area has micro-regions with grades ranging from 80 to 94. These areas have the potential for producing specialty coffees. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Population genetic structure of Attalea vitrivir Zona (Arecaceae) in fragmented areas of southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, R R M; Cavallari, M M; Pimenta, M A S; Abreu, A G; Costa, M R; Guedes, M L

    2015-06-11

    Attalea vitrivir Zona (synonym Orbignya oleifera) is one of the six species of Arecaceae known as "babassu". This species is used to make cosmetics, food, and detergents due to the high concentration of oil in the seeds. It is found only in fragmented areas of southern Bahia State and northern Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil, and this fragmentation has affected both its ecological and genetic characteristics. We evaluated the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of A. vitrivir in six areas of two different regions at the extremes of its geographical range, in order to gain a better understanding of the factors that affect the distribution and partitioning of its diversity. Nine inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers amplified 74 polymorphic bands, resulting in large diversity values (Shannon diversity index, 0.37-0.47; intrapopulation genetic diversity, 0.25-0.34). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed considerable differentiation between sampling sites (30.03%) and regions (12.08%), although most of the diversity was observed within sampling sites (69%). Further differentiation between sampling sites was noted more in the northern region than in the southern region, highlighting the genetic connectivity between the sampling sites within Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area (southern region). The identification of two distinct genetic clusters (K = 2) corresponded to the northern and southern regions, and corroborated the AMOVA results. We suggest that the northern area, outside Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area, must be included in future management plans for this species.

  19. Estimating Young's modulus of zona pellucida by micropipette aspiration in combination with theoretical models of ovum

    PubMed Central

    Khalilian, Morteza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Chizari, Mahmoud; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari

    2010-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is the spherical layer that surrounds the mammalian oocyte. The physical hardness of this layer plays a crucial role in fertilization and is largely unknown because of the lack of appropriate measuring and modelling methods. The aim of this study is to measure the biomechanical properties of the ZP of human/mouse ovum and to test the hypothesis that Young's modulus of the ZP varies with fertilization. Young's moduli of ZP are determined before and after fertilization by using the micropipette aspiration technique, coupled with theoretical models of the oocyte as an elastic incompressible half-space (half-space model), an elastic compressible bilayer (layered model) or an elastic compressible shell (shell model). Comparison of the models shows that incorporation of the layered geometry of the ovum and the compressibility of the ZP in the layered and shell models may provide a means of more accurately characterizing ZP elasticity. Evaluation of results shows that although the results of the models are different, all confirm that the hardening of ZP will increase following fertilization. As can be seen, different choices of models and experimental parameters can affect the interpretation of experimental data and lead to differing mechanical properties. PMID:19828504

  20. Detection of angiotensin II binding to single adrenal zona glomerulosa cells by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Michael J.; Habermann, Timothy J.; Hanke, Craig J.; Adar, Fran; Campbell, William B.; Nithipatikom, Kasem

    1999-04-01

    We developed a confocal Raman microspectroscopic technique to study ligand-receptor bindings in single cells using Raman-labeled ligands and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells were used as a model in this study. ZG cells have a high density of angiotensin II (AII) receptors on the cellular membrane. There are two identified subtypes of AII receptors,namely AT1 and AT2 receptors. AII is a peptidic hormone, which upon binding to its receptors, stimulates the release of aldosterone from ZG cells. The cellular localization of these receptors subtypes was detected in single ZG cells by using immunocomplexation of receptors with specific antibodies and confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In the binding study, we used biotin-labeled AII to bind to its receptors in ZG cells. Then, avidin and Raman-labeled AII. The binding was measure directly on the single ZG cells. The results showed that the binding was displaced with unlabeled AII and specific AII antagonists. This is a rapid and sensitive technique for detection of cellular ligand bindings as well as antagonists screening in drug discovery.

  1. Capital social de los padres de escolares de una zona vulnerable.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Susana; Herrera, Ariel; Hilas, Elena; Gigena, Y Pablo

    2018-01-01

    El capital social supone importantes inversiones materiales, simbólicas y de esfuerzos. Conocer el capital social de una comunidad puede facilitar la comprensión del beneficio de las relaciones comunitarias para la promoción de salud. Con el objetivo de reconocer los componentes del capital social de padres de escolares atendiendo una escuela en una zona vulnerable de la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina, indagamos a través de grupos focales acerca de elementos esenciales del capital social. La asintonía socio-cultural entre los pobladores originarios y los reubicados, la estigmatización policial y el clientelismo político han generado desconfianza del uno hacia el otro en diferentes aspectos convivenciales, siendo la familia la única red de apoyo. La escuela se reconoce como espacio adonde la gente espontáneamente se organiza para invertir en redes sociales, presentándose así con potencialidad para la promoción de conductas saludables, por el lugar simbólico que ocupa para los padres.

  2. Demi-embryo production from hatching of zona-drilled bovine and rabbit blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Skrzyszowska, M; Smorag, Z; Katska, L

    1997-09-01

    It is known that the pregnancy rate resulting after transfer of bisected embryos is lower than after transfer of whole embryos. The main reason is the reduced cell number in the demi-embryo which is less than 1 2 of that in the intact embryo, since a number of blastomeres is damaged as a result of the procedure used in conventional embryo splitting. The aim of our experiment was to develop a non-invasive procedure which would limit cell losses during microsurgery. The experiment was carried out on bovine IVM-IVF embryos at middle, late and expanded blastocyst stage and rabbit embryos at late blastocyst stage cultured in vitro from in vivo produced zygotes. The zona pellucida of these embryos was drilled on the line between the inner cell mass and the trophoblast using a glass microneedle (

  3. A Flexure-Guided Piezo Drill for Penetrating the Zona Pellucida of Mammalian Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wesley; Dai, Changsheng; Liu, Jun; Wang, Xian; Luu, Devin K; Zhang, Zhuoran; Ru, Changhai; Zhou, Chao; Tan, Min; Pu, Huayan; Xie, Shaorong; Peng, Yan; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Mammalian oocytes such as mouse oocytes have a highly elastic outer membrane, zona pellucida (ZP) that cannot be penetrated without significantly deforming the oocyte, even with a sharp micropipette. Piezo drill devices leverage lateral and axial vibration of the micropipette to accomplish ZP penetration with greatly reduced oocyte deformation. However, existing piezo drills all rely on a large lateral micropipette vibration amplitude ( 20 ) and a small axial vibration amplitude (0.1 ). The very large lateral vibration amplitude has been deemed to be necessary for ZP penetration although it also induces larger oocyte deformation and more oocyte damage. This paper reports on a new piezo drill device that uses a flexure guidance mechanism and a systematically designed pulse train with an appropriate base frequency. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that a small lateral vibration amplitude (e.g., 2 ) and an axial vibration amplitude as large as 1.2 were achieved. Besides achieving 100% effectiveness in the penetration of mouse oocytes (n = 45), the new piezo device during ZP penetration induced a small oocyte deformation of 3.4 versus larger than 10 using existing piezo drill devices.

  4. Analysis of ZP1 gene reveals differences in zona pellucida composition in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Moros-Nicolás, C; Leza, A; Chevret, P; Guillén-Martínez, A; González-Brusi, L; Boué, F; Lopez-Bejar, M; Ballesta, J; Avilés, M; Izquierdo-Rico, M J

    2018-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular envelope that surrounds mammalian oocytes. This coat participates in the interaction between gametes, induction of the acrosome reaction, block of polyspermy and protection of the oviductal embryo. Previous studies suggested that carnivore ZP was formed by three glycoproteins (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4), with ZP1 being a pseudogene. However, a recent study in the cat found that all four proteins were expressed. In the present study, in silico and molecular analyses were performed in several carnivores to clarify the ZP composition in this order of mammals. The in silico analysis demonstrated the presence of the ZP1 gene in five carnivores: cheetah, panda, polar bear, tiger and walrus, whereas in the Antarctic fur seal and the Weddell seal there was evidence of pseudogenisation. Molecular analysis showed the presence of four ZP transcripts in ferret ovaries (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4) and three in fox ovaries (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4). Analysis of the fox ZP1 gene showed the presence of a stop codon. The results strongly suggest that all four ZP genes are expressed in most carnivores, whereas ZP1 pseudogenisation seems to have independently affected three families (Canidae, Otariidae and Phocidae) of the carnivore tree.

  5. Orexin Gene Transfer into Zona Incerta Neurons Suppresses Muscle Paralysis in Narcoleptic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng; Konadhode, RodaRani; Begum, Suraiya; Pelluru, Dheeraj; Gerashchenko, Dmitry; Sakurai, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Masashi; van den Pol, Anthony N.

    2011-01-01

    Cataplexy, a sudden unexpected muscle paralysis, is a debilitating symptom of the neurodegenerative sleep disorder, narcolepsy. During these attacks, the person is paralyzed, but fully conscious and aware of their surroundings. To identify potential neurons that might serve as surrogate orexin neurons to suppress such attacks, the gene for orexin (hypocretin), a peptide lost in most human narcoleptics, was delivered into the brains of the orexin-ataxin-3 transgenic mouse model of human narcolepsy. Three weeks after the recombinant adenoassociated virus (rAAV)-mediated orexin gene transfer, sleep–wake behavior was assessed. rAAV-orexin gene delivery into neurons of the zona incerta (ZI), or the lateral hypothalamus (LH) blocked cataplexy. Orexin gene transfer into the striatum or in the melanin-concentrating hormone neurons in the ZI or LH had no such effect, indicating site specificity. In transgenic mice lacking orexin neurons but given rAAV-orexin, detectable levels of orexin-A were evident in the CSF, indicating release of the peptide from the surrogate neurons. Retrograde tracer studies showed that the amygdala innervates the ZI consistent with evidence that strong emotions trigger cataplexy. In turn, the ZI projects to the locus ceruleus, indicating that the ZI is part of a circuit that stabilizes motor tone. Our results indicate that these neurons might also be recruited to block the muscle paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:21508228

  6. Glycoprotein from the liver constitutes the inner layer of the egg envelope (zona pellucida interna) of the fish, Oryzias latipes

    SciT

    Hamazaki, T.S.; Nagahama, Y.; Iuchi, I.

    1989-05-01

    A glycoprotein from the liver, which shares epitopes with chorion (egg envelope or zona pellucida) glycoproteins, is present only in the spawning female fish, Oryzias latipes, under natural conditions. This spawning female-specific (SF) substance is distinct from vitellogenin but closely resembles a major glycoprotein component, ZI-3, of the inner layer (zona radiata interna) of the ovarian egg envelope with respect to some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics. Here we report that the (/sup 125/I)SF substance, injected into the abdominal cavity of the spawning female fish, was rapidly transported by the blood circulation into the ovary and incorporated into the inner layermore » of egg envelope of the growing oocytes. The result strongly suggests that the SF substance from the liver is a precursor substance of the major component, ZI-3, of the inner layer of egg envelope in the fish.« less

  7. Oocytes with a dark zona pellucida demonstrate lower fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Xu, Bo; Wu, Li-Min; Jin, Ren-Tao; Luan, Hong-Bing; Luo, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qing; Johansson, Lars; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Tong, Xian-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP) correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group), whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A). In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B). No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B) were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.

  8. Sperm Mitochondrial Integrity Is Not Required for Hyperactivated Motility, Zona Binding, or Acrosome Reaction in the Rhesus Macaque1

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Pei-hsuan; Miller, Marion G.; Meyers, Stuart A.; VandeVoort, Catherine A.

    2008-01-01

    Whether the main energy source for sperm motility is from oxidative phosphorylation or glycolysis has been long-debated in the field of reproductive biology. Using the rhesus monkey as a model, we examined the role of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in sperm function by using alpha-chlorohydrin (ACH), a glycolysis inhibitor, and pentachlorophenol (PCP), an oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler. Sperm treated with ACH showed no change in percentage of motile sperm, although sperm motion was impaired. The ACH-treated sperm did not display either hyperactivity- or hyperactivation-associated changes in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. When treated with PCP, sperm motion parameters were affected by the highest level of PCP (200 μM); however, PCP did not cause motility impairments even after chemical activation. Sperm treated with PCP were able to display hyperactivity and tyrosine phosphorylation after chemical activation. In contrast with motility measurements, treatment with either the glycolytic inhibitor or the oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor did not affect sperm-zona binding and zona-induced acrosome reaction. The results suggest glycolysis is essential to support sperm motility, hyperactivity, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, while energy from oxidative phosphorylation is not necessary for hyperactivated sperm motility, tyrosine phosphorylation, sperm-zona binding, and acrosome reaction in the rhesus macaque. PMID:18480469

  9. Outcomes from stimulation of the caudal zona incerta and pedunculopontine nucleus in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sadaquate; Mooney, Lucy; Plaha, Puneet; Javed, Shazia; White, Paul; Whone, Alan L; Gill, Steven S

    2011-04-01

    Axial symptoms including postural instability, falls and failure of gait initiation are some of the most disabling motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). We performed bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) in combination with the caudal zona incerta (cZi) in order to determine their efficacy in alleviating these symptoms. Seven patients with predominant axial symptoms in both the 'on' and 'off' medication states underwent bilateral cZi and PPN DBS. Motor outcomes were assessed using the motor component of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS 3) and a composite axial subscore was derived from items 27, 28, 29 and 30 (arising from chair, posture, gait and postural stability). Quality of life was measured using the PDQ39. Comparisons were made between scores obtained at baseline and those at a mean follow-up of 12 months. In both the off and on medication states, a statistically significant improvement in the UPDRS part 3 score was achieved by stimulation of the PPN, cZi and both in combination. In the off medication state, our composite axial subscore of the UPDRS part 3 improved with stimulation of the PPN, cZi and both in combination. The composite axial subscore, in the 'on' medication state, however, only showed a statistically significant improvement when a combination of cZi and PPN stimulation was used. This study provides evidence that a combination of PPN and cZi stimulation can achieve a significant improvement in the hitherto untreatable 'on' medication axial symptoms of PD.

  10. Vitrification of zona-free rabbit expanded or hatching blastocysts: a possible model for human blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Cervera, R P; Garcia-Ximénez, F

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of one two-step (A) and two one-step (B1 and B2) vitrification procedures on denuded expanded or hatching rabbit blastocysts held in standard sealed plastic straws as a possible model for human blastocysts. The effect of blastocyst size was also studied on the basis of three size categories (I: diameter <200 micro m; II: diameter 200-299 micro m; III: diameter >/==" BORDER="0">300 micro m). Rabbit expanded or hatching blastocysts were vitrified at day 4 or 5. Before vitrification, the zona pellucida was removed using acidic phosphate buffered saline. For the two-step procedure, prior to vitrification, blastocysts were pre- equilibrated in a solution containing 10% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and 10% ethylene glycol (EG) for 1 min. Different final vitrification solutions were compared: 20% DMSO and 20% EG with (A and B1) or without (B2) 0.5 mol/l sucrose. Of 198 vitrified blastocysts, 181 (91%) survived, regardless of the vitrification procedure applied. Vitrification procedure A showed significantly higher re-expansion (88%), attachment (86%) and trophectoderm outgrowth (80%) rates than the two one-step vitrification procedures, B1 and B2 (46 and 21%, 20 and 33%, and 18 and 23%, respectively). After warming, blastocysts of greater size (II and III) showed significantly higher attachment (54 and 64%) and trophectoderm outgrowth (44 and 58%) rates than smaller blastocysts (I, attachment: 29%; trophectoderm outgrowth: 25%). These result demonstrate that denuded expanded or hatching rabbit blastocysts of greater size can be satisfactorily vitrified by use of a two-step procedure. The similarity of vitrification solutions used in humans could make it feasible to test such a procedure on human denuded blastocysts of different sizes.

  11. Foaling rates in feral horses treated with the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida

    Ransom, J.I.; Roelle, J.E.; Cade, B.S.; Coates-Markle, L.; Kane, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Locally abundant feral horses (Equus caballus) can rapidly deplete available resources. Fertility control agents present promising nonlethal tools for reducing their population growth rates. We tested the effect of 2 forms of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on foaling rates in 3 populations of feral horses in the western United States. A liquid form requiring annual boosters was administered at Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range, Mesa County (CO), and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, Bighorn County (WY) and Carbon County (MT), and a time-release pellet form designed to produce 2 yr of infertility was administered at McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area, Park County (WY). Average foaling rates (foals born/mare-yr) from direct observation of untreated and treated female horses (mares), 2004-2008, were 60.1% (n = 153 mare-yr) versus 6.6% (n = 91 mare-yr) at Little Book Cliffs, and 62.8% (n = 129 mare-yr) versus 17.7% (n = 79 mare-yr) at Pryor Mountain, respectively. At McCullough Peaks, mean annual foaling rates from 2006 to 2008 were 75.0% (n = 48 mare-yr) for untreated mares and 31.7% (n = 101 mare-yr) for treated mares. Controlling for age of mares and pretreatment differences in fertility, PZP reduced foaling rates in all 3 herds. The pellets used at McCullough Peaks (produced by cold evaporation) were less effective than pellets used in a previous trial and produced by heat extrusion. Immunocontraception with PZP may be a useful tool in reducing fertility rates in some western United States feral horse herds, but population growth reduction will depend on timely access to mares for inoculation and the proportion of mares that can be successfully treated. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  12. [Molecules involved in sperm-zona pellucida interaction in mammals. Role in human fertility].

    PubMed

    Serres, Catherine; Auer, Jana; Petit, François; Patrat, Catherine; Jouannet, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Fertilization in mammals requires an initial interaction of sperm with the oocyte envelope, the zona pellucida (ZP), before it reaches the oocyte. ZP is a highly glycosylated structure, composed of three (mouse) or four (rabbit, boar, bovine, humans...) glycoproteins. The presence of ZP around the oocyte does not allow heterospecific fertilization. This barrier is principally due to the presence of species-specific glycosylations on ZP proteins. Sperm bind ZP by means of membrane receptors which recognize carbohydrate moieties on ZP glycoproteins according to a well-precised sequential process. Upon initial attachment, spermatozoa bind ZP3/ZP4 which induces the sperm acrosome exocytosis followed by a secondary binding of acrosome reacted spermatozoa to ZP2 and by ZP penetration. The sperm receptors are adhesive proteins or integral plasma membrane proteins linked to intraspermatic signalling pathways activating the acrosome reaction. Over the last twenty years, numerous studies have been carried out to identify sperm receptors to ZP in several species, but the data in humans are still incomplete. Work initiated in our research group has identified several proteins interacting with recombinant human ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4, among which are glycolytic enzymes. These enzymes are involved in the gamete interaction by means of their affinity to sugars and not by their catalytic properties. From a clinical point of view, an observed lack or weak expression of some sperm receptors to ZP3 in cases of idiopathic infertility associated with in vitro fertilization failure suggests that knowing the molecular mechanism driving the gamete recognition can be important at the diagnostic level. Furthermore, it has been shown that proteins that mediate gamete recognition diverge rapidly, as a result of positive darwinian selection. A sexual conflict can drive co-evolution of reproductive molecules in both sexes resulting in reproductive isolation and species emergence.

  13. Effects of acrolein on aldosterone release from zona glomerulosa cells in male rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Lee; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chou, Jou-Chun; Weng, Ting-Chun; Hu, Sindy; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Lai, Wei-Ho; Idova, Galina; Wang, Paulus S; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    A positive correlation between smoking and hypertension has been well established. Acrolein is a major toxic volatile compound found in cigarette smoke. Human exposure to low levels of acrolein is unavoidable due to its production in daily activities, such as smoke from industrial, hot oil cooking vapors, and exhaust fumes from vehicles. The toxicity and the action mechanism of acrolein to induce apoptosis have been extensively studied, but the effects of acrolein on hypertension are still unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effects of acrolein on aldosterone release both in vivo and in vitro. Male rats were divided into three groups, and intraperitoneally injected with normal saline, or acrolein (2mg/kg) for 1 (group A-1) or 3 (group A-3) days, respectively. After sacrificing, rat blood samples were obtained to measure plasma aldosterone and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels. Zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells were prepared from rat adrenal cortex, and were incubated with or without stimulants. We found that the serum aldosterone was increased by 1.2-fold (p<0.05) in A-3 group as compared to control group. Basal aldosterone release from ZG cells in A-3 group was also increased significantly. Moreover, acrolein enhanced the stimulatory effects of Ang II and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP on aldosterone secretion from ZG cells prepared in both A-1 and A-3 groups. Furthermore, the enzyme activity of P450scc, the rate-limiting step of aldosterone synthesis, was elevated after acrolein injection. Plasma level of Ang II was increased in both A-1 and A-3 groups. These results suggested that acrolein exposure increased aldosterone production, at least in part, through elevating the level of plasma Ang II and stimulating steroidogenesis pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced contraception of canine zona pellucida 3 DNA vaccine via targeting DEC-205 in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Jinyao; Aipire, Adila; Li, Yijie; Zhang, Fuchun

    2018-06-01

    Zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) is a potential antigen for the development of contraceptive vaccines to control animal population. In this study, we designed a canine ZP3 (CZP3) DNA vaccine through targeting DEC-205 (named as pcD-scFv-CZP3c) and investigated its contraceptive effect in mice. Female BALB/c mice were intramuscularly immunized 3 times at 2 weeks intervals. After immunization, humoral and cellular immune responses were detected by ELISA and flow cytometry. The results showed that pcD-CZP3 and pcD-scFv-CZP3c induced CZP3-specific antibody (Ab) responses both in serum and vaginal secretions compared to pcDNA3.1. Additionally, compared to pcD-CZP3, pcD-scFv-CZP3c increased the levels of CZP3-specific Abs after a third immunization. Abs induced by these two DNA vaccines could bind with mice and dogs oocytes. Moreover, pcD-scFv-CZP3c enhanced the activation of CD4 + T cells characterized by the increased frequencies of CD4 + CD44 + T cells. Finally, the contraceptive effect was evaluated in the immunized mice. These two DNA vaccines significantly decreased a mean litter size of mice compared to pcDNA3.1, but pcD-scFv-CZP3c group showed the smallest mean litter size. The mean litter size of pcD-scFv-CZP3 were 3.2 ± 0.742 and 4.6 ± 1.118 in two mating tests, which were significantly lower than pcDNA3.1(P < 0.001 and P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the CZP3 DNA vaccine targeted with DEC-205 may be a potential strategy for developing a contraceptive DNA vaccine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of zona pellucida birefringence intensity during in vitro maturation of oocytes from stimulated cycles.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Claudia G; Vagnini, Laura D; Mauri, Ana L; Massaro, Fabiana C; Silva, Liliane F I; Cavagna, Mario; Baruffi, Ricardo L R; Oliveira, Joao B A; Franco, José G

    2011-04-23

    This study evaluated whether there is a relationship between the zona pellucida birefringence (ZP-BF) intensity and the nuclear (NM) and cytoplasmic (CM) in vitro maturation of human oocytes from stimulated cycles. The ZP-BF was evaluated under an inverted microscope with a polarizing optical system and was scored as high/positive (when the ZP image presented a uniform and intense birefringence) or low/negative (when the image presented moderate and heterogeneous birefringence). CM was analyzed by evaluating the distribution of cortical granules (CGs) throughout the ooplasm by immunofluorescence staining. CM was classified as: complete, when CG was localized in the periphery; incomplete, when oocytes presented a cluster of CGs in the center; or in transition, when oocytes had both in clusters throughout cytoplasm and distributed in a layer in the cytoplasm periphery Nuclear maturation: From a total of 83 germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes, 58 of oocytes (69.9%) reached NM at the metaphase II stage. From these 58 oocytes matured in vitro, the high/positively scoring ZP-BF was presented in 82.7% of oocytes at the GV stage, in 75.8% of oocytes when at the metaphase I, and in 82.7% when oocytes reached MII. No relationship was observed between NM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.55). These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.081). Cytoplasmic maturation: A total of 85 in vitro-matured MII oocytes were fixed for CM evaluation. Forty-nine oocytes of them (57.6%) showed the complete CM, 30 (61.2%) presented a high/positively scoring ZP-BF and 19 (38.8%) had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. From 36 oocytes (42.3%) with incomplete CM, 18 (50%) presented a high/positively scoring ZPBF and 18 (50%) had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. No relationship was observed between CM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.42). These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.11). The current study demonstrated an absence of

  16. Pronuclear formation by ICSI using chemically activated ovine oocytes and zona pellucida bound sperm.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pichardo, J E; Ducolomb, Y; Romo, S; Kjelland, M E; Fierro, R; Casillas, F; Betancourt, M

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve ICSI, appropiate sperm selection and oocyte activation is necessary. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficiency of fertilization using ICSI with chemically activated ovine oocytes and sperm selected by swim up (SU) or swim up + zona pellucida (SU + ZP) binding. Experiment 1, 4-20 replicates with total 821 in vitro matured oocytes were chemically activated with ethanol, calcium ionophore or ionomycin, to determine oocyte activation (precense of one PN). Treatments showed similar results (54, 47, 42 %, respectively) but statistically differents ( P  < 0.05) than mechanical activated oocytes in sham, ICSI and sham injection (13, 25, 32 %, respectively) (10-17 replicates; n  = 429). Experiment 2: Twelve ejaculates and 28 straws of semen were used (11-19 replicates). Sperm were selected by SU in BSA-TCM 199-H medium. A total of 2,294 fresh sperm and 2,760 from frozen-thawed semen were analyzed after SU or SU + ZP binding. Fresh sperm selected by SU showed acrosome reaction (AR) of 59 %, the sperm selected by SU + ZP binding increased AR to 91 %. In comparison, the AR of frozen-thawed sperm using SU or SU + ZP binding was 77 and 86 %, respectively ( P  < 0.05). Experiment 3: fertilization in 200 mechanical activativated oocytes (17 replicates) was 4 %, but fertilization increased in ethanol activated oocytes after ICSI (12-28 %) (5-6 replicates). When fresh sperm only selected by SU were injected to 123 oocytes, a fertilization rate (28 %) was achieved; in sperm selected by SU + ZP was 25 % (73 oocytes). In comparison, in frozen-thawed sperm selected by SU, fertilization was 13 % (70 oocytes), whereas sperm from SU + ZP binding displayed 12 % (51 oocytes) ( P  > 0.05). Chemical activation induces higher ovine oocyte activation than mechanical activation. Ethanol slightly displays higher oocyte activation than calcium ionophore and ionomicine. Sperm selection with SU

  17. Two subunits of the 55 K porcine zona pellucida glycoprotein family are immunologically distinct

    SciT

    Subramanian, M.G.; Yurewicz, E.C.; Sacco, A.G.

    1986-03-01

    The 55K glycoprotein family (ZP3) of the porcine zona pellucida is comprised of two subunits of 46 K and 45 K which can be resolved by endo-..beta..-galactosidase digestion of ZP3 followed by reversed phase HPLC on Vydac C4 resin. Gel electrophoresis revealed that the 46 K component (EBDG..cap alpha..) is approx. 95% pure and the 45 K component (EBGD..beta..) is 100% pure. In the present study, these two subunits were evaluated immunologically by RIA. Under similar reaction protocols (chloramine-T iodination procedure) comparable specific activities were obtained for EBGD..cap alpha.. (33.06 +/- 7.5 ..mu..ci/..mu..gm), EBGD..beta.. (30.45 +/- 1.6) and ZP3 (26.3more » +/- 1.3). Antibody (Ab) titration studies revealed that EBGD..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. are potent immunogens and /sup 125/I-EBGD..cap alpha.. showed minimal cross reactivity to EBGD..beta..-Ab (8% bound at 1:500 dilution), whereas, /sup 125/I-EBGD..beta.. showed a greater degree of cross reactivity to EBGD..cap alpha..-Ab (23% bound at 1:500 dilution). Maximum binding for the two labeled antigens against homologous Abs (1:500) was > 60%. Dose response studies revealed that in the /sup 125/I-EBGD..cap alpha.. vs EBGD..cap alpha.. -Ab system, the 50% intercept was 3.25 +/- 0.32 ng for EBGD..cap alpha.. and 472.43 +/- 30.26 ng for EBGD..beta.. (p < 0.01), whereas, in the /sup 125/I-EBGD..beta.. vs EBGD..beta..-Ab system the 50% intercept was 3.51 +/- 0.58 for EBGD..beta.. and 166.77 +/- 49.20 for EBGD..cap alpha.. (p < 0.01). No significant differences were observed in the slopes of the dose response curves. It is concluded that the two subunits of ZP3 possess distinct immunologic characteristics as evaluated by RIA.« less

  18. Surface alterations of the mouse zona pellucida and ovum following in vivo fertilization: correlation with the cell cycle

    SciT

    Jackowski, S.; Dumont, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    The zona pellucida and cell surface of in vivo fertilized mouse ova exhibit time dependent changes which can be detected with the scanning electron microscope. The periods of ovulation, fertilization and first cleavage in superovulated C3D2/F/sub 1/ hybrids were determined and times corresponding to G/sub 1/, S, G/sub 2/, and M were calculated. The zona of a mature unfertilized ovum has a rough texture with deep furrows; at fertilization and thereafter the zona develops a smoother, ropy and seemingly porous surface. The cell surface of the unfertilized ovum is characterized by uniform microvilli, small blebs and rounded, mound-like elevations. Aftermore » fertilization and development to G/sub 1/, the ovum loses its blebs but retains the mound-like elevations and microvilli which are now less uniform. As the ovum progresses toward S, it loses the mound-like elevations but retains microvilli in the same density as found in G/sub 1/. The ovum in G/sub 2/ exhibits smaller but more numerous microvilli which vary considerably in length. Some appear to bifurcate. The fertilized ovum developing through M and G/sub 1/ of the 2 cell stage exhibits a less dense population of relatively uniform microvilli, periodic blebs and, again, rounded elevations. The data are reminiscent of surface changes associated with the cell cycle in tissue culture cells and indicate a cyclic progression of the in vivo fertilized mouse ovum through the first cleavage division to the 2 cell stage.« less

  19. Assessment of Mouse Germinal Vesicle Stage Oocyte Quality by Evaluating the Cumulus Layer, Zona Pellucida, and Perivitelline Space

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying-Lei; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Cheng-Jie; Wu, Sha-Na; Shen, Jiang-Peng; Liang, Cheng-Guang

    2014-01-01

    To improve the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART) for patients with ovulation problems, it is necessary to retrieve and select germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes with high developmental potential. Oocytes with high developmental potential are characterized by their ability to undergo proper maturation, fertilization, and embryo development. In this study, we analyzed morphological traits of GV stage mouse oocytes, including cumulus cell layer thickness, zona pellucida thickness, and perivitelline space width. Then, we assessed the corresponding developmental potential of each of these oocytes and found that it varies across the range measured for each morphological trait. Furthermore, by manipulating these morphological traits in vitro, we were able to determine the influence of morphological variation on oocyte developmental potential. Manually altering the thickness of the cumulus layer showed strong effects on the fertilization and embryo development potentials of oocytes, whereas manipulation of zona pellucida thickness effected the oocyte maturation potential. Our results provide a systematic detailed method for selecting GV stage oocytes based on a morphological assessment approach that would benefit for several downstream ART applications. PMID:25144310

  20. GABA release in the zona incerta of the sheep in response to the sight and ingestion of food and salt.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, K M; Hinton, M R; Baldwin, B A

    1991-05-31

    In order to establish which neurotransmitters may influence the activity of zona incerta neurones in the sheep which respond selectively to the sight or ingestion of food, we have measured the release of amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitters from this region using microdialysis sampling. Co-ordinates for the placement of microdialysis probes in regions of the zona incerta where cells respond to the sight or ingestion of food were first established by making single-unit extracellular recordings. When animals were food-deprived results showed that release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was increased in response to the sight and ingestion of food but not of aspartate, glutamate, taurine, noradrenaline, dopamine or serotonin. This release of GABA was absent when the animals were shown non-food objects or saw or ingested salt solutions. When the same animals were physiologically sodium-depleted GABA release was evoked by the sight and ingestion of salt solutions and release following the sight and ingestion of food was significantly reduced. These results provide further evidence that GABA is an important neurotransmitter in neural circuits controlling the regulation of food intake.

  1. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Perú: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of rat sperm surface antigen 2B1, a glycoprotein implicated in sperm-zona binding.

    PubMed

    Hou, S T; Ma, A; Jones, R; Hall, L

    1996-10-01

    The rat sperm surface antigen, 2B1, that has been proposed to play a key role in sperm adhesion to the zona pellucida, has been cloned and its entire cDNA sequenced. Northern blot analysis indicates that 2B1 is encoded by a 2.2-kb RNA transcript that is abundantly expressed in the testis. The deduced protein sequence contains 512 amino-acid residues with a strong candidate signal sequence and C-terminal transmembrane domain. Data base searches reveal a high degree of sequence similarity to guinea pig, rabbit, monkey, and human PH20 sperm surface antigens, and a lower degree of similarity to honey bee and whiteface hornet venom hyaluronidases. Rat 2B1 antigen also possesses hyaluronidase activity, suggesting that it is a bifunctional protein with putative roles in the dispersion of cumulus oophorus cells as well as zona adhesion. However, while it would appear that 2B1 is the rat homologue of the guinea pig PH20 antigen, they differ in a number of important biochemical respects (including their mode of attachment to the sperm membrane and distribution between soluble and membrane-bound fractions), as well as in their localization on the sperm membrane. Expression of regions of the 2B1 protein in recombinant bacterial cells has allowed a preliminary mapping of the 2B1 epitope, and has provided more definitive information on the endoproteolytic processing of 2B1 during epididymal transit.

  3. Corrosion inhibiting organic coatings

    SciT

    Sasson, E.

    1984-10-16

    A corrosion inhibiting coating comprises a mixture of waxes, petroleum jelly, a hardener and a solvent. In particular, a corrosion inhibiting coating comprises candelilla wax, carnauba wax, microcrystalline waxes, white petrolatum, an oleoresin, lanolin and a solvent.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Reduces Rotenone Effect on Stallion Sperm-Zona Pellucida Heterologous Binding.

    PubMed

    Plaza Dávila, M; Bucci, D; Galeati, G; Peña, F J; Mari, G; Giaretta, E; Tamanini, C; Spinaci, M

    2015-12-01

    Stallion spermatozoa are highly dependent on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production to achieve normal sperm function and to fuel the motility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of equine sperm under capacitating conditions to the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone and to test whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural polyphenol component of green tea, could counteract this effect. After 2-h incubation of stallion spermatozoa in modified Tyrode's medium, rotenone (100 nm, 500 nm and 5 μm) and EGCG (10, 20 and 60 μm), alone or in combination, did not induce any significant difference on the percentage of viable cells, live sperm with active mitochondria and spermatozoa with intact acrosome. The inhibition of complex I of mitochondrial respiratory chain of stallion sperm with rotenone exerted a negative effect on heterologous ZP binding ability. EGCG at the concentrations of 10 and 20 μm (but not of 60 μm) induced a significant increase in the number of sperm bound to the ZP compared with that for control. Moreover, when stallion sperm were treated with rotenone 100 nm, the presence of EGCG at all the concentrations tested (10, 20 and 60 μm) significantly increased the number of sperm bound to the ZP up to control levels, suggesting that this green tea polyphenol is able to reduce the toxicity of rotenone. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Resveratrol reverses the adverse effects of a diet-induced obese murine model on oocyte quality and zona pellucida softening.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenzhen; Feng, Zeyang; Wang, Lining; Li, Hao; Wang, Hongyu; Xu, Dingqi; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Daofu; Feng, Xizeng

    2018-05-23

    Reproductive dysfunction associated with obesity is increasing among women of reproductive age, including infertility and increasing risk of miscarriage. In females, reproductive disorders are linked to declining quality of oocytes. Using a model of diet-induced obesity, we have investigated the possible effects of obesity on oocyte quality, including metabolism, lipid accumulation, ROS levels, meiosis and changes in spindle structure in Metaphase II. Our study showed that obesity induced by a high fat diet can impair oocyte meiosis, destroy spindle assembly, and promote oxidative stress and abnormal mitochondrial distribution. With the addition of resveratrol, the negative impact of diet-induced obesity on the quality of oocytes was alleviated to some extent. In addition, we found that obesity causes mouse oocytes to soften, and resveratrol can restore the zona pellucida of oocytes to the same state as the control group. In conclusion, resveratrol can reverse the adverse effects of obesity on oocytes, which is beneficial for subsequent embryonic development.

  6. A common 'aggregation-prone' interface possibly participates in the self-assembly of human zona pellucida proteins.

    PubMed

    Louros, Nikolaos N; Chrysina, Evangelia D; Baltatzis, Georgios E; Patsouris, Efstratios S; Hamodrakas, Stavros J; Iconomidou, Vassiliki A

    2016-03-01

    Human zona pellucida (ZP) is composed of four glycoproteins, namely ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4. ZP proteins form heterodimers, which are incorporated into filaments through a common bipartite polymerizing component, designated as the ZP domain. The latter is composed of two individually folded subdomains, named ZP-N and ZP-C. Here, we have synthesized six 'aggregation-prone' peptides, corresponding to a common interface of human ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4. Experimental results utilizing electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy and polarizing microscopy indicate that these peptides self-assemble forming fibrils with distinct amyloid-like features. Finally, by performing detailed modeling and docking, we attempt to shed some light in the self-assembly mechanism of human ZP proteins. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Zona pellucida from fertilised human oocytes induces a voltage-dependent calcium influx and the acrosome reaction in spermatozoa, but cannot be penetrated by sperm

    PubMed Central

    Patrat, Catherine; Auer, Jana; Fauque, Patricia; Leandri, Roger L; Jouannet, Pierre; Serres, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Background The functions of three zona glycoproteins, ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3 during the sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) interaction are now well established in mice. The expression of an additional zona glycoprotein, ZPB/4, in humans, led us to reconsider the classical mouse model of gamete interaction. We investigated the various functions of human ZP (hZP) during the interaction of spermatozoa with fertilised and unfertilised oocytes. Results The hZP of fertilised oocytes retained their ability to bind sperm (albeit less strongly than that from unfertilised oocytes), to induce an intraspermatic calcium influx through voltage-dependent channels similar to that observed with hZP from unfertilised oocytes and to promote the acrosome reaction at a rate similar to that induced by the ZP of unfertilised oocytes (61.6 ± 6.2% vs60.7 ± 9.1% respectively). Conversely, the rate of hZP penetrated by sperm was much lower for fertilised than for unfertilised oocytes (19% vs 57% respectively, p < 0.01). We investigated the status of ZP2 in the oocytes used in the functional tests, and demonstrated that sperm binding and acrosome reaction induction, but not ZP penetration, occurred whether or not ZP2 was cleaved. Conclusion The change in ZP function induced by fertilisation could be different in human and mouse species. Our results suggest a zona blocking to polyspermy based at the sperm penetration level in humans. PMID:17147816

  8. Articulatory Closure Proficiency in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Caudal Zona Incerta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik; van Doorn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed at comparing the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) on the proficiency in achieving oral closure and release during plosive production of people with Parkinson's disease. Method: Nineteen patients participated preoperatively and…

  9. [Effects of infrasound on activities of 3beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase of polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculate in mice].

    PubMed

    Dang, Wei-min; Wang, Sheng; Tian, Shi-xiu; Chen, Bing; Sun, Fei; Li, Wei; Jiao, Yan; He, Li-hua

    2007-02-01

    To explore the biological effects of infrasound on the polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculation in mice. The biological effects of infrasound on the activities of 3beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-betaHSDH) and acid phosphatase(ACP) of the polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculate were observed when exposure to 8 and 16 Hz infrasound at 80, 90, 100, 110, 120 and 130 dB for 1 day, 7 days and 14 days or 14 days after the exposure. When exposure to 8 Hz infrasound, the enzyme activities of 3-betaHSDH increase as the sound pressure levels increase. Only when the sound pressure levels reach 130 dB, the enzyme activities began to decrease exceptionally. When exposure to 16 Hz, 80 dB infrasound, no significant difference between the treatment and control group in the activities of 3-betaHSDH could be observed, but the injury of the polygonal cells had appeared. When exposure to 16 Hz, 100 dB infrasound, the activities of 3-betaHSDH started to increase. The cell injury still existed. When exposed to 16 Hz, 120 dB infrasound, the local tissue damage represented. Fourteen days after the mice exposure to 8 Hz, 90 dB and 130 dB infrasound for 14 days continuously, the local tissue injury of the adrenal cortex zona fasciculation began to recover at certain extent, but the higher the exposure sound pressure level, the poorer the tissue recovery. The biological effects of infrasound on the polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculation response to the frequency of the infrasound are found at certain action strength range, but this characteristic usually is covered by the severe tissue injury. When exposure to infrasound is stopped for a period of time, the local tissue injury of the adrenal cortex zona fasciculation could recovers at certain extent, but the higher the exposure sound pressure level, the more poorer the tissue recovery.

  10. Direct embryo tagging and identification system by attachment of biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to the zona pellucida of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Novo, Sergi; Penon, Oriol; Barrios, Leonardo; Nogués, Carme; Santaló, Josep; Durán, Sara; Gómez-Matínez, Rodrigo; Samitier, Josep; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Luisa; Ibáñez, Elena

    2013-06-01

    Is the attachment of biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to the outer surface of the zona pellucida an effective approach for the direct tagging and identification of cultured embryos? The results achieved provide a proof of concept for a direct embryo tagging system using biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes, which could help to minimize the risk of mismatching errors (mix-ups) in human assisted reproduction technologies. Even though the occurrence of mix-ups is rare, several cases have been reported in fertility clinics around the world. Measures to prevent the risk of mix-ups in human assisted reproduction technologies are therefore required. Mouse embryos were tagged with 10 barcodes and the effectiveness of the tagging system was tested during fresh in vitro culture (n=140) and after embryo cryopreservation (n = 84). Finally, the full-term development of tagged embryos was evaluated (n =105). Mouse pronuclear embryos were individually rolled over wheat germ agglutinin-biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to distribute them uniformly around the ZONA PELLUCIDA surface. Embryo viability and retention of barcodes were determined during 96 h of culture. The identification of tagged embryos was performed every 24 h in an inverted microscope and without embryo manipulation to simulate an automatic reading procedure. Full-term development of the tagged embryos was assessed after their transfer to pseudo-pregnant females. To test the validity of the embryo tagging system after a cryopreservation process, tagged embryos were frozen at the 2-cell stage using a slow freezing protocol, and followed in culture for 72 h after thawing. Neither the in vitro or in vivo development of tagged embryos was adversely affected. The tagging system also proved effective during an embryo cryopreservation process. Global identification rates higher than 96 and 92% in fresh and frozen-thawed tagged embryos, respectively, were obtained when simulating an automatic barcode reading

  11. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Caroline

    2001-10-09

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  12. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Caroline

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides compositions for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, these composition scan be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  13. Inhibition of selectin binding

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Jon O.; Spevak, Wayne R.; Dasgupta, Falguni; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    1999-10-05

    This invention provides a system for inhibiting the binding between two cells, one expressing P- or L-selectin on the surface and the other expressing the corresponding ligand. A covalently crosslinked lipid composition is prepared having saccharides and acidic group on separate lipids. The composition is then interposed between the cells so as to inhibit binding. Inhibition can be achieved at an effective oligosaccharide concentration as low as 10.sup.6 fold below that of the free saccharide. Since selectins are involved in recruiting cells to sites of injury, this system can be used to palliate certain inflammatory and immunological conditions.

  14. LGR5 Activates Noncanonical Wnt Signaling and Inhibits Aldosterone Production in the Human Adrenal.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Lalarukh Haris; Zhou, Junhua; Teo, Ada E D; Garg, Sumedha; Neogi, Sudeshna Guha; Figg, Nichola; Yeo, Giles S; Yu, Haixiang; Maguire, Janet J; Zhao, Wanfeng; Bennett, Martin R; Azizan, Elena A B; Davenport, Anthony P; McKenzie, Grahame; Brown, Morris J

    2015-06-01

    Aldosterone synthesis and cellularity in the human adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) is sparse and patchy, presumably due to salt excess. The frequency of somatic mutations causing aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) may be a consequence of protection from cell loss by constitutive aldosterone production. The objective of the study was to delineate a process in human ZG, which may regulate both aldosterone production and cell turnover. This study included a comparison of 20 pairs of ZG and zona fasciculata transcriptomes from adrenals adjacent to an APA (n = 13) or a pheochromocytoma (n = 7). Interventions included an overexpression of the top ZG gene (LGR5) or stimulation by its ligand (R-spondin-3). A transcriptome profile of ZG and zona fasciculata and aldosterone production, cell kinetic measurements, and Wnt signaling activity of LGR5 transfected or R-spondin-3-stimulated cells were measured. LGR5 was the top gene up-regulated in ZG (25-fold). The gene for its cognate ligand R-spondin-3, RSPO3, was 5-fold up-regulated. In total, 18 genes associated with the Wnt pathway were greater than 2-fold up-regulated. ZG selectivity of LGR5, and its absence in most APAs, were confirmed by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. Both R-spondin-3 stimulation and LGR5 transfection of human adrenal cells suppressed aldosterone production. There was reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of transfected cells, and the noncanonical activator protein-1/Jun pathway was stimulated more than the canonical Wnt pathway (3-fold vs 1.3-fold). ZG of adrenal sections stained positive for apoptosis markers. LGR5 is the most selectively expressed gene in human ZG and reduces aldosterone production and cell number. Such conditions may favor cells whose somatic mutation reverses aldosterone inhibition and cell loss.

  15. Inhibition of lactation.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism and hormonal regulation of lactation is explained and illustrated with a schematic representation. Circulating estrogen above a critical amount seems to be the inhibitory factor controlling lactation during pregnancy. Once delivery occurs, the level of estrogen falls, that of prolactin rises, and lactation begins. Nonsuckling can be used to inhibit lactation. Estrogens can also be used to inhibit lactation more quickly and with less pain. The reported association between estrogens and puerperal thromboembolism cannot be considered conclusive due to defects in the reporting studies. There is no reason not to use estrogens in lactation inhibition except for women over 35 who experienced a surgical delivery. Alternative therapy is available for these women. The recently-developed drug, brom-ergocryptine, may replace other methods of lactation inhibition.

  16. AOP description: Acetylcholinesterase inhibition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This adverse outcome pathway (AOP) leverages existing knowledge in the open literature to describe the linkage between inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the subsequent mortality resulting from impacts at cholinergic receptors. The AOP takes a chemical category approa...

  17. Capacitation in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrin results in enhanced zona pellucida-binding ability of stallion spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Bromfield, Elizabeth G; Aitken, R John; Gibb, Zamira; Lambourne, Sarah R; Nixon, Brett

    2014-02-01

    While IVF has been widely successful in many domesticated species, the development of a robust IVF system for the horse remains an elusive and highly valued goal. A major impediment to the development of equine IVF is the fact that optimised conditions for the capacitation of equine spermatozoa are yet to be developed. Conversely, it is known that stallion spermatozoa are particularly susceptible to damage arising as a consequence of capacitation-like changes induced prematurely in response to semen handling and transport conditions. To address these limitations, this study sought to develop an effective system to both suppress and promote the in vitro capacitation of stallion spermatozoa. Our data indicated that the latter could be achieved in a bicarbonate-rich medium supplemented with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, a cyclic AMP analogue, and methyl-β-cyclodextrin, an efficient cholesterol-withdrawing agent. The populations of spermatozoa generated under these conditions displayed a number of hallmarks of capacitation, including elevated levels of tyrosine phosphorylation, a reorganisation of the plasma membrane leading to lipid raft coalescence in the peri-acrosomal region of the sperm head, and a dramatic increase in their ability to interact with heterologous bovine zona pellucida (ZP) and undergo agonist-induced acrosomal exocytosis. Furthermore, this functional transformation was effectively suppressed in media devoid of bicarbonate. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of efficient cholesterol removal in priming stallion spermatozoa for ZP binding in vitro.

  18. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs

    PubMed Central

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins. PMID:17085584

  19. Conserved developmental expression of Fezf in chordates and Drosophila and the origin of the Zona Limitans Intrathalamica (ZLI) brain organizer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI) and the isthmus organizer (IsO) are two major secondary organizers of vertebrate brain development. These organizers are located at the interface of the expression domains of key patterning genes (Fezf-Irx and Otx-Gbx, respectively). To gain insights into the evolutionary origin of the ZLI, we studied Fezf in bilaterians. Results In this paper, we identified a conserved sequence motif (Fezf box) in all bilaterians. We report the expression pattern of Fezf in amphioxus and Drosophila and compare it with those of Gbx, Otx and Irx. We found that the relative expression patterns of these genes in vertebrates are fully conserved in amphioxus and flies, indicating that the genetic subdivisions defining the location of both secondary organizers in early vertebrate brain development were probably present in the last common ancestor of extant bilaterians. However, in contrast to vertebrates, we found that Irx-defective flies do not show an affected Fezf expression pattern. Conclusions The absence of expression of the corresponding morphogens from cells at these conserved genetic boundaries in invertebrates suggests that the organizing properties might have evolved specifically in the vertebrate lineage by the recruitment of key morphogens to these conserved genetic locations. PMID:20849572

  20. Human spermatozoa selected by Percoll gradient or swim-up are equally capable of binding to the human zona pellucida and undergoing the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Morales, P; Vantman, D; Barros, C; Vigil, P

    1991-03-01

    Several techniques have been used for selecting motile spermatozoa including Percoll and albumin gradients, swim-up, and glass wool filtration. A high yield of motile spermatozoa as well as an enhancement of motility are the most desirable features of a practical method. An equally important consideration is whether or not these techniques select functionally normal spermatozoa. In this study we have compared two methods for separation of motile cells, swim-up and Percoll gradient. Normal semen samples from 12 different men were used in this study. Each sample was simultaneously processed by swim-up and Percoll gradient using modified Tyrode's medium. After the sperm concentration was adjusted to 1 x 10(7) spermatozoa/ml, the suspensions were incubated at 37 degrees C, 5% CO2 in air. In each suspension the percentage of sperm recovery, percentage of motile spermatozoa, percentage of acrosome reacted spermatozoa (either spontaneously or stimulated with human follicular fluid), percentage of zona-free hamster oocytes penetrated, and number of spermatozoa bound to the human zona pellucida were determined. The results obtained indicated that the percentage of sperm recovery was higher with the Percoll gradient than with the swim-up procedure (P less than 0.001). However, no significant differences were found between these two sperm populations in the percentage of motile cells, in the percentage of acrosome reacted spermatozoa, and in the percentage of zona-free hamster oocytes penetrated. In addition, the number of spermatozoa bound per zona pellucida was similar for spermatozoa selected by Percoll or swim-up. We conclude that there were no functional differences between the spermatozoa selected by either method.

  1. Time-lapse monitoring of zona pellucida-free embryos obtained through in vitro fertilization: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Bodri, Daniel; Kato, Ryutaro; Kondo, Masae; Hosomi, Naoko; Katsumata, Yoshinari; Kawachiya, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsunekazu

    2015-05-01

    To report time-lapse monitoring of human oocytes in which the damaged zona pellucida was removed, producing zona-free (ZF) oocytes that were cultured until the blastocyst stage in time-lapse incubators. Retrospective case series. Private infertility clinic. Infertile patients (n = 32) undergoing minimal ovarian stimulation or natural cycle IVF treatment between October 2012 and June 2014. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) fertilization of ZF oocytes, prolonged embryo culture in time-lapse incubators, elective vitrification, and subsequent single vitrified-thawed blastocyst transfer (SVBT). Rate of fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst development, live-birth rate per SVBT cycle. In spite of advanced maternal age (39 ± 4.2; range, 30-46 years), good fertilization (94%), cleavage (94%), and blastocyst development rates (38%) were reached after fertilization and culturing of ZF oocytes/embryos. All thawed ZF blastocysts survived, and up to this date seven SVBT transfers were performed, yielding three (43%) term live births with healthy newborns. Time-lapse imagery gives a unique insight into the dynamics of embryo development in ZF embryos. Moreover, our case series demonstrate that an oocyte with a damaged zona pellucida that has been removed could be successfully fertilized with ICSI, cultured until blastocyst stage in a time-lapse incubator and vitrified electively for subsequent use. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ability of spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida during oligozoospermia induced with testosterone during a male contraceptive trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, D Y; Johnston, R; Baker, H W

    1995-06-01

    To determine the ability of spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida (ZP) in testosterone-induced oligozoospermia, previously fertile men participating in the World Heath Organization (WHO) male contraceptive trial in Melbourne were studied while oligozoospermic to various degrees. Semen analysis were performed according to WHO methods. One or two ejaculates from each subject were cryopreserved before commencing weekly intramuscular injections of 200 mg testosterone enanthate. The frozen spermatozoa were used as controls for ZP-binding tests of spermatozoa obtained during testosterone-induced oligozoospermia (< 10 x 10(6)/ml) in either the suppression or efficacy (n = 6) and recovery (n = 3) phases. Two other subjects in the recovery phase with normozoospermia were also tested. Human oocytes that failed to fertilized in vitro from infertile patients were used for the sperm-ZP binding test. Control (frozen) spermatozoa were labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate and test (oligozoospermic semen) spermatozoa were labelled with tetramethylrhodamine B isothiocyanate. A mixture of equal numbers of labelled motile control and test spermatozoa were incubated with 4-6 ZP. There was a significantly (p < 0.01) lower number of spermatozoa bound per ZP in oligozoospermic samples (65 +/- 7, mean +/- SEM) than in controls (80 +/- 7). However, there were still large numbers of spermatozoa bound to the ZP for all the oligozoospermic samples. Five subjects had similar numbers of spermatozoa bound to the ZP for both control and oligozoospermic samples. Overall, the ZP-binding ratio of test and control spermatozoa averaged 0.82 (range 0.51-1.13).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT)

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  4. Effects of milk proteins on sperm binding to the zona pellucida and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Coutinho da Silva, Marco A; Seidel, George E; Squires, Edward L; Graham, James K; Carnevale, Elaine M

    2014-11-10

    Objectives were to determine the effects of extracellular Ca(2+) and milk proteins on intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in stallion sperm; and to determine the effects of single caseins on sperm binding to the zona pellucida (ZP). In Experiment I, sperm were incubated in media containing 2 or 4mM Ca(2+) and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was determined after ionomycin treatment and long-term incubation (3h). Extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations (2 compared with 4mM) did not affect baseline intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of sperm. However, incubating sperm in a medium containing 4 compared with 2mM Ca(2+) resulted in greater (P<0.05) influx of Ca(2+) into sperm. In Experiment II, sperm incubated in media containing 1mg/mL of native phosphocaseinate (NP) or sodium caseinate (SC) showed similar baseline intracellular Ca(2+) and influx of Ca(2+) than control (TALP). In Experiment III, sperm-ZP binding assays were performed in TALP medium containing: no additions (TALP); 1mg/mL SC; 1 or 3mg/mL of α-casein; 1 or 3mg/mL of β-casein; and 1 or 3mg/mL of κ-casein. The number of stallion sperm bound to bovine ZP was greatest (P<0.05) when SC was used. Co-incubation in media containing single caseins (α-, β- or κ-casein) resulted in similar results to TALP; however, a dose effect (P<0.05) was observed for β- and κ-caseins. In conclusion, extracellular Ca(2+) concentration and milk proteins did not affect baseline intracellular calcium in stallion sperm. It appears that β- and κ-caseins may be responsible for enhancing sperm binding to ZP, but the mechanism remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT).

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  6. Voice Tremor Outcomes of Subthalamic Nucleus and Zona Incerta Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Malinova, Elin; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik

    2018-01-17

    We aimed to study the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and caudal zona incerta (cZi) on level of perceived voice tremor in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). This is a prospective nonrandomized design with consecutive patients. Perceived voice tremor was assessed in patients with PD having received either STN-DBS (8 patients, 5 bilateral and 3 unilateral, aged 43.1-73.6 years; median = 61.2 years) or cZi-DBS (14 bilateral patients, aged 39.0-71.9 years; median = 56.6 years) 12 months before the assessment. Sustained vowels that were produced OFF and ON stimulation (with simultaneous l-DOPA medication) were assessed perceptually in terms of voice tremor by two raters on a four-point rating scale. The assessments were repeated five times per sample and rated in a blinded and randomized procedure. Three out of the 22 patients (13%) were concluded to have voice tremor OFF stimulation. Patients with PD with STN-DBS showed mild levels of perceived voice tremor OFF stimulation and a group level improvement. Patients with moderate/severe perceived voice tremor and cZi-DBS showed marked improvements, but there was no overall group effect. Six patients with cZi-DBS showed small increases in perceived voice tremor severity. STN-DBS decreased perceived voice tremor on a group level. cZi-DBS decreased perceived voice tremor in patients with PD with moderate to severe preoperative levels of the symptom. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Peptide bioregulators inhibit apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V K; Kvetnoii, I M

    2000-12-01

    The effects of peptide bioregulators epithalon and vilon on the dynamics of irradiation-induced apoptotic death of spleen lymphocytes in rats indicate that these agents inhibit physiologically programmed cell death. The antiapoptotic effect of vilon was more pronounced, which corroborates the concept on tissue-specific effect of peptide bioregulators.

