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Sample records for zona-free hamster egg

  1. Pentoxifylline increases sperm penetration into zona-free hamster oocytes without increasing the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Morales, P; Llanos, M; Yovich, J L; Cummins, J M; Vigil, P

    1993-01-01

    Several drugs have been used to stimulate human sperm motility, including 3-deoxy-adenosine, caffeine, and pentoxifylline. Pentoxifylline is an inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase and may stimulate sperm motility by increasing the intracellular levels of cAMP. In this study we have evaluated the effect of pentoxifylline in the outcome of the sperm penetration assay into zona-free hamster oocytes. Twenty-seven semen samples, obtained for diagnostic purposes, were used. After the motile sperm were selected by the swim-up technique, the samples were divided into two aliquots. One aliquot was incubated with 1 mg ml-1 of pentoxifylline at 37 degrees C, 5% CO2 for 30 min. The control aliquot was incubated with culture medium. The samples were then washed and resuspended in fresh, pentoxifylline-free medium, at a sperm concentration of 10 x 10(6) cells ml-1. One hundred microlitres of each sperm suspension was then deposited under oil and 30-40 zona-free hamster oocytes were added. After 6 h of gamete coincubation, the percentage of penetrated oocytes and the number of decondensed sperm heads were evaluated. The percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm was evaluated using the Pisum sativum lectin. The percentage of zona-free hamster oocytes penetrated was increased after pentoxifylline-treatment. The percentage of acrosome reacted sperm and the number of decondensed sperm heads per egg were not different between the control and the pentoxifylline-treated groups. The results suggest that the beneficial effect of pentoxifylline upon the sperm cells is not mediated by stimulation of the acrosome reaction.

  2. Detection of antisperm antibodies: their localization to human sperm antigens that are transferred to the surface of zona-free hamster oocytes during the sperm penetration assay.

    PubMed

    Wiley, L M; Obasaju, M F; Overstreet, J W; Cross, N L; Hanson, F W; Chang, R J

    1987-08-01

    The authors have developed an extension of the sperm penetration assay for detecting serum immunoglobulins to sperm antigens that are transferred to the plasma membrane of a sperm-penetrated hamster oocyte. After the hamster oocytes have been scored for sperm penetration by observing for the presence of swollen sperm heads, they are incubated in serum followed by either a 20-minute treatment with rhodamine-conjugated protein A (which binds to most subclasses of IgA, IgG, and IgM) or a 2-hour incubation in guinea pig serum (complement). Positive fluorescence indicates that the serum contains antibodies to sperm antigens that were transferred to the surface of an oocyte during gamete fusion. Complement-mediated lysis indicates that the immunoglobulin that is bound can also fix complement. The advantages of this assay for detection of serum antisperm antibodies are that it is an extension of a widely used assay, is rapid and requires readily available reagents and equipment, can detect most subclasses of IgA, IgG, and IgM, detects antibodies to those sperm antigens that may be transferred to the oocyte during fertilization, and indicates whether the detected antisperm antibodies can mediate complement-dependent lysis of the fertilized oocyte.

  3. Human sperm chromosome analysis after subzonal sperm insemination of hamster oocytes

    SciT

    Cozzi, J.

    1994-09-01

    Sperm microinjection techniques, subzonal sperm insemination (SUZI) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), have achieved a wide spread clinical application for the treatment of male infertility. To date, only one study has focused on sperm karyotypes after microinjection. Martin et al. reported a very high incidence of abnormal human sperm complements after ICSI into hamster oocytes. In the present study, are reported the first human sperm karyotypes after SUZI of hamster oocytes. Spermatozoa from two control donors were treated by calcium ionophore A23187 and injected under the zona of hamster eggs. The microinjected eggs were then cultured for cytogenetic analysis ofmore » the pronuclei. Out of 47 analyzed sperm chromosome metaphases, 5 (10.6%) were abnormal, 4 (8.5%) were hypohaploid and 1 (2.1%) had a structural abnormality. The sex ratio was not significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio. Rates of chromosomal abnormalities in microinjected spermatozoa were similar to those observed in spermatozoa inseminated with zona free eggs, suggesting that SUZI procedure per se does not increase sperm chromosomal abnormalities.« less

  4. Zona-free oocyte fertilized with intracytoplasmic sperm injection and underwent further division: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Y Y; Chang, C C; Tsai, H D

    2001-09-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) plays a protective role during fertilization and early embryonic development. It is related to sperm binding, the acrosome reaction, prevention of polyspermic fertilization, and holding blastomeres together before the morular stage. Zona-free oocytes are accidentally encountered. If these oocytes are healthy, they can be fertilized normally by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We reported on a couple with male infertility undergoing oocyte retrieval after ovarian hyperstimulation. Before the ICSI procedure, cumulus cells surrounding the oocytes were removed, which resulted in one oocyte escaping from its ZP. The zona-free oocyte was fertilized normally with ICSI and developed to the 8-cell stage. We observed that the zona-free zygote had the ability to further divide, despite its loose contact. The zona-free embryo was transferred with other zona-intact embryos, but the implantation failed. We conclude that zona-free oocytes can be rescued, fertilized with ICSI, and cultured for further transfer or cryopreservation.

  5. The timing of cortical granule fusion, content dispersal, and endocytosis during fertilization of the hamster egg: an electrophysiological and histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kline, D; Stewart-Savage, J

    1994-03-01

    To determine the temporal relationship between cortical granule exocytosis and the repetitive calcium transients, which are characteristic of mammalian fertilization, we monitored membrane addition from exocytosis during fertilization of hamster eggs. Continuous measurement of membrane capacitance by applying a 3.1-nA alternating current at 375 Hz showed addition of cortical granule membrane. Simultaneous measurement of membrane potential revealed each calcium transient by the appearance of transient hyperpolarizing responses due to calcium-activated potassium channels in the egg. The initial membrane capacitance of the eggs averaged 736 +/- 44 pF (mean +/- SD; n = 7) and an increase in capacitance of 61 +/- 19 pF occurred within 4 sec of the start of the first hyperpolarizing response (HR) after fertilization. Immediately after the first increase in capacitance there was a gradual decline in membrane capacitance in all eggs and in five/seven eggs the capacitance returned to the unfertilized level in 7.8 +/- 4.4 min. The gradual decline in capacitance after the first increase indicated endocytosis, which was confirmed by the internalization of fluorescently labeled dextran. Superimposed on the gradual decline in membrane capacitance were smaller increases in capacitance that occurred with the second and later HRs. The total increase in capacitance from the first three events averaged 72 +/- 19 pF, representing an average increase in capacitance of about 10% of the capacitance of the unfertilized egg. By labeling eggs before and after permeabilization with two different fluorochromes attached to Lens culinaris agglutinin, we demonstrate that the dispersal of the cortical granules contents does not occur immediately after exocytosis. Our results demonstrate that cortical granule exocytosis in hamster eggs is closely coupled to the periodic increases in calcium, that the contents of the cortical granules are slow to disperse, and that after exocytosis, the surface

  6. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Eggs and Egg Products

    The total U. S. egg production in 2009 was 78.5 billion table eggs, with 24 billion broken for the production of egg products. Shell eggs have many uses in homes, restaurants, and institutions, either alone or as ingredients in other foods. Egg products are also popular with consumers and are used i...

  8. Mouse SLLP1, a sperm lysozyme-like protein involved in sperm-egg binding and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Herrero, María Belén; Mandal, Arabinda; Digilio, Laura C; Coonrod, Scott A; Maier, Bernhard; Herr, John C

    2005-08-01

    This study demonstrates the retention of mouse sperm lysozyme-like protein (mSLLP1) in the equatorial segment of spermatozoa following the acrosome reaction and a role for mSLLP1 in sperm-egg binding and fertilization. Treatment of cumulus intact oocytes with either recmSLLP1 or its antiserum resulted in a significant (P < or = 0.05) inhibition of fertilization. Co-incubation of zona-free mouse oocytes with capacitated mouse spermatozoa in the presence of varying concentrations of anti-recmSLLP1 serum or recmSLLP1 also inhibited sperm-oolemma binding. A complete inhibition of binding and fusion of spermatozoa to the oocyte occurred at 12.5 muM concentration of recmSLLP1, while conventional chicken and human lysozymes did not block sperm-egg binding. mSLLP1 showed receptor sites in the perivitelline space as well as on the microvillar region of the egg plasma membrane. The retention of mSLLP1 in the equatorial segment of acrosome-reacted sperm, the inhibitory effects of both recmSLLP1 and antibodies to SLLP1 on in vitro fertilization with both cumulus intact and zona-free eggs, and the definition of complementary SLLP1-binding sites on the egg plasma membrane together support the hypothesis that a c lysozyme-like protein is involved in the binding of spermatozoa to the egg plasma membrane during fertilization.

  9. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Egg Allergy KidsHealth / For Kids / Egg Allergy What's in ... with no problem after that. What Is an Egg Allergy? You probably know that some people are ...

  10. Infestivity of Demodex canis to hamster skin engrafted onto SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kenji; Une, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Adachi, Makoto; Kanda, Naoko; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Taura, Yasuho

    2005-04-01

    We demonstrated that Demodex canis was transferred to skin xenografts of a dog and a hamster onto severe combined immunodeficiency mice. After the transfer of mites, the number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites per gram of canine and hamster xenografts increased, whereas no live mites were detected on murine allograft. These results indicate that D. canis proliferates in hair follicles of dog and hamster skins but not in murine allograft. Therefore, D. canis may have host preference but not strict host-specificity.

  11. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  12. Avian Egg and Egg Coat.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.

  13. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... call for more than three eggs): 1 teaspoon baking powder + 1 tablespoon liquid + 1 tablespoon vinegar 1 ... 1½ tablespoons water + 1½ tablespoons oil + 1 teaspoon baking powder 1 packet gelatin + 2 tablespoons warm water ( ...

  14. In an Egg Shell: Egg to Chick to Egg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon Electric Company, Chula Vista, CA.

    The goals of this program include enabling students to learn about the anatomy of an avian egg, egg formation, bird embryo development, and the process of egg incubation. This guide is designed to accompany the hands-on experience of incubation and hatching chicken eggs and is organized in three sections. The teaching materials section includes…

  15. Microbiological Spoilage of Eggs and Egg Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebuski, Joseph R.; Freier, Timothy A.

    Chicken eggs are the eggs most commonly consumed by humans. The US per capita consumption was 255 eggs in 2005. Approximately 77 billion eggs were produced in the USA in 2005 (American Egg Board, 2005). Of these about 30% were further processed in some manner and the remainder were consumed as whole shell eggs. The greatest increase in production and consumption of eggs, however, is in the developing countries. China is now the number one producer of eggs, with the USA second, and India third. In fact, developing countries currently have >67% of the global egg production share (Clark, 2007). Only a small percentage of eggs are exported because shell eggs are relatively difficult to transport.

  16. Directed Student Inquiry: Modeling in Roborovsky Hamsters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Bouchard, Adam

    2007-01-01

    In this inquiry-based activity, Roborovsky hamsters are used to provide students with an opportunity to develop their skills of analysis, inquiry, and design. These hamsters are easy to maintain, yet offer students a means to use conventional techniques and those of their own design to make further observations through measuring, assessing, and…

  17. The hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model of toxocariasis: histopathological, immunohistochemical, and immunoelectron microscopic findings.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Maria Gonçalves; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; da Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira; Kanashiro, Edite Hatsumi Yamashiro; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Mairena, Eliane Conti; De Brito, Thales

    2015-03-01

    Toxocariasis is a globally distributed parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Toxocara spp. The typical natural hosts of the parasite are dogs and cats, but humans can be infected by the larval stage of the parasite after ingesting embryonated eggs in soil or from contaminated hands or fomites. The migrating larvae are not adapted to complete their life cycle within accidental or paratenic hosts like humans and laboratory animals, respectively, but they are capable of invading viscera or other tissues where they may survive and induce disease. In order to characterize hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as a model for Toxocara canis infection, histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were used to detect pathological lesions and the distribution of toxocaral antigens in the liver, lungs, and kidneys of experimentally infected animals. We also attempted to characterize the immunological parameters of the inflammatory response and correlate them with the histopathological findings. In the kidney, a correlation between glomerular changes and antigen deposits was evaluated using immunoelectron microscopy. The hamster is an adequate model of experimental toxocariasis for short-term investigations and has a good immunological and pathological response to the infection. Lung and liver manifestations of toxocariasis in hamsters approximated those in humans and other experimental animal models. A mixed Th2 immunological response to T. canis infection was predominant. The hamster model displayed a progressive rise of anti-toxocaral antibodies with the formation of immune complexes. Circulating antigens, immunoglobulin, and complement deposits were detected in the kidney without the development of a definite immune complex nephropathy.

  18. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  19. Male hamster preference for odors of female hamster vaginal discharges: studies of experiential and hormonal determinants.

    PubMed

    Gregory, E; Engel, K; Pfaff, D

    1975-07-01

    Male hamsters approach sources of odors from female hamster vaginal discharges and spend significantly more time around these odor sources than around control locations in the test box. This preference for female hamster vaginal odors appears in sexually inexperienced as well as experienced males, even in individuals isolated from females since the time of weaning. Castration significantly reduces the sex odor preference, and treatment with testosterone propionate partially restores it.

  20. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs means...

  1. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs means...

  2. EGGS and SCIENCE in Katmandu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Georgeanne; Lonsdale, Stephen M.

    1986-01-01

    Provides examples of science experiments and demonstrations that are centered on the theme of eggs. Activity explanations include: (1) the floating egg; (2) egg-in-the-bottle; (3) walking on eggs; and (4) egg balancing. (ML)

  3. The Egg Joust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  4. Interventions for shell eggs

    Eggs are the second riskiest foods regulated by the U.S. FDA. Less than 3% of shell eggs are pasteurized using a hot water process that unfortunately damages the appearance and functionality of the eggs. In addition, the current process adds more than $1.50 to the cost of a dozen eggs. Therefore, al...

  5. Molecular mechanisms involved in gamete interaction: evidence for the participation of cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP) in sperm-egg fusion.

    PubMed

    Da Ros, V; Busso, D; Cohen, D J; Maldera, J; Goldweic, N; Cuasnicu, P S

    2007-01-01

    Epididymal protein DE and testicular protein Tpx-1 are two cysteine-rich secretory proteins also known as CRISP-1 and CRISP-2, respectively. DE/ CRISP-1 is localised on the equatorial segment of acrosome-reacted sperm and participates in rat gamete fusion through its binding to egg-complementary sites. Recent results using bacterially-expressed recombinant fragments of DE as well as synthetic peptides revealed that the ability of DE to bind to the egg surface and inhibit gamete fusion resides in a region of 12 amino acids corresponding to an evolutionary conserved motif of the CRISP family (Signature 2). Given the high degree of homology between DE/CRISP-1 and Tpx-1/CRISP-2, we also explored the potential participation of the testicular intra-acrosomal protein in gamete fusion. Results showing the ability of recombinant Tpx-1 to bind to the surface of rat eggs (evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence) and to significantly inhibit zona-free egg penetration, support the participation of this protein in gamete fusion through its interaction with egg-binding sites. Interestingly, rat Tpx-1 exhibits only two substitutions in Signature 2 when compared to this region in DE. Together, these results provide evidence for the involvement of both epididymal DE/CRISP-1 and testicular Tpx-1/CRISP-2 in gamete fusion suggesting the existence of a functional cooperation between homologue molecules as a mechanism to ensure the success of fertilisation.

  6. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    SciT

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.

    1989-05-01

    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding wasmore » destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.« less

  7. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic...

  8. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic...

  9. Food crystallization and eggs.

    Egg products can be utilized to control crystallization in a diverse realm of food products. Albumen and egg yolk can aid in the control of sugar crystal formation in candies. Egg yolk can enhance the textural properties and aid in the control of large ice crystal formation in frozen desserts. In...

  10. IN VITRO CULTURE OF POSTIMPLANTATION HAMSTER EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro culture of intact rat and mouse embryos has been described extensively, but information on the culture of other species is sparse. The present study examined some culture requirements of early somite stage hamster embryos and assessed the embryotoxic effects of sodium sa...

  11. Induction of lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    SciT

    Schmitz, J.L.; Schell, R.F.; Hejka, A.

    1988-09-01

    In studies of experimental Lyme disease, a major obstacle has been the unavailability of a suitable animal model. We found that irradiated LSH/Ss Lak hamsters developed arthritis after injection of Borrelia burgdorferi in the hind paws. When nonirradiated hamsters were injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi, acute transient synovitis was present. A diffuse neutrophilic infiltrate involved the synovia and periarticular structures. The inflammation was associated with edema, hyperemia, and granulation tissue. Numerous spirochetes were seen in the synovial and subsynovial tissues. The histopathologic changes were enhanced in irradiated hamsters. The onset and duration of the induced swelling weremore » dependent on the dose of radiation and the inoculum of spirochetes. Inoculation of irradiated hamsters with Formalin-killed spirochetes or medium in which B. burgdorferi had grown for 7 days failed to induce swelling. This animal model should prove useful for studies of the immune response to B. burgdorferi and the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis.« less

  12. Nipah virus transmission in a hamster model.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Emmie; Bushmaker, Trenton; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J

    2011-12-01

    Based on epidemiological data, it is believed that human-to-human transmission plays an important role in Nipah virus outbreaks. No experimental data are currently available on the potential routes of human-to-human transmission of Nipah virus. In a first dose-finding experiment in Syrian hamsters, it was shown that Nipah virus was predominantly shed via the respiratory tract within nasal and oropharyngeal secretions. Although Nipah viral RNA was detected in urogenital and rectal swabs, no infectious virus was recovered from these samples, suggesting no viable virus was shed via these routes. In addition, hamsters inoculated with high doses shed significantly higher amounts of viable Nipah virus particles in comparison with hamsters infected with lower inoculum doses. Using the highest inoculum dose, three potential routes of Nipah virus transmission were investigated in the hamster model: transmission via fomites, transmission via direct contact and transmission via aerosols. It was demonstrated that Nipah virus is transmitted efficiently via direct contact and inefficiently via fomites, but not via aerosols. These findings are in line with epidemiological data which suggest that direct contact with nasal and oropharyngeal secretions of Nipah virus infected individuals resulted in greater risk of Nipah virus infection. The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes and efficiency of Nipah virus transmission and have important public health implications with regards to the risk assessment and management of future Nipah virus outbreaks.

  13. Nipah Virus Transmission in a Hamster Model

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Emmie; Bushmaker, Trenton; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    Based on epidemiological data, it is believed that human-to-human transmission plays an important role in Nipah virus outbreaks. No experimental data are currently available on the potential routes of human-to-human transmission of Nipah virus. In a first dose-finding experiment in Syrian hamsters, it was shown that Nipah virus was predominantly shed via the respiratory tract within nasal and oropharyngeal secretions. Although Nipah viral RNA was detected in urogenital and rectal swabs, no infectious virus was recovered from these samples, suggesting no viable virus was shed via these routes. In addition, hamsters inoculated with high doses shed significantly higher amounts of viable Nipah virus particles in comparison with hamsters infected with lower inoculum doses. Using the highest inoculum dose, three potential routes of Nipah virus transmission were investigated in the hamster model: transmission via fomites, transmission via direct contact and transmission via aerosols. It was demonstrated that Nipah virus is transmitted efficiently via direct contact and inefficiently via fomites, but not via aerosols. These findings are in line with epidemiological data which suggest that direct contact with nasal and oropharyngeal secretions of Nipah virus infected individuals resulted in greater risk of Nipah virus infection. The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes and efficiency of Nipah virus transmission and have important public health implications with regards to the risk assessment and management of future Nipah virus outbreaks. PMID:22180802

  14. The Egg Joust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-09-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops,1,2 the egg walk,3 and the great Canadian egg race,4 as well as the mousetrap cars,5 have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate6 students. Students at Greendale High School in suburban Milwaukee, WI, participate in an annual egg-jousting competition that combines the energy of a mousetrap with the delicateness of an egg. For this evening event, students gather in costume for a night of medieval intrigue where parents and friends witness the peril of two eggs colliding while atop their trusty steed.

  15. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of the...

  16. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of the...

  17. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  18. Spinning eggs and ballerinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction between the egg and the surface on which it spins.

  19. Evaluation of eight cephalosporins in hamster colitis model.

    PubMed Central

    Ebright, J R; Fekety, R; Silva, J; Wilson, K H

    1981-01-01

    Eight commonly used cephalosporins were evaluated in the hamster colitis mode. They were all found to cause hemorrhagic cecitis and death within 10 days of being given as subcutaneous or oral challenges. Necropsy findings were indistinguishable from clindamycin-induced cecitis. Bacteria-free cecal filtrate obtained from hamsters dying of cephalosporin-induced cecitis contained toxin similar or identical to hat produced by Clostridium difficile isolated from the cecum of a hamster. Daily oral administration of poorly absorbed cephalosporins protected hamsters from clindamycin-induced cecitis and death as long as the cephalosporins were continued. The absorbable cephalosporins were ineffective in protecting hamsters from clindamycin-induced cecitis. This difference probably relates to the lower concentrations of absorbable cephalosporins maintained in the ceca of the hamsters. The possible correlation of these findings to human cases of cephalosporin-induced pseudomembranous colitis is discussed. PMID:6973951

  20. Eggs: good or bad?

    PubMed

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  1. Golden hamster: quantitative anatomy with age

    SciT

    Thomas, R.G.; London, J.E.; Drake, G.A.

    1979-10-01

    The Syrian (golden) hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, is used widely in biomedical research, particularly in experimental carcinogenesis. The data presented here, a relatively complete addition to data already in print, give standard values for tissues and blood components for the conditions at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico. This study delineates median values for the tissues and blood parameters versus the time from weaning through 18 months of age.

  2. DIETARY BAKED EGG ACCELERATES RESOLUTION OF EGG ALLERGY IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Stephanie A.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Noone, Sally; Moshier, Erin L.; Godbold, James; Nowak-Wȩgrzyn, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background Baked egg is tolerated by a majority of egg-allergic children. Objective To characterize immunologic changes associated with ingestion of baked egg and evaluate the role that baked egg diets plays in the development of tolerance to regular egg. Methods Egg-allergic subjects who tolerated baked egg challenge incorporated baked egg into their diet. Immunologic parameters were measured at follow-up visits. A comparison group strictly avoiding egg was used to evaluate the natural history of the development of tolerance. Results Of the 79 subjects in the intent-to-treat group followed for a median of 37.8 months, 89% now tolerate baked egg and 53% now tolerate regular egg. Of 23 initial baked egg-reactive subjects, 14 (61%) subsequently tolerated baked egg and 6 (26%) now tolerate regular egg. Within the initially baked egg-reactive group, subjects with persistent reactivity to baked egg had higher median baseline egg white (EW)-specific IgE levels (13.5 kUA/L) than those who subsequently tolerated baked egg (4.4 kUA/L; P=0.04) and regular egg (3.1 kUA/L, P=0.05). In subjects ingesting baked egg, EW-induced SPT wheal diameter and EW-, ovalbumin-, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels decreased significantly, while ovalbumin- and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels increased significantly. Subjects in the per-protocol group were 14.6 times more likely to develop regular egg tolerance than subjects in the comparison group (P < 0.0001), and they developed tolerance earlier (median 50.0 versus 78.7 months; P<0.0001). Conclusion Initiation of a baked egg diet accelerates the development of regular egg tolerance compared to strict avoidance. Higher serum EW-specific IgE level is associated with persistent baked and regular egg reactivity, while initial baked egg reactivity is not. PMID:22846751

  3. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen so...

  4. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried eggs. 160.105 Section 160.105 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.105 Dried eggs. (a) Dried eggs, dried whole eggs are prepared by drying liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115...

  5. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing...

  6. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen so...

  7. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing...

  8. Decreased adult neurogenesis in hibernating Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    León-Espinosa, Gonzalo; García, Esther; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Hernández, Félix; DeFelipe, Javier; Ávila, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Generation of new neurons from adult neural stem cells occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles. In this article, we study the neurogenesis that takes place during the hibernation of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Using a variety of standard neurogenesis markers and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, we describe a preferential decrease in the proliferation of newborn neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the hibernating hamsters (torpor) rather than in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proliferative capacity is recovered after 3-4days of torpor when arousal is triggered under natural conditions (i.e., not artificially provoked). In addition, we show that tau3R, a tau isoform with three microtubule-binding domains, is a suitable marker to study neurogenesis both in the SVZ and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the Syrian hamster brain. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. IRRADIATION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS

    SciT

    Brooks, J.; Hannan, R.S.; Hobbs, B.C.

    It has been known for some time that egg products may contain members of the Salmonella group capable of causing food poisoning, and the position has been rendered more serious by the recent discovery of S. paratyphi B in some of the samples of egg products. Attempts to destroy salmonellae in liquid egg by pasteurization before freezing or drying have met with considerable success but the process requires careful control. The tins in which the frozen product is distributed hold up to 20 kg, and are therefore of a size suitable for treatment with gamma -radiation. After treatment of smallmore » samples of frozen whole egg with 2 Mev cathode rays it was concluded that a dose of about O.3 to 0.5 Mrad would destroy the numbers of salmonellae normally encountered in the product without impairing the baking qualities of the material. Whole tins, each containing 10 kg of infected material, were therefore irradiated in the frozen state with Co/sup 60/ gamma -rays. Two tins were treated at each of three dose levels of 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 Mrad. No salmonellae were detected in duplicate samples of 25 g of material taken from each of the tins after irradiation. If the effectiveness of the treatment is confirmed, the process has obvious attractions since it dispenses with the need to thaw or otherwise to handle the product. The paper also contains a general discussion on the irradiation of eggs and egg products. (auth)« less

  10. Egg Bungee Jump!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…

  11. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  12. Food Crystalization and Eggs

    Food Crystalization and Eggs Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. USDA Agricultural Research Service Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit Athens, Georgia, USA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a foo...

  13. EGG: Empirical Galaxy Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, C.; Elbaz, D.; Pannella, M.; Merlin, E.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Bourne, N.; Boutsia, K.; Cullen, F.; Dunlop, J.; Ferguson, H. C.; Michałowski, M. J.; Okumura, K.; Santini, P.; Shu, X. W.; Wang, T.; White, C.

    2018-04-01

    The Empirical Galaxy Generator (EGG) generates fake galaxy catalogs and images with realistic positions, morphologies and fluxes from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared. The catalogs are generated by egg-gencat and stored in binary FITS tables (column oriented). Another program, egg-2skymaker, is used to convert the generated catalog into ASCII tables suitable for ingestion by SkyMaker (ascl:1010.066) to produce realistic high resolution images (e.g., Hubble-like), while egg-gennoise and egg-genmap can be used to generate the low resolution images (e.g., Herschel-like). These tools can be used to test source extraction codes, or to evaluate the reliability of any map-based science (stacking, dropout identification, etc.).

  14. Thermostability of sperm nuclei assessed by microinjection into hamster oocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclei isolated from spermatozoa of various species (golden hamster, mouse, human, rooster, and the fish tilapia) were heated at 60 degrees-125 degrees C for 20-120 min and then microinjected into hamster oocytes to determine whether they could decondense and develop into pronucl...

  15. Characteristics of 263K Scrapie Agent in Multiple Hamster Species

    PubMed Central

    Barbian, Kent D.; Race, Brent; Favara, Cynthia; Gardner, Don; Taubner, Lara; Porcella, Stephen; Race, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases are known to cross species barriers, but the pathologic and biochemical changes that occur during transmission are not well understood. To better understand these changes, we infected 6 hamster species with 263K hamster scrapie strain and, after each of 3 successive passages in the new species, analyzed abnormal proteinase K (PK)–resistant prion protein (PrPres) glycoform ratios, PrPres PK sensitivity, incubation periods, and lesion profiles. Unique 263K molecular and biochemical profiles evolved in each of the infected hamster species. Characteristics of 263K in the new hamster species seemed to correlate best with host factors rather than agent strain. Furthermore, 2 polymorphic regions of the prion protein amino acid sequence correlated with profile differences in these TSE-infected hamster species. PMID:19193264

  16. Neurochemistry of olivocochlear neurons in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Reuss, Stefan; Disque-Kaiser, Ursula; Antoniou-Lipfert, Patricia; Gholi, Maryam Najaf; Riemann, Elke; Riemann, Randolf

    2009-04-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the superior olivary complex (SOC) of the lower brain stem in the pigmented Djungarian hamster Phodopus sungorus. Using Nissl-stained serial cryostat sections from fresh-frozen brains, we determined the borders of the SOC nuclei. We also identified olivocochlear (OC) neurons by retrograde neuronal tracing upon injection of Fluoro-Gold into the scala tympani. To evaluate the SOC as a putative source of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin (OT), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) that were all found in the cochlea, we conducted immunohistochemistry on sections exhibiting retrogradely labeled neurons. We did not observe AVP-, OT-, or VIP-immunoreactivity, neither in OC neurons nor in the SOC at all, revealing that cochlear AVP, OT, and VIP are of nonolivary origin. However, we found nNOS, the enzyme responsible for nitric oxide synthesis in neurons, and PACAP in neuronal perikarya of the SOC. Retrogradely labeled neurons of the lateral olivocochlear (LOC) system in the lateral superior olive did not contain PACAP and were only infrequently nNOS-immunoreactive. In contrast, some shell neurons and some of the medial OC (MOC) system exhibited immunofluorescence for either substance. Our data obtained from the dwarf hamster Phodopus sungorus confirm previous observations that a part of the LOC system is nitrergic. They further demonstrate that the medial olivocochlear system is partly nitrergic and use PACAP as neurotransmitter or modulator.

  17. Circadian rhythms accelerate wound healing in female Siberian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Erin J.; Onishi, Kenneth G.; Prendergast, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms (CRs) provide temporal regulation and coordination of numerous physiological traits, including immune function. CRs in multiple aspects of immune function are absent in rodents that have been rendered circadian-arrhythmic through various methods. In Siberian hamsters, circadian arrhythmia can be induced by disruptive light treatments (DPS). Here we examined CRs in wound healing, and the effects of circadian disruption on wound healing in DPS-arrhythmic hamsters. Circadian entrained/rhythmic (RHYTH) and behaviorally-arrhythmic (ARR) female hamsters were administered a cutaneous wound either 3 h after light onset (ZT03) or 2 h after dark onset (ZT18); wound size was quantified daily using image analyses. Among RHYTH hamsters, ZT03 wounds healed faster than ZT18 wounds, whereas in ARR hamsters, circadian phase did not affect wound healing. In addition, wounds healed slower in ARR hamsters. The results document a clear CR in wound healing, and indicate that the mere presence of organismal circadian organization enhances this aspect of immune function. Faster wound healing in CR-competent hamsters may be mediated by CR-driven coordination of the temporal order of mechanisms (inflammation, leukocyte trafficking, tissue remodeling) underlying cutaneous wound healing. PMID:27998755

  18. Dietary baked egg accelerates resolution of egg allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Noone, Sally; Moshier, Erin L; Godbold, James; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2012-08-01

    Baked egg is tolerated by a majority of egg-allergic children. To characterize immunologic changes associated with ingestion of baked egg and evaluate the role that baked egg diets play in the development of tolerance to regular egg. Egg-allergic subjects who tolerated baked egg challenge incorporated baked egg into their diet. Immunologic parameters were measured at follow-up visits. A comparison group strictly avoiding egg was used to evaluate the natural history of the development of tolerance. Of the 79 subjects in the intent-to-treat group followed for a median of 37.8 months, 89% now tolerate baked egg and 53% now tolerate regular egg. Of 23 initially baked egg-reactive subjects, 14 (61%) subsequently tolerated baked egg and 6 (26%) now tolerate regular egg. Within the initially baked egg-reactive group, subjects with persistent reactivity to baked egg had higher median baseline egg white (EW)-specific IgE levels (13.5 kU(A)/L) than those who subsequently tolerated baked egg (4.4 kU(A)/L; P= .04) and regular egg (3.1 kU(A)/L; P= .05). In subjects ingesting baked egg, EW-induced skin prick test wheal diameter and EW-, ovalbumin-, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels decreased significantly, while ovalbumin- and ovomucoid-specific IgG(4) levels increased significantly. Subjects in the per-protocol group were 14.6 times more likely than subjects in the comparison group (P< .0001) to develop regular egg tolerance, and they developed tolerance earlier (median 50.0 vs 78.7 months; P< .0001). Initiation of a baked egg diet accelerates the development of regular egg tolerance compared with strict avoidance. Higher serum EW-specific IgE level is associated with persistent baked and regular egg reactivity, while initial baked egg reactivity is not. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports...

  20. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports...

  1. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microcracks in eggs.

    PubMed

    Bain, M M; MacLeod, N; Thomson, R; Hancock, J W

    2006-11-01

    An experimental program of mechanical testing has shown that microcracks initiate in hens' eggs at loads less than that necessary to cause total structural failure. In contact loading, computational modeling and numerical analysis show that very high stress levels develop on the inner surface of the eggshell as it conforms to a hard contact surface. This causes a series of microcracks to initiate at the inner surface of the shell and radiate out from the load site. A series of concentric circumferential microcracks also develop beneath the cuticle from the edge of the contact zone. Calculations relating to the eggshells' dynamic response indicate that microcracks have a little effect on the structural stiffness and resonant frequencies of the egg. As a result, microcracks are unlikely to be detected by online crack detection systems, which rely on mechanical excitation. Eggs in retail outlets are likely to contain microcracks as a result of insults experienced during the collection, grading, and packing processes. Because the eggshell forms the first line of defense against potentially pathogenic microorganisms entering the egg contents, microcracks could potentially compromise egg safety.

  3. Immune response in the hamster: definition of a novel IgG not expressed in all hamster strains.

    PubMed Central

    Coe, J E; Schell, R F; Ross, M J

    1995-01-01

    A new IgG isotype is described in serum from Syrian hamsters. This 7S-IgG is called IgG3 and was isolated from IgG1 and IgG2 because of its great affinity for protein A. The unique antigenic determinants of IgG3 were identified with a specific rabbit antisera. IgG3 is the least expressed IgG subclass in Syrian hamsters, but serum levels increase more than 10-fold after immunization or infection. Although found in all tested outbred strains, IgG3 is expressed in only some of the commercially available inbred strains of Syrian hamsters. Five inbred hamster strains were examined, and in three strains (CB, LHC and MHA) IgG3 was not detected in normal serum or in immune serum, indicating serum levels at least 100-fold less than other normal inbred/outbred hamsters. The results of breeding experiments suggests a single gene defect is responsible for this non-expression of IgG3. Immunodeficiency was not associated with this IgG3 deficiency. Selective deficiencies of immunoglobulin classes/subclasses in experimental animals are rare. The evolution of a similar IgG3 deficiency in these three hamster strains during inbreeding suggests a novel and efficient mechanism for regulation of IgG3 synthesis in the Syrian hamster. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7590875

  4. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs. ...

  5. A role for glucose in hypothermic hamsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. E.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1976-01-01

    Hypothermic hamsters at a rectal temperature of 7 C showed a fivefold increase in survival times from 20 to 100.5 hr when infused with glucose which maintained a blood level at about 45 mg/100 ml. A potential role for osmotic effects of the infusion was tested and eliminated. There was no improvement in survival of 3-O-methylglucose or dextran 40-infused animals. The fact that death eventually occurs even in the glucose-infused animal after about 4 days and that oxygen consumption undergoes a slow decrement in that period suggests that hypothermic survival is not wholly substrate limited. Radioactive tracer showed that localization of the C-14 was greatest in brain tissue and diaphragm, intermediate in heart and kidney, and lowest in skeletal muscle and liver. The significance of the label at sites important to respiration and circulation was presented.

  6. Current understanding of egg allergy

    PubMed Central

    Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Wang, Julie

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Egg is one of the most important allergens in childhood feeding, and egg allergy can pose quality of life concerns. A clear clinical history and the detection of egg white specific IgE will confirm the diagnosis of IgE-mediated reactions. Non-IgE-mediated symptoms such as in eosinophilic diseases of the gut might also be observed. Egg avoidance and education regarding the treatment of allergic reactions are the cornerstones of management of egg allergy. In this review, we discuss epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and natural history of egg allergy. PMID:21453811

  7. Etiology of Tetracycline-Associated Pseudomembranous Colitis in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Toshniwal, Renu; Fekety, Robert; Silva, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Tetracyclines were implicated in the 1950s in induction of protracted diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Because the pathogenetic mechanism of these illnesses has been questioned recently, we studied tetracycline in hamster models of antibiotic-associated colitis. Orogastric administration of tetracycline caused diarrhea and death, with evidence of hemorrhagic typhlitis. Filtrates of cecal contents were toxic when inoculated into normal hamsters and cell culture monolayers, and toxicity was neutralized with Clostridium sordellii antitoxin. Tetracycline-resistant C. difficile was cultured from stools of these hamsters, but Staphylococcus aureus was not isolated. The value of tetracycline for treatment or prevention of clindamycin-induced colitis in hamsters was also studied, and it was found that daily orogastric administration of tetracycline was poorly protective against clindamycin-induced colitis. PMID:485127

  8. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  9. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled...

  10. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg...

  11. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation...

  12. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any State...

  13. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any State...

  14. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg...

  15. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled...

  16. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation...

  17. Fasting-induced daily torpor in desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii).

    PubMed

    Chi, Qing-Sheng; Wan, Xin-Rong; Geiser, Fritz; Wang, De-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Daily torpor is frequently expressed in small rodents when facing energetically unfavorable ambient conditions. Desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii, ~20g) appear to be an exception as they have been described as homeothermic. However, we hypothesized that they can use torpor because we observed reversible decreases of body temperature (Tb) in fasted hamsters. To test this hypothesis we (i) randomly exposed fasted summer-acclimated hamsters to ambient temperatures (Tas) ranging from 5 to 30°C or (ii) supplied them with different rations of food at Ta 23°C. All desert hamsters showed heterothermy with the lowest mean Tb of 31.4±1.9°C (minimum, 29.0°C) and 31.8±2.0°C (minimum, 29.0°C) when fasted at Ta of 23°C and 19°C, respectively. Below Ta 19°C, the lowest Tb and metabolic rate increased and the proportion of hamsters using heterothermy declined. At Ta 5°C, nearly all hamsters remained normothermic by increasing heat production, suggesting that the heterothermy only occurs in moderately cold conditions, perhaps to avoid freezing at extremely low Tas. During heterothermy, Tbs below 31°C with metabolic rates below 25% of those during normothermia were detected in four individuals at Ta of 19°C and 23°C. Consequently, by definition, our observations confirm that fasted desert hamsters are capable of shallow daily torpor. The negative correlation between the lowest Tbs and amount of food supply shows that heterothermy was mainly triggered by food shortage. Our data indicate that summer-acclimated desert hamsters can express fasting-induced shallow daily torpor, which may be of significance for energy conservation and survival in the wild. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pineal-Induced Depression of Free Thyroxine in Syrian Hamsters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    activation by blind- ness in Syrian hamsters, can influence free 14 concentration. MATERIALS AND METHODS Male golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus...considered that the changes in T4 passively result from pineal- induced hypogonadism and the possible resultant effects on T4 serum bind- ing proteins...the presence of pineal-induced hypogonadism and that, like T4 and FT41, -• ’. 328 Vaughan and Pruitt TESrE S PROSTATE 0.6 80- 20 gn Mgm ,... =_ 9 Mg_

  19. [Rabies in the common hamster (Cricetus cricetus) in Slovakia].

    PubMed

    Svrcek, S; Ondrejka, R; Mlynarcíková, K; Svec, J

    1984-11-01

    The trials were conducted within the full-scale research on the ecology of lyssa virus. In a period of the mass outbreak of common hamster population in the East Slovakian region, 283 hamsters were examined for rabies. Using the direct immunofluorescence method (DIFM), the rabies antigen was detected in the brain of five hamsters. Three virus strains (denoted as 3 O, 7 E, 9 E) were isolated by means of the inoculation test on sucking mice. On the basis of the detection of the nucleo-protein antigen by DIFM, or its inhibition, detection of the Babes-Negri bodies, determination of the neutralization index, titration on mice and determination of incubation time, the isolated strains were identified as the street strains of rabies virus. As determined by further detailed studies on biological characteristics (determination of the invasiveness index on animals with different susceptibility to rabies virus, determination of pathogenicity for different species of laboratory animals, different weight categories, with different methods of administration, invasiveness index), the "hamster" strains are included among those of intermediate virulence or reduced virulence. At intramuscular administration, the most virulent of the three "hamster" strains studied (3 O) induces a fatal course of rabies in common fox and cat; for wolves, dogs and rabbits it is apathogenic. This strain is also contained in the salivary glands of foxes and cats. In immunofluorescent detection of the rabies nucleoprotein antigen, the "hamster" strains formed a mixed picture of fluorescing particles, characteristic of street strains.

  20. Hatching Eggs in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    This article provides detailed instructions on how to hatch chicken eggs. Sections include: (1) making the incubator; (2) making the brooder; (3) guidelines for hatching eggs; (4) from incubator to brooder; and (5) recommended readings. (JMK)

  1. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG...

  2. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG...

  3. Induction of Protective Immune Responses Against Schistosomiasis haematobium in Hamsters and Mice Using Cysteine Peptidase-Based Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Tallima, Hatem; Dalton, John P.; El Ridi, Rashika

    2015-01-01

    One of the major lessons we learned from the radiation-attenuated cercariae vaccine studies is that protective immunity against schistosomiasis is dependent on the induction of T helper (Th)1-/Th2-related immune responses. Since most schistosome larval and adult-worm-derived molecules used for vaccination uniformly induce a polarized Th1 response, it was essential to include a type 2 immune response-inducing molecule, such as cysteine peptidases, in the vaccine formula. Here, we demonstrate that a single subcutaneous injection of Syrian hamsters with 200 μg active papain, 1 h before percutaneous exposure to 150 cercariae of Schistosoma haematobium, led to highly significant (P < 0.005) reduction of >50% in worm burden and worm egg counts in intestine. Immunization of hamsters with 20 μg recombinant glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (rSG3PDH) and 20 μg 2-cys peroxiredoxin-derived peptide in a multiple antigen peptide construct (PRX MAP) together with papain (20 μg/hamster), as adjuvant led to considerable (64%) protection against challenge S. haematobium infection, similar to the levels reported with irradiated cercariae. Cysteine peptidases-based vaccination was also effective in protecting outbred mice against a percutaneous challenge infection with S. haematobium cercariae. In two experiments, a mixture of Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B1 (SmCB1) and Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1 (FhCL1) led to highly significant (P < 0.005) reduction of 70% in challenge S. haematobium worm burden and 60% reduction in liver egg counts. Mice vaccinated with SmCB1/FhCL1/rSG3PDH mixture and challenged with S. haematobium cercariae 3 weeks after the second immunization displayed highly significant (P < 0.005) reduction of 72% in challenge worm burden and no eggs in liver of 8–10 mice/group, as compared to unimmunized mice, associated with production of a mixture of type 1- and type 2-related cytokines and antibody responses. PMID:25852696

  4. Evaluation of Biochemical, Hematological and Parasitological Parameters of Protein-Deficient Hamsters Infected with Ancylostoma ceylanicum

    PubMed Central

    Pacanaro, Carina P.; Dias, Sílvia R.; Serafim, Luciana R.; Costa, Mariana P.; Aguilar, Edenil; Paes, Paulo R.; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I.; Rabelo, Élida M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hookworms infect millions of people worldwide and can cause severe clinical symptoms in their hosts. Prospective cohort studies in Brazil show high rates of hookworm reinfection in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children, despite previous treatment. Additionally, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can worsen the nutritional status of affected populations. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the effects of host malnutrition during Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection and how this infection affects host physiological parameters using a hamster model. Methodology/Principal Findings Hamsters were divided into four experimental groups: normal diet or low-protein diet (also referred to as “malnourished”) and A. ceylanicum infection or no infection. More severe pathogenesis was observed in the infected malnourished group, as demonstrated by significant decreases in the hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte number and packed-cell volume compared to the non-infected malnourished group. Greater numbers of adult parasites and eggs were observed in the malnourished group compared to the control group; however, the oviposition rate was lower in the malnourished group. In general, greater values of total lipids were observed in malnourished animals compared to control animals, including lipids excreted in the stool. Conclusions In this work, we have demonstrated that animals fed an isocaloric low-protein diet presented more severe pathogenesis when infected with A. ceylanicum. The increased lipid concentration in the liver and blood is related to the conversion of the excess carbohydrate into fatty acids that increase the concentration of triglycerides in general. Triglycerides were excreted in the feces, indicating that infection associated with malnutrition caused a greater loss of these molecules for this group of animals and confirming the hypothesis that both nutrition and infection are responsible for the malabsorption syndrome. Taken

  5. The hamster flank organ model: Is it relevant to man

    SciT

    Franz, T.J.; Lehman, P.A.; Pochi, P.

    1989-10-01

    The critical role that androgens play in the etiology of acne has led to a search for topically active antiandrogens and the frequent use of the flank organ of the golden Syrian hamster as an animal model. 17-alpha-propyltestosterone (17-PT) has been identified as having potent antiandrogenic activity in the hamster model, and this report describes its clinical evaluation. Two double-blind placebo controlled studies comparing 4% 17-PT in 80% alcohol versus vehicle alone were conducted. One study examined 17-PT sebosuppressive activity in 20 subjects. The second study examined its efficacy in 44 subjects having mild to moderate acne. A third studymore » measured in vitro percutaneous absorption of 17-PT through hamster flank and monkey skin, and human face skin in-vivo, using radioactive drug. 17-PT was found to be ineffective in reducing either the sebum excretion rate or the number of inflammatory acne lesions. Failure of 17-PT to show clinical activity was not a result of poor percutaneous absorption. Total absorption in man was 7.7% of the dose and only 1.0% in the hamster. The sebaceous gland of hamster flank organ is apparently more sensitive to antiandrogens than the human sebaceous gland.« less

  6. Regulation of lipid metabolism by obeticholic acid in hyperlipidemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bin; Young, Mark; Liu, Xueqing; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Liu, Jingwen

    2017-02-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays critical roles in plasma cholesterol metabolism, in particular HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) homeostasis. Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a FXR agonist being developed for treating various chronic liver diseases. Previous studies reported inconsistent effects of OCA on regulating plasma cholesterol levels in different animal models and in different patient populations. The mechanisms underlying its divergent effects have not yet been thoroughly investigated. The scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is a FXR-modulated gene and the major receptor for HDL-C. We investigated the effects of OCA on hepatic SR-BI expression and correlated such effects with plasma HDL-C levels and hepatic cholesterol efflux in hyperlipidemic hamsters. We demonstrated that OCA induced a time-dependent reduction in serum HDL-C levels after 14 days of treatment, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of liver cholesterol content and increases in fecal cholesterol in OCA-treated hamsters. Importantly, hepatic SR-BI mRNA and protein levels in hamsters were increased to 1.9- and 1.8-fold of control by OCA treatment. Further investigations in normolipidemic hamsters did not reveal OCA-induced changes in serum HDL-C levels or hepatic SR-BI expression. We conclude that OCA reduces plasma HDL-C levels and promotes transhepatic cholesterol efflux in hyperlipidemic hamsters via a mechanism involving upregulation of hepatic SR-BI.

  7. The Syrian hamster model of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Safronetz, David; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz; Hooper, Jay W

    2012-09-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a relatively rare, but frequently fatal disease associated with New World hantaviruses, most commonly Sin Nombre and Andes viruses in North and South America, respectively. It is characterized by fever and the sudden, rapid onset of severe respiratory distress and cardiogenic shock, which can be fatal in up to 50% of cases. Currently there are no approved antiviral therapies or vaccines for the treatment or prevention of HPS. A major obstacle in the development of effective medical countermeasures against highly pathogenic agents like the hantaviruses is recapitulating the human disease as closely as possible in an appropriate and reliable animal model. To date, the only animal model that resembles HPS in humans is the Syrian hamster model. Following infection with Andes virus, hamsters develop HPS-like disease which faithfully mimics the human condition with respect to incubation period and pathophysiology of disease. Perhaps most importantly, the sudden and rapid onset of severe respiratory distress observed in humans also occurs in hamsters. The last several years has seen an increase in studies utilizing the Andes virus hamster model which have provided unique insight into HPS pathogenesis as well as potential therapeutic and vaccine strategies to treat and prevent HPS. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of HPS disease progression in Syrian hamsters and discuss the suitability of utilizing this model to evaluate potential medical countermeasures against HPS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular analysis of peroxisome proliferation in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Agharul I; Sims, Helen M; Horley, Neill J; Roberts, Ruth A; Tomlinson, Simon R; Salter, Andrew M; Bruce, Mary; Shaw, P Nicholas; Kendall, David; Barrett, David A; Bell, David R

    2004-05-15

    Three novel P450 members of the cytochrome P450 4A family were cloned as partial cDNAs from hamster liver, characterised as novel members of the CYP4A subfamily, and designated CYP4A17, 18, and 19. Hamsters were treated with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonists, methylclofenapate (MCP) or Wy-14,643, and shown to develop hepatomegaly and induction of CYP4A17 RNA, and concomitant induction of lauric acid 12- hydroxylase. This treatment also resulted in hypolipidaemia, which was most pronounced in the VLDL fraction, with up to 50% reduction in VLDL-triglycerides; by contrast, blood cholesterol concentration was unaffected by this treatment. These data show that hamster is highly responsive to induction of CYP4A by peroxisome proliferators. To characterise the molecular basis of peroxisome proliferation, the hamster PPARalpha was cloned and shown to encode a 468-amino-acid protein, which is highly similar to rat and mouse PPARalpha proteins. The level of expression of hamster PPARalpha in liver is intermediate between mouse and guinea pig. These results fail to support the hypothesis that the level of PPARalpha in liver is directly responsible for species differences in peroxisome proliferation.

  9. Black tea extract and dental caries formation in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Linke, Harald A B; LeGeros, Racquel Z

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that green tea and Oolong tea extracts have antibacterial and anticariogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a standardized black tea extract (BTE) on caries formation in inbred hamsters on a regular and a cariogenic diet. Eighty hamsters were divided into four groups of 20 animals each. Two groups received a pelleted regular diet (LabChow) with water or BTE ad libitum. The other two groups received a powdered cariogenic diet (Diet 2000, containing 56% sucrose) with water or BTE ad libitum. The animals were kept for 3 months on their respective diets and then were sacrificed. The heads were retained, the jaws were prepared and stained using alizarin mordant red II, and were then scored for dental caries according to the Keyes method. This is the first study indicating that BTE, as compared with water, significantly decreased caries formation by 56.6% in hamsters on a regular diet and by 63.7% in hamsters on a cariogenic diet (P < 0.05). In the cariogenic diet group BTE, reduced the mandibular caries score of the hamsters slightly more than the maxillary caries score. The fluoride content of the standardized BTE solution was frequently monitored during the experiment; the mean fluoride concentration was found to be 4.22 ppm. A frequent intake of black tea can significantly decrease caries formation, even in the presence of sugars in the diet.

  10. The Syrian hamster model of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Safronetz, David; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz; Hooper, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a relatively rare, but frequently fatal disease associated with New World hantaviruses, most commonly Sin Nombre and Andes viruses in North and South America, respectively. It is characterized by fever and the sudden, rapid onset of severe respiratory distress and cardiogenic shock, which can be fatal in up to 50% of cases. Currently there are no approved antiviral therapies or vaccines for the treatment or prevention of HPS. A major obstacle in the development of effective medical countermeasures against highly pathogenic agents like the hantaviruses is recapitulating the human disease as closely as possible in an appropriate and reliable animal model. To date, the only animal model that resembles HPS in humans is the Syrian hamster model. Following infection with Andes virus, hamsters develop HPS-like disease which faithfully mimics the human condition with respect to incubation period and pathophysiology of disease. Perhaps most importantly, the sudden and rapid onset of severe respiratory distress observed in humans also occurs in hamsters. The last several years has seen an increase in studies utilizing the Andes virus hamster model which have provided unique insight into HPS pathogenesis as well as potential therapeutic and vaccine strategies to treat and prevent HPS. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of HPS disease progression in Syrian hamsters and discuss the suitability of utilizing this model to evaluate potential medical countermeasures against HPS. PMID:22705798

  11. Hamster and Murine Models of Severe Destructive Lyme Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Munson, Erik; Nardelli, Dean T.; Du Chateau, Brian K.; Callister, Steven M.; Schell, Ronald F.

    2012-01-01

    Arthritis is a frequent complication of infection in humans with Borrelia burgdorferi. Weeks to months following the onset of Lyme borreliosis, a histopathological reaction characteristic of synovitis including bone, joint, muscle, or tendon pain may occur. A subpopulation of patients may progress to a chronic, debilitating arthritis months to years after infection which has been classified as severe destructive Lyme arthritis. This arthritis involves focal bone erosion and destruction of articular cartilage. Hamsters and mice are animal models that have been utilized to study articular manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Infection of immunocompetent LSH hamsters or C3H mice results in a transient synovitis. However, severe destructive Lyme arthritis can be induced by infecting irradiated hamsters or mice and immunocompetent Borrelia-vaccinated hamsters, mice, and interferon-gamma- (IFN-γ-) deficient mice with viable B. burgdorferi. The hamster model of severe destructive Lyme arthritis facilitates easy assessment of Lyme borreliosis vaccine preparations for deleterious effects while murine models of severe destructive Lyme arthritis allow for investigation of mechanisms of immunopathology. PMID:22461836

  12. Isolation, antimicrobial activities, and primary structures of hamster neutrophil defensins.

    PubMed Central

    Mak, P; Wójcik, K; Thogersen, I B; Dubin, A

    1996-01-01

    Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) neutrophil granules contain at least four microbicidal peptides belonging to the defensin family. These compounds were purified from granule acid extracts by reverse-phase chromatography and termed HaNP-1 to -4 (hamster neutrophil peptide). HaNP-1 and HaNP-3 revealed the most bactericidal activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.3 to 0.8 microg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes strains. The HaNP-4 was always isolated in concentrations exceeding about 10 times the concentrations of other hamster peptides, but its antibacterial activity as well as that of HaNP-2 was relatively lower, probably as a result of conserved Arg residue substitutions. Other microorganisms were also tested, and generally, hamster defensins exhibited less potency against gram-negative bacteria. The amino acid sequence of hamster defensins showed a high percentage of identity to the sequence of mouse enteric defensins, reaching about 60% identical residues in the case of HaNP-3 and cryptdin 3. PMID:8890190

  13. Pineal melatonin synthesis in Syrian hamsters: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollag, M. D.

    1982-12-01

    During the past decade there has been ample documentation of the proposition that the pineal gland mediates photoperiodic influences upon reproductive behavior of hamsters. It is commonly hypothesized that the pineal gland expresses its activity by transformation of photoperiodic information into an hormonal output, that hormone being melatonin. If this hypothesis is correct, there must be some essential diffrence in melatonin's output when hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic environments. The experiments summarized in this communication analyze pineal melatonin contents in Syrian hamsters maintained in a variety of photoperiodic conditions during different physiological states. The results demonstrate that adult hamsters have a daily surge in pineal melatonin content throughout their lifetime when exposed to simulated annual photoperiodic cycles. There is some fluctuation in the amount of pineal melatonin produced during different physiological states and photoperiodic environments, but these fluctuations seem small when compared to those normally found for other regulatory hormones. When hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic regimens, the daily melatonin surge maintains a relatively constant phase relationship with respect to the onset of daily activity. There is a concomitant change in its phase relationship with respect to light-dark transitions.

  14. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal Welfare...

  15. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal Welfare...

  16. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal Welfare...

  17. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal Welfare...

  18. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal Welfare...

  19. A Syrian Golden Hamster Model Recapitulating Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Ebihara, Hideki; Zivcec, Marko; Gardner, Donald; Falzarano, Darryl; LaCasse, Rachel; Rosenke, Rebecca; Long, Dan; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Elizabeth; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a severe viral infection for which no effective treatment or vaccine is currently available. While the nonhuman primate (NHP) model is used for final evaluation of experimental vaccines and therapeutic efficacy, rodent models have been widely used in ebolavirus research because of their convenience. However, the validity of rodent models has been questioned given their low predictive value for efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics, a result of the inconsistent manifestation of coagulopathy seen in EHF. Here, we describe a lethal Syrian hamster model of EHF using mouse-adapted Ebola virus. Infected hamsters displayed most clinical hallmarks of EHF, including severe coagulopathy and uncontrolled host immune responses. Thus, the hamster seems to be superior to the existing rodent models, offering a better tool for understanding the critical processes in pathogenesis and providing a new model for evaluating prophylactic and postexposure interventions prior to testing in NHPs. PMID:23045629

  20. Arnica Tincture Cures Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Golden Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Sara M; Vélez, Ivan D; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2018-01-12

    In search for potential therapeutic alternatives to existing treatments for cutaneous Leishmaniasis, we have investigated the effect of Arnica tincture Ph. Eur. (a 70% hydroethanolic tincture prepared from flowerheads of Arnica montana L.) on the lesions caused by infection with Leishmania braziliensis in a model with golden hamsters. The animals were treated topically with a daily single dose of the preparation for 28 days. Subsequently, the healing process was monitored by recording the lesion size in intervals of 15 days up to day 90. As a result, Arnica tincture fully cured three out of five hamsters while one animal showed an improvement and another one suffered from a relapse. This result was slightly better than that obtained with the positive control, meglumine antimonate, which cured two of five hamsters while the other three showed a relapse after 90 days. This result encourages us to further investigate the potential of Arnica tincture in the treatment of cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

  1. A Syrian golden hamster model recapitulating ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Hideki; Zivcec, Marko; Gardner, Donald; Falzarano, Darryl; LaCasse, Rachel; Rosenke, Rebecca; Long, Dan; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Elizabeth; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-15

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a severe viral infection for which no effective treatment or vaccine is currently available. While the nonhuman primate (NHP) model is used for final evaluation of experimental vaccines and therapeutic efficacy, rodent models have been widely used in ebolavirus research because of their convenience. However, the validity of rodent models has been questioned given their low predictive value for efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics, a result of the inconsistent manifestation of coagulopathy seen in EHF. Here, we describe a lethal Syrian hamster model of EHF using mouse-adapted Ebola virus. Infected hamsters displayed most clinical hallmarks of EHF, including severe coagulopathy and uncontrolled host immune responses. Thus, the hamster seems to be superior to the existing rodent models, offering a better tool for understanding the critical processes in pathogenesis and providing a new model for evaluating prophylactic and postexposure interventions prior to testing in NHPs.

  2. Ultrastructural organization of the hamster renal pelvis.

    PubMed

    Lacy, E R; Schmidt-Nielsen, B

    1979-08-01

    The renal pelvis of the hamster has been studied by light microscopy (epoxy resin sections), transmission electron microscopy, and morphometric analysis of electron micrographs. Three morphologically distinct epithelia line the pelvis, and each covers a different zone of the kidney. A thin epithelium covering the outer medulla (OM) consists of two cell types: (1) granular cells are most numerous and have apically positioned granules which stain intensely with toluidine blue, are membrane-bound, and contain a fine particulate matter that stains light grey to black in electron micrographs. (2) Basal cells do not have granules, are confined to the basal lamina region, and do not reach the mucosal epithelial surface. The inner medulla (IM) is covered by a pelvic epithelium morphologically similar to collecting duct epithelium of IM. Some cells in this portion of the pelvic epithelium (IM) stain intensely dark with toluidine blue, osmium tetroxide, lead, and uranyl acetate. Transitional epithelium, which separates cortex (C) from pelvic urine, has an asymmetric luminal plasma membrane and discoid vesicles, each of which is similar to those previously observed in mammalian ureter and urinary bladder epithelia. Based on morphological comparisons with other epithelia, the IM and OM pelvic epithelia would appear permeable to solutes and/or water, while the transitional epithelium covering the C appears relatively impermeable. It would also appear that the exchange of solutes and water between pelvic urine and OM would involve capillaries, primarily, since morphometric analysis showed that both fenestrated and continuous capillaries of the OM were extremely abundant (greater than 60% of OM pelvic surface area) just under the thin pelvic epithelium.

  3. Egg Phospholipids and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Blesso, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are a major source of phospholipids (PL) in the Western diet. Dietary PL have emerged as a potential source of bioactive lipids that may have widespread effects on pathways related to inflammation, cholesterol metabolism, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function. Based on pre-clinical studies, egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin appear to regulate cholesterol absorption and inflammation. In clinical studies, egg PL intake is associated with beneficial changes in biomarkers related to HDL reverse cholesterol transport. Recently, egg PC was shown to be a substrate for the generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbe-dependent metabolite associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. More research is warranted to examine potential serum TMAO responses with chronic egg ingestion and in different populations, such as diabetics. In this review, the recent basic science, clinical, and epidemiological findings examining egg PL intake and risk of CVD are summarized. PMID:25871489

  4. Foodborne transmission of nipah virus in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Emmie; Prescott, Joseph; Falzarano, Darryl; Bushmaker, Trenton; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J

    2014-03-01

    Since 2001, outbreaks of Nipah virus have occurred almost every year in Bangladesh with high case-fatality rates. Epidemiological data suggest that in Bangladesh, Nipah virus is transmitted from the natural reservoir, fruit bats, to humans via consumption of date palm sap contaminated by bats, with subsequent human-to-human transmission. To experimentally investigate this epidemiological association between drinking of date palm sap and human cases of Nipah virus infection, we determined the viability of Nipah virus (strain Bangladesh/200401066) in artificial palm sap. At 22°C virus titers remained stable for at least 7 days, thus potentially allowing food-borne transmission. Next, we modeled food-borne Nipah virus infection by supplying Syrian hamsters with artificial palm sap containing Nipah virus. Drinking of 5×10⁸ TCID₅₀ of Nipah virus resulted in neurological disease in 5 out of 8 hamsters, indicating that food-borne transmission of Nipah virus can indeed occur. In comparison, intranasal (i.n.) inoculation with the same dose of Nipah virus resulted in lethal respiratory disease in all animals. In animals infected with Nipah virus via drinking, virus was detected in respiratory tissues rather than in the intestinal tract. Using fluorescently labeled Nipah virus particles, we showed that during drinking, a substantial amount of virus is deposited in the lungs, explaining the replication of Nipah virus in the respiratory tract of these hamsters. Besides the ability of Nipah virus to infect hamsters via the drinking route, Syrian hamsters infected via that route transmitted the virus through direct contact with naïve hamsters in 2 out of 24 transmission pairs. Although these findings do not directly prove that date palm sap contaminated with Nipah virus by bats is the origin of Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh, they provide the first experimental support for this hypothesis. Understanding the Nipah virus transmission cycle is essential for preventing

  5. Foodborne Transmission of Nipah Virus in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Emmie; Prescott, Joseph; Falzarano, Darryl; Bushmaker, Trenton; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2001, outbreaks of Nipah virus have occurred almost every year in Bangladesh with high case-fatality rates. Epidemiological data suggest that in Bangladesh, Nipah virus is transmitted from the natural reservoir, fruit bats, to humans via consumption of date palm sap contaminated by bats, with subsequent human-to-human transmission. To experimentally investigate this epidemiological association between drinking of date palm sap and human cases of Nipah virus infection, we determined the viability of Nipah virus (strain Bangladesh/200401066) in artificial palm sap. At 22°C virus titers remained stable for at least 7 days, thus potentially allowing food-borne transmission. Next, we modeled food-borne Nipah virus infection by supplying Syrian hamsters with artificial palm sap containing Nipah virus. Drinking of 5×108 TCID50 of Nipah virus resulted in neurological disease in 5 out of 8 hamsters, indicating that food-borne transmission of Nipah virus can indeed occur. In comparison, intranasal (i.n.) inoculation with the same dose of Nipah virus resulted in lethal respiratory disease in all animals. In animals infected with Nipah virus via drinking, virus was detected in respiratory tissues rather than in the intestinal tract. Using fluorescently labeled Nipah virus particles, we showed that during drinking, a substantial amount of virus is deposited in the lungs, explaining the replication of Nipah virus in the respiratory tract of these hamsters. Besides the ability of Nipah virus to infect hamsters via the drinking route, Syrian hamsters infected via that route transmitted the virus through direct contact with naïve hamsters in 2 out of 24 transmission pairs. Although these findings do not directly prove that date palm sap contaminated with Nipah virus by bats is the origin of Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh, they provide the first experimental support for this hypothesis. Understanding the Nipah virus transmission cycle is essential for preventing and

  6. Egg serpins: The chicken and/or the egg dilemma.

    PubMed

    Dombre, Clara; Guyot, Nicolas; Moreau, Thierry; Monget, Philippe; Da Silva, Mylène; Gautron, Joël; Réhault-Godbert, Sophie

    2017-02-01

    Twenty-seven serpins belonging to clade A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I serpins are currently referenced in chicken genome databases. Phylogenetic analysis of chicken serpins revealed that ovalbumin (Serpinb14) and its paralogs ovalbumin-related protein Y (Serpinb14b) and ovalbumin-related protein X (Serpinb14c) are found in bird species. These clade B serpins are specifically expressed in reproductive tissues and exported in the egg where they constitute major protein components. These data suggest that these three paralogs have probably appeared in birds to face new environments and ensure the extra-uterine development of an embryo in a shell egg. Twelve other serpins have been identified in the newly produced egg, some of them having a specific distribution in the respective egg structures (eggshell, egg white, vitelline membrane and egg yolk). The physiological role of these egg serpins remain largely unexplored, but there is increasing evidence in literature or by homologies with their mammalian counterparts, that some of them participate in cell proliferation, tissue remodeling and/or angiogenesis associated with folliculogenesis and development of extraembryonic structures, eggshell biomineralization, egg defense and nutrition of the embryo. A better knowledge of the phylogenetic evolution of these 15 serpins in other oviparous species, on their egg distribution, on their regulation during embryonic development (activation/degradation/transfer) and on their functional specificity, is needed to better appreciate their role and their bird-specificity. These review shed light on the multiple possibilities that offer the avian egg model to study the role of serpins in reproduction and developmental biology. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize...

  8. ELECTRIC IMPEDANCE OF HIPPONOË EGGS

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth S.

    1935-01-01

    Alternating current resistance and capacity measurements have been made from 1.08 103 to 2.32 106 cycles per second on suspensions of unfertilized, fertilized, and swollen unfertilized eggs of the echinoderm Hipponoë esculenta. A simple method has been developed for measuring the volume concentration of eggs in a suspension. The membrane of the unfertilized egg is practically non-conducting at low frequencies and shows a static capacity of 0.87 µf/cm.2 except perhaps at the highest frequencies. The equivalent specific resistance of the egg interior is 11 times that of sea water. The membrane of the fertilized egg is practically non-conducting at low frequencies and shows a static capacity 2.5 times that of the unfertilized egg except at the higher frequencies where another reactive element produces a marked effect. The internal resistance is apparently higher than that of the unfertilized egg. The static capacity per unit area of the membrane decreases as a linear function of the surface area when the eggs are swollen in dilute sea water. In 40 per cent sea water, the capacity falls to about 75 per cent of normal. PMID:19872897

  9. Secondhand smoke induces hepatic apoptosis and fibrosis in hamster fetus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Chih-Yang; Cho, Ta-Hsiung; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Chen, Li-Jeng; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2016-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is an important health issue worldwide. Inhaling SHS during pregnancy could cause abnormalities in the internal tissues of newborns, which may then impair fetal development and even cause severe intrauterine damage and perinatal death. However, the understanding of cytopathic mechanisms of SHS by maternal passive smoking on fetus liver during pregnancy is still limited. This study analyzed the effects of high-dose SHS (SHSH) on fetus liver using a maternal passive smoking animal model. Experiments showed that hepatic matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling-positive cells were significantly increased in livers from fetuses of hamsters treated with SHSH. Similarly, expressions of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic molecules were significantly higher in livers from fetuses of hamsters exposed to SHSH. Additionally, significantly increased inflammatory proteins, including transforming growth factor β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1β, and fibrotic signaling molecules, including phosphorylated Smad2/3, SP1, and α-smooth muscle actin, were observed in the fetus livers from hamsters treated with SHSH. This study revealed that SHSH not only increased apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the livers of fetuses from hamsters exposed to SHSH but also augmented hepatic fibrosis via Smad2/3 signaling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Characterisation of monoclonal antibodies specific for hamster leukocyte differentiation molecules.

    PubMed

    Rees, Jennifer; Haig, David; Mack, Victoria; Davis, William C

    2017-01-01

    Flow cytometry was used to identify mAbs that recognize conserved epitopes on hamster leukocyte differentiation molecules (hLDM) and also to characterize mAbs developed against hLDM. Initial screening of mAbs developed against LDMs in other species yielded mAbs specific for the major histocompatibility (MHC) II molecule, CD4 and CD18. Screening of sets of mAbs developed against hLDM yielded 22 new mAbs, including additional mAbs to MHC II molecules and mAbs that recognize LDMs expressed on all leukocytes, granulocytes, all lymphocytes, all T cells, a subset of T cells, or on all B cells. Based on comparison of the pattern of expression of LDMs expressed on all hamster leukocytes with the patterns of expression of known LDMs in other species, as detected by flow cytometry (FC), four mAbs are predicted to recognize CD11a, CD44, and CD45. Cross comparison of mAbs specific for a subset of hamster T cells with a cross reactive mAb known to recognize CD4 in mice and one recognising CD8 revealed they recognize CD4. The characterization of these mAbs expands opportunities to use hamsters as an additional model species to investigate the mechanisms of immunopathogenesis of infectious diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Echinostoma revolutum: Metacercariae in Filopaludina Snails from Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam, and Adults from Experimental Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Van De, Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    We detected metacercariae of Echinostoma revolutum in Filopaludina sp. snails purchased from a local market in Nam Dinh Province for the first time in Vietnam. Adult flukes were harvested from experimentally infected hamsters at days 14 and 17 post-infection. The metacercariae were round, 170-190 µm (n=15) in diameter, with a cyst wall thickness of about 12 µm. A total of 37 collar spines were arranged around the head collar, and large excretory granules were seen in 2 canals of the excretory bladder. The 14-day old adult flukes were elongated, ventrally curved, and 5.0-7.2×0.8-1.3 mm (n=20). The head collar had a total of 37 collar spines arranged in 2 alternating rows, including 5 corner spines on each side. The cirrus sac contained a saccular seminal vesicle, a prostatic gland, and an unarmed cirrus. Two tandem testes were smooth or slightly lobed. Eggs were ovoid to elliptical, 110-118×70-75 µm. These morphological characters were similar to those of E. revolutum and E. jurini. We tentatively identified it as E. revolutum because the validity of E. jurini remains to be elucidated. The taxonomic relationship of E. revolutum and E. jurini is discussed. PMID:22355218

  12. The Eagle's EGGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    VLT ISAAC Looks for Young Stars in the Famous "Pillars of Creation" Summary Through imaging at infrared wavelengths, evidence has been found for recent star formation in the so-called "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula (also known as Messier 16 ), made famous when the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained spectacular visible-wavelength images of this object in 1995. Those huge pillars of gas and dust are being sculpted and illuminated by bright and powerful high-mass stars in the nearby NGC 6611 young stellar cluster . The Hubble astronomers suggested that perhaps even younger stars were forming inside. Using the ISAAC instrument on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , European astronomers have now made a wide-field infrared image of the Messier 16 region with excellent spatial resolution, enabling them to penetrate the obscuring dust and search for light from newly born stars . Two of the three pillars are seen to have very young, relatively massive stars in their tips. Another dozen or so lower-mass stars seem to be associated with the small "evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs)" that the Hubble astronomers had discovered scattered over the surface of the pillars. These findings bring new evidence to several key questions about how stars are born . Was the formation of these new stars triggered as the intense ultraviolet radiation from the NGC 6611 stars swept over the pillars, or were they already there? Will the new stars be prematurely cut off from surrounding gas cloud, thus stunting their growth? If the new stars have disks of gas and dust around them, will they be destroyed before they have time to form planetary systems? PR Photo 37a/01 : Full wide-field ISAAC image of the Eagle Nebula. PR Photo 37b/01 : Close-up view of the ISAAC image , showing the famous "Pillars of Creation". PR Photo 37c/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 1 . PR Photo 37d/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 2 . PR Photo 37e/01

  13. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  14. Rigid shells enhance survival of gekkotan eggs.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Robin M

    2015-11-01

    The majority of lizards and snakes produce permeable parchment-shelled eggs that require high moisture conditions for successful embryonic development. One clade of gekkotan lizards is an exception; females produce relatively impermeable rigid-shelled eggs that normally incubate successfully under low moisture conditions. I tested the hypothesis that the rigid-shell increases egg survival during incubation, but only under low moisture conditions. To test this hypothesis, I incubated rigid-shelled eggs of Chondrodactylus turneri under low and under high moisture conditions. Eggs were incubated with parchment-shelled eggs of Eublepharis macularius to insure that incubation conditions were suitable for parchment-shelled eggs. Chondrodactylus turneri eggs had very high survival (>90%) when they were incubated under low moisture conditions. In contrast, eggs incubated under high moisture conditions had low survival overall, and lower survival than those of the parchment-shelled eggs of E. macularius. Mortality of C. turneri and E. macularius eggs incubated under high moisture conditions was the result of fungal infection, a common source of egg mortality for squamates under laboratory and field conditions. These observations document high survival of rigid-shelled eggs under low moisture conditions because eggs escape from fungal infection. Highly mineralized rigid shells also make egg survival independent of moisture availability and may also provide protection from small invertebrates in nature. Enhanced egg survival could thus compensate for the low reproductive output of gekkotans that produce rigid-shelled eggs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg yolks. 160.185 Section 160.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried egg yolks. (a) Dried egg yolks, dried yolks is the food prepared by drying egg yolks that conform to...

  16. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing...

  17. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that...

  18. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that...

  19. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing...

  20. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on...

  1. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on...

  2. Polarity of the Amphibian Egg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    Amphibian egg polarity and the mechanism which generates the polarity is addressed. Of particular concern is the question of whether the activation rotation which responds to gravity is a prerequisite for normal development.

  3. Immunologic changes in children with egg allergy ingesting extensively heated egg.

    PubMed

    Lemon-Mulé, Heather; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Shreffler, Wayne G; Noone, Sally; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2008-11-01

    Prior studies have suggested that heated egg might be tolerated by some children with egg allergy. We sought to confirm tolerance of heated egg in a subset of children with egg allergy, to evaluate clinical and immunologic predictors of heated egg tolerance, to characterize immunologic changes associated with continued ingestion of heated egg, and to determine whether a diet incorporating heated egg is well tolerated. Subjects with documented IgE-mediated egg allergy underwent physician-supervised oral food challenges to extensively heated egg (in the form of a muffin and a waffle), with tolerant subjects also undergoing regular egg challenges (in a form of scrambled egg or French toast). Heated egg-tolerant subjects incorporated heated egg into their diets. Skin prick test wheal diameters and egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid IgE levels, as well as ovalbumin and ovomucoid IgG4 levels, were measured at baseline for all subjects and at 3, 6, and 12 months for those tolerant of heated egg. Sixty-four of 117 subjects tolerated heated egg, 23 tolerated regular egg, and 27 reacted to heated egg. Heated egg-reactive subjects had larger skin test wheals and greater egg white-specific, ovalbumin-specific, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels compared with heated egg- and egg-tolerant subjects. Continued ingestion of heated egg was associated with decreased skin test wheal diameters and ovalbumin-specific IgE levels and increased ovalbumin-specific and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels. The majority of subjects with egg allergy were tolerant of heated egg. Continued ingestion of heated egg was well tolerated and associated with immunologic changes that paralleled the changes observed with the development of clinical tolerance to regular egg.

  4. Skin testing with raw egg does not predict tolerance to baked egg in egg-allergic children.

    PubMed

    Turner, P J; Kumar, K; Fox, A T

    2014-11-01

    Most children with egg allergy tolerate egg in baked foods, such as cake, but tolerance cannot be predicted with conventional allergy testing. We hypothesized that the skin prick test (SPT) wheal to unprocessed raw egg might predict tolerance of baked egg at formal oral food challenge (OFC). We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the utility of SPT wheal to egg extract (EE), raw egg (RE), and the ratio of EE:RE in predicting outcome of baked-egg OFC in children presenting to our tertiary referral centers with a physician diagnosis of egg allergy and following complete egg avoidance in their diet, between 2009 and 2013. OFC were performed following a standardized protocol using baked egg in cake, to a total dose equivalent to 3g egg protein. Data were analyzed from 186 completed challenges: OFC was positive in 64 (34%) children and negative in 122 (66%). Six children experienced anaphylaxis at OFC. Children tolerant to baked egg were more likely to have a lower SPT to egg extract/raw egg and EE:RE (median 0.56) than their allergic counterparts (0.70, p < 0.05). However, ROC curve analysis demonstrated poor predictivity of challenge outcome, with AUC for SPT to egg extract, raw egg and EE:ER equal to 0.71, 0.63 and 0.60, respectively. EE:RE was not helpful in predicting outcome of baked-egg OFC. Indeed, SPT to egg extract was slightly better at predicting outcome than either SPT to raw egg or EE:RE. Unfortunately, tolerance to baked egg can only be predicted from previous history or through controlled exposure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Heat and cold acclimation in helium-cold hypothermia in the hamster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of acclimation of hamsters to high (34-35 C) and low (4-5 C) temperatures for periods up to 6 weeks on the induction of hypothermia in hamsters. Hypothermia was achieved by exposing hamsters to a helox mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen at 0 C. Hypothermic induction was most rapid (2-3 hr) in heat-acclimated hamsters and slowest (6-12 hr) in cold-acclimated hamsters. The induction period was intermediate (5-8 hr) in room temperature nonacclimated animals (controls). Survival time in hypothermia was relatable to previous temperature acclimations. The hypothesis that thermogenesis in cold-acclimated hamsters would accentuate resistance to induction of hypothermia was substantiated.

  6. Intestinal transfer of choline in rat and hamster

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, P. A.; Smyth, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    1. The transfer of choline was studied with sacs of everted intestine of rat and hamster. 2. The choline transfer can be divided into two components, a diffusion process and a saturable process. The latter plays a relatively greater part at low concentrations of choline, which include the physiological concentration in the plasma. The saturable process is better seen in the hamster than in the rat. 3. Intestinal transfer of choline is influenced by substances altering the availability of energy in the cell, and by some substances chemically or pharmacologically related to choline. These findings are consistent with some kind of specific mechanism for choline transfer. 4. Part of the choline taken up by the cell appears as a metabolite not yet identified. The formation of the metabolite is a saturable process and is abolished by anaerobic conditions and by homogenization. 5. The results are also discussed in relation to parameters of transfer. PMID:5090994

  7. Highly Virulent Leptospira borgpetersenii Strain Characterized in the Hamster Model

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Juliana Alcoforado; Félix, Samuel Rodrigues; Bonel-Raposo, Josiane; Seixas Neto, Amilton Clair Pinto; Vasconcellos, Flávia Aleixo; Grassmann, André Alex; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Aleixo, José Antonio Guimarães; da Silva, Éverton Fagonde

    2011-01-01

    A recent study by our group reported the isolation and partial serological and molecular characterization of four Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum strains. Here, we reproduced experimental leptospirosis in golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and carried out standardization of lethal dose 50% (LD50) of one of these strains (4E). Clinical disease features and histopathologic analyses of tissue lesions were also observed. As results, strain 4E induced lethality in the hamster model with inocula lower than 10 leptospires, and histopathological examination of animals showed typical lesions found in severe leptospirosis. Gross pathological findings were peculiar; animals that died early had more chance of presenting severe jaundice and less chance of presenting pulmonary hemorrhages (P < 0.01). L. borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum has had a considerable growth in human leptospirosis cases in recent years. This strain has now been thoroughly characterized and can be used in more studies, especially evaluations of vaccine candidates. PMID:21813846

  8. Hibernation, stress, intestinal functions, and catecholoamine turnover rate in hamsters and gerbils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1973-01-01

    Bioenergetic studies on hamsters during depressed metabolic states are reported. External support of blood glucose extended the survival times of hibernating animals. Radioresistance increased in hibernating as well as in hypothermic hamsters. Marked changes in hamster catecholamine turnover rates were observed during acclimatization to high temperature stress. High radioresistance levels of the gerbil gastrointestinal system were attributed in part to the ability of the gut to maintain functional integrity.

  9. Metabolic influences on circadian rhythmicity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters exposed to long photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Challet, E; Kolker, D E; Turek, F W

    2000-01-01

    Calorie restriction and other situations of reduced glucose availability in rodents alter the entraining effects of light on the circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Siberian and Syrian hamsters are photoperiodic species that are sexually active when exposed to long summer-like photoperiods, while both species show opposite changes in body mass when transferred from long to short or short to long days. Because metabolic cues may fine tune the photoperiodic responses via the suprachiasmatic nuclei, we tested whether timed calorie restriction can alter the photic synchronization of the light-entrainable pacemaker in these two hamster species exposed to long photoperiods. Siberian and Syrian hamsters were exposed to 16 h:8 h light:dark cycles and received daily hypocaloric (75% of daily food intake) or normocaloric diet (100% of daily food intake) 4 h after light onset. Four weeks later, hamsters were transferred to constant darkness and fed ad libitum. The onset of the nocturnal pattern of locomotor activity was phase advanced by 1.5 h in calorie-restricted Siberian hamsters, but not in Syrian hamsters. The lack of phase change in calorie-restricted Syrian hamsters was also observed in individuals exposed to 14 h:10 h dim light:dark cycles and fed with lower hypocaloric food (i.e. 60% of daily food intake) 2 h after light onset. Moreover, in hamsters housed in constant darkness and fed ad lib., light-induced phase shifts of the locomotor activity in Siberian hamsters, but not in Syrian hamsters were significantly reduced when glucose utilization was blocked by pretreatment with 500 mg/kg i.p. 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Taken together, these results show that the photic synchronization of the light-entrainable pacemaker can be modulated by metabolic cues in Siberian hamsters, but not in Syrian hamsters maintained on long days.

  10. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS...

  11. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS...

  12. Kisspeptin mediates the photoperiodic control of reproduction in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Revel, Florent G; Saboureau, Michel; Masson-Pévet, Mireille; Pévet, Paul; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2006-09-05

    The KiSS-1 gene encodes kisspeptin, the endogenous ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54. Recent data indicate that the KiSS-1/GPR54 system is critical for the regulation of reproduction and is required for puberty onset. In seasonal breeders, reproduction is tightly controlled by photoperiod (i.e., day length). The Syrian hamster is a seasonal model in which reproductive activity is promoted by long summer days (LD) and inhibited by short winter days (SD). Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we show that KiSS-1 is expressed in the arcuate nucleus of LD hamsters. Importantly, the KiSS-1 mRNA level was lower in SD animals but not in SD-refractory animals, which spontaneously reactivated their sexual activity after several months in SD. These changes of expression are not secondary to the photoperiodic variations of gonadal steroids. In contrast, melatonin appears to be necessary for these seasonal changes because pineal-gland ablation prevented the SD-induced downregulation of KiSS-1 expression. Remarkably, a chronic administration of kisspeptin-10 restored the testicular activity of SD hamsters despite persisting photoinhibitory conditions. Overall, these findings are consistent with a role of KiSS-1/GPR54 in the seasonal control of reproduction. We propose that photoperiod, via melatonin, modulates KiSS-1 signaling to drive the reproductive axis.

  13. A quantitative description of flagellar movement in golden hamster spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, S; Mohri, H

    1985-01-01

    Flagellar movement of golden hamster spermatozoa obtained from the testis and the caput and cauda epididymides was observed by a light microscope while holding them at their heads with a micropipette. Flagellar movement of capacitated spermatozoa and of reactivated spermatozoa demembranated with Triton X-100 was also observed. Testicular and caput epididymal spermatozoa showed weak movement in Tyrode's solution, whereas cauda epididymal spermatozoa showed vigorous movement. The flagellar bends of the cauda epididymal spermatozoa were almost planar. Capacitated spermatozoa moved with waves of a large amplitude. Demembranated spermatozoa reactivated with ATP only had a latent period before the initiation of flagellar movement, and beat at low frequency, whereas demembranated spermatozoa reactivated with both ATP and cAMP began to move immediately at high frequency. Thrust and hydrodynamic power output were calculated using the parameters for the typical waveforms of cauda epididymal spermatozoa before and after capacitation. The possible role of the large amplitude beat in capacitated spermatozoa is discussed. A comparison of the 'principal' and 'reverse' bends in golden hamster sperm flagella as defined by Woolley (1977) with those in sea urchin sperm flagella suggests that the so-called 'principal' bend in golden hamster sperm flagella corresponds to the reverse bend in sea urchin sperm flagella and vice versa.

  14. Experimental Infection of Syrian Hamsters with Aerosolized Nipah virus.

    PubMed

    Escaffre, Olivier; Hill, Terence; Ikegami, Tetsuro; Juelich, Terry L; Smith, Jennifer K; Zhang, Lihong; Perez, David E; Atkins, Colm; Park, Arnold; Lawrence, William S; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K; Peel, Jennifer E; Peterson, Johnny W; Lee, Benhur; Freiberg, Alexander N

    2018-06-15

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus henipavirus) that can cause severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. Transmission occurs through consumption of NiV-contaminated foods, and contact with NiV-infected animals or human body fluids. However, it is unclear whether aerosols derived from aforesaid sources or others also contribute to transmission, and current knowledge on NiV-induced pathogenicity after small particle aerosol exposure is still limited. infectivity, pathogenicity and real-time dissemination of aerosolized NiV in Syrian hamsters was evaluated using NiV-Malaysia (NiV-M) and/or its recombinant expressing firefly luciferase (rNiV-Fluc NP). both viruses had an equivalent pathogenicity in hamsters that developed respiratory and neurological symptoms of disease, similar to using intranasal route, with no direct correlations to the dose. Finally, we show that virus replication was predominantly initiated in the lower respiratory tract, and although delayed, also intensely in the oronasal cavity and possibly the brain, with gradual increase of signal in these regions until at least day 5-6 post-infection. hamsters infected with small-particle aerosolized NiV undergo similar clinical manifestations of the disease as previously described using liquid inoculum, and exhibit histopathological lesions consistent with NiV patient reports. NiV droplets could therefore play a role in transmission by close contact.

  15. Delay of behavioral estrus in hamsters and phenobarbital.

    PubMed

    Alleva, J J

    1989-01-01

    The onset of behavioral estrus was used as a phase marker of the hamster timing system in SLD 16:8 (dark 20:00-04:00). TZ was injected between 11:00 of cycle day 3 and noon of cycle day 4 when onset of estrus was determined. At no time did injection of TZ cause a phase advance in SLD 16:8. Small delays of estrus resulted from 11:00-16:00 injections but marked delays began with the 17:00 injection. Phenobarbital was injected between noon and 19:30 on cycle day 3. Injections between noon and 16:00 had no effect but all later injections beginning at 17:00 delayed estrus, the 17:30 injection causing the greatest delay. Diazepam also markedly delayed estrus when tested at 17:30. These results with three drugs support results with light pulses that 18:00 in SLD 16:8 marks the same phase of the 24-h hamster timing system as the onset of wheel running does in DD, LL, and WLD. These findings with three GABA potentiators extend to SLD previous evidence based on the onset of wheel running in DD, LL and WLD that GABA may be involved in hamster timekeeping and its responses to light and drugs.

  16. Female-biased anorexia and anxiety in the Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Shannonhouse, John L; Fong, Li An; Clossen, Bryan L; Hairgrove, Ross E; York, Daniel C; Walker, Benjamin B; Hercules, Gregory W; Mertesdorf, Lauren M; Patel, Margi; Morgan, Caurnel

    2014-06-22

    Anorexia and anxiety cause significant mortality and disability with female biases and frequent comorbidity after puberty, but the scarcity of suitable animal models impedes understanding of their biological underpinnings. It is reported here that in adult or weanling Syrian hamsters, relative to social housing (SH), social separation (SS) induced anorexia characterized as hypophagia, weight loss, reduced adiposity, and hypermetabolism. Following anorexia, SS increased reluctance to feed, and thigmotaxis, in anxiogenic environments. Importantly, anorexia and anxiety were induced post-puberty with female biases. SS also reduced hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor mRNA and serum corticosteroid levels assessed by RT-PCR and RIA, respectively. Consistent with the view that sex differences in adrenal suppression contributed to female biases in anorexia and anxiety by disinhibiting neuroimmune activity, SS elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA levels. Although corticosteroids were highest during SH, they were within the physiological range and associated with juvenile-like growth of white adipose, bone, and skeletal muscle. These results suggest that hamsters exhibit plasticity in bioenergetic and emotional phenotypes across puberty without an increase in stress responsiveness. Thus, social separation of hamsters provides a model of sex differences in anorexia and anxiety during adulthood and their pathogeneses during adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRULENCE OF Leptospira ISOLATES IN A HAMSTER MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Éverton F.; Santos, Cleiton S.; Athanazio, Daniel A.; Seyffert, Núbia; Seixas, Fabiana K.; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Fagundes, Michel Q.; Brod, Claudiomar S.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Ko, Albert I.

    2008-01-01

    Effort has been made to identify protective antigens in order to develop a recombinant vaccine against leptospirosis. Several attempts failed to conclusively demonstrate efficacy of vaccine candidates due to the lack of an appropriate model of lethal leptospirosis. The purposes of our study were: (i) to test the virulence of leptospiral isolates from Brazil, which are representative of important serogroups that cause disease in humans and animals; and (ii) to standardize the lethal dose 50% (LD50) for each of the virulent strains using a hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) model. Five of seven Brazilian isolates induced lethality in a hamster model, with inocula lower than 200 leptospires. Histopathological examination of infected animals showed typical lesions found in both natural and experimental leptospirosis. Results described here demonstrated the potential use of Brazilian isolates as highly virulent strains in challenge experiments using hamster as an appropriate animal model for leptospirosis. Furthermore these strains may be useful in heterologous challenge studies which aim to evaluate cross-protective responses induced by subunit vaccine candidates. PMID:18547690

  18. Xenogeneic spermatogenesis following transplantation of hamster germ cells to mouse testes.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Dobrinski, I; Avarbock, M R; Brinster, R L

    1999-02-01

    It was recently demonstrated that rat spermatogenesis can occur in the seminiferous tubules of an immunodeficient recipient mouse after transplantation of testis cells from a donor rat. In the present study, hamster donor testis cells were transplanted to mice to determine whether xenogeneic spermatogenesis would result. The hamster diverged at least 16 million years ago from the mouse and produces spermatozoa that are larger than, and have a shape distinctly different from, those of the mouse. In four separate experiments with a total of 13 recipient mice, hamster spermatogenesis was identified in the testes of each mouse. Approximately 6% of the tubules examined demonstrated xenogeneic spermatogenesis. In addition, cryopreserved hamster testis cells generated spermatogenesis in recipients. However, abnormalities were noted in hamster spermatids and acrosomes in seminiferous tubules of recipient mice. Hamster spermatozoa were also found in the epididymis of recipient animals, but these spermatozoa generally lacked acrosomes, and heads and tails were separated. Thus, defects in spermiogenesis occur in hamster spermatogenesis in the mouse, which may reflect a limited ability of endogenous mouse Sertoli cells to support fully the larger and evolutionarily distant hamster germ cell. The generation of spermatogenesis from frozen hamster cells now adds this species to the mouse and rat, in which spermatogonial stem cells also can be cryopreserved. This finding has immediate application to valuable animals of many species, because the cells could be stored until suitable recipients are identified or culture techniques devised to expand the stem cell population.

  19. Mitochondrial function in diaphragm of emphysematous hamsters after treatment with nandrolone.

    PubMed

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke J H; Ennen, Leo; Rodenburg, Richard J T; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory failure in patients with COPD may be caused by insufficient force production or insufficient endurance capacity of the respiratory muscles. Anabolic steroids may improve respiratory muscle function in COPD. The effect of anabolic steroids on mitochondrial function in the diaphragm in emphysema is unknown. In an emphysematous male hamster model, we investigated whether administration of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate (ND) altered the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm. The bodyweight of hamsters treated with ND was decreased after treatment compared with initial values, and serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in hamsters treated with ND than in control hamsters. No difference in the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm between normal and emphysematous hamsters was observed. Treatment with ND did not change the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm of both normal and emphysematous hamsters. In emphysematous hamsters, administration of ND decreased the activity of succinate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase compared with ND treatment in normal hamsters. We conclude that anabolic steroids have negative effects on the activity of succinate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and anabolic status in this emphysematous hamster model.