  8. Cooperation for Better Inhibiting.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Eva Maria; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís

    2015-06-18

    Cladosporin is an antimalarial drug that acts as an ATP-mimetic to selectively inhibit Plasmodium lysyl-tRNA synthetase. Using multiple crystal structures, Fang et al. (2015) reveal in this issue of Chemistry & Biology the fascinating mechanism responsible for cladosporin selectivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fecal 20-oxo-pregnane concentrations in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with porcine zona pellucida vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, M J; Ganswindt, A; Münscher, S; Bertschinger, H J

    2012-07-01

    Because of overpopulation of African elephants in South Africa and the consequent threat to biodiversity, the need for a method of population control has become evident. In this regard, the potential use of the porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccine as an effective means for population control is explored. While potential effects of pZP treatment on social behavior of African elephants have been investigated, no examination of the influence of pZP vaccination on the endocrine correlates in treated females has been undertaken. In this study, ovarian activity of free-ranging, pZP-treated African elephant females was monitored noninvasively for 1 yr at Thornybush Private Nature Reserve, South Africa, by measuring fecal 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations via enzyme immunoassay. A total of 719 fecal samples from 19 individuals were collected over the study period, averaging 38 samples collected per individual (minimum, maximum: 16, 52). Simultaneously, behavioral observations were made to record the occurrence of estrous behavior for comparison. Each elephant under study showed 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations rising above baseline at some period during the study indicating luteal activity. Average 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations were 1.61 ± 0.46 μg/g (mean ± SD). Within sampled females, 42.9% exhibited estrous cycles within the range reported for captive African elephants, 14.3% had irregular cycles, and 42.9% did not appear to be cycling. Average estrous cycle duration was 14.72 ± 0.85 wk. Estrous behavior coincided with the onset of the luteal phase and a subsequent rise in 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations. Average 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on levels positively correlated with rainfall. No association between average individual 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations or cyclicity status with age or parity were detected. Earlier determination of efficacy was established via fecal hormone analysis with no pregnancies determined 22 mo post

  10. Inoculation of female American black bears (Ursus americanus) with partially purified porcine zona pellucidae limits cub production.

    PubMed

    Lane, V M; Liu, I K M; Casey, K; vanLeeuwen, E M G; Flanagan, D R; Murata, K; Munro, C

    2007-01-01

    The present 2-year study investigated the feasibility of using porcine zona pellucidae (pZP) as antigen for immunocontraception in American black bears. Sows, 3-6 years of age, were administered either two doses of 250 microg pZP with Freund's adjuvant (n = 10) or adjuvant alone (n = 5), one in April and one in May, and were kept away from the boars until June. Serum samples were collected before injections and before denning (November). The presence of sows with cubs at side was observed during premature emergence from denning. First-year results indicated that anti-pZP antibody titres in vaccinated sows were 2.5-9.0-fold (range) higher compared with non-vaccinated sows and that the vaccinated sows were threefold less likely to become pregnant (P = 0.167). Control and vaccinated bears produced 1.6 and 0.2 cubs per sow, respectively (P = 0.06). The second-year study investigated the feasibility of using pZP sequestered in a controlled-release pellet and a water-soluble adjuvant (QS-21) to avoid regulatory problems associated with Freund's adjuvant. Sows in the treatment group (n = 22) were administered a single dose of an emulsion of 250 microg pZP and 150 microg QS-21 plus a pellet containing 70-90 microg pZP for delayed release as booster dose. Control sows (n = 5) received the QS-21 adjuvant in pellet alone. Serum samples were collected before inoculations (April) and before denning (November). Seven cubs were born to the five control sows, but none was born to the 22 vaccinated sows (P < 0.001). Anti-pZP antibody mean absorbance ratios in control sows remained at background levels, whereas vaccinated sows had ratios fourfold higher than controls. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunohistochemical localisation confirmed immunoreactivity of sera from inoculated bears. We conclude that cub production in the American black bear can be effectively limited with either two injections of 250 microg pZP or a single inoculation of partially

  11. Do age and extended culture affect the architecture of the zona pellucida of human oocytes and embryos?

    PubMed

    Kilani, Suha S; Cooke, Simon; Kan, Andrew K; Chapman, Michael G

    2006-02-01

    Advanced female age and extended in vitro culture have both been implicated in zona pellucida (ZP) hardening and thickening. This study aimed to determine the influence of (i) the woman's age and (ii) prolonged in vitro culture of embryos on ZP thickness and density using non-invasive polarized light (LC-PolScope) microscopy. ZP thickness and density (measured as retardance) were determined in oocytes, embryos and blastocysts in women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in two age groups (older, > 38 years; younger, < or = 38 years). A total of 193 oocytes from 29 patients were studied. The younger group contained 100 oocytes and the older group 93 oocytes. The ZP was significantly thicker in metaphase II oocytes in the older group compared with the younger group (mean +/- SD: 24.1 +/- 2.5 microm vs 23.1 +/- 3.3 microm; p = 0.01) but ZP density was equal (2.8 +/- 0.7 nm). By day 2 of culture, embryos from the two groups had similar ZP thickness (22.2 +/- 2.2 microm vs 21.7 +/- 1.6 microm; p = 0.28) and density (2.9 +/- 0.7 nm vs 2.8 +/- 0.8 nm; p = 0.57). For the embryos cultured to blastocyst (older: n = 20; younger: n = 18) ZP thickness was similar in the two groups (19.2 +/- 2.7 microm vs 19.1 +/- 5.0 microm; p = 0.8) but thinner than on day 2. The older group had significantly denser ZP than the younger group (4.2 +/- 0.5 nm vs 3.3 +/- 1.0 nm, p < 0.01). Blastocysts from both groups had significantly denser ZP than their corresponding day 2 embryos (older: 4.2 +/- 0.5 nm vs 2.9 +/- 0.7 nm, p < 0.001; younger: 3.3 +/- 1.0 nm vs 2.8 +/- 0.8 nm, p = 0.013). It is concluded that there is little relationship between ZP thickness and its density as measured by polarized light microscopy. While ZP thickness decreases with extended embryo culturing, the density of the ZP increases. ZP density increases in both age groups with extended culture and, interestingly, more in embryos from older compared with younger women.

  12. The preclinical evaluation of immunocontraceptive vaccines based on canine zona pellucida 3 (cZP3) in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Yijie; Zhang, Beibei; Zhang, Fuchun

    2018-05-11

    Stray dogs are the reservoirs and carriers of rabies and are definitive hosts of echinococcosis. To control the overpopulation of stray dogs, zona pellucida 3 (ZP3), a primary receptor for sperm, is a potential antigen for developing contraceptive vaccines. To enhance the immune responses and contraceptive effects of canine ZP3 (cZP3), dog gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and a T cell epitope of chicken ovalbumin (OVA) were selected to construct two fusion proteins with cZP3, ovalbumin-GnRH-ZP3 (OGZ) and ovalbumin-ZP3 (OZ), and their contraceptive effects were evaluated in mice. The synthesized DNA sequences of OGZ and OZ were cloned into plasmid pET-28a respectively. The fusion proteins OGZ and OZ were identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Mice were immunized with OGZ, OZ and cZP3, and the infertility rates were monitored. Mice immunized with mouse ZP3 (mZP3) or adjuvant alone were used as positive control and negative control, respectively. cZP3- and GnRH-specific antibodies (Abs) were detected by ELISA. The bindings of the Abs to oocytes were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The paraffin sections of mice ovaries were observed under microscope for analyzing pathological characteristics. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses showed that the two fusion proteins OGZ and OZ were correctly expressed. ELISA results showed that OGZ vaccine induced both cZP3- and GnRH-specific Abs, and OZ vaccine induced cZP3-specific Ab, which lasted for up to 168 days. The levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2) in sera were significantly decreased in OGZ immunized mice. Indirect immunofluorescence results showed that Abs induced by cZP3 and mZP3 could bind to the mouse ZP and dog ZP each other. Compared with the adjuvant group, all vaccine immunized groups significantly decreased the fertility rate and mean litter size. Interestingly, the fertility rate in OGZ-immunized group is the lowest, and only 1 mouse out of 10 mice is fertile

  13. Single-treatment porcine zona pellucida immunocontraception associated with reduction of a population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rutberg, Allen T; Naugle, Ricky E; Verret, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated gradual reductions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations through immunocontraception, with stabilization occurring after 2-4 yr of treatment, and subsequent reductions of 6-10% annually. These studies employed porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccines that required two initial treatments and annual retreatments. From 2005 to 2010, 258 adult and yearling female deer on Fripp Island, South Carolina, were treated with one of several PZP preparations designed to produce 2+ yr of effective contraception with a single treatment. These included several preparations of SpayVac and of native PZP-adjuvant emulsion plus PZP and QA-21 in timed-release pellets. Deer were chemically immobilized, ear-tagged, and administered initial treatments by hand in February-March. Some treated deer were boosted remotely with PZP-adjuvant emulsion 1.5 - 4.5 yr after initial treatments. Ground-based distance sampling was used to estimate deer population density at Fripp Island, a resort community, and at a relatively undeveloped neighboring control site, Hunting Island. Most vaccine preparations tested reduced fawning rates by 75% to 95% for at least 1 yr. From 2005 to 2011, deer density on Fripp Island declined by 50%, from 72 deer/km(2) to 36 deer/km(2), an average annual reduction of 11%. In contrast, population density on the Hunting Island control site fluctuated between 2005 and 2011, averaging 23 deer/km(2) (range, 19-28 deer/km(2)). Population declines on Fripp Island were associated with an increase in the proportion of treated females and with a progressive decrease in winter fawn:doe ratios, from 1.21 fawns/doe in 2005 to 0.19 fawns/doe in 2010. Winter fawn:doe ratios averaged 1.36 fawns/doe (range, 0.84 - 1.62 fawns/doe) at the Hunting Island control site. Annual survivorship averaged approximately 79% among ear-tagged females. The rate at which deer populations diminished in association with PZP treatments on Fripp Island was

  14. Use of Both Cumulus Cells’ Transcriptomic Markers and Zona Pellucida Birefringence to Select Developmentally Competent Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Selection of the best oocyte for subsequent steps of fertilization and embryo transfer was shown to be the crucial step in human infertility treatment procedure. Oocyte selection using morphological criteria mainly Zona pellucida (ZP) has been the gold standard method in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) clinics, but this selection approach has limitations in terms of accuracy, objectivity and constancy. Recent studies using OMICs-based approaches have allowed the identification of key molecular markers that quantitatively and non-invasively predict the oocyte quality for higher pregnancy rates and efficient infertility treatment. These biomarkers are a valuable reinforcement of the morphological selection criteria widely used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. In this context, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between transcriptomic predictors of oocyte quality found by our group and the conventional morphological parameters of oocyte quality mainly the ZP birefringence. Results Microarray data revealed that 48 and 27 differentially expressed candidate genes in cumulus cells (CCs) were respectively overexpressed and underexpressed in the ZGP (Zona Good Pregnant) versus ZBNP (Zona Bad Non Pregnant) groups. More than 70% of previously reported transcriptomic biomarkers of oocyte developmental competence were confirmed in this study. The analysis of possible association between ZP birefringence versus molecular markers approach showed an absence of correlation between them using the current set of markers. Conclusions This study suggested a new integrative approach that matches morphological and molecular approaches used to select developmentally competent oocytes able to lead to successful pregnancy and the delivery of healthy baby. For each ZP birefringence score, oocytes displayed a particular CCs' gene expression pattern. However, no correlations were found between the 7 gene biomarkers of oocyte developmental

  15. Semantic processing and response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Motes, Michael A; Mudar, Raksha A; Rao, Neena K; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Brier, Matthew R; Maguire, Mandy J; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2013-11-13

    The present study examined functional MRI (fMRI) BOLD signal changes in response to object categorization during response selection and inhibition. Young adults (N=16) completed a Go/NoGo task with varying object categorization requirements while fMRI data were recorded. Response inhibition elicited increased signal change in various brain regions, including medial frontal areas, compared with response selection. BOLD signal in an area within the right angular gyrus was increased when higher-order categorization was mandated. In addition, signal change during response inhibition varied with categorization requirements in the left inferior temporal gyrus (lIT). lIT-mediated response inhibition when inhibiting the response only required lower-order categorization, but lIT mediated both response selection and inhibition when selecting and inhibiting the response required higher-order categorization. The findings characterized mechanisms mediating response inhibition associated with semantic object categorization in the 'what' visual object memory system.

  16. Análisis de los determinantes socioeconómicos del gasto de bolsillo en medicamentos en seis zonas geográficas de Panamá.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Ballesteros, Victor H; Castro, Franz; Gómez, Beatriz

    2018-04-27

    Caracterizar el gasto de bolsillo privado en medicamentos en función de los determinantes sociodemográficos y socioeconómicos. MATERIALES Y MéTODOS: La fuente de datos es la Encuesta de Gasto de Bolsillo en Medicamentos de 2014. Se caracterizó el gasto de bolsillo privado mediante variables explicativas sociodemográficas (SOD) y socioeconómicas (SES). Se hizo análisis factorial por componentes principales, regresión logística y lineal simple. Los Odds Ratio demuestran que la educación y la zona geográfica son determinantes fundamentales que inciden en el gasto de bolsillo. Los medicamentos son productos necesarios, en adición a que el gasto de bolsillo aumenta a un promedio del 2% por cada año de vida cronológica adicional. Existe mayor vulnerabilidad en las zonas más pauperizadas respecto del acceso a medicamentos, en especial en las indígenas e implica un mayor riesgo de gasto catastrófico a menor ingreso ante la mayor prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Attentional load inhibits vection.

    PubMed

    Seno, Takeharu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of cognitive task performance on the induction of vection. We hypothesized that, if vection requires attentional resources, performing cognitive tasks requiring attention should inhibit or weaken it. Experiment 1 tested the effects on vection of simultaneously performing a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. The results revealed that the RSVP task affected the subjective strength of vection. Experiment 2 tested the effects of a multiple-object-tracking (MOT) task on vection. Simultaneous performance of the MOT task decreased the duration and subjective strength of vection. Taken together, these findings suggest that vection induction requires attentional resources.

  18. Angio-OCT de la zona avascular foveal en ojos con oclusión venosa de la retina.

    PubMed

    Wons, Juliana; Pfau, Maximilian; Wirth, Magdalena A; Freiberg, Florentina J; Becker, Matthias D; Michels, Stephan

    2017-07-11

    Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio comprendía visualizar y cuantificar las alteraciones patológicas de la zona avascular foveal (ZAF) mediante angio-OCT en ojos con oclusión venosa de la retina (OVR) en comparación con el ojo contralateral sano. Procedimientos: La angio-OCT se llevó a cabo mediante el sistema Avanti® RTVue 100 XR (Optovue Inc., Fremont, Calif., EE. UU.). Los bordes de la capa vascular superficial (CVS) se definieron como 3 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y 15 μm por debajo de la capa plexiforme interna y, para la capa vascular profunda (CVP), como 15 y 70 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y de la capa plexiforme interna, respectivamente. La longitud de la ZAF horizontal, vertical y máxima de la CVS y la CVP en cada ojo se midió de forma manual. Además, se midió el ángulo entre el diámetro máximo de la ZAF y el plano papilomacular. Resultados: La angio-OCT representó los defectos dentro de la vasculatura en el área perifoveal en ojos con oclusión de rama venosa de la retina (ORVR; n = 11) y con oclusión de la vena central de la retina (OVCR; n = 8). Esto resultó en un crecimiento del diámetro máximo de la ZAF en ojos con OVR (n = 19) en comparación con el ojo contralateral (n = 19; 921 ± 213 frente a 724 ± 145 µm; p = 0,008). Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre la mejor agudeza visual corregida (MAVC) y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF en la CVP (ρ de Spearman = -0,423, p < 0,01). Por último, en los ojos con OVR, el ángulo entre el plano papilomacular y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF se dio tan solo en el 21,05% (CVS) y en el 15,79% (CVP) de los casos a 0 ± 15 ó 90 ± 15°, respectivamente. En ojos sanos, estos ángulos (que supuestamente representan una configuración de la ZAF regular) fueron más prevalentes (CVS 68,42 frente a 21,05%, p = 0,003; CVP 73,68 frente a 15,79%, p < 0,001). Conclusiones: La angio-OCT muestra alteraciones morfológicas de la ZAF en ojos con

  19. Anxiety and retrieval inhibition: support for an enhanced inhibition account.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Mia; Gregory, Josh; Zinbarg, Richard E

    2017-02-01

    Retrieval inhibition of negative associations is important for exposure therapy for anxiety, but the relationship between memory inhibition and anxiety is not well understood-anxiety could either be associated with enhanced or deficient inhibition. The present study tested these two competing hypotheses by measuring retrieval inhibition of negative stimuli by related neutral stimuli. Non-clinically anxious undergraduates completed measures of trait and state anxiety and completed a retrieval induced forgetting task. Adaptive forgetting varied with state anxiety. Low levels of state anxiety were associated with no evidence for retrieval inhibition for either threatening or non-threatening categories. Participants in the middle tertile of state anxiety scores exhibited retrieval inhibition for non-threatening categories but not for threatening categories. Participants in the highest tertile of state anxiety, however, exhibited retrieval inhibition for both threatening and non-threatening categories with the magnitude of retrieval inhibition being greater for threatening than non-threatening categories. The data are in line with the avoidance aspect of the vigilance-avoidance theory of anxiety and inhibition. Implications for cognitive behavioural therapy practices are discussed.

  20. Motor cortex inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, K.M.; Augusta, M.; MacNeil, L.K.; Mostofsky, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset behavioral diagnosis in which children often fail to meet age norms in development of motor control, particularly timed repetitive and sequential movements, motor overflow, and balance. The neural substrate of this motor delay may include mechanisms of synaptic inhibition in or adjacent to the motor cortex. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)–evoked measures, particularly short interval cortical inhibition (SICI), in motor cortex correlate with the presence and severity of ADHD in childhood as well as with commonly observed delays in motor control. Methods: In this case-control study, behavioral ratings, motor skills, and motor cortex physiology were evaluated in 49 children with ADHD (mean age 10.6 years, 30 boys) and 49 typically developing children (mean age 10.5 years, 30 boys), all right-handed, aged 8–12 years. Motor skills were evaluated with the Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle Signs (PANESS) and the Motor Assessment Battery for Children version 2. SICI and other physiologic measures were obtained using TMS in the left motor cortex. Results: In children with ADHD, mean SICI was reduced by 40% (p < 0.0001) and less SICI correlated with higher ADHD severity (r = −0.52; p = 0.002). Mean PANESS motor development scores were 59% worse in children with ADHD (p < 0.0001). Worse PANESS scores correlated modestly with less SICI (r = −.30; p = 0.01). Conclusion: Reduced TMS-evoked SICI correlates with ADHD diagnosis and symptom severity and also reflects motor skill development in children. PMID:21321335

  1. MMP2 and acrosin are major proteinases associated with the inner acrosomal membrane and may cooperate in sperm penetration of the zona pellucida during fertilization.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Marvin; Rodriguez, Hilma; Zara, Lindsay; Yu, Yang; Xu, Wei; Oko, Richard

    2012-09-01

    Sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) penetration during fertilization is a process that most likely involves enzymatic digestion of this extracellular coat by spermatozoa. Since the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) is the leading edge of spermatozoa during penetration and proteins required for secondary binding of sperm to the zona are present on it, the IAM is the likely location of these enzymes. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize proteinases present on the IAM, confirm their localization and provide evidence for their role in fertilization. Gelatin zymography of detergent extracts of the IAM revealed bands of enzymatic activity identified as serine and matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs). Specific inhibitors to MMPs revealed that MMP activity was due to MMP2. Immunoblotting determined that the serine protease activity on the zymogram was due to acrosin and also confirmed the MMP2 activity. Immunogold labeling of spermatozoa at the electron microscope level showed that acrosin and MMP2 were confined to the apical and principal segments of the acrosome in association with the IAM, confirming our IAM isolation technique. Immunohistochemical examination of acrosin and MMP2 during spermiogenesis showed that both proteins originate in the acrosomic granule during the Golgi phase and later redistribute to the acrosomal membrane. Anti-MMP2 antibodies and inhibitors incorporated into in vitro fertilization media significantly decreased fertilization rates. This is the first study to demonstrate that MMP2 and acrosin are associated with the IAM and introduces the possibility of their cooperation in enzymatic digestion of the ZP during penetration.

  2. Identification of a Novel TGF-β-Binding Site in the Zona Pellucida C-terminal (ZP-C) Domain of TGF-β-Receptor-3 (TGFR-3)

    PubMed Central

    Diestel, Uschi; Resch, Marcus; Meinhardt, Kathrin; Weiler, Sigrid; Hellmann, Tina V.; Mueller, Thomas D.; Nickel, Joachim; Eichler, Jutta; Muller, Yves A.

    2013-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) domain is present in extracellular proteins such as the zona pellucida proteins and tectorins and participates in the formation of polymeric protein networks. However, the ZP domain also occurs in the cytokine signaling co-receptor transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor type 3 (TGFR-3, also known as betaglycan) where it contributes to cytokine ligand recognition. Currently it is unclear how the ZP domain architecture enables this dual functionality. Here, we identify a novel major TGF-β-binding site in the FG loop of the C-terminal subdomain of the murine TGFR-3 ZP domain (ZP-C) using protein crystallography, limited proteolysis experiments, surface plasmon resonance measurements and synthetic peptides. In the murine 2.7 Å crystal structure that we are presenting here, the FG-loop is disordered, however, well-ordered in a recently reported homologous rat ZP-C structure. Surprisingly, the adjacent external hydrophobic patch (EHP) segment is registered differently in the rat and murine structures suggesting that this segment only loosely associates with the remaining ZP-C fold. Such a flexible and temporarily-modulated association of the EHP segment with the ZP domain has been proposed to control the polymerization of ZP domain-containing proteins. Our findings suggest that this flexibility also extends to the ZP domain of TGFR-3 and might facilitate co-receptor ligand interaction and presentation via the adjacent FG-loop. This hints that a similar C-terminal region of the ZP domain architecture possibly regulates both the polymerization of extracellular matrix proteins and cytokine ligand recognition of TGFR-3. PMID:23826237

  3. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  4. Inhibition of cellulases by phenols

    The inhibition of enzymes by the end products that they make is a well-known phenomenon. Another form of inhibition is manifested by the decrease in hydrolysis of pretreated cellulosic material as the concentration of solid biomass material increases, even though the ratio of enzyme to cellulose is...

  5. Balanced feedforward inhibition and dominant recurrent inhibition in olfactory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Large, Adam M.; Vogler, Nathan W.; Mielo, Samantha; Oswald, Anne-Marie M.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the brain, the recruitment of feedforward and recurrent inhibition shapes neural responses. However, disentangling the relative contributions of these often-overlapping cortical circuits is challenging. The piriform cortex provides an ideal system to address this issue because the interneurons responsible for feedforward and recurrent inhibition are anatomically segregated in layer (L) 1 and L2/3 respectively. Here we use a combination of optical and electrical activation of interneurons to profile the inhibitory input received by three classes of principal excitatory neuron in the anterior piriform cortex. In all classes, we find that L1 interneurons provide weaker inhibition than L2/3 interneurons. Nonetheless, feedforward inhibitory strength covaries with the amount of afferent excitation received by each class of principal neuron. In contrast, intracortical stimulation of L2/3 evokes strong inhibition that dominates recurrent excitation in all classes. Finally, we find that the relative contributions of feedforward and recurrent pathways differ between principal neuron classes. Specifically, L2 neurons receive more reliable afferent drive and less overall inhibition than L3 neurons. Alternatively, L3 neurons receive substantially more intracortical inhibition. These three features—balanced afferent drive, dominant recurrent inhibition, and differential recruitment by afferent vs. intracortical circuits, dependent on cell class—suggest mechanisms for olfactory processing that may extend to other sensory cortices. PMID:26858458

  6. Inhibition of Retinoblastoma Protein Inactivation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Retinoblastoma protein, E2F transcription factor, high throughput screen, drug discovery, x-ray crystallography 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...developed a method to perform fragment based screening by x-ray crystallography . 2.0 KEYWORDS Retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway, E2F transcription factor...cancer, cell-cycle inhibition, activation, modulation, inhibition, high throughput screening, fragment-based screening, x-ray crystallography

  7. Inhibition of Retinoblastoma Protein Inactivation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-01

    SUBJECT TERMS cell cycle, Retinoblastoma protein, E2F transcription factor, high throughput screen, drug discovery, x-ray crystallography 16. SECURITY...screening by x-ray crystallography . 2.0 KEYWORDS Retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway, E2F transcription factor, cancer, cell-cycle inhibition, activation...modulation, inhibition, high throughput screening, fragment-based screening, x-ray crystallography . 3.0 ACCOMPLISHMENTS Summary: We

  8. Inhibition of MMPs by alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Hoshika, Tomohiro; Uchiyama, Toshikazu; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Thompson, Jeremy M.; McCracken, Courtney E.; Looney, Stephen W.; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives While screening the activity of potential inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), due to the limited water solubility of some of the compounds, they had to be solubilized in ethanol. When ethanol solvent controls were run, they were found to partially inhibit MMPs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the MMP-inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols. Methods The possible inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols was measured against soluble rhMMP-9 and insoluble matrix-bound endogenous MMPs of dentin in completely demineralized dentin. Increasing concentrations (0.17, 0.86, 1.71 and 4.28 moles/L) of a homologous series of alcohols (i.e. methanol, ethanol, propanols, butanols, pentanols, hexanols, the ethanol ester of methacrylic acid, heptanols and octanol) were compared to ethanediol, and propanediol by regression analysis to calculate the molar concentration required to inhibit MMPs by 50% (i.e. the IC50). Results Using two different MMP models, alcohols were shown to inhibit rhMMP-9 and the endogenous proteases of dentin matrix in a dose-dependent manner. The degree of MMP inhibition by alcohols increased with chain length up to 4 methylene groups. Based on the molar concentration required to inhibit rhMMP-9 fifty percent, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), 3-hexanol, 3-heptanol and 1-octanol gave the strongest inhibition. Significance The results indicate that alcohols with 4 methylene groups inhibit MMPs more effectively than methanol or ethanol. MMP inhibition was inversely related to the Hoy's solubility parameter for hydrogen bonding forces of the alcohols (i.e. to their hydrophilicity). PMID:21676453

  9. PARP-1 may be involved in hydroquinone-induced apoptosis by poly ADP-ribosylation of ZO-2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaxian; Yuan, Qian; Ling, Xiaoxuan; Tan, Qiang; Liang, Hairong; Chen, Jialong; Lin, Lianzai; Xiao, Yongmei; Chen, Wen; Liu, Linhua; Tang, Huanwen

    2017-01-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ), a major reactive metabolite of benzene, contributes to benzene-induced leukemia. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this activity remain to be elucidated. Poly ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) is a type of reversible posttranslational modification that is performed by enzymes in the PAR polymerase (PARP) family and mediates different biological processes, including apoptosis. Zona occludens 2 (ZO-2) is a tight junction scaffold protein, which is involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. The present study investigated the activity and mechanisms regulated by PARP-1 during HQ-induced apoptosis using TK6 lymphoblastoid cells and PARP-1-silenced TK6 cells. The results revealed that exposure to 10 µM HQ for 72 h induced apoptosis in TK6 cells and that apoptosis was attenuated in PARP-1-silenced TK6 cells. In cells treated with HQ, inhibition of PARP-1 increased the expression of B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), increased ATP production and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production relative to the levels observed in cells treated with HQ alone. Co-localization of ZO-2 and PAR (or PARP-1 protein) was determined using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. The findings of the present study revealed that ZO-2 was PARylated via an interaction with PARP-1, which was consistent with an analysis of protein expression that was performed using western blot analysis, which determined that ZO-2 protein expression was upregulated in HQ-treated control cells and downregulated in HQ-treated PARP-1-silenced TK6 cells. These findings indicated that prolonged exposure to a low dose of HQ induced TK6 cells to undergo apoptosis, whereas inhibiting PARP-1 attenuates cellular apoptosis by activating Bcl-2 and energy-saving processes and reducing ROS. The present study determined that PARP-1 was involved in HQ-induced apoptosis by PARylation of ZO-2. PMID:28983606

  10. Reciprocal inhibition in writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Chen, R S; Tsai, C H; Lu, C S

    1995-09-01

    We studied the inhibition of median H-reflexes by conditioning stimuli on the radial nerve in 13 patients with writer's cramp, eight of the simple type and five of the dystonic type, and in 14 normal volunteers. The patients and controls were right-handed, and their right arms were studied. Asymptomatic left arms were also studied in nine of 13 patients. In the control group we identified three periods of inhibition, with maximum peaks at conditioning-test intervals of 0 ms (41 +/- 17%), 20 ms (40 +/- 13%), and 100 ms (36 +/- 20%). In the patient group, the amplitudes of inhibition of these three periods in both arms were significantly less than those in the control group. However, there were no significant differences in the amplitudes of inhibition of these three periods between symptomatic and asymptomatic arms. There were also no significant differences between simple and dystonic writer's cramps. Our results indicate that the attenuation of reciprocal inhibition was present not only in symptomatic arms but also in asymptomatic arms of patients with writer's cramp. The defect of reciprocal inhibition in the asymptomatic hand has never been documented. We suggest that the preexistent electrophysiological abnormality may provide an explanation for the development of hand cramp after shifted writing.

  11. Behavioral inhibition and childhood stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Lambert, Warren E.; Tumanova, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of behavioral inhibition to stuttering and speech/language output in preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS). Method Participants were preschool-age (ages 36 to 68 months), including 26 CWS (22 males) and 28 CWNS (13 males). Participants’ behavioral inhibition (BI) was assessed by measuring the latency to their sixth spontaneous comment during conversation with an unfamiliar experimenter, using methodology developed by Kagan, Reznick, and Gibbons (1989). In addition to these measures of BI, each participant’s stuttered and non-stuttered disfluencies and mean length of utterance (in morphemes) were assessed. Results Among the more salient findings, it was found that (1) there was no significant difference in BI between preschool-age CWS and CWNS as a group, (2) when extremely high versus low inhibited children were selected, there were more CWS with higher BI and fewer CWS with lower BI when compared to their CWNS peers, and (3) more behaviorally inhibited CWS, when compared to less behaviorally inhibited CWS, exhibited more stuttering. Conclusions Findings are taken to suggest that one aspect of temperament (i.e., behavioral inhibition) is exhibited by some preschool-age CWS and that these children stutter more than CWS with lower behavioral inhibition. The present results seem to support continued study of the association between young children’s temperamental characteristics and stuttering, the diagnostic entity (i.e., CWS versus CWNS), as well as stuttering, the behavior (e.g., frequency of stuttered disfluencies). PMID:23773669

  12. Study on the zona pellucida 4 (ZP4) gene sequence and its expression in the ovaries of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, B; Nawrot, R; Nowak, W; Czyzyk, A; Kedzia, H; Gozdzicka-Jozefiak, A

    2015-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder of unknown pathology, involving reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. Oocyte-specific genes are a group of genes expressed exclusively in ovarian tissue; therefore, they can play an important role in ovarian pathologies such as PCOS. The zona pellucida 4 (ZP4) gene encodes glycoprotein which is a part of the extracellular matrix of oocyte. We analyzed 87 patients with PCOS, which were divided into four groups depending on their phenotype. In each patient, we performed profound clinical and biochemical analysis, including the measurement of serum androgens. The ovarian tissue samples were used to perform a real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining using anti-ZP4 monoclonal antibodies. The ZP4 gene was sequenced from peripheral lymphocytes. The expression of ZP4 was present in early antral follicles and was stronger in mature follicles. The subgroup of patients with eumenorrhea and without hyperandrogenism presented the highest expression of ZP4 in ovarian tissue. In one case, we found a mutation of the ZP4 gene. No correlations were found between the ZP4 expression level and biochemical or clinical indices. Data from this and animal studies suggest a possible relationship between androgens and ZP4 expression. ZP4 expression is highest among patients with PCOS and a regular cycle, and this is a consequence of the presence of mature follicles in this group. In some patients with PCOS and infertility, ZP4 mutation can be found.

  13. In-vitro developmental potential of individual mouse blastomeres cultured with and without zona pellucida: future implications for human assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Illmensee, K; Kaskar, K; Zavos, P M

    2006-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the developmental potential of individual blastomeres derived from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell mouse embryos cultured with and without zona pellucida (ZP). In the first series, one, three, five and seven blastomeres were biopsied from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell embryos respectively, and inserted individually into empty ZP recipients, leaving the remaining blastomere within its original ZP. In the second series, the same protocol was used except that the biopsied blastomeres were cultured without ZP and compared with the remaining blastomere within its original ZP. For the first series, individual blastomeres derived from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell embryos cultured with ZP showed blastocyst development of 82.4, 68.6, 44.4 and 23.1% respectively, with corresponding hatching rates of 70.6, 60.0, 25.9 and 7.7%. For the second series, individual blastomeres cultured without ZP progressed with blastocyst development of 73.3, 64.5, 35.7 and 22.7% respectively. Blastocyst multiplication was achieved most efficiently when using individual blastomeres from 4- and 6-cell embryos. This is the first report on comparative in-vitro propagation of single blastomeres derived from various cleavage stages in a mammalian species. Blastomere cloning with its multiple applications may be envisaged for human assisted reproductive technologies.

  14. [Sexuality and STD/AIDS prevention: social representations by rural men in a county in the Zona da Mata region in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Alves, Maria de Fátima Paz

    2003-01-01

    This study analyzes the concepts displayed by rural men in the Zona da Mata region in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, concerning their sexual practices and STD/AIDS prevention. The study adopts a qualitative methodology, having interviewed 22 men According to the interviews, their first sexual intercourse is characterized as a learning experience and is sometimes marked by violence. They make a distinction between the "woman at home" and "street women"; they acknowledge women's sexual desire and value reciprocity in sexual relations, differentiating between the kinds of sex they have with different categories of women. Seven men report homoerotic experiences during adolescence, which they ascribe to immaturity, not affecting their heterosexual identity. Condom use, perceived in a negative light, is inconstant and irregular, inversely proportional to knowing the female partner. STDs in general inspire little fear, while AIDS is associated with death; the interviewees do not see themselves at risk of acquiring HIV. Ambiguities in the men's discourse, together with a basically ineffective approach by health services and preventive campaigns, reveal a high level of exposure to the risk of contracting STDs/AIDS among the interviewees and their female or male partners.

  15. Production of tag-free recombinant fusion protein encompassing promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid and dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 for contraceptive vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Shrestha, Abhinav; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Affinity tags can interfere in various physicochemical properties and immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins. In the present study, tag-free recombinant fusion protein encompassing promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid [TT; amino acid (aa) residues 830-844] followed by dilysine linker and dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 (ZP3; aa residues 23-348) (TT-KK-ZP3) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein, expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs), was purified by isolation of IBs, processed to remove host cell proteins, followed by solubilization and refolding. A specific 39 kDa protein including ZP3 was identified by SDS-PAGE. CD spectra showed the presence of α-helices and β-sheets, and fluorescent spectroscopy revealed emission maxima of 265 A.U. at 339 nm for refolded protein and showed red shift in the presence of 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. Immunization of inbred FvB/J female mice with purified recombinant TT-KK-ZP3 (25 μg/animal) led to generation of high antibody titers against the recombinant protein. The antibodies reacted specifically with ZP matrix surrounding mouse oocytes. Immunized mice showed significant reduction in fertility as compared to the control group. The studies described herein provide a simple method to produce and purify tag-free recombinant protein for the development of a contraceptive vaccine.

  16. Caudal Zona Incerta/VOP Radiofrequency Lesioning Guided by Combined Stereotactic MRI and Microelectrode Recording for Posttraumatic Midbrain Resting-Kinetic Tremor.

    PubMed

    Contreras Lopez, William Omar; Azevedo, Angelo R; Cury, Rubens G; Alencar, Francisco; Neville, Iuri S; Reis, Paul R; Navarro, Jessie; Monaco, Bernardo; da Silva, Fabio E Fernandes; Teixeira, Manoel J; Fonoff, Erich T

    2016-02-01

    Reporting the outcome of two patients who underwent unilateral ablative stereotactic surgery to treat pharmacologic resistant posttraumatic tremor (PTT). We present two patients (31 and 47 years old) with refractory PTT severely affecting their quality of life. Under stereotactic guidance, refined by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and double-channel multiunit microelectrode recording (MER), three sequential radiofrequency lesions were performed in the caudal zona incerta (cZi) up to the base of thalamus (VOP). Effects of cZi/VOP lesion were prospectively rated with a tremor rating scale. Both patients demonstrated intraoperative tremor suppression with sustained results up to 18 months follow-up, with improvement of 92% and 84%, respectively, on the tremor rating scale. Tremor improvement was associated with enhancement functionality and quality of life for the patients. The patients returned to their work after the procedure. No adverse effects were observed up to the last follow-up. Radiofrequency lesion of the cZi/VOP target was effective for posttraumatic tremor in both cases. The use of T2-weighted images and MER was found helpful in increasing the precision and safety of the procedure, because it leads the RF probe by relying on neighbor structures based on thalamus and subthalamic nucleus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-Stop-Signal Adjustments: Inhibition Improves Subsequent Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissett, Patrick G.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    Performance in the stop-signal paradigm involves a balance between going and stopping, and one way that this balance is struck is through shifting priority away from the go task, slowing responses after a stop signal, and improving the probability of inhibition. In 6 experiments, the authors tested whether there is a corresponding shift in…

  18. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  19. Action spectra for photosynthetic inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S.; Camp, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet action spectrum for photosynthesis inhibition was determined to fall between that of the general DNA action spectrum and the generalized plant action spectrum. The characteristics of this action spectrum suggest that a combination of pronounced increase in effectiveness with decreasing wavelength, substantial specificity for the UV-B waveband, and very diminished response in the UV-A waveband result in large radiation amplification factors when the action spectra are used as weighting functions. Attempted determination of dose/response relationships for leaf disc inhibition provided inconclusive data from which to deconvolute an action spectrum.

  20. Islam Does Not Inhibit Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanavas, T. O.

    1999-01-01

    Compares the science/religion relationship in both Christian and Islamic countries. Presents Muslim scholars' ideas about the presence of humans on earth. Presents ideas on active nature, Noah's curse, and the age of the universe. Refutes the notion that Islam inhibited science and advocates the belief that Islam promoted science. (YDS)

  1. Comparison of the frequency of defective sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding and the ZP-induced acrosome reaction between subfertile men with normal and abnormal semen.

    PubMed

    Liu, De Yi; Liu, Ming Li; Garrett, Claire; Baker, H W Gordon

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of defective sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding (DSZPB) and defective ZP-induced acrosome reaction (DZPIAR) in subfertile men (i.e. male partners of infertile couples) with normal and abnormal semen analyses. A total of 1030 subfertile men with normal semen analysis (n=255), oligozoospermia (count<20x10(6)/ml, n=136), severe teratozoospermia (strict normal morphology

  2. Evaluation of tight junction protein 1 encoding zona occludens 1 as a candidate gene for albuminuria in a Mexican American population.

    PubMed

    Lehman, D M; Leach, R J; Johnson-Pais, T; Hamlington, J; Fowler, S; Almasy, L; Duggirala, R; Stern, M P; Abboud, H E

    2006-09-01

    Albuminuria, a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy, has been shown to be significantly heritable in multiple studies. Therefore, the identification of genes that affect susceptibility to albuminuria may lead to novel avenues of intervention. Current evidence suggests that the podocyte and slit diaphragm play a key role in controlling the selective sieve of the glomerular filtration barrier, and podocyte-specific genes have been identified that are necessary for maintaining its integrity. We therefore investigated the role of gene variants of tight junction protein (TJP1) which encodes another slit diaphragm-associated protein zona occludens 1 as risk factors for albuminuria in the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study (SAFDGS), which consists of extended Mexican-American families with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Albuminuria, defined as an albumin (mg/dl) to creatinine (mg/dl) ratio (ACR) of 0.03, which is approximately equivalent to a urinary albumin excretion (UAE) >30 mg/day, was present in a total of 14.9% of participants, and 31% had type 2 diabetes. The TJP1 exons, flanking intronic sequence, and putative proximal promoter regions were investigated in this population. Twentynine polymorphisms, including 7 nonsynonymous SNPs, were identified and genotyped in all subjects of this study for association analysis. Three sets of correlated SNPs, which include 3 exonic SNPs, were nominally associated with ACR (p value range 0.007-0.049); however, the association with the discrete trait albuminuria was not significant (p value range 0.094-0.338). We conclude that these variants in TJP1 do not appear to be major determinants for albuminuria in the SAFDGS; however, they may play a minor role in its severity in this Mexican-American population. Further examination of the TJP1 gene region in this and other cohorts will be useful to determine whether ZO-1 plays a significant role in glomerular permselectivity.

  3. Localization of vascular endothelial growth factor in the zona pellucida of developing ovarian follicles in the rat: a possible role in destiny of follicles.

    PubMed

    Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Kayisli, Umit Ali; Arici, Aydin; Demir, Ramazan

    2003-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that in many species angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), may have important roles in folliculogenesis. The aim of this study is to determine the localization of VEGF and its receptors, Flt-1 and KDR, and bFGF expression in the rat ovary and to evaluate their distributions throughout the different follicular stages. Out of 20 virginal female rats, 10 were studied during the natural ovarian cycle without any ovulation induction. The other 10 were superovulated and their ovaries were studied by western analysis and immunohistochemistry. Granulosa cells (GC) and oocytes of primordial follicles were negative for VEGF. In early primary follicles, VEGF was present in the oocyte but its immunoreactivity was weak, while newly developing zona pellucida (ZP) of primary follicles was negative for VEGF. Subsequently, with the commencement of antral spaces between GC of the secondary follicle, ZP of some secondary follicles became strongly positive for VEGF, forming a continuous ring around the oocyte. In preovulatory mature follicles granulosa and theca interna (TI) cells showed a weak immunoreactivity for VEGF. Western blot analyses have also demonstrated that VEGF, a 26-kDa protein, was present in follicles. Moreover, in ovulated cumulus-oocyte complex we observed a halo-like immunoreactivity of VEGF around the fully mature oocyte. The immunoreactivity for Flt-1 and KDR receptors in growing follicles was mostly limited to GC and TI cells. Anti-bFGF did not exhibit any immunoreactivity in ZP of follicles at any stage. Its expression was weak in GC of the follicles at different stages, whereas, it could be localized to some extent in the blood capillaries of TI of antral follicles and in blood vessels localized in the stroma. Interestingly, VEGF immunoreactivity in the ZP of some secondary follicles is very striking. Accordingly, the possibility that VEGF may be an

  4. Inhibiting cancer cell hallmark features through nuclear export inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingxiang; Chen, Xueqin; Zhou, Qiao; Burstein, Ezra; Yang, Shengyong; Jia, Da

    2016-01-01

    Treating cancer through inhibition of nuclear export is one of the best examples of basic research translation into clinical application. Nuclear export factor chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1; Xpo1 and exportin-1) controls cellular localization and function of numerous proteins that are critical for the development of many cancer hallmarks. The diverse actions of CRM1 are likely to explain the broad ranging anti-cancer potency of CRM1 inhibitors observed in pre-clinical studies and/or clinical trials (phase I-III) on both advanced-stage solid and hematological tumors. In this review, we compare and contrast the mechanisms of action of different CRM1 inhibitors, and discuss the potential benefit of unexplored non-covalent CRM1 inhibitors. This emerging field has uncovered that nuclear export inhibition is well poised as an attractive target towards low-toxicity broad-spectrum potent anti-cancer therapy.

  5. Inhibition, interference, and conflict in task switching.

    PubMed

    Costa, Russell E; Friedrich, Frances J

    2012-12-01

    The role of inhibition in the task-switching process has received increased empirical and theoretical attention in the literature on cognitive control. Many accounts have suggested that inhibition occurs when a conflict must be resolved-for example, when a target stimulus contains features of more than one task. In the two experiments reported here, we used variants of backward inhibition, or N - 2 repetition, designs to examine (1) whether inhibition occurs in the absence of conflict at the stimulus or response level, (2) when in the task-switching process such inhibition may occur, and (3) the potential consequences of inhibition. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate that neither stimulus- nor response-level conflict is necessary for inhibition to occur, while the results of Experiment 2 suggest that inhibition may be associated with a reduction of proactive interference (PI) from a previously performed task. Evidence of inhibition and the reduction of PI both occurred at the task-set level. However, inhibition of specific stimulus values can also occur, but this is clearly separable from task-set inhibition. Both experiments also provided evidence that task-set inhibition can be applied at the time of the new task cue, as opposed to at the onset of the target or at the response stage of the trial. Taken together, the results from these experiments provide insight into when and where in the task-switching process inhibition may occur, as well as into the potential functional benefits that inhibition of task sets may provide.

  6. HDAC inhibition inhibits brachial plexus avulsion induced neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingbo; Wu, Tianjian

    2018-05-09

    Introduction Neuropathic pain induced by brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) is a pathological condition. We hypothesized that inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) could suppress BPA-induced neuropathic pain through inhibition of transient reception potential (TRP) overexpression and protein kinase B (Akt) mediated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation. Methods We generated a rat BPA model, administered HDAC inhibitor Tricostatin A (TSA) for 7 days post-surgery and assessed the effects on HDAC expression, Akt phosphorylation, neuroinflammation and mTOR activation. Results TSA treatment alleviated BPA induced mechanical hyperalgesia, suppressed Akt phosphorylation and increased HDAC. We found suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, TRP cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) and TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) expression and mTOR activity in TSA treated BPA rats. Discussion Our results suggest that altered HDAC and Akt signaling are involved in BPA-induced neuropathic pain and that inhibition of HDAC could be an effective therapeutic approach in reducing neuropathic pain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Threat interferes with response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hartikainen, Kaisa M; Siiskonen, Anna R; Ogawa, Keith H

    2012-05-09

    A potential threat, such as a spider, captures attention and engages executive functions to adjust ongoing behavior and avoid danger. We and many others have reported slowed responses to neutral targets in the context of emotional distractors. This behavioral slowing has been explained in the framework of attentional competition for limited resources with emotional stimuli prioritized. Alternatively, slowed performance could reflect the activation of avoidance/freezing-type motor behaviors associated with threat. Although the interaction of attention and emotion has been widely studied, little is known on the interaction between emotion and executive functions. We studied how threat-related stimuli (spiders) interact with executive performance and whether the interaction profile fits with a resource competition model or avoidance/freezing-type motor behaviors. Twenty-one young healthy individuals performed a Go-NoGo visual discrimination reaction time (RT) task engaging several executive functions with threat-related and emotionally neutral distractors. The threat-related distractors had no effect on the RT or the error rate in the Go trials. The NoGo error rate, reflecting failure in response inhibition, increased significantly because of threat-related distractors in contrast to neutral distractors, P less than 0.05. Thus, threat-related distractors temporarily impaired response inhibition. Threat-related distractors associated with increased commission errors and no effect on RT does not suggest engagement of avoidance/freezing-type motor behaviors. The results fit in the framework of the resource competition model. A potential threat calls for evaluation of affective significance as well as inhibition of undue emotional reactivity. We suggest that these functions tax executive resources and may render other executive functions, such as response inhibition, temporarily compromised when the demands for resources exceed availability.

  8. Combined autophagy and proteasome inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Vogl, Dan T; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Tan, Kay-See; Heitjan, Daniel F; Davis, Lisa E; Pontiggia, Laura; Rangwala, Reshma; Piao, Shengfu; Chang, Yunyoung C; Scott, Emma C; Paul, Thomas M; Nichols, Charles W; Porter, David L; Kaplan, Janeen; Mallon, Gayle; Bradner, James E; Amaravadi, Ravi K

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of proteasome inhibition for myeloma is limited by therapeutic resistance, which may be mediated by activation of the autophagy pathway as an alternative mechanism of protein degradation. Preclinical studies demonstrate that autophagy inhibition with hydroxychloroquine augments the antimyeloma efficacy of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. We conducted a phase I trial combining bortezomib and hydroxychloroquine for relapsed or refractory myeloma. We enrolled 25 patients, including 11 (44%) refractory to prior bortezomib. No protocol-defined dose-limiting toxicities occurred, and we identified a recommended phase 2 dose of hydroxychloroquine 600 mg twice daily with standard doses of bortezomib, at which we observed dose-related gastrointestinal toxicity and cytopenias. Of 22 patients evaluable for response, 3 (14%) had very good partial responses, 3 (14%) had minor responses, and 10 (45%) had a period of stable disease. Electron micrographs of bone marrow plasma cells collected at baseline, after a hydroxychloroquine run-in, and after combined therapy showed therapy-associated increases in autophagic vacuoles, consistent with the combined effects of increased trafficking of misfolded proteins to autophagic vacuoles and inhibition of their degradative capacity. Combined targeting of proteasomal and autophagic protein degradation using bortezomib and hydroxychloroquine is therefore feasible and a potentially useful strategy for improving outcomes in myeloma therapy. PMID:24991834

  9. RAAS inhibition and cardiorenal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, Macaulay Amechi C

    2014-01-01

    The consensus conference on cardio-renal syndromes (2008) defined 'cardio-renal syndromes' as 'disorders of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other' and identified five subtypes of the syndromes. Various pathophysiologic mechanisms underlie cardiorenal syndrome including hemodynamic derangements, reduced cardiac output leading to impaired renal perfusion, reduced stroke volume, raised atrial filling pressures, elevated atrial pressures, sodium and water retention, venous congestion, right ventricular dysfunction and venous hypertension causing increased renal venous pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, various neurohormonal adaptations including activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, adaptive activation of the sympathetic nervous system, cytokine release and oxidative stress. Although there are standardized clinical guidelines for the management of heart failure, and chronic kidney disease, respectively, there are no similar consensus clinical guidelines for the management of the cardiorenal syndromes. RAAS inhibition is advocated in treating systolic heart failure. There is evidence that RAAS inhibition is also useful in cardiorenal syndrome. However, RAAS inhibition, while potentially useful in the management of cardiorenal syndrome, is not the 'magic bullet', is sometimes limited by adverse renal events, is not applicable to all patients, and must be applied by physicians with due diligence and caution. Nevertheless, a more comprehensive multidisciplinary multipronged approach to managing patients with cardiorenal syndrome is even more pragmatic and commonsense given the multiple mechanisms and pathogenetic pathways implicated in the causation and perpetuation of cardiorenal syndrome.

  10. Inhibition of SUR1 Decreases the Vascular Permeability of Cerebral Metastases1

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Eric M; Pishko, Gregory L; Muldoon, Leslie L; Neuwelt, Edward A

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) by glyburide has been shown to decrease edema after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We investigated if inhibiting SUR1 reduces cerebral edema due to metastases, the most common brain tumor, and explored the putative association of SUR1 and the endothelial tight junction protein, zona occludens-1 (ZO-1). Nude rats were intracerebrally implanted with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) LX1 or A2058 melanoma cells (n = 36). Rats were administered vehicle, glyburide (4.8 µg twice, orally), or dexamethasone (0.35 mg, intravenous). Blood-tumor barrier (BTB) permeability (Ktrans) was evaluated before and after treatment using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. SUR1 and ZO-1 expression was evaluated using immunofluorescence and Western blots. In both models, SUR1 expression was significantly increased (P < .05) in tumors. In animals with SCLC, control mean Ktrans (percent change ± standard error) was 101.8 ± 36.6%, and both glyburide (-21.4 ± 14.2%, P < .01) and dexamethasone (-14.2 ± 13.1%, P < .01) decreased BTB permeability. In animals with melanoma, compared to controls (117.1 ± 43.4%), glyburide lowered BTB permeability increase (3.2 ± 15.4%, P < .05), while dexamethasone modestly lowered BTB permeability increase (63.1 ± 22.1%, P > .05). Both glyburide (P < .001) and dexamethasone (P < .01) decreased ZO-1 gap formation. By decreasing ZO-1 gaps, glyburide was at least as effective as dexamethasone at halting increased BTB permeability caused by SCLC and melanoma. Glyburide is a safe, inexpensive, and efficacious alternative to dexamethasone for the treatment of cerebral metastasis-related vasogenic edema. PMID:23633925

  11. Hydrogen-rich Water Exerting a Protective Effect on Ovarian Reserve Function in a Mouse Model of Immune Premature Ovarian Failure Induced by Zona Pellucida 3

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Yin, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tong; Jia, Chan-Wei; Ma, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a disease that affects female fertility but has few effective treatments. Ovarian reserve function plays an important role in female fertility. Recent studies have reported that hydrogen can protect male fertility. Therefore, we explored the potential protective effect of hydrogen-rich water on ovarian reserve function through a mouse immune POF model. Methods: To set up immune POF model, fifty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control (mice consumed normal water, n = 10), hydrogen (mice consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 10), model (mice were immunized with zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 [ZP3] and consumed normal water, n = 15), and model-hydrogen (mice were immunized with ZP3 and consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 15) groups. After 5 weeks, mice were sacrificed. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, granulosa cell (GC) apoptotic index (AI), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) expression were examined. Analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software. Results: Immune POF model, model group exhibited markedly reduced serum AMH levels compared with those of the control group (5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml vs. 16.23 ± 1.97 ng/ml, P = 0.033) and the hydrogen group (19.65 ± 7.82 ng/ml, P = 0.006). The model-hydrogen group displayed significantly higher AMH concentrations compared with that of the model group (15.03 ± 2.75 ng/ml vs. 5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml, P = 0.021). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model group (21.30 ± 1.74%) than those in the control (7.06 ± 0.27%), hydrogen (5.17 ± 0.41%), and model-hydrogen groups (11.24 ± 0.58%) (all P < 0.001). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model-hydrogen group compared with that of the hydrogen group (11.24 ± 0.58% vs. 5.17 ± 0.41%, P = 0.021). Compared with those of the model group, ovarian tissue Bcl-2 levels increased (2.18 ± 0.30 vs. 3.01 ± 0.33, P = 0.045) and the Bax

  12. Behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Coles, Meredith E; Schofield, Casey A; Pietrefesa, Ashley S

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition is frequently cited as a vulnerability factor for development of anxiety. However, few studies have examined the unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, the current study addressed the relationship between behavioral inhibition and OCD in a number of ways. In a large unselected student sample, frequency of current OC symptoms was significantly correlated with retrospective self-reports of total levels of childhood behavioral inhibition. In addition, frequency of current OC symptoms was also significantly correlated with both social and nonsocial components of behavioral inhibition. Further, there was evidence for a unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and OC symptoms beyond the relationship of behavioral inhibition and social anxiety. In addition, results showed that reports of childhood levels of behavioral inhibition significantly predicted levels of OCD symptoms in adulthood. Finally, preliminary evidence suggested that behavioral inhibition may be more strongly associated with some types of OC symptoms than others, and that overprotective parenting may moderate the impact of behavioral inhibition on OC symptoms. The current findings suggest the utility of additional research examining the role of behavioral inhibition in the etiology of OCD.

  13. Self-regulation, ego depletion, and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-12-01

    Inhibition is a major form of self-regulation. As such, it depends on self-awareness and comparing oneself to standards and is also susceptible to fluctuations in willpower resources. Ego depletion is the state of reduced willpower caused by prior exertion of self-control. Ego depletion undermines inhibition both because restraints are weaker and because urges are felt more intensely than usual. Conscious inhibition of desires is a pervasive feature of everyday life and may be a requirement of life in civilized, cultural society, and in that sense it goes to the evolved core of human nature. Intentional inhibition not only restrains antisocial impulses but can also facilitate optimal performance, such as during test taking. Self-regulation and ego depletion- may also affect less intentional forms of inhibition, even chronic tendencies to inhibit. Broadly stated, inhibition is necessary for human social life and nearly all societies encourage and enforce it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavioral inhibition: a neurobiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Barak E

    2006-08-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) during early childhood has been associated with subsequent development of anxiety disorders. However, understanding of the neuroanatomical substrates of BI in humans generally has not kept pace with that of anxiety disorders. Recent interpretations and implementations of Gray's and Kagan's concepts of BI are examined from the perspective of current neurobiological models. Particular attention is given to evidence pointing to conceptual and operational limitations of self-report scales purported to measure trait BI in adults, and especially to inconsistent correlations between such behavioral inhibition system (BIS) scores and amygdala and autonomic responses to fear- or startle-inducing stimuli. Evidence showing a dissociation of both BI and trait anxiety from the amygdala is considered. Possible reasons for the poor association between BIS and trait anxiety self-report scale scores and predicted physiological outputs of the BIS are identified. Reasons to distinguish between the neural bases of BI as against trait anxiety also are discussed. The need to critically examine the role of the amygdala in BI and trait anxiety, as well as to consider other brain areas that appear to be involved in subserving these emotional traits, is emphasized.

  15. Graphene: corrosion-inhibiting coating.

    PubMed

    Prasai, Dhiraj; Tuberquia, Juan Carlos; Harl, Robert R; Jennings, G Kane; Rogers, Bridget R; Bolotin, Kirill I

    2012-02-28

    We report the use of atomically thin layers of graphene as a protective coating that inhibits corrosion of underlying metals. Here, we employ electrochemical methods to study the corrosion inhibition of copper and nickel by either growing graphene on these metals, or by mechanically transferring multilayer graphene onto them. Cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that the graphene coating effectively suppresses metal oxidation and oxygen reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that while graphene itself is not damaged, the metal under it is corroded at cracks in the graphene film. Finally, we use Tafel analysis to quantify the corrosion rates of samples with and without graphene coatings. These results indicate that copper films coated with graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition are corroded 7 times slower in an aerated Na(2)SO(4) solution as compared to the corrosion rate of bare copper. Tafel analysis reveals that nickel with a multilayer graphene film grown on it corrodes 20 times slower while nickel surfaces coated with four layers of mechanically transferred graphene corrode 4 times slower than bare nickel. These findings establish graphene as the thinnest known corrosion-protecting coating.

  16. Regulating anxiety with extrasynaptic inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Botta, Paolo; Demmou, Lynda; Kasugai, Yu; Markovic, Milica; Xu, Chun; Fadok, Jonathan P.; Lu, Tingjia; Poe, Michael M.; Xu, Li; Cook, James M.; Rudolph, Uwe; Sah, Pankaj; Ferraguti, Francesco; Lüthi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Aversive experiences can lead to complex behavioral adaptations including increased levels of anxiety and fear generalization. The neuronal mechanisms underlying such maladaptive behavioral changes, however, are poorly understood. Here, using a combination of behavioral, physiological and optogenetic approaches in mouse, we identify a specific subpopulation of central amygdala neurons expressing protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) as key elements of the neuronal circuitry controlling anxiety. Moreover, we show that aversive experiences induce anxiety and fear generalization by regulating the activity of PKCδ+ neurons via extrasynaptic inhibition mediated by α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors. Our findings reveal that the neuronal circuits that mediate fear and anxiety overlap at the level of defined subpopulations of central amygdala neurons and demonstrate that persistent changes in the excitability of a single cell type can orchestrate complex behavioral changes. PMID:26322928

  17. Well having inhibited microbial growth

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Brady D.; Dooley, Kirk J.