  20. Mitochondrial function in diaphragm of emphysematous hamsters after treatment with nandrolone

    PubMed Central

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke JH; Ennen, Leo; Rodenburg, Richard JT; Dekhuijzen, PN Richard

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory failure in patients with COPD may be caused by insufficient force production or insufficient endurance capacity of the respiratory muscles. Anabolic steroids may improve respiratory muscle function in COPD. The effect of anabolic steroids on mitochondrial function in the diaphragm in emphysema is unknown. In an emphysematous male hamster model, we investigated whether administration of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate (ND) altered the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm. The bodyweight of hamsters treated with ND was decreased after treatment compared with initial values, and serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in hamsters treated with ND than in control hamsters. No difference in the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm between normal and emphysematous hamsters was observed. Treatment with ND did not change the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the diaphragm of both normal and emphysematous hamsters. In emphysematous hamsters, administration of ND decreased the activity of succinate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase compared with ND treatment in normal hamsters. We conclude that anabolic steroids have negative effects on the activity of succinate:cytochrome c oxidoreductase and anabolic status in this emphysematous hamster model. PMID:18046906

  1. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  2. It’s what’s inside that counts: Egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass

    Herzog, Mark; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Hartman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm3) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6–13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  3. Egg breakfast enhances weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wal, JS; Gupta, A; Khosla, P; Dhurandhar, NV

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the hypotheses that an egg breakfast, in contrast to a bagel breakfast matched for energy density and total energy, would enhance weight loss in overweight and obese participants while on a reduced-calorie weight loss diet. Subjects Men and women (n=152), age 25–60 years, body mass index (BMI) ≥25 and ≤50 kg m−2. Design Otherwise healthy overweight or obese participants were assigned to Egg (E), Egg Diet (ED), Bagel (B) or Bagel Diet (BD) groups, based on the prescription of either an egg breakfast containing two eggs (340 kcal) or a breakfast containing bagels matched for energy density and total energy, for at least 5 days per week, respectively. The ED and BD groups were suggested a 1000 kcal energy-deficit low-fat diet, whereas the B and E groups were asked not to change their energy intake. Results After 8 weeks, in comparison to the BD group, the ED group showed a 61% greater reduction in BMI (−0.95±0.82 vs −0.59±0.85, P<0.05), a 65% greater weight loss (−2.63±2.33 vs −1.59±2.38 kg, P<0.05), a 34% greater reduction in waist circumference (P<0.06) and a 16% greater reduction in percent body fat (P=not significant). No significant differences between the E and B groups on the aforementioned variables were obtained. Further, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, did not differ between the groups. Conclusions The egg breakfast enhances weight loss, when combined with an energy-deficit diet, but does not induce weight loss in a free-living condition. The inclusion of eggs in a weight management program may offer a nutritious supplement to enhance weight loss. PMID:18679412

  4. Renal atrial natriuretic factor receptors in hamster cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Mukaddam-Daher, S; Jankowski, M; Dam, T V; Quillen, E W; Gutkowska, J

    1995-12-01

    Hamsters with cardiomyopathy (CMO), an experimental model of congestive heart failure, display stimulated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and enhanced sympathetic nervous activity, all factors that lead to sodium retention, volume expansion and subsequent elevation of plasma atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) by the cardiac atria. However, sodium and water retention persist in CMO, indicating hyporesponsiveness to endogenous ANF. These studies were undertaken to fully characterize renal ANF receptor subtypes in normal hamsters and to evaluate whether alterations in renal ANF receptors may contribute to renal resistance to ANF in cardiomyopathy. Transcripts of the guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) and guanylyl cyclase B (GC-B) receptors were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in renal cortex, and outer and inner medullas. Compared to normal controls, the cardiomyopathic hamster's GC-A mRNA was similar in cortex but significantly increased in outer and inner medulla. Levels of GC-B mRNA were not altered by the disease. On the other hand, competitive binding studies, autoradiography, and affinity cross-linking demonstrated the absence of functional GC-B receptors in the kidney glomeruli and inner medulla. Also, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), the natural ligand for the GC-B receptors, failed to stimulate glomerular production of its second messenger cGMP. In CMO, sodium and water excretion were significantly reduced despite elevated plasma ANF (50.5 +/- 11.1 vs. 309.4 +/- 32.6 pg/ml, P < 0.001). Competitive binding studies of renal glomerular ANF receptors revealed no change in total receptor density, Bmax (369.6 +/- 27.4 vs. 282.8 +/- 26.2 fmol/mg protein), nor in dissociation constant, Kd (647.4 +/- 79.4 vs. 648.5 +/- 22.9 pM). Also, ANF-C receptor density (254.3 +/- 24.8 vs. 233.8 +/- 23.5 fmol/mg protein), nor affinity were affected by heart failure. Inner medullary receptors were exclusively of the GC-A subtype with Bmax (153.2 +/- 26.4 vs. 134

  5. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to include black rots, white rots, mixed rots, green whites, eggs with diffused blood in the albumen... any other filthy and decomposed eggs including the following: (1) Any egg with visible foreign matter...

  6. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to include black rots, white rots, mixed rots, green whites, eggs with diffused blood in the albumen... any other filthy and decomposed eggs including the following: (1) Any egg with visible foreign matter...

  7. Is vitronectin the velcro that binds the gametes together?

    PubMed

    Fusi, F M; Bernocchi, N; Ferrari, A; Bronson, R A

    1996-11-01

    Evidence has been presented that the adhesion of human spermatozoa to the oolemma is mediated by integrins recognizing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence (RGD). Fibronectin and vitronectin, glycoproteins that contain functional RGD sequences, are both present on human spermatozoa, and integrins that recognize these ligands have been detected on spermatozoa and eggs. In this work, we studied the effects of oligopeptides specifically designed to block fibronectin or vitronectin receptors on the interaction of human spermatozoa with zona-free hamster oocytes. GRGDdSP, a peptide blocking cell attachment to fibronectin, was without effect, while GdRGDSP, which blocks both fibronectin and vitronectin receptors, significantly inhibited the binding of human spermatozoa to the oolemma of zona-free hamster eggs, in a concentration-dependent manner, over a range 1-100 microM. As these experiments suggested that a vitronectin receptor plays a role in sperm-oolemmal adhesion, we performed a series of experiments studying the effects of exogenous vitronectin, when added to spermatozoa and oocytes, on gamete interactions. Sperm-oolemmal adherence, as well as sperm aggregation, was promoted by vitronectin, over range of 2.2 nM to 1 microM, but only in the presence of calcium ions. We propose that vitronectin released during the sperm acrosome reaction is recognized by both gametes and plays a role in their adhesion.

  8. Stellantchasmus falcatus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) in Cambodia: Discovery of Metacercariae in Mullets and Recovery of Adult Flukes in an Experimental Hamster

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2016-01-01

    Stellantchasmus falcatus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) is first reported from Cambodia through recovery of the metacercariae from mullet fish and adult flukes from an experimentally infected hamster. We purchased 7 mullets, Chelon macrolepis, in a local market of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion method on May 2010. The metacercariae of S. falcatus were detected in all mullets (100%) examined, and their average density was 177 per fish. They were elliptical, 220×168 μm in average size. They were orally infected to an hamster to obtain adult flukes. Adults recovered at day 10 post infection were observed with a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). They were small, 450×237 μm in average size, had a small oral sucker (41×50 μm), subglobular pharynx (29×21 μm), slender esophagus (57 μm), long and thick-walled expulsor (119×32 μm), spherical ovary (58×69 μm), and 2 ovoid testes (right: 117×74 μm; left: 114×63 μm). Eggs were small, yellow, and 23×12 μm in average size. In SEM observations, tegumental spines were densely distributed on the whole tegument, and single small type I sensory papillae were distributed around the lip of oral sucker. The small ventral sucker was dextrally located and had 8 type I sensory papillae on the left margin. It has been first confirmed in the present study that the mullet, C. macrolepis, is playing the role of a second intermediate host of S. falcatus in Cambodia. PMID:27658608

  9. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk. PMID:26389951

  10. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification of...

  11. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may be...

  12. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products offered...

  13. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may be...

  14. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification of...

  15. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products offered...

  16. Sequencing, Annotation and Analysis of the Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Tchitchek, Nicolas; Safronetz, David; Rasmussen, Angela L.; Martens, Craig; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Porcella, Stephen F.; Feldmann, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Background The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus) is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species. Results A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons). This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species. Conclusions This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional

  17. Cytoplasmic rearrangements associated with amphibian egg symmetrization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Cytoplasmic rearrangements which follow fertilization were mentioned in normal and inverted eggs. A set of yolk compartments was resolved by cytological analyses of both normally oriented and inverted eggs. Those compartments were characterized by their yolk platelet compositions and movement during egg inversion. It is found that during egg inversion the yolk compartments shift minor cytoplasmic compartments which line the egg cortex. Those yolk mass shifts occurred only after the inverted egg was activated. The direction of shift of the major yolk components, rather than the sperm entrance site, determines the dorsal/ventral polarity of the inverted egg. Among different spawnings the rate of shift varied. Eggs that displayed the fastest rate of shift exhibited the highest frequency of developmental abnormalities during organogenesis. Interpretation of novel observations on cytoplasmic organization provide criticism of some earlier models. A new density compartment model is presented as a coherent way to view the organization of the egg cytoplasm and the development of bilateral symmetry.

  18. [Denaturation of egg antigens by cooking].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Akaboshi, Chie; Sekido, Haruko; Tanaka, Kouki; Tanaka, Kazuko; Shimojo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Changes in egg protein contents by cooking were measured with an ELISA kit using Tris-HCl buffer in model foods including cake, meatballs, pasta and pudding made with whole egg, egg-white and egg-yolk. The egg protein contents were lowest in the deep-fried model foods of cakes and meatballs. Ovalbumin (OVA) was undetectable (<1 µg/g) and ovomucoid (OVM) was lowest in pouched meatballs, suggesting that processing temperature and uniform heat-treatment affect the detection of egg protein. Furthermore, egg protein contents were below 6 µg/g in the pouched meatballs and pasta made with egg-yolk, and OVA and OVM were not detected by Western blotting analysis with human IgE from patients' serum. On the other hand, processed egg proteins were detected with an ELISA kit using a surfactant and reductant in the extract buffer.

  19. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were <3%. We summarized the literature and, among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  20. A Comparison of Hamster Anesthetics and Their Effect on Mosquito Blood Feeding

    Hamsters or mice are often anesthetized when they are used as the hosts for insect feeding experiments. An experiment was done to determine if there was a difference in mosquito blood feeding success when fed on hamsters anesthetized using two commonly used protocols. The number of blood-fed females...

  1. Good eggs? Evaluating consent forms for egg donation.

    PubMed

    Cattapan, Alana Rose

    2016-07-01

    Beyond gaps in the provision of information, the informed consent process for egg donation is complicated by conflicts of interest, payment and a lack of longitudinal data about physiological and psychological risks. Recent scholarship has suggested that egg donation programmes could improve the informed consent process by revising consent documents. At a minimum, these documents should include information about eight key criteria: the nature and objectives of treatment; the benefits, risks and inconveniences of egg donation; the privacy of donors and their anonymity (where applicable); disclosure that participation is voluntary (withdrawal); the availability of counselling; financial considerations; the possibility of an unsuccessful cycle and potential uses of the eggs retrieved. This study evaluates the incorporation of these minimum criteria in consent forms for egg donation, obtained through requests to Canadian fertility clinics. Even when clinics were considered to have met criteria simply by mentioning them, among the eight consent forms assessed, none met the minimum standards. Only half of clinics addressed privacy/anonymity concerns, financial issues and the possibility of a future cycle. Improving the quality of consent documentation to meet the minimum standards established by this study may not be an onerous task. For some, this will include re-evaluating how they include one or two elements of disclosure, and for others, this will require a substantial overhaul. Using the criteria provided by this study as the minimum standard for consent could ensure that donors have the basic information they need to make informed decisions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Which egg features predict egg rejection responses in American robins? Replicating Rothstein's (1982) study.

    PubMed

    Luro, Alec B; Igic, Branislav; Croston, Rebecca; López, Analía V; Shawkey, Matthew D; Hauber, Mark E

    2018-02-01

    Rothstein (Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 11, 1982, 229) was one of the first comprehensive studies to examine how different egg features influence egg rejection behaviors of avian brood parasite-hosts. The methods and conclusions of Rothstein (1982) laid the foundation for subsequent experimental brood parasitism studies over the past thirty years, but its results have never been evaluated with replication. Here, we partially replicated Rothstein's (1982) experiments using parallel artificial model egg treatments to simulate cowbird ( Molothrus ater ) parasitism in American robin ( Turdus migratorius ) nests. We compared our data with those of Rothstein (1982) and confirmed most of its original findings: (1) robins reject model eggs that differ from the appearance of a natural robin egg toward that of a natural cowbird egg in background color, size, and maculation; (2) rejection responses were best predicted by model egg background color; and (3) model eggs differing by two or more features from natural robin eggs were more likely to be rejected than model eggs differing by one feature alone. In contrast with Rothstein's (1982) conclusion that American robin egg recognition is not specifically tuned toward rejection of brown-headed cowbird eggs, we argue that our results and those of other recent studies of robin egg rejection suggest a discrimination bias toward rejection of cowbird eggs. Future work on egg recognition will benefit from utilizing a range of model eggs varying continuously in background color, maculation patterning, and size in combination with avian visual modeling, rather than using model eggs which vary only discretely.

  3. Ambient temperature affects postnatal litter size reduction in golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ohrnberger, Sarah A; Monclús, Raquel; Rödel, Heiko G; Valencak, Teresa G

    2016-01-01

    To better understand how different ambient temperatures during lactation affect survival of young, we studied patterns of losses of pups in golden hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus ) at different ambient temperatures in the laboratory, mimicking temperature conditions in natural habitats. Golden hamsters produce large litters of more than 10 young but are also known to wean fewer pups at the end of lactation than they give birth to. We wanted to know whether temperature affects litter size reductions and whether the underlying causes of pup loss were related to maternal food (gross energy) intake and reproductive performance, such as litter growth. For that, we exposed lactating females to three different ambient temperatures and investigated associations with losses of offspring between birth and weaning. Overall, around one third of pups per litter disappeared, obviously consumed by the mother. Such litter size reductions were greatest at 30 °C, in particular during the intermediate postnatal period around peak lactation. Furthermore, litter size reductions were generally higher in larger litters. Maternal gross energy intake was highest at 5 °C suggesting that mothers were not limited by milk production and might have been able to raise a higher number of pups until weaning. This was further supported by the fact that the daily increases in litter mass as well as in the individual pup body masses, a proxy of mother's lactational performance, were lower at higher ambient temperatures. We suggest that ambient temperatures around the thermoneutral zone and beyond are preventing golden hamster females from producing milk at sufficient rates. Around two thirds of the pups per litter disappeared at high temperature conditions, and their early growth rates were significantly lower than at lower ambient temperatures. It is possible that these losses are due to an intrinsic physiological limitation (imposed by heat dissipation) compromising maternal energy intake and

  4. Caffeine induces metformin anticancer effect on fibrosarcoma in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Popović, D J; Lalošević, D; Miljković, D; Popović, K J; Čapo, I; Popović, J K

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effect of metformin and caffeine on fibrosarcoma in hamsters. 32 Syrian golden hamsters of both sexes, weighing approximately 100 g, were randomly allocated to 3 experimental and 2 control groups, with a minimum of 6 animals per group. 2 x 106 BHK-21/C13 cells in 1 ml were injected subcutaneously into the animals' back in 4 groups. The first experimental group started peroral treatment with metformin 500 mg/kg daily, the second with caffeine 100 mg/kg daily and the third with a combination of metformin 500 mg/kg and caffeine 100 mg/kg daily, via a gastric probe 3 days before tumor inoculation. After 2 weeks, when the tumors were approximately 2 cm in the control group, all animals were sacrificed. The blood was collected for glucose and other analyses. The tumors were excised and weighed and their diameters were measured. The tumor samples were pathohistologically (HE) and immunohistochemically (Ki-67, CD 31, COX IV, GLUT-1, iNOS) assessed and the main organs toxicologically analyzed, including the control animals that had received metformin and caffeine. Tumor volume was determined using the formula LxS2/2, where L was the longest and S the shortest diameter. Ki-67-positive cells in the tumor samples were quantified. Images were taken and processed by software UTHSCSA Image Tools for Windows Version 3.00. Statistical significances were determined by the Student's t-test. The combination of metformin and caffeine inhibited fibrosarcoma growth in hamsters without toxicity. Administration of metformin with caffeine might be an effective and safe approach in novel nontoxic adjuvant anticancer treatment.

  5. Rotten Egg Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Violent gas collisions that produced supersonic shock fronts in a dying star are seen in a new, detailed image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

    The picture, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    Stars like our Sun will eventually die and expel most of their material outward into shells of gas and dust. These shells eventually form some of the most beautiful objects in the universe, called planetary nebulae.

    'This new image gives us a rare view of the early death throes of stars like our Sun. For the first time, we can see phenomena leading to the formation of planetary nebulae. Until now, this had only been predicted by theory, but had never been seen directly,' said Dr. Raghvendra Sahai, research scientist and member of the science team at JPL for the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

    The object is sometimes called the Rotten Egg Nebula, because it contains a lot of sulphur, which would produce an awful odor if one could smell in space. The object is also known as the Calabash Nebula or by the technical name OH231.8+4.2.

    The densest parts of the nebula are composed of material ejected recently by the central star and accelerated in opposite directions. This material, shown as yellow in the image, is zooming away at speeds up to one and a half million kilometers per hour (one million miles per hour). Most of the star's original mass is now contained in these bipolar gas structures.

    A team of Spanish and American astronomers used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to study how the gas stream rams into the surrounding material, shown in blue. They believe that such interactions dominate the formation process in planetary nebulae. Due to the high speed of the gas, shock-fronts are formed on impact and heat the surrounding gas. Although computer calculations have predicted the existence and

  6. Lymphocyte function in experimental endemic syphilis of Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Bagasra, O; Kushner, H; Hashemi, S

    1985-01-01

    We have studied the changes in the lymph nodes, spleen and thymus that occur in inbred LSH Syrian hamsters infected with Treponema pallidum Bosnia A, the causative agent of endemic syphilis, as well as the B-cell responses of these infected animals to helper T-cell independent and dependent antigens. The lymph nodes increased significantly in weight up to 6 weeks after infection, and contained viable treponemes. No significant changes in the spleen weight were observed, and no viable treponemes could be recovered from the spleen. However, the size of the thymus decreased steadily during the course of the disease. The relative number of Ig+ cells (B cells) increased in the spleen and regional lymph nodes, whereas the relative number of T cells decreased during the course of infection. In both the spleen and lymph nodes, the relative number of macrophages increased initially and decreased thereafter in the form of a bell-shaped curve showing a peak at 4-6 weeks of infection. The ability of splenic lymphocytes from infected hamsters to mount a primary PFC response to pneumococcal polysaccharide type III (SIII), a helper T-cell independent antigen, was elevated throughout the course of infection. However, the splenic PFC response to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC), a helper T-cell dependent antigen, was increased only during the first 4 weeks of infection and progressively decreased thereafter. The PFC responses of infected lymph node lymphocytes to both SIII and SRBC were increased during the first 4 weeks and decreased thereafter. These data suggested that atrophy of the thymus seen in syphilitic infection is accompanied by the complex losses of subsets of T cells and altered B-cell functions. An early loss of suppressor T cells in both the lymph nodes and spleen occurs concomitantly with a loss of T helper cells and heterologous (treponema-unrelated) B-cell functions in the lymph nodes. Helper T cells are lost from the spleen only in the later stages of infection, whereas

  7. Put Your Eggs in This Basket.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Jeane; Leiva, Miriam

    1988-01-01

    Plastic Easter eggs are useful devices for teaching basic mathematics skills, from counting activities to graphing. Eggs are used to reinforce addition, subtraction, and multiplication skills; column addition, estimation, statistics, and other topics are introduced. Sample activities are described. (JL)

  8. Avian egg shape: Form, function, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Yong, Ee Hou; Akkaynak, Derya; Sheard, Catherine; Tobias, Joseph A; Mahadevan, L

    2017-06-23

    Avian egg shape is generally explained as an adaptation to life history, yet we currently lack a global synthesis of how egg-shape differences arise and evolve. Here, we apply morphometric, mechanistic, and macroevolutionary analyses to the egg shapes of 1400 bird species. We characterize egg-shape diversity in terms of two biologically relevant variables, asymmetry and ellipticity, allowing us to quantify the observed morphologies in a two-dimensional morphospace. We then propose a simple mechanical model that explains the observed egg-shape diversity based on geometric and material properties of the egg membrane. Finally, using phylogenetic models, we show that egg shape correlates with flight ability on broad taxonomic scales, suggesting that adaptations for flight may have been critical drivers of egg-shape variation in birds. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  9. Scabies mite, eggs, and stool photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...

  10. How do eggs pan out?

    PubMed

    Clark, N

    1998-07-01

    Once upon a time, eggs were considered a "breakfast of champions." Just about every active, hard-working person enjoyed them fried, scrambled, poached, or even raw in eggnog and protein drinks. Then, Americans became cholesterol-conscious and began to substitute bagels, cereal, and other high-carbohydrate, low-cholesterol breakfast foods.

  11. The Chicken and Egg Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  12. Egg Drop: An Invention Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Alan J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes an activity designed to stimulate elementary and junior high students to become actively engaged in thinking creatively rather than only analytically, convergently, or repetitively. The activity requires students to devise means of dropping an egg from a height without it breaking. (JR)

  13. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    PubMed

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  14. 76 FR 55642 - Regulations for the Inspection of Eggs (Shell Egg Surveillance), Request for Extension and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Service [Doc. No. AMS-PY-11-0064] Regulations for the Inspection of Eggs (Shell Egg Surveillance), Request... information collection in support of the shell egg surveillance portion of the Regulation for the Inspection of Eggs--7 CFR part 57. DATES: Comments received by November 7, 2011 will be considered. ADDRESSES...

  15. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos

    PubMed Central

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  16. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  17. Rapid pasteurization of shell eggs using RF

    A novel method for rapidly pasteurizing eggs in the shell could enhance the safety of the United States’ food supply. Current federal regulations do not require eggs sold in stores to be pasteurized, yet these eggs are often consumed raw or undercooked and cause untold cases of salmonella illness ea...

  18. p-Aminophenol-induced hepatotoxicity in hamsters: role of glutathione.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xin; Chen, Theresa S; Ray, Mukunda B; Nagasawa, Herbert T; Williams, Walter M

    2004-01-01

    p-Aminophenol (PAP) is a widely used industrial chemical and a known nephrotoxin. Recently, it was found to also cause hepatotoxicity and glutathione (GSH) depletion in mice. The exact mechanism of liver toxicity is not known. The aims of this study were to determine whether PAP can cause acute hepatotoxicity in hamsters and to further investigate the role of GSH in PAP-induced toxicity. PAP was administered ip to hamsters in doses of 200-800 mg/kg. Liver damage at 24 h after PAP administration was assessed by elevations in plasma enzyme activities and histopathologic examination. GSH and cysteine (Cys) levels in liver at 4 h were determined by HPLC. PAP decreased hepatic GSH concentration to 8% and Cys to 30% of vehicle control values. It increased plasma glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activity by 47-fold and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity by 113-fold. PAP also caused severe centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis. 2(RS)-n-Propylthiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acid (PTCA), a Cys precursor, attenuated the PAP-induced decreases in hepatic sulfhydryl levels; GSH and Cys were 39% and 78% of vehicle controls, respectively. PTCA also attenuated the PAP-induced elevations in plasma enzyme activities and hepatic necrosis. It was concluded that PAP hepatotoxicity is associated with depletion of hepatic GSH and can be prevented by PTCA. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Anti-hypercholesterolemic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Girard, Philippe; Pansart, Yannick; Verleye, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease and probiotics have been suggested as tools to manage elevated cholesterol levels. The present study investigated the ability of the biotherapeutic agent Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb-Biocodex) to reduce the hypercholesterolemia induced by a 0.1% cholesterol-enriched diet in the hamster. In a first experiment, chronic oral treatment with S. boulardii at 12 × 10(10) CFU/kg (3 g/kg) twice a day was started from the beginning of the cholesterol diet and continued for 14 days ('preventive protocol'). In the second experiment, S. boulardii was given 14 days after the beginning of the cholesterol diet when hypercholesterolemia had developed and continued for an additional 14 days ('curative protocol'). In the preventive protocol, administration of the yeast significantly reduced hypercholesterolemia (14%) induced by the cholesterol-enriched diet compared to the group receiving only the cholesterol diet. In the curative protocol, S. boulardii significantly reduced hypercholesterolemia (12%) induced by the cholesterol-enriched diet, too. Moreover, the yeast significantly decreased the serum triglyceride increase by 39%. S. boulardii possesses anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in the hamster worthy of further evaluation in clinical studies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Rift Valley fever virus infection in golden Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Scharton, Dionna; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Bailey, Kevin W; Vest, Zachary; Westover, Jonna B; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Gowen, Brian B

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a formidable pathogen that causes severe disease and abortion in a variety of livestock species and a range of disease in humans that includes hemorrhagic fever, fulminant hepatitis, encephalitis and blindness. The natural transmission cycle involves mosquito vectors, but exposure can also occur through contact with infected fluids and tissues. The lack of approved antiviral therapies and vaccines for human use underlies the importance of small animal models for proof-of-concept efficacy studies. Several mouse and rat models of RVFV infection have been well characterized and provide useful systems for the study of certain aspects of pathogenesis, as well as antiviral drug and vaccine development. However, certain host-directed therapeutics may not act on mouse or rat pathways. Here, we describe the natural history of disease in golden Syrian hamsters challenged subcutaneously with the pathogenic ZH501 strain of RVFV. Peracute disease resulted in rapid lethality within 2 to 3 days of RVFV challenge. High titer viremia and substantial viral loads were observed in most tissues examined; however, histopathology and immunostaining for RVFV antigen were largely restricted to the liver. Acute hepatocellular necrosis associated with a strong presence of viral antigen in the hepatocytes indicates that fulminant hepatitis is the likely cause of mortality. Further studies to assess the susceptibility and disease progression following respiratory route exposure are warranted. The use of the hamsters to model RVFV infection is suitable for early stage antiviral drug and vaccine development studies.

  1. Social forces can impact the circadian clocks of cohabiting hamsters.

    PubMed

    Paul, Matthew J; Indic, Premananda; Schwartz, William J

    2014-03-22

    A number of field and laboratory studies have shown that the social environment influences daily rhythms in numerous species. However, underlying mechanisms, including the circadian system's role, are not known. Obstacles to this research have been the inability to track and objectively analyse rhythms of individual animals housed together. Here, we employed temperature dataloggers to track individual body temperature rhythms of pairs of cohabiting male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in constant darkness and applied a continuous wavelet transform to determine the phase of rhythm onset before, during, and after cohabitation. Cohabitation altered the predicted trajectory of rhythm onsets in 34% of individuals, representing 58% of pairs, compared to 12% of hamsters single-housed as 'virtual pair' controls. Deviation from the predicted trajectory was by a change in circadian period (τ), which tended to be asymmetric-affecting one individual of the pair in nine of 11 affected pairs-with hints that dominance might play a role. These data implicate a change in the speed of the circadian clock as one mechanism whereby social factors can alter daily rhythms. Miniature dataloggers coupled with wavelet analyses should provide powerful tools for future studies investigating the principles and mechanisms mediating social influences on daily timing.

  2. Androgenic regulation of chemoinvestigatory behaviors in male and female hamsters.

    PubMed

    Powers, J B; Bergondy, M L

    1983-03-01

    In male hamsters, chemosensory responsiveness to sexually relevant female odors is facilitated by testosterone (T). Some evidence suggests that this is not a sexually dimorphic response in that adult females can respond similarly to males following administration of T. This was evaluated and additionally, the hypothesis that facilitation of chemosensory responsiveness by T might be mediated by the conversion of T to aromatized or 5 alpha-reduced metabolites was tested. In 2-min tests, we measured the time adult males or females investigated female hamster vaginal secretion (FHVS). These animals were gonadectomized and administered T, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (E2), or a combination of DHT and E2, by subcutaneous implantation of Silastic capsules. FHVS tests were conducted either 2 and 4 weeks, or 4 and 6 weeks subsequent to gonadectomy and hormone treatment. Comparisons among groups receiving different hormone doses indicated that (1) males and females are not equally responsive to the attractant properties of FHVS, and that (2) neither DHT, E2, nor their combination, can duplicate the effects of T in facilitating responsiveness to FHVS in either sex. The copulatory behavior of males under the hormone conditions described was also tested and it was found that variations in the rate at which the test males sniffed or licked the receptive female's anogenital region correlated with variations in measures of the males' sexual performance.

  3. Effect of selenium-enriched probiotics on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium content, and egg glutathione peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Cuiling; Zhao, Yuxin; Liao, Shengfa F; Chen, Fu; Qin, Shunyi; Wu, Xianshi; Zhou, Hong; Huang, Kehe

    2011-11-09

    A 35-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium (Se) content, and egg glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Five hundred 58-week-old Rohman laying hens were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments of 100 each. Each treatment had 5 replicates, and each replicate had 5 cages with 4 hens per cage. The SP was supplemented to a corn-soybean-meal basal diet at 3 different levels that supplied total Se at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg. The basal diet served as a blank control, while the basal diet with supplemental probiotics served as a probiotics control. The results showed that dietary SP supplementation not only increased (p < 0.05) the rate of egg laying, day egg weight, mean egg weight, egg Se content, and egg GPX activity but also decreased (p < 0.05) the feed:egg ratio and egg cholesterol content. The egg Se content was gradually increased (p < 0.05) along with the increasing level of dietary Se. The SP supplementation also slowed down (p < 0.05) the drop of Haugh units (HU) of eggs stored at room temperature. The egg GPX activity had a positive correlation (p < 0.01) with egg Se content and a negative correlation (p < 0.01) with egg HU drop. These results suggested that Se contents, GPX activity, and HU of eggs were affected by the dietary Se level, whereas the egg-laying performance and egg cholesterol content were affected by the dietary probiotics. It was concluded that this SP is an effective feed additive that combines the organic Se benefit for hen and human health with the probiotics benefit for laying hen production performance. It was also suggested that the eggs from hens fed this SP can serve as a nutraceutical food with high Se and low cholesterol contents for both healthy people and patients with hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, or cardiovascular disease.

  4. 7 CFR 57.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.800 Identification of...

  5. 7 CFR 57.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.800 Identification of...

  6. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the Service...

  7. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization facilities...

  8. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements shall...

  9. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the Service...

  10. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization facilities...

  11. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements shall...

  12. A lethal disease model for New World hantaviruses using immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Vergote, Valentijn; Laenen, Lies; Vanmechelen, Bert; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeken, Erik; Hooper, Jay W; Maes, Piet

    2017-10-01

    Hantavirus, the hemorrhagic causative agent of two clinical diseases, is found worldwide with variation in severity, incidence and mortality. The most lethal hantaviruses are found on the American continent where the most prevalent viruses like Andes virus and Sin Nombre virus are known to cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. New World hantavirus infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection except for Andes virus and Maporal virus; the only hantaviruses causing a lethal disease in immunocompetent Syrian hamsters mimicking hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans. Hamsters, immunosuppressed with dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, were infected intramuscularly with different New World hantavirus strains (Bayou virus, Black Creek Canal virus, Caño Delgadito virus, Choclo virus, Laguna Negra virus, and Maporal virus). In the present study, we show that immunosuppression of hamsters followed by infection with a New World hantavirus results in an acute disease that precisely mimics both hantavirus disease in humans and Andes virus infection of hamsters. Infected hamsters showed specific clinical signs of disease and moreover, histological analysis of lung tissue showed signs of pulmonary edema and inflammation within alveolar septa. In this study, we were able to infect immunosuppressed hamsters with different New World hantaviruses reaching a lethal outcome with signs of disease mimicking human disease.

  13. Mercury accumulation and loss in mallard eggs

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury as methylmercury chloride. One egg was collected from each bird before the start of the mercury diets and 15 eggs were collected from each bird while it was being fed mercury. The mercury diets were then replaced by uncontaminated diets, and each female was allowed to lay 29 more eggs. Mercury levels in eggs rose to about 7,18, and 35 ppm wet-weight in females fed 5,10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Mercury levels fell to about 0.16,0.80, and 1.7 ppm in the last egg laid by birds that had earlier been fed 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Higher concentrations of mercury were found in egg albumen than in yolk, and between 95 and 100% of the mercury in the eggs was in the form of methylmercury.

  14. ELECTRIC IMPEDANCE OF ASTERIAS EGGS

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth S.; Cole, Robert H.

    1936-01-01

    The alternating current resistance and capacity of suspensions of unfertilized eggs of Asterias forbesi have been measured at frequencies from one thousand to sixteen million cycles per second. The plasma membrane of the egg has a static capacity of 1.10µf/cm.2 which is practically independent of frequency. The suspensions show a capacity dependent on frequency at low frequencies which may be attributable to surface conductance. The specific resistance of the cytoplasm is between 136 and 225 ohm cm. (4 to 7 times sea water), indicating a relatively high concentration of non-electrolytes. At frequencies above one million cycles there is definite evidence of another element of which the nucleus is presumably a part. PMID:19872951

  15. Relationships between egg-recognition and egg-ejection in a grasp-ejector species.

    PubMed

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Roncalli, Gianluca; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego

    2017-01-01

    Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula) as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process) and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject), while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched) non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental eggs are not

  16. Relationships between egg-recognition and egg-ejection in a grasp-ejector species

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Roncalli, Gianluca; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego

    2017-01-01

    Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula) as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process) and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject), while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched) non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental eggs are not

  17. Tolerance of a high-protein baked-egg product in egg-allergic children.

    PubMed

    Saifi, Maryam; Swamy, Nithya; Crain, Maria; Brown, L Steven; Bird, John Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergies. Extensively heating egg has been found to decrease its allergenicity and 64% to 84% of children allergic to egg have been found to tolerate baked-egg products. Because there is no reliable method for predicting baked-egg tolerance, oral food challenges remain the gold standard. Prior studies have reported on baked-egg challenges using up to 2.2 g of egg white (EW) protein. To establish whether children with egg allergy would pass a baked-egg challenge to a larger amount of egg protein and the potential criteria for predicting the likelihood of baked-egg tolerance. A chart review was conducted of all patients 6 months to 18 years of age with egg allergy who underwent oral baked-egg challenges at Children's Medical Center Dallas over a 2-year period. Challenges were conducted in the clinic with a 3.8-g baked-egg product. Fifty-nine of 94 patients (63%) tolerated the 3.8-g baked-egg product. The presence of asthma (P < .01), EW skin prick test (SPT; P < .01) reactive wheal, and EW-specific IgE level (P = .02) correlated with baked-egg reactivity, whereas ovomucoid-specific IgE level did not. The positive predictive value approached 66% at an EW SPT reactive wheal of 10 mm and 60% for an EW-specific IgE level of 8 kUA/L. Most subjects with egg allergy tolerated baked egg. This study is the first to use 3.8 g of EW protein for the challenges. The EW SPT wheal diameter and EW-specific IgE levels were the best predictors of baked-egg tolerance. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. 82.8 Section 82.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. (a) Eggs, other than hatching... establishment that processes the eggs, other than hatching eggs, for sale establishes procedures adequate to...

  19. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection of...

  20. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection of...

  1. ELECTRIC IMPEDANCE OF ARBACIA EGGS

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth S.; Cole, Robert H.

    1936-01-01

    The alternating current resistance and capacity of suspensions of unfertilized and fertilized eggs of Arbacia punctulata have been measured at frequencies from 103 to 1.64 x 107 cycles per second. The unfertilized egg has a static plasma membrane capacity of 0.73 µf./cm.2 which is practically independent of frequency. The fertilized egg has a static membrane capacity of 3.1 µf./cm.2 at low frequencies which decreases to a value of 0.55 µf./cm.2 at high frequencies. The decrease follows closely the relaxation dispersion of the dielectric constant if the dissipation of such a system is ignored. It is considered more probable that the effect is due to a fertilization membrane of 3.1 µf./cm.2 capacity lifted 1.5 µ. from the plasma membrane, the interspace having the conductivity of sea water. The suspensions show a frequency-dependent capacity at low frequencies which may be attributable to surface conductance. The equivalent low frequency internal specific resistance of both the unfertilized and fertilized egg is about 186 ohm cm. or about 6 times that of sea water, while the high frequency data extrapolate to a value of about 4 times sea water. There is evidence at the highest frequencies that the current is penetrating the nucleus and other materials in the cytoplasm. If this effect were entirely due to the nucleus it would lead to a very approximate value of 0.1 µf./cm.2 for the capacity of the nuclear membrane. The measurements do not indicate any change in this effect on fertilization. PMID:19872952

  2. Egg shape mimicry in parasitic cuckoos.

    PubMed

    Attard, M R G; Medina, I; Langmore, N E; Sherratt, E

    2017-11-01

    Parasitic cuckoos lay their eggs in nests of host species. Rejection of cuckoo eggs by hosts has led to the evolution of egg mimicry by cuckoos, whereby their eggs mimic the colour and pattern of their host eggs to avoid egg recognition and rejection. There is also evidence of mimicry in egg size in some cuckoo-host systems, but currently it is unknown whether cuckoos can also mimic the egg shape of their hosts. In this study, we test whether there is evidence of mimicry in egg form (shape and size) in three species of Australian cuckoos: the fan-tailed cuckoo Cacomantis flabelliformis, which exploits dome nesting hosts, the brush cuckoo Cacomantis variolosus, which exploits both dome and cup nesting hosts, and the pallid cuckoo Cuculus pallidus, which exploits cup nesting hosts. We found evidence of size mimicry and, for the first time, evidence of egg shape mimicry in two Australian cuckoo species (pallid cuckoo and brush cuckoo). Moreover, cuckoo-host egg similarity was higher for hosts with open nests than for hosts with closed nests. This finding fits well with theory, as it has been suggested that hosts with closed nests have more difficulty recognizing parasitic eggs than open nests, have lower rejection rates and thus exert lower selection for mimicry in cuckoos. This is the first evidence of mimicry in egg shape in a cuckoo-host system, suggesting that mimicry at different levels (size, shape, colour pattern) is evolving in concert. We also confirm the existence of egg size mimicry in cuckoo-host systems. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Egg-laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Yee, Julie L; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-06-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intraclutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. The authors examined the influence of egg-laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last eggs laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg-laying order were inconsistent among species, and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were <3%. The authors summarized the literature, and among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg-laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, the authors determined that accurate estimation of a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1458-1469. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  4. Egg embryo development detection with hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Kurt C.; Smith, Douglas P.; Windham, William R.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.; Park, Bosoon

    2006-10-01

    In the U. S. egg industry, anywhere from 130 million to over one billion infertile eggs are incubated each year. Some of these infertile eggs explode in the hatching cabinet and can potentially spread molds or bacteria to all the eggs in the cabinet. A method to detect the embryo development of incubated eggs was developed. Twelve brown-shell hatching eggs from two replicates (n=24) were incubated and imaged to identify embryo development. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to collect transmission images from 420 to 840 nm of brown-shell eggs positioned with the air cell vertical and normal to the camera lens. Raw transmission images from about 400 to 900 nm were collected for every egg on days 0, 1, 2, and 3 of incubation. A total of 96 images were collected and eggs were broken out on day 6 to determine fertility. After breakout, all eggs were found to be fertile. Therefore, this paper presents results for egg embryo development, not fertility. The original hyperspectral data and spectral means for each egg were both used to create embryo development models. With the hyperspectral data range reduced to about 500 to 700 nm, a minimum noise fraction transformation was used, along with a Mahalanobis Distance classification model, to predict development. Days 2 and 3 were all correctly classified (100%), while day 0 and day 1 were classified at 95.8% and 91.7%, respectively. Alternatively, the mean spectra from each egg were used to develop a partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. First, a PLSR model was developed with all eggs and all days. The data were multiplicative scatter corrected, spectrally smoothed, and the wavelength range was reduced to 539 - 770 nm. With a one-out cross validation, all eggs for all days were correctly classified (100%). Second, a PLSR model was developed with data from day 0 and day 3, and the model was validated with data from day 1 and 2. For day 1, 22 of 24 eggs were correctly classified (91.7%) and for day 2, all eggs

  5. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    PubMed

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  6. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  7. Mechanisms driving the lactate switch in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Fiona; Walker, Tracy; Chung, Vicky; Morten, Karl

    2018-03-31

    The metabolism of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells in a production environment has been extensively investigated. However, a key metabolic transition, the switch from lactate production to lactate consumption, remains enigmatic. Though commonly observed in CHO cultures, the mechanism(s) by which this metabolic shift is triggered is unknown. Despite this, efforts to control the switch have emerged due to the association of lactate consumption with improved cell growth and productivity. This review aims to consolidate current theories surrounding the lactate switch. The influence of pH, NAD + /NADH, pyruvate availability and mitochondrial function on lactate consumption are explored. A hypothesis based on the cellular redox state is put forward to explain the onset of lactate consumption. Various techniques implemented to control the lactate switch, including manipulation of the culture environment, genetic engineering, and cell line selection are also discussed. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Estrogen suppresses melatonin-enhanced hyperactivation of hamster spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    FUJINOKI, Masakatsu; TAKEI, Gen L.

    2015-01-01

    Hamster sperm hyperactivation is enhanced by progesterone, and this progesterone-enhanced hyperactivation is suppressed by 17β-estradiol (17βE2) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Although it has been indicated that melatonin also enhances hyperactivation, it is unknown whether melatonin-enhanced hyperactivation is also suppressed by 17βE2 and GABA. In the present study, melatonin-enhanced hyperactivation was significantly suppressed by 17βE2 but not by GABA. Moreover, suppression of melatonin-enhanced hyperactivation by 17βE2 occurred through non-genomic regulation via the estrogen receptor (ER). These results suggest that enhancement of hyperactivation is regulated by melatonin and 17βE2 through non-genomic regulation. PMID:25959801

  9. Metabolism and transfer of choline in hamster small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Flower, R. J.; Pollitt, R. J.; Sanford, P. A.; Smyth, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    1. The transfer and metabolism of choline was studied with sacs of everted intestine of hamster. 2. Approximately half the choline transferred from the mucosal fluid may be metabolized. High voltage electrophoresis, paper chromatography and ion exchange chromatography have been used to identify this meta bolite as betaine. 3. The concentration of choline and betaine together accumulating in the gut wall and serosal fluid are greater than that of choline present initially in the mucosal fluid indicating some kind of specific mechanism for choline transport. 4. A detailed analysis of choline transfer suggests that the movement of choline cannot be accounted for by simple diffusion. The concentration of choline accumulating in the gut wall and serosal fluid, the inhibitory effects of hemicholinium-3 and α-methylglucoside on choline transfer, and the insensitivity of betaine transfer to hemicholinium-3 suggest a specific active transport process for choline independent of active betaine transport. PMID:5085340

  10. Uptake of indocyanine green by hamster sebaceous glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Lo, Kai-Ming; Wang, Zhi

    2001-05-01

    Photothermal injury to the sebaceous glands is a potential curative treatment for the common skin disease acne vulgaris. Accumulation of the exogenous chromophore indocyanine green in the sebaceous glands may be accomplished using an emulsion or liposomal formulation applied to the skin surface. An emulsion containing 0.09% by weight indocyanine green (ICG) was applied to the epidermis of hamster ears ex vivo and the flank organ in vivo. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated selective accumulation of ICG in the underlying sebaceous glands. The concentration of ICG that may be expected to accumulate in sebaceous glands of humans was then estimated on the basis of the gland size and orifice area, for the case of topical application of a more concentrated 1% ICG liposomal formulation. Monte Carlo modeling and heat transfer calculations showed that the sebaceous glands containing the exogenous chromophore may be selectively damaged by pulsed 810 nm laser radiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling.

  11. Baked Milk and Egg Diets for Milk and Egg Allergy Management.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna H

    2016-02-01

    In baked form, cow's milk and egg are less allergenic and are tolerated by most milk- and egg-allergic children. Not only may including baked milk and egg in the diets of children who are tolerant improve nutrition and promote more social inclusion but there is also evidence that inclusion may accelerate the resolution of unheated milk and egg allergy. Further research is needed on biomarkers that can predict baked milk or egg reactivity; however, data suggest casein- and ovomucoid-specific immunoglobulin E levels may be useful. Physician-supervised introduction of baked milk and egg is recommended because anaphylaxis has occurred. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk from different poultry specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Votava, J.; Buchar, J.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this study is differences in rheological behaviour of hen (ISA BROWN), goose (Anser anser f. domestica) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) egg white and egg yolk. The rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Rheological behaviour was pseudoplastic and flow curves were fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model and Ostwald-de Waele model with high values of coeficients of determination R2. The meaning of rheological parameters on friction factors during flow of egg white and egg yolk in real tube has been shown. Preliminary information on time-dependent behaviour of tested liquids has been also obtained.

  13. Peripheral gustatory processing of sweet stimuli by golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Frank, Marion E; Formaker, Bradley K; Hettinger, Thomas P

    2005-07-15

    Behaviors and taste-nerve responses to bitter stimuli are linked to compounds that bind T2 receptors expressed in one subset of taste-bud receptor cells (TRCs); and behavioral and neural responses to sweet stimuli are linked to chemical compounds that bind a T1 receptor expressed in a different TRC subset. Neural and behavioral responses to bitter-sweet mixtures, however, complicate the ostensible bitter and sweet labeled lines. In the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, quinine hydrochloride, the bitter prototype, suppresses chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to the sweet prototype: sucrose. This bitter-sweet inhibition was tested with concentration series of sucrose and dulcin, a hydrophobic synthetic sweetener that hamsters behaviorally cross-generalize with sucrose. Dulcin, sucrose and other sweeteners activate one subset of CT fibers: S neurons; whereas, quinine activates a separate subset of CT fibers: E neurons. Whole-nerve and S-neuron CT responses to a sweetener concentration series, mixed with 0, 1, 3 and 10 mM quinine, were measured for 0-2.5 s transient and/or 2.6-10 s steady-state response periods. Ten-sec total single-fiber records, aligned at response onset, were averaged for 100 ms bins to identify response oscillations. Quinine inhibition of dulcin and sucrose responses was identical. Each log molar increment in quinine resulted in equivalent declines in response to either sweetener. Furthermore, sucrose response decrements paralleled response increments in quinine-sensitive CT neurons to the same quinine increases. A 1.43 Hz bursting rhythm to the sweeteners was unchanged by quinine inhibition or decreases in sweetener concentration. Taste-bud processing, possibly between-cell inhibition and within-cell negative feedback, must modify signals initiated by T1 receptors before they are transmitted to the brain.

  14. Fluoxetine disrupts motivation and GABAergic signaling in adolescent female hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shannonhouse, John L; DuBois, Dustin W; Fincher, Annette S; Vela, Alejandra M; Henry, Morgan M; Wellman, Paul J; Frye, Gerald D; Morgan, Caurnel

    2016-08-01

    Initial antidepressant treatment can paradoxically worsen symptoms in depressed adolescents by undetermined mechanisms. Interestingly, antidepressants modulate GABAA receptors, which mediate paradoxical effects of other therapeutic drugs, particularly in females. Although the neuroanatomic site of action for this paradox is unknown, elevated GABAA receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens can disrupt motivation. We assessed fluoxetine's effects on motivated behaviors in pubescent female hamsters - anhedonia in the reward investigational preference (RIP) test as well as anxiety in the anxiety-related feeding/exploration conflict (AFEC) test. We also assessed accumbal signaling by RT-PCR and electrophysiology. Fluoxetine initially worsened motivated behaviors at puberty, relative to adulthood. It also failed to improve these behaviors as pubescent hamsters transitioned into adulthood. Low accumbal mRNA levels of multiple GABAA receptor subunits and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, GAD67, assessed by RT-PCR, suggested low GABAergic tone at puberty. Nonetheless, rapid fluoxetine-induced reductions of α5GABAA receptor and BDNF mRNA levels at puberty were consistent with age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine and disruption of the motivational state. Whole-cell patch clamping of accumbal slices also suggested low GABAergic tone by the low amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) at puberty. It also confirmed age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine. Specifically, fluoxetine potentiated mIPSC amplitude and frequency at puberty, but attenuated the amplitude during adulthood. These results implicate GABAergic tone and GABAA receptor plasticity in adverse motivational responses and resistance to fluoxetine during adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Microcirculatory effects of zinc on fructose-fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, R C; Barros, C M M R; Boa, B C S; Bouskela, E

    2016-04-01

    Fructose is a major dietary component directly related to vascular dysfunction and diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Zinc is considered a non-pharmacological alternative for treating diabetes due to its antioxidant and hyperglycemia-lowering effects in diabetic animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary zinc supplementation on the microcirculatory parameters of fructose-fed hamsters. Male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were fed drinking water substituted by 10% fructose solution for 60 days, whereas control animals were fed drinking water alone. Their microcirculatory function was evaluated using cheek pouch preparation, as well as their blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Their microcirculatory responses to acetylcholine (ACh, an endothelium-dependent vasodilator) and to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an endothelium-independent vasodilator) as well as the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by 30 min of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) were noted. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was significantly increased in control animals with high zinc supplementation compared to the groups without zinc supplementation. Zinc was able to protect against plasma leakage induced by I/R in all control and fructose-fed groups, although the microvascular permeability was higher in animals fed drinking water substituted by 10% fructose solution compared to those fed filtered drinking water alone. Our results indicate that dietary zinc supplementation can improve microvascular dysfunction by increasing endothelial-dependent dilatation and reducing the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by I/R in fructose-fed animals. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphometric and histological analysis of the lungs of Syrian golden hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, A R; Desrosiers, A; Terzaghi, M; Little, J B

    1978-01-01

    Hamster lung morphometry and histology have been studied in an attempt to determine differences between hamster and human lungs which may have relevance for lung carcinogenesis studies. Morphometric measurements were made on fresh lungs, lung casts, and histological sections. Cell type and frequency measurements were determined from frozen, paraffin, 1 micron plastic (glycol methacrylate) and electron microscopic sections. A standard terminology for hamster lung histology is established, and differences between hamster and human lung morphometry and histology are discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 PMID:640957

  17. Transformation of Primary Hamster Brain Cells with JC Virus and Its DNA

    PubMed Central

    Frisque, R. J.; Rifkin, D. B.; Walker, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    We transformed primary hamster brain cells with four isolates of JC virus and JC virus DNA. Several properties of these transformants were characterized and compared to those of simian virus 40 transformants isolated under identical conditions. Images PMID:6251275

  18. AUTONOMIC AND BEHAVIORAL THERMOREGULATION IN THE GOLDEN HAMSTER DURING SUBCHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF CLORGYLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic administration of clorgyline, a type-A monoamine oxidase inhibitor, leads to a decrease in peritoneal (i.e., core) temperature of golden hamsters. o better understand the mechanisms of clorgyline's thermoregulatory effects, autonomic and behavioral thermoregulatory effect...

  19. [Purification of arsenic-binding proteins in hamster plasma after oral administration of arsenite].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Min; Li, Chunhui; Qin, Yingjie; Hua, Naranmandura

    2013-01-01

    To purify the arsenic-binding proteins (As-BP) in hamster plasma after a single oral administration of arsenite (iAs(III)). Arsenite was given to hamsters in a single dose. Three types of HPLC columns, size exclusion, gel filtration and anion exchange columns, combined with an inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (ICP MS) were used to purify the As-BP in hamster plasma. SDS-PAGE was used to confirm the arsenic-binding proteins at each purification step. The three-step purification process successfully separated As-BP from other proteins (ie, arsenic unbound proteins) in hamster plasma. The molecular mass of purified As-BP in plasma was approximately 40-50 kD on SDS-PAGE. The three-step purification method is a simple and fast approach to purify the As-BP in plasma samples.

  20. Seasonal adaptation of dwarf hamsters (Genus Phodopus): differences between species and their geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Müller, D; Hauer, J; Schöttner, K; Fritzsche, P; Weinert, D

    2015-12-01

    The genus Phodopus consists of three species--P. campbelli (Pc), P. sungorus (Ps), and P. roborovskii (Pr). They inhabit steppes, semi-deserts, and deserts in continental Asia with a climate changing from a moderate to a hard Continental one with extreme daily and seasonal variations. These different environmental challenges are likely to have consequences for hamsters' morphology, physiology, and behavior. Hamsters of all three species were investigated during the course of the year in the laboratory though using natural lighting and temperature conditions. Motor activity and body temperature were measured continuously, and body mass, testes size, and fur coloration every 1-2 weeks. With regard to the pattern of activity, nearly twice as many Pc as Ps hamsters (25 vs. 14%) failed to respond to changes of photoperiod, whereas all Pr hamsters did. Body mass and testes size were high in summer and low in winter, with the biggest relative change in Ps and the lowest in Pr hamsters. Changes of fur coloration were found in Ps hamsters only. All responding animals (that is excluding Pr), exhibited regular torpor bouts during the short winter days. In autumn, seasonal changes started considerably earlier in Ps hamsters. To investigate the putative causes of these different time courses, a further experiment was performed, to identify the critical photoperiod. Hamsters were kept for 10 weeks under different photoperiods, changing from 16 to 8 h light per day. Motor activity was recorded continuously, to identify responding and non-responding animals. Body mass was measured at the beginning and the end of the experiment, testes mass only at the end. The critical photoperiod was found to be similar in all three species. Though in a further experiment, Pc and Pr hamsters showed a delayed response, whereas the changes in Ps hamsters started immediately following transfer to short-day conditions. The results show that interspecific differences in seasonal adaptation exist, even

  1. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Donald J.

    2015-01-01

    The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. PMID:26506379

  2. Leptin mediates seasonal variation in some but not all symptoms of sickness in Siberian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Elizabeth D.; Demas, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    Many seasonally breeding species, including Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), exhibit seasonal variation in sickness responses. One hypothesis regarding the mechanism of this variation is that sickness intensity tracks an animal's energetic state, such that sickness is attenuated in the season that an animal has the lowest fat stores. Energetic state may be signaled via leptin, an adipose hormone that provides a signal of fat stores. Siberian hamsters respond to extended housing in short, winter-like days by reducing fat stores and leptin levels, relative to those housed in long, summer-like days. Sickness responses are also attenuated in short-day hamsters as compared to long-day hamsters. We hypothesized that leptin provides a physiological signal by which seasonally breeding animals modulate sickness responses, such that animals with higher leptin levels show increased sickness intensity. To test this, we provided short-day hamsters with a long-day-like leptin signal and assessed their responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a sickness-inducing antigen. We compared these responses to short-day vehicle-, long-day vehicle-, and long-day leptin-treated hamsters. Unexpectedly, LPS induced a hypothermic response (rather than fever) in all groups. Short-day vehicle-treated hamsters exhibited the greatest LPS-induced hypothermia, and leptin treatment attenuated this response, making hypothermia more long-day-like. Contrary to our hypothesis, short-day leptin-treated hamsters showed the least pronounced LPS-induced anorexia among all groups. These results suggest that leptin may mediate some but not all aspects of seasonal sickness variation in this species. Future studies should be targeted at determining roles of other energetic hormones in regulating seasonal sickness response variation. PMID:25461974

  3. Reproductive responses to photoperiod persist in olfactory bulbectomized Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Pyter, Leah M; Galang, Jerome; Kay, Leslie M

    2009-03-02

    In reproductively photoperiodic Syrian hamsters, removal of the olfactory bulbs (OBx) leads to a marked and sustained increase in gonadotrophin secretion which prevents normal testicular regression in short photoperiods. In contrast, among reproductively nonphotoperiodic laboratory strains of rats and mice, bulbectomy unmasks reproductive responses to photoperiod. The role of the olfactory bulbs has been proposed to have opposite effects on responsiveness to photoperiod, depending on the photoperiodicity of the reproductive system; however, Syrian hamsters are the only reproductively photoperiodic rodent species for which the role of the olfactory bulb in reproductive endocrinology has been assessed. This experiment evaluated the role of the olfactory bulbs in the photoperiodic control of reproduction in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), an established model species for the study of neural substrates mediating seasonality. Relative to control hamsters housed in long days (15 h light/day), exposure of adult male hamsters to short days (9h light/day) for 8 weeks led to a temporal expansion of the pattern of nocturnal locomotor activity, testicular regression, decreases in testosterone (T) production, and undetectable levels of plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy failed to affect any of these responses to short days. The patterns of entrainment to long and short days suggests that pre-pineal mechanisms involved in photoperiodic timekeeping are functioning normally in OBx hamsters. The absence of increases in FSH following bulbectomy in long days is incompatible with the hypothesis that the olfactory bulbs provide tonic inhibition of the HPG axis in this species. In marked contrast to Syrian hamsters, the olfactory bulbs of Siberian hamsters play essentially no role in the modulation of tonic gonadotrophin production or gonadotrophin responses to photoperiod.

  4. Hematologic Assessment in Pet Rats, Mice, Hamsters, and Gerbils: Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Survival of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Following Ultrahigh Dose Rate Electron and Bremsstrahlung Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    and a stepped lead flattening filter. The electron energy used for these studies was 13 MeV. Dosimetry was performed by the Health Physics Division...VolI LJSAFSAPA-TR-90-4 AD-A222 722 SURVIVAL OF CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS FOLLOWING ULTRAHIGH DOSE RATE ELECTRON AND BREMISSTRAHLUNG RADIATION...Include Security ;a!. iatcn) Survival of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Following Ultrahigh Dose Rate Electron and Bremsstrahlung Radiation 12 PERSONAL

  6. Stimulation of islet cell proliferation enhances pancreatic ductal carcinogenesis in the hamster model.

    PubMed Central

    Pour, P. M.; Kazakoff, K.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that some N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP)-induced ductal/ductular pancreatic cancers in the hamster model develop within islets and that streptozotocin (SZ) pretreatment that caused islet degeneration and atrophy inhibits pancreatic cancer induction. Hence, it appears that in this model islets play a significant role in exocrine pancreatic carcinogenesis. To examine whether stimulation of islet cell proliferation (nesidioblastosis) enhances pancreatic exocrine cancer development, we tested the effect of the pancreatic carcinogen BOP in hamsters after induction of nesidioblastosis by cellophane wrapping. Before wrapping, hamsters were treated with SZ to inhibit pancreatic tumor induction in the unwrapped pancreatic tissues. Control groups with a wrapped pancreas did not receive SZ. Six weeks after SZ treatment, all hamsters were treated with BOP (10 mg/kg body weight) weekly for 10 weeks and the experiment was terminated 38 weeks after the last BOP treatment. Many animals recovered from their diabetes at the time when BOP was injected and many more after BOP treatment. Only nine hamsters remained diabetic until the end of the experiment. Both SZ-treated and control groups developed proliferative and malignant pancreatic ductal-type lesions primarily in the wrapped area (47%) but less frequently in the larger segments of the pancreas, including the splenic lobe (34%), gastric lobe (13%), and duodenal lobe (6%). Only a few lesions developed in the unwrapped pancreatic region of nine diabetic hamsters with atrophic islets, whereas seven of these hamsters had tumors in the wrapped area. Histologically, most tumors appeared to originate from islets, many invasive carcinomas had foci of islets, and some tumor cells showed reactivity with anti-insulin. The results show that, in the BOP hamster model, islets are the site of formation of the major fraction of exocrine pancreatic cancer and that induction of nesidioblastosis enhances

  7. Photoperiod history differentially impacts reproduction and immune function in adult Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Pyter, Leah M

    2009-12-01

    Seasonal changes in numerous aspects of mammalian immune function arise as a result of the annual variation in environmental day length (photoperiod), but it is not known if absolute photoperiod or relative change in photoperiod drives these changes. This experiment tested the hypothesis that an individual's history of exposure to day length determines immune responses to ambiguous, intermediate-duration day lengths. Immunological (blood leukocytes, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions [DTH]), reproductive, and adrenocortical responses were assessed in adult Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) that had been raised initially in categorically long (15-h light/day; 15L) or short (9L) photoperiods and were subsequently transferred to 1 of 7 cardinal experimental photoperiods between 9L and 15L, inclusive. Initial photoperiod history interacted with contemporary experimental photoperiods to determine reproductive responses: 11L, 12L, and 13L caused gonadal regression in hamsters previously exposed to 15L, but elicited growth in hamsters previously in 9L. In hamsters with a 15L photoperiod history, photoperiods < or = 11L elicited sustained enhancement of DTH responses, whereas in hamsters with a 9L photoperiod history, DTH responses were largely unaffected by increases in day length. Enhancement and suppression of blood leukocyte concentrations occurred at 13L in hamsters with photoperiod histories of 15L and 9L, respectively; however, prior exposure to 9L imparted marked hysteresis effects, which suppressed baseline leukocyte concentrations. Cortisol concentrations were only enhanced in 15L hamsters transferred to 9L and, in common with DTH, were unaffected by photoperiod treatments in hamsters with a 9L photoperiod history. Photoperiod history acquired in adulthood impacts immune responses to photoperiod, but manifests in a markedly dissimilar fashion as compared to the reproductive system. Prior photoperiod exposure has an enduring impact on the ability of the

  8. Mesothelial cell proliferation induced by intrapleural instillation of man-made fibers in rats and hamsters.

    PubMed

    Rutten, A A; Bermudez, E; Mangum, J B; Wong, B A; Moss, O R; Everitt, J I

    1994-07-01

    Long-term inhalation exposure to a biopersistent man-made ceramic fiber (RCF 1) results in a high incidence of pleural mesotheliomas in Syrian golden hamsters but not in identically exposed rats. To understand better the mechanisms involved in the intraspecies pathobiology of fiber-exposed mesothelium, the ability of the two different man-made fibers to induce cell proliferation in hamster and rat pleural mesothelial cells was investigated. Three dose levels of either glass fibers (MMVF 10) or ceramic fibers (RCF 1) were instilled intrapleurally into male Fischer 344 rats and male Syrian Golden hamsters. Rats and hamsters were exposed to approximately equal numbers of long thin fibers per kilogram of body weight using a single intrapleural instillation. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered via an implanted osmotic pump, and mesothelial cell proliferation was assessed at 7 and 28 days postinstillation (PI) using immunocytochemical visualization of labeled S-phase cells. Both rats and hamsters exhibited dose-dependent increases in proliferation of pleural mesothelial cells following exposure to both fiber types. Interspecies differences in mesothelial cell proliferation were noted for fiber type and pleural site. At 28 days PI, RCF-induced mesothelial cell proliferation was found to be more pronounced in hamsters than in rats in the caudal visceral pleural. Comparing both fibers either by equal mass or by equal fiber numbers, mesothelial cell proliferation in RCF 1-treated animals was higher than in animals exposed to MMVF 10, especially in hamsters, and may be a factor in the difference in mesothelioma induced by the two fibers. The higher sustained (28 day) mesothelial cell proliferation in the visceral pleural of hamsters exposed to RCF may contribute to the species-specific differences in mesothelioma incidence found in long-term rodent inhalation studies.

  9. Absence of C-type natriuretic peptide receptors in hamster glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Luk, J K; Wong, E F; Wong, N L

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of atrial natriuretic peptide receptor B (ANPR-B) varies between tissues and species. The aim of this study is to determine whether ANPR-B is present in the hamster glomeruli. In vitro C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP)- and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)-stimulated cGMP accumulation studies were performed in hamster glomeruli. Elevated cGMP accumulations were observed upon ANF addition. No cGMP response was seen with CNP. Competitive receptor-binding experiments were performed with 125I-CNP and 125I-ANF against their respective cold peptides in hamster glomeruli. Although no CNP binding was detected, positive ANF binding was found and two types of ANF receptor were demonstrated. The affinity (Kdl) and maximum binding capacity (Bmaxl) of the high-affinity ANF receptor were 0.014 +/- 0.001 nM and 60.4 +/- 10.2 fmol/mg protein, respectively. Those of the low-affinity receptor (Kd2 and Bmax2) were 45.7 +/- 6.2 nM and 28.3 +/- 6.3 pmol/mg protein, respectively. Similarly, saturation binding experiments also failed to show any CNP receptor binding in hamster glomeruli. This finding suggests that ANPR-B is not present in hamster glomeruli and CNP is not a direct physiological regulator of hamster renal function.

  10. Individual differences in circadian waveform of Siberian hamsters under multiple lighting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jennifer A.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Gorman, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Because the circadian clock in the mammalian brain derives from a network of interacting cellular oscillators, characterizing the nature and bases of circadian coupling is fundamental to understanding how the pacemaker operates. Various phenomena involving plasticity in circadian waveform have been theorized to reflect changes in oscillator coupling; however, it remains unclear whether these different behavioral paradigms reference a unitary underlying process. To test if disparate coupling assays index a common mechanism, we examined whether there is co-variation among behavioral responses to various lighting conditions that produce changes in circadian waveform. Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus, were transferred from long to short photoperiods to distinguish short photoperiod responders (SP-R) from non-responders (SP-NR). Short photoperiod chronotyped hamsters were subsequently transferred, along with unselected controls, to 24 h light:dark:light:dark cycles (LDLD) with dim nighttime illumination, a procedure that induces bifurcated entrainment. Under LDLD, SP-R hamsters were more likely to bifurcate their rhythms than SP-NR hamsters or unselected controls. After transfer from LDLD to constant dim light, SP-R hamsters were also more likely to become arrhythmic compared to SP-NR hamsters and unselected controls. In contrast, short photoperiod chronotype did not influence more transient changes in circadian waveform. The present data reveal a clear relationship in the plasticity of circadian waveform across three distinct lighting conditions, suggesting a common mechanism wherein individual differences reflect variation in circadian coupling. PMID:23010663

  11. ELECTRIC IMPEDANCE OF THE FROG EGG

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth S.; Guttman, Rita M.

    1942-01-01

    Electrical impedance measurements were made upon unfertilized and fertilized eggs of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, over a frequency range of 0.05 to 10 kc. Average values of 170 ohm cm.2 were obtained for the plasma membrane resistance of the egg, 2.0 µf/cm.2 for the plasma membrane capacity, 86° for the phase angle of the membrane, and 570 ohm cm. for the specific resistance of the interior. These values did not change upon fertilization. No spontaneous rhythmical impedance changes such as have been found by Hubbard and Rothschild in the trout egg were found in frog eggs. PMID:19873312

  12. Upper jurassic dinosaur egg from utah.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, K F; Stadtman, K L; Miller, W E; Madsen, J H

    1989-03-31

    The Upper Jurassic egg described here is the first known egg from the 100-million-year gap in the fossil record between Lower Jurassic (South Africa) and upper Lower Cretaceous (Utah). The discovery of the egg, which was found mixed in with thousands of dinosaur bones rather than in a nest, the pathological multilayering of the eggshell as found in modern and fossil reptilians, and the pliable condition of the eggshell at the time of burial indicate an oviducal retention of the egg at the time of burial.

  13. Quail Egg compared to a quarter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Quail eggs are small (shown here with a quarter for scale) and develop quickly, making them ideal for space experiments. The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels (below), one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations, Development and function of the inner-ear balance system in normal and altered gravity environments, and Skeletal development in embryonic quail.

  14. Initial experience with a donor egg bank.

    PubMed

    Akin, James W; Bell, Katrina A; Thomas, Diana; Boldt, Jeffrey

    2007-08-01

    To report on the establishment of a commercial donor egg bank (CryoEggs International, LP) and to present our initial experience from the first four patients to receive eggs. Case report. Private fertility clinic. The four recipient women were aged 43, 43, 40, and 33 years. All had cycle day FSH levels greater than 25 mIU/mL. All were given the option of fresh donor egg IVF but opted to use frozen donor oocytes. Purchased and quarantined frozen donor eggs were thawed and inseminated using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Subsequent embryos were transferred on day 3. Clinical pregnancy as defined by presence of cardiac activity. There was a thawed egg survival rate of 76%, a fertilization rate of 74%, a pregnancy rate (PR) of 50%, with an average of 2.75 embryos per transfer and an implantation rate of 27%. Although very preliminary, these results indicate that more widespread use of frozen donor eggs obtained from a commercial egg bank may be feasible in the future, changing the landscape of donor egg IVF.

  15. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U.; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V.; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  16. Baked milk- and egg-containing diet in the management of milk and egg allergy.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Kim, Jennifer S; Groetch, Marion; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk (CM) and hen's egg allergies are among the most common food allergies in children. With evidence of increasing food allergy prevalence and more persistent disease, it has become vital to improve the management of CM and egg allergies. The ability to tolerate baked milk or egg, such as in a cake or muffin, has been associated with an increased chance of tolerance development. Studies report that about 70% of CM- and egg-allergic children can tolerate baked milk or egg and that incorporating baked milk or egg into the diet is well tolerated. Being able to add baked milk or egg into the diet can also increase quality of life by expanding the diet, boosting nutrition, and promoting inclusion in social activities. There is some debate over how baked milk and egg should be introduced, at home or in a supervised setting. Anaphylaxis and treatment with epinephrine during baked milk or egg challenges have been reported. Study of potential biomarkers to predict tolerability of baked milk and egg, such as serum specific IgE levels and skin prick test wheal diameters, is ongoing. Many parents can reliably report that their CM- or egg-allergic child is already consuming baked goods without symptoms. However, for those who cannot report such tolerance, the most prudent approach is to perform a supervised oral food challenge to determine the tolerability of baked milk and egg. The purpose of this article was to review the pathophysiology, clinical data, and safety of baked milk and egg and provide a practical guide to managing CM allergy and/or egg allergy. Recipes for baked milk and egg challenges and guidance on how to add baked milk and egg if tolerated to the child's regular diet are provided. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Irradiation of shell egg on the physicochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white.

    PubMed

    Min, B; Nam, K C; Jo, C; Ahn, D U

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of irradiation of shell eggs on the physiochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white during storage. Color and textural parameters of irradiated liquid egg white after cooking were also determined. Shell eggs were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 kGy using a linear accelerator. Egg white was separated from yolk and stored in at 4°C up to 14 d. Viscosity, pH, turbidity, foaming properties, color, and volatile profile of liquid egg white, and color and texture properties of cooked egg white were determined at 0, 7, and 14 d of storage. Irradiation increased the turbidity but decreased viscosity of liquid egg white. Foaming capacity and foam stability were not affected by irradiation at lower dose (2.5 kGy), but were deteriorated at higher doses (≥5.0 kGy) of irradiation. Sulfur-containing volatiles were generated by irradiation and their amounts increased as the irradiation dose increased. However, the sulfur volatiles disappeared during storage under aerobic conditions. Lightness (L* value) and yellowness (b* value) decreased, but greenness (-a* value) increased in cooked egg white in irradiation dose-dependent manners. All textural parameters (hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience) of cooked egg white increased as the irradiation dose increased, but those changes were marginal. Our results indicated that irradiation of shell egg at lower doses (up to 2.5 kGy) had little negative impact on the physiochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white, but can improve the efficiency of egg processing due to its viscosity-lowering effect. Therefore, irradiation of shell eggs at the lower doses has high potential to be used by the egg processing industry to improve the safety of liquid egg without compromising its quality.

  18. Administration of egg-derived vaccines in patients with history of egg sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kletz, M R; Holland, C L; Mendelson, J S; Bielory, L

    1990-06-01

    A history of a prior hypersensitivity reaction to egg has precluded patients from receiving egg-derived vaccines. We present three cases of successful administration of egg-derived vaccines; specifically influenza and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) to patients with egg hypersensitivity. Two were given influenza vaccine without incident and one was successfully desensitized to MMR. Skin testing and desensitization protocols are described. Desensitization to all three components of MMR has not been reported previously.

  19. Genetic parameters of egg defects and egg quality in layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Wolc, A; Arango, J; Settar, P; O'Sullivan, N P; Olori, V E; White, I M S; Hill, W G; Dekkers, J C M

    2012-06-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for egg defects, egg production, and egg quality traits. Eggs from 11,738 purebred brown-egg laying hens were classified as salable or as having one of the following defects: bloody, broken, calcium deposit, dirty, double yolk, misshapen, pee-wee, shell-less, and soft shelled. Egg quality included albumen height, egg weight, yolk weight, and puncture score. Body weight, age at sexual maturity, and egg production were also recorded. Heritability estimates of liability to defects using a threshold animal model were less than 0.1 for bloody and dirty; between 0.1 and 0.2 for pee-wee, broken, misshapen, soft shelled, and shell-less; and above 0.2 for calcium deposit and double yolk. Quality and production traits were more heritable, with estimates ranging from 0.29 (puncture score) to 0.74 (egg weight). High-producing hens had a lower frequency of egg defects. High egg weight and BW were associated with an increased frequency of double yolks, and to a lesser extent, with more shell quality defects. Estimates of genetic correlations among defect traits that were related to shell quality were positive and moderate to strong (0.24-0.73), suggesting that these could be grouped into one category or selection could be based on the trait with the highest heritability or that is easiest to measure. Selection against defective eggs would be more efficient by including egg defect traits in the selection criterion, along with egg production rate of salable eggs and egg quality traits.

  20. Egg freezing and egg banking: empowerment and alienation in assisted reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, John A.

    2014-01-01

    With the development of rapid freezing of human oocytes, many programs have reported IVF success rates comparable to those achieved with fresh eggs and thawed frozen embryos. Egg freezing is now gaining professional and regulatory acceptance as a safe and effective technique for women who wish to avoid discarding excess embryos, who face fertility-threatening medical treatments, or who want to preserve their eggs for use when they are better situated to have a family. This article focuses on the uses of and justification for egg freezing, the path to professional acceptance, the variability in success rates, and the controversy over freezing eggs for social rather than medical reasons. It also addresses the emergence of egg banking as a separate sector in the infertility industry, the regulatory issues that it poses, and its effect on egg donation. Key here is the legal control of stored eggs by banking women and their options when they wish to dispose of those eggs. The analysis is framed around empowerment and alienation. Egg freezing is generally empowering for women, but the donation or sale of unused eggs to infertile women, egg bankers, and researchers also raises issues of alienation. PMID:27774158

  1. Predation on Japanese quail vs. house sparrow eggs in artificial nests: small eggs reveal small predators

    Thomas J. Maier; Richard M. DeGraaf

    2000-01-01

    Nest predation studies frequently use eggs such as Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) to identify potential predators of Neotropical migrants' eggs, but such eggs may be too large or thick-shelled to identify the full complement of potential predators. We compared predation events and predators of Japanese Quail and smaller House Sparrow (

  2. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.510 Classifications...

  3. Egg freezing and egg banking: empowerment and alienation in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Robertson, John A

    2014-06-01

    With the development of rapid freezing of human oocytes, many programs have reported IVF success rates comparable to those achieved with fresh eggs and thawed frozen embryos. Egg freezing is now gaining professional and regulatory acceptance as a safe and effective technique for women who wish to avoid discarding excess embryos, who face fertility-threatening medical treatments, or who want to preserve their eggs for use when they are better situated to have a family. This article focuses on the uses of and justification for egg freezing, the path to professional acceptance, the variability in success rates, and the controversy over freezing eggs for social rather than medical reasons. It also addresses the emergence of egg banking as a separate sector in the infertility industry, the regulatory issues that it poses, and its effect on egg donation. Key here is the legal control of stored eggs by banking women and their options when they wish to dispose of those eggs. The analysis is framed around empowerment and alienation. Egg freezing is generally empowering for women, but the donation or sale of unused eggs to infertile women, egg bankers, and researchers also raises issues of alienation.

  4. Improved modified pressure imaging and software for egg micro-crack detection and egg quality grading

    Cracks in the egg shell increase a food safety risk. Especially, eggs with very fine, hairline cracks (micro-cracks) are often undetected during the grading process because they are almost impossible to detect visually. A modified pressure imaging system was developed to detect eggs with micro-crack...

  5. Host selection by a phytophagous insect: the interplay between feeding, egg maturation, egg load, and oviposition

    Understanding movement patterns of phytophagous insects among plants is a primary goal of insect ecology. Adult females may visit plants for the purpose of depositing eggs, feeding, or both. For some species, egg maturation may be dependent on adult feeding. As a result, rates of egg maturation m...

  6. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... collecting the nest eggs for hatching. Egg handlers should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water...

  7. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... collecting the nest eggs for hatching. Egg handlers should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water...

  8. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... collecting the nest eggs for hatching. Egg handlers should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water...

  9. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities § 57.35...

  10. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to any...

  11. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or other...

  12. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection of...

  13. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing...

  14. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section 590.530 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing...

  15. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of restricted eggs. 57.720 Section 57.720... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Inspection and Disposition of...

  16. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing...

  17. 7 CFR 57.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 57.800 Section 57... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  18. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or producer...

  19. 7 CFR 1250.304 - Egg Board or Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg Board or Board. 1250.304 Section 1250.304... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.304 Egg Board or Board. Egg Board or Board or other...

  20. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of restricted eggs. 57.720 Section 57.720... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Inspection and Disposition of...

  1. 7 CFR 57.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 57.800 Section 57... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  2. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to any...

  3. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or producer...

  4. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section 590.530 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing...

  5. 9 CFR 590.532 - Liquid egg holding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liquid egg holding. 590.532 Section 590.532 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing...

  6. 7 CFR 57.925 - Inspection of imported eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of imported eggs. 57.925 Section 57.925... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Imports § 57.925 Inspection of...

  7. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities § 57.35...

  8. Association between Egg Consumption and Metabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Jung, Ji-hye; Choi, Sang-Woon; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The effect of high egg intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS), a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), has not been clearly elucidated. This study was conducted to review the literature related to egg consumption and the risk of metabolic disease as well as to examine the association between high egg intake and MetS in Korean adults. A literature review was conducted using published papers in PubMed and EMBASE through December 2017. We have reviewed 26 articles, which were associated with egg consumption and metabolic diseases, and found that the results were controversial. Therefore, we analyzed data from 23,993 Korean adults aged 19 yrs and older. MetS was defined based on criteria from the Adult Treatment Panel III. Egg consumption of 4-6 times/wk and 1 time/day were significantly associated with reduced prevalence of MetS (Odds ratio (OR)=0.82; 95% Confidence interval (CI)=0.71-0.95 for 4-6 times/wk, OR=0.83; 95% CI=0.69-0.99 for 1 time/day) compared to those who consumed eggs less than once monthly. However, consuming two or more eggs per day was not associated with MetS. As for the components of MetS, an egg intake of once daily decreased the prevalence of abdominal obesity and an intake of 2-7 eggs weekly was shown to prevent a reduction in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. This study suggests that while consuming eggs 4-7 times weekly is associated with a lower prevalence of MetS, consuming two or more eggs daily is not associated with a reduced risk for MetS. PMID:29805272

  9. Producing and marketing a specialty egg.

    PubMed

    Michella, S M; Slaugh, B T

    2000-07-01

    Eggland's Best, Inc. markets premium quality shell eggs under the Eggland's Best (EB) brand name. The company, started in 1988, is comprised of a franchise network of established egg producers and covers most of the United States. Eggland's Best provides its franchisees with marketing and technical support. The franchisees produce, process, and distribute EB eggs according to the strict program established and monitored by EB. Production follows the all-natural vegetarian feed program in accordance with the company's US patent entitled "Eggs Compatible with a Cholesterol Reducing Diet and Method of Producing the Same." The EB program excludes animal fat and other animal byproducts. Eggland's Best eggs have seven times the generic level of vitamin E, nearly three times more omega-3 fatty acids and iodine, and 25% less saturated fat than regular generic eggs. Eggland's Best has one of the finest shell egg quality assurance programs anywhere. Eggland's Best franchisees submit weekly egg samples that are analyzed for shell quality, interior quality, vitamin E, iodine, cholesterol and fatty acids. Samples of feed and the EB-patented feed supplement are also analyzed. Approximately 28,000 total laboratory tests are conducted annually. Nationwide product and display retail evaluations are contracted through an outside audit company (40 to 50 cities evaluated four times per year). All EB eggs are USDA graded according to EB's strict quality standards. Producers must follow a food safety quality assurance program (United Egg Producers Association 5-Star or equivalent state or company program). Each egg is stamped "EB" as assurance of meeting EB's highest standards of flavor, quality, and nutrition. Eggland's Best has enjoyed record sales growth for the past 3 yr.

  10. Syrian Hamster as an Animal Model for the Study of Human Influenza Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Nakajima, Noriko; Ichiko, Yurie; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Noda, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Hideki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-15

    Ferrets and mice are frequently used as animal models for influenza research. However, ferrets are demanding in terms of housing space and handling, whereas mice are not naturally susceptible to infection with human influenza A or B viruses. Therefore, prior adaptation of human viruses is required for their use in mice. In addition, there are no mouse-adapted variants of the recent H3N2 viruses, because these viruses do not replicate well in mice. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to influenza viruses with a view to using the hamster model as an alternative to the mouse model. We found that hamsters are sensitive to influenza viruses, including the recent H3N2 viruses, without adaptation. Although the hamsters did not show weight loss or clinical signs of H3N2 virus infection, we observed pathogenic effects in the respiratory tracts of the infected animals. All of the H3N2 viruses tested replicated in the respiratory organs of the hamsters, and some of them were detected in the nasal washes of infected animals. Moreover, a 2009 pandemic (pdm09) virus and a seasonal H1N1 virus, as well as one of the two H3N2 viruses, but not a type B virus, were transmissible by the airborne route in these hamsters. Hamsters thus have the potential to be a small-animal model for the study of influenza virus infection, including studies of the pathogenicity of H3N2 viruses and other strains, as well as for use in H1N1 virus transmission studies. IMPORTANCE We found that Syrian hamsters are susceptible to human influenza viruses, including the recent H3N2 viruses, without adaptation. We also found that a pdm09 virus and a seasonal H1N1 virus, as well as one of the H3N2 viruses, but not a type B virus tested, are transmitted by the airborne route in these hamsters. Syrian hamsters thus have the potential to be used as a small-animal model for the study of human influenza viruses. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. A Lethal Disease Model for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Immunosuppressed Syrian Hamsters Infected with Sin Nombre Virus

    PubMed Central

    Brocato, Rebecca L.; Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Bell, Todd M.; Wells, Jay B.; Queen, Laurie A.

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs of disease. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppression of hamsters through the administration of a combination of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, followed by infection with SNV, results in a vascular leak syndrome that accurately mimics both HPS disease in humans and ANDV infection of hamsters. Immunosuppressed hamsters infected with SNV have a mean number of days to death of 13 and display clinical signs associated with HPS, including pulmonary edema. Viral antigen was widely detectable throughout the pulmonary endothelium. Histologic analysis of lung sections showed marked inflammation and edema within the alveolar septa of SNV-infected hamsters, results which are similar to what is exhibited by hamsters infected with ANDV. Importantly, SNV-specific neutralizing polyclonal antibody administered 5 days after SNV infection conferred significant protection against disease. This experiment not only demonstrated that the disease was caused by SNV, it also demonstrated the utility of this animal model for testing candidate medical countermeasures. This is the first report of lethal disease caused by SNV in an adult small-animal model. PMID:24198421

  12. A lethal disease model for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters infected with Sin Nombre virus.

    PubMed

    Brocato, Rebecca L; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Bell, Todd M; Wells, Jay B; Queen, Laurie A; Hooper, Jay W

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs of disease. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppression of hamsters through the administration of a combination of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, followed by infection with SNV, results in a vascular leak syndrome that accurately mimics both HPS disease in humans and ANDV infection of hamsters. Immunosuppressed hamsters infected with SNV have a mean number of days to death of 13 and display clinical signs associated with HPS, including pulmonary edema. Viral antigen was widely detectable throughout the pulmonary endothelium. Histologic analysis of lung sections showed marked inflammation and edema within the alveolar septa of SNV-infected hamsters, results which are similar to what is exhibited by hamsters infected with ANDV. Importantly, SNV-specific neutralizing polyclonal antibody administered 5 days after SNV infection conferred significant protection against disease. This experiment not only demonstrated that the disease was caused by SNV, it also demonstrated the utility of this animal model for testing candidate medical countermeasures. This is the first report of lethal disease caused by SNV in an adult small-animal model.

  13. Can early introduction of egg prevent egg allergy in infants? A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Koplin, Jennifer J; Osborne, Nicholas J; Wake, Melissa; Martin, Pamela E; Gurrin, Lyle C; Robinson, Marnie N; Tey, Dean; Slaa, Marjolein; Thiele, Leone; Miles, Lucy; Anderson, Deborah; Tan, Tina; Dang, Thanh D; Hill, David J; Lowe, Adrian J; Matheson, Melanie C; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Tang, Mimi L K; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Allen, Katrina J

    2010-10-01

    Infant feeding guidelines have long recommended delaying introduction of solids and allergenic foods to prevent allergy in high-risk infants, despite a paucity of evidence. We aimed to determine whether confirmed egg allergy in 12-month-old infants is associated with (1) duration of breast-feeding and (2) ages of introducing egg and solids. In a population-based cross-sectional study (HealthNuts) parents reported on infant feeding and potential confounding factors before skin prick testing for egg white. Egg-sensitized infants were then offered an egg oral food challenge. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between diet and egg allergy adjusted for possible confounding factors. A total of 2589 infants (73% response) participated. Compared with introduction at 4 to 6 months, introducing egg into the diet later was associated with higher risks of egg allergy (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 1.6 [95% CI, 1.0-2.6] and 3.4 [95% CI, 1.8-6.5] for introduction at 10-12 and after 12 months, respectively). These findings persisted even in children without risk factors (OR, 3.3 [95% CI, 1.1-9.9]; 10-12 months). At age 4 to 6 months, first exposure as cooked egg reduced the risk of egg allergy compared with first exposure as egg in baked goods (OR, 0.2 [95% CI, 0.06-0.71]). Duration of breast-feeding and age at introduction of solids were not associated with egg allergy. Introduction of cooked egg at 4 to 6 months of age might protect against egg allergy. Changes in infant feeding guidelines could have a significant effect on childhood egg allergy and possibly food allergy more generally. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. 82.8 Section 82.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Disease (END) § 82.8 Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. (a) Eggs, other than hatching eggs, from birds or poultry from flocks not known to be infected with END may...

  15. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. 82.8 Section 82.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Disease (END) § 82.8 Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. (a) Eggs, other than hatching eggs, from birds or poultry from flocks not known to be infected with END may...

  16. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... not intended for use as human food. 590.45 Section 590.45 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food. (a) No person shall buy, sell, or transport...

  17. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... not intended for use as human food. 590.45 Section 590.45 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food. (a) No person shall buy, sell, or transport...

  18. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... not intended for use as human food. 590.45 Section 590.45 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food. (a) No person shall buy, sell, or transport...

  19. Vitrification of zona-free rabbit expanded or hatching blastocysts: a possible model for human blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Cervera, R P; Garcia-Ximénez, F

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of one two-step (A) and two one-step (B1 and B2) vitrification procedures on denuded expanded or hatching rabbit blastocysts held in standard sealed plastic straws as a possible model for human blastocysts. The effect of blastocyst size was also studied on the basis of three size categories (I: diameter <200 micro m; II: diameter 200-299 micro m; III: diameter >/==" BORDER="0">300 micro m). Rabbit expanded or hatching blastocysts were vitrified at day 4 or 5. Before vitrification, the zona pellucida was removed using acidic phosphate buffered saline. For the two-step procedure, prior to vitrification, blastocysts were pre- equilibrated in a solution containing 10% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and 10% ethylene glycol (EG) for 1 min. Different final vitrification solutions were compared: 20% DMSO and 20% EG with (A and B1) or without (B2) 0.5 mol/l sucrose. Of 198 vitrified blastocysts, 181 (91%) survived, regardless of the vitrification procedure applied. Vitrification procedure A showed significantly higher re-expansion (88%), attachment (86%) and trophectoderm outgrowth (80%) rates than the two one-step vitrification procedures, B1 and B2 (46 and 21%, 20 and 33%, and 18 and 23%, respectively). After warming, blastocysts of greater size (II and III) showed significantly higher attachment (54 and 64%) and trophectoderm outgrowth (44 and 58%) rates than smaller blastocysts (I, attachment: 29%; trophectoderm outgrowth: 25%). These result demonstrate that denuded expanded or hatching rabbit blastocysts of greater size can be satisfactorily vitrified by use of a two-step procedure. The similarity of vitrification solutions used in humans could make it feasible to test such a procedure on human denuded blastocysts of different sizes.

  20. Becoming a mother by non-anonymous egg donation: secrecy and the relationship between egg recipient, egg donor and egg donation child.

    PubMed

    van Berkel, D; Candido, A; Pijffers, W H

    2007-06-01

    The object of the study was to investigate secrecy in non-anonymous egg donation, to explore some characteristics of this kind of egg donation arrangement and the relationship of the recipient with her non-genetic child. Forty-four egg recipients and 62 IVF patients with a child conceived through egg donation and/or IVF were recruited. A semi-structured questionnaire was sent to all the participants. Chi-square and T-tests were used to examine the differences between the groups. There were no significant differences on the following aspects. The same high proportion of egg donation mothers (77%) and IVF mothers (87%) had the intention of telling their child about the conception but most women thought disclosure at a later time preferable. Two thirds of the recipients and IVF mothers said the way of conception had no influence on the relationship with their child. The two groups differed however in their argumentation about secrecy and named different feelings. Egg donation mothers expressed more denial and showed more defensive reactions, anxieties and uncertainty. It is suggested that recognition of a certain difference between a natural conception and egg donation could be helpful in early disclosure and could help to diminish anxieties in egg donation mothers.

  1. Rejection of cowbird eggs by crissal thrashers

    Deborah M. Finch

    1982-01-01

    Although the "dwarf" race of the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater obscurus) is sympatric with the Crissal Thrasher (Toxostoma dorsale) in the lower Colorado River valley, I observed no parasitism in 15 thrasher nests. To determine whether or not the absence of cowbird eggs was caused by egg rejection, I experimentally parasitized nine thrasher nests....

  2. Modified Pressure System for Imaging Egg Cracks

    One aspect of grading table eggs is shell checks or cracks. Currently, USDA voluntary regulations require that humans grade a representative sample of all eggs processed. However, as processing plants and packing facilities continue to increase their volume and throughput, human graders are having ...

  3. Modified Pressure System for Imaging Egg Cracks

    Abstract One aspect of grading table eggs is shell checks or cracks. Currently, USDA voluntary regulations require that humans grade a representative sample of all eggs processed. However, as processing plants and packing facilities continue to increase their volume and throughput, human graders a...

  4. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... identity for the food commonly known as eggs. ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  5. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  6. Microbiology and Safety of Table Eggs

    This chapter describes the microbiology of table eggs, effects of processing, regulatory influences, relative risk of egg-borne disease, and the role of retail and consumer practices in outbreaks. Effects of washing, refrigeration, and facility sanitation in US commercial facilities will be describe...

  7. Alternative antimicrobial commercial egg washing procedures

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures ...

  8. Salmonella and impact on egg production.

    There is a strong association between the incidence of human illness and the prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial egg-producing poultry. Although most egg-associated disease around the world has been attributed to S. Enteritidis, other serovars are sometimes implicated. The deposition ...