    2006-08-15

    The invention includes methods of inhibiting microbial growth in a well. A packing material containing a mixture of a first material and an antimicrobial agent is provided to at least partially fill a well bore. One or more access tubes are provided in an annular space around a casing within the well bore. The access tubes have a first terminal opening located at or above a ground surface and have a length that extends from the first terminal opening at least part of the depth of the well bore. The access tubes have a second terminal opening located within the well bore. An antimicrobial material is supplied into the well bore through the first terminal opening of the access tubes. The invention also includes well constructs.

  18. The human is an exception to the evolutionarily-conserved phenomenon of pre-fertilization zona pellucida resistance to proteolysis induced by oviductal fluid.

    PubMed

    Mondéjar, I; Avilés, M; Coy, P

    2013-03-01

    Is zona pellucida (ZP) resistance to proteolysis, induced by oviductal fluid (OF), a mechanism common to species other than the pig and cow? ZP resistance to proteolysis induced by OF was observed in the mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, sheep, goat, pig and cow, but not in humans. Oviductal ZP resistance to proteolysis occurs in the pig and cow where it influences the incidence of fertilization and polyspermy. The effect is observed after incubation of ZP in OFs from pig (pOF), cow (cOF), rabbit (rOF) and sheep (sOF). Oocytes from nine different species, including ungulates, rodents, lagomorphs and primates were incubated in rOF, sOF, gOF, cOF, pOF and human oviductal fluid (hOF). ZP digestion times for the matured oocytes of these nine species, without any treatment or incubated in 5 (mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, cow, ewe and goat) or 6 (pig and humans) of the OFs collected were compared using three replicates per treatment and at least three oocytes per replicate. In vivo matured oocytes from rat, hamster, mouse, rabbit and humans, in vitro matured oocytes from cow, goat, ewe and pig and rOF, cOF, gOF, sOF, pOF and human (hOF) were collected and processed for the study. Oocytes from each species were incubated in the different OFs for 30 min. The resistance of the ZP of the oocytes to enzymatic digestion in a pronase solution (0.5% in PBS) was measured and registered as ZP digestion time. rOF increased ZP resistance to proteolytic digestion in the range of between 96 and 720 h for any of the species tested, whereas the corresponding increase in human ZP was only 1 min. OFs from the remaining species also had a significant effect, with variations among the cross-species experiments (P < 0.05). hOF, which was only tested on human and porcine oocytes, had no effect on ZP chemical hardening. Measurements of ZP digestion times are not of extreme accuracy and errors of a few seconds can be assumed in the experimental data. However, when differences are in the range of

  19. The roles of protein disulphide isomerase family A, member 3 (ERp57) and surface thiol/disulphide exchange in human spermatozoa-zona pellucida binding.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-Wai; Lam, Kevin K W; Lee, Cheuk-Lun; Yeung, William S B; Zhao, Wei E; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ou, Jian-Ping; Chiu, Philip C N

    2017-04-01

    Are multimeric sperm plasma membrane protein complexes, ERp57 and sperm surface thiol content involved in human spermatozoa-zona pellucida (ZP) interaction? ERp57 is a component of a multimeric spermatozoa-ZP receptor complex involved in regulation of human spermatozoa-ZP binding via up-regulation of sperm surface thiol content. A spermatozoon acquires its fertilization capacity within the female reproductive tract by capacitation. Spermatozoa-ZP receptor is suggested to be a composite structure that is assembled into a functional complex during capacitation. Sperm surface thiol content is elevated during capacitation. ERp57 is a protein disulphide isomerase that modulates the thiol-disulphide status of proteins. The binding ability and components of protein complexes in extracted membrane protein fractions of spermatozoa were studied. The roles of capacitation, thiol-disulphide reagent treatments and ERp57 on sperm functions and sperm surface thiol content were assessed. Spermatozoa were obtained from semen samples from normozoospermic men. Human oocytes were obtained from an assisted reproduction programme. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western ligand blotting and mass spectrometry were used to identify the components of solubilized ZP/ZP3-binding complexes. The localization and expression of sperm surface thiol and ERp57 were studied by immunostaining and sperm surface protein biotinylation followed by western blotting. Sperm functions were assessed by standard assays. Several ZP-binding complexes were isolated from the cell membrane of capacitated spermatozoa. ERp57 was a component of one of these complexes. Capacitation significantly increased the sperm surface thiol content, acrosomal thiol distribution and ERp57 expression on sperm surface. Sperm surface thiol and ERp57 immunoreactivity were localized to the acrosomal region of spermatozoa, a region responsible for ZP-binding. Up-regulation of the surface thiol content or ERp57 surface

  20. Zona pellucida-binding protein 2 (ZPBP2) and several proteins containing BX7B motifs in human sperm may have hyaluronic acid binding or recognition properties.

    PubMed

    Torabi, F; Bogle, O A; Estanyol, J M; Oliva, R; Miller, D

    2017-12-01

    Are there novel hyaladherins in human sperm? Zona pellucida-binding protein 2 (ZPBP2), containing a Link-like hyaluronic acid (HA)-binding domain, and several other proteins containing BX7B motifs, such as ADAM32 and Midkine, may be novel hyaladherins with HA-binding properties. HA-binding proteins (hyaladherins), which can bind HA surrounding the cumulus-oophorus complex, are distinct from hyases such as PH 20 (SPAM1) and are expressed by mature spermatozoa. Although HABP1 and CD44 are reasonably well characterized hyaladherins and the former has been implicated in sperm-oocyte interactions, the overall significance of sperm hyaladherins for male fertility is still poorly understood. This was a laboratory-based investigation into human sperm hyaladherins undertaken as part of a three year PhD programme sponsored by the EU Marie Curie Training network, Reprotrain. Protein homogenates of sperm obtained from young men of unknown fertility (N = 4) were partitioned into HA-binding and non-binding fractions by a protein affinity 'panning' method; their subsequent characterization was by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) and partitioning behaviour was confirmed by western blotting. Sequences of proteins from both fractions were submitted to PDBsum to look for orthologous entries (PDB codes) and all returned codes were queried against the matching protein using SAS (Sequences Annotated by Structure) looking for structural similarities between them. A systematic search for other common features of hyaladherins was also undertaken. The presence of BX7B sequence motifs found in several well-described hyaladherins including RHAMM was used to assess efficacy of potential hyaladherin partitioning by the HA substrate. The data showed that 50% (14/28) and 34.5% (28/81) of proteins in the bound and unbound fractions, respectively, contained these motifs (one-tailed Z-score = 1.45; P = 0.074), indicating weak discrimination by the substrate. Querying PDBsum

  1. Inhibition of return in the archer fish.

    PubMed

    Gabay, Shai; Leibovich, Tali; Ben-Simon, Avi; Henik, Avishai; Segev, Ronen

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of return is the inhibitory tagging of recently attended locations or objects. It was previously suggested that inhibition of return is a foraging facilitator in visual search. Inhibition of return was first discovered in humans and was demonstrated also in monkeys, yet it has never been demonstrated in non-primates. Here we report the presence of inhibition of return in the archer fish, which shoots down prey on overhanging vegetation, using squirts of water spouted from its mouth. Moreover, we find similar attentional effects for fish as for human participants. Our results show that the generation of inhibition of return does not require a fully developed cortex and strengthen the view that inhibition of return functions as a foraging facilitator.

  2. STIR: Assessing and Training Response Inhibition Abilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-30

    Oct-2013 30-Jun-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: STIR: Assessing and Training Response Inhibition Abilities The...Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Civilian casualties, response inhibition, cognitive training REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE...Assessing and Training Response Inhibition Abilities Report Title Shooting a firearm involves a complex series of actions, and each action depends on a

  3. Inhibition of cortiocosteroidogenesis by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Warner, W; Harris, L S; Carchman, R A

    1977-12-01

    ACTH, cholera toxin, cyclic AMP but not pregnenolone-induced steroidogenesis in Y-1 functional mouse adrenal tumor cells was significantly inhibited by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol. The inhibition of steroidogenesis could not be correlated with a general depression in cell function or viability. The data suggest that cannabinoids inhibit corticosteroidogenesis at a site between the synthesis of cAMP and of pregnenolone.

  4. GPM Timeline Inhibits For IT Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dion, Shirley K.

    2014-01-01

    The Safety Inhibit Timeline Tool was created as one approach to capturing and understanding inhibits and controls from IT through launch. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, which launched from Japan in March 2014, was a joint mission under a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). GPM was one of the first NASA Goddard in-house programs that extensively used software controls. Using this tool during the GPM buildup allowed a thorough review of inhibit and safety critical software design for hazardous subsystems such as the high gain antenna boom, solar array, and instrument deployments, transmitter turn-on, propulsion system release, and instrument radar turn-on. The GPM safety team developed a methodology to document software safety as part of the standard hazard report. As a result of this process, a new tool safety inhibit timeline was created for management of inhibits and their controls during spacecraft buildup and testing during IT at GSFC and at the launch range in Japan. The Safety Inhibit Timeline Tool was a pathfinder approach for reviewing software that controls the electrical inhibits. The Safety Inhibit Timeline Tool strengthens the Safety Analysts understanding of the removal of inhibits during the IT process with safety critical software. With this tool, the Safety Analyst can confirm proper safe configuration of a spacecraft during each IT test, track inhibit and software configuration changes, and assess software criticality. In addition to understanding inhibits and controls during IT, the tool allows the Safety Analyst to better communicate to engineers and management the changes in inhibit states with each phase of hardware and software testing and the impact of safety risks. Lessons learned from participating in the GPM campaign at NASA and JAXA will be discussed during this session.

  5. The inhibition of acquired fear.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín; Vianna, Mónica M R; Bevilaqua, Lía R M

    2004-01-01

    A conditioned stimulus (CS) associated with a fearsome unconditioned stimulus (US) generates learned fear. Acquired fear is at the root of a variety of mental disorders, among which phobias, generalized anxiety, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and some forms of depression. The simplest way to inhibit learned fear is to extinguish it, which is usually done by repeatedly presenting the CS alone, so that a new association, CS-"no US", will eventually overcome the previously acquired CS-US association. Extinction was first described by Pavlov as a form of "internal inhibition" and was recommended by Freud and Ferenczi in the 1920s (who called it "habituation") as the treatment of choice for phobic disorders. It is used with success till this day, often in association with anxiolytic drugs. Extinction has since then been applied, also successfully and also often in association with anxiolytics, to the treatment of panic, generalized anxiety disorders and, more recently, PTSD. Extinction of learned fear involves gene expression, protein synthesis, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and signaling pathways in the hippocampus and the amygdala at the time of the first CS-no US association. It can be enhanced by increasing the exposure to the "no US" component at the time of behavioral testing, to the point of causing the complete uninstallment of the original fear response. Some theorists have recently proposed that reiteration of the CS alone may induce a reconsolidation of the learned behavior instead of its extinction. Reconsolidation would preserve the original memory from the labilization induced by its retrieval. If true, this would of course be disastrous for the psychotherapy of fear-motivated disorders. Here we show that neither the CS nor retrieval cause anything remotely like reconsolidation, but just extinction. In fact, our findings indicate that the reconsolidation hypothesis is essentially incorrect, at least for the form of contextual fear most

  6. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  7. Factors Impacting the Child with Behavioral Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbuckle, Suzanne R.

    2010-01-01

    Various factors influence the developmental course of the behaviorally inhibited child. These factors include reciprocating, contextual factors, such as the child's own traits, the environment, the maternal characteristics, and the environment. Behaviorally inhibited children show physiological and behavioral signs of fear and anxiety when…

  8. Inhibition of Photophosphorylation by Kaempferol 1

    PubMed Central

    Arntzen, Charles J.; Falkenthal, Scott V.; Bobick, Sandra

    1974-01-01

    Kaempferol, a naturally occurring flavonol, inhibited coupled electron transport and both cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation in isolated pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts. Over a concentration range which gave marked inhibition of ATP synthesis, there was no effect on basal or uncoupled electron flow or light-induced proton accumulation by isolated thylakoids. It is suggested that kaempferol acts as an energy transfer inhibitor. PMID:16658695

  9. Optimal Decision Making in Neural Inhibition Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2012-01-01

    In their influential "Psychological Review" article, Bogacz, Brown, Moehlis, Holmes, and Cohen (2006) discussed optimal decision making as accomplished by the drift diffusion model (DDM). The authors showed that neural inhibition models, such as the leaky competing accumulator model (LCA) and the feedforward inhibition model (FFI), can mimic the…

  10. A Qualitative Approach to Enzyme Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Grover L.

    2009-01-01

    Most general biochemistry textbooks present enzyme inhibition by showing how the basic Michaelis-Menten parameters K[subscript m] and V[subscript max] are affected mathematically by a particular type of inhibitor. This approach, while mathematically rigorous, does not lend itself to understanding how inhibition patterns are used to determine the…

  11. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  12. Substrate inhibition kinetics of phenol biodegradation

    SciT

    Goudar, C.T.; Ganji, S.H.; Pujar, B.G.

    Phenol biodegradation was studied in batch experiments using an acclimated inoculum and initial phenol concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.3 g/L. Phenol depletion an associated microbial growth were monitored over time to provide information that was used to estimate the kinetics of phenol biodegradation. Phenol inhibited biodegradation at high concentrations, and a generalized substrate inhibition model based on statistical thermodynamics was used to describe the dynamics of microbial growth in phenol. For experimental data obtained in this study, the generalized substrate inhibition model reduced to a form that is analogous to the Andrews equation, and the biokinetic parameters {micro}{sub max},more » maximum specific growth; K{sub s}, saturation constant; and K{sub i}, inhibition constant were estimated as 0.251 h{sup {minus}1}, 0.011 g/L, and 0.348 g/L, respectively, using a nonlinear least squares technique. Given the wide variability in substrate inhibition models used to describe phenol biodegradation, an attempt was made to justify selection of particular model based on theoretical considerations. Phenol biodegradation data from nine previously published studies were used in the generalized substrate inhibition model to determine the appropriate form of the substrate inhibition model. In all nine cases, the generalized substrate inhibition model reduced to a form analogous to the Andrews equation suggesting the suitability of the Andrews equation to describe phenol biodegradation data.« less

  13. Inhibition in Autism: Children with Autism Have Difficulty Inhibiting Irrelevant Distractors but Not Prepotent Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Nena C.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to distractor inhibition tasks have previously revealed impairments in children with autism. However, on the classic Stroop task and other prepotent response tasks, children with autism show intact inhibition. These data may reflect a distinction between prepotent response and resistance to distractor inhibition. The current study…

  14. Combined MTOR and autophagy inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rangwala, Reshma; Chang, Yunyoung C; Hu, Janice; Algazy, Kenneth M; Evans, Tracey L; Fecher, Leslie A; Schuchter, Lynn M; Torigian, Drew A; Panosian, Jeffrey T; Troxel, Andrea B; Tan, Kay-See; Heitjan, Daniel F; DeMichele, Angela M; Vaughn, David J; Redlinger, Maryann; Alavi, Abass; Kaiser, Jonathon; Pontiggia, Laura; Davis, Lisa E; O’Dwyer, Peter J; Amaravadi, Ravi K

    2014-01-01

    The combination of temsirolimus (TEM), an MTOR inhibitor, and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an autophagy inhibitor, augments cell death in preclinical models. This phase 1 dose-escalation study evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, preliminary activity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of HCQ in combination with TEM in cancer patients. In the dose escalation portion, 27 patients with advanced solid malignancies were enrolled, followed by a cohort expansion at the top dose level in 12 patients with metastatic melanoma. The combination of HCQ and TEM was well tolerated, and grade 3 or 4 toxicity was limited to anorexia (7%), fatigue (7%), and nausea (7%). An MTD was not reached for HCQ, and the recommended phase II dose was HCQ 600 mg twice daily in combination with TEM 25 mg weekly. Other common grade 1 or 2 toxicities included fatigue, anorexia, nausea, stomatitis, rash, and weight loss. No responses were observed; however, 14/21 (67%) patients in the dose escalation and 14/19 (74%) patients with melanoma achieved stable disease. The median progression-free survival in 13 melanoma patients treated with HCQ 1200mg/d in combination with TEM was 3.5 mo. Novel 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) measurements predicted clinical outcome and provided further evidence that the addition of HCQ to TEM produced metabolic stress on tumors in patients that experienced clinical benefit. Pharmacodynamic evidence of autophagy inhibition was evident in serial PBMC and tumor biopsies only in patients treated with 1200 mg daily HCQ. This study indicates that TEM and HCQ is safe and tolerable, modulates autophagy in patients, and has significant antitumor activity. Further studies combining MTOR and autophagy inhibitors in cancer patients are warranted. PMID:24991838

  15. Inhibition of cholinesterases by fluoride in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cimasoni, Giorgio

    1966-01-01

    1. Series of colorimetric dynamic assays allowed the study of the inhibition of cholinesterases by F− ions in vitro, by using, as sources of enzyme, whole human blood, human serum, homogenized rat brain and two preparations of red blood cells (human and bovine) whose enzymic purity was ascertained. 2. The first evidence of inhibition of human serum pseudocholinesterase by fluoride was noticed at 15–25μm-fluoride. Ten times as much fluoride was needed to start inhibition of acetylcholinesterase of the red blood cells. 3. The action of fluoride on the enzymic reaction was immediate. The reversibility of the inhibition was shown by dialysis and dilution. 4. Kinetic measurements showed that the inhibition under study was not dependent on the substrate concentration and was of the uncompetitive type, similar to that observed in the presence of a heavy metal (cadmium). 5. The activity of serum cholinesterase did not change in the absence of Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. Fluoride was shown to inhibit the enzyme in the absence of these ions as well as of phosphate. 6. Fluoride could inhibit cholinesterases in the presence of three different substrates and had no action on the non-enzymic hydrolysis. 7. It is thought that the halide is bound reversibly to the enzyme molecule, with the probable exclusion of the active site, but no firm conclusion could be reached on this point. PMID:6007454

  16. Fear inhibition in high trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kindt, Merel; Soeter, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study--High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n = 32. We replicated earlier findings that a transfer of conditioned inhibition for startle responses requires contingency awareness. However, contrary to the fear inhibition hypothesis, our data suggest that high trait anxious individuals show a normal fear inhibition of conditioned startle responding. Only at the cognitive level the high trait anxious individuals showed evidence for impaired inhibitory learning of the threat cue. Together with other findings where impaired fear inhibition was only observed in those PTSD patients who were either high on hyperarousal symptoms or with current anxiety symptoms, we question whether impaired fear inhibition is a biomarker for the development of anxiety disorders.

  17. BST2/Tetherin Inhibition of Alphavirus Exit

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Yaw Shin; Dubé, Mathieu; Kielian, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Semliki Forest virus (SFV) are small enveloped RNA viruses that bud from the plasma membrane. Tetherin/BST2 is an interferon-induced host membrane protein that inhibits the release of many enveloped viruses via direct tethering of budded particles to the cell surface. Alphaviruses have highly organized structures and exclude host membrane proteins from the site of budding, suggesting that their release might be insensitive to tetherin inhibition. Here, we demonstrated that exogenously-expressed tetherin efficiently inhibited the release of SFV and CHIKV particles from host cells without affecting virus entry and infection. Alphavirus release was also inhibited by the endogenous levels of tetherin in HeLa cells. While rubella virus (RuV) and dengue virus (DENV) have structural similarities to alphaviruses, tetherin inhibited the release of RuV but not DENV. We found that two recently identified tetherin isoforms differing in length at the N-terminus exhibited distinct capabilities in restricting alphavirus release. SFV exit was efficiently inhibited by the long isoform but not the short isoform of tetherin, while both isoforms inhibited vesicular stomatitis virus exit. Thus, in spite of the organized structure of the virus particle, tetherin specifically blocks alphavirus release and shows an interesting isoform requirement. PMID:25912717

  18. Regulation of spatial selectivity by crossover inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, Jon; Rieke, Fred

    2013-04-10

    Signals throughout the nervous system diverge into parallel excitatory and inhibitory pathways that later converge on downstream neurons to control their spike output. Converging excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs can exhibit a variety of temporal relationships. A common motif is feedforward inhibition, in which an increase (decrease) in excitatory input precedes a corresponding increase (decrease) in inhibitory input. The delay of inhibitory input relative to excitatory input originates from an extra synapse in the circuit shaping inhibitory input. Another common motif is push-pull or "crossover" inhibition, in which increases (decreases) in excitatory input occur together with decreases (increases) in inhibitory input. Primate On midget ganglion cells receive primarily feedforward inhibition and On parasol cells receive primarily crossover inhibition; this difference provides an opportunity to study how each motif shapes the light responses of cell types that play a key role in visual perception. For full-field stimuli, feedforward inhibition abbreviated and attenuated responses of On midget cells, while crossover inhibition, though plentiful, had surprisingly little impact on the responses of On parasol cells. Spatially structured stimuli, however, could cause excitatory and inhibitory inputs to On parasol cells to increase together, adopting a temporal relation very much like that for feedforward inhibition. In this case, inhibitory inputs substantially abbreviated a cell's spike output. Thus inhibitory input shapes the temporal stimulus selectivity of both midget and parasol ganglion cells, but its impact on responses of parasol cells depends strongly on the spatial structure of the light inputs.

  19. Structural and functional bases of inhibited temperament.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Jacqueline A; Seay, April L; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Avery, Suzanne N; Cao, Aize; Cowan, Ronald L; Benningfield, Margaret M; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano

    2014-12-01

    Children born with an inhibited temperament are at heightened risk for developing anxiety, depression and substance use. Inhibited temperament is believed to have a biological basis; however, little is known about the structural brain basis of this vulnerability trait. Structural MRI scans were obtained from 84 (44 inhibited, 40 uninhibited) young adults. Given previous findings of amygdala hyperactivity in inhibited individuals, groups were compared on three measures of amygdala structure. To identify novel substrates of inhibited temperament, a whole brain analysis was performed. Functional activation and connectivity were examined across both groups. Inhibited adults had larger amygdala and caudate volume and larger volume predicted greater activation to neutral faces. In addition, larger amygdala volume predicted greater connectivity with subcortical and higher order visual structures. Larger caudate volume predicted greater connectivity with the basal ganglia, and less connectivity with primary visual and auditory cortex. We propose that larger volume in these salience detection regions may result in increased activation and enhanced connectivity in response to social stimuli. Given the strong link between inhibited temperament and risk for psychiatric illness, novel therapeutics that target these brain regions and related neural circuits have the potential to reduce rates of illness in vulnerable individuals. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Macrophage migration inhibition test in untreated syphilis.

    PubMed

    Bowszyc, J

    1975-01-01

    Two modifications of macrophage migration inhibition test, one of George and Vaughan and the other one of Svejcar, were performed on a total of 78 cases of untreated syphilis at various stages. As specific antigens were used: Treponema Pallidum ultrasonate and cardiolipin. Inhibition of migration was observed in 87 percent patients with primary syphillis and in all patients with late and late congenital syphilis. After improving and standardisation of the technique of Treponema Pallidum antigen-the migration inhibition test may be recommended as a specific in vitro-test for detection of cell mediated immunity in syphilis.

  1. The IFITMs Inhibit Zika Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Savidis, George; Perreira, Jill M; Portmann, Jocelyn M; Meraner, Paul; Guo, Zhiru; Green, Sharone; Brass, Abraham L

    2016-06-14

    Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Inhibition of 19S proteasomal regulatory complex subunit PSMD8 increases polyspermy during porcine fertilization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Joo; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Sutovsky, Miriam; Jonáková, Vera; Park, Chang-Sik; Sutovsky, Peter

    2010-03-01

    The 26S proteoasome is a multi-subunit protease specific to ubiquitinated substrate proteins. It is composed of a 20S proteasomal core with substrate degradation activity, and a 19S regulatory complex that acts in substrate recognition, deubiquitination, priming and transport to the 20S core. Inhibition of proteolytic activities associated with the sperm acrosome-borne 20S core prevents fertilization in mammals, ascidians and echinoderms. Less is known about the function of the proteasomal 19S complex during fertilization. The present study examined the role of PSMD8, an essential non-ATPase subunit of the 19S complex, in sperm-ZP penetration during porcine fertilization in vitro (IVF). Immunofluorescence localized PSMD8 to the outer acrosomal membrane, acrosomal matrix and the inner acrosomal membrane. Colloidal gold transmission electron microscopy detected PSMD8 on the surface of vesicles in the acrosomal shroud, formed as a result of zona pellucida-induced acrosomal exocytosis. Contrary to the inhibition of fertilization by blocking of the 20S core activities, fertilization and polyspermy rates were increased by adding anti-PSMD8 antibody to fertilization medium. This observation is consistent with a possible role of PSMD8 in substrate deubiquitination, a process which when blocked, may actually accelerate substrate proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. Subunit PSMD8 co-immunoprecipitated with acrosomal surface-associated spermadhesin AQN1. This association indicates that the sperm acrosome-borne proteasomes become exposed onto the sperm surface following the acrosomal exocytosis. Since immunological blocking of subunit PSMD8 increases the rate of polyspermy during porcine fertilization, the activity of the 19S complex may be a rate-limiting factor contributing to anti-polyspermy defense during porcine fertilization. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Should we stop thinking about inhibition? Searching for individual and age differences in inhibition ability.

    PubMed

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Gade, Miriam; Oberauer, Klaus

    2018-04-01

    Inhibition is often conceptualized as a unitary construct reflecting the ability to ignore and suppress irrelevant information. At the same time, it has been subdivided into inhibition of prepotent responses (i.e., the ability to stop dominant responses) and resistance to distracter interference (i.e., the ability to ignore distracting information). The present study investigated the unity and diversity of inhibition as a psychometric construct, and tested the hypothesis of an inhibition deficit in older age. We measured inhibition in young and old adults with 11 established laboratory tasks: antisaccade, stop-signal, color Stroop, number Stroop, arrow flanker, letter flanker, Simon, global-local, positive and negative compatibility tasks, and n-2 repetition costs in task switching. In both age groups, the inhibition measures from individual tasks had good reliabilities, but correlated only weakly among each other. Structural equation modeling identified a 2-factor model with factors for inhibition of prepotent responses and resistance to distracter interference. Older adults scored worse in the inhibition of prepotent response, but better in the resistance to distracter interference. However, the model had low explanatory power. Together, these findings call into question inhibition as a psychometric construct and the hypothesis of an inhibition deficit in older age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Executive and motivational inhibition: associations with self-report measures related to inhibition.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Jill; Toplak, Maggie E

    2009-06-01

    Inhibition involves the withholding or suppressing of attention or responses to irrelevant or distracting stimuli. We examined the relationship between five experimental tasks of inhibition, represented by two measures of executive, intentional control inhibition and three measures of motivational inhibition characterized by bottom-up interruption of affective and reward/punishment sensitive mechanisms. Associations between these experimental tasks with three self-report measures related to inhibition were also examined. Correlational analyses indicated a small but significant association between the measures in the executive domain (stop task and Stroop task), but a lack of associations between the measures in the motivational domain (emotional Stroop task, a card playing task involving rewards and punishments, and a gambling task). Both measures of executive and motivational inhibition entered as significant predictors on the self-report measures related to inhibition in simultaneous regression analyses, but not consistently in the expected direction. The results suggest that inhibition is not a unitary construct, and demonstrate an association between experimental measures of inhibition and self-report measures related to inhibition.

  5. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    PubMed

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  6. Rust-Inhibited Nonreactive Perfluorinated Polymer Greases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Perfluoroalkylpolyether fluids thickened with polytetrafluoroethylene were studied in connection with the development of rust-inhibited chemically...dimethyloctadecylbenzyl ammonium bentonite + sodium nitrate imparts very effective rust-preventive properties to perfluoro polymer grease mixtures. Data are

  7. Exogenously triggered response inhibition in developmental stuttering.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between children's exogenously triggered response inhibition and stuttering. Participants were 18 children who stutter (CWS; mean age = 9;01 years) and 18 children who not stutter (CWNS; mean age = 9;01 years). Participants were matched on age (±3 months) and gender. Response inhibition was assessed by a stop signal task (Verbruggen, Logan, & Stevens, 2008). Results suggest that CWS, compared to CWNS, perform comparable to CWNS in a task where response control is externally triggered. Our findings seem to indicate that previous questionnaire-based findings (Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) of a decreased efficiency of response inhibition cannot be generalized to all types of response inhibition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Antiviral Drug Arbidol Inhibits Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Fink, Susan L; Vojtech, Lucia; Wagoner, Jessica; Slivinski, Natalie S J; Jackson, Konner J; Wang, Ruofan; Khadka, Sudip; Luthra, Priya; Basler, Christopher F; Polyak, Stephen J

    2018-06-12

    There are many emerging and re-emerging globally prevalent viruses for which there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral medicines. Arbidol (ARB, umifenovir), used clinically for decades in several countries as an anti-influenza virus drug, inhibits many other viruses. In the current study, we show that ARB inhibits six different isolates of Zika virus (ZIKV), including African and Asian lineage viruses in multiple cell lines and primary human vaginal and cervical epithelial cells. ARB protects against ZIKV-induced cytopathic effects. Time of addition studies indicate that ARB is most effective at suppressing ZIKV when added to cells prior to infection. Moreover, ARB inhibits pseudoviruses expressing the ZIKV Envelope glycoprotein. Thus, ARB, a broadly acting anti-viral agent with a well-established safety profile, inhibits ZIKV, likely by blocking viral entry.

  9. Inhibited solid propellant composition containing beryllium hydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An object of this invention is to provide a composition of beryllium hydride and carboxy-terminated polybutadiene which is stable. Another object of this invention is to provide a method for inhibiting the reactivity of beryllium hydride toward carboxy-terminated polybutadiene. It was found that a small amount of lecithin inhibits the reaction of beryllium hydride with the acid groups in carboxy terminated polybutadiene.

  10. Human milk glycoconjugates that inhibit pathogens.

    PubMed

    Newburg, D S

    1999-02-01

    Breast-fed infants have lower incidence of diarrhea, respiratory disease, and otitis media. The protection by human milk has long been attributed to the presence of secretory IgA. However, human milk contains large numbers and amounts of complex carbohydrates, including glycoproteins, glycolipids, glycosaminoglycans, mucins, and especially oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides comprise the third most abundant solid constituent of human milk, and contain a myriad of structures. Complex carbohydrate moieties of glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides are synthesized by the many glycosyltransferases in the mammary gland; those with homology to cell surface glycoconjugate pathogen receptors may inhibit pathogen binding, thereby protecting the nursing infant. Several examples are reviewed: A fucosyloligosaccharide inhibits the diarrheagenic effect of stable toxin of Escherichia coli. A different fucosyloligosaccharide inhibits infection by Campylobacter jejuni. Binding of Streptococcus pneumoniae and of enteropathogenic E. coli to their respective receptors is inhibited by human milk oligosaccharides. The 46-kD glycoprotein, lactadherin, inhibits rotavirus binding and infectivity. Low levels of lactadherin in human milk are associated with a higher incidence of symptomatic rotavirus in breast-fed infants. A mannosylated glycopeptide inhibits binding by enterohemorrhagic E. coli. A glycosaminoglycan inhibits binding of gp120 to CD4, the first step in HIV infection. Human milk mucin inhibits binding by S-fimbriated E. coli. The ganglioside, GM1, reduces diarrhea production by cholera toxin and labile toxin of E. coli. The neutral glycosphingolipid, Gb3, binds to Shigatoxin. Thus, many complex carbohydrates of human milk may be novel antipathogenic agents, and the milk glycoconjugates and oligosaccharides may be a major source of protection for breastfeeding infants.

  11. Inhibition of Microorganisms by Topical Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Kleinfeld, Jerome; Ellis, Philip P.

    1967-01-01

    The effect of various topical anesthetics and their preservatives on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphyloccoccus albus, and Candida albicans was investigated. The topical anesthetics were proparacaine HCl, tetracaine HCl, cocaine HCl, and benoxinate HCl. The preservatives were chlorobutanol and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate. Proparacaine inhibited C. albicans but not P. aeruginosa or S. albus. All three test organisms were inhibited to varying degrees by tetracaine, benoxinate, cocaine, chlorobutanol, and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate. PMID:16349737

  12. Quorum Sensing Inhibition, Relevance to Periodontics

    PubMed Central

    Yada, Sudheer; Kamalesh, B; Sonwane, Siddharth; Guptha, Indra; Swetha, R K

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing helps bacteria to communicate with each other and in coordinating their behavior. Many diseases of human beings, plants, and animals are mediated by quorum sensing. Various approaches are being tried to inhibit this communication to control the diseases caused by bacteria. Periodontal pathogens also communicate through quorum sensing and new approaches to treat periodontal disease using quorum sensing inhibition need to explored. PMID:25709373

  13. Effects of Inhibition Conditions on Anammox process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Haitao; Ji, Dandan; Zang, Lihua

    2017-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) is a very suitable process for the treatment of nitrogen-rich wastewater, which is a promising new biological nitrogen removal process, and has a good application prospects. However, the Anammox process is inhibited by many factors, which hinders the process improvement and the application of the Anammox process. Such as organic,temperature,salts,heavy metals, phosphates, sulfides, pH and other inhibitors are usually present in practical applications. We have reviewed the previous researches on the inhibition of Anammox processes. The effect of the substrate on the anaerobic oxide is mainly caused by free ammonia or nitrite nitrogen. Most heavy metals inhibit Anammox growth and activity. The inhibition of organic matter depends on the content of organic matter and species. High salinity inhibits Anammox activity. Dissolved oxygen allows the flora to be in a balanced state. The optimum pH and temperature, as well as other factors, can provide a good growth environment for Anammox. The knowledge of inhibition on Anammox will help prevent the application and improvement of the Anammox process.

  14. Iminosugars Inhibit Dengue Virus Production via Inhibition of ER Alpha-Glucosidases--Not Glycolipid Processing Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sayce, Andrew C; Alonzi, Dominic S; Killingbeck, Sarah S; Tyrrell, Beatrice E; Hill, Michelle L; Caputo, Alessandro T; Iwaki, Ren; Kinami, Kyoko; Ide, Daisuke; Kiappes, J L; Beatty, P Robert; Kato, Atsushi; Harris, Eva; Dwek, Raymond A; Miller, Joanna L; Zitzmann, Nicole

    2016-03-01

    It has long been thought that iminosugar antiviral activity is a function of inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum-resident α-glucosidases, and on this basis, many iminosugars have been investigated as therapeutic agents for treatment of infection by a diverse spectrum of viruses, including dengue virus (DENV). However, iminosugars are glycomimetics possessing a nitrogen atom in place of the endocyclic oxygen atom, and the ubiquity of glycans in host metabolism suggests that multiple pathways can be targeted via iminosugar treatment. Successful treatment of patients with glycolipid processing defects using iminosugars highlights the clinical exploitation of iminosugar inhibition of enzymes other than ER α-glucosidases. Evidence correlating antiviral activity with successful inhibition of ER glucosidases together with the exclusion of alternative mechanisms of action of iminosugars in the context of DENV infection is limited. Celgosivir, a bicyclic iminosugar evaluated in phase Ib clinical trials as a therapeutic for the treatment of DENV infection, was confirmed to be antiviral in a lethal mouse model of antibody-enhanced DENV infection. In this study we provide the first evidence of the antiviral activity of celgosivir in primary human macrophages in vitro, in which it inhibits DENV secretion with an EC50 of 5 μM. We further demonstrate that monocyclic glucose-mimicking iminosugars inhibit isolated glycoprotein and glycolipid processing enzymes and that this inhibition also occurs in primary cells treated with these drugs. By comparison to bicyclic glucose-mimicking iminosugars which inhibit glycoprotein processing but do not inhibit glycolipid processing and galactose-mimicking iminosugars which do not inhibit glycoprotein processing but do inhibit glycolipid processing, we demonstrate that inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum-resident α-glucosidases, not glycolipid processing, is responsible for iminosugar antiviral activity against DENV. Our data suggest that

  15. Oxidized quercetin inhibits α-synuclein fibrillization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Han, Shubo; Fink, Anthony L

    2013-04-01

    α-Synucein is a small (14 kDa), abundant, intrinsically disordered presynaptic protein, whose aggregation is believed to be a critical step in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress is reported to be a risk factor for dopamine cell degeneration in PD. Flavonoids are suggested to be important antioxidant against oxidative stress. Flavonoids were reported to inhibit fibrillization and disaggregate the preformed fibrils of α-synucein, but the molecular mechanism was still not clear. Quercetin, a well-recognized flavonoid antioxidant, was tested for its inhibition of α-synucein aggregation by thioflavin T assay, light scattering measurement, size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography, atomic force microscopy, etc. The pre-incubated quercetin exhibited a noticeably stronger inhibition behavior to the fibril formation than that of the freshly prepared. The inhibition is significant in the presence of ortho- and para-benzenediol isomers and inconsiderable in the presence of meta-isomer. The oxidized quercetin species (i.e., chalcantrione, benzyfuranone, quercetinchinone, and other derivatives) cause stronger inhibition than quercetin does because of the elevated polarity and hydrophilicity. Presence of quercetin disaggregates α-synucein fibrils, rather than oligomers and amorphous aggregations. Instead of the antioxidant activity, the 1:1 covalent binding of quercetin with α-synucein, and the increased hydophilicity of the covalently modified α-synucein oligomers or monomers, account for the inhibition of α-synucein fibrillation. Clarification of the molecular mechanism of the inhibition and disaggregation may help to screen safer and more effective flavonoid therapeutic in combating PD. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Characterization of acetylcholinesterase-inhibition by itopride.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Y; Kimura, T; Miyashita, N; Morikawa, K; Nagata, O; Itoh, Z; Kondo, Y

    1994-11-01

    Itopride is a gastroprokinetic benzamide derivative. This agent inhibited both electric eel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and horse serum butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). The IC50 of itopride with AChE (2.04 +/- 0.27 microM) was, however, 100-fold less than that with BuChE, whereas in the case of neostigmine with AChE (11.3 +/- 3.4 nM), it was 10-fold less. The recovery of AChE activity inhibited by 10(-7) M neostigmine was partial, but that inhibited by up to 3 x 10(-5) M itopride was complete when the reaction mixture was subjected to ultrafiltration. Double reciprocal plots of the experimental data showed that both Km and Vmax were affected by itopride, suggesting that the inhibition is a "mixed" type, although primarily being an uncompetitive one. The inhibitory effect of itopride on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in guinea pig gastrointestine was much weaker than that on pure AChE. However, in the presence of a low dose of diisopropyl fluorophosphate, just enough to inhibit BuChE but not AChE, the IC50s of itopride against ChE activities were found to be about 0.5 microM. In conclusion, itopride exerts reversible and a "mixed" type of inhibition preferably against AChE. The IC50 of itopride for electric eel and guinea pig gastrointestinal AChE inhibition was 200 times and 50 times as large as that of neostigmine, respectively.

  17. Response inhibition in motor conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Wiggs, Edythe; Kranick, Sarah; Ameli, Rezvan; Harrison, Neil A; Hallett, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Conversion disorders (CDs) are unexplained neurological symptoms presumed to be related to a psychological issue. Studies focusing on conversion paralysis have suggested potential impairments in motor initiation or execution. Here we studied CD patients with aberrant or excessive motor movements and focused on motor response inhibition. We also assessed cognitive measures in multiple domains. We compared 30 CD patients and 30 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers on a motor response inhibition task (go/no go), along with verbal motor response inhibition (color-word interference) and measures of attention, sustained attention, processing speed, language, memory, visuospatial processing, and executive function including planning and verbal fluency. CD patients had greater impairments in commission errors on the go/no go task (P < .001) compared with healthy volunteers, which remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons and after controlling for attention, sustained attention, depression, and anxiety. There were no significant differences in other cognitive measures. We highlight a specific deficit in motor response inhibition that may play a role in impaired inhibition of unwanted movement such as the excessive and aberrant movements seen in motor conversion. Patients with nonepileptic seizures, a different form of conversion disorder, are commonly reported to have lower IQ and multiple cognitive deficits. Our results point toward potential differences between conversion disorder subgroups. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  18. The role of (dis)inhibition in creativity: decreased inhibition improves idea generation.

    PubMed

    Radel, Rémi; Davranche, Karen; Fournier, Marion; Dietrich, Arne

    2015-01-01

    There is now a large body of evidence showing that many different conditions related to impaired fronto-executive functioning are associated with the enhancement of some types of creativity. In this paper, we pursue the possibility that the central mechanism associated with this effect might be a reduced capacity to exert inhibition. We tested this hypothesis by exhausting the inhibition efficiency through prolonged and intensive practice of either the Simon or the Eriksen Flanker task. Performance on another inhibition task indicated that only the cognitive resources for inhibition of participants facing high inhibition demands were impaired. Subsequent creativity tests revealed that exposure to high inhibition demands led to enhanced fluency in a divergent thinking task (Alternate Uses Task), but no such changes occurred in a convergent task (Remote Associate Task; studies 1a and 1b). The same manipulation also led to a hyper-priming effect for weakly related primes in a Lexical Decision Task (Study 2). Together, these findings suggest that inhibition selectively affects some types of creative processes and that, when resources for inhibition are lacking, the frequency and the originality of ideas was facilitated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of ethylene production by putrescine alleviates aluminium-induced root inhibition in wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Sun, Chengliang; Wang, Jinghong; Ye, Yiquan; Zhou, Weiwei; Lu, Lingli; Lin, Xianyong

    2016-01-08

    Inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of aluminium (Al) toxicity. Although putrescine (Put) has been identified as an important signaling molecule involved in Al tolerance, it is yet unknown how Put mitigates Al-induced root inhibition. Here, the possible mechanism was investigated by using two wheat genotypes differing in Al resistance: Al-tolerant Xi Aimai-1 and Al-sensitive Yangmai-5. Aluminium caused more root inhibition in Yangmai-5 and increased ethylene production at the root apices compared to Xi Aimai-1, whereas the effects were significantly reversed by ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors. The simultaneous exposure of wheat seedlings to Al and ethylene donor, ethephon, or ethylene biosynthesis precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), increased ethylene production and aggravated root inhibition, which was more pronounced in Xi Aimai-1. In contrast, Put treatment decreased ethylene production and alleviated Al-induced root inhibition in both genotypes, and the effects were more conspicuous in Yangmai-5. Furthermore, our results indicated that Al-induced ethylene production was mediated by ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase, and that Put decreased ethylene production by inhibiting ACS. Altogether, these findings indicate that ethylene is involved in Al-induced root inhibition and this process could be alleviated by Put through inhibiting ACS activity.

  20. Distractor inhibition: Evidence from lateralized readiness potentials.

    PubMed

    Pramme, Lisa; Dierolf, Angelika M; Naumann, Ewald; Frings, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated distractor inhibition on the level of stimulus representation. In a sequential distractor-to-distractor priming task participants had to respond to target letters flanked by distractor digits. Reaction time and stimulus-locked lateralized readiness potentials (S-LRPs) of probe responses were measured. Distractor-target onset asynchrony was varied. For RTs responses to probe targets were faster in the case of prime-distractor repetition compared to distractor changes indicating distractor inhibition. Benefits in RTs and the latency of S-LRP onsets for distractor repetition were also modulated by distractor-target onset asynchrony. For S-LRPs distractor inhibition was only present with a simultaneous onset of distractors and target. The results confirm previous results indicating inhibitory mechanisms of object-based selective attention on the level of distractor representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The ammonium sulfate inhibition of human angiogenin.

    PubMed

    Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Tsirkone, Vicky G; Dossi, Kyriaki; Kassouni, Aikaterini G; Liggri, Panagiota G V; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Stravodimos, George A; Balatsos, Nikolaos A A; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the inhibition of human angiogenin by ammonium sulfate. The inhibitory potency of ammonium sulfate for human angiogenin (IC50 = 123.5 ± 14.9 mm) is comparable to that previously reported for RNase A (119.0 ± 6.5 mm) and RNase 2 (95.7 ± 9.3 mm). However, analysis of two X-ray crystal structures of human angiogenin in complex with sulfate anions (in acidic and basic pH environments, respectively) indicates an entirely distinct mechanism of inhibition. While ammonium sulfate inhibits the ribonucleolytic activity of RNase A and RNase 2 by binding to the active site of these enzymes, sulfate anions bind only to peripheral substrate anion-binding subsites of human angiogenin, and not to the active site. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. Inhibition of Microbial Lipases by Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. L.; Alford, John A.

    1966-01-01

    Addition of lard or sodium oleate to the medium used for lipase production by Pseudomonas fragi resulted in a decreased accumulation of lipase in the culture supernatant fluid without affecting cell growth. The production and activity of lipase was inhibited by lard, sodium oleate, and the salts of other unsaturated fatty acids. Some divalent cations, Tweens, lecithin, and bovine serum prevented oleate inhibition, but did not reverse it. Similar inhibitory actions were observed with Geotrichum candidum lipase, but not with a staphylococcal lipase or pancreatic lipase. A protective effect by protein in crude enzyme preparations is indicated. The ability of oleate to lower surface tension does not appear to be related to its ability to inhibit lipase. PMID:5970458

  3. Obligate intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia inhibiting mitochondrial activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhikai; Jiang, Yongquan; Zhang, Lihong; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Zhang, Jianzhi; Walker, David H.; Yu, Xue-jie

    2010-01-01

    Ehrlichia are obligately intracellular bacteria that reside in a vacuole in the cytoplasm of phagocytes. We determined by confocal microscopy the interaction between Ehrlichia and mitochondria in DH82 cells to investigate the mechanism of Ehrlichia survival inside the phagocyte. The most remarkable finding of our study was that Ehrlichia morulae interacted with mitochondria and inhibited mitochondrial metabolism,. We showed that in E. chaffeensis-infected DH82 cells, mitochondria did not incorporate BrdU and transcriptional level of the mitochondrial gene NADPH2 was significantly reduced, indicating the inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism. This study demonstrates that Ehrlichia are able to inhibit mitochondrial activities, and it opens up a new avenue for the study of Ehrlichia pathogenesis. PMID:21070861

  4. Inhibition of melanogenesis by Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailan; Min, Young Sil; Park, Kyoung-Chan; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Xanthium strumarium L. (Asteraceae) is traditionally used in Korea to treat skin diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of a X. strumarium stem extract on melanin synthesis. It inhibited melanin synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner, but it did not directly inhibit tyrosinase, the rate-limiting melanogenic enzyme, and instead downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase expression. MITF, the master regulator of pigmentation, is a target of the Wnt signaling pathway, which includes glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and β-catenin. Hence, the influence of X. strumarium stem extract on GSK3β and β-catenin was further investigated. X. strumarium induced GSK3β phosphorylation (inactivation), but the level of β-catenin did not change. Moreover, a specific GSK3β inhibitor restored X. strumarium-induced melanin reduction. Hence, we suggest that X. strumarium inhibits melanin synthesis through downregulation of tyrosinase via GSK3β phosphorylation.

  5. Lewis Carroll: a study of mathematical inhibition.

    PubMed

    Keller, E F

    1980-01-01

    Carroll's mathematical abilities appear to have been severely constrained--subject simultaneously to inhibition and distortion. Through an analysis of his informal commentary on his relation to mathematical puzzles I have attempted to understand and explain the nature of these inhibitions and distortions. Particular attention to his metaphor of the "mental bun," and his use of this metaphor, has led me to conclude that the mathematical puzzle served, for Carroll, distinctly fetishistic functions. This interpretation dovetails with Greenacre's early intuition about the prevalence in his literary work of fantasies and preoccupations reminescent of clinical experience with fetishism. The connection argued here between inhibitions and distortions in the sexual and intellectual realms suggests, as a domain for further inquiry, the possibility of a more general investigation into the role of sexual fantasies in intellectual activities.

  6. Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Yeun; Yoon, Sei Mee; Choi, Eun Ju; Lee, Jinu

    2016-09-15

    Terbinafine is an antifungal agent that selectively inhibits fungal sterol synthesis by blocking squalene epoxidase. We evaluated the effect of terbinafine on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and I-YFP GJIC assays revealed that terbinafine inhibits GJIC in a reversible and dose-dependent manner in FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. Treatment with terbinafine did not affect Cx43 phosphorylation status or intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, well-known action mechanisms of various GJIC blockers. While a structurally related chemical, naftifine, attenuated GJIC, epigallocatechin gallate, another potent squalene epoxidase inhibitor with a different structure, did not. These results suggest that terbinafine inhibits GJIC with a so far unknown mechanism of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of Titanium In Fuming Nitric Acid

    SciT

    RITTENHOUSE, J. B.; PAPP, C. A.

    1958-06-01

    Storage tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of oxygen in inhibiting the corrosion reaction of titanium in fuming nitric acid (FNA). In these tests, which were of 28 days duration at a temperature of 30 C, the samples investigated were ½-inch squares (0.020 inch thick) of commercially pure titanium (75A) and a binary 8 percent-manganese alloy (C110M). The specimens were stored in Teflon-lined aluminum pressure vessels at 50 percent ullage. The pressure vessels were of the following types: vented to the atmosphere, sealed with air in the vapor space, sealed with oxygen atmosphere in the vapor space, and equippedmore » for a 1-ml/minute oxygen flow through the vapor space. Finally, results of the investigation indicated no inhibition of titanium corrosion by oxygen, but confirmed the inhibiting effect of a water content of 1 to 2 percent by weight in the FNA.« less

  8. Mapuche herbal medicine inhibits blood platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM) and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H(2)O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1), and L. apiculata (H(2)O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers.

  9. Mapuche Herbal Medicine Inhibits Blood Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM) and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H2O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1), and L. apiculata (H2O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers. PMID:22028732

  10. Ibogaine and the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Alper, Kenneth; Reith, Maarten E A; Sershen, Henry

    2012-02-15

    Ibogaine is a psychoactive monoterpine indole alkaloid extracted from the root bark of Tabernanthe iboga Baill. that is used globally in medical and nonmedical settings to treat drug and alcohol addiction, and is of interest as an ethnopharmacological prototype for experimental investigation and pharmaceutical development. The question of whether ibogaine inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is of pharmacological and toxicological significance. AChE activity was evaluated utilizing reaction with Ellman's reagent with physostigmine as a control. Ibogaine inhibited AChE with an IC(50) of 520±40 μM. Ibogaine's inhibition of AChE is physiologically negligible, and does not appear to account for observations of functional effects in animals and humans that might otherwise suggest the possible involvement of pathways linked to muscarinic acetylcholine transmission. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. THE INHIBITION OF CYPRIDINA LUMINESCENCE BY LIGHT

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, E. Newton

    1925-01-01

    The luminescence of Cypridina luciferin-luciferase solution is inhibited by illumination from a carbon arc of 15,000 foot candles in between 1 and 2 seconds. The blue to violet rays are the effective ones, the limits lying somewhere around 4,600 Å. u. to 3,800 Å. u. The luciferin, not the luciferase, is the substance affected by the light. The effect is partially reversible in the dark. The chemiluminescences obtained by oxidizing phosphorus, lophin, and chlorphenylmagnesium bromide are not inhibited by light under the above conditions. PMID:19872169

  12. Halenaquinone inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Sachiko; Takeuchi, Tomoharu; Kawabata, Tetsuro; Kato, Hikaru; Yamakuma, Michiko; Matsuo, Kanae; El-Desoky, Ahmed H; Losung, Fitje; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Arata, Yoichiro; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi

    2014-11-15

    Halenaquinone was isolated from the marine sponge Petrosia alfiani as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenic differentiation of murine RAW264 cells. It inhibited the RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand)-induced upregulation of TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) activity as well as the formation of multinuclear osteoclasts. In addition, halenaquinone substantially suppressed RANKL-induced IκB degradation and Akt phosphorylation. Thus, these results suggest that halenaquinone inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis at least by suppressing the NF-κB and Akt signaling pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptive regulation of sparseness by feedforward inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Assisi, Collins; Stopfer, Mark; Laurent, Gilles; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    In the mushroom body of insects, odors are represented by very few spikes in a small number of neurons, a highly efficient strategy known as sparse coding. Physiological studies of these neurons have shown that sparseness is maintained across thousand-fold changes in odor concentration. Using a realistic computational model, we propose that sparseness in the olfactory system is regulated by adaptive feedforward inhibition. When odor concentration changes, feedforward inhibition modulates the duration of the temporal window over which the mushroom body neurons may integrate excitatory presynaptic input. This simple adaptive mechanism could maintain the sparseness of sensory representations across wide ranges of stimulus conditions. PMID:17660812

  14. Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 3: developmental changes in spermatid flagellum and cytoplasmic droplet and interaction of sperm with the zona pellucida and egg plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Hermo, Louis; Pelletier, R-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G; Smith, Charles E

    2010-04-01

    Spermiogenesis constitutes the steps involved in the metamorphosis of spermatids into spermatozoa. It involves modification of several organelles in addition to the formation of several structures including the flagellum and cytoplasmic droplet. The flagellum is composed of a neck region and middle, principal, and end pieces. The axoneme composed of nine outer microtubular doublets circularly arranged to form a cylinder around a central pair of microtubules is present throughout the flagellum. The middle and principal pieces each contain specific components such as the mitochondrial sheath and fibrous sheath, respectively, while outer dense fibers are common to both. A plethora of proteins are constituents of each of these structures, with each playing key roles in functions related to the fertility of spermatozoa. At the end of spermiogenesis, a portion of spermatid cytoplasm remains associated with the released spermatozoa, referred to as the cytoplasmic droplet. The latter has as its main feature Golgi saccules, which appear to modify the plasma membrane of spermatozoa as they move down the epididymal duct and hence may be partly involved in male gamete maturation. The end product of spermatogenesis is highly streamlined and motile spermatozoa having a condensed nucleus equipped with an acrosome. Spermatozoa move through the female reproductive tract and eventually penetrate the zona pellucida and bind to the egg plasma membrane. Many proteins have been implicated in the process of fertilization as well as a plethora of proteins involved in the development of spermatids and sperm, and these are high lighted in this review. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Sparse Coding and Lateral Inhibition Arising from Balanced and Unbalanced Dendrodendritic Excitation and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, Michele; Hines, Michael L.; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2014-01-01

    The precise mechanism by which synaptic excitation and inhibition interact with each other in odor coding through the unique dendrodendritic synaptic microcircuits present in olfactory bulb is unknown. Here a scaled-up model of the mitral–granule cell network in the rodent olfactory bulb is used to analyze dendrodendritic processing of experimentally determined odor patterns. We found that the interaction between excitation and inhibition is responsible for two fundamental computational mechanisms: (1) a balanced excitation/inhibition in strongly activated mitral cells, leading to a sparse representation of odorant input, and (2) an unbalanced excitation/inhibition (inhibition dominated) in surrounding weakly activated mitral cells, leading to lateral inhibition. These results suggest how both mechanisms can carry information about the input patterns, with optimal level of synaptic excitation and inhibition producing the highest level of sparseness and decorrelation in the network response. The results suggest how the learning process, through the emergent development of these mechanisms, can enhance odor representation of olfactory bulb. PMID:25297097

  16. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophoric antibiotic, inhibits adipogenesis

    SciT

    Szkudlarek-Mikho, Maria; Saunders, Rudel A.; Yap, Sook Fan

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salinomycin inhibits preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salinomycin inhibits transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pharmacological effects of salinomycin suggest toxicity in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: The polyether ionophoric antibiotics including monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, are widely used in veterinary medicine and as food additives and growth promoters in animal husbandry including poultry farming. Their effects on human health, however, are not fully understood. Recent studies showed that salinomycin is a cancer stem cell inhibitor. Since poultry consumption has risen sharply in the last three decades, we asked whether the consumption of meat tainted with growth promoting antibiotics mightmore » have effects on adipose cells. We showed in this report that the ionophoric antibiotics inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. The block of differentiation is not due to the induction of apoptosis nor the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, salinomycin also suppresses the transcriptional activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}. These results suggest that the ionophoric antibiotics can be exploited as novel anti-obesity therapeutics and as pharmacological probes for the study of adipose biology. Further, the pharmacological effects of salinomycin could be a harbinger of its toxicity on the adipose tissue and other susceptible target cells in cancer therapy.« less

  17. The Mechanism Underlying Inhibition of Saccadic Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Casimir J. H.; Farrell, Simon; Ellis, Lucy A.; Gilchrist, Iain D.

    2009-01-01

    Human observers take longer to re-direct gaze to a previously fixated location. Although there has been some exploration of the characteristics of inhibition of saccadic return (ISR), the exact mechanisms by which ISR operates are currently unknown. In the framework of accumulation models of response times, in which evidence is integrated over…

  18. Inhibiting Translation One Protein at a Time.

    PubMed

    Disney, Matthew D

    2017-06-01

    Historically, translational inhibitors have been confined to anti-bacterials that globally affect translation. Lintner et al. demonstrate that small molecules can specifically inhibit translation of a single disease-associated protein by stalling the ribosome's nascent chain [1], opening up a new therapeutic strategy for 'undruggable' proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hawthorn extract inhibits human isolated neutrophil functions.

    PubMed

    Dalli, Ernesto; Milara, Javier; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Cosín-Sales, Juan; Sotillo, José Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Hawthorn extract is a popular herbal medicine given as adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure. In contrast to the cardiac properties of hawthorn extract, its anti-inflammatory effect has been scarcely investigated. This study examines the effects of a dry extract of leaves and flowers of Crataegus laevigata on various functional outputs of human neutrophils in vitro. Incubation of human neutrophils obtained from peripheral blood of healthy donors with C. laevigata extract (0.75-250 microg/ml) inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-induced superoxide anion generation, elastase release and chemotactic migration with potency values of 43.6, 21.9, and 31.6 microg/ml, respectively. By contrast, serum-opsonized zymosan-induced phagocytosis was unaltered by plant extract. C. laevigata extract (125 microg/ml) reduced FMLP-induced leukotriene B(4) production and lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8. Extract inhibited FMLP-induced intracellular calcium signal with potency of 17.4 microg/ml. Extract also markedly inhibited the extracellular calcium entry into calcium-depleted neutrophils, and the thapsigargin-induced intracellular calcium response. In conclusion, C. laevigata extract inhibited various functional outputs of activated human neutrophils which may be relevant to the pathophysiology of cardiac failure.

  20. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  1. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. BROMODICHLOROMETHANE INHIBITS HUMAN PLACENTAL TROPHOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    BROMODICHLOROMETHANE INHIBITS HUMAN PLACENTAL
    TROPHOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION
    Jiangang Chen, Twanda L. Thirkill, Peter N. Lohstroh, Susan R. Bielmeier, Michael
    G. Narotsky, Deborah S. Best, Randy A. Harrison, Kala Natarajan, Rex A. Pegram,
    Bill L. Lasley, and Gordon C. Do...

  3. Inhibited interferon production after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Gould, C. L.; Williams, J.; Mandel, A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Several studies have been performed in our laboratories indicating that interferon production may be impaired in rodents after space flight. Using an antiorthostatic suspension model that simulates some of the effects of microgravity seen during space flight, we have shown that interferon-alpha/beta production was inhibited. The inhibition was not due solely to the stress of suspension. The inhibited interferon production was transient, as suspended animals returned to normal caging recovered the ability to produce interferon. Antiorthostatic suspension of mice also resulted in a loss of resistance to infection with the diabetogenic strain of encephalomyocarditis virus, which correlated with the drop in interferon production. In rats flown in US Space Shuttle mission SL-3, interferon-gamma production was inhibited severely when spleen cells were challenged with concanavalin-A upon return to earth. In contrast, interleukin-3 production by these cells was normal. These results suggest that immune responses may be altered after antiorthostatic modeling or space flight, and the resistance to viral infections may be especially affected.

  4. Motivational Influences on Response Inhibition Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leotti, Lauren A.; Wager, Tor D.

    2010-01-01

    Psychological research has placed great emphasis on inhibitory control due to its integral role in normal cognition and clinical disorders. The stop-signal task and associated measure--stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)--provides a well-established paradigm for measuring response inhibition. However, motivational influences on stop-signal…

  5. Search Asymmetry, Sustained Attention, and Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Hugh; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In the present experiment, we used search asymmetry to test whether the sustained attention to response task is a better measure of response inhibition or sustained attention. Participants performed feature present and feature absent target detection tasks using either a sustained attention to response task (SART; high Go low No-Go) or a…

  6. Target Predictability, Sustained Attention, and Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Leonie; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the sustained attention to response task is a better measure of response inhibition or sustained attention. Participants performed a number detection task for 37.3 min using either a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; high Go low No-Go) or a more traditionally formatted vigilance task (TFT; high No-Go low Go) response…

  7. Osthole inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Baofeng; Ye, Yiyi; Han, Xianghui; Qin, Yuenong; Liu, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common sites for breast cancer metastasis, which greatly contributes to patient morbidity and mortality. Osthole, a major extract from Cnidium monnieri (L.), exhibits many biological and pharmacological activities, however, its potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases remain poorly understood. In this study, we set out to investigate whether osthole could inhibit breast cancer metastasis to bone in mice and clarified the potential mechanism of this inhibition. In the murine model of breast cancer osseous metastasis, mice that received osthole developed significantly less bone metastases and displayed decreased tumor burden when compared with mice in the control group. Osthole inhibited breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Additionally, it also regulated OPG/RANKL signals in the interactions between bone cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts) and cancer cells. Besides, it also inhibited TGF-β/Smads signaling in breast cancer metastasis to bone in MDA-231BO cells. The results of this study suggest that osthole has real potential as a therapeutic candidate in the treatment of breast cancer patients with bone metastases. PMID:28938572

  8. Neprilysin inhibition in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Parminder; Haynes, Richard; Landray, Martin J.; Baigent, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Despite current practice, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular events. Neprilysin inhibition (NEPi) is a new therapeutic strategy with potential to improve outcomes for patients with CKD. NEPi enhances the activity of natriuretic peptide systems leading to natriuresis, diuresis and inhibition of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which could act as a potentially beneficial counter-regulatory system in states of RAS activation such as chronic heart failure (HF) and CKD. Early NEPi drugs were combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors but were associated with unacceptable rates of angioedema and, therefore, withdrawn. However, one such agent (omapatrilat) showed promise of NEP/RAS inhibition in treating CKD in animal models, producing greater reductions in proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared with isolated RAS inhibition. A new class of drug called angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNi) has been developed. One such drug, LCZ696, has shown substantial benefits in trials in hypertension and HF. In CKD, HF is common due to a range of mechanisms including hypertension and structural heart disease (including left ventricular hypertrophy), suggesting that ARNi could benefit patients with CKD by both retarding the progression of CKD (hence delaying the need for renal replacement therapy) and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. LCZ696 is now being studied in a CKD population. PMID:25140014

  9. Illustrating Enzyme Inhibition Using Gibbs Energy Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearne, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Gibbs energy profiles have great utility as teaching and learning tools because they present students with a visual representation of the energy changes that occur during enzyme catalysis. Unfortunately, most textbooks divorce discussions of traditional kinetic topics, such as enzyme inhibition, from discussions of these same topics in terms of…

  10. An Activation/Inhibition Network Cell.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    memory is a powerful concept, no one has found a way of doing activation and inhibition on it, so I’ll stick to the simple mapping. --------- AAB -W...Rumongus Scale Integration.. G-9- Vorking Paper 31 Referens. Fahiman, S.. NL: A s=u LI= rpnng A" using rial-world kowledge . MIT Pess, Cambridge, 1979

  11. Factors Inhibiting Hispanic Parents' School Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jay; Stern, Kenneth; Shatrova, Zhanna

    2008-01-01

    Factors inhibiting Hispanic parental involvement in non-metropolitan area schools were studied. With the mandates of No Child Left Behind intensifying the need to improve the academic achievement of all at-risk groups of students in American schools, and with the relatively new phenomenon of large numbers of Hispanics settling in non-metropolitan…

  12. Inhibiting Intuitive Thinking in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2015-01-01

    The papers in this issue describe recent collaborative research into the role of inhibition of intuitive thinking in mathematics education. This commentary reflects on this research from a mathematics education perspective and draws attention to some of the challenges that arise in collaboration between research fields with different cultures,…

  13. Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication

    SciT

    Lee, Ju Yeun, E-mail: whitewndus@naver.com

    Terbinafine is an antifungal agent that selectively inhibits fungal sterol synthesis by blocking squalene epoxidase. We evaluated the effect of terbinafine on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and I-YFP GJIC assays revealed that terbinafine inhibits GJIC in a reversible and dose-dependent manner in FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. Treatment with terbinafine did not affect Cx43 phosphorylation status or intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, well-known action mechanisms of various GJIC blockers. While a structurally related chemical, naftifine, attenuated GJIC, epigallocatechin gallate, another potent squalene epoxidase inhibitor with a different structure, did not. These results suggest that terbinafine inhibitsmore » GJIC with a so far unknown mechanism of action. - Highlights: • In vitro pharmacological studies were performed on FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. • Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication in both cell lines. • The inhibitory effect of terbinafine is reversible and dose-dependent. • Treatment of terbinafine does not alter Cx43 phosphorylation or cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration. • Inhibition of squalene epoxidase is not involved in this new effect of terbinafine.« less

  14. Serum amyloid P inhibits dermal wound healing

    The repair of open wounds depends on granulation tissue formation and contraction, which is primarily mediated by myofibroblasts. A subset of myofibroblasts originates from bone-marrow-derived monocytes which differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. Serum amyloid P (SAP) inhibits ...

  15. Aromatase Inhibition in a Transcriptional Network Context

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of chemicals in the environment have the potential to inhibit aromatase, an enzyme critical to estrogen synthesis. We examined the responses of female fathead minnow ovaries (FHM, Pimephales promelas) to a model aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, using a transcriptional ne...

  16. Hydrogen Peroxide Inhibits Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Brandon T.; Gutterman, David D.; Sato, Atsushi; Toyama, Kazuyoshi; Campbell, William B.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Manthati, Vijay L.; Falck, John R.; Miura, Hiroto

    2008-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (CYP)-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) both function as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) in the human coronary microcirculation. However, the relative importance of and potential interactions between these 2 vasodilators remain unexplored. We identified a novel inhibitory interaction between CYPs and H2O2 in human coronary arterioles, where EDHF-mediated vasodilatory mechanisms are prominent. Bradykinin induced vascular superoxide and H2O2 production in an endothelium-dependent manner and elicited a concentration-dependent dilation that was reduced by catalase but not by 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (EEZE), 6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanoic acid, sulfaphenazole, or iberiotoxin. However, in the presence of catalase, an inhibitory effect of these compounds was unmasked. In a tandem-bioassay preparation, application of bradykinin to endothelium-intact donor vessels elicited dilation of downstream endothelium-denuded detectors that was partially inhibited by donor-applied catalase but not by detector-applied EEZE; however, EEZE significantly inhibited dilation in the presence of catalase. EET production by human recombinant CYP 2C9 and 2J2, 2 major epoxygenase isozymes expressed in human coronary arterioles, was directly inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion by H2O2 in vitro, as observed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); however, EETs were not directly sensitive to oxidative modification. H2O2 inhibited dilation to arachidonic acid but not to 11,12-EET. These findings suggest that an inhibitory interaction exists between 2 EDHFs in the human coronary microcirculation. CYP epoxygenases are directly inhibited by H2O2, and this interaction may modulate vascular EET bioavailability. PMID:17975109

  17. Polysulfonate suramin inhibits Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chee Wah; Sam, I-Ching; Chong, Wei Lim; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus that causes newborn microcephaly and Guillian-Barré syndrome in adults. No therapeutics are available to treat ZIKV infection or other flaviviruses. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effect of glycosaminoglycans and analogues against ZIKV infection. Highly sulfated heparin, dextran sulfate and suramin significantly inhibited ZIKV infection in Vero cells. De-sulfated heparin analogues lose inhibitory effect, implying that sulfonate groups are critical for viral inhibition. Suramin, an FDA-approved anti-parasitic drug, inhibits ZIKV infection with 3-5 log 10  PFU viral reduction with IC 50 value of ∼2.5-5 μg/ml (1.93 μM-3.85 μM). A time-of-drug-addition study revealed that suramin remains potent even when administrated at 1-24 hpi. Suramin inhibits ZIKV infection by preventing viral adsorption, entry and replication. Molecular dynamics simulation revealed stronger interaction of suramin with ZIKV NS3 helicase than with the envelope protein. Suramin warrants further investigation as a potential antiviral candidate for ZIKV infection. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a cellular attachment receptor for multiple flaviviruses. However, no direct ZIKV-heparin interaction was observed in heparin-binding analysis, and downregulate or removal of cellular HS with sodium chlorate or heparinase I/III did not inhibit ZIKV infection. This indicates that cell surface HS is not utilized by ZIKV as an attachment receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reciprocal inhibition of inhibition: A circuit motif for flexible categorization in stimulus selection

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Eric I.

    2011-01-01

    As a precursor to the selection of a stimulus for gaze and attention, a midbrain network categorizes stimuli into “strongest” and “others.” The categorization tracks flexibly, in real-time, the absolute strength of the strongest stimulus. In this study, we take a first principles approach to computations that are essential for such categorization. We demonstrate that classical feedforward lateral inhibition cannot produce flexible categorization. However, circuits in which the strength of lateral inhibition varies with the relative strength of competing stimuli categorize successfully. One particular implementation - reciprocal inhibition of feedforward lateral inhibition – is structurally the simplest, and it outperforms others in flexibly categorizing rapidly and reliably. Strong predictions of this anatomically supported circuit model are validated by neural responses measured in the owl midbrain. The results demonstrate the extraordinary power of a remarkably simple, neurally grounded circuit motif in producing flexible categorization, a computation fundamental to attention, perception, and decision-making. PMID:22243757

  19. Hypothermia Inhibits Endothelium-Independent Vascular Contractility via Rho-kinase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yoon Hee; Oh, Keon Woong; Kim, Sung Tae; Park, Eon Sub; Je, Hyun Dong; Yoon, Hyuk-Jun; Sohn, Uy Dong; Jeong, Ji Hoon; La, Hyen-Oh

    2018-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of hypothermia on endothelium-independent vascular smooth muscle contractility and to determine the mechanism underlying the relaxation. Denuded aortic rings from male rats were used and isometric contractions were recorded and combined with molecular experiments. Hypothermia significantly inhibited fluoride-, thromboxane A2-, phenylephrine-, and phorbol ester-induced vascular contractions regardless of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, suggesting that another pathway had a direct effect on vascular smooth muscle. Hypothermia significantly inhibited the fluoride-induced increase in pMYPT1 level and phorbol ester-induced increase in pERK1/2 level, suggesting inhibition of Rho-kinase and MEK activity and subsequent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and ERK1/2. These results suggest that the relaxing effect of moderate hypothermia on agonist-induced vascular contraction regardless of endothelial function involves inhibition of Rho-kinase and MEK activities. PMID:28208012

  20. VISUALIZATION-BASED ANALYSIS FOR A MIXED-INHIBITION BINARY PBPK MODEL: DETERMINATION OF INHIBITION MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model incorporating mixed enzyme inhibition was used to determine the mechanism of metabolic interactions occurring during simultaneous exposures to the organic solvents chloroform and trichloroethylene (TCE). Visualization-based se...

  1. VISUALIZATION-BASED ANALYSIS FOR A MIXED-INHIBITION BINARY PBPK MODEL: DETERMINATION OF INHIBITION MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model incorporating mixed enzyme inhibition was used to determine mechanism of the metabolic interactions occurring during simultaneous inhalation exposures to the organic solvents chloroform and trichloroethylene (TCE).

    V...

  2. Adrenal steroid inhibition of the vasopressin-neurophysin neurosecretory system to the median eminence of the rat. Differential effects of corticosterone and deoxycorticosterone administration after adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Silverman, A J; Hoffman, D; Gadde, C A; Krey, L C; Zimmermann, E A

    1981-03-01

    Neurophysin and vasopressin-containing terminals in the zona externa of the median eminence (ZE) show a large increase in immunoreactive peptide following adrenalectomy which can be prevented by dexamethazone replacement therapy. The present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of a glucocorticoid (corticosterone; CS) and a mineralocorticoid (deoxycorticosterone: DOC) in exerting negative feedback on this system. Animals were adrenalectomized and implanted with various sized pellets of either steroid or cholesterol. The amount of neurophysin-immunoreactivity in the ZE 2 weeks after adrenalectomy was estimated on a zero to four rank scale independently by three observers. The data were analyzed by the X2 statistic. Low doses of CS (50 mg) reduced the amount of staining in comparison to cholesterol-replaced animals by approximately 50%. The ZE of animals receiving higher doses (100--200 mg) were identical to those of intact animals. DOC, however, at the 50 or 100 mg level produced only a slight inhibition of the response to adrenalectomy. Larger pellets (150--200 mg) did not result in a level of ZE staining as low as for intact animals. These findings suggest that the vasopressin neurosecretory system to the ZE is regulated by glucocorticoids.

  3. Inhibition-Induced Forgetting Results from Resource Competition between Response Inhibition and Memory Encoding Processes.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Egner, Tobias

    2015-08-26

    Response inhibition is a key component of executive control, but its relation to other cognitive processes is not well understood. We recently documented the "inhibition-induced forgetting effect": no-go cues are remembered more poorly than go cues. We attributed this effect to central-resource competition, whereby response inhibition saps attention away from memory encoding. However, this proposal is difficult to test with behavioral means alone. We therefore used fMRI in humans to test two neural predictions of the "common resource hypothesis": (1) brain regions associated with response inhibition should exhibit greater resource demands during encoding of subsequently forgotten than remembered no-go cues; and (2) this higher inhibitory resource demand should lead to memory encoding regions having less resources available during encoding of subsequently forgotten no-go cues. Participants categorized face stimuli by gender in a go/no-go task and, following a delay, performed a surprise recognition memory test for those faces. Replicating previous findings, memory was worse for no-go than for go stimuli. Crucially, forgetting of no-go cues was predicted by high inhibitory resource demand, as quantified by the trial-by-trial ratio of activity in neural "no-go" versus "go" networks. Moreover, this index of inhibitory demand exhibited an inverse trial-by-trial relationship with activity in brain regions responsible for the encoding of no-go cues into memory, notably the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. This seesaw pattern between the neural resource demand of response inhibition and activity related to memory encoding directly supports the hypothesis that response inhibition temporarily saps attentional resources away from stimulus processing. Recent behavioral experiments showed that inhibiting a motor response to a stimulus (a "no-go cue") impairs subsequent memory for that cue. Here, we used fMRI to test whether this "inhibition-induced forgetting effect" is caused

  4. Phosphorothioate oligonucleotides inhibit the intrinsic tenase complex.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, J P; Lan, H C

    1998-09-01

    Systemic administration of ISIS 2302, a 20-mer antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide targeting human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA, causes prolongation of plasma clotting times in both monkey and human studies. The anticoagulant effects of ISIS 2302 were investigated with both in vitro coagulation assays in human plasma and purified enzyme systems. At high oligonucleotide plasma concentrations (>100 microgram/mL), prolongation of the prothrombin and thrombin times was observed. In a thrombin time assay using purified components, high concentrations of ISIS 2302 inhibited thrombin clotting activity both by stimulating inhibition by heparin cofactor II and directly competing with fibrinogen for binding to anion binding exosite I. In contrast, low concentrations of ISIS 2302 (<100 microgram/mL) showed a selective, linear prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT). The rate limiting effect of 50 microgram/mL ISIS 2302, which prolonged the PTT to 1.5 times control, was identified by sequential modification of the clotting assay. Delaying addition of oligonucleotide until after contact activation failed to correct prolongation of the PTT. The calcium-dependent steps of the intrinsic pathway were individually assessed by adding sufficient activated coagulation factor to correct the PTT in plasma deficient in that specific factor. Addition of factor XIa, IXa, VIIIa, or Va failed to correct the PTT in the presence of ISIS 2302. In contrast, 0.2 nmol/L factor Xa corrected prolongation of the PTT in factor X-deficient plasma with or without oligonucleotide present. ISIS 2302 (50 microgram/mL) did not prolong a modified Russel viper venom time, suggesting no significant inhibition of prothrombinase. Thus, 50 microgram/mL ISIS 2302 prolonged the PTT by selectively inhibiting intrinsic tenase activity. ISIS 2302 showed partial inhibition of intrinsic tenase activity (to approximately 35% of control) at clinically relevant oligonucleotide

  5. Equol inhibits growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    SciT

    Mahalingam, Sharada, E-mail: mahalin2@illinois.edu; Gao, Liying, E-mail: lgao@uiuc.edu; Gonnering, Marni, E-mail: mgonne2@illinois.edu

    Equol is a non-steroidal estrogen metabolite produced by microbial conversion of daidzein, a major soy isoflavone, in the gut of some humans and many animal species. Isoflavones and their metabolites can affect endogenous estradiol production, action, and metabolism, potentially influencing ovarian follicle function. However, no studies have examined the effects of equol on intact ovarian antral follicles, which are responsible for sex steroid synthesis and further development into ovulatory follicles. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that equol inhibits antral follicle growth, increases follicle atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis in the adult mouse ovary. To test this hypothesis, antral folliclesmore » isolated from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or equol (600 nM, 6 μM, 36 μM, and 100 μM) for 48 and 96 h. Every 24 h, follicle diameters were measured to monitor growth. At 48 and 96 h, the culture medium was subjected to measurement of hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis. Additionally, follicles were histologically evaluated for signs of atresia after 96 h of culture. The results indicate that equol (100 μM) inhibited follicle growth, altered the mRNA levels of bcl2-associated X protein and B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and induced follicle atresia. Further, equol decreased the levels of estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone, and it decreased mRNA levels of cholesterol side-chain cleavage, steroid 17-α-hydroxalase, and aromatase. Collectively, these data indicate that equol inhibits growth, increases atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of cultured mouse antral follicles. - Highlights: • Equol exposure inhibits antral follicle growth. • Equol exposure increases follicle atresia. • Equol exposure inhibits sex steroid hormone levels. • Equol exposure inhibits mRNA levels of certain steroidogenic enzymes.« less

  6. Lithium inhibits tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis through the inhibition of TGFBIp expression in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Yong-Sun; Lee, Rina; Lee, Boram; Choi, Seung-il; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of mortality in cancer patients. Although there are many anti-cancer drugs targeting tumor growth, anti-metastatic agents are rarely developed. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are crucial for cancer progression; in particular, lymphangiogenesis is pivotal for metastasis in cancer. Here we report that lithium inhibits colon cancer metastasis by blocking lymphangiogenesis. Lithium reduces the expression of transforming growth factor-β-induced protein (TGFBIp) in colon cancer cells by inhibiting Smad3 phosphorylation via GSK3β inactivation. Moreover, lithium inhibits lymphatic endothelial cell migration, which is increased upon TGFBIp expression in tumor cells. Lithium had no significant effect on SW620 tumor growth in vitro and in vivo; however, it inhibited lymphangiogenesis in tumors. In tumor xenografts model, lithium was found to prevent metastasis to the lungs, liver, and lymph nodes by inhibiting TGFBIp-induced tumor lymphangiogenesis. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a novel role of lithium in the inhibition of colon cancer metastasis by blocking TGFBIp expression, and thereby TGFBIp-induced lymphangiogenesis, in primary tumors. PMID:26857144

  7. Amiloride inhibits the initiation of Coxsackievirus and poliovirus RNA replication by inhibiting VPg uridylylation.

    PubMed

    Ogram, Sushma A; Boone, Christopher D; McKenna, Robert; Flanegan, James B

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism of amiloride inhibition of Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and poliovirus type 1 (PV1) RNA replication was investigated using membrane-associated RNA replication complexes. Amiloride was shown to inhibit viral RNA replication and VPgpUpU synthesis. However, the drug had no effect on polymerase elongation activity during either (-) strand or (+) strand synthesis. These findings indicated that amiloride inhibited the initiation of RNA synthesis by inhibiting VPg uridylylation. In addition, in silico binding studies showed that amiloride docks in the VPg binding site on the back of the viral RNA polymerase, 3D(pol). Since VPg binding at this site on PV1 3D(pol) was previously shown to be required for VPg uridylylation, our results suggest that amiloride inhibits VPg binding to 3D(pol). In summary, our findings are consistent with a model in which amiloride inhibits VPgpUpU synthesis and viral RNA replication by competing with VPg for binding to 3D(pol). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of the hammerhead ribozyme by neomycin.

    PubMed Central

    Stage, T K; Hertel, K J; Uhlenbeck, O C

    1995-01-01

    A series of antibiotics was tested for stimulation or inhibition of the hammerhead ribozyme cleavage reaction. Neomycin was found to be a potent inhibitor of the reaction with a Kl of 13.5 microM. Two hammerheads with well-characterized kinetics were used to determine which steps in the reaction mechanism were inhibited by neomycin. The data suggest that neomycin interacts preferentially with the enzyme-substrate complex and that this interaction leads to a reduction in the cleavage rate by stabilizing the ground state of the complex and destabilizing the transition state of the cleavage step. A comparison of neomycin with other aminoglycosides and inhibitors of hammerhead cleavage implies that the ammonium ions of neomycin are important for the antibiotic-hammerhead interaction. PMID:7489494

  9. PROFLAVINE INHIBITION OF VACCINIA VIRUS SYNTHESIS.

    PubMed

    BUBEL, H C; WOLFF, D A

    1965-04-01

    Bubel, H. Curt (University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio), and David A. Wolff. Proflavine inhibition of vaccinia virus synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 89:977-983. 1965.-The synthesis of vaccinia virus, hemagglutinin, and blocking antigen, as well as the development of cytopathic effects, were inhibited by low concentrations of proflavine. This inhibitor did not exert a selective effect on any particular portion of the virus synthetic cycle. Proflavine added to infected KB cells during the eclipse period or later stages of virus maturation rapidly arrested further production of infectious virus and virus-related products. Suppression of virus synthesis was completely reversible, indicating that permanent damage to the virus synthetic mechanism did not result from a transient exposure to proflavine. Photosensitization of maturating vaccinia virus by subinhibiting concentrations of proflavine suggested an interaction of the inhibitor with viral nucleic acid.

  10. Proflavine Inhibition of Vaccinia Virus Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bubel, H. Curt; Wolff, David A.

    1965-01-01

    Bubel, H. Curt (University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio), and David A. Wolff. Proflavine inhibition of vaccinia virus synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 89:977–983. 1965.—The synthesis of vaccinia virus, hemagglutinin, and blocking antigen, as well as the development of cytopathic effects, were inhibited by low concentrations of proflavine. This inhibitor did not exert a selective effect on any particular portion of the virus synthetic cycle. Proflavine added to infected KB cells during the eclipse period or later stages of virus maturation rapidly arrested further production of infectious virus and virus-related products. Suppression of virus synthesis was completely reversible, indicating that permanent damage to the virus synthetic mechanism did not result from a transient exposure to proflavine. Photosensitization of maturating vaccinia virus by subinhibiting concentrations of proflavine suggested an interaction of the inhibitor with viral nucleic acid. PMID:14276124

  11. Allosteric Inhibition of the Neuropeptidase Neurolysin*

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Christina S.; Ray, Kallol; Schmidt, Jack J.; Xiong, Fei; Feenstra, Rolf W.; Pras-Raves, Mia; de Moes, Jan Peter; Lange, Jos H. M.; Melikishvili, Manana; Fried, Michael G.; Mortenson, Paul; Charlton, Michael; Patel, Yogendra; Courtney, Stephen M.; Kruse, Chris G.; Rodgers, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptidases specialize in the hydrolysis of the small bioactive peptides that play a variety of signaling roles in the nervous and endocrine systems. One neuropeptidase, neurolysin, helps control the levels of the dopaminergic circuit modulator neurotensin and is a member of a fold group that includes the antihypertensive target angiotensin converting enzyme. We report the discovery of a potent inhibitor that, unexpectedly, binds away from the enzyme catalytic site. The location of the bound inhibitor suggests it disrupts activity by preventing a hinge-like motion associated with substrate binding and catalysis. In support of this model, the inhibition kinetics are mixed, with both noncompetitive and competitive components, and fluorescence polarization shows directly that the inhibitor reverses a substrate-associated conformational change. This new type of inhibition may have widespread utility in targeting neuropeptidases. PMID:25378390

  12. Facially Amphipathic Glycopolymers Inhibit Ice Recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ben; Fayter, Alice E R; Houston, Judith E; Evans, Rachel C; Gibson, Matthew I

    2018-05-02

    Antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) from polar fish are the most potent ice recrystallization (growth) inhibitors known, and synthetic mimics are required for low-temperature applications such as cell cryopreservation. Here we introduce facially amphipathic glycopolymers that mimic the three-dimensional structure of AFGPs. Glycopolymers featuring segregated hydrophilic and hydrophobic faces were prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization, and their rigid conformation was confirmed by small-angle neutron scattering. Ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity was reduced when a hydrophilic oxo-ether was installed on the glycan-opposing face, but significant activity was restored by incorporating a hydrophobic dimethylfulvene residue. This biomimetic strategy demonstrates that segregated domains of distinct hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity are a crucial motif to introduce IRI activity, which increases our understanding of the complex ice crystal inhibition processes.

  13. Extinction Generates Outcome-Specific Conditioned Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Vincent; Chieng, Billy; Balleine, Bernard W

    2016-12-05

    Extinction involves altering a previously established predictive relationship between a cue and its outcome by repeatedly presenting that cue alone. Although it is widely accepted that extinction generates some form of inhibitory learning [1-4], direct evidence for this claim has been lacking, and the nature of the associative changes induced by extinction have, therefore, remained a matter of debate [5-8]. In the current experiments, we used a novel behavioral approach that we recently developed and that provides a direct measure of conditioned inhibition [9] to compare the influence of extinguished and non-extinguished cues on choice between goal-directed actions. Using this approach, we provide direct evidence that extinction generates outcome-specific conditioned inhibition. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this inhibitory learning is controlled by the infralimbic cortex (IL); inactivation of the IL using M4 DREADDs abolished outcome-specific inhibition and rendered the cue excitatory. Importantly, we found that context modulated this inhibition. Outside its extinction context, the cue was excitatory and functioned as a specific predictor of its previously associated outcome, biasing choice toward actions earning the same outcome. In its extinction context, however, the cue acted as a specific inhibitor and biased choice toward actions earning different outcomes. Context modulation of these excitatory and inhibitory memories was mediated by the dorsal hippocampus (HPC), suggesting that the HPC and IL act in concert to control the influence of conditioned inhibitors on choice. These findings demonstrate for the first time that extinction turns a cue into a net inhibitor that can influence choice via counterfactual action-outcome associations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced Osmotic Potential Inhibition of Photosynthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Gerald A.; Gibbs, Martin

    1983-01-01

    The effects of reduced reaction medium osmotic potential (0.67 molar sorbitol as compared to a control treatment with 0.33 molar sorbitol) on the enzymic steps of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle were investigated using isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. var Longstanding Bloomsdale) chloroplasts. Reversal of reduced osmotic potential inhibition of photosynthetic rates by a stromal alkalating agent (NH4Cl) was associated with specific steps of the cycle. Low osmotic potential induced stromal acidification was found to be facilitated by osmotically induced chloroplast shrinkage. However, the action of the alkalating agent was found not to be associated with reversal of osmotically induced morphological changes of the stromal compartment. Labeled metabolite analyses indicated that the osmotic stress treatment caused the substrate for fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) to build up in the absence of NH4Cl, and the substrate for phosphoribulokinase to increase in the presence of NH4Cl. These data were interpreted as indicating that the most severe effect of osmotic stress on photosynthesis is at the site of FBPase, and that this inhibition is mediated by osmotically induced stromal acidification. Phosphoribulokinase activity inhibition at the low osmotic potential treatment was apparently less severe and not mediated by stromal acidification. A third site of osmotic inhibition, which was reversed by NH4Cl, and therefore was assumed to be mediated by stromal acidification, was at the step of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Additions of NH4Cl also enhanced the activity of the pH-insensitive phase of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle, 3-phosphoglyceric acid reduction, at the stress treatment. This effect was thought to be mediated by the removal of the block at FBPase. A model was proposed to outline the relative severity of osmotic stress effects at various sites of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663127

  15. Gastric acid secretion: activation and inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, G.; Prinz, C.; Loo, D.; Bamberg, K.; Besancon, M.; Shin, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Peripheral regulation of gastric acid secretion is initiated by the release of gastrin from the G cell. Gastrin then stimulates the cholecystokinin-B receptor on the enterochromaffin-like cell beginning a calcium signaling cascade. An exocytotic release of histamine follows with concomitant activation of a C1- current. The released histamine begins the H2-receptor mediated sequence of events in the parietal cell, which results in activation of the gastric H+/K+ - ATPase. This enzyme is the final common pathway of acid secretion. The H+/K+ - ATPase is composed of two subunits: the larger alpha-subunit couples ion transport to hydrolysis of ATP, the smaller beta-subunit is required for appropriate assembly of the holoenzyme. Both the membrane and extracytoplasmic domain contain the ion transport pathway, and therefore, this region is the target for the antisecretory drugs of the post-H2 era. The 100 kDa alpha-subunit has probably 10 membrane spanning segments with, therefore, five extracytoplasmic loops. The 35 kDA beta-subunit has a single membrane spanning segment, and most of this protein is extracytoplasmic with the six or seven N glycosylation consensus sequences occupied. Omeprazole is an acid-accumulated, acid-activated, prodrug that binds covalently to two cysteine residues at positions 813 (or 822) and 892, accessible from the acidic face of the pump. Lansoprazole binds to cys321, 813 (or 822) and 892; pantoprazole binds to cys813 and 822. The common binding site for these drugs (cys813 or 822) is responsible for the inhibition of acid transport. Covalent inhibition of the acid pump improves control of acid secretion, but since the effective half life of the inhibition in man is about 48 hr, full inhibition of acid secretion, perhaps necessary for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in combination with a single antibiotic, will require prolongation of the effect of this class of drug. PMID:7502535

  16. Mechanism of acetaminophen inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, M; Percival, M D

    2001-03-15

    Acetaminophen has similar analgesic and antipyretic properties to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which act via inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. However, unlike NSAIDs, acetaminophen is at best weakly antiinflammatory. The mechanism by which acetaminophen exerts its therapeutic action has yet to be fully determined, as under most circumstances, acetaminophen is a very weak cyclooxygenase inhibitor. The potency of acetaminophen against both purified ovine cyclooxygenase-1 (oCOX-1) and human cyclooxygenase-2 (hCOX-2) was increased approximately 30-fold by the presence of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione to give IC50 values of 33 microM and 980 microM, respectively. Acetaminophen was found to be a good reducing agent of both oCOX-1 and hCOX-2. The results are consistent with a mechanism of inhibition of acetaminophen in which it acts to reduce the active oxidized form of COX to the resting form. Inhibition would therefore be more effective under conditions of low peroxide concentration, consistent with the known tissue selectivity of acetaminophen.

  17. Trace element inhibition of phytase activity.

    PubMed

    Santos, T; Connolly, C; Murphy, R

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, 70 % of global monogastric feeds contains an exogenous phytase. Phytase supplementation has enabled a more efficient utilisation of phytate phosphorous (P) and reduction of P pollution. Trace minerals, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) are essential for maintaining health and immunity as well as being involved in animal growth, production and reproduction. Exogenous sources of phytase and trace elements are regularly supplemented to monogastric diets and usually combined in a premix. However, the possibility for negative interaction between individual components within the premix is high and is often overlooked. Therefore, this initial study focused on assessing the potential in vitro interaction between inorganic and organic chelated sources of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn with three commercially available phytase preparations. Additionally, this study has investigated if the degree of enzyme inhibition was dependent of the type of chelated sources. A highly significant relationship between phytase inhibition, trace mineral type as well as mineral source and concentration, p < 0.001 was verified. The proteinate sources of OTMs were consistently and significantly less inhibitory than the majority of the other sources, p < 0.05. This was verified for Escherichia coli and Peniophora lycii phytases for Fe and Zn, as well as for Cu with E. coli and Aspergillus niger phytases. Different chelate trace mineral sources demonstrated diversifying abilities to inhibit exogenous phytase activity.

  18. Inhibition of gluconeogenesis by Malmea depressa root.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo

    2011-09-01

    Malmea depressa is traditionally used in the Mayan communities of southeastern Mexico to treat type 2 diabetes. A root bark infusion is being taken throughout the day, between meals. The aim of this study was to determine whether an ethanolic extract of Malmea depressa would reduce hepatic glucose production by targeting gluconeogenesis. The effects of the plant extract on gluconeogenesis (in vivo) and the activity of GL-6-P (in vitro) were examined. The plant extract was analyzed by HPLC to confirm its phytochemical composition. The inhibition of gluconeogenesis was tested in vivo by performing a pyruvate tolerance test in n5-STZ after an 18-h fasting period. The extracts effect on glucose-6-phosphatase activity were assayed in vitro with intact rat liver microsomes. Using HPLC-DAD we confirmed that the phytochemical compositions of the tested extract were similar to those previously reported. We proved that the ethanolic extract of the root bark of Malmea depressa dose-dependently inhibits a glucose peak. Furthermore, the gluconeogenesis inhibition was confirmed in vitro using a pyruvate test. The results suggest that administration of Malmea depressa can improve glycemic control by blocking hepatic glucose production, especially in the fasting state. These data support its traditional use as an infusion consumed continually throughout the day. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The system neurophysiological basis of backward inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Fischer, Rico; Beste, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Task switching is regularly required in our everyday life. To succeed in switching, it is important to inhibit the most recently performed task and instead activate the currently relevant task. The process that inhibits a recently performed task when a new task is to be performed is referred to as 'backward inhibition' (BI). While the BI effect has been subject to intense research in cognitive psychology, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms that are related to the BI effect and those that relate to differences in the magnitude of the BI effect. In the current study, we examined the system neurophysiological basis of BI processes using event-related potentials (ERPs) and sLORETA by also taking inter-individual differences in the magnitude of the BI into account. The results suggest that BI processes and inter-individual differences in them strongly depend upon attentional selection mechanisms (reflected by N1-ERP modulations in the current task/trial) mediated via networks consisting of extrastriate occipital areas, the temporo-parietal junction and the inferior frontal gyrus. Other processes and mechanisms related to conflict monitoring, response selection, or the updating, organization and implementation of a new task-set (i.e. N2 and P3 processes) were not shown to be modulated by BI processes and differences in their magnitude, as evoked with a common BI paradigm.

  20. Menaquinone analogs inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Schlievert, Patrick M; Merriman, Joseph A; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Mueller, Elizabeth A; Spaulding, Adam R; Vu, Bao G; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N; Kohler, Petra L; Kirby, John R

    2013-11-01

    Gram-positive bacteria cause serious human illnesses through combinations of cell surface and secreted virulence factors. We initiated studies with four of these organisms to develop novel topical antibacterial agents that interfere with growth and exotoxin production, focusing on menaquinone analogs. Menadione, 1,4-naphthoquinone, and coenzymes Q1 to Q3 but not menaquinone, phylloquinone, or coenzyme Q10 inhibited the growth and to a greater extent exotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae at concentrations of 10 to 200 μg/ml. Coenzyme Q1 reduced the ability of S. aureus to cause toxic shock syndrome in a rabbit model, inhibited the growth of four Gram-negative bacteria, and synergized with another antimicrobial agent, glycerol monolaurate, to inhibit S. aureus growth. The staphylococcal two-component system SrrA/B was shown to be an antibacterial target of coenzyme Q1. We hypothesize that menaquinone analogs both induce toxic reactive oxygen species and affect bacterial plasma membranes and biosynthetic machinery to interfere with two-component systems, respiration, and macromolecular synthesis. These compounds represent a novel class of potential topical therapeutic agents.

  1. Somatomedins inhibit protein degradation in muscle cell

    SciT

    Roeder, R.A.; Blann, D.L.; Bauer, C.A.

    1986-03-01

    Protein degradation has been measured in cultures of L6 myotubes as the rate of release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity after prelabeling cell protein with (/sup 3/H) leucine. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), ovine somatomedin (oSM) and insulin (I), at concentrations from 10/sup -11/M to 10/sup -7/M (5 x 10/sup -7/M-oSM) were added at the beginning of a 4-hour degradation period to determine the effects of these hormones on inducible proteolysis occurring in serum-free media. In addition the effects of fetal bovine serum, at concentrations from 1% to 30%, on protein degradation were determined in parallel experiments to relate serum inhibition ofmore » proteolysis to somatomedin actions. Results from this study indicate the apparent half maximal inhibition of proteolysis (18%, 15%, 11%) occurred at .4nM-IGF-1, .6nM-oSM and 4nM-I, respectively. Thus protein degradation was approximately 10 times more sensitive to somatomedins than insulin. The half maximal inhibition of proteolysis (15%) observed with serum occurred at 7.7%. The magnitude of the response between IFG-I and serum (37% vs. 31%) was similar. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that somatomedins are important factors in regulating growth and development of muscle.« less

  2. Pharmacological inhibition of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats.

  3. Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats. PMID:22754645

  4. Salt taste inhibition by cathodal current.

    PubMed

    Hettinger, Thomas P; Frank, Marion E

    2009-09-28

    Effects of cathodal current, which draws cations away from the tongue and drives anions toward the tongue, depend on the ionic content of electrolytes through which the current is passed. To address the role of cations and anions in human salt tastes, cathodal currents of -40 microA to -80 microA were applied to human subjects' tongues through supra-threshold salt solutions. The salts were sodium chloride, sodium bromide, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium sulfate, sodium saccharin, sodium acetate and sodium benzoate, which taken together encompass salty, bitter, sour and sweet taste qualities. The taste of NaCl, the salty and bitter tastes of the other chloride salts and the taste of NaNO(3) was inhibited, suggesting the current displaced stimulatory cations from salty and bitter receptors. However, bitter tastes of non-halide sodium salts were not inhibited, likely because other bitter receptors respond to anions. A discharge current at cathode-off ubiquitously evoked a metallic taste reminiscent of anodal taste used in clinical electrogustometry. Analogous effects on ambient NaCl responses were recorded from the hamster chorda tympani nerve. Increases in tastes of the saccharin and benzoate anions were not evoked during current flow, suggesting that cathodal current does not carry stimulatory anions to sweet receptors. Cathodal current may selectively inhibit salty and bitter-salty tastes for which proximal stimuli are cations.

  5. Cell Cycle Inhibition To Treat Sleeping Sickness.

    PubMed

    Epting, Conrad L; Emmer, Brian T; Du, Nga Y; Taylor, Joann M; Makanji, Ming Y; Olson, Cheryl L; Engman, David M

    2017-09-19

    African trypanosomiasis is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei During infection, this pathogen divides rapidly to high density in the bloodstream of its mammalian host in a manner similar to that of leukemia. Like all eukaryotes, T. brucei has a cell cycle involving the de novo synthesis of DNA regulated by ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides into their deoxy form. As an essential enzyme for the cell cycle, RNR is a common target for cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that inhibition of RNR by genetic or pharmacological means would impair parasite growth in vitro and prolong the survival of infected animals. Our results demonstrate that RNR inhibition is highly effective in suppressing parasite growth both in vitro and in vivo These results support drug discovery efforts targeting the cell cycle, not only for African trypanosomiasis but possibly also for other infections by eukaryotic pathogens. IMPORTANCE The development of drugs to treat infections with eukaryotic pathogens is challenging because many key virulence factors have closely related homologues in humans. Drug toxicity greatly limits these development efforts. For pathogens that replicate at a high rate, especially in the blood, an alternative approach is to target the cell cycle directly, much as is done to treat some hematologic malignancies. The results presented here indicate that targeting the cell cycle via inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase is effective at killing trypanosomes and prolonging the survival of infected animals. Copyright © 2017 Epting et al.

  6. Exploiting oleuropein for inhibiting collagen fibril formation.

    PubMed

    Bharathy, H; Fathima, N Nishad

    2017-08-01

    Collagen fibrils accumulate in excessive amounts and impair the normal functioning of the organ; therefore it stimulates the interest for identifying the compounds that could prevent the formation of fibrils. Herein, inhibition of self-assembly of collagen using oleuropein has been studied. The changes in the physico-chemical characteristics of collagen on interaction with increasing concentration of oleuropein has been studied using techniques like viscosity, UV-vis, CD and FT-IR. The inhibitory effect of oleuropein on fibril formation of collagen was proved using SEM. Circular dichroism and FT-IR spectra elucidates the alterations in the secondary structure of collagen suggesting non-covalent interactions between oleuropein and collagen. The decreased rate of collagen fibril formation also confirms the inhibition in the self-assembly of collagen. Hence, our study suggests that inhibition of the self-assembly process using oleuropein may unfold new avenues to treat fibrotic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of Enveloped Viruses Infectivity by Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  8. Inhibition of cathelicidin activity by bacterial exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Foschiatti, Michela; Cescutti, Paola; Tossi, Alessandro; Rizzo, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    The interaction of bacterial exopolysaccharides, produced by opportunistic lung pathogens, with antimicrobial peptides of the innate primate immune system was investigated. The exopolysaccharides were produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Inquilinus limosus and clinical isolates of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, bacteria that are all involved in lung infections of cystic fibrosis patients. The effects of the biological activities of three orthologous cathelicidins from Homo sapiens sapiens, Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan) and Presbitys obscurus (dusky leaf monkey) were examined. Inhibition of the antimicrobial activity of peptides was assessed using minimum inhibitory concentration assays on a reference Escherichia coli strain in the presence and absence of exopolysaccharides, whereas complex formation between peptides and exopolysaccharides was investigated by means of circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Biological assays revealed that the higher the negative charge of exopolysaccharides the stronger was their inhibiting effect. Spectroscopic studies indicated the formation of molecular complexes of varying stability between peptides and exopolysaccharides, explaining the inhibition. Atomic force microscopy provided a direct visualization of the molecular complexes. A model is proposed where peptides with an alpha-helical conformation interact with exopolysaccharides through electrostatic and other non-covalent interactions.

  9. Imitation inhibition in children with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Valerie Cathérine; Moczydlowski, Agnes; Jonas, Melanie; Boelmans, Kai; Bäumer, Tobias; Brass, Marcel; Münchau, Alexander

    2017-08-12

    Echopraxia, that is, the open and automatic imitation of other peoples' actions, is common in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, and also those with frontal lobe lesions. While systematic reaction time tasks have confirmed increased automatic imitation in the latter two groups, adult patients with Tourette syndrome appear to compensate for automatic imitation tendencies by an overall slowing in response times. However, whether children with Tourette syndrome are already able to inhibit automatic imitation tendencies has not been investigated. Fifteen children with Tourette syndrome and 15 healthy children (aged 7-12 years) performed an imitation inhibition paradigm. Participants were asked to respond to an auditory cue by lifting their index finger or their little finger. Participants were simultaneously presented with either compatible or incompatible visual stimuli. Overall responses in children with Tourette syndrome were slower than in healthy children. Although responses were faster in compatible than in incompatible trials in both groups, this 'interference effect' was smaller in children with Tourette syndrome. Children with Tourette syndrome have a smaller interference effect than healthy children, indicating an enhanced ability to behaviourally control automatic imitation tendencies at the cost of reacting slower. The results suggest that children with Tourette syndrome already employ different or additional inhibition strategies compared to healthy children. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Wnt signaling inhibits CTL memory programming

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhengguo; Sun, Zhifeng; Smyth, Kendra; Li, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Induction of functional CTLs is one of the major goals for vaccine development and cancer therapy. Inflammatory cytokines are critical for memory CTL generation. Wnt signaling is important for CTL priming and memory formation, but its role in cytokine-driven memory CTL programming is unclear. We found that wnt signaling inhibited IL-12-driven CTL activation and memory programming. This impaired memory CTL programming was attributed to up-regulation of eomes and down-regulation of T-bet. Wnt signaling suppressed the mTOR pathway during CTL activation, which was different to its effects on other cell types. Interestingly, the impaired memory CTL programming by wnt was partially rescued by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. In conclusion, we found that crosstalk between wnt and the IL-12 signaling inhibits T-bet and mTOR pathways and impairs memory programming which can be recovered in part by rapamycin. In addition, direct inhibition of wnt signaling during CTL activation does not affect CTL memory programming. Therefore, wnt signaling may serve as a new tool for CTL manipulation in autoimmune diseases and immune therapy for certain cancers. PMID:23911398

  11. Mechanisms of inhibition in cat visual cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, N J; Douglas, R J; Martin, K A; Whitteridge, D

    1991-01-01

    1. Neurones from layers 2-6 of the cat primary visual cortex were studied using extracellular and intracellular recordings made in vivo. The aim was to identify inhibitory events and determine whether they were associated with small or large (shunting) changes in the input conductance of the neurones. 2. Visual stimulation of subfields of simple receptive fields produced depolarizing or hyperpolarizing potentials that were associated with increased or decreased firing rates respectively. Hyperpolarizing potentials were small, 5 mV or less. In the same neurones, brief electrical stimulation of cortical afferents produced a characteristic sequence of a brief depolarization followed by a long-lasting (200-400 ms) hyperpolarization. 3. During the response to a stationary flashed bar, the synaptic activation increased the input conductance of the neurone by about 5-20%. Conductance changes of similar magnitude were obtained by electrically stimulating the neurone. Neurones stimulated with non-optimal orientations or directions of motion showed little change in input conductance. 4. These data indicate that while visually or electrically induced inhibition can be readily demonstrated in visual cortex, the inhibition is not associated with large sustained conductance changes. Thus a shunting or multiplicative inhibitory mechanism is not the principal mechanism of inhibition. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1804983

  12. [A study on the construction, expression and immunosterility of Lagurus laguru zona pellucida 3 DNA vaccine pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3].

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-Chen; Yu, Ji-Yun; Jiang, Min; Tu, Yi-Xian; Ma, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2011-09-01

    To enhance the immunocontraceptive effect of Lagurus lagurus zona pellucida 3 DNA vaccine, and to achieve the prospect of application through the pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3 different immunity pathway. Two adjuvant molecules were constructed into the recombinant plasmid pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3 as DNA vaccine which contains Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit and the molecular adjuvant 3 copies of C3d. The results of RT-PCR and western blot showed that the DNA vaccine was expressed in mRNA and protein level. The female C57BL/6 mice were immunized by three ways: intramuscular injection, intranasal or oral route.Antibody levels and types were detected by ELISA. ELISA results showed that recombinant plasmid pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3 immunization induced specific IgG, IgA levels were significantly different comparing with control (P<0.01). Antifertility experiment showed that the experimental group reduced the average fertility significantly different compared with the control group (P<0.01). Restriction analysis, RT-PCR and Western blot showed that the recombinant plasmid constructed correctly and can be the expression of mRNA and protein levels.It resulted that the recombinant plasmid pVAX1-sig-LTB-lZP3-C3d3 can induce the specific immune response efficiently and enhance the immunocontraceptive effects.

  13. Melanin-concentrating hormone and neuropeptide EI projections from the lateral hypothalamic area and zona incerta to the medial septal nucleus and spinal cord: a study using multiple neuronal tracers.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, J C; Elias, C F

    1998-09-14

    The projection pathways of neurons containing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and neuropeptide EI (NEI), two peptides colocalized in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the rat, were mapped using the retrogradely transported fluorescent dyes, true blue (TB) and diamidino yellow (DY). TB and DY were injected into the medial septum/diagonal band complex (MS/DBC) and the thoracic level of the spinal cord (SpCd), respectively. Brains from rats receiving only one or both tracer injections were immunohistochemically stained for MCH in the spinal cord and NEI in the forebrain. In the MS/DBC, NEI-immunoreactive (-ir) fibers are concentrated in the MS and in the vertical and horizontal limbs of the DBC. In the SpCd, MCH-ir fibers are concentrated primarily in lamina X. Of the diencephalic NEI-ir neurons, 37.15% project to the MS/DBC and reside in the rostromedial zona incerta (ZIm), in the LHAt and LHAp, and in the perifornical region. Of the diencephalic MCH-ir neurons, 20.2% project to the SpCd and reside in the LHAt and LHAp. In addition, 2. 2% of the MCH-ir cells and 8.7% of the NEI-ir cells in the hypothalamus were labeled with both retrograde tracers and thus project to both the MS/DBC and SpCd. These dual projection neurons are located mainly in the LHAt and LHAp. Anterograde injections of the tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin into the LHAt and ZIm corroborated our findings in the retrograde studies. Potential autonomic and behavioral roles of the NEI and MCH systems in the MS/DBC and the SpCd are discussed. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B. V.

  14. Cellobionic acid inhibition of cellobiohydrolase I and cellobiose dehydrogenase

    End-product inhibition by cellobiose and glucose is a rate-limiting factor in cellulose hydrolysis by cellulases. While cellobiose and glucose inhibition have been extensively investigated, cellobionate inhibition has been minimally studied despite the discovery that accessory proteins such as cello...

  15. The Effectiveness of Reward and Punishment Contingencies on Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costantini, Arthur F.; Hoving, Kenneth L.

    1973-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of reward and punishment on the development of response inhibition was evaluated developmentally with kindergarteners and second graders. Removal of positive reinforcers was apparently more effective than reward in producing inhibiting at both age levels. Transfer of inhibition training was also evaluated. (DP)

  16. Foxp3+ T cells inhibit antitumor immune memory modulated by mTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanping; Sparwasser, Tim; Figlin, Robert; Kim, Hyung L

    2014-04-15

    Inhibition of mTOR signaling enhances antitumor memory lymphocytes. However, pharmacologic mTOR inhibition also enhances regulatory T-cell (Treg) activity. To counter this effect, Treg control was added to mTOR inhibition in preclinical models. Tregs were controlled with CD4-depleting antibodies because CD4 depletion has high translational potential and already has a well-established safety profile in patients. The antitumor activity of the combination therapy was CD8 dependent and controlled growth of syngeneic tumors even when an adoptive immunotherapy was not used. Lymphocytes resulting from the combination therapy could be transferred into naïve mice to inhibit aggressive growth of lung metastases. The combination therapy enhanced CD8 memory formation as determined by memory markers and functional studies of immune recall. Removal of FoxP3-expressing T lymphocytes was the mechanism underlying immunologic memory formation following CD4 depletion. This was confirmed using transgenic DEREG (depletion of regulatory T cells) mice to specifically remove Foxp3(+) T cells. It was further confirmed with reciprocal studies where stimulation of immunologic memory because of CD4 depletion was completely neutralized by adoptively transferring tumor-specific Foxp3(+) T cells. Also contributing to tumor control, Tregs that eventually recovered following CD4 depletion were less immunosuppressive. These results provide a rationale for further study of mTOR inhibition and CD4 depletion in patients. ©2014 AACR.

  17. A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Jeffrey W.; Smith, Jeffrey M.; Ripoll, Daniel R.; Spik, Kristin W.; Taylor, Shannon L.; Badger, Catherine V.; Grant, Rebecca J.; Ogg, Monica M.; Wallqvist, Anders; Guttieri, Mary C.; Garry, Robert F.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2013-01-01

    For enveloped viruses, fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane is critical for a productive infection to occur. This fusion process is mediated by at least three classes of fusion proteins (Class I, II, and III) based on the protein sequence and structure. For Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), the glycoprotein Gc (Class II fusion protein) mediates this fusion event following entry into the endocytic pathway, allowing the viral genome access to the cell cytoplasm. Here, we show that peptides analogous to the RVFV Gc stem region inhibited RVFV infectivity in cell culture by inhibiting the fusion process. Further, we show that infectivity can be inhibited for diverse, unrelated RNA viruses that have Class I (Ebola virus), Class II (Andes virus), or Class III (vesicular stomatitis virus) fusion proteins using this single peptide. Our findings are consistent with an inhibition mechanism similar to that proposed for stem peptide fusion inhibitors of dengue virus in which the RVFV inhibitory peptide first binds to both the virion and cell membranes, allowing it to traffic with the virus into the endocytic pathway. Upon acidification and rearrangement of Gc, the peptide is then able to specifically bind to Gc and prevent fusion of the viral and endocytic membranes, thus inhibiting viral infection. These results could provide novel insights into conserved features among the three classes of viral fusion proteins and offer direction for the future development of broadly active fusion inhibitors. PMID:24069485

  18. AXL Inhibition Suppresses the DNA Damage Response and Sensitizes Cells to PARP Inhibition in Multiple Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Lixia; Tong, Pan; Fan, Youhong; Carey, Jason PW; Bui, Tuyen N.; Warner, Steve; Heymach, John V; Hunt, Kelly K; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with a wide range of changes in cancer cells, including stemness, chemo- and radio-resistance and metastasis. The mechanistic role of upstream mediators of EMT has not yet been well characterized. Recently, we showed that non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) that have undergone EMT overexpress AXL, a receptor tyrosine kinase. AXL is also overexpressed in a subset of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) and its overexpression has been associated with more aggressive tumor behavior and linked to resistance to chemotherapy, radiation, and targeted therapy. Since the DNA repair pathway is also altered in patient tumor specimens overexpressing AXL, it is hypothesized that modulation of AXL in cells that have undergone EMT will sensitize them to agents targeting the DNA repair pathway. Downregulation or inhibition of AXL directly reversed the EMT phenotype, led to decreased expression of DNA repair genes and diminished efficiency of homologous recombination (HR) and RAD51 foci formation. As a result, AXL inhibition caused a state of HR-deficiency in the cells, making them sensitive to inhibition of the DNA repair protein, PARP1. AXL inhibition synergized with PARP inhibition, leading to apoptotic cell death. AXL expression also associated positively with markers of DNA repair across TNBC, HNSCC and NSCLC patient cohorts. PMID:27671334

  19. Allosteric Partial Inhibition of Monomeric Proteases. Sulfated Coumarins Induce Regulation, not just Inhibition, of Thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Verespy III, Stephen; Mehta, Akul Y.; Afosah, Daniel; Al-Horani, Rami A.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2016-01-01

    Allosteric partial inhibition of soluble, monomeric proteases can offer major regulatory advantages, but remains a concept on paper to date; although it has been routinely documented for receptors and oligomeric proteins. Thrombin, a key protease of the coagulation cascade, displays significant conformational plasticity, which presents an attractive opportunity to discover small molecule probes that induce sub-maximal allosteric inhibition. We synthesized a focused library of some 36 sulfated coumarins to discover two agents that display sub-maximal efficacy (~50%), high potency (<500 nM) and high selectivity for thrombin (>150-fold). Michaelis-Menten, competitive inhibition, and site-directed mutagenesis studies identified exosite 2 as the site of binding for the most potent sulfated coumarin. Stern-Volmer quenching of active site-labeled fluorophore suggested that the allosteric regulators induce intermediate structural changes in the active site as compared to those that display ~80–100% efficacy. Antithrombin inactivation of thrombin was impaired in the presence of the sulfated coumarins suggesting that allosteric partial inhibition arises from catalytic dysfunction of the active site. Overall, sulfated coumarins represent first-in-class, sub-maximal inhibitors of thrombin. The probes establish the concept of allosteric partial inhibition of soluble, monomeric proteins. This concept may lead to a new class of anticoagulants that are completely devoid of bleeding. PMID:27053426

  20. Curcumin inhibits aggregation of alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Neeraj; Strider, Jeffrey; Nolan, William C; Yan, Sherry X; Galvin, James E

    2008-04-01

    Aggregation of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) is a key pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Curcumin, a constituent of the Indian spice Turmeric is structurally similar to Congo Red and has been demonstrated to bind Abeta amyloid and prevent further oligomerization of Abeta monomers onto growing amyloid beta-sheets. Reasoning that oligomerization kinetics and mechanism of amyloid formation are similar in Parkinson's disease (PD) and AD, we investigated the effect of curcumin on alpha-synuclein (AS) protein aggregation. In vitro model of AS aggregation was developed by treatment of purified AS protein (wild-type) with 1 mM Fe3+ (Fenton reaction). It was observed that the addition of curcumin inhibited aggregation in a dose-dependent manner and increased AS solubility. The aggregation-inhibiting effect of curcumin was next investigated in cell culture utilizing catecholaminergic SH-SY5Y cell line. A model system was developed in which the red fluorescent protein (DsRed2) was fused with A53T mutant of AS and its aggregation examined under different concentrations of curcumin. To estimate aggregation in an unbiased manner, a protocol was developed in which the images were captured automatically through a high-throughput cell-based screening microscope. The obtained images were processed automatically for aggregates within a defined dimension of 1-6 microm. Greater than 32% decrease in mutant alpha-synuclein aggregation was observed within 48 h subsequent to curcumin addition. Our data suggest that curcumin inhibits AS oligomerization into higher molecular weight aggregates and therefore should be further explored as a potential therapeutic compound for PD and related disorders.