  9. Teaching Science: Air Pressure "Eggs-periments."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can introduce students to various scientific concept concerning motion, air composition, and heat by conducting an experiment: A peeled, hard-boiled egg is sucked into a bottle neck slightly smaller than the egg, after the bottle has been filled and emptied of hot water. Also discusses how students' understanding of the…

  10. Identification, Expression, and Physiological Functions of Siberian Hamster Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Fukuda, Yujiro; Mizuno, Takanobu; Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

    2012-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion in birds and mammals. To further understand its physiological roles in mammalian reproduction, we identified its precursor cDNA and endogenous mature peptides in the Siberian hamster brain. The Siberian hamster GnIH precursor cDNA encoded two RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) sequences. SPAPANKVPHSAANLPLRF-NH2 (Siberian hamster RFRP-1) and TLSRVPSLPQRF-NH2 (Siberian hamster RFRP-3) were confirmed as mature endogenous peptides by mass spectrometry from brain samples purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. GnIH mRNA expression was higher in long days (LD) compared with short days (SD). GnIH mRNA was also highly expressed in SD plus pinealectomized animals, whereas expression was suppressed by melatonin, a nocturnal pineal hormone, administration. GnIH-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons were localized to the dorsomedial region of the hypothalamus, and GnIH-ir fibers projected to hypothalamic and limbic structures. The density of GnIH-ir perikarya and fibers were higher in LD and SD plus pinealectomized hamsters than in LD plus melatonin or SD animals. The percentage of GnRH neurons receiving close appositions from GnIH-ir fiber terminals was also higher in LD than SD, and GnIH receptor was expressed in GnRH-ir neurons. Finally, central administration of hamster RFRP-1 or RFRP-3 inhibited LH release 5 and 30 min after administration in LD. In sharp contrast, both peptides stimulated LH release 30 min after administration in SD. These results suggest that GnIH peptides fine tune LH levels via its receptor expressed in GnRH-ir neurons in an opposing fashion across the seasons in Siberian hamsters. PMID:22045661

  11. Transmission of chronic wasting disease identifies a prion strain causing cachexia and heart infection in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bessen, Richard A; Robinson, Cameron J; Seelig, Davis M; Watschke, Christopher P; Lowe, Diana; Shearin, Harold; Martinka, Scott; Babcock, Alex M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging prion disease of free-ranging and captive cervids in North America. In this study we established a rodent model for CWD in Syrian golden hamsters that resemble key features of the disease in cervids including cachexia and infection of cardiac muscle. Following one to three serial passages of CWD from white-tailed deer into transgenic mice expressing the hamster prion protein gene, CWD was subsequently passaged into Syrian golden hamsters. In one passage line there were preclinical changes in locomotor activity and a loss of body mass prior to onset of subtle neurological symptoms around 340 days. The clinical symptoms included a prominent wasting disease, similar to cachexia, with a prolonged duration. Other features of CWD in hamsters that were similar to cervid CWD included the brain distribution of the disease-specific isoform of the prion protein, PrP(Sc), prion infection of the central and peripheral neuroendocrine system, and PrP(Sc) deposition in cardiac muscle. There was also prominent PrP(Sc) deposition in the nasal mucosa on the edge of the olfactory sensory epithelium with the lumen of the nasal airway that could have implications for CWD shedding into nasal secretions and disease transmission. Since the mechanism of wasting disease in prion diseases is unknown this hamster CWD model could provide a means to investigate the physiological basis of cachexia, which we propose is due to a prion-induced endocrinopathy. This prion disease phenotype has not been described in hamsters and we designate it as the 'wasting' or WST strain of hamster CWD.

  12. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Salmonella and Eggs Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Dizziness when standing up. Safe Handling Tips for Eggs from Backyard Poultry Shell eggs may become contaminated ...

  13. Payment for egg donation and surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Steinbock, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This article examines the ethics of egg donation. It begins by looking at objections to noncommercial gamete donation, and then takes up criticism of commercial egg donation. After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically acceptable. Donors should not be paid for their eggs, but rather they should be compensated for the burdens of egg retrieval. Making the distinction between compensation for burdens and payment for a product has the advantages of limiting payment, not distinguishing between donors on the basis of their traits, and ensuring that donors are paid regardless of the number or quality of eggs retrieved.

  14. Evolution and manipulation of parasitoid egg load.

    PubMed

    Gandon, Sylvain; Varaldi, Julien; Fleury, Frédéric; Rivero, Ana

    2009-11-01

    In proovigenic parasitoids such as Leptopilina boulardi, the female emerges with a limited egg load and no further eggs are produced during its adult life. A female thus runs the risk of exhausting this limited supply of eggs before the end of her life. Given that the production of an egg is costly, what is the evolutionarily stable egg load at emergence? This question has attracted a lot of attention in the last decade. Here, we analyze a model that allows us to track both the evolution and the population dynamics of a solitary, proovigenic parasitoid. First, we show how host-parasitoid dynamics feedbacks on the evolution of parasitoid egg load. Second, we use this model to consider the situation in which the parasitoid can be infected by a virus that manipulates the oviposition behavior of the females. In particular, we model the effect of the LbFV virus in L. boulardi, a virus that is known to enhance its horizontal transmission by increasing superparasitism (i.e., the laying of eggs in a host already parasitized). Specifically, we model (1) the effect of the virus on parasitoid egg load strategies, and (2) the evolution of egg load manipulation by the virus. This analysis yields two alternative, yet not mutually exclusive, adaptive explanations for the observation that females infected by the virus harbor higher egg loads than uninfected females. Infected females could either respond plastically to the infection status, or be manipulated by the virus. Further experimental work is required to distinguish between these two hypotheses. In a broader context, we present a general theoretical framework that allows us to study the epidemiology, the evolution, the coevolution, and the evolution of manipulation of various reproductive strategies of parasitoids.

  15. Obesity induction in hamster that mimics the human clinical condition.

    PubMed

    Jordania da Silva, Vivian; Dias, Sílvia Regina Costa; Maioli, Tatiani Uceli; Serafim, Luciana Ribeiro; Furtado, Luis Fernando Viana; Quintão Silva, Maria da Gloria; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano de; Rabelo, Élida Mara Leite

    2017-08-05

    Although obesity is well established in hamsters, studies using diets with high levels of simple carbohydrate associated with lipids are necessary to assess the impact of this type of food in the body. In this study a high sugar and butter diet (HSB) and high temperature were employed towards this end. Obesity was successfully induced at a temperature of 30.3°C to 30.9°C after 38 days feeding the animals an HSB diet. It was shown that although diet is important for the induction of obesity, temperature is also essential because at a temperature slightly below the one required, obesity was not induced, even when the animals were fed for a longer period (150 days).The obese clinical condition was accompanied by biochemical and hematological changes, as increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increased leukocyte numbers, similar to alterations observed in obese humans. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that increasing the intake of simple carbohydrates associated with lipids provided evidence of inflammation in obese animals.

  16. Thyroid function and cold acclimation in the hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    SciT

    Tomasi, T.E.; Horwitz, B.A.

    1987-02-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR), thyroxine utilization rate (T4U), and triiodothyronine utilization rate (T3U) were measured in cold-acclimated (CA) and room temperature-acclimated (RA) male golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus. Hormone utilization rates were calculated via the plasma disappearance technique using SVI-labeled hormones and measuring serum hormone levels via radioimmunoassay. BMR showed a significant 28% increase with cold acclimation. The same cold exposure also produced a 32% increase in T4U, and a 204% increase in T3U. The much greater increase in T3U implies that previous assessments of the relationship between cold acclimation and thyroid function may have been underestimated and that cold exposuremore » induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in thyroid function. It is concluded that in the cold-acclimated state, T3U more accurately reflects thyroid function than does T4U. A mechanism for the cold-induced change in BMR is proposed.« less

  17. Cranioschisis aperta with encephaloschisis in cephalothoracopagus hamster twins.

    PubMed Central

    Willhite, C C; Rossi, N L; Frakes, R A; Sharma, R P

    1985-01-01

    The results of gross and histopathological study of a near-term male hamster exencephalic lateral cephalothoracopagus are presented. There was minimal duplication of the internal organs to the point of division at the abdomen. The appendicular skeleton was relatively unaffected by the severe malformations of the axial skeleton. The studies suggested that the lateral relationship of the skull to the spinal columns was a consequence of the presence of two embryonic neural tubes; the chordomesodermal systems of the right and left twins apparently contributed the tissues for the right and left cephalic neural folds, respectively. Anomalies of the vertebral bodies and neural arches were not related to failure of closure of the neural tube as there was no evidence for rachischisis in either body half. Rather, the anomalous axial skeletal elements were apparently the result of competing fields of development by two chordomesodermal systems. The twins were recovered from a dam maintained on a diet consisting of 80% cassava, a cyanide-containing staple consumed by humans in tropical countries. Because the numbers of resorbed implantation sites and malformed litermates were low and the failure to produce conjoined twins in other litters recovered from dams given cassava diets, it appears unlikely that the malformation was related to the composition of the diet. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:4016585

  18. Neoplastic transformation of hamster embryo cells by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Z.; Suzuki, H.; Suzuki, F.; Suzuki, M.; Furusawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Ikenaga, M.

    1998-11-01

    We have studied the induction of morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET), ranging from 13 to 400 keV/μm. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with 12C or 28Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), inoculated to culture dishes, and transformed colonies were identified when the cells were densely stacked and showed a crisscross pattern. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to 250 kVp X-rays showed an initial increase with LET, reaching a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/μm, and then decreased with the further increase in LET. Thus, we confirmed that high LET heavy ions are significantly more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation.

  19. Neoplastic transformation of hamster embyro cells by heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Han, Z; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, F; Suzuki, M; Furusawa, Y; Kato, T; Ikenaga, M

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the induction of morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET), ranging from 13 to 400 keV/micrometer. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with 12C or 28Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), inoculated to culture dishes, and transformed colonies were identified when the cells were densely stacked and showed a crisscross pattern. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to 250 kVp X-rays showed an initial increase with LET, reaching a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/micrometer, and then decreased with the further increase in LET. Thus, we confirmed that high LET heavy ions are significantly more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation.

  20. Potent circadian effects of dim illumination at night in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Michael R; Evans, Jennifer A; Elliott, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that the circadian pacemaker of rodents and humans is minimally responsive to light of the intensity provided by dim moonlight and starlight. However, dim illumination (<0.005 lux) provided during the daily dark periods markedly alters entrainment in hamsters. Under dimly lit scotophases, compared to completely dark ones phases, the upper range of entrainment is increased by approximately 4 h, and re-entrainment is accelerated following transfer from long to short day lengths. Moreover, the incidence of bimodal entrainment to 24 h light:dark:light:dark cycles is increased fourfold. Notably, the nocturnal illumination inducing these pronounced effects is equivalent in photic energy to that of a 2 sec, 100 lux light pulse. These effects may be parsimoniously interpreted as an action of dim light on the phase relations between multiple oscillators comprising the circadian pacemaker. An action of dim light distinct from that underlying bright-light phase-resetting may promote more effective entrainment. Together, the present results refute the view that scotopic illumination is environmental "noise" and indicate that clock function is conspicuously altered by nighttime illumination like that experienced under dim moonlight and starlight. We interpret our results as evidence for a novel action of dim light on the coupling of multiple circadian oscillators.

  1. Obesity induction in hamster that mimics the human clinical condition

    PubMed Central

    Jordania da Silva, Vivian; Dias, Sílvia Regina Costa; Maioli, Tatiani Uceli; Serafim, Luciana Ribeiro; Furtado, Luis Fernando Viana; Quintão Silva, Maria da Gloria; de Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; Rabelo, Élida Mara Leite

    2017-01-01

    Although obesity is well established in hamsters, studies using diets with high levels of simple carbohydrate associated with lipids are necessary to assess the impact of this type of food in the body. In this study a high sugar and butter diet (HSB) and high temperature were employed towards this end. Obesity was successfully induced at a temperature of 30.3°C to 30.9°C after 38 days feeding the animals an HSB diet. It was shown that although diet is important for the induction of obesity, temperature is also essential because at a temperature slightly below the one required, obesity was not induced, even when the animals were fed for a longer period (150 days).The obese clinical condition was accompanied by biochemical and hematological changes, as increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increased leukocyte numbers, similar to alterations observed in obese humans. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that increasing the intake of simple carbohydrates associated with lipids provided evidence of inflammation in obese animals. PMID:28367889

  2. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE NUCLEOLUS DURING THE CHINESE HAMSTER CELL CYCLE

    PubMed Central

    Noel, J. S.; Dewey, W. C.; Abel, J. H.; Thompson, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Changes in the structure of the nucleolus during the cell cycle of the Chinese hamster cell in vitro were studied. Quantitative electron microscopic techniques were used to establish the size and volume changes in nucleolar structures. In mitosis, nucleolar remnants, "persistent nucleoli," consisting predominantly of ribosome-like granular material, and a granular coating on the chromosomes were observed. Persistent nucleoli were also observed in some daughter nuclei as they were leaving telophase and entering G1. During very early G1, a dense, fibrous material characteristic of interphase nucleoli was noted in the nucleoplasm of the cells. As the cells progressed through G1, a granular component appeared which was intimately associated with the fibrous material. By the middle of G1, complete, mature nucleoli were present. The nucleolar volume enlarged by a factor of two from the beginning of G1 to the middle of S primarily due to the accumulation of the granular component. During the G2 period, there was a dissolution or breakdown of the nucleolus prior to the entry of the cells into mitosis. Correlations between the quantitative aspects of this study and biochemical and cytochemical data available in the literature suggest the following: nucleolar reformation following division results from the activation of the nucleolar organizer regions which transcribe for RNA first appearing in association with protein as a fibrous component (45S RNA) and then later as a granular component (28S and 32S RNA). PMID:4933472

  3. [Decorative forms of hamsters Phodopus (Mammalia, Cricetinae): an analysis of genetic lines distribution and peculiarities of hair changes].

    PubMed

    Feoktistova, N Iu; Chernova, O F; Meshcherskiĭ, I G

    2012-01-01

    Three species of dwarf hamsters (genus Phodopus, family Cricetidae) inhabit some regions of Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China, each having quite extensive range. In recent decades, the dwarf hamsters became widely spread all over the world, initially as laboratory animals and later as popular pets. By now, there is lot of decorative breed lines and colored forms of these animals. Comparison of mtDNA nucleotide sequences of dwarf hamsters acquired in pet shops of some countries in Europe, South-East Asia and North America with distribution of mtDNA haplotypes within natural ranges showed the limitation of decorative line founders' points of origin by one region for each of the species. All haplotypes found in decorative Dzungarian hamsters (Ph. sungorus) purchased ounside Russia coincide with or are significantly close to haplotypes spread in the southern part of West Siberia (Russia) and adjacent regions of Kazakhstan; haplotypes of decorative Campbell's hamster (Ph. campbelli) belong to haplogroup of this species natural populations inhabiting South Tyva (Russia); and all studied decorative Desert hamsters (Ph. roborovskii) had one hapotype specific for South-Eastern Kazakhstan. The review of the history of researches on dwarf hamsters biology allows to determine delivery of hamsters from mentioned regions to scientific laboratories and zoos by certain expeditions and/or researchers. Unlike hamsters with natural hair color, the colored hamsters have no normal hair. Their hair is dull and straggly. The hair differentiation (presence of different hair types and their size characteristics) gets broken and results in deformation, bending, and splitting of the shaft, cracks in cuticle, change of configuration and location of medulla, uneven development of cortex. It is assumed that these destructive changes are associated with genetic characteristics of these hamsters' colored forms.

  4. Yellow fever 17-D vaccine is neurotropic and produces encephalitis in immunosuppressed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rosa I; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Lei, Hao; Guzman, Hilda; Lu, Liang; Tesh, Robert B

    2007-11-01

    Immunosuppressed (cyclophosphamide) adult golden hamsters inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with wild-type Asibi yellow fever virus (YFV) developed a rapidly fatal illness. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies of tissues from these animals showed typical hepatic changes of severe yellow fever (inflammation, hepatocyte necrosis, and steatosis) without brain involvement. In contrast, 50% of immunosuppressed hamsters receiving the YFV-17D-attenuated vaccine developed a slowly progressive encephalitic-type illness. Brain tissue from these latter animals revealed focal neuronal changes, inflammation, and YFV antigen-positive neurons; however, the liver and spleen appeared normal. YFV was isolated from brain cultures of many of these animals. Immunocompetent (non-immunosuppressed) hamsters inoculated with both viruses developed a subclinical infection. Results of this study indicate that wild-type YFV is hepatotropic in immunosuppressed hamsters, whereas the attenuated YFV-17 is primarily neurotropic. These findings support current recommendations against yellow fever vaccination of immunosuppressed/immunocompromised people and suggest that this hamster model might be useful for monitoring the safety of other live-attenuated YFV vaccines.

  5. Body temperature circadian rhythm variability corresponds to left ventricular systolic dysfunction in decompensated cardiomyopathic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Amany; Gondi, Sreedevi; Cox, Casey; Zheng, Minjuan; Mohammed, Anwarullah; Stupin, Igor V; Wang, Suwei; Vela, Deborah; Brewer, Alan; Elayda, Macarthur A; Buja, L Maximilian; Ward Casscells, S; Wilson, James M

    2011-11-01

    A declining amplitude of body temperature circadian rhythm (BTCR) predicts decompensation or death in cardiomyopathic hamsters. We tested the hypothesis that changes in BTCR amplitude accompany significant changes in left ventricular (LV) size and function. Using intraperitoneal transmitters, we continuously monitored the temperature of 30 male BIO TO-2 Syrian dilated cardiomyopathic hamsters. Cosinor analysis was used to detect significant changes--defined as changes >1 standard deviation from the baseline amplitude for 3 consecutive days--in BTCR amplitude over each hamster's lifespan. The Student t-test was used to compare BTCR variability and LV size and function (as assessed by 2D echocardiography) between baseline and the time that BTCR amplitude declined. All hamsters received 10 mg/kg furosemide daily. At the time of BTCR amplitude decline, functional parameters had changed significantly (P < .0001) from baseline: ejection fraction (0.31 ± 0.09% vs. 0.52 ± 0.08%), LV end-systolic volume (0.11 ± 0.03 vs. 0.05 ± 0.02 cm(3)), and LV end-diastolic volume (0.16 ± 0.04 vs. 0.10 ± 0.03 cm(3)). In decompensated cardiomyopathic hamsters, a decline in BTCR amplitude was associated with progression of heart failure and cardiac decompensation. Variation in BTCR warrants further investigation because of its potential implications for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Dopamine mediates testosterone-induced social reward in male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bell, Margaret R; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2013-03-01

    Adolescent maturation of responses to social stimuli is essential for adult-typical sociosexual behavior. Naturally occurring developmental changes in male Syrian hamster responses to a salient social cue, female hamster vaginal secretions (VS), provide a good model system for investigating neuroendocrine mechanisms of adolescent change in social reward. Sexually naïve adult, but not juvenile, males show a conditioned place preference (CPP) to VS, indicating that VS is not rewarding before puberty. In this series of experiments, the authors examined the roles of testosterone and dopamine receptor activation in mediating the adolescent gain in positive valence of VS. Experiment 1 showed that testosterone replacement is necessary for gonadectomized adult hamsters to form a CPP to VS. Experiment 2 showed that testosterone treatment is sufficient for juvenile hamsters to form a CPP to VS, and that the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol blocks formation of a CPP to VS in these animals. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that the disruption of VS CPP with low doses of haloperidol is the result of a reduction in the attractive properties of VS and not attributable to aversive properties of haloperidol. Together, these studies demonstrate that the unconditioned rewarding properties of a social cue necessary for successful adult sociosexual interactions come about as the result of the pubertal increase in circulating testosterone in male hamsters. Furthermore, this social reward can be prevented by dopamine receptor antagonism, indicating that hypothalamic and/or mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic circuits are targets for hormonal activation of social reward.

  7. Transmission and adaptation of chronic wasting disease to hamsters and transgenic mice: evidence for strains.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Gregory J; Raymond, Lynne D; Meade-White, Kimberly D; Hughson, Andrew G; Favara, Cynthia; Gardner, Donald; Williams, Elizabeth S; Miller, Michael W; Race, Richard E; Caughey, Byron

    2007-04-01

    In vitro screening using the cell-free prion protein conversion system indicated that certain rodents may be susceptible to chronic wasting disease (CWD). Therefore, CWD isolates from mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk were inoculated intracerebrally into various rodent species to assess the rodents' susceptibility and to develop new rodent models of CWD. The species inoculated were Syrian golden, Djungarian, Chinese, Siberian, and Armenian hamsters, transgenic mice expressing the Syrian golden hamster prion protein, and RML Swiss and C57BL10 wild-type mice. The transgenic mice and the Syrian golden, Chinese, Siberian, and Armenian hamsters had limited susceptibility to certain of the CWD inocula, as evidenced by incomplete attack rates and long incubation periods. For serial passages of CWD isolates in Syrian golden hamsters, incubation periods rapidly stabilized, with isolates having either short (85 to 89 days) or long (408 to 544 days) mean incubation periods and distinct neuropathological patterns. In contrast, wild-type mouse strains and Djungarian hamsters were not susceptible to CWD. These results show that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to some species of rodents and suggest that the cervid-derived CWD inocula may have contained or diverged into at least two distinct transmissible spongiform encephalopathy strains.

  8. Adrenal hormones mediate melatonin-induced increases in aggression in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Demas, Gregory E; Polacek, Kelly M; Durazzo, Alfredo; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2004-12-01

    Among the suite of seasonal adaptations displayed by nontropical rodents, some species demonstrate increased territorial aggression in short compared with long day lengths despite basal levels of testosterone. The precise physiological mechanisms mediating seasonal changes in aggression, however, remain largely unknown. The goal of the present study was to examine the role of melatonin, as well as adrenal hormones, in the regulation of seasonal aggression in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). In Experiment 1, male Siberian hamsters received either daily (s.c.) injections of melatonin (15 microg/day) or saline 2 h before lights out for 10 consecutive days. In Experiment 2, hamsters received adrenal demedullations (ADMEDx), whereas in Experiment 3 animals received adrenalectomies (ADx); control animals in both experiments received sham surgeries. Animals in both experiments subsequently received daily injections of melatonin or vehicle as in Experiment 1. Animals in all experiments were tested using a resident-intruder model of aggression. In Experiment 1, exogenous melatonin treatment increased aggression compared with control hamsters. In Experiment 2, ADMEDx had no effect on melatonin-induced aggression. In Experiment 3, the melatonin-induced increase in aggression was significantly attenuated by ADx. Collectively, the results of the present study demonstrate that short day-like patterns of melatonin increase aggression in male Siberian hamsters and suggest that increased aggression is due, in part, to changes in adrenocortical steroids.

  9. Regulation of lipid metabolism by obeticholic acid in hyperlipidemic hamsters[S

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bin; Young, Mark; Liu, Xueqing; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Liu, Jingwen

    2017-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays critical roles in plasma cholesterol metabolism, in particular HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) homeostasis. Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a FXR agonist being developed for treating various chronic liver diseases. Previous studies reported inconsistent effects of OCA on regulating plasma cholesterol levels in different animal models and in different patient populations. The mechanisms underlying its divergent effects have not yet been thoroughly investigated. The scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is a FXR-modulated gene and the major receptor for HDL-C. We investigated the effects of OCA on hepatic SR-BI expression and correlated such effects with plasma HDL-C levels and hepatic cholesterol efflux in hyperlipidemic hamsters. We demonstrated that OCA induced a time-dependent reduction in serum HDL-C levels after 14 days of treatment, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of liver cholesterol content and increases in fecal cholesterol in OCA-treated hamsters. Importantly, hepatic SR-BI mRNA and protein levels in hamsters were increased to 1.9- and 1.8-fold of control by OCA treatment. Further investigations in normolipidemic hamsters did not reveal OCA-induced changes in serum HDL-C levels or hepatic SR-BI expression. We conclude that OCA reduces plasma HDL-C levels and promotes transhepatic cholesterol efflux in hyperlipidemic hamsters via a mechanism involving upregulation of hepatic SR-BI. PMID:27940481

  10. Effects of short photoperiod on energy intake, thermogenesis, and reproduction in desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueying; Zhao, Zhijun; Vasilieva, Nina; Khrushchova, Anastasia; Wang, Dehua

    2015-03-01

    Desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii) are the least known species in the genus Phodopus with respect to ecology and physiology, and deserve scientific attention, particularly because of their small body size. Here, the responses of energy metabolism and reproductive function to short photoperiods in desert hamsters were investigated. Male and female desert hamsters were acclimated to either long day (LD) (L:D 16:8 h) or short day (SD) photoperiods (L:D 8:16 h) for three months, and then the females were transferred back to an LD photoperiod for a further five months, while at the end of the SD acclimation the males were killed and measurements were taken for serum leptin as well as molecular markers for thermogenesis. We found that like the other two species from the genus Phodopus, the desert hamsters under SD decreased body mass, increased adaptive thermogenesis as indicated by elevated mitochondrial protein content and uncoupling protein-1 content in brown adipose tissue, and suppressed reproduction compared to those under LD. However, different from the other two species, desert hamsters did not show any differences in energy intake or serum leptin concentration between LD and SD. These data suggest that different species from the same genus respond in different ways to the environmental signals, and the desert adapted species are not as sensitive to change in photoperiod as the other two species. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. The pathophysiology of human obstructive cholestasis is mimicked in cholestatic Gold Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    van Golen, Rowan F; Olthof, Pim B; de Haan, Lianne R; Coelen, Robert J; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; de Keijzer, Mark J; Weijer, Ruud; de Waart, Dirk R; van Kuilenburg, André B P; Roelofsen, Jeroen; Gilijamse, Pim W; Maas, Martinus A; Lewis, Matthew R; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Verheij, Joanne; Heger, Michal

    2018-03-01

    Obstructive cholestasis causes liver injury via accumulation of toxic bile acids (BAs). Therapeutic options for cholestatic liver disease are limited, partially because the available murine disease models lack translational value. Profiling of time-related changes following bile duct ligation (BDL) in Gold Syrian hamsters revealed a biochemical response similar to cholestatic patients in terms of BA pool composition, alterations in hepatocyte BA transport and signaling, suppression of BA production, and adapted BA metabolism. Hamsters tolerated cholestasis well for up to 28days and progressed relatively slowly to fibrotic liver injury. Hepatocellular necrosis was absent, which coincided with preserved intrahepatic energy levels and only mild oxidative stress. The histological response to cholestasis in hamsters was similar to the changes seen in 17 patients with prolonged obstructive cholestasis caused by cholangiocarcinoma. Hamsters moreover upregulated hepatic fibroblast growth factor 15 (Fgf15) expression in response to BDL, which is a cytoprotective adaptation to cholestasis that hitherto had only been documented in cholestatic human livers. Hamster models should therefore be added to the repertoire of animal models used to study the pathophysiology of cholestatic liver disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vasopressin differentially modulates aggression and anxiety in adolescent hamsters administered anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) treated with anabolic/androgenic steroids display increased offensive aggression and decreased anxiety correlated with an increase in vasopressin afferent development, synthesis, and neural signaling within the anterior hypothalamus. Upon withdrawal from anabolic/androgenic steroids, this neurobehavioral relationship shifts as hamsters display decreased offensive aggression and increased anxiety correlated with a decrease in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin. This study investigated the hypothesis that alterations in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin neural signaling modulate behavioral shifting between adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced offensive aggression and anxiety. To test this, adolescent male hamsters were administered anabolic/androgenic steroids and tested for offensive aggression or anxiety following direct pharmacological manipulation of vasopressin V1A receptor signaling within the anterior hypothalamus. Blockade of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin V1A receptor signaling suppressed offensive aggression and enhanced general and social anxiety in hamsters administered anabolic/androgenic steroids during adolescence, effectively reversing the pattern of behavioral response pattern normally observed during the adolescent exposure period. Conversely, activation of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin V1A receptor signaling enhanced offensive aggression in hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids during adolescence. Together, these findings suggest that the state of vasopressin neural development and signaling in the anterior hypothalamus plays an important role in behavioral shifting between aggression and anxiety following adolescent exposure to anabolic/androgenic steroids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In hamsters the D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 depresses ventilation during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Evelyn H

    2008-01-02

    During exposure of animals to hypoxia, brain and blood dopamine levels increase stimulating dopaminergic receptors which influence the integrated ventilatory response to low oxygen. The purpose of the present study is to test the hypothesis that in conscious hamsters, systemic antagonism of D(1) receptors would depress their breathing in air and in response to hypoxic and hypercapnic challenges. Nine male hamsters were treated with saline or 0.25 mg/kg SCH-23390 (SCH), a D(1) receptor antagonist that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Ventilation was determined using the barometric method, and oxygen consumption and CO(2) production were evaluated utilizing the flow-through method. During exposure to air, SCH decreased frequency of breathing. During exposure to hypoxia (10% oxygen in nitrogen), relative to saline, SCH-treated hamsters decreased minute ventilation by decreasing tidal volume and oxygen consumption but not CO(2) production. During exposure to hypercapnia (5% CO(2) in 95% O(2)), frequency of breathing was decreased with SCH, but there was no significant effect on minute ventilation. Relative to saline treatment body temperature was lower in SCH-treated hamsters by 0.6 degrees C. These results demonstrate that in hamsters D(1) receptors can modulate control of ventilation in air and during hypoxia and hypercapnic exposures. Whether D(1) receptors located centrally or on carotid bodies modulate these effects is not clear from this study.

  14. Cloning and characterization of the hamster and guinea pig nicotinic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Torhan, April Smith; Cheewatrakoolpong, Boonlert; Kwee, Lia; Greenfeder, Scott

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we present the identification and characterization of hamster and guinea pig nicotinic acid receptors. The hamster receptor shares approximately 80-90% identity with the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human, mouse, and rat receptors. The guinea pig receptor shares 76-80% identity with the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these other species. [(3)H]nicotinic acid binding affinity at guinea pig and hamster receptors is similar to that in human (dissociation constant = 121 nM for guinea pig, 72 nM for hamster, and 74 nM for human), as are potencies of nicotinic acid analogs in competition binding studies. Inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production by nicotinic acid and related analogs is also similar to the activity in the human receptor. Analysis of mRNA tissue distribution for the hamster and guinea pig nicotinic acid receptors shows expression across a number of tissues, with higher expression in adipose, lung, skeletal muscle, spleen, testis, and ovary.

  15. Prevention by cromakalim of spontaneously occurring cardiac necroses in polymyopathic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, G; Proschek, L

    1996-11-01

    Previous studies on the heart necrotizing process at early stages of the hamster polymyopathy have led us to believe that this hereditary disease derives from a defective transmembrane ion flux resulting in myocardial Ca2+ over-load. On the other hand, certain K+ ATP channel openers were shown to prevent cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in ischemic hearts. Therefore, we investigated the potential beneficial effect of chronic treatment with cromakalim (CR) on the development of necrotic changes in hamster myopathic hearts. Young cardiomyopathic (CM) hamsters were treated parenterally with CR over 4 consecutive weeks. The K+ ATP opener was dissolved in 5% DMSO and injected twice daily (s.c. and i.p. alternatively) at a dose level of 2.5 mg/kg per injection. Microscopic readings were carried out in staged serial paraffin sections of heart ventricles, the diaphragm, and tongue, will all tissues freshly taken at autopsy. In comparison with control untreated hearts, which exhibit numerous necrotic calcific foci, only minute myolytic lesions were found in 5 of 12 hamsters hearts receiving CR (p < 0.0001). Interestingly, the dystrophic process in the tongue was significantly less severe (p < 0.0004) in CR-treated animals. These observations provide evidence for the first time that in vivo sustained treatment with a K+ ATP opener exerts cardioprotection upon development of the hamster hereditary cardiomyopathy.

  16. Heterogeneity of NK-2 tachykinin receptors in hamster and rabbit smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Maggi, C A; Eglezos, A; Quartara, L; Patacchini, R; Giachetti, A

    1992-01-23

    The possible existence of NK-2 receptor subtypes in peripheral smooth muscle preparations from rabbit and hamster was investigated by studying the effect of neurokinin A, the selective NK-2 receptor agonist [beta Ala8] neurokinin A (4-10), the selective NK-2 tachykinin receptor antagonists, MEN 10,376, L 659,877 and R 396, and the pseudopeptide derivative of neurokinin A (4-10), MDL 28,564. All experiments were performed in the presence of peptidase inhibitors (captopril, bestatin and thiorphan, 1 microM each). Both neurokinin A and [beta Ala8] neurokinin A (4-10) produced concentration-dependent contractions of the rabbit isolated bronchus and hamster isolated stomach and colon, as well as enhancement of the nerve-mediated twitches of rabbit isolated vas deferens (pars prostatica). MEN 10,376, L 659,877 and R 396 antagonized the effect of the NK-2 receptor selective agonist in all four tissues under study, although marked differences in antagonist potency were evident for the three antagonists. Thus MEN 10,376 was distinctly more potent (about 100 times) in rabbit than in hamster preparations while L 659,877 and R 396 were more potent in hamster than rabbit preparations. MDL 28,564 showed a distinct agonist character in rabbit preparations while it was virtually inactive in hamster preparations, where it antagonized the effect of the NK-2 receptor selective agonist.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Role of photoperiod and melatonin in seasonal acclimatization of the djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinlechner, S.; Heldmaier, G.

    1982-12-01

    The Djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, shows a clear annual cycle in some thermogenic parameters such as nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and cold resistance. These seasonal changes were found to be basically controlled by natural changes in photoperiod. Further support for this view was obtained by exposing the hamsters to artificial long and short photoperiods. Implantation of melatonin during fall and winter results in an increased thermogenic capacity in both short and long day hamsters comparable to that shown by values of control hamsters exposed to short photoperiods during winter. This thermotropic action of melatonin and of short photoperiod could be found only in fall and winter whereas during spring and summer, melatonin, like photoperiod, had no influence on thermogenic capacities. These results show that the actions of melatonin and photoperiod vary with the season and that they depend upon the photoperiodic history of the hamsters. Our results further indicate that the pineal gland with its hormone melatonin is involved in mediation of photoperiodic control of seasonal acclimatization.

  18. Vasopressin Differentially Modulates Aggression and Anxiety in Adolescent Hamsters Administered Anabolic Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Thomas R.; Ricci, Lesley A.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) treated with anabolic/androgenic steroids display increased offensive aggression and decreased anxiety correlated with an increase in vasopressin afferent development, synthesis, and neural signaling within the anterior hypothalamus. Upon withdrawal from anabolic/androgenic steroids, this neurobehavioral relationship shifts as hamsters display decreased offensive aggression and increased anxiety correlated with a decrease in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin. This study investigated the hypothesis that alterations in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin neural signaling modulate behavioral shifting between adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced offensive aggression and anxiety. To test this, adolescent male hamsters were administered anabolic/androgenic steroids and tested for offensive aggression or anxiety following direct pharmacological manipulation of vasopressin V1A receptor signaling within the anterior hypothalamus. Blockade of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin V1A receptor signaling suppressed offensive aggression and enhanced general and social anxiety in hamsters administered anabolic/androgenic steroids during adolescence, effectively reversing the pattern of behavioral response pattern normally observed during the adolescent exposure period. Conversely, activation of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin V1A receptor signaling enhanced offensive aggression in hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids during adolescence. Together, these findings suggest that the state of vasopressin neural development and signaling in the anterior hypothalamus plays an important role in behavioral shifting between aggression and anxiety following adolescent exposure to anabolic/androgenic steroids. PMID:27149949

  19. CELLULAR TOXICITY IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELL CULTURES. 2. A STATISTICAL APPRAISAL OF SENSITIVITY WITH THE RABBIT ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE, SYRIAN HAMSTER EMBRYO, BALB 3T3 MOUSE, AND HUMAN NEONATAL FIBROBLAST CELL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chinese hamster ovary, rabbit alveolar macrophage, Syrian Hamster embryo, mouse, and human neonatal fibroblast cells were employed in a statistical evaluation of the relative sensitivity of the cells to toxic substances. The cells were exposed to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 2,4-dimet...

  20. Intraspecific variation in egg size and egg composition in birds: effects on offspring fitness.

    PubMed

    Williams, T D

    1994-02-01

    1. There is little unequivocal evidence to date in support of a positive relationship between egg size and offspring fitness in birds. Although 40 studies (of 34 species) have considered the effect of variation in egg size on chick growth and/or survival up to fledgling only 12 studies have controlled for other characters potentially correlated both with egg size and offspring fitness. Of these only two have reported a significant residual effect of egg size on chick growth (in the roseate tern and European blackbird) and three a residual effect on chick survival (all in seabirds: common tern, lesser black-backed gull and kittiwake). 2. More consistent evidence exists, though from fewer studies, for a positive relationship between egg size and offspring fitness early in the chick-rearing period; chick growth and chick survival being dependent on egg size in 8 of 10 studies and 4 of 5 studies respectively. It is suggested that the most important effect of variation in egg size might be in determining the probability of offspring survival in the first few days after hatching. 3. Egg size explains on average 66% of the variation in chick mass at hatching (n = 35 studies) but only 30% of the variation in chick body size (n = 18). When effects of hatching body size are controlled for chick mass remains significantly correlated with egg size, though the reverse is not true. This supports the hypothesis that large eggs give rise to heavier chicks at hatching, i.e., chicks with more nutrient (yolk) reserves, rather than structurally larger chicks. 4. Egg composition increased isometrically with increasing egg size in about half the studies so far reported (n equals approximately 20). However, in seabirds, and some passerines, larger eggs contain disproportionately more albumen, whilst in some waterfowl percentage yolk content increases with increasing egg size. Changes in albumen content largely reflect variation in the water content of eggs, but changes in yolk content

  1. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs.

    PubMed

    Gradl, Janet A; Curtis, Patricia A; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4°C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated. Eggs were inoculated with 108 SE. Eggs formed condensation for approximately 17 min in a 32°C incubator. Shell rinse, shell emulsion, and egg contents were sampled then enumerated and assessed for prevalence of SE over a 6 wk storage period at 4°C. After wk 1, the SENS shell rinse had higher SE counts (0.32 log10 CFU/mL) than the other 3 treatments, where no SE was enumerated. A significant week by treatment interaction was found for the shell rinse SE detection (P < 0.05). In subsequent weeks, no SE counts were obtained from the egg shell rinse, shell emulsion, or egg contents. The SENS shell rinses had significantly higher SE prevalence than the SES rinses in weeks 1 (100% vs. 34.3%), 2 (57.6% vs. 22.2%), and 3 (38.2% vs. 11.1%) (P < 0.05). In samples from weeks 4, 5, and 6, there was no difference in SE prevalence between SES and SENS. Egg sweating did not increase SE penetration into the shell emulsion across treatment or week (P < 0.05). The decreasing trend of SE prevalence obtained over the study period indicate that refrigeration is effective at inhibiting SE growth. These results indicate that egg sweating occurring under common US egg handling practices is not harmful to egg safety. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Calcium and Egg Activation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sartain, Caroline V.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In many animals, a rise in intracellular calcium levels is the trigger for egg activation, the process by which an arrested mature oocyte transitions to prepare for embryogenesis. In nearly all animals studied to date, this calcium rise, and thus egg activation, is triggered by the fertilizing sperm. However in the insects that have been examined, fertilization is not necessary to activate their oocytes. Rather, these insects’ eggs activate as they transit through the female’s reproductive tract, regardless of male contribution. Recent studies in Drosophila have shown that egg activation nevertheless requires calcium and that the downstream events and molecules of egg activation are also conserved, despite the difference in initial trigger. Genetic studies have uncovered essential roles for the calcium-dependent enzyme calcineurin and its regulator calcipressin, and have hinted at roles for calmodulin, in Drosophila egg activation. Physiological and in vitro studies have led to a model in which mechanical forces that impact the Drosophila oocyte as it moves through the reproductive tract triggers the influx of calcium from the external environment, thereby initiating egg activation. Future research will aim to test this model, as well as to determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of cytoplasmic calcium flux and mode of signal propagation in this unique system. PMID:23218670

  3. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    PubMed

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Egg production forecasting: Determining efficient modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, H A

    2011-12-01

    Several mathematical or statistical and artificial intelligence models were developed to compare egg production forecasts in commercial layers. Initial data for these models were collected from a comparative layer trial on commercial strains conducted at the Poultry Research Farms, Auburn University. Simulated data were produced to represent new scenarios by using means and SD of egg production of the 22 commercial strains. From the simulated data, random examples were generated for neural network training and testing for the weekly egg production prediction from wk 22 to 36. Three neural network architectures-back-propagation-3, Ward-5, and the general regression neural network-were compared for their efficiency to forecast egg production, along with other traditional models. The general regression neural network gave the best-fitting line, which almost overlapped with the commercial egg production data, with an R(2) of 0.71. The general regression neural network-predicted curve was compared with original egg production data, the average curves of white-shelled and brown-shelled strains, linear regression predictions, and the Gompertz nonlinear model. The general regression neural network was superior in all these comparisons and may be the model of choice if the initial overprediction is managed efficiently. In general, neural network models are efficient, are easy to use, require fewer data, and are practical under farm management conditions to forecast egg production.

  5. Upright Imaging of Drosophila Egg Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Lathiena; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis provides an ideal context for studying varied developmental processes since the ovary is relatively simple in architecture, is well-characterized, and is amenable to genetic analysis. Each egg chamber consists of germ-line cells surrounded by a single epithelial layer of somatic follicle cells. Subsets of follicle cells undergo differentiation during specific stages to become several different cell types. Standard techniques primarily allow for a lateral view of egg chambers, and therefore a limited view of follicle cell organization and identity. The upright imaging protocol describes a mounting technique that enables a novel, vertical view of egg chambers with a standard confocal microscope. Samples are first mounted between two layers of glycerin jelly in a lateral (horizontal) position on a glass microscope slide. The jelly with encased egg chambers is then cut into blocks, transferred to a coverslip, and flipped to position egg chambers upright. Mounted egg chambers can be imaged on either an upright or an inverted confocal microscope. This technique enables the study of follicle cell specification, organization, molecular markers, and egg development with new detail and from a new perspective. PMID:25867882

  6. Gene discovery in the hamster: a comparative genomics approach for gene annotation by sequencing of hamster testis cDNAs

    PubMed Central

    Oduru, Sreedhar; Campbell, Janee L; Karri, SriTulasi; Hendry, William J; Khan, Shafiq A; Williams, Simon C

    2003-01-01

    Background Complete genome annotation will likely be achieved through a combination of computer-based analysis of available genome sequences combined with direct experimental characterization of expressed regions of individual genomes. We have utilized a comparative genomics approach involving the sequencing of randomly selected hamster testis cDNAs to begin to identify genes not previously annotated on the human, mouse, rat and Fugu (pufferfish) genomes. Results 735 distinct sequences were analyzed for their relatedness to known sequences in public databases. Eight of these sequences were derived from previously unidentified genes and expression of these genes in testis was confirmed by Northern blotting. The genomic locations of each sequence were mapped in human, mouse, rat and pufferfish, where applicable, and the structure of their cognate genes was derived using computer-based predictions, genomic comparisons and analysis of uncharacterized cDNA sequences from human and macaque. Conclusion The use of a comparative genomics approach resulted in the identification of eight cDNAs that correspond to previously uncharacterized genes in the human genome. The proteins encoded by these genes included a new member of the kinesin superfamily, a SET/MYND-domain protein, and six proteins for which no specific function could be predicted. Each gene was expressed primarily in testis, suggesting that they may play roles in the development and/or function of testicular cells. PMID:12783626

  7. As the Egg Turns: Monitoring Egg Attendance Behavior in Wild Birds Using Novel Data Logging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Scott A.; Clatterbuck, Corey A.; Kelsey, Emma C.; Naiman, Alex D.; Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C.

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1–7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h−1) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1–10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h−1) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4°C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding. PMID:24887441

  8. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.

  9. Effect of egg washing and correlation between cuticle and egg penetration by various Salmonella strains.

    PubMed

    Gole, Vaibhav C; Roberts, Juliet R; Sexton, Margaret; May, Damian; Kiermeier, Andreas; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2014-07-16

    In Australia, Europe and the United States, eggs and egg products are frequently associated with Salmonella food poisoning outbreaks. Many of the egg-associated Salmonella outbreaks have been due to the products such as mayonnaise, ice-cream and cold desserts which are eaten without cooking following the addition of raw egg. The ability of four Salmonella isolates (one each of S. Singapore, S. Adelaide, S. Worthington and S. Livingstone) to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods was investigated in the current study. The results of the agar penetration experiment indicated that all the isolates used in the present study have the capacity to penetrate the eggshell. Eggshell penetration by the S. Worthington isolate was higher but not significant (p=0.06) in washed eggs compared to unwashed eggs. However, for all other isolates (S. Singapore, S. Adelaide and S. Livingstone), there was no significant difference in penetration of washed and unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis indicated that cuticle score was a significant linear predictor of Salmonella eggshell penetration. Whole egg penetration results showed that all of the Salmonella isolates used in the present study were capable of surviving on the eggshell surface after 21days of incubation (at 20°C) following a high dose of inoculation (10(5)CFU/mL). The combined data of all isolates demonstrated that, the survival rate of Salmonella on eggshells (inoculated with 10(5)CFU/mL) was significantly higher (p=0.002) at 20°C as compared to 37°C. S. Singapore, S. Worthington, and S. Livingstone were not detected in egg internal contents whereas S. Adelaide was detected in one egg's internal contents. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Imaging residue transfer into egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, D J; Myers, K

    2000-12-01

    Prediction models for residue transfer into eggs are being developed. Recent results indicate that the developing egg yolk serves as an important storage depot for chemical residues. The current study was conducted to visualize incorporation and potential compartmentalization of drug residues in developing egg yolks. To this end, the drug magnevist was injected into hens to evaluate drug transfer into either early- or late-developing yolks. High-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of drug residues in eggs were acquired using a 1.5 T Siemens Magnetom clinical scanner. A 10-cm circular surface coil was used for receiving the magnetic resonance signal. The eggs were positioned inside the coil cavity for an improved signal to noise ratio (SNR). Gradient-echo images were used to locate the centers of the eggs and to prescribe the position of the high-resolution image slab. The images were recorded using an inversion time (T1) weighted magnetization-prepared, rapid acquisition, gradient-recalled-echo (MPRAGE) pulse sequence. The sequence parameters used were as follows: repetition time (TR) equals 12 ms, echo time (TE) equals 5 ms, field of view (FOV) equals 200, TI = 10 ms, 1.25-mm slice thickness, and a matrix of 200 x 256. Following dosing, images of drug residues in eggs indicate that drugs can be incorporated and compartmentalized into ring structures within individual developing egg yolks. These results have significant human food safety implications because even after only a single dose, sequestered drug residues may be stored and later released to contaminate eggs for days to weeks after dosing.

  11. Rotational Collision Apparatus for Indoor Egg Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halada, Richard

    2003-05-01

    Our units about momentum and energy are richly illustrated with applications to car crashes and explanations of such safety features as airbags and crumple zones. The main lab exercise, however, is an egg crash (car insurance rates being so much higher). Fairly standard rules apply: Students must devise an "egg-protection package" that will keep a teacher-supplied egg intact through two successive impacts. After the test, they must hand in a written analysis of the specific physics principles they employed, modifications they would make after seeing their project's actual performance, and suggestions for applying their protection system to auto safety.

  12. Selenium accumulation and loss in mallard eggs

    Heinz, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Five female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) that had just started egg laying were first fed a diet containing 15 ppm selenium in the form of selenomethionine for 20 d and then an untreated diet for 20 d. Selenium levels in eggs peaked (to about 13-20 ppm) in about two weeks on the treated diet and leveled off at a low level ( lt 5 ppm) after about 10 d back on the untreated diet. Selenium levels in egg whites responded faster than levels in yolks to the females' consumption of treated and untreated diets.