  1. Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Solinas, M; Massi, P; Cantelmo, AR; Cattaneo, MG; Cammarota, R; Bartolini, D; Cinquina, V; Valenti, M; Vicentini, LM; Noonan, DM; Albini, A; Parolaro, D

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Several studies have demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of cannabinoids on various tumours, together with their anti-angiogenic properties. The non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) effectively inhibits the growth of different types of tumours in vitro and in vivo and down-regulates some pro-angiogenic signals produced by glioma cells. As its anti-angiogenic properties have not been thoroughly investigated to date, and given its very favourable pharmacological and toxicological profile, here, we evaluated the ability of CBD to modulate tumour angiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Firstly, we evaluated the effect of CBD on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and viability – through [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and FACS analysis – and in vitro motility – both in a classical Boyden chamber test and in a wound-healing assay. We next investigated CBD effects on different angiogenesis-related proteins released by HUVECs, using an angiogenesis array kit and an ELISA directed at MMP2. Then we evaluated its effects on in vitro angiogenesis in treated HUVECs invading a Matrigel layer and in HUVEC spheroids embedded into collagen gels, and further characterized its effects in vivo using a Matrigel sponge model of angiogenesis in C57/BL6 mice. KEY RESULTS CBD induced HUVEC cytostasis without inducing apoptosis, inhibited HUVEC migration, invasion and sprouting in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo in Matrigel sponges. These effects were associated with the down-modulation of several angiogenesis-related molecules. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study reveals that CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells supports the hypothesis that CBD has potential as an effective agent in cancer therapy. PMID:22624859

  2. Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Solinas, M; Massi, P; Cantelmo, A R; Cattaneo, M G; Cammarota, R; Bartolini, D; Cinquina, V; Valenti, M; Vicentini, L M; Noonan, D M; Albini, A; Parolaro, D

    2012-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of cannabinoids on various tumours, together with their anti-angiogenic properties. The non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) effectively inhibits the growth of different types of tumours in vitro and in vivo and down-regulates some pro-angiogenic signals produced by glioma cells. As its anti-angiogenic properties have not been thoroughly investigated to date, and given its very favourable pharmacological and toxicological profile, here, we evaluated the ability of CBD to modulate tumour angiogenesis. Firstly, we evaluated the effect of CBD on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and viability - through [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and FACS analysis - and in vitro motility - both in a classical Boyden chamber test and in a wound-healing assay. We next investigated CBD effects on different angiogenesis-related proteins released by HUVECs, using an angiogenesis array kit and an ELISA directed at MMP2. Then we evaluated its effects on in vitro angiogenesis in treated HUVECs invading a Matrigel layer and in HUVEC spheroids embedded into collagen gels, and further characterized its effects in vivo using a Matrigel sponge model of angiogenesis in C57/BL6 mice. CBD induced HUVEC cytostasis without inducing apoptosis, inhibited HUVEC migration, invasion and sprouting in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo in Matrigel sponges. These effects were associated with the down-modulation of several angiogenesis-related molecules. This study reveals that CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells supports the hypothesis that CBD has potential as an effective agent in cancer therapy. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Inhibiting Mycobacterium tuberculosis within and without.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stewart T

    2016-11-05

    Tuberculosis remains a scourge of global health with shrinking treatment options due to the spread of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Intensive efforts have been made in the past 15 years to find leads for drug development so that better, more potent drugs inhibiting new targets could be produced and thus shorten treatment duration. Initial attempts focused on repurposing drugs that had been developed for other therapeutic areas but these agents did not meet their goals in clinical trials. Attempts to find new lead compounds employing target-based screens were unsuccessful as the leads were inactive against M. tuberculosis Greater success was achieved using phenotypic screening against live tubercle bacilli and this gave rise to the drugs bedaquiline, pretomanid and delamanid, currently in phase III trials. Subsequent phenotypic screens also uncovered new leads and targets but several of these targets proved to be promiscuous and inhibited by a variety of seemingly unrelated pharmacophores. This setback sparked an interest in alternative screening approaches that mimic the disease state more accurately. Foremost among these were cell-based screens, often involving macrophages, as these should reflect the bacterium's niche in the host more faithfully. A major advantage of this approach is its ability to uncover functions that are central to infection but not necessarily required for growth in vitro For instance, inhibition of virulence functions mediated by the ESX-1 secretion system severely attenuates intracellular M. tuberculosis, preventing intercellular spread and ultimately limiting tissue damage. Cell-based screens have highlighted the druggability of energy production via the electron transport chain and cholesterol metabolism. Here, I review the scientific progress and the pipeline, but warn against over-optimism due to the lack of industrial commitment for tuberculosis drug development and other socio-economic factors.This article is

  4. Inhibition, Executive Function, and Freezing of Gait

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Rajal G.; Klein, Krystal A.; Nomura, Mariko; Fleming, Michael; Mancini, Martina; Giladi, Nir; Nutt, John G.; Horak, Fay B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that freezing of gait (FoG) in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with declines in executive function (EF). However, EF is multi-faceted, including three dissociable components: inhibiting prepotent responses, switching between task sets, and updating working memory. Objective This study investigated which aspect of EF is most strongly associated with FoG in PD. Method Three groups were studied: adults with PD (with and without FoG) and age-matched, healthy adults. All participants completed a battery of cognitive tasks previously shown to discriminate among the three EF components. Participants also completed a turning-in-place task that was scored for FoG by neurologists blind to subjects’ self-reported FoG. Results Compared to both other groups, participants with FoG showed significant performance deficits in tasks associated with inhibitory control, even after accounting for differences in disease severity, but no significant deficits in task-switching or updating working memory. Surprisingly, the strongest effect was an intermittent tendency of participants with FoG to hesitate, and thus miss the response window, on go trials in the Go-Nogo task. The FoG group also made slower responses in the conflict condition of the Stroop task. Physician-rated FoG scores were correlated both with failures to respond on go trials and with failures to inhibit responses on nogo trials in the Go-Nogo task. Conclusion These results suggest that FoG is associated with a specific inability to appropriately engage and release inhibition, rather than with a general executive deficit. PMID:24496099

  5. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Rhein, Bethany A; Powers, Linda S; Rogers, Kai; Anantpadma, Manu; Singh, Brajesh K; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Bair, Thomas; Miller-Hunt, Catherine; Sinn, Patrick; Davey, Robert A; Monick, Martha M; Maury, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks.

  6. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition in diabetic wound repair.

    PubMed

    Spenny, Michelle L; Muangman, Pornprom; Sullivan, Stephen R; Bunnett, Nigel W; Ansel, John C; Olerud, John E; Gibran, Nicole S

    2002-01-01

    In response to cutaneous injury, sensory nerves release substance P, a proinflammatory neuropeptide. Substance P stimulates mitogenesis and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Neutral endopeptidase (NEP), a cell surface metallopeptidase, degrades substance P. Chronic nonhealing wounds and skin from patients with diabetes mellitus show increased NEP localization and activity. We hypothesized that increased NEP may retard wound healing and that NEP inhibition would improve closure kinetics in an excisional murine wound model. NEP enzyme activity was measured in skin samples from mutant diabetic mice (db/db) and nondiabetic (db/-) littermates by degradation of glutaryl-ala-ala-phe-4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine. Full-thickness 6-mm dorsal excisional wounds treated with normal saline or the NEP inhibitor thiorphan (10 microM or 25 microM) for 7 days were followed until closure. Histological examination and NEP activity were evaluated in a subset of wounds. NEP activity in unwounded db/db skin (20.6 pmol MNA/hr/ microg) significantly exceeded activity in db/-skin (7.9 pmol MNA/hr/ microg; p = 0.02). In db/db mice, 25 microM thiorphan shortened time to closure (18.0 days; p < 0.05) compared to normal saline (23.5 days). NEP inhibition did not alter closure kinetics in db/-mice. While the inflammatory response appeared enhanced in early wounds treated with thiorphan, blinded histological scoring of healed wounds using a semiquantitative scale showed no difference in inflammation. Unwounded skin from diabetic mice shows increased NEP activity and NEP inhibition improved wound closure kinetics without affecting contraction, suggesting that its principal effect was to augment epithelialization.

  7. Vitamin K3 (menadione) redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and inhibits parathion intoxication

    SciT

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R., E-mail: jricha3@eohsi.rutgers.edu; Baker, Angela A.

    Parathion, a widely used organophosphate insecticide, is considered a high priority chemical threat. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a cytotoxic metabolite. As an effective inhibitor of cholinesterases, paraoxon causes the accumulation of acetylcholine in synapses and overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, leading to characteristic signs of organophosphate poisoning. Inhibition of parathion metabolism to paraoxon represents a potential approach to counter parathion toxicity. Herein, we demonstrate that menadione (methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K3) is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of parathion. Menadione is active in redox cycling,more » a reaction mediated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase that preferentially uses electrons from NADPH at the expense of their supply to the P450s. Using human recombinant CYP 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and human liver microsomes, menadione was found to inhibit the formation of paraoxon from parathion. Administration of menadione bisulfite (40 mg/kg, ip) to rats also reduced parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity, as well as parathion-induced tremors and the progression of other signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning. These data suggest that redox cycling compounds, such as menadione, have the potential to effectively mitigate the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides including parathion which require cytochrome P450-mediated activation. - Highlights: • Menadione redox cycles with cytochrome P450 reductase and generates reactive oxygen species. • Redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated parathion metabolism. • Short term administration of menadione inhibits parathion toxicity by inhibiting paraoxon formation.« less

  8. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  9. Tooth brushing inhibits oral bacteria in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Kotaro; Kijima, Saku; Nonaka, Chie; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    In this study, scaling, polishing and daily tooth brushing were performed in 20 beagle dogs, and the number of oral bacteria was determined using a bacterial counter. The dogs were randomized into the scaling (S), scaling + polishing (SP), scaling + tooth daily brushing (SB) and scaling + polishing + tooth daily brushing (SPB) groups. Samples were collected from the buccal surface of the maxillary fourth premolars of the dogs immediately after scaling and every week thereafter from weeks 1 to 8. Throughout the study, the number of bacteria was significantly lower in the SB and SPB groups compared with the S group. The findings suggest that daily tooth brushing inhibited oral bacterial growth in the dogs.

  10. Inhibition-of-return at multiple locations in visual space.

    PubMed

    Wright, R D; Richard, C M

    1996-09-01

    Inhibition-of-return is thought to be a visual search phenomenon characterized by delayed responses to targets presented at recently cued or recently fixated locations. We studied this inhibition effect following the simultaneous presentation of multiple location cues. The results indicated that response inhibition can be associated with as many as four locations at the same time. This suggests that a purely oculomotor account of inhibition-of-return is oversimplified. In short, although oculomotor processes appear to play a role in inhibition-of-return they may not tell the whole story about how it occurs because we can only program and execute eye movements to one location at a time.

  11. Arginase inhibition promotes wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Kavalukas, Sandra L; Uzgare, Aarti R; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Barbul, Adrian

    2012-02-01

    Arginase plays important regulatory roles in polyamine, ornithine, and nitric oxide syntheses. However, its role in the healing process has not been delineated. In this study, we used a highly potent and specific inhibitor of arginase, namely 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid NH4 (ABH) to evaluate the role of arginase function in wound healing. ABH or saline was applied topically to full thickness, dorsal, excisional wounds in C57BL/6 mice every 8 hours for 14 days post surgery and the rate of wound closure was estimated planimetrically. Wound tissue was harvested from mice sacrificed on postoperative days 3 and 7 and examined histologically. The extent of epithelial, connective, and granulation tissue present within the wound area was estimated histomorphometrically. The effect of ABH on wound arginase activity, production of nitric oxide metabolites (NO(x)), and presence of smooth muscle actin positive cells (myofibroblasts) was evaluated. While arginase activity was inhibited in vivo, the rate of wound closure significantly increased 7 days post-surgery, (21 ± 4%: P < .01; Student t test) in ABH treated animals. This was accompanied by an early increase in wound granulation tissue and accumulation of NO(x) followed by enhanced re-epithelialization and localization of myofibroblasts beneath the wound epithelium. Arginase inhibition improves excisional wound healing and may be used to develop therapeutics for early wound closure. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Huijeong; Kim, Jeeyoung; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Lee, Geun-Shik

    2014-04-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an amphipathic molecule that is commonly/widely used as a solvent for biological compounds. In addition, DMSO has been studied as a medication for the treatment of inflammation, cystitis, and arthritis. Based on the anti-inflammatory characteristics of DMSO, we elucidated the effects of DMSO on activation of inflammasomes, which are cytoplasmic multi-protein complexes that mediate the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β by activating caspase-1 (Casp1). In the present study, we prove that DMSO attenuated IL-1β maturation, Casp1 activity, and ASC pyroptosome formation via NLRP3 inflammasome activators. Further, NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasome activity were not affected, suggesting that DMSO is a selective inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasomes. The anti-inflammatory effect of DMSO was further confirmed in animal, LPS-endotoxin sepsis and inflammatory bowel disease models. In addition, DMSO inhibited LPS-mediating IL-1s transcription. Taken together, DMSO shows anti-inflammatory characteristics, attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and mediates inhibition of IL-1s transcription. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Piano Transcription with Convolutional Sparse Lateral Inhibition

    DOE PAGES

    Cogliati, Andrea; Duan, Zhiyao; Wohlberg, Brendt Egon

    2017-02-08

    This paper extends our prior work on contextdependent piano transcription to estimate the length of the notes in addition to their pitch and onset. This approach employs convolutional sparse coding along with lateral inhibition constraints to approximate a musical signal as the sum of piano note waveforms (dictionary elements) convolved with their temporal activations. The waveforms are pre-recorded for the specific piano to be transcribed in the specific environment. A dictionary containing multiple waveforms per pitch is generated by truncating a long waveform for each pitch to different lengths. During transcription, the dictionary elements are fixed and their temporal activationsmore » are estimated and post-processed to obtain the pitch, onset and note length estimation. A sparsity penalty promotes globally sparse activations of the dictionary elements, and a lateral inhibition term penalizes concurrent activations of different waveforms corresponding to the same pitch within a temporal neighborhood, to achieve note length estimation. Experiments on the MAPS dataset show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a state-of-the-art music transcription method trained in the same context-dependent setting in transcription accuracy.« less

  14. Targeting Sphingosine Kinase-1 To Inhibit Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Hengst, Jeremy; Gowda, Raghavendra; Fox, Todd E.; Yun, Jong K; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Resistance to therapies develops rapidly for melanoma leading to more aggressive disease. Therefore, agents are needed that specifically inhibit proteins or pathways controlling the development of this disease, which can be combined, dependent on genes deregulated in a particular patient’s tumors. This study shows that elevated sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P) levels resulting from increased activity of sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1) occur in advanced melanomas. Targeting SPHK1 using siRNA decreased anchorage dependent and independent growth as well as sensitized melanoma cells to apoptosis inducing agents. Pharmacological SPHK1 inhibitors SKI-I but not SKI-II decreased S-1-P content, elevated ceramide levels, caused a G2-M block and induced apoptotic cell death in melanomas. Targeting SPHK1 using siRNA or the pharmacological agent called SKI-I, decreased the levels of pAKT. Furthermore, SKI-I inhibited the expression of CYCLIN D1 protein and increased the activity of caspase-3/7, which in turn led to the degradation of PARP. In animals, SKI-I but not SKI-II retarded melanoma growth by 25-40%. Thus, targeting SPHK1 using siRNAs or SKI-I has therapeutic potential for melanoma treatment either alone or in combination with other targeted agents. PMID:22236408

  15. Calcineurin/NFAT signalling inhibits myeloid haematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Fric, Jan; Lim, Clarice X F; Koh, Esther G L; Hofmann, Benjamin; Chen, Jinmiao; Tay, Hock Soon; Mohammad Isa, Siti Aminah Bte; Mortellaro, Alessandra; Ruedl, Christiane; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) comprises a family of transcription factors that regulate T cell development, activation and differentiation. NFAT signalling can also mediate granulocyte and dendritic cell (DC) activation, but it is unknown whether NFAT influences their development from progenitors. Here, we report a novel role for calcineurin/NFAT signalling as a negative regulator of myeloid haematopoiesis. Reconstituting lethally irradiated mice with haematopoietic stem cells expressing an NFAT-inhibitory peptide resulted in enhanced development of the myeloid compartment. Culturing bone marrow cells in media supplemented with Flt3-L in the presence of the calcineurin/NFAT inhibitor Cyclosporin A increased numbers of differentiated DC. Global gene expression analysis of untreated DC and NFAT-inhibited DC revealed differential expression of transcripts that regulate cell cycle and apoptosis. In conclusion, these results provide evidence that calcineurin/NFAT signalling negatively regulates myeloid lineage development. The finding that inhibition of NFAT enhances myeloid development provides a novel insight into understanding how the treatment with drugs targeting calcineurin/NFAT signalling influence the homeostasis of the innate immune system. Copyright © 2012 EMBO Molecular Medicine.

  16. Periostin Limits Tumor Response to VEGFA Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Keklikoglou, Ioanna; Kadioglu, Ece; Bissinger, Stefan; Langlois, Benoît; Bellotti, Axel; Orend, Gertraud; Ries, Carola H; De Palma, Michele

    2018-03-06

    Resistance to antiangiogenic drugs limits their applicability in cancer therapy. Here, we show that revascularization and progression of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) under extended vascular-endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) blockade are dependent on periostin (POSTN), a matricellular protein expressed by stromal cells. Genetic deletion of Postn in RIP1-Tag2 mice blunted tumor rebounds of M2-like macrophages and αSMA + stromal cells in response to prolonged VEGFA inhibition and suppressed PNET revascularization and progression on therapy. POSTN deficiency also impeded the upregulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), an adaptive mechanism previously implicated in PNET evasion from antiangiogenic therapy. Higher POSTN expression correlated with markers of M2-like macrophages in human PNETs, and depleting macrophages with a colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) antibody inhibited PNET revascularization and progression under VEGFA blockade despite continued POSTN production. These findings suggest a role for POSTN in orchestrating resistance to anti-VEGFA therapy in PNETs. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. GABAergic Inhibition in Visual Cortical Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sale, Alessandro; Berardi, Nicoletta; Spolidoro, Maria; Baroncelli, Laura; Maffei, Lamberto

    2010-01-01

    Experience is required for the shaping and refinement of developing neural circuits during well defined periods of early postnatal development called critical periods. Many studies in the visual cortex have shown that intracortical GABAergic circuitry plays a crucial role in defining the time course of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity. With the end of the critical period, neural plasticity wanes and recovery from the effects of visual defects on visual acuity (amblyopia) or binocularity is much reduced or absent. Recent results pointed out that intracortical inhibition is a fundamental limiting factor for adult cortical plasticity and that its reduction by means of different pharmacological and environmental strategies makes it possible to greatly enhance plasticity in the adult visual cortex, promoting ocular dominance plasticity and recovery from amblyopia. Here we focus on the role of intracortical GABAergic circuitry in controlling both developmental and adult cortical plasticity. We shall also discuss the potential clinical application of these findings to neurological disorders in which synaptic plasticity is compromised because of excessive intracortical inhibition. PMID:20407586

  18. PD-1 checkpoint inhibition: Toxicities and management.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andrew W; Gill, David M; Agarwal, Neeraj; Maughan, Benjamin L

    2017-12-01

    With the recent approval of 5 PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for a number of malignancies, PD-1 axis inhibition is drastically changing the treatment landscape of immunotherapy in cancer. As PD-1/PD-L1 are involved in peripheral immune tolerance, inhibition of this immune checkpoint has led to novel immune-related adverse events including colitis, hepatitis, pneumonitis, rash, and endocrinopathies among many others. In this seminar, we will analyze the incidence of immune-related adverse events for nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab. Then, we will discuss the specific management of the most common immune-mediated adverse events including colitis, hepatitis, pneumonitis, rash, endocrinopathies, nephritis, and neurologic toxicities. Immune-related adverse events are frequently treated with immunosuppressive medication such as steroids and mycofenolate mofetil. There are specific immune-related adverse events which are frequently seen by the treating oncologist from checkpoint inhibitors. It is essential to understand the recommended treatment options to minimize toxicity and mortality from this important class of anti-neoplastic therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Soluble Aβ aggregates can inhibit prion propagation.

    PubMed

    Sarell, Claire J; Quarterman, Emma; Yip, Daniel C-M; Terry, Cassandra; Nicoll, Andrew J; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Farrow, Mark A; Walsh, Dominic M; Collinge, John

    2017-11-01

    Mammalian prions cause lethal neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and consist of multi-chain assemblies of misfolded cellular prion protein (PrP C ). Ligands that bind to PrP C can inhibit prion propagation and neurotoxicity. Extensive prior work established that certain soluble assemblies of the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated amyloid β-protein (Aβ) can tightly bind to PrP C , and that this interaction may be relevant to their toxicity in AD. Here, we investigated whether such soluble Aβ assemblies might, conversely, have an inhibitory effect on prion propagation. Using cellular models of prion infection and propagation and distinct Aβ preparations, we found that the form of Aβ assemblies which most avidly bound to PrP in vitro also inhibited prion infection and propagation. By contrast, forms of Aβ which exhibit little or no binding to PrP were unable to attenuate prion propagation. These data suggest that soluble aggregates of Aβ can compete with prions for binding to PrP C and emphasize the bidirectional nature of the interplay between Aβ and PrP C in Alzheimer's and prion diseases. Such inhibitory effects of Aβ on prion propagation may contribute to the apparent fall-off in the incidence of sporadic CJD at advanced age where cerebral Aβ deposition is common. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Oculomotor inhibition covaries with conscious detection

    PubMed Central

    Rolfs, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements occur frequently even during attempted fixation, but they halt momentarily when a new stimulus appears. Here, we demonstrate that this rapid, involuntary “oculomotor freezing” reflex is yoked to fluctuations in explicit visual perception. Human observers reported the presence or absence of a brief visual stimulus while we recorded microsaccades, small spontaneous eye movements. We found that microsaccades were reflexively inhibited if and only if the observer reported seeing the stimulus, even when none was present. By applying a novel Bayesian classification technique to patterns of microsaccades on individual trials, we were able to decode the reported state of perception more accurately than the state of the stimulus (present vs. absent). Moreover, explicit perceptual sensitivity and the oculomotor reflex were both susceptible to orientation-specific adaptation. The adaptation effects suggest that the freezing reflex is mediated by signals processed in the visual cortex before reaching oculomotor control centers rather than relying on a direct subcortical route, as some previous research has suggested. We conclude that the reflexive inhibition of microsaccades immediately and inadvertently reveals when the observer becomes aware of a change in the environment. By providing an objective measure of conscious perceptual detection that does not require explicit reports, this finding opens doors to clinical applications and further investigations of perceptual awareness. PMID:27385794

  1. Structural basis of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Marta; Levy, Colin; Heyes, Derren J; Lafite, Pierre; Outeiro, Tiago F; Giorgini, Flaviano; Leys, David; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2013-04-18

    Inhibition of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), an enzyme in the eukaryotic tryptophan catabolic pathway (that is, kynurenine pathway), leads to amelioration of Huntington's-disease-relevant phenotypes in yeast, fruitfly and mouse models, as well as in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. KMO is a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent monooxygenase and is located in the outer mitochondrial membrane where it converts l-kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. Perturbations in the levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites have been linked to the pathogenesis of a spectrum of brain disorders, as well as cancer and several peripheral inflammatory conditions. Despite the importance of KMO as a target for neurodegenerative disease, the molecular basis of KMO inhibition by available lead compounds has remained unknown. Here we report the first crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KMO, in the free form and in complex with the tight-binding inhibitor UPF 648. UPF 648 binds close to the FAD cofactor and perturbs the local active-site structure, preventing productive binding of the substrate l-kynurenine. Functional assays and targeted mutagenesis reveal that the active-site architecture and UPF 648 binding are essentially identical in human KMO, validating the yeast KMO-UPF 648 structure as a template for structure-based drug design. This will inform the search for new KMO inhibitors that are able to cross the blood-brain barrier in targeted therapies against neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  2. Therapeutic proteasome inhibition in experimental acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Letoha, Tamás; Fehér, Liliána Z; Pecze, László; Somlai, Csaba; Varga, Ilona; Kaszaki, József; Tóth, Gábor; Vizler, Csaba; Tiszlavicz, László; Takács, Tamás

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To establish the therapeutic potential of proteasome inhibition, we examined the therapeutic effects of MG132 (Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-aldehyde) in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in rats by two hourly intraperitoneal (ip) injections of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK; 2 × 100 μg/kg) and the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (10 mg/kg ip) was administered 30 min after the second CCK injection. Animals were sacrificed 4 h after the first injection of CCK. RESULTS: Administering the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (at a dose of 10 mg/kg, ip) 90 min after the onset of pancreatic inflammation induced the expression of cell-protective 72 kDa heat shock protein (HSP72) and decreased DNA-binding of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Furthermore MG132 treatment resulted in milder inflammatory response and cellular damage, as revealed by improved laboratory and histological parameters of pancreatitis and associated oxidative stress. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that proteasome inhibition might be beneficial not only for the prevention, but also for the therapy of acute pancreatitis. PMID:17724800

  3. Progesterone Signaling Inhibits Cervical Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young A; Son, Jieun; Mehta, Fabiola F.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Chung, Sang-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is the main cause of cervical cancer, yet other nonviral cofactors are also required for the disease. The uterine cervix is a hormone-responsive tissue, and female hormones have been implicated in cervical carcinogenesis. A transgenic mouse model expressing human papillomavirus oncogenes E6 and/or E7 has proven useful to study a mechanism of hormone actions in the context of this common malignancy. Estrogen and estrogen receptor α are required for the development of cervical cancer in this mouse model. Estrogen receptor α is known to up-regulate expression of the progesterone receptor, which, on activation by its ligands, either promotes or inhibits carcinogenesis, depending on the tissue context. Here, we report that progesterone receptor inhibits cervical and vaginal epithelial cell proliferation in a ligand-dependent manner. We also report that synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate promotes regression of cancers and precancerous lesions in the female lower reproductive tracts (ie, cervix and vagina) in the human papillomavirus transgenic mouse model. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that supports the hypothesis that progesterone signaling is inhibitory for cervical carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:24012679

  4. Salinomycin, A Polyether Ionophoric Antibiotic, Inhibits Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Szkudlarek-Mikho, Maria; Saunders, Rudel A.; Yap, Sook Fan; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Chin, Khew-Voon

    2012-01-01

    The polyether ionophoric antibiotics including monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, are widely used in veterinary medicine and as food additives and growth promoters in animal husbandry including poultry farming. Their effects on human health, however, are not fully understood. Recent studies showed that salinomycin is a cancer stem cell inhibitor. Since poultry consumption has risen sharply in the last three decades, we asked whether the consumption of meat tainted with growth promoting antibiotics might have effects on adipose cells. We showed in this report that the ionophoric antibiotics inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. The block of differentiation is not due to the induction of apoptosis nor the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, salinomycin also suppresses the transcriptional activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. These results suggest that the ionophoric antibiotics can be exploited as novel anti-obesity therapeutics and as pharmacological probes for the study of adipose biology. Further, the pharmacological effects of salinomycin could be a harbinger of its toxicity on the adipose tissue and other susceptible target cells in cancer therapy. PMID:23123626

  5. Vinpocetine inhibits oligodendroglial precursor cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Klintsy Julieta; Göttle, Peter; Kremer, David; Rivera, Jose Flores; Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda; Corona, Teresa; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Küry, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis during periods of remission a limited degree of myelin repair can be observed mediated by oligodendroglial precursor cells. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors act as anti-inflammatory agents and might hold promise for future multiple sclerosis treatment. To investigate whether phosphodiesterase inhibitors could also influence myelin repair. We stimulated primary oligodendroglial precursor cells with cilostazol, rolipram and vinpocetine and assessed their effects on repair related cellular processes. We found that vinpocetine exerted a strong negative effect on myelin expression while cilostazol and rolipram did not show such effects. In addition, vinpocetine decreased morphological complexities suggesting an overall negative impact on oligodendroglial cell maturation. We provide evidence that this is not mediated via a blockade of phosphodiesterase-1 but rather by inhibition of IĸB kinase. These findings suggest that vinpocetine via IĸB inhibition exerts a strong negative impact on oligodendroglial cell maturation and may therefore provide the rationale to restrict its application during periods of remission in multiple sclerosis patients. This is of particular interest since vinpocetine is widely used as a health supplement thought to act as a cognitive and memory enhancer for healthy people and patients with neurological or muscle diseases. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Piano Transcription with Convolutional Sparse Lateral Inhibition

    SciT

    Cogliati, Andrea; Duan, Zhiyao; Wohlberg, Brendt Egon

    This paper extends our prior work on contextdependent piano transcription to estimate the length of the notes in addition to their pitch and onset. This approach employs convolutional sparse coding along with lateral inhibition constraints to approximate a musical signal as the sum of piano note waveforms (dictionary elements) convolved with their temporal activations. The waveforms are pre-recorded for the specific piano to be transcribed in the specific environment. A dictionary containing multiple waveforms per pitch is generated by truncating a long waveform for each pitch to different lengths. During transcription, the dictionary elements are fixed and their temporal activationsmore » are estimated and post-processed to obtain the pitch, onset and note length estimation. A sparsity penalty promotes globally sparse activations of the dictionary elements, and a lateral inhibition term penalizes concurrent activations of different waveforms corresponding to the same pitch within a temporal neighborhood, to achieve note length estimation. Experiments on the MAPS dataset show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a state-of-the-art music transcription method trained in the same context-dependent setting in transcription accuracy.« less

  7. Measurement and Reliability of Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Eliza; Mumford, Jeanette A.; Cohen, Jessica R.; Galvan, Adriana; Canli, Turhan; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2012-01-01

    Response inhibition plays a critical role in adaptive functioning and can be assessed with the Stop-signal task, which requires participants to suppress prepotent motor responses. Evidence suggests that this ability to inhibit a prepotent motor response (reflected as Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)) is a quantitative and heritable measure of interindividual variation in brain function. Although attention has been given to the optimal method of SSRT estimation, and initial evidence exists in support of its reliability, there is still variability in how Stop-signal task data are treated across samples. In order to examine this issue, we pooled data across three separate studies and examined the influence of multiple SSRT calculation methods and outlier calling on reliability (using Intra-class correlation). Our results suggest that an approach which uses the average of all available sessions, all trials of each session, and excludes outliers based on predetermined lenient criteria yields reliable SSRT estimates, while not excluding too many participants. Our findings further support the reliability of SSRT, which is commonly used as an index of inhibitory control, and provide support for its continued use as a neurocognitive phenotype. PMID:22363308

  8. Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite

    SciT

    Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

    2012-09-25

    This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrationsmore » and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.« less

  9. Oxidation Inhibits Iron-Induced Blood Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Vermeulen, Natasha; Lipinski, Boguslaw

    2013-01-01

    Blood coagulation under physiological conditions is activated by thrombin, which converts soluble plasma fibrinogen (FBG) into an insoluble clot. The structure of the enzymatically-generated clot is very characteristic being composed of thick fibrin fibers susceptible to the fibrinolytic degradation. However, in chronic degenerative diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and neurological disorders, fibrin clots are very different forming dense matted deposits (DMD) that are not effectively removed and thus create a condition known as thrombosis. We have recently shown that trivalent iron (ferric ions) generates hydroxyl radicals, which subsequently convert FBG into abnormal fibrin clots in the form of DMDs. A characteristic feature of DMDs is their remarkable and permanent resistance to the enzymatic degradation. Therefore, in order to prevent thrombotic incidences in the degenerative diseases it is essential to inhibit the iron-induced generation of hydroxyl radicals. This can be achieved by the pretreatment with a direct free radical scavenger (e.g. salicylate), and as shown in this paper by the treatment with oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide, methylene blue, and sodium selenite. Although the actual mechanism of this phenomenon is not yet known, it is possible that hydroxyl radicals are neutralized by their conversion to the molecular oxygen and water, thus inhibiting the formation of dense matted fibrin deposits in human blood. PMID:23170793

  10. Inhibition of Glucuronokinase by Substrate Analogs 1

    PubMed Central

    Gillard, Douglas F.; Dickinson, David B.

    1978-01-01

    Glucuronokinase from Lilium longiflorum pollen was purified 30- to 40- fold on a blue dextran-Sepharose column. Substrate analogs were tested for inhibitory effects, and nucleotide substrate specificity of the enzyme was determined. Nine nucleotides were tested, and all were inhibitory when the substrate was ATP. ADP was competitive with ATP and had a Ki value of 0.23 mm. None of the other nucleotide triphosphates could effectively substitute for ATP as a nucleotide substrate. Ten mm dATP and ITP reacted only 3% as rapidly as 10 mm ATP, while the rates for 10 mm GTP, CTP, UTP, and TTP were less than 1%. The glucuronic acid analogs, methyl α-glucuronoside, methyl β-glucuronoside, β-glucuronic acid-1-phosphate, and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid were tested as possible enzyme inhibitors. The three methyl derivatives showed little or no inhibition. The β-glucuronic acid-1-phosphate was inhibitory, with 50% inhibition obtained at 1 to 3 mm depending on the concentration of the glucuronic acid. It is concluded that the glucuronic acid-binding site on the enzyme is highly selective. PMID:16660589

  11. Ketose induced respiratory inhibition in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Martínez, P; Carrascosa, J M; Núñez de Castro, I

    1987-06-01

    The addition of 10 mM fructose or 10 mM tagatose to a suspension of hepatocytes caused respiratory inhibition, whereas no change in oxygen uptake was observed following the addition of glucose. However, incubations in the presence of fructose showed a high, aerobic glycolytic activity. Tagatose is phosphorylated to tagatose 1-phosphate but is not further metabolized by cell free liver extract. Moreover, the addition of fructose to glucagon treated cells also caused the Crabtree-like effect. The concentration of adenine nucleotides and inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments during incubation (time 30 min) was determined by the digitonin fractionation procedure. In the presence of 10 mM fructose or tagatose, the total adenine nucleotide pools decreased by 40%; however, glucose produced no change. The addition of ketoses diminished the asymmetric distribution of extramitochondrial (ATP/ADP)e ratio and intramitochondrial (ATP/ADP)i ratio. At the same time the total mitochondrial Pi fell from 17 mM to 6-7 mM. The mitochondrial membrane potential (-161 mV) in the presence of fructose showed no changes during the 30 min experimental period. An increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio was observed. These results suggest that in hepatocytes the inhibition of respiration is not necessarily linked with the enhanced aerobic glycolysis, by competition for common substrates.

  12. Erythrocyte membrane skeleton inhibits nanoparticle endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xinli; Yue, Tongtao; Tian, Falin; Liu, Zhiping; Zhang, Xianren

    2017-06-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, have been experimentally proposed in recent decades as the biological drug delivery systems through entrapping certain drugs by endocytosis. However, the internalization pathway of endocytosis seems to conflict with the robust mechanical properties of RBCs that is induced by the spectrin-actin network of erythrocyte membrane skeleton. In this work, we employed a minimum realistic model and the dissipative particle dynamics method to investigate the influence of the spectrin-actin membrane skeleton on the internalization of nanoparticles (NPs). Our simulations show that the existence of skeleton meshwork indeed induces an inhibiting effect that effectively prevents NPs from internalization. The inhibiting effect is found to depend on the membrane-NP attraction, skeleton tension and relative size of the NP to the membrane skeleton mesh. However, our simulations also demonstrate that there are two possibilities for successful internalization of NPs in the presence of the membrane skeleton. The first case is for NPs that has a much smaller size than the dimension of skeleton meshes, and the other is that the skeleton tension is rather weak so that the formed vesicle can still move inward for NP internalization.

  13. Inhibition of Microtubule Depolymerization by Osmolytes

    SciT

    Bachand, George D.; Jain, Rishi; Ko, Randy

    Microtubule dynamics play a critical role in the normal physiology of eukaryotic cells as well as a number of cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The polymerization/depolymerization of microtubules is regulated by a variety of stabilizing and destabilizing factors, including microtubule-associated proteins and therapeutic agents (e.g., paclitaxel, nocodazole). Here in this paper, we describe the ability of the osmolytes polyethylene glycol (PEG) and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) to inhibit the depolymerization of individual microtubule filaments for extended periods of time (up to 30 days). We further show that PEG stabilizes microtubules against both temperature- and calcium-induced depolymerization. Our results collectively suggest that the observedmore » inhibition may be related to combination of the kosmotropic behavior and excluded volume/osmotic pressure effects associated with PEG and TMAO. Lastly, taken together with prior studies, our data suggest that the physiochemical properties of the local environment can regulate microtubule depolymerization and may potentially play an important role in in vivo microtubule dynamics.« less

  14. Inhibition of Microtubule Depolymerization by Osmolytes

    DOE PAGES

    Bachand, George D.; Jain, Rishi; Ko, Randy; ...

    2018-04-24

    Microtubule dynamics play a critical role in the normal physiology of eukaryotic cells as well as a number of cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The polymerization/depolymerization of microtubules is regulated by a variety of stabilizing and destabilizing factors, including microtubule-associated proteins and therapeutic agents (e.g., paclitaxel, nocodazole). Here in this paper, we describe the ability of the osmolytes polyethylene glycol (PEG) and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) to inhibit the depolymerization of individual microtubule filaments for extended periods of time (up to 30 days). We further show that PEG stabilizes microtubules against both temperature- and calcium-induced depolymerization. Our results collectively suggest that the observedmore » inhibition may be related to combination of the kosmotropic behavior and excluded volume/osmotic pressure effects associated with PEG and TMAO. Lastly, taken together with prior studies, our data suggest that the physiochemical properties of the local environment can regulate microtubule depolymerization and may potentially play an important role in in vivo microtubule dynamics.« less

  15. Angiostatin inhibits experimental liver fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Vogten, J Mathys; Drixler, Tamas A; te Velde, Elisabeth A; Schipper, Marguerite E; van Vroonhoven, Theo J M V; Voest, Emile E; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M

    2004-07-01

    Liver fibrosis is a response to chronic hepatic damage, which ultimately leads to liver failure and necessitates liver transplantation. A characteristic of fibrosis is pathological vessel growth. This type of angiogenesis may contribute to the disturbance of hepatocyte perfusion dynamics and lead to aggravation of disease. We hypothesized that angiostatin can inhibit pathological vessel growth and, consequently, the development of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis was induced by injection of carbon tetrachloride for 5 weeks. Angiostatin mice received carbon tetrachloride for 5 weeks and angiostatin during weeks 4 and 5. After 5 weeks, immunohistochemistry for endothelial cell marker von Willebrand factor and for cell proliferation was performed. Angiogenesis was quantified by counting the number of immunopositive microvessels. Also, the relative fibrotic surface was determined using Sirius Red histostaining and computer image analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression for von Willebrand factor in fibrotic livers. Immunopositive microvessels were localized in fibrotic areas surrounding larger vessels and in emerging fibrotic septa. Angiostatin reduced the number of immunopositive microvessels by 69% (p<0.001). In addition, angiostatin reduced the relative fibrotic area in the liver by 63+/-0.1% (p<0.001). Finally, angiostatin treatment was not associated with differences in cell proliferation. Angiostatin inhibits the development of pathological angiogenesis and liver fibrosis in mice. These results warrant further evaluation of angiostatin as an antifibrotic agent, potentially contributing to the deferment of liver transplantation and reduced recurrence of fibrotic disease in the transplanted liver.

  16. Sensitization of meningeal nociceptors: inhibition by naproxen

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Dan; Zhang, Xi-Chun; Jakubowski, Moshe; Burstein, Rami

    2009-01-01

    Migraine attacks associated with throbbing (manifestation of peripheral sensitization) and cutaneous allodynia (manifestation of central sensitization) are readily terminated by intravenous administration of a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor. Evidence that sensitization of rat central trigeminovascular neurons was also terminated in vivo by non-selective COX inhibition has led us to propose that COX inhibitors may act centrally in the dorsal horn. In the present study, we examined whether COX inhibition can also suppress peripheral sensitization in meningeal nociceptors. Using single-unit recording in the trigeminal ganglion in vivo, we found that intravenous infusion of naproxen, a non-selective COX inhibitor, reversed measures of sensitization induced in meningeal nociceptors by prior exposure of the dura to inflammatory soup (IS): ongoing activity of Aδ- and C-units and their response magnitude to mechanical stimulation of the dura, which were enhanced after IS, returned to baseline after naproxen infusion. Topical application of naproxen or the selective COX-2 inhibitor N-[2-(cyclohexyloxy)-4-nitrophenyl]-methanesulfonamide (NS-398) onto the dural receptive field of Aδ- and C-unit nociceptors also reversed the neuronal hyper-responsiveness to mechanical stimulation of the dura. The findings suggest that local COX activity in the dura could mediate the peripheral sensitization that underlies migraine headache. PMID:18333963

  17. Platelets Inhibit Migration of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibits human gastric cancer tumor growth in nude mice via the inhibition of glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Xian, Shu-Lin; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Lu, Yun-Fei

    2015-02-01

    Tumor cells primarily depend upon glycolysis in order to gain energy. Therefore, the inhibition of glycolysis may inhibit tumor growth. Our previous study demonstrated that 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in vitro . However, the ability of 3-BrPA to suppress tumor growth in vivo, and its underlying mechanism, have yet to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of 3-BrPA in an animal model of gastric cancer. It was identified that 3-BrPA exhibited strong inhibitory effects upon xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. In addition, the antitumor function of 3-BrPA exhibited a dose-effect association, which was similar to that of the chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil. Furthermore, 3-BrPA exhibited low toxicity in the blood, liver and kidneys of the nude mice. The present study hypothesized that the inhibitory effect of 3-BrPA is achieved through the inhibition of hexokinase activity, which leads to the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression, the upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein expression and the subsequent activation of caspase-3. These data suggest that 3-BrPA may be a novel therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  19. Checkpoint kinase 1 inhibition sensitises transformed cells to dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, Stéphanie; Rodier, Geneviève; Matar, Gisèle; Vincent, Charles; Pirot, Nelly; Delorme, Yoann; Berthet, Charlène; Buscail, Yoan; Noël, Jean Yohan; Lachambre, Simon; Jarlier, Marta; Bernex, Florence; Delpech, Hélène; Vidalain, Pierre Olivier; Janin, Yves L.; Theillet, Charles; Sardet, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Reduction in nucleotide pools through the inhibition of mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) has been demonstrated to effectively reduce cancer cell proliferation and tumour growth. The current study sought to investigate whether this antiproliferative effect could be enhanced by combining Chk1 kinase inhibition. The pharmacological activity of DHODH inhibitor teriflunomide was more selective towards transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts than their primary or immortalised counterparts, and this effect was amplified when cells were subsequently exposed to PF477736 Chk1 inhibitor. Flow cytometry analyses revealed substantial accumulations of cells in S and G2/M phases, followed by increased cytotoxicity which was characterised by caspase 3-dependent induction of cell death. Associating PF477736 with teriflunomide also significantly sensitised SUM159 and HCC1937 human triple negative breast cancer cell lines to dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibition. The main characteristic of this effect was the sustained accumulation of teriflunomide-induced DNA damage as cells displayed increased phospho serine 139 H2AX (γH2AX) levels and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of Chk1 on serine 345 upon exposure to the combination as compared with either inhibitor alone. Importantly a similar significant increase in cell death was observed upon dual siRNA mediated depletion of Chk1 and DHODH in both murine and human cancer cell models. Altogether these results suggest that combining DHODH and Chk1 inhibitions may be a strategy worth considering as a potential alternative to conventional chemotherapies. PMID:29221122

  20. Stachytarpheta cayennensis extract inhibits promastigote and amastigote growth in Leishmania amazonensis via parasite arginase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Maquiaveli, Claudia do Carmo; Oliveira E Sá, Amanda Maria; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; da Silva, Edson Roberto

    2016-11-04

    Stachytarpheta cayennensis is a plant that is traditionally used to treat tegumentary leishmaniasis and as an anti-inflammatory agent. This study aimed to evaluate the action of S. cayennensis extracts on the Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis arginase enzyme. S. cayennensis was collected from the Brazilian Amazon region. Aqueous extracts were fractionated with n-butanol. The leishmanicidal effects of the n-butanolic fraction (BUF) were evaluated in L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes. BUF was tested against recombinant arginase from both L. (L.) amazonensis and macrophage arginase. Promastigote cultures and infected macrophage cultures were supplemented with L-ornithine to verify arginase inhibition. NMR analysis was used to identify the major components of BUF. BUF showed an EC 50 of 51 and 32µg/mL against promastigotes and amastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis, respectively. BUF contains a mixture of verbascoside and isoverbascoside (7:3 ratio) and is a potent L. (L.) amazonensis arginase inhibitor (IC 50 =1.2µg/mL), while macrophage arginase was weakly inhibited (IC 50 >1000µg/mL). The inhibition of arginase by BUF in promastigotes and amastigotes could be demonstrated by culture media supplementation with L-ornithine, a product of the hydrolysis of L-arginine by arginase. Leishmanicidal effects of the S. cayennensis BUF fraction on L. (L.) amazonensis are associated with selective parasite arginase inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stanniocalcin-2 Inhibits Mammalian Growth by Proteolytic Inhibition of the Insulin-like Growth Factor Axis*

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Malene R.; Kløverpris, Søren; Mikkelsen, Jakob H.; Pedersen, Josefine H.; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Laursen, Lisbeth S.; Oxvig, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian stanniocalcin-2 (STC2) is a secreted polypeptide widely expressed in developing and adult tissues. However, although transgenic expression in mice is known to cause severe dwarfism, and targeted deletion of STC2 causes increased postnatal growth, its precise biological role is still unknown. We found that STC2 potently inhibits the proteolytic activity of the growth-promoting metalloproteinase, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Proteolytic inhibition requires covalent binding of STC2 to PAPP-A and is mediated by a disulfide bond, which involves Cys-120 of STC2. Binding of STC2 prevents PAPP-A cleavage of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-4 and hence release within tissues of bioactive IGF, required for normal growth. Concordantly, we show that STC2 efficiently inhibits PAPP-A-mediated IGF receptor signaling in vitro and that transgenic mice expressing a mutated variant of STC2, STC2(C120A), which is unable to inhibit PAPP-A, grow like wild-type mice. Our work identifies STC2 as a novel proteinase inhibitor and a previously unrecognized extracellular component of the IGF system. PMID:25533459

  2. Glyphosate and AMPA inhibit cancer cell growth through inhibiting intracellular glycine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Lambrechts, Mark J; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Ge, Dongxia; Yin, Rutie; Xi, Mingrong; You, Zongbing

    2013-01-01

    Glycine is a nonessential amino acid that is reversibly converted from serine intracellularly by serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are analogs to glycine, thus they may inhibit serine hydroxymethyltransferase to decrease intracellular glycine synthesis. In this study, we found that glyphosate and AMPA inhibited cell growth in eight human cancer cell lines but not in two immortalized human normal prostatic epithelial cell lines. AMPA arrested C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cells in the G1/G0 phase and inhibited entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. AMPA also promoted apoptosis in C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cell lines. AMPA upregulated p53 and p21 protein levels as well as procaspase 9 protein levels in C4-2B cells, whereas it downregulated cyclin D3 protein levels. AMPA also activated caspase 3 and induced cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase. This study provides the first evidence that glyphosate and AMPA can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of cancer cells but not normal cells, suggesting that they have potentials to be developed into a new anticancer therapy.

  3. Glyphosate and AMPA inhibit cancer cell growth through inhibiting intracellular glycine synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingli; Lambrechts, Mark J; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Ge, Dongxia; Yin, Rutie; Xi, Mingrong; You, Zongbing

    2013-01-01

    Glycine is a nonessential amino acid that is reversibly converted from serine intracellularly by serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are analogs to glycine, thus they may inhibit serine hydroxymethyltransferase to decrease intracellular glycine synthesis. In this study, we found that glyphosate and AMPA inhibited cell growth in eight human cancer cell lines but not in two immortalized human normal prostatic epithelial cell lines. AMPA arrested C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cells in the G1/G0 phase and inhibited entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. AMPA also promoted apoptosis in C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cell lines. AMPA upregulated p53 and p21 protein levels as well as procaspase 9 protein levels in C4-2B cells, whereas it downregulated cyclin D3 protein levels. AMPA also activated caspase 3 and induced cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase. This study provides the first evidence that glyphosate and AMPA can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of cancer cells but not normal cells, suggesting that they have potentials to be developed into a new anticancer therapy. PMID:23983455

  4. Inhibition of autophagy induced by proteasome inhibition increases cell death in human SHG-44 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Zhou; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Meng, Fan-Kai; Li, Wen-Chen; Luan, Yong-Xin; Ling, Feng; Luo, Yi-Nan

    2009-07-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and lysosome-dependent macroautophagy (autophagy) are two major intracellular pathways for protein degradation. Recent studies suggest that proteasome inhibitors may reduce tumor growth and activate autophagy. Due to the dual roles of autophagy in tumor cell survival and death, the effect of autophagy on the destiny of glioma cells remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate whether inhibition of the proteasome can induce autophagy and the effects of autophagy on the fate of human SHG-44 glioma cells. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 was used to induce autophagy in SHG-44 glioma cells, and the effect of autophagy on the survival of SHG-44 glioma cells was investigated using an autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of autophagy related proteins was determined by Western blot. MG-132 inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell death and cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase, and activated autophagy in SHG-44 glioma cells. The expression of autophagy-related Beclin-1 and LC3-I was significantly up-regulated and part of LC3-I was converted into LC3-II. However, when SHG-44 glioma cells were co-treated with MG-132 and 3-MA, the cells became less viable, but cell death and cell numbers at G(2)/M phase increased. Moreover, the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles was decreased, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3 was significantly down-regulated and the conversion of LC3-II from LC3-I was also inhibited. Inhibition of the proteasome can induce autophagy in human SHG-44 glioma cells, and inhibition of autophagy increases cell death. This discovery may shed new light on the effect of autophagy on modulating the fate of SHG-44 glioma cells.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica (2009) 30: 1046-1052; doi: 10.1038/aps.2009.71.

  5. Doxycycline inhibits leukemic cell migration via inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHUNHUAI; XIANG, RU; ZHANG, XIANGZHONG; CHEN, YUNXIAN

    2015-01-01

    Doxycycline, a tetracycline-based antibiotic, has been reported to attenuate melanoma cell migration through inhibiting the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway. However, it remains to be elucidated whether doxycycline exerts this effect on leukemia cell migration. The present study aimed to examine the role of doxycycline in leukemia cell migration. The invasion capacities of the human leukemia cell lines KG1a (acute myelogenous leukemia) and K562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia) were evaluated using Matrigel® matrix-coated Transwell® chamber assays; leukemic cell lines treated with doxycycline (1 µg/ml) or anti-β1-integrin antibodies were added to the upper chamber, while untreated cells were included as controls. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed in order to further understand the influence of doxycycline treatment on the expression of FAK and gelatinases in the KG1a and K562 leukemic cell lines. In addition, FAK protein expression and phosphorylation were determined using western blot analysis in order to investigate the mechanism by which doxycycline inhibited leukemic cell migration. The results revealed that doxycycline treatment significantly attenuated the migration of KG1a and K562 cells, which was demonstrated to be associated with inhibition of the expression and phosphorylation of FAK. In addition, doxycycline treatment inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression. Furthermore, incubation with blocking anti-β1-integrin antibodies had an analogous inhibitory effect on leukemic cell migration to that of doxycycline. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that doxycycline attenuated leukemic cell migration through inhibiting the FAK signaling pathway. Therefore, doxycycline may have potential for use as a novel strategy for the treatment of leukemia. PMID:26004127

  6. Inhibition of GRP78 abrogates radioresistance in oropharyngeal carcinoma cells after EGFR inhibition by cetuximab.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chaonan; Han, Chuyang; Jiang, Yuanjun; Han, Ning; Zhang, Miao; Li, Guang; Qiao, Qiao

    2017-01-01

    The EGFR-specific mAb cetuximab is one of the most effective treatments for oropharyngeal carcinoma, while patient responses to EGFR inhibitors given alone are modest. Combination treatment with radiation can improve the efficacy of treatment through increasing radiosensitivity, while resistance to radiation after administration of cetuximab limits its efficiency. Radiation and drugs can damage the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostatic state and result in ER stress (ERS), subsequently causing resistance to radiation and drugs. Whether the ERS pathway is involved in radioresistance after administration of cetuximab has not been reported. Herein, we show that cetuximab could increase the radiosensitivity of FaDu cells but not Detroit562 cells. In addition, cetuximab inhibited the radiation-induced activation of the ERS signalling pathway IRE1α/ATF6-GRP78 in FaDu cells, while this effect was absent in Detroit562 cells. Silencing GRP78 increased the radiosensitivity of oropharyngeal carcinoma cells and inhibited radiation-induced DNA double-strand-break (DSB) repair and autophagy. More interestingly, silencing GRP78 abrogated resistance to cetuximab and radiation in Detroit562 cells and had a synergistic effect with cetuximab in increasing the radiosensitivity of FaDu cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that overexpression of both GRP78 and EGFR was associated with a poor prognosis in oropharyngeal carcinoma patients (P<0.05). Overall, the results of this study show that radioresistance after EGFR inhibition by cetuximab is mediated by the ERS signalling pathway IRE1α/ATF6-GRP78. This suppression was consequently unable to inhibit radiation-induced DSB repair and autophagy in oropharyngeal carcinoma cells, which conferred resistance to radiotherapy and cetuximab. These results suggest that the cooperative effects of radiotherapy and cetuximab could be further improved by inhibiting GRP78 in non-responsive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients.

  7. Equol inhibits growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, Sharada; Gao, Liying; Gonnering, Marni; Helferich, William; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2016-01-01

    Equol is a non-steroidal estrogen metabolite produced by microbial conversion of daidzein, a major soy isoflavone, in the gut of some humans and many animal species. Isoflavones and their metabolites can affect endogenous estradiol production, action, and metabolism, potentially influencing ovarian follicle function. However, no studies have examined the effects of equol on intact ovarian antral follicles, which are responsible for sex steroid synthesis and further development into ovulatory follicles. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that equol inhibits antral follicle growth, increases follicle atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis in the adult mouse ovary. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or equol (600 nM, 6 μM, 36 μM, 100 μM) for 48 and 96 h. Every 24 h, follicle diameters were measured to monitor growth. At 48 and 96 h, the culture medium was subjected to measurement of hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis. Additionally, follicles were histologically evaluated for signs of atresia after 96 h of culture. The results indicate that equol (100 μM) inhibited follicle growth, altered the mRNA levels of bcl2-associated X protein and B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and induced follicle atresia. Further, equol decreased the levels of estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone, and it decreased mRNA levels of cholesterol side-chain cleavage, steroid 17-α-hydroxalase, and aromatase. Collectively, these data indicate that equol inhibits growth, increases atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of cultured mouse antral follicles. PMID:26876617

  8. Temporal Dynamics of Proactive and Reactive Motor Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Liebrand, Matthias; Pein, Inga; Tzvi, Elinor; Krämer, Ulrike M.

    2017-01-01

    Proactive motor inhibition refers to endogenous preparatory mechanisms facilitating action inhibition, whereas reactive motor inhibition is considered to be a sudden stopping process triggered by external signals. Previous studies were inconclusive about the temporal dynamics of involved neurocognitive processes during proactive and reactive motor control. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated the time-course of proactive and reactive inhibition, measuring event-related oscillations and event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants performed in a cued go/nogo paradigm with cues indicating whether the motor response might or might not have to be inhibited. Based on the dual mechanisms of control (DMC) framework by Braver, we investigated the role of attentional effects, motor preparation in the sensorimotor cortex and prefrontal cognitive control mechanisms, separating effects before and after target onset. In the cue-target interval, proactive motor inhibition was associated with increased attention, reflected in reduced visual alpha power and an increased contingent negative variation (CNV). At the same time, motor inhibition was modulated by reduced sensorimotor beta power. After target onset, proactive inhibition resulted in an increased N1, indicating allocation of attention towards relevant stimuli, increased prefrontal beta power and a modulation of sensorimotor mu activity. As in previous studies, reactive stopping of motor actions was associated with increased prefrontal beta power and increased sensorimotor beta activity. The results stress the relevance of attentional mechanisms for proactive inhibition and speak for different neurocognitive mechanisms being involved in the early preparation for and in later implementation of motor inhibition. PMID:28496405

  9. Comparison of alcohol impairment of behavioral and attentional inhibition.

    PubMed

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T

    2012-11-01

    Despite the wealth of studies demonstrating the impairing effects of alcohol on behavioral inhibition, less is known regarding effects of the drug on attentional inhibition (i.e., the ability to ignore distracting stimuli in the environment in order to focus attention on relevant information). The current study examined alcohol impairment of both behavioral and attentional inhibition, as well as potential associations between the two mechanisms of inhibitory control. Men (n=27) and women (n=21) performed a measure of behavioral inhibition (cued go/no-go task) and a measure of attentional inhibition (delayed ocular return task) following three doses of alcohol: 0.65 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Alcohol impaired both behavioral and attentional inhibition relative to placebo; however, correlational analyses revealed no associations between measures of behavioral and attentional inhibition following any dose. Additionally, men committed more inhibitory failures on the behavioral inhibition task, whereas women committed more inhibitory failures on the attentional inhibition task. These findings suggest that behavioral and attentional inhibition are equally sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol, yet represent distinct components of inhibitory control. Additionally, the observed gender differences in control of behavior and attention could have important implications regarding negative consequences associated with alcohol-induced disinhibition in men and women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Expressive inhibition following interpersonal trauma: an analysis of reported function.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Joshua D; Jones, Judiann M; Jaconis, Maryanne; Olsen, Shira A; Woodward, Matthew J; Beck, J Gayle

    2014-03-01

    Existing research indicates veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may deliberately inhibit the expression of emotion. However, the degree to which inhibition generalizes to other trauma populations and the specific reasons survivors with PTSD inhibit expression remains unclear. The present study looked to evaluate expressive inhibition among survivors of intimate partner violence (N = 74), to determine reasons for inhibition in this population, and to examine whether any justifications for inhibition are unique to individuals with PTSD. The frequency and intensity of inhibition scores were similar to those noted in previous research although no differences were observed across women with and without PTSD. Self-reported justifications for inhibition indicated five general themes: Concern for others, Mistrust/fear of exploitation, Perception of others as indifferent/uncaring, Control/Experiential avoidance, and Situation-specific inhibition. Only mistrust/exploitation motives were uniquely associated with PTSD. Whereas expressive inhibition may be elevated within help-seeking samples, individuals who develop PTSD appear to hold unique reasons for restricting emotional expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition in motor imagery: a novel action mode switching paradigm.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Martina; Dahm, Stephan F; Koch, Iring

    2017-04-01

    Motor imagery requires that actual movements are prevented (i.e., inhibited) from execution. To investigate at what level inhibition takes place in motor imagery, we developed a novel action mode switching paradigm. Participants imagined (indicating only start and end) and executed movements from start buttons to target buttons, and we analyzed trial sequence effects. Trial sequences depended on current action mode (imagination or execution), previous action mode (pure blocks/same mode, mixed blocks/same mode, or mixed blocks/other mode), and movement sequence (action repetition, hand repetition, or hand alternation). Results provided evidence for global inhibition (indicated by switch benefits in execution-imagination (E-I)-sequences in comparison to I-I-sequences), effector-specific inhibition (indicated by hand repetition costs after an imagination trial), and target inhibition (indicated by target repetition benefits in I-I-sequences). No evidence for subthreshold motor activation or action-specific inhibition (inhibition of the movement of an effector to a specific target) was obtained. Two (global inhibition and effector-specific inhibition) of the three observed mechanisms are active inhibition mechanisms. In conclusion, motor imagery is not simply a weaker form of execution, which often is implied in views focusing on similarities between imagination and execution.

  12. Comparison of Alcohol Impairment of Behavioral and Attentional Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the wealth of studies demonstrating the impairing effects of alcohol on behavioral inhibition, less is known regarding effects of the drug on attentional inhibition (i.e., the ability to ignore distracting stimuli in the environment in order to focus attention on relevant information). The current study examined alcohol impairment of both behavioral and attentional inhibition, as well as potential associations between the two mechanisms of inhibitory control. Methods Men (n = 27) and women (n = 21) performed a measure of behavioral inhibition (cued go/no-go task) and a measure of attentional inhibition (delayed ocular return task) following three doses of alcohol: 0.65 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Results Alcohol impaired both behavioral and attentional inhibition relative to placebo; however, correlational analyses revealed no associations between measures of behavioral and attentional inhibition following any dose. Additionally, men committed more inhibitory failures on the behavioral inhibition task, whereas women committed more inhibitory failures on the attentional inhibition task. Conclusions These findings suggest that behavioral and attentional inhibition are equally sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol, yet represent distinct components of inhibitory control. Additionally, the observed gender differences in control of behavior and attention could have important implications regarding negative consequences associated with alcohol-induced disinhibition in men and women. PMID:22673197

  13. Expressive Inhibition Following Interpersonal Trauma: An Analysis of Reported Function

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Jones, Judiann M.; Jaconis, Maryanne; Olsen, Shira A.; Woodward, Matthew J.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Existing research indicates veterans with PTSD may deliberately inhibit the expression of emotion. However, the degree to which inhibition generalizes to other trauma populations and the specific reasons survivors with PTSD inhibit expression remains unclear. The present study looked to evaluate expressive inhibition among survivors of intimate partner violence (N = 74), to determine reasons for inhibition in this population, and to examine whether any justifications for inhibition are unique to individuals with PTSD. The frequency and intensity of inhibition scores were similar to those noted in previous research although no differences were observed across women with and without PTSD. Self-reported justifications for inhibition indicated five general themes: Concern for others, Mistrust/fear of exploitation, Perception of others as indifferent/uncaring, Control/Experiential avoidance, and Situation-specific inhibition. Only mistrust/exploitation motives were uniquely associated with PTSD. Whereas expressive inhibition may be elevated within help-seeking samples, individuals who develop PTSD appear to hold unique reasons for restricting emotional expression. PMID:24507632

  14. Food Ingredients That Inhibit Cholesterol Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Jesch, Elliot D.; Carr, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol is a vital component of the human body. It stabilizes cell membranes and is the precursor of bile acids, vitamin D and steroid hormones. However, cholesterol accumulation in the bloodstream (hypercholesterolemia) can cause atherosclerotic plaques within artery walls, leading to heart attacks and strokes. The efficiency of cholesterol absorption in the small intestine is of great interest because human and animal studies have linked cholesterol absorption with plasma concentration of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cholesterol absorption is highly regulated and influenced by particular compounds in the food supply. Therefore, it is desirable to learn more about natural food components that inhibit cholesterol absorption so that food ingredients and dietary supplements can be developed for consumers who wish to manage their plasma cholesterol levels by non-pharmacological means. Food components thus far identified as inhibitors of cholesterol absorption include phytosterols, soluble fibers, phospholipids, and stearic acid. PMID:28702423

  15. Inhibition of strigolactones promotes adventitious root formation

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Christine A.; Geelen, Danny

    2012-01-01

    Roots that form from non-root tissues (adventitious roots) are crucial for cutting propagation in the forestry and horticulture industries. Strigolactone has been demonstrated to be an important regulator of these roots in both Arabidopsis and pea using strigolactone deficient mutants and exogenous hormone applications. Strigolactones are produced from a carotenoid precursor which can be blocked using the widely available but broad terpenoid biosynthesis blocker, fluridone. We demonstrate here that fluridone can be used to promote adventitious rooting in the model species Pisum sativum (pea). In addition, in the garden species Plumbago auriculata and Jasminium polyanthum fluridone was equally as successful at promoting roots as a commercial rooting compound containing NAA and IBA. Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of strigolactone signaling has the potential to be used to improve adventitious rooting in commercially relevant species. PMID:22580687

  16. Inhibition of human papillomavirus expression using DNAzymes.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Hess, María Luisa; Reyes-Gutiérrez, Pablo; Alvarez-Salas, Luis Marat

    2011-01-01

    Deoxyribozymes (DXZs) are catalytic oligodeoxynucleotides capable of performing diverse functions including the specific cleavage of a target RNA. These molecules represent a new type of therapeutic oligonucleotides combining the efficiency of ribozymes and the intracellular endurance and simplicity of modified antisense oligonucleotides. Commonly used DXZs include the 8-17 and 10-23 motifs, which have been engineered to destroy disease-associated genes with remarkable efficiency. Targeting DXZs to disease-associated transcripts requires extensive biochemical testing to establish target RNA accessibility, catalytic efficiency, and nuclease sensibility. The usage of modified nucleotides to render nuclease-resistance DXZs must be counterweighted against deleterious consequences on catalytic activity. Further intracellular testing is required to establish the effect of microenvironmental conditions on DXZ activity and off-target issues. Application of modified DXZs to cervical cancer results in specific growth inhibition, cell death, and apoptosis. Thus, DXZs represent a highly effective antisense moiety with minimal secondary effects.

  17. Ubiquitous marine bacterium inhibits diatom cell division.

    PubMed

    van Tol, Helena M; Amin, Shady A; Armbrust, E Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Intricate relationships between microorganisms structure the exchange of molecules between taxa, driving their physiology and evolution. On a global scale, this molecular trade is an integral component of biogeochemical cycling. As important microorganisms in the world's oceans, diatoms and bacteria have a large impact on marine biogeochemistry. Here, we describe antagonistic effects of the globally distributed flavobacterium Croceibacter atlanticus on a phylogenetically diverse group of diatoms. We used the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana to study the antagonistic impact in more detail. In co-culture, C. atlanticus attaches to T. pseudonana and inhibits cell division, inducing diatom cells to become larger and increase in chlorophyll a fluorescence. These changes could be explained by an absence of cytokinesis that causes individual T. pseudonana cells to elongate, accumulate more plastids and become polyploid. These morphological changes could benefit C. atlanticus by augmenting the colonizable surface area of the diatom, its photosynthetic capabilities and possibly its metabolic secretions.

  18. Novel Polyanions Inhibiting Replication of Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ciejka, Justyna; Milewska, Aleksandra; Wytrwal, Magdalena; Wojarski, Jacek; Golda, Anna; Ochman, Marek; Nowakowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Novel sulfonated derivatives of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (NSPAHs) and N-sulfonated chitosan (NSCH) have been synthesized, and their activity against influenza A and B viruses has been studied and compared with that of a series of carrageenans, marine polysaccharides of well-documented anti-influenza activity. NSPAHs were found to be nontoxic and very soluble in water, in contrast to gel-forming and thus generally poorly soluble carrageenans. In vitro and ex vivo studies using susceptible cells (Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells and fully differentiated human airway epithelial cultures) demonstrated the antiviral effectiveness of NSPAHs. The activity of NSPAHs was proportional to the molecular mass of the chain and the degree of substitution of amino groups with sulfonate groups. Mechanistic studies showed that the NSPAHs and carrageenans inhibit influenza A and B virus assembly in the cell. PMID:26729490

  19. Isoform-specific inhibition of cyclophilins.

    PubMed

    Daum, Sebastian; Schumann, Michael; Mathea, Sebastian; Aumüller, Tobias; Balsley, Molly A; Constant, Stephanie L; de Lacroix, Boris Féaux; Kruska, Fabian; Braun, Manfred; Schiene-Fischer, Cordelia

    2009-07-07

    Cyclophilins belong to the enzyme class of peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerases which catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of prolyl bonds in peptides and proteins in different folding states. Cyclophilins have been shown to be involved in a multitude of cellular functions like cell growth, proliferation, and motility. Among the 20 human cyclophilin isoenzymes, the two most abundant members of the cyclophilin family, CypA and CypB, exhibit specific cellular functions in several inflammatory diseases, cancer development, and HCV replication. A small-molecule inhibitor on the basis of aryl 1-indanylketones has now been shown to discriminate between CypA and CypB in vitro. CypA binding of this inhibitor has been characterized by fluorescence anisotropy- and isothermal titration calorimetry-based cyclosporin competition assays. Inhibition of CypA- but not CypB-mediated chemotaxis of mouse CD4(+) T cells by the inhibitor provided biological proof of discrimination in vivo.

  20. [Effect of RAAS inhibition on stroke prevention].

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Norio

    2012-09-01

    Recently, molecular and experimental studies revealed that the brain possesses its own renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system(RAAS) and the brain angiotensin(Ang) II plays an important role on stroke protection, mediating its effects through stimulation of AT2 and possibly the AT4 receptors. Moreover, the novel ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis was found to counterbalance the vasoconstrictive actions of the ACE/Ang II/AT1 receptor. Recent clinical trials indicate that blockade of RAAS has a potential role in stroke prevention, but was not conclusive. More carefully designed large clinical trial are needed to verify blood pressure-independent stroke prevention effect by RAAS inhibition.

  1. Ubiquitin acetylation inhibits polyubiquitin chain elongation

    PubMed Central

    Ohtake, Fumiaki; Saeki, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Kensaku; Ohtake, Kazumasa; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Hikaru; Ohta, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Kanno, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitylation is a versatile post-translational modification (PTM). The diversity of ubiquitylation topologies, which encompasses different chain lengths and linkages, underlies its widespread cellular roles. Here, we show that endogenous ubiquitin is acetylated at lysine (K)-6 (AcK6) or K48. Acetylated ubiquitin does not affect substrate monoubiquitylation, but inhibits K11-, K48-, and K63-linked polyubiquitin chain elongation by several E2 enzymes in vitro. In cells, AcK6-mimetic ubiquitin stabilizes the monoubiquitylation of histone H2B—which we identify as an endogenous substrate of acetylated ubiquitin—and of artificial ubiquitin fusion degradation substrates. These results characterize a mechanism whereby ubiquitin, itself a PTM, is subject to another PTM to modulate mono- and polyubiquitylation, thus adding a new regulatory layer to ubiquitin biology. PMID:25527407

  2. Inhibition effect of food preservatives on endoproteinases.

    PubMed

    Esimbekova, Elena N; Asanova, Anastasiya A; Deeva, Anna A; Kratasyuk, Valentina A

    2017-11-15

    The present manuscript proposes a novel approach to assess the impact of food additives on human metabolism by analysing their effect on biomarker enzyme activity. Alterations in the activity of pancreatic enzymes, such as chymotrypsin and trypsin, which are affected by the most common food preservatives, sodium benzoate (E211), potassium sorbate (E202) and sorbic acid (E200), have been evaluated. The proteinase activity was analysed with a bioluminescent method using the light intensity decay constant. Our study revealed that the preservatives reduce proteinase activity by 50% (EC 50 ) at a much lower concentration than their acceptable daily intake (ADI). Thus, sodium benzoate and sorbic acid have an inhibition effect on chymotrypsin at concentrations 14 times lower and 70 times lower than their ADI and this increases with exposure time. Food preservative consumption impacts negatively on protein digestion, which is especially dangerous for patients with pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selenium nanoparticles inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Phong A; Webster, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a key bacterium commonly found in numerous infections. S. aureus infections are difficult to treat due to their biofilm formation and documented antibiotic resistance. While selenium has been used for a wide range of applications including anticancer applications, the effects of selenium nanoparticles on microorganisms remain largely unknown to date. The objective of this in vitro study was thus to examine the growth of S. aureus in the presence of selenium nanoparticles. Results of this study provided the first evidence of strongly inhibited growth of S. aureus in the presence of selenium nanoparticles after 3, 4, and 5 hours at 7.8, 15.5, and 31 μg/mL. The percentage of live bacteria also decreased in the presence of selenium nanoparticles. Therefore, this study suggests that selenium nanoparticles may be used to effectively prevent and treat S. aureus infections and thus should be further studied for such applications. PMID:21845045

  4. Spice phenolics inhibit human PMNL 5-lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Prasad, N Satya; Raghavendra, R; Lokesh, B R; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2004-06-01

    A wide variety of phenolic compounds and flavonoids present in spices possess potent antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. We examined whether 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the key enzyme involved in biosynthesis of leukotrienes is a possible target for the spices. Effect of aqueous extracts of turmeric, cloves, pepper, chili, cinnamon, onion and also their respective active principles viz., curcumin, eugenol, piperine, capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, quercetin, and allyl sulfide were tested on human PMNL 5-LO activity by spectrophotomeric and HPLC methods. The formation of 5-LO product 5-HETE was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 0.122-1.44 mg for aqueous extracts of spices and 25-83 microM for active principles, respectively. The order of inhibitory activity was of quercetin>eugenol>curcumin>cinnamaldehyde>piperine>capsaicin>allyl sulfide. Quercetin, eugenol and curcumin with one or more phenolic ring and methoxy groups in their structure showed high inhibitory effect, while the non-phenolic spice principle allyl sulfide showed least inhibitory effect on 5-LO. The inhibitory effect of quercetin, curcumin and eugenol was similar to that of synthetic 5-LO inhibitors-phenidone and NDGA. Moreover, the inhibitory potency of aqueous extracts of spice correlated with the active principles of their respective spices. The synergistic or antagonistic effect of mixtures of spice active principles and spice extracts were investigated and all the combinations of spice active principles/extracts exerted synergistic effect in inhibiting 5-LO activity. These findings clearly suggest that phenolic compounds present in spices might have physiological role in modulating 5-LO pathway.

  5. Serum amyloid P inhibits granulocyte adhesion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The extravasation of granulocytes (such as neutrophils) at a site of inflammation is a key aspect of the innate immune system. Signals from the site of inflammation upregulate granulocyte adhesion to the endothelium to initiate extravasation, and also enhance granulocyte adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins to facilitate granulocyte movement through the inflamed tissue. During the resolution of inflammation, other signals inhibit granulocyte adhesion to slow and ultimately stop granulocyte influx into the tissue. In a variety of inflammatory diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, an excess infiltration of granulocytes into a tissue causes undesired collateral damage, and being able to reduce granulocyte adhesion and influx could reduce this damage. Results We found that serum amyloid P (SAP), a constitutive protein component of the blood, inhibits granulocyte spreading and granulocyte adhesion to extracellular matrix components. This indicates that in addition to granulocyte adhesion inhibitors that are secreted during the resolution of inflammation, a granulocyte adhesion inhibitor is present at all times in the blood. Although SAP affects adhesion, it does not affect the granulocyte adhesion molecules CD11b, CD62L, CD18, or CD44. SAP also has no effect on the production of hydrogen peroxide by resting or stimulated granulocytes, or N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced granulocyte migration. In mice treated with intratracheal bleomycin to induce granulocyte accumulation in the lungs, SAP injections reduced the number of granulocytes in the lungs. Conclusions We found that SAP, a constitutive component of blood, is a granulocyte adhesion inhibitor. We hypothesize that SAP allows granulocytes to sense whether they are in the blood or in a tissue. PMID:23324174

  6. Milk Inhibits the Biological Activity of Ricin

    PubMed Central

    Rasooly, Reuven; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-01-01

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein produced by the castor plant Ricinus communis. The toxin is relatively easy to isolate and can be used as a biological weapon. There is great interest in identifying effective inhibitors for ricin. In this study, we demonstrated by three independent assays that a component of reconstituted powdered milk has a high binding affinity to ricin. We discovered that milk can competitively bind to and reduce the amount of toxin available to asialofetuin type II, which is used as a model to study the binding of ricin to galactose cell-surface receptors. Milk also removes ricin bound to the microtiter plate. In parallel experiments, we demonstrated by activity assay and by immuno-PCR that milk can bind competitively to 1 ng/ml ricin, reducing the amount of toxin uptake by the cells, and thus inhibit the biological activity of ricin. The inhibitory effect of milk on ricin activity in Vero cells was at the same level as by anti-ricin antibodies. We also found that (a) milk did not inhibit ricin at concentrations of 10 or 100 ng/ml; (b) autoclaving 10 and 100 ng/ml ricin in DMEM at 121 °C for 30 min completely abolished activity; and (c) milk did not affect the activity of another ribosome inactivating protein, Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Unlike ricin, which is internalized into the cells via a galactose-binding site, Stx2 is internalized through the cell surface receptor glycolipid globotriasylceramides Gb3 and Gb4. These observations suggest that ricin toxicity may possibly be reduced at room temperature by a widely consumed natural liquid food. PMID:22733821

  7. Structural basis of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Marta; Levy, Colin; Heyes, Derren J.; Lafite, Pierre; Outeiro, Tiago F.; Giorgini, Flaviano; Leys, David; Scrutton, Nigel S.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), an enzyme in the eukaryotic tryptophan catabolic pathway (i.e. kynurenine pathway), leads to amelioration of Huntington’s disease-relevant phenotypes in yeast, fruit fly, and mouse models1–5, as well as a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease3. KMO is a FAD-dependent monooxygenase, and is located in the outer mitochondrial membrane where it converts L-kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. Perturbations in the levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites have been linked to the pathogenesis of a spectrum of brain disorders6, as well as cancer7,8, and several peripheral inflammatory conditions9. Despite the importance of KMO as a target for neurodegenerative disease, the molecular basis of KMO inhibition by available lead compounds has remained hitherto unknown. Here we report the first crystal structure of KMO, in the free form and in complex with the tight-binding inhibitor UPF 648. UPF 648 binds close to the FAD cofactor and perturbs the local active site structure, preventing productive binding of the substrate kynurenine. Functional assays and targeted mutagenesis revealed that the active site architecture and UPF 648 binding are essentially identical in human KMO, validating the yeast KMO:UPF 648 structure as a template for structure-based drug design. This will inform the search for new KMO inhibitors that are able to cross the blood-brain barrier in targeted therapies against neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s diseases. PMID:23575632

  8. I(f) inhibition in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Thollon, Catherine; Vilaine, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) is determined by the pacemaker activity of cells from the sinoatrial node (SAN), located in the right atria. Spontaneous electrical activity of SAN cells results from a diastolic depolarization (DD). Despite controversy in the exact contribution of funny current (I(f)) in pacemaking, it is a major contributor of DD. I(f) is an inward Na(+)/K(+) current, activated upon hyperpolarization and directly modulated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The f-proteins are hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, HCN4 being the main isoform of SAN. Ivabradine (IVA) decreases DD and inhibits I(f) in a use-dependent manner. Under normal conditions IVA selectively reduces HR and limits exercise-induced tachycardia, in animals and young volunteers. Reduction in HR with IVA both decreases myocardial oxygen consumption and increases its supply due to prolongation of diastolic perfusion time. In animal models and in human with coronary artery disease (CAD), IVA has anti-anginal and anti-ischemic efficacy, equipotent to classical treatments, β-blockers, or calcium channel blockers. As expected from its selectivity for I(f), the drug is safe and well tolerated with minor visual side effects. As a consequence, IVA is the first inhibitor of I(f) approved for the treatment of stable angina. Available clinical data indicate that IVA could improve the management of stable angina in all patients including those treated with β-blockers. As chronic elevation of resting HR is an independent predictor of mortality, pure HR reduction by inhibition of I(f) could, beyond the control of anti-anginal symptoms, improve the prognosis of CAD and heart failure; this therapeutic potential is currently under evaluation with IVA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hartmannella vermiformis inhibition of Legionella pneumophila cultivability.

    PubMed

    Buse, Helen Y; Donohue, Maura J; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2013-10-01

    Hartmannella vermiformis and Acanthamoeba polyphaga are frequently isolated from drinking water and permissive to Legionella pneumophila parasitization. In this study, extracellular factor(s) produced by H. vermiformis and A. polyphaga were assessed for their effects on cultivability of L. pneumophila. Page's amoeba saline (PAS) was used as an encystment medium for H. vermiformis and A. polyphaga monolayers, and the culture supernatants (HvS and ApS, respectively) were assessed against L. pneumophila growth. Compared to PAS and ApS, HvS significantly inhibited L. pneumophila strain Philadelphia-1 (Ph-1) cultivability by 3 log(10) colony forming unit (CFU) mL(-1) after 3 days of exposure compared to <0.5 log(10) CFU mL(-1) reduction of strain Lp02 (P < 0.001). Flow cytometric analysis revealed changes in the percentage and cultivability of three bacterial subpopulations: intact/slightly damaged membrane (ISM), undefined membrane status (UD), and mixed type (MT). After 3 days of HvS exposure, the MT subpopulation decreased significantly (31.6 vs 67.2 %, respectively, P < 0.001), while the ISM and UD subpopulations increased (+26.7 and +6.9 %, respectively) with the ISM subpopulation appearing as viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells. HvS was separated into two fractions based on molecular weight, with more than 99 % of the L. pneumophila inhibition arising from the <5 kDa fraction (P < 0.001). Liquid chromatography indicated the inhibitory molecule(s) are likely polar and elute from a Novapak C18 column between 6 and 15 min. These results demonstrate that H. vermiformis is capable of extracellular modulation of L. pneumophila cultivability and probably promote the VBNC state for this bacterium.

  10. Emodin enhances osteogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that the formation of osteoblasts in bone marrow is closely associated with adipogenesis, and the balance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis differentiation of MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) is disrupted in osteoporosis. In order to improve the treatment of osteoporosis, available agents with roles of regulating the balance is highly desirable. Emodin is a natural anthraquinone derivative extracted from Chinese herbs, which have been used to treat bone diseases for thousands of years. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of emodin in modulating osteogenesis and adipogenesis remain poorly understood. Methods The molecular mechanisms of emodin on the processes of osteogenesis and adipogenesis in ovariectomized mouse and BMSCs (bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells) have been studied. We have analyzed the effects of emodin in vivo and in vitro. Female ICR mice were assigned to three groups: sham group, ovariectomy group, emodin group. Efficacy was evaluated by H&E, immunohistochemical assay and Micro-CT. In vitro, we analyze the effect of emodin—at concentrations between 0.1 μM and 10 μM-on the processes of inducing osteogenesis and inhibiting adipogenesis in BMSCs by ALP, Oil red O staining, real time RT-PCR and western blot. Results As our experiment shows that emodin could increase the number of osteoblast, BMD (bone mineral density), BV/TV (trabecular bone volume fraction), Tb.N (trabecular number) and Conn.D (connectivity density) of OVX (ovariectomized) mice and decrease the bone marrow fat tissue and adipocytes. The genes and proteins expression of osteogenesis markers, such as Runx2, osterix, collagen type I, osteocalcin, or ALP were up-regulated. While, the genes and proteins involved in adipogenesis, PPARγ, C/EBPα and ap2 were down-regulated. Conclusion It proves that emodin inhibits adipocyte differentiation and enhances osteoblast differentiation from BMSCs. PMID:24565373

  11. Inhibition of Neurogenesis by Zika virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Fahim; Siddiqui, Amna; Kamal, Mohammad A; Sohrab, Sayed S

    2018-02-01

    The association between Zika virus infection and neurological disorder has raised urgent global alarm. The ongoing epidemic has triggered quick responses in the scientific community. The first case of Zika virus was reported in 2015 from Brazil and now has spread over 30 countries. Nearly four hundred cases of travel-associated Zika virus infection have also been reported in the United States. Zika virus is primarily transmitted by mosquito belongs to the genus Aedes that are widely distributed throughout the world including the Southern United States. Additionally, the virus can also be transmitted from males to females by sexual contact. The epidemiological investigations during the current outbreak found a causal link between infection in pregnant women and development of microcephaly in their unborn babies. This finding is a cause for grave concern since microcephaly is a serious neural developmental disorder that can lead to significant post-natal developmental abnormalities and disabilities. Recently, published data indicate that Zika virus infection affects the growth of fetal neural progenitor cells and cerebral neurons that results in malformation of cerebral cortex leading to microcephaly. Recently, it has been reported that Zika virus infection deregulates the signaling pathway of neuronal cell and inhibit the neurogenesis resulting into dementia. In this review we have discussed about the information about cellular and molecular mechanisms in neurodegeneration of human neuronal cells and inhibit the neurogenesis. Additionally, this information will be very helpful further not only in neuro-scientific research but also designing and development of management strategies for microcephaly and other mosquito borne disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Allosteric Inhibition of Human Porphobilinogen Synthase*

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Sarah H.; Ramirez, Ursula D.; Selwood, Trevor; Stith, Linda; Jaffe, Eileen K.

    2009-01-01

    Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) catalyzes the first common step in tetrapyrrole (e.g. heme, chlorophyll) biosynthesis. Human PBGS exists as an equilibrium of high activity octamers, low activity hexamers, and alternate dimer configurations that dictate the stoichiometry and architecture of further assembly. It is posited that small molecules can be found that inhibit human PBGS activity by stabilizing the hexamer. Such molecules, if present in the environment, could potentiate disease states associated with reduced PBGS activity, such as lead poisoning and ALAD porphyria, the latter of which is associated with human PBGS variants whose quaternary structure equilibrium is shifted toward the hexamer (Jaffe, E. K., and Stith, L. (2007) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 80, 329–337). Hexamer-stabilizing inhibitors of human PBGS were identified using in silico prescreening (docking) of ∼111,000 structures to a hexamer-specific surface cavity of a human PBGS crystal structure. Seventy-seven compounds were evaluated in vitro; three provided 90–100% conversion of octamer to hexamer in a native PAGE mobility shift assay. Based on chemical purity, two (ML-3A9 and ML-3H2) were subjected to further evaluation of their effect on the quaternary structure equilibrium and enzymatic activity. Naturally occurring ALAD porphyria-associated human PBGS variants are shown to have an increased susceptibility to inhibition by both ML-3A9 and ML-3H2. ML-3H2 is a structural analog of amebicidal drugs, which have porphyria-like side effects. Data support the hypothesis that human PBGS hexamer stabilization may explain these side effects. The current work identifies allosteric ligands of human PBGS and, thus, identifies human PBGS as a medically relevant allosteric enzyme. PMID:19812033

  13. Pirfenidone inhibits post-traumatic proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Khanum, B N M K; Guha, R; Sur, V P; Nandi, S; Basak, S K; Konar, A; Hazra, S

    2017-09-01

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal pirfenidone for inhibition of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in a model of penetrating ocular injury.Patients and methodsPenetrating trauma was induced on the retina of rabbit and treated either with 0.1 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or 0.1 ml of 0.5% pirfenidone, and development of PVR was evaluated clinically and graded after 1 month. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry with transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and collagen-1 were performed to assess the fibrotic changes. Expression of cytokines in the vitro-retinal tissues at different time points following pirfenidone and PBS injection was examined by RT-PCR. Availability of pirfenidone in the vitreous of rabbit at various time points was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography following injection of 0.1 ml of 0.5% pirfenidone. In normal rabbit eye, 0.1 ml of 0.5% pirfenidone was injected to evaluate any toxic effect.ResultsClinical assessment and grading revealed prevention of PVR formation in pirfenidone-treated animals, gross histology, and histopathology confirmed the observation. Immunohistochemistry showed prevention in the expression of collagen-I, αSMA, and TGFβ in the pirfenidone-treated eyes compared to the PBS-treated eyes. Pirfenidone inhibited increased gene expression of cytokines observed in control eyes. Pirfenidone could be detected up to 48 h in the vitreous of rabbit eye following single intravitreal injection. Pirfenidone did not show any adverse effect following intravitreal injection; eyes were devoid of any abnormal clinical sign, intraocular pressure, and electroretinography did not show any significant change and histology of retina remained unchanged.ConclusionThis animal study shows that pirfenidone might be a potential therapy for PVR. Further clinical study will be useful to evaluate the clinical application of

  14. Cartilage proteoglycans inhibit fibronectin-mediated adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, A. M.; Pearlstein, E.; Weissmann, G.; Hoffstein, S. T.

    1981-09-01

    Normal tissues and organs show, on histological examination, a pattern of cellular and acellular zones that is characteristic and unique for each organ or tissue. This pattern is maintained in health but is sometimes destroyed by disease. For example, in mobile joints, the articular surfaces consist of relatively acellular hyaline cartilage, and the joint space is enclosed by a capsule of loose connective tissue with a lining of fibroblasts and macrophages. In the normal joint these cells are confined to the synovial lining and the articular surface remains acellular. In in vitro culture, macrophages and their precursor monocytes are very adhesive, and fibroblasts can migrate and overgrow surfaces such as collagen or plastic used for tissue culture. The fibroblasts adhere to collagen by means of fibronectin, which they synthesize and secrete1. Because the collagen of cartilage is capable of binding serum fibronectin2 and fibronectin is present in cartilage during its development3, these cells should, in theory, slowly migrate from the synovial lining to the articular surface. It is their absence from the articular cartilage in normal circumstances, and then presence in such pathological states as rheumatoid arthritis, that is striking. We therefore set out to determine whether a component of cartilage could prevent fibroblast adherence in a defined adhesion assay. As normal cartilage is composed of 50% proteoglycans and 50% collagen by dry weight4, we tested the possibility that the proteoglycans in cartilage inhibit fibroblast adhesion to collagen. We present here evidence that fibroblast spreading and adhesion to collagenous substrates is inhibited by cartilage proteoglycans.

  15. THE MECHANISM OF THE INHIBITION OF HEMOLYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Ponder, Eric

    1945-01-01

    This paper contains a description of some of the inhibitory, and occasionally acceleratory, effects of sols of lecithins, cholesterol, and proteins in hemolytic systems containing simple lysins, together with investigations on the nature of the reactions by means of which the effects are brought about. The principal conclusions are: A. As regards sols of lecithins. 1. In lysin-inhibitor-cell systems, distearyl lecithin is an inhibitor of saponin and digitonin hemolysis, part of the effect being the result of a reaction with the components of the red cell surface and part being the result of a reaction with lysin in the bulk phase of the system. Lecithin ab ovo (Merck) is an accelerator of saponin hemolysis and either an accelerator or an inhibitor of digitonin hemolysis according to the initial concentration of lysin present in the system. Soybean lecithin is an inhibitor of both saponin and digitonin hemolysis, but both soybean lecithin and lecithin ab ovo contain also a hemolytic, or acceleratory, component. 2. The inhibitory effects depend on the order in which the components of the hemolytic system are mixed together. Distearyl lecithin is about 5 times more inhibitory in cell-inhibitor-lysin systems than in lysin-inhibitor-cell systems containing saponin, digitonin, or taurocholate. Lecithin ab ovo is more inhibitory in cell-inhibitor-lysin systems when the time of contact between cells and inhibitor is short, but when it is long, the hemolytic properties of the lecithin offset its inhibitory properties. A similar state of affairs is observed with soybean lecithin. 3. An increase in temperature decreases the inhibitory effect of distearyl lecithin in systems containing saponin or digitonin. B. As regards sols of cholesterol. 4. The quantity of lysin Δ apparently inhibited by a quantity Q of cholesterol sol is dependent on both the type of red cell and the number of red cells added to the system. 5. Δ is a non-linear function of Q and of c 1, the initial

  16. Reconciling the role of serotonin in behavioral inhibition and aversion: acute tryptophan depletion abolishes punishment-induced inhibition in humans

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Molly J.; Clark, Luke; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2009-01-01

    The neuromodulator serotonin has been implicated in a large number of affective and executive functions, but its precise contribution to motivation remains unclear. One influential hypothesis has implicated serotonin in aversive processing; another has proposed a more general role for serotonin in behavioral inhibition. Since behavioral inhibition is a pre-potent reaction to aversive outcomes, it has been a challenge to reconcile these two accounts. Here, we show that serotonin is critical for punishment-induced inhibition, but not overall motor response inhibition or reporting aversive outcomes. We used acute tryptophan depletion to temporarily lower brain serotonin in healthy human volunteers as they completed a novel task designed to obtain separate measures of motor response inhibition, punishment-induced inhibition, and sensitivity to aversive outcomes. Following a placebo treatment, participants were slower to respond under punishment conditions, compared to reward conditions. Tryptophan depletion abolished this punishment-induced inhibition, without affecting overall motor response inhibition or the ability to adjust response bias in line with punishment contingencies. The magnitude of reduction in punishment-induced inhibition depended on the degree to which tryptophan depletion reduced plasma tryptophan levels. These findings extend and clarify previous research on the role of serotonin in aversive processing and behavioral inhibition, and fit with current theorizing on serotonin's involvement in predicting aversive outcomes. PMID:19776285

  17. Tangeretin inhibits extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Van Slambrouck, Séverine; Parmar, Virinder S; Sharma, Sunil K; De Bondt, Bart; Foré, Fleur; Coopman, Peter; Vanhoecke, Barbara W; Boterberg, Tom; Depypere, Herman T; Leclercq, Guy; Bracke, Marc E

    2005-03-14

    Tangeretin is a methoxyflavone from citrus fruits, which inhibits growth of human mammary cancer cells and cytolysis by natural killer cells. Attempting to unravel the flavonoid's action mechanism, we found that it inhibited extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent way. In human T47D mammary cancer cells this inhibition was optimally observed after priming with estradiol. The spectrum of the intracellular signalling kinase inhibition was narrow and comparison of structural congeners showed that inhibition of ERK phosphorylation was not unique for tangeretin. Our data add tangeretin to the list of small kinase inhibitors with a restricted intracellular inhibition profile.

  18. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit gastric peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, R K

    1990-06-20

    The peroxidase activity of the mitochondrial fraction of rat gastric mucosa was inhibited with various nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in vitro. Indomethacin was found to be more effective than phenylbutazone (PB) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Mouse gastric peroxidase was also very sensitive to indomethacin inhibition. Indomethacin has no significant effect on submaxillary gland peroxidase activity of either of the species studied. Purified rat gastric peroxidase activity was inhibited 75% with 0.15 mM indomethacin showing half-maximal inhibition at 0.04 mM. The inhibition could be withdrawn by increasing the concentration of iodide but not by H2O2. NSAIDs inhibit gastric peroxidase activity more effectively at acid pH (pH 5.2) than at neutral pH. Spectral studies showed a bathochromic shift of the Soret band of the enzyme with indomethacin indicating its interaction at or near the heme part of the enzyme.

  19. Naringin suppresses the development of glioblastoma by inhibiting FAK activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjiang; Dong, Yushu; Hao, Guangzhi; Wang, Bao; Wang, Julei; Liang, Yong; Liu, Yangyang; Zhen, Endi; Feng, Dayun; Liang, Guobiao

    2017-01-01

    As the most common and lethal primary malignant brain cancer, glioblastoma is hard to timely diagnose and sensitive therapeutic monitoring. It is essential to develop new and effective drugs for glioblastoma multiform. Naringin belongs to citrus flavonoids and was found to display strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor activities. In this report, we found that naringin can specifically inhibit the kinase activity of FAK and suppress the FAK p-Try397 and its downstream pathway in glioblastoma cells. Our study showed out that naringin can inhibit cell proliferation by inhibiting FAK/cyclin D1 pathway, promote cell apoptosis through influencing FAK/bads pathway, at the same time, it can also inhibit cell invasion and metastasis by inhibiting the FAK/mmps pathway. All these showed that naringin exerts the anti-tumor effects in U87 MG by inhibiting the kinase activity of FAK.

  20. Engineered kinesin motor proteins amenable to small-molecule inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Engelke, Martin F.; Winding, Michael; Yue, Yang; Shastry, Shankar; Teloni, Federico; Reddy, Sanjay; Blasius, T. Lynne; Soppina, Pushpanjali; Hancock, William O.; Gelfand, Vladimir I.; Verhey, Kristen J.

    2016-01-01

    The human genome encodes 45 kinesin motor proteins that drive cell division, cell motility, intracellular trafficking and ciliary function. Determining the cellular function of each kinesin would benefit from specific small-molecule inhibitors. However, screens have yielded only a few specific inhibitors. Here we present a novel chemical-genetic approach to engineer kinesin motors that can carry out the function of the wild-type motor yet can also be efficiently inhibited by small, cell-permeable molecules. Using kinesin-1 as a prototype, we develop two independent strategies to generate inhibitable motors, and characterize the resulting inhibition in single-molecule assays and in cells. We further apply these two strategies to create analogously inhibitable kinesin-3 motors. These inhibitable motors will be of great utility to study the functions of specific kinesins in a dynamic manner in cells and animals. Furthermore, these strategies can be used to generate inhibitable versions of any motor protein of interest. PMID:27045608

  1. Molecular mechanisms of DNA repair inhibition by caffeine

    SciT

    Selby, C.P.; Sancar, A.

    1990-05-01

    Caffeine potentiates the mutagenic and lethal effects of genotoxic agents. It is thought that this is due, at least in some organisms, to inhibition of DNA repair. However, direct evidence for inhibition of repair enzymes has been lacking. Using purified Escherichia coli DNA photolyase and (A)BC excinuclease, we show that the drug inhibits photoreactivation and nucleotide excision repair by two different mechanisms. Caffeine inhibits photoreactivation by interfering with the specific binding of photolyase to damaged DNA, and it inhibits nucleotide excision repair by promoting nonspecific binding of the damage-recognition subunit, UvrA, of (A)BC excinuclease. A number of other intercalators, includingmore » acriflavin and ethidium bromide, appear to inhibit the excinuclease by a similar mechanism--that is, by trapping the UvrA subunit in nonproductive complexes on undamaged DNA.« less

  2. Inhibition of MAO by fractions and constituents of hypericum extract.

    PubMed

    Bladt, S; Wagner, H

    1994-10-01

    The inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) by six fractions from hypericum extract and three characteristic constituents (as pure substances) were analyzed in vitro and ex vivo to study the antidepressive mechanism of action. Rat brain homogenates were used as the in vitro model, while the ex vivo analysis was performed after intraperitoneal application of the test substances to albino rats. Massive inhibition of MAO-A could be shown with the total extract and all fractions only at the concentration of 10(-3) mol/L. At 10(-4) mol/L, one fraction rich in flavonoides showed an inhibition of 39%, and all other fractions demonstrated less than 25% inhibition. Using pure hypericin as well as in all ex vivo experiments, no relevant inhibiting effects could be shown. From the results it can be concluded that the clinically proven antidepressive effect of hypericum extract cannot be explained in terms of MAO inhibition.

  3. Inhibition by somatostatin (growth-hormone release-inhibiting hormone, GH-RIH) of gastric acid and pepsin and G-cell release of gastrin.

    PubMed Central

    Barros D'sa, A A; Bloom, S R; Baron, J H

    1978-01-01

    Somatostatin (cyclic growth-hormone release-inhibiting hormone--GH-RIH) was infused into dogs with gastric fistulae. Somatostatin inhibited gastric acid response to four gastric stimulants--insulin, food, histamine, and pentagastrin. Histamine- and pentagastrin-stimulated pepsins were inhibited similarly to inhibition of acid. Somatostatin inhibited the gastrin response to insulin and food. PMID:348581

  4. Task Inhibition and Response Inhibition in Older vs. Younger Adults: A Diffusion Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schuch, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Differences in inhibitory ability between older (64–79 years, N = 24) and younger adults (18–26 years, N = 24) were investigated using a diffusion model analysis. Participants performed a task-switching paradigm that allows assessing n−2 task repetition costs, reflecting inhibitory control on the level of tasks, as well as n−1 response-repetition costs, reflecting inhibitory control on the level of responses. N−2 task repetition costs were of similar size in both age groups. Diffusion model analysis revealed that for both younger and older adults, drift rate parameters were smaller in the inhibition condition relative to the control condition, consistent with the idea that persisting task inhibition slows down response selection. Moreover, there was preliminary evidence for task inhibition effects in threshold separation and non-decision time in the older, but not the younger adults, suggesting that older adults might apply different strategies when dealing with persisting task inhibition. N−1 response-repetition costs in mean RT were larger in older than younger adults, but in mean error rates tended to be larger in younger than older adults. Diffusion-model analysis revealed longer non-decision times in response repetitions than response switches in both age groups, consistent with the idea that motor processes take longer in response repetitions than response switches due to persisting response inhibition of a previously executed response. The data also revealed age-related differences in overall performance: Older adults responded more slowly and more accurately than young adults, which was reflected by a higher threshold separation parameter in diffusion model analysis. Moreover, older adults showed larger non-decision times and higher variability in non-decision time than young adults, possibly reflecting slower and more variable motor processes. In contrast, overall drift rate did not differ between older and younger adults. Taken together

  5. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    SciT

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W.; Konowalchuk, Jack

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods of inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further includes methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  6. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    SciT

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods on inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  7. Method for inhibiting oxidation of metal sulfide-containing material

    DOEpatents

    Elsetinow, Alicia; Borda, Michael J.; Schoonen, Martin A.; Strongin, Daniel R.

    2006-12-26

    The present invention provides means for inhibiting the oxidation of a metal sulfide-containing material, such as ore mine waste rock or metal sulfide taiulings, by coating the metal sulfide-containing material with an oxidation-inhibiting two-tail lipid coating (12) thereon, thereby inhibiting oxidation of the metal sulfide-containing material in acid mine drainage conditions. The lipids may be selected from phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and combinations thereof.

  8. Cognitive inhibition in students with and without dyslexia and dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Chih; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The present study presents a comparison of the cognitive inhibition abilities of dyslexic, dyscalculic, and control students. The participants were 45 dyslexic students, 45 dyscalculic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major evaluation tools included six cognitive inhibition tasks which were restructured during principal component analysis into three categories: graph inhibition, number inhibition, and word inhibition. Comparisons of the 3 groups of students revealed that in graph inhibition, dyscalculic students performed worst of the 3 groups, with dyslexic students also performing worse than control students in this category. For number inhibition, the control students' performances were equal to those of dyslexic students, with both groups performing better than dyscalculic students. For word inhibition, control students' performances were equal to those of dyscalculic students; both groups had shorter response times and lower incorrect rates than dyslexic students. These results suggest the complexity of the different cognitive inhibition abilities displayed by dyslexic, dyscalculic, and control students. However, some regular patterns occurred. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Timing of growth inhibition following shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Rahman, A. M.; Cline, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    Shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil results in the enhancement of ethylene production and in the inhibition of elongation in the growth zone of the inverted shoot. The initial increase in ethylene production previously was detected within 2 to 2.75 hours after inversion. In the present study, the initial inhibition of shoot elongation was detected within 1.5 to 4 hours with a weighted mean of 2.4 hours. Ethylene treatment of upright shoots inhibited elongation in 1.5 hours. A cause and effect relationship between shoot inversion-enhanced ethylene production and inhibition of elongation cannot be excluded.

  10. The inhibition capacities of children with mathematical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Censabella, Sandrine; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2008-01-01

    Several authors have argued that mathematical disabilities might result from difficulties in inhibiting irrelevant information. The present study addresses this issue by assessing three inhibition functions in 40 ten-year-old children: suppression of irrelevant information from working memory, inhibition of prepotent responses, and interference control. We found no significant differences between children with math disabilities and typically achieving controls, or between children with arithmetic facts disabilities and children with above-average arithmetic facts skills. These findings, along with other empirical evidence and with theoretical considerations, cast doubt on the inhibition deficit hypothesis.

  11. Caffeine inhibition of aflatoxin synthesis: probable site of action.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, R L; Lewis, D F

    1984-01-01

    Aflatoxin production by pregrown cultures of Aspergillus parasiticus was completely inhibited by incorporation of 2 mg of caffeine per ml into the medium. This was accompanied by a decrease in glucose utilization and an inhibition of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide evolution. Enzyme analyses indicated no significant differences in specific activities on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, mannitol dehydrogenase, phosphofructokinase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase, pyruvate kinase, or malate dehydrogenase. Glucose uptake kinetics indicated a linear dose-related inhibition of glucose uptake. It appears likely that caffeine inhibits aflatoxin synthesis by restricting the uptake of carbohydrates which are ultimately used by the mold to synthesize this family of mycotoxins. PMID:6331311

  12. A speculated cause of respiratory inhibition in infants.

    PubMed

    Minowa, Hideki; Arai, Ikuyo; Yasuhara, Hajime; Ebisu, Reiko; Ohgitani, Ayako

    2018-10-01

    In our previous studies, we documented that threatened premature labor and asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction were risk factors for respiratory inhibition. The goal of this study was to determine the cause of respiratory inhibition by considering perinatal risk factors. We examined 1497 infants with a gestational age of 36 weeks or greater. All infants were monitored using pulse oximetry and examined via cranial sonography. Respiratory inhibition was defined as severe hypoxemia caused by respiratory inhibition immediately after crying or gastroesophageal reflux or as a respiratory pause during feeding. We examined the relationships between respiratory inhibition and perinatal factors and speculated on the cause of respiratory inhibition. The median gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 1 min, and Apgar score at 5 min of the subjects were 38.9 weeks, 2930 g, 8.0 points, and 9.0 points, respectively. Respiratory inhibition was observed in 422 infants. Lateral ventricle enlargement and increased echogenicity in the ganglionic eminence were observed in 417 and 516 infants, respectively. Respiratory inhibition was significantly correlated with shorter gestational periods, twin pregnancies, lateral ventricle enlargement, and increased echogenicity in the ganglionic eminence. We speculate that umbilical cord compression is a major cause of respiratory inhibition.

  13. Licochalcones extracted from Glycyrrhiza inflata inhibit platelet aggregation accompanied by inhibition of COX-1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Okuda-Tanino, Asa; Sugawara, Daiki; Tashiro, Takumi; Iwashita, Masaya; Obara, Yutaro; Moriya, Takahiro; Tsushima, Chisato; Saigusa, Daisuke; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Ishii, Kuniaki; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2017-01-01

    Licochalcones extracted from Glycyrrhiza inflata are known to have a variety of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-tumor activities, but their action on platelet aggregation has not yet been reported. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of licochalcones on platelet aggregation. Collagen and U46619, a thromboxane A2 receptor agonist, caused rabbit platelet aggregation, which was reversed by pretreatment with licochalcones A, C and D in concentration-dependent manners. Among these compounds, licochalcone A caused the most potent inhibitory effect on collagen-induced platelet aggregation. However, the licochalcones showed marginal inhibitory effects on thrombin or ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In addition to rabbit platelets, licochalcone A attenuated collagen-induced aggregation in human platelets. Because licochalcone A also inhibited arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation and production of thromboxane A2 induced by collagen in intact platelets, we further examined the direct interaction of licochalcone A with cyclooxygenase (COX)-1. As expected, licochalcone A caused an inhibitory effect on both COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro. Regarding the effect of licochalcone A on COX-1 enzyme reaction kinetics, although licochalcone A showed a stronger inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis induced by lower concentrations of arachidonic acid, Vmax values in the presence or absence of licochalcone A were comparable, suggesting that it competes with arachidonic acid at the same binding site on COX-1. These results suggest that licochalcones inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation accompanied by inhibition of COX-1 activity. PMID:28282426

  14. Vitamin K3 (menadione) redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and inhibits parathion intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R; Baker, Angela A; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2015-10-01

    Parathion, a widely used organophosphate insecticide, is considered a high priority chemical threat. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a cytotoxic metabolite. As an effective inhibitor of cholinesterases, paraoxon causes the accumulation of acetylcholine in synapses and overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, leading to characteristic signs of organophosphate poisoning. Inhibition of parathion metabolism to paraoxon represents a potential approach to counter parathion toxicity. Herein, we demonstrate that menadione (methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K3) is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of parathion. Menadione is active in redox cycling, a reaction mediated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase that preferentially uses electrons from NADPH at the expense of their supply to the P450s. Using human recombinant CYP 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and human liver microsomes, menadione was found to inhibit the formation of paraoxon from parathion. Administration of menadione bisulfite (40mg/kg, ip) to rats also reduced parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity, as well as parathion-induced tremors and the progression of other signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning. These data suggest that redox cycling compounds, such as menadione, have the potential to effectively mitigate the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides including parathion which require cytochrome P450-mediated activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of chrysin on xanthine oxidase activity and its inhibition mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Suyun; Zhang, Guowen; Liao, Yijing; Pan, Junhui

    2015-11-01

    Chrysin, a bioactive flavonoid, was investigated for its potential to inhibit the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), a key enzyme catalyzing xanthine to uric acid and finally causing gout. The kinetic analysis showed that chrysin possessed a strong inhibition on XO ability in a reversible competitive manner with IC50 value of (1.26±0.04)×10(-6)molL(-1). The results of fluorescence titrations indicated that chrysin bound to XO with high affinity, and the interaction was predominately driven by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. Analysis of circular dichroism demonstrated that chrysin induced the conformational change of XO with increases in α-helix and β-sheet and reductions in β-turn and random coil structures. Molecular simulation revealed that chrysin interacted with the amino acid residues Leu648, Phe649, Glu802, Leu873, Ser876, Glu879, Arg880, Phe1009, Thr1010, Val1011 and Phe1013 located within the active cavity of XO. The mechanism of chrysin on XO activity may be the insertion of chrysin into the active site occupying the catalytic center of XO to avoid the entrance of xanthine and causing conformational changes in XO. Furthermore, the interaction assays indicated that chrysin and its structural analog apigenin exhibited an additive effect on inhibition of XO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Autophagy inhibition overcomes multiple mechanisms of resistance to BRAF inhibition in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy Levy, Jean M; Zahedi, Shadi; Griesinger, Andrea M; Morin, Andrew; Davies, Kurtis D; Aisner, Dara L; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, BK; Fitzwalter, Brent E; Goodall, Megan L; Thorburn, Jacqueline; Amani, Vladimir; Donson, Andrew M; Birks, Diane K; Mirsky, David M; Hankinson, Todd C; Handler, Michael H; Green, Adam L; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Foreman, Nicholas K; Thorburn, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors are effective cancer therapies, but tumors frequently develop resistance. Current strategies to circumvent resistance target the same or parallel pathways. We report here that targeting a completely different process, autophagy, can overcome multiple BRAF inhibitor resistance mechanisms in brain tumors. BRAFV600Emutations occur in many pediatric brain tumors. We previously reported that these tumors are autophagy-dependent and a patient was successfully treated with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine after failure of the BRAFV600E inhibitor vemurafenib, suggesting autophagy inhibition overcame the kinase inhibitor resistance. We tested this hypothesis in vemurafenib-resistant brain tumors. Genetic and pharmacological autophagy inhibition overcame molecularly distinct resistance mechanisms, inhibited tumor cell growth, and increased cell death. Patients with resistance had favorable clinical responses when chloroquine was added to vemurafenib. This provides a fundamentally different strategy to circumvent multiple mechanisms of kinase inhibitor resistance that could be rapidly tested in clinical trials in patients with BRAFV600E brain tumors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19671.001 PMID:28094001

  17. Nonspecific Inhibition of the Motor System during Response Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Sias, Ana; Labruna, Ludovica; Ivry, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Motor system excitability is transiently inhibited during the preparation of responses. Previous studies have attributed this inhibition to the operation of two mechanisms, one hypothesized to help resolve competition between alternative response options, and the other to prevent premature response initiation. By this view, inhibition should be restricted to task-relevant muscles. Although this prediction is supported in one previous study (Duque et al., 2010), studies of stopping ongoing actions suggest that some forms of motor inhibition may be widespread (Badry et al., 2009). This motivated us to conduct a series of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiments to examine in detail the specificity of preparatory inhibition in humans. Motor-evoked potentials were inhibited in task-irrelevant muscles during response preparation, even when the muscles were contralateral and not homologous to the responding effector. Inhibition was also observed in both choice and simple response task conditions, with and without a preparatory interval. Control experiments ruled out that this inhibition is due to expectancy of TMS or a possible need to cancel the prepared response. These findings suggest that motor inhibition during response preparation broadly influences the motor system and likely reflects a process that occurs whenever a response is selected. We propose a reinterpretation of the functional significance of preparatory inhibition, one by which inhibition reduces noise to enhance signal processing and modulates the gain of a selected response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Motor preparation entails the recruitment of excitatory and inhibitory neural mechanisms. The current experiments address the specificity of inhibitory mechanisms, asking whether preparatory inhibition affects task-irrelevant muscles. Participants prepared a finger movement to be executed at the end of a short delay period. Transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex provided an

  18. Altered cortical processing of motor inhibition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Påvel G; Térémetz, Maxime; Charron, Sylvain; Kebir, Oussama; Saby, Agathe; Bendjemaa, Narjes; Lion, Stéphanie; Crépon, Benoît; Gaillard, Raphaël; Oppenheim, Catherine; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Amado, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    Inhibition is considered a key mechanism in schizophrenia. Short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) in the motor cortex is reduced in schizophrenia and is considered to reflect locally deficient γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic modulation. However, it remains unclear how SICI is modulated during motor inhibition and how it relates to neural processing in other cortical areas. Here we studied motor inhibition Stop signal task (SST) in stabilized patients with schizophrenia (N = 28), healthy siblings (N = 21) and healthy controls (n = 31) matched in general cognitive status and educational level. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to investigate neural correlates of motor inhibition. SST performance was similar in patients and controls. SICI was modulated by the task as expected in healthy controls and siblings but was reduced in patients with schizophrenia during inhibition despite equivalent motor inhibition performance. fMRI showed greater prefrontal and premotor activation during motor inhibition in schizophrenia. Task-related modulation of SICI was higher in subjects who showed less inhibition-related activity in pre-supplementary motor area (SMA) and cingulate motor area. An exploratory genetic analysis of selected markers of inhibition (GABRB2, GAD1, GRM1, and GRM3) did not explain task-related differences in SICI or cortical activation. In conclusion, this multimodal study provides direct evidence of a task-related deficiency in SICI modulation in schizophrenia likely reflecting deficient GABA-A related processing in motor cortex. Compensatory activation of premotor areas may explain similar motor inhibition in patients despite local deficits in intracortical processing. Task-related modulation of SICI may serve as a useful non-invasive GABAergic marker in development of therapeutic strategies in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacologic inhibition of lactate production prevents myofibroblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kottmann, Robert Matthew; Trawick, Emma; Judge, Jennifer L; Wahl, Lindsay A; Epa, Amali P; Owens, Kristina M; Thatcher, Thomas H; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2015-12-01

    Myofibroblasts are one of the primary cell types responsible for the accumulation of extracellular matrix in fibrosing diseases, and targeting myofibroblast differentiation is an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been shown to be an important inducer of myofibroblast differentiation. We previously demonstrated that lactate dehydrogenase and its metabolic product lactic acid are important mediators of myofibroblast differentiation, via acid-induced activation of latent TGF-β. Here we explore whether pharmacologic inhibition of LDH activity can prevent TGF-β-induced myofibroblast differentiation. Primary human lung fibroblasts from healthy patients and those with pulmonary fibrosis were treated with TGF-β and or gossypol, an LDH inhibitor. Protein and RNA were analyzed for markers of myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix generation. Gossypol inhibited TGF-β-induced expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in a dose-dependent manner in both healthy and fibrotic human lung fibroblasts. Gossypol also inhibited expression of collagen 1, collagen 3, and fibronectin. Gossypol inhibited LDH activity, the generation of extracellular lactic acid, and the rate of extracellular acidification in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, gossypol inhibited TGF-β bioactivity in a dose-dependent manner. Concurrent treatment with an LDH siRNA increased the ability of gossypol to inhibit TGF-β-induced myofibroblast differentiation. Gossypol inhibits TGF-β-induced myofibroblast differentiation through inhibition of LDH, inhibition of extracellular accumulation of lactic acid, and inhibition of TGF-β bioactivity. These data support the hypothesis that pharmacologic inhibition of LDH may play an important role in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibition modulates response inhibition in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zheng; Altena, Ellemarije; Nombela, Cristina; Housden, Charlotte R.; Maxwell, Helen; Rittman, Timothy; Huddleston, Chelan; Rae, Charlotte L.; Regenthal, Ralf; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Barker, Roger A.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is common in Parkinson’s disease even in the absence of impulse control disorders. It is likely to be multifactorial, including a dopaminergic ‘overdose’ and structural changes in the frontostriatal circuits for motor control. In addition, we proposed that changes in serotonergic projections to the forebrain also contribute to response inhibition in Parkinson’s disease, based on preclinical animal and human studies. We therefore examined whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram improves response inhibition, in terms of both behaviour and the efficiency of underlying neural mechanisms. This multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study used a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover design with an integrated Stop-Signal and NoGo paradigm. Twenty-one patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (46–76 years old, 11 male, Hoehn and Yahr stage 1.5–3) received 30 mg citalopram or placebo in addition to their usual dopaminergic medication in two separate sessions. Twenty matched healthy control subjects (54–74 years old, 12 male) were tested without medication. The effects of disease and drug on behavioural performance and regional brain activity were analysed using general linear models. In addition, anatomical connectivity was examined using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics. We confirmed that Parkinson’s disease caused impairment in response inhibition, with longer Stop-Signal Reaction Time and more NoGo errors under placebo compared with controls, without affecting Go reaction times. This was associated with less stop-specific activation in the right inferior frontal cortex, but no significant difference in NoGo-related activation. Although there was no beneficial main effect of citalopram, it reduced Stop-Signal Reaction Time and NoGo errors, and enhanced inferior frontal activation, in patients with relatively more severe disease (higher Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale

  1. Treatment with pyrophosphate inhibits uremic vascular calcification

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, W. Charles; Lomashvili, Koba A.; Malluche, Hartmut H.; Faugere, Marie-Claude; Riser, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrophosphate, which may be deficient in advanced renal failure, is a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification. To explore its use as a potential therapeutic, we injected exogenous pyrophosphate subcutaneously or intraperitoneally in normal rats and found that their plasma pyrophosphate concentrations peaked within 15 min. There was a single exponential decay with a half-life of 33 min. The kinetics were indistinguishable between the two routes of administration or in anephric rats. The effect of daily intraperitoneal pyrophosphate injections on uremic vascular calcification was then tested in rats fed a high-phosphate diet containing adenine for 28 days to induce uremia. Although the incidence of aortic calcification varied and was not altered by pyrophosphate, the calcium content of calcified aortas was significantly reduced by 70%. Studies were repeated in uremic rats given calcitriol to produce more consistent aortic calcification and treated with sodium pyrophosphate delivered intraperitoneally in a larger volume of glucose-containing solution to prolong plasma pyrophosphate levels. This maneuver significantly reduced both the incidence and amount of calcification. Quantitative histomorphometry of bone samples after double-labeling with calcein indicated that there was no effect of pyrophosphate on the rates of bone formation or mineralization. Thus, exogenous pyrophosphate can inhibit uremic vascular calcification without producing adverse effects on bone. PMID:21124302

  2. Treatment with pyrophosphate inhibits uremic vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, W Charles; Lomashvili, Koba A; Malluche, Hartmut H; Faugere, Marie-Claude; Riser, Bruce L

    2011-03-01

    Pyrophosphate, which may be deficient in advanced renal failure, is a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification. To explore its use as a potential therapeutic, we injected exogenous pyrophosphate subcutaneously or intraperitoneally in normal rats and found that their plasma pyrophosphate concentrations peaked within 15 min. There was a single exponential decay with a half-life of 33 min. The kinetics were indistinguishable between the two routes of administration or in anephric rats. The effect of daily intraperitoneal pyrophosphate injections on uremic vascular calcification was then tested in rats fed a high-phosphate diet containing adenine for 28 days to induce uremia. Although the incidence of aortic calcification varied and was not altered by pyrophosphate, the calcium content of calcified aortas was significantly reduced by 70%. Studies were repeated in uremic rats given calcitriol to produce more consistent aortic calcification and treated with sodium pyrophosphate delivered intraperitoneally in a larger volume of glucose-containing solution to prolong plasma pyrophosphate levels. This maneuver significantly reduced both the incidence and amount of calcification. Quantitative histomorphometry of bone samples after double-labeling with calcein indicated that there was no effect of pyrophosphate on the rates of bone formation or mineralization. Thus, exogenous pyrophosphate can inhibit uremic vascular calcification without producing adverse effects on bone.