  13. Maternal transfer of mercury to songbird eggs.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Herzog, Mark P

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6-10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R 2  = 0.97) and tree swallows (R 2  = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R 2  = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%-107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15-1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R 2  < 0.01). We provide equations to translate mercury

  14. Maternal transfer of mercury to songbird eggs

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6–10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R2 = 0.97) and tree swallows (R2 = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R2 = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%–107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15–1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R2 < 0.01). We provide equations to translate mercury

  15. Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Bartonek, J.C.; Divoky, G.J.; Klass, E.

    1982-01-01

    One egg from each of 440 clutches of eggs of 19 species of Alaskan seabirds collected in 1973-76 was analyzed for organochlorine residues. All eggs contained DDE; 98.9% contained PCB's; 84.3%, oxychlordane; and 82.7%, HCB. Endrin was found in only one egg, but DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, cis-chlordane (or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, and toxaphene each occurred in at least 22% of the samples.Concentrations of organochlorines in the samples were generally low. Mean concentrations of eight compounds were highest in eggs of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from three sites: DDE (5.16 ppm, wet weight), dieldrin (0.214 ppm), oxychlordane (0.251 ppm), and PCB's (3.55 ppm) in eggs from Bogoslof Island; heptachlor epoxide (0.037 ppm), cis-chlordane (0.075 ppm), and HCB (0.188 ppm) in eggs from Buldir Island; and cis-nonachlor (0.026 ppm) in eggs from the Semidi Islands. Highest concentrations of DDD (0.157 ppm), DDT (0.140 ppm), and toxaphene (0.101 ppm) were in eggs of fork-tailed storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) from Buldir Island, and the highest concentration of mirex (0.044 ppm) was in fork-tailed storm-petrel eggs from the Barren Islands.Both frequency of occurrence and concentration of residues in the eggs differed geographically and by species, apparently reflecting non-uniform distribution of organochlorines in the environment, dissimilar feeding habits and migration patterns of the species, or metabolic differences among the species.The overall frequency of residue occurrence was highest in eggs from the Pribilof Islands, but only three species were represented in the samples collected there. Detectable residues also were more frequent in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska colonies than elsewhere, and the lowest frequency was in eggs from nesting colonies on or near the Seward Peninsula. Regionally, concentrations of DDE and PCB's were usually higher than average in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska and lower than average in eggs from the

  16. Healing acceleration in hamsters of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil with topical Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tanideh, Nader; Tavakoli, Parisa; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Amanat, Dariush; Tadbir, Azadeh Andisheh; Samani, Soleiman Mohammadi; Tamadon, Amin

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed the potential of topical Calendula officinalis extract on the healing of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced in 60 male hamsters by 5-FU (60 mg/kg) on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Macroscopic and microscopic scores and weights were evaluated. Microscopic and macroscopic scores of mucositis were lower in the 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel groups than in the gel base and control groups (P < .05). Weight gain was noted in the treatment groups compared with the gel base and control groups (P < .05). Calendula officinalis extract accelerated the healing of oral mucositis in hamsters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A hamster model for Marburg virus infection accurately recapitulates Marburg hemorrhagic fever

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Andrea; Banadyga, Logan; Haddock, Elaine; Thomas, Tina; Shen, Kui; Horne, Eva J.; Scott, Dana P.; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Marburg virus (MARV), a close relative of Ebola virus, is the causative agent of a severe human disease known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF). No licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists to treat MHF, and MARV is therefore classified as a Tier 1 select agent and a category A bioterrorism agent. In order to develop countermeasures against this severe disease, animal models that accurately recapitulate human disease are required. Here we describe the development of a novel, uniformly lethal Syrian golden hamster model of MHF using a hamster-adapted MARV variant Angola. Remarkably, this model displayed almost all of the clinical features of MHF seen in humans and non-human primates, including coagulation abnormalities, hemorrhagic manifestations, petechial rash, and a severely dysregulated immune response. This MHF hamster model represents a powerful tool for further dissecting MARV pathogenesis and accelerating the development of effective medical countermeasures against human MHF. PMID:27976688

  18. A hamster model for Marburg virus infection accurately recapitulates Marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Andrea; Banadyga, Logan; Haddock, Elaine; Thomas, Tina; Shen, Kui; Horne, Eva J; Scott, Dana P; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2016-12-15

    Marburg virus (MARV), a close relative of Ebola virus, is the causative agent of a severe human disease known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF). No licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists to treat MHF, and MARV is therefore classified as a Tier 1 select agent and a category A bioterrorism agent. In order to develop countermeasures against this severe disease, animal models that accurately recapitulate human disease are required. Here we describe the development of a novel, uniformly lethal Syrian golden hamster model of MHF using a hamster-adapted MARV variant Angola. Remarkably, this model displayed almost all of the clinical features of MHF seen in humans and non-human primates, including coagulation abnormalities, hemorrhagic manifestations, petechial rash, and a severely dysregulated immune response. This MHF hamster model represents a powerful tool for further dissecting MARV pathogenesis and accelerating the development of effective medical countermeasures against human MHF.

  19. Adapting to alcohol: Dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) ethanol consumption, sensitivity, and hoard fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lupfer, Gwen; Murphy, Eric S; Merculieff, Zoe; Radcliffe, Kori; Duddleston, Khrystyne N

    2015-06-01

    Ethanol consumption and sensitivity in many species are influenced by the frequency with which ethanol is encountered in their niches. In Experiment 1, dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) with ad libitum access to food and water consumed high amounts of unsweetened alcohol solutions. Their consumption of 15%, but not 30%, ethanol was reduced when they were fed a high-fat diet; a high carbohydrate diet did not affect ethanol consumption. In Experiment 2, intraperitoneal injections of ethanol caused significant dose-related motor impairment. Much larger doses administered orally, however, had no effect. In Experiment 3, ryegrass seeds, a common food source for wild dwarf hamsters, supported ethanol fermentation. Results of these experiments suggest that dwarf hamsters may have adapted to consume foods in which ethanol production naturally occurs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Hamster Model for Identification of Specific Antigens of Taenia solium Tapeworms

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Jiménez, Lucía; Landa, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm) and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs) and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag) obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24 kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis. PMID:22253530

  1. Zika virus infection of adult and fetal STAT2 knock-out hamsters.

    PubMed

    Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Li, Rong; Miao, Jinxin; Wang, Zhongde; Morrey, John D; Julander, Justin G

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was investigated in adult and fetal STAT2 knock-out (KO) hamsters. Subcutaneous injection of ZIKV of adults resulted in morbidity, mortality, and infection of the uterus, placenta, brain, spinal cord, and testicles, thus providing an opportunity to evaluate congenital ZIKV infection in a second rodent species besides mice. ZIKV-infected cells with morphologies of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were observed in the testes, which may have implications for sexual transmission and male sterility. Neonates exposed as fetuses to ZIKV at 8 days post-coitus were not smaller than controls. Nevertheless, infectious virus and ZIKV RNA was detected in some, but not all, placentas and fetal brains of KO hamsters. STAT2 KO hamsters may be useful for addressing sexual transmission, pathogenesis, routes of fetal infection, and neurological disease outcomes, and may also be used in antiviral or vaccine studies to identify intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Alterations of male sexual behavior by learned aversions to hamster vaginal secretion.

    PubMed

    Johnston, R E; Zahorik, D M; Immler, K; Zakon, H

    1978-02-01

    Male hamsters poisoned after their first adult exposure to the vaginal secretion of female hamsters became hesitant to approach and ingest the secretion. The same aversion-training procedure also altered the responses of males to estrous females, changing the latency, frequency, and duration of a variety of behaviors that are commonly taken as indexes of sexual attraction or arousal and of copulatory performance. The effects suggest that the aversions to vaginal secretion alter the perceived meaning of the secretion for male hamsters, and analysis of the correlations between various measures of sexual arousal and performance support the hypothesis that separate mechanisms underlie the effects of the secretion on appetitive and consummatory sexual behavior.

  3. Bacterial infection and acute lung injury in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Seidenfeld, J J; Mullins, R C; Fowler, S R; Johanson, W G

    1986-07-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a common complication of lung injury that can be an important determinant of outcome. We studied experimental lung injury produced in hamsters by injecting 20 mg/kg paraquat (PQ) intraperitoneally; control animals received saline vehicle. Three days later, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1), 10(8) organisms in 0.25 ml, or saline, 0.25 ml, was inoculated intratracheally. Lung and systemic antibacterial defenses were studied at death 24 h later. Paraquat alone produced focal interstitial pneumonitis and neutrophilic alveolitis, and resulted in a 12% (3 of 26) mortality. PAO1 alone caused focal pneumonias and no deaths. Animals receiving both agents (PAO1/PQ) had extensive diffuse alveolar damage characterized by alveolar hemorrhage, edema, influx of neutrophils, and vasculitis; 50% (16 of 32) died within 96 h of PQ injection. Mean lung counts of PAO1 at death were 7.6 X 10(4) colony forming units/g in PAO1 and 2.8 X 10(7) in PAO1/PQ animals (p less than 0.05). PAO1 colony counts in liver were increased nearly 100-fold in PAO1/PQ animals (p less than 0.05). Half-time of clearance of P. aeruginosa from the blood was prolonged in PAO1 and in PAO1/PQ animals (p less than 0.05) but not in PQ animals. Phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by leukocytes lavaged from the lung was not impaired in any group compared with that in control animals, but intracellular killing was impaired in PAO1 and PAO1/PQ but not in PQ animals. Paraquat injury impairs lung antibacterial defenses by uncertain mechanisms. Superinfection of PQ-injured lungs by PAO1 appears responsible for defects in intrapulmonary and systemic antibacterial defenses.

  4. Centriole distribution during tripolar mitosis in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    During bipolar mitosis a pair of centrioles is distributed to each cell but the activities of the two centrioles within the pair are not equivalent. The parent is normally surrounded by a cloud of pericentriolar material that serves as a microtubule-organizing center. The daughter does not become associated with pericentriolar material until it becomes a parent in the next cell cycle (Rieder, C.L., and G. G. Borisy , 1982, Biol. Cell., 44:117-132). We asked whether the microtubule-organizing activity associated with a centriole was dependent on its becoming a parent. We induced multipolar mitosis in Chinese hamster ovary cells by treatment with 0.04 micrograms/ml colcemid for 4 h. After recovery from this colcemid block, the majority of cells divided into two, but 40% divided into three and 2% divided into four. The tripolar mitotic cells were examined by antitubulin immunofluorescence and by high voltage electron microscopy of serial thick (0.25-micron) sections. The electron microscope analysis showed that centriole number was conserved and that the centrioles were distributed among the three spindle poles, generally in a 2:1:1 or 2:2:0 pattern. The first pattern shows that centriole parenting is not prerequisite for association with pole function; the second pattern indicates that centrioles per se are not required at all. However, the frequency of midbody formation and successful division was higher when centrioles were present in the 2:1:1 pattern. We suggest that the centrioles may help the proper distribution and organization of the pericentriolar cloud, which is needed for the formation of a functional spindle pole. PMID:6373793

  5. Acute encephalitis, a poliomyelitis-like syndrome and neurological sequelae in a hamster model for flavivirus infections.

    PubMed

    Leyssen, Pieter; Croes, Romaric; Rau, Philipp; Heiland, Sabine; Verbeken, Erik; Sciot, Raphael; Paeshuyse, Jan; Charlier, Nathalie; De Clercq, Erik; Meyding-Lamadé, Uta; Neyts, Johan

    2003-07-01

    Infection of hamsters with the murine flavivirus Modoc results in (meningo)encephalitis, which is, during the acute phase, frequently associated with flaccid paralysis, as also observed in patients with West Nile virus encephalitis. Twenty percent of the hamsters that recover from the acute encephalitis develop life-long neurological sequelae, reminiscent of those observed, for example, in survivors of Japanese encephalitis. Magnetic resonance imaging and histology revealed severe lesions predominantly located in the olfactory-limbic system, both in hamsters with acute encephalitis as in survivors. Prominent pathology was also detected in the spinal cord of hamsters with paralysis. Modoc virus infections in hamsters provide a unique model for the study of encephalitis, a poliomyelitis-like syndrome and neurological sequelae following flavivirus infection.

  6. Cross-species transcriptomic approach reveals genes in hamster implantation sites.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wei; Herington, Jennifer; Galindo, Cristi L; Ding, Tianbing; Brown, Naoko; Reese, Jeff; Paria, Bibhash C

    2014-12-01

    The mouse model has greatly contributed to understanding molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of progesterone (P4) plus estrogen (E)-dependent blastocyst implantation process. However, little is known about contributory molecular mechanisms of the P4-only-dependent blastocyst implantation process that occurs in species such as hamsters, guineapigs, rabbits, pigs, rhesus monkeys, and perhaps humans. We used the hamster as a model of P4-only-dependent blastocyst implantation and carried out cross-species microarray (CSM) analyses to reveal differentially expressed genes at the blastocyst implantation site (BIS), in order to advance the understanding of molecular mechanisms of implantation. Upregulation of 112 genes and downregulation of 77 genes at the BIS were identified using a mouse microarray platform, while use of the human microarray revealed 62 up- and 38 down-regulated genes at the BIS. Excitingly, a sizable number of genes (30 up- and 11 down-regulated genes) were identified as a shared pool by both CSMs. Real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization validated the expression patterns of several up- and down-regulated genes identified by both CSMs at the hamster and mouse BIS to demonstrate the merit of CSM findings across species, in addition to revealing genes specific to hamsters. Functional annotation analysis found that genes involved in the spliceosome, proteasome, and ubiquination pathways are enriched at the hamster BIS, while genes associated with tight junction, SAPK/JNK signaling, and PPARα/RXRα signalings are repressed at the BIS. Overall, this study provides a pool of genes and evidence of their participation in up- and down-regulated cellular functions/pathways at the hamster BIS. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  7. Photoperiodic Regulation of the Orexigenic Effects of Ghrelin in Siberian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Sean P.; Pattullo, Lucia M.; Patel, Priyesh N.; Prendergast, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Animals living in temperate climates with predictable seasonal changes in food availability may use seasonal information to engage different metabolic strategies. Siberian hamsters decrease costs of thermoregulation during winter by reducing food intake and body mass in response to decreasing or short day lengths (SD). These experiments examined whether SD reductions in food intake in hamsters is driven, at least in part, by altered behavioral responses to ghrelin, a gut-derived orexigenic peptide which induces food intake via NPY-dependent mechanisms. Relative to hamsters housed in long day (LD) photoperiods, SD hamsters consumed less food in response to i.p. treatment with ghrelin across a range of doses from 0.03 to 3 mg/kg. To determine whether changes in photoperiod alter behavioral responses ghrelin-induced activation of NPY neurons, c-Fos and NPY expression were quantified in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) via double-label fluorescent immunocytochemistry following i.p. treatment with 0.3 mg/kg ghrelin or saline. Ghrelin induced c-Fos immunoreactivity (-ir) in a greater proportion of NPY-ir neurons of LD relative to SD hamsters. In addition, following ghrelin treatment, a greater proportion of ARC c-Fos-ir neurons were identifiable as NPY-ir in LD relative to SD hamsters. Changes in day length markedly alter the behavioral response to ghrelin. The data also identify photoperiod-induced changes in the ability of ghrelin to activate ARC NPY neurons as a possible mechanism by which changes in day length alter food intake. PMID:20600050

  8. Short photoperiod-induced ovarian regression is mediated by apoptosis in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt-Blue, C S; Sury, J J; Young, Kelly A

    2009-01-01

    Siberian hamster reproduction is mediated by photoperiod-induced changes in gonadal activity. However, little is known about how photoperiod induces cellular changes in ovarian function. We hypothesized that exposing female hamsters to short (inhibitory) as opposed to long (control) photoperiods would induce an apoptosis-mediated disruption of ovarian function. Ovaries and plasma from hamsters exposed to either long (LD, 16 h light:8 h darkness) or short (SD, 8 h light:16 h darkness) days were collected during diestrus II after 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks and processed for histology or RIA respectively. Apoptosis was assessed by in situ TUNEL and active caspase-3 protein immunolabeling. No significant differences were observed among LD hamsters for any parameter; therefore, these control data were pooled. SD exposure induced a decline in preantral follicles (P < 0.05), early antral/antral follicles (P < 0.01) and corpora lutea (P < 0.01) by week 12 as compared with LD. Terminal atretic follicles appeared by SD week 9; by week 12, these had become the predominant ovarian structures. Estradiol concentrations decreased by weeks 9 and 12 SD when compared with both LD and week-3 SD hamsters (P < 0.05); however, no changes were observed for progesterone. TUNEL-positive follicles in SD ovaries increased at week 3 and subsequently declined by week 12 as compared with LD ovaries (P < 0.01). Active capsase-3 protein immunostaining peaked at SD week 3 as compared with all other groups (P < 0.01). TUNEL and capsase-3 immunolabeling were localized to granulosa cells of late-preantral and early-antral/antral follicles. These data indicate that SD exposure rapidly induces follicular apoptosis in Siberian hamsters, which ultimately disrupts both estradiol secretion and folliculogenesis, resulting in the seasonal loss of ovarian function. PMID:16595728

  9. Impact of wheel running on chronic ethanol intake in aged Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Brager, Allison J; Hammer, Steven B

    2012-10-10

    Alcohol dependence in aging populations is seen as a public health concern, most recently because of the significant proportion of heavy drinking among "Baby Boomers." Basic animal research on the effects of aging on physiological and behavioral regulation of ethanol (EtOH) intake is sparse, since most of this research is limited to younger models of alcoholism. Here, EtOH drinking and preference were measured in groups of aged Syrian hamsters. Further, because voluntary exercise (wheel-running) is a rewarding substitute for EtOH in young adult hamsters, the potential for such reward substitution was also assessed. Aged (24 month-old) male hamsters were subjected to a three-stage regimen of free-choice EtOH (20% v/v) or water and unlocked or locked running wheels to investigate the modulatory effects of voluntary wheel running on EtOH intake and preference. Levels of fluid intake and activity were recorded daily across 60 days of experimentation. Prior to wheel running, levels of EtOH intake were significantly less than levels of water intake, resulting in a low preference for EtOH (30%). Hamsters with access to an unlocked running wheel had decreased EtOH intake and preference compared with hamsters with access to a locked running wheel. These group differences in EtOH intake and preference were sustained for up to 10 days after running wheels were re-locked. These results extend upon those of our previous work in young adult hamsters, indicating that aging dampens EtOH intake and preference. Voluntary wheel running further limited EtOH intake, suggesting that exercise could offer a practical approach for managing late-life alcoholism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Circadian body temperature variability is an indicator of poor prognosis in cardiomyopathic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Amany; Gondi, Sreedevi; Cox, Casey; Wang, Suwei; Stupin, Igor V; Shankar, K J; Munir, Shahzeb M; Sobash, Ed; Brewer, Alan; Ferguson, James J; Elayda, Macarthur A; Casscells, S Ward; Wilson, James M

    2010-03-01

    Low body temperature is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with congestive heart failure. The cardiomyopathic hamster develops progressive biventricular dysfunction, resulting in heart failure death at 9 months to 1 year of life. Our goal was to use cardiomyopathic hamsters to examine the relationship between body temperature and heart failure decompensation and death. To this end, we implanted temperature and activity transducers with telemetry into the peritoneal space of 46 male Bio-TO-2 Syrian cardiomyopathic hamsters. Multiple techniques, including computing mean temperature, frequency domain analysis, and nonlinear analysis, were used to determine the most useful method for predicting poor prognosis. Data from 44 hamsters were included in our final analysis. We detected a decline in core body temperature in 98% of the hamsters 8+/-4 days before death (P < .001). We examined the dominant frequency of temperature variation (ie, the circadian rhythm) by using cosinor analysis, which revealed a significant decrease in the amplitude of the body temperature circadian rhythm 8 weeks before death (0.28 degrees C; 95% CI, 0.26-0.31) compared to baseline (0.36 degrees C; 95% CI, 0.34-0.39; P=.005). The decline in the circadian temperature variation preceded all other evidence of decompensation. We conclude that a decrease in the amplitude of the body temperature circadian rhythm precedes fatal decompensation in cardiomyopathic hamsters. Continuous temperature monitoring may be useful in predicting preclinical decompensation in patients with heart failure and in identifying opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoperiod-dependent modulation of anti-Müllerian hormone in female Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus.

    PubMed

    Kabithe, Esther W; Place, Ned J

    2008-03-01

    Fertility and fecundity decline with advancing age in female mammals, but reproductive aging was decelerated in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) raised in a short-day (SD) photoperiod. Litter success was significantly improved in older hamsters when reared in SD and the number of primordial follicles was twice that of females held in long days (LD). Because anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) appears to inhibit the recruitment of primordial follicles in mice, we sought to determine whether the expression patterns of AMH differ in the ovaries and serum of hamsters raised in SD versus LD. Ovaries of SD female hamsters are characterized by a paucity of follicular development beyond the secondary stage and are endowed with an abundance of large eosinophilic cells, which may derive from granulosa cells of oocyte-depleted follicles. In ovaries from 10-week-old SD hamsters, we found that the so-called 'hypertrophied granulosa cells' were immunoreactive for AMH, as were granulosa cells within healthy-appearing primary and secondary follicles. Conversely, ovaries from age-matched LD animals lack the highly eosinophilic cells present in SD ovaries. Therefore, AMH staining in LD was limited to primary and secondary follicles that are comparable in number to those found in SD ovaries. The substantially greater AMH expression in SD ovaries probably reflects the abundance of hypertrophied granulosa cells in SD ovaries and their relative absence in LD ovaries. The modulation of ovarian AMH by day length is a strong mechanistic candidate for the preservation of primordial follicles in female hamsters raised in a SD photoperiod.

  12. The influence of sex and diet on the characteristics of hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Trefna, Marie; Goris, Maaike; Thissen, Cynthia M C; Reitsema, Vera A; Bruintjes, Jojanneke J; de Vrij, Edwin L; Bouma, Hjalmar R; Boerema, Ate S; Henning, Robert H

    2017-07-01

    Research on deep hibernators almost exclusively uses species captured from the wild or from local breeding. An exception is Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), the only standard laboratory animal showing deep hibernation. In deep hibernators, several factors influence hibernation quality, including body mass, sex and diet. We examined hibernation quality in commercially obtained Syrian hamsters in relation to body mass, sex and a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Animals (M/F:30/30, 12 weeks of age) were obtained from Harlan (IN, USA) and individually housed at 21 °C and L:D 14:10 until 20 weeks of age, followed by L:D 8:16 until 27 weeks. Then conditions were changed to 5 °C and L:D 0:24 for 9 weeks to induce hibernation. Movement was continuously monitored with passive infrared detectors. Hamsters were randomized to control diet or a diet 3× enriched in linoleic acid from 16 weeks of age. Hamsters showed a high rate of premature death (n = 24, 40%), both in animals that did and did not initiate torpor, which was unrelated to body weight, sex and diet. Time to death (31.7 ± 3.1 days, n = 12) or time to first torpor bout (36.6 ± 1.6 days, n = 12) was similar in prematurely deceased hamsters. Timing of induction of hibernation and duration of torpor and arousal was unaffected by body weight, sex or diet. Thus, commercially obtained Syrian hamsters subjected to winter conditions showed poor survival, irrespective of body weight, sex and diet. These factors also did not affect hibernation parameters. Possibly, long-term commercial breeding from a confined genetic background has selected against the hibernation trait.

  13. Effects of diurnal variation and anesthetic agents on intraocular pressure in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Mood, Maneli Ansari; Paryani, Mohammad Reza; Williams, David L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of diurnal variation and anesthetic agents on intraocular pressure (IOP) in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). ANIMALS 90 healthy adult Syrian hamsters (45 males and 45 females). PROCEDURES IOP was measured with a rebound tonometer. In phase 1, IOP was measured in all hamsters 3 times during a 24-hour period (7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm). In phase 2, hamsters were assigned to 5 groups (18 animals [9 males and 9 females]/group). Each group received an anesthetic agent or combination of anesthetic agents (ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, diazepam, ketamine-diazepam [KD], or ketamine-xylazine [KX] groups) administered via the IP route. The IOP was measured before (time 0 [baseline]) and 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after administration of drugs. RESULTS Mean ± SD IOP values were 2.58 ± 0.87 mm Hg, 4.46 ± 1.58 mm Hg, and 5.96 ± 1.23 mm Hg at 7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm, respectively. Mean baseline IOP was 6.25 ± 0.28 mm Hg, 6.12 ± 0.23 mm Hg, 5.75 ± 0.64 mm Hg, 5.12 ± 1.40 mm Hg, and 4.50 ± 1.30 mm Hg for the ketamine, xylazine, diazepam, KD, and KX groups, respectively. A significant decrease in IOP, compared with baseline IOP, was detected in only the KX group at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drug administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maximum IOP in Syrian hamsters was detected at night. The ketamine-xylazine anesthetic combination significantly decreased IOP in Syrian hamsters.

  14. Egg number-egg size: an important trade-off in parasite life history strategies.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2014-03-01

    Parasites produce from just a few to many eggs of variable size, but our understanding of the factors driving variation in these two life history traits at the intraspecific level is still very fragmentary. This study evaluates the importance of performing multilevel analyses on egg number and egg size, while characterising parasite life history strategies. A total of 120 ovigerous females of Octopicola superba (Copepoda: Octopicolidae) (one sample (n=30) per season) were characterised with respect to different body dimensions (total length; genital somite length) and measures of reproductive effort (fecundity; mean egg diameter; total reproductive effort; mean egg sac length). While endoparasites are suggested to follow both an r- and K-strategy simultaneously, the evidence found in this and other studies suggests that environmental conditions force ectoparasites into one of the two alternatives. The positive and negative skewness of the distributions of fecundity and mean egg diameter, respectively, suggest that O. superba is mainly a K-strategist (i.e. produces a relatively small number of large, well provisioned eggs). Significant sample differences were recorded concomitantly for all body dimensions and measures of reproductive effort, while a general linear model detected a significant influence of season*parasite total length in both egg number and size. This evidence suggests adaptive phenotypic plasticity in body dimensions and size-mediated changes in egg production. Seasonal changes in partitioning of resources between egg number and size resulted in significant differences in egg sac length but not in total reproductive effort. Evidence for a trade-off between egg number and size was found while controlling for a potential confounding effect of parasite total length. However, this trade-off became apparent only at high fecundity levels, suggesting a state of physiological exhaustion. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published

  15. Impact of egg disinfection of hatching eggs on the eggshell microbiome and bacterial load.

    PubMed

    Olsen, R; Kudirkiene, E; Thøfner, I; Pors, S; Karlskov-Mortensen, P; Li, L; Papasolomontos, S; Angastiniotou, C; Christensen, J

    2017-09-01

    Disinfection of hatching eggs is essential to ensure high quality production of broilers. Different protocols are followed in different hatcheries; however, only limited scientific evidence on how the disinfection procedures impact the microbiome is available. The aim of the present study was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs. For dirty eggs, an initial wash in chlorine was performed, hereafter all eggs were submitted to two times fumigation and finally spray disinfection. The eggshell microbiome was characterized by sequencing of the total amount of 16S rRNA extracted from each sample, consisting of shell surface swabs of five eggs from the same group. In addition, the number of colony forming units (cfu) under aerobic conditions was established for each disinfection step. The disinfection procedure reduced the bacterial load from more than 104 cfu (initially visibly clean eggs) and 105 cfu (initially visibly dirty eggs) to less than 10 cfu per sample after disinfection for both groups of eggs. The microbiome of both initially visibly clean and initially visibly dirty eggs had the highest abundances of the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Within the phyla Firmicutes the relative abundances of Clostridiales decreased while Lactobacillus increased from before to after final disinfection. In conclusion, the investigated disinfection procedure is effective in reducing the bacterial load, and by adding a chlorine wash for initially visibly dirty eggs, the microbiome of initially visibly clean and initially visibly dirty eggs had a highly similar microflora after the final disinfection step. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Mars Life? - Microscopic Egg-shaped Structures

    1996-08-09

    This electron microscope image shows egg-shaped structures, some of which may be possible microscopic fossils of Martian origin as discussed by NASA research published in the Aug. 16, 1996. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00286

  17. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit... render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  18. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit the adding... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined in...

  19. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit the adding... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined in...

  20. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... destroy all viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit... render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  1. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... viable Salmonella microorganisms. Pasteurization or such other treatment is deemed to permit the adding... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined in...

  2. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  3. [Composition of chicken and quail eggs].

    PubMed

    Closa, S J; Marchesich, C; Cabrera, M; Morales, J C

    1999-06-01

    Qualified food composition data on lipids composition are needed to evaluate intakes as a risk factor in the development of heart disease. Proximal composition, cholesterol and fatty acid content of chicken and quail eggs, usually consumed or traded, were analysed. Proximal composition were determined using AOAC (1984) specific techniques; lipids were extracted by a Folch's modified technique and cholesterol and fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Results corroborate the stability of eggs composition. Cholesterol content of quail eggs is similar to chicken eggs, but it is almost the half content of data registered in Handbook 8. Differences may be attributed to the analytical methodology used to obtain them. This study provides data obtained with up-date analytical techniques and accessory information useful for food composition tables.

  4. Long-term carcinogenicity study in Syrian golden hamster of particulate emissions from coal- and oil-fired power plants

    SciT

    Persson, S.A.; Ahlberg, M.; Berghem, L.

    1988-04-01

    Male Syrian golden hamsters were given 15 weekly intratracheal instillations with suspensions of coal fly ash or oil fly ash. Controls were instilled with saline containing gelatine (0.5 g/100 mL) or to check particle effects with suspensions of hematite (Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/). The common weekly dose was 4.5 mg/hamster. In addition, one subgroup of hamsters was treated with oil fly ash at a weekly dose of 3.0 mg/hamster and another with coal fly ash at a weekly dose of 6.0 mg/hamster. Other groups of hamsters were treated with suspensions of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or with suspensions on coal fly ash, oilmore » fly ash, or Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ coated with BaP. The mass median aerodynamic diameters of the coal and oil fly ashes were 4.4 microns and 28 microns, respectively. Hamsters treated with oil fly ash showed a higher frequency of bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia than hamsters in the other treatment groups. Squamous dysplasia and squamous metaplasia were most frequent in animals treated with suspensions of BaP or BaP-coated particles. The earliest appearance of a tumor, the highest incidence of tumors, and the highest incidence of malignant tumors were observed in hamsters treated with oil fly ash coated with BaP. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma were the most frequent malignant tumors. No malignant tumors and only few benign tumors were observed in hamsters instilled with suspensions of fly ash not coated with BaP. The present study gives no indication that coal fly ash could create more serious health problems than oil fly ash.« less

  5. Use of vital dyes to assess embryonic viability in the hamster, Mesocricetus auratus

    SciT

    Hutz, R.J.; DeMayo, F.J.; Dukelow, W.R.

    1985-05-01

    Experiments were designed to assess the use of the vital dyes trypan blue and fluorescein diacetate as indicators of the viability of hamster ova and embryos. Exclusion of trypan blue and fluorescence with fluorescein diacetate showed high correlations with uptake of (/sup 3/H)uridine by ova and further development of embryos in vitro. Ova killed by freezing and thawing incorporated (/sup 3/H)uridine at background levels. Trypan blue exclusion and fluorescein diacetate uptake were highly correlated with each other (r = 0.99). Trypan blue and fluorescein diacetate serve as excellent indices of viability in ova and early embryos of hamsters.

  6. [Cardiac neuronal depopulation in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi].

    PubMed

    Chapadeiro, E; Silva, E L; Silva, A C; Fernandes, P; Ramirez, L E

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain an experimental animal model of destruction of cardiac neurons in order to investigate the behavior of the cardiac nervous system of hamsters chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. We counted the neuronal cells of the cardiac autonomic nervous plexus in hamsters inoculated with 35,000 blood forms of three different T. cruzi strains and killed 5, 8 and 10 months after infection. We showed for the first time severe neuronal destruction in an experimental animal model with characteristics similar to those observed in human Chagas'disease.

  7. Efficacy of a New Recrystallized Enrofloxacin Hydrochloride-Dihydrate against Leptospirosis in a Hamster Model.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Alma; Gutierrez, Lilia; De la Peña, Alejandro; Candanosa, Irma E; Tapia, Graciela; Sumano, Hector

    2017-11-01

    A trial on Syrian hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus ) infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola was established to compare treatment efficacies of daily intramuscular (i.m.) injections of either 10 mg/kg of 5% enrofloxacin (Baytril [BE]; Bayer Animal Health, Mexico) or the same dose of enrofloxacin hydrochloride-dihydrate (enro-C). Hamsters were experimentally infected via the oral submucosa with 400 microorganisms/animal, in a sequential time schedule aligned to the initial treatment day, and were treated in groups as follows: a group treated with 5% enrofloxacin daily for 7 days after 24 h of infection (group BE 24 ); a group treated as described for group BE 24 but with enro-C (enro-C 24 ); a group also treated with 5% enrofloxacin but starting at 72 h after infection (BE 74 ); a group treated as described for group BE 74 but with injection of enro-C (enro-C 74 ). An untreated-uninfected control group (group CG - ) and an infected-untreated control group (group CG + ) were assembled ( n = 18 in all groups). Weights and temperatures of the hamsters were monitored daily for 28 days. After hamsters were euthanatized or following death, necropsy, histopathology, macroscopic agglutination tests (MAT), bacterial culture, and PCR were performed. The mortality rates were 38.8% in group BE 24 and 100% in group BE 74 No mortality was observed in group enro-C 24 , and 11.1% mortality was recorded in group enro-C 74 The mortality rates in groups CG + and CG - were 100% and zero, respectively. Combined necropsy and histopathologic findings revealed signs of septicemia and organ damage in groups BE 24 , BE 72 , and CG + Groups enro-C 24 and CG - showed no lesions. Moderated lesions were registered in 3 hamsters in group enro-C 72 MAT results were positive in 83.3% of BE 24 hamsters (83.3%) and 100% of BE 72 and CG + hamsters; MAT results were positive in 16.7% in group Enro-C 24 and 38.9% in group enro-C 72 Only 4/18 were PCR positive in group enro-C 72 and only 1

  8. Experimental Shifts in Intraclutch Egg Color Variation Do Not Affect Egg Rejection in a Host of a Non-Egg-Mimetic Avian Brood Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host’s ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins’ behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch. PMID:25831051

  9. Experimental shifts in intraclutch egg color variation do not affect egg rejection in a host of a non-egg-mimetic avian brood parasite.

    PubMed

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host's ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins' behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch.

  10. Commercially laid eggs vs. discarded hatching eggs: contamination by Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Luciana B M; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Back, Alberto; Rodrigues, Dalia dos P; Magnani, Marciane; de Oliveira, Tereza C R M

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is frequently associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis, and products of avian origin, such as eggs and chicken meat, are the main vehicles of its transmission. The present study describes the occurrence of different serovars of Salmonella enterica and phagotypes of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs destined for human consumption. Four thousand eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms and one thousand discarded hatching eggs from broiler farms, which were acquired at farmers' markets and informal shops, were analyzed. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 52.0% of the discarded hatching eggs, in which the predominant serovar was Enteritidis (84.6%), and the predominant Salmonella Enteritidis phagotype (PT) was PT7 (26.9%). Salmonella spp. was not isolated from eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms. The antimicrobial resistance profile showed that 23.1% (n = 6) of the SE strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The results suggest that the consumption of discarded hatching eggs represents an important source of Salmonella transmission to humans.

  11. The Oral Provocation Test for Raw Egg in Patients with Hen Egg Allergy.

    PubMed

    Kido, Jun; Nishi, Natsuko; Matsumoto, Tomoaki

    2018-06-06

    Many researchers have made efforts to develop diagnostic tools for predicting the outcome of oral food challenges (OFCs). The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of the skin prick test (SPT) and blood-specific IgE concentrations based on the outcome of the OFCs for heated and raw hen egg. This study included 103 children with suspected hen egg allergy (HEA; median age 23 months, range 10-155; 72 boys, 31 girls). Forty-three patients were diagnosed with HEA by OFC. Of 60 patients who tolerated heated egg white (HEW), 22 underwent the OFC for raw hen egg and 7 developed adverse reactions after ingesting raw egg. Their wheal diameters and specific IgE levels for egg white and ovomucoid were determined. Wheal diameters as well as blood-specific IgE levels for egg white and ovomucoid were significantly larger in children with positive OFC results for HEW than in those with negative results. However, there were no significant differences between the positive and negative test results for raw hen egg white (REW) in wheal diameter or blood-specific IgE levels. The SPT and blood-specific IgE can be used to diagnose HEA. However, the provocation test for REW in children without HEW allergy is important because the values of SPT and specific IgE were not significantly different between children with and without raw egg allergy. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG..., and Facility Requirements § 590.549 Dried egg storage. Dried egg storage shall be sufficient to...

  13. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG..., and Facility Requirements § 590.549 Dried egg storage. Dried egg storage shall be sufficient to...

  14. 9 CFR 590.549 - Dried egg storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG..., and Facility Requirements § 590.549 Dried egg storage. Dried egg storage shall be sufficient to...

  15. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent... practices should be observed: (a) Cleaned and disinfected containers, such as egg flats, should be used in...

  16. Improved egg crack detection algorithm for modified pressure imaging system

    Shell eggs with microcracks are often undetected during egg grading processes. In the past, a modified pressure imaging system was developed to detect eggs with microcracks without adversely affecting the quality of normal intact eggs. The basic idea of the modified pressure imaging system was to ap...

  17. Bacteria associated with Amblyomma cajennense tick eggs

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Piesman, Joseph; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ticks represent a large group of pathogen vectors that blood feed on a diversity of hosts. In the Americas, the Ixodidae ticks Amblyomma cajennense are responsible for severe impact on livestock and public health. In the present work, we present the isolation and molecular identification of a group of culturable bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs from females sampled in distinct geographical sites in southeastern Brazil. Additional comparative analysis of the culturable bacteria from Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes scapularis tick eggs were also performed. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified 17 different bacterial types identified as Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter spp., Micrococcus luteus, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus spp., distributed in 12 phylogroups. Staphylococcus spp., especially S. sciuri, was the most prevalent bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs, occurring in 65% of the samples and also frequently observed infecting A. nitens eggs. S. maltophilia, S. marcescens and B. cereus occurred infecting eggs derived from specific sampling sites, but in all cases rising almost as pure cultures from infected A. cajennense eggs. The potential role of these bacterial associations is discussed and they possibly represent new targets for biological control strategies of ticks and tick borne diseases. PMID:26537602

  18. Why does a spinning egg rise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2018-03-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented concerning the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that an egg rises quickly while it is sliding and then more slowly when it starts rolling. The angular momentum of the egg projected in the XZ plane changed in the same direction as the friction torque, as expected, by rotating away from the vertical Z axis. The latter result does not explain the rise. However, an even larger effect arises from the Y component of the angular momentum vector. As the egg rises, the egg rotates about the Y axis, an effect that is closely analogous to rotation of the egg about the Z axis. Both effects can be described in terms of precession about the respective axes. Steady precession about the Z axis arises from the normal reaction force in the Z direction, while precession about the Y axis arises from the friction force in the Y direction. Precession about the Z axis ceases if the normal reaction force decreases to zero, and precession about the Y axis ceases if the friction force decreases to zero.

  19. Homochiral Asymmetric Triacylglycerol Isomers in Egg Yolk.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Toshiharu; Ishikawa, Keiko; Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Yoshida, Akihiko; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2017-12-01

    The composition of triacylglycerol (TAG) positional isomer (-PI) and enantiomer (-E) in immature chicken egg yolk, mature chicken yolk, and chicken meat was examined. POO (consisting of one palmitic acid (P) and two oleic acids (Os)), PPO (consisting of two Ps and one O), and PPL (consisting of two Ps and one linoleic acid (L)) were treated as representative TAG molecular species in all the analytical samples because P, O, and L were the major fatty acids comprising egg and chicken meat. sn-POO (binding P at sn-1 position) was predominant in egg yolks, while sn-OOP and sn-OPO were present in chicken meat. This difference was ascribed to the different roles of these isomers as nutrients, because TAG in egg yolk is important for new born organisms and TAG in chicken meat is used for fat accumulation. The compositions of the TAG isomers in PPO and PPL in egg yolk were similar, and O and L did not bind at the sn-1 position. In contrast, all the isomers of PPO and PPL were found in chicken meat. These results imply that the TAG structure could be modified so that the nutrient requirement is fulfilled in egg yolk and chicken meat.

  20. Antioxidant activities of chick embryo egg hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Ye, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Chick embryo egg hydrolysates (CEEH) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of chick embryo egg in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The antioxidant activities of CEEH were investigated by employing three in vitro assays, including the 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)/1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (ABTS/DPPH)/hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. The radical-scavenging effect of CEEH (1.0 mg/mL) was in a dose-dependent manner, with the highest trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals found to be 569, 2097, and 259.6 μmol/L, respectively; whereas the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of unhatched egg for ABTS, DPPH, and that of hydroxyl radicals were found to be 199, 993, and 226.5 μmol/L, respectively. CEEH showed stronger scavenging activity than the hydrolysates of unhatched egg against free radicals such as ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant amino acid analysis indicated that the 14-day CEEH possess more antioxidant amino acids than that of the unhatched egg. In addition, essential amino acids analysis showed that the 14-day CEEH have the highest nutritional value. Combined with the results of the amino acid profiles, CEEH were believed to have higher nutritive value in addition to antioxidant activities than the unhatched egg. PMID:24804065

  1. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from... Carcasses, meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds... including meat, of poultry, game birds, or other birds that were raised or slaughtered in any region where...

  2. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from... § 94.6 Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game... considered to exist. Carcasses, and parts or products of carcasses, of poultry, game birds, or other birds...

  3. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from... § 94.6 Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game... considered to exist. Carcasses, and parts or products of carcasses, of poultry, game birds, or other birds...

  4. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations from... Carcasses, meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds... including meat, of poultry, game birds, or other birds that were raised or slaughtered in any region where...

  5. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. 82.8 Section 82.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Disease (END) § 82.8 Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. (a...

  6. Effects of egg quality and method of incubation on the hatching success of channel X blue hybrid catfish eggs

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg quality of stripped eggs from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and method of incubation of fertilized hybrid catfish eggs on hatching success. Stripped eggs from 17 channel catfish females were evaluated in a 2 x 2 factorial...

  7. Prevalence of Pathogens Associated with Eggs and the Environment of Conventional Cage and Free Range Egg Production

    Alternative egg production methods are becoming more popular with US consumers. As the drive to expand the retail shell egg market to accommodate consumer shifts proceeds, a need arises for additional information to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study ...

  8. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. 82.8 Section 82.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... Disease (END) § 82.8 Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area. (a...

  9. Evidence that eating baked egg or milk influences egg or milk allergy resolution: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lambert, R; Grimshaw, K E C; Ellis, B; Jaitly, J; Roberts, G

    2017-06-01

    It has been proposed that the frequent ingestion of baked hen's egg or cow's milk accelerates the resolution of hen's egg or cow's milk allergy. This practice is being introduced into clinical practice. To systematically review the evidence to determine whether the introduction of baked hen's egg or cow's milk into the diet of children with hen's egg or cow's milk allergies respectively leads to a larger proportion of children outgrowing these allergies than expected. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in Medline, Embase and CINAHL. The inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized control trials, case-control or cohort studies; children aged 0-18 years with hen's egg or cow's milk allergy; baked hen's egg or cow's milk intervention with or without a comparator; and resolution of the hen's egg or cow's milk allergy as determined by food challenge as the outcome. Studies were critically appraised using the quality assessment tool for quantitative studies. PROSPERO reference CRD42015026029. We identified 851 and 2816 hen's egg and cow's milk articles respectively. Only three hen's egg and three cow's milk studies fulfilled our pre-specified inclusion criteria. The studies concluded that baked products either increased the likelihood of the resolution of allergy or accelerated resolution. However, when critiqued, all studies were classified as weak because they were observational, lacking an appropriate control group; this brings into doubt the study's conclusions. There were a number of examples of severe reactions to baked products. There is little evidence to address the hypothesis that the ingestion of baked hen's egg or cow's milk results in more patients outgrowing their hen's egg or cow's milk allergy respectively. Data are required from a trial comparing the resolution rates of baked-tolerant participants who are randomized to ingest or avoid baked products to assess the accuracy of this hypothesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Are both early egg introduction and eczema treatment necessary for primary prevention of egg allergy?

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Mori, Rintaro; Miyazaki, Celine; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saito, Hirohisa

    2018-06-01

    The Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) study proved that early introduction of peanut significantly prevented the development of peanut allergy. However, in regard to similar attempts to prevent egg allergy through early egg introduction, the Prevention of Egg Allergy in High-risk Infants with Eczema (PETIT) study is the only randomized intervention trial to show a statistically significant effect. Meta-analysis of those studies indicated that neither the total amount nor pretreatment of egg showed any effect on egg allergy at the age of 12 months. However, raw egg powder resulted in a significantly higher prevalence of allergic reactions at initial introduction, whereas use of boiled egg was much safer. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis/eczema at introduction of egg correlated significantly with the subsequent prevalence of allergic reactions at initial introduction. In addition, the prevalence of egg allergy in the late introduction group correlated significantly with the prevalence of atopic dermatitis at introduction, even when the atopic dermatitis was proactively treated with a topical corticosteroid ointment. It is definitely true that the number of trials and number of participants in each trial are insufficient for drawing firm conclusions, especially regarding the optimal dose, raw versus boiled, when to start, and for whom to intervene. Therefore we propose various studies that should be performed to generate stronger data and conclusions. However, on the basis of the most recent results, we postulate that simultaneous intervention by both early boiled egg introduction and eczema treatment is probably indispensable for primary prevention of egg allergy. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Animal Models of Leptospirosis: Of Mice and Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Solecki, Maria; Santecchia, Ignacio; Werts, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira sp. are spirochetal bacteria responsible for leptospirosis, an emerging worldwide zoonosis. These spirochetes are very successful pathogens that infect a wide range of hosts such as fish, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and mammals. Transmission occurs when chronically infected animals excrete live bacteria in their urine, contaminating the environment. Leptospira sp. enter their hosts through damaged skin and mucosa. Chronically infected rats and mice are asymptomatic and are considered as important reservoirs of the disease. Infected humans may develop either a flu-like, usually mild illness with or without chronic asymptotic renal colonization, or a severe acute disease with kidney, liver, and heart failure, potentially leading to death. Leptospirosis is an economic burden on society due to health-care costs related to elevated morbidity of humans and loss of animals of agricultural interest. There are no effective vaccines against leptospirosis. Leptospira sp. are difficult to genetically manipulate which delays the pace of research progress. In this review, we discuss in an historical perspective how animal models have contributed to further our knowledge of leptospirosis. Hamsters, guinea pigs, and gerbils have been instrumental to study the pathophysiology of acute lethal leptospirosis and the Leptospira sp. genes involved in virulence. Chronic renal colonization has been mostly studied using experimentally infected rats. A special emphasis will be placed on mouse models, long thought to be irrelevant since they survive lethal infection. However, mice have recently been shown to be good models of sublethal infection leading to chronic colonization. Furthermore, congenic and transgenic mice have proven essential to study how innate immune cells interact with the pathogen and to understand the role of the toll-like receptor 4, which is important to control Leptospira sp. load and disease. The use of inbred and transgenic mouse models opens

  12. Egg size matching by an intraspecific brood parasite

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by <2% of volume on average from host eggs, whereas randomly paired eggs in random nests differed by nearly 8%. The precision with which parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.