  3. Thermally Driven Inhibition of Superconducting Vortex Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Antonio; Aliev, Farkhad G.; Moshchalkov, Victor V.; Galperin, Yuri M.

    2017-09-01

    Complex systems close to their critical state can exhibit abrupt transitions—avalanches—between their metastable states. It is a challenging task to understand the mechanism of the avalanches and control their behavior. Here, we investigate microwave stimulation of avalanches in the so-called vortex matter of type-II superconductors—a system of interacting Abrikosov vortices close to the critical (Bean) state. Our main finding is that the avalanche incubation strongly depends on the excitation frequency, a completely unexpected behavior observed close to the so-called depinning frequencies. Namely, the triggered vortex avalanches in Pb superconducting films become effectively inhibited approaching the critical temperature or critical magnetic field when the microwave stimulus is close to the vortex depinning frequency. We suggest a simple model explaining the observed counterintuitive behaviors as a manifestation of the strongly nonlinear dependence of the driven vortex core size on the microwave excitation intensity. This paves the way to controlling avalanches in superconductor-based devices through their nonlinear response.

  4. Conditioned inhibition in the spatial domain.

    PubMed

    Sansa, J; Rodrigo, T; Santamaría, J J; Manteiga, R D; Chamizo, V D

    2009-10-01

    Using a variation on the standard procedure of conditioned inhibition (Trials A+ and AX-), rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a circular pool were trained to find a hidden platform that was located in a specific spatial position in relation to 2 individual landmarks (Trials A --> platform and B --> platform; Experiments 1a and 1b) and to 2 configurations of landmarks (Trials ABC --> platform and FGH --> platform; Experiment 2a). The rats also underwent inhibitory trials (Experiment 1: Trials AZ --> no platform; Experiment 2a: Trials CDE --> no platform) interspersed with these excitatory trials. In both experiments, subsequent test trials without the platform showed both a summation effect and retardation of excitatory conditioning, and in Experiment 2a rats learned to avoid the CDE quadrant over the course of the experiment. Two further experiments established that these results could not be attributed to any difference in salience between the conditioned inhibitors and the control stimuli. All these results contribute to the growing body of evidence consistent with the idea that there is a general mechanism of learning that is associative in nature. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Insulin-Inducible SMILE Inhibits Hepatic Gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Min; Seo, Woo-Young; Han, Hye-Sook; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Don-Kyu; Choi, Seri; Choi, Byeong Hun; Harris, Robert A; Lee, Chul-Ho; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    The role of a glucagon/cAMP-dependent protein kinase-inducible coactivator PGC-1α signaling pathway is well characterized in hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, an opposing protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt-inducible corepressor signaling pathway is unknown. A previous report has demonstrated that small heterodimer partner-interacting leucine zipper protein (SMILE) regulates the nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors that control hepatic gluconeogenesis. Here, we show that hepatic SMILE expression was induced by feeding in normal mice but not in db/db and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Interestingly, SMILE expression was induced by insulin in mouse primary hepatocyte and liver. Hepatic SMILE expression was not altered by refeeding in liver-specific insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) or PKB β-deficient (PKBβ(-/-)) mice. At the molecular level, SMILE inhibited hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-mediated transcriptional activity via direct competition with PGC-1α. Moreover, ablation of SMILE augmented gluconeogenesis and increased blood glucose levels in mice. Conversely, overexpression of SMILE reduced hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression and ameliorated hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in db/db and HFD-fed mice. Therefore, SMILE is an insulin-inducible corepressor that suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis. Small molecules that enhance SMILE expression would have potential for treating hyperglycemia in diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. Method for inhibiting corrosion in aqueous systems

    DOEpatents

    DeMonbrun, James R.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a method for inhibiting corrosion in aqueous systems containing components composed of aluminum, copper, iron, or alloys thereof. The method comprises (a) incorporating in the aqueous medium 2-10 ppm by weight of tolyltriazole; an effective amount of a biodegradable organic biocide; 500-1000 ppm by weight of sodium metasilicate; 500-2000 ppm by weight of sodium nitrite; and 500-2000 ppm by weight of sodium tetraborate, all of these concentrations being based on the weight of water in the system; and (b) maintaining the pH of the resulting system in the range of 7.5 to 8.0. The method permits longterm operation with very low corrosion rates and bacteria counts. All of the additives to the system are biodegradable, permitting the treated aqueous medium to be discharged to the environment without violating current regulations. The method has special application to solar systems in which an aqueous medium is circulated through aluminum-alloy heat exchangers.

  7. Current Strategies for Inhibition of Chikungunya Infection

    PubMed Central

    Subudhi, Bharat Bhusan; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Mishra, Priyadarsee

    2018-01-01

    Increasing incidences of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection and co-infections with Dengue/Zika virus have highlighted the urgency for CHIKV management. Failure in developing effective vaccines or specific antivirals has fuelled further research. This review discusses updated strategies of CHIKV inhibition and provides possible future directions. In addition, it analyzes advances in CHIKV lifecycle, drug-target development, and potential hits obtained by in silico and experimental methods. Molecules identified with anti-CHIKV properties using traditional/rational drug design and their potential to succeed in subsequent stages of drug development have also been discussed. Possibilities of repurposing existing drugs based on their in vitro findings have also been elucidated. Probable modes of interference of these compounds at various stages of infection, including entry and replication, have been highlighted. The use of host factors as targets to identify antivirals against CHIKV has been addressed. While most of the earlier antivirals were effective in the early phases of the CHIKV life cycle, this review is also focused on drug candidates that are effective at multiple stages of its life cycle. Since most of these antivirals require validation in preclinical and clinical models, the challenges regarding this have been discussed and will provide critical information for further research. PMID:29751486

  8. Current Strategies for Inhibition of Chikungunya Infection.

    PubMed

    Subudhi, Bharat Bhusan; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Mishra, Priyadarsee; Kumar, Abhishek

    2018-05-03

    Increasing incidences of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection and co-infections with Dengue/Zika virus have highlighted the urgency for CHIKV management. Failure in developing effective vaccines or specific antivirals has fuelled further research. This review discusses updated strategies of CHIKV inhibition and provides possible future directions. In addition, it analyzes advances in CHIKV lifecycle, drug-target development, and potential hits obtained by in silico and experimental methods. Molecules identified with anti-CHIKV properties using traditional/rational drug design and their potential to succeed in subsequent stages of drug development have also been discussed. Possibilities of repurposing existing drugs based on their in vitro findings have also been elucidated. Probable modes of interference of these compounds at various stages of infection, including entry and replication, have been highlighted. The use of host factors as targets to identify antivirals against CHIKV has been addressed. While most of the earlier antivirals were effective in the early phases of the CHIKV life cycle, this review is also focused on drug candidates that are effective at multiple stages of its life cycle. Since most of these antivirals require validation in preclinical and clinical models, the challenges regarding this have been discussed and will provide critical information for further research.

  9. Bioelectronic sniffer for nicotine using enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mitsubayashi, Kohji; Nakayama, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Midori; Saito, Hirokazu; Otsuka, Kimio; Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2006-07-28

    A novel bioelectronic sniffer for nicotine in the gas phase was developed with enzyme inhibition principle to butyrylcholinesterase activity. The bioelectronic devices for nicotine in the gas and liquid phases were constructed using a Clark-type dissolved oxygen electrode and a membrane immobilized butyrylcholinesterase and choline oxidase. After the assessment of the sensor performances to choline and butyrylcholine as pre-examinations, the characteristics of the biosensor and bio-sniffer for nicotine were evaluated in the liquid and gas phases, respectively. The sensor signal of the bio-devices with 300 micromol l(-1) of butyrylcholine decreased quickly following application of nicotine and reached to the steady-state current, thus relating the concentration of nicotine in the liquid and gas phases. The biosensor was used to measure nicotine solution from 10 to 300 micromol l(-1). In the gas-phase experiment, the current signal of the bio-sniffer was also found to be linearly to the nicotine concentration over the range of 10.0-1000 ppb including 75.0 ppb as threshold limit value (TLV) by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

  10. Inhibition of angiogenesis by S-adenosylmethionine

    SciT

    Sahin, Mehmet, E-mail: msahin@akdeniz.edu.tr; Sahin, Emel; Guemueslue, Saadet

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Effects of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) were investigated in endothelial cells. {yields} Our results showed that SAM decreased proliferation of endothelial cells. {yields} SAM influentially inhibited the percentage of cell migration. {yields} SAM probably stopped migration as independent from its effects on proliferation. {yields} SAM was shown to suppress in vitro angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Metastasis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in cancer. One of the steps in metastasis process is the formation of new blood vessels. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are common in cancer cells. In recent studies, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is a DNA methylating agent, hasmore » been found to have inhibitory effects on some carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we have used SAM to investigate whether it is effective against angiogenesis in vitro. Our results have shown that SAM can reduce the formation and organization of capillary-like structures of endothelial cells in tumoral environment. Besides, we have found SAM can block endothelial cell proliferation and the migration of cells towards growth factors-rich media. In conclusion, our study suggests that SAM may be used against angiogenesis as a natural bio-product.« less

  11. Efficacy of ALK5 inhibition in myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wanke; Ho, Wanting Tina; Han, Ying; Murdun, Cem; Mailloux, Adam W.; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Xuefeng; Budhathoki, Anjali; Pradhan, Kith; Rapaport, Franck; Wang, Huaquan; Shao, Zonghong; Ren, Xiubao; Steidl, Ulrich; Levine, Ross L.; Zhao, Zhizhuang Joe; Verma, Amit; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K.

    2017-01-01

    Myelofibrosis (MF) is a bone marrow disorder characterized by clonal myeloproliferation, aberrant cytokine production, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and bone marrow fibrosis. Although somatic mutations in JAK2, MPL, and CALR have been identified in the pathogenesis of these diseases, inhibitors of the Jak2 pathway have not demonstrated efficacy in ameliorating MF in patients. TGF-β family members are profibrotic cytokines and we observed significant TGF-β1 isoform overexpression in a large cohort of primary MF patient samples. Significant overexpression of TGF-β1 was also observed in murine clonal MPLW515L megakaryocytic cells. TGF-β1 stimulated the deposition of excessive collagen by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) by activating the TGF-β receptor I kinase (ALK5)/Smad3 pathway. MSCs derived from MPLW515L mice demonstrated sustained overproduction of both collagen I and collagen III, effects that were abrogated by ALK5 inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, use of galunisertib, a clinically active ALK5 inhibitor, significantly improved MF in both MPLW515L and JAK2V617F mouse models. These data demonstrate the role of malignant hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)/TGF-β/MSC axis in the pathogenesis of MF, and provide a preclinical rationale for ALK5 blockade as a therapeutic strategy in MF. PMID:28405618

  12. High outgroup entitativity can inhibit intergroup retribution.

    PubMed

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Dovidio, John F

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the psychological processes that are involved in the perpetuation and escalation of intergroup conflict remains an important goal for intergroup relations research. In the present research, we examined perceived outgroup entitativity as a potential determinant of intergroup hostility. In intergroup conflict situations, high-entitative outgroups are perceived as particularly deserving of retribution; however, high-entitative outgroups are also perceived as efficacious and capable of retaliating successfully, suggesting that people may inhibit hostility against high-entitative (vs. low-entitative) outgroups that are in a position to retaliate. We tested this prediction in two studies. In Study 1, we manipulated intergroup provocation and outgroup entitativity, and found that higher negative mood predicted greater aggression against a low-entitative provoker outgroup, but failed to predict aggression against a high-entitative provoker outgroup that was plausibly in a position to retaliate. In Study 2, we held provocation constant while manipulating outgroup entitativity and the possibility of retaliation by the outgroup, and found that people acted in a retributive manner against a high-entitative provoker outgroup only when the outgroup was not in a position to retaliate. Implications for intergroup conflict are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Decision time, slow inhibition, and theta rhythm.

    PubMed

    Smerieri, Anteo; Rolls, Edmund T; Feng, Jianfeng

    2010-10-20

    In this paper, we examine decision making in a spiking neuronal network and show that longer time constants for the inhibitory neurons can decrease the reaction times and produce theta rhythm. We analyze the mechanism and find that the spontaneous firing rate before the decision cues are applied can drift, and thereby influence the speed of the reaction time when the decision cues are applied. The drift of the firing rate in the population that will win the competition is larger if the time constant of the inhibitory interneurons is increased from 10 to 33 ms, and even larger if there are two populations of inhibitory neurons with time constants of 10 and 100 ms. Of considerable interest is that the decision that will be made can be influenced by the noise-influenced drift of the spontaneous firing rate over many seconds before the decision cues are applied. The theta rhythm associated with the longer time constant networks mirrors the greater integration in the firing rate drift produced by the recurrent connections over long time periods in the networks with slow inhibition. The mechanism for the effect of slow waves in the theta and delta range on decision times is suggested to be increased neuronal spiking produced by depolarization of the membrane potential on the positive part of the slow waves when the neuron's membrane potential is close to the firing threshold.

  14. Inhibition of Return in the Visual Field

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yan; Lei, Quan; Fang, Yuan; Tong, Yu; Schill, Kerstin; Pöppel, Ernst; Strasburger, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) as an indicator of attentional control is characterized by an eccentricity effect, that is, the more peripheral visual field shows a stronger IOR magnitude relative to the perifoveal visual field. However, it could be argued that this eccentricity effect may not be an attention effect, but due to cortical magnification. To test this possibility, we examined this eccentricity effect in two conditions: the same-size condition in which identical stimuli were used at different eccentricities, and the size-scaling condition in which stimuli were scaled according to the cortical magnification factor (M-scaling), thus stimuli being larger at the more peripheral locations. The results showed that the magnitude of IOR was significantly stronger in the peripheral relative to the perifoveal visual field, and this eccentricity effect was independent of the manipulation of stimulus size (same-size or size-scaling). These results suggest a robust eccentricity effect of IOR which cannot be eliminated by M-scaling. Underlying neural mechanisms of the eccentricity effect of IOR are discussed with respect to both cortical and subcortical structures mediating attentional control in the perifoveal and peripheral visual field. PMID:23820946

  15. Mortalin inhibition in experimental Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chiasserini, Davide; Tozzi, Alessandro; de Iure, Antonio; Tantucci, Michela; Susta, Federica; Orvietani, Pier Luigi; Koya, Keizo; Binaglia, Luciano; Calabresi, Paolo

    2011-08-01

    Among heat shock proteins, mortalin has been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. In the present work a rat model of Parkinson's disease was used to analyze the expression of striatal proteins and, more specifically, mortalin expression. The possible involvement of mortalin in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis was further investigated by utilizing an electrophysiological approach and pharmacological inhibition of mortalin in both the physiological and the parkinsonian states. Proteomic analysis was used to investigate changes in striatal protein expression in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease. The electrophysiological effects of MKT-077, a rhodamine-123 analogue acting as an inhibitor of mortalin, were measured by field potential recordings from corticostriatal brain slices obtained from control, sham-operated, and 6-hydroxydopamine-denervated animals. Slices in the presence of rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, were also analyzed. Proteomic analysis revealed downregulation of mortalin in the striata of 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats in comparison with sham-operated animals. MKT-077 reduced corticostriatal field potential amplitude in physiological conditions, inducing membrane depolarization and inward current in striatal medium spiny neurons. In addition, we observed that concentrations of MKT-077 not inducing any electrophysiological effect in physiological conditions caused significant changes in striatal slices from parkinsonian animals as well as in slices treated with a submaximal concentration of rotenone. These findings suggest a critical link between mortalin function and mitochondrial activity in both physiological and pathological conditions mimicking Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Statins inhibit blastocyst formation by preventing geranylgeranylation

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, Vernadeth B.; Marikawa, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    STUDY HYPOTHESIS Statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase of the mevalonate pathway and prescription drugs that treat hypercholesterolemia, compromise preimplantation mouse development via modulation of HIPPO signaling. STUDY FINDING HMG-CoA reductase activity is required for trophectoderm specification, namely blastocyst cavity formation and Yes-associated protein (YAP) nuclear localization, through the production of isoprenoid geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) and the action of geranylgeranyl transferase. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Previous studies have shown that treatment of mouse embryos with mevastatin prevents blastocyst formation, but how HMG-CoA reductase is involved in preimplantation development is unknown. HIPPO signaling regulates specification of the trophectoderm lineage of the mouse blastocyst by controlling the nuclear localization of YAP. In human cell lines, the mevalonate pathway regulates YAP to mediate self-renewal and survival through geranylgeranylation of RHO proteins. These studies suggest that in preimplantation development, statins may act through HIPPO pathway to interfere with trophectoderm specification and thereby inhibit blastocyst formation. STUDY DESIGN, SAMPLES/MATERIALS, METHODS Eight-cell stage (E2.5) mouse embryos were treated in hanging drop culture with chemical agents, namely statins (lovastatin, atorvastatin, cerivastatin and pravastatin), mevalonic acid (MVA), cholesterol, squalene, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), geranylgeranyltransferase inhibitor GGTI-298, RHO inhibitor I, and squalene synthase inhibitor YM-53601, up to the late blastocyst stage (E4.5). Efficiency of blastocyst formation was assessed based on gross morphology and the measurement of the cavity size using an image analysis software. Effects on cell lineages and HIPPO signaling were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with confocal microscopy based on the expression patterns of the

  17. Advances in Bacterial Methionine Aminopeptidase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Helgren, Travis R.; Wangtrakuldee, Phumvadee; Staker, Bart L.; Hagen, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) are metalloenzymes that cleave the N-terminal methionine from newly synthesized peptides and proteins. These MetAP enzymes are present in bacteria, and knockout experiments have shown that MetAP activity is essential for cell life, suggesting that MetAPs are good antibacterial drug targets. MetAP enzymes are also present in the human host and selectivity is essential. There have been significant structural biology efforts and over 65 protein crystal structures of bacterial MetAPs are deposited into the PDB. This review highlights the available crystallographic data for bacterial MetAPs. Structural comparison of bacterial MetAPs with human MetAPs highlights differences that can lead to selectivity. In addition, this review includes the chemical diversity of molecules that bind and inhibit the bacterial MetAP enzymes. Analysis of the structural biology and chemical space of known bacterial MetAP inhibitors leads to a greater understanding of this antibacterial target and the likely development of potential antibacterial agents. PMID:26268344

  18. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by retinoids. [Review

    SciT

    Nettesheim, P.

    1979-01-01

    Progress made in recent years in the search for retinoids with anticarcinogenic activity is reviewed. There are many studies to be found in the literature which show no substantial effect of retinoids on carcinogenesis or tumor growth. Some of these negative findings may be related to the carcinogen dose used, the type of retinoid used, the dose, dose schedule or mode of administration of the retinoid. Others may indicate that the particular type of tumor or tumor system is, indeed, refractory to retinoids in general or to those retinoids that were tested. A great gap still exists in our knowledgemore » concerning the pharmake-kinetics of most retinoids their availability to various normal and cancerous tissues, and the role and existence of transport and binding proteins. There are studies which indicate that under certain conditions, particularly conditions of topical application, some retinoids may even enhance carcinogenesis. It seems, however, indisputable by now that some retinoids are effective inhibitors of carcinogenesis in some organ systems and can even inhibit the growth of some established tumors. While the mechanisms of these inhibitory effects are presently not understood, it does seem clear that they are not mediated via the cytotoxic mechanisms typical of chemotherapeutic agents. The hope that retinoids might become an effective tool to halt the progression of some neoplastic diseases, seems to be justified.« less

  19. Chemical interaction: enhancement and inhibition of clastogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, W A

    1993-01-01

    Most environmental exposures involve concurrent or sequential exposure to multiple chemicals in air, water, and food. Interactive effects in carcinogenesis have been described for certain combinations of agents. They are described in terms of enhancement or inhibition of carcinogenesis. Enhancement effects have been documented for cigarette smoking in combination with exposure to asbestos, radon, alcohol, or other exposures. A variety of inhibitors of carcinogenesis have also been described. They are classified into agents preventing formation of carcinogens; blocking agents; and suppressing agents. Assessment of risk from exposure to multiple agents can be derived either from epidemiological studies in relation to actual exposure or from laboratory studies after controlled exposure to different agents. Prediction of how toxic components of mixtures will interact should be based on an understanding of the mechanisms of such interactions. Compounds may interact chemically, yielding new toxic components or causing a change in the biological availability of the existing components or metabolites. In humans, great individual variability in response is to be expected because of genetic heterogeneity or acquired host susceptibility factors. Interaction is thus a key component in the risk assessment process. In this paper, the definition of interaction and the theoretical basis for different types of interaction in cancer causation are reviewed. Epidemiological and experimental studies showing interactive effects of two chemical carcinogens are also presented. PMID:8143617

  20. Clofilium inhibits Slick and Slack potassium channels.

    PubMed

    de Los Angeles Tejada, Maria; Stolpe, Kathleen; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Klaerke, Dan A

    2012-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance potassium channels have been recently discovered, and are found in the central nervous system and in the heart. Both channels are activated by Na(+) and Cl(-), and Slick channels are also inhibited by adenosine triphospate (ATP). An important role of setting the resting membrane potential and controlling the basal excitability of neurons has been suggested for these channels. In addition, no specific blockers for these channels are known up to the present. With the purpose of studying the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels, the effects of exposure to the antiarrhythmic compound clofilium were evaluated. Clofilium was able to modulate the activity of Slick and Slack channels effectively, with a stronger effect on Slack than Slick channels. In order to evaluate the pharmacological behavior of Slick and Slack channels further, 38 commonly used potassium channel blockers were tested. Screening of these compounds did not reveal any modulators of Slick and Slack channels, except for clofilium. The present study provides a first approach towards elucidating the pharmacological characteristics of Slick and Slack channels and could be the basis for future studies aimed at developing potent and specific blockers and activators for these channels.

  1. Virus inhibition of RIP3-dependent necrosis.

    PubMed

    Upton, Jason W; Kaiser, William J; Mocarski, Edward S

    2010-04-22

    Viral infection activates cytokine expression and triggers cell death, the modulation of which is important for successful pathogenesis. Necroptosis is a form of programmed necrosis dependent on two related RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM)-containing signaling adaptors, receptor-interacting protein kinases (RIP) 1 and 3. We find that murine cytomegalovirus infection induces RIP3-dependent necrosis. Whereas RIP3 kinase activity and RHIM-dependent interactions control virus-associated necrosis, virus-induced death proceeds independently of RIP1 and is therefore distinct from TNFalpha-dependent necroptosis. Viral M45-encoded inhibitor of RIP activation (vIRA) targets RIP3 during infection and disrupts RIP3-RIP1 interactions characteristic of TNFalpha-induced necroptosis, thereby suppressing both death pathways. Importantly, attenuation of vIRA mutant virus in wild-type mice is normalized in RIP3-deficient mice. Thus, vIRA function validates necrosis as central to host defense against viral infections and highlights the benefit of multiple virus-encoded cell-death suppressors that inhibit not only apoptotic, but also necrotic mechanisms of virus clearance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Computational Investigations on Enzymatic Catalysis and Inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Daniel

    Enzymes are the bimolecular "workhorses" of the cell due to their range of functions and their requirement for cellular success. The atomistic details of how they function can provide key insights into the fundamentals of catalysis and in turn, provide a blueprint for biotechnological advances. A wide range of contemporary computational techniques has been applied with the aim to characterize recently discovered intermediates or to provide insights into enzymatic mechanisms and inhibition. More specifically, an assessment of methods was conducted to evaluate the presence of the growing number 3-- and 4--coordinated sulfur intermediates in proteins/enzymes. Furthermore, two mechanisms have been investigated, the mu-OH mechanism of the hydrolysis of dimethylphosphate in Glycerophosphodiesterase (GpdQ) using five different homonuclear metal combinations Zn(II)/Zn(II), Co(II)/Co(II), Mn(II)/Mn(II), Cd(II)/Cd(II) and Ca(II)/Ca(II) as well as a preliminary study into the effectivness of boron as an inhibitor in the serine protease reaction of class A TEM-1 beta-lactamases.

  3. Poxviruses Utilize Multiple Strategies to Inhibit Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Daniel Brian; De Martini, William; Cottrell, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Cells have multiple means to induce apoptosis in response to viral infection. Poxviruses must prevent activation of cellular apoptosis to ensure successful replication. These viruses devote a substantial portion of their genome to immune evasion. Many of these immune evasion products expressed during infection antagonize cellular apoptotic pathways. Poxvirus products target multiple points in both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, thereby mitigating apoptosis during infection. Interestingly, recent evidence indicates that poxviruses also hijack cellular means of eliminating apoptotic bodies as a means to spread cell to cell through a process called apoptotic mimicry. Poxviruses are the causative agent of many human and veterinary diseases. Further, there is substantial interest in developing these viruses as vectors for a variety of uses including vaccine delivery and as oncolytic viruses to treat certain human cancers. Therefore, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which poxviruses regulate the cellular apoptotic pathways remains a top research priority. In this review, we consider anti-apoptotic strategies of poxviruses focusing on three relevant poxvirus genera: Orthopoxvirus, Molluscipoxvirus, and Leporipoxvirus. All three genera express multiple products to inhibit both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways with many of these products required for virulence. PMID:28786952

  4. Sticky Plans: Inhibition and Binding during Serial-Task Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests substantial response-time costs associated with lag-2 repetitions of tasks within explicitly controlled task sequences [Koch, I., Philipp, A. M., Gade, M. (2006). Chunking in task sequences modulates task inhibition. "Psychological Science," 17, 346-350; Schneider, D. W. (2007). Task-set inhibition in chunked task…

  5. Inhibition of growth of excised tomato roots by 2-diethylaminoethanol.

    PubMed

    BOLL, W G

    1959-02-06

    Approximately 40 microM 2-diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) caused 50-percent inhibition of growth of the main axis. Inhibition was relieved by 2-dimethylaminoethanol and choline but not by ethanolamine. A marked morphogenetic effect of DEAE is attributed to differences in sensitivity of main and lateral meristems and to an effect upon the postulated hormonal system controlling apical dominance.

  6. Method for inhibiting gum formation in liquid hydrocarbon mediums

    SciT

    Reid, D.K.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes a method of inhibiting the formation of gum and sediment in a liquid hydrocarbonaceous medium. It comprises: adding to the medium an inhibiting amount of an alkyl 1,2-dihydroquinoline or polymerized alkyl 1,2-dihydroquinoline.

  7. Treasure of the Past VIII: Molecular Basis of Flame Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Hastie, J. W.

    2001-01-01

    The role played by inorganic chemical additives in fire retardancy and flame inhibition is considered. Particular attention is given to the molecular level aspects of commercially important systems containing compounds of antimony, halogens, and phosphorus. The flame inhibiting function of metal containing additives is also discussed. PMID:27500045

  8. Simulating cholinesterase inhibition in birds caused by dietary insecticide exposure

    Corson, M.S.; Mora, M.A.; Grant, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a stochastic simulation model that simulates avian foraging in an agricultural landscape to evaluate factors affecting dietary insecticide exposure and to predict post-exposure cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition. To evaluate the model, we simulated published field studies and found that model predictions of insecticide decay and ChE inhibition reasonably approximated most observed results. Sensitivity analysis suggested that foraging location usually influenced ChE inhibition more than diet preferences or daily intake rate. Although organophosphorus insecticides usually caused greater inhibition than carbamate insecticides, insecticide toxicity appeared only moderately important. When we simulated impact of heavy insecticide applications during breeding seasons of 15 wild bird species, mean maximum ChE inhibition in most species exceeded 20% at some point. At this level of inhibition, birds may experience nausea and/or may exhibit minor behavioral changes. Simulated risk peaked in April–May and August–September and was lowest in July. ChE inhibition increased with proportion of vegetation in the diet. This model, and ones like it, may help predict insecticide exposure of and sublethal ChE inhibition in grassland animals, thereby reducing dependence of ecological risk assessments on field studies alone.

  9. Cohort-Sequential Study of Conflict Inhibition during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Leslie; Riggins, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined developmental changes in conflict inhibition and error correction in three cohorts of children (5, 7, and 9 years of age). At each point of assessment, children completed three levels of Luria's tapping task (1980), which requires the inhibition of a dominant response and maintenance of task rules in working…

  10. Distractor Inhibition: Principles of Operation during Selective Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Natalie; Machado, Liana

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that although target amplification acts as the main determinant of the efficacy of selective attention, distractor inhibition contributes under some circumstances. Here we aimed to gain insight into the operating principles that regulate the use of distractor inhibition during selective attention. The results suggest that, in…

  11. Cognitive Inhibition in Students with and without Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Chih; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The present study presents a comparison of the cognitive inhibition abilities of dyslexic, dyscalculic, and control students. The participants were 45 dyslexic students, 45 dyscalculic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major evaluation tools included six cognitive inhibition tasks which were restructured during…

  12. Belief Inhibition in Children's Reasoning: Memory-Based Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steegen, Sara; Neys, Wim De

    2012-01-01

    Adult reasoning has been shown as mediated by the inhibition of intuitive beliefs that are in conflict with logic. The current study introduces a classic procedure from the memory field to investigate belief inhibition in 12- to 17-year-old reasoners. A lexical decision task was used to probe the memory accessibility of beliefs that were cued…

  13. Stuttering Inhibition via Altered Auditory Feedback during Scripted Telephone Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudock, Daniel; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background: Overt stuttering is inhibited by approximately 80% when people who stutter read aloud as they hear an altered form of their speech feedback to them. However, levels of stuttering inhibition vary from 60% to 100% depending on speaking situation and signal presentation. For example, binaural presentations of delayed auditory feedback…

  14. On the dependence of response inhibition processes on sensory modality.

    PubMed

    Bodmer, Benjamin; Beste, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The ability to inhibit responses is a central sensorimotor function but only recently the importance of sensory processes for motor inhibition mechanisms went more into the research focus. In this regard it is elusive, whether there are differences between sensory modalities to trigger response inhibition processes. Due to functional neuroanatomical considerations strong differences may exist, for example, between the visual and the tactile modality. In the current study we examine what neurophysiological mechanisms as well as functional neuroanatomical networks are modulated during response inhibition. Therefore, a Go/NoGo-paradigm employing a novel combination of visual, tactile, and visuotactile stimuli was used. The data show that the tactile modality is more powerful than the visual modality to trigger response inhibition processes. However, the tactile modality loses its efficacy to trigger response inhibition processes when being combined with the visual modality. This may be due to competitive mechanisms leading to a suppression of certain sensory stimuli and the response selection level. Variations in sensory modalities specifically affected conflict monitoring processes during response inhibition by modulating activity in a frontal parietal network including the right inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and the temporoparietal junction. Attentional selection processes are not modulated. The results suggest that the functional neuroanatomical networks involved in response inhibition critically depends on the nature of the sensory input. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1941-1951, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Physiological Evidence for Response Inhibition in Choice Reaction Time Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burle, Boris; Vidal, Frank; Tandonnet, Christophe; Hasbroucq, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Inhibition is a widely used notion proposed to account for data obtained in choice reaction time (RT) tasks. However, this concept is weakly supported by empirical facts. In this paper, we review a series of experiments using Hoffman reflex, transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography to study inhibition in choice RT tasks. We…

  16. Attachment, Behavioral Inhibition, and Anxiety in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamir-Essakow, Galia; Ungerer, Judy A.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the association between insecure attachment, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety in an at risk sample of preschool children. The relationship between maternal anxiety and child anxiety was also assessed. Participants were 104 children aged 3-4 years who were assessed for behavioral inhibition and mother-child attachment (using…

  17. Forgetting the Literal: The Role of Inhibition in Metaphor Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Tim; Wiley, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In order for a person to comprehend metaphoric expressions, do metaphor-irrelevant aspects of literal information need to be inhibited? Previous research using sentence-verification paradigms has found that literal associates take longer to process after reading metaphorical sentences; however, it is problematic to infer inhibition from this…

  18. Inhibition of airway surface fluid absorption by cholinergic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Nam Soo; Krouse, Mauri E.; Choi, Jae Young; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    In upper airways airway surface liquid (ASL) depth and clearance rates are both increased by fluid secretion. Secretion is opposed by fluid absorption, mainly via the epithelial sodium channel, ENaC. In static systems, increased fluid depth activates ENaC and decreased depth inhibits it, suggesting that secretion indirectly activates ENaC to reduce ASL depth. We propose an alternate mechanism in which cholinergic input, which causes copious airway gland secretion, also inhibits ENaC-mediated absorption. The conjoint action accelerates clearance, and the increased transport of mucus out of the airways restores ASL depth while cleansing the airways. We were intrigued by early reports of cholinergic inhibition of absorption by airways in some species. To reinvestigate this phenomenon, we studied inward short-circuit currents (Isc) in tracheal mucosa from human, sheep, pig, ferret, and rabbit and in two types of cultured cells. Basal Isc was inhibited 20–70% by the ENaC inhibitor, benzamil. Long-lasting inhibition of ENaC-dependent Isc was also produced by basolateral carbachol in all preparations except rabbit and the H441 cell line. Atropine inhibition produced a slow recovery or prevented inhibition if added before carbachol. The mechanism for inhibition was not determined and is most likely multi-factorial. However, its physiological significance is expected to be increased mucus clearance rates in cholinergically stimulated airways. PMID:26846701

  19. The Affective Consequences of Cognitive Inhibition: Devaluation or Neutralization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frischen, Alexandra; Ferrey, Anne E.; Burt, Dustin H. R.; Pistchik, Meghan; Fenske, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Affective evaluations of previously ignored visual stimuli are more negative than those of novel items or prior targets of attention or response. This has been taken as evidence that inhibition has negative affective consequences. But inhibition could act instead to attenuate or "neutralize" preexisting affective salience, predicting opposite…

  20. Secondary School Students' Views of Inhibiting Factors in Seeking Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Stephanie; Quinn, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This study examines secondary school students' perceptions of inhibiting factors in seeking counselling. Responses to a questionnaire completed by 1346 secondary school students were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Exploratory factor analysis highlighted that within 21 pre-defined inhibiting factors, items loaded strongly on…

  1. Reversible Inhibition of Spore Germination by Alcohols 1

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Ralph; Laible, Nancy

    1970-01-01

    Low levels of alcohols have been found to inhibit the process of spore germination. The extent of germination is dependent upon the concentration of alcohol present in the germinating medium. This inhibition is reversible since removal of the alcohol from the spore environment allows germination to proceed. PMID:4993360

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits the growth of Cryptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Rella, Antonella; Yang, Mo Wei; Gruber, Jordon; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Luberto, Chiara; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous and opportunistic bacterium that inhibits the growth of different microorganisms, including Gram-positive bacteria and fungi such as Candida spp. and Aspergillus fumigatus. In this study, we investigated the interaction between P. aeruginosa and Cryptococcus spp. We found that P. aeruginosa PA14 and, to a lesser extent, PAO1 significantly inhibited the growth of Cryptococcus spp. The inhibition of growth was observed on solid medium by the visualization of a zone of inhibition of yeast growth and in liquid culture by viable cell counting. Interestingly, such inhibition was only observed when P. aeruginosa and Cryptococcus were co-cultured. Minimal inhibition was observed when cell-cell contact was prevented using a separation membrane, suggesting that cell contact is required for inhibition. Using mutant strains of Pseudomonas quinoline signaling, we showed that P. aeruginosa inhibited the growth of Cryptococcus spp. by producing antifungal molecules pyocyanin, a redox-active phenazine, and 2-heptyl-3,4-dihydroxyquinoline (PQS), an extracellular quorum-sensing signal. Because both P. aeruginosa and Cryptococcus neoformans are commonly found in lung infections of immunocompromised patients, this study may have important implication for the interaction of these microbes in both an ecological and a clinical point of view.

  3. Men in the Triangle: Grief, Inhibition, and Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of emotional experience is a widely acknowledged characteristic of many Western-raised men. While this affective inhibition may impact men chronically in many ways, it becomes particularly salient when men are bereaved or otherwise grieving and are unable fully to experience normative emotional responses to loss. This article briefly…

  4. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154.1740... Operating Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that: (a) Section 154.1818 is met; or (b) Section 154.1710 is met, and...

  5. Inhibition of Snl6 expression for biofuel production

    SciT

    Bart, Rebecca; Chern, Mawsheng; Ronald, Pamela

    The invention provides compositions and methods for inhibiting the expression of the gene Snl6 in plants. Plants with inhibited expression of Snl6 have use in biofuel production, e.g., by increasing the amount of soluble sugar that can be extracted from the plant.

  6. Basal forebrain neuronal inhibition enables rapid behavioral stopping

    PubMed Central

    Mayse, Jeffrey D.; Nelson, Geoffrey M.; Avila, Irene; Gallagher, Michela; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive inhibitory control, the ability to rapidly suppress responses inappropriate for the context, is essential for flexible and adaptive behavior. While most studies on inhibitory control have focused on the fronto-basal-ganglia circuit, here we explore a novel hypothesis and show that rapid behavioral stopping is enabled by neuronal inhibition in the basal forebrain (BF). In rats performing the stop signal task, putative noncholinergic BF neurons with phasic bursting responses to the go signal were inhibited nearly completely by the stop signal. The onset of BF neuronal inhibition was tightly coupled with and temporally preceded the latency to stop, the stop signal reaction time. Artificial inhibition of BF activity in the absence of the stop signal was sufficient to reproduce rapid behavioral stopping. These results reveal a novel subcortical mechanism of rapid inhibitory control by the BF, which provides bidirectional control over the speed of response generation and inhibition. PMID:26368943

  7. Caffeine inhibition of aflatoxin production: mode of action.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, R L; Hoover, D G; Jones, S B

    1983-01-01

    Evaluation of caffeine and a number of related methylxanthines indicated that the ability of the compound to inhibit growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus is highly specific and does not involve an inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. Supplementation of the culture medium with purine bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides suggested that the inhibition of fungal growth could be partially overcome by adenine or guanine but that the purines had little effect on the inhibition of aflatoxin production. Likewise, increasing the levels of trace minerals did not overcome the inhibition of toxin production. Electron microscopic evaluation of caffeine-treated and -untreated cultures indicated that the compound produced observable changes in the ultrastructure of the fungus. Images PMID:6316853

  8. Role of GABAergic inhibition in hippocampal network oscillations.

    PubMed

    Mann, Edward O; Paulsen, Ole

    2007-07-01

    Physiological rhythmic activity in cortical circuits relies on GABAergic inhibition to balance excitation and control spike timing. With a focus on recent experimental progress in the hippocampus, here we review the mechanisms by which synaptic inhibition can control the precise timing of spike generation, by way of effects of GABAergic events on membrane conductance ('shunting' inhibition) and membrane potential ('hyperpolarizing' inhibition). Synaptic inhibition itself can be synchronized by way of interactions within networks of GABAergic neurons, and by excitatory neurons. The importance of GABAergic mechanisms for generation of cortical rhythms is now well established. What remains to be resolved is how such inhibitory control of spike timing can be harnessed for long-range fast synchronization, and the relevance of these mechanisms to network function. This review is part of the INMED/TINS special issue Physiogenic and pathogenic oscillations: the beauty and the beast, based on presentations at the annual INMED/TINS symposium (http://inmednet.com).

  9. Feedforward somatosensory inhibition is normal in cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Ferrè, Elisa R; Ganos, Christos; Bhatia, Kailash P; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Insufficient cortical inhibition is a key pathophysiological finding in dystonia. Subliminal sensory stimuli were reported to transiently inhibit somatosensory processing. Here we investigated whether such subliminal feedforward inhibition is reduced in patients with cervical dystonia. Sixteen cervical dystonia patients and 16 matched healthy controls performed a somatosensory detection task. We measured the drop in sensitivity to detect a threshold-level digital nerve shock when it was preceded by a subliminal conditioning shock, compared to when it was not. Subliminal conditioning shocks reduced sensitivity to threshold stimuli to a similar extent in both patients and controls, suggesting that somatosensory subliminal feedforward inhibition is normal in cervical dystonia. Somatosensory feedforward inhibition was normal in this group of cervical dystonia patients. Our results qualify previous concepts of a general dystonic deficit in sensorimotor inhibitory processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling inhibits prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu; Shao, Longjiang; Yu, Wendong; Gavine, Paul; Ittmann, Michael

    2012-07-15

    Extensive correlative studies in human prostate cancer as well as studies in vitro and in mouse models indicate that fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling plays an important role in prostate cancer progression. In this study, we used a probe compound for an FGFR inhibitor, which potently inhibits FGFR-1-3 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4. The purpose of this study is to determine whether targeting FGFR signaling from all four FGFRs will have in vitro activities consistent with inhibition of tumor progression and will inhibit tumor progression in vivo. Effects of AZ8010 on FGFR signaling and invasion were analyzed using immortalized normal prostate epithelial (PNT1a) cells and PNT1a overexpressing FGFR-1 or FGFR-4. The effect of AZ8010 on invasion and proliferation in vitro was also evaluated in prostate cancer cell lines. Finally, the impact of AZ8010 on tumor progression in vivo was evaluated using a VCaP xenograft model. AZ8010 completely inhibits FGFR-1 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4 signaling at 100 nmol/L, which is an achievable in vivo concentration. This results in marked inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and invasion in PNT1a cells expressing FGFR-1 and FGFR-4 and all prostate cancer cell lines tested. Treatment in vivo completely inhibited VCaP tumor growth and significantly inhibited angiogenesis and proliferation and increased cell death in treated tumors. This was associated with marked inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in treated tumors. Targeting FGFR signaling is a promising new approach to treating aggressive prostate cancer.

  11. Neural and behavioral mechanisms of proactive and reactive inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Heidi C.

    2016-01-01

    Response inhibition is an important component of adaptive behavior. Substantial prior research has focused on reactive inhibition, which refers to the cessation of a motor response that is already in progress. More recently, a growing number of studies have begun to examine mechanisms underlying proactive inhibition, whereby preparatory processes result in a response being withheld before it is initiated. It has become apparent that proactive inhibition is an essential component of the overall ability to regulate behavior and has implications for the success of reactive inhibition. Moreover, successful inhibition relies on learning the meaning of specific environmental cues that signal when a behavioral response should be withheld. Proactive inhibitory control is mediated by stopping goals, which reflect the desired outcome of inhibition and include information about how and when inhibition should be implemented. However, little is known about the circuits and cellular processes that encode and represent features in the environment that indicate the necessity for proactive inhibition or how these representations are implemented in response inhibition. In this article, we will review the brain circuits and systems involved in implementing inhibitory control through both reactive and proactive mechanisms. We also comment on possible cellular mechanisms that may contribute to inhibitory control processes, noting that substantial further research is necessary in this regard. Furthermore, we will outline a number of ways in which the temporal dynamics underlying the generation of the proactive inhibitory signal may be particularly important for parsing out the neurobiological correlates that contribute to the learning processes underlying various aspects of inhibitory control. PMID:27634142

  12. Inhibition of ethylene production by cobaltous ion. [Beans, apples

    SciT

    Lau, O.L; Yang, S.F.

    1976-07-01

    The effect of Co/sup 2 +/ on ethylene production by mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) and by apple tissues was studied. Co/sup 2 +/, depending on concentrations applied, effectively inhibited ethylene production by both tissues. It also strongly inhibited the ethylene production induced by IAA, kinetin, IAA plus kinetin, Ca/sup 2 +/, kinetin plus Ca/sup 2 +/, or Cu/sup 2 +/ treatments in mung bean hypocotyl segments. While Co/sup 2 +/ greatly inhibited ethylene production, it had little effect on the respiration of apple tissue, indicating that Co/sup 2 +/ does not exert its inhibitory effect as a general metabolicmore » inhibitor. Ni/sup 2 +/, which belongs to the same group as Co/sup 2 +/ in the periodic table, also markedly curtailed both the basal and the induced ethylene production by apple and mung bean hypocotyl tissues. In a system in which kinetin and Ca/sup 2 +/ were applied together, kinetin greatly enhanced Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake, thus enhancing ethylene production. Co/sup 2 +/, however, slightly inhibited the uptake of Ca/sup 2 +/ but appreciably inhibited ethylene production, either in the presence or in the absence of kinetin. Tracer experiments using apple tissue indicated that Co/sup 2 +/ strongly inhibited the in vivo conversion of L-(U--/sup 14/C)methionine to /sup 14/C-ethylene. These data suggested that Co/sup 2 +/ inhibited ethylene production by inhibiting the conversion of methionine to ethylene, a common step which is required for ethylene formation by higher plants. Co/sup 2 +/ is known to promote elongation, leaf expansion, and hook opening in excised plant parts in response to applied auxins or cytokinins.Since ethylene is known to inhibit those growth phenomena, it is suggested that Co/sup 2 +/ exerts its promotive effect, at least in part, by inhibiting ethylene formation.« less

  13. Class IA PI3K inhibition inhibits cell growth and proliferation in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tabe, Yoko; Jin, Linhua; Konopleva, Marina; Shikami, Masato; Kimura, Shinya; Andreeff, Michael; Raffeld, Mark; Miida, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Constitutive activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway preferentially occurs in aggressive blastoid variants of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and is implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this study, we investigated the role of PI3K isoforms on proliferation of aggressive MCL cells. The changes in cell viability, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction by the PI3K isoform-selective inhibitors were evaluated. The molecular basis underlying the effects of the specific inhibition of PI3K isoforms was investigated by Western blot analysis. Our results demonstrated that a class IA PI3K isoform is most commonly involved in the constitutive activation of Akt in aggressive MCL. Treatment with a p110α isoform-specific inhibitor induced prominent cell cycle arrest followed by apoptosis through complete abolishment of phosphorylated (p)-Akt and its downstream targets. An inhibitor of isoform p110δ induced moderate cell cycle arrest with downregulation of p-Akt and p-S6K. A dual inhibitor of p110α and p110δ GDC-0941 caused more prominent cell growth inhibition compared to selective p110α or p110δ inhibitors. Inhibition of the class IB PI3K isoform p110γ did not cause cell cycle arrest or induce apoptosis in MCL cells. These findings suggest that the therapeutic ablation of class IA PI3K may be a promising strategy for the treatment of refractory, aggressive MCL. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Magnolol Inhibits the Growth of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer via Inhibiting Microtubule Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jia; Ma, Hailin; Zhang, Tiancheng; Liu, Hui; Yu, Linghua; Li, Guosheng; Li, Huishuang; Hu, Meichun

    2017-01-01

    The tubulin/microtubule system, which is an integral component of the cytoskeleton, plays an essential role in mitosis. Targeting mitotic progression by disturbing microtubule dynamics is a rational strategy for cancer treatment. Microtubule polymerization assay was performed to examine the effect of Magnolol (a novel natural phenolic compound isolated from Magnolia obovata) on cellular microtubule polymerization in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Cell cycle analysis, mitotic index assay, cell proliferation assay, colony formation assay, western blotting analysis of cell cycle regulators, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and live/dead viability staining were carried out to investigate the Magnolol's inhibitory effect on proliferation and viability of NSCLS cells in vitro. Xenograft model of human A549 NSCLC tumor was used to determine the Magnolol's efficacy in vivo. Magnolol treatment effectively inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation of NSCLC cells. Further study proved that Magnolol induced the mitotic phase arrest and inhibited G2/M progression in a dose-dependent manner, which were mechanistically associated with expression alteration of a series of cell cycle regulators. Furthermore, Magnolol treatment disrupted the cellular microtubule organization via inhibiting the polymerization of microtubule. We also found treatment with NSCLC cells with Magnolol resulted in apoptosis activation through a p53-independent pathway, and autophgy induction via down-regulation of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Finally, Magnolol treatment significantly suppressed the NSCLC tumor growth in mouse xenograft model in vivo. These findings identify Magnolol as a promising candidate with anti-microtubule polymerization activity for NSCLC treatment. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Combined Angiotensin Receptor Antagonism and Neprilysin Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Hubers, Scott A.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure affects approximately 5.7 million people in the United States alone. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists have improved mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, but mortality remains high. In July 2015, the FDA approved the first of a new class of drugs for the treatment of heart failure; valsartan/sacubitril (formerly known as LCZ696 and currently marketed by Novartis as Entresto) combines the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan and the neprilysin inhibitor prodrug sacubitril in a 1:1 ratio in a sodium supramolecular complex. Sacubitril is converted by esterases to LBQ657, which inhibits neprilysin, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of the natriuretic peptides and many other vasoactive peptides. Thus, this combined angiotensin receptor antagonist and neprilysin inhibitor addresses two of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of heart failure - activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and decreased sensitivity to natriuretic peptides. In the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial, valsartan/sacubitril significantly reduced mortality and hospitalization for heart failure, as well as blood pressure, compared to enalapril in patients with heart failure, reduced ejection fraction, and an elevated circulating level of brain natriuretic peptide or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the role of valsartan/sacubitril in the treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and hypertension. We review here the mechanisms of action of valsartan/sacubitril, the pharmacologic properties of the drug, and its efficacy and safety in the treatment of heart failure and hypertension. PMID:26976916

  16. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell J.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Jones, D. Martin; Head, Ian M.; Gray, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5–nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12–nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 μmol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12–nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 μmol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers. PMID:24765087

  17. Adrenergic manipulation inhibits pavlovian conditioned approach behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pasquariello, Kyle Z; Han, Marina; Unal, Cagla; Meyer, Paul J

    2018-02-26

    Environmental rewards and Pavlovian reward cues can acquire incentive salience, thereby eliciting incentive motivational states and instigate reward-seeking. In rats, the incentive salience of food cues can be measured during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm, in which rats engage in cue-directed approach ("sign-tracking") or approach the food delivery location ("goal-tracking"). While it has been shown that dopamine signaling is necessary for sign-tracking, some studies have suggested that norepinephrine is involved in learning to sign-track as well. Thus, in order to investigate the influence of norepinephrine in Pavlovian conditioned approach, we administered three adrenergic drugs while rats learned that a food cue (an illuminated, retractable lever) preceded the delivery of banana-flavored food pellets into a food-cup. We found that pre-session injections of disulfiram (a dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitor) inhibited the development of sign-tracking, but goal-tracking was only affected at the high dose. In one experiment, post-session injections of disulfiram blocked the development of sign-tracking, although this effect was not replicated in a separate set of rats. Post-session injections of prazosin (an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist) and propranolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) also blocked the development of sign-tracking but not goal-tracking. Taken together, these results suggest that adrenergic transmission mediates the acquisition of sign-tracking but not goal-tracking, and thus plays a selective role in the attribution of incentive salience food cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Iron inhibits hydroxyapatite crystal growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guggenbuhl, Pascal; Filmon, Robert; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Baslé, Michel F; Chappard, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Hemochromatosis is a known cause of osteoporosis in which the pathophysiology of bone loss is largely unknown and the role of iron remains questionable. We have investigated the effects of iron on the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro on carboxymethylated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) pellets. This noncellular and enzyme-independent model mimics the calcification of woven bone (composed of calcospherites made of hydroxyapatite crystals). Polymer pellets were incubated with body fluid containing iron at increasing concentrations (20, 40, 60 micromol/L). Hydroxyapatite growth was studied by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman microscopy. When incubated in body fluid containing iron, significant differences were observed with control pellets. Iron was detected at a concentration of 5.41- to 7.16-fold that of controls. In pellets incubated with iron, there was a approximately 3- to 4-fold decrease of Ca and P and a approximately 1.3- to 1.4-fold increase in the Ca/P ratio. There was no significant difference among the iron groups of pellets, but a trend to a decrease of Ca with the increase of iron concentration was noted. Calcospherite diameters were significantly lower on pellets incubated with iron. Raman microspectroscopy showed a decrease in crystallinity (measured by the full width of the half height of the 960 Deltacm(-1) band) with a significant increase in carbonate substitution (measured by the intensity ratio of 1071 to 960 Deltacm(-1) band). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis identified iron in the calcospherites. In vitro, iron is capable to inhibit bone crystal growth with significant changes in crystallinity and carbonate substitution.