  13. Occurrence of Campylobacter in commercially broken liquid egg in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Miki; Sashihara, Nobuhiro

    2010-03-01

    Samples of unpasteurized liquid egg (whole egg, egg yolk, and egg white) and pasteurized liquid whole egg were collected from egg-breaking facilities in Japan and were tested for the presence of Campylobacter. Isolates recovered were tested for freeze-thaw response, sensitivity to antimicrobials, and heat resistance. Campylobacter was isolated from 27.9% of unpasteurized liquid whole egg samples and 36.0% of unpasteurized liquid egg yolk samples. No Campylobacter was isolated from unpasteurized liquid egg white or pasteurized liquid whole egg samples. The contamination levels of Campylobacter ranged from <3 to 240/100 ml. Freeze-thaw response was tested by freezing and thawing liquid whole egg and egg yolk to examine whether those conditions influenced the survival rate. It was shown that freezing and thawing reduced Campylobacter counts. Sensitivity to all antimicrobials used in this study was observed in 47.6% of the isolates. The most predominant antibiotic resistance profile was similar to that of isolates from chicken. D(55 degrees C)-values of 0.16 to 0.38 min and 0.47 to 0.84 min were determined for Campylobacter isolates in liquid whole egg and egg yolk, respectively. These values were lower than those reported for Salmonella. The very weak heat tolerance of Campylobacter indicated that it could be eliminated at the current legal pasteurization condition. There is no safety concern for commercially broken pasteurized liquid egg pertaining to Campylobacter contamination.

  14. Proteomics analysis identified peroxiredoxin 2 involved in early-phase left ventricular impairment in hamsters with cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kuzuya, Kentaro; Ichihara, Sahoko; Suzuki, Yuka; Inoue, Chisa; Ichihara, Gaku; Kurimoto, Syota; Oikawa, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    Given the hypothesis that inflammation plays a critical role in the progression of cardiovascular diseases, the aim of the present study was to identify new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of myocardial proteins involved in early-phase cardiac impairment, using proteomics analysis. Using the two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry, we compared differences in the expression of proteins in the whole left ventricles between control hamsters, dilated cardiomyopathic hamsters (TO-2), and hypertrophy cardiomyopathic hamsters (Bio14.6) at 6 weeks of age (n = 6, each group). Proteomic analysis identified 10 protein spots with significant alterations, with 7 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated proteins in the left ventricles of both TO-2 and Bio 14.6 hamsters, compared with control hamsters. Of the total alterations, peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2) showed significant upregulation in the left ventricles of TO-2 and Bio 14.6 hamsters. Our data suggest that PRDX2, a redox regulating molecule, is involved in early-phase left ventricular impairment in hamsters with cardiomyopathy.

  15. After infection with Leishmania infantum, Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) become more attractive to female sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis).

    PubMed

    Nevatte, T M; Ward, R D; Sedda, L; Hamilton, J G C

    2017-07-21

    In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis is caused by infection with Leishmania infantum, a Protist parasite transmitted by blood-feeding female Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. The objective of this study was to determine if the odour of hamsters, infected with Le. infantum, was more attractive than the odour of the same hamsters, before they were infected. The attractiveness of odour collected from individual hamsters (n = 13), before they were infected, was compared in a longitudinal study, with the attractiveness of the odour of the same hamster in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, at a late stage of infection. The odour of six of the golden hamsters was significantly more attractive to 50% of the female sand flies at the end of infection compared to before infection and the odour of four of the golden hamsters was significantly more attractive to 75% of the female sand flies at the end of infection. These results strongly indicate that hamsters infected with Le. infantum become significantly more attractive to a greater proportion of female sand flies as the infection progresses.

  16. Impact of egg handling and conditions during extended storage on egg quality

    The international trade of shell eggs has become more important in recent years in order to feed a growing worldwide population, meet food manufacturing demands, and address supply issues during disease outbreaks or product recalls. The primary barriers for the export and import of shell eggs are: ...

  17. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis decreases very low density lipoprotein secretion in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Arbeeny, C M; Meyers, D S; Bergquist, K E; Gregg, R E

    1992-06-01

    The hamster was developed as a model to study very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism, since, as is the case in humans, the hamster liver was found to synthesize apoB-100 and not apoB-48. The effect of inhibiting fatty acid synthesis on the hepatic secretion of VLDL triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 in this model was then investigated. In an in vivo study, hamsters were fed a chow diet containing 0.15% TOFA (5-tetradecyloxy-2-furancarboxylic acid), an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. After 6 days of treatment, plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased by 30.2% and 11.6%, respectively. When the secretion of VLDL-TG by the liver was measured in vivo after injection of Triton WR 1339, TOFA treatment was found to decrease VLDL-TG secretion by 40%. In subsequent in vitro studies utilizing cultured primary hamster hepatocytes, incubation with 20 microM TOFA for 4 h resulted in 98% and 76% inhibition in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, respectively; VLDL-TG secretion was decreased by 90%. When hepatocytes were pulsed with [3H]leucine, incubation with TOFA resulted in a 50% decrease in the incorporation of radiolabel into secreted VLDL apoB-100. The results of this study indicate that inhibition of intracellular triglyceride synthesis decreases the secretion of VLDL-TG and apoB-100, and does not result in the secretion of a dense, triglyceride-depleted lipoprotein.

  18. Suppression by Saccharomyces boulardii of toxigenic Clostridium difficile overgrowth after vancomycin treatment in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Elmer, G W; McFarland, L V

    1987-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii prevented the development of high counts of Clostridium difficile, high titers of toxin B, and positive latex agglutination tests after cessation of vancomycin treatment for hamsters. The protocol used was designed to stimulate relapse of human C. difficile-associated colitis. S. boulardii was protective in this model. PMID:3566236

  19. Augmenting Chinese hamster genome assembly by identifying regions of high confidence.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, Nandita; Bandyopadhyay, Arpan A; Fu, Hsu-Yuan; Sharma, Mohit; Johnson, Kathryn C; Mudge, Joann; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Onsongo, Getiria; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Jacob, Nitya M; Le, Huong; Karypis, George; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2016-09-01

    Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines are the dominant industrial workhorses for therapeutic recombinant protein production. The availability of genome sequence of Chinese hamster and CHO cells will spur further genome and RNA sequencing of producing cell lines. However, the mammalian genomes assembled using shot-gun sequencing data still contain regions of uncertain quality due to assembly errors. Identifying high confidence regions in the assembled genome will facilitate its use for cell engineering and genome engineering. We assembled two independent drafts of Chinese hamster genome by de novo assembly from shotgun sequencing reads and by re-scaffolding and gap-filling the draft genome from NCBI for improved scaffold lengths and gap fractions. We then used the two independent assemblies to identify high confidence regions using two different approaches. First, the two independent assemblies were compared at the sequence level to identify their consensus regions as "high confidence regions" which accounts for at least 78 % of the assembled genome. Further, a genome wide comparison of the Chinese hamster scaffolds with mouse chromosomes revealed scaffolds with large blocks of collinearity, which were also compiled as high-quality scaffolds. Genome scale collinearity was complemented with EST based synteny which also revealed conserved gene order compared to mouse. As cell line sequencing becomes more commonly practiced, the approaches reported here are useful for assessing the quality of assembly and potentially facilitate the engineering of cell lines. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ribavirin protects Syrian hamsters against lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--after intranasal exposure to Andes virus.

    PubMed

    Ogg, Monica; Jonsson, Colleen B; Camp, Jeremy V; Hooper, Jay W

    2013-11-08

    Andes virus, ANDV, harbored by wild rodents, causes the highly lethal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) upon transmission to humans resulting in death in 30% to 50% of the cases. As there is no treatment for this disease, we systematically tested the efficacy of ribavirin in vitro and in an animal model. In vitro assays confirmed antiviral activity and determined that the most effective doses were 40 µg/mL and above. We tested three different concentrations of ribavirin for their capability to prevent HPS in the ANDV hamster model following an intranasal challenge. While the highest level of ribavirin (200 mg/kg) was toxic to the hamster, both the middle (100 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration (50 mg/kg) prevented HPS in hamsters without toxicity. Specifically, 8 of 8 hamsters survived intranasal challenge for both of those groups whereas 7 of 8 PBS control-treated animals developed lethal HPS. Further, we report that administration of ribavirin at 50 mg/kg/day starting on days 6, 8, 10, or 12 post-infection resulted in significant protection against HPS in all groups. Administration of ribavirin at 14 days post-infection also provided a significant level of protection against lethal HPS. These data provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of ribavirin as a post-exposure treatment to prevent HPS after exposure by the respiratory route.

  1. T cells are not required for pathogenesis in the Syrian hamster model of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Hooper, Jay W

    2011-10-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is associated with a lethal vascular leak syndrome in humans termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). In hamsters, ANDV causes a respiratory distress syndrome closely resembling human HPS. The mechanism for the massive vascular leakage associated with HPS is poorly understood; however, T cell immunopathology has been implicated on the basis of circumstantial and corollary evidence. Here, we show that following ANDV challenge, hamster T cell activation corresponds with the onset of disease. However, treatment with cyclophosphamide or specific T cell depletion does not impact the course of disease or alter the number of surviving animals, despite significant reductions in T cell number. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that T cells are not required for hantavirus pathogenesis in the hamster model of human HPS. Depletion of T cells from Syrian hamsters did not significantly influence early events in disease progression. Moreover, these data argue for a mechanism of hantavirus-induced vascular permeability that does not involve T cell immunopathology.

  2. Laguna Negra Virus Infection Causes Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Turkish Hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti).

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, K; Scott, D; Safronetz, D; Brining, D L; Ebihara, H; Feldmann, H; LaCasse, R A

    2016-01-01

    Laguna Negra virus (LNV) is a New World hantavirus associated with severe and often fatal cardiopulmonary disease in humans, known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Five hamster species were evaluated for clinical and serologic responses following inoculation with 4 hantaviruses. Of the 5 hamster species, only Turkish hamsters infected with LNV demonstrated signs consistent with HPS and a fatality rate of 43%. Clinical manifestations in infected animals that succumbed to disease included severe and rapid onset of dyspnea, weight loss, leukopenia, and reduced thrombocyte numbers as compared to uninfected controls. Histopathologic examination revealed lung lesions that resemble the hallmarks of HPS in humans, including interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary edema, as well as generalized infection of endothelial cells and macrophages in major organ tissues. Histologic lesions corresponded to the presence of viral antigen in affected tissues. To date, there have been no small animal models available to study LNV infection and pathogenesis. The Turkish hamster model of LNV infection may be important in the study of LNV-induced HPS pathogenesis and development of disease treatment and prevention strategies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Effects of red mold dioscorea on oral carcinogenesis in DMBA-induced hamster animal model.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Lee, Bao-Hong; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Monascus-fermented products offer valuable therapeutic benefits and have been extensively used for centuries in East Asia. Dioscorea has been proved to have anti-cancer effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-tumor ability of the ethanol extract of red mold dioscorea (RMDE) on 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. We induced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the buccal pouch of male Syrian golden hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. From 9 to 14 weeks, a dose of 50, 100, and 200 mg RMDE per kg body weight were painting with the hamsters for 6 weeks on days alternate to the DMBA application. The results demonstrated that RMDE decreased nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) overexpression in hamster buccal pouches in the DMBA treatment group and increased p53, serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to significantly stimulate caspase-8 and -3 activities, indicating that RMDE reduced oxidative damage causing by DMBA and induced apoptosis in oral cancer cells. Therefore, RMDE may have therapeutic potentials against OSCC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular Prerequisites for Diminished Cold Sensitivity in Ground Squirrels and Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Matos-Cruz, Vanessa; Schneider, Eve R; Mastrotto, Marco; Merriman, Dana K; Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N; Gracheva, Elena O

    2017-12-19

    Thirteen-lined ground squirrels and Syrian hamsters are known for their ability to withstand cold during hibernation. We found that hibernators exhibit cold tolerance even in the active state. Imaging and electrophysiology of squirrel somatosensory neurons reveal a decrease in cold sensitivity of TRPM8-expressing cells. Characterization of squirrel and hamster TRPM8 showed that the channels are chemically activated but exhibit poor activation by cold. Cold sensitivity can be re-introduced into squirrel and hamster TRPM8 by transferring the transmembrane domain from the cold sensitive rat ortholog. The same can be achieved in squirrel TRPM8 by mutating only six amino acids. Reciprocal mutations suppress cold sensitivity of the rat ortholog, supporting functional significance of these residues. Our results suggest that ground squirrels and hamsters exhibit reduced cold sensitivity, partially due to modifications in the transmembrane domain of TRPM8. Our study reveals molecular adaptations that accompany cold tolerance in two species of mammalian hibernators. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Histiocytic Sarcoma and Bilateral Facial Vein Thrombosis in a Siberian Hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Coble, Dondrae J; Shoemaker, Margaret; Harrington, Bonnie; Dardenne, Adrienne D; Bolon, Brad

    2015-04-01

    A 21-mo-old, male Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) presented with left-sided facial swelling, proptosis of the left eye, and blepharospasm of the right eye. The hamster had been used only for breeding. Because of the poor prognosis, the hamster was euthanized without additional diagnostic assays or treatments. Routine gross pathologic evaluation demonstrated exophthalmos and presumptive hyphema of the left eye, bilateral facial edema, freely movable nodules within the mesentery, white foci within the liver, and a large mass effacing the cranial pole of the right kidney. On histologic evaluation, the mesenteric nodules and liver foci expressed histiocytic marker CD163 and thus were diagnosed as sites of histiocytic sarcoma, whereas the kidney mass was a well-differentiated renal cell carcinoma. The facial swelling resulted from bilateral, chronic, severe, branching thrombi in many facial veins. Additional age-related histopathologic findings were observed in other organs, including diffuse glomerulopathy, nesidioblastosis (pancreatic islet neoformation), and multiple foci of severe cartilage degeneration in the axial skeleton. To our knowledge, this report provides the first description of histiocytic sarcoma in a Siberian hamster.

  6. Serotonergic modulation of hippocampal pyramidal cells in euthermic, cold-acclimated, and hibernating hamsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Horwitz, B. A.; Horowitz, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Serotonergic fibers project to the hippocampus, a brain area previously shown to have distinctive changes in electroencephalograph (EEG) activity during entrance into and arousal from hibernation. The EEG activity is generated by pyramidal cells in both hibernating and nonhibernating species. Using the brain slice preparation, we characterized serotonergic responses of these CA1 pyramidal cells in euthermic, cold-acclimated, and hibernating Syrian hamsters. Stimulation of Shaffer-collateral/commissural fibers evoked fast synaptic excitation of CA1 pyramidal cells, a response monitored by recording population spikes (the synchronous generation of action potentials). Neuromodulation by serotonin (5-HT) decreased population spike amplitude by 54% in cold-acclimated animals, 80% in hibernating hamsters, and 63% in euthermic animals. The depression was significantly greater in slices from hibernators than from cold-acclimated animals. In slices from euthermic animals, changes in extracellular K+ concentration between 2.5 and 5.0 mM did not significantly alter serotonergic responses. The 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin mimicked serotonergic inhibition in euthermic hamsters. Results show that 5-HT is a robust neuromodulator not only in euthermic animals but also in cold-acclimated and hibernating hamsters.

  7. Topical Olive Leaf Extract Improves Healing of Oral Mucositis in Golden Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Showraki, Najmeh; Mardani, Maryam; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Andishe-Tadbir, Azadeh; Aram, Alireza; Mehriar, Peiman; Omidi, Mahmoud; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Tanideh, Nader

    2016-12-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common side effect of anti-cancer drugs and needs significant attention for its prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the healing effects of olive leaf extract on 5-fluorouracil-induced OM in golden hamster. OM was induced in 63 male golden hamsters by the combination of 5-fluorouracil injections (days 0, 5 and 10) and the abrasion of the cheek pouch (days 3 and 4). On day 12, hamsters were received topical olive leaf extract ointment, base of ointment, or no treatment (control) for 5 days. Histopathology evaluations, blood examinations, and tissue malondialdehyde level measurement were performed 1, 3 and 5 days after treatments. Histopathology score and tissue malondialdehyde level were significantly lower in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups ( p = 0.000). Significant decreases in white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit , and mean corpuscular volume and an increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were observed in olive leaf extract treated group in comparison with control and base groups ( p < 0.05). Our findings demonstrated that daily application of olive leaf extract ointment had healing effect on 5-fluorouracil induced OM in hamsters. Moreover, the beneficial effect of olive leaf extract on OM might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  8. Novel function of lipids as a pheromone from the Harderian gland of golden hamster

    PubMed Central

    Seyama, Yousuke; Uchijima, Yasunobu

    2007-01-01

    Sexual diversity of ADG in Harderian gland of golden hamster was demonstrated on TLC. Female ADG contained iso- and anteiso-branched acyl and alkyl components, but male ADG contained only straight chain ones, which suggested the hormonal control of the expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in the catabolism of BCAA. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases were not expressed in the absence of testosterone, and then isovaleryl-CoA, 2-methylbutyryl-CoA, and isobutyryl-CoA accumulated, and acted as primers for the synthesis of iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids. The incorporation of [U-14C] leucine into lipids was monitored by TLC. The cholesterol fraction was labeled in males but not in female, which means that cholesterol was not produced from BCAA in female gland due to the lack of expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. We monitored the behavior of male hamsters toward female gland lipids, and found slightly greater attractiveness in female ones than that in male ones although the difference was not significant. Considering the lifestyle of golden hamster in nature, we propose a hypothesis that the lipids from the Harderian gland of golden hamster serve as a pheromone to declare their territory and to seek the mate with good congeniality. PMID:24019586

  9. Depopulation of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus in the diabetic Chinese hamster.

    PubMed

    Garris, D R; Diani, A R; Smith, C; Gerritsen, G C

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes and the size, density and area of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) was studied in the genetically diabetic Chinese hamster. Matched diabetic and non-diabetic control chinese hamsters were perfused, the hypothalamus collected, sectioned and stained for light microscopy. The mid-point of each VMH nucleus was located, photographed and enlarged for morphometric analysis. Each neuron that possessed a nucleolus and was located within the confines of a VMH was counted, and subsequently the area of each nucleus and the density of neurons per area of VMH were calculated. The results indicated that both the area and absolute number of neurons within the VMH of diabetic hamsters were significantly reduced compared to control values (P less than 0.01) The density of neurons per unit area of VMH was similar in both groups. These data suggest that the VMH experiences a neuronal depopulation in diabetic hamsters which may have a functional influence on the hypothalamic-pancreatic axis in this species.

  10. EMODIN DOWNREGULATES CELL PROLIFERATION MARKERS DURING DMBA INDUCED ORAL CARCINOGENESIS IN GOLDEN SYRIAN HAMSTERS.

    PubMed

    Manimaran, Asokan; Buddhan, Rajamanickam; Manoharan, Shanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Cell-cycle disruption is the major characteristic features of neoplastic transformation and the status of cell-cycle regulators can thus be utilized to assess the prognostic significance in patients with cancer. The PCNA, cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6 and survivin expression in the buccal mucosa was utilized to evaluate the Emodin efficacy on abnormal cell proliferation during 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis in golden Syrian hamsters. Topical application of DMBA, three times a week for 14 weeks, on the hamsters' buccal pouches developed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Cyclin D1 and PCNA over-expression and up-regulation of CDK4, CDK6 and survivin were noticed in the buccal mucosa of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Emodin administration (50mg/kg b.w) orally to hamsters treated with DMBA down-regulated the expression of cell proliferation markers in the buccal mucosa. The anti-cell proliferative role of Emodin is owing to its modulating efficacy on cell-cycle markers towards the tumor suppression during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.

  11. Antigenic specificity and morphologic characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis, strain SFPD, isolated from hamsters with proliferative ileitis.

    PubMed

    Fox, J G; Stills, H F; Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Yan, L; Palley, L; Prostak, K

    1993-10-01

    Profound diarrhea associated with proliferating intestinal cells containing intraepithelial campylobacter-like organisms (ICLO) occurs in a variety of mammalian hosts, particularly swine and hamsters. Recently, intracellular bacteria were isolated from proliferative intestinal tissue of hamsters and propagated in intestine cell line 407. Oral inoculation of hamsters with cell culture lysates containing these organisms reproduced the disease in susceptible hamsters. In the present study, an intracellular bacterium from the INT 407 cell line was shown by a variety of techniques to be a member of the genus Chlamydia and has been designated Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD. McCoy cells infected with Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD demonstrated bright fluorescent-stained intracytoplasmic inclusions when examined with fluorescein-labeled species-specific C. trachomatis monoclonal antibodies. The organism also reacted to fluorescein-labeled polyclonal but not monoclonal ICLO "omega" antisera. Ultrastructural examination of the Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD from McCoy cells revealed electrondense elementary bodies and a less electron-dense reticulate-like body that was circular; both features are consistent in morphology to developmental forms of Chlamydia and do not conform to ICLO morphology. Molecular studies, 16S ribosomal sequence analysis, and sequencing of the outer membrane protein confirmed that the isolate is a C. trachomatis closely related to the mouse pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the heart failure model of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Liu, Dong-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Song, Jian-Tao; Ji, Xian-Fei; Hou, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-Hai

    2016-05-01

    In this study we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a heart failure model of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,267 bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region.

  13. Infection of hamsters with historical and epidemic BI types of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Razaq, Nadia; Sambol, Susan; Nagaro, Kristin; Zukowski, Walter; Cheknis, Adam; Johnson, Stuart; Gerding, Dale N

    2007-12-15

    North American and European hospitals have reported outbreaks of Clostridium difficile-associated disease with unexpectedly high mortality caused by a newly recognized group of C. difficile strains, group BI. Our objective was to compare, in hamsters, the virulence of a historical nonepidemic BI type, BI1, with that of 2 recent epidemic BI types, BI6 and BI17, and with that of 2 standard toxigenic strains, K14 and 630. For each strain, 10 hamsters were given 1 dose of clindamycin, followed 5 days later with 100 C. difficile spores administered by gastric inoculation. Outcomes were recorded. The hamster model demonstrated variations in mean times from inoculation to death (for BI6, 40 h; for BI1, 48 h; for K14, 49 h; for BI17, 69 h; for 630, 102 h; for BI6, BI1, and K14 vs. 630, P< .01; for BI17 vs. 630, P< .05) and from colonization to death (for BI1, 7 h; for BI17, 13 h; for BI6, 16 h; for K14, 17 h; for 630, 52 h; for BI1, BI17, BI6, and K14 vs. 630, P< .01). Group BI strains were not more rapidly fatal than the standard toxinotype 0 strain K14 but were more rapidly fatal than the standard toxinotype 0 strain 630. BI6, the most common BI type in our collection, was particularly virulent in hamsters, consistently causing death within 48 h of inoculation.

  14. Different effects of acute and chronic immobilization stress on plasma testosterone levels in male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Horii, I

    1995-01-01

    Time-course variations in plasma testosterone levels after various periods of immobilization stress (10 min, 30 min, 2 h, 6 h) were examined in male Syrian hamsters. The immobilization stress consisted of placing the animals in a prone position and wrapping them with flexible steel wire gauze. This was done at room temperature. Testosterone levels were determined in blood samples taken after the hamsters were decapitated. Chronic (2 h, 6 h) immobilization stress produced a drastic and enduring fall in plasma testosterone levels. Reduction of plasma testosterone following the 6-h immobilization stress was observed even 18 h after the stress had been relieved. However, acute (10 min, 30 min) immobilization stress did not influence plasma testosterone. These findings indicated that the effect of immobilization stress on plasma testosterone in hamsters was not biphasic, which it is in rats. Further, these results suggest that immobilization stress in hamsters would be a valuable technique with which to investigate the effects of physiological ranges of testosterone on physiological and psychological functions.

  15. The adaptive immune response does not influence hantavirus disease or persistence in the Syrian hamster

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Robertson, Shelly; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic New World hantaviruses cause severe disease in humans characterized by a vascular leak syndrome, leading to pulmonary oedema and respiratory distress with case fatality rates approaching 40%. Hantaviruses infect microvascular endothelial cells without conspicuous cytopathic effects, indicating that destruction of the endothelium is not a mechanism of disease. In humans, high levels of inflammatory cytokines are present in the lungs of patients that succumb to infection. This, along with other observations, suggests that disease has an immunopathogenic component. Currently the only animal model available to study hantavirus disease is the Syrian hamster, where infection with Andes virus (ANDV), the primary agent of disease in South America, results in disease that closely mimics that seen in humans. Conversely, inoculation of hamsters with a passaged Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the virus responsible for most cases of disease in North America, results in persistent infection with high levels of viral replication. We found that ANDV elicited a stronger innate immune response, whereas SNV elicited a more robust adaptive response in the lung. Additionally, ANDV infection resulted in significant changes in the blood lymphocyte populations. To determine whether the adaptive immune response influences infection outcome, we depleted hamsters of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells before infection with hantaviruses. Depletion resulted in inhibition of virus-specific antibody responses, although the pathogenesis and replication of these viruses were unaltered. These data show that neither hantavirus replication, nor pathogenesis caused by these viruses, is influenced by the adaptive immune response in the Syrian hamster. PMID:23600567

  16. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  17. Appropriateness of the hamster as a model to study diet-induced atherosclerosis

    Golden-Syrian hamsters have been used as an animal model to assess diet-induced atherosclerosis since the early 1980s. Advantages appeared to include a low rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, receptor-mediated uptake of LDL cholesterol, cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity, hepatic apo...

  18. Conditioned flavor aversion and location avoidance in hamsters from toxic extract of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi)

    Studies were conducted to address conditioned flavour aversion (CFA) and place avoidance learning in hamsters given injections of alkaloid extracts from tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi), to determine if larkspur had reinforcing or negative properties sufficient to cause place avoidance or preferen...

  19. Lack of protection against ebola virus from chloroquine in mice and hamsters.

    PubMed

    Falzarano, Darryl; Safronetz, David; Prescott, Joseph; Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-06-01

    The antimalarial drug chloroquine has been suggested as a treatment for Ebola virus infection. Chloroquine inhibited virus replication in vitro, but only at cytotoxic concentrations. In mouse and hamster models, treatment did not improve survival. Chloroquine is not a promising treatment for Ebola. Efforts should be directed toward other drug classes.

  20. PLACENTAL TRANSFER AND FETAL DEPOSITION OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE IN THE HAMSTER AND GUINEA PIG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was administered at dose levels of 0, 1.0, 10.0, or 50.0 mg HCB/kg body wt by gavage to pregnant hamsters and guinea pigs for 6 days up to the time of liver development in the fetus. Samples of maternal fat, thymus, skin, liver, lung, brain, spleen, urinar...

  1. Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater drinking water in high-fat/cholesterol fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Lin; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wang, Yu; Fu, Shih-Guei; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater (DSW) drinking water was assessed using high-fat/cholesterol-fed hamsters in this study. All hamsters were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet (12% fat/0.2% cholesterol), and drinking solutions were normal distiled water (NDW, hardness: 2.48ppm), DSW300 (hardness: 324.5ppm), DSW900 (hardness: 858.5ppm), and DSW1500 (hardness: 1569.0ppm), respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, body weight, heart rates, and blood pressures of hamsters were not influenced by DSW drinking waters. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), atherogenic index, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased (p<0.05) in the DSW-drinking-water groups, as compared to those in the NDW group. Additionally, increased (p<0.05) serum Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and faecal TC, TAG, and bile acid outputs were measured in the DSW-drinking-water groups. Hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor) and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expressions were upregulated (p<0.05) by DSW drinking waters. These results demonstrate that DSW drinking water benefits the attenuation of high-fat/cholesterol-diet-induced cardiovascular disorders in hamsters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation in hamsters during microwave-induced heat exposure

    SciT

    Gordon, C.J.; Long, M.D.; Fehlner, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    Preferred ambient temperature (Ta) and ventilatory frequency were measured in free-moving hamsters exposed to 2450-MHz microwaves. A waveguide exposure system that permits continuous monitoring of the absorbed heat load accrued from microwave exposure was imposed with a longitudinal temperature gradient which allowed hamsters to select their preferred Ta. Ventilatory frequency was monitored remotely by analysing the rhythmic shifts in unabsorbed microwave energy passing down the waveguide. Without microwave exposure hamsters selected an average T2 of 30.2 C. This preferred Ta did not change until the rate of heat absorption (SAR) from microwave exposure exceeded approx. 2 W kg-1. In amore » separate experiment, a SAR of 2.0 W kg-1 at a Ta of 30C was shown to promote an average 0.5 C increase in colonic temperature. Hamsters maintained their ventilatory frequency at baseline levels by selecting a cooler Ta during microwave exposure. These data support previous studies suggesting that during thermal stress behavioral thermo-regulation (i.e. preferred Ta) takes prescedence over autonomic thermoregulation (i.e. ventilatory frequency). It is apparent that selecting a cooler Ta is a more efficient and/or effective than autonomic thermoregulation for dissipating a heat load accrued from microwave exposure.« less

  3. Is the Medial Amygdala Part of the Neural Circuit Modulating Conditioned Defeat in Syrian Hamsters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Chris M.; Huhman, Kim L.

    2008-01-01

    Conditioned defeat is a model wherein hamsters that have previously experienced a single social defeat subsequently exhibit heightened levels of avoidance and submission in response to a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. While we have previously demonstrated the critical involvement of the basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala in the…

  4. DNA (DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID) SYNTHESIS FOLLOWING MICROINJECTION OF HETEROLOGOUS SPERM AND SOMATIC CELL NUCLEI INTO HAMSTER OOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have investigated the ability of the hamster oocyte to initiate DNA synthesis in nuclei differing in basic protein content. DNA synthesis was studied by autoradiography in oocytes that had been incubated in 3H-thymidine after being parthenogenetically activated by sha...

  5. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tzu-Ruei; Sander, Philipp N.; Schneider, Marion; Engeser, Marianne; Kath-Schorr, Stephanie; Müller, Christa E.; Sander, P. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Protoporphyrin (PP) and biliverdin (BV) give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selection pressure for the evolution of colored or cryptic eggs should be present in all open nesting birds and relatives. Many birds are open-nesting, but protect their eggs by continuous brooding, and thus exhibit no or minimal eggshell pigmentation. Their closest extant relatives, crocodiles, protect their eggs by burial and have unpigmented eggs. This phylogenetic pattern led to the assumption that colored eggs evolved within crown birds. The mosaic evolution of supposedly avian traits in non-avian theropod dinosaurs, however, such as the supposed evolution of partially open nesting behavior in oviraptorids, argues against this long-established theory. Using a double-checking liquid chromatography ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry routine, we traced the origin of colored eggs to their non-avian dinosaur ancestors by providing the first record of the avian eggshell pigments protoporphyrin and biliverdin in the eggshells of Late Cretaceous oviraptorid dinosaurs. The eggshell parataxon Macroolithus yaotunensis can be assigned to the oviraptor Heyuannia huangi based on exceptionally preserved, late developmental stage embryo remains. The analyzed eggshells are from three Late Cretaceous fluvial deposits ranging from eastern to southernmost China. Reevaluation of these taphonomic settings, and a consideration of patterns in the porosity of completely preserved eggs support an at least partially open nesting behavior for oviraptorosaurs. Such a nest arrangement corresponds with our

  6. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs.

    PubMed

    Wiemann, Jasmina; Yang, Tzu-Ruei; Sander, Philipp N; Schneider, Marion; Engeser, Marianne; Kath-Schorr, Stephanie; Müller, Christa E; Sander, P Martin

    2017-01-01

    Protoporphyrin (PP) and biliverdin (BV) give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selection pressure for the evolution of colored or cryptic eggs should be present in all open nesting birds and relatives. Many birds are open-nesting, but protect their eggs by continuous brooding, and thus exhibit no or minimal eggshell pigmentation. Their closest extant relatives, crocodiles, protect their eggs by burial and have unpigmented eggs. This phylogenetic pattern led to the assumption that colored eggs evolved within crown birds. The mosaic evolution of supposedly avian traits in non-avian theropod dinosaurs, however, such as the supposed evolution of partially open nesting behavior in oviraptorids, argues against this long-established theory. Using a double-checking liquid chromatography ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry routine, we traced the origin of colored eggs to their non-avian dinosaur ancestors by providing the first record of the avian eggshell pigments protoporphyrin and biliverdin in the eggshells of Late Cretaceous oviraptorid dinosaurs. The eggshell parataxon Macroolithus yaotunensis can be assigned to the oviraptor Heyuannia huangi based on exceptionally preserved, late developmental stage embryo remains. The analyzed eggshells are from three Late Cretaceous fluvial deposits ranging from eastern to southernmost China. Reevaluation of these taphonomic settings, and a consideration of patterns in the porosity of completely preserved eggs support an at least partially open nesting behavior for oviraptorosaurs. Such a nest arrangement corresponds with our

  7. A new species of Giardia Künstler, 1882 (Sarcomastigophora: Hexamitidae) in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Zhangxia; Shao, Jingru; Xue, Min; Ye, Qingqing; Chen, Bing; Qin, Yan; Wen, Jianfan

    2018-03-20

    Giardia spp. are flagellated protozoan parasites that infect humans and many other vertebrates worldwide. Currently seven species of Giardia are considered valid. Here, we report a new species, Giardia cricetidarum n. sp. in hamsters. Trophozoites of G. cricetidarum n. sp. are pear-shaped with four pairs of flagella and measure on average 14 μm (range 12-18 μm) in length and 10 μm (range 8-12 μm) in width. The trophozoites of the new species are generally larger and stouter than those of most of the other Giardia spp. and exhibit the lowest length/width ratio (c.1.40) of all recognized Giardia species. Cysts of G. cricetidarum n. sp. are ovoid and measure on average 11 μm (range 9-12 μm) in length and 10 μm (range 8-10 μm) in width and are indistinguishable from the cysts of other Giardia species. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on beta-giardin, small subunit rRNA, and elongation factor-1 alpha loci all demonstrated that G. cricetidarum n. sp. is genetically distinct from all currently accepted Giardia spp. Investigation of the host range indicated that the new species was only found in hamsters (including Phodopus sungorus, P. campbelli and Mesocricetus auratus), while all the other described mammal-parasitizing species (G. muris, G. microti and G. intestinalis) each infect multiple hosts. Cross-transmission studies further demonstrated the apparent host specificity of G. cricetidarum n. sp. as it only infected hamsters. Trophozoites were found in high numbers in hamster intestines (5 × 10 5 - 5 × 10 6 ) and was rarely detected co-infecting with other Giardia spp. in the common hamster, suggesting it has some advantages in parasitizing hamsters. This study has identified a new species of Giardia, which appears to be specific to hamsters, and together with the three other mammal-parasitizing Giardia species with different host ranges, may be able to be used as a model system for the study of evolutionary divergence of host parasitism strategies in

  8. Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Jose M.; Anton, Xaquin; Redondo-Valbuena, Celia; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lamas, Alexandre; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods. PMID:25608941

  9. Effect of Egg Washing and Correlation between Eggshell Characteristics and Egg Penetration by Various Salmonella Typhimurium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Gole, Vaibhav C.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.; Roberts, Juliet R.; Sexton, Margaret; May, Damian; Tan, Jessica; Kiermeier, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, causing an estimated 11,992 cases of infection in Australia per year. Egg or egg product related salmonellosis is a major concern for the egg industry. Worldwide, S. Typhimurium is one of the most common serovars identified in Salmonella food poisoning cases. The current study investigated the ability of five S. Typhimurium strains to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods. All S. Typhimurium strains were able to penetrate eggshells and survive in egg albumen (at 20°C) according to whole egg penetration results. Polymerase Chain Reaction results demonstrated that S. Typhimurium strain 2 (103 and 105 CFU/mL), and strain 5 (103 and 105 CFU/mL) egg penetration was significantly higher (p<0.05) in washed eggs when compared to unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis of the agar penetration experiment indicated that S. Typhimurium was able to penetrate washed eggs at a significantly higher rate when compared to unwashed eggs (p<0.05). When compared to unwashed eggs, washed eggs also had significantly damaged cuticles. Statistical analysis also indicated that eggshell penetration by S. Typhimurium was related to various eggshell ultrastructural features such as cap quality, alignment, erosion, confluence, Type B bodies and cuticle cover. PMID:24621821

  10. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V.; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine. PMID:29145436

  11. Parental perceptions in egg allergy: does egg challenge make a difference?

    PubMed

    Kemp, Andrew Stewart; Allen, Clare Wendy; Campbell, Dianne Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an oral egg challenge in egg sensitized children on parental perceptions relating to their child's allergy. A questionnaire was completed by parents for 167 children attending a tertiary paediatric clinic with egg sensitization. The questionnaires included 10 questions concerning parental perceptions of their child's egg allergy. Parental perceptions of those children who had not had an egg challenge (n = 83) were compared with those whose children had a positive (n = 27) and those with a negative (n = 57) egg challenge. A significant difference (p = < or =0.02) was observed between challenge positive(CP) and challenge negative (CN) subjects in reported changes to lifestyle and the fact that more parents in the CN group expected little or no future inconvenience for the child. The responses of parents whose child had undergone an egg challenge differed significantly (p = < or =0.005) from those not challenged with a significant reduction in the following parameters; the effect on out-of-home care arrangements, the perception of being more severe as compared to other common childhood illnesses, whether they found egg allergy to be moderately or very stressful, whether their lifestyle was changed, the expectation of little or no future discomfort for the child and whether others treated the child differently. The performance of an egg challenge was associated with reduced adverse parental concerns. For 6/10 parameters, expectations concerning egg allergy in children who had been challenged were significantly better than those who had never been challenged irrespective of the challenge outcome. The greater certainty provided by the performance of a food challenge may be a positive outcome in both CP and CN children.

  12. [Prokaryotic expression of Leptospira interrogans groEL gene and immunoprotection of its products in hamsters].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yinhuan; Yan, Jie; Cheng, Dongqing

    2013-03-01

    To construct a prokaryotic expression system of groEL gene of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagia serovar Lai strain Lai, and to determine the immunoprotective effect of recombinant GroEL protein (rGroEL) in LVG hamsters. The groEL gene was amplified by high fidelity PCR and the amplification products were then sequenced. A prokaryotic expression system of groEL gene was constructed using routine genetic engineering technique. SDS-PAGE plus Bio-Rad Gel Image Analyzer was applied to examine the expression and dissolubility of rGroEL protein while Ni-NTA affinity chromatography was used to extract the expressed rGroEL. The immunoprotective rate in rGroEL-immunized LVG hamsters was determined after challenge with L.interrogans strain Lai. The cross agglutination titers of sera from immunized hamsters with different L.interrogans serogroups were detected using MAT. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the cloned groEL gene were the same as those reported in GenBank. The constructed prokaryotic expression system of groEL gene expressed soluble rGroEL. The immunoprotective rates of 100 and 200 μg rGroEL in LVG hamsters were 50.0 % and 75.0%, respectively. The sera from the rGroEL-immunized LVG hamsters agglutinated all the L.interrogans serogroups tested with different levels. The GroEL protein is a genus-specific immunoprotective antigen of L.interrogans and can be used to develop an universal genetically engineering vaccine of Leptospira.

  13. In vivo but not in vitro leptin enhances lymphocyte proliferation in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Demas, Gregory E

    2010-04-01

    Mounting an immune response requires a relatively substantial investment of energy and marked reductions in energy availability can suppress immune function and presumably increase disease susceptibility. We have previously demonstrated that a moderate reduction in energy stores by partial surgical lipectomy impairs humoral immunity of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) and is mediated, in part, by changes in the adipose tissue hormone leptin. The goals of the present study were to assess the role of leptin in cell-mediated immunity and to determine if the potential effects of leptin on immunity are via the direct actions of this hormone on lymphocytes, or indirect, via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). In Experiment 1, hamsters received osmotic minipumps containing either murine leptin (0.5 microl/h) or vehicle alone for 10 days and splenocyte proliferation in response to the T-cell mitogen Concanavalin A (Con A) was determined. In Experiment 2, Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation was tested in the presence or absence of leptin in vitro. In Experiment 3, exogenous leptin was administered to intact or sympathetically denervated hamsters. Hamsters treated with in vivo leptin displayed increased splenocyte proliferation compared with control hamsters receiving vehicle. In contrast, in vitro leptin had no effect on splenocyte proliferation. Sympathetic denervation attenuated, but did not block, leptin-induced increases in immunity. Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea that leptin can enhance cell-mediated immunity; the SNS appears to contribute, least in part, to leptin-induced increases in immunity. Importantly, these findings confirm previous studies that leptin serves as an important endocrine link between energy balance and immunity. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic inhalation exposure of hamsters to nickel-enriched fly ash

    SciT

    Wehner, A.P.; Dagle, G.E.; Milliman, E.M.

    1981-10-01

    Hamsters were chronically exposed to approx.70 ..mu..g/liter respirable nickel-enriched fly ash (NEFA) aerosol, approx.17 ..mu..g/liter NEFA, or approx.70 ..mu..g/liter fly ash (FA) for up to 20 months. A control group received sham exposures. The NEFA particles of respirable size contained approximately 6% nickel, compared to about 0.3% for FA. Five hamsters/group were sacrificed after 4, 8, 12, or 16 months of exposure. An additional five hamsters/group were withdrawn from exposure at the same intervals for lifelong observations. Exposures to NEFA had no significant effect on body weight and life span of the animals although heavy deposits of NEFA in themore » lungs were demonstrated. However, lung weights of the high NEFA- and of the FA-exposed animals were significantly higher than those of the low-NEFA group and the controls, and mean lung volumes were significantly larger for the high-NEFA grop and the FA group than for the low-NEFA group and the controls. Dust was deposited (anthracosis) in the lungs of all exposed hamsters. Incidence and severity of interstitial reaction and bronchiolization were significantly higher in the dust-exposed groups than in the sham-exposed controls. The severity of anthracosis, interstitial reaction, and bronchiolization was significantly lower in the low-NEFA group than in the high-NEFA and FA groups. While two malignant primary thorax tumors were found in two hamsters of the high-NEFA group, no statistically significant carcinogenesis was observed. Of the exposure-related changes, only anthracosis decreased after withdrawal from exposure. Pulmonary nickel burdens after 20 months of exposure suggest that the pulmonary clearance rate was slower in the high-NEFA group than in the low-NEFA group.« less

  15. Photoperiodic adjustments in immune function protect Siberian hamsters from lethal endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Hotchkiss, Andrew K; Bilbo, Staci D; Kinsey, Steven G; Nelson, Randy J

    2003-02-01

    Seasonal changes in day length enhance or suppress components of immune function in individuals of several mammalian species. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exhibit multiple changes in neuroendocrine, reproductive, and immune function after exposure to short days. The manner in which these changes are integrated into the host response to pathogens is not well understood. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that short-day changes in immune function alter the pathogenesis of septic shock and survival after challenge with endotoxin. Male and female Siberian hamsters raised in long-day photoperiods were transferred as adults to short days or remained in their natal photoperiod. Six to 8 weeks later, hamsters were injected i.p. with 0, 1, 2.5, 10, 25, or 50 mg/kg bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (the biologically active constituent of endotoxin), and survival was monitored for 96 h. Short days significantly improved survival of male hamsters treated with 10 or 25 mg/kg LPS and improved survival in females treated with 50 mg/kg LPS. Transfer from long to short days shifted the LD50 in males by approximately 90%, from 5.3 to 9.9 mg/kg, and in females from 11.1 to 15.0 mg/kg (+35%). Long-day females were more resistant than were males to lethal endotoxemia. In vitro production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha in response to LPS stimulation was significantly lower in macrophages extracted from short-day relative to long-day hamsters, as were circulating concentrations of TNFalpha in vivo after i.p. administration of LPS, suggesting that diminished cytokine responses to LPS in short days may mitigate the lethality of endotoxemia. Adaptation to short days induces changes in immune parameters that affect survival in the face of immune challenges.

  16. 9 CFR 590.516 - Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG... shell eggs prior to breaking. (a) Immediately prior to breaking, all shell eggs shall be spray rinsed...

  17. 9 CFR 590.940 - Marking of egg products offered for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of egg products offered for..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.940 Marking of egg products offered for importation. Egg products which, upon...

  18. 9 CFR 590.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., unwholesome, or adulterated egg products. 590.840 Section 590.840 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human...

  19. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs and...

  20. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs and...

  1. 9 CFR 590.516 - Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG... shell eggs prior to breaking. (a) Immediately prior to breaking, all shell eggs shall be spray rinsed...

  2. 9 CFR 590.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., unwholesome, or adulterated egg products. 590.840 Section 590.840 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human...

  3. 9 CFR 590.940 - Marking of egg products offered for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of egg products offered for..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.940 Marking of egg products offered for importation. Egg products which, upon...