  19. RAAS inhibition and mortality in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates the body's hemodynamic equilibrium, circulating volume, and electrolyte balance, and is a key therapeutic target in hypertension, the world's leading cause of premature mortality. Hypertensive disorders are strongly linked with an overactive RAAS, and RAAS inhibitors, like angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), are routinely used to treat high blood pressure (BP). BP reduction is one of the main goals of current European hypertension guidelines. Oral ACE inhibitors, the oldest category of RAAS inhibitor, were commercially released over 30 years ago in the early 1980s, over a decade before the first ARBs became available. The introduction of ACE inhibitors heralded major changes in the way hypertension and cardiovascular disease were treated. Although the decision of the medical community to replace older ACE inhibitors with more modern ARBs in the 1990s was debatable, it did nevertheless allow scientists to learn more about the angiotensin receptors involved in RAAS stimulation. This and much else of value have been discovered since RAAS inhibitors first became available, but some surprising gaps in our knowledge exist. Until recently, the effect of RAAS inhibition on mortality in hypertension was unknown. This question was recently addressed by a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in populations who received contemporary antihypertensive medication. The results of this meta-analysis have helped elucidate the long-term consequences of treatment with RAAS inhibitors on mortality in hypertension. This article will consider the differences between RAAS inhibitors in terms of pharmacological and clinical effects and analyze the impact of the main types of RAAS inhibitor, ACE inhibitors and ARBs, on mortality reduction in hypertensive patients with reference to this latest meta-analysis. PMID:24689028

  20. RAAS inhibition and mortality in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates the body's hemodynamic equilibrium, circulating volume, and electrolyte balance, and is a key therapeutic target in hypertension, the world's leading cause of premature mortality. Hypertensive disorders are strongly linked with an overactive RAAS, and RAAS inhibitors, like angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), are routinely used to treat high blood pressure (BP). BP reduction is one of the main goals of current European hypertension guidelines. Oral ACE inhibitors, the oldest category of RAAS inhibitor, were commercially released over 30 years ago in the early 1980s, over a decade before the first ARBs became available. The introduction of ACE inhibitors heralded major changes in the way hypertension and cardiovascular disease were treated. Although the decision of the medical community to replace older ACE inhibitors with more modern ARBs in the 1990s was debatable, it did nevertheless allow scientists to learn more about the angiotensin receptors involved in RAAS stimulation. This and much else of value have been discovered since RAAS inhibitors first became available, but some surprising gaps in our knowledge exist. Until recently, the effect of RAAS inhibition on mortality in hypertension was unknown. This question was recently addressed by a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in populations who received contemporary antihypertensive medication. The results of this meta-analysis have helped elucidate the long-term consequences of treatment with RAAS inhibitors on mortality in hypertension. This article will consider the differences between RAAS inhibitors in terms of pharmacological and clinical effects and analyze the impact of the main types of RAAS inhibitor, ACE inhibitors and ARBs, on mortality reduction in hypertensive patients with reference to this latest meta-analysis.

  1. Contingent involuntary motoric inhibition: the involuntary inhibition of a motor response contingent on top-down goals.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian A; Folk, Charles L

    2012-12-01

    Effective motor control involves both the execution of appropriate responses and the inhibition of inappropriate responses that are evoked by response-associated stimuli. The inhibition of a motor response has traditionally been characterized as either a voluntary act of cognitive control or a low-level perceptual bias arising from processes such as inhibition of return and priming. Involuntary effects of top-down goals on motoric inhibition have been reported, but involve the perseveration of an inhibitory strategy. It is unknown whether the inhibition of a motor response can be selectively triggered by a goal-relevant stimulus, reflecting the automatic activation of a top-down inhibitory strategy. Here we show that irrelevant flankers that share the color of a no-go target elicit the inhibition of their associated motor response while other-colored flankers do not, even when participants have sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming target while ignoring the flankers. Our results demonstrate contingent involuntary motoric inhibition: motoric inhibition can be automatically triggered by a stimulus based on top-down goals.

  2. A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-12

    Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. * E-mail: connie.schmaljohn@amedd.army.mil Introduction Rift Valley fever (RVF...against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) 5d...MFLGWSFDFGSLWGNKPWF stem 450–468 RVFV-10sc WSSGLPFGNFGLSWFDMGFWS stem 447–467 doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002430.t001 Author Summary Entry into a cell is an essential

  3. Neural Correlates of Central Inhibition during Physical Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Central inhibition plays a pivotal role in determining physical performance during physical fatigue. Classical conditioning of central inhibition is believed to be associated with the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue. We tried to determine whether classical conditioning of central inhibition can really occur and to clarify the neural mechanisms of central inhibition related to classical conditioning during physical fatigue using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Eight right-handed volunteers participated in this study. We used metronome sounds as conditioned stimuli and maximum handgrip trials as unconditioned stimuli to cause central inhibition. Participants underwent MEG recording during imagery of maximum grips of the right hand guided by metronome sounds for 10 min. Thereafter, fatigue-inducing maximum handgrip trials were performed for 10 min; the metronome sounds were started 5 min after the beginning of the handgrip trials. The next day, neural activities during imagery of maximum grips of the right hand guided by metronome sounds were measured for 10 min. Levels of fatigue sensation and sympathetic nerve activity on the second day were significantly higher relative to those of the first day. Equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) in the posterior cingulated cortex (PCC), with latencies of approximately 460 ms, were observed in all the participants on the second day, although ECDs were not identified in any of the participants on the first day. We demonstrated that classical conditioning of central inhibition can occur and that the PCC is involved in the neural substrates of central inhibition related to classical conditioning during physical fatigue. PMID:23923034

  4. Cadmium ion inhibition of quorum signalling in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, Starla G; Kumar, Manish; Vega, Leticia M; McLean, Robert J C

    2017-10-01

    Single-celled bacteria are capable of acting as a community by sensing and responding to population density via quorum signalling. Quorum signalling in Chromobacterium violaceum, mediated by the luxI/R homologue, cviI/R, regulates a variety of phenotypes including violacein pigmentation, virulence and biofilm formation. A number of biological and organic molecules have been described as quorum signalling inhibitors but, to date, metal-based inhibitors have not been widely tested. In this study, we show that quorum sensing is inhibited in C. violaceum in the presence of sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium salts. Notable Cd 2+ -inhibition was seen against pigmentation, motility, chitinase production and biofilm formation. Cd-inhibition of quorum-signalling genes occurred at the level of transcription. There was no direct inhibition of chitinase activity by Cd 2+ at the concentrations tested. Addition of the cognate quorum signals, N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone or N-decanoyl homoserine lactone, even at concentrations in excess of physiological levels, did not reverse the inhibition, suggesting that Cd-inhibition of quorum signaling is irreversible. This study represents the first description of heavy metal-based quorum inhibition in C. violaceum.

  5. The somatotopy of tic inhibition: Where and how much?

    PubMed

    Ganos, Christos; Bongert, Jens; Asmuss, Luisa; Martino, Davide; Haggard, Patrick; Münchau, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Tics are the hallmark feature of Tourette syndrome. The basic phenomenological and neurophysiological characteristics of tics have been widely investigated. Interestingly, the spatial distribution of tics across different body parts has received little attention. No previous study has investigated whether the capacity for voluntary tic inhibition also varies across body parts. We analyzed video sequences of 26 adolescents with Tourette syndrome in a "tic freely" condition, and in a "voluntary tic inhibition" condition, to obtain absolute tic counts for different body parts. Two measures of the spatial distribution of tics were then analyzed. Linear regression analyses were employed to investigate the relation between the contribution of each body part to overall tic behavior and the ability to inhibit tics in that body part, averaged over our patient group. Tic distribution across patients showed a characteristic somatotopic pattern, with the face most strongly represented. A significant negative relation was found between the ability to inhibit tics and pooled tic frequency across body parts. The body parts that exhibited the fewest tics were the ones for which tic inhibition was most effective. Our data are consistent with the idea that tic recruitment order reflects a "tic generator" spreading across a somatotopic map in the brain. Voluntary tic inhibition did not simply cause a proportional reduction of tics in each body part. Rather, the least affected body parts showed most effective voluntary tic inhibition. The results are discussed in terms of signal and noise within cortical-subcortical motor loops. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  6. N-acetylcysteine inhibits endothelial cell invasion and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cai, T; Fassina, G; Morini, M; Aluigi, M G; Masiello, L; Fontanini, G; D'Agostini, F; De Flora, S; Noonan, D M; Albini, A

    1999-09-01

    The thiol N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a chemopreventive agent that acts through a variety of mechanisms and can prevent in vivo carcinogenesis. We have previously shown that NAC inhibits invasion and metastasis of malignant cells as well as tumor take. Neovascularization is critical for tumor mass expansion and metastasis formation. We investigated whether a target of the anti-cancer activity of NAC could be the inhibition of the tumor angiogenesis-associated phenotype in vitro and in vivo using the potent angiogenic mixture of Kaposi's sarcoma cell products as a stimulus. Two endothelial (EAhy926 and human umbilical vein endothelial [HUVE]) cell lines were utilized in a panel of assays to test NAC ability in inhibiting chemotaxis, invasion, and gelatinolytic activity in vitro. NAC treatment of EAhy926 and HUVE cells in vitro dose-dependently reduced their ability to invade a reconstituted basement membrane, an indicator of endothelial cell activation. Invasion of HUVE cells was inhibited with an ID50 of 0.24 mM NAC, whereas inhibition of chemotaxis required a 10 fold higher doses, indicating that invasion is a preferential target. NAC inhibited the enzymatic activity and conversion to active forms of the gelatinase produced by endothelial cells. The matrigel in vivo assay was used for the evaluation of angiogenesis; NAC strongly inhibited neovascularization of the matrigel sponges in response to Kaposi's sarcoma cell products. NAC prevented angiogenesis while preserving endothelial cells, implying that it could be safely used as an anti-angiogenic treatment.

  7. Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition.

    PubMed

    Puliafito, Alberto; Hufnagel, Lars; Neveu, Pierre; Streichan, Sebastian; Sigal, Alex; Fygenson, D Kuchnir; Shraiman, Boris I

    2012-01-17

    Control of cell proliferation is a fundamental aspect of tissue physiology central to morphogenesis, wound healing, and cancer. Although many of the molecular genetic factors are now known, the system level regulation of growth is still poorly understood. A simple form of inhibition of cell proliferation is encountered in vitro in normally differentiating epithelial cell cultures and is known as "contact inhibition." The study presented here provides a quantitative characterization of contact inhibition dynamics on tissue-wide and single cell levels. Using long-term tracking of cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney cells we demonstrate that inhibition of cell division in a confluent monolayer follows inhibition of cell motility and sets in when mechanical constraint on local expansion causes divisions to reduce cell area. We quantify cell motility and cell cycle statistics in the low density confluent regime and their change across the transition to epithelial morphology which occurs with increasing cell density. We then study the dynamics of cell area distribution arising through reductive division, determine the average mitotic rate as a function of cell size, and demonstrate that complete arrest of mitosis occurs when cell area falls below a critical value. We also present a simple computational model of growth mechanics which captures all aspects of the observed behavior. Our measurements and analysis show that contact inhibition is a consequence of mechanical interaction and constraint rather than interfacial contact alone, and define quantitative phenotypes that can guide future studies of molecular mechanisms underlying contact inhibition.

  8. Harmane inhibits serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons in the rat.

    PubMed

    Touiki, Khalid; Rat, Pascal; Molimard, Robert; Chait, Abderrahman; de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2005-11-01

    Harmane and norharmane (two beta-carbolines) are tobacco components or products. The effects of harmane and norharmane on serotonergic raphe neurons remain unknown. Harmane and norharmane are inhibitors of the monoamine oxidases A (MAO-A) and B (MAO-B), respectively. To study the effects of harmane, norharmane, befloxatone (MAOI-A), and selegiline (MAOI-B) on the firing of serotonergic neurons. To compare the effects of these compounds to those of nicotine (whose inhibitory action on serotonergic neurons has been previously described). The effects of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine known to interact with serotonergic systems, are also tested. In vivo electrophysiological recordings of serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons in the anaesthetized rat. Nicotine, harmane, and befloxatone inhibited serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons. The other compounds had no effects. The inhibitory effect of harmane (rapid and long-lasting inhibition) differed from that of nicotine (short and rapidly reversed inhibition) and from that of befloxatone (slow, progressive, and long-lasting inhibition). The inhibitory effects of harmane and befloxatone were reversed by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100 635. Pretreatment of animals with p-chlorophenylalanine abolished the inhibitory effect of befloxatone, but not that of harmane. Nicotine, harmane, and befloxatone inhibit the activity of raphe serotonergic neurons. Therefore, at least two tobacco compounds, nicotine and harmane, inhibit the activity of serotonergic neurons. The mechanism by which harmane inhibits serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons is likely unrelated to a MAO-A inhibitory effect.

  9. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine.

    PubMed

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C

    2015-09-24

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases.

  10. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases. PMID:26400108

  11. Saccharin and Cyclamate Inhibit Binding of Epidermal Growth Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, L. S.

    1981-02-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) to 18 cell lines, including HeLa (human carcinoma), MDCK (dog kidney cells), HTC (rat hepatoma), K22 (rat liver), HF (human foreskin), GM17 (human skin fibroblasts), XP (human xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts), and 3T3-L1 (mouse fibroblasts), was inhibited by saccharin and cyclamate. The human cells were more sensitive to inhibition by these sweeteners than mouse or rat cells. EGF at doses far above the physiological levels reversed the inhibition in rodent cells but not in HeLa cells. In HeLa cells, the doses of saccharin and cyclamate needed for 50% inhibition were 3.5 and 9.3 mg/ml, respectively. Glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, sucrose, and xylitol did not inhibit EGF binding. Previous studies have shown that phorbol esters, strongly potent tumor promoters, also inhibit EGF binding to tissue culture cells. To explain the EGF binding inhibition by such greatly dissimilar molecules as phorbol esters, saccharin, and cyclamate, it is suggested that they operate through the activation of a hormone response control unit.

  12. Influence of supraliminal reward information on unconsciously triggered response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Diao, Liuting; Ding, Cody; Qi, Senqing; Zeng, Qinghong; Huang, Bo; Xu, Mengsi; Fan, Lingxia; Yang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Although executive functions (e.g., response inhibition) are often thought to interact consciously with reward, recent studies have demonstrated that they can also be triggered by unconscious stimuli. Further research has suggested a close relationship between consciously and unconsciously triggered response inhibition. To date, however, the effect of reward on unconsciously triggered response inhibition has not been explored. To address this issue, participants in this study performed runs of a modified Go/No-Go task during which they were exposed to both high and low value monetary rewards presented both supraliminally and subliminally. Participants were informed that they would earn the reward displayed if they responded correctly to each trial of the run. According to the results, when rewards were presented supraliminally, a greater unconsciously triggered response inhibition was observed for high-value rewards than for low-value rewards. In contrast, when rewards were presented subliminally, no enhanced unconsciously triggered response inhibition was observed. Results revealed that supraliminal and subliminal rewards have distinct effects on unconsciously triggered response inhibition. These findings have important implications for extending our understanding of the relationship between reward and response inhibition.

  13. Parenting Predictors of Delay Inhibition in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Emily C.; Landry, Susan H.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; de Villiers, Jill; Consortium, the School Readiness Research

    2016-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal associations between specific parenting factors and delay inhibition in socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. At Time 1, parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age = 3.21 years; N = 247) participated in a videotaped parent-child free play session, and children completed delay inhibition tasks (gift delay-wrap, gift delay-bow, and snack delay tasks). Three months later, at Time 2, children completed the same set of tasks. Parental responsiveness was coded from the parent-child free play sessions, and parental directive language was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions. Structural equation modeling was used, and covariates included age, gender, language skills, parental education, and Time 1 delay inhibition. Results indicated that in separate models, Time 1 parental directive language was significantly negatively associated with Time 2 delay inhibition, and Time 1 parental responsiveness was significantly positively associated with Time 2 delay inhibition. When these parenting factors were entered simultaneously, Time 1 parental directive language significantly predicted Time 2 delay inhibition whereas Time 1 parental responsiveness was no longer significant. Findings suggest that parental language that modulates the amount of autonomy allotted the child may be an important predictor of early delay inhibition skills. PMID:27833461

  14. Distractor inhibition: principles of operation during selective attention.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Natalie; Machado, Liana

    2013-02-01

    Research suggests that although target amplification acts as the main determinant of the efficacy of selective attention, distractor inhibition contributes under some circumstances. Here we aimed to gain insight into the operating principles that regulate the use of distractor inhibition during selective attention. The results suggest that, in contrast to target amplification, distractor inhibition does not onset earlier or strengthen in response to advance location information. Instead, when the location of the impending distractor was predictable, evidence of inhibitory processing weakened. Furthermore, the results suggest that distractor inhibition does not operate as a compensatory mechanism for target amplification, as evidenced by the lack of an increase in inhibitory effects when reliance on target amplification was disrupted. Unexpected emergence of inhibitory effects for improbable targets provided evidence that distractor inhibition was at work even when no inhibitory effects manifested. Overall, the pattern of inhibitory effects is interpreted as indicating that, although distractor inhibition mounts primarily reactively rather than preemptively, advance information can help prevent overreaction to the distractor. Of course, less overreaction reduces the chances of behavioral inhibitory effects manifesting even when distractor inhibition has contributed to selective attention; thus, interpreting an absence of inhibitory effects should be done cautiously. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Supraliminal Reward Information on Unconsciously Triggered Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Liuting; Ding, Cody; Qi, Senqing; Zeng, Qinghong; Huang, Bo; Xu, Mengsi; Fan, Lingxia; Yang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Although executive functions (e.g., response inhibition) are often thought to interact consciously with reward, recent studies have demonstrated that they can also be triggered by unconscious stimuli. Further research has suggested a close relationship between consciously and unconsciously triggered response inhibition. To date, however, the effect of reward on unconsciously triggered response inhibition has not been explored. To address this issue, participants in this study performed runs of a modified Go/No-Go task during which they were exposed to both high and low value monetary rewards presented both supraliminally and subliminally. Participants were informed that they would earn the reward displayed if they responded correctly to each trial of the run. According to the results, when rewards were presented supraliminally, a greater unconsciously triggered response inhibition was observed for high-value rewards than for low-value rewards. In contrast, when rewards were presented subliminally, no enhanced unconsciously triggered response inhibition was observed. Results revealed that supraliminal and subliminal rewards have distinct effects on unconsciously triggered response inhibition. These findings have important implications for extending our understanding of the relationship between reward and response inhibition. PMID:25268227

  16. The development of children's inhibition: does parenting matter?

    PubMed

    Roskam, Isabelle; Stievenart, Marie; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2014-06-01

    Whereas a large body of research has investigated the maturation of inhibition in relation to the prefrontal cortex, far less research has been devoted to environmental factors that could contribute to inhibition improvement. The aim of the current study was to test whether and to what extent parenting matters for inhibition development from 2 to 8years of age. Data were collected from 421 families, with 348 mother-child dyads and 342 father-child dyads participating. Children's inhibition capacities and parenting behaviors were assessed in a three-wave longitudinal data collection. The main analyses examined the impact of parenting on the development of children's inhibition capacities. They were conducted using a multilevel modeling (MLM) framework. The results lead to the conclusion that both mothers and fathers contribute through their child-rearing behavior to their children's executive functioning, even when controlling for age-related improvement (maturation) and important covariates such as gender, verbal IQ, and place of enrollment. More significant relations between children's inhibition development and parenting were displayed for mothers than for fathers. More precisely, parenting behaviors that involve higher monitoring, lower discipline, inconsistency and negative controlling, and a positive parenting style are associated with good development of inhibition capacities in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tanshinone IIA inhibits cervix carcinoma stem cells migration and invasion via inhibiting YAP transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jinghao; Shi, Hongbing; Xu, Yanjie; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Qing

    2018-06-14

    This study aims to explore the effects and related mechanisms of Tanshinone IIA in cervix carcinoma (CC) stemness-like cells migration, invasion, stemness and chemotherapeutical sensitivity. Here, we found that Tanshinone IIA suppressed CC stemness-like cells migration and invasion in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. And consistent results were obtained in CC cells stemness characterized as the decrease of CC stemness markers expression and cells spheroid formation ability. Mechanistically, we found that Tanshinone IIA suppressed RNA binding protein HuR translocation from nuclear to cytoplasm, and thus reduced YAP mRNAs stability and transcriptional activity. Importantly, overexpression YAP-5SA rescued the inhibition of Tanshinone IIA on CC cells stemness. Furthermore, Tanshinone IIA enhanced adriamycin sensitivity in CC stemness-like cells, this effect was attenuated by YAP-5SA overexpression too. Therefore, Tanshinone IIA could suppress CC stemness-like cells migration and invasion by inhibiting YAP transcriptional activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of auxin movement from the shoot into the root inhibits lateral root development in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. C.; Brady, S. R.; Muday, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    In roots two distinct polar movements of auxin have been reported that may control different developmental and growth events. To test the hypothesis that auxin derived from the shoot and transported toward the root controls lateral root development, the two polarities of auxin transport were uncoupled in Arabidopsis. Local application of the auxin-transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) at the root-shoot junction decreased the number and density of lateral roots and reduced the free indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels in the root and [3H]IAA transport into the root. Application of NPA to the basal half of or at several positions along the root only reduced lateral root density in regions that were in contact with NPA or in regions apical to the site of application. Lateral root development was restored by application of IAA apical to NPA application. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis roots was also inhibited by excision of the shoot or dark growth and this inhibition was reversible by IAA. Together, these results are consistent with auxin transport from the shoot into the root controlling lateral root development.

  19. Inhibition factors and Kinetic model for ammonium inhibition on the anammox process of the SNAD biofilm.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoming; Li, Jun; Ma, Jing; Du, Jia; Wang, Fan; Bian, Wei; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Zhao, Baihang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) activity of simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) biofilm with different substrate concentrations and pH values. Kaldnes rings taken from the SNAD biofilm reactor were incubated in batch tests to determine the anammox activity. Haldane model was applied to investigate the ammonium inhibition on anammox process. As for nitrite inhibition, the NH 4 + -N removal rate of anammox process remained 87.4% of the maximum rate with the NO 2 - -N concentration of 100mg/L. Based on the results of Haldane model, no obvious difference in kinetic coefficients was observed under high or low free ammonia (FA) conditions, indicating that ammonium rather than FA was the true inhibitor for anammox process of SNAD biofilm. With the pH value of 7.0, the r max , Ks and K I of ammonium were 0.209kg NO 2 - -N/kg VSS/day, 9.5mg/L and 422mg/L, respectively. The suitable pH ranges for anammox process were 5.0 to 9.0. These results indicate that the SNAD biofilm performs excellent tolerance to adverse conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. PKA and Epac synergistically inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Hewer, Richard C.; Sala-Newby, Graciela B.; Wu, Yih-Jer; Newby, Andrew C.; Bond, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic AMP signalling promotes VSMC quiescence in healthy vessels and during vascular healing following injury. Cyclic AMP inhibits VSMC proliferation via mechanisms that are not fully understood. We investigated the role of PKA and Epac signalling on cAMP-induced inhibition of VSMC proliferation. cAMP-mediated growth arrest was PKA-dependent. However, selective PKA activation with 6-Benzoyl-cAMP did not inhibit VSMC proliferation, indicating a requirement for additional pathways. Epac activation using the selective cAMP analogue 8-CPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP, did not affect levels of hyperphosphorylated Retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, a marker of G1-S phase transition, or BrdU incorporation, despite activation of the Epac-effector Rap1. However, 6-Benzoyl-cAMP and 8-CPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP acted synergistically to inhibit Rb-hyperphosphorylation and BrdU incorporation, indicating that both pathways are required for growth inhibition. Consistent with this, constitutively active Epac increased Rap1 activity and synergised with 6-Benzoyl-cAMP to inhibit VSMC proliferation. PKA and Epac synergised to inhibit phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. Induction of stellate morphology, previously associated with cAMP-mediated growth arrest, was also dependent on activation of both PKA and Epac. Rap1 inhibition with Rap1GAP or siRNA silencing did not negate forskolin-induced inhibition of Rb-hyperphosphorylation, BrdU incorporation or stellate morphology. This data demonstrates for the first time that Epac synergises with PKA via a Rap1-independent mechanism to mediate cAMP-induced growth arrest in VSMC. This work highlights the role of Epac as a major player in cAMP-dependent growth arrest in VSMC. PMID:20971121

  1. Sex differences in emotional contexts modulation on response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; Angulo-Chavira, Armando; Llamas-Alonso, Luis A; González-Garrido, Andrés A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore sex differences in the effects that emotional contexts exert on the temporal course of response inhibition using event-related potentials (ERP). Participants performed a Go-NoGo response inhibition task under 3 context conditions: with 1) neutral background stimuli, and 2) pleasant, and 3) unpleasant emotional contexts. No sex differences were found in relation to accuracy. Women showed higher N2NoGo amplitudes than men in both emotional contexts; whereas during inhibition men tended to show higher P3NoGo amplitudes than women in the unpleasant context. Both groups experienced a relevant effect of the presence of the unpleasant context during inhibition processing, as shown by the enhancement of the N2NoGo amplitudes in frontal regions compared to results from the neutral and pleasant conditions. In addition, women showed differences between the pleasant and unpleasant contexts, with the latter inducing higher amplitude values. Only in men did inhibition accuracy correlate with higher N2NoGo and lower P3NoGo amplitudes in the emotional context conditions. These findings suggest that when an inhibition task is performed in an emotionally-neutral background context no sex differences are observed in either accuracy or ERP components. However, when the emotional context was introduced -especially the unpleasant one- some gender differences did become evident. The higher N2NoGo amplitude at the presence of the unpleasant context may reflect an effect on attention and conflict monitoring. In addition, results suggest that during earlier processing stages, women invested more resources to process inhibition than men. Furthermore, men who invested more neural resources during earlier stages showed better response inhibition than those who did it during later processing stages, more closely-related to cognitive and motor inhibition processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase activity is inhibited by methylmalonate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saad, Laura O; Mirandola, Sandra R; Maciel, Evelise N; Castilho, Roger F

    2006-04-01

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMAemia) is an inherited metabolic disorder of branched amino acid and odd-chain fatty acid metabolism, involving a defect in the conversion of methylmalonyl-coenzyme A to succinyl-coenzyme A. Systemic and neurological manifestations in this disease are thought to be associated with the accumulation of methylmalonate (MMA) in tissues and biological fluids with consequent impairment of energy metabolism and oxidative stress. In the present work we studied the effect of MMA and two other inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II (malonate and 3-nitropropionate) on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in tissue homogenates from adult rats. MMA potently inhibited LDH-catalyzed conversion of lactate to pyruvate in liver and brain homogenates as well as in a purified bovine heart LDH preparation. LDH was about one order of magnitude less sensitive to inhibition by MMA when catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Kinetic studies on the inhibition of brain LDH indicated that MMA inhibits this enzyme competitively with lactate as a substrate (K (i)=3.02+/-0.59 mM). Malonate and 3-nitropropionate also strongly inhibited LDH-catalyzed conversion of lactate to pyruvate in brain homogenates, while no inhibition was observed by succinate or propionate, when present in concentrations of up to 25 mM. We propose that inhibition of the lactate/pyruvate conversion by MMA contributes to lactate accumulation in blood, metabolic acidemia and inhibition of gluconeogenesis observed in patients with MMAemia. Moreover, the inhibition of LDH in the central nervous system may also impair the lactate shuttle between astrocytes and neurons, compromising neuronal energy metabolism.

  3. Curcumin inhibits amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    DU, Peng; Li, Xin; Lin, Hao-Jie; Peng, Wei-Feng; Liu, Jian-Ying; Ma, Yu; Fan, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2009-06-20

    Curcumin can reduce the severity of seizures induced by kainate acid (KA), but the role of curcumin in amygdaloid kindled models is still unknown. This study aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on the development of kindling in amygdaloid kindled rats. With an amygdaloid kindled Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model and an electrophysiological method, different doses of curcumin (10 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 30 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) as low dose groups, 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) as high dose groups) were administrated intraperitoneally during the whole kindling days, by comparison with the course of kindling, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds and the number of ADs to reach the stages of class I to V seizures in the rats between control and experimental groups. One-way or two-way ANOVA and Fisher's least significant difference post hoc test were used for statistical analyses. Curcumin (both 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)) significantly inhibited the behavioral seizure development in the (19.80 +/- 2.25) and (21.70 +/- 2.21) stimulations respectively required to reach the kindled state. Rats treated with 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin 30 minutes before kindling stimulation showed an obvious increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (703.3 +/- 85.9) microA to (960.0 +/- 116.5) microA during the progression to class V seizures. Rats treated with 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin showed a significant increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (735.0 +/- 65.2) microA to (867.0 +/- 93.4) microA during the progression to class V seizures. Rats treated with 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin required much more evoked ADs to reach the stage of class both IV (as (199.83 +/- 12.47) seconds) and V seizures (as (210.66 +/- 10.68) seconds). Rats treated with 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin required much more evoked ADs to reach the stage of class V seizures (as (219.56 +/- 18.24) seconds). Our study suggests that curcumin has

  4. Inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis by 2-tetradecylglycidic acid.

    PubMed

    McCune, S A; Nomura, T; Harris, R A

    1979-10-01

    2-Tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA), a hypoglycemic agent, has been found to be a very effective inhibitor of de novo fatty acid synthesis by isolated hepatocytes. A comparison was made between the effectiveness of TDGA and 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), a hypolipidemic agent, on the metabolic processes of isolated hepatocytes. These compounds are structurally related and both inhibit fatty acid synthesis; however, they have opposite effects from each other on the oxidation and esterification of fatty acids. TDGA inhibits whereas TOFA stimulates fatty acid oxidation. TDGA stimulates whereas TOFA inhibits fatty acid esterification.

  5. Blue light does not inhibit nodulation in Sesbania rostrata.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hayashi, Makoto; Maymon, Maskit; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2017-01-02

    Earlier, we reported that root nodulation was inhibited by blue light irradiation of Lotus japonicus. Because some legumes do not establish nodules exclusively on underground roots, we investigated whether nodule formation in Sesbania rostrata, which forms both root and "stem" nodules following inoculation with Azorhizobium caulinodans, is inhibited by blue light as are L. japonicus nodules. We found that neither S. rostrata nodulation nor nitrogen fixation was inhibited by blue light exposure. Moreover, although A. caulinodans proliferation was not affected by blue light irradiation, bacterial survival was decreased. Therefore, blue light appears to impose different responses depending on the legume-rhizobial symbiosis.

  6. Agnus castus extracts inhibit prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Sliutz, G; Speiser, P; Schultz, A M; Spona, J; Zeillinger, R

    1993-05-01

    In our studies on prolactin inhibition by plant extracts we focused on the effects of extracts of Vitex agnus castus and its preparations on rat pituitary cells under basal and stimulated conditions in primary cell culture. Both extracts from Vitex agnus castus as well as synthetic dopamine agonists (Lisuride) significantly inhibit basal as well as TRH-stimulated prolactin secretion of rat pituitary cells in vitro and as a consequence inhibition of prolactin secretion could be blocked by adding a dopamine receptor blocker. Therefore because of its dopaminergic effect Agnus castus could be considered as an efficient alternative phytotherapeutic drug in the treatment of slight hyperprolactinaemia.

  7. Measuring Feedforward Inhibition and Its Impact on Local Circuit Function.

    PubMed

    Hull, Court

    2017-05-01

    This protocol describes a series of approaches to measure feedforward inhibition in acute brain slices from the cerebellar cortex. Using whole-cell voltage and current clamp recordings from Purkinje cells in conjunction with electrical stimulation of the parallel fibers, these methods demonstrate how to measure the relationship between excitation and inhibition in a feedforward circuit. This protocol also describes how to measure the impact of feedforward inhibition on Purkinje cell excitability, with an emphasis on spike timing. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Inhibition of vaccinia virus maturation by zinc chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, E; Margalith, E

    1981-01-01

    Zinc chloride (0.1 mM) inhibited by 96.4% the growth of vaccinia virus in HeLa cells. Approximately 50% inhibition in formation of particles that sedimented in sucrose gradients similarly to vaccinia virions occurred in the presence of zinc ions. Whereas the synthesis of the viral deoxyribonucleic acid was not affected by zinc chloride, a decrease in the overall synthesis of viral polypeptides and inhibition of the cleavage of precursors to the core polypeptides were observed. Images PMID:7347557

  9. Quercetin inhibits hexose transport in a human diploid fibroblast

    SciT

    Salter, D.W.; Custead-Jones, S.; Cook, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    The flavonol quercetin, a phloretin analog, inhibits transport of 2-deoxyglucose and 3-O-methylglucose in a cultured human diploid fibroblast. This inhibition is related to transport itself and not to the reported effects of flavonoids on membrane-bound ATPases. From concentration-inhibition curves at several pH's we conclude that uncharged (acid) quercetin (pH = 7.65) is the inhibitory form of the molecule (K/sub I/ = 10 ..mu..m). Quercetin, unlike phloretin, is rapidly degraded in 0.1 N NaOH; the degradation products are weakly inhibitory to hexose transport.

  10. Inhibition of gravitropism in oat coleoptiles by calcium chelation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Some cellular event necessary for gravitropism is inhibited by EGTA without interferring with the overall growth. Calcium relieves this inhibition and demonstrates both that inhibition is reversible and was probably due to a reduction in the ability to free calcium required for one or more at the transduction steps of gravitropism. At the near neutral pH used, EGTA is charged and would not be expected to readily cross the membrane. One of its primary effects, then, is probably the bringing of free calcium in the apoplastic space exterior to the cell membranes.

  11. Complement inhibiting properties of dragon's blood from Croton draco.

    PubMed

    Tsacheva, Ivanka; Rostan, Joerg; Iossifova, Tania; Vogler, Bernhard; Odjakova, Mariela; Navas, Hernan; Kostova, Ivanka; Kojouharova, Michaela; Kraus, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The latex of Croton draco, its extracts and several latex components have been investigated for their influence on both classical (CP) and alternative (AP) activation pathways of the complement system using a hemolytic assay. The best inhibition was found for the classical pathway. The latex, ethyl acetate and ethyl ether extracts exhibited extremely high inhibition on the CP (94, 90 and 77%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The flavonoid myricitrin, the alkaloid taspine and the cyclopeptides P1 and P2 showed high inhibition on CP (83, 91, 78 and 63%, respectively) at a concentration of 0.9 mM.

  12. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  13. E-cadherin in contact inhibition and cancer.

    PubMed

    Mendonsa, Alisha M; Na, Tae-Young; Gumbiner, Barry M

    2018-05-21

    E-cadherin is a key component of the adherens junctions that are integral in cell adhesion and maintaining epithelial phenotype of cells. Homophilic E-cadherin binding between cells is important in mediating contact inhibition of proliferation when cells reach confluence. Loss of E-cadherin expression results in loss of contact inhibition and is associated with increased cell motility and advanced stages of cancer. In this review we discuss the role of E-cadherin and its downstream signaling in regulation of contact inhibition and the development and progression of cancer.

  14. Inhibition of ongoing responses in patients with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Gauggel, S; Rieger, M; Feghoff, T

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the involvement of the basal ganglia in inhibiting ongoing responses in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Thirty two patients with PD and 31 orthopaedic controls performed the stop signal task, which allows an estimation of the time it takes to inhibit an ongoing reaction (stop signal reaction time, SSRT). Results: Patients with PD showed significantly longer SSRTs than the controls. This effect seemed to be independent of global cognitive impairment and severity of PD. Furthermore, in the PD patients, there was no significant relation between general slowing and inhibitory efficiency. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence for involvement of the basal ganglia in the inhibition of ongoing responses. PMID:15026491

  15. Antifreeze Protein Mimetic Metallohelices with Potent Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Daniel E; Clarkson, Guy; Fox, David J; Vipond, Rebecca A; Scott, Peter; Gibson, Matthew I

    2017-07-26

    Antifreeze proteins are produced by extremophile species to control ice formation and growth, and they have potential applications in many fields. There are few examples of synthetic materials which can reproduce their potent ice recrystallization inhibition property. We report that self-assembled enantiomerically pure, amphipathic metallohelicies inhibited ice growth at just 20 μM. Structure-property relationships and calculations support the hypothesis that amphipathicity is the key motif for activity. This opens up a new field of metallo-organic antifreeze protein mimetics and provides insight into the origins of ice-growth inhibition.

  16. α-Lipoic acid inhibits the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells through inhibition of TGFβ signaling.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Joytirmay; Tripathy, Anindita; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Elangovan, Selvakumar

    2018-05-23

    Invasion and metastasis are the main cause of mortality in breast cancer. Hence, novel therapeutic interventions with high specificity toward invasion and metastasis are necessary. α-Lipoic acid showed antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on several cancers including breast cancer. However, the effect of lipoic acid on breast cancer metastasis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of lipoic acid on the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and 4 T1 breast cancer cells. Our data showed that lipoic acid effectively inhibited the colony forming ability of highly invasive MDA-MB-231 and 4 T1 cells. Moreover, the nontoxic concentrations of lipoic acid significantly reduced the migration of breast cancer cells. Lipoic acid also inhibited the TGFβ-induced angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) expression and reduced the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), an enzyme involved in invasion and metastasis, in both the cell lines. The inhibition of cell migration by lipoic acid is accompanied by the downregulation of FAK, ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation, and inhibition of nuclear translocation of β-catenin. Our data demonstrated that lipoic acid inhibited the migration and invasion of metastatic breast cancer cells at least in part through inhibiting ERK1/2 and AKT signaling. Thus, our findings show that the inhibition of TGFβ signaling is a potential mechanism for the anti-invasive effects of lipoic acid. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Inhibiting prenylation augments chemotherapy efficacy in renal cell carcinoma through dual inhibition on mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiangrong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Peng, Xiaochun; Huang, Wei

    2017-11-18

    Prenylation is a posttranslational lipid modification required for the proper functions of a number of proteins involved in cell regulation. Here, we show that prenylation inhibition is important for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) growth, survival and response to chemotherapy, and its underlying mechanism may be contributed to mitochondrial dysfunction. We first demonstrated that a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor pitavastatin inhibited mevalonate pathway and thereby prenylation in RCC cells. In addition, pitavastatin is effective in inhibiting growth and inducing apoptosis in a panel of RCC cell lines. Combination of pitavastatin and paclitaxel is significantly more effective than pitavastatin or paclitaxel alone as shown by both in vitro cell culture system and in vivo RCC xenograft model. Importantly, pitavastatin treatment inhibits mitochondrial respiration via suppressing mitochondrial complex I and II enzyme activities. Interestingly, different from mitochondrial inhibitor phenformin that inhibits mitochondrial respiration but activates glycolytic rate in RCC cells, pitavastatin significantly decreases glycolytic rate. The dual inhibitory action of pitavastatin on mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis results in remarkable energy depletion and oxidative stress in RCC cells. In addition, inhibition of prenylation by depleting Isoprenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase (Icmt) also mimics the inhibitory effects of pitavastatin in RCC cells. Our work demonstrates the previously unappreciated association between prenylation inhibition and energy metabolism in RCC, which can be therapeutically exploited, likely in tumors that largely rely on energy metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Control of CA3 output by feedforward inhibition despite developmental changes in the excitation-inhibition balance.

    PubMed

    Torborg, Christine L; Nakashiba, Toshiaki; Tonegawa, Susumu; McBain, Chris J

    2010-11-17

    In somatosensory cortex, the relative balance of excitation and inhibition determines how effectively feedforward inhibition enforces the temporal fidelity of action potentials. Within the CA3 region of the hippocampus, glutamatergic mossy fiber (MF) synapses onto CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs) provide strong monosynaptic excitation that exhibit prominent facilitation during repetitive activity. We demonstrate in the juvenile CA3 that MF-driven polysynaptic IPSCs facilitate to maintain a fixed EPSC-IPSC ratio during short-term plasticity. In contrast, in young adult mice this MF-driven polysynaptic inhibitory input can facilitate or depress in response to short trains of activity. Transgenic mice lacking the feedback inhibitory loop continue to exhibit both facilitating and depressing polysynaptic IPSCs, indicating that this robust inhibition is not caused by the secondary engagement of feedback inhibition. Surprisingly, eliminating MF-driven inhibition onto CA3 pyramidal cells by blockade of GABA(A) receptors did not lead to a loss of temporal precision of the first action potential observed after a stimulus but triggered in many cases a long excitatory plateau potential capable of triggering repetitive action potential firing. These observations indicate that, unlike other regions of the brain, the temporal precision of single MF-driven action potentials is dictated primarily by the kinetics of MF EPSPs, not feedforward inhibition. Instead, feedforward inhibition provides a robust regulation of CA3 PC excitability across development to prevent excessive depolarization by the monosynaptic EPSP and multiple action potential firings.

  19. Arctigenin Inhibits Liver Cancer Tumorigenesis by Inhibiting Gankyrin Expression via C/EBPα and PPARα

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ying; Tan, Yu-jun; Lu, Zhan-zhao; Li, Bing-bing; Sun, Cheng-hong; Li, Tao; Zhao, Li-li; Liu, Zhong; Zhang, Gui-min; Yao, Jing-chun; Li, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Burdock (Arctium lappa) is a popular vegetable in China and Japan that is consumed for its general health benefits. The principal active component of burdock is arctigenin, which shows a range of bioactivities in vivo and in vitro. Here, we investigated the potential anti-tumor effects of arctigenin using two human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B, and sought to elucidate its potential mechanisms of action. Our results showed that arctigenin treatment inhibited cell growth in both HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines (IC50 of 4.74 nM for HepG2 cells, and of 59.27 nM for Hep3B cells). In addition, migration, invasion, and colony formation by HepG2 cells were significantly inhibited by arctigenin. By contrast, treatment of Hep3B cells with arctigenin did not alter these parameters. Arctigenin also significantly reduced the levels of gankyrin mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells, but not in Hep3B cells. A luciferase assay indicated that arctigenin targeted the -450 to -400 region of the gankyrin promoter. This region is also the potential binding site for both C/EBPα and PPARα, as predicted and confirmed by an online software analysis and ChIP assay. Additionally, a co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay showed that binding between C/EBPα and PPARα was increased in the presence of arctigenin. However, arctigenin did not increase the expression of C/EBPα or PPARα protein. A binding screening assay and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) were performed to identify the mechanisms by which arctigenin regulates gankyrin expression. The results suggested that arctigenin could directly increase C/EBPα binding to the gankyrin promoter (-432 to -422 region), but did not affect PPARα binding. Expression of gankyrin, C/EBPα, and PPARα were analyzed in tumor tissues of patients using real-time PCR. Both C/EBPα and PPARα showed negative correlations with gankyrin. In tumor-bearing mice, arctigenin had a significant inhibitory effect on HCC

  20. Arctigenin Inhibits Liver Cancer Tumorigenesis by Inhibiting Gankyrin Expression via C/EBPα and PPARα.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Tan, Yu-Jun; Lu, Zhan-Zhao; Li, Bing-Bing; Sun, Cheng-Hong; Li, Tao; Zhao, Li-Li; Liu, Zhong; Zhang, Gui-Min; Yao, Jing-Chun; Li, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Burdock ( Arctium lappa ) is a popular vegetable in China and Japan that is consumed for its general health benefits. The principal active component of burdock is arctigenin, which shows a range of bioactivities in vivo and in vitro . Here, we investigated the potential anti-tumor effects of arctigenin using two human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B, and sought to elucidate its potential mechanisms of action. Our results showed that arctigenin treatment inhibited cell growth in both HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines (IC 50 of 4.74 nM for HepG2 cells, and of 59.27 nM for Hep3B cells). In addition, migration, invasion, and colony formation by HepG2 cells were significantly inhibited by arctigenin. By contrast, treatment of Hep3B cells with arctigenin did not alter these parameters. Arctigenin also significantly reduced the levels of gankyrin mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells, but not in Hep3B cells. A luciferase assay indicated that arctigenin targeted the -450 to -400 region of the gankyrin promoter. This region is also the potential binding site for both C/EBPα and PPARα, as predicted and confirmed by an online software analysis and ChIP assay. Additionally, a co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay showed that binding between C/EBPα and PPARα was increased in the presence of arctigenin. However, arctigenin did not increase the expression of C/EBPα or PPARα protein. A binding screening assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were performed to identify the mechanisms by which arctigenin regulates gankyrin expression. The results suggested that arctigenin could directly increase C/EBPα binding to the gankyrin promoter (-432 to -422 region), but did not affect PPARα binding. Expression of gankyrin, C/EBPα , and PPARα were analyzed in tumor tissues of patients using real-time PCR. Both C/EBPα and PPARα showed negative correlations with gankyrin. In tumor-bearing mice, arctigenin had a significant inhibitory effect on HCC

  1. Pathological histone acetylation in Parkinson's disease: Neuroprotection and inhibition of microglial activation through SIRT 2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ian F; Smith, Andrew D; Dexter, David T

    2018-02-14

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons due to intracytoplasmic inclusions composed predominantly of a synaptic protein called α-synuclein. Accumulations of α-synuclein are thought to 'mask' acetylation sites on histone proteins, inhibiting the action of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes in their equilibrium with histone deacetylases (HDACs), thus deregulating the dynamic control of gene transcription. It is therefore hypothesised that the misbalance in the actions of HATs/HDACs in neurodegeneration can be rectified with the use of HDAC inhibitors, limiting the deregulation of transcription and aiding neuronal homeostasis and neuroprotection in disorders such as PD. Here we quantify histone acetylation in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNpc) in the brains of control, early and late stage PD cases to determine if histone acetylation is a function of disease progression. PD development is associated with Braak-dependent increases in histone acetylation. Concurrently, we show that as expected disease progression is associated with reduced markers of dopaminergic neurons and increased markers of activated microglia. We go on to demonstrate that in vitro, degenerating dopaminergic neurons exhibit histone hypoacetylation whereas activated microglia exhibit histone hyperacetylation. This suggests that the disease-dependent increase in histone acetylation observed in human PD cases is likely a combination of the contributions of both degenerating dopaminergic neurons and infiltrating activated microglia. The HDAC SIRT 2 has become increasingly implicated as a novel target for mediation of neuroprotection in PD: the neuronal and microglial specific effects of its inhibition however remain unclear. We demonstrate that SIRT 2 expression in the SNpc of PD brains remains relatively unchanged from controls and that SIRT 2 inhibition, via AGK2 treatment of neuronal and microglial cultures, results in neuroprotection of

  2. Inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing by vanilla extract.

    PubMed

    Choo, J H; Rukayadi, Y; Hwang, J-K

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to search for a novel quorum sensing inhibitor and analyse its inhibitory activity. Quorum sensing inhibition was monitored using the Tn-5 mutant, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Vanilla beans (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) were extracted using 75% (v/v) aqueous methanol and added to C. violaceum CV026 cultures. Inhibitory activity was measured by quantifying violacein production using a spectrophotometer. The results have revealed that vanilla extract significantly reduced violacein production in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating inhibition of quorum sensing. Vanilla, a widely used spice and flavour, can inhibit bacterial quorum sensing. The results suggest that the intake of vanilla-containing food materials might promote human health by inhibiting quorum sensing and preventing bacterial pathogenesis. Further studies are required to isolate specific substances from vanilla extract acting as quorum sensing inhibitors.

  3. Inhibition of trypsin by condensed tannins and wine.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rui; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2007-09-05

    Phenolic compounds are abundant vegetable secondary metabolites in the human diet. The ability of procyanidin oligomers and wine polyphenols to inhibit trypsin activity was studied using a versatile and reliable in vitro method. The hydrolysis of the chromogenic substrate N-benzoyl-d,l-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BApNA) by trypsin was followed by spectrophotometry in the presence and absence of condensed tannins and wine. A clear relationship between the degree of polymerization of procyanidins and enzymatic inhibition was observed. Trypsin activity inhibition was also detected in several types of wine. In general, the inhibition increased with the concentration of phenolic compounds in wines. These results may be relevant when considering these compounds as antinutritional factors, thereby contributing to a reduced absorption of nutrients.

  4. Beyond Behavioral Inhibition: Etiological Factors in Childhood Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manassis, Katharina; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Webb, Alicia; Albano, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical models of childhood anxiety have emphasized temperamental vulnerability, principally behavioral inhibition, and its interaction with various environmental factors promoting anxiety (for example, overprotective parenting, insecure attachment, life stress). Although clearly establishing the importance of both nature and nurture in…

  5. Glycinergic inhibition tunes coincidence detection in the auditory brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Myoga, Michael H.; Lehnert, Simon; Leibold, Christian; Felmy, Felix; Grothe, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) detect microsecond differences in the arrival time of sounds between the ears (interaural time differences or ITDs), a crucial binaural cue for sound localization. Synaptic inhibition has been implicated in tuning ITD sensitivity, but the cellular mechanisms underlying its influence on coincidence detection are debated. Here we determine the impact of inhibition on coincidence detection in adult Mongolian gerbil MSO brain slices by testing precise temporal integration of measured synaptic responses using conductance-clamp. We find that inhibition dynamically shifts the peak timing of excitation, depending on its relative arrival time, which in turn modulates the timing of best coincidence detection. Inhibitory control of coincidence detection timing is consistent with the diversity of ITD functions observed in vivo and is robust under physiologically relevant conditions. Our results provide strong evidence that temporal interactions between excitation and inhibition on microsecond timescales are critical for binaural processing. PMID:24804642

  6. Axonal conduction block as a novel mechanism of prepulse inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. H.; Megalou, E. V.; Wang, J.; Frost, W.N.

    2012-01-01

    In prepulse inhibition (PPI), the startle response to a strong, unexpected stimulus is diminished if shortly preceded by the onset of a different stimulus. Because deficits in this inhibitory gating process are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia and certain other psychiatric disorders, the mechanisms underlying PPI are of significant interest. We previously used the invertebrate model system Tritonia diomedea to identify the first cellular mechanism for PPI–presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release from the afferent neurons (S-cells) mediating the startle response. Here we report the involvement of a second, more powerful PPI mechanism in Tritonia: prepulse-elicited conduction block of action potentials traveling in the startle pathway caused by identified inhibitory interneurons activated by the prepulse. This example of axo-axonic conduction block–neurons in one pathway inhibiting the propagation of action potentials in another–represents a novel and potent mechanism of sensory gating in prepulse inhibition. PMID:23115164

  7. Preparation and swelling inhibition of cation glucoside to montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shaofu; Liu, Jurong; Guo, Gang; Huang, Lei; Qu, Chentun; Li, Bianqin; Chen, Gang

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a cation glucoside (CG) was synthesized with glucose and glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (GTA) and used as montmorillonite (MMT) swelling inhibiter. The inhibition of CG was investigated by MMT linear expansion test and mud ball immersing test. The results showed that the CG has a good inhibition to the hydration swelling and dispersion of MMT. Under the same condition, the linear expansion rate of MMT in CG solution is much lower that of methylglucoside and the hydration expansion degree of the mud ball in the CG solution was significantly inhibited. The characterizations of physic-chemical properties of particle, analysized by thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy, revealed that CG play great role to prevent water from absorb and keep MMT in large particle size.

  8. Location cue validity affects inhibition of return of visual processing.

    PubMed

    Wright, R D; Richard, C M

    2000-01-01

    Inhibition-of-return is the process by which visual search for an object positioned among others is biased toward novel rather than previously inspected items. It is thought to occur automatically and to increase search efficiency. We examined this phenomenon by studying the facilitative and inhibitory effects of location cueing on target-detection response times in a search task. The results indicated that facilitation was a reflexive consequence of cueing whereas inhibition appeared to depend on cue informativeness. More specifically, the inhibition-of-return effect occurred only when the cue provided no information about the impending target's location. We suggest that the results are consistent with the notion of two levels of visual processing. The first involves rapid and reflexive operations that underlie the facilitative effects of location cueing on target detection. The second involves a rapid but goal-driven inhibition procedure that the perceiver can invoke if doing so will enhance visual search performance.

  9. Quantifying competitive ability of perennial grasses to inhibit Scotch broom

    Timothy Harrington

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse pot studies were conducted to quantify the competitive abilities of three native perennial grass species to inhibit development of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link ) seedlings: spike bentgrass (Agrostis exarata Trin. ), blue wildrye (Elymus glaucus Buckley), and western fescue (

  10. Functional mechanisms involved in the internal inhibition of taboo words.

    PubMed

    Severens, Els; Kühn, Simone; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Brass, Marcel

    2012-04-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain processes associated with the inhibition of socially undesirable speech. It is tested whether the inhibition of undesirable speech is solely related to brain areas associated with classical stop signal tasks or rather also involves brain areas involved in endogenous self-control. During the experiment, subjects had to do a SLIP task, which was designed to elicit taboo or neutral spoonerisms. Here we show that the internal inhibition of taboo words activates the right inferior frontal gyrus, an area that has previously been associated with externally triggered inhibition. This finding strongly suggests that external social rules become internalized and act as a stop-signal.

  11. Functional mechanisms involved in the internal inhibition of taboo words

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Simone; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Brass, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain processes associated with the inhibition of socially undesirable speech. It is tested whether the inhibition of undesirable speech is solely related to brain areas associated with classical stop signal tasks or rather also involves brain areas involved in endogenous self-control. During the experiment, subjects had to do a SLIP task, which was designed to elicit taboo or neutral spoonerisms. Here we show that the internal inhibition of taboo words activates the right inferior frontal gyrus, an area that has previously been associated with externally triggered inhibition. This finding strongly suggests that external social rules become internalized and act as a stop-signal. PMID:21609970

  12. Functional inhibition of UQCRB suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish

    SciT

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: ► This is the first functional characterization of UQCRB in vivo model. ► Angiogenesis is inhibited with UQCRB loss of function in zebrafish. ► UQCRB is introduced as a prognostic marker for mitochondria- and angiogenesis-related diseases. -- Abstract: As a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, UQCRB plays an important role in complex III stability, electron transport, and cellular oxygen sensing. Herein, we report UQCRB function regarding angiogenesis in vivo with the zebrafish (Danio rerio). UQCRB knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in zebrafish leading to the suppression of VEGF expression. Moreover, the UQCRB-targeting small molecule terpestacin also inhibited angiogenesis and VEGF levelsmore » in zebrafish, supporting the role of UQCRB in angiogenesis. Collectively, UQCRB loss of function by either genetic and pharmacological means inhibited angiogenesis, indicating that UQCRB plays a key role in this process and can be a prognostic marker of angiogenesis- and mitochondria-related diseases.« less

  13. Impaired face recognition is associated with social inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Suzanne N; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Heckers, Stephan; Blackford, Jennifer U

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is fundamental to successful social interaction. Individuals with deficits in face recognition are likely to have social functioning impairments that may lead to heightened risk for social anxiety. A critical component of social interaction is how quickly a face is learned during initial exposure to a new individual. Here, we used a novel Repeated Faces task to assess how quickly memory for faces is established. Face recognition was measured over multiple exposures in 52 young adults ranging from low to high in social inhibition, a core dimension of social anxiety. High social inhibition was associated with a smaller slope of change in recognition memory over repeated face exposure, indicating participants with higher social inhibition showed smaller improvements in recognition memory after seeing faces multiple times. We propose that impaired face learning is an important mechanism underlying social inhibition and may contribute to, or maintain, social anxiety. PMID:26776300

  14. Impaired face recognition is associated with social inhibition.

    PubMed

    Avery, Suzanne N; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Heckers, Stephan; Blackford, Jennifer U

    2016-02-28

    Face recognition is fundamental to successful social interaction. Individuals with deficits in face recognition are likely to have social functioning impairments that may lead to heightened risk for social anxiety. A critical component of social interaction is how quickly a face is learned during initial exposure to a new individual. Here, we used a novel Repeated Faces task to assess how quickly memory for faces is established. Face recognition was measured over multiple exposures in 52 young adults ranging from low to high in social inhibition, a core dimension of social anxiety. High social inhibition was associated with a smaller slope of change in recognition memory over repeated face exposure, indicating participants with higher social inhibition showed smaller improvements in recognition memory after seeing faces multiple times. We propose that impaired face learning is an important mechanism underlying social inhibition and may contribute to, or maintain, social anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Procedures for evaluating corrosion-inhibiting admixtures for structural concrete

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to (1) develop procedures for evaluating and qualifying corrosion-inhibiting admixtures (CIAs) and (2) recommend performance criteria for their acceptance. Phase I work included a literature review of CIAs, the re...

  16. Emotional content modulates response inhibition and perceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suyong; Luo, Wenbo; Zhu, Xiangru; Broster, Lucas S; Chen, Taolin; Li, Jinzhen; Luo, Yuejia

    2014-11-01

    In this study, event-related potentials were used to investigate the effect of emotion on response inhibition. Participants performed an emotional go/no-go task that required responses to human faces associated with a "go" valence (i.e., emotional, neutral) and response inhibition to human faces associated with a "no-go" valence. Emotional content impaired response inhibition, as evidenced by decreased response accuracy and N2 amplitudes in no-go trials. More importantly, emotional expressions elicited larger N170 amplitudes than neutral expressions, and this effect was larger in no-go than in go trials, indicating that the perceptual processing of emotional expression had priority in inhibitory trials. In no-go trials, correlation analysis showed that increased N170 amplitudes were associated with decreased N2 amplitudes. Taken together, our findings suggest that emotional content impairs response inhibition due to the prioritization of emotional content processing. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Hyperoxia Inhibits T Cell Activation in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Meissler, J.; Aguayo, E. T.; Globus, R.; Aguado, J.; Candelario, T.

    2013-02-01

    , spleens were removed and the splenocytes were isolated and kept as individual biological samples. We have also examined transcription factors (JASPAR) and pathways of the immune system to help us understand the mechanism of regulation. Results: Our recent mouse immunology experiment aboard STS-131 suggests that the early T cell immune response was inhibited in animals that have been exposed to spaceflight, even 24 hours after return to earth. Moreover, recent experiments in hyperoxic mice show that many of the same genes involved in early T cell activation were altered. Specifically, expression of IL-2Rα, Cxcl2, TNFα, FGF2, LTA and BCL2 genes are dysregulated in mice exposed to hyperoxia. Conclusions: If these hyperoxia-induced changes of gene expression in early T cell activation are additive to the changes seen in the microgravity of spaceflight, there could be an increased infection risk to EVA astronauts, which should be addressed prior to conducting a Mars or other long-term mission.

  18. Metalloproteinase inhibition prevents acute respiratory distress syndrome.