  4. Antioxidant activity in cooked and simulated digested eggs.

    PubMed

    Remanan, M K; Wu, J

    2014-07-25

    The avian egg is an excellent source of nutrients consisting of components with beneficial properties but there is limited knowledge on the effect of cooking methods and gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of eggs. The present study was focused on the effect of cooking and simulated gastrointestinal digestion on antioxidant activity of eggs using ORAC, ABTS and DPPH assays. The results suggest that fresh egg yolk has higher antioxidant activity than fresh egg white and whole eggs. Cooking reduced whereas simulated gastrointestinal digestion increased the antioxidant activity of eggs. Boiled egg white hydrolysate showed the highest antioxidant activity; a total of 63 peptides were identified, indicative of the formation of novel antioxidant peptides upon simulated gastrointestinal digestion. This study suggests the potential role of eggs as a dietary source of antioxidants.

  5. Mother and offspring fitness in an insect with maternal care: phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and egg care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oviparous females have three main options to increase their reproductive success: investing into egg number, egg mass and/or egg care. Although allocating resources to either of these three components is known to shape offspring number and size, potential trade-offs among them may have key impacts on maternal and offspring fitness. Here, we tested the occurrence of phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and maternal expenditure on egg care in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, an insect with pre- and post-hatching forms of maternal care. In particular, we used a series of laboratory observations and experiments to investigate whether these three components non-additively influenced offspring weight and number at hatching, and whether they were associated with potential costs to females in terms of future reproduction. Results We found negative associations between egg number and mass as well as between egg number and maternal expenditure on egg care. However, these trade-offs could only be detected after statistically correcting for female weight at egg laying. Hatchling number was not determined by single or additive effects among the three life-history traits, but instead by pairwise interactions among them. In particular, offspring number was positively associated with the number of eggs only in clutches receiving high maternal care or consisting of heavy eggs, and negatively associated with mean egg mass in clutches receiving low care. In contrast, offspring weight was positively associated with egg mass only. Finally, maternal expenditure on egg care reduced their future reproduction, but this effect was only detected when mothers were experimentally isolated from their offspring at egg hatching. Conclusions Overall, our study reveals simultaneous trade-offs between the number, mass and care of eggs. It also demonstrates that these factors interact in their impact on offspring production, and that maternal expenditure on egg

  6. Characterization of egg white antibacterial properties during the first half of incubation: A comparative study between embryonated and unfertilized eggs.

    PubMed

    Guyot, N; Réhault-Godbert, S; Slugocki, C; Harichaux, G; Labas, V; Helloin, E; Nys, Y

    2016-12-01

    Egg white is an important contributor to the protection of eggs against bacterial contaminations during the first half of incubation (day zero to 12), prior to the egg white transfer into the amniotic fluid to be orally absorbed by the embryo. This protective system relies on an arsenal of antimicrobial proteins and on intrinsic physicochemical properties that are generally unfavorable for bacterial multiplication and dissemination. Some changes in these parameters can be observed in egg white during egg storage and incubation. The aim of this work was to characterize changes in the antibacterial potential of egg white in embryonated eggs (FE) during the first half of incubation using unfertilized eggs (UF) as controls. Egg white samples were collected at day zero, 4, 8, and 12 and analyzed for pH, protein concentration, and protein profile. Antibacterial properties of egg white proteins were evaluated against Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Enteritidis. During incubation, differential variations of egg white pH and protein concentrations were observed between UF and FE. At equal protein concentrations, similar activities against L. monocytogenes and S. uberis were observed for FE and UF egg white proteins. A progressive decline in these activities, however, was observed over incubation time, regardless of the egg group (UF or FE). SDS-PAGE analysis of egg white proteins during incubation revealed discrete changes in the profile of major proteins, whereas the stability of some less abundant antimicrobial proteins seemed more affected. To conclude, the antibacterial activity of egg white proteins progressively decreased during the first half of egg incubation, possibly resulting from the alteration of specific antimicrobial proteins. This apparent decline may be partly counterbalanced in embryonated eggs by the increase in egg white protein concentration. The antibacterial potential of egg white

  7. Plants and insect eggs: how do they affect each other?

    PubMed

    Hilker, Monika; Meiners, Torsten

    2011-09-01

    Plant-insect interactions are not just influenced by interactions between plants and the actively feeding stages, but also by the close relationships between plants and insect eggs. Here, we review both effects of plants on insect eggs and, vice versa, effects of eggs on plants. We consider the influence of plants on the production of insect eggs and address the role of phytochemicals for the biosynthesis and release of insect sex pheromones, as well as for insect fecundity. Effects of plants on insect oviposition by contact and olfactory plant cues are summarised. In addition, we consider how the leaf boundary layer influences both insect egg deposition behaviour and development of the embryo inside the egg. The effects of eggs on plants involve egg-induced changes of photosynthetic activity and of the plant's secondary metabolism. Except for gall-inducing insects, egg-induced changes of phytochemistry were so far found to be detrimental to the eggs. Egg deposition can induce hypersensitive-like plant response, formation of neoplasms or production of ovicidal plant substances; these plant responses directly harm the eggs. In addition, egg deposition can induce a change of the plant's odour and leaf surface chemistry which serve indirect plant defence with the help of antagonists of the insect eggs. These egg-induced changes lead to attraction of egg parasitoids and their arrestance on a leaf, respectively. Finally, we summarise knowledge of the elicitors of egg-induced plant changes and address egg-induced effects on the plant's transcriptional pattern. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Consumer acceptance of ozone-treated whole shell eggs.

    PubMed

    Kamotani, Setsuko; Hooker, Neal; Smith, Stephanie; Lee, Ken

    2010-03-01

    Ozone-based processing is a novel technology with potentially fewer adverse effects than in-shell thermal pasteurization of eggs. There are no consumer acceptance studies published on ozone-treated eggs. This study examines consumers' ability to detect changes between ozone-treated, thermal-treated, and fresh untreated eggs. Consumers (n = 111) evaluated visual attributes of uncooked eggs and a separate group of consumers (n = 132) evaluated acceptability of cooked eggs. Consumers evaluated attribute intensity of the eggs. The yolks and albumens of the thermal-treated and ozone-treated eggs were perceived to be significantly cloudier than the untreated control, while the ozone-treated eggs were more similar to control (P < 0.05). The yolks of ozone-treated eggs were perceived to have significantly lower heights and greater spreads than the others (P < 0.05). Despite these perceptions, overall visual appeal of ozone-treated eggs was not significantly different from control eggs. A separate set of consumers used hedonic scales to evaluate overall liking, appearance, aroma, flavor, and texture of cooked eggs. Just-about-right (JAR) scales were used to rate the color, moistness, and texture. There were no differences on any attribute scores between the treatments, except thermal-treated and ozone-treated were perceived as less moist than the control. There were no adverse effects on consumer acceptance of eggs, treated with ozone, with acceptance the same as an untreated control. These findings are useful as ozone pasteurization can enhance the safety of fresh shell eggs to meet the goals of the U.S. Egg Safety Action Plan. The U.S. Egg Safety Action Plan requires all shell eggs to be pasteurized to prevent foodborne illness. Heat pasteurization partially cooks the egg, so an alternative process uses ozone with less heat. This study shows the ozone pasteurization has no detectable sensory defects.

  9. Clinostat exposure and symmetrization of frog eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nace, G. W.; Tremor, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Since the orientation of unfertilized eggs and the righting of eggs after grey crescent formation do not affect the axes, attention here is directed toward a comparative study of the initial rotation of the fertilized egg, the so-called rotation of orientation (R-of-O). The goal of the investigation is to determine the timing and dynamics of the R-of-O (as distinct from inversion rotations), to confirm prior observations, and to examine the influence of gravity compensation at periods that might be crucial. Gravity compensation for 1 hr during the R-of-O is found to yield fewer abnormalities. It is hypothesized that it changes the axes and that return to normal conditions permits regulation. Longer exposure is found to yield more abnormalities, perhaps by perturbing both the action of the aster and regulation.

  10. Regulating the market for human eggs.

    PubMed

    Resnik, D B

    2001-02-01

    This essay provides a rationale for a regulated market for human oocytes. Although the commodification of human oocytes raises important moral concerns, these concerns do not justify laws banning commerce in human eggs. Given the burgeoning ART industry and the growing oocyte market, the most prudent course of action is to develop regulations for the human oocyte market that are designed to protect and promote important social values, such as health, safety, liberty, and respect for human life. Other responses, such as banning the sale of eggs altogether or allowing donors to be compensated only for their services, would either create a black market or would lead to corruption and abuse. Society still needs to debate specific rules and policies that should govern the human egg market, but further discussion of that important task is best left to legislative bodies and other commentators.

  11. Aerobic exercise improves microvascular dysfunction in fructose fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Boa, B C S; Costa, R R; Souza, M G C; Cyrino, F Z G A; Paes, L S; Miranda, M L; Carvalho, J J; Bouskela, E

    2014-05-01

    Fructose is a major diet component directly related to severe damages to the microcirculation and to diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension to which physical activity is pointed out as an important non-pharmacological treatment since its positive effects precede anthropometric improvements. In this study we have investigated the effects of a light/moderate aerobic exercise training (AET) on microcirculatory dysfunction elicited by carbohydrate overload during a period of 5 months. Male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) whose drinking water was substituted (F) or not (C) by 10% fructose solution, during 20 weeks, associated or not to AET in the last 4 weeks (EC and EF subgroups) had their microcirculatory function evaluated on the cheek pouch preparation, glucose and insulin tolerance (GTT and ITT) tested. Arterial blood was collected for pO2, pCO2, HCO3(-), pH, total CO2, saturated O2 and lactate determinations. Liver fragments were observed using an electron microscope. Microcirculatory responses to acetylcholine [Ach, an endothelium-dependent vasodilator; 10(-8)M - *123.3±7.5% (C), 119.5±1.3% (EC), *98.1±3.2% (F) and 133.6±17.2% (EF); 10(-6)M - *133.0±4.1% (C), 135.6±4.3% (EC), *103.4±4.3% (F) and 134.1±5.9% (EF); 10(-4)M - *167.2±5.0% (C), 162.8±5.4% (EC), *123.8±6.3% (F) and 140.8±5.0% (EF)] and to sodium nitroprusside [SNP, an endothelium-independent vasodilator; 10(-8)M - 118.8±6.8% (C), 114.0±5.0% (EC), 100.2±2.9% (F), 104.9±4.4% (EF); 10(-6)M - 140.6±11.7% (C), 141.7±5.5% (EC), 125.0±4.7% (F), 138.3±2.8% (EF); 10(-4)M - 150.4±10.9% (C), 147.9±6.5% (EC), 139.2±7.3% (F), 155.9±4.7% (EF)] and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 min ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) procedure [14.4±3.5 (C), 30.0±1.9 (EC), *112.0±8.8 (F) and *22.4±0.9 leaks/cm(2) (EF)] have shown that endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was significantly reduced and I/R induced macromolecular permeability augmented in sedentary fructose (F

  12. Process of egg formation in the female body cavity and fertilization in male eggs of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, S; Nakamura, M; Nagahama, Y; Amano, H

    2000-01-01

    The process of egg formation in the body cavity of a phytoseiid mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, was observed to examine fertilization of male eggs. After insemination, one of the ova at the periphery of the ovary began to expand, taking up yolk. Two pronuclei appeared in the expanded egg, located dorsally in the ovary, and yolk granules were formed gradually. After the egg became filled with yolk granules the two pronuclei fused. The egg moved via the narrow entrance at the ventral region into the oviduct, where the eggshell was formed. When the eggshell was complete, and while embryogenesis proceeded, the egg was deposited. In the meantime some ova began to expand sequentially and two joining pronuclei appeared in expanding eggs. The joining pronuclei in the first egg proved male diploidy. This is additional evidence of pseudo-arrhenotoky in this phytoseiid mite species, since the first eggs developed into males.

  13. Frequent baked egg ingestion was not associated with change in rate of decline in egg skin prick test in children with challenge confirmed egg allergy.

    PubMed

    Tey, D; Dharmage, S C; Robinson, M N; Allen, K J; Gurrin, L C; Tang, M L K

    2012-12-01

    It is controversial whether egg-allergic children should strictly avoid all forms of egg, or if regular ingestion of baked egg will either delay or hasten the resolution of egg allergy. This is the first study to examine the relationship between frequency of baked egg ingestion and rate of decline in egg skin prick test size in egg-allergic children. This was a retrospective clinical cohort study. All children with challenge-proven egg allergy who attended the Royal Children's Hospital Allergy Department 1996-2005 and had at least two egg skin prick tests performed in this period were included (n = 125). Frequency of baked egg ingestion was assessed by telephone questionnaire as follows: (a) frequent (> once per week), (b) regular (> once every 3 months, up to ≤ once per week) or (c) strict avoidance (≤ once every 3 months). The relationship between frequency of baked egg ingestion and rate of decline in egg skin prick test size was examined by multiple linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Mean rate of decline in egg skin prick test size in all children was 0.7 mm/year (95% CI 0.5-1.0 mm/year). There was no evidence (P = 0.57) that the rate of decline in egg skin prick test size differed between children who undertook frequent ingestion (n = 21, mean 0.4 mm/year, 95% CI -0.3-1.2 mm/year), regular ingestion (n = 37, mean 0.9 mm/year, 95% CI 0.4-1.4 mm/year) or strict avoidance (n = 67, mean 0.7 mm/year, 95% CI 0.4-1.1 mm/year) of baked egg. Compared with strict dietary avoidance, frequent consumption of baked egg was not associated with a different rate of decline in egg skin prick test size in egg-allergic children. Given that dietary restrictions can adversely impact on the family, it is reasonable to consider liberalizing baked egg in the diet of egg-allergic children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Geographical Variation in Egg Mass and Egg Content in a Passerine Bird

    PubMed Central

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Siitari, Heli; Eeva, Tapio; Belskii, Eugen; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Moreno, Juan; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Möstl, Erich; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Slater, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E.; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Laaksonen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated. PMID:22110579

  15. How to evade a coevolving brood parasite: egg discrimination versus egg variability as host defences.

    PubMed

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

    2011-12-07

    Arms races between avian brood parasites and their hosts often result in parasitic mimicry of host eggs, to evade rejection. Once egg mimicry has evolved, host defences could escalate in two ways: (i) hosts could improve their level of egg discrimination; and (ii) negative frequency-dependent selection could generate increased variation in egg appearance (polymorphism) among individuals. Proficiency in one defence might reduce selection on the other, while a combination of the two should enable successful rejection of parasitic eggs. We compared three highly variable host species of the Afrotropical cuckoo finch Anomalospiza imberbis, using egg rejection experiments and modelling of avian colour and pattern vision. We show that each differed in their level of polymorphism, in the visual cues they used to reject foreign eggs, and in their degree of discrimination. The most polymorphic host had the crudest discrimination, whereas the least polymorphic was most discriminating. The third species, not currently parasitized, was intermediate for both defences. A model simulating parasitic laying and host rejection behaviour based on the field experiments showed that the two host strategies result in approximately the same fitness advantage to hosts. Thus, neither strategy is superior, but rather they reflect alternative potential evolutionary trajectories.

  16. Monosodium glutamate-induced arcuate nucleus damage affects both natural torpor and 2DG-induced torpor-like hypothermia in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Pelz, Kimberly M; Routman, David; Driscoll, Joseph R; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Dark, John

    2008-01-01

    Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) have the ability to express daily torpor and decrease their body temperature to approximately 15 degrees C, providing a significant savings in energy expenditure. Daily torpor in hamsters is cued by winterlike photoperiods and occurs coincident with the annual nadirs in body fat reserves and chronic leptin concentrations. To better understand the neural mechanisms underlying torpor, Siberian hamster pups were postnatally treated with saline or MSG to ablate arcuate nucleus neurons that likely possess leptin receptors. Body temperature was studied telemetrically in cold-acclimated (10 degrees C) male and female hamsters moved to a winterlike photoperiod (10:14-h light-dark cycle) (experiments 1 and 2) or that remained in a summerlike photoperiod (14:10-h light-dark cycle) (experiment 3). In experiment 1, even though other photoperiodic responses persisted, MSG-induced arcuate nucleus ablations prevented the photoperiod-dependent torpor observed in saline-treated Siberian hamsters. MSG-treated hamsters tended to possess greater fat reserves. To determine whether reductions in body fat would increase frequency of photoperiod-induced torpor after MSG treatment, hamsters underwent 2 wk of food restriction (70% of ad libitum) in experiment 2. Although food restriction did increase the frequency of torpor in both MSG- and saline-treated hamsters, it failed to normalize the proportion of MSG-treated hamsters undergoing photoperiod-dependent torpor. In experiment 3, postnatal MSG treatments reduced the proportion of hamsters entering 2DG-induced torpor-like hypothermia by approximately 50% compared with saline-treated hamsters (38 vs. 72%). In those MSG-treated hamsters that did become hypothermic, their minimum temperature during hypothermia was significantly greater than comparable saline-treated hamsters. We conclude that 1) arcuate nucleus mechanisms mediate photoperiod-induced torpor, 2) food-restriction-induced torpor may also be

  17. Egg Contribution Towards the Diet of Pregnant Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez-Millán, Ángela; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Damio, Grace; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Proper nutrition during gestation is important to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. Eggs contain many important nutrients necessary for fetal development and human survival. Three focus groups were conducted with Latina women living in Connecticut to identify cultural beliefs toward egg consumption during pregnancy, traditional egg dishes, and methods of preparation. A cross-sectional study was then carried out with a sample of predominately Puerto Rican pregnant Latinas (N = 241) to identify the frequency of consumption of eggs and egg-containing dishes as well as methods of preparation using a tailored food frequency questionnaire modified for this population. Paired sample t-tests were used to examine if there were differences in weekly mean egg intake patterns between the year prior to the pregnancy and during pregnancy based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Women were categorized into eggs consumers and non-consumers if they consumed or did not consume eggs during the previous day based on 24-hour recall data. Independent-sample t-test and chi-square cross-tabulation analyses were conducted to examine the association between egg consumption and nutrient intake categories. Results showed that eggs and egg-containing traditional dishes are consumed by Latinas before and during pregnancy. Egg consumers had higher intakes of protein, fat, vitamin K, vitamin E, selenium, beta carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, cholesterol, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, and docosahexaenoic acid. Eggs contribute significantly to the diet of pregnant Latinas. PMID:21883065

  18. Embryotoxic thresholds of mercury: estimates from individual mallard eggs

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Eighty pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed an uncontaminated diet until each female had laid 15 eggs. After each female had laid her 15th egg, the pair was randomly assigned to a control diet or diets containing 5, 10, or 20 ?g/g mercury as methylmercury until she had laid a second set of 15 eggs. There were 20 pairs in each group. After the second set of 15 eggs, the pair was returned to an uncontaminated diet, and the female was permitted to lay another 30 eggs. For those pairs fed the mercury diets, the even-numbered eggs were incubated and the odd-numbered eggs were saved for possible mercury analysis. Mercury in the even-numbered eggs was estimated as the average of what was in the neighboring odd-numbered eggs. Neurological signs of methylmercury poisoning were observed in ducklings that hatched from eggs containing as little as 2.3 ?g/g estimated mercury on a wet-weight basis, and deformities were seen in embryos from eggs containing about 1 ?g/g estimated mercury. Although embryo mortality was seen in eggs estimated to contain as little as 0.74 ?g/g mercury, there were considerable differences in the sensitivity of mallard embryos, especially from different parents, with some embryos surviving as much as 30 or more ?g/g mercury in the egg.

  19. Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2006-03-01

    How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such “cue scrambling” does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker-laid eggs. Chemical analyses also showed that the surface hydrocarbon profile of these eggs was unchanged. Policing, therefore, is stable against this potential cheating mechanism probably because queen-laid eggs are made chemically distinct using chemicals, that are not easily transferred by physical contact.

  20. Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs.

    PubMed

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2006-03-01

    How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such "cue scrambling" does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker-laid eggs. Chemical analyses also showed that the surface hydrocarbon profile of these eggs was unchanged. Policing, therefore, is stable against this potential cheating mechanism probably because queen-laid eggs are made chemically distinct using chemicals, that are not easily transferred by physical contact.

  1. Effect of SO/sub 2/ on the clearance of Listeria monocytogenes from the lungs of emphysematous hamsters

    SciT

    Trimpe, K.L.; Weiss, H.; Zwilling, B.S.

    1986-10-01

    The effect of sulfur dioxide on the clearance of Listeria monocytogenes from normal and emphysematous hamsters was assessed by measuring the number of colony forming units recovered from whole lung homogenates. Continuous exposure to SO/sub 2/ after intratracheal instillation of Listeria significantly altered the clearance of viable bacteria from the lungs of emphysematous but not normal hamsters. Pre-exposure of hamsters to SO/sub 2/ for 2 weeks prior to respiratory infection had similar effects. The emphysematous hamsters exposed to SO/sub 2/ had a lower average number of Listeria in the lungs after the first week of infection than control groups. Thismore » effect appears to result from the combined influence of the SO/sub 2/, the Listeria infection, and the emphysematous condition within the lungs.« less

  2. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Claude M; Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Ruby, Norman F; Fox, James G

    2015-05-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H.; McKeon, Gabriel P.; Ruby, Norman F.; Fox, James G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters. PMID:25752854

  4. Depletion of Alveolar Macrophages Does Not Prevent Hantavirus Disease Pathogenesis in Golden Syrian Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Brocato, Rebecca L; Bell, Todd M; Schellhase, Christopher W; Mraz, Steven R; Queen, Laurie A; Hooper, Jay W

    2016-07-15

    Andes virus (ANDV) is associated with a lethal vascular leak syndrome in humans termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The mechanism for the massive vascular leakage associated with HPS is poorly understood; however, dysregulation of components of the immune response is often suggested as a possible cause. Alveolar macrophages are found in the alveoli of the lung and represent the first line of defense to many airborne pathogens. To determine whether alveolar macrophages play a role in HPS pathogenesis, alveolar macrophages were depleted in an adult rodent model of HPS that closely resembles human HPS. Syrian hamsters were treated, intratracheally, with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes or control liposomes and were then challenged with ANDV. Treatment with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes resulted in significant reduction in alveolar macrophages, but depletion did not prevent pathogenesis or prolong disease. Depletion also did not significantly reduce the amount of virus in the lung of ANDV-infected hamsters but altered neutrophil recruitment, MIP-1α and MIP-2 chemokine expression, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in hamster bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid early after intranasal challenge. These data demonstrate that alveolar macrophages may play a limited protective role early after exposure to aerosolized ANDV but do not directly contribute to hantavirus disease pathogenesis in the hamster model of HPS. Hantaviruses continue to cause disease worldwide for which there are no FDA-licensed vaccines, effective postexposure prophylactics, or therapeutics. Much of this can be attributed to a poor understanding of the mechanism of hantavirus disease pathogenesis. Hantavirus disease has long been considered an immune-mediated disease; however, by directly manipulating the Syrian hamster model, we continue to eliminate individual immune cell types. As the most numerous immune cells present in the respiratory tract, alveolar macrophages are

  5. Depletion of Alveolar Macrophages Does Not Prevent Hantavirus Disease Pathogenesis in Golden Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Brocato, Rebecca L.; Bell, Todd M.; Schellhase, Christopher W.; Mraz, Steven R.; Queen, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Andes virus (ANDV) is associated with a lethal vascular leak syndrome in humans termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The mechanism for the massive vascular leakage associated with HPS is poorly understood; however, dysregulation of components of the immune response is often suggested as a possible cause. Alveolar macrophages are found in the alveoli of the lung and represent the first line of defense to many airborne pathogens. To determine whether alveolar macrophages play a role in HPS pathogenesis, alveolar macrophages were depleted in an adult rodent model of HPS that closely resembles human HPS. Syrian hamsters were treated, intratracheally, with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes or control liposomes and were then challenged with ANDV. Treatment with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes resulted in significant reduction in alveolar macrophages, but depletion did not prevent pathogenesis or prolong disease. Depletion also did not significantly reduce the amount of virus in the lung of ANDV-infected hamsters but altered neutrophil recruitment, MIP-1α and MIP-2 chemokine expression, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in hamster bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid early after intranasal challenge. These data demonstrate that alveolar macrophages may play a limited protective role early after exposure to aerosolized ANDV but do not directly contribute to hantavirus disease pathogenesis in the hamster model of HPS. IMPORTANCE Hantaviruses continue to cause disease worldwide for which there are no FDA-licensed vaccines, effective postexposure prophylactics, or therapeutics. Much of this can be attributed to a poor understanding of the mechanism of hantavirus disease pathogenesis. Hantavirus disease has long been considered an immune-mediated disease; however, by directly manipulating the Syrian hamster model, we continue to eliminate individual immune cell types. As the most numerous immune cells present in the respiratory tract

  6. Smokeless tobacco impacts oral microbiota in a Syrian Golden hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jinshan; Guo, Lei; VonTungeln, Linda; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong

    2018-05-28

    The use of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) can cause many serious health problems. The oral microbiota plays important roles in oral and systemic health, and the disruption in the oral microbial population is linked to periodontal disease and other health problems. To assess the impact of smokeless tobacco on oral microbiota in vivo, high-throughput sequencing was used to examine the oral microbiota present in Syrian Golden hamster cheek pouches. Sixteen hamsters were divided into four groups and treated with the STP Grizzly snuff (0, 2.5, 25, or 250 mg) twice daily for 4 weeks. After 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of treatment, bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from oral swabs sampled from the cheek pouches of the hamsters. The oral bacterial communities present in different hamster groups were characterized by sequencing the hypervariable regions V1-V2 and V4 of 16S rRNA using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Fifteen phyla, 27 classes, 59 orders, 123 families, and 250 genera were identified from 4,962,673 sequence reads from the cheek pouch samples. The bacterial diversity and taxonomic abundances for the different treatment groups were compared to the non-treated hamsters. Bacterial diversity was significantly decreased after 4 weeks of exposure to 2.5 mg, and significantly increased by exposure to 250 mg STP. Treatment with 250 mg STP significantly increased Firmicutes, transiently increased Cyanobacteria and TM7, and decreased Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria compared to the control group. At the genus level, 4 weeks of administration of 250 mg STP significantly increased Granulicatella, Streptococcus, Oribacterium, Anaerococcus, Acidaminococcus, Actinomyces, Eubacterium, Negativicoccus, and Staphylococcus, and decreased Bacteroides, Buleidia, Dialister, and Leptotrichia, and transiently decreased Arcanobacterium compared to the control group. For the first time, an animal model was used for evaluating the effects of STP on oral microbiota by metagenomic

  7. Pleural dosimetry and pathobiological responses in rats and hamsters exposed subchronically to MMVF 10a fiberglass.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Edilberto; Mangum, James B; Moss, Owen R; Wong, Brian A; Everitt, Jeffrey I

    2003-07-01

    Interspecies differences in pulmonary and pleural responses to the inhalation of natural mineral and synthetic vitreous fibers have been observed in chronic and subchronic studies. However, the reasons for these differences are not clearly understood. There are also fiber-specific differences in the outcome of chronic inhalation exposure to natural mineral and synthetic vitreous fibers. Whether these differences are dependent upon the ability of these fibers to translocate to the pleural space is unknown. The present study was conducted to compare retained fiber burdens and selected pathological responses in the pleural compartments of rats and hamsters following subchronic inhalation of MMVF 10a fiberglass, a fiber negative for tumorigenesis or fibrosis in chronic studies. Fischer 344 rats and Syrian golden hamsters were exposed for 4 or 12 weeks by nose-only inhalation at nominal aerosol mass concentrations of 45 mg/m3 (610 WHO fibers/cc). Pulmonary fiber burdens and pulmonary inflammatory responses were greater in rats than in hamsters. The total number of fibers in the lung was approximately three orders of magnitude greater than in the pleural compartment. Pleural burdens in the hamster (160 fibers/cm2 surface area) were significantly greater than burdens in similarly exposed rats (60 fibers/cm2 surface area) following 12 weeks of exposure. With time postexposure, pleural burdens decreased in hamsters but were essentially unchanged in rats. Pleural inflammatory responses in both species were minimal. In rats, pleural inflammation was characterized by increased numbers of macrophages and increases in mesothelial cell replication during the period of fiber exposure. In contrast, hamsters had increased numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes, and mesothelial-cell replication indices were elevated on the parietal pleura of the costal wall and diaphragm, with some of these responses persisting through 12 weeks of postexposure recovery. Taken together, the results

  8. Hypothalamic Ventricular Ependymal Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases Are an Important Element of Circannual Timing in the Siberian Hamster (Phodopus sungorus)

    PubMed Central

    Bolborea, Matei; Wilson, Dana; Mercer, Julian G.; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Morgan, Peter J.; Barrett, Perry

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to short days (SD) induces profound changes in the physiology and behaviour of Siberian hamsters, including gonadal regression and up to 30% loss in body weight. In a continuous SD environment after approximately 20 weeks, Siberian hamsters spontaneously revert to a long day (LD) phenotype, a phenomenon referred to as the photorefractory response. Previously we have identified a number of genes that are regulated by short photoperiod in the neuropil and ventricular ependymal (VE) cells of the hypothalamus, although their importance and contribution to photoperiod induced physiology is unclear. In this refractory model we hypothesised that the return to LD physiology involves reversal of SD expression levels of key hypothalamic genes to their LD values and thereby implicate genes required for LD physiology. Male Siberian hamsters were kept in either LD or SD for up to 39 weeks during which time SD hamster body weight decreased before increasing, after more than 20 weeks, back to LD values. Brain tissue was collected between 14 and 39 weeks for in situ hybridization to determine hypothalamic gene expression. In VE cells lining the third ventricle, expression of nestin, vimentin, Crbp1 and Gpr50 were down-regulated at 18 weeks in SD photoperiod, but expression was not restored to the LD level in photorefractory hamsters. Dio2, Mct8 and Tsh-r expression were altered by SD photoperiod and were fully restored, or even exceeded values found in LD hamsters in the refractory state. In hypothalamic nuclei, expression of Srif and Mc3r mRNAs was altered at 18 weeks in SD, but were similar to LD expression values in photorefractory hamsters. We conclude that in refractory hamsters not all VE cell functions are required to establish LD physiology. However, thyroid hormone signalling from ependymal cells and reversal of neuronal gene expression appear to be essential for the SD refractory response. PMID:23637944

  9. Characterization of Disease Course after Intramuscular or Intranasal Exposure to Sin Nombre Virus in Immunosuppressed Syrian Hamsters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-03

    145 the 7 surviving hamsters on day 28 (end of study), results of a nucleocapsid (N)- ELISA assay 146 indicate that 6 of the hamsters immunosuppressed...magnitude of the antibody response as measured by N- ELISA . 155 However, the results of this experiment do support the hypothesis that longer 156...supports the requirement for including Dex in a 177 combination treatment (Fig. 6D). Furthermore, results of an N- ELISA conducted with sera from 178

  10. Characterization of the Host Response to Pichinde Virus Infection in the Syrian Golden Hamster by Species-Specific Kinome Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Falcinelli, Shane; Gowen, Brian B.; Trost, Brett; Napper, Scott; Kusalik, Anthony; Johnson, Reed F.; Safronetz, David; Prescott, Joseph; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Jahrling, Peter B.; Kindrachuk, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The Syrian golden hamster has been increasingly used to study viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) pathogenesis and countermeasure efficacy. As VHFs are a global health concern, well-characterized animal models are essential for both the development of therapeutics and vaccines as well as for increasing our understanding of the molecular events that underlie viral pathogenesis. However, the paucity of reagents or platforms that are available for studying hamsters at a molecular level limits the ability to extract biological information from this important animal model. As such, there is a need to develop platforms/technologies for characterizing host responses of hamsters at a molecular level. To this end, we developed hamster-specific kinome peptide arrays to characterize the molecular host response of the Syrian golden hamster. After validating the functionality of the arrays using immune agonists of defined signaling mechanisms (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α), we characterized the host response in a hamster model of VHF based on Pichinde virus (PICV1) infection by performing temporal kinome analysis of lung tissue. Our analysis revealed key roles for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL) responses, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in the response to PICV infection. These findings were validated through phosphorylation-specific Western blot analysis. Overall, we have demonstrated that hamster-specific kinome arrays are a robust tool for characterizing the species-specific molecular host response in a VHF model. Further, our results provide key insights into the hamster host response to PICV infection and will inform future studies with high-consequence VHF pathogens. PMID:25573744

  11. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation... soiled nest eggs may be gently dry cleaned by hand. (c) Hatching eggs should be stored in a designated...

  12. Baked Egg and Milk Exposure as Immunotherapy in Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A

    2016-04-01

    Baked milk and egg have the potential to act as a form of oral immunotherapy (OIT). Clinical studies have shown that a majority of milk- and egg-allergic children can tolerate these allergens modified in baked form, and immunologic changes reported in subjects ingesting baked milk and egg mirror those seen in food allergy OIT trials. In addition, several studies have indicated that resolution of milk and egg allergies occur sooner in populations regularly ingesting baked milk and egg. Oral food challenges remain the best method for determining tolerability of baked milk and egg since baseline characteristics and diagnostic testing have not been reliable predictors. In this review, we explore the tolerability of baked milk and egg and their potential as OIT treatment for milk and egg allergy.

  13. Control and monitoring of Salmonella in egg-laying chickens

    Contaminated eggs have been internationally significant sources for the transmission of Salmonella infection to humans for several decades. Both the public and private sectors have invested substantial resources in comprehensive risk reduction and monitoring programs for Salmonella in commercial egg...

  14. Egg phenotype differentiation in sympatric cuckoo Cuculus canorus gentes.

    PubMed

    Antonov, Anton; Stokke, B G; Vikan, J R; Fossøy, F; Ranke, P S; Røskaft, E; Moksnes, A; Møller, A P; Shykoff, J A

    2010-06-01

    The brood parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus consists of gentes, which typically parasitize only a single host species whose eggs they often mimic. Where multiple cuckoo gentes co-exist in sympatry, we may expect variable but generally poorer mimicry because of host switches or inter-gens gene flow via males if these also contribute to egg phenotypes. Here, we investigated egg trait differentiation and mimicry in three cuckoo gentes parasitizing great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus, marsh warblers Acrocephalus palustris and corn buntings Miliaria calandra breeding in close sympatry in partially overlapping habitat types. The three cuckoo gentes showed a remarkable degree of mimicry to their three host species in some but not all egg features, including egg size, a hitherto largely ignored feature of egg mimicry. Egg phenotype matching for both background and spot colours as well as for egg size has been maintained in close sympatry despite the possibility for gene flow.

  15. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (>1200 nesting pairs, >1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 2002–2004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (<25 m) incubating adult loon. However, although loon egg predation has been associated with Bald Eagles, predation events have yet to be described in peer-reviewed literature. Here we describe a photographic observation of predation on a Common Loon egg by an immature Bald Eagle as captured by a nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  16. Towards the nonstick egg: designing fluorous proteins.

    PubMed

    Neil, E; Marsh, G

    2000-07-01

    Anyone who has made scrambled eggs will have had cause to praise the properties of Teflon. Teflon's highly chemically inert and nonstick nature derives from the perfluorinated polymer polytetrafluoroethylene. Perfluorocarbons have unique and valuable physical properties not found in nature. By incorporating fluorine into proteins, it might be possible to produce biological molecules with novel and useful properties.

  17. Quality and Composition of Retail Shell Eggs

    Consumers are becoming more aware of their food choices. As part of this movement, sourcing and production information is often desired for agricultural products. Furthermore, products associated with added health benefits are also becoming more common in the marketplace. The US shell egg industr...

  18. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or in a water carrier, but the amount added does not exceed 0.5 percent of the weight of the frozen eggs. If a water carrier is used, it shall contain not less than 50 percent by weight of such... paragraph (b) of this section is used, the label shall bear the statement “Monosodium phosphate (or...

  19. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or in a water carrier, but the amount added does not exceed 0.5 percent of the weight of the frozen eggs. If a water carrier is used, it shall contain not less than 50 percent by weight of such... paragraph (b) of this section is used, the label shall bear the statement “Monosodium phosphate (or...

  20. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or in a water carrier, but the amount added does not exceed 0.5 percent of the weight of the frozen eggs. If a water carrier is used, it shall contain not less than 50 percent by weight of such... paragraph (b) of this section is used, the label shall bear the statement “Monosodium phosphate (or...

  1. Sea urchin egg fertilization and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of subgravity (much less than unit gravity) on fertilization, cell division, differentiation, and growth of a relatively simple biological system (eggs of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata) were considered. The experiment was flown on Gemini 3 and recovered as scheduled. However, the experiment objectives were not achieved, primarily for mechanical reasons.

  2. Egg processing plant sanitation, SSOPs, and GMPs.

    The basis of food safety programs in processing facilities is prerequisite programs such as sanitation and good manufacturing practices. Thoughtful, thorough, and complete sanitation programs are necessary to enhance the food safety of products and reduce the likelihood of foodborne illness. Egg p...

  3. Frog egg growth, experiment S003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.; Tremor, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The objective of experiment was to determine the effect of weightlessness on the ability of a fertilized frog egg to divide normally and to differentiate and form a normal embryo. This experiment was first attempted on the Gemini 8 mission and was completed only partially because of the early termination of that mission.

  4. Forecasting gypsy moth egg-mass density

    Robert W. Campbell; Robert W. Campbell

    1973-01-01

    Several multiple regression models for gypsy moth egg-mass density were developed from data accumulated in eastern New England between 1911 and 1931. Analysis of these models indicates that: (1) The gypsy moth population system was relatively stable in either the OUTBREAK phase or the INNOCUOUS one; (2) Several naturally occurring processes that could terminate the...

  5. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  6. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane

    Background: Eggshells, which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of m...

  7. Rheological changes in irradiated chicken eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Lúcia F. S.; Del Mastro, Nélida L.

    1998-06-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may cause foodborne illnesses. Humans may introduce pathogens into foods during production, processing, distribution and or preparation. Some of these microorganisms are able to survive conventional preservation treatments. Heat pasteurization, which is a well established and satisfactory means of decontamination/disinfection of liquid foods, cannot efficiently achieve a similar objective for solid foods. Extensive work carried out worldwide has shown that irradiation is efficient in eradicating foodborne pathogens like Salmonella spp. that can contaminate poultry products. In this work Co-60 gamma irradiation was applied to samples of industrial powder white, yolk and whole egg at doses between 0 and 25 kGy. Samples were rehydrated and the viscosity measured in a Brookfield viscosimeter, model DV III at 5, 15 and 25°C. The rheological behaviour among the various kinds of samples were markedly different. Irradiation with doses up to 5 kGy, known to reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels, showed almost no variation of viscosity of irradiated egg white samples. On the other hand, whole or yolk egg samples showed some changes in rheological properties depending on the dose level, showing the predominance of whether polimerization or degradation as a result of the irradiation. Additionally, irradiation of yolk egg powder reduced yolk color as a function of the irradiation exposure implemented. The importance of these results are discussed in terms of possible industrial applications.

  8. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... the method prescribed in “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical...

  9. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid eggs is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the... food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the time of...

  10. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid eggs is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the... food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the time of...

  11. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid eggs is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the... food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the time of...

  12. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid eggs is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the... food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the time of...

  13. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  14. Oral and sublingual immunotherapy for egg allergy.

    PubMed

    Romantsik, Olga; Tosca, Maria Angela; Zappettini, Simona; Calevo, Maria Grazia

    2018-04-20

    Clinical egg allergy is a common food allergy. Current management relies upon strict allergen avoidance. Oral immunotherapy might be an optional treatment, through desensitization to egg allergen. To determine the efficacy and safety of oral and sublingual immunotherapy in children and adults with immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated egg allergy as compared to a placebo treatment or an avoidance strategy. We searched 13 databases for journal articles, conference proceedings, theses and trials registers using a combination of subject headings and text words (last search 31 March 2017). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral immunotherapy or sublingual immunotherapy administered by any protocol with placebo or an elimination diet. Participants were children or adults with clinical egg allergy. We retrieved 97 studies from the electronic searches. We selected studies, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. We attempted to contact the study investigators to obtain the unpublished data, wherever possible. We used the I² statistic to assess statistical heterogeneity. We estimated a pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome using a Mantel-Haenzel fixed-effect model if statistical heterogeneity was low (I² value less than 50%). We rated the quality of evidence for all outcomes using GRADE. We included 10 RCTs that met our inclusion criteria, that involved a total of 439 children (oral immunotherapy 249; control intervention 190), aged 1 year to 18 years. Each study used a different oral immunotherapy protocol; none used sublingual immunotherapy. Three studies used placebo and seven used an egg avoidance diet as the control. Primary outcomes were: an increased amount of egg that can be ingested and tolerated without adverse events while receiving allergen-specific oral immunotherapy or sublingual immunotherapy, compared to control; and a complete recovery from egg allergy after completion of oral

  15. Oxygen requirement of separated hybrid catfish eggs

    Channel catfish egg masses require hatchery water with over 7.8 ppm dissolved oxygen at 80° F (95% air saturation) to maintain maximum oxygen consumption as they near hatching. This concentration is called the critical oxygen requirement by scientists but for the purpose of this article we will call...

  16. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care.

  17. Loss of LCAT activity in the golden Syrian hamster elicits pro-atherogenic dyslipidemia and enhanced atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhao; Shi, Haozhe; Zhao, Mingming; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Wei; Wang, Yuhui; Zheng, Lemin; Xian, Xunde; Liu, George

    2018-06-01

    Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) plays a pivotal role in HDL metabolism but its influence on atherosclerosis remains controversial for decades both in animal and clinical studies. Because lack of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a major difference between murine and humans in lipoprotein metabolism, we aimed to create a novel Syrian Golden hamster model deficient in LCAT activity, which expresses endogenous CETP, to explore its metabolic features and particularly the influence of LCAT on the development of atherosclerosis. CRISPR/CAS9 gene editing system was employed to generate mutant LCAT hamsters. The characteristics of lipid metabolism and the development of atherosclerosis in the mutant hamsters were investigated using various conventional methods in comparison with wild type control animals. Hamsters lacking LCAT activity exhibited pro-atherogenic dyslipidemia as diminished high density lipoprotein (HDL) and ApoAI, hypertriglyceridemia, Chylomicron/VLDL accumulation and significantly increased ApoB100/48. Mechanistic study for hypertriglyceridemia revealed impaired LPL-mediated lipolysis and increased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, with upregulation of hepatic genes involved in lipid synthesis and transport. The pro-atherogenic dyslipidemia in mutant hamsters was exacerbated after high fat diet feeding, ultimately leading to near a 3- and 5-fold increase in atherosclerotic lesions by aortic en face and sinus lesion quantitation, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that LCAT deficiency in hamsters develops pro-atherogenic dyslipidemia and promotes atherosclerotic lesion formation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real Time PCR Assays in Aortic Tissue of Syrian Hamsters with Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Rueda-Martínez, Carmen; Fernández, M. Carmen; Soto-Navarrete, María Teresa; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel; Durán, Ana Carmen; Fernández, Borja

    2016-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most frequent congenital cardiac malformation in humans, and appears frequently associated with dilatation of the ascending aorta. This association is likely the result of a common aetiology. Currently, a Syrian hamster strain with a relatively high (∼40%) incidence of BAV constitutes the only spontaneous animal model of BAV disease. The characterization of molecular alterations in the aorta of hamsters with BAV may serve to identify pathophysiological mechanisms and molecular markers of disease in humans. In this report, we evaluate the expression of ten candidate reference genes in aortic tissue of hamsters in order to identify housekeeping genes for normalization using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) assays. A total of 51 adult (180–240 days old) and 56 old (300–440 days old) animals were used. They belonged to a control strain of hamsters with normal, tricuspid aortic valve (TAV; n = 30), or to the affected strain of hamsters with TAV (n = 45) or BAV (n = 32). The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was determined by RT-qPCR using three statistical algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The expression analyses showed that the most stable reference genes for the three algorithms employed were Cdkn1β, G3pdh and Polr2a. We propose the use of Cdkn1β, or both Cdkn1β and G3pdh as reference genes for mRNA expression analyses in Syrian hamster aorta. PMID:27711171

  19. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real Time PCR Assays in Aortic Tissue of Syrian Hamsters with Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Martínez, Carmen; Fernández, M Carmen; Soto-Navarrete, María Teresa; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel; Durán, Ana Carmen; Fernández, Borja

    2016-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most frequent congenital cardiac malformation in humans, and appears frequently associated with dilatation of the ascending aorta. This association is likely the result of a common aetiology. Currently, a Syrian hamster strain with a relatively high (∼40%) incidence of BAV constitutes the only spontaneous animal model of BAV disease. The characterization of molecular alterations in the aorta of hamsters with BAV may serve to identify pathophysiological mechanisms and molecular markers of disease in humans. In this report, we evaluate the expression of ten candidate reference genes in aortic tissue of hamsters in order to identify housekeeping genes for normalization using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) assays. A total of 51 adult (180-240 days old) and 56 old (300-440 days old) animals were used. They belonged to a control strain of hamsters with normal, tricuspid aortic valve (TAV; n = 30), or to the affected strain of hamsters with TAV (n = 45) or BAV (n = 32). The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was determined by RT-qPCR using three statistical algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The expression analyses showed that the most stable reference genes for the three algorithms employed were Cdkn1β, G3pdh and Polr2a. We propose the use of Cdkn1β, or both Cdkn1β and G3pdh as reference genes for mRNA expression analyses in Syrian hamster aorta.

  20. Food restriction attenuates oxidative stress in brown adipose tissue of striped hamsters acclimated to a warm temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Ying; Zhao, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Gui-Ying; Wang, Chun-Ming; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2016-05-01

    It has been suggested that the up-regulation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, in which case there should be a negative relationship between UCPs expression and ROS levels. In this study, the effects of temperature and food restriction on ROS levels and metabolic rate, UCP1 mRNA expression and antioxidant levels were examined in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of the striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis). The metabolic rate and food intake of hamsters which had been restricted to 80% of ad libitum food intake, and acclimated to a warm temperature (30°C), decreased significantly compared to a control group. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were 42.9% lower in food restricted hamsters than in the control. Malonadialdehyde (MDA) levels of hamsters acclimated to 30°C that were fed ad libitum were significantly higher than those of the control group, but 60.1% lower than hamsters that had been acclimated to the same temperature but subject to food restriction. There were significantly positive correlations between H2O2 and, MDA levels, catalase activity, and total antioxidant capacity. Cytochrome c oxidase activity and UCP1 mRNA expression significantly decreased in food restricted hamsters compared to the control. These results suggest that warmer temperatures increase oxidative stress in BAT by causing the down-regulation of UCP1 expression and decreased antioxidant activity, but food restriction may attenuate the effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.